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Full text of "Records of Niagara"

Ducit Bmor patrfae." 



Wagara historical Society 

no. 9 



Campaigns of i$n=i4 



Contemporary Narratives by Captain W. H. Merritt, Colonel William 
Claus, Lie u t. - Colonel Mat thew Elliott and Captain John Norton. 



Edited by Lieut. -Colonel E. Cruikshank 



1902 




1 















L'tV 



PREFACE. 




ILLIAM HAMILTON MERRITT, the author of the follow- 
ing " Personal Narrative," was born at Bedford in the State 
of New York, on July 3d, 1793. He became a resident of 
Upper Canada in 1796, and served through the war of 1812, 
first as lieutenant and subsequently as captain in the Pro- 
vincial Dragoons. In 1824 he succeeded in forming a com- 
pany to construct the Welland Canal, of which he became agent and 
manager. In 1832 he was elected to represent the County of Haldi- 
mand in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, for which he 
continued to sit until the union of the two Provinces, when he was 
elected for the north riding of the County of Lincoln. In 1848 he 
became a member of the Baldwin-Lafontaine Administration as Presi- 
dent of the Council, and in 1850 was appointed Commissioner of 
Public Works, but resigned a few months later. He continued to 
represent the same constituency in the Legislative Assembly until 
1860, when he was elected to the Legislative Council for the Niagara 
District. He died on July 5th, 1862, near Cornwall, while on his way 
to the sea shore in the hope of restoring his .health. 

The Personal Narrative, now printed verbatim for the first time, 
was prepared by him while a prisoner of war in the United States. 
It is written on foolscap paper and the pages were originally num- 
bered from 1 to 25, but pages 17, 18, 19 and 20 have been lost. 

E.C. 



PERSONAL NARRATIVE. 



On the 27th June, 1812, a man arrived at Thos. Clark's, Esqr., 
with the news of war being proclaimed by the Pres[iden]t of [the] 
U[nited] Sftates]. The news flew like lightning over the country. 
The flank companies and other volunteer corps were immediately 
ordered out. We had one Regt. of regulars, the 41st, in the Upper 
Province, that is, above Kingston, say, York, Ft. George, Queenston, 
Chippawa, Fort Erie, Amherstburg, Sandwich and St. Joseph. The 
country was well aware of the strength and population of the U. S. 
and turned out with a desire and determination of doing their duty. 
At the same time they were acting under the impression of being 
eventually conquered. I heard [at] 12 o'clock P. M. on the night of 
the 27th of the declaration of war, by Mr. Gulp. 

(I was then carrying on the farm with several hands, everything 
[was] in great forwardness.) Not believing it, I mounted my horse 
in the morning [and] had not rode further than Shipman's when, to 
rny great surprise, I met the capt[ain]s of companies assembling their 

men as fast as possible. What my feelings were at that time can- 
not easily be described. I had been appointed Lieut, to a mfilitia] 
troop of horse a few weeks prior, [and] was confident they would be 

^immediately put on service. I had many powerful and weighty 
reasons for not entering the ser[vice], tho' not having heard from R.* 
since their leaving the country, and fearing the worst, I scarcely 
cared what became of me. In the course of the morning I received 

"" an order from my father, who was appointed Maj[or] com[mandin]g 
the cavalry in the Upper Province, to assemble the men in my vicin- 

_ ity and march down to Ft. George as soon as possible. (The men I 
had employed all belonged to the different volunteer comp[anie]s 
which they joined. My mother was left alone on the farm. Seeing 
so noble a spirit of resistance spreading among all classes, I deter- 
mined to give up every other pursuit and devote my life and time 
solely to the service of my country. For many reasons, at that time 
no person was more ready to risque it than myself.) On receiving 
the news the men had all assembled by the next morning. Accord- 
ingly we moved off and joined the main body at the Court House in 
Niagara at 2 P. M., 28th inst. [We] kept patroles up and down the 
river, momentarily expecting an attack, altho' the Americans had not 
heard of war being proclaimed till notified by us. Expresses having 
been sent to him, Gen. Brock arrived this evenfing.] All hands were 

*Miss Catharine R. Prendergast, afterwards Mrs. Merritt. 



6 

busily employed in preparing for our defence. [On the] 29th I had 
. the honor of being presented to him. The troop was under the com- 
[manjd of Capt. Alex. Hamilton, my most intimate and particular 
friend. They were composed of the choicest and best young men in 
_the country. [On] the 30th I received an order to repair to Chippawa 
with 20 men, and place myself under the command of Col. Clark, 2d 
Linc[oln] Mil[itia]. At this time Capt. Geo. Hamilton was about 
raising another troop of M[ilitia] Dragfoons] at this place. Wm. 
Merritt was to have been cornet of the 1st troop, Jno. Secord lieuten- 
ant, and Pell Major, corn[et] of the 2d do. I had the charge of the 
volunteers at this post, all amounting to about 40 men. Our time 
was constantly taken up in drilling, patroling and parading. As we 
heard of the enemy's collecting a large force opposite we expected an 
attack nightly, especially on [the] 4th July. On the 3d I attained 
my 19th year. I remained between this post and Fort Erie till the 
20th, when I was relieved by Capt. Geo. Hamilton ; some dispute 
having arisen between him and Col. Clark in respect to the same, his 
troop fell through. Most of the men were turned over to ours. 
Major Merritt appointed John Pell Major cornet vice Win. Merritt. 
(I am sorry to say by which means the latter became a ruined man.*) 
Capt. H[amilton] and myself quartered in my father's house in 
Niagara. On the 28th July I got leave to visit the 12 M[ile] Creek. 
[I] had not arrived many hours when I was followed by my father 
with 6 men, with orders to proceed to Delaware town on River 
Thames without delay and endeavour to keep up the communication 
with Amherstburg, as the exterminating Gen. Hull had taken posses- 
sion of Sandwich [and] sent parties as far as the Delaware] Town 
with his proclamations. We were apprehensive Amh[herstburg] 
would fall. Col. Procter, 41st, had gone up to command. I was 
well pleased with the excursion, as I wished to see service, since I 
had commenced anything new is pleasing. My poor mother was 
almost distracted at the idea of my going to so dangerous a place, or 
rather where there was a probability of there being any fighting. I 
immediately prepared for my departure and set off at 2 A. M., 29th 
July, with six of the best men in the troop. On the 31st [we] arrived 
at Oxford. Col. Bostwick was there with the militia, who had just 
assembled. I heard of Mr. Watson^ being at Delaware] Town with 
-ten or twelve men. I pushed on with a design of surprising him. A 
few miles before I arrived at the place [I] fell in with Mr. Tiffany, 
who apprised me of Watson being at Allen's with a number of men 
well armed, likewise that the country would all join him. I sent 

*He joined the enemy in 1813 and fled to the United States. Ed. 
tSimon Z. Watson, a surveyor, who had joined the invaders. Ed. 



back for Col. Bost[wick] to send on a few of his men. I took posses- 
sion of a house about 6 miles from Allen's. [We] called ourselves 
Americans]. The people discovered their sentiments to us. I got a 
dozen of them prisoners, [and] detained all but one till morning, when 
B[ostwick] arrived. We moved on [and] took 2 of the party. [We] 
surrounded old Allen's house but the traitor (Watson) had made his 
escape. We took old Allen and the two prisoners with us and re- 
fc turned to Oxford. I left a serg[ean]t and 4 men there. [I] heard 
of Maj. Chambers's approach [and] met him at Burford. He desired 
me to return to Ft. George with the prisoners and apply for more 
cavalry to join him. On my return Gen. Brock had sailed for York. 
I followed him in a boat and reported myself. He was very well 
pleased with my proceedings [and] sent me back with the cornet and 
28 men. I was too well satisfied with my command to be long 
joining Maj. Chambfers]. He was at Oxford with 40 reg[ulars] and 
100 m[ilitia]. I left Chippawa at 1 a. m. Tuesday, July 28, with 1 
offficer] and 18 [men]. 

On the 8th August I was going with a party to Del[aware] 
Town. [I] was countermanded and returned to Burford. [On] the 
10th Aug. [I] heard of a party of the enemy's horse being at Long 
Point. [I] followed them with 20 of mine till we arrived at Dover 
without hearing of them. Next day [we] proceeded nearly to Port 
Talbot when we discovered they had not been down, [and] returned, 
not a little chagrined. 

Capt. G. Hamilton, Askin, Rolph, &c., were volunteers with 
M[ajor] Chambers. On the 9th August the gallant and celebrated 
Brock arrived with the flank companies of the York Militia, and 
Capt. Hatt's f[lank] c[ompany] from the Niag[araJ Dist[rict]. He 
addressed all the militia present [and | told them of his determination 
of proceeding immediately to Amherstburg and driving the enemy 
out of the country, requesting all willing to defend their country at 
the risque of their lives to volunteer their services, which they all did 
to a man. He selected 350 of the best men [and] sent the rest home, 
as the boats would hold no more. I was sent by land to Delaware] 
Town to prevent any party penetrating by that direction. [I] went 
by way of Port Talbot [and] was placed under Col. Talbot's com- 
[man]d. After remaining three days there [I] sent an express to 
C[olonel] Talfbot], requesting permission to proceed on as far as prac- 
ticable towards Sandwich. Accordingly, on the 15th inst., I received 
a discretional order to act as I thought proper, and moved on. Most 
unfortunately, the day before I reached Sandwich Detroit was cap- 
tured. I could hardly have met with a more serious disappointment ; 
being the first that was sent on the expedition and having more 



8 

fatigue and trouble than any other corps, and being deprived of the 
glory in sharing in the capture was truly annoying to both the men 
and myself. 

Gen. Brock arrived at Arnherstburg on Friday, the 14th Aug. 
Again addressed the men. [On the] 15th [he] moved up to Sandwich. 
The enemy retired on his approach. [He] erected a couple of bat- 
teries opposite Detroit fort and town, summoned Hull to surrender, 
which he refused, opened the batteries in the afternoon. [They] had 
little or no effect. On the 16th, Sunday, with that promptness so 
very conspicuous in his character, [he] crossed the river with about 
700 Indians under the celebrated Tecumthe, 350 regulars and about 
430 militia. [His] whole force [was] 1480. [The] Indians were sent 
in[to] the wood. [The] reg[ulars] and militia marched up the plain, 
or rather road, till within 300 yards of the fort where they filed off to 
the left in a deep ravine. At the same time our batteries were play- 
ing away from the opposite shore with effect. The exterminating 
General, thinking warm work was about commencing, thought proper 
to surrender with 2500 men, &c., &c. 

I arrived at Sandwich on the 17th. Gen. Brock had left it for 
the Niagara Frontier. I crossed over and acted under the orders of 
Col. Procter. [I] was busily engaged in collecting horses, &c., which 
were concealed about the country. I wrote two letters to R. by Mr. 
Williams and another. [I] was detained at this place three weeks. 
On 7th September left it for Fort George, where we arrived on the 
15th. We were in momentary expectation of an attack from Gen. 
Rennselaer, who had collected a large force opposite Queenston -and 
Ft. Erie. 

Our duty at this time was very severe. [We were] up all night 
and slept in the day. Cornet Pell Major was stationed with a party 
at Ft. Erie. On the 9th October the enemy succeeded in cutting out 
two schooners near Ft. Erie, the Caledonia and Detroit. Cornet 
Major volunteered to bring off the latter with a few men from under 
the enemy's shore, [but] was mortally wounded and several of his 
men slightly, some severely. [He] was taken down to Chippawa. I 
. went to see him on the 12th but a few minutes before I arrived he 
made his exit. I returned to make arrangements for his interment 
on the following day. Early in the morning Capt. H[amilton] and 
myself, who slept in the same room, were alarmed by a gun. We 
had just slipped on our jackets and swords when they were repeated, 
and a sad scene ensued. Women and children [were] running in all 
directions and soldiers [were] repairing to their posts. We ran to 
our barracks and with much difficulty and danger succeeded in 
getting out our horses, as the stables were in range of the American 



guns which were leveled at the court house. We received orders to 
repair to Queenston as soon as possible, as the enemy had landed. 
We galloped up as far as Durham's where we met our troops that had 
been driven from the field and the wounded coming out. Gen. Brock, 
we heard, was killed a few moments before. In short, for young 
soldiers we had the most dismal prospects before us that possibly can 
be conceived. The enemy was magnified to 5000 men and con- 
tinually crossing without our being able to annoy them. Our few 
but gallant fellows that had been beaten back and dispersed over the 
field were now collecting. The wounded [were] meeting us from the 
field. Col. McDonald, Provincial] A. D. C. to the Gen[eral]* was 
brought three miles by two soldiers, mortally wounded. A cir- 
cumstance that damped our minds most was the loss of our gallant 
and much lamented Brock. In him we lost a host. All ranks 
and descriptions of people placed such implicit reliance on his skill, 
bravery, and good judgment, that led by him they were confident of 
success. To revenge his death they were determined to make an 
effort. (The 49th Regt. had arrived while we were at Detroit.) Gen. 
Sheiff arriving from Ft. George at this moment took the command, 
collected the flank companies of militia, a few of the 41st and the 
remainder of the 49th companies who had been engaged in the morn- 
ing. I was sent on the right to prevent their coming down the 
mountain undiscovered. Capt. Norton with 70 Indians was before 
me. He crossed the fields, gained the mountain, drove in their flank- 
ing parties and attacked their main body. [He] was repulsed with 
some loss, as he had so few men. G[eneral] Sheif made an oblique 
movement to the right, gained the mountain and advanced to Phelp's 
fields. We remained here an hour [waiting] for a detachment of the 
41st from Chippawa. Col. Clark arriving with his men the attack 
was made. I was previously sent to hurry on Capt. Bullock. They 
came on double-quick, gained the field about five minutes after the 
action commenced [and] pushed on. The enemy fled in a few minutes 

-in the greatest disorder. We made 900 and odd prisoners. Capt. 
Holcroft behaved with the greatest coolness [and] kept his 6 pounder 
exposed to [the] fire of the enemy's long guns during the action. Mr. 
McKenney's conduct was conspicuous for bravery during the day. It 

"would be impossible to describe the feelings of our young soldiers at 
this moment, having entered the action with the idea, if successful, of 
two-thirds being killed or wounded, in 10 minutes to have all the 
enemy in our possession with a loss of not more than 12 or 13 on our 
side. It was a most fortunate circumstance for us [and] gave new 

*Lieut.-Col. John Macdonnell, Attorney General of Upper Canada. 
tMajor General Roger Hale Sheaffe. 



10 

life to everything. Only the loss of our brave general. On the 
night before Maj. Merritt and a number of officers were with him. 
He expected an attack, was round himself giving orders for a strict 
lookout, was very anxious for it to take place, as he had great con- 
fidence in his new raised men. At 4 a. m. a dragoon arrived with the 
intelligence of an attack having been made at Queenston. He 
mounted and rode up without an attendant. The morning was break- 
ing as he arrived. Perceiving our shells [were] not reaching the 
enemy's batteries he rode up [and] ordered more powder. The mortar 
threw one or two with great effect. At that moment 500 of the 
enemy appeared within 20 yards of the battery on the mountain in 
his rear. He ordered the few artillerymen with him to retreat and 
ran down the mountain exposed to a very heavy fire. Capb. Dennis, 
49th, cornfmanding] the post with 2 flank companies 49th and part of 
4 comp[anie]s militia, expecting an attack gave orders for the guard 
to fire on the first boat that was launched. About \ after 3 the 
enemy launched a boat, the guard fired, the men repaired to their 
posts and drove them back with immense slaughter [and] took 150 
prisoners. About 500 had succeeded in landing above under cover of 
the darkness and bank and gained the brow of the mountain. The 
guard at that place had left it and joined their comrades under the 
hill. They were not perceived till they were in the rear of Gen. 
Brock's battery. He rallied about 30 of the grenadiers [and] was 
preparing to charge the 500 when he received a random shot through 
the left breast. He fell in the act of cheering his men. His last 
words were, Push on, my brave fellows. Col. McDonald, who was 
near them, called on the men about him to revenge his death, which 
they were well disposed to do. He succeeded with about 75 militia 
and regulars in gaining the mountain on their left, exposed to a cross 
fire all the time. They formed and advanced, drove the enemy to the 
summit of the hill, when Capt. Williams, 49th, was badly wounded in 
the head, C[olonel] McD[onald] had his horse shot and received a 
mortal wound through his body. The loss of the two com[rnanding] 
officers threw the men in[to] disorder. The enemy took courage 
[and] advanced. Our men made a precipitate retreat down the 
mountain and retired to Durham's, where we met them. 

Gen. Brock was taken to Niagara and interred with the greatest 
solemnity. The enemy gave him a salute, which was highly honor- 
able to them. We had drove them out of Ft. Niagara on the 13th, 
but, as our plan of operations was acting on the defensive, we did not 
take possession of it. They applied for an unlimited armistice, each 
to give the other thirty hours' notice when it was to be at an end. 
This was the most ruinous policy that could be adopted for us. The 
militia were kept out en masse doing nothing, consequently most of 



11 

them went home, as their property was suffering and [there was] no 
appearance of their being wanted on the frontier. The same pre- 
caution was taken by us as before. I was sent up to Turkey Point 
and established a line of communication from there to Fort George 
via Lake Erie. 

On the 20th Oct. I received the long-looked for letter, which had 
been in the post office between three and four months. My hopes and 
spirits were not a little raised on the perusal. 

In the latter end [of] Nov[ember] we were notified at Ft. Erie of 
the armistice being at an end. All was bustle and confusion. The 
militia [were] ordered out, a general alarm spread immediately. 
(Not to appear so much alarmed as we really were, knowing the 
immense force [that] would be opposed [to] us under the proclama- 
tion [of] General Smith,*) a general commanding along the whole line, 
was to commence as soon as the 30 hours expired. It continued the 
whole day between Fts. George and Niagara, with little effect on 
either side except damaging a few houses in Niagara. (The Court 
House had been burned on the 13th Oct.) 

I was sent up to Detroit [on] the morn[ing] of the 25th Nov. 
with dispatches, money, &c., &c., with a guard of four men. I arrived 
there on the fourth day after leaving Ft. George, crossed the ice on 
the mouth of the River Thames on the 1st Dec. on my return, the 
earliest ever known. Mr. A. Williams, having been detained at 
Detroit, returned me the letter I gave him for R. 

[I] arrived at Niagara on the 4th December. On the night of 
the 28th Nov. the American's effected a landing at Trout's Ferryf 
under Capt. King with infantry and sailors. [They] surprised our 
guard, made most of them prisoners and succeeded in capturing our 
batteries and dismounting all our guns. Early in the morning of the 
29th we moved on from Ft. Erie and made prisoners about 39 men, 
with Capt. King, who had not time to recross. In this rencounter we 
lost a few men killed [and] 2 or 3 mil[itia] officers] wounded. The 
Norfolk militia behaved exceedingly well. Col. Bisshopp, who com- 
manded the right, arriving from Chippawa formed the few men he 
had with him at Frenchman's Creek. The enemy made their 
appearance in about 20 boats [and] advanced within half gun-shot. 
We opened our fire, they wheeled about and returned with some loss. 
On the 30th we expected an attack most certainly, as Gen. Smith had 
sent over a flag desiring Col. Bisshopp to surrender Fort Erie. He 
was given to understand it would be defended to the last. At 2 a. m. 
1st Dec., Gen. Smith embarked his force, amounting to six thousand, 

*Brigadier General Alexander Smyth. ED. 
tBetween Fort Erie and Frenchman's Creek. ED. 



12 

with an intention of attacking. Col. Nichol, who happened to be 
going the rounds, mistaking the hour, ordered the revelly* to be 
sounded. Smith, thinking we were on the alert and prepared to re- 
ceive him, disembarked his men, making no further attempt during 
the campaign, altho' the militia of the country were kept out and on 
duty fully as severe as ever. 

[In] the latter of December I was sent with a party to Ft. Erie 
as we expected an attack by means of the ice, and to prevent deser- 
tion, &c., &c., where I remained till the middle of February, during 
which time I wrote R. by a Mr. Willson. [As there was] no appear- 
ance of an attack on either side at this time, the militia [were] all 
sent home ; the flank companies' term of service expiring they were 
dismissed and the most of Captain Hamilton's dragoons. I was 
recalled to Niagara. 

Seeing nothing [was] likely to be done, I applied for leave and 
went to Kingston on my private concerns. [I] returned about the 
10th February, 1813, [and was] kept on duty till the 25th inst., when 
* the troop was dismissed after a faithful and expensive service of 8 
months. They embodied themselves purely out of patriotic motives, 
found their own horses, clothing, appointments, &c., &c., only receiv- 
ing their rations and 9d per diem. They were likewise on their first 
formation the most respectable young men in the country. Many 
^afterwards got commissions in militia corps. 

I omitted mentioning a brilliant affair at the right division, and 
a most shameful and disastrous one on the lake. Hearing of Gen. 
Winchester's approach towards Detroit, Capt. Muir was sent out with 
a body of Indians and regulars to make an attack upon Fort Wayne 
up the Miami in the latter part of December. He approached within 
a few miles of it when some scouts discovered Gen. Winchester's 
camp within a few miles of them. The force was too small to attack. 
He therefore destroyed his ammunition and returned to Amherst- 
burgh in three days which (sic) he was fifteen in advancing. Gen. 
Winchester, taking courage at his retiring, moved on at the rapids. He 
was met by a detachment of militia and Indians, who behaved in the 
most gallant manner. On the 20th Gen. Harrison encamped at the 
Rapids and Gen. Winchester] advanced to the River Raisin and 
stockaded himself on the bank in a good position. Brig'd Gen. 
Procter advanced quietly with all the force he could collect and 
attacked them at 3 a. rn. on 22d January. They defended themselves 
gallantly. We succeeded in taking the Gen[eral] and his army 
prisoners. A great part were killed, 500 at least, about 600 taken 
[and] sent down to Ft. George, where they were paroled and sent 

'Reveille. 



13 

home to their own country, as we had invariably sent home all the 
militia that fell in our hands. In the latter end of November the 
American navy, under the command of Commodore Chauncey, drove 
our fleet into the harbor of Kingston, who a few months prior had 
complete command of the lake, not apprehending an enemy in that 
quarter. So ends the campaign of 1812, one of the most disastrous 
ones to the American arms and a most glorious one for the troops and 
inhabitants in Upper Canada. 

On the 25th Feb. I retired from the service, went home to the 
12 Mile Creek [and] entered into business, not wishing or thinking of 

entering it again. My father and Capt. Hamilton both entered pro- 
posals for raising a troop of Provincial] Dragoons to serve during 
the war. The former was accepted of. However, he getting tired of 
the exertion that attended it and private concerns calling him home, 
declined persevering in it. I received a note from Lt. Col. Harvey 
requesting I would undertake it, likewise Major Glegg and others. 
Thinking it probable we would have an active campaign the ensuing 
season, I commenced recruiting the llth March under every possible 
disadvantage, as the men had to find horses for themselves. Lieut. 
Ingersoll was appointed by my father, consequently I continued him 
and appointed Mr. McKenney cornet, (this young man joined the 

^militia dragoons as a private. He was with me during the campaign. 
His zeal and courage was conspicuous on every occasion. He was 
raised to the rank of quartermaster, no higher post being vacant) 
who soon raised his quota. On the 25th we were all in orders, 
fourteen days after I commenced. Our establishment was 42 r[ank 
and] file, which was conceived to be sufficient, as appointments could 
not be procured for them. They were all fine young men but badly 
mounted and equipped in every respect. My time was taken up in 
organizing them in the best manner I could. A line of communica- 
tion was established to Fort Erie with them. 

On the 20th April the campaign for 1813 opened with more 
vigilance than ever. We were reinforced with some of the Glen- 
garries, Newfoundland and King's. [The] militia were again called 
out. We were apprehensive of a serious attack from some quarters, 
as we perceived the enemy were collecting a large force on the 
Niagara Frontier and had a decided superiority on the lake. It was 
impossible for the duty to be more severe than at this crisis or the 
privations greater among all ranks. Both militia and regulars done 
their duty with alacrity and good will. 

On 27th April the enemy landed at York and captured it after 
a most gallant resistance by the grenadier company of the King's and 
a few others. The former were nearly all killed or wounded. We 



14 

had a ship on the stocks, which was destroyed, and a quantity of 
stores. The magazine was blown up by us [and] killed a number of 
their men. 

We were uncertain as to the fate of the place until the evening 
of the 29th, when I was sent to Burlington to bring down all the 
boats in that quarter, which I accomplished in 16 hours, for which 
service I received Brigd.-Gen. Vincent's thanks. Since Sir R. Hale 
Shief's retreat from York he commanded the centre division of the 
army. On the 2d May the enemy's fleet appeared in sight. Alarm 
guns were fired and every preparation made to give them a warm re- 
ception, as we expected an immediate attack at Ft. George since they 
[had] abandoned York. They anchored off the 4 Mile Creek [on the] 
American side where their camp was formed. From this till the 27th 
May every man was turned out at 2 o'clock [and] remained under 
arms during the night. Some men were 12 nights running on 
guard. A most laudable example was shewn them by the Gen[eral] 
Staff and every officer, who equally shared their fatigues. Our small 
force were formed in three divisions. Col. Myers com[mande]d the 
left, composed of the Kings and 2 companies] of militia to defend 
the coast from Ft. George to 4 Mile Creek. Capt. Fowler act[ed] as 
A. D. C. Col. Harvey [commanded] the right, consisting of 3 com- 
p[anies] N[ew]f[ound]l[an]d and 41st, 3 Gleng[arry], 4 [of] 49th and 
3 of militia, from Fort George to Queenston. The remainder of the 
49th and militia composed the reserve under Gen. Vincent to act as 
occasion might require in the rear of Ft. George. We had alarms 
almost every night. Col. Hfarvey] and myself rode to within 2 
miles of Queenston and back, nearly all night, and slept in the day. 

On the 25th, they commenced cannonading Fort George, which 
for want of ammunition we were unable to return. They burned all 
the buildings in it. On the 27th at 4 a.m. they were discovered 
approaching us under a thick heavy fog off the 4 Mile Creek [on the] 
Ameifican] side in a number of boats and scows in three brigades 
covered by their shipping and Ft. Niagara. Our left division were 
ordered back in a ravine, as the enemy completely enfiladed the plain 
and shore with shot and shells from the fleet and fort. 

I was sent up to order down part of Lt.-Col. Harvey's division 
on the right. As the fog was so very heavy we could not discover their 
movements on the opposite side; the Gen[eral] was apprehensive they 
meditated an attack likewise on our right by which means only the 
gren[a]d[ier] comp[any] [of the] N[ew]f[ound]land [Regiment] was 
brought into action of the right division ; 3 companies] Glengarry, 
2 mil[itia], 1 of N[ew]f[ound]land, was posted in advance to oppose 
the landing of the whole American] army. At 9 they commenced 



15 

landing at Crookston. The major part of our advance was killed. 
They were supported by the King's, who suffered nearly as much, as 
the enemy had gained the bank on their approach. They were com- 
pelled to fall back on the reserve, which were posted in Gordon's 
ravine. I was sent for the 49th, which were formed in the centre, 
our whole force not exceeding eight hundred men. We remained 
marching and countermarching, retreating and advancing till the 
enemy had advanced nearly within musket shot, when a retreat was 
ordered. The 24 p[ounde]r battery was left by its officer after firing 
one shot, by which means we were totally unable to annoy them. We 
formed again at the barracks near the Council House when I was 
sent up to order down the L[igh]t Comp[any] of the King's which 
we understood was at the 8 Mile Creek. I rode through the woods 
round the American] right flank [and] followed up the lake till I 
arrived at the 20 Mile Creek (was two hours on the road) where I 
met Com[man]d[er] Barclay with his sailors and the King's. We 
hurried on to Shipman's where I learned the army had retreated to 
DeCoo's. I took the party through the woods [and] arrived there at 
9 o'clock. Next morning the militia were allowed to remain or follow 
the army. This was a sad day for many besides myself. I went 
home, prepared my kit and with a heavy heart bid adieu, as I 
thought, to the place of my nativity for a long time. I was de- 
termined to share the fate of the army, which retreated on to Bur- 
lington with very little delay. I was ordered to remain at the Forty 
till driven in by the enemy. They were slow in approaching. I re- 
mained about the 12 till the 29th, when they advanced with most of 
the army. [On] the 1st June I was driven back from the Forty to 
Stoney Creek. The enemy advanced on the 6th, after many petty 
skirmishes in which I lost 7 men, to Stoney Creek, where they en- 
camped to the number of 3000 and about 1500 at Jones's on the lake. 
We were now driven to our last resources. We had retired from 
Fort Erie on [the] 28th. Our only position was Burlington, which 
they would have attacked next day. We had no works. Our 
troops [were] much fatigued and dispirited. In the evening of the 6th 
they had drove in our piquets, some distance from Stoney Creek. We 
were all under arms in the night when the bold and daring design of 
attacking their camp was carried in[to] execution. The 49th and 
part of the King's were ordered to march, amounting to 500 men. 
The light companies of each composed the advance, all under the 
com[man]d of Brigd.-General Vincent. [When] they arrived within 
a mile of the enemy's camp [they] halted and had the guns examined ; 
none were allowed to be loaded. They moved on, surprised and made 
prisoners their pickets. [They charged the front line of the enemy 
500 in number double quick [and] routed them without the loss of a 



16 

man on our side. The easy dispersion of these men threw ours in 
confusion, which gave the main body time to form on our right. 
They poured in a most destructive fire and commenced firing from 
their artillery, which were posted on an eminence in our front. Col. 
Plenderleath assembled about 30 men, made a most vigorous and suc- 
cessful charge upon their guns and succeeded in capturing them and 
making Gen Is. Chandler and Winder prisoners, which secured us the 
victory, as the enemy immediately retreated and left us in possession 
of the field. We could not get off but two guns and limbers for 
the want of horses; they were all killed. On appearance of day we 
drew off all our troops fearing [that] when the enemy seen our 
numbers they would renew the action. Col. Vincent having been 
thrown off his horse, lost himself in the wood. I was sent back by 
Col. Harvey to look for him over the field. He supposed he was 
either killed or wounded. On my return to near Gage's house I fell 
upon an American sentry. He allowed me to approach him. With 
my blue jacket [he] took me for one of his own officers. I made him 
prisoner and discovered they had possession of the house with fifty 
men. I moved off with the sentry and another prisoner, who made 
his appearance, and brought them to the main body. The Americans 
retreated this day as far as the Forty. We were on the point of 
retreating when Gen. Vincent made his appearance. 

On the 7th our fleet made its appearance. I was sent on [in] the 
advance [and] arrived at the Forty a few minutes after the Amer[i- 
can] rear guard left it. Major Dennis arrived shortly after. We 
pursued them and made many prisoners. The militia assembled in 
all quarters and added much to their annoyance. 

On the 10th [we] pushed on our advance under Colonel Bisshopp 
to the 12 and 10 Mile Creeks. Lieut. Fitzgibbon had the command 
of a party of 50 men on the advance. His principal post was De- 
Coo's house, Beaver Dams. Cornet McKenney was attached to him. 
On the 20th Lt. Barnard, Fitzgibbon, Cummings, McKenney and 
myself were sent to Tice Hone's, nearly falling in with Col. Chapin's 
party. On the 24th Col. Barstlaer (Boerstler) was sent out with 600 
men, 2 field pieces and Chapin's party to engage Fitzgibbon and de- 
stroy the house. They came through St. Davids [by] the mountain 
road. He got information of it, sent to Col. Deharen (De Haren) 
who was at Brown's, 10 M[ile] Creek, with a party of regulars and 
Indians, chiefly Cognawagas from Lower Canada, who came up a few 
days before. He sent them up by the Doctor's (Prendergast's ?) 
They placed themselves in Hover's (Hoover's) fields [and] waited till 
the army had nearly passed, when they opened a sharp fire from be- 
hind the fence and in the wood. It threw the enemy in confusion 



17 

for the moment. They rallied and drove the Indians near a mile. 
Thev ran back, got on the enemy's left flank and drove them back in 
turn with loss. The enemy formed in Miller's fields. Fitzgibbon, at 
this instant arriving, gained the wood exposed to a heavy fire of 
grape and canister. He perceived the Indians [were] tired of the 

(Pages 17, 18, 19 and 20 of the MS. are here missing.) 

took the other for Americans, exchanged several 
and did not find out the mistake till we arrived at the Forty Mile 
Creek. On our return we gave the necessary information, expecting 
the army to advance to meet him. However, nothing transpired till 
the 4th December. (Gen. McClure advanced as far as the 20 and 
returned.) On the 5th Col. Murray was allowed to advance as far as 
the 40, with orders not to proceed farther. On the 8th Capt. Martin 
and myself was sent on to the 20 to secure some flour. Hearing my 
father was allowed to return home I persuaded Capt. Martin to 
advance as far as the 12, which he did, brought away my father [and] 
returned to the 40 that night. [We] reported our proceedings to Col. 
Murray. We made J doz[en] prisoners and killed one man. He was 
not well pleased with [our] stretching orders. However, [he] 
advanced himself to the 20 [and] sent me to the 12 where I fell in 
with a flag of truce. [I] detained it till I received an order for its 
release. [I] collected about 40 militia as an advance guard. In the 
night [I] was sent up to the Beaver Dams. Early in the evening [I] 
discovered the town on fire. Col. Murray moved on to the 12. In 
the evening [we] collected all the axes in the neighborhood with a 
determination of storming F[or]t George. On our arrival they left 
it. Our troops took up a position on the river. [We] took many 
prisoners on the line, the movement was so sudden the renegades had 
not time to make their escape. Gen. Vincent arrived on the 13th 
with the remainder of the forces. We had been every night up 
endeavoring to get down boats for crossing the river. Fort Niagara 
was the great object. I was sent over with a flag to Lewiston to 
endeavor to ascertain their force. Capt. Kerby was sent up to 
Burlington to bring down the boats, which he did with the greatest 
expedition. Gen. Druminond and staff arrived on the 17th. Part of 
the boats was brought to Wilson's. The troops were assembled there 
every night for the purpose of crossing. On the 18th I was taken 
very ill owing to the excessive fatigue we had all undergone for 
eight nights previous, and was sent home by Gen. Vincent, where I 
was confined for a fortnight. 

On the evening of the 19th the troops were all privately 



18 

embarked, surprised the fort and captured it with very little opposi- 
tion [and] drove them from Lewiston and Schlosser. After delaying 
till the 1st November (sic) our troops crossed at Black Rock. After 
a sharp engagement with the militia, drove them and took possession 
of Buffalo. [We] burned every house we came across in retaliation 
for the town of Niagara. Thus ended the campaign of 1813. In 
our dash we recovered the whole country excepting Amherstburgh, 
which was not worth keeping at present, and all owing to the ability 
of Colonel Murray. 

I omitted mentioning a few gallant attempts in the month of 
July. Imprimis, Sir James Yeo formed the bold and daring design 
of cutting out the enemy's fleet at Sacketts Harbor. Hearing the 
Pike was launched and fitted out, he took about 500 soldiers and 
sailors [and] arrived near the harbor at 2 a. m. [He] had his boats 
drawn up in the wood intending attacking the next night. In the 
day [he] reconnoitred the situation of the fleet [and] came back in 
high spirits. He was sure of capturing the whole, when he was in- 
formed two of his soldiers was missing. He immediately gave up 
the design, disembarked (sic) his men and returned to Kingston. 

In the latter end of June Col. Clark crossed at Schlosser with 30 
men, took as many prisoners, destroyed a quantity of stores and 
brought away one or two pieces of cannon, 

[In] the beginning of July Col. Bisshopp crossed at Black Rock, 
burned the navy-yard [and] destroyed an immense quantity of public 
property. He was repeatedly urged to disembark (sic) and return, 
[but] imagining himself too secure [he] remained till the enemy 
collected a force. He was mortally wounded and lost a number of 
men before they could disembark and get out of musket shot. His 
loss was severely felt in the Upper Province. He was a good officer, 
an excellent man and a real friend to the country. 

The troops were all put in winter quarters [and] the greatest 
activity prevailed in repairing the forts. I was fortunately stationed 
at Shipman's, 12 Mile Creek, where I remained till the middle of May, 
1814, when I was ordered to Fort George. We erected a new fort at 

"" Missasaugua Point, by that name, and one on Queenston Heights by 
the name of Fort Drummond. The fleet had captured Oswego this 

"month, took a quantity of provisions [and] threw in a good supply to 
Fts. George and Niagara. Capt. Popham with a party of 200 seamen 
went up Sandy Creek near Sackett's Harbor after some American 
boats. They were all captured, and almost every boat belonging to 
the fleet. 

Knowing the large force that was collected at Buffalo was about 
invading this poor unfortunate frontier again, the duty became very 



19 

severe. The enemy had landed at Dover, Long Point, under Col. 
Camel (Campbell), burned every thing they fell in with and 
disembarked. 

On the third of July (my birthday) they made a landing at Ft. 
Erie, surrounded the place, which only consisted of 130 men, which 
of course was obliged to surrender. On the 4th [they] pushed on to 
Chippawa, skirmishing with our rear-guard, a few dragoons under 
Cornet Horton. Our troops retired to their position at Chippawa. 
A few Indians and militia arriving, Gen. Riall thought proper to 
make a dash at them on the 5th. 

I was sent down on the 4th to Ft. George. We expected their 
fleet hourly to make its appearance and threaten the forts, by which 
means Gen. R[iall] was under the necessity of dividing his small 
force. However, he marched out, gave them battle and was beaten. 
Had the enemy done their duty our whole army must have been taken, 
as they had five times our numbers. I was ordered up in the evening 
and detained with part of the troop. Cornet McKenney was attached 
to Col. Scott's district at Burlington. On the 8th the enemy cut a 
road, erected a battery and launched some boats, unperceived by our 
pickets or patrol es. Had they crossed it would have effectually cut 
off our retreat. Gen. Riall left his position and retired to the forts, 
burning Fort Drummond, &c. Capt. Hamilton and myself remained 
behind watching the movements of the enemy till night. On the 9th 
I was sent in the country to watch the movements of the enemy 
with about 20 dragoons, in the neighborhood of 12 Mile Creek and 
Beaver Dams, where I kept up the communication with Gen. Riall 
and Burlington. The militia had all retired to Burlington, driving off 
their cattle, &c. On the 16th I was sent to Burlington to order Col. 
Scott down with nearly his whole force, 103d, Indians and militia. 
On my return Gen. Riall moved out, formed a junction with him at 
20 Mile Creek, pushed out pickets of militia to the Four Mile Creek 
[at] St. Davids, by which means we kept the communication open 
with Ft. George. The Glengarries arrived on the 18th. Our force 
under Gen. Riall consisted of 200 Royals, 150 Kings, 600 of 103d, 
400 Glengarries, 350 incorporated] rnilitia, 1000 sedentary militia and 
Indians. In the three forts [were] about 600 men. On the 21st Gen. 
Brown moved down and encamped near Ft. George. We proceeded 
on [and] took possession of Queenston, making a few prisoners. 
About 30 officers and men had volunteered under Capt. Fitzgibbon to 
hover round the enemy's camp and obtain information. Of these I 
was one. We remained in Queenston all night. Three of us went 
down to their out pickets at Camp's farm [and] kept a good lookout. 
Nine officers breakfasted at Smith's in the morning. [We] was 



20 

surprised by a party of dragoons. Most of us gained the mountain. 
Four or five were made prisoners. Here we made a stand and kept 
in check the 150 dragoons until their infantry had completely out- 
flanked us. We fired fifty rounds per man. We returned to St. 
Davids, where about 20 militia were keeping 150 them [in] check. We 
ran down to support them. After firing a few rounds, as they did 
not advance, we retired to the wood, where we received an order to 
move back to the 10 Mile Creek. Four officers of our party remained 
in the rear, were surrounded, and after a short but gallant resistance, 
were made prisoners. [We] remained at the 10 that evening. Next 
day, 24th, our number being reduced to eleven, [we] took an excursion 
to Mr. Birch's and Roreback's. [We] fell in with a party of 30 horse- 
men, gave them a volley, [and] they broke. We rushed on [and] 
gave [them] another fire, when they disappeared, some up and the 
others down to Queenston. We returned to Bessey's. Next morning, 
the 25th, I was under the necessity of returning to headquarters to 
arrange some matters about the troop. My father was taken very 
ill. Col. Drummond arrived in the afternoon. [We] heard of the 
enemy retiring to Chippawa. [I] was ordered to Lundy's Lane in 
the evening with him. We marched all night [and] arrived there 
at daylight. 



Editor's Note. 



Colonel William Glaus was the eldest son of Colonel Daniel Glaus 
and grandson of Sir William Johnson. After serving for some time 
as an officer in the 60th Regiment, or Royal Americans, he entered 
the Indian Department as a lieutenant during the American Revolu- 
tion. When Lieut.-Colonel John Butler died in 1796, he was strongly 
recommended as his successor as superintendent at Niagara. He 
became the senior deputy superintendent of that department upon 
McKee's death in 1799. On nominating him for this post, in a 
despatch to the Duke of Portland, Major-General Prescott wrote : 

" With respect to the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr. 
McKee, I think it my duty to recommend to your Grace's consideration 
Captain William Glaus, the present senior superintendent. Exclusive 
of any pretensions which he might be induced to entertain in his own 
mind in consequence of the services of his grandfather, the late Sir 
Wm. Johnson, of his father, the late Colonel Glaus, who served thirty 
odd years in the Military and Indian Departments, or of his own 
services of twenty years, the circumstance of the Indians entertain- 
ing a very high respect and veneration for the memory of his grand- 
father and father, together with a great personal regard and attach- 
.ment to himself, appears to me to be of very considerable weight. 
His having likewise (in addition to his other qualifications) been born 
and brought up, as it were, among the Indians, and possessing an 
activity and disposition peculiarly pleasing to that sort of people will, 
I have reason to believe, render his succession to the office of the late 
Mr. McKee more satisfactory to all the Indian Nations and more bene- 
ficial to His Majesty's service (especially if the active services of the 
Indians should become necessary) than that of any other person I 
could recommend." 

He was subsequently appointed Colonel of the Militia of the 
County of Lincoln and a member of the Legislative Council. 

Matthew Elliott was engaged in trading with the Indians beyond 
the Ohio at the beginning of the American Revolution. He aban- 
doned the whole of his property, which was confiscated, and joined 
Lieut. Governor Hamilton at Detroit, by whom he was appointed 



22 

captain in the Indian Department. He accompanied Captain Bird in 
his raid into Kentucky in 1780 and subsequently commanded a body 
of Indians in the actions of Blue Licks and Sandusky in which the 
frontiersmen of Kentucky and Pennsylvania were defeated with severe 
loss. In 1790 he was appointed assistant agent for the western 
Indians and was promoted to be Deputy Superintendent at Amherst- 
burg in 1795. He was hastily dismissed from this office in 1798 in 
consequence of a quarrel with Captain Maclean, the military com- 
mandant, but was reinstated in 1808, when war seemed imminent 
with the United States, at the urgent request of Lieut. Governor Gore, 
who declared in his despatch to Sir James Craig on the subject, that 
" throughout this country (Upper Canada) it is the general sentiment 
that he is the only man capable of calling forth the energies of the 
Indians." He was one of the representatives of the County of Essex 
in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada for nearly twenty 
years, and Lieutenant Colonel of the First Regiment of Essex Militia. 
His death in 1814 was probably hastened by fatigue and exposure 
during the war. 

John Norton was the son of a British officer by his marriage with 
a Miss Anderson. He was born in Canada and at an early age went 
to live among the Indians of the Six Nations at the Grand River, by 
whom he was adopted and made a chief. He appears to have been 
fairly well educated and is stated to have been able to speak English 
and French with facility, as well as several Indian dialects. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE OPERATIONS OF THE 

INDIAN CONTINGENT WITH OUR FORCES 

ON THE NIAGARA FRONTIER IN 

1812-13. 



BY COLONEL WILLIAM CLAUS. 



YORK, 4th December, 1813. 

MY DEAR SIR, It has been my wish for a length of time to sit 
down and give you a detailed account of our transactions since the 
13th October, 1812, as far as relates to Indian affairs, at which period 
I consider the war to have commenced in this part of the country, and 
much of that I must trust to memory but will answer for its 
correctness. 

On the 13th October, 1812, about 6 o'clock a. m. J. B. Rousseaux, 
interpreter, knocked at my door and reported the enemy crossing at 
Queenston in force. I immediately got up and on my way down to 
my front gate I met Major General Sheaffe, who ordered me to the 
garrison at Fort George, from whence I despatched every Indian I 
could collect and a number of militia. Captain Norton had proceeded 
before I saw him. About 8 o'clock a. m. I received orders from the late 
Major General Brock, through Brigade Major Glegg, not to cease firing 
until every stone was down in the American garrison. The events of 
that day are well known to you, and the death of a man, Major 
General Brock, that will ever be lamented. On this occasion we lost 
two Cayuga Chiefs, one Onondaga warrior and two Oneidas killed 
besides several wounded. 

From the 13th [October] until the 21st of November nothing was 
done. By a letter from General Smyth to General Sheaffe the armistice 
concluded on the 13th October was to cease on the 19th November. 
On the 20th at night orders were given to open the batteries upon the 
garrison at Fort Niagara at daylight of the 21st. The orders I 
received were to station myself with the militia in a ravine near the 
English church, where we remained until near sunset, when the firing 
ceased. We had very few Indians at Fort George, most of them being 



24 

at Fort Erie under Major Givins and Capts. Norton and Kerr, where, 
on the 27th November, they assisted in repelling the second attempt 
at invading the Province ; altho' a good deal of firing none of our 
Indians were hurt. The attack was made immediately on a house 
where a party of the 49th lay with Lieut. Lament and my son of that 
regiment and Lieut. King of the Royal Artillery, under the command 
of the former. After a warm struggle they were obliged to give way, 
being overpowered by numbers and Lieut. Lament severely wounded, 
Lieut. King mortally, and my son slightly in the face, and a number of 
men killed, wounded and made prisoners. Reinforcements coming to 
our assistance the American party were made prisoners with their 
commandant, Capt. King, but our people had been sent across the 
river before. 

This ended the campaign. 

On the 1st Ma} 7 , [1813,] a Militia General Order was issued 
calling into actual service 1700 of the Militia; the following is an 
extract : 

" 1st Lincoln, Colonel Glaus, 300 including those embodied. Dis- 
tribution 1st Lincoln, Niagara." 

On the 8th May, 1813, I received the following letter : 

"Fort George, 8th May, 1813. 

SIR, I am directed by Brigadier General Vincent, commanding 
the troops on the frontier, to desire you will hold yourself in readi- 
ness to assume the -command of the garrison at Fort George in the 
event of the 49th, Lieut.-Colonel Plenderleath, being obliged to move 
out for the purpose of opposing the attack which there is reason to 
believe the enemy meditates upon this post. 

" The Brigadier General feels the most entire confidence in your 
best exertions for the defence of this most important post with the 
limited means which he may be enabled to place at your disposal, and 
which, I am to assure you, will be as great as circumstances will 
admit. 

" You are to use your discretion in the supply of ammunition and 
arms to such militiamen as ma}^ come in unprovided with them. Of 
the former you are required to be as sparing as possible. 
"I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

J. HARVEY, Lt.-CoL, 

D. A. G. 
" Colonel Glaus, etc., etc." 

I introduce the above extract of an order and letter to show why 
upon several occasions I was not with the Indians, as represented to 
Sir George, and which I believe drew forth the order of the 7th 



25 

August last. The order to remain in the garrison on the 13th October 
was verbal and received in the field. After the above order of the 1st 
of May it became my duty to be in the garrison of Fort George every 
morning an hour before day with the militia. Nothing occurred until 
the 24th May at night, when our guns up the river opened upon some 
boats and scows the enemy were putting into the water at the Five 
Mile Meadows. This night I was in the garrison with all the militia 
and about 12 o'clock I detached a part of them up the river to the 
support of the guns, not knowing what the firing was. The regulars 
left the fort and went out for the purpose of throwing up some breast- 
works on the bank. A little before day they returned to their alarm 
posts and the fire from the enemy opened from all their batteries upon 
the garrison of Fort George. I had time to fire two rounds from a 
24 pounder when I received orders to stop firing, but by the enemy it 
was kept up till about 2 o'clock p. m., by which time they had set fire 
to and burnt nearly every building in the fort. At this hour Lieut. - 
Colonel Williams o!:' the 49th was sent down to relieve me. We had 
very few Indians at Niagara at this time. 

During the remainder of the day we were busily employed in 
repairing the picketing destroyed by the shells which were thrown in 
great numbers and admirably served as well as their guns. On the 
26th the enemy were observed to be unusually busy. On the 27th, 
before day, I was on the Cavalier, or Brock's Battery, with Lieut. - 
Col. Plenderleath. Just as the day broke and reveille beat on both 
sides, we left it fully persuaded that nothing would be attempted that 
day. By the time we reached the centre of the square we observed a 
rocket over our heads, and as it turned every battery opened upon us. 
The troops, with the exception of one company of the 49th, Captain 
Ormond, left the garrison. Our force was not 70 men including 
militia. We were penned up in the fort without being allowed to fire 
a shot. A little after day the enemy appeared in three divisions of 
vessels and boats coming from Johnson's Landing. They advanced in 
very great order and unfortunately for us were allowed to come on 
shore without being opposed by a 24 pounder which must, if fired, 
have done immense execution and I am persuaded must have driven 
the enemy back, but from something unaccountable not a shot was 
fired from this gun. It was placed near Church's old house. The 
boats and scows were so close to each other and moved so slow that 
every shot must have had effect, as they were very little more than 
half [cannon] shot distance. At 11 o'clock a. m. I received orders to 
open the mortar battery on the fort, which was done. Shortly after, 
I saw our troops retiring and a large column of the enemy advancing 
in rear of my house. I received a second order to turn my guns on 
the town but had hardly done so when I received the following note : 



26 

"12 o'clock. 

DEAR SIR, The General desires that you will immediately 
evacuate the fort and join him on the Queenston Road. 

(Signed,) J. B. GLEGG, Lt.-Col. 

Brigade Major. 
"Col Glaus, 

Commanding Fort George." 

After seeing all the troops and militia out of the fort and blow- 
ing up one or two small magazines, I followed and overtook the 
General about half way to Queenston on a road near the skirt of the 
wood. In the action of this day we had very few Indians in the 
field. Two Mohawks were killed and a number wounded. One of the 
killed was a boy of mine. The poor fellow was too forward and lost 
his life by a grape shot in the forehead. We continued our retreat 
over the mountain and the Indians retired by a different route, under 
Norton. I was despatched with orders to Colonel Bisshopp and did 
not get back to the army until 10 o'clock that night. Our first halt 
was at DeCou's, about 15 miles from Niagara, (to which place my son 
of the 49th had been sent a few days before the attack with a depot 
of ammunition.) From thence we moved to the 40 Mile Creek, where 
we remained some days. Here Mrs. Glaus and my family joined 
me. Why we left this position God knows ! It was the best we 
could take up, but we moved to the Heights of Burlington, to which 
place the enemy were pursuing us in much superior force. On the 
5th June in the afternoon information was brought that the enemy 
had attacked our advance and that we had drove them. The whole of 
the troops were ordered under arms. No Indians being with us I 
offered iny services to Brigadier General Vincent, w T hich he was kind 
enough to accept, and shortly after sent me to Lieut.-Col. Bisshopp. 
On my way I met some Indians coming from Grand River and 
hastened them on, but on my return found that they would not move 
on that night. 

When the two regiments, the King's and 49th, moved off at half- 
past 11 on the night of the 5th of June, I followed and after riding a 
mile I found that the officer that was riding alongside the general, 
had rode off. I rode up and took his place. After riding a little way 
with him, I was again sent off to Lieut.-Col. Bisshopp with orders to 
attach myself to him. I am perhaps too particular, but I wish to show 
to you the cruelty of the order of the 7th August, which I attribute 
to Mr. Norton's report that I was never out with the Indians, on which 
report I believe that order is founded. The event of that morning's 
business is known to you and unnecessary for me to repeat it, but I 



27 

must remark to you that in the general order Capt. Norton is com- 
plimented for the handsome manner in which he followed up the 
enemy with his warriors when not an Indian advanced until after our 
troops came in and they only went to the field to plunder. About the 
10th June our little army advanced. I was ordered to remain in 
command of the Heights with a few troops and militia, which I 
refused but afterwards accepted on condition that if they advanced 
from the 40 Mile Creek I should be relieved. Shortly after, Major 
Evans of the King's came up and relieved me and I immediately left 
the Heights and joined the Indians. On my arrival at the 40 I joined 
the Canada Indians there, who with ours advanced to the 10 Mile 
Creek near Niagara and encamped there with the light companies of 
the King's and 104th. We had not been there a day or two when a 
report reached us that 150 horse were at De Cou's in our rear, making 
a tour by 12 Mile Creek as we supposed. The two companies were 
immediately under arms and a message sent to me requiring about 
50 Indians to join each company. I ordered Capt. Kerr with the 
104th and went myself with the King's, going different routes in 
hopes of cutting them off. About sunset a runner was sent to me to 
say they had turned and taken a different route. Just as we got to 
our camp we heard that the other party had met the enemy, but not 
those reported in the morning, and engaged them on the mountain 
near Mrs. Tice's. After two rounds our people retired, the others 
being too superior in numbers. Had the number of Indians gone with 
Capt. Kerr that I wished and expected, it would have been a com- 
plete business, but unluckily most of the Indians followed the Kings, 
Only one of the enemy was killed, none of ours hurt. 
* From the continual applications for flour for the families at home 
I was obliged to retire from the 10 Mile Creek for the purpose of mak- 
ing out the necessary returns and requisitions, for while I remained 
with the body of Indians nothing could be done. (This I mention to 
ehow why I was not present on the 24th.) I therefore went to Capt. 
Kerr at the 20 Mile Creek on the 22d June. On the 24th, a little be- 
fore daylight, one of the Canada Indians went down to St. David's to 
look for one of their people that had been missing the day before. On 
his getting there he saw a large body of the enemy advancing towards 
De Cou's on the mountain and in our rear. He returned immediately 
and reported to Capt. Kerr, who collected all the Indians he could, not 
400. After having reported the circumstance to Major De Haren, he 
set out in pursuit of them. The same young man went in advance 
and crossed the same body and returned to Capt. Kerr and the In- 
dians, who left the road and struck across the country and getting 
into a wood opened a fire upon the enemy, who soon formed and with 
two fieldpieces, 6 and 12 pounders, obliged our people to retire, but 



28 

only to take up another position, which they did and kept up such a 
warm tire that they were obliged to retire after offering two flags, but 
whether the Indians understood them or not is not known but they 
were tired on each time. This I learned from a man by the name of 
Miller, to whose house they retired. When all firing had ceased Lieut. 
FitzGibbon of the 49th made his appearance with about 40 men and a 
flag was immediately sent. Seeing red coats, &c., the surrender fol- 
lowed of Lieut.-Col. Boerstler and his forces with the two tieldpieces, 
ammunition, etc., for which every notice was taken of the troops and 
Lieut. FitzGibbon, and nothing said of the Indians who did everything. 
Well might the general order say that the whole of the business was 
accomplished without the loss of a drop of British blood, for not a 
shot was tired by a British soldier that day. Five or six militia 
officers and men went out with the Indians, who were the only whites 
except those of the department, but it was not accomplished without 
the death of one Delaware chief, one Chippewa chief from La Cloche, 
two Caughnawaga war chiefs, one Nippissing war chief, one warrior 
from St. Regis, besides a vast number wounded. As soon as the busi- 
ness was reported to Lt.-Col. Bisshopp, who was stationed at the 20, he 
advanced but we were too late. It was over before we reached the 
field. 

After this the Indians all retired to the 40. I could not stop 
them. With much difficulty I persuaded the greater part of the 
Canada Indians to advance again, and we got to the 12 where they 
halted, and about the first of July we were joined by about 150 
of the western Ottawas and Chippewas. I had tried for several days 
to get our people to advance to the 10 again. Promise after promise 
was made but I could not get them to go until I got the Western 
Indians to move, when they could not avoid following, and we took 
up our old ground at the 10. We had been there many days when I 
received the following note : 



"HEADQUARTERS, 10 o'clock p. m., July 7th. 

"DEAR SIR, I have Major-General De Rottenburg's directions to 
direct you will move forward a body of Indians to-morrow morning 
in the direction of Fort George. They must take post in front of 
[Chorus's] house, where some medicine belonging to the army was 
deposited, which it is the object of this movement to secure. Capt. 
Merritt will be sent from hence early to-morrow morning with wag- 
gons in which to bring off these medicines. A company of the King's 
will escort them from hence. It is therefore necessary that the officer 
who accompanies the Indians should point out the necessity of 



29 

remaining in front of the house above named until the waggons have 
returned. 

" I am, dear Sir, 

"Your obedient servant. 

" (Sgd.) J. HARVEY. 
" Col. Glaus, D. S. G." 

This note was received about 12 at night, and I immediately went 
to the camp and altho' it was an unusual hour for Indians I must do 
them the justice to say that they most readily turned out about 100 
men, and I ordered Capt. Norton, with the Interpreters Lyons, Brisbois 
and Langlade to accompany the Indians. They went off in the morn- 
ing as desired. I told them if they were desirous to go on after the 
waggons were safe they might, which they did, and I believe I reported 
to you in my letter of the llth July last. In this affair two Indians 
and one interpreter were wounded. All credit [was] again given to 
Norton, when Lyons, Brisbois and Langlade, interpreters, were the 
men who encouraged the Indians. The lavished praise on Norton 
caused jealousy. I did not mention to you an occurrence which 
happened on that occasion. The Blackbird, an Ottawa chief, com- 
plained that a person had been very troublesome to him, and insisted 
upon getting his prisoners from him. He had presented them to rne. 
He only wanted to keep them one night, and gave me his word that 
nothing should happen to them, but he was obliged to give them up. 
This he mentioned to General De Rottenburg. The General asked 
him who it was. He pointed to Colonel Young. When my back was 
turned I was accused of setting the Indians up to this. An officer 
was sent privately to the camp, privately to try and find out if I had. 
I complained and demanded an enquiry, as the department had been 
too often accused of these doings, but I could get no satisfaction. 
Shortly after Captain Norton stated that I had given orders that no 
interpreter should interpret for him. All his reports were, to use an 
Indian expression, underground, and on his complaint it would be 
enquired into, and that privately. Three interpreters that he named 
were sent for without acquainting me, and at General De Rottenburg's, 
two were sworn in the presence of Generals De Rottenburg and Vin- 
cent, Lieut.-Col. Harvey and Major Glegg, the third being ill and could 
not attend. After a very narrow investigation [they] could find 
nothing out. Thus have I been treated through the machinations of 
this man. I shall have occasion to speak of him again. 

Previous to the 5th of July the Tuscaroras on the opposite side of 
the river by Queenston appeared several days and conversed across the 
river and expressed a wish to see our people. A day was fixed and 
the following was the substance of the conversation : 



30 

The Onondagas saluted the old Tuscarora chief and nine others 
with him. 

Katwerota, an Onondaga chief, spoke : 

" We understand that it was your wish to see and speak with us. 
We have now come to hear what you have to say." 

Te Karchaga, a Mohawk chief, said : 

" Brothers ! The Onondagas have spoken and told you we were 
ready to hear what you have to say. The chiefs of 16 Nations are 
here to listen." 

Osequirison, the Tuscarora chief, spoke : 

" Brothers ! Our desire to see you is to know whether the same 
sentiments of friendship exist that you expressed at the Standing 
Stone (Brownstown) two years ago. Notwithstanding we are 
separated by the contention between the British and Americans, our 
sentiments are still the same." 

Katwerota spoke again : 

" Brothers ! You see, notwithstanding the report that the British 
are weak, the Great Spirit is with us and we are able to take posses- 
sion again. As the King has been obliged to give ground at Niagara, 
we wish to understand from you whether you are induced to take part 
with the Americans or not ? We wish to know what you had to 
communicate with us in particular?" 

Osequirison : " These times have been very hard and we labor 
under great difficulties, being so near the lines, and we wish to know 
whether your sentiments are still friendly towards us and if you cross 
the river whether you will hurt us ?" 

Katwerota: "This will depend on yourselves. If you take no 
part with the Americans we shall meet you with the same friendship 
as we ever did, and we look for the day when you shall see our forces 
on your side of the water. We have no contention with you. It is 
the King and the Americans, and we have taken part with the King. 
We will contend for his rights." 

Te Karchaga: "Brothers! We take leave of you. The head of 
our army, and your friend, the head of our department, salute you." 



I arn very confident it was fully expected that we were going 

They 
had not shown themselves nor given any assistance to the enemy, I 



over and they were convinced there was nothing to prevent it. The; 



believe. During this time, and indeed previously, I felt myself 
Unpleasantly situated. 

The Government had an opinion of Norton. Ever} 7 thing was 
done to bring him forward. Altho' I observed the conduct of officers 
in power towards me nothing was ever said until the beginning of 
July. In consequence of a very unnecessary expenditure of provisions 
and, as I considered, a very improper one, which was, issuing on any- 



31 

one's order, I issued an order that no requisitions were to be made 
but by Major Givins and myself, dividing the Indians, giving Major 
Givins all the Northern and taking the Grand River and Western 
Indians myself. This gave offence and after dinner one day with 
General De Rottenburg he took me on one side and said that Norton 
had been complaining that he could not give provisions to Indians as 
I had stopped it. The order I gave was shewn to General De Rotten- 
burg and I told him that he had approved of it but if it was his wish 
that Capt. Norton should have the power of drawing I would readily 
give up those I drew for, that my object was the interest of the service 
and that I felt it my duty to tell His Honour that the Government was 
deceived in the high opinion it had of that man but that it was my 
duty to obey the wish or direction of the Government, let the con- 
sequence be what it would, and an order was issued that in the future 
Capt. Norton would victual those 'Indians, which he did. Both in 
public and private did the Indians speak of him in a most despicable 
manner and all this [was] attributed to me. With the army there 
never was such a man. 

After this when we took the advanced position at the Four Mile 
Creek the Indians were to go to the roads in the Centre. While they 
were getting their packs tied General De Rottenburg arrived in their 
camp, about 6 a. m., and changed the plan. To try his strength he 
(Norton) was to go to the left and Major Givins to the right, and 
those Indians who chose to go with him would go to the left and those 
that wished to go with Major Givins would go to the right, and I was 
desired to let the Indians understand clearly that they were to do as 
they pleased. Not one Indian went to the left, and I assure you, 
upon my honor, I did all in my power to get 200 to go with him, but 
no. This was my doing again. I felt myself so unpleasantly situated 
that I could not help telling General Vincent, in the presence of Lieut. - 
Col. Plenderleath and other officers, that it was my misfortune that 
my family's existence depended upon my situation was that not 
the case that I should retire at all hazards ; that I never concealed my 
opinion of Capt. Norton ; that it most certainly was not the same that 
the Government had of him ; that I could not think well of him, but 
that I had and was determined, contrary to my opinion, to endeavour 
all in my power to support him. 

Shortly after, meeting this character at dinner at General De 
Rottenburg's, the old subject of the intrigues and cabals of the Six 
Nations was brought and my saying that they hated Norton. This I 
denied but declared what I had always said, and which I said again, 
that the Six Nations would not be commanded by him, (for this is one 
of his great objects), and that I was convinced that it was this that 
caused jealousy among them. The General proposed calling the 



32 

Indians together and to declare to them that no one was to command 
them. I replied that I thought it very proper, but that his time was 
so very precious at that moment I thought the best way for Captain 
Norton to try his influence was to say he required 50 or 100 men to 
go with him, and then we would see his influence. He declined this, 
and required the Council. This was in the presence of General De 
Rottenburg. I told Capt. Norton to warn the Indians that the General 
would meet them at twelve next day. When he went away the 
General expressed a wish that the Council should not take much of 
his time. I told him I feared that most of the day would be taken 
up, but that I would go up to the X roads early in the morning and 
see what I could do to make it as short as possible. When I arrived 
at the camp I found Capt. Norton in deep council with a few and said 
what I had come for, and as usual his reply was, "The General did not 
tell me so." After a little while I sent for the Indians, that the General 
when he arrived need not wait. On Capt. Norton's coming he 
expressed his surprise that any Indians were called except the Grand 
River Indians. I told him it was the General's desire that all the 
Indians should be present, but as I had and was determined to give 
way to him in everything I would now do what was most uncustom- 
ary and send away the other nations, which I did. On the Governor's 
arrival he opened the Council in the usual manner, by saluting them, 
and afterwards told them that it appeared to him that there was 
something which caused uneasiness in their minds ; that they con- 
ceived they were to be commanded ; that he repeatedly desired it to 
be made known to them that no one was to command them ; that they 
were to be led by their own chiefs, but that to make their minds quite 
easy he had come down to tell them so from his own mouth. Capt, 
Norton interrupted the interpreter and said that I had told the 
General that the Indians hated him. I again contradicted him and 
appealed to the General, but what I have said I will repeat, that they 
will not be led by you. The General was obliged to interfere, and 
order him to allow the interpreter to go on. After this each nation 
spoke, and said they did not hate him but wished he would let them 
alone ; that they did not want him about them, and mentioned some 
things that were by no means in his favor, which he endeavored to 
explain away. After this "the Echo," an Onondaga chief, made a 
very long speech, neither in his favor nor against him, altho' he was 
brought forward by him to speak, and the day before he told General 
De Rottenburg that this man was no chief, but as he could speak he 
was brought forward, and that he was a worthless fellow, and appealed 
to me if it was not so, and he was the onl.y man he could get to come 
forward. The Council broke up, and not much to the satisfaction of 
Capt. Norton. Not many days after this General De Rottenburg 



33 

called a Council of all the nations, and before he had finished this man 
had the audacity to step forward and address the chiefs. I stept back 
and told the General I was determined not to interfere or interrupt 
Capt. Norton, but that he was now interrupting the Council. The 
General spoke to him [but] he replied that he had not six words to 
say and persisted. After the Council was over the Mohawk chief, Te 
Karchaga, spoke and began by telling when Norton first came among 
them they were ignorant of the tree he sprung from or any of its 
branches. That latterly he became a chief and was exposing him a 
good deal, when Norton got up and addressed the Indians and pre- 
vented the chief from proceeding, and turned about to the officers and 
said that what he had said would be answered in a few words, that 
he did not come there to hear a long sermon. His conduct, I believe, 
began to disgust General De Rottenburg and most of his supporters, 
for most of the officers were present. A few days after this he called 
at my room and said that I had sent for him. I told him he never 
was more mistaken ; that I should be candid with him, that I had not 
sent for him, neither did I ever wish to see a man who would under- 
handedly state falsehoods to prejudice the Commander of the Forces 
against me. He attempted to explain. I would not allow him, but 
told him that a day would arrive when I should call on him to make 
good his representations or suffer, I trusted, for his infamy towards 
me. He went to General Vincent's tent and, as usual, complained of 
my treatment of him, and the General's patience, I believe, got 
exhausted, when he told him he never came to see him but with some 
grievance or complaint against me and Major Givins ; that we often 
came to see him and sat for hours without even mentioning his name, 
and that he firmly believed that we never gave ourselves the trouble 
of thinking about him. He was constantly threatening to leave us 
and join his friends in the west, and I assure you that one time 
General* De Rottenburg was seriously alarmed about it. Since these 
people have come down it does not appear that he is known by them, 
and Elliott confirms the opinion that they do not know him. He had 
connected himself with the Onondagas, but for what reason I do not 
know he has left them. He had done the same with the Mohawks, 
and has two children in that nation. He has now connected himself 
with a Delaware family, and has married the grand-daughter of an 
old man or rather the daughter of a deserter from the Queen's 
Rangers and a common woman. Had the famil3 r been of any weight 
or the least consequence I should not have been surprised, but they 
are the poorest and least influenced among their people ; indeed, they 
are seldom with their nation, being among the whites making brooms 
and baskets, and the mother and daughter amusing themselves. This 
is the connection he has formed. Mr. Addison married them in August 



34 

last, since which he has done nothing but ride about the country with 
madam and a posse of his connections. 

The next thing that occurred was a skirmish at Ball's, the farm 
on which all our little skirmishes or scenes took place last summer. 
The enemy made their appearance on the 17th of July, and the 
Indians immediately turned out, and one Cayuga lad was killed by a 
round shot. I was not with them, as I was stationed at St. Davids, 
from whence I shortly removed to where the Indians were in the 
centre at the crossroads. 

On the 17th of August the enemy made their appearance, and 
the troops and Indians were under arms immediately and advanced. 
Col. Stewart of the Roj^als desired that Indians should be sent to the 
right and left that we might not have our flanks turned. I did it 
with reluctance as I never wished to separate the Indians. This was 
not enough. When we got to the advanced picquets more parties 
were required to be sent out, and our number reduced from upwards 
of 300 to not more than 50. We had not been long here (advanced 
picquet) when firing commenced on our left in Ball's fields, to which 
place I went as quick as possible with the few Indians I had remain- 
ing, not supported with or by the troops, and met the Senecas, who, 
after exchanging some shots, led us into a trap, for in the skirts of 
the wood were laying the riflemen and a number of the troops. We 
retired to the first field that we engaged them in, and after some firing 
Capt. Norton observed that it would not do, that we must retire and 
collect. That was enough. The word was hardly given when all set 
off from the field, when Major Givins observed to me that we might 
as well follow. We were then alone in the field on the skirt of the 
wood. I endeavored to halt them, but all in vain. Our loss was 
severe this day. I attributed it to dividing us, for our Indians that 
were detached ran to the spot and met the Senecas whom they took 
for our own people. Five were killed, three wounded and ten taken 
prisoners, besides Captain Lorimier and Livingstone, the interpreter 
who was severely wounded. It was nearly attended with serious 
consequences. The Western Indians had four of their people killed, 
and said that the Six Nations were the cause of it. Every Indian 
moved off from their camp, some eight and ten miles. The next 
morning the sentries reported that Indians were seen in the skirt of 
the wood. I collected all the Indians I could and about 50 men of the 
Glengarry Regiment, under Major De Haren. We advanced in an 
extended line through a wood to a clearing on the opposite side, 
(Ball's fields again), when an inhabitant came to me to say that a large 
column was advancing by Ball's house. I rode to the road and could 
not see more than 40 or 50 men, but looking to their right I perceived 
a number of people running towards our left. I immediately went 



35 

back to where our people were and we retired into the wood and 
formed there. We again changed our ground and crossed the road, 
after which the skirmish began and continued three hours. When 
we went out Capt. Norton declined to go on such foolish business. 
After we had been engaged an hour and a half he made his appear- 
ance. The troops certainly came to our support this day. We lost 
one Cayuga chief, killed. The Senecas lost two killed and one taken 
prisoner. The prisoner was much in liquor. He told me it was the 
case the day before, that they were made drunk, pushed forward and 
not supported. After we retired General De Rottenburg met Norton, 
took him by the hand and complimented him upon his gallant and 
[meritorious ?] conduct, to the mortification of a number of the officers 
of the department present, when no notice was taken of them. I had 
the gratification in that part of the field to show him to an officer of 
the Royals, who called out to me : " For God's sake ! Col. Glaus, why 
will you not send somebody to support Capt. Norton ?" " Where is 
he, Sir ?" " There in front with only four or five Indians." This was 
John Brant. I called to John and asked him where Norton was. 
" There, Sir," pointing to a fence about 50 yards in rear, and Norton at 
the same time calling out, " Here I am." " I went to the officer and 
asked him where Norton was. He made no answer but rode off, but 
such was the opinion of the man that nothing could be done but by 
him. 

On the 20th of August, 1 believe, Sir George Prevost arrived. 
On that day two of our Indians, La Serre and a Delaware, prisoners, 
were sent with a flag to speak to our Indians. It was to say that if 
they would retire the Nations with the Americans would do the same. 
Their reply was that their minds were made up ; that they were 
determined to share the fate of the King. 

On the 23d I rode up to St. Davids to pay my respects to Sir 
George. He was closeted with General De Rottenburg, Lieut.-Col. 
Harvey and Lieut.-Col. Nichol, Quartermaster General of Militia. 
General De Rottenburg came over to his house for me and I was 
honored by being admitted and the intended reconnoissance made 
known to me, or, as I expected, an attack on Fort George. I was told 
to have the Indians ready. I applied for the Voltigeurs, as I was 
told they were to be attached to me. They were ordered to join us 
and the arrangement left to me. I returned immediately to camp 
and sent for Major Heriot, with whom our plan was arranged. I 
collected all the Indians, gave them distinguishing marks and sup- 
plied them with ammunition, telling them that every man would be 
required before day. My plan was to advance between picquets Nos. 
3 and 4, so as to support either of the parties attacking their picquets. 
All the enemy's picquets were to be attacked at the same time. We 



36 

could either have given them support or cut them off' in their retreat. 
While waiting before day for the order to advance, Lieut.-Col. Harvey 
rode up and asked me my plan. I told him. He said it might inter- 
fere with Lieut.-Col. Battersby and defeat his object. " Then what 
shall I do ?" " You had better remain with the reserve." " That will 
never do for the Indians, but if you will permit me I will advance 
near Ball's and remain there." This was agreed to. Some time after 
the tiring commenced at daylight, General Vincent advanced to where 
we were and ordered us to advance and cover the dragoons that were 
going into town. We went on and a dragoon came to me from Lieut.- 
Col. Harvey and said that the whole of the American force was in the 
wood to my right. I waved my hand to the Indians, who were a 
good way in my rear, to cross a fence and scour the skirts of the wood, 
upon which Colonel Harvey came up and asked me what was the 
matter. He was much vexed at the fellow as he had directed him to 
send some Indians and see if there were no Indians in the wood upon 
my right. Upon which a party was immediately sent, and Major 
Givins with another party further to my right, and the main body 
with myself covered the 19th Dragoons with Lieut.-Col. Harvey, who 
galloped into town driving the picquets and everything else before 
them. On getting into town we met the different parties of our troops 
who had advanced by the left and in the rear of my house. The 
Indians all assembled and formed a line, and were advancing into 
town, from whence we received a few shot. Their advance was done 
of their own accord without any orders, and I am convinced that in 
twenty minutes we would have been in the middle of the town and 
silenced the tiring, but the following note reached me as we were 
advancing : 

" Col. Claus will retire with the cavalry to the camp." 
This was from Lieut. Barnard, General Vincent's aide-de-camp, 
upon which I drew off the Indians, and on the road Sir George desired 
that I would post the Indians in the wood along the road and wait an 
hour to see if the enemy would come out. We waited till the bugle 
sounded for our going in. Thus ended the affair of the 24th of 
August, which we anxiously expected was the day of attack instead 
of a reconnoissance. On this occasion the Indians were not mentioned, 
although they did everything that was required of them, but I can 
only account for it in this way, that Captain Norton was not with 
them. On the 22d when Sir George left the room we were in I took 
the opportunity of following him and mentioning the order of the 7th of 
A-ugust, and told him that I felt it as a most severe reflection on me, 
that I knew Capt. Norton corresponded with headquarters [and] that 
I had reason to believe he had been making representations against 
me. Sir George admitted that he had. I told him what I supposed 



37 

these representations were ; that this was no time for division, but 
that a day would arrive, I hoped, when I should look for justice, and 
that I would make it appear under his own handwriting that he had 
made false representations. I mentioned these instances, when Sir 
George retired saying, " If what I suspect is true he will dwindle into 
that insignificance from whence he rose," and I should have said a 
great deal more had Sir George given me the opportunity, but before 
he left I gave him my opinion of Captain Norton, and said the same 
that I did to General De Rottenburg and General Vincent, that I did 
not think well of him, and not as the Government did, yet it was my 
duty to support him, although contrary to my opinion. It appears 
that Sir George spoke to him and very seriously, which, I understood, 
from an officer at headquarters, was not well received. 

A few days after [on] the 6th Sept., a party of our people went 
to a field of oats belonging to Mr. Ball to cut them. While there they 
were tired upon. I collected all the Indians immediately and joined 
our people. Lieut.-Col. Battersby with the Glengarry Regiment 
went out with us, and after some hours tiring we retired. Two 
Oneidas were killed on the side of the enemy and two wounded. We 
had two Mohawks wounded and one Cayuga taken. He was drunk 
and ran into their hands. A Tuscarora chief, who was also very 
drunk, went forward after we retired and brought on the tiring again, 
by which he lost his life. Seeing the enemy in pursuit of him we 
returned the fire, and a young Delaware, who was more active than 
the others, got a shot at the two white men who were taking off his 
scalp and broke the arm of one. His ammunition was out or he 
would have killed one of the two men. He received two wounds, one 
of which lamed him. 

On this occasion General De Rottenburg was pleased to issue an 
order, an extract of which is annexed, although on former occasions 
no notice of us was taken, particularly on the 18th and 24th of 
August. I shall say nothing of the 17th August, although it was a 
severe action and our loss was great, but we ran away, I am sorry to 
say, shamefully. I have accounted for it in preceding pages of this 
narrative. 4 

" HEADQUARTERS, FOUR MILE CREEK, 
9th September, 1813. 

"A report having been made to General De Rottenburg of the 
gallant and very spirited conduct of a small party of Indians under 
the direction of Colonel Glaus and Captain Kerr, in an affair with the 
enemy's riflemen near the Cross Roads on Monday last, the Major- 
General has directed that a communication of his thanks be made to 
the Indians engaged that day. Their conduct in this affair has 



38 

given the Major-General particular satisfaction, inasmuch as it affords 
proof that their zeal in the cause in which we are engaged is undim- 
inished, as well as their confidence in the support which they are sure 
always to receive from their white brethren." 

About this time desertions became so prevalent that the General 
wished me to move to the left and induce some of the Indians to go 
that way. I moved and took about 60 , and although we were not 
successful in taking any of the deserters, yet in some measure it was 
put a stop to. The Indians both on the left and the centre went out 
every night a half mile in advance of our picquets and returned after 
daylight. This they continued until the General desired that I would 
take them off, as it was too fatiguing. They never complained, but 
went out every night most cheerfully. From their inactive life in 
other respects the Indians became very tired, and frequently wished 
to know when the attack on Fort George would be made, that their 
people were always on the road going home, but if they knew they 
would collect all their force. This I could never answer, for I was as 
much in the dark with respect to the operations of our little army as 
they were. You are aware of the necessity of having presents to 
enable us to keep the Indians in good humor. General De Rottenburg 
directed me to purchase what I could, but the country was so stripped 
of everything that what I could get was not enough for fifty men, 
yet I must do them the justice to say that there was very little dis- 
content ori that head except among worthless fellows. 

I must again bring Mr. Norton forward. One of his great griev- 
ances was not having the power of making presents ; that 1 would not 
allow him. This was one of his complaints, when the storekeepers' 
accounts will show that of those few articles he gave away more than 
I did, and even 24 blankets that I put aside for the Western Indians 
were given away on his order, and my word to those people forfeited. 
Such is the villainy of this man, for I can call it nothing else. 
After the order of the 7th August he sent his notes to me as usual, 
which I refused, saying that if he made a requisition for any quantity 
agreeably to the order of the 7th August I would submit it to the 
General for his approval, and he would then get them and distribute 
them as he pleased. This was a subject of complaint again, and when 
the General saw me he told me of it, and that he offered to put goods 
in his hands, which he declined, as he had no storekeeper. I told the 
General that he must now see his object a distinct department 
however, he did not succeed. Early in September we got a quantity 
of calico, some serge, sateen, tobacco and several other articles. Such 
quantity as was required was issued, and a great quantity of calico 
remaining, which I left in rear at the Twelve Mile Creek. 

On the 26th September I perceived an uncommon stir in our 



39 

camp, all tents struck, waggons loaded, etc. I was rather anxious 
but as no order had been communicated to me I remained quiet. The 
Indians were uneasy, and many went off from an idea we were going 
to retreat. About 9 o'clock p. m. I received a note to say that the 
militiamen for the guard-boat had not gone down that night ; on the 
answer sent I received a note from the Deputy-Adjutant-Oeneral, 
Lieut-Colonel Harvey, saying he supposed I had not seen the General 
Order of that day. I ordered my horse and rode down to his quarters 
and begged a sight of the order. It was for the troops to hold them- 
selves in readiness to move at an instant's notice. He observed that 
there was a probability of an attack in the morning, and everything 
was to be in readiness to move to the centre, to concentrate our forces 
there. I replied that I was very sorry, but that the preparations had 
caused uneasiness among the Indians and that many had gone off, but 
that I would warn those in camp and have them with me before day, 
which I did, but they were much dissatisfied, saying that their eyes 
were always kept shut which was not the case in former days. I did 
all I could to quiet them and at this time their numbers had dwindled 
down to eight only, and at the Cross Roads I believe not more than 
50. Whenever I mentioned the necessity and propriety of acquaint- 
ing the Indians with any movement that was likely to take place I 
was generally asked : "Why are they to be made acquainted with 
any plan of operations ? No ! No !" 

Seeing that the heavy baggage was moving to the right, I sub- 
mitted the necessity of sending what Indian goods we had to the 
Forty Mile Creek, which the General approved of, and desired that I 
would have it done. I rode from his house to the 12 and directed the 
storekeeper, Mr. Price, to send a few articles to the Cross Roads and 
to send the rest to the 40. A few days after this I was ordered to 
the Heights to forward . some presents, which were supposed to have 
arrived there for the Western Indians. My object in going was to 
select those I knew were most wanted and to forward them first. On 
my arrival at the 121 found none of the goods had been moved and 
the storekeeper insisting on it that I had not given any directions 
about them, when nothing took me up the day before but for the 
express purpose of sending them back. On my arrival at the Heights 
I had the mortification to hear of the fate of General Procter's small 
force, and not an article of presents there for the Western Indians but 
what had been forwarded before. The enclosed letter from Colonel 
Elliott will more fully explain to you every transaction since the 
unfortunate capture of our fleet on Lake Erie. The prior transactions 
in that part of the country you are in possession of. The day after 
my arrival at Burlington Heights I never was more surprised than to 
hear of our people retreating on the Heights, and the following night 



40 

Major Givins and the officers of the department joined me at Ancaster, 
except Mr. Price, storekeeper. On account of his neglect all the goods 
we had were destroyed at the 12, as well as a quantity of provisions 
and commissariat stores. The unfortunate defeat of General Procter 
alarmed the Grand River Indians, and on Colonel Elliott and Capt. 
McKee advising them to move as soon as possible, as General Harrison 
was in pursuit of General Procter, they immediately abandoned their 
homes and came down with the army and are now with the Western 
Indians encamped at the beach in rear of Mr. Brant's. The enclosed 
return is of the Western Indians and the other paper that of the 
Grand River [Indians]. For them we have as yet received but a very 
small proportion of presents. The vast number of horses and cattle 
that is with the Indians is injuring the country very much. Parties 
are kept with the advance at Stoney Creek. Colonel Elliott and his 
officers are there. I have stated all that my memory allows me. 
Many circumstances have occurred, I am certain, that I have not 
mentioned. Should any come to recollection I shall let you know. 
One thing I have to remark, that jealousy certainly exists in respect 
to orders, in which the troops always get credit for what is done by 
the Indians, particularly to the westward. I do not believe that 
Colonel Elliott's name has ever appeared in general orders, arid that 
man has been out with the Indians upon every occasion, and no man 
has suffered more than he. 

I am, dear Sir, with every sentiment of respect and regard, 
Your faithful servant and friend, 

W. GLAUS, 

Deputy Superintendent Gen. 



A I,ETTER FROM I,imJT.-COI,ONEI, MATTHEW EI,I,IOTT TO 

WM. CI,AUS. 



DUNDAS, 24th Oct., 1813. 

DEAR SIR, I have to inform you of the arrival of myself and 
about 2,000 Indians, (men, women and children,) at this place from 
the Western District. The causes that led to this event will be best 
explained by a simple narrative of facts that have occurred since the 
loss of our fleet on the 10th September. 

A few days after that event Major-General Procter gave orders to 
remove the stores and dismantle the fort preparative to the retreat of 
the troops. This being done without the Indians being consulted 



41 

caused a very great jealousy, from the supposition that their father 
was about to desert them. This was heightened by the uncertainty 
they labored under with respect to the fate of the fleet. To obtain 
an explanation Tecumtha and the other chiefs requested General 
Procter and myself to meet them in council, which took place on the 
17th September, when Tecumtha, in the name of the whole, delivered 
a speech, the purport of which was to call on the General for infor- 
mation of his intentions, and to urge his making a stand with the 
Indians and the physical force of the country at Arnherstburg before 
he retreated, stating that until we were beaten it would be impolitic 
to give ground. On the 19th the General returned his answer, in 
which he stated it was not his intention to leave the District but only 
to fall back to the river Thames at Chatham where he would be out 
of reach of their shipping. He was determined to make a stand. To 
this place he invited them to accompany him. Agreeable to the 
arrangements which took place at the Council the Shawanese, Hurons 
and other Indians crossed and proceeded to Sandwich. On the 23rd 
the enemy landed at Amherstburg, and the same day the troops 
retreated to Levalle's. The Indian goods which had come up I met 
at Sandwich and sent them back as far as Mrs. Mclntosh's, where the 
next day I distributed part of them to the Indians, with whom I 
remained, and kept two days march in rear of our troops. On our 
arrival at the river Thames I had the number of the Indians taken, 
when it appeared that the Pottewatornies, Miarnies, Ottawas, (a part 
of them,) and Chippewas had remained behind and it was supposed 
had crossed the river Detroit. This desertion reduced our number to 
1000, (the number we should have had. had the stand been made at 
Amherstburg was 3000.) This number was again lessened on the 2d 
of October by the desertion of the Hurons and a few of the Shawan- 
ese, who, finding from our movements that we did not intend to make 
a stand at Chatham, as had been agreed at the Council, embraced an 
opportunity afforded them by a flag borne by the Indians of Sandusky 
to take the Americans by the hand. The enemy's ships were at this 
time off the mouth off the River Thames. The inhabitants, who were 
the bearers of the flag, told the Hurons that General Harrison would, 
on the 3d at 12 o'clock, make his headquarters at Colonel McKee's 
farm. This information I communicated to General Procter on the 
morning of the 3d, shortly after which he proceeded towards the 
Moravian Town, 28 miles distant, and about an hour after he set off 
our scouts brought word that the enemy had crossed the forks 
and were rapidly advancing up the river. An express was immedi- 
ately sent to apprise the General, (the express overtook him at Shaw's,) 
and Colonel War burton made arrangements to meet them at or near 
McCrae's. A party of Indians attacked and compelled their advance 



42 

guard to retire. The Indians, in consequence of the General's absence, 
drew off across the forks at that time and sent word to Colonel 
Warburton that they were determined not to fight as the General 
had deceived them by leaving them. I was enabled to change their 
minds and they agreed to wait and meet the enemy at Chatham. 
The troops fell back opposite this place on the morning of the 4th 
October. The enemy advanced up to Chatham, where a partial skir- 
mish took place between the advance guards. At about 11 o'clock a. 
m. General Procter arrived and found fault with Colonel Warburton 
for leaving Dolson's. Yet he very soon after ordered the troops to 
retreat to Moravian Town. From the manner in which this was con- 
ducted the greater part of the provisions and stores fell into the 
enemy's hands. The Indians kept up a tire across the, fork for some 
time after the troops moved off and then followed, after burning a 
house in which was a quantity of arms and stores. We halted this 
evening at Sherman's, five miles from the Moravian Town. The 
women and most of the baggage had been sent forward a few days 
previous. Early on the morning of the 5th our scouts brought word 
that the enemy was advancing on both sides of the river rapidly and 
in force. The General determined to halt and wait for their arrival, 
for which purpose the troops were halted about two miles from Jack- 
inan's. The troops were posted in two lines on the left, so as to have 
their flank, covered by the river, supported by a six-pounder which 
was posted in the road, the Indians in one line on the right. In this 
position we waited about two hours, when the enemy commenced the 
attack. Our six-pounder was carried by a few American horse with- 
out its being once discharged. The conduct of the troops was shame- 
ful in the highest degree ; a great part of them never tired one round 
until they retreated. This threw the Indians in the centre into con- 
fusion and they broke. On the right they remained firing and com- 
pelled the enemy's left wing to retreat about a mile and a half. I 
have as yet been unable to ascertain the enemy's loss but judge it 
must have been considerable. The Indians on their return from the 
pursuit were much surprised to find that we had not been equally 
successful on the left, and the unexpectedness threw them into con- 
fusion and a retreat ensued, which put the whole of our baggage, both 
public and private, into the hands of the enemy. At daylight next 
morning I overtook General Procter at Delaware, and, making every 
arrangement in my power for the accommodation of the Indians, I 
proceeded to Burford, from whence Captain Win, Elliott was by me 
sent back to Delaware to meet the Indians and to purchase provisions 
for them on the route. He joined me at Burford on the 22d with the 
last of the Indians, about 700 in number, when I proceeded with them 



43 

to this place. Should there be any more coming in I have made such 
arrangements as will insure them provisions on the road. 

I am, dear Sir, your obedient, humble servant, 
The Hon. W. Glaus, Esq. M. ELLIOTT. 

(From the Canadian Archives, C. 681.) 



FROM CAPTAIN JOHN NORTON TO HON. HENRY 
GOTJI,BURN. 



LONDON, Jan. 29, 1816. 

SIR, Having presented a memorial petitioning such consideration 
of rank as might be thought proportionate to the number of warriors 
I led and services in the field, I now give some instances well known to 
many officers now in this country. 

When the report came to the Niagara frontier that the American 
General Hull had crossed at Sandwich I proposed to the late Major- 
General, Sir Isaac Brock, to go with as many warriors as I could 
collect to endeavour to prevent the enemy from drawing supplies from 
the River Thames. He acceded to my request, and to strengthen 
the undertaking he ordered two hundred militia from Long Point to 
join Major Chambers, with a detachment of the 41st Regiment. The 
militia refusing to turn out, this officer was recalled with his men to 
embark at Long Point. We proceeded by the intended route, collect- 
ing a body of Ottawa and Chippawa warriors as we advanced. 

According to the orders I had received I opened a correspondence 
with General Procter, and having placed ourselves in advance of the 
mills, where the enemy had deposited [supplies], as we were constantly 
gaining additional strength we waited there until I received a letter 
from the General named to advance and join him at Sandwich. The 
day after our arrival there Major-General Sir Isaac Brock came with 
reinforcements. 

After summoning General Hull to surrender, without effect, he 
told me to keep in readiness to cross the river before day, and that he 
had particularly selected me to precede the troops in marching to the 
attack of the fort. As we approached the fort a party of the enemy's 
riflemen retired before us, and soon after we saw the white flag hoisted 
and a parley commenced which ended in a capitulation. 

When General Brock embarked to return to Niagara he urged 
me to lose no time in taking down my party to that frontier. Every 
diligence was used and I had soon collected between five and six 
hundred men. We saw the enemy daily increasing their force on the 
opposite shore and were constantly employed in watching their 
motions. After a few weeks the want of supplies and the approach 
of the season for hunting caused my party to diminish in number. 



44 

The attack and capture of some vessels at Fort Erie by the enemy- 
caused us to march to that place in support of the troops stationed 
there. Perceiving that no further attempts was likely to be made in 
that quarter we returned to Fort George. 

On the morning of the 13th of October we heard firing at Queens- 
ton. I saw the General and his staff at a distance riding towards 
that place. I called upon Major-General Sir R. H. Sheaffe, the second 
in command. He directed me to get my men in readiness. On my 
way to the camp Lieut.-Col. Evans of the King's rode up to me and 
told me that the enemy was in possession of Queenston. We hastened 
towards that place and when within two miles we heard that General 
Brock was killed and that the troops and militia stationed there had 
been compelled to retire. 

We saw the enemy on the heights and determined to attack him 
by inclining to the right to ascend the eminence on the left of his 
flank. We met several retiring. I told an officer among them that 
we would assail the enemy in the flank where he least expected it, 
and that a speedy co-operation of the troops would enable us to give 
him a speedy overthrow. 

We ascended the hill, attacked and drove an advanced party of 
the enemy into the main body, which we assailed notwithstanding the 
great odds of numbers. Persevering several hours, when we saw the 
troops and militia coming by the same route which we had passed, I 
concentrated my men in a ravine and desisted from assaulting the 
enemy until the troops could form on our right, at the same time 
sending notice to Sir R. H. Sheaffe of our position. 

He sent Lieut. Kerr to enquire our situation and the strength of 
the enemy, to whom I fully explained the advantage I expected to 
derive in assailing them from the quarter we occupied as soon as the 
troops should advance on the right. The General then sent me a 
further reinforcement. As soon as all was in readiness and the cannon 
began we rushed upon them and broke the flank, pursuing them with 
considerable slaughter till we raised the shout in the rear of the 
centre, which seemed to throw the whole into confusion, when, in less 
than half an hour, we had them down the precipice to the river. 

General Wadsworth and a great number of officers and upwards 
of nine hundred men then surrendered to Major-General Sir R. H. 
Sheaffe. In this last assault His Majesty's troops met with no loss, 
or at the utmost two or three men. In the morning the 49th flank 
companies suffered severely in gallantly opposing a very superior 
force. The enemy acknowledged to have sent twenty-two hundred 
men across and allege that the militia, who had not yet passed the 
river, refused to follow the van on seeing the manner in which it 
was assailed. 



45 

The enemy was yet in great force on the opposite shore, which 
gave us just cause to watch them until after Christmas, when the ice 
floating in the river prevented the possibility of their crossing. The 
General acceded to our going home. Soon after, I received instruc- 
tions to go to Detroit. General Procter, commanding there, being 
desirous to retain me, obtained the consent of Sir George Prevost, but 
being necessitated to go home I did not think fit to leave our own 
frontiers without the assent of Sir R H. Sheaffe, which he at first 
declined giving, alleging that he soon expected an attack. Being 
desirous to overcome General Harrison, that we might concentrate to 
repel the attack hanging over us, I persisted and he acquiesced. 
However, it was of no effect, for a few days after, while I was yet 
collecting my party to go, we heard that the enemy had attacked 
York. 

I then went in that direction with all the men I could raise as 
far as' the Beach of Lake Ontario, when I heard that all was over and 
that the enemy had re-embarked. At that time, receiving. letters from 
General Vincent and Lieut.-Colonel Myers to repair to Fort George, I 
went there with all that would follow, for the greater part went home 
to plant their corn. 

On the 27th May at Fort George we did as well as we could and 
retired among the last, opposing for some time a very superior force. 
At the Twelve Mile Creek a number joined us from the Grand River. 

We stopped there to cover the retreat and attack the enemy if 
the General should see fit. The army retreated and we followed. At 
Stoney Creek a few of us risked with His Majesty's troops, and after- 
wards, by repeatedly attacking every detachment that ventured out- 
side of the fortified encampment at Fort George, we lessened the 
number of the enemy and so far intimidated them that they became 
like prisoners at their own expense. 

At the battle of Chippawa we were victorious when we fought 
the volunteer militia, and the aborigines of different tribes aiding the 
enemy fled before us. We killed many and took some prisoners ; 
among the former was a Lieutenant-Colonel commanding and a Seneca 
chief, among the latter a major and some other officers. Coming to 
the enemy's columns we fired on them until we perceived our army 
to be retreating, overwhelmed by a very superior force. We followed. 

Atthe battle of the Cataract* we risked with our brother warriors, 
and afterwards following the enemy to Fort Erie we partook of 
every bloody encounter in this vicinity. 

Tired of enumerating scenes, in which my heart was all engaged 

* Lundy's Lane. 



46 



and its greatest pleasure the defeat of our enemies, I conclude, in 
confidence, that such a statement will not be taken in any other point 
of view than having some memorial of the same beloved sovereign 
that may give satisfaction to my brother warriors. 









" Ducit Amor Fatriee.* 



Niagara Historical Society 

No, 10. 



Inscriptions and Graves 

in the 

Niagara Peninsula 

JANET CA.RNOCHAN. 



PRICE 25 CENTS. 



THE TIMES, NIAGARA, ONT. 



Preface 



IN studying the history of Niagara and vicinity the graveyards 
have been found a fruitful source ot information, and over 
fifty of chese have been personally visited. The original plan 

was to copy records of early settlers, United Empirj Loyal- 
ists, Military or Naval Heroes or those who have helped forward 
the progress of the country, as Clergy, Teachers, Legislators, 
Agriculturists, etc., besides this any odd or quaint inscriptions. 
No doubt many interesting and important inscriptions have been 
omitted, but the limits of our usual publication hive already been 
far exceeded and these remain for another hand to gathei. To 
follow the original lettering wa^ desired but the additional cost 
would have been beyond our modest means. 

Hearty thanks are here returned for help given by Col. 
Cruikshank, Rev. Canon Bull, Dr McCollum, Mr. George Shaw, 
Rev. A. Sherk, Miss Forbes, Miss Shaw and Miss Biown, who all 
sent inscriptions from their own vicm'ty. It is hoped that the 
index of nearly six hundred names will be found of use and that 
our tenth publication will receive as kind a welcome as have th* 
other pamphlets sent out by our Society. 



Contents. 



Butler Family Graveyard . . . . . . 2 

Servos Family Graveyard . . . . . . 4 

Ball Family Graveyard . . . . 5 

Field, Brown. Vrooman . . . . . . . . 5 

Bellenger Familv Graveyard ... . . . . . 6 

St. Mark's, Niagara . . 7 

St. Andrew's, Niagara 19, 7 2 

St. Vincent de Paul, Niagara . . . . > . 21 

Baptist, Niagara .. .. .. ..21 

Methodist, Niagara . . . . . . . . 22 

Fort Niagara N. Y. . . . . . . ... 22 

Lewiston N. Y. . . . . . . . . 23 

Hamilton Family Graveyard . . . . . . 24 

Brock's Monument .. .. .. .. .. 26,71 

St. Davids . . . . . . . . . . 27 

Warner's, St. Davids . . . . . . . . 28 

Homer . . . . . . . . . . 29 

St. George's, St. Catharines . . . . . . 30 

St. Catherines Cemetery .. .. .. .. 32 

Turney Family Graveyard . . . . . . 33 

Stamford Presbyterian . . . . . . . . 34 

Stamford St. John's .. .'. .. .. 35 

Lundy's Lane .. .. . .. .. 36 

Chippawa, Trinity . . . . . . . . 40 

Chippawa, Presbyterian . . . . . . . . 42 

Decew's, Thorold . . . . . . . . 43 

Lutheran, Thorold . . . . . . . . 44 

Allanburg . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

Burger's, Welland . . . . . . . . 46 

Brown, Welland . . . . . . . . 46 

Fonthill, Quaker's .. .. .. .. 47 

Fonthill Cemetery . . . . . . . 48 

Fort Erie, St Paul's . . . . . . . . 49 

Fort Erie, McAfee . . . . . . . . . . 50 

Fort Erie, Graham .. .. .. .. 51 

Fort Erie, Hershey .. .. .. .. . . 51 

Fort Erie, Plato . . . . . . .. . . 51 

St. John's Bertie . . . . . . . . . . 52 

Ridgeway . . . . . . . . . . 54 



Benner 

Mennonite, Clinton 

Disciples, Jordan 

Port MaitUnd 

Burkholder's 

Hamilton Cemetery 

Beamsville 

Ston^y Creek 

Grimsby, Episcopal 

Grimsby, Presbyterian . . 

Ancaster 

Ancaster Presbyterian . . 

Virgil 

Clement Family Graveyard 

Stevens Family Graveyard 

Mennonite 

Gonder Family Graveyard 

Historic Sites 

Index 



Errata. 




Notwithstanding great care while passing through the 

press a few errors have crept in. 

For Wauchusta read Wacousta, page 3. 

Literateur read Litterateur, page 4. 

Albert the Great read Albert the Good, page 7. 

Capt. Geo. Deare died 1815 read 1851, page n. 

Jean Jacques Rousseaux read Jean Baptiste Rousseaux 

page 1 8. 

Wm. Ball read Wm. M. Ball, page 19. 

Col. M. McDougall, read Col. D. McDougall, page 

daus read dans, nons read nous, page 23. 

See is gone read She is gone, page 24, 

gestd read gest. 



GRAVES AND INSCRIPTIONS IN 
THE NIAGARA PENINSULA. 

BY JANET CARNOCHAN. 



s in ike running brooks, 

in stones and good in Everything." 

Sermons in stones ! yes and far more : history, pathos and 
humor, morality, religion, patriotism, warning, inspiration, what 
shall we not find ? But of the nameless graves, whether in con- 
secrated ground, or in the plain, the cultivated farm once the 
scene of bloody warfare, in the ruined fort, or in many a lonely 
spot we can never or rarely know the story. Many of these form 
a page of historv never to be wholly deciphered, but let us try 
while we may, imperfectly 'though it be, to place on record, from 
moss grown stone defaced by time or perchance ruder touch, the 
names and what we can piece together of the early pioneers, 
whether men or women, poet or artisan, soldier or priest, legisla- 
tor or farmer, teacher or sailor and from these pages of the past, 
we may learn lessons for the present or the future, lessons of 
courage, ot unselfishness, of generosity, of friendship, ot patriot- 
ism, of duty, of religion. Then thev died, shot down by stealthy 
Indian, or French or American foe, as now they give up their 
young lives on Africa's arid veldt, but each inspired by the same 
adventurous spirit which has made the Briton, be he Celt or Sax- 
on, the pioneer in the world's progress, one of the factors in that 
"morning drum beat which encircles the globe" and proud that he 
is one of a nation "on whose dominions the sun never sets." 

While most of the graveyards in the Niagara peninsula have 
been visited and such help used as could be obtained from tablets 
on the walls of churches, monuments, church registers, tradition, 
historical records, it has been found that there has been as much 
change in the fashion as there is in dress or buildings. At one time 



the stately periods, or long- high sounding phrase, the scripture texts 
or doggerel rhyme, the severe simplicity of name, date, age, or the 
fulsome flattery, or words ot warning ; in some the unlettered 
muse is much in evidence, "the uncouth rhymes and shapeless 
sculpture," or again the stately column or curiously carved figures. 
All materials have been used, the wooden slab, marble, iron, 
granite, or perhaps a huge boulder with initials, the language 
mostly English but a few were found in French, German and 
some in statety Latin. In early days before consecrated ground 
was set aparc many were buried on the farm in a plot generally 
fenced in, but in many cases the property has changed hands 
and the stones have been broken or even carted off, the field plow- 
ed over and no trace remains, or the plot stands still fenced in, 
but given over to burdocks and briars. 

BUTLERS FAMILY GKAVCYAI3D 

Is situated about a mile from the town at the west end, 
originally a part ot the land owned by Col. Jno. Butler : here was 
buried in 1796 the veteran on whose name so much obloquy has 
been heaped. undise*vedly we think, See Butler's Rangers by 
Col. ruikshank who has done so much tor the elucidation of 
many points in Canadian history. An erroneous opinion seems to 
prevail with regard to this spot that here are buried Butler's 
Rangers^ that it is a military graveyard, but this is not the case 
as it was a family burying ground and not that of the members of 
that famed regiment. The will of Col Butler directs that his 
body be interred in his family burying ground, and in the rooms 
of the Niagara Historical Society is a copy of the deed granted in 
1832 to Warren Claus, John Claus, Ralph Clench, J is, Muirhead, 
Thomas Butler, Hugh Freel, giving the exact measurement from 
the boundary tree, of the half acre constituting the burial plot. 
The farm of two hnndred acres has since been sold to two persons 
and the boundary line runs exactly through the centre of the bur- 
ial plot. Beautiful old trees wave a requiem over the plateau 
which overlook:; the meandering creek. Some years ago most of 
the insriptions were copied by the writer, at a later visit the 
stones were found lying in all directions, broken by the fall of an 
immense tree which had been cut down, the vault fallen in and 
open to the inquisitive and irreverent gamin who has been known 
to carry off bones which should have been safe from such desecra- 
tion. 

Here are some of the inscriptions, the first peculiar in punc- 
tuation and orthography : 




BUTLER'S 



BURYING GROUND. 




ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, STAHrORD, 1525. 



From a pencil sketch by P. A. Peterson, 1860. 



3 - 

"Deborah Freel : died 1816 aged 70. My dere : children : 
Think on God : And His Commandments : An he wil Think on 
yo : Observ your youth : don; lose no time . Least God should 
take yon in your prime : Serve God above : And on this world : 
fix not your lov." 

Here i* an example of the high sounding, carefully arranged 
periods of those days In a country churchyard in Scotland I 
copied one to a divine in much the same style of carefully propor- 
tioned descriptive phrases. 

* 

"Here reposes Maria Caroline The generous hearted, high 
souled, talented and deeply lamented wife of Major Richardson, 
Knight of the Military order ot Saint Ferdinand, of the First- 
Class, and Superintendent of Police on the Welland Canal during 
the Administration ot Lord Metcalfe. This matchless woman 
died of Apoplexy and to the exceeding grief ot rnr faithfully 
attached husband after a few days illness in St. Catharines on the 
i6th day of Aug. 1845 at the age of 37 years." 

It is remarkable how much the husband tells of himself in the 
wife's epitaph. 

Here also are stones to Butler Muirhead, banister, and Jas. 
Muirhead, surgeon, (the former died in 1824), Mary, wife of John 
Gustavus Stevenson and daughter of James and Jane Butler, also 
one to Eliza, wife of Charles Richardson, a large flat stone men- 
tions that it is was erected as a family monument by Chas. Rich- 
ardson, A.D. 1835, and reads thus : "Sacred to the memory of 
Ralfe Clench, died Jan. 1828, aged 66 years, Eliza Euretta Rich- 
ardson, youngest daughter of Ralfe Clench and Elizabeth, and 
wife of Chas. Richardson, died Sept. 1833, aged 25 years, Jare, 
wife of Robert Rist, late Capt. of 37th Regt., and eldest sister of 
Chas. Richardson died 1831." 

The Major Richardson referred to was the author of The 
Two Bi others. The Prophecy Wauchusta and Historv of the 
War of 1812. Ralfe Clench was one of the Rangers, afterwards 
Judge, Member of Parliament, and when advanced in life, fought 
at Queenston Heights. A small enclosure has flat stones to two 
sons of Col. Butler, Thomas Butler and Johnson Butler who died 
in December 1812, and their wives, also Judge Thos Butler, the 
son of Thos. Butler. 

Another stone chronicles "Samuel Cox who was born on the 
ocean between Germany and New York 1759, died 1822." Col. 
John B.utler himself, that doughty veteran, has no stone to mark 
the spot where he is interred. Some years ago an attempt was 



made to locate the grave and bury the remains in St. Mark's, but 
the design was abandoned, 

SCPVOS FAMILY BURIAL GROUND. 

In the Servos burial place on the farm of Mrs. Mary Servos, 
there are five generations buried. Here is the grave of the widow 
of Col, Johnson who was killed at the taking of Fort Niagara, 

I759- 

"Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Johnson, who died 8th 
Nov., i8u,aged 104 years." She had thus survived her husband 
52 years, another is to her daughter Elizabeth Servos "-ife of 
Daniel Servos who died in 1821 aged 72. Here also is buried 
Magdalene Servos wife of John Whitmore, the little girl who wit- 
nessed the killing of her grandfather in the Revolutionary War and 
was bi ought away to Canada several years after by her father, 
afterwards marrying John Whitmore, himself at one time a 
prisoner with the Indians, his nose and ears being. slit by them ; 
their daughter became the wife of our distinguished literateur 
William Kirby, F. R. S. C. 

"Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth, relict of Colin SMcNabb, 
Esq., of , near Niagara, who departed this life Sept. 26th, 
1812, aged 44 years ; also of their son Colin Alexander, Lieut, in 
H.M. late Nova Scotia Fencibles Regt. , who departed this life 
Nov, loth, 1820. In St. Mark's register is a pathetic reference to 
the former as recorded by Mr. Addison : "On the day on which 
the engagement between Sir Jas. Yeo and Commodore Chauncy 
took place on the lake, our dear friend Mrs. McNabb was buried 
in the Servos' burying ground, 2Qth Sept. 1814," 

A large monument is to Col. J. D. Servos who died in 1847, 
aged 62, and another to Daniel Servos, Esq.. who died 26th 
Mar,, 1808, aged 65 In the Anglican Church at Virgil are two 
tablets on the walls to these, thus . 

"In Memoriam Capt. Daniel Servos of Butler's Rangers, 
United Empire Loyalist, died Mar. 26th, 1808, aged 65." 

"Col John D. Servos, born in Niagara, 1784, was Captain 
of the Lincoln Militia during the war of 1812-15. Commanded 
the Militia at Chippawa during the Rebellionof 1837-8, died April 
24th, 1847." 

Other names found here as Tannahill Fuller, Lowe, and sev- 
eral Indians here found sepulture, and one at least who could not 
have been a U. E. L. as a flat stone commemorates Wm. Lowe 



5 

of the parish of Clogheen, County of Tipperary, Ireland, and his 
wife who died in 1813. 

On the farm was the first mill in the country, and part of the 
house still standing 1 wns built in 1784. Old account books of that 
date show curious items, and commissions signed by different gov- 
ernors, assert the military spirit of the family. 

BALL FANILY BURIAL GROUND. 

The Ball graveyard at Locust Grove has also several genera- 
tions buried in its enclosure. The Jacob Ball vho came with his 
three sons bringing forty men, in 178.2 lies here. "In memory of 
Jacob Ball, born 1733, died 1810 " Having fought in Queen's 
Rangers and Butler's Rangers through the Revolutionary War 
he was spared the second contest, dying two years before the war 
of 1812. The sons, Peter, John and George are buried here, 
while the other son, Jacob, is buried at the Ten Miie Creek. The 
wife ot Jacob Ball the elder, Mary Ball, died in 1814, agod 78, in 
the midst of war's alarms acd shortly after the family residence 
had been burnt. 

How strangely occur references to the distant possessions ot 
this vast empire, as here in this quiet country graveyard is buried 
a daughter of Major McKie, East India Company's service. 

Another U. E. L. name is tound here : Elizabeth Showers, 
wife of Peter Ball, born 1764, died 1844. 

The last iuterred here was John W. Ball, for fitty years an 
office bearer in St. Mark's. 

FIELD, BROWN, VROOHAN. 

Near the residence of Mr. Geo. Field, which is an historic 
house, having been used as a hospital in the war of 1812, is a 
graveyard in which are interred members of three families. The 
house near was built by Gilbert Field, the first brick house on the 
river road and before the beginning of the century. A tombstone 
tells us that he died in 1815. aged 50, while his son Daniel Field 
who fought at Detroit, Queenston and Lundy's Lane, died in 
1873, having received for his services a medal gained by the in- 
strumentality of Hon. Wm. H. Merritt, as shown in a letter dated 
Quebec, 1852, 

In another division of the plot is an inscription : 
"Sacred to the memory ot Solomon S. Vrooman, born Dec. 
5th, 1783, died Aug. 2ist, 1874," also to his wife Mary Brown. 
S S. Vrooman fought at Queenston Heights and his picture ap- 



6 

pears in a group of eight veterans taken in 1869 in front of the 
monument, their united ages being 609. The position of Vroo- 
man's battery is yet pointed out. A thick gray stone double with 
a perpendicular division with angel's faces carved above, lias 
these words : 

"In memory of Joseph Brown, died 1821, aged 65, and his 
consort. Rebecca Johnson, 9th March, 1808." 

"Remember men when them pass by 
As you are now so once was I, 
As we are now so you must be, 
Remember men that all must die." 

Two others of the date 1808 also have angel's taces. 

"In memory of Nancy Vrooman, daughter of Solomon and 
Mary Vrooman, died April 1808, in the i6th year ot her age. 
Erected Mar. 1824," 

Also Phebe Brown, died 1808. showing the early possession 
ot the farm, still in the same name, 

BELUNGEte raMILY BUPYING GPOUNIX 

An almost forgotten family burying plot on the Cox farm 
which having passed through many hands in the century we may 
readily understand why the stones are broken and almost illegible. 
This in old times was the Bellinger farm, there have evidently 
been nearly a score of graves : rough stones still stand, and from 
the dry bed of the brook we gathered fragments which we pieced 
together with some degree of success. On a brovvnish grey stone 
with the lettering still quite plain on the one half yet standing 
was a quotation from the Apocrypha, the first found from its 
pages ot all so tar examined, and in another respect this stone is 
unique as fuller particulars are given than elsewhere found ; while 
others give year, month and day of birth and death these give 
the hour of both. 

"In memory of Phillip Bellinger who was born 2oth, 

1725, between 4 and 5 o'clock in the morning, and died Feb. 
i6th, 1799, between 4 and 5 o'clock in the morning." 

"Here rests the body of Nanna Pawling, wife of G. A. Pawl- 
ing, who was born Aug. 1802, at o'clock in the morning, 

and died June - , at o'clock in the morning. She being 

made perfect in a short time fulfilled a long- time, For her soul 
^leased the Lord, therefore he hasted to take her away from 
among the wicked. Eccles , chap. 4, veises 13 and 14." 

I looked in vain in Ecclesiastes for this verse, then In Eccles- 



n 

| 




iasticus, finally found it in the Wisdom of Solomon but with the 
word he instead of she. Since finding this inscription, placed 
here nearly a century ago, a pathetic interest attaches to it as we 
find that these are the verses selected by the Princess Alice for 
her father's tomb, Albert the Great, and they certainly seemed ap- 
propriate in his case. 

ST. MARK'S CEMETERY 

Will require a more lengthened notice, for not only are the 
inscriptions in the graveyard exceptionallv interesting-, but the 
walls of the church both outside and in add their quota of history, 
romance or poetry, Here rest peacefully cogether different 
nationalities and denominations, for as this was the first burial 
place it was used by all at least forty years before other denomi- 
nations provided a separate place, and to this day many bring 
their dead from distant homes to lie here beside kindred dust. 
The spot is an ideal one, Dean Stanley said, "This is a piece of old 
England, dc not allow it to be touched." Graceful elms and 
drooping weening willows lend their beauty, whose branches 
whisper a requieum to the quiet dead, the remains of rifle pits 
constructed in the war of 1812 may yet be seen, stones hacked by 
the soldiery when in the hands of the enemy, all give a fitting sett- 
ing to the old gray church with its tower and buttresses, The 
parish dates back to 1792, while the church was built in 1802. 
The oldest stone may be found on the east corner in the vestibule, 
having been rescued from the place where it was almost buried. 
The rude lettering shows an unskilled hand. 

LENERD BLANCK, 

DESKACED 

5 AUG. 

1782. 

Perhaps the next in date is the following, but clear cut as if 
done quite lately, 

"Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Kerr, wife of Robert 
Kerr, who departed this life at Niagara, 24th January, A.D. 1794. 
^Etat 32 years. 

The husband, Dr. Kerr, died at Albany in 1824, and was in- 
terred there with Masonic honors, being Grand Master. Mrs. 
Kerr was a daughter of Molly Brant and Sir William Johnson. 

A large flat stone, hacked and marred so as to be almost 
indecipherable having been used as a butcher's block during- the 



-8- 

war while the town was in the hands of the Americans, has this 
inscription. 

"To the memory of Charles Morrison, a native of Scotland, 
who resided many years at Michilimackinac as a merchant and 
magistrate, and since the cession of that post to the United 
States became a British subject by election for loyalty to his 
Sovereign and integrity in his dealings he was ever remarkable. 
He died here on his way to Montreal on the 6th day of Sept., 
1802, aged 65 years." 

Another altar tomb near, also defaced in the same way reads; 

"In memory of Geo. Forsyth who in his long residence as a 
merchant and magistrate in the town was beloved for his mild 
manners and great worth, died Sept. i5th, 1803, aged 52 years." 

In the porch at the north door of the church, (the older part) 
is a tablet which having fallen down in the graveyard has been 
placed here, and is the only record we have here of those who fell 
defending their country from the invader on the memorable 2jth 
May, 1813, when a force of 6,000 landed, the Niagara frontier be- 
ing defended by a force of 1500 only. 

"In memory of Capt. M. McLelland, aged 42 years ; Charles 
Wright and Wm. Cameron, in the 25th .year of their age, of the 
ist Regiment of Lincoln Militia, who gloriously fell on the 2yth 
May 1813, also Adjutant Lloyd of the 8th King's Regiment of 
Infantry. 

"As lurid lightnings dart their vivid light, 
So poured they forth their fire in b oody light. 
They bravely fell and served their country's cause, 
They loved their Constitution, King and Laws." 

In the first poem published by Mr. Kirby. called the U. E. 
is a character called by him Ranger John. Here in the eastern 
side of the graveyard is a simple inscription to the old U, E. Loy- 
alist from whom the character in the poem was drawn, 

"John Clement, Esq., died Feb. nth, 1845, aged 87." 
The name of Col, John Butler in certain histories is held up to 
obloquy, but as time rolls on the partizan spirit is dying out, and 
poet and historian will yet do late justice to the leader of the irreg- 
ular force called Butlers' Rangers. On a tablet in the church 
may be read these words : 



9 

"Fear God and honour the King. In memory of Col. John 
Butler, His Majesty's Commissioner for Indian Affairs, born in 
New London, Connecticut, 1728. His life was spent honorably 
in the service of the Crown. In the war with France, for the con- 
quest of Canada, he was distinguished at the battle of Lake 
George, Sept. 1755, at the siege of Fort Niagara and its capitula- 
tion 25th July, 1759- In the war ot 1776 he took up arms in 
defence of the Unity of the Empire and raised and commanded the 
Royal American Regiment of Butler's Rangers. A sincere Chris- 
tian as well as a brave soldier, he was one of the founders and the 
first patron of this parish. He died at Niagara, May, 1796, and 
is interred in the family burying ground near this town. Erected 
1880." 

Some years ago an attempt was made to remove the remains 
to St. Mark's but the grave could not be located. 

Outside the eastern wall a brave young sailor who gave his 
life for his country is commemorated. Another tablet inside also 
records his name, the one erected by his nephew at the request of 
brothers and sisters, the other by Capt. Davves, R. N., at rhe re- 
quest of his mother, 

''Sacred to the memory of Capt. Copeland Radcliffe, of His 
Britannic Majesty's Navy, who fell whilst gallantly leading on his 
men to board one of the enemy's schooners at anchor off Fort 
Erie on the night of the i7th Aug. 1814," 

Near the north corner of the cemetery is a monument to 

"Col. Ralph Clench, died Jan. igth, 1828, aged 66 years, 
also Elizabeth, his wife, who died Aug, I5th, 1850, aged 78." 

Reference has already been made to the honorable work ot 
Ralph Clench, the body buried first in Butler's graveyard was 
removed here. It is recorded in the very rare copy of the pro- 
ceedings of the Loyal and Patriotic Society formed during the 
War of 1812, that the house of Mr. Clench was the the only one 
saved in the town from the conflagration, but it was accidently 
burnt shortly after. 

Not far from the church are the graves of two worthies 
yet unmarked, but who well deserve to be remembered. Dom- 
inic Henry, an old soldier of the army of Cornwallis, whc 
afterwards took charge of the lighthouse which stood where 
Fort Mississagua now stands, from 1803 to 1814. His wife who 
on the 27th May, served out refreshments to our forces had 
her services acknowledged by the Loyal and Patriotic Society, 
who presented her with ,25, calling her "a heroine not to be 
frightened," 



-JO 

Another stone has the inscription . 

"Hermanns de Graff, of Schenectady, who departed this lite 
in 1802, aged 28. 

Stop traveller and weep, 

For here beneath death's shade, 

Snatched from his friends, 

A lovely youth is laid. 

But sleep in hope, 

For soon he'll burst this sod, 

And rise in air 

To meet his Saviour God. 

"In memory of Col. Wm. Kingsmill, son of the late Major 
Kingsmill, of ist Royals, died in Toronto, 6th May, 1876, aged 
82. Col. Kingsmill served in H. M. 66rh Regiment, in the Penin- 
sular War, and afterwards at St. Helena, during Napoleon's 
captivity. Subsequently in command of 3rd Int. Corps, Batt. of 
U, Canadian Militia, and was Sheriff of the Niagara District. He 
was a gallant soldier." 

The KingsmilPs must have been a military tdmily, as in the 
church are two tablets to the sons of Col. Kingsmill, dying in 
places far distant, and a grandson is now in the Royal Navy. 

"In memoriam Capt. W. D. Kingsmill, of R, C. Regt., born 
at St. Helena, 1818. Lieut. C. E. Kingsmill, of Ceylon Rifle 
Regt., died at Hong Kong," 

Near this is an inscription in Latin to his wife by one who 
was an old U. Canada College boy : 

In Memoriam 

Liviniae 
Nicol Kingsmill Uxoris 

Quae 

In hac parcchia 

Prid non Aug. 

A.D.,M.D.C.C.C.X.C.V. 

De Hac Vita Decessic 

Annos X.L.V. Nata 

Dilectissima, 

In an enclosure facing the River is a stone with coat of arms 

and the motto, Denique Cselum. 

"Robert Melville, Capt, H. M. 68th Regt., died 1845." 
Also a stone to a son of Capt. Schonsuar, ist Dragoon 

Guards. 



n 

Where so many military are buried there seems to have been ' 
some plan followed, as grouped near one another are soldiers o^ 
R. C. Rifles, again of y6th Regt., and in another spot of King's 
Dragoon Guards. 

"Sacred to the memory of Thomas Easton, late trumpeter 
H. M. Royal Artillery Drivers, who departed this life Feb. 24th, 
1832, aged 56 years. 

Here lies within this silent grave, 
A Royal soldier, brisk and brave, 
Who suddenly was cal ed away, 
From off this sodden foot of clay." 

"Sacred to the memory of William Jolliffe and John Midgley, 
aged 20 and 21 respectively, who died July i7th 1825. .They be- 
longed to the band of the y6th Regt., and were universally beloved 
and regretted by their comrades." 

Near this lies an old Waterloo veteran who for many years 
rode round the town decorated with his medals on the anniversary 
of the battle, i8th June "Thos. Fletcher of the y6th Regt., died 
in 1847." 

"Cipt. Jas. Baxter, late 68th Regt., and Royal Canadian 
Rifle Regt., died Feb. 28th, 1865, aged 67 years." 

A romantic story is attached to the name of one born in far 
Greece, but then, alas, Greece enslaved by the savage Turk. 

"In memory of Katherina Haideen, a native of Missolonghi, 
Greece, wife of Frederick PafFard, born 1823, died at Niagara, 
1883." 

As a child, a captive with the Turks, she attracted the com- 
passion of an English gentleman, who bought her freedom, and 
educated her in England as his own. This story recalls the fact 
that at a school in Niagara a collection was taken up to assist the 
Greeks in 1827, the year of the battle of Navarino. 

In the east corner of the church is a tablet 

"Sacred to the memory of Henrietta Eliza Sewell, wife of F. 
J t Lundy, B. C. L., assistant minister of this parish, and daugh- 
ter of the Hon. Jonathan Sewell, D. C. L., late Chief Justice of 
Lower Canada, died 1847, aged 39." 

On the outside wall. 

"Anne, consort of Capt. Chas. Paynter, daughter of Sir 
Robert Ruthven, Bart., died 1836, aged 32." 

The body lies inside of the new part of this church, east side, 
parallel with and 9^ feet from the corner of the old wall." 

"Capt. Geo, Deare, R. C. R., eldest son of the late Lieut. 
Col. Deare, 8th Hussars, who died at Niagara, 1815, aged 32 



12- 

years. This tablet is erected by his brother officers as a testimony 
of esteem and regard." 

From a tablet in the church we learn that others besides Gen. 
Brock were buried at Fort George. 

"Donald Campbell, Islay, Argyleshire, Fort Major of Fort 
George, died ist Dec!, 1822. Interred on west side of Garrison 
Gate, Fort George." 

A handsome tablet commemorates another Peninsular War 
veteran. 

"Sacred to the memory of Lieut. Col. Wm. Elliot, K. B. ot 
the R. C. Rifle Regt., Colonel commanding Niagara frontier, who 
died at Niagara, Dec. iyth, 1845, a * e d 55 years. 39 years of his 
life were devoted to his country, he having served in most of the 
gloiious Victories of the Peninsular War. This tablet is erected 
by the officers of the Royal C. Rifle Regt., as a memorial of affec- 
tion and of sincere regret for his lamented death." 

On the outer wall, the sons-in-law of Rev. R. Addison are 
remembered. 

4 John Andrew Stevenson,, born in Dublin, 1790, died at 
Oakwood, near Niagara, 1832." 

A letter has been lately found written to his father-in-law, 
Mr. Addison, after the disastrous battle of Chippavva 

"George Connolly, born in Dublin 1784, died at Lake Lodge, 
near Niagara, 1857, 

"In memory of Richard Hiscott born in Wiltshire, England, 
1790, died at Niagara, Canada, 1874. Deservedly esteemed both 
as a citizen and a ; soldier. In early life he served with honour in 
H. M. 76th Regt., of foot and was in many battles of the Penin- 
sular War and in Canada. He settled in Niagara, where a large 
family of his decendants and numerous triends lament his death." 



Two beautiful mural tablets in the transept read thus : 

'tin memory of the Hon. Robert Dickson, of Woodlawn, 
Niagara, member of the Legislative Council of Canada, who died 
at Leghorn, Italy, 1846, aged 50. This tablet is erected by her 
who fondly cherishes the recollection of those endearing qualitiss 
which were so long the solace of her lite and who mourns her 
loss with a hope full of consolation." 

The mourning widow dying like her husband, far from home, 
is commorated in fewer words. 



J3- 

"In memory of Jane Jones, relict of the Hon. Robt. Dickson, 
ot Woodlavvn, Niagara, who died at Montreal, 1854, aged 60 
years." 

In the graveyard is a memorial to the father of Hon. Robert 
Dickson. 

"In m emory of the Hon. Wm, Dickson, of Woodlawn, 
Niagara, born in Dumfries, Scotland. 1769. died at Niagara, Jan. 
ist, 1846, and ot Charlotte Adiem, ''ife of Hon. Wm. Dickson, 
born in London. England, 1771, died at Niagara, Jan. ist 1826." 

This must have been she who lying ill in bed was carried out 
and lay in the snow wa'.ching the destruction of the house with its 
library worth 600, the day the town was burnt, her husband be- 
ing a prisoner at Greenbush. 

Length of service seems to have been the rule here, for 
besides the unique tact that in the hundred years of the church 
history there uere only three rectors, the parish clerk had a still 
longer term of office than the above average. On a small stone ; 

"To the memory of John Wray, 50 years parish clerk of St. 
Mark's, who died at an advanced age Oct. 6th, 1846." 

In the church at the north end is a large tablet let in the wall 
in memory of the first minister, whose circuit extended to Long 
Point, York, Grimsby, etc, 

"In memory of the Rev. Robt. Addison, first missionary in 
this district of the Venerable the Society for the Propogation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Ports. He commenced his labors in 1792, 
which by the blessing of Divine Providence he was enabled to 
continue for 37 years. Besides his stated services as minister of 
St. Mark's in the town he visited and officiated in different parts 
of this and adjoining districts until other missionaries arrived. 
He was born in Westmoreland, England. Remember them 
which have the rule ovei you." 

Near this is a large tablet to the second Rector. 

"In memory ot Rev. Thos. Creen, late Rector of Niagara, 
born in Rathtriland, Ireland, Nov, 2oth, 1799, died at Niagara, 
Jan. 6th, 1864. "How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet 
of him that bringeth good tidings that publisheth peace, Isaiah 

52,7." 

Mr. Creen was educated at Glasgow University, was a ripe 
scholar and for several years taught the Grammar School. The 
tablet was erected by old pupils, members of a private class. 

One of the stained glass windows is in memory ot the third 
Rector Rev. Wm. McMurray, D.D.,D.C.L. 



H 

Another teacher and preacher is buried here though no stone 
marks the grave, Rev. Jno. Burns, who was perhaps the first 
teacher of the Grammar School founded in 1808, was a Presby- 
terian minister and officiated in St. Andrew's Church and that of 
Stamford between 1805 ai1 ^ 1817. Indeed a sermon of his is in 
existence, preached to encourage his people to defend their 
country in the war of 1812. 

Another teacher who also took his place in fighting at Queen 
ston Heights and wrote a history of the war of 1812, printed at 
Niagara (now very rare,) was a captain jn the Royal Scots, David 
Thomson. An educator in another line as an editor and publisher, 
Mr. Andrew Heron, lies here, his four wives beside him in an 
enclosure between the two defaced stones previously mentioned. 
The Gleaner newspaper published from 1817 to 1833 and many 
books which he printed are his monument. He was the founder 
Secretary Treasurer and Librarian of the Niagara Library, 
numbering 1000 volumes which existed from 1800 to 1820. He 
was also the Secretary and Treasurer of St. Andrew's Church 
for many years. 

Many quaint and curious lines may be tound on the old 
stones ; as to a child who died Mar. 2nd, 1802, aged 4 years, 
Ann Graham. 

"My time is short ; the longer my rest 

God called me heare because he thought it best 

So weep not ; drie up your tears 

Heare must i lie till Christ Apears." 

The exigencies of rhyme, rhythm and syntax are boldly met 
and conquered, metaphors and similes, appropriate or not abound. 

"The fairest flower that nature shews, 

Sustains the sharpest doom, 

His life was like a morning rose 

That withers in its bloom. 

Weep not mother for John is at rest 

His sins forgot and in Heaven blest., 

"Sacred to the memory of the two infant children of R. U. 
Turney, chaplain to H. B. Majesty's Forces and Jane his wife." 

Does this mean that he was chaplain to the Forces and [ane 
his wife ? 

But verse is not yet exhausted. On the tombstone of two 
children of Alexander McKee, dying in 1813, the following lines: 
It is told that the father was a prisoner at Fort Niagara and was 
allowed to come to the funeral. Losing his property when the 
town was burnt he taught a classical school assisted by his wife, 



J5 

and both lie buried here beside their children. 

"Ah here they lie as budding roses 
Blasted before their bloom 
Whose innocence did sweets disclose 
Beyond that flower's perfume." 

"Dear as thou didst in modest worth excell, 
More dear than in a daughter's name farewell, 
Farewell dear Maria ; but the hour is nigh 
When if I'm worthy we shall meet on high 
Then shall I say triumphant from the tomb 
Come to thy mother's arms dear Maria come." 

Another : 

Filial affection stronger than the grave 
From Time's obliterating hand to save 
Erects this humble monument of stones 
Over a fat her' sand a mother's bones." 

"He's gone! No more his infant smiles 

The smile of innocence shall dart 

His power electric to expand 

And warm a tender parent's heart; 

His lips which 1 kissed are faded and cold 

His hands which I clasped are covered with mould 

His form which I clasped is crumbled away 

And soon by his side his weepers shall lay. 

On the tombstone of a child, Mary Rogers, dying in 1812. 

"God plants his flowers at any time 
And plucks when he thinks proper 
Then why should we repine?" 

William Grier aged 27, died in 1813, the son of John Grier, 
a noted mei chant. 

Ve mourning friends as you pass by 
This monument survey 
Learn ere your solemn hour draws nigh 
To choose that better way . 

Of "Jane Cassady, the wife of John Whitten," it is told that 
when a child she carried her younger brother on her back out to 
Butler's farm for safety the day the town was taken, 27th May, 
1813. Who in this degenerate day deserves such praise as that 
in the line given belo^v? 

"Here lies as much virture as could live." 

"Man's life what is it? Tis a flower 
Looks fresh and dies within the honr." 



-16 

These are all in the first decade of the century and torm a 
contrast with *he brief lines on two monuments of late years. 

"The memory of a life nobly rendered is immortal ." 

"Laid here in faith, hope and love all that is mortal of ." 

A trace of the rude hand of war is here recorded. 

"Sacred to the memory ot John McFarland, a native of 
Paisley, Scotland. He was taken prisoner at the capture of Fort 
George and escaped from Green Bush near the close of the war 
1815. He returned to his place, Niagara, and finding his pro- 
perty burnt up and destroyed by the enemy it enervated him so 
much that he died in a few months after* in the 64th 3 ear of his 
age." 

On a tombstone near the north corner appears Pope's line, 
and the epitaph is unique as describing a man who haa gained all 
the wealth he desired. We all know the slory of the ancient king 
vainly searching the world for a happy man. 

"An honest man's the noblest work of God. In memory of 
Archibald Cunningham, who was born in Soctland and resided 
nearly 30 years in Canada. Having during half of that time by 
Strict Integrity and by persevering Industry in the Paths of 
Commerce acquired a competency equal to his Wishes he retired 
to his Farm and there by a life of Frugal Simplicity and disinter- 
ested Benevolence he retained the affection of all his friends and 
procured the respect ot all his Neighbours. These sentiments 
evincing the Esteem of those who accompanied him through Life, 
Have by them been engraven on this Monument. Erected by a 
grateful and effectionate Friend, Ob. 2ist Aug., 1804." 

A naval hero, a beloved physician and a Methodist class 
leader are thus commemorated. 

"Sacred to the memory of Philip Hopkins Commander of H. 
M. Cruiser Vandeleur, who departed this life July nth, 1858, 
aged 75." 

"In loving memory of Robt. M. W r ilson, M. D. who died at 
Simcoe, May 3ist, 1875. Their eyes shall behold the king in his 
beauty, they shall behold the land that is very far off." 

(This was a favorite verse of the deceased.) 

"Andrew Brady, born at Queenston Heights Aug. 
1789, died 1875." 



17 

Many remember him familiarly known as Fathet Brady. 

A sad story is told on a cross in an enclosure with seven 
graves of young 1 men snatched from life suddenly. 

"In affectionate remembrance of Robert C. Henderson, J. H. 
Murray, C. E. Andersen, Weir Anderson, Philips Braddon, C. 
V., W. Vernon, Vincent H. Taylor, who were lost on nth July, 
1874, by the foundering of the Yacht Foam." 

One of the beautiful memorial windows is in memory of a 
merchant of the town, whose stately torm and handsome face 
gave him the cognomen of "Lord John," a friend of the celebrated 
Mrs. Jameson and referred to in her life, "John Lees Alma, 1890, 
by his wife and daughters." A daughter Emily was born at 
Valparaiso, Chili, and this shows again from what distant lands 
these inmates ot "God's Acre hail as does the next inscription. 

"Murray Powell, son of John Powell, Sub-Inspector of 
Mounted Police, Victoria, Australia." 

Near this a noted lawyer of the town is commemorated by a 
stately ivy covered monument. 

"Charles Letham Hall Barrister at Law." 

Here lies buried Capt. Alexander Garrett of the Grenadiers, 
who fought with Brock at Qneenston Heights. On an old stone 
with the name of John Emery 1813 the lines: 

"Waken O Lord our drowsy sense 
To walk this dangerous road 
And if our souls are hurried hence 
May they be found with God." 

It is remarkable the number of retired clergy who lie buried 
here as Rev. Henry Cottingham, Rev. Romaine Rolph, Rev. Peter 
Roe, Rev. Matthew Ker, O.D., Rev. H. N. Philips, Rev. Canon 
Arnold, Rev. Prof. Beavan. 

The third rector is thus kept in memory as well as by the 
beautiful memorial window. 

"To the Glory of God and in memory ot William McMurray 
D.D., D.C.L., Archdeacon of Niagara and Rector of St. Mark's 
Parish tor 37 years. Born Sept. iQth, 1810, died May igth, 
1894. 'Lord I have joved the habitation of Thy house and the 
place where Thine honor dwelleth' Ps. 28. 8." 

Also to his first uife. 

"Sacred to the memory of Charlotte Johnston wife of Rev. 
Wm. McMurray, died 1871, aged 71." 

This w^s a sister of Mrs. Schoolcraft and daughter ot Chief 
Johnston, an Irish gentleman of Sault Ste. Marie, referred to by 



J8- 

Mrs. Jameson in her "Summer Rambles and Winter Studies" as 
marrying- an Indian maiden Ogeneboquah. 

On a tablet in the Church to Amelia Baxter, widow of Dr. 
McMurray, is found this praise 

"This woman was full of good works and almsdeeds which 
she did." Acts 9. 36. 

Another has the name ot Elizabeth, wife of Senator Plumb, 
and daughter of Thomas C. Street. 

Here too was buried Jean Jacques Rousseaux a native of 
Paris, Interpreter to the Indian Chief, Joseph Brant, the great 
Thyendanagea. 

The eminent virtues of a child of nine are not often spoken 
of. 

"Sacred to the memory of Robert D. Wright son of the late 
Chas. Wright of Niagara, who departed this lite gth June, 1822, 
aged 9 years and 7 mos. 

Although I walk in Death's dark vale 
Yet will I fear no ill 
For thou art with me and thy rod 
And staff me comfort still. 

This stone was erected by David Thompson his stepfather, 
as a memorial of his eminent virtues.' 

The father, Charles Wright was one of the four who lie near, 
killed 2yth May 1813, and the stepfather who fought at Queen- 
ston Heights and was afterwards a teacher in the town, lies near 
without any stone to mark his grave. 

A brass tablet in the church commemorates the centenary of 
the church. 

"To the glory of God! This tablet is erected by the congre- 
gation of St. Mark's Church, in grateful commemoration of the 
looth anniversary cf the foundation of this parish on the gth July, 
1792. The nave of the church was built about 1807 and burned 
during the var of 1812, the walls only remaining, It was restor- 
ed in 1820 and enlarged to the present dimensions in 1843. 
During the century the living has been held by the following 
incumbents. The Rev. Robert Addison 1792 to 1829; The Rev. 
Thomas Cieen, 1829 to 1857; The Rev. William McMurray, D. 
D., D.C L., Archdeacon of Niagara, to the present time, assisted 
since 1888 by the Rev. J. C, Garrett as curate in charge." 

From the archives of Canada it is pretty conclusively shown 
that the church was built in 1802. 



J9 
ST, ANDREW'S Cm ETCKY. 

In this enclosure where the first church was erected in the 
town in 1794, none were buried till 1833, the first to be interred 
he who conducted the first Sunday School in the town is in 
few words mentioned. 

"Sacred to the memory of John Crooks, died Mar. 3ist, 
1833, aged 36. A native of Gieenock, Scotland." 

He was the postmaster of the town whose benevolent deed to 
prisoners in the jail confined for debt is mentioned in papers of 
that period, in sending firewood to them in the depth of winter. 

Next this enclosure is one covered with fragrant lilies of the 
valley. A small tablet in the wall has these words : ''The Minis- 
ters' Burying Place'" "For me to live s Christ and to die is 
gain." 

Singular to say, in the century of its history, no minister of 
this church has been buried here, only a small mound that of an 
intant of a day may be seen in the plot. 

A few military heroes and several U.K. Loyalists found here 
their last resting place, as : 

"Sacred to the memory of Donald McDonald, of the 79th 
Highlanders, died 1846." 

"Thos. Ferguson, Royal Canadian Rifles Regt., born in the 
parish of Pithenvvin, Fifeshire, Scotland, died 1852. 

Of one U.E. Loyalist buried heie the story is told that he was 
when a child, a captive among the Indians for several years. 

'In memory of Jas. Cooper, born in Scotland, 1770, emigrat- 
ed to America in 1774. died 1856 in his 86th year. 

Elizabeth Hixon, his wife, born in the province of New 
Jersey in 1773, emigrated to Canada in 1788, died 1855, aged 82." 

Descendants of Capt. Jacob Ball of Butler's Rangers are 
buried here, Wm. Ball and his son Robert N. Ball, both office 
bearers in St. Andrew's church. 

"John Eglesum, died 1851, aged 93." 

A skilful physician and surgeon, the brother ot Prof. Camp- 
bell of Edinburgh University, and who dying in Toronto wished 
to be buried "as near old St. Andrew's as possible," is thus com- 
memorated : 

"In memory of Duncan Campbell, M,D., of Edinburgh, died 
Feb. 4th, 1879, aged 68 years." 

A later grave is that of "John Majoribanks Lawder. for many 
years judge of the County of Lincoln." j One of the fathers of the 
church, for fitly years was connected with it as an cfnce bearer, 
and was also an officer in the Lincoln Militia in 1812. 



20 

. / 

''William Duff Miller. 1786-1859." 

A benefactor of the church vho left a legacy of ^750 which 
afterwards purchased the manse is thus remembered. 

"Sacred to the memory of Catharine Young, who died 1840. 
aged 67. This tribute of regard is erected by the relatives of her 
husband, Jno. Young, who was drowned in Lake Ontario, July 
3oth, 1840." 

Dr. Whitelaw, a distinguished scholar who taught the Gram- 
mar School both in Niagara and Kingston, lies here, dying in 
1850. 

In the vestibule is a mural tablet : 

"" "Sacred to the memory of John Young, Esq.. long a mer- 
chant of Niagara. Returning home in pain and infirmity, he was 
drowned in Lake Ontario where his body rests awaiting the hour 
when the sea shall give up her dead. In his last illness, concern- 
ed for the welfare of coming generations he ordained a bequest for 
the perpetual maintenance ot divine ordinances in this church. He 
met death July 29th, 1840, aged 73. 'Pray for the peace ot Jerus- 
jilem, because ot the house of the Lord I will seek thy good'." 

From him Youngstown received its name. 

Many names showing nationality are found here, as McFar- 
land, McPherson, Davidson, Dawson. Logan, Swinton, Currie, 
Forbes, Carnochan Lachlan McPherson, who had tar passed the 
limit of the Psalmist, having attained his hundaeth year. 

The Centennial tablet reads thus : 

"1794. 1894. 

In grateful commemoration ot the one hundredth anniversary 
of the organization ot this congregation, this tablet is erected by 
the members of St. Andrew's Church, Niagara. The first build- 
ing, begun in October 1794 and erected on this spot, was burnt in 
the war of 1812-14. The congregation met in St. Andrew's 
school room on the north corner ot this block for some years. 
The present church was built in 1831. The ministers have been 
Rev. John Dun, Rev. John Young, Rev, Jno. Burns, Rev. 
Thomas Fraser, Rev. Robt. McGill, D.D., Rev. John Cruick- 
shank, D.D., Rev. J. B. Mowat, M.A., D D., Rev. Charles 
Campbell, Rev. Wm. Cleland, Rev. J. W. Bell, M.A., and the 
present pastor Rev. N. Smith. 



2J 
ST. VINCENT cle PAUL. 

The church was built in 1834, previous to this St. Mark's 
graveyard was used by all denominations In the church is a 
tablet with this inscription : 

"To the memory of Lieut. Adjt, Reginald McDonnell, Royal 
Canadian Rifle Regt., who died at Niagara, C. W., on the 2oth 
Dec., 1851. aged 39 years. This tablet is erected by his brother 
officers as a testimony of regard." In the graveyard is a stone 
with a similar inscription. In the enclosure of the McDougall 
family is the grave of Col. M. McDougall, Treasurer of the united 
counties of Lincoln, Welland and Haldimand foi many years. 
He fought at Lundy's Lane and lay on the field all night being 
reported as mortally wounded but recovered, carrying in his body 
a bullet to his grave. In the Historical Room is the original " 
document authorizing Daniel McDougall to enlist men in 
Glengarry to serve in the war, dated April 1813, E. McDonell, 
Prescott. 

Bishop McDonell who ministered to the Catholic regiment 
from Glengarry, Scotland, was often entertained at Col. Mc- 
Dougall's in Niagara. The wife and h^r mother buried here 
show the Scottish origin, McNabb and McDonell. 

Near this enclosure lies buried one of the benevolent ladies of"' 
the town, whose kind face and ready smile are not forgotten, 
Mrs. Stevenson. A letter in an old Niagara Gleaner of 1832, 
tells of the time when debtors were imprisoned and of the kind- 
ness of Mrs. Stevenson in sending comforts to prisoners. 

A young and beloved priest Father Lynch lies here, his grave 
kept covered with flowers by loving hands. In a distant corner is 
a monument to mark the grave of Patrick Lawless, the fireman 
ot the Steamer Zimmerman, burnt to death on board, the night of 
Aug. 2ist, 1863. 

Near this is a mark of filial affection. Father John Kennedy 
has placed this inscription to the memory of his father. 

"In memoriam Bernardi Kennedy, cujus anima ut Requiescat 
in pace desiderantur fidelium suffragia mortuus est IV Kal 
Decembris A.D. 1857 Anno ^Etatis suae 53, Grato animo filius 
ejus Revendus Joannes P. Kennedy Presbyter. Hoc eregi 
curavit. 

BAPTIST (COLOPCD) CHURCH. 

This church erected in 1829 by the exertions of John Oakley 
who came to Fort George in 1814 and had charge of the Field 



22 

Train Department, was removed some time ago being no longer 
used. At one time several hundred escaped slaves found shelter 
under the British flag, and here are buried many of these dusky 
Africans but one white child was buried here in 1832 that of the 
above mentioned John Oakley who was a teacher and preacher. 

Here too is buried a hero whose name should not be for- 
gotten though it is unrecorded in marble or granite. Herbert 
Holmes, a teacher and exhorter who organized a band of colored 
men of several hund-eds to surround the jail and prevent the 
return of Mosely, an escaped slave from Kentucky, who was by 
law ordered to be given up. The civil and military authorities 
were called out soldiers, constables, sheriff, the Riot Act read. 
The prisoner escaped but Holmes and Green were shot and lie 
buried here, having given their lives to save their brother from 
slavery. Were not they heroes indeed, and should not their 
names be commemorated? 

METHODIST GRAVEYARD. 

This congregation is also a century old. 

Here is found a monument to John Boyd who died here in 
1885, aged 85. He had been a teacher in the Old Blue (Gram- 
mar) School ot Toronto and was the father of Sir John Boyd, 
whose son has given his life in South Africa. Here are buiied 
John Eedson and Salome Crane his wife of U. E. Loyalist birth 
from Nova Scotia, George Varey who played the bass viol in the 
church before the days of organs or melodeons. 

Two old grey stones show burials here previous to any in St. 
Andrew's or St. Vincent de Paul. 

"Sarah Laurence died 1825, aged 64. Gideon Howell died 
1827, aged 22. 

Here in the silent tomb bsneath this miry sod 
Lies one who bore the Cross and trusted in his God 
Farewell dear wife and friends and my dear little son 
My work is finished and the prize is won." 

FORT NIAGARA- 

Two graveyards on the opposite side of the river were visited 
and here were found several inscriptions interesting to us. 

In the military graveyard of Fort Niagara, that post which 
has had such an eventful history, having been in the hands ot 
French, British, Indians, Americans, is found a singular trace of 
the American occupation of Fort George in 1813. A young 



-23- 

Frenchman, perhaps a son of one of those of that nationality who 
helped the Thirteen Colonies to gain their independence. 

"Ici repose Marie Vincent Boisaubin Lieutenant et adjutant 
daus le regiment d'artillerie legfere des Etats Unis, decede au 
Fort George le i3aout 1813 a 1'age de 22. ans Ami fidele, fils 
tendre et sincere comment nons consoler d'une perte si severe." 

A monument bears this comprehensive inscription. 

"Erected to the -memory of unknown soldiers and sailors of 
the United States, killed in action or dying of wounds in this 
vicinity during the war of 1812." 

Here were buried in the precincts of the fort but so far the 
spot is unknown and unmarked, two British officers, killed at the 
taking of the fort, 25th July, 1759. In the diary of Sir William 
Johnson, given in Stone's life of that distinguished man are these 
words: "Today buried Gen. Prideaux and Col. Johnson in the 
chapel with great form, I was the chief mourner." Should not 
some memorial be erected to these two British officers who died in 
adding a page to Britain's roll of fame ? 

John Ross Robertson who has done so much to clear up 
many pages of Canadian history has lately unearthed in England 
a map showing the position of the chapel in what is now the 
parade ground, and Peter A. Porter of Niagara Falls. N.Y., in an 
article in the Buffalo Express, has reproduced this so that one 
may almost pace off the distances and fix the spot. 

LllWISTON. 

Here too in a beautiful well kept graveyard near the Presby- 
terian church are traces of the contest of a century ago. 

"In memory ot the high respect and esteem which Major- 
General Stephen Van Rensselaer bore to Capt. George Nelson of 
the VI U.S. Regiment of Infantry, who on the i3th Oct., 1812, in 
the XXXVII year of his age fell in the attack upon Queenston, 
U.C,, this monument is erected, Feb. 22nd, 1813. 

"Here sleeps a soldier, here a brave man rests" 

The following shows the influence of a wife over a husband : 
"Sacred to the memory of Nancy, consort of Fitz James 
Hotchkis, 

Nancy be thou my guide to point the road 
That leads far hence to yonder blest abode. 
Grant me her faith thou good thou great most high 

T,ft. mA lilrp Nann.v liv* lilrp Nan/v rtlo. 



Let me like Nancy live like Nancy 
It is difficult now to know what crime committed by Great 



24 

Britain is referred to in the following lines. 

'"In memory of Alexander Miller who died Oct. i3th, 1828, 
aged 62, a native of Dundee, Scotland." 

Far from his country and his native skies, 
Here mouldering in the dust poor Miller lies. 
He loved his country, loved that spot of earth 
Which gave a Wallace, Bruce and Duncan forth, 
But when that country dead to all but gain, 
Bowed her base neck and hugged tho oppressed chain, 
He viewed the approaching event with many a sigh. 
He crossed the wide waves and here untimely died." 

Perhaps the Sutherland evictions are mean*. 

Of Miss Mary Attvvater, who died in 1815, it is said. 

"She needs no verse her virtues to record, 
She lived ami died a servant of the Lord." 

Another stone has the startling question, 
"See is gone, but where?" 

Another point in which the history of the two countries touch 
is found here. A broken tcmbstone formerly upright, now lying 
flat, is that of 

"Ashbel Sage, born 1777, died 1855. He was the pilot and 
guide who conducted the American army to Queenston Heights in 
the battle on the morning of the i3th October, 1813." 

There was formerly a daguerreotype of this veteran inserted 
in the stone, but this has disappeared long since. 

Here too, lie Thomas Hustler and his wife Catharine, charac- 
ters used by the novelist Cooper in the Spy as Sergeant Hollister 
and Be.ty Flannigan. 

THE HAMILTON GRAVCYAPD. 

The Hamilton residence in Quesnston is a fine stone building 
on an eminence having the old colonial pillars anJ the family 
burying plot is on the property, surrounded by a low stone wall, 
enclosing beautiful trees. 

The Hon, Robert Hamilton, born in Scotland, and whose 
name we find NO often as entertaining guests in Simcoe's time, 
died in 1809. agea , and is buried here. This spot has to us a 
pathetic interest, since here for a year rested the remains of Gen. 
Sir Isaac Brock and his brave young adjutant, McDonnell, who 
were four times buried. Firsc at Fort George where the bodies 
lay for twelve years, till the first monument was erected at Queen- 



-2 5 - 

ston Then when the shattered shaft was taken down, the bodies 
were removed to the Hamilton buryi.ig plot till the vault of the 
present monument, was ready in 1853. 

One inscription reads : 

"Sacred to the memory of Robert Hamilton, born at Fort 
Niagara, 1787, died 1856. Mary Bigger, his wife, born at Dum- 
fries, Scotland, 1790.'' 

Alexander Hamilton died in 1839, aged 45. This must have 
been Sheriff Hamilton, whose death it is said was hastened by 
the shock to his system from having to perform the office of 
hangman at Niagara jail no hangman was to be found and the 
Sheriff according to law had himself to perform the revolting duty. 
In an account of a prisoner confined in Niagara jail for his 
share in the rebellion, this is confirmed. . - 

A large altar tomb commemorates a member of the well- 
known Dickson family. He was a merchant in Queenston and 
carried on an extensive business there. 

* 'Sacred to the memory of Thomas Dickson, born in Dum- 
fries, Scotland, who died in 1825,- aged 50, also Eliza his wife, 
died 1802." 

Here again occurs an important name in the early history of 
our country. 

"Hannah, wife of Wm. Jarvis, Secretary of the Province of 
U. C.,.died 1845, aged 84. 

Shed not for her the bitter tear. 
Nor give the heart to vain regret, 
'Tis but the casket that lies here, 
The gem that filled it sp.irkles yet." 

Another. "Robert Hamilton, lies here, born 1808, died 1868,'' 

As the Hon. Robert Hamilton was married twice and had a 
larga family of eight sons, the family connection is large and 
there are many names to be found here from intermarriages, as 
Tench, Duff, Durand, Mewburn, Gourlay. 

Here lies buried Capt. John Humphrey Tench, late of H.M. 
87th and 6ist Regts. who died Xmas. 1851, also Maria Tench, 
wife of above, also Margaret Carruthers, widow of Major Car- 
ruthers, late H.M. 5$th Westmoreland Regt., and Katherine 
Hamilton, wife of F. B. Tench, and Eliza Hamilton, wife of J. T. 
Townsend. 

The family name has been well preserved, as the cit) of 
Hamilton thus derived its name, and the city of St- Catharines 
was named in 1809 from Catharine, the second wife of Hoii^ 
Robert Hamilton. The Hon. John Hamilton's residence, called 
Glencairn, was about two miles below Queenston, while that of 



-26- 

Dr. Hamilton, another brother, was above the mountain. The 
Hon. John Hamilton, who has been called the father of Canada's 
inland marine and was long honorably connected with the ship- 
ping of Lake Ontario is buried at Kingston. 

BROCK'S noNuncN r. 



This noble shaft, says a late writer, is perhaps the finest 
isolated column, all things considered, in the world, 200 it high, 
thf height of the figure 17 ft., and the situation unsurpassed, com- 
manding a view of river, lake and plain ; at some seasons of the 
year the varied colors of brown ploughed land, purple vineyards, 
the tender green of its wheat or brilliant crimson of the "maple 
forests all aflame," and the somber pine woods give the ennuied 
tourist at last a new experience, 

The first monument was erected in 1824 and shattered with 
a gunpowder explosion by the miscreant Lett in 1840, the present 
begun in 1853 was finished in 1856. An immense meeting was 
held in 1840 on the Heights to devise means to replace the monu- 
ment destroyed, ten steamers bore representatives from Kingston, 
Cobourg, Hamilton, Toronto, and ascended the river in proces- 
sion while cheering crowds on the bank showed their enthusiasm. 
Eloquent speecees were made by distinguished men, nineteen 
motions afforded opportunity to twice as many speakers as movers 
and seconders. The first monument was erected by a grant from 
the Provincial parliament, the present by voluntary contributions 
of the militia and Indian warriors of the province. A grant from 
Parliament was given to lay out the grounds. The armorial bear- 
ings of the hero are supported by lions rampant seven feet in 
height, the motto Vincit Veritas. On the north face the inscrip- 
tion reads : 

"Upper Canada has dedicated this monument to the memory 
of the late 

MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ISAAC BROCK, K. B., 

Provincial Lieut. Governor and Commander of the forces in this 
Province, whose remains are deposited in the vaults beneath. 
Opposing the invading enemy he fell near these heights on the 
1 3th October, 1812, in the 43rd year of his age, revered and 
lamented by the people whom he governed and deplored by the 
sovereign to whose services his life had been devoted." 

On a brass plate within the column is an inscription giving 
an account ot the different burials and on another a notice of 



-27 

Brock's brave A.D.C. 

'In a vault beneath are deposited the mortal remains of 
Lieut. Col. John McDonnell, P. A. D.C., and Aid-de-Camp to the 
lamented Major-General Sir Isaac Brock. K.B., who fell mortally 
wounded in the battle of Queenston, on the i3th October, 1812, 
and died the following day. His remains were removed and re- 
interred with due solemnity on i3th Oct., 1853." 

ST. DAVIDS. 

In the graveyard around the Methodist Church are many old 
stones with no name, or the stones chipped so as to be undecipher- 
able. The name which appears most frequently is that oi 
Woodruff, but the oldest date is Solomon Quick, who died in 
1823, but many were buried here before that date as St. Davids 
had a mill in 1782, and the village was burnt by the Americans in 
1814. Here is the grave of David Secord of whom many stories 
of daring deeds are told in the Revolutionary War, and from 
whom the village received its name. 

"In memory of Major David Secord, who died 1844, aged 85, 
also Mary Page his wife." 

David Secord was a magistrate in 1796 and member of the 
Legislative Assembly, UC., in 1811. His claim for compensation 
for property burnt in tha war was nearly ^5000 as he owned 
many buildings. He was a Sergeant iu Butler's Rangers and 
fought in the Revolutionary War. 

Ezekiel Woodruff died in 1837, aged 73, and Samuel Wood- 
ruff in 1824. Richard Woodruff, born in 1784, died in 1872, was 
a member of Parliament. His daughter is thus commemorated, 
t recalling the name of a celebrated railway king. 

"In memory of Margaret Ann, wife of Samuel Zimmerman, 
daughter of Richard Woodruff, died 1851, aged 23." 

John Baptist Clement, died in 1833, and Mary Secord, wife 
of Wm.. A. Woodruff, born 1818, died 1895. An old sfone has 
an inscription almost destitute of capital letters. 

"Jane wife of John Prest, queenton late a native of senning- 
ton yorkshire England died in 1831." 

A monument near the church to Ursen Harvey, born in 1800, 
has also the names of his two wives, Esther and Caroline. Mr. 
Harvey was the father of Mrs. J. G. Currie, who has given us the 
life of Laura In^ersel! Secord and so many interesting reminiscen- 
ces of St. Davids' old settlers. 

The names of Wadsworth, Clement, Crysler and Clyde occur 
frequently. Many of these early settlers lived to a great age as 



28 

William Crysler, died 1824, aged 92, Anne Clement Woodruff, 
born 1788, died 1878, aged 90 years, while Richard Woodruff, 
her husband, died 1872. aged 88. Major Adam Brown, of 
Queenston died 1874. aged 76. Col. Joseph Clement, died 1867, 
aged 76, and his wife aged 80. Maria Dewy, relict of the late 
Deacon Jacob Beam, died 1881, aged 88 years. 

The name Secord is found frequently, as Azubah Hutt, wife of 
Philip Secord, aged 79. Riall Secoid, evidently named from Gen. 
Riall of Lundy's Lane tame. Many rough unshaped stones with- 
out letter or figure tell of those troublous times when the 
exigencies of war or refugee privations prevented the elaborate 
epitaphs of another period. 

WARNER'S GP7WCYARD. 

In the Warner family plot about two miles from St. Davids, 
are found the names of many U.E. Loyalists. Here again the 
surface lettering in the old stones is chipped off. There is a 
small frame church, now unused, which replaced an older one. 
built in 1801, the first Methodist church in the peninsula. A 
stone wall had surrounded the enclosure the remains of which may 
yet be seen. One of the oldest stones is that to Stephen Secord, 
who died in 1808, aged 49. We find from early records that in 
the census taken by Col. John Butler at Niagara in 1783, the 
name Secord occurs more frequeutly than any other as Peter, 
'John, James, Thomas. Stephen. In Butler's Rangers thete were 
seven Secords and the Stephen Secord buried here was one of 
these. William E. Secord died in 1881, aged 83. We 
know from other records that John Secord was living near 
Niagara in 1782, and that the first white child born there 
was Daniel Secord. William Van Every died in 1832. aged 67, 
and Elizabeth, his wife, born Dec. 1764, died in 1857. A pathetic 
story is told of members of the Van Every family and others in 
Ryerson's U E. Loyalists. 

Several German names occur as : 

"In memory of Dinah, wife of Jacob Hostetter, second 
daughter of Joseph and Mary Van Every," 

And near this a stone to Margaret Clow, wife of Daniel 
Ostrander, died 1824. 

'In memory of Nancy, wife of Malum Swayze, born 1800, 
died 1828." 

The Christian names Lois aud Charity, Asel and Christian, 
Peter, Stephen and David, frequently occur, 

James Durham dying in 1832 attained the ripe age of 85. 



29 

In a square enclosed by a brick and stone wall are three old 
grey monumental stones, one to Jemima Hill who died in 1817, 
aged 18, another to ** Mary Margaret, Dutelt, relict of the late 
Joseph Clement, died 1845, aged So." 

Another stone and iron enclosure has an old grey double 
stone to two children of Robert and Margaret McKinley, who 
died in 1811 and 1813 respectively. 

A monument to Margaret A. Berninger, wite of Robert Mc- 
Kinley, born 1769, died 1860, aged 91. 

The name Warner occuis again and again, and here are also 
besides those mentioned, Cain, Collard, etc. Christian Warner 
and Joseph Van Every were born here in 1809. 

The first Methodist class-meeting in this district met at the 
house of Christian Warner 1788 and the church was built in 
1801. 

HOHCR OR TEN HILC CREEK. 

Two miles from St. Catharines is an old graveyard where 
were buried many of the U.K. Loyalists. Six stately elms stand 
in a line at one side while one lies prone near them. 

How few of those who fell when Niagara was captured 27th 
May, 1813, have their names in consecrated ground, but here 
unexpectedly we find the name of one. 

"Erected in memory of George Grass who was killed in the 
battle of Fort George, May 27th, 1813, aged 24 years." 

A tablet in St. Mark's, Niagara, gives the names of four, the 
stone at Chautauqua marks the burial place of three unknown 
British soldiers who fell in that battle, and this ot George Grass is 
the only other one we know. 

Here are found the names of many of the Secord family as 

u ln memory of Solomon Secord, late Lieut, in Butler's Corps 
of Rangers, who departed this lite Jan. 22, 1799, aged 43 years." 

A large altar tomb has the inscription 

"Capt Jacob Ball, died July 24th, 1820, aged 43 years." 

Another beside it 

" Elizabeth, wife of Jacob Ball, born 1790, died 1862." 

We find from early records that Jacob Ball, the father, came in 
1782 with his three sons, Peter, Jacob and John. A fourth son, 
George, came in 1784. They received a grant of land of 1,000 
acres and there is still in possession of the Ball family in the town- 
ship, 750 acres. - 

The names ot Stull and Goring, Secord, Ball and Schram 
occur again and again and the fondness for scripture names of^ 



30- 

the Puritans is shewn as Seth and Charity, Solomon, David and 
Jacob. Very often a verse with halting rhyme, metre or syntax 
closes the inscription. A double stone is divided perpendicularly 
for two inscriptions to husband and wife, a young couple aged 24 
and 37 respectively. Below the words : 

" As God together did us join, 
So He did part us for a time. 
But now we both together lies 
Till Christ shall call us to arise." 

Very few give the place of birth but those given are far dis- 
tant as Yorkshire, Nova Scotia, Vermont. 

" In memory of George Read, who was born at Brenton, in 
Yorkshire, England, 1763, and came to New York in 1773, to 
Canada in 1784, and departed this life Feb. 1834. 

1784 was we know the year of the coming of the U. E. 
Loyalists. 

"In memory of Margaret, wife of Col. Peter Hare, and for- 
merly wife of Lieut. Salomon Secord, died 1851, aged 87 years. 
Erected by Mrs. R. Henery* My mother's grave." 

ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, ST. CATHARINES 

This is an old cemetery, we know of one at least buried here 
in 1812, but many bodies have been removed to the new cemetery^ 
but we still find traces of many of the early settlers. In the life 
of Hon. Wm. Hamilton Merritt is frequently mentioned Shipman's 
Corners, (near St. Catharines) and here is the name of its founder. 

44 In memory of Paul Shipman, born 1756, died 1825, aged 
69 years." 

From him St. Paul's street was named. 

Here is also the record of the father of the projector of the 
Welland Canal. 

"In memory of Thomas Merritt, Esq., Cornet of the Queen's 
Rangers under Col. Simcoe during the American Revolution, and 
Major commanding the cavalry on this frontier in the war of 1812. 
Appointed Surveyor of Woods and Forests on 2oth May, 1800, 
and Sheriff of the Niagara District. 5th October 1803. Depart- 
ed this life 1 2th May, 1842, aged 83." 

The next inscription brings up the thought of the heroine, 
Laura Ingersoll Secord. 

" In memory of Maria, relict of the late Charles Ingersoll, of 
Ingersoll, second daughter of Thos. and Marry Merritt, died 
1850." 



31 

It is sometimes forgotten that the town of Ingersoll was 
named after Charles Ingersoll. 

In the journal of W. H. Merritt the name of his wife's father 
and mother frequently occur. 

"In memory ot Penelope, wife of Dr. J. Prendergast, born 
1774, in South Kingston, state of Rhode Island, died at the resi- 
dence of her son-in-law, William Hamilton Merritt." 

"To the memory of Jedidiah Prendergast, M.D., who was 
born in Duchess County, NY., died at his residence in Mayville, 
1848." 

This name occurs as one ot the proprietors of the Niagara 
Library of 1800 1820. He then lived at Youngstown, N.Y. A 
large monument has this short inscription : 

"Commodore Job Northiop, a rative of Woodbridge, Ct., 
born 1787, died 1833. He was noble hearted, generous and 
humane." 

The monument was brought all the way from New Haven, 
Ct. In the memoir of Hon. W. H. Merritt, Com., Northrop, is 
mentioned as generous and even lavish, driving fast horses, giving 
good dinners, spending money prodigally. Employed in the 
Bolivian service, on his return his role seemed to be to spend 
money. When his horses ran away the vehicle was given to the 
finder, and to his daughter after playing a tune on the piano, a 
bank note was often given. 

T. " Sacred to the memory of the late Reverend Lewis Williams, 
a native ot Hallan Carmaerthanshire, South Wales, England, who 
labored a faithful minister and servant of God at this place for 
several years, departed this life 26th Sept. 1822, in his 63rd year 
much lamented." 

" Here lieth the body of the Rev. Richard Lyons McArthur, 
M. A., Trinity College, Dublin, and for some months curate of St. 
George's church in this town, departed this life 1857." 

"Caroline, daughter ot James and Caroline Gordan, died 
1814." 

"In memory ot Sarah, widow of Wm. Hummer Powell, died 
1834, aged 54." 

This must have been the wife of W. D. Powell, the lawyer of 
Queenston and one of the ten who formed the first Law Society 
in 1797, in U. Canada. From a letter in the possession of the 
Niagara Historical Society from Queenston, 1801, to Robert 
Nelles, 40 Mile Creek (now Grimsby) we learn that the couple had 
eloped and driven all the way to Niagara to Ue married by Rev. R. 
Addison, and the letter written to thank Col. and Mrs. Nelles for 
their help, also speaks ot the fatiguing ride to Niagara. 



32 
51- CATHARINES 

To this comparatively modern cemetery many bodies have 
been brought from private graveyards, or others being destroyed 
by the march of improvement. On an old grey stone may be 
read. 

" In memory of Mrs. Hannah Frey, widow of the late Capt. 
Bernard Frey who died 1834, aged 76." 

On another close by, a well-known incident of the war of 
1812 is recorded. 

" Sacred to the memory of Capt. B. Frey, of his Majesty's 
late Corps of Butler's Rangers, who was killed by a cannon shot 
at Niagara, 22nd day of November, 1812, aged 58." 

The story is that he had picked up a cannon ball from the 
srreet and was carrying it under his arm when a spent ball IYom 
Fort Niagara struck that under his arm and he died in conse- 
quence, but without a wound. Part of the Frey family remained 
in the U.S., while this member preferred to join the U.E.L. 's in 
Canada. 

Some well-known names follow, as 

" In memory af Stephen A. Secord, died 1884, aged 83.'* 

Samuel Street died at Thorold 1854. aged 62. 

44 Sarah Street, beloved wife ot John Gustavus Stevenson, 
died 1861, aged 37." 

"In memory of Sarah Ingersoll, wife of Henry Mittleberger, 
born i8o7, died 1826. 

"In memory of William Street Servos, born 1787. died 1857, 
and Catharine Ball his wife, born 1790, died 1875." 

The bodies of the last two were removed from the Servos 
burying ground when the farm was sold. 

An unpretentious stone records the projector of the Welland 
canal ; that monument to his energy and foresight is quite near. 

4 Hon. Wm. Hamilton Merritt, born July 3rd, 1793, died 
July 7th, 1862." 

" Catharine Rodman Prendergast, beloved wife of Hon. W. 
H. Merritt, born 1793. died Jan loth, 1862." 

It is remarkable that husband and wife were born in the same 
year and died in the same year. 

Hon. W. H. Merritt was Captain of Dragoons raised in the 
war of 1 812, was taken prisoner at Lundy's Lane and was not re- 
. leased till the close of the war. 

Two " beloved physicians" rest here. 

"Theophulu? Mack, M.D., died 1881, aged 61. The wise 
beloved physician, the faithful friend of the poor and suffering,, he 



met death in conscious serenity, trusting with undoubting faith in 
the promises of the Redeemer. 'And I heard a voice write bless- 
ed are the dead.' " 

On the other side "Galea Spes sa lu tis," 

"In memory of Chas. Rolls, born at Prines Maston, War- 
wickshire, England, 1785, died 1867, also Henry Rolls, M.D., 
1814-1887.". 

A monument to the father of Dr. Clark, who preserves the 
manuscript journal kept by his tather Col. Clark from which have 
been gleaned many interesting particulars of early life in this 
^province. 

"In memory of Lieut. Col, John Clark, Canada Militia, born at 
Kingston, U.C., 1786 died at Walnut dale farm, Grantham, C.W., 
1862, also his wife Sarah Adams, born at Queenston, U.C., 1791. 
jied 1864." 

A large enclosure is sacred to the families of St. John and 
Phelps as Lois St. John, wife of Samuel St. John, mother of 
Abigail Phelps, of Kent, Conn., born 1756, died 1849, aged 93." 

"Orton Stone Phelps, 1812-1837, and Oliver Phelps of Conn., 
born 1779, died 1851." 

A large vault has the name of Thos. Burns, the son of Rev. 
Jno, Burns, minister of Niagara and Stamford. Another has that 
of Richard Miller, Q C. 

TURNCY GRAVCYAPD, 

About two miles from St. Catharines lie the remains of this 
family in which there were two famous soldiers, although here 
their names are not recorded. Particulars of the first are found 
in a memorial in the Canadian Archives 

'John Turney, Lieutenant in Butler's Rangers, born in Co. 
Down, Ireland, 1744, enlisted in King's 8th Regt., served as 
sergeant in Germany and America, and promoted to Butler's 
Rangers." In his memorial giving his services he says : "They 
(the Rangers) were Britons and the descsndants of Britons 
and trained to arms, determined to transmit to posterity the rights 
that are dear to man, or nobly perish in the defence ot our King, 
and God who never forsakes his people brought us through many 
dangers and trials." 

His son, Capt. George Turney, of the 2nd Lincoln Militia, was 
killed at the battle of Chippawa, 5th July, 1814, that day so disaT- 
trous to our forces. The name was originally written Torney. 



34 
STftMTORD PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The Presbyterian Church of Stamford was organized over a 
century ago, but unfortunately the early records are not complete. 
One of the oldest graves has this inscription : 

"In memory of Leah, consort of John Rowe, who departed 
this life Sept. 5th, 1793, aged 25 years." 

John Rowe must apparently have soon taken another help- 
mate who also died young. 

In memory of Mary, consort of John Rowe, who departed this 
life Mar. 4th, 179?, aged 22 years" 

Capt. J.ohn Rowe, 2nd Lincoln Militia, was killed at Chippa- 
wa, 5th July 1814, and was formerly a sergeant in Butler's Rangers. 
The following shows not only the early settlement of Stam- 
ford township but the strength of the bond between master and 
servant in those early days as shown by fifty years of service. 

"In memory of Samuel Montgomery, who departed this life 
28th October, 1838, in the 87th year of his age. He was a native 
of County Down, Ireland, and emigrated to America in the year 
1768, and settled in Stamford, district oJ Niagara in 1788, in the 
family of the late Aichibald Thomson, where he resided till his 
desth." 

Another tombstone tells of James Thomson, a native of 
Roxburgh, Scotland, who settled in Stamford in 1785, dying in 
1831, aged eighty. The epitaphs of eighty years ago sometimes 
show an originality in orthography and syntax as 

''In memory of Susanna McMicking who departed this life 
Sept. nth 1821, aged 30 years. 

Epetaf S. U. 

Underneath this stone doth ly 
As much beauty as could die 
VV Inch when alive did vigger give 
To as much virtue as could live." 

"In memory of Thomas McMicking, who was born Apri 
nth, 1750, died Feb. nth, 1830, in the 8oth year of his age. 

Stop passenger upon the road 
Dont overlook this shrine 
For if thou art a friend of God 
Here lies a friend of thine." 

"In memory of James Middaugh, who departed this life June 
1839, aged 79 years. 



35 

farewell my wife my 
life is past my love to 
you so long did last, but 
now no sorrow for me 
take, belove my children 
for my sake." 

Here is another mosaic of History : 

"Sacred to the memory of Daniel Keith, who died 28th Aug. 
1824, by a fall from General Sir Isaac Brock's monument, aged 

25-" 

The tragedy recorded above must have occurred during the 

erection of the first monument, 

"In memory of Captain Giles Hall who departed this life Nov. 
2nd, 1816, aged 67.'' 

No doubt a veteran of the war of 1812, and the next a U. E. 
Loyalist. 

_ r- "In memory of Dorothy, wife of Abraham Vrooman, Senior, 
who was born in the State of New Jersey, April i6th, 1768. and 
died Oct. I2th, 1820, aged 52." 
To Andrew Murray who died on the Atlantic. 

"In memory of a loved one 
\\ ho was both true and kind, 
For health upon the ocean 
He sought but could not find ; ' 

The faithful pastor tor almost thirty years is thus commemor- 
ated. 

"In memory of the Rev, John Russell, D.D., pastor of the 
Associate Presbyterian congregation of Stamford, who died Mar. 
^rd, 1854, in the 58th year of his age, and 28th of his ministry. 
'After he had served this generation by the will of Gjd he fell on 
sleep' ; 'Be thou faithful unto death and I will give thee a crown 
of life.' 
__ Requiescat in Pace." 

This congregation is believed to be the only one in Canada of 
the kind and is in connection with churches of the U.S. In the 
Session book it is called the Associate Presbyterian .Society, 

ST. JOHN'S ANGLICAN CHURCH. 

This church was built in Stamford in 1825 when Sir Pereerire 

Maitland had his residence in this beautiful spot, an ideal English 

village, its village green, still sacred to football and other games, 

it is said was laid out by the Governor. The records of the 

church as kept by Rev, Wm, Leeming from 1818 to 1837, are 



36 

complete. None of the inscriptions are so old as those of the 
church nearly opposite, as 1833 was the oldest date found here. 

Here is another bit of history of a later date, that of the 
Fenian Raid of 1866. 

"Pro Patria ac Regina 

John Herriman Mewburn, Toronto University Rifles, 2nd 
Battalion, Queen's Own, only son of Harmon Chiltern Mewburn, 
killed at Limeridge, June 2nd, 1866, fighting in defence of his na- 
tive land against Fenian invaders, aged 21 years " 

This the son of Dr. Mewburn with other students went from 
Examination Halls, The University Company lost most heavily, 
three of the number giving up their young lives, Mewburn, Mc- 
Kenzie, Tempest. 

r- "In memory of the Hon. Jacob ^melius Irving of Ironshore, 
Jamaica, a member of the Legislative Council of the Province of 
Canada, and formerly of the i3'th Light Dragoons, was wounded 
at Waterloo, born 1797, died at Drummondville, 1856." 

His widow died in her gist year. We are told in a late 
paper of his fine literary taste, histronic skill and fine baritone 
voice. Drove four-in-hand from Bonshaw on Yonge st, He was 
the son of Paulus ./Emehus Irving, who was at the capture of 
Quebec. 

Another military man is buried here. 

"In memory of Matthew Ottley who died in 1845, ln n ' s 72nd 
year. His early life was spent in H. M. Service 23 years as Pay- 
master cf the 82nd Regt. came to Canada in 1827. 

'Sacred to the memory of Andrew Ruback, born in New 
Jersey. Lieut.-Col. of 2nd Lincoln Regt., died at Stamford 1843." 

"In memory of Richard, son of late Rev. Bearmont Dixie, 
Rector of St. Peter's Derby, brother of the late Baronet of that 
name, born 1782, died 1834." 

"In memory of Robert H. Dee, who died in 1833." 

There are in the church five memorial windows; principally to 
the families of Dee and Mewburn. 

LUNDY'S LAND 

What memories cluster round this spot ! The scene of a bat- 
tle the most stubbornly contested in the war of 1812, a burial 
ground betore that date and now here stands a stately monument, 
an obelisk erected at a cost of $5,000 by the Dominion Govern- 
ment, from the persistent efforts of the Lundy's Laie Historical 
Society, headed by the Rev. Canon Bull as President, and James 
Wilson, Secretary. The inscription reads : 



''Erected by the Canadian Parliament in honor of the victory 
gained on 2^th July, 1814, by the British and Canadian forces, and 
in grateful remembrance oi the brave men who died on the field of 
battle fighting- for the Unity oi" the British Empire." 

Close by is a beautiful church, built by the munificent gift of 
the late Wm. Lowell, the roar of Niagara's torrent lending its 
voice as an everlasting requiem to those who lie here on Drum- 
mjnd's Hill Why has the name of the village been changed 
from Drummondville to Niagara Falls South, making the confu- 
sion ot names only more confounded ? To this neglected grave- 
yard, thai of the village and not of the church, at one time weed 
grown, with thorns and briars contesting for supremacy, perhaps is 
due much of the historical work done in the last two decades of years. 
Rev. Canon Bull and Mr. Fenwick, High School teacher, formed an 
Historical Society and commenced with the work nearest at hand, 
putting in order the grounds. Meetings were held, the public 
interested, historical pamphlets written, Parliament petitioned, till 
at last the monument was erected, and in the vault lie the re- 
mains of several officers and men which have been re-interred with 
fitting honors. How different now the .scene from that night 
when men came frDtn the harvest field to help on that field of 
blood vhere the next day a funeral pile of the (load was consumed 
in smoke and flame. 'And here on this battle field let military 
heroes have precedence. 

Sacred to the memory of Lieut. Col. the Hon. Cecil Bishopp 
ist Foot Guards and inspecting officer in U. C., eldest and only 
surviving son of Sir Cecil Bishopp, Bart, Baron de la Zonche in 
England. After having served with distinction in the British 
army in Holland, Spain and Portugal, he died on the i6th July, 
1813, in consequence of wounds received in action with the enemy 
at Black Rock, the 1 3th of the same month, to the great grief of 
his family and friends, and is buried here. This tomb erected at 
the time by his brother officers, becoming very much dilapidated, 
is now, 1816, renewed by his affectionate sisters, the Baroness de- 
la Zonche and the Hon. Mrs. Peckell in memorial of an excellent 
man and beloved brother." 

"To the memorv of Lieut Col. Gordon and Capt. Torrens of 
the Royals, killed at Fort Erie during the campaign of 1814. 
Erected by Major Barry Fox, late of said Regt., their friend and 
companion, June 2oth, 1851." 

Here must have been a real friendship after nearly forty years, 
showing the falsity of Swinburne's line. 

"What love was ever as deep as the grave ? 



oo 

"Sacred to the memory of Robert Dossie Patterson, Captain 
in the 6th Regt. of Infantry Royal ist Warwickshire, who after 
serving- under Sir John Moore and the Duke of Wellington, 
throughout the Peninsular War, fell before Fort Erie at the age of 
26, Sept. lyth, 1814." 

Sacred to the memory ot Lieut. Wm. Hemphill. of the Roy- 
als who fell at the battle of Lund} 's Lane on the 25th July, 1814. 
This stone was placed by his son Lieut.-Col Hemphill, of the 
26th Cameronians, July lyth, 1854." 

So far as known there is only one American buried here 
but in their nameless graves lie here peacefully those who fought 
as foes that hot July day alternately holding the hill till midnight, 
when our men were left in possession. 

"Here lies the body of Abraham E Hull, Captain in the gth 
Regt. of U. S. Infantry, who fell near this spot in the battle of 
Bridgewater, July 25th, 1814, aged 28 years." 

Here was a large gathering to witness the ceremony of re- 
interring the remains of American soldiers, and the unique 
spectacleof this international funeral, for both U. S. and Canadian 
soldiers took part. The insciiption rends. "The remains of nine 
soldiers of the Qth Regiment of United States Infantry. Killed 
at Lundv's Lan2, July 25th, 1814, Re-interred Oct. igth IQOI." 

In American histories the battle of Lundy's Lane is called 
Bridgewater. 

"In memory of Philip Chesman Delatre, late Lieut. -Col. in 
the British army, born 1777, died 1848." 

"In memory ot Major Richard Leonard, formerly of H. M. 
iO4ch Lt. Infantry, who died Oct. 1833." 

"In memory of Alex. Ross No. 2. Co. 93rd Highlanders, who 
died iith Oct. 1846, aged 24 years This monument is erected 
by his comrades as a token of their respect." 

"Sacred to the memory of Duncan Elphinstone Todd Esq., 
late a Captain in Her Majesty's 37th Regt. of foot who died Oct. 
1837, aged 30 years." 

Another page of history is unrolled by the two following in- 
scriptions referring to two on opposite sides, each illtreated in the 
troublous times of misrule leading to or during the Rebellion. 

"In memory of Robert Randall Esq., M. P.P., the victim of 
Colonial Misrule, who died May 2nd, 1834, aged 66 years." 

In Lindsay's life of W. L. McKenzie in an impassioned 
speech occurs the name of Randall as a victim. 
*" '-Here rests in the hope of a joyful resurrection the mortal 
remains of Edgeworth Ussher Esq., whose devotion to his sover- 
eign and exertions in the cause ot his country at a critical period 




LAURA SECOND'S MONUMENT 
LUNDY'S LANE. 



39 

in the history of Canada marked him out as an object of the 
vengance of the enemies of peace and good order by whom he was 
cruelly assassinated on the night of the i6th Nov., 1838, in his 
own house near Chippewa, at the early age of 34 yeais, leaving- a 
wife and four children to mourn their irreparable loss." 

But are there no inscriptions to the mothers of our land? 
First let us give that on an unpretentious stone, but which none 
the less records the name of a heroine indeed. Laura Secord, 
who, when Niagara was in the hands ot the Americans and a force 
was sent to Beaverdams to cut off our small force there, walked 
nineteen miles through mud and mire, in danger from marauders, 
red or white, wild beasts as well, to give warning, and thus helped 
to bri.ig abo.,r the surrender ot 'he attacking force. These simple 
words no more, were all that marked till lately the heroine's grave, 

"Here rests Laura Secord. beloved wife of James Secord, 
died Oct. ijth, 1868. aged 93 years." 

But in the summer of 190 1 was unveiled a bronze bust on a 
stone pedestal with an inscription that tells the story. 

"To perpetuate the name and fame of Laura Secord, who on 
the 23rd or June, 1813, walked alone nearly twenty miles by a 
circuitous, difficult and perilous route through woods and swamps 
over miry roads, to warn a British, outpost at De Cew's Falls cf 
an intended attack and thereby enabled Lieu'enant FitzGibbon on 
the 241(1 June, 1813, with less than fifty men of Her Majesty's 
4Qth Regiment, about 15 militiamen and a similar force of six 
nations and other Indians under Captains William Johnson, Kerr 
and Domimque Ducharme to surprise and attack the enemy at 
Beach wood or Beaver Dams, and after a short engagement to 
capture Col. Boerstler, of the U. S. Army and his entire force of 
542 men with two field pieces. This monument erected by the 
Ontario Historical Society trom contributions of schools, societies, 
Her Majesty's 49th Regiment, other militia organizations and 
private individuals, was unveiled 22nd of June, 1901." 

The honor of first starting the scheme is due to Rev. Canon 
Bull of the Lundy's Lane Historical Society. It languished for 
s :>me time but was finally taken up by the Ontario Historical 
Society, and the chief honor is due to Mrs. Thompson, the con- 
vener of the committee, by whose energy and zeal it has been 
carried out so successfully in the midst of many difficulties, carrying 
out the dying wishes of the late lamented Mrs. Curzon whose 
writings first drew attention to the deeds of Laura Secord, Hun- 
dreds of children contributed their mites, the idea being to have 
it a tree will offering and not to ask for a goveinment grant. 

''In memory c>f Mary Earl, grand-daughter of Sir William 



-40 

Johnson Bart, who died loth of April, 1820, aged 20 years, 6 
months."' 

This last is on the Street lot. 

"Erected by the Presbyterians, of Drummondville, to the 
memory of Marion Watson, the beloved wife of Rev. Wm, Dick- 
son, who died 24th of April, 1859, aged 32 years. 'A woman 
who feareth the Lord she shall be praised.' Prov. 31. 30." 

The first interment in this cemetery is supposed to have been 
that recorded below. 

"In memory of John Burch I{sq., who departed this iife 
March 7th, 1797, aged ^5." 

The name Street is well represented here as well as in the 
neighborhood as Street's Mills, Street's Inland etc. Samuel 
Street was the wealthiest man of the district. 

" "Sacred to the- memory of Samuel Street, of the Niagara 
Falls, Born at Farmington Co.ji'ecticut , March 141)1, 1775. He 
settled in this; District A. L). 179 > and died August 2ist, 1844." 

The name of Thankful, Nehemiah and Abigail Street are 
found, also Thomas Clark Street, M P , who died at CUrk'., mills. 
The husband of Laura Secord, who was wounded at Queetiston 
Heights is thus recorded. 

"In memory of James Secord, Collector of Custo'ms, who 
departed ihis life 22nd February, 1841, aged 68." 

CHIPPAWA. 

The graveyard round Trinity Church is evidently old, as 
around the three sides may be seen the stumps of rows of im- 
mense trees which from .their weather worn appearance must have 
been cut down long ago. From the fa:t of this having been the 
scene of a battle we might expect to find the graves of many 
military men but evidently .these had all been "heaped and pent, 
rider and horse in one red burial blent" for here they are not 

h found. The names most frequently occurring 1 are well kmvn to 
those who have studied the early history uf this old settlement, 

. Cummings, Claik, Street, Macklern. McMicking, KirkpatricK. 
Here are found names showing foreign origin as Rapalje, Hugoe, 
Ives, Vinnidy, Bliling, Shoemacker, Sibbit, etc. 

Close to the church in an enclosure covered closely with vines 
are two handsome headstones commemorating the first minister, 
who'-'e register of births, deaths and marriages from 1820 to 1837 
has lately been found. 

"Sacred to the memory of Rev. Wm". Leeming, late rector of 






4t 

this parish, who was appointed a missionary to Canada by the 
society for the propogation of the gospel in foreign parts in 
March 1820, born Feb. 25th, 1787, died June ist, 1863. Thy 
-fcwill be done." 

"Sacred to the memory of Margaret Hickson, fjr thirty years 
and upwards the affectionate wife of Wm. Leeming, first minister 
here, born October 2ist, 1777, died April 6th, 1853." 

In a large square enclosure of stone and iron are two of the 
old altar tombstones. 

"Sacred to the memory of Thomas Clark, a native of 
Dumfries, Scotland, who died in 1837, aged 67, and for more 
than twenty years v r as an independent member of the Legislative 
Council of this province, having lived in this province trom its 
earliest settlement, and by persevering industry and strict inte- 
grity procured for him general respect, while his kind disposition 
and becoming deportment endeared him to numerous friends, by 
whom his death will be long and deeply lamented. His sisters 
in grateful recollection of their affectionate brother have erected 
this tablet to his memory." 

That to his wife is in similar form with a short and simple 
inscription. 

"Sacred to the memory of Mary Margaret Clark, wife of the 
Honorable Thomas Clark, and daughter of Robert Kerr Esq. late 
Surgeon of the militia department in this province, who died in 
"1837, aged 45." 

In another enclosure. 

"In memory of Thomas Macklem, fifth son of James and 
Lydia Macklem, born at Chippawa 1817, died at Magnolia, East 
Florida, 1859." 

On the other side, "James Cummings eldest child oT Thomas 
C. and Caroline Macklem. Drowned in the Niagara river at 
Clark Hill, and whose body unhappily was not recovered. His 
mother thus denied the consolation of laying it near his father has 
caused this inscription to be placed here to commemorate his 
birth 1852, and his melancholy death, May 6th, 1860." 

In another enclosure are inscriptions. 

-' "In memory of James Cummings, born 1789, died 1875, and 
Sophia his wife, born 1800, died 1878, also Ann Macklem, his 
sister, born 1800, died 1886," 

James Cummings was the son of Thomas Cummings, the first 
settler at Chippawa, coming in 1784, being Town Clerk, 
Justice of the Peace, performing marriages in that capacity. The 
books kept from 1796 by him and his son James are models of 
neatness and methodical habits. 



42 

Another large enclosure of stone and iron with many 
tombstones. 

"In memoriam Oliver T. Macklem, fourth son of James and 
Lydia Macklem. On a square pedestal is a marble female figure 
life size, "to the eldest daughter of James and Adelaide Macklem, 
died at Toronto 1889, aged 25." 

One soldier's grave was found. 

"In memory of Adam Ormsbry Esq. late Major of the 3rd 
Dragoon Guards, who died gth October, 1835." 

On old stones are inscriptions to J. Kirkpatrick, 1831, and 
Jane Cockrott, his wife and a late one to Marv Howat Hurrell, 
daughter of John Kirkpatrick, also Mary Other McMicking, be- 
loved wife of George McMicking, 

As showing distant place of birth. 

"Thomas Craine, born in Douglas, Isle of Mac, and Ludwig 
Billing and Frederick, wife of Ludwig Billing." 



PRESBYTERIAN GPTWCYftRD CHIPPAWA. 

Here the names are almost all either of Scottish or German 
origin, the former predominating, as Menzies, Meiklejohn, Mc- 
Kenzie, Dobbie, Fleming, Gowanlock, Aberdeen and Flett, Kister, 
Lehrback, Oeppling, Lutes, Snider, Herber, and the places of 
birth, Dumbarton, Stirling, Banff, Renfrew, South Carolina and 
Alsace etc. 

A granite monument is in memory of a valued physician and 
dignitary of the church. 

"In" memory ot Robert Aberdeen, M.R.C.S.E., born in 
Bervif*, Kincardmeshire, Scotland, born 1808, died 1879." 

Here is the record of a railway tragedy. 

"Elizabeth wife of John Copfer, killed by accident at 
Ashtabula, Ohio, Dec, 2gth, 1876," 

And two from the German fatherland. 

"In memory ot Nicholas Willick, died March 25th, 1894, aged 
78, a native of Upper Alsace, Germany." 

And on an iron cross. 

"M. Herber Gestorben 7th January, 1862, 70' jahr, and H. 
Herber Gestorben, ^th October, 1869, 79 jahr," 

"Sacied to the memory of Thomas Fleming, a native of 
Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1813 1861." 



43 

In that to Jeanie Fleming, wite of Addison Waud is another 
example that the name of the first minister of Niagara was kept 
in memory 

The name of Jason Mogge, son of Jason and Caroline Plato, 
recalls the name of the Plato graveyard near Fort Erie, 

One of the few verses in this graveyard is of a higher order 
than the frequent doggerel, 

"Now low in earth 
That form of love decays unseen 
Yet not forgot 

Above in angel light arrayed 
Beyond the stars 
Some more exalted form 
His spirit wears." 



THOROL& DCCCW'S. 

Near this was the spot sought by Laura Secord in her memor- 
able walk 23rd June, 1813. On a hillside is an old graveyard, 
some of the dates going back to the time of the war. 

"In memory of George Couke, who departed this life Dec. 
4th, 1812, aged 55," 

His wite buried beside him must have survived him many 
years, dying 1838, aged 86. We learn from other sources that 
George Couke was a private in the 2nd Lincoln Militia. 

Andrew Hansel, born 1747, died i6th May, 1818, aged 70, 
and John Hansel May 29th, 1813. 

George Hoover died 1 5th February 1827, aged 90. 

In an iron fence enclosure with a large Aberdeen granite 
monument. 

"In memory of Jonathan Hagar, died October roth 1813, his 
wife Azubah, died 1847, aged 78." Also Mahitable, daughter of 
Jonathan and Azubah Hagar. 

Mary Seburn and Stephen Seburn died in 1828 and 1830 
respectively. The name Swayze occurring in the first Parliament, 
also the name given to a delicious apple of this peninsula 
is here found. 

"In memory of Hannebel, son of Malum and Mehitabel 
Swayze." 

"Mary Swayze wife of Hiram Swayze, died 1818 aged 32." 
-. Is this an ancestor of one of our missionaries in China ? 



44 

"In memory of Thomas Goforth, died 1844, aged 88." 

It is remarkable how few here give the place of birth but thai 

below shows pride of country though destitute or almost so of 

capital letters. 

"Sacred to the memory of Wallace Bell, who departed this 

life August 3ist 1828, aged 35, he was a native of colclengh, 

northumberland, old england. 

Here VVallace Bell lies in the dust 
When his time comes to die he must." 

The rest is indecipherable. 

On one stone is the name of Jacob Hansel and in that beside 
it Israel Hansel near them Gran Theal, Zalmm Theal, and the 
names, Tuer, Marlatt, Lutz, Metier, Griffiths, Hopkins are found 
and among Christian names Ephraim, Andrew, Jacob, many 
reaching extreme old age as 88, 93 etc, Many old stones are 
chipped so as to be unreadable. 

A short distance from this is the Decevv Church with a grave- 
yard of later date with the names of Detler, Warner, Ash and 
Fawell, Merethew, Vanderburgh, An inscription in German 
with the English translation below. 

"Anna Marie Egister, Ehefrau von Joseph Zieglr gest d 17 
Mai 1874 alter 29 Jahre." 

The verse following the next inscription rises above the 
ordinary range. 

"In memory of Rebecca, wife of Hugh James, Sr. born in 
Locherea, Ireland, born 1775, died i86q, aged 73. 

Rest weary head 

Lie down to slumber in the peaceful tomb 
Light from above has broken through the gloom 
Herein the place where once thy Saviour lay 
Where He shall wake thee in a future day 
Like a tired child upon its mother's breast 

Rest sweetlv rest." 



LUTHERAN CHUIXX. 

In the register kept by Rev. Wm. Leeming, of Stamford 
and Chippawa, is often mentioned as the place of marriage burial 
or baptism, the "German Church" and here near Thorold is the 
graveyard, although the church no longer exists, as it was taken 
down to make way for the new canal. Many of the bodies buried 
here were removed to the beautiful new cemetery but the greater 



-45- 

part of the old graveyard remains. The site is fine undulating 
ground, almost hill and valley. While copying inscriptions in 
this city of the dead it wa? strange to see a vessel passing so 
close to us that we could hear every word spoken. 

The church was built chiefly by the exertions of George 
Keefer, whose history is the history of the early days of Thornld, 
he having been the earliest settler. His body was removed with the 
old stone which bears the simple inscription. 

"Sacred to the memory of George Keefer, born in Sussex 
County colony of New Jersey, Nov. 8th, 1773, died at Thorold, 
June 28th, 1858, aged 84 years." 

He was the director of the Welland Canal Co,, and turned 
the first sod. In the history of Thorold are the pictures of him 
self, his two wives and fifteen children. His first wife was 
*" Catharine Lampman, and here no doubt is a memorial of an an- 
cestor of the gifted poet Lampman, who died so lately at Ottawa. 
"In memory of Peter Lampman, who died in 1834. aged 86. 
He came from New York to this province in 1783 with his family 
and has resided fifty years in the township of Niagar.i. He was 
always a pious, faithful and respectable member of the German 
Lutheran Church." 

In *he marriage record of the Stamford Associate Church 
nearly all the licenses were granted by 'Robert Grant Esq., and 
here is his grave. 

' Sacred to the memory of Robert Grant Esq. born at Inver- 
ness, Scotland, i6th Nov. 1776, died at Queenston, U C.. i6th 
May, 1838. This monument is erected by his daughter Christina, 
wife of Jacob Keefer Esq., of Thorold." 

Here occur the well known names of Ball, Clement, Hoover, 
^ Seburn, Field, Ker. 

Walter H. Ball died in 1822 and Jane Catharine Ball in 1818, 
while Henry Clement Ball born in 1789 and Mary Ball born in 
1796, must have been born here soon after the family came in 
1782, Charity Ann Hoover was buried here in 1829, Margaret 
Hoover in 1826 and Jacob Ball in 1819. 

ALLANBUROH- 

The land for this graveyard was given to the village by Mr. 
John Vanderburgh, who came in 1781 and obtained 700 acres. 
The oldest grave is 

"In memory of Noah Davis, son of Wright Davis, who de- 
parted this lite Dec. 29111, 1813, aged 21 yrs.'' 

"In memory of Mary Crysler who departed this life on the 



46 

i4th Dec. 1815, in the 52nd year of her age." 

Deborah Davis, wife ot Thaddens Davis, died in 1818, aged 
82, and Captain Davis 1830, aged 55. Across the street was an 
inscription to Major A. Upper, who died Sept. 2ist, 1853, aged 
82, also Jos. Upper jr. aged 76. 

The names of Chrysler, Vanalstone, Upper, Swayzie, Bump, 
Moshier, Walkinshaw, Rannie, are found here. 



WELLAND, BUPGCP'S. 

Near Welland close to the canal is an old private burying 
plot belonging to the Burger family in which is found great 
uniformity, as at least a dozen white marble slabs can be seen 
with a weeping willow carved at the top. The oldest interment 
is thus recorded. 

"Sacred to the memory of Ann, wife of Joseph Burger, born 
1774, died 1814." 

Joseph Burger himself vvas born 1773 died 1848. and a 
second wife also Ann died 1833. 

Joseph Priestman, aged 79 and Peter Burger and many 
others of the same name lie here on this corner as it were between 
the river and canal. Also near Welland is the Fan- 
burying place where a Methodist Church formerly stood. 

Here are buried Farr's and Brown's, where now cattle roam 
at will. 



BPOWN PLOT- 

Across the river is the home of Miss Brown who has an 
interesting old account book dating back to 1793 showing 
accounts of a distillery in Chippawav as it is spelled. 

The great grandfather, Lieut, Jno. Brown was one ot the 
first settlers on the Welland river, fought at the side of Wolfe at 
Quebec and assisted to carry him from the field when wounded, 
as narrated by his grand-daughter and found seated in "Wolfeland" 
that he was supported by Lieut. Brown of the Grenadiers ; a 
young Irishman born about 1739, and thus about twenty. He 
returned to Ireland, married, came to New Jersey and to Canada 
in 1789. On the Brown farm originally 300 acres, is the burial 
place ot the old soldier, a creek meanders its way, solemn pines 
wave their branches, and an oak tree stands between the graves of 



' 47 

husband and wife. A pathetic interest attaches to the spot, for 
here an old negro and his wife who had faithfully nursed Capt. 
John Brown when ill with smallpox, are buried. The son 
Alexander Brown, who was in the Incorporated Militia in 1812, 
is buried on the Farr farm, and his son, Capt. John Brown, who 
was out in the Rebellion is interred at Fonthill. 

rONTHILL QUAKER GRAVEYARD 

There are here two old Qunker graveyards, the two meeting 
houses still stand, the one ot brick, the other a small frame 
building. 

These early settlers, Mennonites and Quakers seemed to 
have carried out their ideas of plainness and simplicity in their 
last resting place. Roxvs and rows of low stones not more than a 
foot high above the ground but in some cases a foot square, 
sloping back, .the inscription merely name and age, not even the 
birthplace is recorded, no titles, no praise, no high sounding 
ep'taph. There are a few attempts to ape modern ideas, higher 
stones and in one case a low granite monument dares to raise its 
head, showing that modern ideas begin to prevail. In the oldest 
graveyard rows and rows of graves with nothing to mark their 
identity, merely a rough common stone from the field without 
even initials. A few low stones similar to those in the last grave- 
yard are seen. Frequently the expression gth month, 3rd month 
occurs instead of our names of Latin origin. None of the stones 
with names are very old showing that in early days even this 
slight .nark of remembrance was condemned and looked on as 
unnecessary. The oldest is to Eliza Carl died 1826. Many reach- 
ed old age as Thomas Spencer, aged 88. Peter Singer, died 1869, 
agedSi, Jacob Gainer born 1815, died 1900, aged 85. Jane 
Laird relict of late Samuel Taylor, aged 81. A few have a line of 
quotation as 

"Orin Bemis born 1809, died 1886 

Gathered into the garner." 

"James Spencer died i2th day of 3rd month, 1870." 
"Jonathan Page aged 79, died in the 8th day of loth month. 

We will meet on the other shore." 
"Hannah Gould died 1850 

Sacred fore'er from busy life 
They sleep in this lone spot 
But oh amid earths joys 
They ne.'er shall be foVgot." 



46- 

A young wife lias a modern stanza. 

"Margaret Beckett wife of John Var.derburgh died 1878, 
aged 29. 

Do you mourn when anotner star 
Shines forth in the evening sky ? 
Do you weep when the noise of war 
Or the rage of the conflict die ? 
Then why should your tears roll down 
Or your hearts be sorely riven 
For another gem in the Saviour's Crown 
For another soul in Heaven ?" 

The names of Chester, Cari, Taylor, Betts, Hill, McAlpin 
occur frequently. 

rONTHILLCmETCRY. 

"In memory of Geo. Misener died August lyth, 1802, aged 
18 months i day. The first grave in this y^rd." 

"In memory of John Misener died August 23rd, 1832, aged 
12 years, 10 months 17 day." 

We learn from residents that this is misleading as the state- 
ment of the first grave refers to the latter inscription as the body 
of the child who died in 1802, was brought here afterwards, no 
doubt from a family burial plot. 

In old Niagara papers the name of D'Everardo suggesting a 
French origin occurs frequently in the official advertisements. 

"In memory of Dexter D'Everardo, born in Paris, France, 
28th Dec,, 1814, died at Welland, Out., July 28th 1891 Regis- 
trar of Deeds 1852. Registrar of Surrogate Court 1856. First 
appointment in Welland County." 

Mr. D'Everardo was also Superintendent of schools in the 
united counties of Lincoln and Welland before their separation. 

Here lies a patriarch indeed who reached far past the 
Psalmist's three score years and ten. 

"In memory of Elijah Primps, who died March i5th, 1843, 
aged 103 years." 

"In memory of Jean, beloved wife of John Watson, formerly 
ofH. B, M. Royal Aitillery, died Jan. igth, 1865, aged 50 years. 
Also Elizabeth their daughter, who was drowned in the Welland 
river, April 29th, 1865, aged 15 years." 

"In memory of John Frazer, M. D., born in Ayrshire, Scot- 
land, March i4th, 1806, died Oct. yth. 1882." 

Dr. Frazer was long a member of Parliament for Welland. 

"In memory of Jacob Brackbill, born Feb. ist, 1777, died 
26th, August, 1847. Sarah beloved wife of Jacob Brackbill, born 
4th Jan, 1779, died 2ist April, 1846." 



49- 

The following is one of the first interments. 

"In memory of Catharine wife of Thos. Bald, who departed 
this life April i8th, 1834, aged 38 yeats." 

"In memory of Robert Hobson, Sheriff of Welland for 25 
y^ars, Died August i6th, 1881, aged 76 years.' 1 

A teacher and apparently a stranger, has his name preserved 
by those among whom he labored. 

"Fides ad astra. 

Erected by a few friends in memory of Freeman Eldridge, 
for a number of years a school teacher in Pelham, A native of 
Maine U. S., who died Sept. 26th, 1845, aged 40 years. 
Requiescat in Pace." 

Whether these were twin brothers who died at the same age 
is not quite clear. 

"In memory of Thomas Rice, M. D., who died Nov. yth, 
1864, aged 31. 

Also Harley Rice, who died Jan. 24th, aged 3-1. 

Thomas Rice \vas drowned in Mississippi river near Grand 
Guif while in service of the U. S. 

The remains of Harley Rice are interred here." 



PORT ERIC ST, PAUL'S CHURCH. 

Since this is an old settlement and here so much fighting oc- 
curred in the war of 1812 it night be expected that there would 
be found the graves of many military heroes, and indeed military 
and naval heroes abound, but there are few dates farther back than 
1820 in any of the numerous graveyards here, At thac dreadful 
holocaust when 'he explosion occurred at the attack on Fort Erie 
no doubt the most were buried where they tell. It has been 
already seen that one naval hero was buried at Niagara and 
another at Lnndy's Lane. Many retired officers must have 
settled down here as witness. 

"This monument as a tribute of love and affection is erected 
by their thirteen surviving children to William Stanton, Stafford- 
shire, England Dep. Ass. Com. General, died i2th June, 1833 
aged 77." 

Here lie three member? of one family, a father and two son.-*, 
all officers. 

'Lieut. -Col Arthur Jones, C. B. 7ist Regt. 1836, 

Lieut, Arthur Jones yist Regft. 1856. 

Lieut. P. Jones R. N, 1839." 



50 

In Niagara we have already seen the record ot Col. Kings- 
mill and two sons also officers. 

"Sacred to the memory of Col. John Warren, J. P. and M. P. 
P. for the county of Haldimand, who departed this life 5th Sept. 
1832. 

Deeply and deservedly regretted. " 

It is told ot this veteran that he was defeated in a Parliamen- 
tary Election by John Brant who was however unseated, being- an 
^Indian. 

An East Indian veteran has on his tombstone within a 
medallion surmounted by a crown, an elephant, in the circle 
around the words Hindoostan Peninsula LXXVI. Maior Routh 
1849, aged 65." 

In the United Service Journal it is told ot Benjamin Routh 
that he had fought at Copenhagen and was one of those who laid 
the gallant Sir John Moore in his grave in the ramparts of 
Corunna "the sod with their bayonets turning." Five days after 
his death his Peninsular medal arrived with clasps for Nive. 
Nivelle and Corunna, 

"Sacred to the memory of Col. the Hon. fas. Kirby, 2nd 
Lincoln Militia, died June 2Oth 1854, aged 69 He was a faithful 
subject of the Crown and tor his gallantry during the war of 1812 
received the thanks of his country and WHS presented with a valu- 
able sword by the Leg. Assembly of U. C. In private life he was 
esteemed for his amiable qualities, his generous and benevolent 
disposition and for his exemplary character as a parent, a friend 
and a Christian." 

A tablet and a monument commemorate the first rector of the 
parish. 

"Sacred to the memory of Rev. Jno, Anderson born 1805, 
died 1849. For twenty years rector." 

Near Fort Erie are numerous family burying plots on the 
farms of the first settlers. 



MG\ree GRAVEYARD 

An old frame building no longer used is called the McAfee 
Church and opposite it the enclosure with graves. Of Mr. 
McAfee it is said that he was a sympathizer with Wm. Lyon 
McKenzie who came here after the skirmish at Montgomery's 
tavern and crossed the river from this place. The name occurs 
thus, 



-51 

"In memory of Veronica, wife of Daniel McAfee, died 1850, 
aged 50." 

Here lies an old Butler's Ranger. 

"Lewis Mabee died Oct. i2th 1823, aged 85," 

A small stone has an inscription in German. 

"Hier ruhet der verstorbene Benjamin Hersche ward 
gebohren im iahr 1741 und gestorben im yahr 1820 den 29 
October." ^he original spelling in this and other instances is re- 
produced. 

GRAH/W rAi v llLY I3URYING GROUND. 

The Graham enclosure with beautiful forest trees near, 
seems to have been used by several families who buried their dead 
in long rows. Here is a well kno\vn name. 

"In memory of James Wintermute, born March iyth, 1782, 
died June 25th, 1858." 

"In memory of Richard Graham born 1759, died Dec. I5th, 
1812, aged 53." 

HCRSHEY raniLY BURYING GROUND- 



'Not far from this is the Har^hev plot, this bein<r the En^- 

' t <* fy 

1'sh spelling of the name Hersche and here ojcurs in this neigh- 
borhood almost the only reference to the place of birth. 

"In memory ot Benjamin Hershey, born Lancaster Co. Pa. 
1776. Ciime to Canada 1795, died 1831, aged 55," This is 
doubtles- a son of the Benjamin mentioned betore. 

Here are found the names ot Abraham, Randolph, and 
Christian Hershey all attaining great age. 

PLATO rAMILY BURYING GROUND. 

This is about two miles from the village. The name is spell- 
ed Platovv in the original map, the family came from the Mohawk 
valley and the name is found in Butler's Rangers. Here may be 
seen the names Benner, Beam, Jansen, Sabine, Spear, and among 
the Christian names are Cornelius, Christian, Christianna, Jacob, 
etc. In a graveyard near St, John's Church is the name of 
another Ranger. 

"In memory of JoHn G. Angerdied 1813, in his 77th year. 
Abigail his wife died in her 8ist year." 
= Many German names are found as Rohr. Huffman, Jansen ; 



-52- 
ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, BERTIE. 

the names Scarlett and House occur frequently and again extreme 
age is recorded. 

In this graveyard are found several inscriptions which if not 
of historic or poetic value are amusing or otherwise interesting. 

A tombstone with the accustomed yew tree has the words. 

"Alas poor Powell who departed this life 25th January, 1867, 
aged 66." 

We learn his first name from the next stone. 

"In memory ot Rebecca wife ot WiKiam Powell." 

Whither Isaac Brock who died 1864, aged 41, selected the 
following lines showing very primitive taste, or whether selected 
by his friends we know not. 

''Isaac Brock is my name 
Canada is my nation 
Canada is my dwelling place 
And Heaven ferny expectation/'" 

Not satisfied with this, four lines of the same order follow, 
although heard of before only now did I actually see this old 
rhyme. 

"When I am dead and in my grave 
And all my bones are rotten 
This little verse will tell my name 
When I am quite forgotten." 

"For Thomas Spedding who died in 1876" a mere dignified 
verse is selected. 



tl l have fought the good fignt I have kept the faith." 

A Loyalist and his wife attained great age, 

"In memory of John Laur who died 1844, aged 83, and 
Sarah his wife aged 89.'* 

The lines following are certainly original and unique if not 
poetic. 

"In memory of Isaac H. ]un. son of Isaac H. and Meryum 
Allen. 



53 

I. H. to visit friends did go 
Was to return in a day or so 
But sickness overtook him soon 
Sleeping in death be was brought home. 
He's gone the loved and cherished one 
Like some bright star he passed away 
Death c'aimed his victim and he sank 
Calm as the sun's expiring ray 
No more we'll hear at morn 
His feet upon the stair 
">eath hath our I. H. borne 
From this world of care." 

As a contrast to this we find a few lines from Longfellow's 
beautiful poem Resignation on a more modern stone, 

"In memory of Lawrence Zimmerman died 1889, aged 25. 

There is no death 

What seems so is transition 

This life of mortal breath 

Is but the suburbs of- the life Elyeian 

Whose portals we call death." 

Her? are found the names Dunckl.ee>,. Buck,, Wilds, Adair y 
Shotwell, Strowe, Spedding, Stevenson, H.ibberd, Kraffl.. Knoll, 
Miller. 

A drive along- the beautiful Ridge rod past the scene of the 
battle of Ridgeway brought us to Zion Methodist Church and the 
first tombstone commemorates one of 'a- well known family. 

4 Sacred to the memory of Rev. S, E Ryerson, Methodist 
Episcopal, minister, who died. April 1863,. aged 51. 

Servant of God well done 
The glorious warfare passed 
The battle's 'fought the race is won 
And thou art crowned at last " 

This populous graveyard has many foreign names, several of 
them Royalist families and many Ivave attained great ages as 

"Joseph Danner aged 96: died 1870.. Rebecca his wife, aged 
82. 

Josiah Bearss died 1879, a tf ed $7- ' 

The names Zavitz, Plato, Burger. Leiffer, Kraffc. Janserr, 
Anger, Teal, Paulus, Athol. Fliege, Haworth. Rice, Ellsworth 
are found. 

A pastor's wife is thus spoken of 

'In: memory of. Maggie, beloved, wife of Rev.. J. W,, Butler,, 
died 1872. 



54 



She was beautiful, affable and Christian." 

"Chauncey M Hibbard and Asenach Humphrey his wife" a 
mingling of American and Egyptian names, 

An inscription in German is also found here, 

"Andenkenan Anna R. Singer Geb. 7 Sep. 1806, Gest. 5 Feb. 
1886, alt 79 jhr. 

UnserLeben vahret sieben/ig. 
Jahr und verais hoch Kommt so 
Sund's achtzig und vemis Kost 
lich geveeen is; so ist's 
Muhe und arbeit gevesen." 

This somewhat free translation of the words of Moses in the 
90th Psalm is not in orthography or syntax above criticism but 
th words are appropriate for one who had passed the three score 
and ten limit. 

RIDGCWAY. 

At Ridgeway the oldest inscription was 1836. The names of 
Schooley, Hershey, Gorham, Difher, Sloss, Troup, Tuttle, File, 
Vabery, Deckont, Hannsen, show foreign origin. 

A striking line seen here lingers in the memory. 
"She always made home happy." 

BCNNCR FAMILY BURYING PLACE. 

In this small enclosure are ten graves of which eight are 
Benners, all recording great ages as 81,84,88, and one even 
reaching 99. Jacob Benner one of Butler's Rangers died in 1817 
and his wife Susanna in 1822, aged 99. One wife is recorded as 
having been 27 years older than her husband. 

nCNNONITC GRAVEYARD TP- CLINTON- 

"In memory of John Claus, who was born April roth, 1730, 
and departed this life June i8th, 1824, aged 94 years. 

"Daniel Hock, Gebohren Den IT ten April, 1773, is Gestor- 
ben Den 20 ten November, 1812. Hat Gilebt 39 Jahr 7 months 
und 9 tags." 

DISCIPLES CHURCH JORDAN- 

"In memory of Peter Hare, Senior, who was born May nth, 
1748, and departed this life April 6th, 1834, aged 85 years n 
months." 



55 

Peter Hare was a Captain in Butler's Rangers and was 
latterly known as Col. Hare probably from rank in Lincoln 
Militia. His widow as we have seen is buried at Homer near St. 
Catharines. 

PORT HAITIAN D CCMCTCRY, 

A tragedy is recorded in th* inscription on two monuments 
in this old graveyard near Dunnville. 

"The officers non-commissioned officers and privates of the 
Reserve Battalion 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers have erected this 
stone to mark the spot where lie the remains of Asst. Surgeon 
Gratitham and twenty-four men. women and children ot that Regi- 
ment who perished near the shore by the sinking ot the Steamer 
Commerce on the night of the 6th May, 1830, whilst on their 
route from Montreal to London, C. W." 

At the late Historical Loan Exhibit in Toronto a candlestick 
found in the bottom of the lake belonging to the Regiment was 
shewn. A letter from a lady near Dunnville dated May gth, 
1850, says ''the Despatch Str. ran into the Commerce which sank 
in fifteen minutes, and forty men, women and children were drown- 
ed, seventy escaped. The other three officers were saved, among 
them the Ensign, Sir Henry Chamberlain. The regimental plate, 
wine and stores are lost and much money. The people of Dunn- 
ville supplied the survivors with all the bedding, blankets, etc., 
they could." 

The bodies were laid in a long trench which may be plainly 
seen. 

"Sacred to the memory of Dr. Grantham, Asst. Surgeon 23rd 
Ruyal Welsh Fusiliets, aged 35 years, son of S. Grantham Esq. 
Lewes, Sussex, Eng , who was drowned in Lake Erie on the 
night of the 6th May, 1850. A young widow and intant daughter 
are left to lament his sudden and melancholy fate." 

"To the memory of John Johnson, late Lieutenant Colonel of 
the Bombay Engineers and Companion of the Bath, who depart- 
ed this life on the nth of February, 1846, aged 77 years." 

"In memory of Dederika, widow of the late Lieut. -Col., John 
Johuson, r. B., who departed this life on the I5th day ot April, 
A.D. 18:50, aged 74 years." 

Capt. Cotton of the 6o/.h Regiment is also buried here. 

BURKHOLDEK'S PRIVATE BURYING GROUND- 

Two miles from Hamilton this may be seen, the oldest in- 



56 

scriptions go back to 1820 and here are found the familiar texts 
and doggerel ver.^e common to that period. Tne first two are 
evidently father and daughter, only separated fo-r a tew m^nihs,, 

"In memory of Barbara, daughter of John and Magdalene 
Neff, died November 13th, 1820, aged 18 years. The Lord is 
nigh to them that call upon Him." 

"John Nefif died January 30th> 1821, aged 50 rears." 

Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord. They rest from 
their labors and their works do foJlpvv them." 

"In memory of Christian B.urkholder b^orn. Dec, i4th, 1772, 
died Sept. i7th v 1843, aged 71." 

Remember me as you pass by 
As you are now so once was I 
As I am now so you must be 
Piepare for death and follow me." 

"In memory of Peter- Burkholder, w.ho died 2ist Dec,, 1867, 
aged 73. 



Servant <>tQo4 vyell done 
Rest f i om thy loved employ 
The battle fought the victory won 
Enter thy Ma-ter's joy." 

His wife Susannah Burkholder died 187^, aged 78. 
"In memory of Obadiah Taylor a native of Long Inland, 
State of New York, whp djed March 2nd, 1856, aged 86 years." 

Afflictions sore lon time I bore 
Physicians were in vain 
At length God pit asect to give me ease 
And freed me, from my pain," 

A slab to Eleana Goldsmith, who died in the last decade 
praises her in both prose and verse thus. 

l4 Her whole. Ijfe was a fulfillment of John I5th chapter, 2nd 
verse. Every branch in. me that beareth fruit He purgeth that it 
may bring forth, more fruit." 

Her real merit was known by those w.ho knew her best. 

The friend of sinners was her friend 
TrustiM^ to Him she met her end 
Nor in the judgment shall she fear 
Then shall liar frien.d as jnd^e appwar 
l'>y faith in Jesus' conquest she reiied 
III Jesus' merits ventured all and died/' 



57 

HAMILTON CEMETERY. 

The city cemeteries offer little in the way of early settlers or 
curious inscriptions as in general the old graveyards gradually 
surrounded are destroyed and built over in the inevitable march of 
improvement, but here is the name of one of the family which 
gave the name to Hamilton. 

A large granite monument reads 

"Sacred to the memory cf Robert Jarvis Hamilton, born May 
29111. 1812, died 1892. Catharine his wife, born 1818 died 1847. 
Mary Jane his wife, born 1829 died 1899." 

Many of the family are buried in the Hamilton family burying 
ground at Queenston. 

A large altar tomb has the following inscription 

"Sacred to the memory of Lieut. -Col. Gourlay, who died at 
his residence Barton Lodge, 1867. He was for 25 years an officer 
of the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers serving with the regiment in 
France, Spain and various British stations and In the Canadian 
Rebellions 1837. -8. He was a sincere Christian and in all the 
relations of lite public and private an honourable and upright 
man." 

"Sacred to the memory of Right Rev. Thos. Brock Fuller, 
D.D., first bishop of the Diocese of Niagara, born at Kingston 
1810, died 1884, also his wife, Cynthia Street, born 1816, died 
1892." 

Col. Robt. Land was the first settler at the head of the lake, 
of whom a very romantic story is told, the husband and wife each 
thinking the other dead, meeting here after many years. 



In Beamsville on rising g.ound next to *he Baptist Church is 
a stone to one of the early settlers who gave ihe name to the 
village. 

"In memory of Jacob Beam, Sr. born Nov. 29th, 1728, died 
May roth, 1812, aged 83," also to his wite a^ed 83.'' 

A more pretentious granite monument to Jacob Beam Jr 
aged 85. 

There are many old gre'y stones wi;h the peculiar round or 
angled tops. It is remarkable that such old stones are so legible 
bnt it is said that Mrs. Bongner, a daughter of Elder Hill, paid 
tq have these cleared from moss and mould. 



55 

A long- Ime of Adairs a dozen at least shews that they were 
among the earliest settlers. 

"In memory of David Adair, aged 77 died in 1811. Jesus 
wept. His wife Abigail aged 77." 

One peculiarity of this graveyard is the number of Bible texts 
and also of verse, we will not say poetry. There is also an entire 
absence of military dignitaries, at least if such it is not recorded 

"In memory of Anna Adair, daughter of Joseph and Charity 
Adair. 

My body lies beneath 
the dust my soul has 
gone on high to dwell 
with Jesus and the 
just in peace and 
love and joy." 

"Sacred to the memory of Mercy Hixon, died 1828, aged 24. 

Weep, weep and mourn 

The tomb has swallowed up my friend," 

"A long row oi Merralls and another of Skell^ys, Mot a few 
in this ground show the place of birth. 

"In memory of Henry Rolt, born in Pennsylvania i778 s died 
1874, aged 9.v" and John Beam, born in New jersey, emigrated 
to Canada in 1788, died here, aged 82." 

"In memory of Charity Adair. wife of Joseph A,i * , ^ 
1837. Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord." 

The same text is on the tombstone of Elizabeth House, 
daughter of Courad Wier, born 1800, died 1825. 

' In memory of Daniel Skelley, who departed this life Dec. 
1 5th, 1823, aged 23 

Reader, although my body lies 

Beneath the silent clod, 
Yet every turf above me cries 

Prepare to ireet thy God." 

Of Joseph Merrill it is said, "He lived, he died, he lives 

to die no more." 

"Samuel Corwin and his wife, born in New Jersey, 1767." 
"In memory of Cristopher, son of Jerry Trion and Allice 

Kentner, aged 28. 

A pale consumption gave the fatal blow, 
The stroke was struck but the effect wa. slow ; 
In wasting pain Death saw him long oppressed, 
Tity'd his sorrow and kindly brought him rest." 



A large upright stone in memory of 

"Elder Thomas Hill, ot Dunstable, England, born 1780 died 
1839." 

Two verses below are in honor of himself and wife. 

A long row ot Bougners born in New Jersey who came like 
others in 1788, all remarkable for great age as Martin Bougner 
aged 84, his wite came in 1793 and died aged 81. 

A modern granite monument has replaced an older one and 
records the virtues of a pastor. 

"Sacred to the memory of Rev. Thomas Morgan. He was 
born in Cardiffshire, North Wales, he emigrated to the United 
States in 1817 and was ordained a minster of the Baptist Denom- 
ination, of Utica N. Y. He came to this province in 1824 and be- 
came pastor of the Baptist Church in Clinton, where he labored 
tor three years with acceptance. As a preacher he was warm and 
energetic, commending himself to every man's conscience, he 
was unwearied in his exertions to promote the Redeemer's king- 
dom, gravelling from house to house warning every man as in the 
sight ot God. As a Christian in his daily walk he commended 
the Gospel which he preached. As a Husband and father he was 
tender and affectionate. He died in the triumphs of faith and the 
hupe of a glorious immortality on the gth Feb. 1837, in the 4Oth 
year of his age." 

"In memory of Charlotte, wife of Jas. Freed, daughter of 
Thos. and Martha Hill, departed this life in the assurance of a 
glorious immortality 1841, aged 37. 

Dreary dving world adieu 
Brighter scene* appear in view 
Jesus calls and 1 must rise 
Te join the mansions in the skies 
Glad to obey the signal given 
Death is but the gate to Heaven." 

A more modern monument shows that a stranger dving in a 
distant land is gratetully remembered. 

"Rev. John Callander, M. D. from Falkirk, Scotland, died at 
Toronto 1853, aged 34." 

On one side is the single word Resurgam and on the other 

"Erected by his friends in Clinton as a tribute of respect for 
his manly qualities and Christian virtues." 

An old stone forms a contrast and calls up Grey's line. 

" With unconth lines and shapeless sculpture decked." 

"Mary wife of Daniel Dang he thy. 



60- 

Blessed are the th a t die in the Lord. 

The names of House, Couse, Mclntyre, Hilburn, are also 
seen frequently. 

An oid record book of the Baptist Church dates back to 1807 
A deed of land of two acres from Jacob Beam for the church and 
graveyard is shewn and the names of early members. Elder 
Morse is mentioned in 1807. 

STONEY CREEK. 

Near the battle field of Stoney Creek on a slight rising 
ground on land given by the Gage familv is the grave- 
yard. Till quite lately here stood a frame building a Methodist 
Church, in the walls ot which might be seen the bullet s fired on th it 
day of June 1813, but it has been pulled down by modern iconoc- 
lasts. The oldest stone found was chipped so as to be almost 
illegible, a reddish stone from the neighborhood, something in 
color like the Credit valley stone. 

"Sacred to the memory 3f Mrs. Phebe Bates, wife of Wm. 
Bates, born in Stamford, Connecticut died in this province, Dec. 
i6th, 1807, aged 46. 

Pause reader and behold my fate 
How soon my race is run 
Eteri^al .... my state 
Before my life is gone." 

On an old grey stone 

"Erected to the memory of Wm. Gage from Ireland, Co 
Derry, died Sept. nth, 1820, aged 76." 

A smaller stone to his wife, Susan Gage, died 1821, and a 
more modern one 

"In memory of Capt. John Gage, who died May i6th, 1860, 
aged 66." 

The Gage homestead has been lately fitted up as a museum 
by the Women's Wentworth Historical Society and Trom it may be 
seen the scene of the conflict. A massive monument of granite 
commemorates another member of the Gage family. 

"Catharine Gage, wife of Wm. Jones*" 

In the inscriptions there is great uniformity of verses as A 
faithful friend, A husband dear, A tender parent lieth here," one 
being evidently copied from another, but here is one certainly ori- 
ginal if not poetic. An old grey stone but quite legible. 

"This stone is erected to the memory of Thos Fanning, dijd 
1827, aged 22. 



61 

The rose of health bloomed on his cheeks 
And joy attend his youthful breath 
Tlu- rose was nipped in one short week 
And all was sunk in Bloomy death. 

Hark death can speak ray warning keep 
My warning wOrd poor Thotuas cries 
A few 7 short hours near you I sleep 
but we together b~>th shall rise. 

Oh may the living wisdom learn 
from my sepulchred mouldering clay 
from death's sad stings to swiftly turn 
prepared to meet the judgment day." 

And this the tribute of a friend 
"In memory of Jas. Lee, aged 57. 

Beneath this lies my bosom friend 
One v> horn I long adored 
He's gone and left me to depend 
On God for evermore.'' 

The names Nash, Fox, Lee, Glover, Potruff, Jones occur fre- 
quently. Three small stones have on each the words. "The 
family of the late Richard London," while other stones commemor- 
ate Richard London himself and his \\ife. 

There is little of a military nature, but one stone tells of a 
young 1 soldier. 

'* In memory of Lieut. G. G. Brabazon, late of Her Majesty's 
Royal Fusiliers, died 1851, aged 29." 

The drtadful railway accident near Hamilton here found a 
victim. 

* In memory of Robert Crawford who came to his death by a 
Disaster on the Great Western Railroad, at the bridge across the 
Desjardins Canal, March i2th, 1857." 

" In memory ot Jno. W, Crawford. 

Dear as thou wert and justly dear. 

We will not weep for thee ; 
One thought shall check the parting tear, 

It is that thou art free. ! 

There are many record? of extreme age as Jas. Lambier, aged 
81, Stephen Land, evidently a descendant of the. first settler in 
Hamilton, aged 74, but the oldest recorded is Christina Green, 
died 1882, aged 102. 

A few show the birthplace as 

"Sacred to the memory of Stephen Bedell, died 1837, aged 
92, a native of Staten Island." 



62 

" Mary, wife of John Yeager, daughter of A. Green, born in 
Sussex, New Jersey. 1791," 

Another bears the names of two husbands. 

44 In memory of Rachel Soules, wife of Joseph Penfold and 
relict of the late Alphaus Gorman, aged 82." 

Two large altar tombs are respectively to Clares, wife of 
John Galbraith 1835 and to John Fox, 1834. 

To one who died in early youth the text below seems appro- 
priate, 

44 Rebecca Jones, aged 19. 

Her sun is gone down while it is yet day." 

The same text is on the tomb of Clara Fortman, wife of Edw. 
Norton. 

There is also a large vault tor the family of R, Squires. 

ORIHSBY EPISCOPAL CHURCH- 

This graveyard seems to have been uaed by all denominations 
at first, The number of large altar tombs and other solid head 
stones show the early prosperity of the people. Here are found 
many names well known in Canadian history. 

44 In memory of Col. Robert Nelles, who was born 6th Octo- 
ber, 1761, in Palatine, on the Mohawk River Slate of New York, 
and died 27th July, 1842 at Grimsby, after a residence of 62 years 
in Canada." 

His wife Elizabeth died 1813, and the name of a second wife 
Maria is recorded. The commissions of Col. Nelles HS Lieut. 
Capt., Col., signed by different governors, from the year 1788 to 
1831 are in the Niagara Historical room. 

4 In memory of the Hon. Abraham Nelles, born 4th Dec. 
1775. died 7th July 1839. 

Eye hath not seen nor ear heard neither hath entered into the 
heart of man to conceive the things which God hath prepared tor 
those that love him. i Cor. 2, 3." 

Among the oldest interments are 

" In memory of John Moore, died May i6th, 1803, aged 64, 
and Dinah his wife, died Nov. Qth, 1804, aged 68." 

These however were removed from an earlier graveyard near 
the lake. 

An old grey stone has the following inscription. " Here lies 
the body of Isaac Chambers who was born 1762 and departed this* 
life Jan. 8th, 1805, aged 42, 



63 

O Lord, iny days is wastiag here 

And I draw near to death, 
Give me a land of joyful cheer, 

When I shall leave the earth. 

" In memory of Elizabeth Friller. wife of Abraham Pettit, born 
1778, died 1875, aged 97 years." 

"In memory of John S. Pettit, born 1788, died 1888. Mary 
Glover his wife, born 1791, in New Jersey, died 1856." 

*' In memory of Emmeline Bergman, wife of Jonathan Wol- 
verton, M.D., born at Germantown, Pa., January 3ist, 1816, 
died at Grimsby, June 29th, 1874." 

The first Missionary of Grimsby has left neatly kept records 
of his five years' pastorate from 1817 to 1822, in which latter year 
his death occured by accident. 

" In memory of Rev. Wm. Sampson, first Missionary of 
Grimsby, eldest son of Rev. Dr. Sampson, born at Wandsworth, 
Surrey, England, 1790, died at Grimsby, U.C., April i8th, 1822." 

A later minister also died here. 

- ** In memory of Rev. G. R. F. Grout, of Quebec, Rector of 
this parish for 22 years, during which' lengthened period he lab- 
oured faithfully and zealously, being the friend and adviser of old 
_and young, died 1849, aged 45. 

This monument was erected by his attached parishioners as 
a tribuce of affection to one they loved. 

Remember those which have the rule over you who have 
spoken unto you the word of God, whose faith follow. Heb. 13, 
7, 8." 

The author of the first poem published in Upper Canada "A 
day at the Falls," published in York, 1825, was then a teacher 
in York Grammar School and becaipe Incumbent of Saltfleet and 
Bin brook, 

* In memoriam, Rev. James Lynne Alexander, born at Glen- 
head Antrim, Ireland, 1801, died at Grimsby 1879. 

Where Christ who is our life shall appear, then shall ye also 
appear with him in glory." 

A number of altar tombs commemorate members of the 
Crooks family whose name is so well known. 

*' Sacred to the memory of William Crooks, who was born 
at Kilmarnock, Scotland", 6th August, A.D., 1776, and after a 
residence of 44 years in U.C. died at Niagara 3ist December, 
1836 Job 9, 12." 

" Sacred to the memory of Mary Butler, relict of Wm. Crooks, 



who departed this life at St. Anns, Nelson, 3oth Dec., 1851, aged 
70. Watch for the morning-. Ps. 130, 6." 

The following- inscription offers a refreshing contrast to the 
general dead level of those commonly found. 

"In memoiy of Caroline, consort of A. A. Wolverton, who 
was removed to the spirit world Sept. 23rd, 1849, aged 30 years. 

The material body is all that lies here, the substantial has 
gone to the spiritual sphere 

Where kindred spirits unite in one, 
Forever to dwell in their heavenly home.'' 

u ln memory of Jonathan Wolverton, who died 1831, aged 77 
years, and his wife Mary, who died 1804, aged 33 years." 

Another early settler who died young- is thus recorded 
" Here lies the body of Rose Beamer, who was born 26th 
January. 1783, and departed this life May iQth, 1806, aged 23. 

Now I have passed through death's dark door 
No eye on earth shall see me more ; 
Prepare to meet me here above." 

" Hete lies the body of Lydia Merrill, who was born 1791, 
died 1804, aged 13 

My aged friend to me attend 

And wipe your weeping eyes, 
No longer mourn your daughter gone 

To reiga above on high." 

4< Beneath this stone lieth the remain^ of Margaret Crooks, 
late of the kingdom ot Scotland, who was born in Edinburgh, 23rd 
April, A.D., 1753, died at Ancaster, in the Province of U.C., 2nd 
October, 1826, aged 74 years. 

This testimony of Filial respect errected to her memory by 
her affectionate children." 

"IN PACE- 

"Jonathan Wolverton M. D., born Feb. 22nd, 1811, died 
April i2th. 1883." 

"In memory of Hannah Simmerman. wife of Jas. N. Sim- 
merman, born 1816, departed this life 1835, aged 19 " 

Still in Him she firm confided 
Who in love bestowed thr ro<l 
Desirous that each child residing 
In this region turn to God." 



65 

"Here lies the body of Sarah Walker, wife of William 
Walker, who departed this life 6th April, 1806, in the 6oth year of 
her age. 

Remember me as you pass by 
As you are now so once was I 
As I am now so you must be 
Prepare for death and follow me." 

It might be interesting to note where and at what date this 
last time worn verse is found. 

"In memory of William Kitchen, born Jan. 1761, died May 
28th, 1813. aged 52." 

"Stephen Coon died 1805, aged 41." 

"In memory of Dennis Wolverton, born in New Jersey on 
New Year's day 1790, emigrated to Canada in 1798 and settled at 
Grimsby. Membet of the Legislative Assembly U. C., 1836-38 
and of the Niagara District Council for many years. Died May 
23rd, 1875. He trusted in Jesus." 

There were many deaths in 1813 from an epidemic of typhus 
fever. 

The names Book, Pettitt, Nixon, Anderson are found repeat- 
edly, 

PRESBYTERIAN GRAVEYARD, GRIMSBY. 

In this burial place not so old as that near it are many from 
Muir's settlement of great a^e. The families of Muir and 
Douglas seem to have intermarried often and to have been a 
long-lived race. 

"Sacred to the memory of Jas. Douglas, born at Whitburn, 
Scotland, died at Grimsby 1831, aged 89." 

"Barbara, daughter of Jas. Muir, of Briech Mills, Scotland, 
in her 92nd year." 

"George Muir, agfed 90." 

"Douglas Muir, aged 87, of West Calder, Scotland." 

"John D. Beamerdied 1872 aged 72." 

His second and third "'ives are here buried, Sarah and 
Catharine, and a long row of Beamers lie buried near. 

From these crowded burial grounds many bodies have been 
removed to the beautiful new cemetery already with many 
occupants. 

ANCASTER. 

This is an old settlement and the graveyard is filled with all 
varicL.es of tombstones in mjmory of the dead. There are doz- 



66- 

ens ct large altar tombs. Here are found the graves of U. E 
Loyalists, military and naval men, the stranger, and the fashion of 
long- labored inscriptions and original verses prevailed to a re- 
markable, almost an alarming extent. 

One of the oldest stones is that to a husband and wife who 
died on the same day. 

* 'Sacred to the memory of Alexander Richie and Mary Lucia 
his wife who both depatted this life at Ancaster [ith April 1823." 

Here near the church is a large altar tomb to one (described 
in Summer Rambles by Mrs. Jamieson), who died here while visit- 
ing her sister, Mrs. McMuiray, the wite of the Rector, afterwards 
Arthdeacon of Niagara, 

"In memory of Jane, wife of Henry R. Schoolcraft Esq. born 
at St. Mary's Falls 1800, died at Dundas May 22nd, 1842, in the 
arms of her sister during a visit at the house ot the rector of this 
church, while her husband was absent in England and her child- 
ren at a distant school. She was the eldest daughter of John 
Johnston Esq., and Susan, daughter of Waubojeeg, a celebrated 
war chief and civil ruler of the Odjibwa Tribe. 

Carefully educated and of polished manners and conversation 
she was early fitted to adorn society, yet of retiring and modest 
deportment. Early imbued with the principles of true piety she 
patiently submitted to the illness which for several years marked 
her decline and was inspired through seasons of bodily and ,nen- 
tal depression with the lively hope of a blessed immortality. 

Ht re rests by kindred hands enshrined 
All of the love<l oue earth could find 
The form, the eye, the heart, the hand 
So gentle once, so kind so bland. 

Death came unlocked for yet his tread 
She met so calm so free from dr^ad 
Like angels winged to happier spheres 
She smiled to quit a world of tears. 

We mourn not tnenas those who see 
No glorious bright eternity 
But while this stone fond hearts upraise 
Grief best bespeaks our love and praise." 

This memorial (the maker. from Albany N. V.) is no doubt 
placed here by her husband, the Schoolcraft who wrote such 
valuable works on the North American Indian. 

A granite monument lately placed is to the first rector. 

"Sacred to the memory of Rev. Ralph Leeming, of Yorkshire, 



67 

England, ordained by the Bishop, of London, first Missionary, 
Society t>r the Proportion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, to the 
Gore District and first Rector of Ancaster, born 1789, died 1872, 
aged 83." 

A large flat stone tells a pathetic story showing- that the 
"stranger within the gates" was not neglected. 

"Eliza M. Johnston, of Rochester, N. Y., died 1827, aged 

'7- 

A stranger s grave 

Placed here by her local respected friends.'' 

Among a row of stones all with the name of Durand, a large 
altar tomb bears the following. 

"In memory ot James Durand born in England 1775, died 
1833, resided in the Canadas 34 years. 'Served his country as a 
Legislator and as a Captain during the late war with honor and 
uprightness but above all, his maker as an honest man "Do 
unto others as you would have others do to you" was the great 
motto of his life. His children will ever remember him as the 
kindest parent and the Canadas as a patriot and friend. 

The following beautiful lines were written by himself in mem- 
ory of his lamented consort Keziah Durand. 

High in the Heaven of Heavens I trust 
You now repose among the just 
Thy virtues well earned meed 
The pleasing hope my eoul inspires 
As wages grief my bosom fires 
And gives me joy indeed." 

Jat. Durand. 

Other lines below are written in memory of Jas. Durand by 
Charles Durand who has lately published his Reminiscences con- 
tinued to the present date. 

"Sacrea to the memory of John Palmer Battersby, Command- 
er R. N. born 1797, died 1888. 

Thanks be unto God who giveth us the victory through our 
Lord Jesus Christ." 

To his son Edwin "He giveth his beloved sleep," and to his 
wife Maria "The price ot a virtuous woman is far above rubies, 
her children arise up and call her blessed, her husband also and he 
praiseth her." 

"Sacred to the memory of Major Daniel Showers, died 1858, 
aged 71, 



OS- 
Man soon discussed 
Yields up his trust 
And all his hopes and fears 
T-ie with him in the dust 

Elizabeth Showers his wife born Stamford 1787, died in 
Ancaster 1848." 

This last shows the early settlement of Stamford. 

"In memory of Lieut. W. Milne, of the Royal Navy, born at 
Folkland, North Britain A. D. 1766, died at Springfield, Ancaster 
1826." 

"In memory of Helen Eliza, wife ot Robt. Berrie, ,and daugh- 
ter of the late Lieut.-Col. Johnson Butler, died 1841, aged 35." 

"In memory of Capt. John Urquhart died 1882, aged 79, a 
native of Inverness, Scotland." 

The next is evidently a foreigner. 

"Otto Ivese died at the Hermita fe e, late of Aloumouth, Eng., 
died 1835." 

The father of the Rector died he-e 

"In memory of Wm. McMurrav, died 1878, a^ed 82, a 
native of Co. Armagh, Ireland." 

A granite monument to John Aikman, who died 1878, aged 
86. The name Arkman frequently occurs and the name Rosseaux 
brings up the recollection of Jean Baptiste Rousseaux the inter- 
preter of Brant, George Rosseaux and Margaret Rosseaux lie here 
while the father is buried in Niagara. 

PRESBYTERIAN BURYING GROUND, ANCASTER. 

^ "In memory of the Rev. George Sheed A. M., who planted 
this church and having faithfully watched over it tor the space of 
six years, %vas removed to his reward 1832. 

His friends have erected this stone as a memorial of their 
esteem for his worth as a man and his zeal and abilities as a 
minister. 

"The righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance." 

"Sacred to the memory ot Euphemia Melville, wife of Capt. 
Alex. Roxburgh, Glengarry Light Infantry, daughter of Alex. 
Melville, of Farquhar, Scotland, who died in the prime of life at 
St. Margaret's College 1831." 

"In memory of Capt. Alexander Roxburgh born 1774, died 
1856." 

"In memory of C. R. McHaffee, wife ot Robert Gardener, 
who died at West Flamboro, 1848." 



69- 



A modern granite monument with coat of arms and motto 
has this short inscription 

"In memory of Duncan Matheson Locahalsh, Rossshire, 
Scotland, born 1782 died 1849. 

Fac et spera 

Arms of the Matheson Clan/' 



VIRGIL BAPTIST CHURCH 

In this small graveyard is a stone to one who is called in 
Carrol's Case (the history of Canadian Methodism) a saint, he was 
a prisoner at the capture of Niagara and was long a class leader 
in the village named after him. 

"George Lawrence born March 26th, 1757, died August 5th. 
1848, A.E. 91 years." 

The names of Casselman, Cassaday, Caughill, Cushman, 
Cain, are found. Barney Cain fought at Lundy's Lane. This 
village has rejoiced in many names: The Cross Roads, Four 
Mile Creek, Lawrenceville, and now the classic name of Virgil 
to correspond with that of Homer, six miles distant. 

On the Corus farm near Virgil, 

" To the memory of Caspar Corus, died Nov. 24th, 1835, 
aged 96 years." 

" In memory of Wm. Casselman, who departed this life Jan, 
irtn, 1847, aged 53 years." 

CLEMENT raniLY BURYING GROUND. 

Several old grey stones bring t3 mind names well known in 
this Peninsula. 

" Sacred to the memory of James Clement, born i5th, July, 
1764, died 8th March, 1813, aged 49." 

" Sacred to the memory of Catharine Clement, consort of the 
late James Clement, who departed this life i3th July, 1813, in the 
45 year of her age." 

" In memory of Sarah Clement, daughter cf John C. Pettitt, 
and consort of Joseph Clement, who departed this life gth June, 
1824, aged 34." 

"Sacred to the memory of Martha Pettitt, consort of John C. 
Pettitt, who departed this life xoth Dec., 1821, aged 59." 

"Eliza Matilda Ball, daughter of Jacob H. and Katharine 
Ball, died Dec. 3rd, 1823, aged n. 



70- 

Mv parents dear I bid farewell 
My life was short on earth to dwell 

My maker's call, I must obey 
Prepare yourselves to follow me. 1 ' 

In the Stevens graveyard very near is buried George Caug- 
hill killed Ht Lundy's Lane. It is told that he was carried from 
Jhe field by Barney Cain, who is buried at Virgil. The house of 
James Clement, who died in 1813 still stands, though built in 1805, 
in good repair with its fine old mantels and queer old stairs, a 
trap for the unwary. 

In the Mennonite graveyard near Jordan are buried many old 
pioneers or their descendants. 

"In memory ot Nicholas Clause, died Sept. i8th, 1876, aged 
So years." 

"Rosanna Everett died Nov. 6th, 1876, aged 82 years." 

"Moses Grobb died May 2nd, 1877, aged 70 years." 

"In memory of Thomas Waters died Dec. 4th, 1849, aged 
88 years. Judy Waters died Jan. i8th, 1837, aged 75 years " 

"In memory of Samuel Mover, born in Pa. July 25th, 1798, 
died Oct. 4th, 1874, aged 76 years." 

"Henry Orth died 1834, aged 53 years." 

"Here lies the body of Peter Couse, who departed this life 
Aug. 26th, 1812, aged 45 years. The rich and the poor meet to 
gether." 

"Philip High died Sept. isth, 1838, aged 69 years." Eliza- 
beth High died Oct. 2ist, 1860, aged 86 years.' 7 

GONDCR GR7WCYAPD. 

On the Gonder farm near Black Creek are "inscriptions to 
several of this U, E. Family. 

"In memory of Jacob Gonder, a native of Pa., Lancaster Co. 
who died Nov. 8th, 1846, in the 7ist year ot his age." 

"Gone Home Mary A. wife ot Jacob Gonder, died Sept. 28th, 
1886, aged 82" 

'Michael D. Gonder died Sept. 28th, 1886, aged 82." 

In an old private burial place on vhat was formerly the first 
Gonder farm, (now the Stoner farm near Welland) was buried in 
1813, Michael Gonder who came to Canada in 1787 and lived at 
Niagara for some time. David Price who married Margaret 
Gonder was Indian Interpreter at Niagara, and is buried here. 

"In memory of David Price ol the township ot Crowland, 
died 26th Feb. 1841, aged 91." 



71 

A few inscriptions omitted in their proper place here follow. 

When excavating for the Welland canal the bodies ot sixteen 

American soldiers who had fallen at the battle of Beaverdams 

were found. A monument was placed with the simple inscription. 

"Beaver Dams 24th June 1813." 

The stone which marks the spot where General Brock fell at 
Queenston has on the north side. 

"Near this spot Major General Sir Isaac Brock, K.C.B. 
Provisional Lieutenant^ Governor of Upper Canada, fell on the 
1 3th Oct. 1812 while advancing to repel the invading enemy." 

And on the souih side, 

'This stone was placed by His Royal Highness Albert 
Edward Prince of Wales on i8th Sept. 1860." 

The inscription at Lundy's Lane to Col. Bishop has been 
given and the lines recalled. 

** Where sleeps the voung and brave and shed one tear on 
Cecils grave." 

In the parish church in his far off English home in Parham, 
Sussex, is a tablet recalling the circumstances of his death and 
burial. 

"His pillow notof sturdy oak 
His shroud a soldier's simple cloak 
His dirge will sound till time's no more 
Niagara's loud and solemn roar 

There Cecil lies sny, where the grave 

More worthy of a Briton Brave?" 

Since this is the record not only of graves but inscriptions 
there must not be omitted the inscriptions placed lately by the 
Niagara Historical Society in the town and neighborhood. Seven 
of these are of Queenston stone, three feet high, eighteen inches 
square, eighteen inches above the groundi with sloping face for in- 
scription. The eighth is a white marble tablet placed on the wall 
of a building-. The first at Fort George. 

"Near this spot Gen. Sir Isaac Brock was buried from 1812 to- 
1824." 

In the Chautauqua grounds formerly Crookston where the 
American soldiers landed. 

"Here were found in Aug. 1899 the remains of three soldiers 
who fell in defence of their country May 27th, 1813." 

On the common near Butler's Barracks. 

"The site of the Military Hospital and Indian Council House." 

At the foot of King Street. 



72 

"The site of the Gleaner Printing Office 1817, and Masonic 
Hall, 1792." 

At the old King's Wharf. 

**Tl\e site of Navy Hall, the long l->w building near is suppos- 
ed to have been one of those used by Gov. Simcoe in 1792." 

About three miles up the River Road. 

"House of Count de Puisaye a French Refugee 1799." 

In the market square close to the Court House. 

"Government House buik in time of Gov. Simcoe, burnt in 
1812. 

On the building 

"Niagara Court House built for united counties of Lincoln* 
Welland and Haldimand in 1847." 

Seven were placed in 1901. The last in 1902. 

To each of these is added the words 

"This inscription is placed by the Niagara Historical 
Society 1901." 



By a strange mistake a page from the first manuscript was 

v omitted, see page 19 re St. Andrew's, The Wag-staff plot com- 
memorates settlers before and after the war of 1812. John Wag- 
staff, a merchant of the town for many years, born 1779, died 
1852, Sarah Wagstaff 1785 1854. Near this the Davidson plot. 
Walter Davidson 1779 1850, his wife, Sarah 170,2 1848, their 

_sons John, William, James, David. Beside Dr, Whitelaw the 
whole family who died joung. The McFarland's, whose brick 
house, built in 1800, stil! stands, are all descendants of one who 
was a pris :>ner at Greenbush referred to in St. Mark's. One of 
these James, was guide to the force which took Ft. Niagara, Dec 
1813 John Rogers, an officer bearer, of the church for fifty years 
like Col, W. D. Miller, who fought in 1812. Col, Robt.' Miller 
lies here as does John Meneilly, for many years keeper of stores at 

^Fort George. Joseph Barr, a victim ot the Des Jardins Canal tra- 
gedy. John Ross born in Montreal 1781, d : ed at Niagara 1863. 

L John McCulloch, a noted merchant of the town. Janet Mc- 
Pherson, aged 93, wife of Neil Black, and the brothers, John, 
Alexander, Lachlan, 'aged 86, 89 and 99 respectively. A few 
Africans who escaped trom slavery lie here, and lately were found 
the remains no doubt hastily interred of a soldier of the King's 
8th, who fell 27th May 1813. 



INDEX, 



Aberdeen, Dr. R. 


42 


Bishopp, Hon. C. . . 


37. 7L 


Adair U 


58 


Blanck, L 


ij 


Adair, A. 


. 58 


.Billing, L. . . .. 


42 


A<lair. D. 


58 


Billing, F 


. . 42 


Addison. Rev. R. 


13, 18 


Boisaubin, M. V. 


23 


Aikruan, J. . . 


68 


Bougner, M, 


. . 59 


A exander Rev. J. L. 


.. 63 


Boyd J 


22 


Aden, [ H 


52 


Brabazon, G. G. . . 


. . 61 


Aima, J. L 


.. 17 


Brackbill, J 


22 


Alu.a, E 


17 


Brackbill, S. 


..48 


Anderson, Rev. J. 


.. 50 


Brady, A 


. 16,17 


Ande son, C. E. 


17 


Braddon, P. 


. . 17 


Anderson. W. 


.. 17 


Brock, Sir I 


24, 26, 71 


Anger. J. G 


51 


Brock, I 


.. ..52 


Arnold, Rev. Canon . . 


.. 17 


Brown, J 


6 


Attwater, M 


24 


Brown, P. 


..6 


Bald, C 


.. 49 


Brown, T-t. J. 


. . 46 


Ball, Jacob . . 


. . 5, 29 


Brown, A. 


47 


Ball, P 


.5,29 


Brown, Capt. J. . . 


. . 47 


Ball, Jno 


..'. 5,29 


Brown, Maj, A. 


28 


Ball, Geo. 


.. 5 


Brown, M. 


.. 5 


Ball, M 


5 


Burch, J 


40 


Ball, J. W. 


5 


Burger, A. 


. . 46 


Ball, E. 


29 


Burger, J 


46 


Ball, R. N. 


.. 19 


Burger, P. 


.. 46 


Ball,W. AJ 


19 


Burkholder, C. 


5H 


Ball, VV. H. 


.. 45 


Burkholder, P. . . 


.. ' .. 56 


Ball, H. C. .. 


45 


Burkholder, S. ' .. 


56 


Ball, M. . . 


.. 45 


Burns, T 


. . 33 


Ball, E. M. . 


69 


Burns, Rev. J. 


14, 20, 33 


Barr, J 


.. 72 


Butler, Col. J. . . 


2, 3, 8 


Bates, P 


60 


Butler, Judge T. . . 


3 


Battersby. Com. J. P. . . 


.. 67 


Butler, T. 


..3 


Battersby. E. & M. 


67 


Butler, M. J 


63 


Baxter, Capt. J... 


67 


Butler, M. 


. . 58 


Baxter, A 


18 


Butler, H. E. 


ks 


Beam, J .. . 


28, 57, 58 


Cain, B 


. . 79 


Bearner, R. . . 


64 


Cal lander, Rev. J. . . 


58 


Beamer, J. D. 


.. 65 


Cameron, W. 


.. 8 


Beamer, S & C. 


65 


Campbell, Maj. D. . . 


12 


Bearss, J 


.. 53 


Campbell, Dr. D. 


. . 19 


Beavun. Rev. Prof. . . 


17 


Campbell, Rev. C. . . 


20 


Be. ket. M. 


.. 48 


Carl. E 


. . 47 


Bedell, S. 


61 


Carruthers, M. 


25 


Bell, VV 


44 


Cassady, J. 


. . 15 


Bemi , O 


47 


Casselman, W. . . 


. . (ii* 


Bellinger, P 


.. 6 


Caughill, G. 


70 


Benner, J. 


54 


Chambers, I 


. . 02 


Benner, S. 


.. 54 


Clark, Col. J. 


.' !' 


Bergman, E 


63 


Clark, Hon. T. . . 


.... 41 


Berninger, M. A. 


.. 29 


Clark, M. M. 


41 


Benie, H. E. . . 


68 


Claus, J. 


2, :>4 


Biggar, M. 


.. 25 


Clause, N. 


60 



Cleland, Rev W. . . . . 20 

Clement, J. . . . . 8, 29 

Clemen t, J. B. .. ..27 

Clement, Col. J. . . . . 28 

Clement, J... "';-. ..69 

Clement, C. . . . . 69 

Clement, S. . . . . 69 

Clench, Col. R 2, 3, 9 

Clench, E. E. . . . . 3, 9 

Clow, M 28 

Cockroft, J. . . . . 42 

Connolly, G. .. .. 12 

Cotton, Capt. . . . . 55 

Cottingham, Rev. H. .. 17 

Coon, S. . . . . . . 65 

Cooper. J. . . . . . 19 

Cooper', E. . . . . . . 19 

Copfer. E. .. .. 42 

Couka, G. . . . . . . 43 

Corus, C. ... .. 69 

Cor win, S. . . . . . . 58 

Couse. P. .. .. 72 

Cox, S. . . . . . . 3 

Craine, T. . . .. 42 

Crane, S . . . . . . 22 

Crawford, R. .. 61 

Crawford, J . W. . . . . 61 

Green, Rev. T. . . . . 13, 18 

Crooks, J. . . . . 19 

Crooks, M. . . . . 64 

Crooks, W. . . . . . . 63 

Crooks, M . . . . 63 

Cruikshank, Rev. J.. . . . 20 

Crysler, M. . . . . 45 

Crys'er, W. .. ..28 

Gumming*, J. . . . . 41 

Cummings, S. . . . . 41 

Gumming ham, A. .. 16 

Danner, ,J. . . . . . . 53 

Pangethy, D, . . . . 59 

Davis, Capt. . . . . 46 

Davis, D. . . . . 46 

Davig, N. . . . . . . 45 

Deare, Capt G. .. .. 11 

Dee, R. H 3<i 

Delatre, P. C. . . . . 38 

DeGraff, H. . . .. .10 

D'Everardo, D. . . . . 48 

Dewy, M. . . . . . . 28 

Uick'son, Hon. B, .. 12 

Dickson. J J. . . ..13 

Dickson, Hon. W. .. 13 

Dickson, C. A. . . . . 13 

Dickson, T. . . . . 25 

Dixie, K. . . . . 36 

Douglas, J. . . . . 65 

Dufelt, M. M. . . . . 29 

Dun, Rev. J 20 



Durand, J. . . 
Durand, K. 
Durham, J. . . 
Earl, M. 
Easton. T. . . 
Eidson, J. 
Egister, A. M. 
Egiesum, J. 
Eldridge, F. 
Elliot. Lt Coi. . . 
Everett, R . . 
Fanning, T. 
Ferguson, T. 
Field, G. 
Field, D. . . 
Fletcher, T. 
Fleming, T. . . 
Fleming, ]. 
Fortman. C 
Forsyth, G. 
Fox, J. 

Fraser, Rev. T, . . 
Frazer, Dr. J. 
Freed.C. 
Freel, H. 
Freel, D. 
Frey, H. . . 
Frey, Capt. B. . . 
Fril'ler, E. 
Fuller, Rev. T. B. 
Gage, W. . . 
Gage, S. 
GMge, Capt. J. 
Gane, C 
Gainer, J. 
Galbraith, C. 
Gardiner, R. 
Garrett, Capt. A. 
Glover. M . 
Goforth, T. 
Goldsmith, E. 
Gonder, J. 
Gondrr, M. A. 
Gonder, M. D . . 
Gonder, M. . . 
Gorman, A. 
Gordon, Lt, Col. 
Gordon, C. 
Gould. H. . . 
Gourlay, Col. 
Graham, A. 
Graham, R. 
Grant, R. . . 
Grantham, Dr. . . 
Grass, G. 
Green. C. 
Green, 
Grier, W. 



67 

67 
28 
39 
11 



19 
5 

5 
II 
42 
43 
62 

8 
62 
20 
48 
59 

2 

3 
32 
32 
63 
57 
60 
60 
60 
60 
47 
62 
68 
17 
63 
-44 
56 
72 
72 
72 
72 
62 
37 
31 
47 
57 
14 
51 
45 
55 
29 
61 
21 
15 



Grobb, M. 


.. 70 


Jarvis, H. 


Grout, Key. G. R. F. 


63 


Johnson, E. 


Hagar, J. . . 


.. 43 


Johnson, R. 


H ag.tr, A H. .. 


43 


Johnson, Col. . . 


Hagar, M. 


.. 43 


Johnston, C. 


Hall, Capt. G. 


35 


Johnson, Col. J. 


Han C L. 


. 17 


Johnson. D. 


Hamilton, Hon. R. 


. . 24. 25 


Johnson, E. M. 


1 iamilton, A. 


.. 25 


Jolliffe, VV. 


Hamilton, [i. 


25 


Jones, Lt. Col. A. 


Hamilton, R. J. 


.. 57 


Jones, Lt. A. 


Hamilton. K. . . 


25 


Jones, Lt. P, 


Hansel, A. 


.. 43 


Jones, R. 


Hanse , J 


44 


Jones, C. 


Han el, I .. 


.. 44 


Keefer. Geo. 


Hare, M. 


30 


Keith, D 


Hare, < ol P. 


.. 54 


Kennedy, B. 


Harvey, N. 


27 


Kerr, Rev. M. 


Harvev, E & 0. .. 


.. 27 


Kerr, E 


Henrv, D. 


9 


Kerr, Dr. R . . 


Hemphill, Lt. VV. . . 


..38 


Kingsmill Col. \V. 


Henderson, R. 


17 


Kii-gsmili. Capt. VV. D. 


Herber, M. 


.. 42 


Kingsmill, Lt. C. E 


Heron, A. 


14 


Kingsmill, L. 


Hersche, B. 


.. 51 


Kirby, Col. J. . . 


Hershey, B. 


51 


Kirkpatrick, I. 


Hibbard, C. M. 


.. 54 


Kirkpatrick, M. H. H. 


Hict^son, M. 


41 


Kitchen, W. 


High, F 


.. 72 


Laiid. J. 


High, E. 


72 


Lambier, J. 


Hill, T. 


.. 59 


Lampman, P. 


Hill, C. 


59 


Land, 8. 


Hil, J 


.. 29 


Laur, J. 


Hiscott, R. 


12 


Laurence, S. 


Hixon, E. . . 


.. 19 


Lawder, J. M. . . 


llixon, M. 


5 


Lawless, P. 


Hobson. R. 


.. 49 


Lawrence, G. 


Hock, D. 


54 


Lee, J 


Holmes, H. 


22 


Leeming. Rev. W. 


Hopkins, P. 


1 


Leeming, Rev. R. . . 


Hotchkig, N. 


.. 23 


Leonard, Maj. R. 


Hostitter, D. 


28 


Lloyd, Adjt. 


House, E . . 


.. 58 


London. R. 


Hoover, C. A. 


45 


Lynch, Father 


Hoover, M. 


.. 45 


Mabee, L. 


Hoover, G. 


43 


Mack. Dr. T. 


Howell, G. 


.. 22 


Macklem, T, . . 


Hull, Capt. A. E. 


38 


Macklero, O. T. 


Humphrey, A. 


.. 54 


Macklem, A. 


Hnst er, T. 


24 


Macklem, J. C. 


Hustler, C. 


.. 24 


Matheson. D. . . 


Hutt A. 


28 


McAfee. V. 


Ingersoll, C. 


.. 30 


McArthur, Rev. R. L. 


Ingersoll, M. 


30 


McCulloch, J. .. 


Iligt-rSOll, S. 


.. 32 


McDonald, D. 


Irving, Hon. J. M. 


36 


McDonnell, Col. J. 


Ivese, 0. 


.. 68 


McDonnell. Adj4. R. 


James, R. 


44 


McDougall, Col. D. 



25 
4 
6 

23 
17 
55 
55 
H7 
11 
49 
49 
4& 
62 
60 
45 
35 
21 
17 
7 
7 

10 
10 
10 
10 
50 
42 
42 
65 
47 
61 
45 
61 



19 
.. 21 

69 
.. 61 

40 
. . 66 

38 
.. 8 

61 
.. '2\ 

51 
.. 32 

41 
.. 42 

41 
. . 41 

69 
. . :] 

31 

.. 7-2 
19 

24, 27 
21 
21 



McFurland, J. 
McFarland, J. . . 
McGili, Rev. R. 
McKaffee, C. R. 
McHee, M. . . 
McKee, A. 
McKee, M. .. 
McKinley, M. . . 
McLellaud, Capt. M. 
McMicking 8, . . 
McMicking T 
McMicking. M. O. 
McMurray, Rev. W. 
Me Murray, Wm. 

McNabb, E 

Me \ abb Lt. Col. A. 
McPherson, A. & J. . . 
Melville, E. .. 
MelvHe, Capt. R. 

Merrill, J 

Merrill, L. 
Merritt, T. . . 
Merritt, Hon. W. H. 
Mew burn, J. H. 
Middaugh J. 
Midjjeley, J . 
Miller, W. D. . . 
Miller, A. . . 
Miller, R. Q. C. . . 
Milne, Lt W. . 
Misener, G. 
Mi sener, J. . . 
Mittleberger, S. I. 
Montgomery, S. 
Morgan, Rev. T. 
Morrison, C. 
Moore, J. 
Moore, D. . . 
Mowat, Rev. J. B. 
Moyer. S. 
Muir, B. 
Muir, G. 
Muir, D. 

Muir, B 

Munhead. Dr. Jas. 
Murray, A. . . 
Murrav, J. H. 
Neff , B. 

Neff, J 

Nelles, Col. R. . . 
Nelles, E. . . 
Nelles, Hon. A. . . 
Nelson, Capt. G. 
Northup, Com. J. 
Norton, C. . . 
Oakley,]. 
Ormsbry, Maj. A. 
Ort-b, H. 



.. 16 


Ottley, M. .. 


72 


Ostrander, D. 


.. 20 


Paffard, K. H. 


68 


Page, M. 


.. 5 


Page, J. 


34 


Patterson. Capt. R. D. 


.. 14 


Pawling, N. 


29 


Paynter, A. 


.. 8 


Pettitt, E. 


34 


Pettitt, J. S. 


.. 34 


Pettitt, S. . . 


42 


Pettitt, M. 


13, 17, 18 


Phelps, O. S. 


68 


Phelps, A. 


. . 4 


Phelps, O. . . 


4 


Phelps. E. 


.. 72 


Philipps, Rev. H. N. 


.. 68 


Plato, J. M. 


10 


Plumb, E. 


.. 58 


Powell, S. . . 


64 


Powell, VV. 


.. 30 


Powell, M. . 


31,32 


Powell, R. 


.. 36 


Prendergast, J. 


34 


Prendergast, C. R 


.. 11 


Prendergast, P. 


20 


Prest, J. 


.. 24 


Price, D. 


33 


Prideaux, General 


.. 68 


Priestman, J. 


48 


Quick, 8. 


.. 48 


Radchffe, Capt C. . 


32 


Randall, R. 


.. 34 


Read, G. 


59 


Rice, Dr. T. 


.. 8 


Rice, H. 


62 


Richie, A. 


.. 62 


Richie, M. L. 


20 


Richardson, M. C. 


.. 72 


Richardson, E. E. 


65 


Rist, J. 


.. 65 


Roe, Rev. P. 


65 


Rogers, M. 


.. 3 


Rolls C. .. 


3 


Rolls, Dr. H. 


.. 35 


Rolt, H. 


17 


Rolph, Rev. R. 


56 


Ross, A. 


.. 56 


Ross, J. 


62 


Routh, Major B. 


.. 62 


Rouaseaux, J. B 


62 


Kousseaux, G. 


.. 23 


Rousseaux, M. 


31 


Rowe, L. 


.. 62 


Rowe, M. 


22 


Rowe, Capt. J. 


.. 42 


Roxburgh, Capt. A. 


72 


Ruback, A. 



36 
28 
11 
27 
47 
38 
6 
11 
63 
63 
69 
69 
33 
33 
33 
48 
17 
43 
18 
31 
52 
17 
52 
31 
32 
31 
27 
72 
23 
46 
27 
9 

38 
30 
49 
49 
66 
66 
3 
3 
3 
17 
15 
33 
33 
58 
17 
38 
72 
50 
18 
68 
68 
34 
3* 
34 
68 
36 



Rogers,] .. 
Russell, Rev. J. 


.. 72 

35 


Theal, Z. . . 
Thomson, Capt. D. 


Ryerson, Rev. S. E. . . 
Sage, A. 
Sampson Rev. W, . . 
Schoolcraft, M. 


.. 53 

24 

.. 63 

.. 17,66 


Thomson, J. 
Todd, Capt D. E. 
Torrens, Capt. . . 
Townssnd, E H. 


Schonsuar, Capt. 
Sebum, M. 


10 

43 


Trion, C. 
Turney. R. U. 


Sebum, S. . . 


.. 43 


Turney, Lt. J. . . 


Secord, Maj. D. 


27 


Turney, Capt. J. 


Secord, M. . . 
Secord, P 


27 

28 


Upper, Maj. A. 
Upper,]. .. 


Secord, R. .. 


.. 28 


Ussher. E. 


Secord, D. 


28 


Urquhart, Capt. J, 


Secord. W. E. 


.. 28 


Vanderburgh, J. 


Secord, S. 


28 


Vanderburgh, M. 


Secord Lt. S. 


29,30 


Van Every, W. 


Secord, S. A. 


32 


Van Every, E. 


Secord, Laura 


.. 39 


Van Every, J. 


Secord, .las. 


40 


Vernon, C. V. W. 


bervos. E. . . 


.. 4 


Vrooman, S. S. 


Servos, M. 


4 


Vrooman, N. 


Servos, Col. J. D. 


.. 4 


Vrooman, D. 


Servos, D. 


4 


Wagstaff, .J. 


Servos, W. S. 


32 


Wagstaff, S. 


Servos, C. B. 


32 


Walker, S. 


Servos, T.. 


.. 32 


Warner, C. 


Sewell, H. E. 


11 


Warren, Col. J. 


Sheed, Rev. G. 


.. 68 


Watson, M. 


Shipman, P. 


30 


Watson, J. 


Showers, Maj. D. 


.. 67 


Watson, E. 


Showers, E. 


5, 68 


Waters, T. 


Simmerman, H. 


64 


Waters, J. 


Singer, P. . . 


.. 47 


Wand, J. F. 


Singer, A R. 


54 


Whitmore. J. . . 


Skelley, D. . . 


.. 58 


Whitmore; M. 


Soules, R. 


62 


Whitelaw, Dr. . . 


Spedding, T. 


.. 52 


Whitten, J. 


Spencer, T. 


47 


Willick, N. 


Spencer, J. 


.. 47 


Wier. B. 


Squires, R. 


62 


Williams, Rev. L. 


Stan ton, W. 


.. 49 


Wintermute, J. 


Stevenson, S. S. . . 


32 


Wolverton, C. . . 


Stevenson, M. 


.. 3 


Wolverton, J. 


Stevenson, Mrs. . . 


21 


Wolverton, D. . . 


Stevenson, J. A. 


.. 12 


Woodruff, E. 


St John. L. 


33 


Woodruff, S. . . 


Street, S. . . 


. . 3* 


Woodruff, R. 


Street, S, 


32 


Woodruff, A. C. 


Street, S. . . 


.. 40 


Wray, J. .. 


Street, T. C. 


40 


Wright, C. 


Swayze, N. . . 


.. 28 


Wright, R. D. 


Swayze, H. 


43 


Yeager, M. 


Swayze, M. . . 


.. 42 


Young, C. 


Taylor, V. H. . . 


17 


Young, J. 


Taylor, O. . . 
Tench, Capt. J. H. 


.. 56 
25 


Young, Rev. J. 
Zieger, J. 


Tench, M. . . 


.. 25 


Zimmerman. M. A. 


Theal, O. 


44 Zimmerman, L. 



.. 44 

14 
.. 34 

38 

37 
. 25 

58 
.. 14 

33 
.. 33 

46 
.. 46 

38 
.. 68 

45 
.. 48 

28 
.. 28 

29 

.. 17 

5 

.. 6 

35 
.. 72 

72 
.. 65 

29 
.. 50 

40 
. . 48 

48 
. . 70 

70 

.. 43 
4 
4 

20 
.. 15 

42 
.. 58 

31 
.. 51 

64 
.. 64 

65 
.. 27 

27 
27, 28 

28 

.. 13 

8, 18 

.. 18 

62 
.. 20 

20 
.. 20 

44 
.. 27 

53 





"Ducit Arnor Patrise. 1 



NIAGARA 

Historical Society 

-t NO. II. 



REMINISCNCES OF NIAGARA. 



PRICE - 20 CENTS. 



THE TIMES, Niagara. Ont. 



PPEPACE 



IN the present issue of "Reminiscences" an attempt has been made 
tj gather together what some of the oldest inhabitants remember 
of the early days of Niagara and to cull from early works of 
travel references to our town. It is extremely to be regretted 
that so little was committed to paper in those early days or that so 
few letters or diaries can be found. In the conflagration of Dec. 
1813, much valuable material was completely destroyed. It is hoped 
that some fragments may yet be collected. 

The view of the house of Hon. D. W. Smith has been copied 
by the kind permission of Dr. Bain, of the Toronto Library. The 
house which was situated in what is now the Court House Square 
was offered for sale in 1798 for a Grammar School with four acres as 
an endowment. In 1800 an offer of a reduction in the price was 
made, but declined; being opposite Fort Niagara and in range of 
the guns it was in too exposed a position. 

The photograph of Hon. Robert Hamilton was furnished by 
Judge Hamilton from a miniature in the possession of Clarke 
Hamilton, Esq., of Kingston. That of Andrew Kemp was sent 
by his grandson, Mr. D. K. Goodfellow, of Beauhamois, Que., and 
that of Mrs. Whitten by her daughter, Mrs. Follett, of Niagara, to 
all of whom hearty thanks are rendered. 



ANDREW KEMP 



Recollections of a Bou of 1 5 1 2- 

(By D. K. Goodfellow. ) 

Andrew Kemp, the son of U. E. Loyalist parents, was born in 
Niagara in 1800. His father, David Kemp, was a native of New 
Jersey, and arriving in Canada in 1793, married in 1796, Rebecca 
Ransier. His wife's people belonged to New York, and had suffered 
much at the hands af the Revolutionists; Rebecca herself owned a 
farm which was confiscated with other property of the family. The 
name of Ransier or Ransier (properly speaking it is Rensselaer) is 
to be seen in the muster rolls of Butler's Rangers, and also in the 
U. E. List, as that of a member of the celebrated corps. 

David Kemp's father and mother wore from Scotland, they came 
from Aberdeen about the middle of the eighteenth century and set- 
tled in New Jersey. David (born in 1769) was the second of their 
three sons, and there were several girls in the family besides. 

David and his younger brother were too youthful to bear arms 
in the Revolutionary struggle, but their father and elder brother 
were active adherents of the loyalist side. At the Kemps' home, 
friends of the cause were ever welcome, and in various ways they 
earned the hatred of their rebel neighbors. The youngest boy, who 
was a baby when General Burgoyne took command in Canada, was 
christened "Burgoyne" in honor of that officer, from whom the loyal- 
ists expected such great achievements. When the child could just 
speak plainly he happened one day to be standing in the road near 
his mother's house, two men, evidently wayfarers approached and 
one of them asked the little fellow his name, "Burgoyne Kemp" wai 
the reply. The questioner turned to his companion with a laugh, 
"I think" said hs "that we are all right and need not inquire furth- 
er," and thon told the youngster to show them where he lived. They 
proved to be British agents in search of information or recruits, and 
being anxious to find a resting place among friends, they rightly took 
the boy's name to be a sufficient guarantee for the loyalty of his 
people. But the Kemps' callers were not all of this description: be- 



9 

fore the war was over the men of the family were hunted like wild 
beasts, they lay for many days in a cave or hole of some sort in the 
the ground; one of them contracted rheu uatism so badly during their 
hardships that he was a cripple for the balance of his days. When 
the war ended they would gladly have remained in their home had 
they been allowed to live in peace, but after trying it for a while 
they went to New York State, having lost nearly everything they 
possessed. They continued in New York for a few years; but be- 
ing Loyalists still, and at no pains to conceal their opinions their 
neighbors seem to have invoked the aid of the authorities, and a 
party was sent to apprehend the older male members of the family. 
Receiving a hint of the coming danger they went into hiding near 
their house,and the escort was completely deceived as to their where- 
abouts by the lad Bnrgoyiie, who acted as spokesman on this occas- 
sion. Shortly afterwards the Kemps crossed over to Canada. 

David Kemp's name (as well as those of his brothers) appears in 
the list of subscribers to the building fund of St. Andrew's Church, 
Newark, 1794, and also as one of the earliest pew-holders. They 
had come to Niagara in 1793, he removed to Amherstburg early in 
the last century, and at about the commencement of the War of 
1812 was employed in the Engineer Department. He accompani- 
ed the troops to Brownstown, and wheu Proctor retreated from Am- 
herstburg, was one of the last who quitted Fort Maiden, as he stay- 
ed to superintend the dismantling of the fort and destruction of 
stores. His family also accompanied the retreat. His eldest son, 
Andrew, was then 13 years of age. The latter used to occasionally 
tell his grandsons about those times and one of the lads wrote down 
part of his grandfather's recollections. They are given here in the 
old gentleman's own words: 

"After General Hull's demonstration against Fort Maiden, 
which ended in his retreat to Detroit and the surrender of that post 
to General Brock, I saw Brock at Amherstburg; he was a fine, jolly 
looking, middle agsd man. I also saw Tecums ;h; he was a hand- 
some, noble looking fellow, very clean and neat about his person, 
and usually dressed in. a white shirt, deer skin leggings and other us- 
ual Indian apparel, but sometimes in a military red-coat, for he 
ranked as a Major-General. I have spoken to him. He was a 
Shawanee, who in i*jmmon with many other Western Indians had 
been at war with the Yankees, and came all the way to Canada to 
fight for the British." "A battle on the lakatook place about 25 or 
30 miles from Amherstburg, wh^re we heard the guns. The British 
ships were mostly small merchantmen with a gun aboard, command- 
ed by a captain of the Royal Navy as Commodore. He had lost an 
arm at Trafalgar. The provincials were poor sailors com pared to 



British seamen, being mostly French Canadians and some of the 
crews were only soldiers. The vessels were undermanned and there 
were not sufficient guns, and what guns there were were not good 
while the American gunboats carried 32prs." 

Referring to Proctor's retreat, during which (on the evening be- 
fore the battle of the Thames the Kemps were taken prisoners, Mr. 
Kemp said: 

"We were taken prisoners a short distance above the village of 
Chatham while ascending the Thames. Father had been left behind 
at Chatham to destroy a vessel which was there, and only came up 
with our detachment a short time before we were taken. It was 
vjry late when he reached us. He at once went ashore to recon- 
noitre from a hill nearby, from there he saw the Kentucky Rifle 
Militia coming across the fields on horseback. We intended to reach 
an old empty houss on the othrr side of the river and attempted to 
do so, but before we succeeded the bank was full of men who fired 
some shots at us because we did not come ashore fast enough when 
ordered, and they shot a woman through the cheeks. When they got us 
ashore, they robbed us of everything they could carry away even my 
mother's young baby's ciothes. They chopped up everything ehe in- 
cluding a feather bed, and our blankets they put around their shoul- 
ders. Father was furious; he told them if there had been only half 
a dozen of them he would have defied them to have touched anything 
and would have thrown them into the river. One of them named 
Naggs, who knew us, and who had formerly lived in Detroit, had to 
beg and pray of father to be quiet, fearing they would shoot him. 
Soon after the American Regulars under General Harrison came up, 
and my father was placed under a regular guard when he at once 
complained of the treatment we had received. He was advised to 
complain to the General and so mother went and spoke to him. 
Harrison was very kind to her and said "My good woman I will do 
everything I can for you." But the Militia only said "who cares for 
General Harrison? None of his business what we do." 

"My father was taken to Petite Cote near Sandwich where he 
lived on parole for a time (during the winter) until one day an officer 
came down and told him his parole would be up on a certain day, and 
that he was to go to Detroit; when with other prisoners he would be 
sent to Greenbush- When he got to Detroit and had reported him- 
self, he noticed that the Americans seemed very lax in the way they 
looked after their prisoners, so he began walking about and getting 
farther and farther away, and at last he slipped round a corner when 
hs took to his heels and made his way to the back of the town, where 
he had plenty of friends who hid him, and helped him to get across 
the river again to the Canadian side. Father and I then set out on 



J^_. jrf ^ 

April 7th, 1814 to join the British forces at Niagara. My mother 
went to some friends at Sandwich. The first day out we had a canoe 
to travel in, the second day being on foot, we met a man named 
Johnson who was out looking for his horses, he had one horse with 
him and this he allowed me to ride all day. When we reached 
Johnston's house, we were obliged to stay there two days lying quiet, 
because we heard there of a party of Americans who were near. 
After this we continued our journey on foot. On one day our way 
lay through the 'Long Bush' where the road was just a cart track 
and no house for twenty-seven miles. The walking was dreadful, the 
snow newly fallen being about a foot deep with almost another foot of 
rnud underneath. I got so tired that I lagged behind continually 
and father would have to wait for me, finally he made me walk 
ahead of him. I felt very downhearted and miserable, and father 
kept trying to cheer me up. At last we heard a cowbell which rais- 
ed my spirits a little, and about dark we got into the village of Dele- 
ware, where we had plenty to eat and were made comfortable. 
Soon after that we had to go through the Township of Burford where 
the farmers were a very disaffected lot. They were very suspicious 
and inquisitive as to where we came from, and grumbled very much 
when we asked for a bed. They made us a shake down in front of 
the fire, which the hired man put out by sticking a large log on it, and 
there we lay and shivered all night on the floor which was made of 
rough logs with large cracks between, while there was a hole under 
the door large enough for a hog to come in at." 

"When we got to the Grand River the bridge was broken down, 
but we could almost wade it. Where Hamilton now stands there 
was only one house at that time; a small stone cottage near tha 
mountain." 

"We reached Niagara safely April 20th, and went to a friend's. 
When we arrived General Riall was down by the river, and sent up 
soon after to ask if there was a man belonging to the Engineer De- 
partment come from Sandwich, father went out to him, and was told 
he was wanted over at the Fort at once. General Riall asked him if 
he had brought his little boy with him and father said 4 Yes.' The 
General then asked if I was a mechanic and father told him 'No' I 
had been at school. The General said 'Well, that's better for him, 
but bring him along and we'll make him useful. I was put on regu- 
lar rations of bread, meat and rum, and my pay was fifteen dollars 
per month. We stayed here in good quarters till the end of the war. 
I used to sell my rum for two dollars a quart. All the men got two 
gills extra to work on. I have seen a hogshead knocked in in the 
morning and all gone by dark. My work was to serve out tools and 
rum to the men. It WHS excellent rum, quite thick, it is very hard to 



-5 

get any rum like it nowadays. It was woith twenty-five cents 
a gill. Our work was dona outside near the Fort. There 
was a shanty here and father used sometimes to leave small 
sums of money on a shelf there so as to be handy. It was 
always stolen when he did so, and suspicion fell on a man of 
the 1st Royal Scots, so a watch was set on him. He was a 
German, there were two loose stones in the foundation of the 
irit so that it was possible to get under the building. A 
hole was made in the floor and a watch set, and sure enough 
the TP-HI was o*ught and got 200 lashes." 

"The Colonel of Royal Scots in order, to make his men 
hardy, used to make them do sentry-go in the depth of the win- 
ter of 1814-15 without their great coats. They had come to 
Canada from the West Indies." 

"There was a British gun boat destroyed a few miles from 
Niagara. She was at York and her commander a lieutenant 
was ordered to proceed to Niagara. On his own responsibility 
he undertook to give passage to some ladies who were going 
to Bnrlin^ton. and went in there to land them. The wind was then 
in his favor but towards evening it changed, and he found 
himself beating up against it, trying to make the mouth of 
the river, with two Yankee gun-boats rapidly getting the weather 
gauge of him. The chase could be seen from Niagara, and 
the ramparts on the lake side were linsd with people watch- 
ing the struggle. The Americans kept heading the Britisher 
oil, firing at him all the time and he replying to their shots. 
Finding it impossible to gain the shelter of the shore batter- 
ies, the commander of the British vessel ;ran her ashore in 
the mouth of a creek a few miles off and blew her up. It was 
then dusk and the explosion and fire in the wreck could be 
plainly seen by the lookers on. The British officer was court- 
maifcialled and dismissed from the service. It was said he 
afterwards joined the American service." 

"The village of Queenston changed very little from the time 
I was there in 1815, up to when I visited it last a few years 
ago." 

"There was a woman who lived in Amherstburg at the 
time of Proctor's retreat when the Americans overran the place, 
who used to make plate pies out of sour green apples to which 
she put no sugar, and made up the paste without a particle of 
shortening in it She sold the pies to the American soldiers at 
twenty-five cents each." 

The family were united in Amherstburg after the close of 
the war. Andrew Kemp was an ensign in the 1st Essex Militia 



in after years, and assisted in the capture of the Schooner 
'Anne' during the troubles of 1837-8. He also formed one of 
the expedition to Pelee Island, March 3rd, 1838, from whence 
the regulars and militia after a smart action drove the "Patriot 
Army" (otherwise "Brigands," as they are described on the 
old monument at Arnherstburg. ) Soon after the rebellion An- 
drew Kemp entered the Engineer Department. David Kemp 
died in 1842, leaving a large number of descendants. His son 
Andrew removed to Kingston in 1848, and retired from the 
Department in 1869, being then Clerk of Works. He died in 
1887 in his 87th year. 

(The notes from the reminiscences of Andrew Kemp were 
taken by H. G. Goodfellow and the abrupt break is thus ac- 
counted for. When Mr. Kemp found that his grandson was taking 
notes he stopped suddenly and would talk no more. The pat- 
riotism of the family was again shown in the case of a grand- 
son, R. W. Goodfellow, who went with the first contingent to South 
Africa and gave his life at Paardeberg, Feb. 18th, 1900. J. C.) 



REV. JOHN OAKLEY. 



It may be said in explanation that the Rev. John Oakley 
appears in different positions, in a military capacity, as a preacher, 
a3 a teacher. Tiie latter is shown by advertisements in the 
papers of that day. His home was next that in which the Rev. 
T. Phillips taught the Grammar School. The following extracts 
were made from the Journal in possession of his daughter, Mrs:. 
Dorland, in Toronto, by Miss Quade, the niece of Mr. Oakley. 

"I arrived at Niagara about the middle of October, 1814, 
two months after I reached America. Soon after my arrival 
there I was appointed to take charge of all the military stores, 
and at Fort George. In 1815 I married Mary Henry, eldest 
daughter of an Artillery Pensioner. In 1816 I was placed upon 
the reduced army list on half pay in consequence of general 
peace with all nations. 

Before I left Niagara the Lord enabled me to obtain means 
of building a chapel in the western side of the town. It was a 
plain substantial building 30x40 and is now occupied principally 
by the African race as they being the most numerous members 
in the church, the white members when a Baptist Chapel was 
built at X Roads now Virgil (4 Mile Creek) united with the 
church which met there. While I resided in Niagara Elder 
Winchell, who had been instrumental in organizing a church at 
Queenston, preached once a fortnight for one year in Niagara 
and Elder Neill once a month, at the time I left that town. 

Niagara, July 5th, 1830. 

I am much encouraged with the liberality of the brethren 
and friends in subscribing towards the building our Meeting 
House, may the Lord bless our undertaking, it is a very seri- 
ous one and I appear to be almost left alone in the business. 

July 16th, 1830 

With the assistance of Deacon Beam and brother Pickard 
we have at last determined upon the place and size of a Meet- 
ing House and have advertised for undertakers. 



-5 

July 29th, 1830. 

We are now very deficient of a suitable place for meeting 
but I think we must endeavour to have a room for that purpose until 
we can have the Meeting House built. 

Sept. 1st, 1830. 

Have been busily engaged in getting timber hauled to 
Niagara for building the Meeting House arid we have made 
arrangements to have the building raised and enclosed by the 
middle of November next. 

Sept. 18th, 1830. 

Have been busily engaged during the last week in super- 
intending the business of the Meeting House. 

Oct. 4th, 1830. 

It is four weeks since I have written in my Journal. The 
tvo first weeks of the time I was travelling for the purpose 
of soliciting money from the brethren of other churches and 
others to assist us in building the Meeting House. The Lord 
gave us favor in the sight of the people so that not only our 
friends but many of those \vho were opposed to our sentiments 
subscribed liberally toward the undertaking. I have been great- 
ly grieved with the consideration that some of our brethren 
who are able and from whom we might naturally have expected 
the greatest encouragement and assistance have done less for us 
than many who do not profess to have experienced a change of 
heart. Out of 200 subscribers and several of these Catholics, 
there are not at present more than thirty brethren and sisters 
from our own denomination. During the time I was absent 
from my family I succeeded better than I had anticipated. 
Through the goodness of God who has the hearts of all men in 
Iiis hands, we have been enabled to raise the frame of the build- 
ing, that we intend (the Lord permitting us) to consecrate entirely 
to the service of our God, without the customary use of ar- 
dent spirits arid oh! that it may be the birthplace of many souls, 

Nov. 2nd, 1830. 

Oh that all of us who occupy the little church in this place 
may finally prove to be of the fold of Christ. 

Nov. 8th, 1830. 

Lnst Saturday while employed in collecting for the Meeting 
Kouflf? I had several opportunities of speaking to my fellow crea- 
tu-cv-s respecting the things that make for our eternal peace." 

Tiic* church thus referred to was used many years by the 
><or< j d p ople of the town, of whom there were several hundred 
t; one 'time, principally escaped slaves who had followed the 
Kjft.i Star to liberty. Rev. J. B. Mowatt, pastor of St. Andrew's 



--9- 

pr3wl\'3-l to thsm frequently 1850 to 1857. Their numbers 
gr:i 1 1 illy decreased a/id tli3 building was finally sold and re- 
moved to tli;* Oliver farm In tlis graveyard many of those 
dusky brothers and sistBra are buried, but one white child is 
buried here, a daughter of the pastor Rev. Jno. Oakley, as 
miy bo saeri by the inscription. At first the church seems to 
hive been attended principally by white people but soon the 
blacks predominated, and a dispute arose as to the possession 
oL : the church. In the words of Mrs. Guillen "The Black 
i> tp-is and the White Baptis fought for it but the Black Baptis 
won" In the early days it is said crowds were taken for 
baptism to the creek on the property of Mr. J. H. Burns, 
now a pea oh orchard, and sometimes to the lake near Ken- 
nedy's Hollow, it told of one who when presented for baptism, 
in fright ran home. The oil painting of Col. Butler in the 
possession of the Historical Society was copied from the ori- 
ginal picture by Mr. Henry Oakley, the son of Rev. J. Oakley. 
Mr. Oakley was born in England in 1792. In the entry of 
his marriage in St. Mark's register he is called Clerk of Field 
Train. - J, C. 



Pecollecllons of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Quade, nee Henrg. 

Miss Quade, of Ransomville, has given many interesting 
particulars of her grandfather and grandmother as well as hav- 
ing favored us with several contributions to the Historical 
Room, and I have tried to put together these Written at differ- 
ent times. The first given was written by' her mother in Aug, 
1839. 

"My father, Dominic Henry, was born in the county of 
Derry, Ireland. When eighteen years of age he enlisted in the 
Royal Artillery, which came to this county at the time of the 
Revolutionary War and was in the army of Cornwallis at the time of 
his surrender in 1781. My father obtained a furlough to go home 
and visit his parents and friends; his furlough lasted six months and 
during that time he became acquainted with Mary Madden, born in 
the county of Antrim and in 1790 they were married and he return- 
ed to his regiment, the 4th Battalion of Royal Artillery, they were 
moved to several parts of Canada and at last came to Fort George, 
where he ended his military service, obtained his discharge and 
kept the lighthouse where he remained eleven years from 1 803 to 
1814 the light house being then taken down, and the tower which now 
stan is built in the same spot in Fort Mississagua enclosure. His 
term of military service was 30 years and 30 days, and he died in 
Niagara in 1829." 

In the Wilson Star of Oct. llth, 1888, is an article by a re- 
porter who interviewed Mrs. Quade, then 84 years of age, which 
gives some additional particulars. She said "that the population of 
Niagara in 1812 was about 400, while Youngstown at that time con- 
sisted of two frame houses owned by men of the names of Grinset and 
Swain. There was no church there, and the officers and soldiers 
stationed at Fort Niagara crossed over to Fort George and attended 
services on Sunday, and coming in contact with Canadian and 
British officers there a friendship sprung up between the officers of 
-both armies. I remember when war was declared in June 1812, 
when the news reached Fort George great excitement prevailed, 
Some American officers over at Fort George left the King's Wharf 



near there and parted with sincere regret. On Sunday before the 
declaration of war General Brock attended St. Mark's Church 
and Dr. West from Youngstown, had with him his two pretty little 
daughters, General Brock bid them good-bye, and said to Dr. 
West "Good Bye when we m^et agjaia we shall be enemies. 
The reporter goes 011 to say Mrs. Quade saw many exciting times 
during the war. The Americans had one day been firing and she 
was playing house with several children near the lighthouse when 
a man came along and picked up a cannon ball which had just been 
fired, he was passing along with it in his arms when another ball 
which had just been fired struck the one he had in his arms and he 
was killed instantly, Capt. Bernard Frey. At another time she and 
general other children were playing in a wheelbarrow near the 
lighthouse when a cannon ball struck about two feet from them 
They then ran behind the lighthouse and in another moment another 
ball struck the wheelbarrow they had just left, smashing it to atoms. 
Another time an old lady, named Grier, was feeding her cat when a 
red hot ball struck the cat, killing it instantly, the old lady was 
greatly incensed against the enemy. When the town was burned the 
lighthouse was left as it benefited the Americans as well as the Bri- 
tish. General Harrison when stopping a short tune at Fort George 
181 3, called at the lighthouse and engaged in a conversation with her 
father, the Keeper, who gave the details of several battles favorable 
to the British. Being in civilians' clothes Henry did not know for 
some time that he was talking to General Harrison and begged him not 
to consider his conversation very serious, he having spoken very 
freely, but was told that he could not be blamed for standing up for his 
country. 

Miss Quade lately found a paper writter by her mother in 1886, 
when she was 82 years of age. "As I looked at the picture of St, 
Maik's Church it brought to my mind many things that happ- 
ened in days long passed and gone. That was the church where 
I was baptized by the Rev. Robt. Addison in May 1804, with a 
brother and sister at the same time, and he also performed the marriage 
ceremony for two of my sisters, Mary, who married Rev. John Oakley 
in 1816, then an officer in the Field Train Department and also my 
sister Catharine, who married Mr. Chase. The Rev. Thos. Creen, 
his successor, was a Presbyterian when he came to Niagara but 
after a few years became an Episcopal minister, I heard him preach 
his first sermon in Niagara, it was preached in a school house, Presby- 
terian school house, used as church after the war, as the church had 
been burnt down. His text was "Who is this that cometh from Edom 
with dyed garments from Bozrah?" I afterwards heard him preach 
a funeral sermon in the Episcopal Church fora jouiig girl, the daught- 



-12- 

er of Lawyer Cameron. His text was Jer. 3. 4. "Wilt thou not 
from this time call unto m0, My Father, thou art the guide of my 
youth ?" The text followed ni3 till I at last sought the Lord to ba 
my guide, and I find that he whom I sought to be my guide in my 
youth is my stay in my old age. My mind has been carried back to my 
childhood's days to the time of the building of Fort Mississagua. 
I think perhaps there is no other person living who can tell what I 
en n about it. I saw the first sods dug that were used in the building 
of that fort. The lighthouse stood on the ground where the old 
tower now stands, our dwelling house also stood near the lighthouse 
and there is the place w T here I was born and my childhood days wera 
past there and after the war the lighthouse was torn down and the 
tower built from the stone and bricks from the ruins of the town 
and lighthouse. I can remember far better what took place in those, 
days toan I can things that transpired but a short time ago, I well 
remember the day General Brock and his Aid-de.Camp were killed. 
I was at the funeral, I remember hearing the muffled drums beating 
and of seeing the soldiers standing in line and the band marched 
between the two lines of soldiers across the common to Fort George 
where he was buried, and the American flag at Fort Niagara was 
at half mast. The day after the funeral my mother took us children 
up to Queenston to let us see where General Brock was killed. It 
was at the foot of the hill near a thorn tree, I have been there 
in my times since and think I could go to the very spot now. 
I remember when the Americans took Niagara and well do I re- 
member when they left it leaving the village in flames, and I can re- 
member many other things that occurred then of which I have not 
time to write now. Many of the people of the town brought fur- 
niture and articles of value to our house while the town was burn- 
ing till the house was full and we could take no more. It is now 
fifty five years since I left Niagara and settled in the town of Porter, 
now called Ransom ville. I should like to know how many of the in- 
1 nbitants are now living who were in Niagara when I left in 1831. 
I Wf nt there a few years ago to look once more at my former home 
find I found but few of my acquaintances left, Mis3 Jane Winter- 
bottom, Miss Agnes McKee and Mr. Bernard Clench. The last 
school I attended was to Miss McKee's father and mother." 

We are fortunate indeed in having the reminiscenses of such an 
intelligent and well informed narrator. Mrs. Quade was often sur- 
rounded by the children of the neighbors begging for a story of the 
taking of Niagara. To make it clearer she drew a sketch on com- 
mon wrapping paper which is now framed and in possession of the 
Historical Society, it shows the river, Youngstown, fort, lighthouse, 
batteries and town. 



In a very rare book, the report of the Loyal and Patriotic Socie- 
ty formed during the war of 1812-14, there is a very interesting 
mention of Mrs. Henry. It appears that on the day of the taking of 
Fort George Mrs* Henry, living near the lighthouse, served out re- 
freshments to our soldiers who were resisting the enemy landing on 
the lake shore. For this noble deed the Loyal and Patriotic Society 
afterwards gave her the sum of ^25 calling her "a brave woman and 
one not to be frightened.*' 

Miss Quade also tells us that when her mother brought her child- 
ren to Niagara for a visit and they landed from Youngstown to the 
Ferry she would say in passing what is left to us of Navy Hall 
^'There is the old Parliament House." We possess a very good pic- 
ture of Mrs. Quade, and a love letter addressed to her in 1824, 
\vhich is very interesting to visitors at the Room, also a letter to 
Mrs. Henry, Fort George, 1820 from Ireland referring to different 
officers and soldiers. Dominic Henry and his wife are both buried 
in St. Mark's Cemetery not far from the church, but no stone as 
yet marks the grave of the veteran and his brave wife one of the 
heroines of the past. 

Mrs. Quade lived to the age of 90, dying in 1894, an obituary in 
the local paper speaks of her Christian testimony on hei death bed. 



REV. JOHN McEWftN. 



Rev. John McEwan was the son of Capt. McEvvan, who fought at 
Queenston Heights and is honorably mentioned in the military des- 
patches as having fought well. We are fortunate in possessing copi- 
es of several letters sent to Miss Quade giving his early recollections 
which confirm, or clear up several doubtful points in the history of 
our town. 

"I was born in Niagara in 1811, Niagara in my boyhood was a 
flourishing town, it was the market for the farmers living within a 
radius of forty miles, Many brought their produce to market in large 
boats, great crowded market waggons could also be seen in the mar- 
ket place. It was a sight for the boys to see the four horse coaches 
in the morning as they came from Niagara Falls with travellers. On 
13th Oct., 1824, I was present when the remains of General Brock 
and his aid were taken from the ramparts of Fort George to the 
monument on Queenston Heights. When General Brock's coffin was 
opened the flesh was still on his face, it continued thus however only 
for a moment or two after the air struck it. The hearse was a large 
army waggon covered with black cloth, it was drawn by four black 
horses, driven by a black driver, four black men w r alked by the head 
of the horses. Boy like I followed the procession, though young, walk- 
ing to Queenston and back again. When we got back to Capt. Coop- 
er's Grove there was a halt called and a rest taken. I have always 
understood that the building between Fort George and Butler's Bar- 
racks was the Parliament House. The lighthouse on the American 
side must have been built as early as 1815, I can remember it at an 
early period of my life on the large building at the north east corner 
of the Fort. General Brock was buried in the north east corner of 
the ramparts of Fort George. I have been at his grave often. On 
the east side of the Fort there was a fine fish pond for the officers of 
the regiment. It was close to the Fort built of stone, a spring of 
clear water supplied it, so clear that the fish could plainly be seen. 
On the west side of the ramparts multitudes would assemble on race 
days to see the races. On the first street, south of St. Mark's runn- 



15 

ing east and west, the hill leading to the river was cut down to make 
it more easy of ascent and Indian bones, kettles, and other articles 
used by Indians were found, it was supposed to have been an Indian 
burying ground before .Niagara was peopled by the whites. I can 
give the names of the merchants, hotel keepers, steamboats, An old 
tree stood at the south corner of Mr. Jno. Secord's farm, the first 
farm from the town on the Lake Road, it was the most gigantic oak I 
ever saw, was I think double the height of any tree near it and with 
the exception of Brock's Monument, was the first thing seen in cros- 
sing from Toronto. The Free Masons used to meet in Alexander 
Rogers' Hotel. I have always understood that the first Parliament 
met in the building used as a Military Hospital in my time. The 
ramparts of Fort Mississagua were enclosed with oak pickets ten or 
twelve feet above the ground. The pickets were brought from the 
whirlpool and rafted down. 

The night when the town was burned I have been told that a 
number of people were huddled together in a large smoke house, be- 
longing to my father. Part of the time the English Church was used 
as a prison. My father was there one night as a prisoner to the 
Americans and that night two prisoners were scalped by the Indians. 
My father, Capt McEwan, of the Flank Co, 1st Lincoln Regt., was 
wounded at the battle of Niagara, was found after the battle and 
taken home, but was taken a prisoner out of his bed and sent to 
Green Bush near Albany, N.Y. 

The stone house on the corner near the English Church was built 
by old Mr. Eaglesum. It was said that he picked up stones from the 
ruins of the town wherever he could and carried them on his back or 
in his arms to the lot. 

The first ministers I remember were Rev. Mr. Addison, and 
Rev. Mr. Burns of the Episcopal and Presbyterian Churches The 
\vharf was the King's Wharf and the building there was the King's 
Storehouse. The teachers I remember were Mrs. Ewart, Mrs. New- 
all, Mr. Alex. McKee, Mr. Crombie, and Mr. Oakley. Rev. Jno. 
Burns taught the District School. I remember Walter Dickson as a 
scholar, John Waters was the best mathematician in school, Mr. 
Creen was the preceptor after Rev, Jon. Burns and then J. G. Ral- 
ston. An early teacher was Mr. Hurst, and Mr. Roberts, the latter 
taught at one time in an upper room of the frame building used by the 
Presbyterian Church after the war. Mr. Roberts was drowned in Nia- 
gara the day after his school closed." 

The Rev. Jno. McEwan (also spelled McEuan) who was born in 
Niagara 1811, died in Moberly, Mo., in 1901. He was licensed to 
preach in 1839 and filled different appointments till 1887. He was 
interred in Tonawanda, N. Y. J.C. 



Reminiscences Of Mr. Daniel Held. 

Reminiscences of the war of 1812-13-14 as given by Mr. Daniel 
Field at a family gathering on the anniversary of his 80th birthday. 

I volunteered in a company of Dragoons, under the command of 
Major Merritt in 1811, and in June 1812 war was declared and I 
was called out on the 20th of June for active service. I was at the 
taking of Detroit for which I received a medal* and was orderly to 
Major Glegg at the battle of Queenston Heights on the 13th Octob- 
er, 1812, during which General Brock fell, during the ensuing winter 
I carried despatches from Queenston to Chippewa, I also was engag- 
ed in the battle of Lundy's Lane, our company got scattered and I 
got separated from them and was on the battle field all night carry- 
ing drink to the wounded, who lay scattered over the field, I was 
quite near Mr. Cockell, who was shot at thai battle. Previous to 
tiiis I was at the battle at Niagara on the 27th May. I was there 
carrying ammunition from Fort George to the army, during the battle 
I left my team and ran to the scene of action, when returning I 
came upon a wounded soldier who was unable to walk, so I took him 
on my back and carried him to the*hospital, we were then forced to 
retire to Burlington Heights. 

I was with the army during the whole of the ensuing summer, 
but received my discharge in November, and then returned to my 
home on the bank of Niagara River, but had scarcely been there two 
hours when I was taken prisoner by the Americans and taken to Nia- 
gara town. The next day they took me and my horse over the river 
to Fort Niagara on the American side, where I was kept a prisoner 
for six weeks. It was while I was there that the town of Niagara 
was burned by the Americans and evacuated by them. 

There were 16 white and 12 Indian prisoners in the Fort with 
me, through the aid of a friend I got home again. As soon as it was 
known by Col. Hamilton of the 100th Regt. and officers they called 
on me to give information with regard to Fort Niagara, which they 

'Mentioned on page 12, No. 5 of publications of Niagara Historical Soc- 
iety, where there is an engraving of the Field's House. 




< 



contemplated attacking. 

A f^w days after, Col. Hamilton with his regiment crossed over 
for that purpose, and I with a company, called the "Forlorn Hope," 
was the first to cross. I piloted them into the Fort, which was 
taken after much lss of life, and that was one of my last adventures 
of the war. 

"And now the war is over boys, 

Down we'll sib at ease, 

We'll plough and sow, 

And reap and mow, 

And do just as we please." 



DCNINISCCNCCS Or 

MR. JAS. A. DAVIDSON. 



In a letter to the Niagara Times he says: "You frequently pub- 
lish articles that interest me much in reference to old Niagara fifty 
or sixty years ago, and this has put the whim into my mind to give 
you some of my early recollections when I became a dweller therein 
ta 1836. Commencing at the north end of the principal street, 
Queen, R. M. Crysler carried on an extensive store, across from that 
the British American Hotel, then kept by Peter Cain, then the store 
of Wilson and Charles then the watchmaker's shop of Canniff, then 
the Clement block of stores, first that of Lewis Clement & Sons, next 
Poter Drummond's, extensive grocery and that of the Laidlaw Bros., 
and on the corner a brick store, the fine establishment of Balfour 
& Drysdale. Next up street was the hardware store of R. M. Long, 
the law office of Jas. Boulton, then a vacant lot owned by Jno. 
Young, and on the corner a two story tin roofed brick store in 
which Jas. Lockhart had a branch of the Commercial Bank, then the 
large brick store of J. L. Alma and a watchmaker's shop kept by one 
Peters, and on the corner at Market Square J. J. Ralston's stationer's 
store, at the next corner of the Market Square a brick store, Clark's 
grocery, then a tall narrow three story store, kept by Thos. Shaw, 
and adjoining it the tinware and hardware of the Wagstaff's. On 
the next corner Wm. Barr's extensive store, then John Andrew's 
fumiture store and farther on oppositj the Catholic Church R. Mof- 
fat's Hotel, then go down the street northward again on the cor- 
ner of King the law office of E. C. Campbell, afterwards judge, the 
drug store of Jas. Harvey, then Culver and Cameron's store, a 



-15 

tailor's shop, Frazer, and the great store of Jno. Young and 
his residence, a wooden store, Stocking & Grier's big store. John 
Grier and Judge Campbell were the two tallest men in the Niagara 
District. Next to Stocking & Grier's was the blacksmith's shop of 
Matthew Dobbie, then Smart's hat store, and the tailor's shop of 
Campbell & Sherwood, and Miss Thorpe's grocery, and Fisher's 
watchmaker's shop. On the corner the drug store of Ralph Clench. 
Across on the next corner was Brown's Hotel, the dwelling place of 
Dr. Matthews, Brown's store, shop, and Massey'a harness shop, the 
bakery of Dix and Hay, the residence of Charles Field, and on the 
corner Maloney's tailoring establishment, employing six or eight 
workmen. On the next corner a tin roofed brick block of Blake 
and Rogers, next to this the Roger's residence and next the Post 
Office, then a two story brick house, next the residence of Archibald 
Gilkison, then the residence of R. M. Crysler, afterwards sold to 
C. L. Hall, a lawyer, and next north, the fine house of Jas. Lock- 
hart, merchant, shipowner and banker, this house was erected by 
Chas. Richardson. 

~ In 1337 I remember standing on the top of Fort Mississagua 
with J. F. R. Comer, Commissariat Dept., watching the cloud of 
black smoke, when Montgo mery s tavern was burnt. The little 
Steamer Commodore Barrie had a few days before taken a load of 
volunteers from Niagara to fight the rebels. When they returned, 
some with faces purposely blacked, some with pikes picked up on the 
field, one, Tom Stead, with a big bay horse captured, there was a jolly 
crowd. The late Hon. Jno. Simpson was one of the most active of 
the volunteers. Capt. Baiker's Company of Fireman went to Chip- 
pawa as part of the military force and Capt. Clench's Company of 
colored troops to Port Robinson to guard the Welland Canal. 

Niagara in my boyhood was the great trading point for the dis- 
trict. The Niagara Harbour and Dock Company was at the height 
of its prosperity and employed hundreds of workmen, many steamers 

~ were built here. All the court business for the counties of Lincoln, 
Welland and Haldimand was here transacted. In 1838 a company 
of Sappers and Miners arrived from England and were employed in 
the renovation of Fort Mississagua. Also about this time perhaps 
the finest military body that ever came to the district, the King's 
Dragoon Guards, officered by men of wealth and title. The men 
were all six feet in height with fine well trained horses. Butler's 
Barracks was put in order for them, many of the officers were in pri~ 

.^yate houses. Some of the young officeis when on a lark often carried 
off the big gilded boot, the sign of P. Finn, shoemaker, and some- 
times paid a fine of $25 for this, so that it proved very profitable to 
the owner. 



REMINISCENCES OP AMERICAN OCCUPATION Or NIAGARA 

2?m n?w TO lorn DEC 1513. 



These have been gathered from conversations with descendants 
of those living in the town or from letters and other documents. 

Mrs. Follett remembers that her mother, Mrs. Whitten, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Cassady, told her that on the day of the attack Mrs. 
Cassady with her children walked out to Butler's farm for safety and 
the daughter Jane, afterwards Mrs, Whitten, carried her little broth- 
er on her back. They stayed all night in the barn and the mothtr 
returned in the morning to see how matters stood. The house was 
on Queen Street near Mr. John Sando'sand was found to be occupied 
by American officers. She had left bread recently baked in the 
house and on inquiring if she could return with her children, they 
asked who made the bread they had found in the hcrric 3ad offered 
to let her return on condition that she would bake for them, they 
supplying 100 Ibs. of flour and she giving 100 Ibs. of bread and to 
have all the additional loaves for herself. This she aid all the time 
they were in occupation a proof no doubt that Mrs. Cassady made 
good bread. She also remembers that the house near was occupied 
by her brother-in-law, Mr. Chas. Field, and on the soldiers ransack- 
ing the house they found in an upper room in a trunk the Free 
Mason Regalia as the meetings were held in the house at one time 
as shown by notices in the papers. An officer stopped them, evi- 
dently one of the fraternity, and the house was free from plundering 
on that account, 

A letter from Hon. Wm. Dickson at Albany 14th Aug., 1813' 
contains the account of himself and others who were made prisoners 
in violation of the promise of Dearborn. On 19th June they 
were made prisoners, kept in a house in town, then sent to Fort 
Niagara, three days thence to Batavia. Canandaigua, Geneva, Utica, 
300 miles in 57 days A list of persons is given who were taken in- 
to custody on 19th, 20th, 21st, June 1813. Another document gives 
the names of non-combatants to whom passports were given on Dec. 
llth, 1813, and in a list of 8th Jan., 1814; proposed for exchange, 
the names seem to be all military. The report of Jno. Erly, M.D., to 



20 

Harvey as to return of prisoners kept at Sandusky in a low swampy 
place, fever and dysentery, prevail, men are weak, sallow, he had 
never in any place seen such sickness among soldiers. The list is: 

Wm. Dickson, Barrister. Jno. McFarland, Boat-builder. 

Jno. Symington, Merchant. Ralph Clench, Clerk of Peace. 

Jos. Edwards, " Jno. Powell, Registrar. 

Jas. Muirhead, Surgeon Geo. Lane, Usher to L. C, 

Andrew Heron, Merchant Jno. McEwan, Merchant. 

Jno. Grier, " Jacob Ball, Farmer. 

Jno. Crooks, Clerk to Jas. Crooks, and twelve others. 

The list to whom passports were given on Dec llth, 1813, Wm. 
Dickson, Jno Edwards, Jno Grier, Jno McFarland, Jno Crooks, J. 
Baldwin, A. Heron, others on Dec. 8th and Dec. 24th signed on Jan. 
1814. 

Mrs. Wm. Dickson when the town was burned was ill in bed and 
was carried out and lay on the snow watching the destruction of the 
house, the first brick house built in Niagara shown by a letter dated 
1795. The library was valued at ^600. The late Walter H. Dick- 
son then a boy of six remembered them threatening to throw him in 
tae well. 

Mrs McKee, whose husband was a prisoner at the Fort, on the 
death of a child refused to have it buried till the husband and 
father could come to the funeral. He was blindfolded and brought 
over with a guard and then returned the same way. When the town 
was burned the family had seven buildings burned, the store with 
viluable goods from Montreal, a soap and candle manufactory, 
two dwelling houses etc. They packed fifteen trunks with the most 
valuable things and their friend, the father of the late Dr. Rolls sent 
for them to his house near St. Catharines. The mother to keep her 
little girl from standing on the snow while watching the conflagra- 
tion placed her on a large tea tray bnt in spite of all her toes were 
partly frozen. On reaching the Eight- Mile Creek the trunks were 
buried and covered with brushwood to be safe from marauders. 

Mr. Andrew Heron, the Secretary and Librarian of the Niagara 
Library started in 18^0, lived near what was afterwards Howard's 
Hotel but was then a prisoner at Greenbush with others formerly 
mentioned, found on hid return that his wife with an infant child 
(afterwards Mrs. Dug dale) had been carried out on the snow while 
the town was burning The library of 1800-182C was partly saved 
as shown by entries afterwards and lists of books bought to replace 
those destroyed, Mrs. Taylor of Ancaster, has part of a volume 



21 

which her father, Capt. Taylor, saved ^frora the burning building and 
it was supposed to be the only book so saved, but the existence of 
several is known of. The fragment had had charred leaves. One 
book, No. 81, is now in possession of the Niagara Historical Society 
and Mrs. M. Servos has two volumes also with the original label. 
There were 400 people in the town, mostly women and children, or 
old men and invalids, as the able bodied were either prisoners or in 
the militia fighting. 

The house of Mr. Ralph Clench was not burned as shown in 
"Proceedings of the Loyal and Patriotic Society," but was burnt acci- 
dentally a few weeks afterwards, two families Clench and Stewart, 
were living there, and help was given as there were seventeen thus 
left homeless 

The late John Rogers told me that he was a boy of nine at the 
time and that he distinctly remembered being on the street when a 
cannon ball fired from Fort Niagara passed near him. Their home 
could have been saved as they had friends, indeed relatives among 
the American officers, but were told this would only be an injury as 
it would be thought they were disloyal and sympathizers with the 
enemy. It is told that one of the beautiful mantel pieces in the pre- 
sent house was saved by Mrs. Rogers, who carried it out herself. 

Mrs. Winterbottom was in the house situated where Dr. Ker's 
house stands and American officers boarded there. An Indian came 
in one day and demanded liquor, her child, the late W. B. Winter- 
bottom, ran screaming that his mother was being killed, as on her 
refusal the Indian raised his tomahawk to kill her but an officer for- 
tunately struck him down with his sword. During the bombardment 
people retreated to their cellars, some hung blankets over their win- 
dows, some took refuge after the burning in a cave dug in the side of 
a hill, or made huts of rough boards. 

Mrs. Campbell, wife of Fort Major Campbell. The following 
letters show the sufferings and losses of the family. 

Stamford, 28th June, 1815. 

MADAM The Province of Nova Scotia having voted the sum of 
,2500 for the relief of sufferers on the Niagara frontier from the con- 
flagration of their houses by the enemy, the trustees appointed by the 
President, Sir Gordon Drummond to distribute the fund, have de- 
posited in the hands of Thos. Dickson, Esq., of Queenston, the sum of 
;63 12s 8-|d, to be paid to your receipt on demand. They have 
done this on the supposition that such a sum might be acceptable al- 



22 

though no application to share in this benevolence has been made on 
your behalf. Should you decline to accept of the sum, the Trustees 
request that you would signify your pleasure to Mr. Dickson as early 
as possible so that it may be divided amongst others, 

Thos. Scott. 
Wm. Dummer Powell 
John Strachan. 
Mrs. Major Campbell, 

Windsor, 

Nova Scotia. 

In a letter from York, Jan. 18th, 1816, from Alex. Wood the 
claims of Mrs. Campbell are stated. "She bore her troubles with 
much fortitude and resolution. She Avas in comfortable circumstan- 
ces, and on the death of her husband in 1812, with three young 
children was unable to leave the place and on the memorable night 
of the destruction of the town she was driven from her house with 
her infants, without the possibility of saving her own or their clothes 
and was with Mrs. Wm. Dickson exposed for three days and nights 
upon the snow with the canopy of Heaven for a covering, her house 
once the seat of hospitality and plenty reduced to ashes before her 
face, a few valuables she had endeavoured to save were torn from her 
by a monster in human form and carried oif and divided. All this is 
known to several respectable people." 

In a letter from Alex. Stewart, July 25th, 1823, to Alex. Wood, 
York, supposedly a statement of losses for Government damages he 
mentions that "the widow Campbell lived in a house 36x26, a story 
and a half high, finished in handsome style with barn etc., a good 
fence round two acres of land with fruit trees. Her house was fur- 
nished in a style corresponding with the rank of her husband, a 
Major in the army Her furniture plundered and a sum of money 
taken from her hands by a villain of our country serving under the 
rebel Wilcocks. Several gentlemen have placed the value of her 
jproperty at ^1200 cy. On her husband's death leaving three child- 
ren, one an infant, this unfortunate woman after carrying it four 
miles to baptism had to dig its grave and caver its remains. If 
there is an individual who can claim more commiseration than 
another surely it would be Mrs. Campbell." 

Statement of loss by the conflagration of the town 1 Oth Dec* 
1813, of Mrs Eliza Campbell, widow of Fort Major Duncan Camp- 
bell. 



23- 



DvV.-Umg HouS3, Bar.i^GOO sO 
10 .Silver Tab la Spojas 
10 Dessert Spoons 
20 Tea Spoons 

1 Silver Soup Lad I -3 

4 Salt & Mustard Spoons 

2 Silver Cups, large 
1 Chestdrawers 

13 Chairs 

1 Complete Set. 
Walnut Dining Table 
1 Four Post Bddstsad 

1 Travelling " 

2 Camp " 



Small " 

1 Wash stand 
5 Small Tables 
1 Cow and Calf 
1 Mare, two year 

yearling 
3 Canadian Stoves 



W 
6 5 
5 10 

3 
1 

12 

5 

4 15 

6 
4 
3 10 
50 
20 







2 10 
5 1C 



old 1 



30 
25 



2 Pair Tongs and Shovels^ sO 

1 Pair Dog Irons 

1 Larg^ Iron Oven 

1 Wash Kettle 1 

1 Bell Metal Wash Kettle 1 !-> 

2 Iron Pots, Frying Pan 1 !> 

1 Large Copper Tea Kettle 1 10 
6 Dozen Table Plates 2 

2 Dishes 3 10 
15 Glass Tumblers 1 5 
12 Wine Glasses 14 
2 Dressing Glasses 212 
1 Piece White Cotton 2 13 
1 Wrapper Coat 4 
1 Barrel Pork 5 
1 Beef 4 
1 Handsome Fowling Piece 5 
Tea Tray, 4 doz. Cups and 

Saucers 2 4 

1 Wood Saw, 2 Spades 



JJ73 13 

(Fort Major Campbell was taken prisoner with Cornwallis, served 
afterwards at Halifax was Capt. in 5th Regt. and Fort Major at Fort 
George, where he was buried shortly after Sir Isaac Brock, near the 
West Garrison Gate. Ed. J.C.) 

In a letter from Geo. Phillpots, Royal Engineer's Office, Fort 
George, he asks as to the claims of people in Niagara whose chimneys 
and walls were taken down to build by others and asks whether the 
price of the brick or stone is to be given or value as standing as 
chimneys are good enough to build round and some walls good 
enough to put a roof on. In July last when there was a probability 
of Americans attacking Fort Gaorge and Mississagua he was ordered 
by General Riall to cut down all orchards in the town and level all 
the buildings which would afford cover to an enemy between the 
forts. People are demanding to be paid for the loss sustained. 

Win Hamilton Merritt says in his diary that "on the 6th wa 
went down to Castle Chorus with Capt. Hamilton, Jarvis, McKenny 
and Ball to find some medicine buried there, next day procured a 
wagon had the chest dug up. Whilst there at breakfast at Squire 
P. Ball's a fight commenced between Indians under Capt. Norton 



24 

and Chief Blackbird and about 600 of the States Infantry. In Oct. 
Mr. Gordon, his brother-in-law took his family from 12 Mile Creek 
to Burlington for safety, 

On Dec. 10th saw by the glare at night that the town was on 
on fire. On the advance of Col. Murray nothing but heaps of coala 
and streets full of furniture was seen, Mr. Gordon's house left stand- 
ing. The barracks and woodwork nearly consumed. I returned to 
Rc;v. Mr. Addison's almost famished and had a good sleep." 

Rp>v. Jno. McEwan saya "the night the town was burned a num- 
ber of people were huddled together in a large smoke house owned by 
my father. Part of the time the old English 'Church was used as a 
prison. My father, Capt. McEwan, was there one night as a prison- 
er. He was wounded at the battle of Niagara and taken home, was 
taken prisoner out of his bed and sent to Greenbush, N.Y." 

la ten years of U.C., by Mrs. Edgar. A letter from T. G. Rid. 
out to his father from St. Davids 20th July, 1813. Rode down to 
t'ie Cross Roads three miles from Niagara where the Royal King's 
and 600 or 700 Indians are posted. The Ameiicans were ^advancing 
into Ball's fields. Blackbird and Norton went to meet them. We 
loieto within 1^ miles of the town. The road was covered with 
?niians, officers and soldiers and from the Presbyterian Church 
ihay must have judged our force 3000, but we had only 1000." 

The same officer writes from St. Davids 24th Aug., 1813. 
"Lieut. CoLO'Neil with 30 Dragoons 19th covered the advance 
OL Lt.-Col. Harvey into the town. Scouring several of the streets 
as far as the Presbyterian Church, Col. Harvey called at his old 
quarters and recovered a box he had left there. The enemy com- 
menced a brisk fire from the garden walls and houses, but our troops 
retired in order and with little loss. 

Sept. 15th, Headquarters near Niagara. We burn rails, steal 
apples, pears, and peaches. I carry on foraging, onions, eggs, turk- 
eys, musk melons, milk cows, etc. 

Sept 4th, 1813, Four Mile Creek. We have changed quarters 
from St. Davids. The 8th, 104th, part of the 89th and 100th on the 
edge of the wood, in front the main road crossing th camp by Mr. 
Add'son's, where the General stays, we took possession of an old 
hous^, made a straw bed on the floor. We collect balm from the 
garden for tea and carry on an extensive robbery of peas, onions, 



25- 

corn, carrots, etc., for we can get nothing but by stealing except 
milk. Bread and butter is out of the question, we have an iron pot 
which serves for teapot, roaster, and boiler, and two window shutters 
put upon three barrels serve for a table. 

Sept. 21st, I carry on the foraging, the nests are kept nice and 
cl-^an from eggs We feed a turkey every day at the door which is 
doomed for our Sunday dinner. I wish George could bring a little 
starch with him for the frills of my shirts. Peggy Nelles has just 
mended my blue coat and sent it down to me for which I thank her 
very much; concerning the shirts the starch has not yet come to 
hand," 

Mrs R. N. Ball, says the Crooks family, left for Thorold at 12 
at nigat, 26th May from Crookston, on3inile creek, carried a child 
of ten which was helpless. Old Jacob BalFs wife also went to Thor- 
old c-irryuig a biby Tae log house at Crookston was swimming with 
bluod the day of the battle The Ball home was 74 ft. long, part of 
Jogs, additions were built in 1814. It was taken down and is now 
a packing house for fruit, the ceiling is high and the old doors may 
yet be seen. 

Rev. John Carrol in My Boy Life, gives his own recollections 
and those of his mother. Born in 1809 he was only four when the 
family came to Niagara and his father and two brothers enlisted in 
the Royal Artilley Drivers and had been in the town a fortnight 
when the battle occurred May 27th, 1813,"! remember the militia men 
pouring into th? house to receive a badge of white cotton or linen on 
the arm to lt the Indians know that we were British, (for both sides 
employed Indians.) I remember the women in tears, ranks of red 
coated soldiers then sounds, bang, bang, pop, pop. Mother said the 
bullets flew like handfuls of peas, then a crashing sound through 
the house, it was a cannon ball, through the walls over our heads, 
mother took us out of the house, spread a blanket near a fence close 
to a vvheatfield, another cannon ball ploughed up the ground near us 
mother thought it time to flit, a brother ten years old had a feather, 
bed and some bedding in a sheet tied on his back and we went to the 
Four Milo Creek. Our horses on the common fell into the enemy's 
h-uids. the house we left was afterwards burned with all our house- 
bold elfdcts. We got into good quarters, an old farmer, George 
Lawrence, a Methodist Class Leader, took us in. Mrs Lawrence 
had a good voice and used to sing the old fashioned spiritual songs. 
Defensive works wera thrown up in the northwest bank of the creek, 
.about a quarter of a mile away. We were at the mercy of the forag 



26- 

ing parties from both sides. Some paid and others did not. The old 
man wept when abused that the victuals were not better. A guard of 
thirty was placed near. Old Mr. and Mrs. Stivens, Dutch people, had 
two sons, Hans and Hinery in the Provincial Dragoons. Mrs. Cas- 
sady who came there to nurse a sick daughter performed two very 
heroic acts. One day shots were heard, a little soldier who had been 
posted in the orchard came running scrambling up the steps. "Lord 
Jaisus, where will a fellow hide?" to which Mrs. Cassady replied by 
pushing him heels overhead down the steps. "Go fight like a man." 
Poor old Mrs. Stivens wrung her hands "och my poor Hans, oh my 
poor Hinery". Presently the dreaded Indians appeared in twos arid 
threes. Mr. Lawrence offered his hand which was accepted but another 
came up and caught him by his neckcloth, Corporal Smith, a militia 
man, took out a cartridge, when another Indian shot oar defender 
through the back. Another advanced with his tomahawk, when 
courageous Mrs. Ca&sady rushed forward and knocked it away ex- 
claiming "Don't murder the man in the house," and he was led away 
a prisoner. Mother had before this thrust u& four little ones into a 
pot hole under the stairs and now stood with her back to the door 
and her face to the Indians like a bear at bay. They passed through 
the house up staira and down. We never knew whether they were 
British Indians, or not, but some thought they had quarrelled with 
the soldiers and were out to do mischief. A son of the house, 
George Lawrence, in the militia, was that day brought in wounded in 
the thigh in a skirmish. The Lawrences now retired farther back 
and we started through the Black Swamp, walking to the Ten Mile 
Creek, where we found shelter in a small log house." 

P. McDonougb, letters from Fort George, 1813, Newark, May 
30th. "We are at last in Canada. The enemy met ui on the shore 
and made an obstinate resistance for fifteen minutes. This is a de- 
lightful place, the people evacuated but are returning daily. 

Aug. 4th We still remain here doing nothing. If things go on. 
no better than they are doing I shall be ashamed to return to Phil- 
adelphia next winter. War characters must rank low there. 

Aug. 9th. I was out all afternoon and had a few shots at the 
Indians. Ours are coming over to-morrow about 400 or 500. 

Oct. 8th. The Militia and Indians Lad a desperate engagement* 
with a party of the British on the 6th for about two hours and a half 
fought at such a distance that four wre killed. We can attempt 
iKrthing, Col. Scott's positive orders are not to suffer himself to be 
drawn ut of the Fort on any term* whatever or to permit an officer 
to leave it," 



27 

Letter of General Drummond to Loyal and Patriotic Society. 
Jan. 1st, 1815. "When shortly after being appointed to the command 
of the Province, on visiting the Niagara frontier I was shocked be- 
yond measure at beholding the desolation that had been spread on the 
once nourishing village of Niagara. As the principal sharer in the 
immense stores that had been captured in the important fortress in 
Niagara I beg to subscribe my portion of the prize money towards 
relieving the distress of those persons who inhabited the late village 
of Niagara and vicinity." The letter contained ,360, being .200 
the amount of the annual subscription and one hundred and sixty 
pounds being his proportion of his share for first division of Niagara 
Fort prize monev. "The Lieut.-Gen. regrets that this latter sum 
should have fallen so far short of his expectations but he trusts the 
next dividend will afford him a share worth the acceptance of the So- 
ciety for their truly laudable and benevolent purposes." 

Dr. Mann wrote of his medical and surgical experiences in the 
American army. He says that after Niagara was taken 27th May, 
nearly 4CO killed or wounded lay on the ground in a space 200 yds. 
by 15 showing how sternly contested was the battle. In the summer 
the sickness among the soldiers was alarming. At Fort George and 
near it of 5000 men, more than one third were on the sick list 
from effluvia from sinks. When 700 men were in hospital there 
were only three surgeons fit for duty. During June it rained almost 
incessantly, July and August were very hot, the enemy near, skirmish 
almost daily. In October and November rain, diseases were typhus, 
diarrhoea, dysentery, many died from diarrhoea, being stopped with 
acetate of lead which brought other dreadful diseases. A flying 
hospital was established at Lewiston. 

The statement of Mrs. Henry serving out refreshments to our 
soldiers on the day of the battle has been already given. 

In a letter from Alexander Hamilton, afterwards Sheriff Hamil- 
ton written to Edinburgh and dated St. Davids, July 4th are a few 
references to the state of affairs then and to familiar names. After 
giving a sketch of the battles of Detroit, Queenston, Ft. George, 
Stoney Creek, Beaver Dams, He says, 

"The Americans upon taking possession of Niagara allowed the in- 
habitants to remain in quiet possession of their homes and property 
but since their last adverse fortune they have taken up almost every 
gentleman of respectabilty and sent them over the river as prisoners 
of war. You will be sorry to hear Mr. Wm. Dickson is among the 
number. Mr, T. Dickon had to make his escape in the night, John 



25 

Robertson, you will be glad to hear, has behaved himself with great 
propriety and approved himself a most gallant soldier, his wife and 
daughter are both well. Robert went up last winter with Mr. 
Robert Dickson to bring down for our support the Northwestern Ind- 
ians and is expected back every day. George and myself are at- 
tached to Col de Haren, of the 104th Regt. from our knowledge of 
t!i-} country and roads to assist him. James is attached as a Lieut, 
to the Incorporated Militia. It is with the utmost pleasure I say 
that although one or other of us, sometimes two or three together 
have been in almost every action yet that not one of your friends 
has been hurt. Mr. and Mrs. Clarke, Mr. and Mrs. William and 
Thomas Dickson are all well. We are still determined that although 
the force of the enemy is still greatly superior to ours, to make one 
gallant attempt to drive them from our shores, trusting to that 
divine providence which has hitherto, so strongly uphold us, we have 
no fears." 

In tho Report of the Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Can- 
a la and Montreal a very rare book published 181 , r , are many refer- 
e ices to help given to inhabitants many of them wealthy but left des- 
titute. Large sums were subscribed in Nova Scotia, Jamaica, Lon- 
don, Montreal, England. One tenth of income of subscribers was 
given, Militia of York gave one day'a pay. Rev. R. Addiaon and 
Ryv. Dr. Strathan gave their services in distributing. Dr. Muirhead 
was very active in assisting the distressed and though he lo^t almost 
all at the burning, would take nothing from the society for his medi- 
c il services to the poor. Widow Secord faithfully distributed ^110 
to sufferers at St. Uavids. Rev. Dr. Burns distributed at Stamford, 
Mr. GJO. Ball distributed at 20 Mile Creek, Thos. Dickson also. 

A letter from Gen. Drummond 14th Mar., 1814, tells 
o? the distress of the family of Mr. Clench, whose home, the only 
oil? remaining was burnt down accidentally on the 14th inst. with 
furniture, bedding, clothes, leaving utterly destitute two families, 
Mrs. Steward and Mrs. Clench composed of 18 children, mostly 
fciiial'js, Mr. Clench being a prisoner. 

Mr Symington's family is referrrd to, as being driven out, pro- 
perty destroyed, while he, a gentleman of great worth and respect- 
a'liKty and wealth, had bsen taken prisoner at Niagara after he and 
others Ind been permitted to take care of their families. 

Mr S. Winterbottoui is spoken of as very deserving re- 
da --j-l by lus loyal i-y as the enemy made a point of distressing 



29- 

all loyal inhabitants. 

The mimes are mentioned of those having suffered of Mrs. 
Hanna Frey, Mr Jas. Secord, Capt. David Secord, Mrs. Heward a 
widow and a teacher lust employment by the war, Widow Myers 
and her son John Ray a teacher. 

Mr. Heron frequently gava to the poor, living in root houses, and 
cellars and under a few boards leaning upon luiimn^ys still standing, 
and was allowed ^LO to defray what he had thus given. 



-- There is a list given of houses burned in the town and near it, 
and the supposed value. It was only after many years that a part of 
this was received and paid in instalments. The Government re- 
sisted the c-laim of St. Andrew's church as the steeple had been used 
to take observations of the enemy and thus they said it was used 
for military purposes, but eventually .400 was allowed. St. Mark's 
had of course been used as a military hospital after the battle of 
Queenston Heights and afterwards as a commissariat. The money 
to restore it wai given by the king and the S.P.G. 

The following list gives an idea of the people of the town and 
their losses. The first twelve and a few others Aved on the outskirts. 
Descendants of perhaps a dozen of those mentioned are still found 
living here but of many the name is forgotten. 



Isaac Swayze house & barn ^200 
Wm. Dickson, brick house 1000 
M. McLellan, house testable 100 
M. Bellinger, barn 125 

Castel Chorus, " 125 

T. Butler, house, stable, barn 200 
J. Butler, " 350 

J % Secord " " " 1200 
P. Ball, 800 

J. Ballj " 1000 

J. Crooks " " 625 

G. Lawe " " 200 

T. Merritt " 400 

Rev. Mr. Burns, house 60 

J. McKay, barn 60 

J. Symington, house etc. 400 

J. Clark, house 400 

R. Clench, house & stable 150 



Dr. Holmes, house 100 

Dr Kerr, house & stable 650 
Mrs. E. Thompson, 2 houses 500 

A. McKee, 2 houses 600 

Mrs. Forsyth, house etc. 1250 

G. Slingerland, 200 

J. Eggleston, 3 houses 750 

T. Powis, 2 1250 

Dr. Muirhead, 500 

Mrs. Stewart, 500 

McKean & McEwan 1000 

A. Heron, 700 

W. Dorman, etc. 150 

A. Rogers 400 

S. Bunting 100 

Children of J. Kelly 150 

P. De Jordan, 100 

Mrs. Rose Fields 750 



30 

J. McFarlane, house etc. 100 S. Cassady 150 

C. Gesseau, two houses 400 J. Monroe 200 

D. Secord, house of John 200 E. Vanderlip 1000 
Mrs. Wright 150 Mrs. Hill 500 
Estate of Fitzgerald 100 A. Garner 450 
J. Grier 750 Major Campbell's Estate 350 
J. Young 1000 F. Waddell, 350 
J Crooks 1000 J. Clark, " 200 
W. Dickson 1000 Col. Claus 1000 
Estate of J. Emery 1000 J. Powell 300 
J. Edwards 500 Mrs. McBride 300 
Mrs. Bradshaw 160 J. Adlem 25 
J. Rogers 250 Estate of J. Jones 750 
Mrs Frey 300 Joined the Enemy 

J. Saunders 100 W. W. 250 

J. 50 J. Wagstaff 250 

Estate of D. Phelps 100 J. Doty 375 

Colonel P 600 P. Howell 500 

Estate of C. MeNabb 50 S. Thompson 750 

JK 

In Niagara 80 housas, barns, stables, etc. 

Letters of Col. Wm. Claus 18i8-1820 12th Jan. 1818. "My 
Lord. Anxious that something should be done towards rebuilding our 
church, which in the winter of 1813 was destroyed by the enemy at 
the time our town was burnt, I take the liberty of addressing myself 
to your Lordship, a freedom I would not presume upon if there ap- 
peared the most distant prospect or steps taken to make it even in 
a state that we could attend divine service, but during this season it 
is hardly possible to attend It remains in the state the commis- 
sariat put it in for the purpose of storing provisions in after we re- 
possessed ourselves of the frontier, with the trifling addition of a 
reading desk and gallery for the troops, I therefore pray the Soc- 
iety for the Propagation of the Gospel would give us 
aid. The church was made use of in 1812 as a hospital for the 
wounded soldiers and in 1814-15 as a provision store. Our situation 
is widely different from the rest of the province, we were deprived 
of our all and have barely the means of even getting covering for our- 
selves and families to which cause must be attributed the melan- 
choly state the church remains in " 

20th Sept., 1820. To Hon. and Rev. Dr. Stewart, **** Pre- 
vious to the war of 1812 the small congregation of Niagara erected 
at their own expense, a church which cost them nearly ^1260 cy. 



31 

* * * * In 1816 application was made to His Majesty's government 
for aid when His Majesty was graciously pleased to order ;5UO stg. 
which has been received and applied but falls far short of our wighos, 
notwithstanding we aie keeping the work going on. Orr co-..iii-rg!t- 
tioris are too poor to expect much from them, from livh g wilhin gui - 
shot of the enemy they suffered the loss of all they posst-^sed, burnt 
out and plundered of everything, they have really not yet recovered 
their misfortunes from the late unhappy war." 



References to Niagara in Early 
BooNs of Travel, Diaries, etc. 

General Lee, papers 1759 (Although Niagara here means Fort 
Niagara as often in early dates, the glowing description is really thac 
of the vicinity of the Fort just taken from the French and become a 
British possession.) 

"Niagara, Aug. 9th, 1759. The situation of this place and of the 
country around it is certainly magnificent. It stands on Lake On- 
tario at the mouth of the river, 18 miles from the Great Falls, the 
most stupendous cataract in the world. Had I a throat of brass and 
a thousand tongues I might attempt to describe it but without them it 
certainly beggars all description. The country resembles Eck worth 
Park, if not surpasses it. For an immense space around it is filled 
with deer, bears, turkeys raccoons, in short all game. The lake af- 
fords salmon and other excellent fish. But I am afraid you wi:l 
think I am growing romantic therefore I shall only say it is such a 
paradise and such an acquisition to our nation that I would not sacri- 
fice it to redeem the dominions of any one Electoral province of Ger- 
many from the hands of the enemy." 

Gilbert Family Captivity 1780 to 1782. This is a most re- 
markable story of the capture of fifteen persons of^ages from one year 
to 69 by Indians who had fled at the approach of Sullivan's army. 
Notwithstanding the hardships they endured during the two years of 
their wanderings they all with the exception of the father u ho had- 



32 

died from hardships, reached home mffcsr their adventures, they had 
b^en separated some had run the gauntlet, others were painted black 
for death, but were finally adopted into Indian families and at last 
purchased and seat home by way of Montreal by the British Govern- 
ment. The story is a Ion* one, they s^em to have kept some sort 
of diary, but only that part relating to Niagara is given. 

Abner Gilbert was with Elizabeth Gilbert with a party of In- 
dians near the Falls, they came clown to the river to get provisions 
at Butlersburg, (Niagara) a small village built by Col. Butler on the 
opposite side of the river to Fort Niagara * * *' * They went to the 
house of an Englishman, one John Secord, who was styled brother to 
the chief, having lived with him some time before Elizabeth was left 
"here and in Ju ] y 1781, Col. ButW at Butlersburg tried to free Abner 
who now found his sister Elizabeth and stayed two weeks in the 
house of John Secord and drew clothing from the King's stores, 
Elizabeth was very comfortable here. She with John Secord's wife 
went to see the child of Elizabeth Peart, over a year old with the 
Indians. Capfc Fry's wife purchased it for thirteen dollars. Eliza- 
beth Gilbert lived more than a year- i n J Secord's family and be- 
ca-ne fondly attached to them, calling the mistress of the house 
her mamma. J. Secord took her one day to Fort Niagara, where she 
met six of her relations. Col. Butler and John Secord procured 
her release from the Indian, who claimed her, by presents. She 
then stayed two weeks more at Rutlersburg with the Secord fam- 
iV Pvebecca r,nd Benjamin Gilbert were ssnt to Five Mile Meadow, 
fe^ie Seneca King's daughter took them to a hut, where her father 
Stangorachti, his queen, and the family were, eleven in all. After 
three^days tbev went to the landing on the Niagara river, later they 
ha'J chill and fov- r for thee months, cured by a decoction of herbs A 
Captain Lattendge tried to procure their freedom, Gen. Haldimand 
nt Quebec sent orders for libertv to be given to their captives, at 
the ("o'mcil Fir 3 and their freedom was given. 

^ Pigeons w -re procured by falling trees with nests, dried them 
i.i tVie sun and with smoke. On 30th June, 1782, part of the family 
sa led for Montreal, and Crown -Point was reached and home Sept 
1782. 

Mrs. Sioicoe, wifj of Col. J. B. Simcoe, first Lieut. -Gov. of Up- 
per Ca uida. 

"July 26t i, 1792. Navy Hill, built for Naval Commanders when 
here, is now undergoing a thorough repair for our occupation but is 
still bj unfinished that the Governor ordered three marquees to be 



33 

pitched on the bill above the house, which is very dry ground and 
rises beautifully, in parts covered with oak bashes. A fine turf leads 
on to woods through which runs a good road to the Falls. The side 
or the hill is terminated by a steep bank coverd with wood a hundred 
feet in height in some places, at the bottom of which runs the Nia- 
gara river. 

July 30th. We visited the Falls, stopped and breakfasted at Mr. 
Hamilton's, a merchant, who lives two miles from the landing. Mr. 
Hamilton has a very good stone house, the back rooms looking on 
the river A gallery the length of the house in a delightful covered 
walk, both below and above in all weather. 

July 29th, 1792, There is no church here, but a room has been 
built for a Mason's Hall, met for service in Free Mason's Lodge, 
where Divine Service is performed on Sunday. 

June 6th, 1793, Levee at Navy Hall, King's birthday, ball, 
dancing from 7 to 11, supper, handsome ladies, 60 gentlemen 
present. 

Aug. 24th, 1795, We sst out to-day for the Falls, Mr. Pilk- 
ington had been desired to put one or two short ladders to make 
the descent easy from rock to rock by the side of the Indian ladder, 
(a notched tree.) 

May 15th, 1796. Whitsunday: Col. Butler buried to-day." 

Wm Jarvis, Secretary to Gov. Simcoe writes 1792. "I was ten 
days in search of a hut to place niy wife and lambs in. I was oblig- 
ed to pay jl40 for a log hut with three rooms with half an acre of 
groand. I have purchased logs to make an addition of one decent 
room to it. No one is exempt from fever and ague." In 1793 he 
d -scribes the provisions laid in for the winter. "I have a yoke of 
fattened oxen to come down, 12 small shoats, about 60 dunghill fowl, 
16 fine turkeys, and a dozen ducks, two sows, a milch cow. In the 
root house I have 400 head of good cabbages, 60 bushels potatoes, 
3 barrels wine, 2 of cider, 2 of apples, and a good stock of butter^ 
my cockloft contains 150 Ibs. of the finest maple sugar, also 
plenty of good flour, cheese, coffee, loaf sugar. In the stable I 
h:ive the ponies and a good sleigh, and I have the snuggest and 
warmest cottage in the province." 

Mrs. Jarvis writes: "The Four Mile Creek would be a place 
worthy of the King's notice, it meanders in a manner superioi to any 
stream I ever saw. There is a great mill upon it and the fam- 



34- 

ily are Dutcb. We have received much attention from cnem, 
Mrs. Servos sent m t lard, pumpkins, sausages, Indian meal, squash- 
es, carrots, etc." 

Capt. Alexander Campbell, 42nd Regt., 1791-2. '-There was 
only one public house. Near the fort saw lOOu mostly 
whitefish caught in a seine net, sometimes 6000 are caught in 
one day, fishing is from October to May, the troops and inhabi- 
tants have stated days, the town is laid out one half acre to each 
housa, eigiit acresat a distance and a large commonty for the use 
of the town." He went from Niagara to Grand River, called at 
Major Ten Broek's. Dined at Squire McNab's, who is J. P. with 
Johnson Butler called on Col. Butler, (his father) next to Capt. 
Clench's on Mississagua Point, opposite Fort Niagara." Thanks are 
expressed for kindness shown by Aiessrs. McNab, Hamilton, Dick- 
son, (merchant,) Crooks, Kerr, Forsyth, Clark, (storekeeper,) John- 
son, Clench, Capt. Law, Alex. McNab. "I cannot particularize the 
hospitality I received and how many happy nights I spent at 
Niagara at assemblies, entertainments, card parties, also to the 
officers of the 26th Regt. and others." 

Letter from New York to friend in England, Nov. 1794, 
printed in Philadelphia 1795. 

"From Oswego vessels sail to Niagara but settlers more fre- 
quently sail in open boats along south shore, 120 miles, I went 
with a schooner of 100 tons burden from Kingston to Niagara, 
three days out of sight of land though the passage is made in 
twenty hours. We enter the Niagara River between 
"the fort and the town called Newark, with a beautiful prospect of 
both, the Fort is on the east side a regular fortification and well 
" garrisoned. The mouth of the river affords a safe and copious 
harbour, sufficiently large for half the British navy. The town of 
Newark is situated in 43 north latitude extending about a mile 
"* enjoying the fresh breezes from this little sea, plentfully supplied 
with fish at all seasons. In winter are caught with seines white- 
fish, from two to six Ibs. weight, sturgeon, bass, salmon, in the 
creeks around the lake. They are not only a luxury but a great 
assistance to new beginners in supporting their families, many 
laying in a half dozen barrels for winter use. 

The Surveyor General, a gentleman of liberal education and 
indefatigable in the duties of his office gave mucb correct infor- 
mation. The farmer can cut timber to fence his fields, and girdle 
the remainder, put in the harrow, only in some place is it neces- 



-35- 

Sary to use the plough till the second or third crop, the trees are 
beautiful white pine, oak, walnut, sugar maple, beech, hickory, and 
basswood. At Newark reside many gentlemen, who form a very 
iiitelligfcnt and agreeable society. 

At the lower landing Queenston, the vessels discharge their 
cargo, and take on furs from 300 to 1500 miles back. I have seen 
four vessels of 60 or 100 tons, unloading at once and 60 waggons 
loaded in a day for the upper landing or Chippawa Creek- This 
portage is a source of wealth to the fanners, who carry from 20 
to 30 hundred weight at Is 8d N.Y. cy per hundred weight and 
load back with furs, transfer to batteaux at Fort Erie and then 
shipped in vessels for Detroit etc. 

Weekly Courts of request are held through the province for 
all debts under half a Joe. District courts every three months, 
and an annual circuit before Chief Justice and two associate 
judges." 

Duke de Rochefoucault Liancourt 1795-7. "I made a 
long stay of eighteen days, from June 23rd to July 10th, waiting 
permission from Lord Dorchester to visit Quebec, as foreigners 
were forbidden from the conduct of some Frenchmen. 

There were in Newark one hundred houses, the house of 
Col. Smith, Lt-Col. in the 5th Regt. is much distinguished from 
the rest, it is constructed, embellished and painted in the best 
style, the yard, garden and court surrounded with railings as in 
England, a large garden like a French kitchen garden, is in good 
order, laborers are paid at a dollar a day, but he finds in his 
regiment as many as he chooses at 9 pence sterling a day, he is 
clearing 5000 acres and has the use of thirty, which belong to 
the king situate in front of him. 

The Legislature opened with two members instead of seven, 
five of Assembly instead of fifteen, but as the time was almost ex- 
pired the governor may prorogue from day to day, hoping that 
vessels may bring members. His retinue was fifty men from the 
fort. Dressed in silk he entered the hall. 

Simcoe's guard was four soldiers, who came every day from 
the fort. No church has yet been built in Newark. Mr. Hamil- 
ton, an opulent merchant, concerned in the inland trade has a 
farm, a distillery and a tanpit yard. I helped one day at fish- 
ing with the soldiers, net 100 ft. long, four ft. deep, caught 50$ fish, 
sturgeons, pikes, sunfish, salmon, trout, herring. Mr. Littlehales 



36- 

was very land, Simcoe's intimates were Mr. Pilkington and Major 
Seward." 

Ha describes Simcoe's residence as a miserable low build 
ing. 

I. Weld Travels in 1797. "At Niagara we were landed at Mis- 
sissagua Point an agreeable walk of a mile to the town, many 
Indians present, 70 houses, Court House, Jail and a building in 
tended for Legislative bodies. Called at four taverns before we got 
accommodation as the people were suffering from ague, not a house 
in town exempt, and nearly all at Fort Niagara. On the mar- 
gin of the river three quarters of a mile from the town stair la 
Navy Hall, opposite it a spacious wharf, adjoining it extensive stores 
^belonging to the crown and private persons. Navy Hall is now 
occupied by troops as Fort Niagara has been given up. A block 
house is to be erected on the top of the banks for the soldiers to be 
iinished in a few months. At Fort Niagara there are only fifty men 
find four small field pieces. The stone forfc is ten yards from the 
Like but wh:m- first built there was an extensive garden between it 
aad the lake. The new block house at Fort George is nine feet 
higher than, the top of the stone house at Fort Niagara and commands 
everypart of the fort. It isproposed to erect a fort at Mississagua 
Point, a still batter situation than the block house. At the Falls 
a**e several ladders, one below the other, a long pine tree with not- 
ches in the sides, vibrates as you step, Mrs. Simcoe's ladder is far- 
ther down, is strong and firmly placed, large masses of earth and 
sfcone and ladders placed from one break to another. 

- John Maude, 1800. "Arrived at Queenston, Fairbank's Tavern. 
Fourteen teams were at the wharf, teams drawn by two yoke of ox- 
en peltries or bales waiting to be loaded, also three schooner: . A 
miserable dinner, sent my introduction to Col. Hamilton, which pro- 
cur d me an invitation to supper, the goodness of my supper made 
up for the badness of my dinner. 

Aug. 27th, At West Niagara, late Newark. Had embarked at 
8.30 am., on board the Schooner, Gov. Simcoe, of 99 tons, com- 
manded by Capt Sampson, pretty good accommodation. Capt. and 
Mrs. Claus on board, reached West Niagara at 10 a.m. The situa- 
tion is pretty, thd fort new and remarkably neat, built on the edge of 
n handsome green or common, skirted by a few tolerable houses. 
The Garrison consisted of the Queen's Rangers and Canadian Volun- 
teers. Although a warm day the officers were playing fives. They 
were on good terms with the Americanofficers. Major Rivardi was 




Hon. Robert Hamilton. 

Diid 1805. Called tHe Flounder of Queenston 
See Fage 33- 



37- 

the American Commander, he dined on shore, and although the 
tavern was a very bad one we hd a tolerable dinner." 

Thos. Moore, 1804. In a letter the poet says. "To Col. Brock 
of the 49th who commanded at Fort George and to the officers I am 
particularly indebted for much kindness during the fortnight I re- 
mained at Niagara. Among the many pleasant days which I spent 
with him and his brother officers that of our visit to the Tuscarora 
Indians wan not the least interesting. They received us in all their 
ancient costume, the younger men exhibited f o r our amusement in 
the race, the bat game etc. while the old men and the women sat 
in groups under the surrounding trees and the pi cture altogether was 
beautiful as it was new to me." 

C. F. Volney, (French) 1804, but travelled in 1797 speaks of 
ladders at the Falls as others but gives position as 1,200 yards be- 
low Table Rock. 

D'Arcy Boulton 1805, Niagara is a handsome town of about a 
mile square, its streets at right angles (seems to quote from letter of 
1794 about fish.) The climate is remarkably fine, 60 waggons loaded 
every day from Queenston to Chippawa 

John Mellish 1806 to 1811. "I came down on opposite side of 
the river, the wind was blowing so that I could not cross to Newark, 
It contains about 500 inhabitants with many handsome buildings of 
brick and stone, two churches and a jail, an academy, six taverns, 
about twenty dry goods stores where every article may be procured 
on as good terms as at Montreal. The fort is garrisoned by 500 
men of the 4 1st Regiment and the remainder oftheRegt. is along 
the banks of the lake, Queenston has 300 people and six stores." 

Heriot 1806. "On the western bank a mile higher up than Fort 
Niagara the British fort is situated on ground higher than the last, 
constructed of cedar, pickets and earth, buildings on it of much neat- 
ness. On the bank of the river and beneath the fort are several 
buildings of store house and barracks one of which in called Navy 
Hall, contiguous to a wharf. A swamp in the vicinity from stagna- 

ted vapors is prejudicial to health of residents and troops in garrison. 
A plain intervenes of near a mile between the town and Fort George, 
houses of wood neat and clean near 200, streets spacious and cut at 

+ right angles. On Mississagua Point on west side of the river a 
lighthouse has lately been erected, while fish and black bass are 
caught near the point in great abundance," (An engraving of British 
Fort at Niagara taken from the east bank of the river shows flag on 



-35- 

large buildings on heights of Fort Gaorg^, saveral buildings at King's 
wharf, St. Mark's church is sen and a larga building with flag staif 
near where present Court house stands, a building on the bank 
midway between Fort George and the town is supposed to have been 
first Butler's barracks as herd tlijsa buttons are found.) 

Christian Sohultz writes from Fort Niagara 18C7 says "Newark 
makes a handsome appearance, has 200 houses, a convenient light- 
house below tne town directly opposite tae American Fort. The 
British Fort is a mile above the town has a garrison of 200 men, 
the works are strong , they have opened two new embrasures, have 
a full band of musicians. Taree British Schooners are lying at 
King's wharf. Youngstown, above Fort Niagara, has five or six 
.houses, Queenston 100 houses and a garrison of 28 men." 

Journal of Charles Prenline Oct. 1 807. "Queenston is a pleasant 
village situated in a valley of good land containing some very elegant 
storehouses. Here is a fortification and troops stationed. Rode to 
Newark and put up at Emmitta Hotel. The land is good and level 
and under improvement Tne town on a pleasant plain contains an 
-Episcopal church, Court House and Gaol and about a hundred and 
fifty good houses, called at a printing office where I got about thirty 
newspapers, a present from the editor. The lighthouse two hundred 
rods from the town is lighted eveiy night for the Shipping on lake 
Ontario. Fort George is a strong fortification about eighty rods 
from the town, store houses extend from the fort to the river. A 
large number of troops are stationed here and are under very strict 
discipline." 

Michael Smith Hartford 1813. "I was living in Upper Canada 
and writing a geographical description of it in 1812 when the war 
broke out, though many papers were lost I went to the States and 
published it there. 

Niagara, a beautiful and prospective place of much trade in- 
habited by a civil and industrious people. Fort George is half a 
mile from the river 24 ft above the water, nearly square enclosing a 
space of 150 by 100 yards. The pickets are high and strong defend- 
ed by a ditch on one side and breastwork on inside, well provided 
with cannon, ammunition, water, provisions, etc. There is a Council 
House, Court House, jail and two houses for public worship. Thtre 
are several squares in the village adorned with almost every kind of 
precious fruit, the village on the east looks towards the fort over a 
beautiful plain of nearly one mile wide" He then goes on to con- 
tradict the scalping stories thus, "The Indians are forbid by the 



-39- 

British Government to cross lin-38, perhaps some of my readers may 
say I am a wretched tory and deserve to be hung for naming forbear- 
ance and humanity wit i thd word Britisii after tney have paid In- 
dians for scalps of women and children. But 1 will tell you the 
truth although you may not believe it, which is that the Indians are 
not paid one cent for scalps, indeed they have not taken any since 
the battle of Brownston, and every one they took they brought down 
to Fort George by my house, I asked the chief if Col. Glaus or the 
Gov. gave them anything for them and they said not but some 
men would give them a dram for them Tney told me none of the 
Indians took any scalps from women and children, but only from 
those killed in battle. When they took them to Fort George the 
Govt. and Col. Claus reproved them for their conduct and told them 
to take no more scalps. If they now take them it is against the 
knowledge or will of the British. It is entirely indifferent to me 
whether anyone believes these remarks or not, indeed I will not stand 
the truth of it but it is the nearest or greatest evidence I could get on 
the subject." 

Mr. Smith had moved to Canada 1808. "There are three good 
schools in U.C., York, Quinte, Niagara village by Rev. J. Burns. 
There is a public free school in every district. During the war all 
the schools were closed and no preaching, no debts collected." 

Mr*. Jenoway 1814. The following letter gives the explan- 
ation of the earthworks back of Brock's monument, some asserting 
they were the works of Indians others of the French and still others 
that they were thrown up by the Americans. All these statements 
are here shown to be wrong and that the work was done by the 
British in 1814 and destroyed by them when the enemy under Gen, 
Brown was advancing previous to the battle of Lundy's Lane. The 
date of Fort Mississagua is also fixed by this. Built by Lieut, Jeno- 
way, of 1st Scots Royals. "Hope Cottage, Fort George 14th Sept. 
1814. 

It is now five months since your brother was made assistant en 
gineer of this place. I have now been with my husband for three 
months and am living in a cottage of his own building. I left York 
on the 6th of June to join my husband who was at Queenston hav- 
ing been ordered from Fort George to erect fortificatons there. 
Five thousand of the enemy landed at Fort Erie. Mr. Jenoway was 
left to command at Queenston and the fortifications he had con- 
structed, but as our army had to retire after a hard battle with only 
fifteen hundred British to oppose so many, consequently your 
brother had to blow up the batteries and go to Fort George with his 



-40- 

men and guns. Previous to that I had to make my retreat with the 
children at nine o'clock at night. When four miles from Queenston 
six Indians rushed out of the bush and asked me for money but when 
they found that I was an officer's lady they went away. We went to 
the Twelve where we stayed three weeks. The Yankees were 
within four miles of us and when they retired my dear husband 
brought us to Fort George. He has now the entire command at Forts 
Mississagua and George of the Engineer Department. The former 
is a large new fort which he had the direction of at the commence- 
ment. 

Your affectionate sister, 

HANNAH JENOWAY." 

Lieut Francis Hall 1816-7 "There is a newspaper printed at 
St. Davids. Fort Mississagua is star shaped and intended to be 
faced with stone; to Fort George is a mile of flat ground occupied 
mostly by the village of Newark, which has in great part been rebuilt, 
houses of wood. 

On Saturday, we were 49 in number and it was the anniversary of 
Detroit. The clergyman who was of the party made allusion to it 
next morning in the church." 

Opt. R. Langslow, of East India Co.'s service, Journal 1817. 
' Too the stage at the Falls for Newark, pouring rain, coach cover a 
farce reached Fort George between 8 and 9 and went to the inn 

"kept by A Rogers, got tea very confortably. Talked with Major 
Davies of 99th at Fort George, Newark or West Niagara. Sept. 
23. Dined with the mess of the 70th Regt. Port and claret in 
profusion. They live well and have a good mess. The Barracks 
not the men's and officers') are infamous, left with Col. Evans be- 
(tween 10 and 11 and had a dreadful walk to the inn through water 

~up to the knee, the rain poured all the time and nearly a mile to go, 
Wed. Sept. 24th took my leave of the friendly hospitable couple, 
Col. Evans from Staffordshire, Mrs. Evans a very pleasant woman 
from Scotland I suspect. Visited the works of Fort Mississ- 
pgua opposite Fort Niagara, a strong little star fort with a block 
tower in the centre as the last hold after the American fashion. 
On my way to the mess visited Fort George It has been curtailed 
one half. General Brock lies under the flagstaff in the highest bast- 
ion and I walked over the grave of this gallant soldier. Sept. 25th 
took s^age through Queenston, passed over the battle ground, saw 
remains of several small works and redoubts. A tall pole like a 
flagstaff erected on the spot where General Brock fell, about 300 yds. 



41 

from the road to the right. A little further on is a block house and 
out work, apparently newly erected 400 yds. on the right." 

Oa reaching Fort Erie he was "petrified" to find he had left be- 
hind his Indian Shawl and pocket thermometer and drove back all 
the way to Roger's inn and this gives a curious reference to the 
brother of Sir Walter Scott and the belief of soma as to the author- 
ship of these inimitable works. ''Started at 1 p.m. and reached Ni- 
agara at 6 p m "Thank my lucky stars I found my shawl and ther* 
mometer uninjured. The next day ate fine peaches at Col. Grant's 
garden, saw Capt. Vavasour Sept. 30th started back, plagued 
with the harness, got soina string at Mr. Scott's, Paymaster of 70th, 
who lives three miles from Fort George, said to be the author of 
Gay Mianering, Waverly, disappointed in not seeing him. These 
novels are supposed to be sketched by Mr. and Mrs. Scott but finish, 
ed for the press by their brother Walter, sucii is the opinion of tha 
officers of the 70th" 

Jno. M. Duncan Travels 1818,lettcr from Niagara. *'It is in- 
tended to level the works of Fort Georga and erect a strong fort 
closer to the lake where there is already a small one called Fort 
Mississagaa Niagara has a Court House and Jail under the same 
roof, the Jail in the lower floor,the cells for cr iminals and debtors 
surround and open from the hall which leads to the Court room, 
and the guilty or unfortunate inmates are exposed to the gaze of 
those who enter. The partitions and doors are of strong pieces of 
oak bolted together, the doors about nine inches thick of two thick- 
nesses of wood with sheet iron between. Some of the debtors' rooms 
have a small window to the outside bat the criminals have no light 
i)ut from a small semi-circular opening in the door. The debtors 
have fire places but the others can only look out to a stove in the 
middle of the hall which can gire 110 perceptible warmth. How 
dreadful to pass a Canadian winter in such a place. I did not spend 
a Sabbath in the town. A single church in town, a sabbath school 
is to be attempted. 

Jno.Howison 1818. "Population of Niagara 700 or 800, many 
merchants, a regular market, some pretty houses with several decent 
taverns. In winter there are public dancing assemblies, military 
races twice a year, two newspapers, Mr. Gourlay much discussed. 
Apple and peach orchards, the pigs eating the fruit on the ground. 
.Major Norton has much influence with the Indians. He has married 
one of their women, speaks their language and lives among them." 

Jas Strachan 1819. "Niagara town is rising from its ashes with 



-42 

j^reat rapidity. He draws a contrast between the church ;i,n:l the jail, 
the former entirely out of repair and most discreditable to the 
people, the latter the most splendid building in Upper Canada. No 
fcfcoae or memorial to mark the burial pla:e of General Brock under 
oil 3 of the bastions of Fort Gaorge." He wrote the sonnet following 
sometimes attributed to his brother Bishop Strachan. 

Why calls, the bastion forth the patriot's sigh? 
And starts the tear from beauty's s welling eye? 
Within its breach intrepid Brock is laid 
A tomb according with the mighty dead, 
Whose soul devoted to his country's cause 
In deeds of glory sought his first applause. 
Enrolled with Abercrcmby, Wolfe and Moore 
No lapse of time his merits shall obscure, 
Fresh shall they burn in each Canadian heart, 
And all their pure and living fires impart, 
A youthful friend rests by the hero's side 
Their mutual love death sought not to divide, 
The muse that gives her Brock to deathless fame. 
Shall in the wreath entwine McDoiiell's name. 

Diary of John Goldie 1819 published by his grandson. Dr. J. C. 
Cavan. " On June 4th 1818 started to walk to examine the botan- 
cal productions of U.S. and Canada near the lakes from Montreal 
through Glengarry Reached York 6th July, Instead of sailing by 
Frontenacto Niagara we went round by land, Thermometer 90 at 
Stony Creek. On July 10th reached Niagara. Well laid out streets 
but not filled with houses, 300 of 68th Regiment here. The only 
^ building worthy of particular notice is the jail just out of town. 
It ia a large two story brick building very handsome and is consid- 
ered to be the finest building in Canada. At present it holds within 
its walls the celebrated Gourlay. The Niagara Newspapers are full 
of his writings and those of his opponents. I read one of his papers 
and cannot think that he is so dangerous a character as the men in 
power would make people believe. I suspect his greatest fault is in 
speaking too many truths. Thermometer 94, On the llth 1 went to 
the Falls and on the road saw fruit trees, cherries and peaches, have 
seen and eaten more cherries than I have ever done before. At 
Queenston saw the spot where Brock fell near the read 
and marked by a number of old thorn trees in a rude circle. At 
the Falls a ladder of 28 steps from an arbor vitae tree." 

The botanical specimens obtained with such labor were sent to 
Scotland at different times and strange to say three times the game 



43 

thin- occurred. They were lost either by shipwreck or otherwise. 

" Adain Hodgson, letter from North America 1819-1820. This 
traveller seems to have been in bad humor on his visit to Niagara. 
Ci l found at the village of Niagara about 4-00 British soldiers in a 
miserable fortress mouldering to decay with little appearance of 
clisjipliiie or respectability. This was the more mortifying to my 
English feelings as within gunshot the American flag was Hying 011 
the old French fort in excellent repair and of far more formidable 
aspect, although the garrison contained little more than 12u men. 
Taese however were kept employed while the British were allowed 
to be idle if they chose, although they might occasionally work for 
farmers in the neighborhood. They are allowed 1-J- gills of rum 
per day and can buy a gallon for a dollar. One effect of their indol- 
ence was perhaps visible in the humiliating spectacle of one of the 
men for some offence receiving 300 lashes a short time before as I 
\ras informed, in sight of the American Fort, and in presence of 
several American travellers, who exulted that this disgrace is banish- 
ed from their army. I conversed some time with an Irish soldier 

..who thought Niagara a fine situation from the cheapness of liquor. 
I sailed for York, we were beoalmed in a miserable open, boat and 
were out all night instead of taking four or five hours, embaiked 
in the evening in a steamboat." 

E. A. Talbot 1824. Niagara had 100 houses 558 inhabitants. 
QueenstonGO houses 300 people, In Niagara three churches, 
Episcopal, Presbyterian meeting house, Methodist chapel. He 
^tells that Richard Talbot has taken out 24 families, 200 people in 
1818, came by the Brunswick the cabin for the use of the Talbot 
family arid three other families, met Col Talbot in York who had 
a grant of 100,000 acres, describes the Indian church in Brantford, 
settled near London, built a house 46 x 24 from 26th Oct to Dec. 
2nd. 

Jas. Pickering 1824-1828 was hired to Col. Talbot visited Ni- 
agara several times, kept a diary, stayed over a year with Col. 
Talbot as his foreman. "At Ancaster are four brother Crooks who 
own land, large stores and good taverns at Niagara, apples and 
peaches plenty. Flag on Sunday flying from Brock's monument, 
^.in December some apples still hanging from trees. Aug. 2nd. 
At the mouth of the river dragging for the body of Morgan who was 
murdered in or near Niagara. The steamer Michigan in Septem- 
ber was sent over the Falls with wild animals, 8,000 spectators. Fire 
seen from the lake supposed to be the light house at Niagara but was 



44- 

the steamer Frontenac. At Niagara lately a soldier was hung for 
murdering his wife." 

"Wonders of the West," first poem published in Upper Can- 
ada, 1825, by J. L. Alexander. Extracts interesting to us from re- 
ferring to Niagara more than for their literary value. 

II. 

The boat had stemmed Ontario's tide, 

And anchored on the southern side, 

A noble river with its waves 

Two riral nations' confines laves 

That giant stream which through the lakes 

Of Canada its circuit makes 

And issuing from Ontario, 

About two hundred miles below 

After so long a pilgrimage 

(Less holy name were sacrilege^ 

Assumes St. Lawrence name of awe 

But here is called Niagara. 

III. 

Upon the river's eastern side 

A fortress stands in warlike pride 

Ontario's surges lash its base 

And gradually its walls deface 

And from its topmost tower displayed 

A flag with stripes and stars portrayed 

Upon the west an ancient mound 

The Union Jack and British ground 

Nor distant far another stands 

Which the whole river's mouth commands. 

Between the two lay Newark village 

Which yet they let its neighbors pillage, 

Not only so but burn it down, 

And from its ashes now has grown, 

Another but more lovely far, 

Since the conclusion of the war 

Which they have named Niagara. 

V. 

Some gazed upon the fertile fields, 
The various fruits the orchard yields, 
Plum, cherry, apple, pear and peach 






And some the pendant brandies reach, 
While some regard the distant shore, 
A British Colony no more, 
And blush for battles fought and won 
Between the mother and her son. 

VII. 

But now a chain of hills appear. 
A monument its summit bears, 
"Whose tomb is that? thf stranger cried, 
Brock's monument, Wogee replied. 

X, 

Now with unwonted labour spent 

Behold them on the monument. 

* * * * * * 

Despair had seized upon his brain, 

And from that tower's giddy height, 

He leaped, the bulwarks stopped his flight, 

And his now frantic sister's arm 

Preserved St. Julian from harm. 

* * * ^ %. * 

She grasped his hand and led him down, 
The winding staircase to the ground. 

McTaggart Travels in 1826, speaks of Jacob's ladder, which 
bangs from the ledge of the Table Rock. 

Fitzgerald de Roos,1826 "At the Falls a circular kind of cork- 
screw ladder constructed round a mast descended to a path to the 
cataract " 

Capt. Basil Hall, 1827 describes the Falls but not Niagara, but 
i;i 40 Etchings from sketches and Camera Lucida he has a view of 
Niagara River from Brock's Monument shewing the points etc., In- 
dians, houses placed on frames without foundations, one large room 
half furnished crowded with guests. 

G. H. Hume, 1832 "Niagara is not healthy, subject to lake 
fevers, inhabitants yellowish in color and are termed yellowheads, 
' climate mild, all fruits are found here." 

E T.Coke, 1832 A subaltern's furlough. The batteries have 
been undermined by waves and have nearly disappeared. Fort 
George has some low wooden decayed barracks Fort Mississagua in 
a still more mouldering state. I attended service in the Scotch and 
English Churches, the former had only been commenced a few 
months, tha interior was yet in an unfinished state, but the con- 



-46 

gregation was large. The 79th Highlanders in full costume, fine 
soldier like appearance." 

Rev. Isaac Fidler, 1832 "Took coach for Youngstown from 
the Falls, crossed the river and heard a violent outc/y from a 
boat in the middle of the river pursued by another gaining on it 
from the American shore. The outcry was made by an Irish de- 
serter from the Fort who had scarcely reached the Canadian 
boundary before his pursuers were upon him. His vociferations 
increased, and the Canadians flocking together from all quarters 
rushed into the water to save him He declared he had been 
misused and his pursuers were threatened with being thrown into 
the water if they did not desist. I called on the missionary of 
Niagara who welcomed me in the true British spirit of Christian 
brotherhood. He is a sincerely pious man greatly esteemed arid 
respected." 

Thomas Fowler's Journal, 1832. 

He gives the best description of the Hermit of the Falls, 
(page 221) also a description of the first Brock's monument. "The 
base is a lobby square in form. Above the base is a round pillar 
with a stair inside leading to a fins gallery which encircles the col- 
umn a little below the top. At Niagara, Crysler's Hotel sent coach 
to the wharf for passengers without charge. Streets are at right 
angles with rows of poplars. On the south arid west of the town is 
an extensive field of tableland, remarkable for its levelness and 
beauty occupied as a parade ground by troops of tha garrison. 
About 9 in the evening had supper, charge three York shillings. 
There are four churches and the jail and court house of the 
county." 

Ferguson, 1833 Niagara was not much alive, some morasses 
in the vicinity make it unhealthy. Had letters of introduction to 
Newark and Queenston but Mr Hamilton would not let me go to 
any place but his house. At Crysler's hotel in Niagara was re- 
galed on whitefish." 

RadclifFs letters^ 1833, to McGrath in Dublin "At York Phy- 
sicians are very much wanting here and apothecaries still more. 
Ignorant persons act in that capacity who scarcely know the names 
of the drugs they sell. At Niagara this most necessary branch is 
solely conducted by a female who compounds medicines and pud- 
dings with equal confidence but not with equal skill. It is ex- 
traordinary that there are few peaches at the north side or at either 
extremity of Lake Ontario, but such is their abundance on the 
south side that they are sold there for a shilling a bushel." 

Capt. Hamilton Travels in 1834 "The 79th Regiment was at 



47 

Fort Gso 'ge, Lard Darbam said that the descendants of U.E. 
Loyalists were not so loyal as late settlers from Great Britain." 
( vlany who called themselves U.E. Loyalists were not so but carne 
after Suncoe's offer of land.) 

*"' John Gait, 1836 "Niagara has 1500 inhabitants, neat houses, 
num3rous shops and taverns, two weekly newspapers, and a weekly 
market. In the Canalas 1832 thare are interesting letters from 

'" emigrants laying stress on the fact that there are no game laws 
or lords over you, you can make your own soap, candles, sugar, 
treacle, vinegar." 

Mr.3 Jameson Summer, Rambles and Winter Studies, 1838-7 
Two visits to Niagara and the Falls are described, one a dark and 
gloomy on 3 the next roseate in hue. "Was welcomed by Irish 
friends, (the Alma family.) The chief proprietor at the dock yards 
i* a public spirited good natured gentleman. Capt. Melville 
^X/20000 has been expanded on the works, there are fifty workmen. 
A steamer was building, the brass work and casting is all of the 
first order. Taere are no booksellers but plenty of taverns, the 
fort dilapidated, our force there three privates and a corporal. 
Drove to Falls, Mr. A a magistrate, pointed out a house where he 
had arrested a gang of forgers and coiners, returned at midnight in 
sleigh, intense cold, 29th January, did not speak a word in 

* returning. 

- June, 1837, Sir F. B. Head had received an address from 

431 colored inhabitants of vicinity, mostly refugees from slavery. 

In jail a wretched maniac in chains four years for murdering his 

wife was about to be hung. Heard the death bell pealing for a young 

man who died from habitual drinking. Visited a mulatto woman 

_. who had taken part in the fray when Moseby the black man escaped. 
The slave had escaped from Kentucky, was followed by his master, 
lodged in jail. Hundreds of blacks surrounded the jail to prevent 
his return to slavery. The mob was orderly, no firearms, one woman 
seized the sheriff, another held an artillery man to prevent his firing. 
In the scuffle Moseby escaped but two blacks were shot by the 
soldiers. My informant foremost in the fray, formerly a slave in 
Virginia, said "We thought we were safe here,but I'll go to the end 
of the world to be safe, I will, I will." 

T. R. Preston 1837-1839. Speaks of Morrow or Morreau's ex- 
ecution, the sheriff was within an ace of acting as hangman if he 
did not do so actually. Gives a list of the disposal of prisoners in 
Rebellion. Usher was murdered by Lett who boasted of it. 

*- Letter in United Service Journal signed Bungle, an officer of 
43rd Regt. "Fort George in ruinous state encamped in green plains 



45 

Jo and a most civilized circle graced by several fair ladies. At day 
ligat struck our tents and went by steamer to Queenston, marched to 
th3 Falls. Thermometer 120 Rich foliage of solemn forests, lux- 
uriant crops of grain. Soon after Lord Durham, family and suite ar- 
rived. I suppose Niagara Falls never saw such a convocation of 
cjjked hats as was on 17th July. His Excellency was met by 
Lord Colborne and Sir George Arthur with their staffs. A 
grand review and two hundred persons to dinner. Immense coii- 
ci'-j) chiefly Aneriiiis. 19 r^gim >nt L'ghfc Infantry 600 
strjii?, one squad 1st Dragoon Guards, two guns three companies of 
'2 till Regiment A troop of Niagara Lancers, a most excellent and 
e.Iicient corps." 

Sir Jas. Alexander in L'Acadie, 1811 An officer in , 

''visited Col. Talbot, Niagara, took part in a Court Maitial at Niagara 
Oil an old officer who had left his post at Fort Mississagua for Buf- 
falo with a woman of loose character, found guilty and had to leave 
t 10 service. Visited Fort Niagara, American officers very friendly, 
f jur can ) over and dined at Lieut. Moody's R. E." 

Sir Richard Bonnycastle 1845, Describes the ice jam at 
Qieensboa. io?, piled thirty f^et high and the wharf injured. A 
11 ig at Fort Mississauga on Sundays and holidays. At the races 

* v <y -re many blacklegs and drunken vagabonds. Stopped at Ho- 

* ward's Hotel where coach started, monument of Brock rent from 
top to bottom. 

D3 Vaux Guide, Buffalo, 1845 Brock was first interred at 
Fort George with a 24-lb. American camion captured at Detroit at 
his head. The monument on 17th April, 1840, partially destroyed, 
the circular stairs within were torn to pieces, stones thrown out of 
the wall and it was rent from top to bottom, a part fell in 1841. 

W. H Smith Gazetteer, 1848 "At Niagara the Gaol and 
Court House one mile south west of the Town. A Harbor and 
^Dock Co. employs from 150 to 350 hands Vessels built here be- 
tv/3en 1832 and 1839, Steamboats, Traveller, Experiment, Queen, 
Gore. Schooners, Jesse Woods, Princess, Famny, Toronto, Sove- 
reign. Between 1839 and 1845, City of Toronto, Princess Royal, 
American, Chief Justice Robinson, Admiral, Eclipse, Minos, Emer- 
ald, London, Dart, Oak, Gem, Shamrock, Ann, Propellers Adven- 
ture, Beagle, Traveller. Schooners, Wm. Cayley, Shannon, Clyde, 
"" Shamrock, and eighteen barges. There are 3 physicians, 9 lawyers, 
32 stores, 3 booksellers, 2 chemists, 4 bakers, U. Canada Bank. 
T ie bost taverns are Moffatt's and Howard's. Five Churches. 
E jgines aad machinery of very perfect description, a marine rail- 
way for hauling up vessels of first class." 



49- 

Silas Hopkins of Lowiston started from New Jersey in 1787, 
to help his father drive cattle to Niagara, they sold them to the 
garrison at Queenston and Niagara. "The next summer I went with 
my father to the residence of Col. Butler near Newark. He was then 
about ~0 or 60, had a larg-3, wall cultivated farm was hospitable 
dad agreeable. In 1739 the drovers gave a treat to the Indians at 
Lewiftton, 209 gave a war dince. We had guests from Fort Niagara 
(offi erj) In 1790 I met T. Street, father of Samuel Street, of Chipp- 
awa. He asked me to go with him to Massachusetts but I started 
without him. He followed and was robbed and murdered on the 
way. 

Our cattle were ferried across in batteaux to Newark. In 1788 
there was only an old ferry house and barracks of Butler's Rangers 
there, 500 or 600 Indians often encamped there,oxen were sold to 
Butler's Rangers for ,50, cows for^20. In June I was at Fort Niagara 
at the celebration of King George's birthday. In 1788-90 eagles were 
plenty there. John Mountpleasant the son of Capt. Mountpleasant 
whose mother was an Oneida his sister became the wife of Capt. 
Caew. I remember Gov. Simcoe and the Queen's Rangers, they 
wore green uniform and their barracks was at Queenston, whence the 



Wm. Jarvis, 1792, 25th Sept. One of the first burials recorded 
in St. Mark's register is that of a child aged four thus pathetically re- 
ferred to in the diary of the Secretary of the Province. "The symp- 
toms of his illness were so strange that his mother desired a post- 
mortem, as she says to satisfy me and be a guard for my other babes. 
His complaint was found to be in the windpipe and no where else, 
where neither art nor medicine could avail. The doctor called it 
a thick muscilage or thick skin which surrounded the inside of the 
windpipe. The faculty who have written on the subject say none 
have survived this disorder and that it is very frequent in Scotland." 

1812-13 Dr. Joseph West was Surgeon at Fort Niagara 
from 1805 to 1814. One of his daughters has given reminscences 
of Fort Niagara. "H ow many associations crowd into my mind at 
mention of the name. Here 1 first drew my breath and passed my 
earliest years of childhood under the eye of a kind father who was 
taken from his young family by consumption caused by a severe 
cold caught in the damp dungeons of the old Mess House, while 
attending the wounded and dying after the battle of Queenston. It 
was surrounded by strong pickets of plank on three sides. There 
was a yard 30 or 40 feet wide between the Mess House and the 
pickets and a promenade beyond but the lake has made encroach- 



50 

ments and the waves dash against the house. The English built the 
second story. Many gay scenes I witnessed there, music, dancing. 
Then I looked back through the vista of years and fancied I heard 
the Indians war whoop, the gay chattering Frenchman then the proud 
. Englishman in their glittering uniform, they succeeded by our own 
brave army. There was constant interchange of civilities between 
the officers of Fort Niagara and Fort George and the inhabitants of 
the little town of Niagara. I well remember the Sunday previous 
to the declaration of war being at church at Niagara. General 
Brock accompanied u* to the boat and took myself and sister in his 
arms, "I must bid good-bye to you, my little rosy cheeked 
r Yankees", Then to my father "Farewell Dr." Then I remember 
the commotion, preparing for war, repairs etc., then the militia 
pouring in, the families of officers had to vacate their quarters, 
we were sent to the country and met on the way 100 Tuscorora 
Indians going to offer their services to Fort Niagara. We returned 
after four weeks to near the fort. One night we heard the voice of a 
British officer. "We do not war with women let us get some fowl and 
be off." We heard the explosion at York which jarred our house. 
The wounded and dying were brought over. Well do I remember 
walking with my father between rows of white tents, what scenes of 
sorrow and suffering I witnessed. General Dearborn and staff were 
quartered at our house once, as every available inch of ground was 
occupied at the fort, mattresses on the floor, tents in the yard. Our 
house was burned by the British after the taking of Fort Niagara." 



TREASURE AT EOPT NIAGARA, 

By Lieut.-Col. c. Cruikshcmfc. 

In 1789, when Lt. Colonel Peter Hunter, of the 60th Regi- 
ment, commanded at Niagara there came as a settler from toe 
United States, a man with a large family professing to be quakers. 
Jeremiah Moore also professed the craft of a whitesmith. Immediately 
on his arrival at the Fort he waited upon the Commander and in- 
formed him that after the reduction of the French Garrison by Sir 
William Johnson, the French prisoners of war had been dispersed in 
the colonies, and that a sick soldier being unable to proceed was re- 
ceived in his father's house where he was hospitably entertained un- 
til his death. Shortly before that event the Frenchman gave them 
to understand that he was not ungrateful for the kindness he had 
experienced but that he had no means to mark his sense of it but a 
small folded paper in a little pocket book which might possibly turn 
out a prize to some of the children, in which hope he requested one 
to accept his pocket book 

It contained a folded paper on which was some writing in the 
French Language understood by none of my father's family. 

After the death and burial of the prisoner, occasion was sought 
to ascertain the purport of the paper writing and it was found to be 
a memorandum of the burial of the French military chest previous 
to the surrender of the Fort of Niagara It stated that early in the 
day a fatigue party was ordered of which he was one, that it proceed- 
ed to the flag staff and opened the ground close to it, as deep as they 
could with their spades throw the earth clear of the pit or well, that 
the fort adjutant with the paymaster and commandant attended with 
a large iron chest which was carefully deposited in the bottom of 
the pit, before it was quite daylight. That as soon as it was left the 
party began to cover it with the earth and had perhaps filled up 
about three feet when a battery opened upon the fort and one of the 
first shot killed one of the laborers and precipitated the body into 
the pit about seven feet below the surface, that the officer would not 
wait to get out the body and urged the filling in and making the 
surface of the ground even. That the capitulation taking place that 
day the writer, supposed that the chest remained and that at the 
peace it might be a prize [which would be well paid for. 



52 

Mr. Moore told Col. Hunter that although his father had not 
tnougat*niuch of this memorandum yet it had frequently occurred to 
him and more frequently lately since the troubles when emigration 
to Canada had become very common. That his family having be- 
come very unpopular from services rendered to the King's troops 
and loyalists, their residence had become unpleasant, that he had 
brought them with him and now proposed to ascertain the truth of 
the memorandum in hopes that the Colonel would allow him a share 
of the prize. 

That Colonel Hunter laughed at his credulity but said that he 
should have permission at his own charges to dig under the ilagstaff 
ns long as he pleassd, that all he found should be his own, and upon 
this encouragement he, Moore, engaged a party and the next day 
was permitted to begin his labor in presence of a sergeant's party 
and somo of the officers who attended from curiosity, especially 
Lieut. Humphries, the engineer. That when they got down about 
s^ven fst they discovered the skeleton of a man to the great as- 
tonishment of all present and most, though expected, to the en- 
gineer and Moore who alone knew what 'to anticipate from this cir- 
cumstance. All was surprise and conjecture for a few moments 
when the sergeant proposed to raise the bones but the engineer 
opposed any movement until the commandant was apprised and his 
orders recurved His orders were for Moore and his party to re 
t're until the next day and a sentinel was left over the flagstaff. It 
snowed in the night and for several days, so that it was some time 
}>3fore Moore returned with his party to work, but the nag-staff had 
been removed to another part of the fort, and no trace could be 
found of where it had stood and permission was denied to make any 
i'urtht-r opening in the ground. Moore in relating this story effected 
t j believe that the engineer was not so incredulous of the soldier's 
veracity as he pretended to be. 

Mr. Mjore always spoke in the highest terms of Col. Hunter as 
a humane and honorable man to whom the settlement at Niagara 
\vas chiefly indebted for its continued existence through a period of 
f -mine in which it could not have subsisted without aid from the 
Military stores which this gentleman opened discreetly to save the 
settlers. The measure was hazardous as the troops on the upper 
voters arid lakes depended on the stores of Niagara without any 
iii aus of resupply during the winter. He permitted rations of 
iiour and pork to be issued to individuals in proportion as recom- 
i. inded by two gentlemen of character in the settlement who be- 
i--i:n3 accountable to the Crown and individually creditors to the 
jirti*s t'i'is assisted. No transaction could be more creditable to 
t.ie p-irtijs to in this arrangement, Colonel Hunter risked a military 



53 

csnsure for acting without orders on so serious a risque which was 
such that the commander-in-chief on rectifying (?) the act that he 
would not have assumed the responsibility of giving provisions, etc. 

It is supposed that the Guarantees were never called upon by 
Government for repayment of the provisions so advanced, and a 
question has been mooted on that point how far a subsisting claim 
not likely to be enforced was authority to the guarantees to compel 
the individual payment of each barrel of flour and pork from the con- 
sumers to place in his pocket principal and interest of a charity 
which cost them nothing. 

Jeremiah Moore has a very large family, and became largely a par- 
taker of the King's stores under this guarantee which it is said finally 
consumed his little farm in principal and interest but nothing could 
affect his loyal gratitude for the original benefit, ^ 

Solomon Moore the son of Jeremiah inherited his father's talents 
and loyalty. He married and had a large family, being a man of 
some ingenuity he became a candidate with some others for the grant 
of a lot of land on which he had been some years living, supporting 
his large family by boiling salt. His pretensions had been favorably 
received by the Executive Government which had decided to grant to 
him the lob which he occupied, but the war and the removal of the 
Civil Lieut. Governor had delayed the patent when the aid-de-camp 
and private Secretary of a military successor discovered that the 
grant was incomplete not only for that but several adjacent lots 
which had been reserved as fuel to boil the salt, obtained a grant for 
Moore's lo* among others. The military grantee was informed 
of 'thejjtrue state of Moore's petition still before the Council and in 
a friendly manner urged to surrender his grant or make over the 
particular lot to Moore. 

This was declined on the ground that his means of life were 
connected with this grant. The military administrator was then 
petitioned by Solomon Moore to revise the measure and that he 
might be heard against the grant to his aid-de-camp but the General 
would not receive or refer the petition notwithstanding the ur- 
gent representations at the Council board against the irregularity 
and impropriety of the grant. 

This application to the Military Governor being rejected, 
Solomon Moore had no resource but to address the Secretary of State 
a humble petition for a hearing upon the facts stated. The ready 
attention paid to this obscure individual by a command to the Ex- 
ecutive Government to report all the circumstances of the case was 
the most grateful despatch to the poor colonist who found that 
justice was still open to him in the King's Court although closed 
in the Governor's. 



54 

The Executive Government did report tha circumstances of the 
grant to the aid-de-caiup in such plain terms as inclined the honor- 
able feeling of the principal Secretary for War and tha Colonies to 
address to the Gcvernmtiit of Upper Canada the following expres- 
sion of indignation which was communicated to the parties. 



When the peremptory letter was communicated there was serv- 
ing in the province a young gentlemazi, brother to the under Secretary 
of State, who accompanied the grantee to visit his estate and is sup- 
posed to have represented that the case had been exaggerated beyond 
the true coloring, that it would never have reached England if the 
grantee had consented to yield his prize, not to the supposed suff- 
erer, Mr. Solomon Moore, but to his advocate the member of the 
Executive Council who first < used his personal influence with the 
grantee to that effect, and than made himself a party in the executive 
Council to influence the general officer who had bestowed tins prize 
on his personal friend and who failing in his attempt induced Sol- 
omon Moore to pass by the local authorities and present his case to 
the highest power in a dress to excite attention. Something like this 
is supposed from an otherwise unaccountable change in the opinion 
and sentiments of uhe Secretary of State without any known or as- 
signed cause at least none made known to the Colonial Government 
when it received instructions to forbear further interference in the 
transactions with Moore Ploinerfeldt etc. 

Original in possession of George Murray Jarvis, Ottawa, Chit., 
in hand writing of Chief Justice Wm. Dummer Powell and Endorsed 

"Jeremiah Moore, 
French Military Chest, 
Lieut Col. Hunter, 
Solomom Moore, 
Major Loriag, 
M. Geul Gordon, 
Salt Springs." 

There was a well known salt spring in the Township of Louth and 
I find that on 3d March, 1814, a grant of 700 acres was made to 
Robert. R. Loring in that township. Loring was then A.D.C. 
and Mil-Secty. to Lieut. -General Sir Gordon Drummond, Military 

Administrator of Upper Canada E. C. The member of the 

Executive Council was probably Mr. Powell himself. 



2)ucit Hmor patrtee 



Niagara Historical Society 



NO. 12 



the Dank of Tort George 



BY 



Lieut.-Colonel Ernest Cruikshank, V. D. 

Author of the Story of Butler's ' Rangers, &c., &c., &c. 



Second Edition 
PRICE, 20 CENTS 



1904. 
TRIBUNE PRINT. WELLAND, 



Preface to First Edition. 



THE reproach has frequently been cast upon us that Canada has no history; 
it might be said of us with far more justice that we do not know our own 
history. The various historical societies are, by their efforts, trying to wipe 
away this reproach, and we feel proud of following in the wake of the Lundy's 
Lane Historical Society in publishing a paper written by Capt. Cruikshank, who 
has so well earned the title of the Historian of the Niagara Peninsula. 

Of the towns of Ontario nat one, we are sure, possesses a history so eventful, 
so ancient, so interesting as Niagara, having been at different times a legislative, 
an educational, a military and a commercial centre, at one time occupied by the 
enemy and again a heap of smoking ruins, now a quiet summer resort with many 
points of historical interest, with wide streets shaded by old elms and having 
unrivalled lake and river scenery. The members of the youngest of these histori- 
cal societies feel that they may congratulate themselves on being able to place in 
the hands of the public the story which so far has not been told of the Taking of 
Fort George, told, too, in a style so clear, so dispassionate, and shewing such deep 
research, a story of troublous times, which, so told, cannot but be helpful to old 
and young of every nationality. 

Asking for our first venture a kind reception, we send it out to the public, 
hoping that it may do its part in proving that we have a not ignoble history 
which should inspire us to yet nobler deeds. 

1896. J. C. 



Preface to Second Edition. 



THE Battle of Fort George, the first publication of the Niagara Historical 
Society, was so well received that the edition has been exhausted for some 
time, and the society now reprints it as number twelve with many additions 
and corrections by its distinguished author. Lt.-Col. Cruikshank, V. D., who in 
his Documentary History of the War of 1812 arid his other historical work has 
done so much valuable work for his country, work done without any pecuniary 
compensation, but from love of the work, which incentive perhaps always pro- 
duces the best results. 

For the engraving, The Taking of Fort George, we are indebted to the kind- 
ness and courtesy of the Hon. P. A. Porter, Niagara Falls, N. Y. It is from the 
Portfolio, published in Philadelphia, 1817, and is particularly interesting to us as 
giving the appearance of the churches St. Marks and St. Andrews before the town 
was burnt down, as also the lighthouse, situated exactly on the spot now 
occupied by the tower of Fort Mississagua. 

J- C. 



6 



THE BATTLE OF FORT GEORGE 

27TH HAY, 1813. 



NIAGARA BEFORE THE WAR. 

For about a quarter of a century Niagara was the principal 
town and commercial capital of Western Canada, and for a brief 
period was actually the seat of government for the Upper Province. 
The removal of the provincial officers to York in 1796 struck the 
first blow at its supremacy, but its material prosperity continued un- 
til the beginning of the war with United States, when its exposed 
situation subjected it to a series of calamities which culminated in its 
total destruction on the 10th of December, 1813. 

During thai time many travellers of more or less note visited 
the place at short intervals on their way to or from the Falls, and a 
considerable number of them have recorded their observations. 
Patrick Campbell in 1791, D'Arcy Boulton in 1794, the Duke de 
Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1795, Isaac Weld and J. C. Ogdtsn in 
1796, John Maude in 1800, George Heriot in 1806, Christian Schultz 
in 1807, John Melish in 1810 and Michael Smith in 1812 have de- 
scribed the town and adjacent country at considerable length from 
various points of view. Other accounts are to be found in the Nat- 
ional Intelligencer newspaper published at Washington, D. C., in. 
1812, and in Smith's Gazetteer of Upper Canada for 1813. From 
these numerous sources it would seem an easy task to form a fairly 
correct estimate of the appearance of the town, its commercial im- 
portance and the character of the inhabitants. 

It is described as being nearly a mile square, sparsely built, with 
many pasture fields, gardens, orchards and open spaces interspersed 
among the houses. Smith, an American resident of the province, 
who was expelled in 1812 for having declined to take oath of allegi- 
ance, states that there were " several squares of ground in the village 
adorned with almost every kind of precious fruit." According to the 
same authority it contained two churches one of them built of stone, 
a court house and jail, an Indian council house, an academy in which 
Latin and Greek were taught by the Rev. John Burns, a Presbyterian 
minister, a printing house, six taverns, twenty stores and about a 
hundred dwelling houses, many of them described as " handsome 
buildings of brick or stone, the rest being of wood, neatly painted/' 
From the lake the town is said to have made an " imposing appear- 
ance " as most of the buildings fronted the water. Smith concludes 



his account with the remark that it was " a beautiful and prospective 
place, inhabited by civil and industrious people." Dr. John Mann, a 
surgeon in the United States army who accompanied the invading 
forces and afterwards wrote the " Medical History of the War," styles 
it "a delightful village." The population was probably underesti- 
mated at five hundred, exclusive of the regular garrison of Fort 
George, usually numbering about two hundred men. The names of 
John Symington, Andrew Heron, Joseph Edwards, John Grier, John 
Baldwin and James Muirhead have been recorded as some of the 
principal merchants of the day. 

An open plain or common of nearly a mile in width separated 
the town from Fort George. This post was described by the Gover- 
nor General in the early summer of 1812, in official report on the 
defences of Upper Canada, as an irregular fieldwork consisting of six 
small bastions faced with framed timber and plank, connected by a 
line of palisades twelve feet high, and surrounded by a shallow dry 
ditch. Its situation and construction were alike condemned as ex- 
tremely defective. Although it partially commanded Fort Niagara, 
it was in turn overlooked and commanded by the high ground on 
the opposite side of the river near Youngstown. The troops were 
lodged in blockhouses inside, affording quarters for 220 men, besides 
which there was a spacious building for the officers. The magazine 
was built of stone with an arched roof but was not considered bomb- 
proof. All the works were very much out of repair and reported as 
scarcely capable of the least defence. 

On the margin of the river immediately in front of the fort 
stood a large log building known as Navy Hall, which had been 
constructed during the American Revolution, to serve as winter- 
quarters for the officers and seamen of the Provincial vessels on Lake 
Ontario. Near this was a spacious wharf with good-sized store 
houses, both public and private. The Rangers' Barracks, also built of 
logs, and an Indian Council House, were situated on the further edge 
of the common, just south of the town. A small stone light-house 
had been built upon Mississauga Point, in 1805-6. 

The road leading along the river to Queenston was thickly 
studded with farm buildings, and the latter village is said to have 
contained nearly a hundred houses, many of them being large and 
well built structures of stone or brick, with a population estimated at 
300. Vessels of fifty tons and upwards, loaded with goods for the 
upper country, sailed up the river to this place, where they dis- 
charged their cargoes, and took in furs and grain in return. Ever 
since its establishment the " carrying place, " on the Canadian side of 
the river, had furnished much profitable employment to the neigh- 
boring farmers, who were paid at the rate of twenty pence, New 



York currency, a hundred weight for hauling goods between Queen- 
ston and Chippawa ; Maude relates that during his visit in 1800, he 
passed many carts and wagons on this road, taking up boxes and 
bales of merchandise, or bringing down furs, each drawn by two 
horses or two yoke of oxen. Three schooners were then moored at 
the wharf at Queenston, and fourteen teams stood waiting to be 
loaded. Others had noticed as many as fifty or sixty teams passing 
each other in a day. At this time the old portage on the American 
bank was entirely disused, but in 1806 the exclusive rights to the 
carrying place on that side were granted to Porter, Barton & Co., 
and much of the traffic was consequently diverted. 

Christian Schultz tells us that in 1807 the Canadian side of the 
river was " one settled street, from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie," while 
the other was still almost wholly " waste and uninhabited," which he 
attributes chiefly to the fact that the land on the American bank was 
entirely held by speculators. The villages of Chippawa and Fort 
Erie contained about twenty houses each. For upwards of twenty 
miles back, he states that the country was pretty well settled from 
lake to lake. A stage coach made three round trips weekly between 
Niagara and Fort Erie. A considerable sum from the provincial 
treasury was annually spent in opening and improving roads. 
Frenchman's, Miller's and Black creeks were bridged only on the 
river road, but there was a bridge across Lyons' creek at Cook's 
Mills, and the Chippawa was bridged at its mouth, and at Brown's, 
sixteen miles higher up. From the Portage Road near the Falls, a 
continuation of Lundy's Lane led westerly through the Beechwoods 
and Beaver Dam settlements, crossed the Twelve Mile creek at De- 
Cew's, and following the crest of the mountain to the Twenty, 
ascended that stream as far as a small hamlet, known as "Asswago," 
and finally united with the main road from Niagara to York, near 
Stoney Creek. Another well travelled road from Queenston passed 
through St. Davids, and joined the Lake Road from Niagara at Ship- 
man's tavern, where they crossed the Twelve Mile Creek on the 
present site of the city of St. Catharines. A third, leading from Nia- 
gara through the dreaded " Black Swamp," of which all trace has 
long since disappeared, united with the road from St. Davids before 
crossing the Four Mile creek. Still another, beginning near the 
mouth of the Two Mile creek, ran nearly parallel with the river till 
it intersected Lundy's Lane. Besides these there were the main 
travelled roads along the river from Queenston to Niagara, and 
along the lake from Niagara to Burlington. 

In 1794, Lieutenant Governor Simcoe styled the Niagara settle- 
ment "the bulwark of Upper Canada," and affirmed that the militia 
were loyal to a man, and " very well calculated for offensive war- 



8 

fare." Since then the character and feelings of the population had 
essentially altered. Many of the first settlers had died or re- 
moved with their families to other parts of the Province, and their 
places had been taken by later immigrants from the United States. 
The twenty townships extending from Ancaster to Wainfleet, which 
then composed the County of Lincoln, were supposed to contain 
12,000 inhabitants in the spring of 1812. In the entire province of 
Upper Canada, one-sixth of the population were believed to be na- 
tives of the British Isles and their children ; the original loyalist 
settlers and their descendants were estimated to number as many 
more, while the remainder, or about two-thirds of the whole, were 
recent arrivals from the United States, chiefly attracted by the 
fertility of the soil and freedom from taxation. Michael Smith 
states (1813), that within twelve years, the population " had increased 
beyond conjecture, as the terms of obtaining land have been ex* 
tremely easy." The proportion of loyalists in the County of Lincoln 
was perhaps greater than elsewhere, but it is probably a safe esti- 
mate to say that one-third of the inhabitants were recent settlers 
from the United States, who had removed to escape taxation or avoid 
militia service. John Maude met several families in 1800 on their 
way to Canada from those counties in Pennsylvania where the 
" Whiskey Insurrection " had just been suppressed, who informed him 
that they had fought seven years against taxation, and were then 
being taxed more than ever. " Hundreds of them," he remarked, 
" have removed, are removing, and will remove into Upper Canada, 
where thev will form a nest of vipers in the bosom that fosters 
them." 

In 1811, the Governor General estimated the number of militia- 
men in Upper Canada fit for service at 11,000, of whom he signifi- 
cantly stated that it would probably not be prudent to arm more 
than 4,000. This was virtually an admission that more than half 
the population were suspected of disaffection. The Lincoln Militia 
were organized in five regiments, numbering about 1,500 men, of 
whom perhaps two-thirds were determined loyalists. 

In many quarters, before the war, the disaffection of the people 
was open and undisguised. Schultz states that while at Presqu' Isle, 
on Lake Ontario, in 1807, he strolled along the main road, and found 
six or seven farmers assembled in a country tavern, who had just 
heard of the Chesapeake affair. " They seemed disappointed," he ob- 
served, "that I did not think it would lead to war, when they 
expected to become part of the United States." He also relates that 
he was subsequently in a public house in Niagara, where eight or ten 
persons were gathered about a billiard table. The attack upon the 
ChesapeaJce again became the topic of conversation, and one man said, 



9 

" If Congress will only send us a flag and a proclamation declaring 
that whoever is found in arms against the United States, shall forfeit 
his lands, we will fight ourselves free without any expense to them." 

John Melish declared his conviction from enquiries made during 
his visit in 1810, "that if 5,000 men were sent into Upper Canada 
with a proclamation of independence, the great mass of the people 
would join the American Government." Dr. Tiffany and Barnabas 
Bidwell, formerly Attorney General of Massachusetts, and a represen- 
tative in Congress, who had become a defaulter and fled to the 
Newcastle District, near the Bay of Quinte, where he was engaged in 
teaching a private school, wrote secretly to their political friends in a 
similar strain. 

These statements were eagerly quoted, and no doubt believed by 
the leaders of the war party in Congress. Henry Clay assured the 
people that "the conquest of Canada is in your power. I trust I 
shall not be deemed presumptuous when I state that I verily believe 
that the militia of Kentucky are alone competent to place Montreal 
and Upper Canada at your feet." 

On the 6th of March, 1812, Calhoun expressed equal confidence. 
" So far from being unprepared, Sir," he exclaimed, " I believe that 
four weeks from the time the declaration of war is heard on our 
frontier, the whole of Upper Canada and a part of Lower Canada 
will be in our possession." 

Jefferson wrote about the same time that, "The acquisition of 
Canada this year, as far as the neighborhood of Quebec, would be a 
mere matter of marching, and would give us experience for the at- 
tack of Halifax, the next, and the final expulsion of England from the 
American continent." 

Mr. Eustis, the Secretary of War, was, if possible, still more op- 
timistic, " We can take Canada without soldiers," he declared, "We 
have only to send officers into the Province and the people disaffected 
to their own Government will rally round our standard." General 
William Widgery, a representative in Congress from Massachusetts, 
gained momentary notoriety by his statement : " I will engage to 
take Canada by contract. I will raise a company and take it in six 
weeks." Another speaker declared that, " Niagara Falls could be re- 
sisted with as much success as the American people when roused 
into action." After the declaration of war had been promulgated, 
Clay, the speaker of the House of Representatives, and the real 
leader of the war party, solemnly declared that he would never con- 
sent to any treaty of peace which did not provide for the cession of 
Canada. 

The correspondence of General Brock with the Governor General 
shows that in many respects these expectations were well founded, 



10 

and that he was far from being hopeful of offering a successful de- 
fence without strong reinforcements. 

"The late increase of ammunition and every species of stores," he 
wrote on the 2nd December, 1811, "the substitution of a strong regi- 
ment and the appointment of a military person to the Government, 
have tended to infuse other sentiments among the most reflecting 
part of the community, and during my visit to Niagara last week I 
received most satisfactory professions of a determination on the part 
of the principal inhabitants to exert every means in their power for 
the defence of their property and to support the government. They 
look with confidence to you for aid. Although perfectly aware of 
the number of improper characters who have obtained possessions 
and whose principles diffuse a spirit of insubordination very adverse 
to all military institutions, I believe the majority will prove faithful. 
It is best to act with the utmost liberality and as if no mistrust 
existed. Unless the inhabitants give a faithful aid it will be utterly 
impossible to preserve the province, with the limited number of 
military." 

On the 24th of February, 1812, a proclamation was published 
announcing that divers persons had recently come into the province 
" with a seditious intent and to endeavor to alienate the minds of His 
Majesty's subjects," and directing the officers appointed to enforce the 
act lately passed by the Legislature " for the better security of the 
province against all seditious attempts" to be vigilant in the dis- 
charge of their duties. Joseph Edwards of Niagara, Samuel Street 
of Willoughby, Thomas Dickson of Queenston, William Crooks of 
Grimsby and Samuel Hatt of Ancaster were among the persons com- 
missioned to execute this law. 

On the 17th of April, a boy at Queenston fired a shot across the 
river which happily did no injury. He was promptly arrested and 
committed for trial, and two resident magistrates. James Kirby and 
Robert Grant, tendered an apology to the inhabitants of Lewiston for 
his offence. Five days later General Brock reported that a body of 
three hundred men in plain clothes had been seen patroling the Am- 
erican side of the river. On the 25th, it was announced that 170 
citizens of Buffalo had volunteered for military service. A proclam- 
ation by President Madison calling out one hundred thousand was 
published about the same time, and the Governor of New York was 
required to send 500 men to the Niagara, which he hastened to do, 
being a warm advocate of the war. 

Meanwhile the flank companies of militia regiments of the 
counties of Lincoln, Norfolk and York were embodied by General 
Brock, and drilled six times a month. They numbered about 700 



11 

young men belonging to "the best class of settlers." By the recent 
Militia Act, they were required to arm and clothe themselves, and as 
many of them had far to travel, Brock begged that they should at 
least receive an allowance for rations. 

The Governor General suggested that the Government of the 
United States entertained hopes that something might happen to pro- 
voke a quarrel between its soldiers and the British troops on that 
frontier, and desired him to take every precaution to prevent any 
such pretext for hostilities. 

Early in May, Brock made a rapid tour of inspection along the 
Niagara, "thence to the Mohawk village on the Grand river, returning 
to York by way of Ancaster. He reported that the people generally 
seemed well disposed and that the flank companies had mustered in 
full strength. 

BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES. 

By the 17th of June six hundred American militia were stationed 
along the river, and a complaint was made by three reputable inhab- 
itants of Fort Erie that their sentries were in the habit of wantonly 
firing across the stream. On the 25th of the same month this period 
of suspense was terminated by the arrival of a special messenger em- 
ployed by Mr. Astor and other American citizens interested in the 
Northwest fur trade, to convey the earliest possible information of 
war to Lieut. Colonel Thomas Clark, of Queenston, who immediately 
reported his intelligence to the commandant of Fort Erie. The mes- 
senger, one Vosimrg, of Albany, had travelled with relays of horses 
at such speed that he outrode the official courier bearing despatches 
to Fort Niagara by fully twenty-four hours. On his return he was 
arrested at Canandaigua, and held to bail together with some of his 
employers, but it does not appear that they were ever brought to 
trial. 

Lieut. Gansevoort and a sergeant in the United States Artillery, 
who happened to be on the Canadian side were made prisoners, and 
the ferry boats plying across the river at Queenston and Fort Erie 
were seized by the British troops at those places. The people of 
Buffalo received their h'rst intimation of the declaration of war by 
witnessing the capture of a merchant schooner off the harbor by boats 
from Fort Erie. 

The flank companies of militia marched immediately to the fron- 
tier, and were distributed along the river in taverns and farm 
houses. On the second day, General Brock arrived from York, with 
the intention of making an attack on Fort Niagara. He had then at 
his disposal, 400 of the 41st Regiment, and nearly 800 militia. Suc- 
cess was all but certain, as the garrison was weak and inefficient. His 



12 

instructions, however, were to act strictly on the defensive, and he 
abandoned this project in the conviction that the garrison might be 
driven out at any time by a vigorous cannonade. Rumors of his 
design seem to have reached General P. B. Porter, who commanded 
the militia force on the other side, and he made an urgent demand 
for reinforcements. 

" The British on the opposite side are making the most active 
preparations for defence," Benjamin Barton wrote from Lewiston on 
the 24th of June, " New troops are arriving from the Lower Province 
constantly, and the quantity of military stores, etc., that have arrived 
within these few weeks is astonishing. Vast quantities of arms and 
ammunition are passing up the country, no doubt to arm the Indians 
around the Upper Lakes, (for they have not white men enough to 
make use of such quantities as are passing). One-third of the militia 
of the Upper Province are formed into companies called flankers, and 
are well armed and equipped out of the King's stores, and are regul- 
arly trained one day in a week by an officer of the standing troops. 
A volunteer troop of horse has lately been raised and have drawn 
their sabres and pistols. A company of militia artillery has been 
raised this spring, and exercise two or three days in the week on the 
plains near Fort George, and practice firing and have become very 
expert. The noted Isaac Sweazy has within a few days received a 
captain's commission for the flying artillery, of which they have a 
number of pieces. We were yesterday informed by a respectable 
gentleman from that side of the river, that he was actually purchas- 
ing horses for the purpose of exercising his men. They are repairing 
Fort George, and building a new fort at York. A number of boats 
are daily employed, manned by their soldiers, plying between Fort 
George and Queenston, carrying stores, lime and pickets, for neces- 
sary repairs, and to cap the whole, they are making and using every 
argument and persuasion to induce the Indians to join them, and we 
are informed the Mohawks have volunteered their service. In fact, 
nothing appears to be left undone by their people that is necessary 
for their defence." 

However, the Governor General seized the first opportunity of 
again advising his enterprising lieutenant to refrain from any offen- 
sive movements. "In the present state of politics in the United 
States," he said, "I consider it prudent to avoid any means which can 
have the least tendency to unite their people. While dissension pre- 
vails among them, their attempts on the province will be feeble. It 
is therefore my wish to avoid committing any act which may even 
from a strained construction tend to unite the Eastern and Southern 
States, unless from its perpetration, we are to derive an immediate, 
considerable and important advantage." 



13 

Brock felt so confident at that moment of his ability to maintain 
his ground on the Niagara that he actually stripped Fort George of 
its heaviest guns for the defence of Amherstburg, which he antici- 
pated would be the first point of attack. But the militia who had 
turned out so cheerfully on the first alarm, after the lapse of a couple 
of uneventful weeks, became impatient to return to their homes and 
families. They had been employed as much as possible in the 
construction of batteries at the most exposed points, and as they were 
without tents, blankets, hammocks, kettles or camp equipage of any 
kind, they had suffered serious discomfort even at that season of the 
year. As their prolonged absence from their homes in some cases 
threatened the total destruction of their crops, many were allowed to 
return on the 12th of July, and it was feared that the remainder 
would disband in defiance of the law which only imposed a fine of 
20 for desertion. Nearly all of them were wretchedly clothed, and 
a considerable number were without shoes, which could not be ob- 
tained in the Province at any price. Many of the inhabitants Brock 
indignantly declared were " indifferent or American in feeling." 

However, the month of July passed away without developing 
any symptom of an offensive movement on this frontier. On the 
22nd, the session of the Legislature began at York, with the know- 
ledge that General Hull had invaded the province at Sandwich with 
a strong force, and in hourly expectation of tidings that the garrison 
of Amherstburg had surrendered to superior numbers. Yet amid 
these depressing circumstances, Brock concluded his " speech from the 
throne" with these hopeful and inspiring words : "We are engaged 
in an awful and eventful contest. By unanimity and despatch in 
our councils, and by vigor in our operations, we may teach the enemy 
this lesson, that a country defended by freemen, who are enthusiasti- 
cally devoted to their King and Constitution, can never be conquered." 

During the following week the most discouraging reports from 
Amherstburg continued to arrive almost daily. It seemed as if the 
invading army would be able to overrun the whole of the Western 
District, with scarcely a show of resistance on the part of the inhab- 
itants. A majority of the members of the Legislature were apathetic 
or despondent. They passed a new militia act. and an act to provide 
for the defence of the Province, but amended both in a highly 
unsatisfactory manner, after which the House was hastily prorogued 
by the General, who was eager to proceed to the seat of war. 

"The House of Assembly," he wrote on the 4th of August, "have 
refused to do anything they are required. Everybody considers the 
fate of the country as settled, and is afraid to appear in the least 
conspicuous in the promotion of measures to retard it. I have this 
instant been informed that a motion was made in the House, and 



14 

,only lost by two votes, that the militia should be at liberty to return 
home if they did not receive their pay on a fixed day every month." 

On the succeeding day he began his march to the relief of Am- 
herstburg. Most of the regulars and some of the militia which had 
been hitherto stationed along the Niagara, preceded or accompanied 
him on this expedition, which they were fortunately enabled to do 
by the inactivity of the enemy on the opposite bank, who actually do 
not seem to have become aware of their absence until they had re- 
turned victorious. Lieut.-Col. Myers, the Assistant Quartermaster 
General, was left in command. The men belonging to the flank 
companies, who had been allowed to return to their homes to assist 
in the harvest, were summoned to rejoin, and 500 more held in readi- 
ness to support them. 

On the 20th of August, the inhabitants were thrown into a 
frenzy of delight by the almost incredible intelligence that- Detroit 
had been taken with the entire American army. A few hours later, 
General Van Rensselaer, who was still in ignorance of this event, 
signed an armistice which put an end to any further apprehension of 
an attack for several weeks. 

The Americans did riot remain idle during the interval. A body 
of five or six thousand men was assembled and tive detached batteries 
were completed on the bank of the river, between Fort Niagara and 
Youngstown, two of which were armed with very heavy guns, and 
two with mortars. 

Upon the termination of the armistice, the militia generally 
returned to their posts with alacrity, accompanied by a number of 
old loyalists, unfit for service in the field, but capable of performing 
garrison duty. 

The garrison order-book of Fort George still exists to bear wit- 
ness to the ceaseless vigilance with which the movements of the 
enemy were watched. On the 2nd of October an order was issued 
directing one-third of the troopers to "sleep in their clothes, fully 
accoutred and ready to turn out at a moment's notice." This was 
followed on the 6th by another, requiring the whole of the regular 
troops and militia to be under arms by the first break of day, and 
not to be dismissed until full daylight, and on the 12th all communi- 
cation with the enemy, by flag of truce, was forbidden, unless 
expressly authorized by the commanding general. 

On the morning of the 13th of October, as soon as General 
Brock was convinced that the Americans were actually crossing the 
river at Queenston, he directed Brigade Major Evans, who remained 
in command at Fort George, to open tire with every available gun 
upon Fort Niagara and the adjacent batteries, and continue it until 
they were absolutely silenced. This attack was forestalled by the 



15 

enemy, who, as soon as they perceived the columns of troops march- 
ing out on the road to Queenston, turned the whole of their artillery 
upon Fort George and the neighboring village, with such a disastrous 
effect that in a few minutes the jail and court house and fifteen or 
sixteen other buildings were set in a blaze by their red hot shot. 
Major Evans had at his command not more than twenty regular 
soldiers who composed the main guard for the day. The whole of the 
small detachment of Royal Artillery, usually stationed in the Fort, 
had accompanied the Held guns to repel the attack upon Queenston, 
Colonel Glaus, with a few men of the 1st Lincoln Regiment, and 
Capts. Powell and Cameron, with a small detachment of militia artil- 
lery, alone remained to man the guns of the fort and batteries. The 
gravity of the situation was greatly increased by the fact that 
upwards of three hundred prisoners were confined in the jail and 
guardhouse, which was now menaced with destruction. However, 
while the guards and the greater part of the militia were vigorously 
engaged in fighting the flames, amid an incessant cannonade, under 
the personal direction of Major Evans and Captain Vigoreux of the 
Royal Engineers, the batteries were served by the militia artillery 
men, assisted by two non-commissioned officers of the 41st Regiment, 
with such energy and success that in the course of an hour the 
American guns were totally silenced. By that time the court house 
and some other buildings had been totally consumed, and the dis- 
heartening news arrived that Gen. Brock and Colonel Macdonell had 
been killed, and their men repulsed by the enemy, who were landing 
in great force at Queenston, and had obtained possession of the 
heights. Evans rode off at once to send forward every man that 
could be spared from the stations along the river. He had just 
marched off a small party from Young's battery, when the American 
batteries resumed firing and obliged him to return at full speed to 
his post. As he reached the main gate at Fort George, he encoun- 
tered ' a party of panic-stricken soldiers, flying from the place, who 
informed him that the roof of the magazine, which was known to 
contain eight hundred barrels of powder, was on fire. Captain Vigor- 
eux climbed upon the burning building without an instant's hesitation, 
and his gallant example being quickly followed by several others, 
the metal covering was soon torn away and the flames extinguished 
in the wood beneath. The storehouses at Navy Hall were, however, 
next set in a blaze which could not be overcome owing to their 
exposed situation, and they were totally destroyed. The artillery 
combat was resumed, and continued till not only Fort Niagara but 
all the other batteries on that side of the river were absolutely silen- 
ced and deserted. One of the largest guns in that fort had burst, 
completely wrecking the platform, disabling several men and dismay- 



16 

ing the remainder to such an extent that they deserted the place in 
a body, and could not be induced to return until the firing had 
ceased. For several hours the works were entirely abandoned, and 
could have been taken without the least resistance had Evans been 
able to spare men for the purpose. 

On the next day a cessation of hostilities was again agreed 
upon, which continued until the evening of the 20th of November. 
During this interval the six battalion companies of the First Lincoln 
Regiment were consolidated into three, under the command of Cap- 
tains John Jones, Martin McClellan and George Ball, each containing 
about eighty rank and file. 

At six o'clock on the morning of the 21st November, the guns of 
Fort George and five detached batteries began a second bombardment 
of the American works, chiefly with the object of diverting the 
attention of the enemy to that part of the line, as General Smyth 
who had succeeded Van Rensselaer, was massing his troops in the 
vicinity of Buffalo, with the apparent intention of forcing the pass- 
age of the river between Fort Erie and Chippawa. The fire from 
the American batteries, which appear to have been weakly manned, 
was ill-directed and occasionally ceased altogether for long intervals, 
while flames could be seen rising from their works, apparently 
caused by the explosion of shells. One of these missiles fell within 
the north blockhouse in Fort Niagara and dismounted the only gun 
there. Another shot from a twenty-four pounder on the right of 
Fort George dismounted a heavy gun near Youngstown, while a 
third silenced the piece on the roof of the messhouse at Fort Niagara 
for nearly an hour. One of the guns in that place also burst with 
disastrous results, killing two men and disabling others. A large 
building under the walls, which covered the landing of troops, was 
entirely destroyed. By five o'clock in the afternoon, Fort Niagara 
was absolutely silenced, and only the Youngstown " Salt " Battery 
continued to fire an occasional gun. At dark the British guns ceased 
tiring. But a single private of the 49th Regiment, and a gallant old 
half-pay officer, Capt. Barent Frey, late of Butler's Rangers, had been 
killed on the Canadian side of the river during the cannonade. The 
latter had voluntarily occupied himself in gathering the enemy's 
shot as they fell, for the purpose, as he declared, of having them sent 
back to them as soon as possible. He is said to have been killed by 
the wind of a cannon ball as it ricocheted along the ground. The 
messhouse at Navy Hall was destroyed, and seventeen buildings in 
the town itself were set on fire by heated shot, besides many others 
considerably damaged by the cannonade. A small merchant schooner 
lying at the wharf was sunk. 

The American commandant at Fort Niagara, Colonel McFeely of 



17 

the United States Artillery, admitted the loss of only eleven men 
killed and wounded, though he estimated that not less than 2,000 
round shot and 180 shells had been discharged against his works 
from the British batteries. He reported an instance of remarkable 
courage displayed by a woman. Among the prisoners taken at 
Queenston on the 13th October, was a private in the United States 
Artillery named Andrew Doyle, who was recognized as a British 
subject, born in the village of St. Davids. He was accordingly 
included among those who were sent to England to be brought to 
trial for treason. His wife remained in Fort Niagara throughout the 
bombardment, and actually took part in working one of the guns. 
"During the most tremendous cannonading I have ever seen," said 
Colonel McFeely in his official letter, " she attended the six-pounder 
on the old messhouse with the red hot shot and showed fortitude 
equal to the Maid of Orleans." 

Cannon balls were much too scarce and valuable to be wasted, 
and Lieut.-Col. Myers took pains to state in his report that the num- 
ber of round shot picked up on the field exceeded the number fired 
from his guns on this occasion. 

This artillery duel put an end to actual hostilities in the vicinity 
of Niagara for the remainder of the year. But the privations and 
sufferings of the militia were not yet terminated. They were retain- 
ed in service until the middle of December, when winter set in with 
unusual severity, and all danger of an invasion seemed at an end. 

As early as the middle of November, Sir Roger Sheaffe had 
reported that many of them were "in a very destitute state with 
respect to clothing, and all that regards bedding and barrack com- 
forts in general ; these wants cause discontent and desertion, but the 
conduct of a great majority is highly honorable to them, and I have not 
failed to encourage it by noticing it in public orders." In the order to 
which reference is made, he had said : "Major General Sheaffe has wit- 
nessed with the highest satisfaction the manly and cheerful spirit with 
which the militia on this frontier have borne the privations which 
peculiar circumstances have imposed upon them. He cannot but feel 
that their conduct entitles them to every attention he can bestow 
upon them. It has furnished examples of those best characteristics of 
a soldier, manly constancy under fatigue and privation and deter- 
mined bravery in the face of the enemy." 

On the 23rd of the same month he observed that the number of 
the militia in service had constantly increased since the termination 
of the armistice, and that they seemed very alert and well disposed. 
Their duty during the next three weeks was of the most wearisome 
and harassing kind, as none of them were permitted to take off their 
clothes by night, and in the day they were kept fully accoutred, with 



18 

arms in their hands. Strong patrols constantly moved along the 
river, keeping up the communication between the posts, and owing to 
the smallness of the force assembled to watch such an extensive line, 
the same men were frequently placed on guard for several nights in 
succession. Their clothing was insufficient to protect them from the 
cold, and numbers were actually confined to barracks from want of 
shoes. Disease carried off Lieut.-Col. Johnson Butler, Captain John 
Lottridge, Lieut. John May, Sergeant Jacob Balmer, and twenty 
privates of the Lincoln Regiments during the month of December, 
and there was much sickness among those who survived. Many, dis- 
tressed beyond all endurance by the miserable condition of their 
families in their absence, returned home without leave. 

Late in November the Governor General issued a proclamation 
directing all citizens of the United States residing in Upper Canada 
who still declined to take an oath of allegiance, to leave the Province 
before the first day of January, 1813. Among those who were ban- 
ished at this time was Michael Smith, already mentioned, who pub- 
lished a few months later a small volume, entitled "A Geographical 
View of the Province of Upper Canada." This book met with such a 
favorable reception that five other editions appeared at short inter- 
vals during the next three years, several of them being materially 
revised and enlarged. His description of the wretched state of this 
part of the Province was the result of personal observation, and is 
certainly not overdrawn. 

"In the course of the summer on the line between Fort George 
and Fort Erie, there was not more than 1000 Indians in arms at any 
one time. These Indians went to and fro as they pleased to their 
country and back, and were very troublesome to the women when 
their husbands were gone, as they plundered and took what they 
pleased, and often beat them to force them to give them whiskey, 
even when they were not in possession of any, and when they saw 
any man that had not gone to the lines they called him a Yankee, 
and threatened to kill him for not going to fight, and indeed in some 
instances these threats have been put into execution. They acted 
with great authority and rage when they had stained their hands 
with human blood. 

"The inhabitants at large would have been extremely glad to 
have got out of their miserable situation at almost any rate, but they 
dared not venture a rebellion without being sure of protection. 

"From the commencement of the war there had been no collection 
of debts by law in the upper part of the Province, and towards the 
fall in no part, nor would anyone pay another. No person could get 
credit from anyone to the amount of one dollar, nor could anyone sell 
any of their property for any price, except provisions or clothing, for 



19 

those who had money were determined to keep it for the last resort. 
No business was carried on by any person except what was necessary 
for the times. 

"In the upper part of the Province all the schools were broken 
up, and no preaching was heard in all the land. All was gloom, war 
and misery. 

"Upon the declaration of war the Governor laid an embargo on 
all the flour destined for market, which was at a time when very 
little had left the Province. The next harvest was truly bountiful, 
as also the crops of corn, buckwheat and peas, the most of which 
were gathered, except the buckwheat which was on the ground, when 
all the people were called away after the battle of Queenston. Being 
detained on duty in the fall not one-half of the farmers sowed any 
winter grain." 

All supplies from Montreal were cut off by the American fleet 
being in possession of Lake Ontario from the 8th November until 
the close of navigation. Flour and salt were scarcely to be purchased 
at any price and the condition of many families soon became almost 
too wretched to be endured. It is not surprising then that numbers 
of those who had no very strong ties to retain them, seized the first 
opportunity of escape. 

Lake Erie was frozen over as early as the 12th of January. A 
few days later two deserters and three civilians made their way from 
Point Abino to Buffalo upon the ice. They stated that the British 
forces were greatly reduced by sickness and desertion and that they 
did not believe there were more than thirty regulars stationed along 
the river between Fort Erie and Niagara. In fact several companies 
of the 41st had been recently despatched to strengthen the garrison 
of Amherstburg, which was again threatened with an attack, and a 
show of force was kept up by ostentatiously sending out parties 
along the river in sleighs by day and bringing them back to quarters 
after dark. 

Stimulated by the information derived from these men the 
commandant at Buffalo projected the surprise of Fort Erie by cross- 
ing on the ice, but the desertion of a non-commissioned officer, Ser- 
geant-Major Macfarlane, disconcerted his plans. 

In February Sir George Prevost visited Upper Canada, proceed- 
ing as far west as Niagara. Upon consulting with Major-General 
Sheaffe he arrived at the conclusion that it would be scarcely possible 
to defend that province successfully with the means at his disposal. 
In this opinion Chief Justice Powell who was taken into his confi- 
dence, seems to have fully concurred. 

Late in March the arrival of three families of refugees atBuffaloby 
passing across the ice is recorded. They confirmed former accounts of 



20 

want and distress and the weakness of the British garrisons on the 
Niagara. The American officers were enabled, by information 
obtained from these and other sources, to estimate with precision the 
actual force which might be assembled to resist an invasion. But as 
they failed to make their attacks simultaneously it happened in sev- 
eral instances that they encountered the same troops successively at 
different places many miles apart. Soldiers of the 41st, who had 
been present with Brock at the taking of Detroit, fought at Queenston 
on the 13th of October and returned in time to share in the victory 
at the River Raisin on the 22nd January, 1813. Two companies of 
the 8th that took part in the assault upon Ogdensburg on the 22nd 
February, faced the invaders at York on the 27th April and again at 
Fort George a month later. Finding themselves repeatedly con- 
fronted with considerably larger forces than they had been led to 
expect, the American generals soon ceased to put much confidence in 
the reports of their spies. 

The cabinet had at first designated Kingston, York, and Fort 
George points of attack in the order named. The attempt upon 
Kingston was quickly abandoned owing to a false report that the 
garrison had been largely increased, and it was determined to limit 
the operations of the " Army of the Centre " in the first instance to 
the reduction of the two latter places. 

On the 17th of March, Major General Morgan Lewis, who had 
been appointed to the command of the division on the Niagara, 
arrived at Buffalo attended by a numerous staff. At noon of the 
same day, the batteries, at Black Rock began firing across the river 
and continued the cannonade with little intermission until the even- 
ing of the 18th. A few houses were destroyed and seven soldiers 
killed or wounded near Fort Erie. Three of the American guns 
were dismounted by the British batteries. A week later the bom- 
bardment was resumed with even less result. 

York was taken without much difficulty on the 27th April, but 
it cost the assailants their most promising general and between three 
arid four hundred of their best troops. They ascertained on that 
occasion that they still had many warm sympathizers in that part of 
the Province. A letter from an officer who accompanied this expedi- 
tion, published in the Baltimore Whig at the time, states that " our 
adherents and friends in Upper Canada suffer greatly in apprehen- 
sion or active misery. Eighteen or twenty of them, who refused to 
take the oath of allegiance, lived last winter in a cave or subterran- 
eous hut near Lake Simcoe. Twenty-five Indians and whites were 
sent to take them but they killed eighteen of the party and enjoyed 
their liberty until lately, when, being worn out with cold and fatigue,, 
they were taken and put in York jail, whence we liberated them." 



21 

Michael Smith corroborates this account in some respects. He 
relates that twelve days after the battle of Queenston Colonel Gra- 
ham, on Yonge Street, ordered his battalion to assemble that a 
number might be drafted to go to Fort George. Forty of them did 
not come but went out to Whitchurch township, which was nearly a 
wilderness, and joined thirty more fugitives that were already there. 
Some men who were home for a few days from Fort George offered 
to go and bring them in but as they were not permitted to take arms 
they failed and the number of fugitives increased by the first of 
December to 300. When on rny way to Kingston to obtain a pass- 
port, I saw about fifty of these people near Smith's Creek in the 
Newcastle District on the main road with fife and drum beating for 
recruits and huzzaing for Madison. Some of them remained in the 
woods all winter, but the Indians went out in the spring of 1813 and 
drove them into their caves, where they were taken." 

So pronounced was the disaffection among the inhabitants in the 
vicinity of York, that Chief Justice Powell warned the Governor 
General that " in the event of any serious disaster to His Majesty's 
arms little reliance is to be had on the power of the well disposed to- 
depress and keep down the turbulence of the disaffected, who are 
very numerous." 

On the 29th of April the capture of York became known at Fort 
George, and the boats and stores deposited at Burlington were remov- 
ed to a place of safety. On the 8th of May the American fleet came 
over to Fort Niagara and landed the brigade of troops that had been, 
employed in the reduction of York. Although victorious, they were 
described by General Dearborn as being sickly and low spirited. Next 
day some of these troops were sent in two schooners to Burlington 
Beach, where they destroyed the King's Head tavern, built by Lieut. - 
Governor Sirncoe, which had served as quarters for soldiers on their 
march to and from Niagara. They had intended to march inland and 
destroy Hatt's Mills, in the Township of Ancaster, but were deterred 
by a report that a body of troops had been assembled in the vicinity. 
These vessels continued to cruise about the head of the lake, while the 
remainder of their fleet sailed away, as it proved, to bring forward 
another division of troops. 

Brigadier General John Vincent had lately assumed command 
of the British forces on the line of the Niagara, consisting of the 49th 
Regiment, five companies of the 8th, three of the Glengarry Light 
Infantry, two of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, and a captain's 
command of Royal Artillery with five field guns, numbering in all 
1925 officers and men, of whom 1841 were effective. Besides these, 
Merritt's troop of Provincial cavalry, Runchey's company of negroes, 
a company of militia artillery and an uncertain and fluctuating num- 



22 

her of militiamen belonging to the five Lincoln Regiments, were 
available. 

By a general order in March, about 1700 militia had been sum- 
moned to the protection of the frontier, but when the alarm had sub- 
sided most of them had been allowed to return to their homes, as it 
was felt that they would be more usefully employed in cultivating 
their farms than in idly waiting for an attack, which the enemy 
appeared to be in no hurry to make. 

The regular troops were in high spirits and confident of victory, 
but the militia appeared gloomy and depressed. Vincent complained 
ruefully, ''It is with regret that I can neither report favorably of their 
numbers nor of their willing co-operation. Every exertion has been 
used and every expedient resorted to, to bring them forward and 
unite their efforts to those of His Majesty's troops with but little 
effect, and desertion beyond all conception continues to mark their 
indifference to the important cause in which we are now engaged. In 
considering it my duty to offer a fresh exposition of my sentiments to 
Your Excellency respecting the militia of this Province, I must at the 
same time express a belief that when the reinforcements reach this 
frontier many of the inhabitants, who have been for some time waver- 
ing and appalled by the specious show of the enemy's resources, will 
instantly rally round the standard of their King and country." 

Lieut.-Colonel John Harvey, a very able and enterprising young 
officer of considerable military experience in many climes, who had 
lately joined General Vincent's division as Deputy Adjutant General, 
earnestly advised that accurate information of the enemy's numbers 
and designs should be secured at any cost, and then "by a series of 
both active and offensive movements, they should be thrown on the 
defensive, no matter how superior their numbers might be." Had 
the whole of the 8th Regiment arrived in time this might have been 
accomplished, but two of its companies had been nearly annihilated at 
York, and the march of the remainder very much delayed by the 
attack on that place. 

As late, however, as the 20th of May, we find Lieut.-Colonel 
Myers writing to the Adjutant General in these terms : "It is not wise 
to hold an enemy too cheap, but I cannot divest myself of the idea 
that the foe opposite is despicable and that it would be no hard task 
to dislodge him from the entire of his lines on the Niagara river. 
With some subordinate attacks upon his flanks, I am of opinion that 
it would be an enterprise of little hazard for us to get an establish- 
ment on the heights above Lewiston, opposite Queenston. This once 
effected, I cannot but feel the strongest confidence that we would in a 
short time effect the object so much to be desired. It would be giving 



23 

such a turn to the war that I conceive it would strike terror to the 
enemy, which would produce the happiest effects." 

The return of the American fleet with a numerous body of regu- 
lar troops on board put an end to these rather fantastic schemes of 
conquest. At daybreak on the 21st no less than seventeen armed 
vessels, and upwards of one hundred Durham boats and batteaux 
were assembled in the shallow but landlocked and commodious haven 
at the mouth of the Four Mile Creek in rear of Fort Niagara, from 
which several thousand men were speedily disembarked. 

For several days these troops paraded ostentatiously in plain 
view, probably in the hope of overawing their opponents by the dis- 
play of numbers. Many workmen were seen at the same time busily 
occupied in constructing new batteries along the" river and building 
boats. Reinforcements continued to arrive daily until it was suppos- 
ed that about seven thousand soldiers were encamped between Lew- 
iston and Fort Niagara. This force was composed almost wholly of 
regular troops that had been in service for some time and included 
nine of the best regiments of infantry in the United States army. 
They were accompanied by a strong regiment of heavy artillery, well 
appointed field-train and a battalion of dragoons. 

Major-General Henry Dearborn who was in command had dis- 
tinguished himself in the Revolutionary war, during which he had 
commanded a regiment in Arnold's expedition against Quebec, at 
Saratoga, and in Sullivan's campaign against the Six Nations. But 
he was now past sixty years of age and in ill-health. He had not 
been employed in military service for thirty years, and had grown so 
corpulent that he could scarcely mount a horse. For field operations 
he accordingly provided himself with a light open spring waggon, 
which was called a " Dearborn " in his honour, by the maker, and 
generally known by that name for some years. 

The Secretary of War had warned him to be careful to employ a 
sufficient force to ensure success. Seven thousand men was the 
number deemed requisite. " If the first step in the campaign fails," 
he wrote plaintively, " our disgrace will be complete. The public 
will lose confidence in us. The party who first opens a campaign has 
many advantages over his antagonist, all of which, however, are the 
results of his being able to carry his whole force against part of the 
enemy's. We are now in that state of prostration Washington was in 
after he crossed the Delaware, but, like him, wemay soonget on our legs 
if we are able to give some hard blows at the opening of the campaign. 
In this we cannot fail, provided the force we employ against his 
western posts be sufficiently heavy. They must stand or fall by 
their own strength. They are perfectly isolated ; send, then, a force 
that shall overwhelm them. When the fleet and army are gone we 



24 

have nothing at Sackett's Harbor to guard. How would it read, if 
we had another brigade at Sackett's Harbor when we failed at 
Niagara ?" 

The undisturbed control of Lake Ontario by his fleet gave the 
American general a still greater advantage than his numerical super- 
iority. It was understood that the British squadron would not be 
able to leave Kingston for at least a week, but two small vessels were 
detached to watch that port while the remainder assembled at Niag- 
ara to cover the landing. On May 10th a council of war composed 
of Generals Dearborn, Lewis, Chandler, Boyd, Winder, and Quarter- 
master General Swartwout, unanimously decided in favor of an 
attack upon Fort George. Colonel Moses Porter, a veteran profes- 
sional soldier of forty years' standing, who had risen from the 
ranks, was placed in command of the artillery, and instituted great 
activity in the construction and armament of new batteries upon the 
river bank commanding that post. 

Vincent was accordingly thrown entirely upon the defensive. 
Had he only had Dearborn's army to contend with, superior as it 
was, he might have entertained a reasonable hope of being able to 
maintain his position, but the presence of the fleet would enable his 
antagonist to select the point of attack at will, and even to land a 
force in his rear. 

Nor were the fortifications along the river in a satisfactory 
state. The chief engineer had examined them during the winter and 
reported that Fort George was still in a " ruinous and unfinished con- 
dition," although the parapet facing the river had been somewhat 
strengthened. He had recommended that it should be completed as 
a field work, and that a splinter-proof barracks capable of sheltering 
400 men should be built within, and the upper story of the block- 
houses taken down to place them on a level with the terre pleine. 
But these suggested improvements could not be carried out for lack 
of materials and workmen. At this time the fort mounted five guns ; 
one twelve, two twenty four pounders, and two mortars. On the left, 
fronting the Niagara river, were no less than five detached batteries, 
armed with eleven guns, five of which were mortars. All of these 
works were open in the rear, and could be enfiladed and some of 
them taken in reverse by an enemy approaching on the lake. Six 
other batteries had been constructed along the river between Fort 
George and Queenston, two at Chippawa, and three opposite Black 
Rock, about two miles below Fort Erie. All of these posts required 
men to occupy them, and there were besides thirty odd miles of 
frontier to be constantly patroled and guarded. About one-third of 
his regular troops and two-thirds of the militia were unavoidably 
stationed along the upper part of this line extending from Queenston 



25 

to Point Abino, under the command of Lieut-Colonel Cecil Bishopp. 
Vincent retained for the defence of the eleven miles of front between 
Queenston and the mouth of the Four Mile Creek thirty gunners of 
of the Royal Artillery, with five field pieces, under Major William 
Holcroft, 1050 regular infantry, 350 militia, and about fifty Indians. 
This force was subdivided into three diminutive brigades of nearly 
equal numbers, the right under Lieut.-Colonel Harvey, being detailed 
to guard the river, and the left, under Lieut.-Colonel Myers, the lake 
front of this position, while the third, under Vincent's own command, 
remained in readiness to support either of these when attacked. 
Fort George was garrisoned by Ormond's company of the 49th and a 
detachment of militia artillery, amounting in the whole to about 130 
men. The gunners serving with the field artillery being not more 
than half the usual complement, additional men were attached from 
the infantry. The batteries were entirely manned by volunteers 
from the regulars and militia. The whole force was turned out every 
morning at two o'clock, and remained under arms until daylight. 
The staff officers set a conspicuous example of activity and watchful- 
ness. Harvey and Myers, accompanied by their aides, patrolled the 
lines the whole night through and slept only by day. As the enemy 
continued their preparations for nearly a week after the return of 
their fleet, the effects of the prolonged strain soon became apparent 
in the exhausted condition of both the officers and men. At first 
General Dearborn's movements seemed to indicate that an attack 
would be made by crossing the river above Fort George, and on the 
24th of May the whole of the British troops were kept under arms 
all night. About three o'clock in the morning the enemy was dis- 
tinctly heard launching boats at the Five Mile Meadows, nearly, 
opposite a station occupied by Lieut, (afterwards Major General) R. 
S. Armstrong, R. A., who, by command of the vigilant Harvey, im- 
mediately began to fire in that direction with a six-pounder field gun 
and the nine-pounder mounted in a battery at Brown's Point. The 
Americans replied briskly with two six-pounders, and continued 
their efforts until they had put ten boats in the river. But if they 
had intended to cross at this place they soon abandoned the attempt, 
and when day dawned all of these boats were seen on their way 
down the river with a few men in each. As they came within range 
the guns of Fort George began firing, which instantly drew upon 
that work a cross fire from no less than twenty-five guns and mort- 
ars mounted in Fort Niagara and adjacent batteries, arranged in the 
form of a crescent at a distance varying from seven hundred to one 
thousand yards. The American fort brought into action six twelve 
and two nine-pounders and a mortar ; the battery at the graveyard, 
one twelve-pounder and a mortar ; No. 3 battery, two six-pounders ; 



26 

the Salt battery, two rifled 18-pounders, two six-pounders, two 8- 
inch howitzers and two 8-inch mortars ; No. 5 battery, two twelve- 
pounders, and No. 6 battery, at Fox Point, two twelve-pounders. The 
fire from the Salt battery, where Colonel Porter had taken his sta- 
tion, proved far the most formidable and effective. The twelve- 
pounder in Fort George was soon dismounted by a shot which 
shattered its carriage, and every building inside was set on fire by 
the shower of shells and red-hot shot which rained upon it. The 
gunners were driven by the flames from the twenty-four pounder 
beside the flag-staff', but the unequal contest was still gallantly 
maintained by a similar gun in the cavalier and a smaller piece in the 
north-western bastion, until Major Holcroft, perceiving that the bar- 
racks were totally consumed and that shells were bursting in every 
corner of the place, sent orders to this handful of undaunted men to 
cease firing and retire under cover. The gun at Mississauga Point 
remained silent by order of Colonel Myers, who hoped, by this means 
to deprive the enemy of any excuse for turning their artillery upon 
the village, and the other detached batteries seem to have taken 
little part in the contest. Having destroyed all the buildings in 
Fort George and effectually silenced its fire, the Americans discon- 
tinued the bombardment about two o'clock in the afternoon. 

The lake front of the British position was then closely recon- 
noitred by boats from the fleet, sounding the shore in every direction 
and occasionally venturing within musket shot of some of the bat- 
teries, which remained silent, partly from scarcity of ammunition and 
partly through fear of provoking a renewal of the cannonade. Buoys 
were placed to mark the stations the ships were to occupy next day, 
when they engaged the batteries on the left of Fort George and 
covered the landing. 

On the part of the British, some ineffectual efforts were made to 
repair the damages of the morning. The tackle and carriage of the 
gun at the flag- staff in Fort George had been totally destroyed by the 
flames and could not be replaced, while the ring-bolts of another gun 
at the light house had been drawn by the recoil, and little service 
could be expected from it. Only a small picquet was stationed in the 
fort during the night, and the remainder of the garrison lay upon 
their arms on the common, about half a mile in the rear, in hourly 
expectation of an alarm, with the other brigades on either flank. 

Shortly after reveille had sounded next morning a rocket was 
seen to rise into the air from Fort Niagara and a single gun was fired 
at Fort George. This was the signal for all the American batteries 
to begin a cannonade, which was not returned, and ceased at the end 
of half an hour. Long after the sun had risen a dense fog hung over 
tjhe river and lake, effectually concealing all objects on the opposite 



27 

side except the dim outline of Fort Niagara. Nothing could be seen 
of their troops, most of whom had been embarked soon after midnight 
at the mouth of the Four Mile Creek. At daybreak Generals Dear- 
born and Lewis went on board Commodore Chauncey's flagship, which 
immediately got under way, followed by the remainder of the fleet 
and the immense flotilla of batteaux and other boats filled with sol- 
diers. Hours passed away and the entire armada remained almost 
motionless, waiting for the rising of the fog. Finally, when the fog- 
banks rolled away, sixteen vessels of different sizes were descried 
standing across the mouth of the river at a distance of about two 
miles from land, followed by no less than 134 boats and scows, each 
containing from thirty to fifty men, formed in three compact divi- 
sions, one behind the other. At a signal from the flagship, the entire 
fleet tacked and stood towards the Canadian shore, the small boats 
wheeling by brigades and carefully preserving their alignment. Their 
approach was gradual and deliberate, being favored by a gentle breeze, 
which, however, scarcely raised a ripple on the glassy surface of the 
lake. The schooners Julia and Growler, each armed with a long 32- 
pounder and a long 12-pounder, mounted on pivots, by making use of 
their sweeps entered the mouth of the river and opened fire on the 
flank of the crippled battery near the lighthouse, while the schooner 
Ontario, of similar force, took up a position near the shore to the 
northward, so as to enfilade the same work and cross the fire of the 
two first-named vessels. Two guns and a mortar in Fort Niagara also 
concentrated their fire upon this battery, which was occupied by a few 
men of the Lincoln artillery under Capt. John Powell. Only a single 
fihot was fired from the gun mounted there before it again became 
unmanageable, and the gunners were soon afterwards driven out by 
the incessant fire directed against them from different quarters. At 
the same time the Governor Tompkins, of six guns, engaged the one- 
gun battery near the mouth of Two Mile Creek in flank, while the Con- 
quest, of three guns, anchored in such a position as to fire directly into 
it from the rear, which was entirely open and unprotected. Resist- 
ance in this case was obviously out of the question, and it was imme- 
diately abandoned. The Hamilton, Scourge and Asp anchored within 
short musket shot of the shore, a few hundred yards further west, 
nearly opposite a group of farm houses called Crookston, a short dis- 
tance eastward of the mouth of that creek, which was the place 
selected for landing the troops. The three largest vessels, the Madison, 
Oneida and Lady of the Lake, d*ew more water and were in conse- 
quence obliged to remain at a greater distance, though still well within 
effective range of every part of the level plain beyond the landing 
place. The united broadside of the fleet amounted to fifty-one guns, 
many of them being heavy long-range pieces mounted upon pivots 



28 

which could fire in any direction, and the weather was so calm that 
they were afterwards able to increase the number by shifting guns 
from the other side. The whole of the artillery in Fort Niagara and 
the batteries on that bank of the river had also opened lire. Two 
sides of the British position were thus simultaneously assailed by the 
fire of more than seventy guns and mortars, which swept the roads 
and fields in every direction, scarcely receiving a shot in reply. A 
picquet of the Glengarry Light Infantry, which had been stationed 
with about 50 Indians of the Six Nations under Captain John Nor- 
ton among the thickets near the mouth of the Two Mile Creek, 
hastily retired to avoid utter destruction by the storm of missiles 
hurled against their covert. Lieutenant William Johnson Chew and 
two Indians were killed and several wounded before they could es- 
cape. 

A heavy column of troops was then discovered marching from 
the American camp in rear of Fort Niagara in the direction of 
Youngstown. This consisted principally of dismounted dragoons 
and heavy artillery, commanded by Colonel Burn, who had been in- 
structed to cross the river there and intercept the retreat of the 
British garrison towards Queenston. Their appearance had the effect 
of detaining a large part of Harvey's brigade on that flank to watch 
their movements. 

BATTLE OF FORT GEORGE. 

It was about nine o'clock when the landing began at Crookston 
in the following order : The advanced guard in twenty boats was 
composed of four hundred picked light infantry selected from sev- 
eral regiments, Forsyth's battalion of riflemen, and the flank com- 
panies of the 15th United States Infantry, amounting in the whole 
to about 800 rank and tile, with a strong detachment of artillery in 
charge of a three-pounder field piece, under the command of Lieut.- 
Colonel Winfield Scott, an able and energetic young officer who had 
been taken prisoner at Queenston the year before, and was destined 
to be the future conqueror of Mexico. This force was strictly en- 
joined not to advance more than three hundred paces from the 
water's edge before it was supported by General Boyd's brigade of 
infantry, with Eustis's battalion of artillery and McGlure's rifle vol- 
unteers on its flanks. This was to be followed by Winder's brigade 
with Towson's artillery, and Chandler's brigade with Macomb's 
artillery, which were instructed to form upon Boyd's right and left 
respectively. Each of these brigades must certainly have numbered 
not less than 1500 officers and men. The reserve was composed of 
the marines of the fleet and a picked body of 400 seamen, which were 
landed but not brought into action. When his command was formed 



29 

in line, about half a mile from the shore, Scott, who had been on 
board the flagship Madison to receive orders, rejoined it and took his 
station m the centre, when he announced that the pendant flying 
astern of that vessel would be dropped as a signal for them to ad- 
vance. Forsyth's riflemen formed the right, Lieut.-Colonel George 
McFeely commanded the left, consisting of the companies of Milliken 
Mills and McFarland, while Scott himself took charge of the centre, 
composed of companies of Nicholas Biddle and Hindman of the 
2nd, and Stockton of the Third United States Artillery. 

The entire fleet continued to fire over the heads of the men in 
the boats and effectually screened their advance until they reached 
the shore and formed on the beach under shelter of the steep clay 
bank. Captain Hindman of the United States Artillery, a very 
gallant young officer who was in command of the detachment with 
the gun attached to the advance guard, is mentioned as the first man 
to reach the shore. So far they had not met with the slightest op- 
position, but when they began to ascend the bank the artillery fire 
from the ships slackened and they were briskly attacked by three 
companies of the Glengarry Light Infantry, two companies of Lin- 
coln militia, and the grenadiers of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, 
who had been partially sheltered during the cannonade in a ravine 
two or three hundred yards distant. The effect of their musketry 
was sufficient to cause the American advance guard to retire under 
cover of the bank once more, and the fleet recommenced its fire. 
Lieut.-Colonel Myers then succeeded in bringing forward the 
remainder of his brigade, increasing the force assembled in the 
ravine to forty men of the Newfoundland Regiment, ninety of the 
Glengarry Light Infantry, twenty-seven of Captain Runchey's negro 
company, 100 Lincoln militia and 310 of the 8th or King's 
Regiment. Several American authorities agree in the statement that 
their troops twice attempted to ascend the bank and were twice 
driven back by this determined handful of men, who charged re- 
peatedly and actually inflicted some loss with the bayonet. After 
they had succeeded in forming upon the plain, General Boyd stated 
that for "fifteen minutes the two lines exchanged a rapid and 
destructive fire, at a distance of only six or ten yards." The official 
returns of casualties establish the fact the whole of Boyd's bri- 
gade, consisting of the 6th, loth and 16th United States Infantry, 
was ultimately brought forward to the support of Colonel Scott's 
command, making a force of about 2,300 men opposed to 567. When- 
ever practicable the ships continued to tire with destructive effect on 
the attenuated British line. Myers fell desperately wounded in 
three places when leading the first charge. Lieut.-Colonel Nichol, 
Quartermaster General of Militia, who had volunteered to act as his 



30 

aide-de-camp, had his horse shot under him. Every field officer and 
most of the company of officers were soon killed or disabled, and at 
the end of twenty minutes' close fighting the survivors gave way, 
leaving nearly three hundred dead and wounded on the field. They 
were rallied at a second ravine some distance in the rear by Lieut. - 
Colonel Harvey, who brought up with him several companies of the 
49th, and a six-pounder field gun under Lieut. Charleton, which had 
been stationed near Fort George, and about ten o'clock retired to a 
favorable position near William Dickson's house, where they awaited 
another attack. During this action Dominick Henry, the keeper of 
the light house at Mississauga Point, a discharged soldier of the 
Royal Artillery, distinguished himself by assisting the wounded in 
the thickest of the fire, while his wife was extremely active in fur- 
nishing refreshments to the troops engaged, proving herself a verit- 
able heroine, in the sight of many witnesses. 

Lieut. Armstrong, with two other guns, had also been directed 
to proceed to the support of Lieut.-Colonel Myers, but upon advanc- 
ing along the road parallel with the lake near Secord's house, he 
was suddenly assailed from, both flanks by a body of riflemen whose 
fire wounded his horse and one of his men, and a belt of thick woods 
prevented him from joining the remnant of that brigade, which was 
then in full retreat. While engaged in examining the road in front, 
Armstrong came unexpectedly upon one of the enemy's riflemen, 
whom he made prisoner, and discovering that he was in danger of 
being surrounded, retired hurriedly to the Presbyterian church where 
the remainder of the field guns had been posted. From this position 
they covered the retirement of Lieut.-Colonel Harvey's force, which 
took place about ten o'clock. By that time the Americans had suc- 
ceeded in landing the greater part of their field artillery, and began 
to advance slowly in three dense columns, Scott's light troops skirting 
the woods on the right, with the 6th, 15th and 16th United States 
Infantry and four guns in the centre, and another regiment with 
four guns moving along the margin of the lake. As they had 
brought no horses they were obliged to drag their guns by hand, and 
their advance was necessarily very slow. While observing their 
movements, Harvey was almost cut off by a party of riflemen who 
had stealthily made their way through the woods with that object. 
He galloped off" unhurt amid a shower of bullets, and formed his bri- 
gade in a fresh position behind a third ravine. Major Holcroft 
opened fire from a six-pounder and a howitzer, but on perceiving the 
advance of the enemy's light troops on the right, 'he placed these guns 
in charge of Lieut. Armstrong and moved in that direction with the 
two other pieces. For nearly half an hour the artillery kept up a 
brisk fire and succeeded in checking the enemy's infantry. Harvey 



31 

then noticed that their riflemen were again stealing forward through 
the woods, with the intention of turning his left flank, and ordered a 
general retreat to the common beyond the council house. During the 
cannonade Holcroft had lost but one gunner wounded and a single 
horse killed, but the limber of his largest gun, a twelve-pounder, was 
so badly damaged that it went to pieces on the road. 

An hour later, when the Americans emerged from the village, an 
eigh teen-pounder, in the battery next to Fort George was traversed, 
and fired upon them until they made a vigorous charge and captured 
it with several of the men engaged in working it. 

Vincent joined Harvey with the reserve, and the whole force 
remained in position on the common for nearly half an hour. Com- 
modore Chauncey's flag-ship entered the river and anchored abreast 
of Fort George. The troops at Youngstown began to enter their 
boats, while the enemy in front were steadily prolonging their linea 
to the right with the evident purpose of occupying the only possible 
avenue of retreat and surrounding the British forces. 

At noon General Vincent despatched an order to Colonel Claus 
to evacuate Fort George and join him upon the Queenston road. Ho 
immediately began his retreat upon St. Davids, the infantry retiring 
through the woods, and the artillery and baggage by the road. This 
movement was so quietly accomplished that it seems to have almost 
escaped the attention of the enemy, who were busily engaged in re- 
forming their line. The retreating column was overtaken at 
Swayzy's farm at two o'clock by the greater part of the garrison of 
the fort, and halted on the mountain near St. Davids to rest and col- 
lect stragglers. 

General Dearborn had become so much enfeebled by his exer- 
tions, and the effects of his previous illness, that he had to be lifted 
from his horse and supported to a boat, which conveyed him on 
board the flagship, from which he viewed the landing of his troops, 
although unable to keep his feet for more than a few minutes at a 
time. The command accordingly devolved upon Major General 
Morgan Lewis, an officer of little experience and less military know- 
ledge, but an active and influential politician, who had been in turn 
Chief Justice and Governor of the State of New York and was a 
brother-in-law of the Secretary of War. He was absurdly fond of 
military pomp, parade and display, and his political opponents de- 
lighted to ridicule a speech he had made to the militia while he was 
Governor, in which he had remarked that "the drum was all import- 
ant in the day of battle." Having the fate of Van Rensselaer and 
Winchester fresh in his memory, his movements were cautious to the 
verge of timidity. An hour and a half elapsed after Harvey retreated 
before he ventured to advance beyond the village. He had then not 



32 

less than 4,000 men in order of battle, besides the reserve of marines 
and seamen. His line extended without a break from the lighthouse 
on Mississauga Point to the river above Fort George. That work 
was approached with excessive caution, as the sound of repeated ex- 
plosions within caused them to dread a recurrence of their disastrous 
experience at York, and even the lighthouse was avoided lest it 
should be hurled in fragments on their heads. Colonel Scott was, in 
fact, unhorsed by a large splinter which broke his collar-bone, but 
there were no other casualties. When the fort was entered it was 
found that the garrison had disappeared with the exception of a few 
soldiers of the 49th Regiment, who were still engaged in dismantling 
the works. Some of these men were surprised in the act of cutting 
down the flagstaff to obtain the garrison flag, from which the halliards 
had been shot away, and others were taken prisoners as they at- 
tempted to escape through the main gate. More than a hundred 
sick and wounded were found in the hospital. The village of Niag- 
ara~ was entirely deserted, and many of the houses had been much 
damaged by cannon shot. 

During the afternoon the Second Regiment of United States 
Dragoons was brought over from Youngstown, but scarcely any pur- 
suit was attempted as the American army was described as much 
exhausted from being under arms for eleven hours. No one seemed 
to know positively which way the British had retreated. Colonel 
Scott, with some of the riflemen, seems to have advanced a few miles 
along the Queenston road, but was peremptorily recalled by General 
Lewis, who feared an ambush. Meanwhile Vincent's column had 
retired in almost perfect order, leaving scarcely a straggler behind, 
and marched with such speed that the rear guard arrived that night 
at DeCew's house, where a small magazine of provisions had been 
formed a few days before in anticipation of a reverse. 

About four o'clock in the afternoon a dragoon reached Fort Erie 
with information of the loss of Fort George, and Lieut.-Colonel Biss- 
hopp immediately began his retreat with the regular troops and field 
guns stationed there, leaving Major John Warren with a few men of 
the Third Lincoln Regiment of militia to occupy the works and en- 
gage the attention of the enemy on the opposite bank. Soon after 
his departure, Warren opened fire on Black Rock from all the batter- 
ies and continued the cannonade all night. At daybreak the destruc- 
tion of the stores and fortifications began. The barracks and public 
buildings were burnt, the magazines blown up, the guns burst or 
otherwise rendered unserviceable along the whole line from Point 
Abino to Chippawa. When this had been thoroughly accomplished 
Warren disbanded his men, and an American force crossed from Black 
Rock and took possessian of the dismantled works. A quantity of 



33 

stores which had been abandoned at Queenston was destroyed on the 
same day by Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Clark, at the head of a small 
party of the Second Lincoln Regiment, who had returned from Beav- 
er Dams for the purpose. 

Scarcely had this been done, when a strong brigade of American 
troops advanced from Fort George and occupied that village. 

THE LOSSES. 

During these operations General Vincent had lost the whole of 
his garrison ordnance and a considerable quantity of spare arms and 
military stores. His regular force had been diminished by 350 offi- 
cers and men. nearly all of whom were killed or wounded, but he was 
joined during the night of the 27th by two strong companies of the 
8th Regiment, which had advanced that day as far as the mouth of 
the Twelve Mile Creek on their way to Fort George. The loss of 
the regulars in the battle was officially stated at fifty-two killed, 
forty-four wounded, and 262 missing, nearly all of those reported 
missing being either killed or left wounded on the field. The small 
detachment of Lincoln militia engaged is stated to have lost five 
officers and eighty men killed or wounded, but no official return 
seems to have been preserved. The names only of Captain Martin 
McClellan and Privates Charles Wright, George Grass and William 
Cameron, who were killed, have been recorded. Two Mohawk In- 
dians, Joseph Claus and Tsigotea, were also among the slain. General 
Boyd stated that his men found 107 dead and 175 wounded of the 
British troops upon the field. The losses of some of the detachments 
actually engaged were truly appalling. The five companies of the 
8th Regiment lost Lieut. Drummie killed, Major Cotton, Lieuts. 
Nicholson, McMahon and Lloyd, and Ensign Nicholson wounded, and 
196 non-commissioned officers and privates killed, wounded or miss- 
ing, out of 310 of all ranks who went into action. The Glengarry 
Light Infantry lost Captain Liddle and Ensign McLean killed, Cap- 
tain Roxborough and Lieut. Kerr wounded and 73 non-commissioned 
officers and men out of an aggregate of 108. The grenadier company 
of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment lost Capt. Winter, Lieut. 
Stewart, and fourteen others out of forty. 

The total loss of the American army was officially stated at 150, 
of whom thirty-nine were killed. The only officer killed was Lieut. 
Henry Hobart, a grandson of General Dearborn. Covered as their 
landing was by the fire of so many cannon, it is, perhaps, remarkable 
that their loss was so great. As a proof, however, of the severity of 
the short struggle on the plain, Dr. Mann, the American army sur- 
geon, who was present, remarked that he found 27 dead and 87 



34 

severely wounded on the field when he landed, and that nearly 400 of 
both armies lay stretched on a plot of ground not more than 200 
yards in length and 15 in breadth. 

On the 28th the whole of the militia except Merritt's 
troop of Provincial Cavalry, Runchey's company of negroes, and 
about sixty picked men of other corps who were determined to follow 
the fortunes of the army, were disbanded, and Vincent continued his 
retreat to Grimsby and finally to Burlington Heights, where he ar- 
rived on the 2nd June with eleven field guns and 1800 seasoned 
soldiers, who, in spite of their recent reverse, were in high spirits and 
eager to meet the enemy again on more equal terms. The brilliant 
result of the action at Stoney Creek three days later amply atoned 
for a defeat by which they had lost no credit. 

The Americans were justly disappointed by the incompleteness 
of their success. For nearly two days they appear to have absolutely 
lost all track of their enemy. " When we marched for Queenston on 
the 28th," wrote an officer in the United States army, whose letter 
was published at the time in the Baltimore Whig, " we found the 
British far advanced on their retreat by the back road toward the 
lower part of the Province. They collected their force very actively. 
Our friends hereabouts are greatly relieved by our visit. They had 
been terribly persecuted by the Scotch myrmidons of England. 
Their present joy is equal to their past misery. This is a charming 
country, but its uncertain destiny, together with the vexations the 
farmers endured by being dragged out in the militia, left the fields 
in a great degree uncultivated. The British Indians are not of much 
use to them. They run as soon as the battle grows hot. I saw but 
one Indian and one negro with the Glengarry uniform on, dead on 
the field. Their Eighth fought very resolutely and suffered severely." 

Many American historians have condemned General Dearborn 
for not having accomplished more with the means at his disposal, 
but they have made little or no allowance for the physical weakness 
which actually rendered him unfit to command at all. General Arm- 
strong, who as Secretary of War was eager to justify his own 
conduct, declared that " if instead of concentrating his whole force, 
naval and military, on the water side of the enemy's defences he had 
divided the attack and crossed the Niagara below Lewiston and ad- 
vanced on Fort George by the Queenston road, the investment of 
that place would have been complete and a retreat of the garrison 
rendered impracticable." This, however, was actually the movement 
which Dearborn had planned but failed to execute in time. Ingersol, 
a member of Congress and a leader of the war party, bitterly 
observed that " the British General effected his retreat (probably 
without Dearborn knowing it, for he stayed on shipboard) to the 



35 

mountain passes where he employed his troops in attacking, defeat- 
ing, and capturing ours during all the rest of that year of discom- 
fitures." 



INDEX. 

A. Page. 

Abino, Point 25, 32 

Albany 11 

Amherstburg 13, 19 

Ancaster 8, 10, 11, 21 

Armstrong, Major-General John 34 

Armstrong, Lieut. R. S 25, 30 

Army of the Centre 20 

Asswago 7 

Astor,J. J 11 

B. 

Baldwin, John , , 6 

Balmer, Sergt. Jacob 18 

Ball, Captain George 16 

Baltimore Whig, newspaper 20, 34 

Barton, Benjamin 12 

Beaver Dam 7, 33 

Beechwoods 7 

Biddle, Captain Nicholas 29 

Bidwell, Barnabas.., 9 

Bisshopp, Lieut-Colonel 25, 32 

Black Creek 7 

Black Rock 20, 24, 32 

Black Swamp., 7 

Boulton, D'Arcy 5 

Boyd, Brig.-General John P 24, 28, 33 

Brock, Major-General Isaac .....9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 20 

Brown's Bridge * 7 

Brown's Point 25 

Buffalo 10, 11, 16, 19 

Burlington 7^ 21 

Burlington Beach 21 

Burlington Heights 34 

Burn, Colonel John 28 

Burns, Rev'd John 5 

Butler, Lieut.-Colonel Johnson 18 

Butler's Rangers 16 

C. 

Calhoun, John C 9 

Cameron, Captain Wm 

Cameron, Wm 33 

Campbell, Patrick 4 

Canandaigua 11 

Chandler, Brig.-General John , 24, 28 

Charleton, Lieut 30 

Chauncey, Commodore Isaac 27, 31 

Chesapeake affair 8 

Chesapeake frigate 8 

Chew, Lieut. Wm. Johnson 28 

Chippawa 7,16,24.32 

Chippawa Creek 7 

Clark, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas ...11, 33 

Claui, Colonel William . 15 31 



Glaus, Joseph ................................................................................................... 33 

Clay, Henry .......................................... . ............................................................ 9 

Conquest, schooner ............................ ............................................................ 27 

Cotton, Major .................................................... ............................................. 33 

Crooks, William ................................ . ............................................................. 10 

Crookston ................................................................................................. 27, 28 

D. 

Dearborn, Major-General Henry ........... .................... 21, 23, 24, 25, 31, 33, 34 

DeCew's House ............................................................................................ 7, 32 

Detroit ...................................................................................................... 14, 20 

Dickson, Thomas .................................................. . .......................................... 10 

Dickson's (Wm.) house .................................................................................... 30 

Doyle, Andrew ................................................................................................. 17 

Drummie, Lieut ............................................................................................... 33 



Edwards, Joseph ......................................................................................... 6, 10 

Erie, Lake .................................................................................................... 7, 19 

Eustis, William .................................................................................................. 9 

Eustis's Artillery ............................................................................................. 28 

Evans, Major Thomas ........................................................................ 14, 15, 16 

F. 

Five Mile Meadows ......................................................................................... 25 

Forsyth's riflemen ..................................................................................... 28, 29 

Fort Erie ............................................................................. 7, 11, 16, 18, 24, 32 

Fort George ................ 6, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 

31, 32, 33, 34. 
Fort Niagara ................................................... 6, 11, 14, 17, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27 

Four Mile Creek .............................................................................. 7, 23, 25, 27 

Fox Point ....................................................................................................... 26 

Frenchman's Creek ............................................................................................ 7 

Frey, Captain Barent ...................................................................................... 16 

6. 

Gansevoort, Lieut ........................................................................................... 11 

Geographical View of the Province of Upper Canada, by M. Smith... ............ 18 

Glengarry Light Infantry ....................................................... 21, 28, 29, 33, 34 

Governor Tompkins, schooner ............................................................................ 

Graham, Lieut.-Colonel William ..................................................................... 21 

Grand River ..................................................................................................... 11 

Grant, Robert .................................................................................................. 10 

Grass, George .................................................................................................. 33 

Grier, John ................................................................................................. . ....... 6 

Growler, schooner ........................................................................................... 27 

H. 

Halifax .............................................................................................................. 9 

Hamilton, schooner ........................................................................................ 27 

Harvey, Lieut.-Colonel John ........................ , .......................... 22, 25, 28, 30, 31 

Hatt's Mills ..................................................................................................... 21 

Hatt, Samuel ................................................................................................... 10 

Henry, Dominick ................................................................... . ......................... 30 

Heriot, George ................................................................................................... 5 

Heron, Andrew .................................................................................................. 6 

Hindman, Captain ............................................................... .. .................. . ...... 29 



Hobart, Lieut. Henry 33 

Holcroft, Major William 25, 26, 30, 31 

Hull, Brig.-General Wm 13 

I. 

Indian Council House 6 

Indians 18,25,33,34 

Indians, Mohawk 12, 3; 

Indians, Six Nations 28 

Ingersol, Charles J 34 

J. 

Jefferson, Thomas 9 

Jones, Captain John 16 

Julia, schooner 27 

K. 

Kerr, Lieut 33 

Kirby, James 10 

King's Head Tavern 21 

King's Regiment 21, 22, 29, 33, 34 

Kingston 20, 21, 24 

L. 

Lady of the Lake, schooner 27 

Lewis, Major-General Morgan 20, 24, 27, 31, 32 

Lewiston 10, 12, 22, 23, 34 

Liddle, Captain 33 

Lincoln Artillery 27 

Lincoln, County of. 8 

Lincoln Militia 8, 10, 16, 22, 29, 32, 33 

Lloyd, Lieut 33 

Lottridge, Captain John 18 

Lundy's Lane 7 

Lyon's Creek 7 

M. 

Madison, ship of war 27, 29 

Madison, James 10, 21 

Mann, Dr. John 6, 33 

Maude, John 5, 7, 8 

May, Lieut. John 18 

Medical History of the War of 1812, Mann's 6 

Melish, John 5, 9 

Merritt, Captain W. H 21, 34 

Militia, '.Canadian 8, 10, 16, 22, 29, 32, 33 

Militia Act 11 

Miller's Creek 7 

Milliken, Captain 29 

Mills, Captain 29 

Missassauga Point 6, 26, 30, 32 

Mohawk Indians 12, 33 

Mohawk Village 11 

Montreal 9, 19 

Muirhead, James 6 

Myers, Lieut. -Colonel Christopher 14. 17, 22, 25, 26, 29, 30 



Me. 

McClellan, Captain Martin 16, 33 

McClure's riflemen 28 

Macdonell, Lieut.-Colonel John 15 

McFarland, Captain 29 

MacFarlane, Sergt.-Major : 19 

McFeeley, Lieut.-Colonel George 16, 17, 29 

McLean, Lieut 33 

McMahon, Lieut 33 

Macomb's Artillery 28 

N. 

National Intelligencer, newspaper 5 

Navy Hall 6, 15, 16 

Newcastle District 9, 21 

Newfoundland Regiment 21, 29, 33 

Niagara 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 19, 21, 24, 32 

Niagara Falls . .....5, 7, 9 

Niagara, Fort 6 

Niagara River 13, 14, 20, 22, 24, 34 

Nichol, Lieut.-Colonel Robert 29 

Nicholson, Ensign 33 

Nicholson, Lieut 33 

Norfolk Militia 10 

Norton, Captain John 28 

O. 

Ogden, J. C 5 

Ogdensburg 20 

Oneida, brig 27 

Ontario, schooner 27 

Ontario, Lake 6, 7, 8, 18, 24 

Ormond, Captain 25 

P. 

Point Abino 19, 25, 32 

Portage Road 7 

Porter, Barton & Co 7 

Porter, Colonel Moses 24, 26 

Porter, General Peter B , 12 

Powell, Captain John 15, 27 

Powell, Chief Justice W. D 19, 21 

Presbyterian church 30 

Presqu' Isle 8 

Prevost, Sir George 19, 21 

Provincial Cavalry 21, 34 

a. 

Quebec 9, 23 

Queenston 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34 

R. 

Ranger's Barracks 6 

Regiment, 8th or King's 21, 22, 29, 33, 34 

Regiment, 41st 11, 15, 20 

Regiment, 49th 16, 21, 32 

Regiment, Glengarry Light Infantry 21, 28, 29, 33, 34 

Regiment, Royal Newfoundland... 21, 29, 33 



Regiment, 2d United States Artillery 32 

Regiment, 6th United States Infantry 28, 29, 34 

Regiment, 15th United States Infantry 28, 29, 34 

Regiment, 16th United States Infantry 29, 30 

River Raisin 20 

Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Duke de 5 

Roxborough, Captain 33 

Royal Artillery 15, 21, 25, 30 

Roval Engineers 15 

Runchey, Captain Robert 21, 29, 34 

s. 

Sackett's Harbour 24 

Salt Battery 16, 25 

Sandwich 13 

Schultz, Christian 5, 7, 8 

Scott, Lieut-Colonel Winfield ,. 28, 29, 30, 32 

Scourge, schooner -.. 27 

Secord's house .30 

Sheaffe, Sir Roger H 17 

Shipman's Tavern 

Simcoe, Lieut. -Govern or 7, 21 

Simcoe Lake 20 

Six Nations, Indians 28 

Smith Michael 5, 9, 18, 21 

Smith's Creek 21 

Smith's (D. W.) Gazetteer of Upper Canada 5 

Smyth, Brig.-General Alex 16 

Stewart, Lieut 33 

Stockton, Captain 29 

Stoney Creek 7, 34 

Street, Samuel 10 

Swartwout, Quartermaster General 24 

Swayzy's farm 31 

Sweazy, Isaac 12 

Symington, John 6 

St. 

St. Catharines 7 

St. Davids. 7,17,31 

T. 

Tiffany, Dr 9 

Towson's Artillery 28 

Tsigotea -. ...33 

Twelve Mile Creek .7. 7,33 

Twenty Mile Creek 7 

Two Mile Creek ...............7, 27, 28 

V. 

Van Rensselaer, Major-General 14, 16, 31 

Vigoreux, Captain 15 

Vincent, Brig.-General John 21, 22, 24, 25, 31, 32, 33 

Vosburg t> n 

W. 

Wainfleet 



Warren, Major John r. 32 

Weld, Isaac 5 

Western District 13 

Whiskey Insurrection 8 

Whitchurch 21 

Widgery, General Wm 9 

Willoughby 10 

Winchester, Brig. -General James 31 

Winder, Brig.-General Win . 28 

Winter, Captain .- 33 

Wright, Charles 33 

Y. 

York 7, 11, 12, 13, 20, 21, 22, 32 

York Militia ...10 

Yonge Street ....21 

Young's Battery .....15 

Youngstown 6, 14, 16, 28, 31, 32 



DUCIT AMOR 



Niagara Historical Society 



NO. 



A CANADIAN HEROINE 
AN HISTORIC HOUSE 

NAMES ONLY 
ST. VINCENT DE PAUL'S CHURCH 



PRICE 2O CENTS. 



1905. 

TI.MKS Pui*T, NIAG 



PREFACE 



In sending out our thirteenth publication we would hops for it 
as favorable a reception as has been granted to our other issues. 
The story of St. Mark's and St Andrew's appears in No. 7. arid a 
short sketch of the Baptist church in No. 12, these are now follow- 
ed by the history of St Vincent de Paul's church told clearly and 
sympathetically by Mrs. Greene. It is hoped that the history of 
the churches of the town will b^ made more complete by that of 
the Methodist church in a later number. 

Much valuable material is on hand for future issues and we hop e 
that any who can contribute documents bearing on the family hist, 
ory of the early settlers will do so, thus more light will ba thrown 
on the early history of our country. 




ST. VINCENT DE PAUL'S CHURCH. 



A WIPE'S DEVOTION. 

A Canadian Heroine of Sixty Years Ago. 

BY JANET CARNOCHAN. 

The story of the heroic exertions of Maria Wait during 
four years, first to save the life of her husband and next to 
obtain a full pardon or some amelioration of his sufferings 
when a prisoner in Van Dieman's Land, is known to compar- 
atively few persons and forms a remarkably interesting page of 
Canadian History, giving us glimpses of governors, judges, 
lawyers; a journey in the first place of seven hundred miles in 
the days before the advent of railways, introducing us to 
officials in Toronto, Kingston, Quebec, Lieutenant Governor 
Arthur and Lord Durham, Bishop Mountain, Wm. Hamilton 
Merritt, M.P.P., Jesse Ketchum, and affords the dramatic end- 
ing of her labors, the respite arriving only half an hour be- 
fore that appointed for the execution of the prisoners. Next 
she travels from Niagara to Kingston to visit her husband in 
the prison at Fort Henry and returns to obtain signatures, 
this indefatigable woman, leaving her babe, takes a journey of 
three thousand miles, crossing the Atlantic to intercede for her 
husband even at the foot of the throne. 

We now have glimpses of Charles Buller, the Secretary of 
Lord Durham, Joseph Hume, Mrs. Fry, Miss Strickland, Mrs. 
Opie, Mary Howitt, the Philanthropists Buxton, Clarkson, Wil- 
berforce, the Patriot Dan O'Connell, Sir Robert Peel, Prince 
Albert, the young Queen, our heroine meeting the best in the 
fashionable, literary, political, philanthropic and religious world 
of that day. 

Her letters show a well trained mind, an affectionate heart, 
an indomitable will, and a deeply religious spirit, while those of 
her husband show great vigor and close reasoning powers, he 
having had some legal training, and we can understand and par- 
don 'the bitterness with which he speaks when we remember his 
sufferings. To all her other difficulties was added that of insuffi- 
cient means. We note with interest that though so much is re- 



curded of hardships and hard heartedness, the letters of both 
husband and wife tall of many deeds of kindness, the dnrk record is 
broken bv the silver lining of the cloud; the benevolence of the 
people of three countries is recorded,- in Canada, United States, 
jind England. 

Maria Wait, nee Smith, seems from her letters to have been 
born not far from Niagara, as was also Benjamin Wait, he says 
"I was one of Canada's sons born, bred and rocked in the cradle 
of liberal principles. She was my own, my native land." She was 
educated by Robert Randall, who was also the early friend and 
patron of her husband. On the tombstone of Robert Randall, at 
Lundy's Lane it is recorded that he was "a victim of Colonial 
Misrule." He was fourteen years in the Legislature and went to 
P^ngland to complain of the wrongs of Canada, was ruined in 
health and fortune, though not in mental energy. Dying in 1834 
he had taken part in the efforts to break the power of the Family 
Compact, but was spared ths lat?r troubles. These letters imply 
. that the writers suffered from being his friends. 

The book from which the most of this story is derived is a 
rather rare one. 

"Letters from Van Dieman's Land, written during four 
years imprisonment for political offences, also letters of Mrs. 
Wait." The book is dedicated to Thaddeus Smith, a brother 
of Mrs. Wait, and was published in 1843. 

The devoted wife returned from England to Canada to pe- 
tition Lord Sydenham, and finally the long separated husband and 
wife met, he having escaped in an open boat was picked up by 
a U. S Whaler; wrecked on the coast of Brazil; spent a month in 
Kio de Janiero and finally reached New York and found his wife 
teaching in Buffalo But alas this loving wife whether worn out 
bv anxiety or the fatigue she had undergone, or from other cause 
lived little more than a year after the return of her husband, who, 
notwithstanding the extraordinary hardships he had undergone, to 
which soiir^ of his companions succumbed lived to the nge of 82, 
dving in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1895. 

" Whatever opinion may be held of those who took part in the 
Rebellion of 1837 8, whether justified or not, there can be no 
question that we are now enjoying the advantages gained by that 
struggle, there can be no question either as to the cruel treat- 
ment" meted out both in Lower Canada where houses were burnt 
sin d savagery reigned, or to those executed here, particularly 
those banished, the treatment of felons being given to political 
prisoners, they being herded with the vilest of convicts. There 
is no question" either as to t^e tyranny, injustice and oppression 



3 

of the Family Compact of which in these days we can have no 
conception. While the total incapacity of Mackenzie as a mil- 
itary commander must be noted, and while we must severely con- 
demn him for blinking from another country a force to invade 
his own land, we remember that it is difficult sometimes to say 
what constitutes treason. When successful the leader is a hero, 
a patriot, when unsuccessful a rebel and a traitor. 

But of the deeds of Mrs Wait there can be no divided 
opinion. Other women have performed heroic deeds. Catharine 
Douglas, who to save the life of her king, James the First, of 
Scotland, in Stirling Castle, thrust her arm into the staple in 
the absence of the bolt, breaking the bone, this was the deed 
of a moment; our own Laura Secord's was the deed of a day, 
long and toilsome indeed. Helen Walker, the original of Jeanie 
Deans to save the life of a darling sister travelled painfully for 
weeks. Prascovia Lopouloff the Elizabeth in the Exiles of Siber- 
ia to save her father, endured hardships for months, but this 
heroic woman, undeterred by difficulties, disappointments and 
opposition gave years to the rescue of her hushand and his fel- 
low prisoners, travelling many thousands of miles through Canada 
and to England, and finally contemplated going to Van Dieman's 
Land to be noar the loved one and help in any way in her 
power. 

In Dent's history of the Rebellion is a very graphic description 
of the Court House in Niagara at the trial of Robert Gourlay in 
1819, very much in the style of Macaulay's Trial of Warren 
Hastings, and in this same building, now the home of waifs from 
the old land, was Benjamin Wait confined. A few days before, 
Morrow had been tried, found guilty and executed, now sixteen 
more were sentenced to death, of these the sentence of thirteen 
was commuted, and three, Chandler, McLeod and Wait were left 
for execution. A letter to a friend begins thus. -'You, Ben- 
jamin Wait shall be taken from the court to the place from 
which you last came and there remain until the 25th August, 
when between the hours of eleven and one you shall be drawn 
on a hurdle to the plac3 of execution and there hanged by the 
neck until you are dead. The Lord have mercy on your soul! 
This sentence was pronounced by Judge Jones, llth August, 1838, 
The house was crammed, my counsel was Alexander Stewart." 
H .- gjc's on to tell of being led back to his ironbound stone 
<-'ll: (tlie iro.i grating S3ircely a foot square which afforded the 
only chance to see the Hg'it of day is in the Niagara Historical 
RDJOI anrl two culverts in the town were formed of the st me 
w.ills of t.h? ron'l.nniif:i cell.) Mrs. Wait harl t.-iken a room near 



4 

the jail, the 24th regiment was on guard, afterwards the 43rd, 
the commander of the latter being much more compassionate to 
the prisoners than the first. Petitions for pardon were signed 
and taken by his father and Rev. Mr. Johnson, of Drummondville, 
to Toronto and Kingston, but preparations for the execution were 
made, a hangman brought from Toronto, to avoid what had occurred 
in the case of Morrow when the Sheriff had to perform this repulsive 
task, one hundred dollars having been offered to a black man 
in vain. 

In a letter from Niagara to a friend, dated Oct 13th. 1838, 
Mrs Wait tells that on the evening alter the sentence had been 
pronounced she determined to go to Quebec to petition the Gov- 
ernor-General, but everyone tried to dissuade her, and said that she 
ought to stay to give consolation to her husband, that appeal was 
useless, besides she might endanger the life of her infant, which 
must be left behind. There were barely two weeks, but s^e was firm 
against all opposition. Miss Chandler determined to go with her 
to beg for her father's life, in his case there would be ten child- 
ren left fatherless A subscription was taken up lor Miss Chandler 
but none for Mrs. Wait as her friends opposed her going. "It 
was urged that a daughter pleading for the life of her father 
would be more likely to be successful than a wife for that of 
her husband This was poor reasoning to me as I could not 
trust my husband's life to the pleadings of anyone but myself 
much less to those of an inexperienced girl of eighteen" 

Before leaving, she begged the jail surgeon, I)r. Porter, that 
were she unsuccessful the body might not be given up for discc- 
tion but given to friends for burial, James Boulton and Judge 
Butler are both mentioned as also Capt. Richardson of the 
Transit, who gave Miss Chandler a free passage and four dollars. 
The next morning before leaving Toronto IVIrs. Wait went to see 
Jesse Ketchurn, whom she had met when a girl, had breakfast 
there and joined him and his wife at family worship, before leav- 
ing this philanthropist gave her ten dollars to help on her way. 
Capt. Moody treated the two distressed ladies with great kind- 
ness Another steamer was taken at Kingston. Though she 
speaks of the beautiful scenery her mind was too distracted to 
enjoy it. Another steamer at Montreal for Sorel!e, the residence of 
Sir John C jlborne, whose son gave a letter to the aid-de-CMtip for 
the Governor General at Quebec, but on reaching his residence 
they could not obtain an audience but were told a message 
would be sent to them. By the kindness of the captain they 
were allowed to remain on the boat at night, and at ten the 
next morning again went to the castle but no decision had 



5 

been reached. They begged for an answer that day as other- 
wise Niagara could not be reached in time. A pathetic circum- 
stance is the drive in the interval in a caleche through the 
streets and to the battleground and the citadel to pass the time 
of suspense. On their return found there was still no ans- 
wer, were told one would be sent to the boat before it sailed. 
At this critical moment Miss Chandler was in tears and 
Mrs. Wait begged leave to sit there till a reply was given; 
it too late they would only arrive in time to embrace the 
lifeless bodies of those they loved. Col. Cooper the aide-de-^ 
camp finally went to intercede for them and returned with the 
news of a commutation of the sentence. Lord Durham could 
not give a free pardon till he had seen the documents but 
would give a letter to Sir George Arthur the Lieut. -Governor. 
On the return journey much kindness was received from 
a Mr. Simpson, M. P., as it was necessary to intercept Gov. 
Arthur who was travelling, and inquiries were constantly 
made whether they had met or passed him. This gentleman 
contributed twenty dollars, one half of which she gave to 
Miss Chandler. At Cote de Lac, the steamboat was waiting 
for the arrival of Sir Geo. Arthur, and on his appearance 
next morning another trying interview took place as on the 
presentation of the despatch from Lord Durham he seemed 
annoyed, said he could not accede to the request. Mrs. Wait 
pleaded earnestly but she feared in vain, and afterwards sat 
down to write to Lord Durham telling him how his message 
had been received, honorably telling Gov. Arthur the next day of 
what she had done, who seemed angry and said "Before you 
send your letter to Lord Durham I wish you to understand 
that I have granted a respite." We may imagine with what 
feelings this was received, and she tells that only no.w, when 
the strain was over did she begin to think of her child, (she 
had been quite ill on the way from mental excitement and the 
great strain ) One pleasing feature all through is her grateful 
mention of kindnesses received. Mr. Macaulay, the Secretary, 
had spoken kindly to her, and now on the boat Bishop Moun- 
tain, clad in his robes on the way to Toronto, was very kind. 

Niagara was reached on the 22nd. She flaw to the prison 
to convey the joyful tidings but found the respite had not 
arrived and as she hid no papers to prove it had been grant- 
ed, her news was hardly believed. The next day she went 
back to Toronto to inquire, and driving to the Chief Justice 
found he was not at home, then to the Solicitor General, Judge 
McLean, but rn.it him on tha way, by whom she was sent to 



Parliament, and met Mr. Sullivan, but no news of the respite 
had come. If it arrived she was told it would be sent next 
day on the Transit. In the interval she called on Bishop 
Mountain, who promised his help She had only time to reach 
the boat, and arriving at six in the evening, found she could 
not see her husband that night On handing in his breakfast 
the next morning she tried to offer encouragement but at 
eleven the boat brought no good news and the long day drag- 
ged on till the arrival of the evening boat and still no mes 
sage, nor yet on the Transit the next day at eleven, the 25th, 
and the day appointed for the execution, but at noon the 
Sheriff, who had gone to Kingston with prisoners, arrived on 
a Government Steamer with the respite and the news was- 
conveyed to the prisoners by the Rev. Thomas Green, the 
rector, of St. Mark's, at half past twelve 

After the overwhelming scene which ensued she hurried 
off to see hfr babe twenty miles away with its grandmother. 
It had been ill but was brought next day on a pillow to 
Niagara The mention of the Sheriff (Alexander Hamilton) 
reealls the story that the gruesome task he had been obliged 
to perform so preyed on his mind that he died shortly after 
and the words of Wait have some bearing on this. "The 
execution of Morrow had made such an impression on his 
mind that he was glad of a respite and succeeded in gaining 
the Governor's boat to convey the news." 

The next letter is from Wait himself who tells that on 
October 6th he was removed accompanied by the jailer, 
Wheeler to Toronto and thence to Kingston escorted by 
soldiers, there they found many of their friends who had been 
prisoners in Niagara jail. 

From this strong fort had escaped sixteen, by digging 
through a stone wall four feet thick and traversing under- 
ground rooms and an outside trench. Many came to see the 
scene of so daring an escape. The prisoners now used 
various devices to keep themselves well employed, reading 
writing, making small boxes, portfolios, and Wait introduced 
the art of making a curiously wrought paper memorial in- 
scribed in elegant style with names and short pithy mottoes, 
which were eagerly sought after and often sent to friends. 
An association for literary improvement and amusement was 
formed, addresses given etc. On Sabbath one of the prisoneis 
Ji3v. Wixon a Baptist minister and the editor of a paper, who 
had lost one leg and walked with a crutch gave commentaries 
on the Psalm,. His crime was an article published in a newspaper. 



On 4th November Mrs. Wait came with Miss Chandler 
bringing clothing and food, but after this toilsome journey 
in wintry weather only five days of companionship were 
enjoyed for nOw an order came for twenty three prisoners 
to be sent to Quebec. 

An interesting circumstance is that their guards on the 
way, the Glengarry Militia, were visited by lady friends with 
fruit, vegetables and other food which they kindly shared 
with the prisoners; on the way they saw the smoking ruins 
of the houses of the habitans who had taken part in the 
rebellion. At Quebec they found that a remarkable escape 
from the Citadel had been made by Theller and Dodge. On the 
22nd Novambar, the prisoners were sent to England in a 
vessel loaded with timber the room was dark and cold, they 
were treated as felons, in chains, lodged with the worst 
criminals. Tha Mersey was reached on Dec llth, and steps 
were taken at once by the prisoners to gain a hearing. 
They had determined to protest against all illegal treatment 
and Wait seems to have been made their spokesman. Many 
visitors showed kindness, particularly is mentioned Dr. Buck 
the prison chaplain, who is spoken of as a Christian gentle- 
man. Latters had been sent by Wait signed sometimes by 
Vae prisoners sometimes by himself to Joseph Hume, Roe- 
buck, Lord Brougham, Lord John Russell, Lord Durham, 
asking for redress but apparently with little result. 

A striking account is givan of a frightful storm at sea 
when sent to Portsmouth, the vessel returned in five days 
almost a total wreck, the shore was strewn with dead bodies 
from the numerous vessels lost. The commander of the 
vessel Lieut. P.itjhard was most kind and reported the 
prisoners as "mostly man of property, respectability and fam- 
ily, intelligent praying, moral man. I have frequently listened 
to thair davotions before they retired to rest." 

At length reaching Portsmouth they were placed on a 
hulk for convicts and there met Sir P. Durham (Admiral) 
brother of Lord Durham, and Wait was presented as "the man 
whose life was saved by the unparalleled conduct of his 
wif j who made a journey of 700 miles to present personally 
her petition to Lord Durham." Here again on the York hulk 
the prisoners shawad their ingenuity in making boxes, horse- 
hair rings, paper tokens in the shapa of hearts, these were 
shown on shore and Miss Strickland the celebrated author of 
Queens of E.igland sent to them several sheets of colored 
pip,r to mike for a B.tzaar with strict order.* "to havo the 



8 

Day increased the demand and we thus purchased many an 
extra loaf of good bread." 

All this time they were kept in ignorance of their fate 
but told they would not be sent out of England, in spite 
of this they were on the 17th March sent to Van Dieman's: 
Land a voyage of 16000 miles, their hardships on the voy- 
age were so great that three of the ni ne died soon after land- 
ing and Wait only recovered afterg months in the hospital. 
He was -sometime after assigned as clerk and storekeeper to a 
farm of 6000 acres, also acted as teacher to five children for 
six months and in 1841 was granted a ticket of leave from 
the efforts of his wife who during all these weary years 
had never ceased her exertions for his release. We have 
pissed over very slightly the sufferings of the husband as this 
record is that of a wife's devotion and that of her partner 
only as it affected her. 

The letters of Mrs. Wait tell the rest of the story, sad 
indeed but relieved by gleams of brightness, one from New 
York in Aug. 1839 tells that she had been in Lockport till 
May, tvvo letters had reached her from Mr. Wait, as soon as 
she knew of his being sent as a convict to Van Dieman's 
Land she immediately left for Canada resolved to obtain cer- 
tificates and petitions and go to England. She met on this 
canal boat for Buffalo a warm hearted family from St. Thomas 
named Wynen who sympathized with her and raised $30 to 
help. She then went to Haldimand and meeting the Hon. 
Wm. Hamilton Merritt obtained from him letters and also a contri- 
bution of $20, then went all through the Niagara District 
being received kindly. The struggle of parting with her child 
is thus described. "Could I leave my child? I could not take 
her with me and should I join my husband in his exile my 
heart must yearn for my absent child. Could you my dear 
friend but imagine the heart rending effect of these sad re- 
flections x x x I made it a subject of prayer to God by 
day and in the vigils of the midnight hour continued my 
supplications for guidance and direction while pressing my 
dear babe to my breast. Thus nearly a week of dreadful 
anxiety passed while I continued my preparations, x x x 
then I prayed with a fervor I had scarce ever experienced 
when a calm and consoling resignation was diffused through 
the soul and I felt that the conflict was past and I could 
leave her without a struggle. My youngest brother brought 
from Dunnville a generous contribution, my aged father bid me 
farewell -at Tonawania, being a refuse from his home. T 



9 

heard at Rochester ot the release of nine of the prisoners 
in London, some thought from this that I need not go to 
England. I visited Mr. McKenzie in prison and at Syracuse 
I met ths widows of Woodruff and Buckley, whose husbands 
were sacrificed at Kingston. At New York the talented Mr. 
Bidvvell called on ms, offering more than sympathetic words, 
benevolently opening his purse. The aid I have received from 
kind Americans is $300, which with assistance from friends in 
Canada may come far short of what I require, my passage 
will be $75, which is $25 less than the usual sum." 

The next letter is dated London, Dec. 30th, 1839, twenty 
one days out, I first saw Mr. Ashurst and Mr. Walker, their 
agents, and then went to Lord Durham with letters from Mr. 
Merritt, which were sent by him to Lord John Russell with 
letters from Mr. Durand and others. I met with many kind 
Christian friends. Female prayermeetings were held to intercede 
for husbands and fathers in bondage. I personally saw Lord 
John Russell, who promised to present a petition to the Queen, 
this was ultimately presented by Lord Normanby. I met Mrs. 
Fry, the female Howard, of England, she is a friend of the 
Duchess of Sutherland, I think her the most majestic womai^ 
that I have ever seen. Lady Barharn, a lady in waiting on 
the Queen, has most kindly laid the matter before her Majesty, 
who to use Lady Barham's own language, "expressed herself 
as being much touched with the circumstances and was pleased 
to say she would consult her ministers on the subject, when 
should it ba deemed practicable, she would be glad to listen to" 
the application and grant the request though it is most difficult 
to act in these matters." Of the Queen, Lady Barham says 
"to know her is to love." I am advised to wait the course of 
affairs in Canada and so cannot go to Van Dieman's Land till 
a final* answer is received, but to stay) is very expensive, five 
dollars a week for board with any comfort, from the humidity 
of the climate. 

The Queen is to be married in February and there are 
hopes of a pardon then." 

Letters are sent through friends to Sir John Franklin, the 
Governor of Van Dieman's Land with regard to Wait and 
Chandler. Application was made to the Queen on her marriage 
but there were so many similar appeals that this one was not 
granted. The Chartists are referred to as being sent to Van 
Dieman's Land also 

"I have besieged the government on every hand, had the 

of influence which I think must eventually prevail, if ether- 



10 

wise 1 will endeavour to reach the land of their captivity and 
do something for them though I must leave my dear child and 
friends in America/' 

A letter is quoted from Lady Grey offering sympathy and 
help with letters to the isle of their imprisonment. Sir Edward 
Parry,- a contemporary navigator with Sir John Franklin, is also 
pressed into the service. A kind letter from Charles Buller, 
Secretary to Lord Durham, is given. Mrs. Wait now becomes 
companion to a widow lady, Mrs. Ellis, with whom she is very 
comfortable. Lady Barham writes that nothing can be done at 
present for the prisoners, that "the Queen regrets her inability 
to remove the cause of your distress." She then looks forward 
ti> a six months' voyage. 

A letter to her brother in May, 1840, gives us two pictures 
of life in England the beautiful country seats, and London in 
the May meetings of Christian and benevolent societies. 

"The fields are rich with primroses, daisies, cowslips and 
buttercups. I have welcomed the delicate snowdropj, the crocus, 
the variegated polyanthus, the ever valued smile of the violet 
a^ a time when our fields are still lying under t^e pressure of 
snowbanks, indeed I have drunk in the beauties of this early 
spring with a degree of ecstasy." 

Then follows a description of the church rates to be paid 
by all and the case of John Thorogood, a shoemaker, in jail 
eighteen months for non-compliance. In all her sadness she says 
"she has frequently laughed outright when on the scene of the 
nrirvellous adventure of the famous John Gilpin. particularly 
when on the road w^ere he passed the sign of the Bell at Ed- 
nr niton and Mrs Gilpiri waited her smoking dinner as so face- 
tiously described by Cowper. 

Her description of the meeting of the London Missionary 
meeting at Exeter Hall with seats for 6000 and well filled is 
particularly interesting to us now after sixty years, and shows a 
well informed mind, keenly alive to the progress of the world. 
Sir George Grey, the son of the Lady Grey previously referred 
to, took the chair and opened with an eloquent address in which 
he spoke of the death of the Martyr. Rev. John Williams, at 
Erromanga. which recalls to us our own Canadian Martyrs on 
that Island fifty years later, the heroic Rev. Geo. Gordon and his 
w.ife and afterwards his brother, undeterred by the murder of 
his relatives by the natives on what has been well named "the 
martvr island." Missionaries from all parts of the world spoke, 
among them Robert Moffatt, the father-in law r of David Living- 
st'.'ii?. Other meetings are spoken of, benevolent, S3ientific and 



11 

religious. One of the world's great conventions on the Rights 
of man discussed the emancipation of the slave. Ladies were 
thare from America, but were not allowed to speak, according to 
the rule which then governed these meetings, but some one spoke 
of the ungallant Englishman who would not give a hearing to this 
"Spartan band of women " At one meeting Prince Albert spoke 
and was cheered enthusiastically, was called by Sir Robert Peel 
"the right arm of the throne" and by Mrs. Wait is spoken of 
as "the youthful and amiable looking Prince." The philanthro- 
pist Buxton, Archdeacon Wilberforce are also mentioned. The 
last meeting was presided over by the Duke of Sussex, it WAS 
packed and many were turned away. The French ambassador 
was present. Monsieur Giuzot, and many American gentlemen and 
ladies the Duchess of Sutherland, leaning on the arm of Mrs. 
Fry, the venerable Thomas Clarkson, who was listened to with 
raspact, Judge Birney from America, Mary Howitt, Mrs. Opie, 
Daniel O'Connell. "I fancied I had heard eloquence before and 
I had heard eloquence in that hall from the lions of English 
oratory but this was eloquence that entranced the mind with its 
cadence and melody in strains too bewitching to resist and elicit- 
ed enthusiastic cheering which transcends description." An Ameri- 
can mulatto spoke with ability and pathos; all this was in the 
afternoon from two to five o'clock. 

A visit is also spoken of to the Zoological Gardens, the 
Tower and other places, her remarks showing a cultured mind 
and a knowledge of history and literature. 

The next letter is dated London, July 2nd, 1840, and tells 
that after deciding to go to Van Dieman's Land, sha is advised 
by Buller to return to Canada instead, and petition Mr. Poulett 
Thompson, the Governor- General, and a letter of introduction 
is given her. Showing the versatility of this admirable wom- 
an wa find that expecting to go to her husband and not 
knowing ho\v she would support herself there she had enter- 
ed the Home and Colonial Infant School Society to learn thtjir 
m-3thols of instruction. After ten months in England, through 
the kindness of friends a passage was taken for her to Amer- 
ica, and she promised her husband that should her hopes prove 
abortive she will with her child join him. "Cheer up" she 
says "rise superior to surrounding circumstances". 

Again we fiii'l heron this bide of the Atlantic still assiduously 
working for thess unfortunate prisoners In September 1840, she 
t -11s of writing to th 3 Governor-General and not being satisfied with 
the verbil reply, conveyed by J. E Small, writes again and receives a 
letter from Government House, Montreal, which only promises leni- 



12 

ency and a ticket-of-leave. Receives a letter from W. H. Merritfc 
M.P., enclosing 0113 from Sir John Franklin, in answer to 
appeals to him. It is somawhat strange to us to see in what 
varied lights the same person is spoken of by people in diff- 
erent circumstances. Sir John Fianklin known to us as the naval 
commander and to whom- such a pathetic interest attaches 
from his sad fate so long in doubt and the persistent efforts 
of Lady Franklin, appears here as che ruler of convicts in that dis- 
tant island. 

Her next visit was to Kingston to appeal to Parliament 
and the Governor-General in person. More than fifty members 
recommended her memorial among whom she mentions Sir Allan 
Mac Nab, and by the Governor she was kindly received. 

She then spent four weeks in the Niagara District ob- 
taining signatures to a petition asking for a free pardon to all 
implicated in the rebellion and writes from Louth to Mr. Merritt 
saying she could have the signatures of nearly the whole prov- 
ince, mentions the good wishes of Mr. Thomson and Mr. 
Thorburn, both members of Parliament. Mr. Merritt replies that 
the House had addressed the Government and that the Home 
Government and the Queen are urged to consent to a pardon. 
In reference to the help given by \V. H. Merritt, M.P., Mrs. 
Wait calls him "the worthy and distinguished member of 
Parliament and her husband says" his kindness will be remembered 
with that deep sense of gratitude so eminently due." 

This closes the letters of this remarkable woman, as before 
the pardon was received, Mr. Wait had escaped and after some 
months met his wife in Buffalo, where she was teaching. Her 
exertions it is well to know were appreciated both by her hus 
band and the other prisoners as he speaks of the "energetic 
conduct of my affectionate wife, notwithstanding the obstructions 
thrown in her way and the difficulties she encountered "and Mr. 
Gemmel who had also escaped published a card attributing his 
freedom to the exertions of Mrs. Wait, showing that her labors 
were not for her husband, alone, but for his companions in suffering 
as well 

Since writing the above, from a letter received it is learned 
that Maria Wait was educated oy Robert Randall, M. P P , that 
she died shortly after the birth of twins in 1843 one of which sur- 
vived, named Randall. 

The infant, Augusta, was kept a great part of the time of 
the mother's absence by Mrs. Gonder at Chippawa, <\nd the 
friends there who met to bid Mrs. Wait farewell saw her while 
thev were watching from the shore wipe away the fast falling 



' 




THE OLD GAOL, AS IT WAS 60 YEARS AGO 

XONV THE WESTERN HOME. 




THE WESTERN HOME, AS IT IS TO-DAY. 



1,3 

tears as the boat carried her from their sight. She is buried in 
Buffalo, but it is feared no stone marks the spot where rests the 
dust of this noble woman. 



AN HISTORIC HOUSE 



If the Niagara Court house and Jail built in 1817 could 
tell only a part of what has been enacted within its walls 
what a tragic tale should we have. It has been said else- 
where by the present writer that to know the history of 
Niagara is to know much of the history of Upper Canada and 
in a lesser sense to know the history of this building is to 
know much of the history of our country. 

An advertisement in the Spectator published in St. Davids 
in 1816, for brick, stone, lumber, lath, shingles, etc. for a jail 
and court house is signed by Ralfe Clench, Clerk, who we 
know was a United Empire Loyalist, a member of Butler's 
Rangers, a member of Parliament, a Judge, who had fought 
at Queenston Heights and whose name appears more frequently 
perhaps than any other in papers of that day. The first Court 
House and Jail in Niagara had been burned in 1813 and 
the next served the double purpose from 1817 to 1847, then 
when the Court house was built in 1847 it was used as a 
Jail only till 1866 and from 1869 to the present time has been 
the Western Home for waifs and strays from the crowded 
motherland and from its walls have gone out more than 4000 
children to homes in our land. 

In a letter in the Niagara Gleaner for March 26th, 1818, 
is a letter referring to the new Gaol and Court House a.* a, 
handsome building which must have cost a great sum of 
money and does credit to the builders and founders but he 
"cannot conceive why it was set in that swamp." Another 
letter is from the contractor Josiah Cushman acknowledging his 
satisfaction with the committee. 

Here in 1819 was confined Robert Gourlay, a British sub- 
ject banished as an alien by false oaths, his crime that of pro- 



44 

testing in the newspapers of the day against the govern- 
ment of that period. 

A graphic description of the scene is given in the open- 
ing chapter of Dent's history of the Rebellion in which are 
portrayed the Court Room, the lawyers, the Judga, the prisoner, 
commencing thus and much in the style of Macaulay's trial 
of Warren Hastings. "In the afternoon of a warm and sultry 
day towards the close of one of the warmest and most sultry 
summers whi?h Upper Canada has ever known an extraordinary 
trial took plaes at the court house in the old town ot Niag- 
ara x x. The date was Friday, the 20th of August, 1319. 
The court room, the largest in the province was packed to 
the doors, and though every window was thrown open the at- 
mosphere was almost stifling." 

(jfourlay was so treated that his reason gave way. The 
chapter is named the Banished Briton. The editor of the 
Niagara Spectator, Bartemus Ferguson, fared badly also, a letter 
of Gourlay's had appeared in his paper in his absence and 
without his knowledge and for this the unfortunate editor 
was confined in the Niagara Jail, tried for sedition and sen- 
tenced to pay a fine of ;50, to be imprisoned in jail for 
eighteen months, to stand in the public pillory one hour, to 
give security for seven years for the sum of ^"1000 and to 
remain in prison till the fine be paid and security given. We 
may surely congratulate ourselves that we do not live in these 
"good old days " 

The newspapers of the day show how severe were the 
punishments, as in 1825 John Hight for Highway robbery was 
condemned to death. In 1826 three men were sentenced to be 
hanged for horse stealing aud sheep stealing, on 25th October. 
This sentence was not carried out as the paper for Oct. 28th 
has an item Beaded "Great Disappointmsnt. Great numbers 
came from U. S. into town to see the execution but His 
Excellency had suspended the sentence. A waggon load of 
cakes and gingerbread had to be sold at reduced rates-" What 
a mingling of sad and gruesome elements does this extract 
give us. In 1831 is mentioned the Debtor's prayer written 
on the walls of the prison. In 1832 a letter in the Gleaner 
from" a debtor in jail speaks of the kindness of Mrs Steven- 
son and Mrs. Capt. Mosier in sending food and delicacies to 
debtors confined there, and in a Canadian home now after a 
Japs? of s?venty years may be seen a symbolic picture exe- 
cuted by one of thsse unhappy prisoners confined for debt, 
representing fi bird in it cnge fed by a little girl who i* 



spoken of in the letter as the angel M<uy. In the same 
letter the kindness of John Crooks, P. M, is spoken of in 
sending a load of wood in winter to allay the sufferings 
from the cold of a Canadian winter Another pathetic story 
lately told me is that of a prisoner confined for debt for 
years; in thosa days the creditor was obliged to send week, 
ly to the jailer a certain sum to provide food (meager enough 
we may be sure.") On the death of the prosecutor it was 
found that he had actually left in his will a sum that ihis 
payment might be made and the unfortunate debtor still be 
kept a prisoner. The executor, however unwilling to carry out 
this malignant desire from a grave felt himself compelled 
to do so, till becoming ashamed at last thought of a way of 
escape for himself from this binding decree and escape for the 
prisoner as well. By the law the money had to be paid at 
a certain hour and it was so arranged one day that the 
mBssan/er was detainad a few minutes past the time and the 
jailer as the mm 37 was not forthcoming set the prisoner free, 
no doubt to the satisfaction of many sympathizers This re- 
calls a story in Old Man Savarin by E. VV. Thompson, when 
a coppsr coin (many of which were not legal tender) affordsd 
an excuse for a similar jail delivery. 

In 1828 another victim complains in a latter in the Gleaner 
(Edward VicBride a Parliamsntary Candidate) that he was 
put in Jail for debt to keep him from being elected. 

In the Gleaner of April 10th, 1832, a memorable meeting 
was held in this building in which we see the rumblings of 
the storm which culminated in the Rebellion of 1837 of which 
the imprisonmsnt of Robsrt Gourlay and Bartemus Ferguson 
thirteen years before gave warning The meeting was called 
by the Sheriff to discuss the affairs of the country. The ac- 
counts are very confusing, one meeting was held outside the 
building with Jas. Cooper as chairman, the other inside with 
VVm. Ball as chairman. Each party declared his the only legal 
ni3eting, both declared their loyalty to the King, William IV 
both passed an address with eleven resolutions, one declaring 
themselves satisfied with the administration, the other complain- 
ing of the grievances that existed, in the war losses not being 
paid, nor grants of land confirm ad. Numerous contradictory 
letters appeared in the Gleaner telling of this exciting meet- 
ing. 

The v ebrated slave escape in 1837 gives perhaps the most dra- 
matic event in connection with this building At that time there 
were 333 oc 403 colored inhabitant in Niagara most c*f whmn 



1.6 

Intel escaped from slavery following the north star to liberty. 
Among them was a man called Moseby, who had escaped from 
Kentucky, using his master's horse for some distance. He was 
working on a farm near town when he was arrested and put in 
jail having been followed by his master, a demand being made 
for his return to the United States as a felon for horse stealing, 
not as an escaped slave. It is said that baseless charges of 
this kind were often made to secure the return of the slave 
The Government was appealed to and Sir Francis Bond Head, 
then the Governor, ordered that he be given up. Meanwhile 
great excitement prevailed in town, the colored inhabitants col- 
lected in crowds, messages were sent to all the dusky race in the 
vicinity and several hundreds assembled watching the jail to 
see that the prisoner was not taken away. The white inhabi- 
tants sympathized with the prisoner and furnished provisions and 
other comforts for the beleaguering army Tiiis was kept up for 
two- weeks and finally a waggon was ready with constables, 
and soldiers to take the prisoner to the wharf. The women in 
the crowd sang hymns, some were armed with stones in stockings, 
(a very effective weapon) one strong black woman seized one 
of the officials and held him prisoner. The riot act was read, 
the prisoner driven out, rails from a fence were stuck in the 
wheels to stop the progress, the prisoner, whose manacles it is said 
had been manipulated by friends in the jail jumped out and 
escaped. The order to fire was given and two black men were shot 
dead an 1 otliers wounded. Tae leader was a teacher and exaorter, 
an educated mulatto named Herbert Holmes, the other named 
Green. Both were buried in the graveyard of the old Baptist 
church. An inquest was held and after seventeen hours the ver- 
dict of Homicjde, but whether justifiable or not was not known. 
Some of the papers of the day headed the account Mobocracy in 
Niagara, others spoke of Holmes as a hero and his death as murder. 
In many books of travel in Canada from 1820 to 1830 the 
Jail and Court House is spoken of as the handsomest building 
in Upper Canaia. The fine wood work in the interior may 
yet be admired. Tae present dormitory for the children was 
the Court R^om, the spectator's gallery and thy fine arches re- 
main but miny ca.ing3S have bean mide in the building as 
tli* coale nned cells, were taken down, and from the stone 
two culverts constricted in the town. In our Historical room 
mav be seen the grating only about a foot square, from which 
a prisoner condemned to death might take almost his last sight 
of th? light of day. The picture taken in 1860 is^ that of 
a buiMing of urniitigit-srl usflinss.*, very different in appear 



ance from that of the present day with its beautiful trees and 
flowers as laid out by the good taste of Miss Rye, by whom it 
was purchased in 1869, it having been unoccupied for several 
years, when Niagara ceased to be the County town. 

On July 31st, 1838, Jas. Morreau, who had taken part 
in tha reballien was hangad. A printed bill in the possession 
of the Society offers a reward for his arrest. Thirteen other per- 
sons were condemmed to be executed on 25th August. Ten 
were reprieved and the wife ot Benjamin Wait and the daughter 
of Chandler took the long journey to Quebec to beg the lives 
of the husband and father. After many difficulties and discourage- 
ments Mrs. Wait returned with the promise of a reprieve 
which however did not arrive till half an hour before the 
time fixed for the execution. The excitement of such a 
dramatic scene may be imagined. Another memorable execu- 
tion was that of Seely in 1836 who died protesting his 
innocence of the murder attributed to him. Many years after- 
wards the real murderer on his detithbed confessed his guilt, 
thus confirming the statement of Seely. 

In this building the congregation of St- Mark's church 
worshipped in 1843 while the transept, the new part of the church 
was being erected. 

Among the last prisoners were soms of thoss taken in the 
Fenian Raid, lodged here before being transferred elsewhere. 

It is rather remarkable that the advertisement for materials 
for the first jail and Court House in Niagara in 1795 is 
signed by Ralph Clench, the same as in that of 1816. The 
jail was situated on the corner of King and Prideaux street. 
We read that in the war of 1812 there were confined in the 
jail at one time 300, many of them political offenders. It was 
burned during the bombardment previous to the conflagration in 
Dec. 1813 Many other remarkable events might be narrated 
which transpired in this building but these may be left for 
other explorers of historic lore. J, C. 



NAMES ONLY. 



This may seem to some a trivial subject but it is indeed 
very interesting and involves some knowledge of the town and 
throws light on some of its forgotten pages. The town was 
laid out in 17$ I by D. VV. Smith, Deputy Surveyor General, 
the son of Major Smith of the 5th Regt., laid out with mathe- 
matical regularity, wide streets, not all, however, of the sains 
width. The first survey extended only to King Street, a river 
front of 800 yards, but as we learn from a meeting of the 
Land Board in 1791, this was extended in the direction of 
Navy Hall. In the map of 1791 the property of D. W. Smith 
is shown; on the four acres now called the Market Square was 
his fine house referred to in our No 11. In 1816 the boundar- 
ies were extended, and in 1822. a map was made by Capt. 
Vavasour, R. E , taking in the common to Fort George, and in the 
map of David Thompson, 1845, are included the map of Vavasour 
and that of the Harbour and Dock Company of 1831. In the 
letter of Jno. Small, 1795, the names of owners of lots in the 
town are given from No 1 to No. 412, the same as numbers 
used no^w. In Vavasour's map the new part is numbered again 
from 1 to 46, and in the Harbour and Dock Company's num- 
bered from 1 to 21. In the map of Chas. L. Hall, barrister, 
about 1830, the numbers are the same as in that of 1795. 
')^he fact that the town at first extended only to King Street 
explains the reason that to the continuation of the streets south 
a different name is given. Thus Queen Street, south of King, 
is Picton Street. No doubt the chief street of the town was 
named from Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III, and its 
continuation, Picton St., from the heroic general who fell at the 
battle of Waterloo, the streets east and west of Queen are re- 
spectively called Johnston and Prideaux, from the two com- 
manders who conducted the siege of Fort Niagara in 1759. 
General Prideaux was killed by the bursting of a shell and 
was buried in the chapel as told by Sir William Johnston in 
his diary. "H3 WAS buried with great form. I was t'le chief 
in jurner." There has been much discussion l;it j lv as to tli> site 



-19 

of the giava and whether there should not be a stone to mark 
the spot where lies a British General who gave his life for 
Britain's glory. The continuation of Prideaux Street is Byron 
Street, the poet as he just at this time "awoke one morning 
and found himself famous." Johnston Street, south of King, is s 
called Platoff Street, from the Russian General, who defeated 
Napoleon. Gaga Street, next t0 Johnston, is named from Gen- 
eral Gage, Governor of Montreal, in 1760. In 1774 he was 
governor of Massachusetts, at that time a very difficult position. 
On the soat'a of King Street it is named Castlereagh from the 
British statesman, whose fate was so tragic. The remaining 
streets to the west are simply Centre, William, Mary, John 
and Anne, whether from William III and his Queen Mary 
and her sister Anne or for some local magnates in the town 
or simply for no reason, a dearth of ideas, John, though so 
common a name, has never been a popular name for a king 
of England. We turn now to the streets at right angles oni 
mencing with King Street, the origin of which n^ed not be 
questioned, it is now often called Broadway. The next Regent, 
was probably named from tha Prince Regent, afterwards George 
IV, but there is a tradition that it nad a more plebeian origin; 
a fashionable tailor on this street advertised that he was from 
Regent Street, London, and articles bought there were said to 
be from Regent Street and that name was gradually given It 
seemed puzzling how the next street could be alled Victoria, as 
when these streets were named, Victoria was not born. As the 
Princess Charlotte, of Wales, died in 1817, Victoria born i/i 
1819, was heiress to the crown but an explanation has lately 
suggested itself. It is found that in early maps the streets 
north of King are simply called 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 
8th, 9th, 10th streets, and at a later date part of them were re- 
named. The next, Gate Street, is so far an unsolved mystery, 
Simcoe Street bears a name worthy of remembrance, that of the first 
governor of Upper Canada, who lived here a part of five 
years, his hospitality shewn by his Indian na % me, Deyonguho- 
krawen u one whose door is always open," a lake, a county, a 
town all bear his name. Mississagua Street is the only Indian 
name preserved in our streets, running out to Mississagua Point 
where the lighthouse stood on the spot now occupied by th 
tower built of the bricks from the ruins of the town sfcyled by 
our poet "a stern memorial of a deed unchivalrous." Our street 
Hamcrs seem now to have exhausted their ideas as the remaind- 
er of the streets to the north are sixth, seventh, eighth, 
and tenth streets. 



20 . 

South of King Street nearly a-ll the nanias are military 
given shortly after that Titanic struggle of Britain with so many 
foes. That was surely still more than of late a condition 
of "splendid isolation". The next street to King has however 
the name of a Scientist, from Sir Humphrey Davy who had in 
1819 invented the safety lamp. Next comas Wellington Street, 
recalling the Iron Duke of whom Tennyson said "Truth lover 
was our Eaglish Duke, whatever record leap to light. He 
never shall be shamed." Th3 next Alava, from a Spanish gen- 
eral who served on the staff of Wellington. Nelson streec re- 
calls the great Sea Admiral who won victory after victory and 
finally saved England from the threatened invasion of Napo- 
leon by destroying the combined fleets of France and Spain. 
It is fitting that the next street should be called Collingwood, 
the friend of Nelson, who followed him step by stjp up the 
ladder of promotion and on the death of Nelson assumed the 
command and completed the victory. Another military com- 
mander gives his name to the next, Blucher Street, reminding 
us of that long loud Sabbath day of Waterloo when Wellington 
standing firm resisting charge after charge finally wished for 
"night or Blucher" but before the arrival of either knew the 
day was won and the "Old Guard of France" had failed to 
make any impression on that "front of steel," why the name 
Lichen was given to the last street we know not, except that 
here one of the numerous springs found on the bank causes 
moss and lichen in abundance. Another name Trivene is 
given on one map. 

There still remains the land given to the Harbour and Dock 
Company in 1831. Part of this was marshy and the earth 
from the excavation for the "slip" was used to fill up the low 
land, the exhalations from which no doubt helped to cause the 
fever and ague of wHch early visitors speak so much It is 
easy to see why the boundary was called Front Street; where 
now stands the Queen's Royal Hotel wa s the Engineers' Quar- 
ters, the continuation of the street, Ricardo is named from 
neither a military nor naval hero, nor yet from a royal person- 
age or a great statesman but from David Ricardo who wrote 
on Political Economy and Taxation in 1817. 

The chief officials of the Harbour and Dock Company were 
honored by the streets of their domain being named after 
them. Delatre. from the President, Col . Delatre, whose tragic- 
death on the Toronto steamer is recorded in papers of that 
day, 1848. Col. Delatre had belonged to the Ceylon Regiment 
in 1818, and lived at Lundy's lane in 1832, and in Niagara 



21 

ovsr a year. His house, Dalatre Lodge, is new owned by Mr. 
E. B. Hostatter. Ha was a student of the classics as well as 
of science. This street is often called Spring Street, the reason 
being obvious The Secretary of the company, Jas. Lockhart, after 
wards a noted merchant of the town as well as a banker and 
ship owner gives his name to the next street, and a cross 
street is called Mdlville from Captain Meiville, the chief pro- 
prietor, who is spoken of in 1837 by vlrs. Jameson in her 
Summer Rambles and Winter Studies as a public spirited good 
natured gentleman. Ball street also a cross street, is uamed 
from George Ball, a large stockholder who came from the 
Mohawk valley in 1784. 

The names in the County of Lincoln will suggest new 
lines of. thought, when Simcoe came as Governor in 1792 
a division was made of nineteen Counties in Upper Canada 
instead of the forty six at present in Ontario. These were 
all named from counties in England and the townships from 
the towns and villages in the respective Counties, Lincoln in 
eluded the Niagara peninsula and extended as far as the 
present County of Norfolk. The names of townships, Caistor 
Clinton, Grantham, Gainsborough, Grimsby, Louth, Ancaster, 
Barton, Glanford, Crowland, Humberstone, Wainfleet, Stamford 
etc., are all from towns or villages in Lincolnshire, England. 
The names since given to our towns and villages gi\e us 
some hint of the chief men of the time, being either military 
or political officials, or some village magnate's name is pre- 
served. Newark was named by Simcoe from a town in 
Lincolnshire, Queenstori it is thought from the Queen's Ran- 
gers stationed there, Governor Simcoe had been the colonel 
of another regiment of Queen's Rangers in the Revolutionary 
War. The Hon. Robert Hamilton or Judge Hamilton, the Lieu- 
. tenant of the County and the chief man of the District, sup- 
plies a nams to two cities, Hamilton from George Hamilton 
his son, and St. Catharines from Catharine Askin, his first 
wife. It is true that Page's Atlas credits the name to Cathar- 
ine Butler, the wife of Colonel Butler, although on another 
page he names Catharine Hamilton, and some have asserted 
it was from Catharine, the wife of Hon. Wm. Hamilton Merr- 
ritt, but it is shown conclusively that it was named St. Cathar- 
ines in tha first survey, 1809, and the fact that the same Judge 
Hamilton who owned 500 acres where St. Catharines now stands, 
give a grant of two acres for a church in 1798 gives consis- 
tency to the statement It was first called the "Twelve" and 
Shipman's Corners from Paul Shipman, who kept a tavern, and 



to whom also St. Paul Street owes 1 its name. Port Dalhousie 
was named from Lord Dalhousie, who gave great encouragement 
'to the HVelland Canal project Thorold takes its name from 
Sir John Tiiorold, who was the m amber for Lincolnshire in 
j England then. It was at first called Stumptown, the heavy for- 
est just cleared away having ' left such evidences, but a propo- 
sal was made to call it St. George from George Keefer, who is 
' entitled- to be called its founder. It is right and fitting that the 
name Merritt should be preserved as it is in Merritton, insight 
of that great feat of engineering skill, tne Welland Canal, pro 
jected by the Hon. Wm Hamilton Merritt. The villages Homer 
and Virgil owe their classic names to we know not what freak. 
The first was called the 'Ten"' from the Ten Mile Creek. 
Virgil' has had several names, the "Four Mile Creek, the 
Cross Roads, then Lawrenceville from a good old Methodist 
Class Leader who lived there during the war of 1812, Jor- 
ulan was the Twenty ; and Grimsby the Forty, the entrance 
of those creeks into Lake Ontario being supposed to be that 
number of miles from Niagara. Drummondville is now called 
Niagara Falls South, a change much to be regretted as the 
name of General Drummond who fought so bravely at Lundy's 
Lane, Fort Erie and elsewhere should certainly be commemor 
ated. However, the church standing on the site of the battle 
of Lundy's Lane is called Drummond Hill Church. It is much 
to be regretted that so few Indian names have been preserv- 
ed, as except Niagara, Chippawa and Erie there is no trace of 
the musical and sonorous Indian language. The name Niagara 
has forty different spellings in the Documentary History of New 
York, Ori^iara Ouniagarah brings up Goldsmith's line "And 
Niagara stuns with thundering sound" It was first West Niag- 
ara to distinguish it from Fort Niagara on the east side of 
"the river then Nassau, Butlersburg, Newark, when Simcoe re- 
moved the capital to York the people of the town quite 
indignant obta ; ned an act of Parliament in 1798 to change it 
back to Niagara and now many say Niagara-on-the-Lake to 
distinguish it from' Niagara Falls, Niagara Falls South, Niagara 
Falls Centre, Niagara Falls City, N Y., making confusion worse 
confounded. 

Dundas is named from Lord Dundas, the Secretary of 
State in Simcoe's time, Port Colborne from the stern military 
governor during the Rebellion. Port Robinson was first called 
Port Beverley from the CMef Justice John Beverley Robin- 
son, and Allanburg from, it is probable, Sir Allan jMoNfibb, St. 
Davids at first called Davidsville from Major' David Secord 



23 

whose houses there were burned in 1814, Bearasville from 
Jacob Beam one of the earliest settlers , -awd* who gave the 
land for the Baptist Church', Smithville from Smith Griffin who 
came in 1787 and was the first merchant in Smithville, Stam- 
ford was first called Mount Dorchester from Lord Dorchester, 
sometimes Township No. 2 as Newark was Township No. 1. 
This enumeration might be still more extended but may at 
least show that there is something after all in a name. 

J. C 



ST. VINCENT cle PAUL'S CHURCH 

BY MRS. JOSEPH GREENE. 



The history of the Catholic Church in the Niagara Peninsula 
began many ytjars before the erection of the present edifice known 
as St. Vincent de Paul's Church (it was the first Catholic Church 
erected on the Niagara Peninsula) and to record that history, 
in a manner which would do it justice, even in a moderate degree, 
would require the pen of one infinitely more gifted than the 
writer, for there is a wealth of historic lore, both civil and 
religious, surrounding this charming and picturesque old town of 
Niagara. Its religious history may be said to date from the 
year 1626, when Father Daillon made his way to the Niagara 
Peninsula with a view of evangelizing the "Neutrals," which 
tribe claimed the peninsula as its own. Few pens can adequate- 
ly portray the apparently insurmountable difficulties which the 
early pioneer priests of western Canada had to encounter and 
overcome, the incalculable dangers and obstacles which were 
continuously besetting them as they journeyed through dense and 
desolate forests, across fallen timbers and swollen streams with 
nothing to guide them other than a 'blaze' which intimated to 
the weary traveler that a settlement lay beyond. Nevertheless, 
we invariably find, that no difficulties daunted them nor did 
disappointments nor rebuffs discourage them, and, as a result of 
this untiring zeal, we are now, in our comfortable churches, 
reaping the fruits of their almost superhuman exertions. 

As previously stated, Father Daillon bent his energies to 
the lofty task of sowing the seeds of Christianity among those 
Godless savages, but with poor success, in fact they would have 
meted out to him a terrible death but for the intervention of 
their Chief, Soharrisen. 

About 1636 Father Brebeuf, that heroic missionary and 
martyr, visited the same tribe, living on the same food as they 
used, sleeping in their wigwams, continually exposed to torture 
a id death by an unreliable and merciless foe, risking every- 
tliing in the hope of saving some immortal souls. 



25 

It is not my intention, however, to again rehearse the well 
known historic facts concerning the horrible tortures and oft 
times martyrdoms, which the early Catholic Priests received at 
the hands of those savages, while endeavoring to spread among 
them the light of Christianity. 

In 1669 Father Galinee with two companions passed 
through Niagara on his way to the West. This illustrious 
Sulpician priest has furnished us with much valuable narrative 
concerning his missionary labors during his explorations of the 
great lakes. As far as can be ascertained no other missionary 
visited Niagara until 1678, when Father Hennepin, a Franciscan 
missionary of historic fame, offered up mass on the banks of 
the Niagara River. We are also indebted to this intrepid 
missionary for the first intelligent description of that sublime 
wonder of nature, the Falls of Niagara. 

We are informed by Father Charelevoix, the Jesuit his- 
torian, that he said mass at Fort Niagara in 1721 on his way 
to the Mississippi, and there is a record of a Recollect, 
Father Grespel, as having been Chaplain at the Fort in 1733. 
Father Picquet, a Sulpician, in 1751 travelled over the Niag- 
ara Peninsula, instructing and converting the natives and 
instilling renewed ardor and faith into the converts of earlier 
days, and according to his own account, he also said mass 
at the Chapel at Fort Niagara; and Sir Wm. Johnson tells us 
that two British officers were buried under the Chapel in 1759, 
but no trace of it remains. ^ 

In 1794 Father Edmund Burke, an Irish Priest, of the 
diocese of Quebec, believing that there was pressing need for 
a missionary priest in the Western part of the Province, 
sought and obtained permission to embark on that laudable 
undertaking. He cam? from Quebec to Niagara arid in ad- 
dition to* his labors among the Indians acted as Chaplain 
to the Catholic soldiers who were stationed here at the time. 
Having been held in high repute by the officials of the 
Government, he secured grants of land from Governor Simcoe 
in different parts of Canada, one being in this vicinity on 
which he proposed erecting a monastery for the education 
"* of priests for the Western Mission, and in order to further 
this object he again journeyed to Quebec, but returned here 
in 1798. He eventually left here in 1800 on account of ill 
health. For one who had been a Professor in the University 
of Paris and surrounded with all the culture and refinement 
incidental to such a position, it must have been extremely 
repugnant to reconcile himself to his savage surroundings and 



26 

apply himself to the uninteresting task of mastering the 
Indian tongue. He was consecrated Bishop of Halifax in 
1818. He was an intimate friend of the Duke of Kent and 
was known and admired by all the Military and Naval Officers 
who commanded in British America at the time. He was of 
commanding appearance, of a cheerful and engaging manner 
and Great Britain had no more loyal subject than the Right 
Rev. Edmund Burke. 

In 1802 Father Des Jardiris succeeded Father Burke as 
Chaplain to the soldiers, but he remained only a short time 
and left no parish records. This information appears in an 
article written by the late D. A. O'Sullivan and published 
in the Toronto Jubilee volume, 1392. 

In 1816 a few Catholic families resided in Niagara and 
along the banks of the Niagara River, who were visited 
at intervals by Priests from Glengarry and other puints. 

These conditions continued until 1826 when Father James 
Campion was placed in charge of the mission here by Bis- 
hop Macdonell who had been chosen Vicar Apostolic of 
Upper Canada by Pius. VII in 1819 and was made titular Bis- 
hop in 1820. A short sketch of Bishop Macdonell may not 
be found uninteresting He was born 17th July, 1762 in 
Inverness-shire, Scotland, and educated in the Scotch C ollege 
of Paris and Valledolid in Spain. He was ordained on the 
16 Feb., 1787, and spent five years in Scotland. He accompan- 
ied the Highland Regiment of Glengarry Fencibles, who were 
all Catholics, to Ireland in 1798, having been appointed their 
Chaplain. When the regiment was disbanded four years later, 
Father Macdonell, embarked for Canada in 1803, having pre- 
viously secured a grant of land for every officer and soldier 
who wished to accompany him to Canada and I may add 
he was accompanied by the greater part of his men. When 
they arrived here Lieut . -Governor Hunter endorsed their patents 
of land and they settled in Glengarry. 

When Father Macdonell came to this country in 1803 there 
were only three Catholic Churches in the whole Province, but 
through his perseverance and energy he succeeded in having 
thirty- five built during his thirty years of unceasing labor. There 
were also twenty-two priests throughout the different parts of 
the Province, most of whom were educated at his expense. 
He was created first Bishop of Kingston in 1826. It was 
a favorite saying of his 'that every man of his name should 
he either a priest or a soldier." Apropos of this, at the 
Breaking out of the war of 1812 among the first to take up 



2.7 

arms in defence of his country was Lieut.-Colonel John Mac- 
donell, who was Attorney -General for Upper Canada, being 
only 24 years of age. General Brock appointed him his 
Provincial Aide-de-Camp and at the battle of Queenston 
Heights, when the heroic Brock fell mortally wounded, Col- 
onel Macdonell assumed command, but while leading his 
men up the heights, he also fell. 

Those two great men were buried in the same spot ^ at 
Fort George where they laid for twelve years. There remains 
now rest in the sarcophagus in a monument second to none 
in America, erected on Queenston Heights by a grateful Can- 
adian people. The following is a quotation from a letter, 
written by one of the Militia who took part in the battle 
dated 14th Oct. 1812. 

"This heroic young man, the constant attendant of the 
General, strove to support to the last a cause never to be 
despaired of, because it involved the salvation of the Coun- 
try." Lieut.-Colonel Macdonell was a practical Catholic, as evid- 
enced, by his approaching the sacrament before leaving for the 
frontier. 

* When Father Campion had this mission assigned to him 
in 1826 there were only three priests to look after the needs 
of the Catholics scattered over 225 miles of territory between 
Detroit and Niagara and the whole north-western part of Ont- 
ario, viz Fathers Fluet, Crevier and Campion. Father Campion 
had also to attend Dundas once a month, which is tibout 
50 miles distant from here, and London and St. Thomas 
twice a year. When this good priest's presence was re- 
quired at a death bed he had not infrequently to travel 
over one or even two hundred miles, and when one remem- 
bers that the greater part of the land at that time was a 
dismal wilderness, with but an occasional settlement, one can 
in a slight degree appreciate the hardships Father Campion 
had to encounter. At the present writing we have residing 
among us an old lady (Mrs. Paynter, born in 1819, whose 
recollections of the pioneer days are very entertaining. She 
remembers Father Campion very well, he having frequently 
visited her father's house (Simon Walsh) where he was always 
a welcome guest. Patrick McArdle and John Harris also 
took an active interest in the welfare of the mission and 
were the first to greet Father Campion on his arrival here. 
Patrick McArdle came to Niagara in 1816. He was an 
Irishman and a staunch Catholic, John Harris was an Eng- 
lishman, his ancestors having settled in England shortly after 



28 

the Norman Conquest. He came to Niagara in 1818. 

The first entry in the old Niagara Register in the hand 
writing of Father Campion, reads as follows The first day of 
June, by me Roman Catholic Missionary for Niagara, Dundas 
etc., has been baptized Mary Ann Hughes; born the 2nd day 
of January, 1827, of the lawful marriage of James Hughes and 
Mary May." 

Jas. W. Campion, 

M. Pt. 

Here is another entry in the old Register "The 12th 
August, 1827 By t*~e Right Rev. Alex. Majdonell has been 
baptized Mary Harris, born the llth July, 1827, of the lawful 
marriage of John Harris and Margaret Grey, who is not a 
Roman Catholic, the sponsors being Patrick McArdle and 
Mary Fegan, also McArdle Alex. Mcdonell, R. Ep" 

The following is an extract from the sam3 regis- 
ter of a marriage, which shows how careful and conscientious 
the early Catholic iviests were to guard the sanctity of the 
marriage tie. ''The 8th day of October, 1827 Cornelius Cala- 
han and Mary Carrol both from Ireland, having solemnly 
declared and given a ceitificate of their not being married 
or contracted before with any person, and not being able to 
discover any impediment to prevent them from getting mar- 
ried, I, the undersigned Roman Catholic Missionary for Niag- 
ara, Dundas etc. etc. have received their mutual consent of 
marriage and have given the benediction according to the rules 
of the Holv Roman Catholic Church in presence of Patrick 
Cullen, Patrick Handy, Andrew Boy Ian, Patrick Flynn and 
Mary Kelley." 

Jas. W. Campion, 

M. Pt. 

Father Campion remained in charge of the Niagara Mission 
until 1830, when he was recalled by Bishop Macdonell to Kingston 
Jto act in the capacity of his Secretary. He died in 1841. 

At the date Father Campion was removed, the Catholics 
had no church, no church property of any kind, not except- 
ing a graveyard, and their dead were buried in St. Mdrk's 
Episcopal Cemetery. Services were held at one time in a 
hall over the brick store on Queen St. now occupied by Mr. 
Doyle, at another time, in the house now owned and occupied 
by Miss Catholine. At that period it was one large room 
but was apparently of sufficient capacity to embrace the con- 
gregation that gathered there to be present nt the celebration 
of the 



29 

Services .were also occasionally held in the brick cottage, 
which is part of the Western Home estate. It was occupied 
by Mrs. Stevenson, a zealous Catholic lady, who with her 
daughters, promoted the interests of religion materially by teach- 
ing Sunday School and instructing the children in the know- 
ledge of their belief. Mrs Richards of Pembroke (nee 
Allinson) is her granddaughter. No record can be found as to 
the number of Catholics in Niagara in 1830 when Father 
Campion was removed, but as near as can be ascertained, 
there were about three dozen families represented at the ser- 
vices, exclusive of soldiers. Father Campion recorded 64 Bap- 
tisms, 6 profession of faith 17 marriages and 6 burials dur- 
ing his pastorate of three years, some of the children baptized 
however were brought here from New York State. 

The priest appointed to succeed Father Campson was 
Father Cullen, who, noting the great need the Catholics had for 
a church here, and concluding there was a sufficient number to 
warrant the undertaking, he therefore on the 3rd of April, 1831, 
called a meeting whereat it was resolved to open a subscription 
list for the purpose of erecting a church. The following is a 
copy of the minutes of said meeting. 

NIAGARA. 

"At a meeting of the Catholic inhabitants of Niagara held on 
Easter Sunday, the 3rd day of April, 1831, Daniel MacDougal, 
Esquire, was called to the chair and George Macan was request- 
ed to act as secretary, after which the following resolutions 
were unanimously agreed on. 

1st Resolution That the Glory of God, the honor of religion 
and the wants of the Catholics of this place require that a 
Catholic Church be erected in this town. 

2nd Resolution That the Rev. John Cullin, our pastor, 
Daniel McDougal and George Macan are hereby nominated and 
appointed to procure the subscription of evey well disposed per- 
son, who is willing to contribute towards the erecting of a 
Catholic Church in Niagara. 

3rd Resolution That John Harris, H McNally, J. B. Cootby 
and Andrew Boylan are hereby appointed collectors of subscrip- 
tions for the Catholic Church of Niagara 

4th Resolution That Daniel McDougal is hereby nominated 
Treasurer, and George Macan, Secretary, to the Roman Catholics 
of Niagara, and the collectors above named in the 3rd resolution 
are required to pay in the monies collected by them to the 
treasurer and he is to give his receipt for the different sums 
received, which receipts the said collectors are to place in the 



-30- 

hands of ths secretary immediately after obtaining said receipts. 
5th Resolution That it is expedient to form a committee of 
management consisting of five of the resident inhabitants of this 
place, any three of whom will form a quorum, who shall manage, 
superintend and transact all the temporal affairs appertaining or 
in any wise belonging towards the erecting of said church, and 
the Rev. J. Cullen (or the resident priest being incumbent of this 
place) Daniel McDougal, Geo. Macan, John Harris and Michael 
Morley be and are hereby constituted and appointed to be the 
said committee of management. 

6th Resolution That the treasurer give an accurate account 
of the monies or other funds put into his hands at every meet- 
ing of the committee of management, if required to do so by 
them, and that the secretary give a statement of the affairs of 
the church on the Easter Monday of every succeeding year to a 
general meeting of subscribers to be called together in the 
church on that day and that the treasurer is hereby prohibited 
from paying out any of the funds of the church without a writ- 
ten order from the secretary, countersigned by two others of the 
committee of management. 

7th Resolution That the persons now nominated and accept- 
ing office are required to hold the same for one year only, but 
are elegible to be re-elected as often as is expedient and that 
the said committee of management have power to fill up any 
vacancies in their number which may happen by death or change 
of residence during their year in office. 

8th Resolution That tha the thanks of the Catholic inhabi- 
tants of this place are due and hereby given to our worthy 
pastor, the Rev. J. Cullen, for his laudable exertion in com- 
mencing the subscription of this morning for the purpose of er- 
ecting said church." 

The following year viz. 1832, the church was begun; Bis- 
hop MacDonell, who was conspicuous -not only in the ecclesiastical 
but also the political life of the country, having secured a grant 
of four acres of land from the government on which it was 
erected. It is a frame building measuring 60x40 ft., with ten 
large Gothic windows of stained glass and a commodious sanctuary 
and vestry. There is also a tower with a large window sur- 
mounted by a steeple 50 ft. high and a cross. The interior ar- 
rangements of the edifice consist of three aisles with two cen- 
tral and two side rows of pews. There are two galleries, the 
cost of those having been entirely assumed by the Catholic 
soldiers, who were stationed here at the time, and for whom 
one of the galleries was reserved . There are three altars 



31 

daintily finished in white and gold. Those are not the ori- 
ginal altars, they having been discarded at the time the church 
was repaired. The altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary to the 
left of the main altar was a gift from the Barron family, and 
St. Joseph's Altar to the right of the main altar was presented 
by Mrs. Newton, daughter of Col. McDougall, mentioned as 
having been President of the first meeting held in 1831. 

The church was completed in 1834, and Bishop MacDonell, 
on the 9th of Nov. of that year, came over to Niagara and 
blessed it, giving it the name of "St. Vincent de Paul," and 
celebrated the first mass therein. There is an entry in the 
register that the first communicants were "Miss Dixon and Mrs. 
Duff." 

At the rear of the church is the cemetery in which at least 
two headstones are still standing with the year 1832 legible but 
the names are undecipherable. 

Father Polin succeeded Father Cullen but remained only a 
short time. During his tenure of office here he records ten 
baptisms and one marriage, one baptism having been performed 
in "Gravelly Bay", now Port Oolborne, thirty miles from here. 

Father Edward Gordan succeeded Father Polin in 1834 and 
completed the erection of the church and at once took the 
necessary steps for the erection of a Presbytery. A meeting was 
called and a subscription list opened in 1835. One Lieut. 
Coleman of the 15th regiment was appointed to collect among 
the soldiers here and in Toronto. He also appears to have 
collected from a number of the prominent Protestant citizens 
and business people of the town and of Toronto. Here are a 
few of the names that appear on his list: "Mrs. Lyons, Messrs. 
Stocking & Grier, Robert Dickson, E. C. Campbell, James Lock- 
hart, W. B. Winterbottom, etc., belonging to the town. On the 
Toronto list some of the names are: the Hon. Mr. Eluesley, Capt. 
Coleman, Hugh Dougherty, J. Shaughnessy, etc. The Presbytery 
or "Glebe House," according to the records cost ^253 14s 11-Jd 
but the amount collected up to the year 1840 was only ^50, 
and Father Gordon then paid the balance due from his own 
private funds. 

On the 13th Sept., 1834, Bishop Gaulin, coadjuter of Bis- 
hop MacDonell, administered the sacrament of Confirmation, 
this being the first time it was administered in the mission east 
of Sandwich. There were five males and six females confirmed 
.at that time, ranging in ages from 13 to 23 years. 



Beginning with the pastorate of Father Gordon the Niagara 
Mission appears to have flourished. Soma of the more distant 
places were detached from the mission viz. Dundas, St. Thomas, 
and London but tlie pastor had still a larga circuit to traverse 
viz Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, St Johns, Smithville, St. Cath- 
arifles, Toronto, Gore and Adjala. 

At a meeting held at the chapel on the 20th of April, 1835, 
(E.vster Monday) the office of Church Warden was established, 
and Messrs. Hugh McNally and William Harris were appointed 
for that year, at the same meeting Mr. John Lyons was ap- 
pointed to act as secretary and treasurer during the same term 
and Rev. Edward Gordon, Messrs. John Harris, and Thos. Heen- 
an were appointed collectors of subscriptions for the finishing of 
the church and Mr Farrell was appointed to collect ''for the 
country'' Father Gordon left a record of the total Catholic popu- 
lation for a thousand square miles viz. 817 souls. 

The first entry in the Baptismal Register by Father Gordon 
was made on the 27th April, 1834, as follows: "April 27th was 
baptized by me the, undersigned priest, John, aged four weeks, 
son of William Kay and Elizabeth Shean. Sponsors Edward 
McCann and Margaret O'Connor. 

Signed 

Edward Gordon, 

M. Pt. 

Father Gordon kept a very careful record of the baptisms, 
confirmations, marriages, professions of faith and burials, with oc- 
casional explanatory notes. For instance, opposite the entry of 
the baptism of James Morreall the following note appears: "This 
man was sentenced to death for participating in the rebellion. 
He led the insurgents at the "Short Hills." He was 23 years of 
age and was received into the church in jail, 29th July, and was 
executed 30th July, 1838." 

Among the burials of 1843 is an entry of a young priest, 
26 years old, who died suddenly at the Falls while visiting rela- 
tives there, and is buried under the main altar of the church 
here, at the funeral were "Rev. Mr. Mullen, Mr. Charest and 
Mr. Mclntosh. 

In the old register, Father Harold discovered a petition from 
the congregation of St. Vincent de Paul Church, Niagara, asking 
Bishop Power *to give the "necessary power and instructions to 
have the stations of the cross erected in order that we and all 
who are disposed may have an opportunity of receiving the many 
spiritual advantages to be obtained by devout prayer and med 



33 

tation on Christ's passion" and your Petitioners as in duty will 
ever pray etc." 

Signed, 

John McHenry, David Langan, Mich. McGuire, Ei. Gordon, Pt. 
for the lest of the congregation." 

The document bears the date '9th Dec., 1844,' and is writ- 
ten on a full sheet of foolscap The petition is on one side, the 
reply, granting the petition on page 2, a declaration by the pas- 
tor, that he has this day erected etc , in the presence of the 
"undersigned witnesses" no names are inscribed, however, and on 
page 4 is the Bishop's nam? in full, with the words "favored by 
Rev. JVI. P. McDanough" in one corner. The Bishop's letter, 
sealed with red wax, is countersigned by J. J. Hay, Sec., and 
recites that he has authority from a decree of Gregory XIII to de- 
legate any priest to erect the "Via Crucis" and hereby delegates 
etc." The letter is given at Toronto 13th Dec., 1844. 

The priest's declaration shows that the Stations were erected 
on the 5th February, Ash Wednesday. A copy of this declaration 
also exists in the archives, made out by Father Gordon, in obed- 
ience to the Bishop's orders to do so. 

In 1844 Father Gordon called a meeting of the Catholic 
congregatfon in order to raise funds for the liquidation of the 
debt incurred for the painting, plastering etc. of the Catholic 
Church. At that meeting it was unanimously agreed that each 
man would pay the sum of five shillings currency and each 
"single female" the sum of two shillings and sixpenca. Among 
the names on the list who paid the sum stipulated appear the 
following: Alex. Lane, Hugh McNally, Daniel McDougal, Patrick 
Lawless, Mrs. Carpenter, Michael Morley, Mrs. Mary Stevenson, 
Thomas Daly, Richard Ryan, Nicholas Wall, Patrick Maddigan, 
Michael M.iguire, Margaret Healey, Mrs. Hewitt, Mrs. Hall, 
Martin Kearns. William Walsh, Edward Scully, Wm. Primace. 
Sergeant Murphy (King's Dragoon Guards) Bernard Roddy, Rev. 
John Carroll, Mrs. Morris, Mrs Todd, John O'Donnell, Mrs, 
L. Donnelly, Maria McArdle, Patrick Mahar, Charles Toel, Alex. 
Davidson. E. Power, (Kings Dragoon Guards,) Mrs. Duff, Annie Mc- 
Kenna, Catharine Doyle, etc. 

c* Father Gordon was most thorough and conscientious in all 
his undertakings. He built churches at Niagara, Niagara Falls, 
Trafalgar, Toronto Gore, and Adjala. He was very practical 
and careful' y looked after the spiritual welfare of his 
Hock, as evidenced by the following correspondence in which 
he insists on Col. Kingsmill allowing the Catholic soldiers station- 
ed here at the time, to attend mass, as there was a number of 



34- 

Catholic non-commissioned .officers and privates \vlio were not per- 
mitted to be present at the morning services, the Colonel claim- 
ing that th3 regimental doctor made his examination at that par- 
ticular time. 

Letter from Father Gordon to Colonel Kingsmill, dated 
"Saturday morning, April 13th, 1839." 

"Sir I regret to find that the Catholic soldiers of your regiment 
do not attend Divine Service on the Sunday mornings. They 
have not been in the church on the forenoon of Sunday but once 
since the time I first had the honor to speak to you in their behalf. 
Divine Service commences on Sunday mornings at eleven o'clock, 
precisely, at which hour you will have the kindness to allow 
them in future to attend. 

I have the honor to be sir etc., Edward Gordon, 

Catholic Pastor of Niagara. 

The soldiers were permitted to attend mass for a few Sun- 
days after dispatching the above letter, when they again failed to 
be present, and on inquiry, Father Gordon learned that the 
Colonel had again prevented them. Another lengthier letter of 
explanation was sent by the priest to the colonel in which he 
states "All Catholics are obliged in conscience to give their at- 
tendance during the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice of the 
Mass which is always offered up to God only in the forenoon." 
No attention being paid to his repeated requests, Father Gor- 
don then laid the matter before the Major General, commanding 
the forces in Canada, who immediately commanded Col. Kings- 
mill to permit his Catholic soldiers to attend Divine Service at 
the hour named by their chaplain. 

Father Gordon was removed to Hamilton in 1846 and was 
elevated to the dignity of Vicar General. He died at the Epis- 
copal residence, Hamilton in 1870. 

The next in succession was Father John Carroll who re- 
mained in charge of this mission uintil about 1855. He accept- 
ed a chaplaincy in Chicago, where he died in 1891, having 
reached the venerable age of 93 years. He was a generous sub- 
scriber towards the building fund of the church, as his name 
frequently appears on the different lists for a substantial sum. 
He was a distant relation of the Carrolls, of Carrollton, one cf 
whom signed the Declaration of Independence, he was also a 
nephew of Rev. Edmund Burke, mentioned earlier in this 
article. 

Fathers Leveq'ie, Cullen, Boyle, Musard and Wardy each 
remained but a short term here, and thus we arrive at the 
year 1857, when Father Mulligan assumed the charge of 



35 

gara Parish. While here he worked most zealously, being an 
ardent advocate for the causs of temperance, he also had three 
sisters of St. Josaph's Order, installed as teachers in the Se- 
parate SchoDl in 1837. This school was built on a corner of 
the church propsrty about 1842, as we are informed by a 
resident of the town that he went to school there in 1843, 
and there was a meeting held in it in 1844 to consider the 
mattar of putting paws in the church. The school was in a 
nourishing condition for a number of years and many excellent 
scholars received their early training within its walls. Father 
John Kannady had baan ona of its pupils. This promising 
young priest was drowned near Penetanguishene. 

This school was eventually closed in 1876 owing to the 
depletion of tha Catholic congregation. 

Fathar Mulligan was removed from here in 1862 and was 
givan the charge of Niagara Falls Parish in which place he 
remained for several years. In 1866 he was inducted as pastor 
of St. Catharines and Dean of the Niagara Peninsula. He 
labored in that parish for about nineteen years with untiring 
zaal, but in 1884 his health had become so impaired that his 
physician advised a sea voyage, which suggestion was immed- 
iately acted upon and he went to Ireland, where his aged 
mother still lived. He never rallied sufficiently to return but 
died in the land of his birth, in the arms of his mother. 

Father James Hobin was next in succession. This reserv- 
ed but pious priest was endowed with great mental gifts, being 
considered one of the best theologians of his day. He was very 
ready to assist the needy and distressed in a practical as 
well as a spiritual manner. Ha was succeeded by Father T. J. 
Sullivan in 1888 who only remained about a year. During 
his short pastorate hare he began the refurnishing of the 
Presbytery and Sanctuary. He was removed to Thorold in 1869 
and installed thara as pastor where he still remains one of 
Thorold's mast prominent figures, laboring with his wonted en- 
ergy for the salvation of souls. 

Father Kelly was next appointed in 1869. He purchased 
a small pipa organ for the church, but it was so badly dam 
aged during a severe thunderstorm when the lightning struck 
the church that it becama practically useless. It was replaced 
by a smaller organ which was presented to the church by the 
lats Mr. Joseph Petley. 

Rav Da-ui H irris in UU history* of "the Catholic Church in the 
Niagara Peninsula" rv j laias to an amusing incident which occurred 
during Father Gordon's periodical visit at Toronto Gore. A 



36- 

young man named Sweeney desired to have his child baptised 
When a iked by the priest tne name he wished to give the child, 
the young mm replied, "V.inus your River-noe". What! said. 
Father Gordon: why you rascal, I'll never give a Catholic child 
the name of a heathen goddess, "Well, your Reverence " replied 
Swjeney 'that's my father's name". Nonsense, man, replied the 
priest, no Catholic priest, particularly an Irish one, would give 
Ii3r name to any child, male or female, so go and get your father 
before a drup of water goes on the head of this helpless infant . 
When the father entered the priest asked him, "What's your 
baptismal name, Sweeney". "Vanus, yer Reverence," replied the 
man. '-Why my good man, surely you never got that name at 
biptism. "No Sir," answered Sweeney, "I was baptised Sylvanus. 
hutthd nsiglibors always ctll m3 Vanos for short." 

Father Laboureau succeeded Father Kelly in 1871. He 
was highly educated and a good musician. He had a marked in- 
dividuality and wielded a graat influence for good among his, 
parishioners Hd made a numbar of necsssary improvements, 
around the church property, but was taken from here in 1872 and 
given the charge of the parish at fdnetanguishene, where he 
still remains. He has had erected at Ptnttanguishene a magnificent 
memorial church to the early Jesuit martyrs which will be a 
lasting monument to commemorate their heroic deeds and glorious, 
martyrdom and will also baar testimony to the energy and zeal 
of its founder. 

Father Bsrrigan, appointed in 1872, remained in charg3 
until 1874. He was a strict disciplinarian and took a deep in- 
terest in the education of the children, carefully looking after 
their material as well as spiritual welfare. He died in 1904. 

Fathers A. J. O'Rsilly (1874-1876) P. J Kiernan (1876- 
1878) and E. F. Gallagher (1878 1879) followed in succession. 
Those devoted priests neglected no opportunity of adding to the 
"treasure store of piety" and religious fervor, which is the strength 
and glory of a parish. Father P . J. Harold next assumed the 
charge of the parish in 1879 and remained until 1882, when he 
was temporarily succeeded by Rev. A M. Murphy, O. C. C., & 
priest of the Carmslite Order. In 1884 Father Harold again 
took charge, remaining here until 1888, when Father T. M. 
Shanahan was appointed pastor. This talented young priest 
was soon obliged to resign his parochial duties and leave Niagara 
on account of ill health, bearing with him the affection and re- 
gret of the parishioners. He died shortly after his departure 
from here and his early death caused a heartfelt sorrow. 

In 1890 Father Harold was a third time appointed pastor 



37 

of this mission. He found the church and Presbytery in urgent 
need of repairs am} being very energetic and exceedingly resourceful 
as to ways and means, he at once set to work to make the neces- 
sary improvements. The church was so thoroughly renovated 
from foundation to cross, that it will, we trust, weather a few more 
decades. The Presbytery or "Glebe House" was sold and removed 
from the premises, under Father Harold's supervision, and was 
replaced by a much larger and more commodious structure, which 
contains all the modern improvements, including furnace, electric 
light etc. Those very necessary changes and repairs were made 
with very moderate expense to the congregation. 

Father Harold possessed the gift of imparting knowledge in 
a remarkable degree and being a lover of children, he made 
them his special care, "and in teaching them the way to live, 
he taught them hjw to die." He was an accomplished classical 
scholar and gifted with great; literary ability. He wrote a very 
interesting Historic Romance of the First Century, "Irene of 
Corinth,'' the contents of which are both fascinating and 
instructive. 

Being a practical musician, the choir, which was in a lethargic 
condition, also came in for a large share of his attention and 
time. The late Father Brennan, who was also a lover of sacred 
music, devoted much of his spare time to the choir and pre- 
sented it with a number of pieces of valuable music. 

The earliest choir consisted of members belonging to the 
Band of the Regiments stationed at Niagara, and later it wai 
conducted by Sergeant Charles Conroy, who, at present, resides 
in Ottawa, but who will no doubt be remembered by many 
residents of the town, for being an ardent admirer of the old 
town, he never forgets to pay it an occasional friendly visit. 

A small melodeon was presented to the church by a friend 
and Mrs. Newton (nee McDougall) took charge of this and di- 
rected the choir for years with the assistance of Mr. Conroy, 
with great success. Miss Allinson (now Mrs. Richards) on the 
resignation of Mrs. Newton, then took charge of the choir, be- 
ing a mere child at the time, and with the most untiring 
devotion and fidelity she played the organ, taught and directed 
the choir for years. Needless to say her success was remarkable. 
She also devoted much of her time to the instruction of the 
children in her class in Sunday School, and she did not relin- 
#uish her self imposed but extremely praiseworthy tasks until a 
short time before her marriage. She organized a large Choral 
Society which was composed of members of all denominations. 
Sev ral very successful concerts were given by this sojiety, th 



38 

proceeds from some of them being given for the benefit of the 
Public Library, in which institution she was much interested. It 
is often said, there is no one who cannot be done without. This 
no doubt is true, but Mrs. Richards was ons of the few who left 
a very large niche to be filled in the hearts of the congrega- 
tion of St. Vincent de Paul, and not alone in the Catholic con- 
gregation, for her departure was sincerely regretted by all lovers 
of music, irrespective of creed. 

After Mrs Richard's departure, the following ladies took 
charge of the crgan and choir for a short time: Miss Murphy 
(now Mrs, Mooney) Mrs. Lamb, Miss Me Paul and Miss Robinson. 

Miss Walsh then took the choir and presided as organist 
for several years wit a mu:h ability and success. Her strength 
not being sufficient to sustain the strain which the duties en- 
taiied, she eventually resigned the position. Mr. Mulholland is. 
the presant organist and director of the choir, which position 
he has held for over six years with admirable executive abilitv 
and characteristic modesty. It may be stated here that in no 
instance, has any of the organists or members of the choir re- 
ceived any recompense for their services other than perhaps a 
limited quantity of judicious praise, tempered with healthy 
criticism. 

.In 1894 Rav. Father Harold took his departure from here 
and was succeeded by Father Jno. J. Lynch in the same year. 
Eaergetic, zealous and scholarly^ Father Lynch, apparently, had 
evdsry prospect of many years of splendid opportunity before him 
to labor for the salvation of souls, but our Lord had willed 
otherwise. During his short sojourn here he was respected and 
beloved by his parishioners, riot only because of his devotion 
to duty, his compassion for the sick and poor, without respect 
to race or creed, but also because of the affectionate warmth of 
his heart, his never failing courtesy and interesting personality. 
He had so endeared himself to all both Catholic and Protes- 
tant, as "never to estrange a friend or create an enemy.'' "He 
was of youth the guardian and of all, the friend " His life 
tyas closed in the morning of his priesthood, on the 9th of 
Sept., 1897. He was buried in St. Vincent de Paul's Ceme- 
tery where a monument was erected to his memory by his. 
parishioners bearing the following inscription 

"We hold his name in benediction." 

"To the memory of Rev. Father Lynch, who for three years, 
was pastor of this parish. He died Sept. 9th, 1897, in the 
34th year of his age and the 10th of his priesthood. Eternal rest 
give to him Oh! Lord." 



-39 

After the death of Father Lynch in 1897 the Carmelite 
Fathers were requested to take charge of the parish, by Arch- 
bishop Walsh, and Father A, M. Murphy, O.C.C. again officiated 
here, until 1899, when he was removed and Father A. D. 
Brennan assumed the charge. His term of office was 
only tamporary, for being a highly educated man, he was trans- 
fen-ad to Chicago, where he filled the duties of Pro- 
fessor of Theology in the Carmelite College there. Shortly 
after going there his health failed him and he was obliged to 
return to the Hospice at Niagara Falls. He died in 1903, "He 
needs no tears who lived a noble life," Father Murphy returned 
here after Father Brennan was removed and continued to officiate 
until 1902, when Father D. F. O'Malley took charge, Father 
Murphy having been selected to fill tha position of Prior of 
the Carmelite College at Chicago. Father O'Malley, being a 
very eloquent speaker, was removed from Niagara after a 
short stay here and was succeeded by Father Murphy, this 
being the fourth time the Niagara Parish was committed to 
his care. Father Murphy was heartily welcomed by his parish- 
ioners on each occasion of his return, as he had endeared him- 
self to all by his unobtrusive virtues and simplicity of mamur, 
never sparing himself where duty called him, but in every in- 
stance yielding his services unstintingly on behalf of his flock. 
He was removed from here in 1904, when Archbishop O'Con- 
nor received the parish back from the Carmelite Order and 
once more placed a secular priest in charge, viz: Rev. Father 
McEachern, who is the present incumbent. 

The presbytery has just now been thoroughly refitted and 
partly refurnished, Owing to the laudable enterprise and energy 
on the part of several of the ladies a ad gentlemen of the parish. 
The congregation generously contributed the requisite funds and 
as a result the presbytery presents a very pleasing and comfort- 
able appearance. 

This sketch would be incomplete were we to omit the names 
of such generous unselfish supporters of the church as Messrs. 
Peter Clarke, George Greene, Patrick Healey and James Doyle, 
who, with others, deserve more than passing mention herein, wou'd 
space permit. Suffice it to say they will live in affectionate re- 
membrance in the hearts of the people of the parish. With 
the exception of Mr. Clarke, who returned to Ireland after 
the death of his wife, and eventually died there, they are resting 
peacefully in the little cemetery of St. Vincent de Paul in the ivar 
of the church. In the cemetery also repose many of the pioneer 
residents of the early church, notably Mrs. Stevenson, who is 



40 

mantioned in the old Niagara Gleaner, 1832, as performing a work 
of mercy by sending comforts to the prisoners. In the McOougall 
family plot is the grave of Colonel iMcDougall. whose name 
appears as Chairman on the original set of Resolutions drawn up 
in 1831, previous to the erection of the church. When Bishop 

McDonell came to Niagara to consecrate, the church, he was enter- 
tained at Colonel McDougall's. Adjacent to the McDougall plot is 
a sarcophagus in which lie t.ie remains of John Lyons, registrar 
for many years. His name appears on the records of a meet- 
ing held on Easter Monday, ]835, as Secty Treasurer for that 
year. Thc;re is a tablet erect jd in the church with the following 
inscription: ''To the memory of Lieut. Adj't Reginald Me 
Donell, Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment, who died at Niagara, C.W., 
on the 20th Dec 1851, age.d 39 years. This tablet is erected by 
his brother officers as a testimony of regard." His remains are 
interred in the graveyard and a stone with a similar inscription 
marks the spot. Hundreds of other dear departed friends resc in 
our little graveyard, in fact it would be difficult to find one in the 
parish who has not some beloved relative resting there. "And 
with the morn those Angel faces smile which we have loved and 
lost ere yet awhile . " 

In collecting the facts contained in this sketch I have con- 
sulted "Galinee's Narrative, "The History of the Catholic Church 
in the Niagara Peninsula", by Dean Harris. "History of the 
Church in Niagara" by Rev. P. J. Harold. I have also gathered 
authentic imformation from a few of the pioneer residents of the 
town and from ancient records of the parish. Imperfect and 
unpolished as this narrative is presented to you, it is history. 
The old pioneers are fast vanishing from our midst but the 
church of St. Vincent de Paul crowned with the sign of our 
redemption will bear testimony to their unselfish generosity 
and unwavering faith. 



'Ouclt Amor 



Niagara 
Historical Society 



NO. 14 



Letters of 
MRS. WM. DUMMER POWELL 



PRICE SO CKNTS. 



Hrlnt. 



PREFACE 



In presenting to the public in this the tenth year of our exis- 
tence as a Society our fourteenth publication we trust that these 
letters copied so.carefully by the late lamented Mrs.Curzon, may throw 
many sida lights oa the history of the period referred to. It has 
been said that ia this age of posttl cards, telegraphs and telephones 
letter writing is a lost art; at all events it will be seen that Mrs. 
Powell wielded a facile pen. We desire to express our hearty 
thanks to ^Emilius Jarvis Esq., Toronto, for the photographs 'kindly 
presented to us, taken for our Society from valuable family portraits 
in his possession, also for information explaining some of the refer- 
ences in the letters. VVe have also to thank Mrs J. E. Wilson for 
allowing the pictures of her father anl mother to be copied to Jip- 
pear here. We trust that m*ny descendants of early settlers will do 
likewise in lending portraits to be copied and giving reminiscences 
of those gone before that the memory of these days may not be for- 
gotten 




ANN MURRAY, 

Wife of Chief Justice Powell. 

From a portrait in possession of ymilius Jarvis Esq. Toronto 



Letters of Mrs. Powell 1507-1621 



In a blank book of good size and of thin foreign paper are 
extracts from eighty-eight letters from 1807 to 1821 chiefly 
dated at York, in the handwriting of the late lamented Mrs. Curzon, 
copied from the Powell papers in the Reference Library, Toronto, 
thus headed: 

[By permission of the Chief Librarian Toronto Public Library, 
.las. Bain, Jr. Esq., who judged the notes might be useful to me as a 
student of Canadian History. 

Notes on Public Affairs taken from private letters by Mrs. 
Annie Powell, wife of Chief Justice Powell, to her brother, George 
W. Murray Esq., Merchant, New York.] 

These papers were placed -in my hands by the wish of the 
late Miss Curzon, whose tragic death we all deplore, and permission 
to print them was obtained by me from Dr. Bain. J. C. 

YORK, SEPT. 4'm, 1807. 

"It is three weeks since I heard from you my dearest brother 
and everything which varies from general habit induces me to expect 
a speedy knowledge of what I most hope or most dread. I calculate 
the time of my husband's departure from England, his probable re- 
turn from Spain, the necessary detention in London and perhaps be- 
tray my ignorance in every one except the first, which from his 
letter is certain, whether 1 am right or not it enga/es my mind in 
expectation of the desired event of his return and disengages it from 
dwelling upon those actual sufferings so many exertions have been 
m-ide to mitigate and relieve. I have endured nearly eighteen 
months of uncertainty, the first were borne with tranquillity, for 
they were gilded with the most flattering expectations. At the mo- 
m :nt these hopes were so dreadfully terminated, had the next 



welve months been exposed to my view the prospect would have 
overpowered my senses, and deprived me of all ability to contend 
with evils of such magnitude, yet although I have suffered severe 
anguish I have also during this period experienced hours of cheer- 
fulness, not the' delightful serenity of reflection, and my attention 
has been engaged by foreign objects and I have considered it in- 
cumbent on me to seek those as the only means of enabling me to 
perform the active duties indispensably necessary to my situation 
as t'-e mother of a large and helpless family and a member of society 
when every one ought to perform their part by setting examples of 
morality and decency. 

Aly dearest brother, will t'.ie hour arrive wlun I c.i:i lay my 
heal to my pillow and thank God for the restoration of my husband 
and my son with a warmth of gratitude equal to the fervor of thus 
petitions for their preservation whicli I now offer at the Throne of 
Mercy? Surely if this long looked for event is to be awarded I shall 
be lost to all sense of goodness if I suffer murmuring or discontent 
to embitter the feelings of those for whom I live. Aly husband has 
an increased claim upon my affection, friendship and duty, and I 
hope the power to reward him for his exertions to restore my peace 
will accompany a will which must be invariable. 

When 1 forget what I owe to you my dearest George, may God 
forget me, and by withdrawing his protection leave me the prey of 
greater miseries than those from which your fraternal affection has 

sought to save me. I did not write last week as I intended, 

the only conveyance was so sudden I had not time. Your neices are 

still on the other side, Evelyn and your child with John, Anne with 

Mrs. 1). at Queenston. Mrs. I), has been confined near a fortnight, 

as in the wretched state of this country as to servants a mistress of a 

family needs a frien 1 to superintend, it is as mnch as a 

nurse, Anne has been enabled by her attentions in this way to 

return in part the various acts of kind and considerate friendship we 

'have for many years been in the habit of receiving from Dickson. 

I mean they should return next week as the Toronto has been in a 

very bad state and is now patched up 1 shall endeavour to send a 

small vessel with a decent master for them. 

; # # Our Governor is gone down to Kingston. I think h is 
well out of the way of seeing the shocking things with which \Vil- 
cock's paper is filled. I hope you see it, you know enough of the 
different people here to judge pretty well what is correct. The ac- 
count of M r. Thorpe's trial is perfectly incorrect, and the indecent 
manner in which it is detailed would shock the editors of the Citi/en 
or Aurora. The Governor's absen -e ijives a color to the assertions 
ot his being called home. The arrival of the Attorney- General will 



most likely show who is right, the chairman of the meeting who 
offered to remunerate Mr. Thorpe for the loss of not going the cir- 
cuit knew nothing of it until he saw it in the papers. This man 
so lost to desencv who drives his wife and daughters to such com- 
pany is the decent farmers will not associate with, what can he ex- 
pect will he the result? * ~' 

Robert is I suppose by this time on the Atlantic, God grant our 
mother may be indulged her wish to see him. 

My poor Jerry's letter being ons mrnth later data than the 
one before it nnkes one think if he himself is not on the way another 
letter may be, if Mr. Reynolds application - 

Where can Kane [Paul Kane] be gone? 1 ask questions as if 
yo" could answer them next week, pardon me. 

Grant's wife writes of the general complaint of the influenza. 
It seems to be considered as an harbinger of some otl;er contagious 
complaint, God forbid the fever should begin its dreadful ravages. 

Mary begs I will not forget to offer her duty and love, she is 
making an apple pudding T wish you could share it. 



| XOTK. This letter has been copied rather iriord fully than might app ar 
Nary for the j.urj use indicated at the outset s< c Page 1, but is none to 
show the excellent heart and line nature of the lady \\lio wrote it. The re- 
mainder of tlte letters art- in the same tone and vith one exception are signed 
in a most touching style, indicative o f a warm affectionate nature. 

Yonr affectionate sister and faithful friend. 

Address, ('. YV. Murray, lv.i-. Mfrehant. New York, superscribed in another 
hind, l.e\v:sUK). Sept. loth, 1X07.1 

YORK, SKPT. HTH, 1807. 

Your Utters my d >;uvst brother of the iMth and i^Gth reached me 
yesterday, they are truly consolatory, my mind for the first time in 
many months is completely relieved from the dreadful reflection that 
my darling son was suffering' from the accumulated miseries of fet- 
ters and elos * confinement. 1 now await the result with patience, 
s 'cuiv that a few weeks Avill in all probability ascertain what I 
greatly hope, though not without a degree of iear. .Indeed your 
letters were calculated to a (lord me ease and comfort, and while I 
think I might have accounts of Air. Powell I am willing to ascribe 
t!i d.-hiy to events for which 1 cannot account. I rejoice that your 
city is yet free from that horrid disease so much dreaded, and hope 
sincerely that the benefit's arising from an un 'oinmonly cold summer 
will be equal to any ill effects it nriy have on the produce of the 
country. The complaint aileciing the eyes and the head has I find 
been \vrvgeneral in the Stat -s. Airs. Mc(Jill has had an attack 



something like it but I hear of no one else, and hope we shall escape 
it. * * *What should I have been my beloved George had you pos- 
sessed that aversion to the pen which marks the characters of some 
of your brothers. My son had languished in prison without the 
necessaries of life, and his mother broken hearted had been unable 
to look forward to the moment of his restoration to his unhappy 
family. 

Mr. Powell says Capt Adams, should he go to Carthagena I 
trust he may afford a conveyance to the poor prisoner from a slavery 
so near its termination. I thank you for your assurance of obtain- 
ing information on a subjac^ of importance to the public. 

The Governor is at Kingston, on his return, the shameful and 
unfounded assertions ia that infamous paper are enough to irritate 
him to the severest measures they strike at the public and private 
character do pray read them and beg Mr. Powell to do so. God 
grant he may be arrived . 

It is the White Havana Sugar I wish to have. I should like 
100 cwt. (?) or a small cask of muscovado, that is if the other is not 
sent on. Mary is well and will I sincerely hope merit your affd( tion, 
she has a pair of beautiful Canary birds which with her peachicks 
afford her employment and amusement. You do not say if they had 
heard of Mr. Powell after his arrival in Spain. 

[They, refers to the relatives in Norwich, England, Mrs. Powell 
and Air. Murray's mother and sisters.] 

P.S. I give a dollar, or 10 [York Shillings 1 2J cts] a gallon for 
vinegar. If you think it can be sent on cheaper I should be glad of 
a barrel or a half one . 



(Here occurs a most tantalizing break of over seven years, 
the period of the war so interesting to us here. J. C.) 



YORK, APRIL "TH, 1815. 
My Dearest Brother 

Ever since the restoration of peace has removed the 
bar to communication between us I have been anxiously expecting 
intelligence from you on your own immediate situation and that of 
those dear friends around you from whom the calamities of the late 
dreadful state of warfare have so long separated us, hitherto these 
hopes and expectations have been fruitless. A few days' very severe 
illness have determined me to delay no longer to write lest a con- 
tinuance of indisposition should disable me from ever giving you rhn 
assurance that no event can alienate or diminish that affectionate 
friendship which has been one of the first comforts of my not happy 



c 

. c rj 
o D ~~* 



' TD 



S^ 
2 



a n s il 




life. The scenes in which I have for the last two years been en- 
gaged will in the event most probable tend to curtail it, they have 
certainly served to hasten the infirmities of age and destroyed many 
of those hopes and prospects, which if realized would have smooth- 
ed my passage to the grave. There is little of comfort now to be 
anticipated bat I have reason and most sincerely thank Divine 
Providence that all has not been wrested from me by the evils in- 
flicted on this once happy and flourishing colony. 

\Vhile all correspondence was precluded except such as must 
meet the eyes of the public I could not write for many reasons, it is 
unnecessary to detail them, one is sufficient, you know the former 
machinations set on foot against my husband, suspicions were raised 
and not always removed even by the most conclusive proofs of in- 
noeence amongst various characters who have held the supreme 
authority here, it was possible that some one might have received 
false impressions from those who imperfectly remembered former 
transactions, to prevent the most distant shadow of probability I 
thought it incumbent on me to forego all communication with those 
friends so dear to me. Your kindness to my son John was sometime 
since acknowledged by his father, the style of that letter originated 
from the same necessity, but I have many fears that it did not reach 
you, that your answer has miscarried or that the unavoidable brevity 
gave offence when we all longed to express the gratitude we felt. 
John's habits of procrastination delayed the remittance of the monev 
you had so liberally advanced for it was furnished immediately on 
his return and it would be a great satisfaction to hear it has been 
received by you. To relate all that has befallen us since the bitter 
hour in which our correspondence ceased is as impossible as it would 
be unprofitable, great indeed must be the change if you have ceased 
to feel an interest in our concerns therefore I shall as concisely as 
possible give you some idea of our present situation. The number 
of our family has not diminished. Mr. Powell has enjoyed good 
health with the exception of two or three short attacks of fever. 
Had not the late unhappy war existed his circumstances would have 
by this time been perfectly easy but the great expenses attending 
the most economical mode of living have retarded this most desirable 

and long expected event Your neices are yet and will most 

likelv continue unmarried. A very pressing invitation for one of 
them to visit their aunt Prodgers has tempted Anne to talk of a 
voyage to England. * * * 

Kvelyn's constitution is greatiy improved, ever seeking to serve 
others she is universally beloved. * * *Mary, your favorite, is chang- 
ed beyond description, the loss of flesh and complexion has been in 
part the consequence of a complaint in her stomach, from which she 



frequently suffers, but still mora-tb increasing regret for unkindness 
to one who merited and I believe possessed her best affections 
for many months subsequent to the dreadful loss we sustained on 
the 13th Oct. 1812, I feared no time would restore her tranquillity, 
the generous bequest of our late lamented .friend was a proof of his 
regard which she could not but feel a reproach for her ; capricious 
conduct, but these are statements I have never hinted to her 
the good sense she possessed and the vivacity of her feeling rendered 
it unnecessary, and the subject is ever carefully avoided. 

(This reference was not understood till explained by the kind- 
ness of ^Emilins Jarvis, Esq., who states that Miss Mary Powell, who 
afterwards married Samuel Peters Jarvis, the son of Mr. Secretary 
Jarvis* was previously engaged to Col. McDonnell, Attorney General 
of Upper Canada, and Aid-de-Camp to Sir Isaac Brock. A later 
letter refers to this marriage. J.C.) 

[The schools and nunneries of Montreal are animadverted upon 
in connection with sending ah -'Orphan grandchild Mary, to some 
school for accomplishments.] 

: ;=.:::' ] 

John Powell since his return has lived with his wife and child in 
art apartment at Mr. Shaw's, they are how removed to our immediate 
neighborhood and he goes in a few days to see if the ruins of hi 
dwelling at Niagara admit of such reparation 'as will shelter them for 
tbe 'slimmer. 

Orant, as Surgeon of the Incorporated Militia, passed the last 
campaign on the frontier and caught the, Lake fever which though 
conquered at the moment has been attended with a very serious liver 
complaint, he is just now convalescent, but I fear his constitution has 
suffered a shock not likely to be overcome. He with his wife and 
two daughters live in a very comfortable house, The discharge of 
the Regiment reduces his means to ^200" per annum, as clerk to .the 
House of Assembly to which he succeeded after the 27th April, 1813, 
when his predecessor wa<* killed in ' de'fence of this post, '(Young 
Allan Maclean]" Thus have I given you an account of us * 
although it is not indicative of prosperity or comfort, that we have 
been prserved to struggle through the difficulties which surrounded 
us is more than we have frequently anticipated and for which we are 
grateful to the Giver of all Good. An hour before the intelligence 
of Peace reached us we had determined to abandon our all here and 
seek bread and quietness in the only country that promised to afford 
them, to that Beloved Countrv my wishes ever incline and until now 






I iiave,indulg3d the hpp.3 that some effort .of fortune would gratify 
them. I oo longar look forward to such a possibility * * * In this 

country, probably in this place will be the closing scene My 

most earnest prayer is for permission to retain my usefulness to the 
last hour. 

April 25tl*. The want of conveyance has detained this and 

I open it to say that I have received yours of the 22nd. March on the 
24th of this month * * * I send this by Kingston, as yet no nearer 
to us, if you vill direct yours for me to the care of Major Glegg, 
L)ep Adgt. Gen., Kingston, it will be forwarded immediately by 
express/' 

[ This letter is addressed as usual to George \V. Murray, Esq., 
Merchant, New York, and is marked on the left hand lower margin 
"single sheet" on the upper left hand margin is wriiten "Ogdens- 
burgh, N.Y., May 13th" and at the right upper margin 30, probably 
the amount of postage. The sheet is lawyer's foolscap s : ze, unruled 
and is written 47 lines of thirteen words to the page in a small clear 
h ind, bofch the top and bottom fold of the paper on the address page 
is closely written upon, the manner of folding letters admitting of 
this economy. The letter was wafered but a great blotch of red 
sealing wax upon the same spot indicates opening which may have 
b36n done by the writer hersalf, as shown by the shrinking of the 
wafer in doing it having baen steamsd soft to open for last words.] 

[4th Letter) 

. YORK, JUKE 30TH, 1815. 
My Dearest Brother 

1 have been, greatly at a loss to account for your 

silence and began, to Fear that the circuitous route I was obliged to 

adopt for my letters had been an unsafe one. Yours of the 1st has 

ju.st reached m 3 in ^i coyer from Mr. Clarke and sets my mind at rest 

respecting tlie fate of tne first. " 1 will hope a few days longer will 

ascertain that of the last and I should have waited had I not been 

desirous to lose no time in saying that the post to Niagara had. been 

re-established, therefore letters to me directed to the. care of Thos. 

Dickson, Esq., Queenston will meet with neither delay nor danger 

: This information (private) and the difficulty of a passage to 

Quebec had decided Anne tq relinquish her intention of going to 

England that way. 

You ask the distance from Kingston to this place, it is 140 
miles, but except on horse back the roads are impassable for travel- 
ing. The American Vessels are constantly passing up and down. 



* * * Mr. Powell came from Niagara this morning, where he has 
been for some days distributing relief to the sufferers in the war." 

(In the list of houses burned at Niagara the name of John 
Powell referred to in last letter does not appear. The money distri- 
buted was raised by the Loyal and Patriotic Society, of which 
Bishop Strachan was the Secretary. J. C.) 



[5th Letter] 

YORK, AUGUST 23RD, 1815. 

[This letter expresses great anxiety at long and unexpected 
silence, says letter of latter end of June, was forwarded by Mr. 
Dickson with "the Post" at Lewiston with assurance of enquiry for 
any which came to me by that conveyance] * * * 

This letter may be long on its way * * * is given to a son of 
Dr. Kerr, whose journey is in search of health [asks Mr. Murray's 
kind attention to Mr. Walter Kerr, who may have to go further 
southward than N.Y. * * * deplores inability to assist a relation] 
but the recommencement of European contest continues to reduce 
our ability to procure even the decencies necessary to our station in 
life, nor can we look forward to the desired period when this reduc- 
tion will cease to distress us * * * Mr. Powell left us five days ago 
to take the Eastern Circuit which will be a very long one, John 
accompanies him, the derangement in his means of subsistence re- 
quires the aid this temporary office affords him indeed [ see no 
chance or recovering from the unfortunate events of the last three 
years * * * It is said that our good Governor (Gore) and Mrs. 
Gore are on their way from England but dissappointmerit has so 
frequently attended our best grounded expectations that we are fear- 
ful of encouraging the hope of an event so desirable * * * You will 
have seen in the papers the death of our respected friend Mr. Cart- 
wright, bis valuable life fell a victim to that cruel complaint which 
carried to the grave his four hopeful children, his only surviving 
daughter is married to a Captain in the Royal Navy, Capt. Dobbs, a 
very fine young man, but whose health precludes all hope of a long 
life, of his three sons the eldest is consumptive, the other two above 
ten years of age are not free from the threatening of that dreadful 
malady, but we have hopes that Mrs. Cartwrig'it will remove to this 
place and that change of air mav check tha progress of a disease that 
seems inherent. 



1) - 

[6th Letter] 

. YORK, OCTOBER 13TH, 1815. 
My Dearest Brother 

[Two pages and a half of family news concerning 
chiefly the illness of Mr. Murray's son, John, of consumption and the 
baseness of an elder brother, who while apparently a wealthy man 
neglected to aid his mother and other members of the family who 
had a right to expect him to do so] * 1 have a thousand things 

to say in which self is concerned the Governor is arrived, well and 
friendly as ever, we owe to him the ability to support the late disas- 
trous times, the timely natnre of his influence at home gained for my 
husband the means to get rid of difficulties that would almost have 
overwhelmed us. An evil is now with the officers of the King's 
Government hanging over us the seat of Govt. is to be removed to 
Kingston but it is too great an undertaking to be accomplished this 
winter we are to have remuneration for unavoidable losses but yet 
the decision is a sad distraction to the comforts of those who have 
been devoting many years to the improvement of their possessions 
for myself I am perfectly resigned to the measure, the few years be- 
fore me render it unimportant where thry are passed, and the hope 
of rny remains reposing beside one of lamented children is consola- 
tory to my feelings of everlasting regret. 

[A Letter from Miss Anne Powell, the eldest daughter of Judge 
Powell to her uncle, Mr. G. W. Murray.] 

[7th Letter] 

YORK, NOVEMBER HTH, 1815. 

If this were the first time I had addressed you my dear uncle 
since the communication has been open between us * * * When I 
last wrote to you I fully expected to see you in a few weeks, how- 
ever papa applied for leave to go home and of course 1 gave up all 

idea of any other protection he was disappointed but not half 

so much as I was for by that means I lost the chance of going in 
company with my old friend Mary Cartwright, now Mrs. Dobbs 
[wife of Capt. Dobbs of 1812 fame]. 

To Geo. W. Murray, I>road\v;v, N.Y. 
[by Miss Mary B. Powell] 

YORK, JANUARY OTH, 1816. 
My Dear Tiicle 

* Mama's sudden determination to take Mary to 
school to N.Y. has thrown us nil into a little bustle, Mary [one of 



10-- 

t\vo fatherless grand-daughters of Judge Powell] * will I am sure all 
ways find in you and my aunt George interested friends who will 
soon make New York a second home to her * * * I hope nothing 
may prevent Janie's [Miss English] taking her as a boarder * * * 
[sundry warnings against certain relations follow] I hope you will 
not think I mean to dictate by writing thus, nor when I say that 
could I prevent it she should never go to a Presbyterian Church and 

except for some particular reason to none but Grace Church 

and never to any of an evening, I may be fanciful but I cannot 
think such a rule could be a disadvantage. 

* (This refers to the children of Win. Dummer Powell, one of 
the ten members of the first Law Society of U.C., a letter of whom 
from Queenston in 1801 to Col. Robert Nelles at Forty Mile Creek 
(Grimsby) is in possession of the Society. This returns thanks for 
forwarding their escape in an elopement with Sarah Stevenson to 
Niagara, where they were married by Rev. Root. Addison. W. D. 
Powell died in 1803, as shown by entry in St. Mark's register, while 
his wife lived to 1834, as shown by tombstone in St. George's 
Cemetery, St. Catharines. J. C.) 

[8th Letter] 

JANUARY 6m, 1815. 

Favoured by the Hon. and Rev. Dr. Strachan 
My Dearest Brother 

From your letter to Anne, received the 1st I have 
some hope tins' may meet you at Utica, where Dr. Strachan has 
promised to inquire for you. You will hear from him of my intended 
journey, * f * to induce our dear Jane English to take our little 
Mary under her charge. Mr. Powell had consented to my placing 
her at Quebec * '' * There were and are objections, all will be 
done away with if I am able to accomplish my present wishes. ' 
Mrs. Grant Powell and her children accompany me to Albany, from 
Buffalo to that place we go unprotected except by a careful and dis- 
creet servant, neither Mr, Powell nor Grant can be spared and I am 
too old and good a traveller to feel any apprehension from this, 
circumstance. 

[Oth Letter] 

XKU YORK, FKIJRIARY 2nd, 1816. 

| From Mrs. Powell in New York where she had ijoiie expecting 

to see Mr. Murray but he had left for Utica just as she arrived 

Great disappointment.] 



[I0th Letter] 

2 Miles from Black Rock. 
FKB. 26TH, 1816. 
My Dearest Brother 

I arrived here a few minutes ago in the hope of 
crossing the St. Lawrence [Niagara] this evening but I find no means 
of doing so, indeed were I to proceed the wind and the snow would 
probably prevent the boat from going over. My journey has been 
entirely on wheels, of course fatiguing enougli * * * the road from 
Canandaigua to the Genessee River was drd^dful, we were ten hours 
travelling it excepting the time taken to mend the stage which broke 
down in the midst of the worst road. I had the pleasure to deliver 
the letters to Dr. Oaderdonk. 



[llth Letter] 

YORK, MARCH IOTH, 1816 
My Dearest Brother 

From my letter of the 5th, writt3n at Queenston to 
our sister W. you would find that I had proceeded thus far without 
accident * * * I then tried to escape the bad roads which were 
declared almost impracticable by crossing in a vessel the next day, 
you will suppose that 1 was not a little surprised at the sight of Mr. 
Powell about 11 at night, who had left York at 12 the day before, 
the Equinox had so alarmed him that all difficulties as to his ab 
sence and hazardous travelling were speedily overcome and nothing 
could satisfy him but that his presence and attendance was necessary 
to ensure my safety. He most certainly judged correctly as to the 
uncertainty of the navigation for a change of weather detained 
the vessel five days at Fort George, and the heavy easterly gale 
which brought her over prevented all communication with her for 
twenty-four hours after she anchored to the west of the Garrison, 
while I on the 8th at noon was rejoiced by seeing my children well 
and receiving the congratulation* of my friends. 

Mr. Powell is likely to suft'er from a little excursion a few 
miles out of town, where he took Mrs. J. Powell and little Anne to 
see Mrs. Glaus. The horses ran away and Mr, Powell's leg was 
hurt. 

The kindness of our excellent and warm friend, the Governor, 
has been exerted to serve my husband, at his desire the L3gislature 
now in session have voted $4000 to remunerate him for extra judi- 
cial services in settling land claims which occupied much time and 
were a laborious business some years ago, this sum will about over 
corn a the perplr>xitios resulting from the l;ite w:ir, and we have 



reason to hope that reward for the services of a life of which a great 
portion has been spent devoted to promote the good of the colony 
will not stop here, but of this nothing is certain * * * The most 
perfect confidence prevails between the Governor and the Legisla- 
ture, of this they have given every proof by ordering ^3000 to his 
Excellency for the purchase of plate. Anne is with Mrs. Boult jn, 
who has a little daughter. 

[12th Letter] 

YORK, APRIL 26m, 1816. 
My Dearest Brother 

[Concern about the increasing illness of Mr. John 
Murray] * * * 

John is inhabiting his ruins (in Niagara) and doing his best to 
make them tolerable for his wife and children who go over next 
week. When remuneration is made we will be enabled to rebuild, 
in the meantime he and Grant have the addition of $100 per annum 
added to their salaries. 

(Signed) Anne Powell, 
who is this day 61 years of age. 

[13th Letter] 

YORK, MAY OTH. 1816. 

[This is entirely occupied with family affairs and the little girl 
at school, but speaks of Mr. Powell's (Judge) departure for England 
with hi* eldest daughter, Anne.] 

[14th Letter] 

YORK, MAY 25, 1816 
My Dearest Brother 

* * * I had anticipated the satisfaction of hearing 
of the travellers [Mr. P. Miss A. P. Mr. John Murray, the sick son, 
he died in England] by the Toronto which took Major Hatton to 
Sackett's Harbour, that they had reached Albany. Mr. C. writes 
me from Montreal that he had letters from Mr, P. while there 
(Albany). I send the order to Senor and Maitland * * * It seems 
Capt. Phelan came on the Niger to N. Y. 

[15th Leter] 

YCRK, Jr.\E 12TH, 1816. 
My Dear Brother 

* * * Young Charles writes that his father by baing 
thrown out of his chaise had his right thigh broken and Mr. Astley 






Cooper had set it * I am suffering from rheumatism, hope the 
warm weather, if ever we have any, may relieve me. This is the 
fust day we have sat without a fire, all the fruit in the country is 
destroyed, the grain is much injured and no prospect of hay. * * * 
Air. Lickson lives at Qaeenston but he always sends over for the 
letters [to Lewiston] therefore the best direction is to him at Lewis- 
ton, Comity of Niagara, N.Y. If directed to Queenston it is a 
chance but they go to Bufialoe. 

[Superscription marked "double sheet 1 ' in Mr. Murray's received 
30th. Letter enclosing one for Mr. \V. D. P. and forwarded by ship 
Edward to Liverpool. Top line Lewiston 2Jth June. $1.00 postage 
to England included probably.] 




[1 6th Letter] 

" Jn.v OTH, 

My Dear Brother 

# * * [M itters relating to little Mary and the "ex- 
traordinary interference of her aunt in the arrangements made? with 
Miss English before she left for England] * * * They know and you 
are fully aware that nothing but a permanent benefit to the last 
objects of my poor William's earthly solicitude 

Enclosure forwarded by ship Magnet to Liverpool 1 oz. $1.00. 

[17th Letter] 

YORK, JULY 31 sr, 1810. 
My Dearest Brother 

[Domestic affairs] * * *I think Mr. Powell will be 
home in about two months, tae Govfc. is v^ry anxious for his arrival 
and 1 believe fd^ls his absence greatly. Nothing can be more 
friendly and attentive than both His Excellency and Mrs. Gore, * * 
conviction that it proceeds from friendly regard for me and mine. 
Indeed we owe the Governor so much. * * * Mary's sister Anne 
would have written her an account of the Ball and Supper to be 
given at the Govt. House tomorrow night and to which Mrs. Gore 
lias invited me to t^ke hrr * J The season 'ias been verv un- 

propitious, the weather though tolerably fine is not seasonable. We 
begin to look with less dread of consequences if it pleases God to 
L'rant us a dry harvest, although the late frosts destroyed a good 
deal, the crops are in many places nbundant. 

(Superscribed] Packet forwarded pr ship Importer to Liverpool 



[18th Letter] 

YORK, AUGUST HTH, 1816. 
My Dearest Brother 

Mr. Hogin offers to forward letters to you by private 
hand. * * * I have not heard from you of the arrival of the 
Minerva Smith at her distant post whether that was London or 
Liverpool. The Governor says she is a Liverpool trader. It is now 
thirteen weeks since they sailed and I look with great anxietv to 
to-morrow's post. * * *. I wrote you the last of the month by Mr. 
Crane who had offered to take letters of tha Governor. * * * John 
goes the Western Circuit with the Chief Justice and by so doing 
gives room' for a visitor, Miss Eliza Powell, for their "ruins" are too 
scanty to admit an addition to the family circle when he is at home. 
The claims for remuneration of losses are gone home and if they are 
granted he will be enabled to lodge his family more comfortably but 
the prevailing system of economy may perhaps interfere. Happily 
our fears of want are fading away, favourable weather and the? prom- 
ising appearance of the grain encourage the expectation of an abund- 
ant harvest and we may be indulged in good wheaten bread, a lux- 
ury wj had scarcely dared to anticipate; the overflow of merchandise 
is here comparatively as great as with you, of course every descrip- 
tion of British manufacture and eveiy foreign article is cheaper than 
ever was known; and as the increase of importation exceeds that of 
population we shall experience a favorable diff^ren:e in our ex- 
penses of living and we have need of it. 

If Mr. .Powell does succeed in the object of his voyage we may 
look forward to a tolerable competence for our future lives, if he 
fails we have been so accustomed to suit our living to our circum- 
stances that we may be as well content; the almost certain conviction 
that the government will never permit its faithfu 1 servants to sufi'er 
want will assist to support our spirits under the unavoidable 
infirmities of age. 

Has Capt Phelan paid the promised visit (at Norwich), by a 
change of regiments he may be stationed at this post * * -' a ro- 
mantic visionary character * .* * be is too eccentric for a desirable 
neighbor, other ways * * * a pleasure to s^e the daughter of my 
sister. 

[H)th Letter] 

YORK, AIV.UST 20ni, 1816 
My Dearest Brother 

[Expressing 'much' solicitude with regird to Mr. 
Murray s health] 1 do not know what other medical men 



there are in Norwich but I have the greatest confidence in the skill 
and attention of Mr. Martineau, whose uniform frienJship for my 
father's descendants wi'l secure his bast exertions. * " I think 
Mr. P. is now on his way out, the Parliament was sitting of. course, 
the public offices were not deserted and as a public and domestic 
man he knows his own importance too well to delay his return an 
hour longer than necessary. Eliza goes to Niagara to-day. The 
Captain of the Toronto has just called to receive his orders from her 
and she has concluded to sail at sunset. Nothing can exceed the 
Governor's and Mrs. G's kind attention to every circumstance which 
can contribute to our comfort. Greatly do we dread military in- 
fluence and as truly hope that no temptation will induce the Govern- 
ment to place us under its control, but such is the present system 
that those who wish it frequently report its probability * * * [De- 
plores serious disaster to relatives in commerce]. Again I wish you 
were all in this country where the commercial security compensates 
for the tardiness of accumulating wealth. * 8, G. has made a 

very handsome portion, is now gone to France and returns to marry 
into one of the best families at Quebec indeed in proportion to the 
population, the late war has made; as many fortunes in these prov- 
inces as it has marred in the IT. 8. * * Mr. Hogan promised to 
send my packet (for England) from Utica, he was much liked here 
and may be induced to fix in one of the proviii ,es. 

[20th Letter] 

YORK, SEPTEMBER ISxn, 1815. 
My Oearest Brother 

I had flattered myself tlint by this time I should have 
been enabled to announce to you Mr. Powell's safe arrival at his own 
humble dwelling and was greatly disappointed when the Toronto 
returned yesterday with letters for the Governor by the July packet 
and I received neither letters from nor intelligence of my husband. 
We have seen that the Courier and the Pacific had arrived at New 
York in tolerably short passages from Liverpool and as Mr. Powell 
on the 12th July had reason to imagine the next day's interview 
with Mr. Goulburn would conclude his business. I was surely not 
unreasonable in supposing that he would be ready to embark on the 
26th the day it is said the latter .'jailed. 1 thank you for your kind 
congratulations; the object attained would be valuable could it have 
been secured without the expense and fatigue of a personal applica- 
tion: however, independent of the emoluments (which when com- 
pared with increased demands are scarcely a consideration) it was a 
point of honour to solicit that which has long been considered the 



16- 

just reward of a life of exertion for the good of the colony: hut 
there is another point of view in which it is more gratifying to me: 
the Governor's strong recommendation of the measure is a proof of 
his confidence in the talents and integrity of a man who at one 
period was held up to him as undeserving of his regard or esteem 
and the consideration that it gives a claim to a respectable support 
when age and infirmity may incapacitate him for his arduous duties, 
serve to cheei the present moment and remove apprehension of 
future want. 



[ 2 1 st Letter] 

YORK, OCTOHER TTH, 1816. 
My Dearest Brother 

%. * * i'j ie chief Justice was taken very ill on the 
circuit and unable to hold the Niagara Assizes- Mr. Powell is 
therefore obliged to do this duty and leaves this on Friday. I sup- 
pose he told you that Mr. Scott(Ciiief Justice) returns with a pension 
of ^800 per annum, he is perfectly satisfied with the arrangement 
and I can truly say that looking forward to a similar provision is 
more satisfactory than the present elevation and increased salary [to 
the Speakership of Leg Assy, at salary of ;400 per annum] indeed 
the latter is scarcely equal to increased expenses for in many in- 
stances we must depart from the system of economy which has 
saved us from ruin. 



[22nd Letter] 

YORK, OCTOBER 27 JH, 1816. 

[All family news, Mr. Dickson, Niagara, is m?ntioned as our 
very great friend.] 



[23rd Letter] 

YORK, NOVKMURR 29 rn, 1816. 

[Complains that letters entrusted Mr. (I, Shaw and a parcel all 
to be delivered at New Y T ork appear to have been only partly distri- 
buted. Mr. P. oojected to sending letters etc. by this gentleman, 
regarding him as most careless J 

[24th Letter] 

[Kefers to iliness of Mr. Murray's son.] 

i have just written to Grant who lives in the countrv, the sad 



account, the event will distress though not surprise him, his opinion 
has been long decided. 

[25th Letter] 

YORK, JANUARY 20xH, 1817. 

[Comforts the father (Mr. G. Murray) on the loss by con- 
sumption of his son John, who had bsen sent to England the pre- 
vious year for his health to his father's mother and sisters in Norfolk. 
The young man appears to have started for the south of France to 
spend the winter but was detained on the coast, where he died. A 
very pious, wise and affectionate letter.] 

[26th Letter] 

YORK, FEBRUARY 24 m, 1816. 

Tais is the sitting of the Legislature and there is every prob- 
ability of its being a long session. An allowance was made for the 
Speaker of the Upper House, and this ooligas us to give dinners 
twice a week, the party always consists of 16, so you may imagine 
we have a contiimal tax upon our time. The severity of the season 
adds to the trouble, the 14th was one of our days and the ther- 
mom3t?r was 2 (below zaro) the combined art of the family could 
riot make the house warm, and the provisions were almost frozen by 
the fireside. An accident has added five children to our family, 
Dr. Strachan's house caught fire on Saturday and though it was not 
wholly destroyed rendered uninhabitable. Mrs. Strachan is on a 
visit to her mother at Cornwall and we have taken the children in 
till their own dwelling is repaired * * * good children, the young- 
est about 18 months old, the good Doctor has been unfortunate, this 
is the second dwelling houss besides his school house which has 
been burned. 

['27th Letter] 

YORK, MARCH, 24th, 1817. 

[Private matters] * J * Am quite well and have 
only to complain of the difficulty of giving dinners twice a week 
;in 1 the little chance of my being relieved by the prorogation 
of the Legislature. The members like the good things of the 
metropolis too well to leave them. 

|2Sth Letter] 

YORK, APRIL 13th, 1817. 
My Dearest brother 

A pen on of the name of Jones who is a saddler in 
the town goes to N. Y and affords m? an opportunity of send- 



ing to your care a parcel for England. * * * The delays in the 
communication by Quebec are so great, at this season of the 
year particularly. * * * We have had as yet no account 
of the arrival of the January packet. * * * A dinner to the 
Bench aand the Bar in the first day of Term fully occupied me the 
last post day. I am glad to say our bustle is over for the 
present. The Governor prorogued the House of Assembly on 
the 7th and the long detention here made it desirable to the 
members to return with all expedition to their different employ 
ments John Powell was amongst those most anxious to re- 
turn to his humble tho' comfortable dwelling which consists but 
of two rooms and a kitchen, the former dwelling place having 
been burned but fortunately for him the detached buildings es 
caped the conflagration This gentleman's son was coining to 
attend Mr. Strachan's school, not one of that description fit for 
a boy of his age at Niagara A Mrs. Goodman was intending 
to come from Quebec with a staff of teachers to conduct a school for 
females. [The writer objects to sending her grand-daughter 
because there ean in this place ba no distinction of classes: this 
objection does not arise frona aristocratic pride, but from the 
conviction that the vulgar habits of home are more likely to be- 
come contagious than to receive correction by example] 

[L )( .)th Letter] 

YORK, JUNK 2, 1817. 

My letters are always by the packet and 

enclosed in the Govt. despatches and, by some absurd arrangement 
go first to Quebec, the movements of the post from there are 
shamefully tardy, so much so that the Governor gets his private 
letters direct from New York three weeks before the official 
ones from Quebec, I am sorry to say that His Excellency and 
Mrs. Gore leave us in a few days for England, he has obtained 
leave of absence and they mean to take their passage from New 
York when I most truly hope you will see those friends whose 
loss we shall severely feel. 1 shall perhaps write by Mrs Gore. 
The Governor has been much arid seriously indisposed within the 
last month. * * * We are sitting by the fireside and a few 
night* ago all the early vegetables were destroyed by frost. 

It is impossible to describe the confusion of this house. We 
have added a story which gives us five bed chambers and a draw- 
ing room, the size of the dining room. The Carpenters are this 
dav laying the floors and we are covered with dust and stunned 
with noise 



[30th Letter] 

YORK, JUNE 9, 1817 
My Dearest Brother 

As the ship is arrived which conveys the Gov- 
ernor and Mrs Gore to Sackec's Harbour I have no time to lose 
in availing myself of the opportunity to write tho' it will be per- 
haps but a few lines. Our friend Lt.-Col. Coffin, Adjt. Gen. of 
Militia, accompanies His Excellency across the lake and I hope 
to N Y. * * * the good Colonel, though not one of the m ost 
animated is one of the best and most honourable of men: his 
greatest pleasure is the ability to do an act of kindness and his 
friends not unfrequent y upbraid him with too great facility to 
sacrifice his own interests to promote that of others. You are 
a personal stranger to the Governor and Mrs. Gore but 1 think 
when you do see them, both you and my sister will cease to 
wonder at the regret their departure excites in this limited 
circle: however, it is to be hoped that they may be induced to 
return to a Province where they will be ever remembered with 
the most grateful regard * * * Col. Coffin will, I am sure 
take charge of anything for us. I wish there were anything 
worth sending * * * There is a Mr. Roberts arrived from 
England with very respectable recommendations and is seeking for a 
house fit for a school. * * 




[: 3 *lst Lattar] 

YORK, JULY TTH 
[Private] * * ' 

The season except a few days has been so cool that warm 
clothes were necessary. It is now perfectly summer and we are 
cheered by prospects of abundant crops. We paid last year $46 
a ton for hay, we might now contract for it at ten * * * This is 
the first day of Term and soon after it concludes Mi. Powell will 
begin the circuit. 



1 3-2 n<l Letter] 

YORK, 26th JULY, 1817 
My Dearest Brother 

If Mrs. Gallagher has reached N.Y. before this she 
will tell you of the hurried visit paid to us by herself. Mrs. G. and 
Olivia * Our neices (Mrs. G. and Olivia) Mr. Powell leaves this 
u n the 6th Aug. for the Eastern Circuit * * Mrs. Cartwright is on 
;i visit to Dr. Strachan, she looks ill but her spirits are good: a 



20 

change of climate is recommended for her and her twins who are 
threatened with a malady so fatal to her numerous family, i think 
she will take them to Ireland with her daughter and son-in-law 
Capt. and Mrs. Dobbs. 

[33rd Letter] 

YORK, Arc. 12th. 
My Dearest Brother 

* Mr. Powell is on the Circuit: you will be 

surprised to hear that I was gratified with a visit from our friend 
Mr. Clarke of Montreal, which though but a few hours was a 
satisfation which I had never dared to contemplate; he came up 
with the Commissary General, -dined with us, went to Niagara, 
returned on the steam boat, staid a few hours and returned to 
Kingston. Mr. Powell went by the same conveyance and by 
that means had the pleasure of his society, which was denied to 
me: you will readily imagine that we neither recognized the other, 
the loss of teeth and complexion prevented my immediately knowing 
my first Canadian friend, and you know the change effected on your 
sistar by the long term of twenty eight years during which period 
her couch has not been strewed with roses ***.* 

I hear nothing from Col. Coffin but think the steamboat to- 
morrow will either bring him, or tidings of him. I am the more 
anxious to see him that we may learn what foundation the editor 
of the Albany Argus could have for the disgraceful paragraph re- 
specting our Governor, I know the impetuosity of his Excellency's 
temper but cannot tbink it would lead him to marit the epithets so 
liberally or rather so illiberally bestowed upon him; the more so 
as Mrs. Gore's unbounded influence is always exerted to calm undue 
irritation * * * We sat by a good fire the 8th and 9th of August. 



[34th Letter] ' 

YORK, AUG. 3 1st, 1.817 

My Dearest Brother 

Mr. Powdll is on Circuit still but lamenting that he 
had been persuaded that the business of the Court would occupy 
an unusual long period; by which means he has taken three weeks 
longer time than necessary. John is with him and he says will 
make a very profitable circuit as independent of liberal allowance 
for travelling expenses the Clerk of Assize has fees upon all Court 
causes. 

I have lettes from our sister bv the June packet * * a 




WILLIAM DUMMER POWELL, 

Chief Justice of Upper Canada. 
From a portrait in possession of ^milius Jar vis Esq. Toronto. 



contested election has kept them all alive and she expresses much 
satisfaction at the proof it has given "that the influence of the Nor- 
folk Democrat [William Cobbett] is less extensive than he and his 
friends have anticipated/' 

There is in the London papers eight o'clock in the morning 
an account of a new Governor appointed for this Province. Such 
iriu3llig3nca must 1)3 pr^m itara as th? Governmant will bg Mr. Gore's 
as long as he chooses to retain it, the only possible foundation for 
this report may be a promise of the succession to Sir Peregrine 
Maitland if our Governor will accept o f an equivalent at home, 
this is all he can desire and although his loss will be seriously regret- 
ted by his friends and all the well affected in the country, it would be 
selfish in them to wish he should lose an opportunity of securing per- 
manent and more advancagaous employment. Amongst his earliest 
friends and connexions we shall feel his loss, perhaps the more from 
his successor being a military man; few of that profession are well 
calculated for the duties of civil government. The gentleman named 
has lately married a daughter of the Duke of Richmond, her father 
is a strange man * * 

We are gratified with a prospect of an abundant season and I 
think our whoi.e family will be furnished this year with the produce 
of the country with as little money as our horses cost. 



[35th Letter] 

YORK. XOVKMBER L'XD, 1817. 
My Dearest Broth -r 

Yours by Mr. lljbinson cum? to hand last evening as the delay 
of the steamboat had detained him ten days at Kingston, A thous- 
and thanks to you for it and for the kind attention our young friend 
received during the few days he remained in your city, he is 
considered by us as a young man of uncommonly good talents and 
will in all likelihood be the head of the Bar in this Province, a dis- 
tinction to w faith his honour and integrity fully entitles 
him audit will ever be a satisfaction to me to reflect that Mr. Powell 
h;s been the means of 'bringing him forward for the benefit of the 
Province. (Afterwards Chief Justice Uobinson . ) 

|:;(5th L-tter| 

YORK, NOVF.MRKR 2,'iRD, 1817. 
My Dear I J rot her 

Mr. Crookshank called yest-rd i\ to say he leaves this 
to-morrow ior New York ;md kindly offered to be the bearer of ;mv 



~'2'2 

letters. Mr. Powell therefore avails * * * We were surprised a 
fortnight since by the marriage of Miss Oookshank to Dr. Macau- 
lay. Mrs. M. you may remember to have seen just going to Quebec 
when you were here. She died and left a large and young family, of 
whom Miss C. has consented .to receive a legal right to protect; it 
is for them a most happy occurrence and I trust her meritorious 
motive for becoming Mrs. M. will meet its reward not only in the 
consciousness of having done right, but in the enjo\ment of domestic 
tranquillity. She has long lived in the possession of every elegant 
indulgence the world can give and was secured from losing them. 
Mrs. McGill must feel the loss of a sister whose cheerful activity 
rendered her essential to the comfort of the family. * * * I have 
not written since we heard from the Governor of his intended resig- 
nation on the 1st Oct. I am truly grieved at the determination, in- 
deed his frien'Js are only consoled for their loss by the conviction of 
his being amply provided for at home; their rich and expensive 
furniture is now selling, few articles are in my means to purchase, 
you may judge of the rest when I tell you that a Library Fable of 
Rosewood left with us to take care of is 48 Guineas. The dining 
tables are 72 guineas and everything in proportion It gives Dr. 
Strachanan opportunity of furnishing his most elegant mansion which 
is the handsomest and largest house in the Province, ours, more 
humble but more suitable to my wants and wishes is not fitted for 
such expensive luxuries. * 

[:7tli Letter] 

YORK, OCTOIJER IDrii, 1817 
Mv Dearest Brother 

[Recites a sad case of desertion of a young wonr.ux by 
her husband and the fact that twins were burn later, a little one of 
two years their eldest child Poor woman helper! on her way t.) 
connections in New York who would send her home to her father a 
"Coal Meter" on the Thames and of course known to many ship- 
mates. Deplores poor woman's helpless fate and sen Is a letter by 
her to Mr. Murray, proceeds thus] A society was yesterday estab- 
lished upon the basis of the original Scots Society, now termed the 
Friends to Strangers, the first donation was to this unfortunate 
woman. Eliza was requested by Dr. Strachan, the Treasurer, to 
give $50 to her as the first donation of a society formed by her 
grandfather, no compliment could be more grateful to rnv filial rev- 
erence. Eliza and Mary with Col. Coffin stood spousors to the poor 
infants and this circumstance ad;ls to the interest \\v take concern- 
ing her, Mrs Irvin - * * * Mr. Woo.l mil Mr. (i. Cro:kshan!v ;ire 



going in a few days to N.Y., on their way to England, we have had 
very severe frost but expect the Indian Summer will give us a few 
weeks of fin? weather V)3fore winter. 

[38th Letter] 

YORK, DECEMBER 22xo, 1817. 
My Dearest Brother 

Mother's health is declining fast. Letters from Nor- 
wich to this effect as late as 30th Sept, [Mrs. Irvine seems not to 
have delivered the letter entrusted to her for Mr. Murray. Mrs. 
P. accounts for it * * * she might have met her worthless hus- 
band and been obliged to submit to his control] * * * Mr. Crook- 
shank took long letters * * * We hear that Charles Shaw and his 
wife spend the winter in your city. The October mail brings com- 
missions or rather appointments to Mr. Boulton as Judge and Mr. 
Robinson as Attorney-General. It is a great advancement for a 
young man of 26, the situation is about ^1800 stg. per annum. 

[39th Letter] 

YORK, 26th JAX, 1818 

[Family matters. Praises a nephew for having er- 
ected a stone or mural tablet with very appropriate inscription 
over the remains of ''our lamented John" Mr. Murray's only son] 
* * The late grievous news from England caused a universal shock 
to the people of the Province and doubt leas throughout the whole 
British domains: it is a great national as well as domestic calamity; 
that heart must be hardened which does not sympathize with the 
survivor, rare arid pjifect domestic happiness subsisted between the 
Royal Pair: it is almost a solitary instance of a connexion in that 
rank of life being formed upon principles of affection and the choice 
of the parties: as a national loss it cannot be estimated. May Heaven 
avert the evils threatened by the unexpected visitation. [This event 
so much deplored was the death of the Princess Charlotte of Wales, 
the only child of the Prince Regent (George 4th) arid the Princess 
of Brunswick (Queen Caroline) she was married on the 2nd May, 
1816, to Leopold, Duke of Saxony, and Prince Saxe Cobourg and 
died in childbed the following year. Princess Charlotte was heir to 
the throne of England after the father's death] * * * The Legis- 
lature meets the cth Pel), and my cares begin. 



[40th Letter] 

YORK, FKH. I>M>, 1818- 
Mv Dearest Brother 

* * * had I not wished to introduce to you Mr. 
Askin, of Detroit, the son of a gentleman whom while he lived we 
were in habits of intimacy and whose family have conferred various 
obligations to us. I believe Mr. Askin is in doubt whether he pro- 
ceeds to Ireland or returns here. An estate at Strabane, in that 
country has fallen to him but some difficulty has arisen respecting 
the legality of those marriages where the ceremony was performed 
by the officer commanding at the post, and he v ill be guided by the 
opinions on this subject; he is an excellent young man * * * [The 
orphan nieces at school in N.Y are expscted to remember Mr. A. 
as the brother of their kind friend Mrs. McKee probably the wife 
of the Indian Agent at Detroit] 

Grant's [Powell] annual duty commences on and a few weeks 

finishes the employment for which he gets $1,200 per annum. It is 
certainly great remuneration for brief attention, but it is not suffi- 
cient for his support and as he has declined practice [medical] in his 
profession he is endeavouring to obtain some addition; the difficulty 
of doing this is more obvious to others than himself for his father's 
situation prevents him from making those exertions to save his 
children which he has done heretofore The Governor 

writes that it is supposed Sir Peregrine Maitland will be his suc- 
cessor his lady is daughter to the Duke of Richmond arid niece to 
Lady Bathurst. I hope their high rank will not induce them to 
consider the inhabitants of the Wilderness as an inferior ray a of 
baings: we have been so long accustomsd to the condesoen ling kind- 
ness of our regretted Governor and his excellent lady that ressrve 
and hauteur would be ill received, however, we will hope that the 
higher the better bred. * * * Improved health of Mrs. Cart- 
wright and all the family except Capt Dobbs, who has never recover- 
ed a blow he received in the attack on Fort Erie. 



[41st Letter] 

YORK, MARCH 1st, 1818 
Mv Dearest Brother 

Wrote nearly a month ago by Mr. Chas Askins sent 
letter to him at Queenston find he has not yet left. Received the 
children's letters from Mr. Creighton who s^nt them from Fort 
George " f Mr. Bethune, the clergyman from Brockville. was iv- 



25 

turning in a comfortable sleigh and Anne availed herself of such a 
favourable opportunity to pay her risit to Kingston the only moder- 
ate days between 29th Jan. and 26th Feb. Never have we known 
such a season, the day you say the thermometer was (z<*ro) it was 
with us r 3 at eight o'clock in the morning * * * Mr. Chewett is 
very ill. I fear there are small hopes of his recovery. 

[42nd Letter] 

YORK, APRIL IST, 1818. 
My Dearest Brother 

Mary is just gone down to see Mrs. Boulton 

who had a little daughter born on the 26th * * Mr. Robinson is 
Attorney-General: his lady presented him with a son on the 27th, 
Mrs. R. is wonderfully w^ll but the infant is puny * * With the 
exception of the last few days _he weather for the last month has 
been delightful, out the streets are now almost impassable. 

[43rd Letter] 

YORK, APRIL 27xH, 1818. 
My Dearest Brother 

I would not reply to your kind favour of 20th March 
till this week * I wished to announce Jiat I nave entered ipon my 
64th year in as good or better health than is usually enjoyed at that 
advanced period of life * * * [The lady lived to be 92] I hope 
Charles Askin will see you. We look for Mr. Crookshank, common 
report has given him a wife * Henry J. Boulton went down to 

the steamboat to bring up a lady; a Miss Jones of Broi-kville is by 
this time Mrs. Boulton. A fortnight's acquaintance in this place 
last winter terminated in an engagement now indissoluble * * We 
are glad .o hear of Mrs. Irvine's good fortune and hope she is now 
home. 



[44th Letter] 

YORK, 4TH MAY, 1818. 

| Nothing of use] 

[45th Letter] 

[No date within, outward marked May.] 
My Dearest Brother 

You will be surprised to see Mr. Powell who is by this time I 
trust safely arrived * ' Capt. Dobbs goes by N.Y. to France * * 
Mr. Powell will make those adjustments which cannot be so well ar- 



De- 
ranged at a distance: the journey he has undertaken is arduous fo 
his time of life but I hope it will * * settle business * * for years 
particularly irksome to his sister Warren. * * We have had the 
\vorst season ever experienced here, incessant cold rains till the last 
five days * * We have reason to fear its consequences from delay 
in sowing the summer crops. 

[46th Letter] 

YORK, JUNE 15TH, 1818. 
My Dearest Brother 

I cannot allow the daughter of our esteemed friends 
Mr. and Mrs. Cartwright to pass through N Y. without introducing 
her and Oapt. Dobbs to your acquaintance * * Mrs. Grant 
Powell expects her sister the beginning of next winter, they come, 
six in a light waggon. 

[47th Letter] 

YORK, JUNE 23RD. 

* * Mrs. Dobbs writes to Eliza that they have changed their 
route and go by Montreal to Dublin. 

[48th Letter] 

YORK, JULY 9rn, 1818. 
r Private entire iy] 

[49th Letter] 

YORK, AUGUST SRD, 1818. 
My Dearest Brother 

* * Mary lias consented to become the wife of Mr. 
Jarvis: it is possible the change in her situation may take place this 
autumn. We can hwe no personal objection to the connection but 
truly regret that * * has entailed difficulties upon a son who 
would have been perfectly equal to the support of a family. After 
being called to the Bar the young man to render the office respect- 
able and productive relinquished his professional pursuits and devot- 
ed himself to official business: the father was urged to resign in his 
favour and by that means secure the reversion: the young man offer- 
ing to assume all his father's debts if he would only make over his 
property tc? him: to the latter he consented but the delay of resigna- 
tion rendered it ineffectual, some discussion with 
caused a fatal duel: * the father died during 
the son's confinement and the established rule of our Cov- 



27 

eminent not to allow of an immediate succession in a family 
gave the Secretaryship to another. Devotion to the comfort of his 
widowed mother and to obtain education for his only unmarried sister 
with uniform exertion to conquer the embarrassments of his late 
father have united to abridge his means: he is now private Secretary 
to the Administration but as a few days will probably bring our new 
Governor this may cease: however it gives him a claim to some pro- 
vision and I am satisfied that whatever can, will be done to serve him 
and I hope they may be enabled to form a decent establishment 
without being taxed with imprudence. Debts he never has and 
never will incur, a lesson has been taught him by witnessing the 
misery to which * * have been exposed by an indulgence in 
this unhappy propensity * * Except from Julia Claus's verbal 
intelligence I have had no intelligence respecting you, a letter from 
Anne on Saturday by Major Hillier, Sir Perigrine Maitland's A.D.C. 
she was at Woolwich on a visit at Col. Pilkingt'jn's * * expect 
the new Governor the day after to-morrow * * the heat has been 
beyond anything ever experienced here, the thermometer has been 
as high as 112 in the shade on the north side of the house and al- 
though that was only for one day its effects were very seriously felt, 
the mornings and evenings are now so cool that * * expect much 
sickness * * Tell Anne that on Saturday evening Capt. Atty was 
married to Miss Eliza Crookshank. They go by N. Y. to New Bruns- 
wick in the coming month * * Charlotte Shaw is to stay with Mr. 
McGill, Mrs. Fuller is dead and Mrs. Sbaw has retired to Oak 
Hill with her two orphan ne.phews. 

-'' (This was one of the famous duels in early times Ii3re, and 
was fought July 12th, 1817, between Samuel Peters Jarvis and John 
Ridout, the latter was killed, and the former imprisoned for some 
time. J. C.) 

[50th Letter] 

YORK, SEPT. GTH, 1818 
M y Dearest Brother 

Yours of the 10th August was 21 days on its way 
* * Mr Powell is now on the Western Circuit, the last com- 
mission opens to-morrow at Sandwich, wlien his presence could not 
be dispensed with, as the cause between Lord Selkirk and- the North 
West company comes before the court * + I have had the 
honor of seeing Lady Sarah Maitland and found her a most unaffect- 
ed woman perfectly affable and desiring to be on easy terms of ac- 



28 

quaintance with us all: the Duke of Richmond and his family are to 
be at Kingston to-day on their way up. I understand that the same 
affability marks the manners of His Grace and the Lords and Lad- 
ies who are his children. The Duchess is not come out. 7th. I 
wrote thus far before church yesterday, amidst the alterations and 
improvements of this thriving place, we are enlarging and embellish- 
ing our church and it bids fair when finished to be a decent place 
of worship: at present we assemble in the lecture room. Anne 
* * * had paid a visit to Wevmouth and the tribute of paternal 
affection in a spot rendered sacred to us by the ever lamented and 
beloved youth * * * She dined with the clergyman lately appoint 
ed who had that morning seen and admired the inscription and was 
surprised to meet with one so deeply interested in him whose mem- 
ory it commemorates * * 



[5 1st Letter] 

YORK, OCT. 2xn, 1818. 

My Dearest Brother 

Your niece Mary last evening assumed the certain cares 
and doubtful comforts of conjugal life and early ths morning le^t us 
to proceed to Queenston where Mr. Jarvis has taken an house and 
finds a fair prospect of professional success * * They are to be 
at Burlington to-night and remain there two or three days with his 
sister Mrs. Geo. Hamilton * * Mr Powell is just now particularly 
engaged as the Governor returned last evening irom a visit to the 
Western part of the province, which he commenced the morning* of 
the day on which Mr. P. returned from the circuit. I think it is 
probable that Grant may obtain an appointment which will add 4 
or 500 dollars per annum to his income * * The season here has 
been particularly favourable for invalids, mild and dry weather for 
the last two months * * 

[52nd Letter] 

YORK, 8th Nov, 1818 

My Dearest Brother 

[Lettere sent by Mr. Stephen Jarvis returned un- 
delivered. Money matters] * * 

At present it is impossible to speak to him on any 
business other than legal or polr.ical, the last three woeks have been 
incessantly occupied by such an accumulation of duties that I have 
dreaded the consequence, the Legislature: Assizes: Executive Coun- 



cil and the Term have entirely engrossed his time sometimes from 
eight o'clock in the morning till ten at night with no other refresh- 
ment than a sandwich and a glass of lemonade. * " Our great 
people are very pleasant, her ladyship particularly: the Governor is 
very reserved but I believe a most excellent man: we have dined 
once, been at two evening parties and are to dine on Wednesday 
next: their style of entertainment is plain and handsome, no affecta- 
tion of fashioa in defiance of comfort * * * I suppose you have seen 
accounts of the 'rial at Sandwich, or rather of the conduct of the 
Grand Jury who prevented them: and I trust will consider the asser- 
tions respiting Mr. Powell as the production of an infamous agent 
of one of the parties: no human being is more free from partiality in 
his judicial character. 

p3nl Letter] 

[Xo Date] 

Marked outside IST DEC., IBIS. 
[Chiefly Private] 

Mr vVm. Jarvis went to N.Y. with his grandfather, 
Dr. Peters; who lives in the Bowery: if Mrs. W. Powell had the in- 
genuity to give him the address of her daughters his return will af- 
ford an opportunity to write * * * I sse the Exchange Coffee House 
in Boston is burned down * * * 

[51th Letter] 

1819. 
[Private] 

* to keep a dinner engagement previously made at 
Govt. House: these invitations are not extensive: therefore we have 
been frequently honoured by receiving them: Sir Peregrine and her 
ladyship ara mjst superior and estimable characters, but neither of 
them in the enjoyment of good health the only apparent interrup- 
tion to the most perfect domestic happiness. * * 

| 55th Letter] 

YORK, FEBRUARY 27TH, 1811). 
[Entirely Private] 

[56th Letter] 

YORK, MARCH IOTH, IS 11). 
| Chiefly Private] 

* * * We have for the last fortnight experienced all 



the rigours of winter, the sleighing never was better and the ther- 
mometer at 7 this morning was an unusual degree of cold so near 
the Equinox. Mary and her beloved have been with us the last 
three weeks. They came over in a vessel and to morrow leave us in 
their carriole, the schooner which takes over their baggage is fast in 
the ice which extends bevond the Garrison. * * * 



1 5 7th L 

YORK, APRIL GTH, 1819. 
[Private] 

[58th Letter] 

YORK, APRIL 26, 1819. 

[Private] 

[r><)th Letter] 

YORK, MAY HTH, 1819. 
[Private Chiefly] 

* * The Provincial Legislature meets the 7tli June 
which in only three weeks from this day and from that till the middle 
of September* * *duties occupy instant attention * * 

[60th Letter] 

Y. RK, .)!ST M-y, 1819. 
[Private] 

[61st Letter] 

[From Mary P>. Powell one of the orphan daughtt rs of 
Mr. William D. Powell * and who was brought up by the paternal 
grandfather. The letter is addrebsed to Mrs. Geo. Mur- 
ray, New York, the children, Anne and Mary having returned to 
their home after several years at Miss English's boarding s hool 
New Y.ork] 

[YORK, Arc;. loth, 1811) 
Mv near aunt 

As the steamboat go; j s to-dav at one o'clock I \vill 
write a. few lilies by it * * * as the waathar h.<s been uncommonly 
warm: for two or thrae days the heat has bean dreadful and uncle 
Grant who went to Queen* ton with aunt Eliza says that it is much 
worse there. The Duke of Richmond has b.-en here and is gone 



further north with the Governor, lie left his family which consists 
of ladies Mary Louisa Lenuox and Lord William, who have been 
here sometime, they are going over to-day to maet the Duke who 
they expect to return by way of Niagara. Lady Louisa is only 
sixteen, she is thought to ba a little like Anna. Lord William 
called hare the other day bat we were all unfo tunately gone to ihe 
Humber, althoug i we see him almost every day when we ride, which 
is the fashioii here to ride every afternoon, and Grandmama does it 
as she thinks it is good for her [In a carriage is meant] I have been 
to ride on horseback very olten and am very fond of it Grandpapa 
goes the circuit to-day. * " * 
[62nd Letter] 

YORK, An;. 2n 1, 1819 
-My Dearest Brother 

' * * Mr. Powell has been at Niagara since the 13th 
The Assizes commenced on the 18th and I am anxious to know how 
he supported the heat of a crowded court (the summer intensely hot 
and Mr. P. unwell, when the thermometer was 92 in the shade. 
The trial of Gourlay * for sedition,' has, I understand, collected a 
vast concourse of people as well from the State of New York as 
from different parts of the Province. It was to come on yesterday 
and we shall hear the resu t to-day or to-morrow. '1 he 
letter respecting the Emigrant who had come to York was sent to 
him by Grant, who had seen him sign his name to an affidavit the 
day it arrived * * * Mary is with her aunt at evening church. 
They go at ten in the morning to the Sunday School Avhere each has 
a class, from that to church, return at two o'clock to the school, and 
return horn a after evening service to a five o'clock dinner. 
[This is an oki English custom of reading Evening Prayers in the 
afternoon an 1 holding no service in the evening, in larg* towns 
evening service began to be necessary instead of the afternoon hour 
and the custom sprea 1| 

&!*& 

* (In Duet's history of the Rebellion this trial is described very 
graphically, the Court House, the prisoner, the lawyers, the wit- 
nesses, the judge. Sen page 0-15, Vol. 1. J. 0.) 

|f)3r;l Letter] 

Ql'KKNSTON. Sl'PT ITU 1S19 

My Dearest Brother 

A very heavy calamity has cast a g'oom over all re- 
flecting minds in this Province: the account of our irreparable loss in 



the death of the Duke of Richmond arrived at York two days be- 
fore I left it The Governor was absent and this sad event had not 
even at that time been communicated to his excellent daughter its 
effects upon her delicate constitution were dreaded by all who know 
her unbounded affection for her father, who, most unduly attached to 
all bis children, had ever been wrapt up in this dai ling daughter: 
as the energetic promoter of all good in and to these provinces his 
Grace will be long and deeply regretted; indeed to promote the 
welfare of the Country committed to his care, he has sacrificed his 
valuable life. * + * the knowledge that had he been within the 
reach of medical aid his life might have been preserved is an ag- 
gravation to affliction. Depending upon his own excellent constit- 
ution and great physical strength he neglected the means of preserva- 
tion and died in a wretched hovel in an almost pathless wilderness 
unattended by any of his numerous family, three of whom had sep- 
arated from him at Kingston in the vain hope of again embracing 
him in Montreal: a march of 20 miles under a burning sun brought on 
hydrophobia and a few hours terminated a life which he resigned in 
full possession of his mental faculties, and with the most perfect 
resignation to the will of the Almighty. * * .* 

[64th Letter] 

YORK, SEPT. OTH,. 1811) 

[Announces birth of a dead child to Mrs. Jarvis (nee) 
Powell | 

(65th Letter] 

YORK SKPT 19th IS 19 
My'l Unrest Brother 

[Mrs. J. recovering] Mr. Powell leaves home 

next Friday to hold the Assizes at Newcastle * * * 

[Gist Letter] 

YORK OCT Hl-rri 1819. 
My Dearest Brother 

* * * The Consul from New Ycrk and his daugh- 
ters dined with us on Wednesday "'' '* * all of us were much pleas- 
ed with the Miss Buchanans * * * They go home by Montreal, 
llth Have just received our revered aunt's letter forwarded by you 
* * * I suppose the parcel which is Mrs- Philan's Poem contains 




Hannah Owen Peters, wife of Wm. Jarvis, Secretar}- of U.C 
Maria Lavinia Jarvis, aft ervu.rds Mrs. Geo. Hamilton. 

Augusta Jarvis, afterwards Mrs. T. McCormack. 
From a portrait in possession of ^Emilius Jarvis Esq. Toronto. 



33 

67th Letter! 

YORK, GOT 31st, 1819 
[Private] 

f68th Letter] 

YORK, Nov. 22nd 1819 
My dear aunt 

* * * I am sure you will be very sorry to Hear ef the 
death of poor Mrs. McGill. She has been ill for a long time and no 
one expected that she would recover. She died on Saturday night 
in consequence of a mortification having taken place. She was so 
much betier two days befo e when Anne and 1 were there with 
Grandmama that poor old Mrs. McGill seemed quite in high spirits 
and Dr. Widmere, who attended her, said, he thought there mi^ht 
be some hope, which made her death appear a greater shock. Her 
loss wil 1 be very mu :h f It, she was so ruu -h beloved and respected, 
and I do not think anyone will feel it more than Grandmama, wno 

ha>- known her for so many years. The funeral will be to- 
morrow * 

[69th Letter] 

YORK, JAN. 18th, 1820 
My Dearest Brother 

the gentleman who takes the letters. He is 

the Major of fche 68th, who has been Commandant at this post for 
some time and'is on his way to join his family in Ireland. [Major 
Gladstone] * * * 

i , - ... 

[70th Letter] 

YORK, MARCH. 10th, 1820 
My Dearest Brother 

*. * The Assamby was prorogued yesterday and we 
are left to the care of an Administrator. Sir Peregrine set off for 
Quebec this morning and we^shall in all probability see him no more 
till the arrival of Lord Dall^ousie, an event greatly desired by all who 
feel the importance of the presence of our excellent Governor and 
the pleasure ot Lady Sarah's society, indeed their return will be s.it- 
isfajtory to m^ oa that as well as other accounts, for during the 
Governor's absence Mr. Powell's station obliges him to see all strang- 
ers who com3 ,to the pla :e * * * Anxious for intelligence from home 
the change here .occasions the Government Bag to go to Halifax and 
by I'nid to Quebec therefore the various .mpedimsnts increase the 



length of time after its arrival * * * When Mr. Jarvis was in New 
York he brought some very excellent cotton stockings at $7 or $7| 
per doz. I very much want 2 doz. of that description, he does not 
remember where he purchased them only that it wa* in some bye 
lane. I likewise send a pattern of silk, begging my sister to procure 
if possible a full gown pattern of figured silk of the same or nearly 
the same color [pattern is a thin flat sarsnet of a dark dove grey] If 
none such can be had a nankeen figured crape of the colour it 
neither of these, a black figured silk or black figured nankeen crape, 
about 13 yards each of two different kinds of washing silks for tbj 
children and if they can be put into a box a doz pairs of wnite and 
as many cheap coloured long gloves, it will save me many dollars in 
the course of the year * * * Mr. P. has got through his late arduous 
duties won lerfully well; he is now enveloped in papers and much en- 
gaged in reading the documents laid before the Pa liament relative to 
the contest between the Northwest Company and the Earl of Selkirk: 
it has fallen to his lot to prove the want of dependence on his 
Lordship's veracity, and the proofs are too well authenticated to 
admit of doubt: his Lordship sunk the character of the British Peer 
when he became a speculator and the loss of health peace and c redit 
is the sacrifice * * * 

* (Poor Lord Selkirk who fought so bravely through so manv 
years against multiplied misfortunes, dangers and difficulties, floods 
frosts and famine, Indians, grasshoppers, Northwest Company, in his 
attempt to found a colony and who spent a fortune in the attempt is 
here rather harshly spoken of. Dent. Dr. Boyce and Kingsford give 
varying accounts and a pamphlet printed in 1817 in Lonvion gives 
the North West Company's version of the story. J. C.) 

[7 1st Letter | 

YORK, APKIL, 5th, I8:>0 
[Chiefly Private] 

* * * I enclose a memorandum from M r. Cameron, 
who is Mr. Gore's agent here. The Irons mentioned are most stup- 
endous amd magnificent but only calculated to be placed at the cor- 
ner of stone or marble steps to adorn: they cost 70 guineas in England 
and I do not wonder at our good friend's anxiety to know their fate: 
and I hope you will be able to ascertain it * * * 

| 72nd Letter] 

[From Miss Anne Powell to her uncle Mr. G. W. Mur- 
ray New Yor.t. Private, painful affairs, dated on outside York, 
April, 1820] RecM. 27th.] 



[7 3rd Letter 1 

York, April 10th, 1820 
My Dearest Brother 

* * * January Packet, the affairs of Europe are in a 
state of ferment the effects wiil not reach us I trust. * * * 

[74th Letter] 

YORK, MAY 29iH, 1820. 
My Dearest Brother 

[Condolence in sad misfortunes] Mr. P. bids me say 
that could you relinquish the employment whicn has produced nought 
else than disappointment and distre 1 ses of \arious descriptions and 
become an inhabitant of this happy and prosperous country where 
industry meets its certain tho' slow reward, 10JO acres of the best 
land he possesses shall become j-ours with every aid ais tation in the 
Govt. affords * * * the sacrifice to you would be greater than my 
imagination suggests but the transition from a life of care and keen 
dissippointment to the calm and natural avocations of an agri -ultur- 
ist would perhaps reward it by the restoration of peace and the pre- 
servation of health, a finer climate or more delightful country is not 
within the king's dominions, and say the dissatisfied what they may 
there is not in th3 worli a more equal government, but this you know 
as w ;ll without my information and it would be to me a source of 
heartfelt comfort could 1 be satisfied that political prejudices had so 
fai subsided as to overcome every objection to becoming what 'you 
are by birthright a British Subje ;t. If I err pardon me * You 
know the high estimation in which I hold this privilege and will for- 
give my earnest desire that all whom I love should share the blessing 



1 7 5th Letter] 

YORK, JULY 13xH, 182U. 
[Private] 

[76th Letter] 

QUEENSTON, AUG. 23RD, 1820. 

r Announces birth of a son to the Jarvises, the mother 
doing well] 

[77th Letter] 

YORK, OCT. HTH, 1820. 
[ Private] 



36 

[78th Letter] 

YORK, Nov. 27rH, 1820. 
My Dearest Brother 

* * * A large party at the Government house on the 23rd 
where the At Home which is a dress visit of half an hour was trans- 
formed into a Ball and Supper arid kept us up till between 2 and 3 
in the morning, the increase of our Society would surprise you, there 
were more than thirty well dressed Females and more than a dozen 
absent, my little girls, [the orphan grandchildren] particularly my 
dear Mary, were delighted with the party, and well they might for 
they receive the kindest attsntion from Sir Peregrine and Lady 
Sarah. 

[79th Letter] 

YORK, DEc.'2'IsT, 1820. 

[Private. The Jarvisas removed from Queenston to Niagara for 
some little time]. 

[80th Letter] 

YORK, JAN. U)TH, 182L 
My Dearest Brother 

Mr. P. is quite well it is now Term time and his more 
serious labours begin on the 31st when the Legislature meets I 
wish it was over for it is no trifling consideration that for the next 
two months I shall have to prepare twice? a week to entertain the 
members of the two Houses, whose united number is at least fifty. 
Do not suppose I can receive them all at one time, unfortunately inv 
dining room admits of a table for no more than 16 of which our own 
family are 6. The House of Assembly is the Brick building which 
you mav remember. at the extreme end of the town; it is now repaired 
after its being burned by the Americans, handsomely furnished, and 
Grant as Clerk of the Lower House occupies five good apartments 
besides a large kitchen; it saves l>im house rent l.ut is attended by 
inconveniences which he will feel during the confinement of his wifV 
in February or March. John [Powell] has similar apartments at 
which he stays during the session. Mr. Jarvis is Cle'-k in ( ham erv 
and as such attends the house. He will stay with us. Mary \visr>]\- 
determined to remain at home " * * the season has been a very 
severe one but some pleasant weather, good sleighing. Everything 
here is cheap beyond belief: My servant just brought, fiom market 
a Turkey weighing 15 Ibs. which cost ") N.Y Cy. I have paid $2 
for one of 5 Ibs. the finest pork is $4 and 4.', 'per c\vt. Mom- be- 



tween 3 and 4- dollars a barrel. Beef has been as low as 3d p.-r IM , 
yet servants' wages are as high as ever, ours stand us in $40 per 
month and the washing done out of the house. It is a sum which 
ought to maintain a regular family. * * 

[Wat-Latter] 

YORK, 1'V.i;. 1st. 1821. 
My Dearest Brother 

fc My annual labours commence this day which is 

the first Parliamentary dinner, the House met yesterday and by di- 
rection of the Governor the Commons chose their speaker. His Ex- 
cellenc y meets and speaks to them tomorrow. The Upper House 
dine with us to-day * * I hope, without expecting, a short session, 
for the increase of population has nearly doubled the representation 
and the Legislative Councillors have experienced an equal augmen- 
tation, discussions may be therefore expected. 

[82nd Letter] 

YORK, APRIL 1 TTH, 1821. 
[Private] 

Cold and snow, ague very prevalent. 

[83rd Letter | 

YORK, Jr\K 24th, 1821. 
[Private] 

(84th Letter] 

YORK. Arc. loth, 1821 
My Dearest Brother 

Our young friend Mr. William Robinson, brother of 
the 'Attorney General * * -+ The intense heat of weather for nearly 
the last fortnight has been almost too much to endure * * * I feel 
to-day all the effects of a night more resembling those I have passed 
in Alexandria, Egypt, than the general climate of Upper Canada. 
The drought has been equal to the heat but we shall be rewarded for 
our discomfort by an abundant harvest of the finest grain housed 
without even a shower; the great addition to our population by num- 
bers of hungry emigrants will furnish consumers of this overflow of 
bread-stuff for in that alone our abundance consists. The duties 
levied on provisions from the States leaves us at the mercy of the 
l>utrh*M-s who are strangers to that virtue 

I wish you could see 'our garden, it abounds in fruit and vege- 
tables of the very best kind -" * P the alarming indisposition of our 
darling Sam [the .Tarvis baby named after his grandfather, R:-v. 



itli Letter | 

YORK, OCT. 4xn, 1821. 
j Kntirely private] 

1 8 7th Letter] 

YORK, OCT. 15th, 1821. 
[Entirely private] 



Letter] 

YORK, DEC. IST, 1821. 
My Dearest Brother 

Mr. Powell's labours commenced on the 21st when at- 
ari unusually early pe riod the Legislature was called together, 2nd 
Dec. In the midst of all these causes of anxiety I have 

been obliged to do what uuder other circumstances would have been 
a matter of choice and source of amusement, attend a Coronation Ball 
given at the Govt. House, as soon as the farcical mourning for our 
unlamented Queen expired: it was numerous and splendid: between 
150 and 200 people present, a proof of the increase of Society 
here at present augmented by the members of the Legislature 
[Copying ended 13th May, 1897.] 

Samuel Peters] * * ~ x ~ Eliza says I must have a black satin or black 
figured silk gown. Neither can be got here. Mr. Robinson would 
take charge of so small a parcel for me * * 

[83th Letter] 

YORK, SKPT. UTH, 1821. 
My Dearest Brother 

: " The season is very sickly .and appears totally 
different to those we used to experience * * * excessive heat and 
drought succeeded by almost constant rains "* I fear for their 
effect on Mr. P. who is now I imagine on his way to Sandwich, 
where he holds the Assizes on the 13th, he has gone in our commodi- 
ous covered wagon with four horses, which affords room for J. Powell 
who accompanies him: he is sometimes, half inclined to give up these 
annual journeys but while the fatigue is not too great 1 encourage 
him to take the advantage of air, exercise and change of scene, there 
is no emolument MOAV attending them for the allowance is seldom 
equal to the expense, it being now no greater when there are seven 
courts than when there were but three * * * Mary would be pleas- 
ed to introduce you to her Humming Bird which has been the pet for 
some weeks ami appears satisfied with its captivity * 



(Additional light has been cast upon the reference to the son in 
prison on page one also referred to on page three as "My poor J^rry" 
by a letter from .ZEmilius Jar-vis, Esq., who kindly gives the following 
information which is quite romantic obtained from a bundle of letters 
relating to Jeremiah Powell. It appears that he went away at an 
early age and joined a ship in Baltimore which proved to be owned 
by the Spanish pirate Mirando. He was ultimately captured and 
sentenced to be hanged with the rest of the crew. The old Chief 
Justice travelled over to England and thence to Spain and pleaded 
his son's case before the Spanish Court and was successful in obtain- 
ing his pardon, returning home with his son, who subsequently 
went to sea again and was never heard of. Mr. Jarvis still owns a 
little oak box and a few pieces of the set of chessm i n which ware 
carved by him while a prisoner in Spain. He sent them to a young 
lady in Boston, to whom he was engaged to- be married. Years 
afterwards and after his death she sent them to Mrs. S. P. Jarvis 
his sister. J. C.) 

( Mrs. Curzoivs death occurred in little more than a year after 
copying the above letters. Her literary work had been carried on 
in spite of failing health almost to the last. The following tribute to 
her memory by the pen of the present writer may perhaps fittingly 
close this page written in loving memory of Mrs S. A. Curzon, who 
so carefully copied the foregoing letters. The obituary notice which 
was written immediately after her lamented death appeared as His- 
torical No. 82.) 

ly the death of Mrs. Cumm of Toronto, Canada has sustained 
a loss which will long be felt. An English woman, she was one of 
the earliest pioneers in historical research in Canada, an author, she 
was a loving mother and an excellent housekeeper, an advocate of 
Woman's Suffrage, her gracious presence showed the true !ad\, hold- 
ing strong views on one side of politics, she antagonized none, with a 
frail frame she had a high courag.-? enduring trials and difficulties of 
no ordinary character, she was not embittered by them but support- 
ed through all by strong Christian principle and faith in the unseen. 

Born in England in 183:? she has lived in Toronto since 1862. 
In early years she wrote for various English magazines and afcer- 
wartU in her adopted home, for the' Canadian Monthly, The Week, 
Dominion Illuslratad, Canadian Magazine etc. Her drama of Laura 
Se.rord ma~ be said to have made the Canadian world acquainted 
with that heroine, and the course of historic research thus begun may 
be said to have been the origin of several historical Societies. For 
s;>m;> time she \v;is the co-editor of t!ie Citizen and did much l>v her 



pen to secure the right to women of a University education. She 
was also a strong advocate of Woman's Suffrage, to her was chiefly 
due the formation of the Woman's Historical . v ociety, of which she 
was the first President. She was also an honorary member of the 
York Pioneers and the Woman's Art Assembly, and a member of the 
National Council of Women. "One of the cleverest, she was al- 
so one of the sweetest of women,'' are the appropriate words of a 
Toronto journalist. Another a noted poet attributes to her a "virility 
of style, a strength and energy to be found in the work of no 
other Canadian woman," Another beautiful feature of charactor 
was the encouragement given by her to young writers, her example 
proving a strong incentive to many to follow in her steps. By birth 
and refinement a true gentlewoman in the highest sense of the term, 
she worked with wonderfull energy for the rights, not only of her 
sex, but for the improvement of her adopted country, so that Canada 
has by her death sustained irreparable loss. Her lines on Queenston 
Hights show a grasp of thought, a sympathy, a patriotic fervor 
which recommend them to all lovers of poetry, as well as lovers of 
their country. Her modest signature S.A.C. will be much missed in 
the periodicals formerly graced by her ready pen. 

At her funeral the different So ieties to which she belonged, 
united to do her honor. Canon Bull represented Lundy's Lane His- 
torical Society, Mr. and Mrs. Brarit-Sero, West worth Historical So- 
ciety, J. H. Thompson, the York Pioneers, Lady Edgar and others, 
the Women's Historical Society, and many testified by their pres- 
ence and their sorrow their appreciaton of one who gave gratuit- 
ously and with no stinted hand, so much labor to the Canada she 
loved. J. C. 






WILLIAM DUIT MILLER 



It is the intention of the Society to publish from time to time as 
opportunity may offer short notices of early inhabitants of the town. 
There have been already more or less full accounts of several families 
in the township as Servos, Ball, Whitmore, Field, McFarland as 
found in our publications numbers five, eight, eleven, but there has 
l)3eii little mention of any of our chief townsmen such as Heron, 
Crooks, Grier, Dickson, Clench, Rogers, Muirhead, Lockhart. It is 
hoped that any who can help in this direction will do so. The name 
found at the Lead of this article may be seen again and again in ear- 
ly papers of the town and even down to a period in the memory of 
many now living, Col \V. D. Miller is remembered as having filled 
many offices and alwavs with honor as Secretary of many societies, 
Registrar for many years, Coroner, County Clerk, Merchant, Elder 
of St. Andrew's Church, as Militia Officer etc., all this shows in what 
esteem he was held and how trusted, and of his numerous descend- 
ants many have sustained the honor of the father's name. 

Born in 1 786 of Scottish parentage, nearly his whole life was 
spent in Canada. The name W. D. Miller appears as Ensign in the 
Lincoln Militia in 1812 and he afterwards reached the rank of 
Lt. -Colonel although from his retiring nature he never wished the 
title to be used in addressing him as so many do. 

His youngest daughter, Mrs. Wilson, remembers distinctly that 
when a little girl she went with him on the 4th of J une (Training 
Day) t<> Chippawa, as having lived there first he retained his posi- 
tion of Colonel of the regiment long after he had removed to Niagara. 
Mrs. Wynn, the eldest daughter who died at Niagara, aged 90, was 
born at Cli ; ppavv?i in 1839, while Richard Miller, another child was 
born in Niagara in 1817 in what is now called "The Wilderness" now 
occupied by W. H. J Evans, then owned by Col. Wni CUus. Mrs. 
Wilson tells that while the residence on M try Street of her father 
\v;is being built her nuther planted trees chiefly willows, and 
thfit she was assisted by Col. Glaus, the young trees being taken 



_42 

from "The Wilderness." Immense willows still stand in the low 
ground of this picturesque spot, a tall Bilm of Gilead also and 
many sycamores. Here Capt. Geale used to tell he remambared 
seeing the whole enclosure filled with Indians as Col. Claus was the 
Deputy Superintendent of Indians as Daniel Claus the son-in-law of 
Sir William Johnson had also held this position. In the map of the 
town in 1813 given in Lossing's War of 1812, the place is marked 
Claus property. 

In the Gleaner Newspaper published at Niagara from 1817 to 
1837 the name of W. D. Miller is frequently found, as in 1828 W. 
D. Miller advertises the Sunday School Union, and in 1830 he has 
received a number of S. S. books from thes Depository at Montreal to 
be sold at prime cost, and in another issue a reward of ,25 is offered 
for the discovery of the robber who has stolen ^3 JO from the store 
of W. D. Miller, showing that an extensive business was carried on 
The obituary notice in a Niagara paper, written probably by his pas- 
tor, the late Rev. Chas. Campbell, givjs SDine interesting particulars. 

"Died at Niagara Feb. 18th, 1839, ag^d 73, William Duff 
Miller, Inspector and Dap. Clerk of the Crown an J Pleas, a resident 
cf the frontier about 57 years and of the town upwards of 50 years. 
The office of Deputy Clerk he filled for over 30 years with great care 
and skill. Royalty and Loyalty were his guiding stars, to his church 
(the Auld Kink) he has been a pillar for many years. Conciliatory 
and urbane is manner consistent in conduct, a pious member of the 
community, an efficient public officer both in a civil and military 
capacity, a firm friend, his memory will not soon fade. He delighted 
torelat^ the Great Napoleon's visit to Egypt, his warm reception by 
the British forces and his sudden departure. The deceased leaves a 
large family brought up to strict business habits, engaged in active 
and lucrative pursuits with distinction and honor." 

In the old record book of St. Andrew's Church dating from 171)4 
the deceased is thus in stately periods recorded. "Who for the long 
period of half a century had been a most valuable member taking on 
all occasions a deep interest and acting a faithful p^rt in the tempor- 
al and spiritual affairs of the church, being one of that little company 
of excellent men (himself the last survivor) that during a lengthened 
probation of trial and suffering arising chienV from the want of regu- 
lar ministerial services managed and kept together the Presbyterian 
congregation of Niagara when in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty nine, their laudable efforts were at last re- 
warded by the Church of Scotland's ordaining and inducting a minis- 
ter to the pastorate; the deceased the following year on the comple- 
tion of the ecclesiastical organization of the congregation to church 



43 

ordinances was ordained to the Eldership, which office he worthily 
. and actively filled to the day he rested from his labors." 

In the frame building which still stands in good preservation, a 
large family was brought up, the wife and mother as shown by St. 
Andrew's old Record Book of 1794, was Ann Vansickle, remembered 
as a notable housekeeper, there were seven sons and five daughters, 
the eldest born in 18 J9, the youngest tn 1832. T lie obituary notices 
to several of the family have been found and these show how the 
careful training of the sons by the father and mother had had such 
excellent results. 

^ "Died at Gait Judge Miller, in his 8lst year, almost the last of 

seven sons who made their mark in the history of Canada. Born in 
1810, no less than three of the brothers William, John and Richard 
f , studied law achieving distinction. He leaves VV. A Miller, Q.C , 
Toronto, Henry Miller, Gait, Mrs. Z. A. Lash, Mrs. J. B. Lash, Miss 
Carrie Miller. The bar of the County of Waterloo passed a resolu- 
tion referring to his manly, upright character, his able, upright and 
painstaking conduct as jndga which won the respect and confidence 
of the people " 

"Died at Gait, John Miller, aged 56, born in the District ef 
Niagara, in 1813, educated at Niagara Grammar School, at seven- 
teen years of age he entered the office of Judge Campbell, Niagara, 
and went to Gait in 1835, where his business was large and remuner- 
ative and he gained the confidence and favor of the community. 
He was the pioneer lawyer of Gait. 

"Died in St. Catharines, aged 56, Richard Miller, Q,C., born at 
Niagira 1817 in '-The Wilder n^ss". He studied law with th- late 
Judge Campbell and became his partner, removed to St. Catharines 
in 1850, Mr. Boomer being his partner. In his long career at the 
bar he gained a reputation for probity second to none, his integrity 
was unquestioned, kind hearted and considerate he handled with care 
and prudenca aiikf the estate of the poor man arid that of a million- 
aire. Pea-:e to his ashes. The marnbers of the bar attended the 
funeral and there were 60 carriages in the cortege." 

"Died aged 71, at Peorid, III., Duncan Miller M.D., born in 
1827 in Niagara, he was predeceased by his six brothers 

Mrs Wynn died at Niagara aged 90. 

A son of John Miller an M. D., died in California, the next 
son Judge Miller died in Winnipeg. 

A son of Mrs Lash is a lawyer in Toronto and Prof. Millar of 
the University is the Judge's grandson. 

Mr. Miller was a lover of books as shewn by the large collect- 
ion he had gathered (many of them of a religious natur ) 



44 

and his care in preserving these as well as tli^ early newspa- 
pers of that time. Several volumes of the Gleaner newspaper for the 
years 1826 to 1833 are still in existence and these as well as other 
books show his methodical habits, his love of reading and his love 
of music. A very good water color portrait by Hoppner Meyer a 
noted artist of that date represents a younger man than does the pic 
ture which appears on page 41 Many interesting articles have been 
contributed to the Historical Room by Mrs. J. E. VVi'son. Toronto, 
the youngest daughter and the only surviving child. 



'Ducit A-rnor Fatriee" 



Niagara 
Historical Society 



NO 15 



SIR ISAAC BROCK 

THE COUNT DE PUISAYE 

1907 



PRICE 20 CENTS, 



Tioaea Frint, Niagara. 




PREFACE 



Our fifteenth publication is offered to the m ambers of our 
Society and the general public in the belief that a favorable 
reception will be accorded it as these papers read before other 
Societies have been frequently asked for. It is well that we should 
honor the name of Sir Isaac Brock and we are glad that steps 
are bsing taken to keep before the youth of our country the names 
of our great men whether in arms, in art, in literature or in state- 
manship. The Count de Puisaye, a notable character in French 
history as well as in our Canadian annals may be called the 
pioneer of literature in Niagara, indeed in Upper Canada, as he 
commenced writing his History of the French Revolution while 
living in his home on the banks of the Niagara rrwr in 1801. It 
has been found since the printing of this publication that he married 
his first wife in 1788, she being the only daughter of Marquis de 
Manilles of large property in Normandy. 

It is our sad duty to publish obituary notices of two esteemed 
contributors to our publications and members of our Society, our 
Patron, Wm. Kirby, F.R 8 C., and Mrs. Greene whoay work may 
be found in pamphlets 8 and 13, 




SIR ISAAC BROCK 



Paper Read Before York Pioneers, 1st May, 1906, and before 
Niagara Historical Society May 14th, by Janet Carnochan. 



The Hero of Upper Canada ! His fame has been declared so 
often an 1 in so many different ways. By the tears of the people 
he give his life to: save, by the pen of his biographers, by the honors 
paid by his sovereign, by the pages of history, by military despatch- 
es, by the column raised by the province and by the second still 
more s'ately column, overlooking the spot where he fell. But what 
sliall we find fresh to say since so many have written ana writ- 
ten, too, so well ? The first Life and Correspondence, by his 
napbew, F. B. Tuppar, written in 18.45, the second edition in 
1847 with additional material, the sketch by Dent in Canadian 
Portraits, the Life and Times, by our old friend, D. B. Read, and 
the last life by Lady EJgar with the various histories of Canada, 
by Christie. Kingsford, Hannay, from these you must all be 
familiar with the life of Sir Isaac Brock, and it would almost 
seem superfluous to try to say more My paper will not be a 
history of his times and consequently of Canada during his life, 
nor will it be a technical and accurate account of the battles in 
which lie engaged, but what I have been able to glean of Brock 
himself. T h tve always tried in an historical paper to introduce 
little personal items as a relief and thus avoid the deadly dullness 
which often tries the patience of those attending historical meet- 
ings. But after ninety years such personal items are riot easy to 
find, yet * few have been gathered from far different sources. 
More attention has always been given to Brock as a soldier than 
in any other capacity, but I should like to dwell not only on the 
man of war, but the statesman, the friend, the brother, the 
athlete, the student, the man of the world, the Christian, for in 
all these he shines and never has the slightest word appeared 
against his character, in all his chequered career in many lands, 



whether in his native Isle of Guernsey, in Barbadoes and Jamaica 
in Hollanl, Denmark, in England or Canada, whather as general 
or administrator of the Government, always and everywhere brave 
and generous, gentle, stern, yet mild, a man of integrity, a 
thorough gentleman. 

The Brocks may well be called a military family arid many 
of them bravely met the fate of those who fight for their country 
either in the army or navy, and others met with violent or sud- 
den deaths. Ic is very remarkable that of eight brothers of this, 
family, no male descendant of the name is -now in existence. 
The eldest brother, John, Colons! of the 81st Regiment, was killed 
in a. duel at the Cape of Good Hope ; the second brother, 
Ferdinand, lieutenant in the 60th Regiment, was killed at Baton 
Rouge ; a nephew midshipman, Chrts. Tupper, was drowned ; Lt. 
E W. Tupper, killed in action in Greece. One died of fever in 
Jamaica, another, Col. Tupper, slain in action in the Chilian ser- 
vice ; another of the 5th Bengal Infantry, killed in action; still 
another died in Bermuda and John G. Tupper perished at sea. 

Isaac Brock, born 6th Oct , 1769, at St. Peter's Port, Guernsny 
was the eighth son of John Brock and Elizabeth de Lisle. There 
were in the family ten sons and four daughters. The father had 
been a midshipmin in the navy and diad at the early ag^s of 48, 
the eldest son, John, being only 17, but the family were left in 
affluent circumstances and at fifteen Isaac secured by purchase a 
commission as ensign in the 8th Regiment. In 1791 he ex- 
changed into the 49th, becoming captain and with that regiment 
his name has always been identified. With the 49th he went to 
the West Indies, but returned to England to recruit from the 
effects of a fever, having been faithfully nursed bv his servant, 
Dobsori, his cousin dying from fever at the same time. Next by 
purchase be became major, and at twenty -eight lieutenant-colonel. 
At the battle of Egmont-op Zee in Holland he wtvs struck by a 
bullet in the neck and knocked senseless, but his life was won- 
derfully saved. In 1801 he was second in command of the 
land iorces in Denmark in the attack on Copenhagen with Sir 
Hyde Parker and Nelson, and with the 49th and 500 seamen 
stormed the battery. In 1802 he was ordered to Canada where 
most of the rest of his life was spent, except one year in Eng- 
land in 1805 and 1806. 

And first must be taken his military career. In the frank 
statement and glorification of the military life made by Lord 
Wolseley in his autobiography that he had set before himself 
the idea of reaching the highest point attainable as a military 
man, we find almost a parallel in the life of Brock, who seems. 



to have ha j a definite aim in life ; in the years of what seem- 
ed to him inaction in Canada he was chafing for an active 
military career on the continent, while Britain was fighting almost 
alone in splendid isolation against th? ambitious despot who 
conquered successfully country after country, placing his brothers 
or his marshals on throne after throne, Britain alone uncon- 
querable in her island home protected by her navy under Col- 
lingwood and Nelson and giving the dictator to Europe many 
a sharp and heavy blow. 

Brock all this time eager as a hound on leash to mingle in 
.the fray, was reserved to save our homes to us and had his 
lifd been spired what reverses to our arms might have been 
averted ; the war would have been brought to a more speedy 
conclusion. Had ha been in power the cautious and timid pol- 
icy of Prevost would not have given an armistice and time to 
the enemv to build b:>ats aad drill, the unnecessary retreat at 
Sackett's Harbor and .Ptattsburg (when British officers in despair 
and rage broke their swords) would not have taken place nor the 
disastrous retreat at Moravian Town, with the sacrifice of that 
noble red man Tecumseh, the war would have closed earlier, and 
the great loss of life in attempting an impossibility at New Or- 
leans when the veterans of the British army met death and de 
feat would all have been avoided. The promptness to act, the 
ability to command, the skill to seize an opportunity, the tact 
in governing, the enthusiasm evoked by a successful and loved 
commander such as Brojk, would have given another texture to 
the war of 1812, would have averted many hardships and saved 
many precious lives on both sides. 

An explanation must be given of some expressions used by 
CJeneral Brock seeming to reflect on the loyalty of the people 
of Upper Canada. It must be remembered that while most of 
the inhabitants of Upper Canada were U. E. Loyalists, who 
might all be depended on. and partly from what they had suf- 
feared, were intensely eager to repel the invaders, there were 
many who by the solicitations and easy terms offered by Gov- 
ernor .Sim-:oe had come in merely to obtain land and could not 
be depended on to fight against their former countrymen, nay, 
were utterly disloyal by speech and act. Against such persons 
only were the remarks of Brock levelled, and justly so. In an- 
other respect, too, Brock showed his appreciation of the Can- 
adian people. While it was common for some officers of the 
regular army to sneer at the militia force of the country. Brock 
never *witbheld the generous word of praise to our militia. And, 
indeed, had it not been for the militia and volunteer force of 



the country, it had been utterly impossible for the small force 
of the regular army to defend such an extensive frontier. The 
young farmers who with tbsir fatheis came forward leaving their 
fields un ploughed and their crops unharvestecl, often tended onlv 
by the wives and daughters, the business men, law students and 
others who lett t.ieir warehouses and offices neglected in order 
to repel the invader, to these as well as to the regular army, do 
we owe that when the war closed not a foot of our land was 
in possession <<f the enemy. Britain engaged in that Titantic 
struggle with Napoleon could send out but little help, and in- 
deed when the struggle seemed ended and the despot safe in 
Elba and a force of 16,JOO was sent, we blush to say that through 
mismanagement there were humiliating retreats. 

It is not necessary here to enter into the reasons for the 
war of 1812, the orders-in-Council, the British right of search, 
the desire to possess Canada, or to show that while France was 
really the cause of much of the loss to the shipping of tbe Un 
ited States, Britain alone was blamed Suffice it to say that in 
spite of the opposition of the New England States, war was declared 
on the 17th June, 1812. Bro. k had been for some months Admin- 
istrator of the Government in the absence of Governor Gore, am had 
been preparing for the expected invasion of the country, as far at 
least as the means at his command would allow. We cannot but ad- 
mire his promptness and swiftness of movement, his det ision of char- 
acter, his apparent ubiquity. As the writer "Veritas" expressed if, 
"H appears to have flo-vn, as it ware." The writer of the 
first biogr iphy tersely expresses it : "To-day at York engaged 
in his civil and military duties, to-morrow at Fort George sup 
erintending the'deftm es of the Niagara frontier, or at Kingston 
reviewing and ariim iting th 3 militia ; to-dav at Fort George watch 
ing the enemy, tlie next at York dissolving the Legislature, and 
a fortnight later returning from the capture of Detroit ; to-day 
at Fore George again, a few hours later at Fort Erie endeavor- 
ing to re- take the brigs 'Detroit' and 'Caledonia' When war 
was declared Brock was at York, an extra session of the Leg- 
islature was called, and steps taken to prepare for this emer- 
gency. On the 12th July General Hull crossed the Detroit, 
sendi g out a bombastic proclamation Brock could not leave 
York till the 6th August, a* he must meet fche Legislature there. 
His small force reached Burlington Bay, thence by land to 
Long Point, calling at Mohawk village, on the Grand Riv^r ; part 
went by water along the north shore of Lake Erie, while others 
marched by land. The weather was rainy and stormy Five days 
and nights of incessant toil brought them to Amherstburg on the 



5 

13tb, only to find that Hull had retreated to Detroit. The meet- 
ing with Tecumseh was a picturesque scene, and the admiration 
of each for the other shows the generous nature of both. The 
red warrior, with well -cut features, athletic form, alert, brave, was 
so struck with the soldierly appearance of Brock that he exclaim- 
ed, "Here is a man." The chief rapidly sketched the plan of the 
fort on a piece of birch bark, and the most feasible way of tak- 
ing it. The council of officers was almost unanimous against 
risking an attack, but heie again Brock's prompt decision settled 
the matter. "Gentlemen, I have decided on crossing;, and instead 
of any further advice I entreat you to give me your cordial and 
hearty support." The audacity of this decision and the bold at- 
tack on the fort were rewarded with the astonishing surrender of 
the fortress with 2,500 men, valuable stores, and the whole of the 
territory of Michigan, and all without the sacrifice of a single 
drop of British blood. An American historian says: "In the 
short space of 19 days he had met the Legislature, arranged pub- 
lic affairs, travelled about 300 miles, returned the victor of a 
vast territory." The remaining six weeks of his life were crowd- 
ed full of events. To his great mortification on his return with 
plans for active warfare to seize Fort Niagara and attack 
Sackett's Harbor he found Prevost had arranged for an armis- 
tice. 

The period between the conquest of Detroit and the battle of 
Queenston Heights, gave opportunity to the enemy to prepare for 
another invasion and Brock's time was fully occupied. The prob- 
lem was how to place his few soldiers so as to defend the Niagara 
frontier, as it was not known at what point the attack would be 
made, at Fort Erie, Cbippawa, Queenston or Niagara, and night 
and day the force was on guard. Early on the morning of the 
13th of October the sound of guns* was heard and Brock arose, 
and leaving orders to follow him, rode away up the Queenston 
road to nuet the rider on the pale horse. A small force at Brown's 
Point of York militia, another at Vroomin's Battery, a few in 

Queenston, and a still small-*! number on the Heights, these 

wercj all at hand to resist a large American force, and at first 
these seemed enough as m^ny of their boats were sunk and 
taken prisoners, but a pilot had shown the way up the fisher- 
man's path concealed from, the view of our men and these soon 
had possession of the Heig its When B-ock passed the York 
volunteers setting out from Brown's Point, he waved his hand 
and called out to them to push on. On reaching Queenston he 
boldly advanced up the heights with the troops there, his tall 
person and general's uniform boing a sure target for the enemy. 



6 

A few words were all that could be heard ere his spirit took 
its flight. The body was carried to a stone house which still 
stands, and another attempt was made at 10 o'clock by the 
brave Macdonell, A.D.C. a young man of great promise ; he, 
too, gave up his young life in the attempt to dislodge the enemy. 
Thus there were, we may say, three engagements. First, under 
Brock ; second, Macdonell ; third, under Sheaffe with additional 
forces from Fort George and Chippawa. This time a detour 
was made around the mountain and the American troops found 
themselves unexpectedly assailed on both sides. The appalling 
war whoop of 150 Mohawk Indians under Norton, was heard. 
There were, besides, Merritt's troop of cavalry, part of the 41st 
Regiment and a company of colored troops (refugee slaves) 
York and Lincoln militia, part of the 49th Regiment ; only half 
of the force consisted of regulars. Our forces, maddened by the 
death of their beloved leader, fought as never before and soon 
the enemy showed the white flag and nine hundred prisoners 
were taken. But, though victory crowned our arms, with what 
sad hearts did our men return bearing that form, majestic in 
death. The body was taken to Government House, where it 
lay for three days, and on the 16th, was committed to the 
grave in the Cavalier bastion of Fort George, lately constructed 
under the general's orders. 

Our narrative might here end, but to few mortals is it 
given to have four burials For twelve years the bodies lay at 
Fort George. During six months of that period the Americans 
had possession and the line describing the funeral of Sir John 
Moore is recalled "that the foe and the stranger will tread o'er 
his head." In 1824 a monument was raised on Queenstoa Heights, 
the money granted by provincial parliament and on the 13th 
October the bodies were re interred, 5,OOJ person baing present. 
It was an impressive spectacle, the procession being two miles 
long and taking three hours to reach the Heights, the length- 
ened column winding slowly up the steep ascent. Alike were 
seen the striking garb of the red men arifi the picturesque 
dress of the Highlanders, the relatives of Macdonell being in 
Highland costume, and young Grant, from Grand River, in full 
Indian dress 

In 1840 a miscreant named Lett shattered the monument 
with gun-powder. Universal execration was meted out to this 
deed, and on the 30th July, 184J, an immense meeting of 8,000 
persons was held on Queen ston Heights producing one of the 
most remarkable scenic effects effects ever beheld iii Canada. 
Ten steamers ascended tl;e i-iVcr headed by H. M S. Traveller, a 



7 

procession on land at the same time and cheers were heard from 
ship to shore and shore to ship alternately. The presence of the 
Royal Artillery, the 93rd Highlanders and the burnished helmets 
of che Dragoon Guards added brilliancy to the scene. Eloquent 
speeches were made by many noted men of that day. There 
were eleven resolutions and as each gave opportunity for a speech 
from the mover and seconder, it was late before the meeting 
closed, and a legend exists in Niagara that the caterers who had 
provided generously and lavishly for hungry men, lost heavily, as 
little opportunity was given for the disposal of the viands 
provided. 

Immediate steps were taken to replace the monument. This 
time the money was raised by subscription, all the military in 
the country giving a day's pay and subscriptions from all classes 
flowed in generously till $50,000 was raised. It was not, how- 
ever, till 1853 that the last burial took place, the body having 
meanwhile been placed for a year in the Hamilton family bury- 
ing ground at Queenston. It may be questioned whether in any 
place in the world so grand a monument stands on so com- 
manding a spot, giving so fair a view of river, lake, forest and 
plain, the varying colours of brown earth, golden grain, sombre 
pines, peach orchards, or "maple foiests all aflame," the quiet 
village of Queenston with the beautiful river broad and blue, with 
its many points and bays, and far below the two forts on op- 
posite sided, Mississagua and Niagara, and on a clear day forty 
miles distant may be seen the fair city of Toronto. Such a pan- 
oramic view we might go far to find, and turning the eye back- 
ward and upward to the height of 175 feeb the figure of Brock 
with arm extended to the opposite shore as if in warning. 

For the bast short description of the battle we are indebted 
to the late Col. J. G. Currie, who tells an interesting story of 
what he saw as a boy at the meeting of 1840, of a young 
British tar from the Traveller climbing hani over hand up the 
lightning-rod of the shattered monument and amid the bated 
breath of the spectators placing a Union Jack at the top, while 
a tremendous cheer rent the air. The fullest and best from a 
military standpoint being absolutely and technically correct is the 
account by Col. Cruikshank. 

On the 6th November, 1812, soon after the funeral of General 
Brock a council of condolence was held by the Indian Chiefs of 
the Six Nations, Hurons, Pottowattomies, etc., at the Council 
House, Niagara, and Little Cayuga, using the red man's beauti- 
ful figurative language, said: "Brothers, we therefore now seeing 
you darkened with grief, your eyes dim with tears and your 



8 

throat stopped with the fores of your affection. With these strings 
of wampum we wipe away your tears, we clear the passage in 
your throats that you may have free utterance for your thoughts 
and we wipe clear from blood the place of your abode. That 
the remains of your late friend and commander, General Brock, 
shall receive no injury, we cover it with this belt of wampum 
which we do from the grateful sensations which his friendship 
towards us inspired us with, also in conformity to the customs 
of our ancestors." 

As a brother Sir Isaac Brock presents a no less pleasing 
picture, and the almost pathetic efforts to reconcile two of his 
brothers, offer a noble example to all. Just at the time when 
dangers were thickening around him and his mind was full of 
plans to meet the coming war, disaster met the Brock family. 
In June 1811 a firm of London bankers, of which William Brock 
was the senior member, having met with great losses, failed. 
Isaac Brock had obtained ^3,000 to purchase his commissions, 
but William who had no family had never intended to ask for 
this sum, but unfortunately it appeared on the books as a loan 
and General Brock was thus on the list of debtors. Savery and 
Mr. Tupper also lost heavily, and coolness and entrangcment 
arose between William and Irving which caused their brother 
in distant Canada much sorrow, and all this just as he entered 
on his duties as President of the Province. Thi* indeed was a 
bolt from the blue, a stinging blow to one who was the soul 
of honor and scrupulous to a high degree in money matters. 
He writes a most pathetic sympathetic letter. "Poverty I was 
prepared to, bear, but Irving, if you love me, do no', by any act- 
ion or word add to the sorrows of poor unfortunate William. 
Remember his kindness to me. Hang the world, it is not 
worth a thought, be generous, oh my dear boy forget the past and 
let us all unite in soothing the griefs of one of the best hearts 
heaven ( eYer ; formedr. Could tears restore him he would soon be 
happy. I sleep little, but am constrained to assume a smiling face 
throagh the day. ; Did it , depend on myself how gladly would I 
live on bread and water. William writes that no unpleasant steps 
will be taken to enforce the debt, and an/s "A Mr. Ellis, lately 
from Canada said that sooner than anything unpleasant should 
happen to you, 30 great is his esteem and friendship for you, 
that he would contrive to pav the debt himself He also said 
you were so beloved in Canada that your friends would, if neces- 
sary assist you to any amount." What a relief this must have 
been in view of his desparing expression in another letter. "Why 
keep me in suspense ? Arc? my commissions safe, or must they bj 



9- 

Can I not retain out of the wrack my two or three 
hundred a year? Taey would save us all from want, and we 
might retire to some corner and still be happy. Yesterday was 
the first truly gloomy birthday I have ever passed." 

Sir Isaac, however, prepared t/ftce the difficulty by m-et- 
ing the obligation by degrees He says that his s ilary 
for his new office is ^1,000, and this he hopes to give to pay 
the debt. His inflexible honesty says "1 shall en -lo>e a power of 
attorney, do with it what justice demands, pay as yoa receive," 
and then affection speaks, "unless, indeed, want among any of 
you calls for aid? in that case mike use of the m jney and let 
the worst come." He 'had had, he said, to expend about ,400 
in outfits, arid in his position he must entertain. In the hour of 
victory, oa his return from Detroit, his thoughts turn to his fam- 
ily trouble and he writes "When I returned Heaven thanks for 
mv amazing success, I thought of you all. You appeared to me 
happy, your late sorrows forgotten. L j t me know, my dear broth- 
ers, that you are all united. The want of union w.ts nearly los- 
ing this province, and be assured it operates in the same way in 
families." Ifc is pleasing to note that the urgent appeals of this 
noble brother were successful On Oct. 13, the dav that Sir Isaac 
Brock lay cold in death, Irving, his br-.ther, received a letter 
from him "Rejoice with me and join with me in prayers to heaven. 
Let me hear you are united and happy." Was it the mys'ierious 
power of mind over mind, in which we are beginning to believe, 
that caused the reconciliation which is thus referred to in a letter 
from William to Savery on the same day "As I well knew that 
Isaac would not consider his good fortune complete unless a re- 
conciliation took place between Irving and myself, I went up to- 
day, on seeing him, and shook hands. He then showed me two 
lines which he had just received from Isaac I am glad that we 
shook hands before I saw the contents" The brothers were all 
greatly excited and pleased when the honor of K. B was conferred 
upon him, the news of which only readied Canada after his 
death. 

His kind heart is also shown by his sending two skins for 
muffs for his "two dear little girls," his niect-s. Another pathetic 
incident referred to in the preface to tie biography shows the deep 
feeling of the family for his loss In 1844, over thirty years 
after the battle, the box of manuscripts ynd the trunks belonging 
to Sir Isaac, which had been sent to England soon after his 
death, and had remained in the possession of his brother Savery, 
unopened, he having shrunk from the sight of these belongings 
of his well beloved brother, were opened. The Gensral's uni- 



10 - 

forms, including that in which he fell, were much moth-eaten, 
but the manuscripts were uninjured, and helpad his nephew 
to prepare the biography. 

As a friend, Sir Isaac was a good correspondent but two 
incidents alone will be given showing his kin 1 ness of heart 
and benevolence, as w 11 as his interest in a young soldier. At 
the time of his death there had b ;en resiling uu ler his roof 
and protection for nearly two y-ars a youth of nine years of 
age, it being the General's intention to provide foi him. This 
was the son of a captain in the 49th, who had been drowned 
two or three years previously. Brock's relations had for him 
the warmest affection, and servants cirefullv preserved relics of 
their "dear master" as they called him. Col Riynes, in writ- 
ing to him, t linking of tie sb^ra ral?s of mlitiry lif% warns 
him, 4f the natural benevolence of your disposition m:iy lead 
you into trouble." Five years after his d^at'.i bis brother Sav- 
ery, visiting Cana la, nut m my who tesrifi?dto tae esteem in 
which he was held an! his miny aets of kindness. Tae testi- 
mony of Col. FitzGibbim to the- kin Iness saown hi.n by Bro ;k 
is, says his biographer, "as honorable to the one as to the 
other," for many in their advancement forget the hind that 
outstretahed had raised tham to a h g er position. James F'tz 
Gibbon a private in the 49th, was with Brock in the buttle of 
Egmont-op-Z^p, and tells of the bravery of Savary there and of 
the delight of the soldiers in repeating the good-natured spar- 
ring between the two brothers. 

FitzGibbon was soon promoted by Brock to be sergeant- 
major, and tells his story gratefully thus of his earliest and b.-st 
benefactor: - '-That I might do honor to the General's memory, 
I have ever striven to serve my country well The poor un- 
educated private soldier raised up by Sir Isaac Bro:-k until he 
held in turn his Majesty's commissions of ensign, lieut -riant and 
captain in the army, has been promoted in the civil service of 
Canana to a silk gown. My wriiiinc;, too, I owe to Sir Isaac 
in York he told ms he intended to recommend me to the ad- 
jutancy, adding, 'I not only desire to procure a commission for 
you, but I also wish that you qualify yourself to take your position 
among gentlemen. Here are my books ; make good use of rhem ' 
He often dictated to me, while I wrote for him in the order- 
ly room. His correcting mv pronunciation of P word caused me 
to see my deficiencies, and I purchased a grammar and dictionary, 
and several lieutenants were my kind teachers " 

As another ac* of kindness, we 'nave the record of his in- 
teresting himself for the family of the deputy barrack master in 



11 

Kingston, in indigent circumstances, with Col. Shank, to em- 
ploy the eldest son as ensign on the recruiting service, so as 
to give a house for the relief of his mother with seven children. 
Col. Brook also ordered daily for her a ration and half a ra- 
tion for the children. 

As a student we must aLso enrol Brook. We read that, in 
spite of the jeers of his companions, he frequently locked him- 
s.-lf up to stud}. He was a good French sohoiar and a letter 
to his companions tells how he passes his spare time at Fort 
George and the list ot books in his library shows that besides 
technical military books he was a general reader and showed 
good taste in his selection, and his military dispatches as well 
as his letters, proc'am itions aa i speeches all show a well 
trained mind and command of language, a style vigorous, terse, 
pure. In a letter to his brother, Irving, dated Niagara, Jan. 
10th, 1811, he says, "I hardly ever stir out and unless I have 
company my evenings are passed solus. I read much, but goorl 
books are scarce and I hate borrowing. Should I remain here 
I wish vou to send me seme choice authors in history, parti- 
cularly ancient, with maps and the b,-st translations of ancient 
works I read in my youth Pope's translation of Homer, but 
till lately I never discovered its exquisite beauties. As I grow 
old I acquire a taste for study. In addition to the last daily 
paper, send me likewise the Observer or any other weekly. You 
who have passed all your days in the bustle of London can 
scarcely conceive the uninteresting life I am doomed to lead in 
this retirement." Brock was soon to exchange this quiet life for 
days ani nights of action when every moment was filled for 
mind and body. 

The inventory of Gen Brock's possessions came to light lately 
very strangely. In the cellar of the house of the late G. W 
Allen, stuffed in the crevice of the wall, was found a roll con- 
taining several pages of foolscap, discolored and torn in some 
places, but containing a full inventory of the articles sold at the 
auction of his effects, to whom sol !. and the prices, and by the 
kindness of Dr. Bain I was allowed to copy it. The list in- 
cludes silver, cut glass, furniture, wines, provisions, kitchen uten- 
sils, carpets, even a cow and pigs, pickled mushrooms, champagne, 
claret, porter. Among those who bought are found the names 
of General Sheaffe, Major Gl.'^g, Col Bishop, Mr. Crookshank, 
Rev. Dr. Str.ichan, M tjor Giviris, Dr Powell, Major Allen, and 
Me.-.srs Dk-kson, Small, Hamilton, Denison. Among the books 
are Johnson's works, 12 volumes, Rollins' ancient history, Si?cle 
de Louis 14th, Regiment de 1'Infanterie, Voltaire's Henriade, 



12 

Shakespeare, Telem ique, Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Court 
Martinis, Expedition to Ho'land, Life of Con le, Walcheren Ex- 
pedition. I wonder how mmy of these articles of farniture, sil- 
ver and books are still in existence or in possession of the 
families who boug'it them A Miss Selby bought a gig for $130 
and a sofa for $21, the o.ily ladv purchaser mentioned. Tie 
sale was oa the 12th November, 1812. an Yjrk. Perhaps rmny 
articles disappeared at the taking of York next year. H id 
Brock lived we may venture to say, that capture would never 
have taken place. 

As a statesman and administrator, Brook would have taken 
a high rank had not his fame as a soldier dwarfed a 1 oth-r 
qualities. His letters to General Prevost, his report to the Duke 
of York as to the formation of a veteran .battalion in Canada, 
his military dispatches, his address to Parliament, his prockma 
tion to the people in reply to that of Hull, all showing great 
ability, sound common sense, patriotism, deep thought, are indeed 
models, whether of statesmanlike views, military brevitv and ac- 
curacy, thoroughness and shrewdness in evury detail, sulderlike 
commands he himself was sometimes doubtful of the results, 
knowing his meagre resources, but a spirit of hopefulness and 
courage bieathes through every utteran-e. In his address at the 
opening of the Legislature, Feb 4, 1812, he said in closing, 
"We wish and hope for peace, but it was nevertheless neces- 
sary to be prepared for war. The task impos d on you is ar- 
duous. This task, however, I hope and trust, laying aside every 
consideration but that of the public good, you will peiform with 
that firmness, discretion and promptitude which a regard to 
yourselves your families, your country and your King call for 
at your hands" In opening the House on the 2,th July he us- 
ed thase words: "When invaded by pn enemy, whose avowed 
object is the entire conquest of the province, the voice of 'oy- 
alty as well a& of interest calls aloud for every person in the 
sphere in whi h he is pla ed to defend his country. Our militia 
have heard the voice and have obeyed it. They have evinced 
by the promptitude and loyalty of their conduct that they are 
worthy of the King whom they serve and of the constitution 
whicn thev enjoy. We are engaged in an awful, an eventful 
contest. By unanimity and dispatch in our councils and by vig 
or in our operations we 'inav teach the enemy this lesion 
that a country defended by free men enthusiastically devoted to 
the cause of the King and Constitution cannot b;e conquered." 

His readiness to give credit to the militia is .shown in 
his dispatch, 16th August, 1812, after the capture of Detroit 



13 

"The steadiness ?nd discipline of the 41st Regiment, and the 
readiness of the militia to follow so good an example, were 
highly conspicuous," and again in the following order: "The 
Major-General cannot forego the opportunity of expressing his 
admiration at the conduct of the se\eral companies of militia 
uho so handsomely volunteered to undergo the fatigues of a 
journey of several hundred miles," and he requests Captains 
Reward, Robinson and others to assure the officers and men 
under their respective command "that their services have been 
duly appreciated and will never be forgotten." He had also 
previous to this expressed sympathy with those who were not able 
to attend to the harvesting of their crops. 

To show that Brock was always ready for any emergency, 
the story of the deserters and the mutiny planned may be told, 
with other ircidents, which show his alertness. In 1797, the 
year of the Mutiny of the Nore, the disaffection was spreading 
to the army, and Brock kept strict watch, did not retire to 
bed till daylight, and always slept with his pistols beside him. 
His rule was stern yet mild, and soon brought the unruly regi- 
ment to order. Sheaffe was his junior, and at that time was 
much disliked for his severity. The regiment cheered on one 
occasion when Brock retuined, and for this offence, in a mili 
tary poinl of view, they were rebuked by Brock and confined 
to barracks for a week. There were two occasions in which 
he showed his quick-wittedness in a serious difficulty, first when 
at York six deserters crossed the lake and landed on the 
American shore. At midnight Brot k heard of it, and at once 
ordered a boat and started off. They rowed across the lake, 
a hard pull of over 30 miles, and then searched the shore till 
they found the men, brought them back, and sent them to 
prison cells at Fort George. 

The next difficulty was a more serious one, a mutiny 
having been planned with the intention of murdering the com- 
mander, Sheaffe. The plot was accidentally discovered, word sent 
to Brock at York who lost no time, again crossed the lake, 
landed on the beach and walked to the Fort Not a moment 
did he hesitate, the sergeant who happened to be on guard 
was one of the suspected ones and was sternly ordered to lay 
down his arms, handcuffed and marched off, the others in turn 
were put in irons, twelve in all, sent to York with the seven 
deserters, tried at Quebec and four of the mutineers and three 
of the deserters were shot. They said had they been under the 
command of Brock they would not so have acted. When the 
account was read to their companions at Fort George, Brock 



14- 

spoke with much feeling "Since I have had the honor to 
wear the British uniform I have never felt grief like this. it 
pains me to the h^art to think that any members of my 
reginrant should hava engaged in a conspiracy whiuli has 
led to their being shot like so many dogs." Here for a mo- 
ment he was unable to speak and the soldiers who heard his 
faltering voice and a\v the glistening tear had not a dry eye 
among them. From the time Brock assumed command at Fort 
George all trouble ceased M ny annoying restrictions were 
removed, as with regard GO visiting the town, fishing, shooting, 
pigeons, rtc. Tii.a four black hol^s, always before filled, were 
so no longer. Brock had been so profoundly rnovfd by this 
sad event that in the report which he drew up and sent 10 
the Duke of York, he made man} wise recommendations 

Further examp'es of his firmness and bravery may be given. 
FitzGibbon tells that on one oc asion when an order had been 
given by Brock, his reply was "it is impossible." ''By the Lord 
Harry do not tell m-) it is impossible ; nothing should be impossible 
to a soldier ; the word impossible should not be in a so dier's 
di tiooary." This reminds us of the story told of Lord Chatham 
when he lay swathed in flannels suffering agonies from gout. 
At a political consultation at his bedside he expressed an opin 
ion of wnat should be done. The reply was "it is impossib e." 
The veteran statesman rosa from his bed, stalked across the room, 
s tying, k> thus I tread on impossibilities." When Col Nichol 
begged Sir ISIHC not to expose himseif he said : "Master Nichol 
I duly appreciate the advice you give me, but I feel that in 
addition to tbeir sense of loyalty and duty, many follow me from 
personal regard and I will never ask them to go where I do not 
lead them." Tecumsah said to him : "I have heard much of 
your fame and am happy to shake by the hand a brave brother 
warrior; in Crossing the river we observed you from a distance 
standing the whole t;ma in an erect position and you were the 
first who jumped on land." 

In personal appearance General Brock was an imposing figure ; 
of fair complexion with light brown hair, with a very gentle, 
mild expression, regular features, six feet two in height, and in 
his last years portly in appearance, broad shoulders, strong, 
athletic; as a lad he was the bast box j r and swimmar in his class, 
and an athlete of no mean order When one of the boats on 
the wny to Detroit stuck fast and no effort of oar or pole could 
dislodge it, Brock sprang into the water and, followed by others, 
the boat was soon free. There are several good pictures of him. 
The first, taken from one owned by the family, was obtained by 



15- 

Dr. xlyerson for the Normal School. The present full length oil 
painting in th^ Parliament Buildings was painted by the well- 
known artist Forst^r, who to.ld me he went to the Brock home 
in Guernsey, obtained from one member of the family the pro- 
file from which ro < opy, from another member of the family 
the coat he had on when shot, and, said Mr. Forster, "I got 
the biggest man on the island to put it on, and thus painted 
the portrait." A photo of this was kindly presented to our society 
by the artist. Another picture, a full face, a beautifully execut- 
ed miniature, is owned by Miss Mickle, having been purchased 
by hei from ,i distant relative of the family. 

His cocked hat is in possession of our society, and has a 
curious history. It had come out shortly after his death and 
was given by his nephew to Mr George Ball, near whose resi- 
d:-ncH his regiment was stationed. A reference occurs in one 
of his letters : 'All the articles arrived except the cocked hat, 
which I imuh regret, as owing to the enormous size of my 
head I find it diffi< ult to supply .my need." The hat measures 
24 inches inside and was used at the funerals of 1824 and 
1853 and many old soldieis came up and requested permission 
to try it on. 

As a man of the world, mingling and taking part in its 
amusements, we find a few references. In a letter to his sister- 
in-law from Quebec, July 10th, he *ays : "Races, country and 
water parties have occupier! our time. I contributed my share 
in a grand dinner to Mrs Gore, and a ball to a vast assemblage 
of all descriptions " Colonel Baynes writing to him from Quebec 
*o Niagara, says : "I have just received a long letter from Mrs. 
Murray that you have found the means of enlivening the solitary 
scene that has so long prevailed at Fort George. ' In a letter 
from Col. Kempt, January, 1811, he says. I have just received a 
long letter from Mrs Murray giving me an account of a splen- 
did ball given by you to the beau monde of Niagara arid its vicin- 
ity, and the manner in which she speaks of your liberality and 
hospitality reminds me of the many pleasant hours I have pas- 
sed under your roof." The poet Moore refers to the kindness 
shown to him by Col. Brock during two weeks spent with him 
at Fort George in 1804. 

It is not often that doggerel verse finds a place in an 
historical paper, but, singularly enough, a copy of some written 
by one of the York Volunteers, in which Brock is referred 
to, has very lately come Into my possession. They were sung 
many years ago by an old lady, and written out from memory 
by her daughter, Mrs. Alphaeus Cox. Kept in an old trunk 



16 

nil these years, they are now read to th ? YcrK Pioneers. 
There ure twenty- one verses; 1 give eleven. *Lin:S wriiten by 
Private Flumerfe dt, one of the York Voluntetrs, after th ir 
arrival at Little York from Detroit, August, 1812. 

*Come all you brave Canadians, 

I'd have you lend an ear 
Unto a simple ditty 

That will your spirits cheer. 

* ' * * 

At length our bold commander, 

Sir Isaac Brock by name 
Took shipping 1 at Niagara 

And unto York he came. 

He said : "My valiant heroes, 

Will you go along with me 
To fight those Yankee boys 

In the west of Canada ?" 
"Oh, yes," we all replied, 

We'll go along with you, 
Our knapsacks on our backs, 

And make no more ado." 
Our firelocks then we shouldered, 

And straight we marched away, 
With firm determination 

To show them British play. 

* * * 

Our town it is at our command, 

Our garrison likewise." 
They brought their arms and grounded them 

Right down before our eyes. 

And they were all made prisoners 

On board of ship they went. 
And from the town of Sandwich 
To Quebec they were sent. 

W e guarded them from Sandwich 

Safe down into Fort George, 
And then within the town of York 

So safely we did lodge. 

And now we're all arrived at home, 

Each man without a wound, 
And the fame of this great conquest 

Will through this province sound. 
Success unto the volunteers 

Who thus their rights maintain, 
Likewise their bold commander, 

Sir Isaac Brock by name. 
And being all united, 

This is the song we'll sing 
Success unto Great Britain, 

And may God save the King. 



17 

Another picture of these prisoners from an American source 
may be given. In a letter from General Van liensselaer's secre- 
tary : "I saw my countrymen, free-born Americans, stripped of 
their arms and marched into a strange land by hundreds, as black 
cattle for the market. Before and behind them, on right and left, 
their proud victors gleamed in arms; the line was half a mile 
long. The sensation produced in our camp was inexpressible 
mortification, indignation, apprehension, suspicion, jealousy, rage, 
madness. It was a sad day." 

A pretty story as a contrast to this is told by a daughter of 
Dr. West, surgeon at Fort Niagara The officers of the Fort 
frequently came over to attend divine service at Niagara and 
were on friendly terms with the British officers there. It was 
related by this old lady tliat on the Sunday morning before the 
war was declared, Brock, after service at Si. Mark's said, taking 
up the two little girls in his arms, (herself and her sister) 
1 Good-bye my rosy cheeked little Yankee girls," and turning to 
the Americin offi.-ers, "I suppose when we meet again it will be 
as enemies." 

The hero of Upper Canada was the title given by common 
consent. A memorial coin was issued from the Royal Mint in 
1816, which passed current as a half penny. On one side the in- 
scription around a funeral urn with two angels placing a laurel 
wreath, "Sir Isaac Brock, the hero of Upper Canada, fell Oct. 
13th, 1812." 

Another memorial of a more private nature I saw in Nia- 
gara not long HSJO, a sampler worked by Esther Borden Ltppen- 
cott, wife of Col. Geo. Uenison, it was wonted during the winter 
of 1812-13, and a photo of it is in our possession. Within a 
wreath, surmounted by a crown are the words. "To the mem- 
ory of General Brock, who gloriously fdll as he was bravely de- 
fending his country at the battle of Queenston, the 13th October 
in the year of our Lord, 1812," and below "Push on brave 
York Volunteers." 

The feeling shown for Brock, whether by his soldiers, by 
farmers who had fought with him and shed tears in speaking of 
him, the feeling shown bv his Indian allies and by friend and 
foe alike ; by Mrs. Powell and Mrs. Glaus five years after, when 
visited by Savery Brock, who teils that they shed tears in speaking 
of him. by Mrs. Denison in working the sampler, by poor old 
Clibborne. who brought the news to Fort Erie of his death, he 
pallid and disordered in appearence, yet quite unconscious of the 
cannon balls ploughing up the ground as he advanced, the life- 
loner const-inoy 'of the lady to whom he was engaged, all show 



18 

that, in the words of the noble Tecumseh, "Here was a man." 
The historian Christie says of him : "He was one of those 
extraordinary men who mark the age in which they live. He 
blended the mildest of manners with the severity and discipline of 
the camp, and though his deportment was somewhat grave and 
imposing, the noble frankness of his character imparted at once 
confidence and respect to thoss who had occasion to approach 
his person. As a civil Governor he was firm, prudent and equitable. 
In fine, whether we view him as a man, statesman or soldier he 
equally deserves our esteem and respect." 

Chief Justice Robinson said at a grat meeting at Quaenston 
Heights, in 1840, that he had seen his body carried off, had seen 
the interment, the grief of the militia ani the faithful Indians. 
In answer to the charge that General Brock's courage was greater 
than his prudence that his attack at Detroit was injudicious and 
his rashness at Queenston was the cause of his death. "Those 
who lived in Upper Canada then can form a truer judgment, and 
what seemed rashness was, in fact, prudence. Brock was placed 
in almost desperate circumstances, with but a handful of men, 
most of whom had never been used to military discipline. He 
felt that if he cculd not iaipress upon the enemy this truth that 
wherever a major-general of the British army with but a few 
gallant soldiers of the line and of the brave defenders of the soil 
could be assembled against them, they must retire from the land 
which they had invaded his cause was hopeless." With what a 
fine touch did the Chief Justice r^fer so later defeats. "It was 
that cautious calculation which some supposed he lacked which 
decided the day against us at Sackett's Harbor. It was the same 
cautious calculation which decided the day at Plattsburg, but no 
monuments have been erected to record the triumphs of those 
fields. It is not thus trophies. are won." 

And who can calculate the result of a glorious death or_of a 
death for a principle? The splendid audacity, the divine madness, 
which possessed Brock at Detroit and Queenston, which Nelson 
showed when, putting his glass to his blind eye, he said, "I 
really do not see, the signal to retire," and in disobedience to or- 
ders rushed on; the same quality was shown by our volunteers 
when, in defiance of orders, they rushed the rifle pits at Batoche. 
Never shall I forget a sermoin by the late Rev. D. J. Mac- 
donell, in Peterboro', the Sunday after the assassination of D'Arcy 
McGee, from the text, "Except a corn of wheat fall into the 
ground and die it abideth alone, but if it die it bringeth forth 
much fruit." D'Arcy McGee died as surely a martyr in bis efforts 
to stop the Fenian movement and in loyalty to his adopted country, 



19 

and who will say his death bore no fruit ?" The pathetic words 
of a young Canadian soldier wounded on the African veldt give 
the same thought, as pointing to the maple leaf in his helmet he 
said, "If I die it may help this to live." 

I close with the words on a tombstone in St. Mark's cemetery, 
words by I know not whom : "The memory of a life nobly ren- 
derea is immortal." 



THE COUNT DE PUISAYE 

A Forgotten Page of Canadian Histoiy. 
BY JANET CARNOCHAN.* 



Although the population of our Province of Ontario has baeri 
mainly recruited from the Mother Land (after the first settle- 
ment of the U. E Loyalists), tnere have been, at different times, 
groups of settlers in particular spots, as of High landers in 
Glengarry under Bishop McDonell, of English agricultural labor- 
ers, of those who fled from the famine and fever in Ireland 
after the Repeal of the Corn Laws. There was, too, a German 
settlement in the year 1794 under Berczy, of sixty families set- 
tled near Markham ; we also read of Governor Simcoe bringing 
from Russia m^n to teach the cultivation of hemp, and in the 
archives is a notice of a letter from the widow of one of these, 
her husband having died of a broken heart, his services being 
rejected when he reached London And in our own day, though 
not in our province, the settlement at Gimli, Manitoba, of Ice- 
landers, some of whom were remembered by Lord Dufterin, he 
having met them, described in his inimitable "Latters from 
High Latitudes"; and, later, the settlement of Doukhobord in 
the North-west. But it is not generally known tliat, after that 
frightful convulsion known as the French Revolution, when heads 
fell and blood flowed like water, there was an attempt to bring 
a colony of^ French refugees to find a home in Upper Canada, 
not far from this spot. That it failed is certain, and but few 
traces now remain. 

Many years ago, when I heard the phrase used, ''near the 
old French count's house," referring to a building about three 
miles from Niagara, on the river road to Queenston, the words con- 
veyed nothing definite, little more than a legend or myth, with 
slight foundation in fact little imagining that, at a later date, 

*Read at a General Meeting of the Ontario Historical Society, in Toronto, 
August 30th, 1901, and reprinted by the permission of the Society from Vol. 
V. Also read before the Niagara Historical Society. 





r 



COUNT DE PUISAYE. 




COUNT DE PUISAYE'S HOUSE, BUILT 1799. 



21 

I should be engaged in tracing from various sources the history 
of the leader of this colonizing scheme, and the fate of his com- 
pany of Frenchmen. The sources of information are fourfold : 
First, tradition; which, although having a substratum of fact, 
cannot always be relied upon, as from an unimportant circum- 
stance a wonderful structure of mingled fact and fancy often rises. 
Second, actual history ; references in works of that day relating 
to it. Third, original letters and documents preserved in the 
Archives of Canada, or in the possession of private individuals. 
Fourt i, traces left ; as of houses built, or pictures of that per- 
iod. 

We find that the Count de Puisaya was an historical character 
mentioned in Limirtine, Thiers, Carlyl 3, Allisjn, the Annual 
Register, in their account of the French Revolution, but it is 
from the Dominion Archives in Ottawa that we derive the most 
complete and accurate information of his connection with the 
history of our country. 

When in Ottawa a few months ago, in that wonderful room, 
lined from floor to ceiling with hound volumes of original docu- 
ments, public and private letters, containing the history of our 
country, I found references to the Count de Puisaye, and since 
then found, in the voluminous reports of several years, the history 
of the Count From all these sources, we see a noble, pathetic 
and tragic figure, a man who had suffered much had seen his 
friends of noble birth and his king and queen perish by the guil- 
lotine ; in his command of the enemy in La Vendee had seen his 
force scattered and defeated ; worse than all, was called a traitor 
by his own party, his name held in exec ration (unjustly, as we 
believe), m-, scheme in a foreign land fail, some of his party blam- 
ing him with misrepresentation, his last days in England sad and 
lonely, embittered with controversy, and he' dying in obscurity. 

The youngest son of a noble family, Count Joseph de Puisaye 
was born in 1755, intended for the Church, but entering the array 
at eighteen, soon had a command in the Swiss Guards. In the 
Coavention of the Stat?s General, he was the representative of 
the nobles of La Perclie, and at first took the popular side, 
advocated reforms, and supported the demands of the Tiers Etats, 
but, alarmed at the excesses of the ultras, was soon engaged in 
raising an army to secure the safety of the king in 1792. In 1792 
lie waa -obliged to flee, a price being set on his head, but he was 
the heart and soul of the rising in Brittany, and in 1794 was in 
communication with the British Government, and urged the land- 
ing of 10,000 men, with which he would answer for the re-estab- 
lishment of the Royalist cause. Accordingly, a French corps of 



22 

6,000 emigres in the pay of Great Britain, with a force of artil- 
lery from London arid arms and clothing for 80,000 men to ba 
raised in France, landed ; one corps under command of the Count 
de Puisaye. From the first this seems to have been an ill fated 
expedition. The leaders quarrelled as to which was to have the 
chief command. On landing at Quiberon Bay, it was found that 
the force in the interior had received a check, orders were sent 
from the Royalist Commission in Paris to attempt no movement 
till the arrival of the fleet. 

Notwithstanding ihe heroic bravery of the emigrants, the 
royal cause sustained a, crushing defeat, and, after the capitu ation 
at Quiberon, the Convention ordered a, massacre of the prisoners, 
which inhuman order was carried out, as told most vividly in 
Allison's history of Europe. For this defeat De Puisaye was 
blamed, the absurd charge being believed that he had acted in 
complicity with the British Government and betrayed the cause of 
France, and his influence was completely destroyed, and, after 
attempting unsuccessfully to form another force, we find that in 
1797 he applied to the British Government to form a Royalist 
settlement in Canada. For the description of the part he took in 
France, we are chiefly indebted to the lucid summary of our ac- 
complished archivist, Dr. Brymner, but a few quotations may be 
made from European historians. , Carlyle speaks of the Count in 
sneering terms, but we know that the strenuous ChHsea sage was 
sometimes unjust and intolerant. First, in 1793, when "he was 
roused from his bed and galloped away without his boots" ; "and 
second, in 1795, at Quiberon, where "war thunder mingled with 
the war of the mighty main, and such a morning ligbt as has 
seldom dawned, debarkation hurlt-d back into its boats, or into 
the devouring billows with wreck and wail ; in one word, a 
ci-devant Puisaye a totally ineffectual here as at Calvados " 
Lamartine, too, does scant justice, ranking De Puisaye as an 
adventurer rather than a hero, yet acknowledges that he was at 
once an orator, a diplomatist, and a soldier, but says that "he 
spent a whole year concealed in a cavern in the midst of the 
forests of Brittany," but we recall that many heroes of ancient 
and modern days have been compelled to hide in caves, whence 
they sometimes issued to the dismay and loss of their pursuers 
Thiers, however, in his nistory of tha French Revolution, does 
him more justice, as "with great intelligence and extraordinary 
skill in uniting the elements of a party, he combined extreme 
activity of mind and vast ambition," and "it was certain that 
Puisaye had done all that lav in his power." Allison says in his 
<; History of Europe" : "Puisaye, whose courage rose with the 



23 

difficulties with which he was surrounJed, resolved to make an 
effort to raise the blockade. Full of joy and hope, he gave the 
signal for the assault, and the emigrant battalions advanced with 
the utmost intrepidity to the foot of the redoubts." Arid in a 
letter, 30th July. 1798, from Right Hon. Mr. Windham to Presi- 
dent Russell, the first part of it is devoted to defending the char- 
acter of the Count de Puisaye. This he does in the strongest 
terms, as he had known him through all the transactions : "On 
the whole of his conduct I can speak with a degree of knowledge 
that does not admit of the possibility of my being mistaken, and 
I would vindicate him from every shadow of imputation attempted 
to be fixed upon him, but in the strongest manner assert his 
merits, knowing ttie calumnies circulated against him are unfounded, 
anJ incurred by conduct which we must feel to be highly meritorious." 

Bonriechose, in "Lazare Koche," refers to De Puisaye, and 
defends his conduct at Quiberon : ''Few men have shown more in- 
defatigable activity, as much adaptability, as persevering a purpose, 
as great firmness, or were as well fitted to triumph over all ob- 
stacles. . . The most skilful was the Count, who, in London, where 
he had been for six months, held in his hands all the threads 
of the web woven so skilfully . . His flight should not be con- 
sidered as an ace of treachery." 

All this evidence must surely vindicate the Count, and show 
that he was innocent and, like many others, suffered the fate of 
the unsuccessful to be blamed. 

But we come now to his connection with Canada, and the 
history of his abortive attempt to found a military colony, which 
is little known. 

Britain, that asylum of the exiles of all lands, was gener- 
ous in material help, and we find this given as a reason for the 
colonizing scheme, that the country would thus be relieved of 
heavy payments to support the poor among the emigres. In the 
archives there is a sketch, "political and financial," of the pro- 
posed settlement, undated and unsigned, but it is believed that 
it was drawn up by De Puisaye. It is a well-written, business- 
like document, giving reasons for the formation, of what to con- 
sist, how denominated, when and by what means carried into 
execution, on what fund are first advances taken, how is the land 
to be cleared, how are requisite buildings to be constructed, where 
are the workmen to be found, of whut number is the force to 
consist. "British generosity has already shown itself in a con- 
spicuous light by providing, in a tampor.iry manner, for the re- 
lief of those unfortunate victims of the French Revolution, to 
whom the British Government has granted an asylum. I am 



24 

ignorant of the precise number of emigrants now living on the 
generosity of Britain. I only know the sum allotted for their 
existence. The outline of the plan was to form in the south- 
ern part of Canada a settlement for French emigrants, sufficient 
means of subsistence granted them, and sufficient land to provide 
for their maintenance distributed among them, all expenses for 
the first three years advanced by Government, after that the 
proprietors to pay to the Governor of Canada one-seventh of their 
crops till full payment of the ad\ance was made. The fund for 
the maintenance of the emigrants in Britain to be called on 
for the first advance of fifteen thousand pounds The work of 
clearing the land to be done by soldiers, the force was to con- 
sist of two battalions, two hundred men to do military service, 
and the rest to clear the land and construct buildings, p irt of 
the force to be sent on ahead to construct barracks. Two hun- 
dred pounds to be provided for eacii farm for building, tools, 
furniture, clearing land (twenty aeras), thd priests uni^r forty 
years might assist in their own buildings, and in the labor least 
fatiguing of husbandry. The emigrants were the first year not 
to exceed three or four hundred, The colonel of the regiment 
to be at the head of the colony under the Governor-General." 

This plan reads well on paper, but like many such, the 
realization fell far shore of the anticipation, as instead of three 
or four hundred, only forty-four embarked, and several of thes^ 
soon dropped out, and many returned the next year. 

In a letter from the Duke of Portland to President Russell, 
July 5th, 1798, is mentioned that M. de Puisaye, with about 
forty French Royalists, is about io embark, land is to be given 
them in the proportions granted to the American Loyalists, JVI. 
de Puisaye to be ranked as a field officer, others in proportion, 
and the rest as privates, they were to be furnished in Britain 
with the necessary funds. Another pap^r gives the regulations 
for the colony, the corps to consist of major, commandant, two 
captains, two lieutenants, four sub-lieutenants, one adjutant. All 
to have been field officers previous to 1798; one Q.M., one chap- 
lain, one surgeon, one surgeon's mate, six sergeants, eight cor- 
porals, one hundred piivates; the term of service to be three 
years. Two days' work for the officers in the colony, four days. 
for each individual, one day for religious and military duty. 
The grant of lands specified for each, also for relatives, as. 
father, mother, wife, child, sister, niece, nephew. The government 
to furnish tools, clothing, rations. Those who had served in the 
Royalist army to be chosen first One object to be aimed at was 
to keep the settlement separate from any other body of French 



25 

In a letter from Russell to the Duke of Portland, York, Nov- 
ember 3rd, 1708: "Have this day received a letter from M. 
Puisaye, telling of hig arrival in Quebec on 7th ult., with some 
general, field, and subaltern officers, a few soldiers, and two ladies, 
in all forty persons* ; have despatched a letter to meet him in 
Kingston, warning him of the impossibility of providing accommo- 
dation in this town for so large a number of respectable person- 
ages, requesting him to stop at Kingston, or send part to Newark, 
which, being older settlements, may lodge them better. I shall 
be happy to meet him here for consultation " In a letter from 
President Russell to the Duke of Portland, 21st November, 1798: 
"Have selected the vacant land, with De Puisaye's approbation, 
between this town and Lake Simcoe, as a situation equally distant 
from Lower Canada and the French settlements at the Detroit 
River. Have directed the Surveyor-General to lay out four town- 
ships north of iVIarkham, Pickering, and Whitby." This region, a 
continuation of Yonge Street, was called Oak Ridges. 

In the Archives is given : 

"A list of the Rjyalists gone from London with Count Joseph 
de Puisaye for Canada:. Lt.-Gen. Joseph de Puisnye ; Count de 
Chalu:;, Major-General ; D'Allegre, Col. ; Marquis de Beaupoil, 
Col.; Viscount da Chalus, Col.; Coster de St. Victor, Col.; De 
Marseuil, Lt.-Col. ; Bouton, Capt. ; De Farcy, Capt ; De Poret, 
Capt. ; Guy de Beaupoil, Lieut. ; Lambert de la Richerie, Lieut. ; 
Hippolyte de Beaupoil, Lieut. ; Champagne, Nathaniel Thompson, 
John Thompson, John Ficerel (lost in Montreal), Thomas Jones 
(lost in Quebec), Joseph Donavant, Abraham Berne, Pardeveux, 
Farchard, Renoux, Segent, Bugle, Auguste (dead at Quebec), 
Polard, Lstourneux, Langel, Bagot, Rene Fouquet (lost at Ply- 
mouth), Marchand, William Smithers (of the latter we shall hear 
hereafter). Women: Madam Marquise de Beaupoil, Viscountess de 
Chalus, Mrs. Smithers, Mary Donavant (lost at Quebec, replaced 
by Saly Robinson), Catharine Donavant (lost in Quebec, leplaced 
by Catharina), Betay (lost in Plymouth, replaced by Barbe), 
Francoise Letourneux (lost). Total, 44. Lost 10, leaving 34. 
Put in place of lost men, 4. Total, 38" 

From a letter in de Puisaye's own hand we find that he 
reached Montreal in October, 1798, Kingston, October 29th. They 
had fine weather for travelling and orders had been given that 
every attention was to be paid to the emigrants on their arrival. 
Left Montreal on the 18th, and Lachiue oa tha 20th of Ojtobwr, 
with twelve bateaux loaded with furniture. They were, says Com- 
missary-Gen. Clark, as comfortably provided as possible, and went 
off, to all appearances, in good spirits and well satisfied, but they 



26 

had been tampered with on their way from Quebec, being told 
they had better stay there, as they were going to a sickly, bad 
country. Some stayed at Kingston, but others sailed from there 
on November 16th, and a letter 17th January, 1799, dated Wind- 
ham, near York, from de Puisaye, says "the land is every day 
being cleared of the trees and that in the course of a month a 
village has been built," which he hoped would become a consider- 
able town, and asks the General's leave to name it Hunter. Per- 
mission was also asked to use the name Windham in honor of 
these officials. In a postscript he acklowledged the receipt of a 
letter from Prince Edward. Duke of Kent, the father of our late 
lamented Queen. Meanwhile, for those who had been left at 
Kingston, application for boats to carry them to York was made 
in March, and Chalus reports the progress made by de Puisaye 
more fully than he himself had done : "On 14th February eigh. 
teen houses were built in Windham, but not finished inside. It 
was hoped twenty five would be ready by spring, and enough land 
cleared to give a small crop of wheat, potatoes, etc. De Puisaye 
had undertaken another settlement at the head of Lake Ontario 
at the mouth of a small rh er, navigable for boats, called the 
Riviere de Niagara." This was put in charge of De Chalus and 
all de Puisaye's letters after are so dated. In a letter from Gen. 
Hunter to the Duke of Portland, 16th of October, 1799, is another 
reference to Niagara. "The Count de Puisaye does not remain 
with the emigrants, but has purchased a farm near Niagara, where 
he, his housekeeper, the Count de Chalus, John Thompson and 
Marchand, their servent, reside. The Marquis de Beaupoil, hav- 
ing some misunderstanding with the Count de Puisaye. or not 
finding the enterprise suitable to his expectations, has decided 
to return to England with M St. Victor. I enclose a statement 
from Mr. Angus McDonell, their friend and agent at Yoik, from 
this it may be seen that only twenty-five men remain in Upper 
Canada, viz., five at Niagara, and twenty at Windham. The 
latter have cleared forty or fifty acres, but are totally destitute 
of funds, and have asked wheat and barley to sow the land, which 
I have given. There are also twenty-one Canadian artificers, 
laborers, etc., employed by them, to whom rations are given." 

A statement of the actual situation of the French emigres : 
Residing at Niagara, 5, to wit, Count de Puisaye, Lt.-General ; 
Count de Chalus, Major General ; Marchand, a private ; Mrs, 
Smitheis, housekeeper to Count de Puisaye ; John Thompson, 
servant to Count da Puisaye. 

Settled at Markham, M. d'Allegre, and Nos 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, and 13 of first list and Madame Viscountess dv Chalus. 



Abandoned the enterprise, 16, amoung whom are Marquis de 
Beaupoil and Madame la Marquise de Beaupoil. Betsy,* the ser- 
vant girl, and William Smithers, it is said, also returned, but 
we find their names again as still in Canada. 

Notwithstanding the cheerful prospects in the letter of De 
Chalus, we see all were not batisfied, as a letter from the Mar- 
quis de Beaupoil asks permission to leave and come to Lower 
Canada, asking leave to go to Riviere du Loup, till he would 
exchange his wild laud for a small piece of cleared land, or ob- 
tain money to take him to Europe. A letter from Coster St, 
Victor, 12th May, 1799, contained similar statements, which ex- 
plain the reference by Gen. Hunter to a misunderstanding, but 
it appears from the plan laid down for the settlement, that de 
Puisaye was not to blame. The letter is robustly frank in tone: 
"You are fully aware, General that in this country the man brought 
up and inured to the labors of the field is assured of obtaining 
his subsistence by his labors ; that the rich man who brings 
capital may even, by paid labor, find means of support in agri- 
calture ; but he who has neither strength nor money, if he bor- 
row to clear the land, certain of never repaying, has no other 
prospect than that of losing his time, his land, his liberty, his 
family, and his probity. When the Count de Puisaye proposed 
to me to come with him to Canada, he told me that there would be a 
military corps in which I should command the gentlemen emi- 
grants who were to come there ; that the Royalists who would 
arrive to form it would labor in common for their officers as 
for themsalves; and he required from me only a letter of re- 
quast ti ba his authority in applying to the Minister. But the 
miliciry corps in which I should have found a salary, those 
psasints of Brittany whose arms were to assist me, are but a 
chimerical hopa ; it is only here I have obtained proof of this. 
T us daoaptioa placas me, with my family, in the most heart- 
rending situation that we have .experienced since we have been 
emigrants " We find from the Archives that passports were ap- 
plied for by Kon. Richard Cartwright for M irqnis de Beaupoil, 
St. Aulaire and M. Coster de St. Victor to return to Europe. 

The grants of land in Windham were: Count de Puisaye, 850 
acres ; Count de Chalua, 650 ; D'Allegre, 450 ; Viscount de Chalus, 
350; Marseuil, 300; Quetton St. George, 400; Farcy, 350; Ren- 
ault, Capt , 150 ; Segent, 150 ; Fouchard, Feurou, Langel, Bugle, 
Marohand, 100 each. 

John Ross Robertson, in his "Landmarks of Toronto," gives 
the position of the Land held by many of the emigres. On the 
map of 1798 a ranga of nine lots on each side of Yonge Street 



28 

is marked "French Royalists," and in one of the letters of Sur- 
veyor Jones the spot is marked as "Puisaye's Farm." 

Of his life on the Niagara River only a glimpse here and 
there from the Archives oould be obtained, but by one of the 
strange coincidences that are constantly occurring in our histori- 
cal work, I have quite unexpectedly, within the last few days, 
been fortunate enough to obtain many interesting particulars. 
When asked a few weeks ago to read a paper to your honorable 
body, I was engaged in going systematically through the printed 
volumes of the Archives for anything relating to Niagara, and 
finding much that was new to me relating to the Count de 
Puisaye, said, "Here is my subject." Thinking it would be in- 
teresting to bring the picture of the house with me, I won- 
dered if in any place in Canada oould be found a picture of 
the Count- The very next day a gentleman called to say that 
he had seen the stone placed by our Historical Society, and 
had a picture of the Count and Countess, copies of which he 
would present to us, and by the kindness of Mr: G. 8. Griffin 
you now see these, they being family portraits, I cannot tell the 
delight with which I welcomed these pictures, coming, as they do, 
so opportunely, and the information emanating from this source. Sir 
Richard Cartwright has lately placed in the Library of Queen's 
University, the letter-book of his grandfather, Hon. R. Cartwright, 
who was tbe banker or legal adviser of the Count de Puisaye, who 
placed in his h^inds four or five thousand pounds, drawing interest 
at five per cent., and apparently all his business was transacted 
through this agency, good* purchased, eto. These letters, by the 
kindness of Principal Grant, have been loaned to Mr. Justus 
Griffin, Secretary of the Wentworth Historical Society, and son 
of Mr. G. S. Griffin, and by the kindness of both of these gentle- 
men I am furnished wich many interesting particulars The let- 
ters extend from April, 1799; to November 4th, 1801; there are 
nearly a score of letters, from Cartwright to the Count, most 
of them in French ; also a number of letters co tht Count de 
Chalus, who seems to have acted sometimes as his secretary, and 
in letters to Messrs, HoGill, of Montreal, and to R. Hamilton, 
Queenston, are references to' the Count's affairs First come the 
reference to buying the property at Niagara, May 16th, 1799: 
"The General, after staying for a month at the head of the 
lake, has bought Mr. Sheehan's place or* the Niagara River 
between Queenston and the Fort." September 16th, 1799, R 
Cartwright says : "I have sent to a milliner at Montreal the 
models and samples with an order to send the goods as soon 
as possible."' The milliner's materials must have been for Mrs 



29 

Smithers, who presided over his household. "I have also written 
to Messrs. McGill to send for mares, donkeys, the harness and 
guinea hens. The sheep and turkeys I expect to get here." An- 
other letter speaks of melon and other garden seeds, and of 
importing shrubs and trees. Again comes a reference that shows 
he had one or more negro slaves. Although the act of 1793 
arranged for the doing away of slavery, children who were slaves 
were not to be free till a. certain age. A letter of Cartwright 
speaks of having bought for him for "cent piastres," une petite 
negresse." Again he thanks de Puisaye for a present of peaches 
which were excellent, and which Madam Cartwright pronounced 
delicious. In connection with this, Mr. Warren, one of the late 
owners of the place, informs me that there were old pear trees 
with most delicious fruit ; although skilled in fruit-culture, he did 
not know the name, and has never seen any similar varieties. 
The Count was very anxious to build a windmill ; whether he 
succeeded is not known. Many passages in the letters speak of 
the machinery and other material, and abound in excuses for 
non-arrival, and difficulty of getting workmen to build it. There 
seems, too, to have been a great deal of difficulty about a large 
iron kettle, which finally arrived. One letter speaks of a young 
French-Canadian girl whom he had induced to go up on next 
ship as a servant, but next letter says she absolutely refused ot 
go. 

Several of the letters refer to the Marquis de Beaupoil, who 
must have visited Cartwright before leaving the country, and for 
wnom he shows much commiseration, as "I have taken the liberty 
to give one of the boats to the Marquis de Beaupuil, so as to 
get down in time. The Commandant here will give us a King's 
boat in return, at all events the finances of the unfortunate 
gentleman will not admit of any other remuneration." And, "He 
left here several days ago with the intention to return to Europe, 
Madame and the son to remain in Lower Canada for a time. They 
left in my bands a bed of feathers all new, a large mattress little 
used, and a good white counterpane, the wood of fche bed and 
the curtain complete, to sell ; the whole valued at fifty-six pounds " 
In one letter the General directs Messrs. 'VlcGill, Montreal, 
to give the Count de Chalua five hundred pounds cy. credit, 
having gone into keeping a general store for the use of the 
colony. 

In a very exhaustive paper by Miss Textor, "A colony of 
Emigres in Canada 1798-1816," published by the University of 
Toronto, it is stated that Mrs Smithers was the sister of William 
Smithers alias Kent, but other information calls her the mother. 



30 

The descendants of Wm Smithers are in Toronto, Dandas and 
Hamilton. It is believed that the first wife was of noble birth in 
France. He afterwards married Mrs. Smithers. Win. Smithers 
came out at the age of seventeen and changed his name to Kent 
from his native councy, and started business on his own account. 

In a letter to Hon. R. Hamilton, . Mr. Cart wright speaks of 
de Puisaye's young friend, Mr. Kent, and in another to the 
Count, of having supplied goods to Mr. Kent, and given instructions 
to him, as requested by the Count. The last of the letters to 
de Puisaye was written October 31st, 1801, in English, and 
apparently closes fcheir business transactions, Mr. Cartwrig.it having 
returned to the Count in cash and drafts all the balance due 
him. Thass letters .give the little personal items which form ti 
pleasing break in a dry historical paper. 

In a letter from de Puisaye, in his own hand, dated Riviere 
de Niagara, May 24th, 1801, addressed to General Hunter, he 
says, "My plan is to leave towards the end of autumn for Eng- 
land ; I will be occupied till then with the composition of a work 
of some extent which should be made public," supposed to be 
a history of the French RoyaUst party during the Revolution. 
Dr. Benjamin states, "The o,nly work I can fiud traces of is 
one in six volumes published in London from 1803 to 1808, 
entitled " vl empires qui ppurrorit servir a 1'histoire du parti 
royaliste Francais durant la derniere revolution. 

A few more traces are found in the Archives. In 1799 
a proposal by the Mississagua Indians through Brant, to cede 
five miles along the lake to make 69,120 acres, on condition 
that it is granted to de Puisaye to be paid for ai one shilling 
and three pence, Halifax cy., per acre. This proposal was not 
accepted by the Government. In the minutes of fan House is 
a request from the Count for the Governrnen', tavern on the 
beach at the head of the lake Tais had been pledged to Wm 
Bates till next October, but he, de Puisaye, might deal private Iv 
with Bates or establish another tavern equally commodious, a 
request from Bates to extenJ his lease and renewed application 
from de Puisaye .in 1799 and 1800. and later on it is Seen that 
he bought the land on which the Government House stood, three 
hundred acres, on which vyere salt wells, from which his heirs 
sold salt during the war at $10.00 per barrel. Mr Griffin re- 
m-Mnb^rs that on the farm at the beech Was a fine orchard of 
apple, peach, pear and plum trees, with delicious fruit. Whether 
the present house there was built by the Count or Mr. Kent 
is nut known. In 1831 ^ome trouble arose between the Count 
and Angus McDonell, and he w-'s to attend at York with his 



31 

witnesses to sustain his charges against McDonellj evidence was 
taken and the dismissal of the latter was recommended. 

A later letter in the Archives from de Puisaye in England, 
is dated 14th February, 1803, stating two volumes of his Memoires 
would be. published that week, of which copies would be sent. 
He proposes to return to Canada, but not for another year; 
but it is not supposed this hope was realized. He speaks of 
detractors, even in Canada, M. de Chalus being of the number, 
but still begs the Government to continue its goodness to the 
emigrants. 

Of his last days we know little. Not being allowed to re- 
turn to France during the short peace of 1814, he became natur- 
alized in England and died in 1827, at Blythe House, near 
Hammersmith, aged seventy -three. A pathetic reference is found 
in the Archives the last we find from himself dated June, 
1818, to the Canadian Government : "Had waited eighteen months, 
so as to give time for information. At his age, and broken 
down in health, he had not expected to survive that time. The 
Government uppropriated his place on the Niagara River for 
a hospital for the troops, and has occupied his house at 
York (which was burned) as public property. For neither of 
thess has he been paid, nor any compensation made " 

His property was willed to William Smithers Kent, and 
a brother wao went to India. Mr. Kent went to England sever- 
al times to see the Count aft^r his return there, the last time 
bying in 1827, and de Puisaye then gave him his heavily gold- 
mounted Damascus sword, which had been presented to him by 
his friend the great statesman, William Pitt. This valuable relic 
bears the following inscription, "Given by Wm. Pitt to General 
Count Joseph de Puisaye, 1794 " The sword was exhibited at the 
Historical Loan Exhibit of 1897, by Rev. M. S ' Griffin, D.D., of 
Toronto. 

Tae Count must have been possessed of considerable pro- 
perty- as besides the land in Windham, the farm of two hun- 
dred acres near Niagara, the three hundred acres bought from Au- 
gustus Joaes, Prov. Land Surveyor, including the salt-wells at the 
be.ich, he, also hal a housa in Toronto, as in the letter-book is an 
acknowledgement of thirty pounds, three shillings, and three pence 
from the Chief Justice, as rent for his house in York. And he 
owned besides a house in Hammersmith, all left to William Kent, 
wlio lived for some time on the farm near Niagara, as after- 
wirds did his son, Joseph Kent. The will of the Count is in 
possessioa of Mr. G. S Griffin. In 1830, three years after his death, 
hia heirs made a claim that five thousand acres had been given to 



32 

the Count in 1798, of which only 850 acres had been received 
by him, and asking for the remaining 4,150 acres. Referred to 
H. M. Government. 

In the Annual Register of 1796 is found some reference to 
his personal appearance : 

"Count Joseph de Puisaye was still less distinguished by high 
birth than by those advantages which he derived from nature and 
education. His natural talents, of no common order, had been 
cultivated wich the greatest assiduity, and with a success pro- 
portioned to the care bestowed upon them. Well informed, cap- 
able of laborious application, master of a ready and powerful 
eloquence, full of resources, and never deserted by his presence 
of mind, he seemed destined to be the leader of a party. To 
these mental qualifications he added some corporeal on^s which, 
though inferior, were highly useful. His manners were dignified, 
yet prepossessing ; his person was graceful, his stature tall and 
commanding." VVith this description the portrait painted and 
engraved in Plymouth corresponds, and with the description 
sometimes given of a fine looking, courtly gentleman of the old 
school. These pictures the Count, a steel engraving, and the 
Countess, an oil painting are in the possession of Mrs. Horning, 
Dundas, a great-grand daughter of William Smithers Kent. 

In the Jarvis letters, published in .No. 8 of the Niagara 
Historical Society, there is a reference to his personal appear- 
ance. Mrs. Jarvis says ; "Having entertained him at dinner in 
Niagara, January 31st, 1799, I like him very much. He is, I 
think, much like Governor Simcoe in point of size and deport- 
ment, and is, without exception, the finest looking man I ever 
saw." 

A few references are found regarding some of the other mem- 
bers of the party. For most of these we are indebted to "Toronto 
of Old," by the venerated Dr. Scadding. As, "Ac the balls of 
the Governor and others at York, the jewels of Madame la 
Comtesse de Beaupoil created a great sensation, wholly surpassing 
everything of the kind that had been seen bj th3 ladies of Up- 
per Canada." A descendant of Count de Chalus retains property 
here, but resides in Montreal, and so far as known, the descend- 
ants of only one other family are now represented in Canada (be- 
sides those of Wm. Sraithers). In St. Mark's Register in the 
Marriage notices is that of one member of the party : "December 
6th, 1802, Ambroise de Farcy and Ellen Weymouth/' Quetton 
St, George became a very successful merchant in York, returned 
to France when Louis XVIII. succeeded to the throne, and in 
1860 his descendant returned to Canada, and, when Dr. Scadding 



33 

wrote, was exercising a refined hospitality at Glen Lonely. He 
says Quetton St. George was of the noblesse, as all officers in 
France were then obliged to be. The name was originally M. 
Quetton, but as an exile landing in England on St. George's Day, 
in gratitude he added the Saint's name, making his full name 
IVJ. Quetion St. George. He traded with the Indians and had a 
post at Orillia. In tiie Niagara Herald, August 7th, 1802, his 
advertisement reads thus : "New store at the house of the French 
General between Niagara and Queenston. Messrs. Quetton St. 
George & Co, have goods from New York to be sold at the low- 
est prices for ready money, for from the uncertainty of their re- 
siding for any time in these parts they cannot open accounts with 
any person. Dry goods, groceries, tools, trunks, empty barrels, 
etc." "A similar assortment to the abo^e may be had at their 
store at the French General's House, between Niagara and Queen- 
ston "June 18th, 1803. 

The "Co." was M, de Farcy. In 1811 there is .a petition of 
De Farcy asking to have their grants given them, also a memor- 
ial of Quetton St. George in French, and another in English, and 
in August, 1812, the Count de Puisaye asks Commissioners to in- 
quire into his claims, and those of other Royalists A special 
charter of denization had to be s;iven. 

An advertisement in the Upper Canada Gazette, December 
15th, 1894, unearthed by J. J. Murphy, Crown Lands Dept., to 
whom I am indebted for copying it. 

"TAKE NOTICE. 

"On the first day of February next will be sold at Public 
Sale by the Subscribers who are duly authorized to dispose of 
the same, at the House of the Count de Puisaye, the House- 
hold furniture and books belonging to that gentleman, a list 
of which will hereafter be given in this paper. 

"DE FARCY. 
"QUETTON ST. GEORGE." 

In the issue of Upper Canada Gazette, January 12th, 1805, 
appears the list of furniture. 

"List of Household Furniture which will be sold at the 
House of the Count de Puisaye at Niagara on the 1st Feb. 
next : 

"Mahogany Chest of Drawers, Chairs, Sopha, do.; 
Large Looking Glasses, Middling size do. Pictures and Cop- 
per Plate < ; Turkey Carpets, Common do.; two clocks, one of 
which is a Chime Clock and plays twelve different tunes ; 
Kitchen Utensils, Horses, Waggons, etc., etc. 



34 

"Bootes Bufton's 'Natural History,' 54 vols. ; (French) ; 
Rappin's 'Hist, of England,' 28 vols. (Eng.); Salmon's 
'Traveller,' in folio, 2 vols., do.; 'Dictionary of Arts and 
Sciences, 5 2 vols,; Pope, Shakespeare, 4-to., 2 vols. ; 'Modern 
Architecture,' 4-to., 2 vols.; 10 vols. Du President, Du Thou, 
and a great number of Novels too tedious to mention. " 

We wonder who bought the Chime Clock, and if it is yet in 
existence. 

All that remains is to give some slight description of the 
residence of the Count de PuUaye. Waat induced him to settle 
on the Niagara, we know not, except the beautiful situation. 
He certainly selected an ideal spot on which to build a hous^, 
which still stands, after a lapse of over a hundred years. To be 
exact, half of it stands, for some years ago half of it was taken 
down and the foundation stones can still be traced. 

Originally a long, low building about eight) feet in length, by 
twenty-foup in width, with dormer windows and st^ep, sharply 
sloping roof, as seen in Norman French houses, there are now 
two window* on each side of the door, and above- are three dormer 
windows, back and front; so it is likely there were eight windows 
below arid six dormer windows above in front There are still 
two old fireplaces,, and there nad been probably three or four. 
Built against one end is. a curious fL-e projf structure of brick* 
with walls three feet thick and at one side, supported by three 
stone buttresses. The vaulted interior has two divisions with no 
connection with each other, entered from opposite sides, and with 
a thick divison wall of brick. Various, are the opinions as to the 
usa of this what is generally called "the vault." A powder maga- 
zine, wine cellar, dairy, vegetable .room, all ha\e been mentioned, 
as well as a storehouse for goods when the building was a store. 
I give all, and a choice may be m ide, or other suggestions offered. 
Perhaps later investigation may make clear its use A loft has 
baen put on in modern times, which was there when Or. Scad- 
ding visited it about 1870, but previous to that, it showed the 
round vaulted brick roof. 

Various legen Is float about, as of fish ponds, and that one 
room of the house was literally lined with mirrors. To the mind 
of the plain frug il settlers of those days, the abundance of mirrors 
in French bouses would have a dazzling appearance. The ceilings 
are very low, as may be shown by the stairway of only seven 
steps. The building itself is frame, and is in excellent preservation, 
many repairs having been made at different times. During the 
war of 1812 it was used as a hospital. 

The property has had rmny owners, but one can trace 



35 

almost, if not all, the occupants and owners -the Count de 
Chains, Quetton St. George, Mr. S. Kent in the firso half of the 
century. About 1850, it was bought by Captain Baxter, with 
two hundred acres of land adjoining it, from Col. Allen, of Tor- 
onto, the father of Senator G. W. Allen. Every year two. 
barrels of a special kind of apples grown there, were sent to 
him by Capt. Baxter. The house had previously been occupied by 
Mr. YlcPh-rson It next passed into the hands of Mr. Warren, 
by whom it was sold to Mr. Shickaluna, the famous boat builder 
of St Catharines, who erected near it a house, many said, as 
much resembling a boat as could be done. In his turn, it was 
sold to Mr. Mills, still living in Toronto, who made great improve- 
ments in the house. Afterwards the property came into the hands 
of Capt. Geale Dickson, who erected the fine residence now 
standing, since improved by the present owner, Mr. Jackson, one 
hundred acres having been sold to Mr. Doyle. While in possession 
of Mr. Dickson, the half of the Count's house was taken down. This 
year the Niagara Historical Society has placed seven stones to 
m irk historic spots, and one of these has been placed here with 
the inscription; "The building near was erected by the Count 
de Puisaye, a French Refugee, in 1799." 

Ay we think of the exiles gradually returning to their own 
land, we cannot but heave a sigh when we think what must have 
been their feelings. Witnesses of all the horrors of the Reign 
of Terror ; escaping to Britain ; fed by the bounty of the Govern- 
ment there; crossing the ocean in the late fall when Atlantic 
waves are boisterous ; landing iu a foreign land, almost a wilder- 
n^ss, covered with winter snows ; felling the monarchs of the forest ; 
building rude dwellings, and facing the cold of our winter after the 
pleas-int land of France. Think of the mal de pays from which 
they must h?ive suffered when they thought of their sunny skies, 
not knowing, in that first sad winter, that this country, too, has 
its bright skies, and balmy air as well as its bracing breezes. 
Was it of these exiles that Burke wrote in his ''Reflections on the 
French Revolution"? "I hear there are considerable emigrations 
from France, and that many, quitting that voluptuous climate and 
seductive Circean liberty, have taken refuge in the frozan regions 
of Oanaia." Writers a century later have not yet forgotten to 
make similar references to "Oar Lady of the Snows." 

To the patient investigator it will be found there is much 
unexplored territory in our history, and that the links are lying 
all aromid us concealed, or mayhap, open to every eye, but 
only those interested will be able to adapt and fit together the 
parts broken or separated into the complete chain. 



36 

We have within the brief space of one year to record serious losses to the 
membership of our Society, first by the death of a valued member, Mrs. Greene 
who died on the 23rd Oct., 1905, and that of our Patron, Win. Kirby, F.I<! 
S.C., on 23rd June, 1906, and by the removal to Saskachewan of our Vice- 
President, Henry Paffard. The Pesident of the Society thus referred to the 
death of Mrs. Greene and Mr. Kirby in the Niagara and Toronto Press. 



Mrs. J. f . Greene 



A TRIBUTE 

A very sad occurrence in our town last week was the 
death of Mary Hunter, daughter of the late Neil Hunter, and 
wife of Mr. Joseph F. Greene, after an illness of several months, 
borne with unfailing cheerfulness and rare courage. Born in 
the town she received her education first in the K. C Separate 
School and afterwards in the High School ; having hon- 
orably graduatad she taught successfully in the Public School 
here Her marked ability obtained fur her the position of 
Assistant Secretary in the Head Office of the Foresters, which 
she held twelve years, till her marriage four years ago. By her 
amiability and sterling qualities of bead and heart she gained 
many friends. A devoted member of St. Vincent de Paul's 
Churcb, a sweet singer in the choir tbere and also in tt. 
Michael's Cathedral, Toronto, a member of the Historical So- 
ciety, and of the Book Committee ot the Public Library, ami 
lately a member of a Literary Club, she took a deep interest 
in all these institution. She lately wrote the history of her own 
Church here, which has been published by the Historical So- 
ciety, and has elicited much praise for its careful research and 
graceful style. A touching tribute was p^id her shortly before 
her death by her former companions in the I.O. F. 

The funeral was largely attended, High Mass being per- 
formed by Re'v Father Bench, her former pastor, Rev. Father 
Harold, now of New York being present The pall-bearers 
were Messrs Miller, Randall, Healey, Brawn, Sheppard and 
Flynn Beautiful floral offer .ngs from Toronto, Butfalo and 
Niagara, and the presence of the lady members of the Histori 
cal Society and Litterary Cjub to pay the last mark of respect 
to their friend showed the esteem in which the deceased was 
held. Much sympathy is felt for her bereaved husband. 




WM. KIRBY, F.R.S.C. 



37 



Wm. Kirby, P.P.5.C 



William Kirby, F R S.C , Canada's oldest litterateur, born 
in 1817, and almost in his 90th year, died on Saturday, June 23. 
A native of Yorkshire, England, he has alw iys been known as a 
strong advocate for British connection. Leaving England in 
1832 he received part of his education in Cincinatti from a 
highly educated Scot, Alexander Kinmount. Coming to Can- 
ada in 1839 he lived some years in St David's, and afterwards 
married Miss Whitmore, whose mother was a daughter of the 
noted United Empire Loyalist, Daniel Servos. 

He next became editor and proprietor of the Niagara Mail, 
in 1853, and his first poem, "The U.E," was printed in the office 
of that paper, the greater part of the work, it is said, having 
been done by himsalf. On his retiiement from The Mail he 
hecame Collector of Customs, which office he held for many 
years. 

His greatest work, "La Chien D'Or," perhaps the best 
Canadian historical ronrmce ever written, has given its author 
deserved fame. The story of the writing and publishing, the 
loss of the manuscript for nearly three years, its finding in the 
Grand Trunk baggage room, Toronto, and its subsequent 
adventures is a rom ince in itself. His poems, Canadian Idylls," 
"Queen's Birthday," "Dead Sea Roses," "Kirby Winke," "I he 
Hungry Years," etc., give us many stirring incidents of Can- 
adian history, all breathing an intense loyaltf, while his trans- 
lations of French and German poems show his linguistic as well 
as poetic powers. 

His latest work, "Annals of Niagara," gives many almost 
forgotten stories of oarly days in the old capital. 

He was made a fellow of the Royal Society, and though 
his reserve and modesty kept him from being as well known as 
he might have been, still by the highest in this and other lands 
his merits as a man and a poet have been, acknowledged. 
The Princess Lou ; se, at Ottawa, conveyed to him the pleasure 
the late Queen Victoria had had in reading "The Golden Dog." 
Letters from Lord Tennyson, the Duke of Argyll and many 
noted persons attest the esteem in which he was held. 



-38 



For many years reeve and magistrate of the town, he lived 
lately a quiet life of retirement. 

He leaves a son, John Kirby, and three grandchildren in 
Toronto, and a grandson, Eric Kirby, now in England. 

A good constitution enabled him to resist the disease 
which attacked him more than a year ago, and which was 
borne with patience and fortitude. 

At the funeral there werd pr 5S3nt representatives of three 
Historical Societies, Miss FitzGibbon and Macallum of the 
Woman's Histoiical Society, Toronto ; Canon Bull of Hamil- 
ton, hia old friend of the Lundy's Lane His. So., and many 
ladies and gentlemen of the Niagara Historical Society of 
which he was the patron. The services were conducted by the 
Rev. J. C. Garrett and Rev. Canon Bull. The pall bearers 
were : Messrs Thonger, Ball, Ejkersley, Servos. Ruthven and 
Blake. The mourners were : Mr. John Kirby and his two 
sons, Mr. Geo. Whitmor?, Mr. P. Servos Mr. L Servos, Mr. 
James and Rev. A. Dawson. Flowers were sent by the Toron- 
to and Niagara Historical Society. Mr. Kirby in accordance 
with his retiring character had expressed a wish that the 
funeral ceremonies should be of the simplest character. 

The following inscription has been placed on a mural 
tablet in St. Mark's Church. 

"In memory of Wm. Kirby, F.R.S.C. for twenty four 
years Collector of Customs for Niagara, the author of Le Chien 
D'Or (The Golden Dog) Canadian Idylk and other works of 
just repute. A true man with the loyalty, courage and spirit 
of his race. Born at Hull, Yorkshire, the 13th of October, 
1817 ; died at Niagara, the 23rd of June, 1906 Also in 
memory of his dear wife, Elizabeth Magdalene Whitmore, 
U.E L., born in Niagara Township the llth of August, 
1817 ; died at Niagara the fifth of June, 1891." 



APPENDIX 

Major Gregg gives a vivid picture of the ceremonies at the 
funsral of G m. Brojk "Na pan cm dsscribi th3 real scenes of 
that mournful day. A niDre solemn and affecting spectacle was 
never perhaps witnessed. As every arrangement fell to my lot, 
a second attack being hourly expected I anxiously endeavoured to 
perform the last tribute of affection in a manner corresponding to 
the elevated virtues of my departed patron. Recollecting the de- 
cided aversion of the General to ostentatious display I endeav- 
oured to avoid this but there were military honors that could not 
be avoided " He gives the procession thus. 

Fort Major Campbell, sixty m^n of 41st Rsgt., sixty of the 
Militia, two Six Pounders firing minute guns, remaining corps of 
Garrison and 233 Indians forming a street through which the 
profession passed from the Government House to the Garrison, 
Band of 41st Regt. Drums covered with black cloth and muffed. 
Late General's horse fully caparisoned led by four grooms, Servants 
of the Genaral, The General's Body Servant, Surgeon Muirhead, 
Doator Moore, Dr. Jarvis, Staff Surgeon Thorn, Rev. Mr. Addison 
The body of Major Gen. Brock, Supporters Mr. Jas. Coffin, Capt. 
Vigoreux, RE. ; Capt. Derenzy 41st Regt., Capt. Dennis 49th, Capt. 
Ho'croft, R. A. Brigade, Maj. Evans; Capt. Williams 49th Regt., 
Major Merritt, Lincoln Militia, Lt.-Col. Clark, Lincoln Militia, 
Lt.-Col. Butler, Col. Glaus, Capt. Glegg, A.D C., Chief mourners, 
Maj. Gen. Sheaffe, Ensign Coffin, Lt.-Col. Myers, Lt. Fowler, Civil 
Staff; Friends, Inhabitants. 

A public monument was decreed by The Imperial Government 
and erected in Sfc Paul's Cach^dral at the cost of ^1575. It was 
ex->cut)d by Westmacott and shows the sword and helmet, his 
corpse reclining in the arms of a British soldier while an Indian 
stands close by. 

A poster print3d by Wai Lyoa MjKenzie at Queenston gives 
the arrangemsnt for the funeral on 13th Oct., 1824, when the 
first mDnument was erected. The 1st and 4th regiments of Lin- 
coln Milifcii the Royal Artillery, Grenadiers and 76th Regt. are 
m t )ntio;ied as bairig present. The inscription on the monument is 
also preserved to us in another poster thus : "The Legislature of 
Upper Canada has dedicated this monument to the very eminent 
Civil and military services of the late Sir Isaac Brock, Knight 
comrnind^r of tae raosc honourable order of the Bath, Provis- 
ional Lt. Governor and Major General commanding the forces of 
this province whose remains are deposited in the vault beneath, 



40 

Having expelled the North West Army of the United States. 
Achieved its capture. Received the surrender of Fort Detroit 
and the Territory of Michigan under circumstances which have rend- 
ered his name illustrious. He returned to the protection of this fron- 
tier and advancing with his small force to repel a second invasion 
of the enemy then in possession of the Heights. He fell in action 
on the 13th of Oct., 1812, in the 43 year of his age. Honored 
and beloved by the people whom he governed and deplor d by 
his Sovereign to whose service his life had been devofced." 

Another poster gives us the form of procession at the laying 
the foundation stone of the second monument, 13th Oct., 1853, in 
this order, Canadian Rifles, Band, Enrolled Pensioners, Funeral 
Car, Twelve Colonels or their officers as Pall-bearers, Col. Donald 
Macdonell, D A.G. for Conada West, Lt.-Col. de Salaberry, DA. 
G. for Canada East, Col. Tache, Lt -Col. Irving, Survivors of 1812 
and Indian chiefs as chief mourners, Military and Militia officers 
in uniform, Building Committee, Architect, Builder and Clerk of 
Work, Bar, Magistrates, Indian Band, Canadian Societies, National 
Societies, the procession to stretch from Grave yard and on King 
street opposite Col. Hamilton's, Col. Adams to act as Dep. .Mar- 
shall ; signed William Hamilton Merritt, Chairman ; Hector Munro, 
Secretary. 

With regard to Brock's cocked hat we have the following 
statement proving the genuineness of this valuable relic. Copy of 
extract from letter of the late John W. Ball, Esq., of Locust Grove, 
Niagara, toG. W. H. Ball, Esq., Bc\rrister, Galt,0afc , "Sept. 5th, 1837. 

General Brock's hat came out from England after his death 
to his nephew who with some troops was stationed at the time at 
Ball's Mills to protect a quantity of father's flour from the 
American Army Capt. Brock in leaving the Mills presented the 
Hat to father the late Geo. Ball, Esq , of Locust Grove, Niagara. 

It was in a good state of preservation until it was loaned to 
be placed on the coffin of the late General Brock when his remains 
were taken from Fort George to be placed in the first monument 
on Queenston Heights when it was completed, and again when 
the new monument was finished for the removal of the remains 
thereto. Instead of being cared for as promised by the Colonel 
in charge it was fingered and tried on by so many people as to 
leave it in its present shabby stata. The hat was, I think, loaned a 
third tima when the Prinoe of Wales visited tbe Monument and 
was again subjected to the same treatmbnt by hundreds. 

We send you the above statement as related by father. 

,, (JOHN H. BALL. 
Signed by ( MARGAHET BALL " 






1>UCIT AMOR PATRIAE 



NIAGARA HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY 



REPORT 

OF THE 

OPENING OF 

MEMORIAL HALL 

JUNE 4, 1907 



TIMES PRINT, 1908 
NIAGARA-ON-THE-tiAKE, ONT. 



Report or me 

OPENING OP MEMORIAL HALL 
JUNE 4th, 1907 



It has been suggested by several members that the next publi- 
cation of our Society should be a report of the opening of our build- 
ing and that this should contain as far as possible the addresses 
given, the list of contributors to the building fund, the items of 
expense in the construction and furnishing and some account of the 
.most interesting articles in the collection. It is to be regretted 
however that some of the addresses could not be obtained, being 
impromtu and not fully reported. 

To begin at the begining in the Evolution of the Building, but 
how reach by any method the beginning of anything, the environ- 
ment of each person concerned, the circumstances which culminated 
in certain work done, all the thoughts maturing in many minds and 
at last crystallized into action. It is never possible to gather these 
together as the drops of all the tiny streamlets which trickle down 
Uniting in the full grown river. 

To begin at ttre beginning of the first public act which led 
ultimately to the erection of our Historical building -some reference 
must be made to the foundation of our Society. An article 
was sent to the local paper urging the formation of an Historical 
Society and shortly after the following invitation appeared: "A 
meeting will be held in the Public Library on Thursday evening, 
Dec. 12th, 1895 at 7.30 to take steps to organize an Historical 
Society for Niagara. A cordial invitation is given to all interested 
in the subject to be present." At the meeting Mr. Henry Paffard 
was caPed on to act as chairman and Mr. R. C. Burns as Secretary. 
It was derided to form a Society and the following officers were 
elected: \Vm. Kirby, Patron; Miss Curnoehan, President; H. Paffard, 
Vice- President; Alfred Ball, Secretary; Mrs. Alexander Servos, 
Treasurer. Committee - Kev. J C. Ganett, Wm. Seymour, B.A.; 
\V. II. AlcClellan-1 and John P. Servos. Besides the officiah appoint- 
ed there were present Russel Wilkinson, Wm. Harrison, R. C. 'Burns. 
Mrs B. N;sh and the M is*es Winter-bottom, Baxter and Clement. 
The K-v. Dr. S.-ad:Ung and Canon Bull were elected honorary 
members. A committee was appointed to draft a Constitution and 
By Li\vs before next meeting. An application to the Town Coun- 



cil was sent, and the Grand Jury Poom in the third story of the 
Court House was granted for meetings and to form an historical 
collection. It was decided that the Anniversary day should be 17th 
September, to celebrate the meeting of the Parliament of Upper 
Canada at Niagara then Newark in 1792, find that the annual 
meeting should be on 13th October to commemorate the battle of 
Queenston Heights 1812. 

The card of Membership gives the motto. "The love of country 
guides." and states that "the objects of the Society are the encour- 
agement of the study of Canadian History and Literature, the col- 
lection and safe preservation of Canadian Historical Records and 
Relics and the building up of Canadian Loyalty and Patriot ism. 
Each member is asked to give or loan to the Society, documents or 
relics to add to the collection in the Historical Room or aid in any 
other way the aims of the Society." 

The first anniversary was held in the Town Park, in 1896, the 
speakers and others were entertained at lunch at Long's Hotel an I 
there was an Historical Exhibit in Rowley's block in the charge of 
John D. Servos to whose zeal in collecting, the utmost praise was 
due. The speakers were Rev. Canon Bull, Capt. Cruikshank (now 
Colonel) Mrs. Curzon, Miss FitzGibbon, Col J. G. Currie, Jas. 
Hiscott, M.P.P., and Wm. Kirby, F.R S.C. The band of the 39th 
Battalion was kindly furnished by Col. Otter, the Military Camp be- 
ing held at that time, and the High School Glee Club sang, led by 
Wm. Seymour, B.A. After lunch St. Ma-k's Graveyard had been 
visited and many graves decorated. 

It is not intended to give the history of the Society during the 
ten years since. The work went on regularly and the room \v;is 
found to be too small to contain the articles but, as the next steps 
are referred to in a paper read June 4th, these need not be repeat- 
ed. A committee was formed to arrange for the important clay of 
opening. Mr. Chas Hunter kindly offered to entertain the Lieuten- 
ant Governor, whose presence we were fortunate enough to secure. 
Mr. Chas. Hunter, Manager of the Standard Life Assurance Co., 
and Mrs. Hunter entertained at their beautiful summer horn- the 
Lt.-Governor, Major Macdonald, Mrs McDonald, Rev. J. C. Garrett, 
Mrs. J. C. Garretb and A H. l r . Colquhoun, while others were enter- 
tained by the Society at Doyle's Hotel. The visitors were met at 
the boat by the President of the Society, Mr Kckersley and W. J. 
Wriglit, M.A. .Among those entertained were Dr. Bain, C. C. James, 
Rev. N. Smith, Miss Gilkison, Brantford, and other friends. 

Among those who were present and registered were His Honor 
Sir Mortimer Clark attended by his official Seen tary, Major Mc-Don 
aid. Dr. Bain, Chief Librarian, Dr. A. H. T. rol<niboun. Dep. M-n- 



ister of Education, C. C. James, F.R.S C., Dep. Minister of Agri- 
culture, Mrs. J. F. Macdonald, Chas. Hunter, Mrs. Chas. riunter, 
Kev. N. Smith, Mrs. H. Thompson, Rev. A. B. Sherk, Mrs. Miller, 
Miss Gray, T. M. Rowland, Mrs. Rowland, Mrs. Wilson, Miss Lawler, 
Mrs. Collins all of Toronto, Johnson Clench, Mrs. J. G. Currie, 
Dr. Jessop, M.P.P., R. Walker, C. A. Case, Mrs. Bixby, C. A. 
Wilson, A. R Carnochan, Mrs. Clench of St. Catharines, Col. 
Cruikshank, F.R.S.C., Dr. and Mrs. Walker, C. A. Foulger, W. P. 
Gonder, F H. Leslie, Mrs Birdsall of Niagara Fallls, Miss Gilki- 
son, Brantford, Miss Gonder and Miss Durham, Black Creek, 
R J. Davis, London, Miss McKay, Mimico, Mrs. Walker, Buffalo, 
Mrs. VValker, Glencoe, F. J. Arline, St. Thorn is, J. M, Field, W. 
Crouch, Miss Crouch, Virgil, Mrs, Scott, Ciacinafcti, Mrs. Rowe, 
Cleveland, Mrs. McPherson, Ottawa, Mrs F. Anderson, Chicago, 
Miss Fairbairn, Western, Rev. J. C. Garrett, Mrs Garrett, Rev. A. 
F. MacGregor, Rev. P. J. Bench, Major Hiscott, Dr. Anderson, 
Chas. A. F. Ball, Mrs. Ball, Mrs. Wood, Miss Joanna E. Wood, 
Mrs McGaw, Miss Alma, Miss Winterbottom, J. de W. Randall, 
T. F. Best, J. Bottomley, Mrs. A. Servos, W. J. Wright, M.A., Mrs. 
Botcomley, J. H. Burns, Mrs. J. H. Burns, Miss Bjavan, F. Wint- 
hrop, C Thonger, W. S. Lansing, Mrs, Lansing, A. W. Wright, 
Jos. Walker, H. Ruthven, Mrs. Jno. Carnochan, W. E. Lyall, F. 
J. Rowland, Mrs. Rowland, Miss Anderson, Miss M. Ball, Miss M. 
Servos, W. It. McClelland, Miss Follett, Miss Bernard, P. Librock, 
J. A. Black, Mrs. Geddes, Mrs. Billing and many others. 

Besides these the Press was well represented as there were 
r^pirters from the Toronto Globe, News, Star and Telegram also 
St. Catharines' Stan lard and Niagara Fall's Raview. 

It had been decided thac the speaking should be in a large 
marquee tent as on account of the number of upright cases in the 
room it was not adapted for a large crowd; a smaller tent was pro- 
vided for the refreshments, but PS on account of the rain the attend 
an-je was less than expected it was decided that the speaking should 
be in the building and that afterwards refreshments should be served 
to all present in the large tent. 

On a platform coverered with rich rugs kindly provided by 
Mrs. Miles, were seated the Lieutenant Governor, the President 
and Vice-President of the Society. The room was brilliant with 
flags and fragrant with flowers and altogether with the array in the 
cases of military accoutrements, pictures, flags and flowers a fine 
tout ensemble was presented. A handsome palm sent by the Niag- 
ara Navigation Company was conspicuous. Tae programme as print- 
ed w.is as follows but as sonic? were unavoidably absent several 
in the audience were called upon to speak. 



OPENING PRAYER ............. Rev. J. C. Garrett, Vice-Pres. of Society. 

BUILDING DECLARED OPEN ........ by His Honor the Lieut.-Governor. 



ADDRESS ........ ........... . ............ His Honor the Lieut.-Governor. 

* ...................... Hon. N. Monieith, Minister of Agriculture. 

* ................................................. John Ross Robertson 

" ......................................... A. H. U. Colquhoun, M.A , 

Dept. Minister of Education. 

" ..................... David Boyle, Supt. Archaeological Museum. 

" ................. Alexander Fraser, M.A., Provincial Archivist. 

t 5 pnt. 



$ 8 ^*, 

Sn tyr ^oUn *TU 

INSTRUMENTAL DUET... Miss Louise Carnochan and Mis. May Burns. 
ADDRESS ........ ........ ............... The Military History of 



Col. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C 
SONT, .......................... ....Members of the High School Glee Club. 

PAPER ...... ............... ................ The Early Legislators of Niagara, 

C. C James, Dept. Minister of Agriculture 

SO.NI; ................................ Canada ......... ........... Col. Galloway. 

PAPKK .......................... The Evolution of OUT Historical Builring. 

President of the Society. 

SO.NV. .................. ............ .............. Canada, (Jod and o.ir Land. 

Members of the High School Glee Club. 

ADDRKSS ...................... Hon. Peter A. Porter. Niagara Tails, N.V. 

the 




& 



4 






SI! 



The opening prayer was made by the Rev. J. C. Garrett, the 
Vice President, after which- His Honor, Sir Mortimer Clark, made 
an address first congratulating the Society on the building and its 
contents and briefly reviewed the events of the last fifty years in 
Canada showing how a feeling of loyalty had been developed and 
fostered by the events of the ;\ar of 1812, the Trent affair and the 
Boer war thus binding together Canada and the Mother Country 
He emphasized the importance of historical societies and the value 
to the young of such an object lesson as the contents of this room 
would be. He spoke of the changes he had seen since coming to 
the country in 1859 and of the greater interest in historical re- 
search and of the stronger feeling of patriotism a new spirit seem- 
ed to control the people of to day and we were living in the midst 
of the awaking of A new life. Newcomers not understanding our 
government and knowing little of Canadian history were apt to over- 
look the work of those who had brought about the present condition 
of a settled country and people who were loyal subjects of the 
British Empire. Niagara was the Mecca for tourists. The Nia- 
gara peninsula had been made sacred by the blood of those who 
fought and died, whose brave deeds are an inspiration to all and 
who should be honored by all. The three places of greatest historic 
interest in Canada were Louisburg. Quebec and Niagara. Young 
people should be brought to Memorial Hall and there taught the 
history of ih -ir forefrith-vs an i that ( 'atvida was part of a great 
Empire. Imperialism spread the knowledge of British law which 
stoo 1 for civil liberty. An Imperialist was not one who was always 
''begging sonic? one to tread on the tail of his coat." It was import- 
ant to preserve all links with the past that the voung should be 
brought in touch with it. 

Th-5 LirtUten.int Governor then declared the building open 
A telegram was read ftom Hon. A Nelson Moriteith, the Minister 
of Agriculture, expressing his regret at not being able to be present. 
A letter was read by the President from John Ross Robertson ex- 
pressing his kind wishes as follows: 

Dear Miss Carnochan:-- 

I regret exceedingly that 1 am unable to be with you tomorrow 
afternoon at the opening of the now building, were it not for import- 
ant business that detains me in Toronto 1 should have set aside 
every other consideration and taken part in doing honor to yourself 
and the friends who have, so generously assisted in installing the new 
Historical Building in the old town of Niagara. 

Let me assure you that although I am not present with you in 
person I am with you in spirit, and trust that your opening function 



G 

may be a successful one, and let me assure you that in whatever 
way you desire I shall only be too happy to assist you in not only 
making your collection more complete but in any other way that 
will advance the interests of so good a work. 

Yours Sincerely, 

J. Ross ROBERTSON. 

Mr. David Boyle the Superintendent of the Archaeological 
Museum was unfortunately absent when called upon. Dr. A. H. U. 
Colquhoun the Deputy Minister of Education congratulated the 
Society a.id the President who seemed to have "the happy knack of 
making people do as she desired" as shown in her success in collect- 
ing money from governments, town and County Councils and indi- 
viduals, stating that having seen numerous historical buildings he 
could say that Memorial Hall took a high rank among them. 

A letter of apology was received from Alexander Fruser, M.A., 
the Provincial Archivist explaining that he was unexpectedly detain- 
ed in Detroit. 

Dr. Jessop, M.P.P. for Lincoln, gave a short enthusiastic address 
congratulating the Society, and Dr. Bain, the chief Librarian of 
Toronto, spoke of the valuable and rare books, pamphlets and papers 
in the room having discovered that the Niagara Historical possessed 
one of which the only other copy known to exist was in the Toronto 
Library, viz the first novel printed in Upper Canada which he had 
secured for a considerable price but was quietly told by Miss Car- 
nochan that it had been obtained for nothing by this Society. 

Major Hiscott, the former member for Lincoln recalled Niagara 
as a centre of business seventy years ago claiming that he was pro 
bably the oldest person present who had been born in the town, and 
paid a glowing tribute to the good and honorable men of the past in 
Niagara 

Johnson Clench the County Clerk from St. Catharines in con- 
gratulating Miss Carnochan and the Society, told that his two grand- 
fathers had fought on opposite sides at Queenston Heights, one of 
them being Ralfe Clench, the first Judge. The Rev. A. F. McGregor 
also spoke for a few moments. His Honor then called for three 
cheers for Miss Carnochan, the President of die Society, Wi^o after 
thanking the speakers for their many kind woi'ls said "I hope none 
of 3 ou think I am foolish enough to believe all the complimentary 
things which have been said ot me." Before the close of the meet 
ing the President rt ad a list of names,. almost a, hundred in number 
of those who had sent regrets and apologies for their absence showing 
kindly feeling and interest in our work. As His Worship the Mayor, 
J. tb W. Randall, had declared a half holiday to honor the event an 



opportunity was thus given to all to attend, but the heavy rain de- 
prived mtiny of the pleasure. 

An adjournment was made to the tent where 5 o'clock tea was 
served and bountiful refreshments were dispensed by the ladies of 
the Society, the committee consisting of Mrs T. F. Best, Mrs. Goff, 
Mrs A. Servos, Mrs Ascher, Mrs. Thompson, Mrs. Rowe, Miss W. 
Servos, Mrs Ruthven, Mrs. Bottomley as Convener, and all deserve 
the highest praise for the manner in which th^ir work was carried 
out having met with and conquered many ditficnlties The young 
ladies who waited on the guests were all related to members of the 
Society viz Miss Kathleen Ball, Miss tlora Garrttt, Miss Gladys 
Best, Miss Gertrude Carnochan, Miss Clara Eckersley, Miss Sarah 
Lansing, Miss McGregor, Miss Mildred Randall, Miss Catharine 
Creed, MJSS Skelton, Miss May Burns, Mrs. Rowe. The gentle- 
men on the committee were Messrs. Ball, Eckersley, Wright and 
Winthrop. 

In spite of the rain every one seemed happy and pleased. Many 
stayed in the room taking their refreshment in examining more close- 
ly the collection consisting of military clothing, weapons, documents, 
portraits of eirly inhabitonls, early Niagara printing, rare books and 
pamphlets, women's work, clothing, churches, household articles 
grouped round an old mantel, old china., early boats, Indian remains, 
pictures, old furniture, papers, autographs, deeds, scrap books, 
miscellaneous. 

The evening meeting was held in the Town Hall and was pre 
sided over by the Rev. .) C. Garrett. In -spite of the pouring rain 
the room was full to the doors. The programme was carried out 
completely with the exception of one speaker, Hon. Peter Porter, 
Niagara Falls, N.Y., whose letter explained that the serious illness 
of his son prevented him coming. The kind letter closed thus. 

kl l wish you would present my personal regards to the Lieu- 
tenant Governor, Mr. James Coyne, Col. Cruikshank, Mr. Boyle, 
the Ontario Archivist and other friends, members of your Society 
to whose courtesies in the pirt I have been indebted for a most 
enjoyable time and with the wish that your meeting may be the 
great snc -ess which I know you are entitled to for the work you 
have 'lone. Believe me 

Yours very sincerely, 

PKTKR A. PORTER." 

His absence was a great disappointment as his routing speech 
two years ago here was remembered It is to be regretted that the 
addrvss of Col. Crui <shai>!c F.R S.C can not ha given in full as it 
was spoken rmt written. It was strongly patriotic in tone and' re- 



fcrred briefly to the different features of the military history of Nia- 
gara from the first settlement during and after the Revolutionary 
War, through the different invasions of our territory in the war of 
1812 showing how the men, the women and even the children had 
helped in defending their country The eminent historian of the 
Niagara peninsula than whom no one has equal knowledge on the 
subject, was Hstened to with great attention as his well known 
thoroughness, impartiality and powers of research are acknowledged 
by all and command respect. A song followed, by the High School 
Glee Club led by Miss Anderson one of the teachers, "Canada". 
Then followed a paper by C. C. James F R.S.C. Deputy Minister of 
Agriculture on the Early Legislators of Niagara which was replete 
with much curious and interesting historic lore.. This paper we 
are happy to be able to give in full. The audience was then delight- 
ed with the song "Canada" (which may become the Canadian anthem) 
by Col Galloway which was so heartily encored that another pat- 
riotic song was given 'John Bull". 

Then following "The Evolution of our Historical Building" by 
the President and this by special request is also given in full. The 
Glee Club gave another song "Canada, God and our land". The 
members of the Glee Club were the Misses L. Carnochan, L Hart- 
ley, E. Redhead, C. Eckersley, H. Gordon, F. Lee, H. Stevens, N 
Irvine, E. Doherty, Af. Lynch, W. Taylor, the pianist being Miss 
May Burns. The meeting closed with God Save the King. 

The list of those who sent kind letters in reply to the card of 
invitation is as follows: 

Sir Wilfred Laurier, Sir Frederick fiorden, Sir Randolph 
Lemieux. Hon. W. S Fielding, Hon. 8. A. Fisher, Hon. H. R 
Emerson, Hon. Wm Gibson. Hon. Jas. Young, Hon J. Whitney, 
Hen- A. J. Matheson, Hon R. A. Pyne, Hon. N. Monteith, Hori 
J. Reaume, Hon. J J. Foy, Hon J. S. Henvirie, Hon. G. W. Ross. 

President Bur wash, Principal Hutton, Dr. Gold win Smith, Dr 
Withrow, Coi. Merritt, Dr. Hodgin?., Col. Stimson, Col. Davidson, 
Col. Galloway, Col. Denison, John Ross Robertson, David Boyle, 
Dr. Colquhoun, C. C. James, F.R.S.C., Rev. N Smith, Nicol Kings- 
mill, K. C., N. W. Rowell K. C., Alexander Fras^r M A., Dr. Helen 
McMurchy, F. D. Smith, F. Nicholls, J. S. Carstnirs, Mrs. Campbell, 
Mis. Mills, F. Yeigh, W Rennie, S. W. Folger, Mrs Corley, M. G. 
Sherck, Miss Colq uhoun all of Toronto, Canon Bull; Hamilton, Col. 
Woods; Quebec. Dr . Fletcher, Benj. Suite F.R.S.C., S R. Sangster, 
Mrs. Richards; Ottawa, Hugh, J. Chisholm; New York, \V. A. 
Clement C. E.; Vancouver, F. H. Severance: BuftVlo, Barlow Cumb- 
erland; Po.'t Hope, W. D. Lighthitil, Mrs. Caupbell: Montreal. 



Jno. Mclntyre, A. McLaren, Mrs Currie, Miss Ault, St. Catharines; 
G. H. Coiner, Kingston; B. G Hamilton, Calgary; J. H. Coyne, 
St. Thomas; Mrs. Perry, Philadelphia; Miss Rankin, Detroit; Miss 
Quade, Ransomville, N.Y.; Miss Rye, England; Dr. Milroy, Ayr, 
Scotland; Mrs. Ross, Holland, Man; Henry Paffard, Lumsden, Sask.; 
Mrs. Burns, St. Thomas; Mrs. Hammett, Newbury; Miss Clement, 
Berl.n; Mrs. Soule, Niagara Falls; Sir Jas. LeMoine, Quebec, Miss 
Joanna E Wood, Niagara. 

The letter from the celebrated litterateur Goldwin Smith is 
certainly worthy of presentation. It was dictated, but signed by Dr. 
Goldwin Smith himself. 

"The Grange, 
Toronto, May 22nd, 1907. 
Dear Sir 

I am very sorry that I am unable to leave home at present and 

must consequently forego the pleasure of attending the opening of 

.your new building, I trust the study of history to which my own life 

has been mainly devoted may flourish under the roof of your new 

home. 

yours truly 
GOLDWIN SMITH." 



Dr. Hodgins the veteran Historiographer writes a personal 
letter of regrets and good wishes in his "86th year and 63rd of active 
service in the Education office." 

Mr. J Stewart Carstairs closes his letter of r<-gret thus "The 
Society in this as in so many other respects has displayed marvellous 
energy and has accomplished marvellous results; with many thanks 
and a "st-mper floreat" I am sincerely yours 

J. S CARSTAIRS." 

The Hon. G W. Ross closes his letter of regret with these 
words "Your Society has done splendid work for Canada, I hope 
you will not weary in well doing." 

Col. MathesontheProvinfial Treasurer, "I wish your society 
much success in your patriotic work which is worthy of all encourage- 
ment. 

yours faithfully 

A. J. MATHESON." 



JO 

Barlow Cumberland the President of the Ontario Historical 
Society writes from Dunain, Port Hope, "I have to say too that your 
enterprise will be of much value to Niagara-on-the Lake in attract- 
ing and prolonging the stay of visitors to your vicinity." 

Mrs. W. R Ross sent a telegram from Holland, Manitoba, 
"With you to-day in sp;rit. Success to Memorial Hall." 

Sir Jas. LsMoine writes from Spencer Grange, Quebec, a very 
kind letter closing thus, "It must be most gratifying to yourself and 
the members of your society to have made a success of such a praise- 
worihy project seeing the innumberable obstacles you had to van- 
quish. Please accept for yourself and for the society my warm con- 
gratulations." 

Many of the letters are of too personal a. nature and too laud- 
atory of our work to be quoted from, but for their kindly spirit we 
ihank our friends cordiallv. 



The tarly Legislators or 
Niagara District 

By C C Jdfrvas, r.R.SC, Depury Htnlster of Agriculture- 

When tae ;\ar of American In lapsndanc ^ closad in 1783, the 
limits of western settlement, adjacent to what is now th 3 Province 
of Ontario, were the Island of viontreal in Qa.^bee and t'.ie v.illeys 
of the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers in the state of New York. West 
and north of these was the great lake region covered by its magni- 
ficent primeval forest. Here had been che hom3S, the hunting 
grounds and the battle grounds of the Algonquins, the Hurons, the 
Neutrals and the Iroquois. Trading posts had been established at 
various times a 4 advantageous points and some of these had vievelop- 
ed into strong military forts Four of these may be referred to h-.-re, 
as they placed important parts not only in tha fortunes of war, but 
also in the subsequent settlement of what became known as Upper 
Canada, These four posts or forts were Oswegafcchie on the St. 
Lawrence, located at Ogdensburg, Fort Cataraqui at Kingston, Fort 
Niagara on the east or New York bank of the Niagara River, and 
Detroit on the northwest or Michigan side of the Detroit River. It 
will be noted that they were well distributed along the great line 
of communication and transportation, the water line from Montreal to 
Lake Huron, This water line became the boundary between the 
British Province of Quebec and the new confederacy of States that 
had just established its independent position. Oswegatchie, C itaraqui, 
Niagara ^nd Detroit then became four important points in connection 
with the settlement of the new district of Western Quebec There 
were two other military posts, name-y, Fort Ontario on the south 
shore of Lake Ontario, in the vicinity of Oswego, and Fort Mackinac 
at the entrance to Lake Michigan; but they played no part in the 
early settlement of Upper Canada, as may be iva ilv understood on 
account of their situation. 

As the British troops withdrew from the eastern and central 
states, and as the loyalist settlers and their families moved out of 
th;ir old locations and sought refuge in British territory, they natur- 
ally were attracted towards these four protected posts on the bound- 
ary line, and thus we find that the earliest settlements of this Prov- 
ince began simultaneously in the vicinity of Ogdensburg. on the 
north bank of the St. Lawrence, from Kingston west along the shores 
of the Bay of Quinte, in the section at the head of Lake Ontario and 



around to Fort Erie, and in the peninsula east and south of Detroit. 
In the early days, then, there were four distinct settlements of this 
western part of Qnebec, each grouped about or lying adjacent to a 
fortified post. Three of these posts, Oswegatchie, Detroit and Nia- 
gara were within the recognized territory of the United States, but 
remained in possession of British garrisons until 1796, all through 
the years of earjy organization of the Province and down to the 
time when the capital was transferred from Niagara to York on To- 
ronto Bay. 

This western section remained a part of the Province of Quebec 
from 1783 down to the 26th of December, 1791, when, by formal 
proclamation at Quebec, it became the Province 1 of Upper Canada. 
For judicial purposes, it bad been divided into the four districts al- 
ready referred to, bearing the utterly inappropriate names of 
Lunenburg, .Mecklenburg, Nassau and Hesse. 

When the proclamation was issued at Quebec by the acting 
Governor General, the first Lieutenant Governor of the Province, 
Lt. Colonel John Graves Simcoe, had already arrived, and with the 
help of Thomas Talbot was gaining information as to the resourct-s 
and requirements of his new field of operations. E.irly in the sum 
nier of 1792 he set out up the river from Quebec for the new Pro- 
vince. The first question that now arose was as to where he, shouM 
establish his Government headquarters. One, of the four districts 
must be chosen. For convenience, either (Jatrraqui or Niagara 
would be the choice. The first meeting of the Executive Counci 1 
was held at Kingston, and, besides other business s necessary to a 
new Province, the four districts were divided int > counties and a pro- 
clamation issued for the election ot representatives and the calling 
together of the first legislature to meet at Newark, as the, new set- 
tlement was then named, on t'ie west bank of the Niagara Hiver. It 
is interesting to note that this pari of the business was concluded on 
Sunday, the 15th day of July. 

__ The district of Nassau, of which Fort Niagara was the judicial 
headquarters, stretched from a line on the west running north and 
south throngh Longue Pointe to a lir*e running north and south 
through the outlet of the, River Trent on the east. The proclama- 
tion issued on Monday the 16th day of July, provided for four count- 
ies within this district, namely, Northumberland, Durham, York arid 
Lincoln. The northern limit of the county of Lincoln at that time 
was the Indian trailer carrying place leading from Burlington Bay 
through the Mohawk Village fco the River Thames. The western 
limit was the Grand River. It will be seen by a. reference to the 
map that the first county of Lincoln was composed of the present 
rounty of Lincoln also of Welland and portions of the present count- 



if s of W^ntworth and Brant and Haldimand. By the same proclam- 
ation it was divided into four ridings. 

The first riding formed the western portion, and w is composed 
of the the present townships of Ancister, Birto.i, Silsflaat, Glan- 
ford and Binbrook of Wentworth County, together with Grirasby, 
Clinton, Caistor arid Gamsboro of Lincoln County. 

The second riding included Louth, Grantham and. Newark town- 
ships. 

The third riding included Pelham, Thorold and Stamford. 

The fourth riding included all south of Chippewa Creek the 
townships which now make up tiip County of Welland. 

It was provided that the first riding of York and Durham 
should elect one representative; that the fourth riding, together with 
the County of Norfolk, should send on^ representative; and the 
second riding and third riding should each elect one representative. 
The representation was based on population as determined from the 
militia returns. Thus, we see that there was one representative for 
the townships of Louth, Grantham and Newark or Niagara, one r^- 
pr*-sent;itive; for Pelharu, Thorold and Stamford, one for Welland 
County and the district as far west as Catfish Creek ki EUin County, 
and one representative for che district beginning near Jordan Har- 
bor and extending around the lake as far as Port Hope. 

Having disposed of the question as to the ridings, we next 
touch upon the location of the capital. A very interesting chapter 
could be written of this subjaoc. The Governor General, Lord 
Dorchestor, we understand, favored Kingston, but Simcoe nt first 
thought it should be located Inland, for a time he was favorable to 
a town to be built at the forks of the Thames where London now 
stands. Meanwhile, he decided to make his temporary headquarters 
at Navy Hall, at the mouth of the Niagara Paver. Here were kept 
some of the naval stores and here were buildings wb.2re the Officers 
of His Mejesty's Lake Ontario vessels made their winter quarters 
Just a< ross the river was Fort Niagara, which was still manned by 
British troops. Simcoe no doubt thought that the new members 
could as readily reach Niagara bv boat as any other place in the 
Province, and so he gave orders for the various ri Jings to elect their 
representatives and for the latter to meet in session at Navv Hall 
,^ in September, 1792. 

Note the size of the two constituencies, the first riding and the 
fourth rifling and the fact that there were no roads But there 
were few settlers beyond Burlington Bay or the Grand River, so that 
practically it was simply the County of Lincoln in th Niagara Pen- 
insula that elect d the four representatives for the four ridings of 
Lincoln 



-14 

Who were the representatives? The proclamation provided for 
sixteen members. I shall not weary you with all the names; but 
perhaps as I have referred to the four districts I may note them as 
follows: -The eastern district on the St, Lawrence from Brockville 
to Cornwall elected five m. -tubers; the Kingston and Bay of Quinte 
district elected four; t'je Niagara district rour } and the Detroit 
River district three. The three stretches of the country between 
Brockville an<J King-ton, between Trenton and Hamilton, and be- 
tw j en Fort Ivrij and Leamington were unrepresente 1 bec.iuse there 
were; no residents in tliesa areas between c:ie fjar original groups of 
p oneer settlement 

Who were the first representatives for old Lincoln who were 
rbos.-n to come to Navy Hall to make the first laws for the new 
Province? 

First Lincoln, Nathaniel Pettit. 

Second Lincoln, Benjamin PawHng. 

Third Lincoln. Isaac Swayzie. 

Fourth Lincoln, Pars'.mll Terry. 

Nathaniel Pettitt was one of the influential men of the first su- 
tlers in Grimsby. He came f^om Pennsylvania in 1787. H> 
was a member of the first Land Board, ani when the British 
Government was making selection of an Et -cutive Counjil t) as- 
sist the new Lieutenant Governor, his fame was submitted by Lor;J 
Dorchester for consideration. He was familarly known as Judg* 
Pettit. His brother Andrew was the progenitor of the Prttit's of 
Lincoln ( ounty. 

Benjamin Pawling also came frem Pennsylvania. During the 
war he was an officer in Butler'o Rangers. At the clr>.*3 of the war 
some of Butler's Rangers settled on the north shore of L-ike Erie 
east of Amerstburg, others settled in the Niagara District. Hi* 
Ian 1 was on the lake front east of Port Dulhousie. Along with 
Nathaniel Pettit he was a member of the Land Board in 1788 and 
continued fs such for some years. Col. Benjamin Pawling* of 12 
Mile Creek was buried on the 16th of December, 1818, by the Rev. 
Mr. Addison of Niagara. 

Col. Isaac Swayzie, representative for the third Lincoln, had 
played a very important part in the war of American Independence. 
He was born in New Jersey and during the war was most active as 
a scout and "Pilot of the New York Army". He settled on the Nia- 
gara River being a representive for one or other of the ridings of 
Lincoln durihg 20 years in aH. He died in 1828, aged 77 years. 

For many years thePe was- doubt and uncertainty as to who re- 
presented the fourth riding. The standard works of history do not 



15 

give the complete list; some had a mysterious Mr. Young who could 
not be identified. Long continued search, however, revealed the 
man in Parshall Terry. A careless writing of the names Terry und 
Young will show how the one name might be mistaken for the other. 
The Quebec Magazine for December, 1792, makes the name Partial 
Jerry". Terry dees not seem to have taken a very active part in 
early Niagara legislaion. He got contracts in connection with the 
new fort at Toronto Bay and moved to the valley of the Don. 

When the elections were held for the second Parliament, four 
new men were elected to represent the four Lincoln Ridings, viz., 
Richard Beasley, David Wm. Smith, Samuel Street and Banjamin 
Hardison. Students of early Niagara District history will ao once 
associate Richard Beasley with the early history of the Hc-ari of the 
Lake, Samuel Street with the early milling operations on the Nia- 
gara River, Benjamin Hardison with Fort Erie, ard David Wm, 
Smith fits in with old Niagara and the adjoining townships. The 
name of David Wm. Smith is insepaiably connected with early days 
in Niagara. He had served with his father at Dttroii and sat in the 
first Pjrli im mt as the member for Essex and Suffolk. Bt he was 
transferred to Niagara in 1792 and his connection with land grants 
as Surveyor General made him well known to the electors of that 
section. During the years 1792 1804 there was probably no more 
influential person in Upper Canada than David William Smith. An 
enumeration of the public offices that he held in Upper Canada filis 
one P'ig3 of an ordinary book It may be interesting here to note 
that the man who represented the second Lincoln that part in which 
Niagara town is situated, presided as speaker over the second Parlia- 
ment of Upper Canada. He seems to have fairly won his claim to 
knighthood which was conf.-rr^d in 1821 after he had returned to 
England 

*"* Five sessions of the first Parliament were held at Newark, as 
the settlement was then called, the first from 17th September to 
15th October, 1792, and the fifth from 16th May to 3rd June, 1796. 
In August of the latter year the second election was held, the cori- 
stituencies being the same as in 1792, and the first session of the 
second Parliament was held at York in the summer of 1797. Thus 

"""passed away the glory of old Niagara as the capital of the Province. 
It had been understood that it was merely the temporary capital. 
Just as soon as Fort Niagara shou ] d be evacuated it would be advis- 

__ able to transfer the headquarters of Government elsewhere. This 

.took place in 1796. In the same year Simcoe somewhat unexpected- 
ly left Upper Canada and did not have the pleasure of opting his 
new Parliament in his new capital on Toronto Bay whicli he n.iuied 
York. 



In naming the counties, Simcoe Lad endeavored to reproduce 
England. He began with Kent at the extreme west on the south 
shore ot Lake St. Glair and had fix d in successson Essex, Suffolk, 
Norfolk, Lincoln, York, Durham and Northumberland, and when he 
desired to give the townships names, in place of the numbers by 
which they had been known, he chose the names of towns in the 
corresponding counties in England, hence Griaasb/, Louth, Caistor 
and Newark. 

The records of the oM Nassau Land Board show us that they 
had given instructions to lay out a town adjoining Navy Hall and 
the Government reserve to be called Lennox, but Simcoe changed 
that to Ne'.vark, this in time to give way to Niagara. 

A picture of N.iagara during the four years of its legislative 
career would be ex eedingly interest. ng. The Lieutenant Governor 
and his staff, the Exe utive Councillors, the civil servants more 
powerful and more consequential in those days than MOW, the mem- 
bers of the legislature, some in their homely homespun others in the 
courtly drtss of the old world, the officers from the Fort adoss 
the river, offi ersand sailors from His Majest/'s ships as they from 
time to time turned i.ito the King's wharf, the Indian Chiefs from 
the neighboring rcS< j rv, s as they came to trade or make treaty, the 
U E. loyali&t in hit best clothes saved from the ;\re;k showing the 
signs of long wear but suggestive of better days in the years long 
gone by, and the I !uti h farmers whose garb and speech both traced 
oack to the Mohawk or the Susquehannah. Add to these the tiavel- 
lerbfiom over s-eas who came to call upon the Governor in his capital 
in the wilderness on th<rir way to the great Falls of Niagara, even 
then famous in Europe, and you have material for a sketch inter- 
resting and attrat tive Those undoubtedly were the days of Nia- 
gnra's greatness when within this old town were laid the foundation 
laws of our provin. e. It is to the credit and the good fortune of 
your town and it will be an imperishable monument to the devotion 
and ztal of her who is to day your most worthy c.tizen, Miss Janet 
CarnO( han, that there now stands a building that will gather togeth- 
er and prcst rve all that re mains of that interesting fctory of early days 
a building and a collection that should not only preserve the best 
hiugs of the past but incite to the best things of the future. 



LINCOLN COUNTY 



MCilBCRS Of me LEGISLATURE Of UPPER CANADA 
17921541- 

1792 1796-: FIRST PARLIAMENT. 

1st Lincoln, York & Durham Nathapiel Pettit. 
2nd Lincoln, Benjamin Pawling. 

3rd Lincoln, Isaac Swayzie. 

4th Lincoln & Norfolk, Partial Terry. 

1797-1800: SECOND PARLIAMENT. 

1st Lincoln, York Durham Richard Beasley. 
2nd Lincoln, David William Smith 

3rd Lincoln, Samuel Street. 

4th Lincoln & Norfolk, Benjamin Hardisoa. 

18011804 . THIRD PARLIAMENT. 

Ut Lincoln, W. York & Haldiman'd, ( 5^ N D elle *- 

| Richard Beasley. 

2nd. 3rd, & 4th Lincoln, j? alfe c Clench ' 

(Isaac Swayzie, 

1805 1808: FOURTH PARLIAMENT 

1st Lincoln, W. York & Haldimand, j Solomon Hill. 

Robert Nelles. 



2nd, 3rd & ith Lincoln, /? alfe 

( Isaac Sfyayzie. 

18091812 : FIFTH PARLIAMENT. 



1st Lincoln A- Haldiman I, n 

I Joseph Willcocks. 

2nd Lincoln David Secord. 

3rd Lincoln Samuel Street, (Speaker.) 

4th Lincoln Crowell Willson, 

18131816 : SIXTH PARLIAMENT 

1st Lincoln, Robert Nelles. 

2nd Lincoln, Ralfe Clench. 

3rd Lincoln, Thomas Dinkson. 

4th Lincoln. Isaac Swayze. 



18 

18171820 : SEVENTH PARLIAMENT. 

1st Lincoln, Robert Nelles. 

2nd Lincoln, Ralfe Clench. 

3rd Lincoln, David Secord. 

4th Lincoln, Isaac Swayze. 

18211824 : EIGHTH PARLIAMENT. 

1st Lincoln, John Clark. 

2nd Lincoln, W. J . Kerr. 

3rd Lincoln, Robert Hamilton. 

4th Lincoln, Robert Randall. 

18251828: NINTH PARLIAMENT. 

rJohn Clark. 
I Robert Randall. 
Lincoln County, <^ Bartholomew C. Bearcbley. 

VJohn J. Lefterty. 
Niagara (Town) Edward Mo Bride. 

18291830 : TENTH PARLIAMENT. 

King George IV, died June 25th, 1830. 

Niagara (Town) Robert Dickson. 



C Robert Randall. 
I John J. Lefferty. 
Lmcoln (County) < Wm Terry. 

\Vm. Woodruff 



{ 



1831-1834: ELEVENTH PARLIAMENT. 

Niagara (Town) Henry John Boulton. 

/"Robert Randall. 

Lincoln (County) ] JriSSS C. Beards.ey. 

\ John Clark. 

King William IV died June 20th, 1837. 
18351836: TWELFTH PARLIAMENT, 

Niagara (Town) Chas. Richardson. 

1st Lincoln, Dennis Woolverton. 

2nd Lincoln, George Rykert 

3rd Lincoln, David Thorburn. 

4th Lincoln, Gilbert McMicking 



19 

1837 1840 : THIRTEENTH PARLIAMENT 

Niagara (Town) Chas. Kichardson. 

1st Lincoln, Sichard Woodruff. 

2nd Lincoln, George Rykert. 

3rd Lincoln, David Thorburn. 

4th Lincoln, Gilbert McMicking. 



The Evolution of Our Historical 
Building. 



Since this, we believe is the first building erected in the prov- 
ince for purely historical purposes it may be worth while to follow 
out the steps taken in its inception, planning, providing funds, con- 
struction and now we hope to say its happy conclusion When our 
Society was formed in Dae, 1895 the i-iea of an historical collection 
soon occurred to us and a room which is its3lf an historic room 
having been that of the Grand Jury was granted us by the Town 
Council in the third story of the Court House a Jong narrow room 
and however contracted its dirnentions or however difficult of access 
still we were thankful to have a room and here we started our col- 
lection in the spring of 1896, the September Loan Exhibit being 
very helpful to us and gradually articles flowed in till our room was 
crowded, the wall covered with pictures and every available corner 
filled. During the summers of 1905, 1906 permission was granted 
by the Town Council to use the Town Hall, with the proviso that we 
must return to our own room in September, as the Town Hall would 
then be required for the Town and Township Fair. It may be im- 
agined that the labor of moving was no slight thing and this has be^n 
done five times, twice in 1905. twice in 1906 and our final move in 
February 1907 and all with very little expense and with little break- 
age or loss. It may be imagined that the formation of an Historical 
Society, an historical collection and the erection of a building mat with 
cold indifference, indeed with copious showers of cold water from 
many, but on the other hand we have always had a number of faith- 
ful members and constant friends whose sympathy and active help 



have encouraged us. A word or two as;to the formation of our Societ y. 
I may say that being a member first, of the Lundy's L-iue Historical 
Society the example sat by Canon Bull and the work done by that 
society were *11 powerful fa tors, inleed an inspiration in farming 
the dream of a simi'ar society in Niagara. A few lines ware insert- 
ed in our local paper asking those interested in such an object to 
meet in the Library on the evening of Dec. 12th 1895, Fifteen per- 
sons assembled and I had fully formed in my mind that Rev J C. 
Gar-ett shouH be our President but to my astonishment and inched 
dismay I was appointed to the office and have tried to discharge its 
duties eve* since. One thing greatly in our favor has been the fact 
that we have had the same Secretary active and faithful through all 
these years and an efficient Secretary is a great support to any 
society. Also we have had only twj Treasurers and theseliave given 
earnest wo;k, the same Vice President, Henry Paffard, and our 
present Vice President, Rev. J. 0. Garrett, has been on the Com- 
mittee since the formation of the society. A constitution was fram- 
ed and very few changes have been made in it We began with 
ten members we no\v have HO, we have printed fifteen pamphlets, 
placed eight markers on historic spots, gathered over three thousand 
articles, collected money for this building which with its furniture 
and additions to be made will cost in the neighborhood of $5000. 
We now owe three hundred and fifty dollars but have faith that the 
liberality of our mends is not yet exhausted. 

The first printed reference to a building was in a circular issued 
by our society in 1898. Five hundred copies were sent out but T 
am sorry ro say with little result but by little and little, step by step 
the main idea expressed in that circular has been carried out. The 
opening words were: "Three years ago Canon Bull suggested in his 
report, the placing of a cairn or monument of some kind, to com- 
memorate the landing of the United Empire Loyalists on our shores." 
Since then at the meeting of the Provin -ial Historical Association 
here in June 1896 the proposition of the Niagara Historical Society 
in regard to this met with much approval and a grant of $")() was 
given as the nucleus of the fund, from the surplus in the hands of the 
Association given by the Government at the Centennial of Upper 
Canada, July 1892. This was only to be given to us when we had 
started the work and as a matter of fact it only came into our hands 
in 19'04. In the circular sent out in 1898 the closing words give the 
first idea of a building thus : "A late suggestion made is that in vie\v 
of the increasing contents of the Historical Room (so many of those 
relating to the early settlers) the memorial take the form of a. build- 
ing for the historical collection." 

Meanwhile as our cases were overflowing two difficulties stared 






21 

us in the face, 1st where to find space in the long narrow room for 
tlie articles given, it b^ing impossible to classify them as we wish 3 J. 
2nd was it safe to keep t,ueh valuable nrtterial much of which it 
would be impossible to replace if destroyed in the third story where 
it would be difficult to save anything in case of fire. 

The next step was in the form of letters from the Prr aident of 
th society to the Cabinet Ministers of the Province, in the year 18J9. 
Tne replies to these were of the usutl mture of careful and cautious 
Ministers of the I'rown, "the matter would receive their very serious 
considr ration," "they would bring the matter before their colleagues" 
etc, hut the letter of Hon G. W. Rjsswas an encouraging one and 
gave the hint of what became our future action he said "a shaft or 
m)Mum-nt would cost but a small sum. Haw aver I thin'c your 
larger scheme of a fire proof building for the safe deposit of your 
collection would be decidedly better and I would cheerfully lend my 
aid for the accomplishment of that object. If a considerable sum. 
were contributed by yourselves it would be an inducement to us to 
add something to make your contribution more effective." 

The next important step was taken on the 17th September, 1903, 
when a public meeting was called in the Court room and different 
friends were invited to be with us from Toronto, A Globa reporter, 
Mr. McLean, was present and a very pleasant meeting resulted, A. 
U . Wright acted as chairman and C. C. James, David Boyle, Rev. A. 
Sherk, W 7 m. Kirby, Mayor Jas. Aikins and Mrs. Thompson spoke. 
Mr James and .VI r. Boyle both strongly advised that instead of ap- 
pealing to the Government, municipality or any other public organ- 
iza ion thai we begin with ourselves as a Society, our townspeople, 
and then appeal to other sources. A committee was formed consist- 
ing of G. C. James, John Ross Robertson, Dr. Withrow, D. Boyle, 
Mrs. Thompson, Toronto, and in town, Alired Ball, Alexander Servos, 
H Paffard. R. E Denison, F. J. Rowland, the Mayor, and the 
President of tbe Society was nimad the convener of the committee, 
At the first meeting a circular was presented and sent to the Toronto 
members for approval, five hundred copi j s were print d and distri- 
buted. It was decided these should be sent with a personal letter 
to all the members at a distance, to former residents of our town and 
others likely to help and that a canvass of the town should be made 
by the President and Treasurer of the Society following the aending 
ouc of the circular. We had to begin with, $150 granted from the 
funds of the Societv, the hope of the $50 held in trust for us by the 
O. H.S. and :i member promised $50. The President undertook to 
write most thV> of the letters to accompany the circulars and com- 
menced by writing six lette-seach evening, for some lime this waa 
continued, afterwards four were written each evening and finally a 



larger or smaller number as circumstances allowed. It may be said 
that the members in town in general responded heartily as well as 
the non -members, only a few refusals were met with. The waiting 
for answers and their receipt was the important event of the day 
and its exciting feature and when for a time the letter writing ceas- 
ed it seemed that everything was stale, flat and unprofitable and that 
something had been taken out of our life. "The Post's Arrival in 
the Village". so graphically described by the poet was nothing to t l iis. 
The varying replies, the failure to reply at all, the kind nnsw.-rs of 
some, the curt on^s of a few, the larg donations sometimes from 
unexpected sources, the smaller on -s from people who might be 
expected to give large amounts all formed an interesting feature of 
life in the year 1904-5. These letters h;ive been preserved and will 
be bound as the property of the Society. Ic should have been stated 
before that just as our circulars were being printed a proposal was 
brought forward that the town should give us the Town Hall on the 
payment of $1000 to enable them to improve the Court Room, this 
was strongly urged by three of our members and very unwillingly 
agreed to by myself to whom as to many others th idta of a separ 
ate building appealed strongly. Some to whom circulars were sent 
disapproved and spoke in sending their contribution as if a larger 
one would have been given for a separate building To these the 
way is now open for the liberality first thought of. However from 
special circumstances and difficulties which arose unexpectedly no 
steps were taken to carry out the plan of using the Town Hall and 
altering the Court Room When the spring of 1904 was re iched 
it was determined to ask assistan e from the Provint ial Government 
While in Toronto a letter asked an interview with the Premier who 
was also the Treasurer, the answer appointing the day and hour only 
arrived two hours before the time fixed and the street cars taken 
to gather the delegation were numerons and when it was found that 
this very hour was also that appointed for the Premier to meet a 
delegation of hundreds of college graduates asking for a larg^ grant 
for the University the dismay felt may be imagined, however a fiva 
minutes interview was granted and the promise of the Premier 
made in 1899 was recalled that if we helpe.d ourselves, help might be 
given, then came the qui< k question, "And have you done so?'' 
"Yes, we have now $1000." No absolute promise was given but that 
of looking into the matter and when some time after the supple- 
mentary list came out it was found to our satisfaction that $500 was 
given to us and now larger views dawned on us and the idea of a sep- 
arate building was determined on. Many friends in Toronto helped 
us liberally on personal solicitation and the next spring a visit was 
paid to the Dominion Parliament to ask for a grant of $1000. The 



object now was to show that we were not local nor even merely pro- 
vincial in our aims but that we had members in different parts 
of the Dominion, articles in our collection from distant points, that 
we exchanged publications with different States and Provinces. An 
interview was kindly arranged for, when almost despaired of, at nine 
in the evening the last day but one of Parliament, with Hon. C. S. 
Hyman, the Minister of Public Works, and when it was found that 
we had now on hand almost $2000, a hope was extended tha.t" our 
prayer would be granted and when the supplementary list appeared 
our hearts were gladdened with the grant of $1000 to be paid wh<-.n 
the work was well under way. 

We now <alled a meeting of the whole of our members by print- 
ed post card, and in Aug. 17th, 1905, we met to discuss the plan for 
a building, of which the celebrated young sculptor, Mr. Allward, 
gave us i he first idea. We decided on certain salient features, the 
s ze, the material, the gallery, the portico, and then the plan was 
taken to the architect, W. B. Allan, St. Catharines, who made out 
specifi ations and Irew a new pl^n, which, at a coiTimittee meeting, 
we approved of with certain alterations. Meanwhile an interview 
was obtained with the present Premier, Hon J. S. Whitney, but that 
year we were informed "there was a deficit" no definite promise 
;vas given of assistance, but in April, 1906, an interview was granted 
with Hon S. Whitney and Hon. A. J. Matheson, and a kind and 
courteous promise was given of further assistance 

It may be wondered at that wo had the audacity to ask assistan- 
ce from two Premiers of different political views but the result shew- 
ed that in this case politics did not enter into historical mitters for 
when the supplementary estimates were published a grant of $500 
app ared Oar committee had already called for tenders by adver- 
tising in the So Catharines and Niagara papers and in January 1906 
four tenders were received but all f ir beyond our means, all reaching 
tbe sum of $7,000. This certainly give us pause. Again the com- 
mittee met and revised the spscifioations trying to elimiminate the 
most expensive features and still cause little alteration in the appear- 
ance or solidity of the structure. 

Again we advertised and this lime only one tender was received 
and this for slightly under four thousand dollars by Messrs. Carnochan 
and Doritty, and this was accepted on Feb. 10th, 1906, the work to 
be finished in September. 

A very important mitter has been referred to: viz., the obtaining 
a site for the building and this was almost as difficult as the selecting 
a site for Toronto Reference Library although it did not drag on 
through years as did the decision for the Toronto building. First 
the town promised a site and at a joint meeting of a committee from 



-24 

members of tho Sooiety and the Town Council tha grant of a site in 
the Town Park was recommended and afterwards confirmed by the 
council, but an editorial in the local paper opposed this and others 
joining in the cry, there being talk of the resolution being res inded, 
we, not wishing to antagonize public feeling did not press the matter 
and at the next meeting of the So -iety when sancu were despairing of 
a spot pn which to rest the sole of our f.>ot the president offered to 
present a site on Main Street nearly opposite the K. C. Chur b. 
This was accepted but aft j r wards when elimination show-d tint 
being on sloping groun I ad litional ^xpe,se vvoul 1 be in urr^d. a 
offer was male by the President's brot ler to ex:hang3 the preseat 
site for the first one offered a i.i this was agreed upoa by tho roin 
mittee and confirm id at a meeting of the so iety Aiuther cry of 
opp3-jition was raided that "it wis sj far awiy," "th.it it s uali be o.i 
the main street" but it is generally con ede.i now ta.it t 13 bail Jiig 
facing as it does an histori plain with sujh a beautiful prospect, is 
in just the proper place. Tde cry that it was so faraway W'S m.t 
witb the statement that the Buffilo Histori al buii ling is fjur mih s 
from the centre of the city, that Dundurn Castle, the seat of the 
Wentwarth Bis. So. is over a mile away as is also the Petvrboro 
His. So. "building This Vhange of site ent tiled the trouble of having 
three deeds made out, first, I gave one to my brother, se ond, he 
gave one to m?, third, I gave one to the Historical Society. At last 
on April, 1906, the first soJ wa* removed and the work at first pro- 
gressed rapidly, but some delay occurred waiting for the masons, 
maple flooring being lost in the way, waiting for the arrival of many 
things, but notwithstanding all these delays by the fall of 1906 the 
building was finished except the portko which from the early frost 
could not be proceeded with. 

With regard to the name the following words occurred in the 
circular bent out "Several names have been suggested "The U.E.L. 
Memorial," "Memorial of Whr of 1812," but a lat.-r suggestion is to 
rail it simply Memorial Hall, it would thus be in memory of the 
U'.E. Loyalists who landed here, and whose names may be inscribed 
on the walls, it may be in memory of regiments, British and Canad- 
ian which have fought here, whose names may also find a place on 
the walls, or it may be in memory of the early settlers of whatever 
kind, or of the business men who helped to make Niagara an impor- 
tant town, and in short it may be a memorial of whatever great or 
good has been done here in the past." And Memorial Hall it is. 
In the revolving case and on the wall are pictures of different kinds 
oil paintings, water colors, silhoue.tc-s, amtrotyp^s of at least 300 of 
our early people, besides this another group of places, buildings, 
milityry clothing from the Revolutionary War indeed from the 



25 

French occupation down to the Fenian Raid nay even to the Boer 
War, another group of woman's work and woman's wear, articles of 
household economy whose use is unknown to many of our young 
people, Indian weapons and wear, early printing especially that done 
in our town. The building itself has in it several pieces of historic 
material, some oak steps from Butler's Barracks, brick and stone 
from the Rogers' store which wholesale house in 1833 supplied the 
stores for forty miles around our town with goods. There is a 
colonial mantel, or rather two, from old houses. We are to have a 
gavel made from the old Parliament Oak. The outside brick was 
furnished by A. \V. Wright, Mimico, the hard Maple flooring from 
Meaford, the Georgia pine railing and Mahogany posts from Cincin- 
natti. The cases have been mads from seasoned chestnut grown here, 
others obtained elsewhere are made of oak and walnut. Several 
capes have been contributed. . The revolving case was made in 
England and presented to us. 

When the amount of $4000 was reached we received a cheque 
for $500 from an old Niagara boy, Hugh J. Chisholm, New York 
which gladdened our hearts, as this would pay for the furnishing, 
Mr. Rittenhouse of Chicago also contributed $100 and last the Town 
Council $200. In writing letters asking for contributions it was 
found that our publications were of great assistance to us having 
awakened interest in our work. It must not be forgotten that the 
o'd boys of the High School have contributed generously. A regist- 
ered letter containing $50 in bills was a pleasant surprise to us from 
an old gentleman whom we had not seen and who had though a 
wealthy man been vainly solicited for contributions in his city to 
Y. M C.A, Library, Hospital and other worthy objects 

It is said it is well to have a friend at court and it seems that 
we have been particularly fortunate in this respect and have had not 
one but many who have given us hints how and when and to whom 
to apply for assistance. It oiay be told at some other time how 
many circulars were sent out, how many contributors, how much 
from members of Society, at home and abroad, Dominion, Province, 
County Council, Township, 'Town, other friends Letters were writ- 
ten to the Colonels of the regiments which had fought or been stat- 
ioned here and from three ot these contributions were sent, the 
Royal Scots, the 70th Surrey and the 5th Fusiliers stationed respect- 
ively in Scotland, India and England. 

A word may be said as to the members of the committee who 
made all the arrangements as to the building. It was proposed to 
appoint a building committee but the work was principally done by a 
few of the original committee and as many of these were in Toronto 
and could not attend it davolved on those here and at last from dif- 






26 



ferent reasons the number dwindled down to three, Messrs. Alfred 
Ball, F. J. Rowland and myself as Mr. Paffard removed to the 
Northwest and Mr. A. Servos has been long in ill health, both of 
whom had rendered efficient service, Mr. Kirby also was in poor 
health while the work was going on, but i\ small number on a com- 
mittee can sometimes work together better than a large number. 
The only Toronto member who attended any of the committee meet- 
ing was Mrs. Thompson who has. taken much interest in the work 
and given valuable advice. There were in all twelve committee 
meetings. The first sod was turned in April 1906 the building was 
finished all but the portico in October of that year. The cases 
were ready by February 1907 and we moved in Feb. 4th and the 
work of arrangement was commenced by Mrs. Thompson and my- 
self the former having kindly offered help and to her we are deeply 
indebted for the assistance given during three weeks of the coldest 
weather of the winter. AnJ again in May she has also by 
her taste in arrangement put us under heavy obligations. There are 
now over 4000 articles, the books and pamphlets themselves number- 
ing 800 the newspapers 1000, the pictures 500, military 150, china 
80, Indian 300, woman's wear 150, miscellaneous 200, furniture 20. 
Besides this a large scrap book of original documents, autographs 
and twelve other scrap books relating to family records, municipal 
matters, churches; numbering 1000 documents; many articles have 
a story and from our documents we have been able frequently to 
answer letters asking for information. 

Our members and contributors are in Manitoba, Scotland, 
England, New York, Chicago, West Indies, Savannah, India, South 
Africa, Calgary, etc. most remarkable coincidences have occurred in 
obtaining or giving information and, in acknowledgement of this, val- 
uable books and pictures have often been sent to us. We pxr l iaimi> 
with thirty historical societies and thus are accumulating a valuable 
library. Other societies are for States, or Counties and it seemed a 
daring thing for a town as small as ours to make such an attempt and 
indeed of our members only a fifth are in town and many of Urns.- 
absent in the winter when our meetings are held or are otherwise 
unable to attend so that if we have had many encouragements we 
have also had difficulties with which to contend. 

A word must be said as to the work, the contract was lt-t to 
Messrs. Carnochan and Doritty, the mason work was given to Ben- 
nett of St. Catharines, cases were made by Mr. Jno. Carnochan as- 
sisted by VV. Richardson, the painting and graining by Albert Davey, 
the hardware mostly procured in town, the metallic roofing from 
Toronto. May the building continue to be in greater degree a re- 
ceptacle for anything pertaining to the history of our country and 




BP 




PORTICO, JUNE 1907. 




INTERIOR OF MEMORIAL TTAT.T.. 



-27 

while we acknowledge with gratitude the help given and the success 
which has crowned our efforts we hope for still greater things in the 
future. We cordially thank all who have in any way assisted either 
in money, articles for the collection, time given, or advice and solicit 
a continuation of such favors. 



A few of the Most Interesting 
Articles in Memorial Hall 



The question is frequently asked, what do you consider the moat 
valuable article in the collection? This is not an easy question to 
answer, for there are so many valuable articles in the various divis- 
ions, military, literary, artistic, useful, and the answer of different 
indiriduals would vary with the varying taste of the person intet 
rogated. Whether General Brock's cocked hat, the first novel pub- 
lished in Upper Canada, or the first poem, the American sword. given 
up in 1813, the powder horn of Chief Brant, muster roll of Butler's 
Hangers, 1782, Library record book 1800-1820, key of powder mag- 
azine, mahogany looking glass brought in 1784, the Empire dress,- old 
tings, etc., in such an "embarrassment of riches" it is indeed difficult 
to decide. And then so many of the articles have a story connected 
with them. In our number 5 is a short article the "Evolution of an 
Historical lioom. This is now out of print but when reprinted 
much may well be added as instead of the thousand articles then 
there are now over 4000. 

How little valued generally is the common poster, and yet here 
are several whi h have fortunately been preserved and often settle 
some disputed point. Here on the wall facing General Brock's 
cocked hat, is the poster framed, printed by Wm. Lyon McKenzie in 
Queensto.i of the arrangements for the re-interment ot Brock 
in 1824 under the first monument, the body having lain twelve years 
at Fort George, also after the arrangements for the final burial under 
the new monument in 1853. Tne cocked hat we must confess was 
never worn by the General as it came out shortly atter his death and 
was given by the nephew to George Ball and is now placed here by 
a great grand son. Had it arrived earlier and been worn by the 



28 

General we should not be its fortunate possessors as all the clothing 
was sent home to the island of Guernsey. A letter may by read in 
the life of the hero referring to the non-arrival of the cocked hat 
and the General's disappointment. Near this is the American sword 
given up at the capture of Fort Niagara in December 1813 after 
Niagara had been burned; this is loaned by A. Servos, Lake Road, 
a great-grandson of Lt. D. K Servos to whom the sword was handed; 
a powder horn with Indian hieroglyphics given by chief Brant to the 
Interpreter Jean Baptiste Ronsseaux; a pewter platter part of the 
camp equipage of Col. Johnson killed at the siege of Fort Niagara 
1759 and buried in the chapel with General Prideaux after the cap- 
ture of the French by Sir Wm Johnson; the coat worn by Fort 
Major Campbell who surrendered with Cornwallis at Yorktown in 
1781; the poster proclamation issued by Wm. Lyon Mackenzie from 
Navy Island in 1838 and another offering a reward tor she capture of 
Morrean who was hanged at Niagara the same year; a collection of 
military buttons framed, which may be said to give the military hist- 
ory of Niagara, they representing nearly all the regiments, British, 
United States or Canadian, which fought or were stationed here. 
The coat, sash, powder horn, belt buckle of a member of that noted 
regiment the King's Dragoon Guards here in 1838; various views of 
Niagara in 1794, 1813, 1824, 1846, nearly all being the original 
pencil sketch; a plan drawn for Mrs. Curzon shewing the path of 
Laura Secord in her remarkable walk of twenty miles to warn the 
British at Beaver Dams; several valuable water color portraits by 
the celebrated Hoppner Meyer and several good oil paintings of 
early settlers; the pocket book of Captain Marten WcClellan who 
was killed at the capture of Fort George 27th May 1813; copies of 
the Upper Canada Gazette or American Oracle printed at Niagara 
then Newark 1794, a pamphlet also printed there in 1799; the first 
volume of the Gleaner 1817; the first novel printed in Upp^r Canada, 
in 1824 at Kingston which is a very rare book; also the first poem, 
Wonders of the West or a day at the Falls of Niagara, printed fit 
York in 1825, almanac printed at Rochester by W. L. Majkenzic 
when a prisoner in jail; Anti-Masonic almanacs of 1828-9 after the 
abduction of Morgan; sermons preached in Boston 1760 in t. auks 
giving for the victories of the British over the French in Canada 
and India; the Record book of the first library of Upper Canada at 
Niagara 1800-1820 with the signature of proprietors; the hat worn 
by Ralfe Clench at the opening of Parliament here 17th September 
1792; pictures of two steamboats built for Hon. J no Hamilton one, 
the, "Queenstca", at Queenston 1824 the other the "Great Britain" 
at Prescott in 1830, another famous old steam boat the 'Chief 
Justice Robinson" which usod to sail all winter crossing from Toron- 






_29 

to to Niagara; a beautiful banner made for the Grimsby Loyal 
and Patriotic Society for the inauguration of Brock's Monument 
in 1853, two flags presented by the Misses Nelles in 1818 to the 3rd 
Lincoln of which Robert Nelles was the Colonel. Also there was 
lent us for the summer the little silk Union Jack which was placed at 
the summit of the old monument in 1840 by a sailor lad who climbed 
by the lightning conductor of the tottering monument while thousands 
of spectators stood with bated breath fearing to see him fall, at the 
Indignation meeting after the rmlicious shattering of the monument 
with gunpowder. The old mantel with the ancient crane, waffle iron, 
warming pan, tinder box, foot warmer to take to church, or the 
Colonial mantel of 181*2 opposite, the revolving case of pictures of 
early settlers copied from silhbnettes ambrotypes, water colors, oil 
paintings, Secord, Servos, Ball, Whitmore, Clench, Field, Cooper 
etc. and in more modern timas the doctors, clergyman, mayors, judges 
members of Parliament of the town. Hanging in the gallery is the 
figure of an angel blowing a trumpat, which was the weather vane of 
St. Andrew's church in 1831, but when a tornado took off the roof in 
1854 the vans WAS twistdd ani lay in a painter's shop for nearly fifty 
yaars and finally was brought here. A round table in two parts be- 
longed to the Secord family for over a hundred years, a wicker work 
chair was owned by Rav. Jno. Burns one of the first ministers of St. 
Andrew's ft century ago. A high post bedstead, house fire engine, 
cannon balls which came over in 1812-13 not as messengers of love. 
A bound volume of the Gleaner for 1831-2, another has specimens 
from fourteen of the twenty newspapers published in fch.e town from 
1793 to the present time. 

Quite the oldest things in ths room are sorna beautifully shaped 
flint arrow heads used by the Britons before the Saxons came, also a 
Roman battle axe found in an Ayrshire bog. A Sepoy sword also a 
Waterloo sword, a cavalry bit is a relic of the American occupation in 
1813 as also a canteen with the letters U.S. Philadelphia A large 
scrap book has many interesting documents a list, of Indian SacJems 
and warriors who presented 15000 rcres of land to Col. Win. Glaus, 
an elopement letter of 1801 and a love letter of 1824, a curious list of 
burial expenses in Queenston 1817 the amount and variety of liquor 
used is astounding, port wine, brandy, gin, Stout, Madeira wine, Ten- 
eriffe wine amounting in all wifh digging the grave to ;12. 2s. 
The list of Sunday School scholars who gave 7, Is. 3d, 2s. 6d rest- 
pectively to provide a chair for the old clerk who had served for fifty 
years in St Marks; the petition to the Quesnfrom heads of families in 
St. Andrew's in 1842 re-Clergy Reserves, a beautiful water color of 
roses executed by Mrs. Moodie the author of Roughing it in the Bush. 
A sampler with ths words Go .1 siv^ the King G. R III by Margaret 



30 

Stewart in 1812; the photo of a sampler worked in the winter of 
1812-13 by Mrs Denison nee Lippincott in memory of Sir Issaac 
Brock with the words "push on York Volunteers" showing that this is 
not a modern story as some have asserted, A tuning box made in 
1847 for St. Andrew's church, Embroidery done in 1815 by a daugh- 
ter of Dominic Henry the Light House Keeper, original letters of Sir 
Allan MacNab, Samuel Street, Alexander McLeod, Jas. Crooks, etc. 
beautiful pieces of ancient china and also embroidery, autographs of 
Secretary Jarvis, Governor Simcoe, Ralfe Clench, Isaac Swayzie, Col. 
Butler, Judge Hamilton, etc. 

Military corn-missions of Robert Nelles, Jas. Clement, Cjrtlan It 
Seoord with signatures of governors as Peregrine Miitland, Colborne, 
Gore, Russell. An old gun called the Indian Chief, a flintlock of 
1812, a Fenian Raid gun and our latest contribution a Boer gur with 
its original owner's name 

A word must be said as to the largest contributors to the col- 
lections and indeed without whose aid our room woukl not prvs uit 
the appearance it fortunately does, Charles A. F. Bill has bean very 
generous in dooum3nts,old newspipers, books, household articles, also 
Alfred Ball, Mrs. J. E. Wilson, Toronto; Mrs. J. G. Currie, St. Cath- 
arines, Mrs. Alfred Ball, Mrs. Camidge, Mrs. Chas. A. F. Ball, Miss 
Gilkison, Brantford; Alexander Servos, John A Blake, John Carnojh- 
an, Mrs. Geo. A. Clement, Herbert Blake, Miss E Campbell, Tor- 
onto; Colin Milloy, Miss Minnie Ball, John Ross Robertson, Toronto; 
Johnson Clench, St. Catharines; M. G. Scherk, Toronto, Miss Glaus, 
Miss Creen, Mrs. John Sejord, Richard Taylor, David Boyle, Tor- 
onto., Henry Paffard, Dr. Milroy, Scotland; Miss Flanigan, Mrs. 
Newton, Miss Emma Ball Mrs. John Carnochan, Miss Stewart, 
Toronto; Mrs. W. Richardson; Miss Crouch, Virgil; Mrs. Peckham, 
Toledo; Mis^ Cathline, Miss Dreger, Mrs. Radcliff, Miss Miller, 
Newbury; the Educational Department in discarded cases and many 
others. 



RECEIPTS 

Contributions to the Building rund 



Dominion Government, 1905 $1000 00 

Provincial Government. 1904. ..$500) IAHA AA 

1906. ..$500 } ] 

Hugh J. Chisholm, New York 500 00 

Grant from Town Council, Niagara 200 00 

Society's funJs, 1904...$ 150^ 

" * 1905... 50 ^ , 00 OQ 

1906... 100 ( 

" 1907... 50j 

M. F. Rittenbouse, Chicago 100 00 

Ontario Historical Society (held intrust) 50 00 

S. D. Woodruff, St. Catharines 50 00 

Miss Carnochan, Niagara 50 00 

Mrs. and Miss Manning, Niagara 25 00 

Chas. A. F. Ball, 25 00 

John Ross Robertson, Toronto 25 00 

T. M. and Mrs. Rowland, " 2500 

E B. Osier, 25 00 

B.E.Walker, 2500 

Mrs. Chas. Baur, Terre Haute, Ind 25 00 

County Council, Lincoln 25 00 

Queen's Hotel Concert (half of proceeds) 36 75 

E. R. Thomas, Buffalo 25 00 

Jas. Wilson, C.E., Niagara Falls South 20 00 

J. D. Lirkin, River Road and Buffalo 20 00 

JE. Jarvis, Toionto 15 00 

W K. Jackson, Buffalo 15 00 

Alfred Ball, Niagara 15 00 

N. W. Rowell, K.C., Toionto 15 00 

C. M. Greiner, Buffalo 11 50 

F. J. Rowland, Niagara . 10 00 

J. H Burns, 1000 

W. R. McClelland " 10 00 



$ 3653 25 



32 

Brought Forward $3653 25 

Wm. Kirby,F.R.S.C. Niagara , 10 00 

Ja&. Aikins, " 1000 

Robt. Warren, " , 10 00 

St. John & Ferguson " TO 00 

Miss Alma, " 10 00 

Wm. Miller, " 1000 

Major Hiscott, " 10 00 

Niagara Township Council 10 00 

Mrs. J. D. Larkin, River Road and Buffalo 10 00 

Hon. Wm. Gibson, Beamsville 10 00 

R. C. Burns, Brantford 10 00 

A. E. Rowland, Winnipeg 10 00 

Col. E. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C., Niagara Falls 10 00 

J. B. Mclntyre, St. Catharines 10 00 

A. R. Carnochan, " 1000 

Mrs. W. R. Ross, Efolland, Man 10 00 

Judge Hamilton, Kingston 10 00 

C. C. James, F.R.S.C., Toronto 10 00 

C.D.Warren, " 1000 

Wm Briggs, DD., 10 00 

Niagara Navigation Co. ' 10 00 

Sir Jno. A. Boyd " 1000 

Ch-is Hunter, 10 00 

10th Regt. Royal Grenadiers" 1000 

2nd Queen's Own Rifles 10 00 

48th Highlanders, 10 00 

Mrs. Christopher Robinson " 10 00 

Hon Robt. Jaffrey, " 10 00 

C. D. Massey, 1000 

Tred Nicholls, " 1000 

A.W.Wright, 1000 

Mrs. A. W. Wrigkt, " 1000 

Miss Crouch, Virgil 10 00 

Col. Pearce, 70th Surrey India 10 00 

Col. Douglas, Royal Scots, England 1000 

Johnson Clench, St. Catharines. 9 00 

Col. Lambton, 5th Fusiliers, Scotland 5 00 

Miss C. Rye, England 5 00 

Jas. Doyle, Niagara 5 00 

Jos. F. Greene, " 5 00 

Miss Minnie Ball, " 5 00 

$ 4037 25 



33 

Brought Forward $4037 25 

Miss Emma Ball, Niagara 5 00 

Miss Marion Ball, " 5 00 

Mrs. Ruthven, ' k 5 00 

MissBayley, " 500 

Miss Beavan, " 5 00 

G. W. Miles, " 5 00 

P J. O'Neil, " 5 00 

Mrs. Rowley, " 500 

Dr. Anderson, ' 500 

Rev. J. C. Garrett " 5 00 

G W. Ogilvie, " 500 

Mrs T F. Best, 500 

Jos. Healey, " 5 00 

Wm. Gray, " . 5 00 

G. F. Fleischinann, " 5 00 

Mrs. Lawder, " 5 00 

W.J.Wright, MA, 5 00 

Jos. Walker, " 5 00 

Miss Nanna. Wright " 500 

Mrs. W. S. Lansing, " 5 00 

Miss Fell, " 500 

Mrs. McGaw, Toronto 5 00 

Miss Gordon, " 500 

Rev. A. Sherk, " 5 00 

Col. Merritt, " 500 

A. E. Paffard, " 5 00 

J.C. Black, " 500 

W. H. Withrow, D.D. " , 5 00 

Mrs. Z. A. Lash, " 500 

Mrs. J. E. Wilson, 5 00 

Alex Niven, C.E. " 5 00 

Mrs. Beecher, ' 500 

A W. Campbell, " 5 00 

Col J. Mason, 500 

Nicol Kingsmill, K.C. 5 00 

F. D. Smith, " 5 00 

Major H. M. Mowat, K.C, Toronto 5 00 

W. A. Warren, " 500 

T. K. Thomson, C.E., New York 5 00 

B. E. Hosfcetter, 5 00 

C. C. Prest, 5 00 

$ 4242 25 



34 

Brought Forward $4242 25 

R. E. Biggar, Clifford 5 00 

N. J. Ker, C.E., Ottawa 5 00 

Mrs. Ahearn, " 500 

Mrs. A. Bertram, Dundas 5 00 

W. A. Clement, C.E., Vancouver, B.C 5 00 

G. E. Burns, Montreal, Que 5 00 

D. K. Goodfellow, Beanharnois, Que 5 00 

Cbab. Kennedy, Chicago 5 00 

Miss A. Miller, Newbury . : 5 00 

W. W. Ireland, M.A., St. Catharines 5 00 

Mrs. Larkin, " 500 

A. W. Marquis, " 500 

C. A. Case, " 5 00 

Hugh McSloy, " 5 00 

E. J. Lovelace, " 5 00 

McLaren & Co., " 500 

J as. Monroe, " 500 

Rev. A. F. MacGregor, Niagara 4 00 

Miss Winterbottom, " 300 

Miss Mclntyre, " 300 

W E. Lyall, " 3 00 

F. Winthrop, " 3 00 

Mrs. Ascher. " 300 

Mrs. P. Roe, 3 00 

Judge Ermatinger and Mrs. Ermatinge^, St. Thomas 3 00 

G W. Boxall, Buffalo 2 50 

Miss Stewart, Toronto 2 70 

J. R. Stratton, Brantford 2 00 

Jas. Bain, LL.D., Toronto 2 00 

Miss Crysler, Niagara 2 00 

Mrs. T. Elliott, " .' 2 00 

Jno. Sando, " 200 

Mrs. Jas. McFarland, River Road... 2 00 

Richard Taylor, Niagara 2 00 

C.S.Watson, 2 00 

F. Best, Chicago 2 00 

Dr. Comfort, St. Catharines 2 00 

G. M. Hodgetts, 2 00 

Mrs. C. Campbell, Toronto 2 00 

H. C. Secord, 2 00 



$ 4383 45 



35 



Brought Forward $4383 45 



A. Friend, Toronto 

Mrs. Miller, " 

Mrs. K A. Campbell, Montreal 

H. M. Atwell, Philadelphia 

Mi ss Ganderton, England 

F. B. Geddes, Essex." 

Mrs. L. J. Kinsman, Fonthill 

Mrs. Perry, Philadelphia 

Miss Quade, Ransomville, N. Y 

Mrs. Quinlan, Barrie 

Miss Rankin, Detroit 

Miss A. M. Simpson, Ottawa 

H. Seymour, C.E., and Miss Sevmour, Ottawa 

Mrs. Witmer, Bathgate, Dak 

Dr. E. Wilson, Niagara Falls 

Mrs MePherson, 'Ottawa 

Miss Bolton, Ottawa 

R.W.Allen, Niagara 

VVm. Acton, " 

Mrs. Jas. Brown, " 

Miss Baxter, 
Mrs. R Best, 
RBV. A. A. Bowers, 
J. W. Bishop, 
Capt. Cuddaback, 
S. Callory, 
J. J. Devoe, 
Mrs! Bottomley, 
H. Doyle, 
Mrs. J. Ellison, 
Mrs. M. Field, 
Miss Fizette, 
Mrs. Goff, 
Geo. Goff, 
Wm. H. Harrison 
Mrs. Henley, 
Miss Kennedy, 
P. Librock, 
T. Mulholland, 
J. McKimmie, 
Win. Ryan, 



2 00 
2 00 
'2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
50 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



$4439 95 



36 

Brought Forward $4439 95 

Geo. Reid, Niagara 1 00 

Miss W. Servos, " 100 

Jno. Simpson, " 1 00 

Mrs. Swift, " 1 00 

A. H. Walsh, " 100 

Mrs. Walker, " 1 00 

Miss Waters, " 100 

Mrs Jas. Brown, N iagara River Road 1 00 

Mrs. Chittenden, " 100 

Mrs. Mason, " " 1 OC 

Mrs. Skehon, " 1 00 

Mrs. T. H. Watt, 1 00 

F. E. Coy, St. Catharines 100 

B. C. Fairfield, 1 00 

J. Henderson, M.A. " 1 00 

M.Y.Keating, " 100 

Pr. Jory, " 1 00 

W.J.Robertson, M.A." , 1 00 

W. W. Tyrrell, " ... 100 

D. Boyle, Toronto 1 00 



1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

P. C. MacGregoi, LL.D., Almonte. 1 00 

Mrs. I. Cockburn, Winnipeg I 00 

Miss Gilkison, Brantford 1 00 

Miss Curtis, Hamilton 1 00 

Mrs. W. Richards, Pembroke 1 00 

Mrs. A. B. Thorn, Goderich 1 00 

A Friend, ' 1 00 

4480 95 



Mrs. Ball, 
J. S. Carstairs, B.A. 
C. J. Campbell, 
Miss Hunter, 
Mrs. O. Jones, 
Mrs. Long, 
Mr. Laid law, 
Miss Meneilly, 
Mrs. Mills, 
Mrs. Milne, 
C. W. Nash, 
Miss Rankin 
Miss I Thompson, 
F. Yeigh, 



-3V 

Brought Forward $4480 95 

Dr. Gregg, . Pittsburg 100 

P- McArthur, New York 100 

Rev. R Keefer, Jordon Station 1 00 

B.G.Hamilton, Calgary 1 00 

Miss J. E. Walsh, Savannah Geo 1 00 

Mrs. P Mills, Nevis, West Indies 1 00 

R. W. Slack, St. Davids 1 00 

W. Ellis, " 1 00 

J. H. Gilmour, Niagara Falls .. 100 

Error in printing page 31 grant from Society's 

funds $300 instead of $350 50 00 

Miss Lock wood, Niagara 3 00 

A Friend, Toronto 2 00 

A Friend, 50 

Interest on money in bank till used 104 33 



4649 78 
Borrowed from Bank 275 00 

4924 78 



IN ADDITION TO CASH GIVEN 

Site by the President of Society 200 00 

Front fence and gates, Jno. Carno::han 50 00 

J. S. Clarke, Printing 900 circulars 10 00 

Work on Scrap books, Mrs. Thompson 10 00 

Also Valuable Visitors book, " Panel 

for Laura Secord " .,.., 3 50 

Table, Mrs. McGaw, which would reach the sum of about $5200. 

In Keb 1907 $300 was borrowed to pay indebtedness, of this 
$275 remains unpaid and it is hoped that the members who have 
not yet contributed and any who wish to add to their subscriptions 
will help to clear off the deficit. 

Out of the whole sum subscribed of $4699 all was paid except 
$49 which is a remarkably small shrinkage during three years. 



EXPENDITURES 



To amount of contract $ 4097 00 

W. B. Allan, Architect $200 less Donation $75 125 00 

To Extras, Attic floor, Brick mantel, moulding for hanging 

pictures 75 68 

To Extras, Iron rod, shelving, brackets, glass, lumber 

firewood, cupboard, work 50 30 

Four chestnut show cases upright at $35 140 00 

24 drawers at 50c 12 00 

8 tables, supports for cases 25 00 

4 stands tor upright cases at $8 r. 32 00 

Fence I55ft at 40c 62 00 

W, Miller, Two showcases (one upright) 46 00 

Canadian Showcase Co., one case second hand 15 00 

Knox & Ward showcase for china 19 50 

A. Davey, Graining, varnishing, old cases 35 00 

" Lettering the Poitico 4 50 

E. Allen, Hardware, window fixings, glass 24 06 

" Paint oil, varnish 14 18 

2 87 

T. G. Rice, Window Guards 29 00 

Langley, Pavement 6 20 

Vokes & Co. Locks for cases ... 6 99 

Legg Bros., Tablet at door 8 00 

Colonial Mantel 10 00 

Work at locks and knobs 6 20 

E. Richardson, work, hanging pictures etc 4 35 

A. Hoskins, Teaming and moving etc 3 60 

W. R. McClelland, h-erdware 2 18 

J. R. Robertson, card foi- 3000 labels 2 80 

F. J. Rowland, sundries 2 92 

" window shades 15 00 

MissDreger, Table 3 30 

Mrs. Tomlinson, for pattern for panels 3.50, express 25c. 3 75 



$4884 38 



-39 



Brought Forward ........................... $ 4884 38 



Mrs. Thompson, travelling expenses Jand sundries ........... 

Express charges ......... ......... .................. 

E. Allen, hardware 

Miscellaneous paid by President ..................... ........ 

Discount on cheques ................................................ 

Interest on $300 borrowed Feb. 1907 ........................ 



In Bank 



5 85 
75 

4 63 

3 78 

1 35 

17 50 

$4918 24 

6 54 



Leaving a deficit of $275. 



$4924 78 



We the undersigned have examined the book of subscriptions, 
vouchers and bank book and find the same correct. 



Oct. 8th, 1907 
March 2nd, 1907 



P. J. ROWLAND) , 
ALFRED BALL/ Audlfcors - 



Additional received since printing above. 

Rev. P. J. Bench; Niagara $5 00 

Dr. S. P. Ford, Norwood 1 QO 






N52N52 
v.9-16 



Niagara Historical Society, 
Niagara-on-the-Lake , Ont . 
Records of Niagara