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Full text of "Records of the rocks; or, Notes on the geology, natural history, and antiquities of North & South Wales, Devon, & Cornwall"

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KECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS; 



OE, 

NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY, NATURAL HISTORY, 
AND ANTIQUITIES 



NORTH & SOUTH WALES, DEVON, & CORNWALL. 



BY REV. W. S. SYMONDS, F.G.S., 



BECTOB OF PBNDOCK. 




WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 
1872. 



TO 

SIR CHARLES LYELL, BART, F.R.S, P.G.S., 

1 gtbitste 

THESE 

RECORDS OF THE ROCKS, 

AS A SLIGHT ACKNOWLEDGMENT OP THS ADVANTAGES I HAVE RECEIVED 
THROUGH THE STUDY OP HIS WORKS, 

WHICH HAVE BEEN MY MENTORS FOR NEARLY THIRTY YEARS, 
AND OP THE VALUE AT WHICH I ESTEEM HIS FRIENDSHIP. 

W. S. SYMONDS. 
PENDOCK, 1872. 



PREFACE. 



THIS Work is the result of an accumulation of Notes 
on Natural History, stored during several years when 
travelling, on Geological expeditions, throughout the dis- 
tricts on which it treats. It is written for Amateurs who, 
like myself, enjoy passing their leisure hours among 
Rocks, old Castles, old Authors, and the wild flowers of 
strange wayside places. It does not assume to be a 
strictly scientific description of the Geological structure 
of the different tracts of country to which it alludes, but 
I trust it is correct as far as it goes. 

For thirty years I have been a lover and constant 
explorer of the Geology of the districts to which this 
Volume relates ; and having also had more than usual 
opportunities of making observations on the Archeology 
and Natural History, I have dealt with some districts to 
which Murchison hardly alludes, and with subjects that 
would have been foreign to his purpose. 

The " Grey stone rests above the Chief," and I may 
now venture to say that which, if I had penned it before, 
would, by the world, have been deemed flattery; and I 
say it as one who probably is more intimate with the 
" Silurian System," and Siluria, than any living Amateur. 



i PREFACE. 

It is this : let the Geologist of succeeding years, who 
is supplied with all the Maps, Sections, and other appur- 
tenances furnished by Geological Surveyors and pro- 
fessional experience, bear in mind that the grauwacke of 
Siluria was reduced to order, out of chaos, by Murchison : 
and how, by the publication of the "Silurian System," 
he advanced the Science of Geology to an extent that 
other generations will probably comprehend better than 
the present seems capable of doing. 

The Volume is enriched by sketches of scenery from 
the pencil of my friend, and frequently my companion, 
Sir William Guise, Bart., and by the reproduction of 
many plates of landscapes, fossils, and sections from that- 
well-known scientific work, "Siluria," by Sir Roderick 
Murchison. 

I have to render my thanks to Miss Dora Baker, of Has- 
field Court, Gloucestershire, for illustrations of some of the 
typical Fossils ; and last, though not least, to Miss Roberts, 
of Hazeldine, Red Marley, for efficient aid in carrying the 
MSS. through the press, and for the copious Index. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

PAGE 

Astronomy of the Ancients, by Sir George Cornewall Lewis and Delambre 
Law of Gravitation Nebular Theory Moons of Jupiter Appli- 
cation of Optics to Chemistry by Spectrum Analysis Spectra of the 
Fixed Stars Spectrum of the Sun Spectra of the Nebulae The 
Meteorite of Lenarto Mr. Sorby on Meteoric Stones Opinions of 
the Chemist and Microscopist on the Materials of the Earth's Interior 
Volcanic and Plutonic Rocks Minerals of the Igneous Rocks 
Eruptions of Lava from centres of Volcanic Action Earthquake 
Action Traps, Basalts, and Greenstones Basaltic Columns 
Mallet on Earthquakes Sir C. Lyell and Mr. Darwin ditto- 
Elevation of Land in Norway and Sweden since the Glacial 
Period Ceaseless Change 1 



CHAPTER II. 

LAURENTIAN ROCKS. 

Divisions of Primary Rocks Canadian Laurentians The Eozoon Cana- 
dense Fundamental Gneiss of Scotland Section between. Loch 
Inver and Ben More Of Queenaig, near Loch Assynt Blocs Perches 
near Laxford Plants of Inchnadamph Glacier of Glen Baile 
Laiirentians of Lewis Kyle of Durness Cape Wrath and Loch 
Eriboll Pingincula Alpina Laurentians of Ross-shire Of Wales, 
near Holyhead, Barclsey Island, Anglesea, and Caernarvon Rare 
Plant on Holyhead Mountain Gneiss of St. David's Laurentians of 
Malvern Described by Leonard Horner Murcliison and Phillips 
Dr. Holl Dykes of the North Hill and Worcestershire Beacon The 
Valley of the "White-leaved Oak" The Ragged Stone Hill Mr. 
Hugh Strickland Antiquities of Malvern Leland on Werstanus 
Old Glass at Malvern Church The Priory Malvern Camps . 20 



xii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 

PAGF 

Lmver Cambrians, Sedgwick on Geikie on denudation of Scotland 
Cambrians of Scotland Dr. Macculloch on The "Greyheads" of 
Applecross Worm Tubes in Lower Quartz of Queenaig Limestone of 
Inchnadamph and its Wild Plants Upper Quartz Rock of Glashven, 
Ben More, and Ben Hie, also of Eriboll Upper Gneiss of the Moin 
And Ben Hope Alsine rubella on Ben Hope Smoo Caves Hugh 
Miller on the Scenery of Assy nt Cambrian Rocks of Ireland 
Cambrians of the Longmynds Salter on Palaaopyge Ramsayi 
Cambrians of St. David's Dr. Hicks on Submerged Forest near, 
observed by Giraldus Cambrensis, and alluded to in Gibson's 
Camden Giraldus Cambrensis, his Itinerary, Birthplace, &c. 
Porth-y-Rhaw Boulders round St. David's St. David and his 
Preaching David the Second and his Pipes Cathedral of St. David 
and its Tombs Lower Cambrians of N. Wales Llanberis and 
Dolbadarn Castles, Sections near Ramsay on Glaciated Cambrian 
Grit Glaciers of Llyn Idwal and Cwm Grainog Spiderwort 
Caernarvon and Segontium Moel Tryfaen, its Drifts and Marine 
Shells Lyell on Local Boulders "Ancient Glaciers of Wales," by 
Ramsay The Maenbras of Snowdon Glacier of Carnedd Llewellyn 
Bangor, its Antiquities and Rocks Bishop of, fined in Hawks 
King John at Prof. Sedgwick on Bangor Cambrians Section near 
Fossils of Lower Cambrians Upper Cambrums, Lyell, Phillips, 
and Salter (Lowest Silurians of Murchison and Ramsay) Fossils 
of Sections near Barmouth and Harlech Leland on the "Friars 
Island "Castle of Harlech Plutonia Sedgwickii The Great 
Trilobite Paradoxides Gold-bearing Rocks Fossils at Ffestiniog 
Porus's Grave Castell Prysor Sara Helen Lingula Flags of 
Snowdon Near Bangor And among the Moraines of Cwmgrainog 
Lingula Flap of Shropshire, Herefordshire, and Malvern Hills 
Miss Margaret Lowe Black Shale Trilobites Tremadoc Rocks 
Sedgwick, Ramsay, and Salter on Sections of near Portmadoc and 
Moel-y-gest Fossils of Lingula Flags and Tremadoc Beds . . 3 

CHAPTER IV. 

LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 

Llandeilo Rocks Typical fossils of Murchison and Sedgwick on Cader 
Idris Glacier of Llyn-y-Gader Basaltic columns on Cader Idris 
Ramsay on Glacial Lakes Wild flowers on Cader Idris Lake 
of Tal-y-llyn Dolgelly Cymmer Abbey The Arans Volcanic 



CONTEXTS. xiii 

PAGE 

Phenomena of Auvergne compared with those of Wales The 
Arenigs LJandeilo Strata of Snowdonia Penmaenmawr and its 
Plants The Berwyus The Breidden Hills, Sections of Potentilla 
rupestris The Camp on the Breiddens Stiper Stones, and Fossils 
of "The Silurian System " Sir Roderick and Lady Murchison 
Sections to Visit Upper Llandeilos of Builth " The Rocks " and 
their Salmon Catch Builth Castle and its Antiquities Leland on 
the Death of Prince Llewellyn Llanwrytyd Wells, and the "Wolves 
Leap " Llynderw Cromlech near Llangadock Carngoch, and its 
Camp Llandeilo Roderick the Great Dynevor Merlin's Cave 
Ruins of Dryslyn Caermarthen, and Legend of Merlin Pen 
Cader, and Cruelty of Henry II. Kidwelly The Castle, and 
Giraklus's Account of the wife of Maurice de Londres Precelly 
Hills and Boulders Pencaer and the French Silurian Rocks in 
Abereiddy Bay The "Bishop and his Clerks "Llandeilo Beds in 
Musclewick Bay Caradoc or Bala Rocks named by Murchison 
Caer Caradoc Caradoc Volcano of Snowdonia Different Periods of 
Volcanic Activity in Wales Dinas Mowddwy The Valley of Hir- 
nant Bala Limestone Bala, Town and Lake of The- great Fault 
at Giraldus and Camden on Bala Lake The " Gwiniad " or 
Vendace of Bala Lake Sir W. Jardine on the Coregoni Church- 
yard on the Gwiniad in 1587 Salmo ferox, taken by Sir P. Egerton 
Note on the History of Churchyard, and his " Worthines of 
\V a le S "The Alpine Char Rare Plants at Bala Caradoc Rocks 
of Caernarvonshire Dolwyddelan and its Castle Moel Siabod and 
Capel Curig ; the Geology and Wild Flowers William Williams, 
the Botanical Guide ; his Death The Miscodera Arctica The 
Welsh Char in Llyn Cawellyn Giraldus Cambrensis on Snowdon 
Edward I. at Rocks of Lleyn Criccieth Castle Con way, its Geo- 
logy and its History Diganwy Castle Caradoc Rocks of the Ber- 
wyns Corwen and Owen Glyndwr Murchison's Sections by Powys 
Castle Records of Powys Castle Caradoc Range Onny Section 
The Wrekin Caradocs, near Llandovery Roman Gold Mines in 
Horn of the Bannog Ox Miracles at Llandewi Brefi Beavers in 
the Teifi Strata Florida Abbey Boulder Drift at Tregaron Fossils 
of Lower Silurians 78 

CHAPTER V. 

MIDDLE SILURIAN ROCKS. 

Typical Fossils of Lower Llandovery Rocks Section at Noedd-y-grug 
Mallwyd The Devil's Bridge Lisburne Lead Mines Ice Action at 
Llyn Rheidol Rhaiader Gwy, and its Antiquities Staff of St. 



xiv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Cyric at St. Harmon's Camden on King Vortigern Drygan 
Mountain and Glacial Lake Boulders between Dolfan and Builth 
Lead Mines on the Clarwen Upper Llandovery or May Hill Sand- 
stoneTypical Fossils of Rev. T. T. Lewis, of Aymestry Hollies 
Limestone Stokesay Castle Section of Llandovery Rocks on the 
Longmynds Onny Section Mr. Aikin on the Wrekin Gorton, 
near Presteign Boulders of Old Radnor Conglomerate May Hill 
Beds, near Builth Of the Mai vems Section from Malvern to 
Ledbury Elevated May Hill Beds at the Wind's Point Section on 
the Worcester and Hereford Railway May Hill Strata in a Fissure 
in Malvern Gneiss in Eastnor Park Where to find Fossils of 
Discovery of Earliest-known Pterygotus Howler's Heath Fungi of 
The Lickey Dr. Buckland on Lickey Quartz Lucy on Severn 
Drifts Kendal End May Hill Meaning of Name Scenery from 
Llandovery Rocks of Pembrokeshire Tarannon Shales in Mont- 
gomeryshire Near Conway Between Builth and Rhayadr Llan- 
drindrod and Cefn Llys Church Tarannon Shales equivalent of 
Woolhope Shales Organic Remains of Middle Silurian Rocks . . 12 



CHAPTER VI. 

UPPER SILURIAN KOCKS. 

Typical Fossils of Denbighshire Grits District of Leland on Bwedd 
Arthur Castle of Denbigh Leland and Churchyard's Account of 
Llanrwst and Burke on Camp on Carnedd Llewelyn Tomb of 
Llewelyn-ap-Jorwerth Legend of St. Winefrede Bettws-y-Coed, 
and its Fossils Camden on Coch Castle Mallwyd Cwm Hir 
Abbey Woolhope Limestone at Old and New Radnor Stanner 
Rocks, sketch of Rare Plants at Murchison on Giraldus Cam- 
breusis at Radnor Leland on its ruined Castle Eruptive Rocks of 
Valley of Woolhope and Haugh wood Drift at Hagley, and 
Fossils of Stoke Edith Park and Tarrington Murchison's Room 
Wenlock Shales of North Wales Cerrig-y-Druidion and Garn Bris, 
inscribed Stone near Ruthiii, Antiquities of, and Churchyard on 
Wenlock Shale in Llangollen District Dinas Bran Eagles at 
Wenlock Shales near Builth Llandovery and Caermarthen in 
May Hill Country and in the Usk District Wenlock Limestone 
Section Wenlock Edge, view from Coral Reefs, Darwin and 
Jukes on Corals at Benthall Edge Buildwas Abbey, Antiquities 
of Landslip near, in 1783 Trilobites discovered afterwards 
Abbey of Wenlock Milburga, Lady Abbess-Leland on Wenlock 
Wigmore Castle, and Valley of Denudation Drift there, and Lias 
Fossils Antiquities of Wigmore The Wren's Nest Wenlock 



CONTENTS. xv 

PAGE. 

Limestone of the Woolhope District Dormington Quarries and 
Fossils Wenlock Rocks near Malvern Malvern Museum Wenlock 
Crinoidea Wenlock Rocks of May Hill Gloucester Museum 
Tortworth Limestones Dit at Usk Marloes Bay, and near Cardiff 
Ludlow Rocks The Oldest Fossil Fish Lower Ludlows of North 
Wales Caer Digol Outlier of Clun Forest Offa's Dyke Church- 
' yard on Camp at Coxwall Knoll " Water Break its Neck " Bone 
Beds, Ancient and Modern Bradnor Quarries Murchison at New- 
church, near Kington Shobdon Hill and Church Ludlow Rocks, 
near Hay, Breconshire The "Boughlinne" of Leland Druid's 
Stone Corn-y-fan, Anticlinal and Section Trecastle and the Gwyns 
Hugh Miller at Sedgeley Ludlow, its Geology Castle and 
Milton's Comus The Church, and Feathers Inn Leintwardine, 
and its Star Fish Grayling in Teme, and noticed by Giraldus 
Cambrensis Aymestry Limestone and Fossils Mortimer's Cross, 
and Battle-field Ledbury, and its Fossils and Antiquities Camden 
on Landslips Usk, its Geology and Antiquities Upper Silurians 
of Pembroke Abberley Ankerdine Triinpley Linley, and Neen 
Sellers Organic Remains of Upper Silurians .... 15$ 

CHAPTER VII. 

OLD RED SANDSTONE. 

Typical Fossils of Classification of Strata Origin of name The Fresh- 
water Theory The Forest of Hayes and Clun Forest Outliers 
Glascwym and its bell Old Red Fish in Ludlow Museum Sir P. 
Egerton on Old Red Fishes Huxley and Lankester, ditto Old Red 
Fish in Marine Deposits The " South Stone Rock " Leominster, 
its Geology and Antiquities Giraldus, Leland, and Camden on 
Ivington Camp Hereford, its Antiquities and Geology Sutton 
Walls Dynedor Camp The White Cross Weobly Kenchester 
Old Red of Malvern and Ledbury Of Kentchurch, Rowlestone, and 
Eyas Harold Antiquities of Kilpeck, Kentchurch, Grosmont, and 
Skenfrith Giraldus Cambrensis at Abergavenny Churchyard on 
The Scyrrid and Sugar Loaf Sir David Gam Sir John Oldcastle 
Llanthony Abbey Giraldus on Geology of Travertine near, and 
Asplenium viride Sermon at Hay Giraldus, Leland, and Camden 
on Hay Clifford Castle on Wye drifts, with bed of bones Brynllys 
Castle Arthur's Stone a Cromlech Old Red of Caermarthenshire 
Llansteph an Castle In Pembrokeshire, at St. Ishmael's Isle of 
Skomer, and Birds' eggs Brownstones of the Old Red Brecon, its 
Antiquities and Geology Gaer Bannium and the Maiden Stone 
The Brecon Beacons and Glacial Moraines Talgarth Llaugorse 



xvi CONTEXTS. 

PAGE 

Lake, its Fish, Plants, and Prehistoric Remains The Bwlch 
Boulders near Buckland Flint Spear at Llanelin Upper Old Red 
The Daren Glanusk and its inscribed Stone Crickhowell Castle 
Farlow (Clee Hills) and its Fishes Hugh Miller on the 
Pterichthys Conularia in the Farlow Beds Ross, Section near 
The Buckstone and Monmouth Old Red of Pembrokeshire Near 
Tenby Manorbeer Castle, Birthplace of Giraldus Cambrensis 
Organic Remains of Old Red Sandstone 212 

CHAPTER VIII. 

DEVONIAN ROCKS. 

Murchison and Sedgwick on Opinions of Prof. Jukes and Mr. Etheridge 
Dr. Holl on South Devon Table of Rocks of North and South 
Devon and Cornwall Dunster and Foreland Basement Rocks 
Porlock, Dunkerry, and Culbone Glenthorne The Quantock Hills 
Antiquarian Relic at Crowcombe Court Cleave Abbey Geology 
of Lynmouth and Countesbury The Devil's Cheese-ring The 
Valley of Rocks, Hunter's Inn, and the Hangman's Combe Martin 
Ilfracombe Trap Rocks of Muddiford and Rockham Morthoe 
and Tracey " Memorials of Barnstaple " Bull Point and Igneous 
Rocks Marwood and its Fossils Boulder at Croyde Braunton 
Burrows Leland on St. Branock Birthplace of Gay South Devon 
Sections Fossil Fish Remains, formerly supposed to be Fossil 
Sponges Fish in Mr. Pengelly's collection Torquay Meadfoot 
Sands Position of Looe Fish Beds Looe and Polperro Mr. Couch 
of Polperro Penzance Museum Chudleigh Bovey Tracey 
Miocene Lake, and Plants of Pengelly's "Head," and Arctic 
Plants in Kent's Cavern Submerged Forests noticed by Giraldus 
Cambrensis, Leland, and Dr. Borlase Windmill Hill (Brixham) 
Bone Caves Change of Level Plymouth Limestone and Plymouth 
Bone Caves Geology of Penzance Old Camp near Samphire Island 
Fish at Bedruthen Granites of Dartmoor and Cornwall Brent 
Tor Abbey of St. Rumon Organic Remains .... 258 



CHAPTER IX. 

LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 

Age of Carboniferous Deposits Plants in Old Red strata Limestone of 
North Wales Tregarnedd and Owen Tudor Rowlands the Anti- 
quaryTrap dyke of Plas Newydd Outlines of Mountain Lime- 



CONTENTS. xvii 

PAGE 

stone at Preistholm and Llangyihangel Antiquity of Priests' Island 
Great Ormes Head and its Geology The Cotoneaster vulgaris-- 
Botany of Llandudno Abergele and change of Level The Caves of 
Cefn Marine shells there The Glutton Geology of Vale of Clwyd 
Pillar of Eliseg Chirk Castle, rare Plants at Carboniferous 
Limestone of Clee Hills Fossil Fish of Professor Morris on 
" Dhustone" of the Clees Pen-Cerrig Calch, a remarkable outlier 
Castell Cerrig Cennen, Stone Hatchet at Cardiff, its Antiqui- 
ties Rhsetic beds near Castell Coch and Caerphilly Castle The 
Geology round Bridgend Ewenny Priory, and tomb of the Founder 
Ogrnore Castle Geology of Southerndown and Dunraven 
Llantwit Major Peninsula of Gower Worms Head, and Leland 
on Rare plants of Gower Caves of Gower Cromlechs of Col. 
Wood's discoveries Swansea Castle and Church Bishop Gower 
White Rose of England Tenby, geology round Giltar and Lydstep 
Devonian fossils at Skrinkle Stackpole Court and Cheriton 
Giraldus Cambrensis on St. Govan's Head and Chapel The Eligug 
Stacks and Sea Birds of Giraldus on a Falcon of Henry II. Rare 
plants of Hoyles Mouth, Tenby and its Bone Cave Caldy Island 
Bone Caves Submerged Forest at Aniroth Pembroke, its antiqui- 
ties Giraldus Cambrensis on Dit Comiues and Leland Lamphey 
Palace and Carew Castle, Giraldus on Chepstow and the Wynd- 
cliff Tintern Abbey, its Antiquities and Geology Whitchurch, 
Symonds Yat, and the Wye Bone Caves of the Dowards Plants of 
the Dowards and Symonds Yat The Hermit of the Great Doward 
The Machen Boulder Organic Remains of Carboniferous Lime- 
stone 303 

CHAPTER X. 

CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 

Millstone Grit Section of Carboniferous Rocks in Central England 
Scenery of Millstone Grit Watt's Dyke Churchyard on Oswestry 
Whittington Castle Peverell of the Peak Millstone Grit of the 
Caermarthen Hills of Forest of Dean of Ross district of 
Pembrokeshire Haroldstone Boulder The Coal Measures Historic 
notes on Coal Prof. Hull's "Coal-fields of Great Britain" 
Palaeozoic Coal-fields and their Geographical Distribution Formation 
of Coal The "Sunk Country" of Lyell Sir William Logan's 
observations Prof. Phillips's "Life on the Earth" Botany of 
Coal Chemistry of Coal Coal-fields of N. Wales Anglesea 
Flintshire Basingwerk Abbey Denbighshire Coal-field Holt 
Castle Bangor Iscoed Shrewsbury Coal-field Bitumen of 



xviii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Haughmond Shrewsbury Battle-field Coal Measures of the Clee 
Hills Forest of Wrye, Rare Plants of Coalbrook Dale, Fossil 
Fishes of Forest of Dean Coal-field, its Oaks Scenery Geology 
South Wales Coal-fields Blaenavon Beaufort The Elled Patch 
Merthyr Tydvil Pennaut Grit Reptiles of Coal Measures- 
Anthracite Neath Abbey Former continuity of Coal Measures 
Organic Remains ......... 358 

CHAPTER XI. 

PERMIAN ROCKS. 

Sedgwick and Murchison on Table of Permian Strata Corncockle 
Muir and its Footprints Permian Rocks of N. Wales At Anglesea 
Vale of Clwyd Wrexham Ellesmere Permian Plants The 
" Alberbury Breccia " Lilleshall Bridgenorth, Leland on Anti- 
quities of Robert de Belesmo Sections of Drifts near Permian 
Sections near Quatford Quat Church and singular Inscription 
Church Hill a Permian Outlier Alveley Coton Conglomerate 
Warshill Breccias Enville Breccias, Lyell on Boulder Drift of 
Bushbury Hagley and Hugh Miller The Clent Hills The 
Leasowes and Shenstone Halesowen Warshill Camp Stagbury 
Hill Rosebury Rock Permian Puzzle at Malvern Mammoth 
Remains at Malvern Museum Malvern and Haffield Breccia 
Haffield Camp and Boulders near May Hill Permians Organic 
Remains of Permian Rocks . 396 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

t 

PAGE 

Eligug Stacks, near Pembroke Frontispiece- 343 

Canisp, Suilven and Couhnore 25 

South Stack Lighthouse, Anglesea 31 

Malvern Hills 32 

The Longmynds 48 

Pass of Llanberis 55 

Breidden Hills 80 

Caderldris 81 

Stiper Stones East 90 

Shelve. West of Stiper Stones 92 

Caradoc Range 119 

View from Stanner Rocks . . . . . . . .161 

Ludlow Castle . 183 

The Palmer's Cairn Landslip 205 

Silurian Rocks of Marloes Bay 213 

Llanthony Abbey . 237 

Marloes Bay Gateholm and Part of Skomer Island . . . . 242 

Whythall, near Ross 257 

Sibyl Head 261 

Rocks of the Dowards 303 

Home of Draba Aizoides ......... 332 



xx LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Tenby 340 

St. Gowan's Chapel, Pembrokeshire 342 

Jem the Slipper 354 

Vegetation of the Carboniferous Era 359 

Dean Forest, near Ruardean 367 

Speech House, Dean Forest 387 

Gurmaya Hills of the South Ural Mountains 398 

Permian Breccia at Haffielcl, near Ledbury 418 



KECOKDS OF THE BOOKS. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Introductory Remarks Astronomy of the Ancients Astronomical and Chemi- 
cal Researches respecting the Earlier Stages of the Earth Application 
of Optics to Chemistry by Spectrum Analysis Opinions of the Chemist 
and Microscopist on the subject of Materials of the Earth's Interior 
Volcanic and Plutonic Rocks Earthquake Action Elevation of Land 
since the Glacial Period Ceaseless Change. 

DURING the last century Science has advanced with extra- 
ordinary strides, and has assumed, in consequence, the utmost 
importance in the minds of men. In earlier times its progress 
was comparatively slow, and it is not difficult for the reader of 
History to trace the causes of non-development in the desola- 
tion of barbaric warfare, the dark clouds of ignorance, and the 
curse of superstition, and religious persecution, which for ages 
hung over the whole of Europe. In these later and less 
troubled times, aided by the freedom now extended to thought 
and scientific discovery, various branches of Philosophy march 
on with surer and steadier footsteps. 

And of no branch of Science can this be more truly said than 
of Geology. The question of the creation, or origin, and the 
development of the Earth, is a subject which must ever be of 
the greatest interest to God's intellectual creature Man. And 
although there are many problems with which we are at present 
utterly at a loss how to deal, and many mysteries which we 
have not as yet penetrated, yet, looking upon all that has been 



2 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. i. 

added to our knowledge by the patient investigations of those 
who have devoted a lifetime to geological research, we must 
allow that immense progress has of late years been made in 
acquiring knowledge with respect to the bygone history of this 
Planet. 

The Science of Geology has conjured new forms of Life into 
existence, and to him who reads the Records of the Eocks there 
is unfolded a history such as the inventor of fairy tales never 
dreamed of, and which almost startles us sometimes by the 
strangeness of its revelations. By the aid of these records we 
can trace certain changes the Earth has undergone during 
innumerable epochs when as a world she has revolved in space, 
and during which, as far as we can learn, her Life systems have 
been progressing with time and development. 

The Records of the Eocks reveal to us that in the history of 
creation the lower animals preceded the higher ; the protozoa, 
mollusca, and Crustacea preceded the fish ; the fish preceded 
the reptile ; the reptile preceded the bird ; the bird preceded 
the higher mammalia ; and man did not appear upon the scene 
until long after many of the inferior animals had passed away 
for ever. 

Palaeontology, or the study of fossil Animals, requires much 
time and attention, and is hardly within the reach of an amateur 
who is distant from museums and libraries. Still, anyone may 
become acquainted with what may be termed the typical fossils 
of the various formations through good books and country col- 
lections, and this knowledge will suffice for a commencement, 
at all events, in the study of Physical Geology. Physical Geo- 
logy is open to everyone who is blessed with physical powers 
and mental activity, and it takes the lover of Nature among 
sea-cliffs, and shores ; mountains and vales ; active and extinct 
volcanoes; lava currents, recent, and old; by the glaciers of 
the Alps, and the extinct glaciers of mountains now no longer 
capped even with snow; by silted-up lakes, and lakes now 
dammed by moraines whose ice is gone ; among furrowed hill- 
sides, and glaciated glens. It is a glorious history this same 
Physical Geology, with its records of sea beds elevated into 



CHAP, i.] INTRODUCTION. 3 

mountains, and its mountains lowered beneath the sea. In the 
following pages I have endeavoured to render some information 
respecting localities where such phenomena may best be seen 
and visited. 

The conclusions arrived at of late years through chemical 
and astronomical researches, respecting the earlier stages of the 
planet we inhabit, are so remarkable when compared with former 
views entertained on the subject, that it may be worth while to 
allude to what may be termed the Astronomy of the Earth be- 
fore alluding to the history of earthquakes, earthquake action, 
and volcanic action in connection with her geology. Those 
who examine the records gathered respecting the knowledge of 
Astronomy among the ancients, collected by Sir George Corne- 
wall Lewis, and Delambre> will feel convinced that man, in the 
earliest historic periods, possessed no real knowledge of the 
Solar System. This Planet our Earth was supposed to be 
the central orb round which the Sun revolved daily. The 
firmament is represented by Hebrew and Greek writers as a 
massive, solid substance, with windows or openings in it through 
which the rain descended and the floods came. 

The earliest record respecting certain of the Fixed Stars is 
that contained in the Book of Job, where he speaks of the 
Almighty who " alone spreadeth out the heavens and treadeth 
upon the waves of the sea ; which rnaketh Arcturus, Orion, and 
Pleiades, and the chambers of the south." 

In the days of Hesiod and Homer (about 900 years B.C.) the 
annual motion of the stars, with respect to their rising and 
setting, is chronicled; nevertheless those cultivated Greeks 
conceived of the sun as a divine charioteer, who drove his fiery 
steeds over the steeps of heaven until he bathed them in the 
western waves. 

Thales, who lived about 600 B.C., is the earliest philosopher 
with whom we can connect the pursuit of astronomy in Greece, 
and we find him calculating and predicting an eclipse of the 
Sun, which we learn from the Astronomer Royal came to pass 
on the 28th May, 585 B.C. 

Pythagoras taught that the earth is not motionless in the 

B 2 



4 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. i. 

centre of the universe, but moved in an orbit through space ,- 
and Philolaus, the contemporary of Socrates, and Democritus, 
committed the Pythagorean doctrines to writing, but the pro- 
gress of astronomy was crushed out for a time by the religious 
persecution and death of Socrates. 

Empedocles (B.C. 450) maintained the motion of the planets, 
although he thought that the fixed stars were riveted in a 
crystal heaven ; and the knowledge of astronomy was slowly 
developed, step by step, by the discoveries of Hipparchus 
(160 B.C.), and by Ptolemy (1GO A.D.), until, in the sixteenth 
century, the Copernican system established astronomy as an 
experimental science. 

The laws of the planetary motions had been ascertained by 
Kepler, and Tycho Brahe, when the revelations of the telescope 
burst upon Galileo (A.D. 1609), and he beheld the moons of 
Jupiter illuminating their planet and undergoing eclipses in 
his shadow. To him also were first revealed the crescent 
phases of Venus, and a glimmering of the marvels of the 
planet Saturn, an enormous world lighted by no less than 
eight moons, and enveloped with splendid luminous rings. 

The grand Newtonian discovery of the Law of Gravitation 
followed ; a law now known to extend throughout the remotest 
universe; the law by which satellites revolve around their 
planets, and by which our Sun, the centre of a vast system, 
revolves, with all his host of planets, satellites, asteroids, 
comets, meteors, and meteorites, round a common centre, as 
our moon revolves round our earth. 

Notwithstanding these discoveries, until within a few years 
it was generally believed that the whole Celestial universe was 
created about 6000 or 7000 years ago, just as it exists now, 
and the Nebular theory, or possible conversion of nebulas, or 
star mist, into stars or planets, was considered as absolutely 
atheistic. Now ! astronomers boldly state that it is highly pro- 
bable that the nebulae are representatives of that primordial 
matter out of which the existing stars and suns have been 
fashioned, and that in these remote celestial bodies we behold 
some of the stages through which suns and planets pass in 



C-IIAP. i.] INTRODUCTION. 5 

their development from luminous clouds. It is to the analysis 
of Light we owe such inductions. The analysis of light has 
taught the investigator the nature of a sun, the mysteries of a 
star, and the wonders of a nebula. The discovery of the moons 
of Jupiter by Galileo, and astronomical observations on their 
eclipses, led to the discoveiy of the velocity of light ; the ana- 
lysis of the same winged messenger has led to the discovery of 
a stranger history still, viz., the chemistry of the stars. 

One of the most extraordinary discoveries of this age is the 
application of optics to chemistry by means of Spectrum 
Analysis. 

It has been ascertained from experiment, that the phenomena 
of light and heat arc connected with movements of intense 
rapidity, similar to those produced by vibration in sound ; and 
Professor Miller in his lecture, delivered before the working 
men of Exeter, explained how the vibrations of certain sounds 
of the musical scale in one octave were twice as great as those 
in the octave below. Thus, in the treble C of the piano there 
are 512 vibrations, while in the C of the octave below there are 
only 256 vibrations, per second. So in Light what the pitch 
of a note is in sound, such is colour in light. 

It is well known that a certain number of substances, solid, 
fluid, or gaseous, which we call elementary, combine to form all 
varieties of terrestrial matter ; and when any of these elemen- 
tary substances, or compounds of such elements, are diffused 
in vapour, as flame, they impart to it peculiar characteristics, 
and by analysing the flame with the spectroscope the substance 
that colours and characterises it can be determined with the 
greatest accuracy. Each vapour emits a light peculiar to itself 
and which is collected into the spectrum into a line, or lines, 
peculiar to itself. Silver, for example, emits when heated to 
a vaporous condition a brilliant green light. Copper distilled 
into vapour emits a system of bright bands. Each metal 
or chemical element has its own set of bands, so that the 
examiner can at once recognise its presence in a state of 
vapour by its light and its lines in the spectrum. By such 
investigations lines belonging to several metals in a state of 



G RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. i. 

incandescence have been determined in the spectra of the fire- 
works at the Crystal Palace, three miles from the place of 
observation, and the lines characteristic of barytes and strontia 
may be observed in the spectra of balls shot from a Roman 
candle, or illuminations in the Alhambra. By the same pro- 
cess also, within the last few years, several elementary bodies 
which exist in infinitesimally small quantities in certain mineral 
waters, such as caesium, rubidium, thallium, and indium, have 
been added to the list of those elements which enter into the 
composition of our Earth. 

Now it is found that a certain kind of Spectrum is character- 
istic of the light of a glowing solid, or liquid, or ignited cloud 
of solid particles ; while a very different spectrum is exhibited 
when a gaseous body is examined and to such perfection have 
these Spectrum investigations now arrived, that the examiner 
can look into a furnace through a prism and observe the 
changes occurring in its flame ; or to the light of the Sun, where 
he finds undoubted evidence that metals such as are well known 
on this earth exist in a state of vapour in the sun's heated 
atmosphere, while to the very combustion of those metallic 
bodies we owe our light, and heat, received from that great 
luminary. Again the Spectra of some of the fixed stars have 
been mapped by Dr. Miller and Mr. Huggins. The spectra of 
sodium, magnesium, calcium, and bismuth Avere found in the 
light of Aldebaran, while Capella, Arcturus, Pollux, and Procion 
have all been examined, and sodium, hydrogen, magnesium, and 
iron have been ascertained to be among their chemical con- 
stituents. 

I have already alluded to the fact that the " Continuous 
Spectrum " which is characteristic of the light of a glowing 
solid or liquid, or cloud consisting of glowing solid particles, is 
very different to the spectrum knoAvn as an "interrupted 
spectrum " which is comprised of the bright lines which are 
characteristic of incandescent gases such as flaming hydrogen, 
or the transparent vapours of vaporised metals. Besides this 
there is another spectrum presented, viz., when an intensely 
luminous solid mass is seen through a gas less intensely 



CHAP, i.] IXTEODUCTIOX. 7 

heated. Such is the Spectrum of the Sun ! and it indicates 
that the luminary of so many worlds is not a mere globe of 
molten metals, but consists of a central, heated nucleus, above 
which is an atmosphere with white hot solid particles in the 
form of vast clouds ; and that outside there is a less heated 
gaseous stratum full of metallic vapours and masses of blazing 
hydrogen. While then some of the brightest of the Fixed Stars 
have been examined, and various metals are found to be 
floating dissolved in thin photospheres, as metallic vapours 
are detected in the photosphere of the sun, so there appear 
to be stars of differing and variable conditions. Mr. Huggins, 
when observing the spectrum of the variable star, T. Coronas, 
which suddenly blazed out in 1866, was convinced that the 
sudden brightness was owing to the flames of hydrogen gas 
which diminished as the flames died out ; and it is some- 
what remarkable that hydrogen, Avhich as a component of water 
is so abundant an element on our earth, should constitute the 
principal element of a numerous class of stars of which, 
according to Father Secchi, a Lyra is the type. There be 
stars and stars ! But if hydrogen has been detected in the 
blazing of a variable star ; still more do those distant lumi- 
nous clouds known as the Nebulas give information, by means 
of their spectrum, of their chemical composition ; and all 
which have as yet been examined appear to be in a state of 
gas or luminous vapour. " Three little lines," says the inves- 
tigator, " dispose of the notion that true nebula? may be 
clusters of stars." One line tells of the presence of nitrogen, 
the well known constituent of our own atmosphere, and 
corresponds with the line obtained in the air spectrum ; 
another tells of the presence of hydrogen, and another of some 
new element or unknown gas. " True nebulas are glowing 
masses of gas maintained permanently in a luminous state.'' 
Thus the "dumb bell " nebula, when examined by Mr. Huggins, 
afforded lines in the spectrum indicative of the presence of 
nitrogen ; and the spectrum of the planetary nebula in Draco 
afforded testimony of the presence of both nitrogen and 
hydrogen. Again the examination of cometary matter by the 



8 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. i. 

spectroscope leads to the conclusion that comets consist of 
highly attenuated matter, or meteoric dust. 

The next step is to Meteorites, and meteoric stones, or 
aerolites (air stones). These are solid masses which have fallen 
from interstellar space upon the surface of this planet ; they 
consist principally of iron and nickel ; some specimens contain 
an admixture of augite, olivine, and hornblende. Shooting 
Stars are also understood to be meteoric masses which are 
continually shooting past us, and become visible at night, but 
which are too distant to allow of their being attracted by the 
* earth's mass. 

The result of the discoveries by means of Spectrum 
Analysis induces the astronomer and chemist to believe that 
all bodies in space are similarly but not identically constituted. 
Hydrogen had been recognised in the spectra of the fixed stars 
and in a variable star. So it was determined to see if meteoric 
stones, which bear evidence of having once been in a state of 
incandescence and of sudden cooling, would give any indication 
of the atmosphere where they were formed. Dr. Graham, 
therefore, examined the meteorite of Lenarto and found that 
it yielded 2'85 times its volume of gas, of which 8G per cent, 
was hydrogen. The meteoric stone of Lenarto had come from 
an atmosphere in which hydrogen was abundant, and thus, the 
meteorite which once travelled in remote space reached our 
earth, and shut up in it was hydrogen of the stars. 

In this meteoric stone, therefore, we have an example of a 
condensed mass brought from interstellar space, bearing with 
it hydrogen occluded in metals, which metals are known to be 
in a vaporous state in the atmosphere of the Sun and fixed 
stars. The chemist believes also that such meteoric masses 
were once in a vaporous state, and that they became solidified 
ns the temperature was lowered. Mr. Sorby, so well known for 
his microscopic researches, has no doubt whatever that the 
materials of which meteoric stones consist were once in a state 
of fusion. No less than 220 meteoric stones may now be seen 
in the British Museum, which have come to our earth from 
interstellar space, and all of which indicate that the materials 



CHAP, i.] INTRODUCTION. 9 

of which they are composed were once in a gaseous and sub- 
sequently in a molten state ; while they are constituted entirely 
of elements and substances which also appertain to our own 
planet. 

Again, it is interesting to kno\v that the chemist and micro- 
scopist are assured that the deep seated minerals in the interior 
of this earth, which have been brought to the surface by 
volcanic action, bear a very close relationship to the structure 
of meteoric stories, and, pursuing this line of inquiry, they have 
been led to the conclusion that the materials of which the 
interior of this earth consist, were also once in a state of 
fusion. 

Thus the astronomer finds reason for believing that suns 
and planets once existed as rudimentary matter ; and chemists, 
mineralogists, and microscopists inform us that it is highly 
probable that materials in the interior of our globe which are 
now solid were once fluid, and before that were gaseous. To 
recapitulate, those who study with the telescope and spectro- 
scope the chemical composition of stars, suns, and nebulae, 
and those who study the chemical components of aerolites and 
planetoids, and the minerals, and metallic masses, in the 
interior of the earth's crust, believe alike, viz., that the various 
metal-s, and elementary substances, which compose that crust, 
possess a chemical nature similar to that which enters into the 
composition of the most distant bodies in space. 

And if this be so, we are met with the profound thought 
that as far as human ken can reach, matter of a similar kind 
exists throughout a boundless universe; matter without 
compass, and without end. It is the fashion in these days to 
ignore all ideas of progress, and design, but we can hardly 
believe that it is possible for him who detects hydrogen in the 
spectrum of a nebula, or the blazing of a variable star, to avoid 
the speculation that when this earth was without form and 
void, the waters of our vast oceans may have been spread forth 
as the gaseous matter of a nebula, and that Design gathered the 
seas together, and filled the waters thereof with life. 

As far as Man at present sees, all the phenomena of Nature 



10 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. r. 

arc connected, for the vaporous matter scattered through the 
dark profound of Space is as much impressed by the laws of 
gravitation and motion, as the planet which rolls around its 
sun. The laws of the elliptic motion of the planets, led 
Newton to the great principle of universal gravitation, which 
he would have sought for in vain in the less simple phenomena 
of the rotary motion of the earth. 

May not there be in the counsels of the Most High, a Law 
which is impressed upon germs of suns and systems germs 
organic and of life ; a law which ever leads onwards by pro- 
gression, and by which, in the evolution of ages, the nebula 
may become a world, no longer without form and void, but 
glowing with life and beauty, and by which the spirit of man, 
which even here is capable of sublime speculations, may 
in the future become more like that Spirit from whence 
emanate all laws, and all truths ? 

The gradual diminution of the primitive heat of the earth 
is believed by many to have been a cause which will account 
for the various changes which have succeeded each other on 
its surface, such as the expansions and contractions of its 
crust, and the sliding of a rigid crust over an internal fluid 
nucleus ; and even to have been the principal cause of those 
alterations of Climate which the geologist knows have occurred 
in the history of the earth. 

A further discussion of these speculative theories would, 
however, be beyond the province of the Geologist, and we 
will therefore pass on to the ground of ascertained facts, 
and seek to interpret the evidences derived from the rocky 
crust of the earth, since that remote time when it first became 
solid as it is now, and since which distant period we find bub 
little proof that the intensity of internal heat radiated to the 
surface of this planet with greater force than it does at 
present. Geology has a field of its own, apart from all 
theoretic speculations as to the original state and constitution 
of our globe, and whatever difference of opinion there may 
be respecting the former fluidity and origin of the crystallised 
masses in the interior of the earth, there can be none con- 



CHAP, i.] INTRODUCTION. 11 

cerning the most ancient sedimentary rocks. They have con- 
tinued to exist in their present condition for innumerable 
ages. It will be well, however, before quitting altogether the 
subject of the composition of the interior of the globe, to give 
a short description of Volcanoes, the effects of their extra- 
ordinary outbursts, and the nature of the mineral substances 
discharged from their craters ; a few words also on the 
subject of Earthquakes will not be out of place, as both these 
phenomena, which have played so important a part in again 
and again remodelling the surface of the earth, have to a 
certain extent a common origin. 

First, then, with regard to Volcanoes ! We find that they 
have left undoubted evidences of their eruptions at a very early 
period of the world's history, in the shape of masses of a hard 
mineral substance, and beds of consolidated lava, intermingled 
to a great extent with the oldest stratified deposits. The 
general name of igneous rocks has been given to these ancient 
lavas, but in order to define more clearly the nature of the 
different materials of which they are composed, they have been 
divided into two classes 

VOLCANIC ROCKS, 

AND 

PLUTONIC ROCKS. 

The term Plutonic is derived from Pluto, the ancient god of 
Hades, and is applied to such rocks as granites and syenites, 
which are believed to have been formed at considerable depths 
beneath the surface of the earth, and to have been cooled and 
crystallised under great pressure. 

Volcanic rocks, on the contrary, although we believe them to 
have risen from great depths in the bosom of the planet, have 
cooled and crystallised nearer the surface more rapidly, and 
consequently without the same amount of pressure. 

The formation of Plutonic rocks has of late years been much 
discussed by mineralogists and geologists, and although no 
mineralogist of repute believes that rocks such as syenite 



, 

12 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. r. 

and granite were formed by igneous agencies alone, yet Sir 
Charles Lyell, and those whose opinions are most trustworthy, 
think that it would be rash to infer that the manner in which 
the consolidation of granite takes place is very different from 
the cooling of lavas. Mr. Sorby of Sheffield, who has devoted 
much time to the careful study of the subject, arrives at the 
conclusion that the operation of ivater in the formation of 
granite is quite as powerful as that of heat, so that it may 
be roughly said that granite is lava steamed under great 
pressure. 

The Minerals which principally compose these Igneous rocks 
are but few in number, and can be divided into six groups : 

Quartz, Mica, Avigite, 

Felspar, Hornblende, Olivine. 

A thorough knowledge of the chemical analysis of the 
varieties of these minerals would entail a long and careful 
study ; suffice it to say here that the well known mineral 
substance called quartz or silica, is produced by the chemical 
combination of oxygen with silicon, for in the same manner 
that oxygen and hydrogen combine to form \vater, so oxygen 
and silicon form quartz, or silicic acid. The waters of the hot 
springs of Iceland and the Azores, which rise from volcanic 
depths, are found to be charged with silica in a state of solu- 
tion, in the same way that the waters of other springs are 
saturated with carbonates or sulphates of lime. 

Amongst the other volcanic minerals the most important 
are the silicates of alumina, lime, magnesia, potash, and soda ; 
these also pass under the names of felspar, mica, hornblende, 
augite, and olivine. A chemical combination in certain pro- 
portions of silicic acid with the above first mentioned sub- 
stances forms a variety of felspar rock, such as orthoclase, 
albite, or leucite. A similar process takes place with regard to 
micaceous and olivine rocks, silicic acid entering into combi- 
nation in the same manner, produces in the former the 
varieties of talc, or lepidote, and in the latter the varieties of 
bronzite. 



CHAP, i.] INTRODUCTION. 13 

Lava is a term extensively applied to the immense quanti- 
ties of molten mineral constantly discharged at the surface of 
the planet by active volcanoes, which serve as safety valves 
to the earth's crust. These are known to exist to the number 
of upwards of 400. In the Atlantic Ocean* alone, there are 
no less than five centres of volcanic action, while in Europe the 
principal centres are in Sicily, Naples, Stromboli, the Archi- 
pelago, and Iceland. 

In order to form some idea of the masses erupted, and of the 
effect produced by these burning torrents, it will be sufficient 
to call to mind the fact that Mount Etna, although nearly 
10,000 feet in height, and nearly ninety miles in circumference 
at the base, is ascertained to be entirely constituted of volcanic 
matter, which has slowly accumulated since the epoch known 
to geologists as that of the Newer Pliocene. It has poured 
forth from its crater floods of lava, some fifteen, some twenty, 
and some thirty miles in length, and in A.D. 1669, the dreaded 
stream inundated a tract of country fourteen miles in length 
and four in breadth, spreading destruction and desolation 
around its path, and burying beneath it 400 villas and other 
habitations. The cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, likewise 
buried by the eruption of Vesuvius, the overwhelming of the 
town of Stabise in the time of Pliny, and the destruction of 
Torre del Greco in 1794, are farther instances of the effects of 
volcanic eruptions since historic times, but still more striking 
examples of these overflows can be cited. The volcano of 
Coseguina, situated in the Gulf of Fonseca in Central America, 
poured forth, in January 1835, such a mass of volcanic ashes 
and other matter as to cover the surrounding country for a 
distance of twenty-five miles to the depth of ten feet, destroy- 
ing the woods and dwellings. Sir Charles Lyell records of 
this eruption that thousands of cattle perished, their bodies 
being often found reduced to a mass of scorched flesh ; many 
birds and wild animals were found suffocated in the ashes, and 
the neighbouring streams were strewed with dead fish. This 

* See "Notes on Earthquakes," by the Author (Popular Science Review, 
Jan. 1864). 



14 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. i. 

great eruption was accompanied by an earthquake which was 
felt for a distance of more than one thousand miles. 

In Iceland, Skaptar Jokul poured forth lava for a period of 
six years. At its commencement in 1783, this eruption caused 
the death of no less than 9000 human beings out of a popula- 
tion which did not exceed 50,000 souls ; an immense number of 
cattle were also destroyed. It has been calculated by Professor 
Bischoff that the lava brought up from subterranean regions 
by this single outburst would surpass the bulk of Mont Blanc 
in magnitude. 

We have also evidence that volcanic eruptions into the sea, 
through fissures in the sea-bed, are by no means uncommon, 
though we have but little opportunity of judging of their 
effects. Islands have been raised by volcanic elevation within 
the historic period, such as the island in the Aleutian group, 
described by Langsdorff, which was elevated in 1793 to a 
height of 3000 feet. In the same year an island rose in the 
Azores ; it was about a mile in circumference and about 300 
feet above the level of the sea. It was composed of volcanic 
ashes and other light materials, and was soon washed away by 
the sea. 

Santorino, "White Island, New Burnt Island and several 
other islets in the Grecian Archipelago, are all due to sub- 
marine volcanic agency, and their elevation above the waters is 
recorded in authentic history. There are also numerous 
instances on record where the commanders of vessels have 
noted submarine eruptions as evidenced by the escape of gases 
and the destruction of marine animals. 

In the region of the Andes, active and extinct volcanoes 
alternate for many hundreds of miles, and tremendous earth- 
quakes frequently precede the different outbursts, while in 
Auvergne, Bohemia, Saxony, Iceland, we have examples, in 
European localities, of volcanoes which have become extinct since 
the period of the older Tertiary deposits. It is especially in 
Auvergne, Velay, and VrVarais that evidences of numerous 
extinct volcanoes are clearly seen. Every geologist should visit 
that picturesque and most instructive country, and a journey, 



CHAP. i.J INTRODUCTION. 15 

hammer in hand, through these provinces will convince the 
explorer of their having been the theatre of subterranean con- 
vulsions and volcanic eruptions throughout long ages, and at 
recent, as well as remote periods. In some localities the 
volcano has evidently ejected ashes and scorige after the lava 
had ceased to flow ; in others, dome-shaped masses of domite, 
such as the Puy-de-D6me, have been formed by a process 
likened by Mr. Scrope " to the effect which would be produced 
by heating a very thick soufflet pudding in a closely covered 
vessel, which it completely fills, until its intumescence forces 
it to exude through a crack or hole in the cover of the vessel, 
over which the matter, quickly congealing by exposure to the 
air, would cake into a bulky excrescence." 

Traps, Basalts, and Greenstones are other forms of igneous 
rocks. "When masses of volcanic matter are injected into 
fissures or clefts in stratified rocks, they are called trap dylces. 
Sometimes these masses are poured out over horizontal sea-beds, 
and as such are frequently found intercalated between stratified 
deposits. In such instances the strata, and volcanic overflows, 
have been often elevated together from the horizontal position 
they once occupied, and thus have the same dip and strike ; 
while occasionally vertical masses are seen to have been 
injected into fissures which cross the line of dip. Sometimes 
beds of volcanic ashes are interstratified in like manner ; they 
have been produced by volcanic explosions which have shot 
forth ashes and pumice into the air which, descending and 
falling into the sea, have gradually sunk to the bottom and 
formed sea-beds of volcanic materials often containing shells 
and other organisms. 

The term "Trap" is derived from "trappa," a word in the 
Swedish language signifying a flight of steps. This name is 
given to rocks which, on account of their extreme hardness, 
constitute flights of steps or terraces, and it is a term now very 
generally applied to dykes, and igneous rock masses, which 
have been injected, or poured out under considerable pressure 
of water. The varieties of trappean rocks are chiefly basalt, 
greenstones, trachyte, dolerite, and porphyry; but, as the 



16 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAV. i. 

names denote, they vary more in texture than in mineral com- 
position ; indeed trap dykes and rocks generally differ but 
little from modern lava, and it was years ago remarked by 
Dr. Macculloch, that " from lava to trap or basalt, and from 
them to syenite, porphyry, and granite, there, is an uninter- 
rupted succession." 

In Basalt there is a great tendency 1 to a columnar structure, 
and large masses are often seen divided into regular prisms. 
The experiments of Mr. Gregory "Watt in the laboratory, on 
fragments of a trap rock called Rowley Eag, tend to prove 
that this peculiar structure is caused by its slow and gradual 
cooling. He melted 7 cwt. of this rock, and when the stony 
mass had at length cooled down he found that it was made 
up of polygonal prisms. 

Among the most celebrated basaltic columns in this country 
are those of Staffa and lona, the Giant's Causeway on the 
northern coast of Antrim, the so-called Samson's Ribs, on 
Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh, and the Giant's Chair on the 
Glee Hills in Shropshire ; while in the Ardeche are the 
beautiful columnar ranges of the valley of Montpezat, left 
exposed to view by the eroding influences of streams which 
have cut through the lava torrent to a depth of more than 
100 feet. 

In some localities basaltic or greenstone rocks > weather 
into a globular structure. This singular structure is con- 
spicuous in the large spheroidal masses quarried in a green- 
stone dyke on the flanks of the Malvern Hills, between 
Eastnor and the Hollybush Pass. Some of the smaller 
globules have the appearance of cannon-balls made of stone. 

It is well known that Earthquake action is intimately con- 
nected with all volcanic phenomena. 

It has been stated by Mr. Mallet, one of the highest autho- 
rities on this subject, that " an earthquake in a non-volcanic 
region may be viewed as an incompleted effort to establish a 
volcano." The question what is the cause of an earthquake 
may be answered by replying that elastic fluids which are com- 
pressed far below the earth's surface are probably the principal 



CHAP, i.] INTRODUCTION. 17 

cause of earth movements. But of the chemical nature of 
these gases, and their connection with the supposed fluid 
nucleus of our globe, we know nothing. 

There are two modes of action in earthquake disturbances: 
one is the violent paroxysmal outburst, accompanied in general 
by the most awful destruction of human life ; the other is that 
which slowly upheaves and depresses whole continents. The 
imagination can hardly picture anything more fearful than the 
results of the former violent movements. Mr. Mallet and M. 
Perrey, of Dijon, have catalogued systematically the different 
accounts of earthquake phenomena, and it has been calculated 
that several millions of human beings have been destroyed by 
earthquakes within the last 4000 years. Whether they occur 
along the line of the Andes, in the Indian Archipelago, in 
Sicily, or in Portugal, " Misericordia " is the cry, and dreadful 
indeed are the devastations which are witnessed by the sur- 
vivors of such catastrophes. 

Two hundred and fifty thousand persons were killed at the 
first earthquake of Antioch, A.D. 526, and 60,000 during the 
second catastrophe, seventy-six years afterwards. In A.D. 1797, 
40,000 persons perished from earthquakes in Quito. Sir 
Charles Lyell records that 100,000 people were killed by the 
Sicilian earthquakes of 1693, when the city of Catania and forty- 
nine villages were levelled to the ground ; and during the earth- 
quake of Lisbon, in 1755, it was ascertained that 60,000 per- 
sons were destroyed in the course of six minutes. The other 
effect of the force of earthquake disturbance is seen in the 
gradual upheaval and depression of large tracts of country in 
various parts of the globe, and although this movement is in 
most cases extremely slow, and happily unattended by the 
disastrous consequences of the paroxysmal mode of action, it 
is nevertheless the cause of many of the great changes which 
are being accomplished on the surface of the earth. We know, 
however, but very little respecting these elevating and subsid- 
ing movements^ Mr. Darwin believes that from the intimate 
and complicated manner in which elevatory and eruptive forces 
are connected with volcanic phenomena, we may confidently 



18 EECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. i. 

come to the conclusion that the forces which at successive 
periods pour forth volcanic matter are identical with those 
which slowly and by little starts uplift continents. Again, Sir 
Charles Lyell, in his " Antiquity of Man," remarks, that from 
what we do know of the state of the interior of the earth, we 
must expect that the gradual expansion or contraction of diffe- 
rent portions of the planet's crust may be the result of changes 
and fluctuations in temperature, with which the existence of 
hundreds of active and thousands of extinct volcanoes is pro- 
bably connected. There are large portions of the earth's sur- 
face which have been elevated above the level of the ocean, in 
Africa, in the north of Europe, and South America,' which 
bear no signs of paroxysmal upheaval, of volcanic overflows, 
or of any other than extremely equable movements. Sir 
Roderick Murchison informs us that there are in Russia large 
areas consisting of rocks of the age of the Lower Silurian 
epoch, which have been but partially hardened since they were 
accumulated, which have never been penetrated by volcanic 
matter, and have undergone no great change or disruption 
during the enormous periods which have elapsed since their 
deposition in the bed of the Silurian seas. "With regard to 
present elevatory movements, it has been proved beyond a 
doubt that the land in Sweden and Norway is gradually being 
elevated out of the sea ; and Mr. Lament, in his " Seasons with 
the Sea-Horses," furnishes us with some remarkable evidence 
of the rapid elevation of the land around Spitzbergen, even the 
sealers observing that " the sea is going back." 

"We do not, however, need to journey to Norway or Spitz- 
bergen for proofs of the elevation of land in recent geological 
periods, for since the period of existing shells Great Britain 
has been elevated to an extent incredible to those who have 
not studied the subject. The study of the drift and gravel 
deposits of this country will convince any geologist that by far 
the larger portion of Great Britain has re-emerged from the 
sea since the commencement of the glacial period, and that its 
.emergence was gradual and slow. There are numerous in- 
stances in England, Scotland, and Ireland of nearly horizontal 



CHAP, i.] INTRODUCTION. 19 

stratified sandbanks, loose shingle, and gravel, occupying ele- 
vated positions, the appearance of which at once forbids the 
conclusion that they were hoisted up to their present position 
by any sudden paroxysmal disturbance, or by any other action 
than a series of gentle, and successive uprisings, and the gradual 
equable motion above alluded to. 

Flint weapons have been found in many localities which 
prove that England was inhabited by an ancient people who 
lived in ages long remote, before the country had been elevated 
to its present position. The beds in which these flint imple- 
ments occur are probably correlative in age to the celebrated 
drifts containing human tools in the valley of the Somme. 
Many caves containing human remains associated with those 
of extinct animals, have been greatly altered in position, and 
upheaved, since the deposition of the human weapons and the 
organic remains, while ancient land surfaces have, in other 
localities, subsided beneath the sea. Ancient canoes have 
been found near Glasgow in upheaved marine silts. Glasgow 
is an ancient habitation of the human race, and its University 
was founded on account of its " being ane notable place, 
with gude air, and plenty of provisions for human life." 
Nevertheless, in the words of Lyell, " at the time when these 
ancient vessels were navigating the waters where the city of 
Glasgow now stands, the whole of the low lands which bordered 
the present estuary of the Clyde formed the bed of a shallow 
sea." 

Ceaseless change passes upon all we know of! Every planet 
in the universe moves in space ; nebula become planets, 
planets change their condition, and physical phases, over and 
over again. The sites of our most populous cities may in 
the course of future ages become sea-beds, or Alpine summits. 
All tells of eternal change, and the indestructibility of matter. 



CHAPTER II. 

LAURENTIAN ROCKS. 

Divisions of Primary Rocks Canadian Laurentians The Eozoon Canadense 
Fundamental Gneiss of Scotland Section of Queenaig near Loch Assynt 
Plants at Inchnadamph Glacier of Glen Baile Laurentians of Cape 
Wrath Loch Eriboll, Sections at Laurentians of Ross-shire Of Wales 
near Holyhead, Bardsey Island, Anglesea, and near Caernarvon Lauren- 
tians of Malvern Dr. Holl Mr. Hugh Strickland Antiquities of Mal- 
vern Malvern Camps. 

HAVING thus alluded to the general character and com- 
position of Igneous rocks, I shall now follow the plan I have 
adopted in noting down these records. We shall take the 
rocks in ascending order, beginning with the most ancient, and 
give some account of their structure, and fossiliferous contents ; 
but as this work is principally devoted to the description of 
Physical geology, I shall endeavour to describe the localities 
where the rocks may be studied in the field, adding at the 
same time a few notes respecting certain places which may 
prove not uninteresting to the botanist, and antiquarian. 

We recognise the following divisions of Geological time as 
regards the Palaeozoic or Primary rocks. 

7. Permian. On which the Trias rest nnconformably. 

6. Carboniferous. 

5. Old Red Sandstone. 

4. Upper Silurian. 

3. Lower Silurian. 

2. Cambrian. 

1. Laurentian. Unconfonnable to the Cambrian. 

It may give some idea of the manner in which this series of 
formations occur in nature, if we append a general diagram or 



CHAP, ii.] LAURENTIAN EOCKS. 21 

section, representing no particular locality ; but merely the 
order in which the rocks appear as we proceed from the west 
to the east of our island. 

GENERAL ORDER OF THE PRIMEVAL STRATIFIED ROCKS. 




1, Laurentian. 2, Cambrians, Upper and Ijower. 3 & 4, Upper and Lower Silurians. 
5, Old Bed. 6, Carboniferous Limestone and Coal Rocks. 1, Permians. 

The Laurentian, or Basement, sedimentary deposits are 
divided into two series. 

2. Upper Laurentian or Labrador Series. 
1. Lower Laurentian. 

These are the oldest known rocks upon the Planet's surface 
which afford evidence, by their stratification, of aqueous de- 
position. 

The Laurentide Mountains of Canada are a chain of hills 
the general elevation of which does not exceed 1600 feet. 
They take their name from the River St. Lawrence, and 
underlie the entire series of stratified rocks known to the 
geologist. They consist principally of granitoid gneiss, 
hornblende, mica schists, and quartzite, with interbedded 
limestones of great thickness. They are traversed by dykes 
of volcanic rocks, such as greenstone and diorite. They attain 
a thickness of 4000 feet, and are believed to extend over an 
area of 200,000 square miles. 

The Laurentian rocks were formerly supposed to have been 
deposited before the dawn of life upon the earth, and they 
were therefore ranked as appertaining to the Azoic (or lifeless 
epoch) of geologists, but after many years of hard work and 
strict searching, Sir William Logan and Dr. Dawson of Mon- 
treal succeeded in discovering in the Laurentian limestone 
what they believe to be the fossil remains of animals belonging 



22 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. n. 

to the class Foraminifera, and closely allied, according to 
the opinion of the best authorities, such as Dr. Carpenter, 
and Mr. Rupert Jones, to Nummulina. The name of Eozoon 
Canadense has been given to these fossils, which are thus 
supposed to have been among the earliest living creatures 
on the earth. It is necessary, however, to observe that 
some microscopists, chemists, and geologists of repute, such 
as Messrs. King, and Rowney, and Professor Harkness, 
doubt altogether the existence of this fossil, and believe 
that it is merely a mineral aggregation of serpentinous and 
calcareous layers, and that the extraordinary variations it 
Bhows in size, shape, and structure, demand better proof of 
organic structure than is afforded at present. 

It is not only in America that these ancient strata are 
to be met with. Sir Roderick Murchison was the first to 
discover in Great Britain, the true geological horizon of certain 
rocks which are now generally acknowledged to be of the 
same age as the Laurentian gneiss of America. These beds 
were called by him "Fundamental gneiss" and they underlie 
Cambrian rocks which are unconformable to the gneiss. The 
best examples of Laurentian strata are to be found on the 
north-western shores of Scotland, in the capes and promon- 
tories of Ross and Sutherland, and the isles of the Hebrides. 
"This old gneiss," says Sir R. Murchison, "often occupies 
platforms of no great altitude, and for the most part con- 
stitutes low, rounded, bare hills, which resemble in outline 
the waves of a rolling sea." The basement beds of the over- 
lying and unconformable Cambrian sandstones contain pebbles 
derived from the underlying fundamental gneiss, which indicates 
that the Laurentian strata had been already altered into gneiss 
before they were denuded, broken up, and rolled into the 
pebbles now imbedded in the Cambrian deposits.* 

I have travelled on two different occasions with my friend 
Captain Price, on the north and north-west coast of Suther- 

* See Professor Archibald Geikie's "Scenery of Scotland," and the contri- 
butions of Murchison and Geikie to "Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond.," for 
details on this subject. 



CHAP. ii. LAUREXTIAN EOCKS. 23 

landshire, and there seen the Laurentian gneiss in all its 
grandeur. Ben Stack, a mountain rising to the height of 
2363 feet above the sea, is composed of these old deposits, 
which must gradually have accumulated, layer by layer, 
millions of ages ago. The best place to halt while exploring 
these old rocks, is at Inchnadamph,* near Loch Assynt. 

SECTION BETWEEN LOCH INVER AND BEN MORE. 

Iven. 

Assynt. Ben More. 




a, Laurentian Gneiss. b, Cambrians. c\ Lower Quartz Rocks. 

c 2 , Lower Limestone. c 3 , Upper Quartz. 



The section of Queenaig may be seen from the Loch Inver 
road, about three miles from Inchnadamph. At a point 
close to the road, opposite two small islands, is a roche 
moutonne'e of the old gneiss, with a portion of Eed Cambrian 
Conglomerate still adhering to it, and on the opposite side of 
the lake is a hill moutonneed and rounded like a barrow, while 
a little farther on, at a small waterfall near a bridge, volcanic 
dykes may be seen traversing and altering the old gneiss. 
Ascending the mountain of Queenaig (2673 feet high), from 
the Loch Inver road, we pass over a series of steep rocky steps, 
and find the old gneiss covered unconformably by Red Cam- 
brian Conglomerates, the pebbles consisting of rounded stones 
derived from the Laurentian gneiss beneath. Above the Cam- 
brian deposits we find stratified masses of white quartzite of 
Lower Silurian age, full of annelid or worm tubes. 

These beds cap the summit of the Auchmore peak of Queenaig. 
Nothing can be more marked than the step-like ascent, from 
the base to the summit of the hill, over these three geological 

* The simplest and best way of reaching Inchnadamph is by mail car from 
Lairg. 



24 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. n. 

formations, Laurentian, Cambrian, and Lower Silurian. The 
ascent of Queenaig on the eastern slope by the farm of Auch- 
more is easier, but the geology is more puzzling, for the Lower 
Silurian quartzite which caps the hill, dips down the slope on 
its eastern strike, and no section in the direction of Auchmore 
is to be met with without descending to the Loch Inver road. 
The spectator who ascends to the haunts of the ptarmigan, on 
Queenaig, beholds a weird and wonderful scene. He looks 




BURROWS OF ANNELIDES. 

upon low masses of rugged gneiss hills, which appear like a 
rolling sea, its waves frozen hard and fast as they rocked to 
and fro. These are interspersed with numerous lochs, and tarns, 
some glistening in the sunshine, others dark and black in 
shadow. To the westward, beyond the Minch, rise the Hebrides, 
and to the south-west the Matterhorn-like Suilven, and the 
lofty hills of Coulbeg, Canisp, and Coulmore. Everywhere 
around are ancient ice tracks, and the marks of glaciers which 
once protruded to the sea. The low, rounded, gnarled hills we 
look upon, towards Laxford, are studded with blocs perches ; 
and the " roches moutonnees " of the Alps, where the ice is but 
lately melted, are hardly plainer or more distinct. 

When last we were on the summit of Queenaig, it was on 
an evening in October ; the sun was setting brightly, a golden 
eagle floated in the air above our heads, while the snowfinch 
flickering past gave warning of approaching winter. Canisp 
and Suilven stood out like the Egyptian pyramids, to which 
Hugh Miller likened them, and we, who had examined their 
history, felt certain that their strata had been once continuous, 
stretching from peak to peak ; that they had then been eroded, 
and cut out by ice, for high up, on all, are the stria? and 



CHAP. II.] 



LAURENTIAN ROCKS. 



25 



scratches of that powerful agent, which once had so great an 
influence in moulding the hills and vales of Scotland. 

We are firmly convinced that the hollows, and gorges, must 
have been once filled by ice and snow, up to the very summits 
of the mountains, and that the land must have been occupied 

Canisp. Suilven. Coulmore. 




by them for ages. Before the commencement of this Ice- 
history, the strata on Suilven and Queenaig were continuous, 
and Loch Assynt had no existence. 

In this district too there linger some relics of those Alpine 
plants which once no doubt clothed the land. Eubus cha- 
msemorus* (the cloudberry), the food of the ptarmigan in 
Norway and Sweden, grows upon Glashven ; Dryas octopetalaf 
grows close to Inchnadamph, and Saxifraga aizoides shows its 
yellow blossoms by every rill. Still the Arctic flora on the 
west coast is not so abundant as on the hills on the north 

* Rubus chamaemorus grows in the Highlands in Wales, in Scotland, and 
Cumberland ; at the height of 300 feet in Siberia ; and in the E. and \V. of 
North America. 

f- Dryas octopetala grows in Wales, Yorkshire, and in Scotknd. It is a 
sub-Arctic plant. 



26 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. n. 

or east, owing probably to the warm influence of the Gulf 
Stream which sets in from the Atlantic. .Nowhere did we 
find the dwarf birch (Betula nana), or dwarf willow, both of 
which occur on the mountains of East Sutherlandshire, on 
Clebrig, Ben Griam, and Ben Lloyal. 

The explorer should examine Glen Baile, which lies between 
Ardoagh and Auchmore, the peaks of the mountain of 
Queenaig. From the top of this glen it is evident that one of 
the last of the glaciers in this district, a lingering relic of the 
ice that carved it out, descended to the Scourie road. The 
roches moutonnees of Cambrian Conglomerate are studded with 
blocs perches of quartzite, and a good section is also presented 
of the unconformability of the overlying Silurian quartz rocks 
to the underlying Cambrian rocks. When visiting Glen Baile 
it is necessary to avoid a bad morass, and silted-up loch, at 
the end of this glacier glen towards Auchmore. 

The range of the Laurentian or older gneiss in the Hebrides 
and North-western Highlands is very considerable. At Lewis, 
although much contorted, the real strike of the strata is across 
the island from S.E. to N.W., and not lengthways in the 
elongated shape of the island. The same history occurs in the 
country around Queenaig, for there the strike of the old 
Laurentian rocks is nearly at right angles to all the overlying 
deposits, a fact which applies also to the old gneiss of the 
Malvern Hills, which, as shown by Dr. Holl, does not run 
with the axis of the hills, but is transverse to the elongated 
axis of the range. The elongated axis itself owes its origin to 
the infiltration and subsequent upheaval of volcanic masses 
which traverse and overflow the Laurentian gneiss at right 
angles to its true strike. 

In the north of Sutherlandshire, the old gneiss occupies the 
cliffs along the western shore of the Kyle of Durness ; it has a 
grey hornblendic basis with veins of red syenite, and near the 
Ferry House on the Kyle affords good mineralogical specimens 
of asbestos and actinolite. They occur in the banks of a 
brook. 

At Cape Wrath the botanist may gather abundance of Pri- 



CHAP, ii.] LAURENTIAX ROCKS. 27 

mula Scotica* in the months of June and July. The geologist 
may mark on the summit, and western slope, the rounded 
pebbles of Cambrian Conglomerate which, themselves fragments 
of the old gneiss, overlie the basement Laurentians. 

From Cape Wrath the basement rocks may be traced as far 
as Loch Eriboll, where they are seen on the western shore in 
travelling from the ferry at Eriboll to Durness. Near the turn 
in the road also from the Kyle of Eriboll to Durness, opposite 
Whiten Head, some very striking blocs perches should be ob- 
served on the rocks. 

On the eastern side of Loch Eriboll the strata appeared to 
me thrown down along a fault where the loch now ranges, as 
the higher limestones and quartzites occur across the water. 
Here also is Eriboll House, the residence of Mr. Alexander 
Clarke, a hospitable gentleman, who is ever ready to assist 
the travelling geologist and naturalist, and, the friend of 
Sir Roderick Murchison, is well acquainted with the geo- 
logical peculiarities of the district. He knows, too, the 
haunt of Eubus arcticus, and the rare, yellow Pinguicula 
(P. alpina). 

The limestone and quartz rocks of the Durness country lie in 
a synclinal between the Laurentian rocks of Farrid Head and 
those that appear on the S.W. coast of the Loch of Eriboll, the 
limestone cave of Smoo lying also in this synclinal. From 
Durness a good section may be seen by following the Kyle up 
the river on the Scourie roadf, and we here trace the rocks as 
they rise from under each other to the summit of the pass at 
the Gwalin Inn. The Durness limestone is seen resting on 
the quartz rock of the Parph, the quartz rock overlies the 
Cambrian Conglomerate, and near the pass the gneiss appears 
below the Cambrians. The Northern Char still lingers in a 

* Primula Scotica grows also in Lapland, Norway and Sweden. 

f A capital salmon river ! Leave to fish, may be obtained from Mr. 
Murray, at Durness Inn. It flows into the Kyle of Durness from a lake near 
Ben Spionno and Fashven. It is not long since I broke a trusty salmon rod 
with a fish hooked in the pool below the bridge on the Laxford road. The 
takes of salmon and sea trout in this river, when the water is in order, are 
seldom exceeded in Scotland. 



28 EECOKDS OF THE BOCKS. [CHAP. n. 

glacial loch high up in the bare, ice-worn, glistening mountain 
of Foinaven. 

But it is not only in Sutherlandshire that the geologist may 
see the relation of the Laurentian gneiss to the overlying 
deposits. In Eoss-shire these rocks, overlaid by Cambrian 
Conglomerates and Sandstones, occur in Gareloch, on the 
eastern side of Loch Maree, and at Grabeg, on Loch Torridon, 
where they strike N.W., and pass under great mountain masses 
of Eed Cambrians. Loch Maree is the wildest of the lakes of 
Scotland, while the geologist and lover of scenery can hardly 
find quarters better adapted for exploring the old gneiss and 
the ancient deposits that overlie it, than the Kinloch Ewe. 

The junction beds of the Gneiss with the Cambrian rocks, 
may be seen on the Hasaach river, and at the base of the 
mountain Slengach. The gneiss ranges along the eastern side 
of the loch, and imbedded in it are thin layers of limestone 
which may, perhaps, yield to future investigators the remains 
of the Eozoon Canadense. This Laurentian limestone also 
occurs at Fuolith. As long ago as the year 1827, the two 
knights-errant of geology, Sedgwick and Murchison, described 
the Laurentian gneiss of Eoss-shire, as perfectly unconformable 
to the overlying Cambrians, and as separated from them by 
thick masses of conglomerate. Their observations extended 
from the neighbourhood of Cape Wrath to the southern ex- 
tremity of Applecross, and they discovered instructive junctions 
of the red sandstone with the old gneiss, between Loch Ewe 
and Gareloch. They were mistaken with respect to the aye of 
the Cambrian strata, but they defined correctly the relations 
of the rocks to each other. 

LAURENTIAN ROCKS IN WALES. 

It has long been my opinion that the crystalline rocks of the 
Isle of Anglesea and Caernarvon Bay are not simply altered 
portions of the grits and slates which form the base of the 
Cambrian rocks in the counties of Merioneth and Caernarvon. 

It does not seem possible that any chemical change 
could alter the Cambrian rocks proper into the gneiss and 



CHAP, ii.] LAURENTIAN BOCKS. 29 

schists of the South Stack lighthouse at Holyhead, or into 
the rocks of Bardsey, or those on the west coast of the 
Caernarvon peninsula. I expect that eventually it will be seen 
that all these rocks belong to a more remote age than that of 
the Cambrian formations, and that hereafter they will be classed 
as Laurentian, or at all events as Pre -Cambrian. 

Belonging, however, to the class Amateur, we have no right to 
dogmatise, and shall merely refer to certain localities in Wales 
where these old rocks may be seen, such strata being generally 
grouped as metamorphosed Cambrians. These old crystalline 
rocks may be well seen at Bardsey Island, from which point 
they run along the western coast of the peninsula nearly as 
far as Kevin. The island derives its Welsh name of Ynys 
Enlli, or the " Isle of the Eddy," from the rapid tidal current 
which renders the passage over from the mainland difficult. 
The little town of Kevin sheltered the historian Giraldus 
Cambrensis in the days of Henry II. He speaks of Bardsey as 
being " wonderful wholesome " as regards its climate, " from 
some miracle obtained by the merits of the saints, many bodies 
of whom were said to be buried there, and among them David, 
Bishop of Bangor." To the north of Kevin an igneous, granitic, 
rock is quarried, called "Pistill granite." 

The whole of the Caernarvonshire peninsula is fine ground 
both for the antiquary and the geologist. At Parwyd, 
opposite Bardsey, are magnificent precipices of rock rising 
straight from the sea to a height of 600 feet. 

The view from Yr Eifel, a mountain of trap which traverses 
Llandeilo strata and rises abruptly to the north of Kevin, is 
particularly fine. On its eastern flank are the remains of the 
early fortified town of Tre'r Caeri, considered pre-historic. On 
the south-eastern extremity of the Caernarvon peninsula, called 
Lleyn, is a patch of rocks which runs out to a point at 
Tryncilan, which has proved a geological puzzle, as nearly 
every one who has examined it holds a different opinion 
concerning its age. Sir H. de la Beche thought these beds 
were Upper Silurian ; Prof. Ramsay regarded them as Middle 
Silurian ; Mr. Salter believed them to be Lower Llandeilo; and 



30 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. n. 

lastly, the Geological Survey have determined to call them 
Cambrian, although they do not resemble the rocks on the 
opposite coast, and have no Lingula Flags overlying them. The 
crystalline rocks of Anglesea with their quartzose and felspathic 
rocks, extending in broad masses over the greater part of the 
island, were described by the late Professor Henslow in the 
year 1822. Sir E. Murchison, Professor Eamsay, and other 
geologists believe them to be altered rocks of the Cambrian 
age, but they resemble so closely the rocks of the Malverns, 
now assigned to the Laurentian age, that there is some doubt 
as to whether they are not of older date than the true 
Cambrian strata on the other side of the Menai Straits. 
Several greenstone dykes strike across the island, but some of 
these, like those at Llanberis, are probably of post-Silurian 
date. The metamorphism of the so-called Cambrian rocks of 
Anglesea appears to be connected with the intrusion of granite 
and serpentine near the southern extremity of Holyhead Island, 
for there is a large mass of serpentine, also volcanic grits and 
dykes, which appear to be interbedded with the altered strata 
and contemporaneous with them. The granite of Anglesea 
extends from the south-west coast near Llanfaelog towards the 
mountain of Bodafon, and near T-afarn-y-botal, south-west of 
Llanerchymedd, granite veins are interstratified with veins of 
gneiss, in the same manner that the syenite veins are inter- 
stratified with the old gneiss of the Malverns ; both the granite 
and gneiss appear to be the result of deep seated metamorphism. 
Sir Eoderick Murchison gives a beautiful sketch in his 
" Siluria " * of the altered and contorted strata at the South 
Stack lighthouse near Holyhead. The beds have been altered 
in one place into quartz rock ; in another into chloritic and 
mica schists ; and they are twisted and contorted in a remark- 
able manner. The promontory is famous for its scenery and 
the innumerable sea-fowl which frequent the rocks. It is 
worthy also of remark that a rare plant, Helianthemum Breweri, 
grows on Holyhead mountain and near Amlwch, Anglesea. 

* 3rd edition, p. 35. 



CHAP, ii.] LAURENTIAX ROCKS. 31 

I believe that the Twt Hill behind Caernarvon is a meta- 
morphic rock of pre-Cambrian date, as it is a stratified rock 
traversed in all directions by volcanic masses which alter the 
overlying strata ; and apparently the raetamorphism both of 
the Cambrian and Silurian rocks took place during the Lower 




CONTORTED CRYSTALLINE SCHISTS AT THE SOUTH STACK. LIGHTHOUSE, ANGLESEA, 

Silurian period, for in the neighbourhood of the Menai Straits, 
a fault occurs by which the unaltered carboniferous deposits 
are brought in against the old granitic gneiss, which we imagine 
to be pre-Cambrian, and in that district the Lower Silurian 
deposits are metamorphosed and changed. 

In South Wales a syenitic axis occurs near St. David's. The 
stratified gneiss evidently protrudes through the Cambrian 
rocks proper, and appears to be of older date. "We called the 
attention of Mr. Salter to this fact years ago, and the same 



32 EECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. n. 

opinion is held by Mr. Hicks. This rock is probably of the 
same age as the rocks of Bardsey Island. 



LAUEENTIAN KOCKS OF MALVEEN. 
[ALVERN HILLS, FROM THE WEST, NEAR EASTNOR. 




North Hill. Worcestershire Beacon. Herefordshire Beacon 

The classification of the gneiss of the Malvern Hills has 
been a subject of much discussion amongst geologists, but at 
length, after impartial inquiry and strict examination, its 
claim to be ranked as belonging to a series of such antiquity 
as the Laurentian rocks may be considered as fairly established. 
Many years elapsed, however, before this conclusion was arrived 
at. The first volume of the " Transactions of the Geological 
Society," established in 1807, contains an admirable account of 
the Mineralogy of the Malvern Hills, by Leonard Horner, Esq., 
then Secretary to the Society. He remarks upon the slaty 
structure and fissile appearance in the rocks of the range, and 
observes that they "were probably formed by successive deposi- 
tions," but he treats the masses of the hills generally, as com- 
posed of syenite, and consisting of the different minerals 
felspar, hornblende, quartz, mica, and epidote. 

Again, the Gneiss which enters so largely into the structure 
of the Malvern range, was observed by Sir R. Murchison, Prof. 
Phillips, and others, to be regularly stratified in layers, but it 
remained for Dr. Holl of Worcester, who has had much experi- 



CHAP, ii.] LAUEEXTIAN ROCKS. 33 

ence among the Laurentian deposits of Canada, and among 
rocks of the same age in the Appalachian chain, to point out 
that it is highly probable that these old gneissic rocks may date 
from Laurentian times, and that it is almost certain that they 
are older than the Cambrian rocks of the Longmynds. Many 
local geologists were long adverse to Dr. Roll's views on the 
subject ; but farther inquiry and personal investigation con- 
vinced them that the rocks which composed the Malvern range, 
were already -metamorphosed, uptilted, denuded, and formed 
into a ridge before the deposition of the Lingula flag series ; 
while the researches of the Rev. Mr. Timins, a good chemist 
and mineralogist, go far to prove that no amount of meta- 
morphism could possibly alter the Cambrian rocks as we know 
them in Wales, or the Longmynds, into crystalline rocks, such 
as those of the Malverns, or Scotland, which we term Lau- 
rentian. 

It is very probable that some of the black-looking greenstones 
of the Malvern Hills, which appear to be interbedded with the 
old gneissic stratified rocks of the range, may be Volcanic rocks 
of Laurentian age. They may be seen in places regularly 
bedded with the old gneiss, whatever may be its age, and can- 
not be separated from it, as regards contemporaneity, any more 
than we can separate the Trap, and Volcanic Ash, of Snowdon 
from the bedded strata of the Caradoc period. 

"When the geologist crosses the North Hill and the "Worcester- 
shire Beacon, he must bear in mind that they consist of various 
kinds of gneiss, traversed by trap dykes, and interbedded with 
layers of greenstone. "With these are stratified crystalline 
rocks, such as hornblende schist, mica schist, felstone syenite, 
and granite.* 

The Herefordshire Beacon presents a somewhat peculiar fea- 
ture to the geologist. On the east of the turnpike road is a 
fine excavation in the old gneiss, where the bedding may be 
well examined, as also the infiltration of a trap dyke, whereas 
on the north, at the back of Mr. Johnson's house, bedded rocks 

* Specimens of these may be seen at the Malvern Museum, at the College. 

D 



34 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CIIAV. n. 

of the age of the Upper Llandovery deposits may be seen, 
caught up among the uplifted Laurentian gneiss. 

The hammer of Dr. Holl has also been brought to bear 
along the eastern slopes of the Herefordshire Beacon, and it is 
his impression, as well as that of one who has hammered in 
his wake, that there are deposits on that slope much less 
highly metamorphosed than are the crystalline rocks of the 
Malvern axis generally, and that these deposits require farther 
investigation in order to determine their age and relation 
to the Laurentian gneiss. It is difficult to carry on these 
researches on account of the turf which covers the hill and 
conceals whatever rocks may occur. 

On the western flank of the Midsummer Hill, and on the 
adjoining Ragged Stone Hill, we obtain proofs that the rocks 
which compose the axis of the range were all of them cooled and 
crystallised before the period of the deposition of the Holly- 
bush Sandstone, which is now ascertained, from its imbedded 
fossils, to be a representative of the Upper Lingula Flags of 
Wales. This Hollybush Sandstone rests unconformably upon 
the upturned and uptilted edges of the old gneiss, as is well 
seen in the great quarry of the "White Leaved Oak ; and 
any one can trace out this evidence for himself by observing 
the saddle of Hollybush Sandstone which overlaps each side 
of the hill, and the manner in which it dips east and west 
of the ridge between the quarry and the road. Moreover, 
by going a little distance to the east of the White Leaved 
Oak quarry, and by a small cottage in a romantic glen, we 
observe that the infiltration of certain greenstones and traps 
was posterior to the general uplifting of the old gneiss, from 
the way in which its bedding has been broken through by 
the outburst of these volcanic masses. 

The fact that a long period intervened between the upheaval 
and dislocation of the Malvern axis, and the deposition of 
the Hollybush Sandstone (or Upper Lingula Flags), is plain 
enough to any observing geologist. The question is, what 
has become here of the Lower Cambrian rocks ? Our reply 
is, that in all other regions where these rocks have been 



CHAP. ii. j LAUKENTIAN EOCKS. 35 

observed, there is a general conformity between the Lower 
Cambrian deposits, and the overlying Lingula Flags, therefore 
the titter unconformity between the old gneiss at Malvern, and 
the Upper Cambrians, or Lingula Flags, of the Hollybush 
Sandstone group, implies that a long interval of time must 
have elapsed between the deposition of these distinct forma- 
tions. We may infer, consequently, that if any Lower Cambrian 
sediments were deposited upon the Laurentian gneiss, they 
must have been denuded and washed away before the depo- 
sition of the Lingula Flags or Hollybush beds. 

This is the case in Scotland. Tn Assynt, and many other 
localities westward, we have splendid masses of Cambrian rocks 
overlying the old gneiss ; but to the eastward, they thin out or 
are denuded, and quartz rocks, believed to be of the age of the 
Llandeilo series, rest upon the Laurentian gneiss. In the 
Malvern area there is evidence that great depression was going 
on between the Lower Cambrian period and that of the 
Lingula Flags which overlap the southern flanks of the hills ; 
and it is impossible to calculate the amount of denudation 
which took place during such depression. It is recorded in 
" Old Stones," that the best plan for explorers of the Lau- 
rentian rocks of the valley of the White Leaved Oak, is 
" to drive to the * Duke of York,' a village hostelrie at the 
foot of the hills on the Ledbury and Tewkesbury highway, 
and a short walk from thence across the fields will lead them 
to the valley. A little stream wanders from among the rocks 
of this narrow gorge, and on the banks the earliest violet and 
primrose may be found." 

On the left of the valley is the Chase-end Hill (or end of the 
Malvern Chase, vulgarly pronounced Keysend), and on the 
right is the now famed Eagged Stone Hill. It was on the 
summit of the "Eagged Stone" that, in 1853, Mr. Hugh 
Strickland, then Eeader in Geology at Oxford, gave his last 
lecture to an assemblage of naturalists, who gathered around 
its peak to listen to one who was ever ready with a kind word, 
and courteous hand. Now, " when the setting sun lights up 
the peaks of the ' Eagged Stone,' it shines full upon the 

D 2 



36 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. n. 

obituary window erected to his memory in the old church of 
Deerhurst, in the Severn vale, and those last rays play upon the 
words, ' To the memory of Hugh Edwin Strickland, the tribute 
of many friends.' " 

The view from the summit of the Malverns is most extensive, 
presenting also a varied series of geological formations. 
Looking westward, the different groups of the Silurian rocks 
are seen succeeding one another in due order, and passing 
upwards into the Old Red Sandstone of Herefordshire, while 
still farther in the distance may be discerned hills capped 
with mountain limestone, outliers of the Carboniferous 
system. On the south-west, the Silurian rocks again appear 
on May Hill, the flat country stretching between it and 
the Malverns being occupied by Triassic strata. Lastly, to 
the east are seen low detached hills capped with Lias, while 
farther away to the south-east rise the Oolitic hills of the 
Cotswold range. 

When the antiquarian roams with the geologist, he should 
remember with Bishop Tanner, that "Great Malvern was a 
place of great antiquity, for here, in the wild forest, was 
an hermitage, or some kind of religious house, before the 
Conquest, endowed by the gift of Edward the Confessor." 

The ancient name of Malvern was Moel-y-yarn = High Seat 
of Judgment. It is recorded that as early as A.D. 925, 
Athelstan, the grandson of King Alfred, attacked Margadad, 
the King of South "Wales, who dwelt " in Malvern, near the 
Severn, ' with very mickle folke,' and drove him with his 
weapons over the Wye, and took from them the land that lieth 
there betwixt." * 

In later years, Werstanus, Prior of the Monastery of 
Deerhurst, near Tewkesbury, is said to have founded a chapel 
at St. Ann's Well, for Leland, in his " Itinerary," records that 
" Bede maketh mention that yn his tyme there was a notable 
abbey at Deerhurst, it was destroyed by the Danes, Werstanus 
fledde thence, as it is sayde, to Malverne." Werstanus is 
supposed to have been murdered by the Welsh, and the scene 

* Laymen's "Brut." 



CHAP, ii.] LAUEEXT1AN ROCKS. ' 37 

of his violent death is represented in one of the old windows of 
the Priory Church. The date of this glass is about Edward 
VI.'s time. Leland dates the erection of Malvern Priory about 
1084. The massive Norman pillars of the church were 
probably built by Prior Aldwin, the friend and follower of 
"Wulstan the last of the Saxon bishops, who lived from the days 
of Canute, with whom he had conversed, to assist in the 
coronation of the Norman King, William Eufus. The Priory 
was an important establishment up to the time of its sup- 
pression by Henry VIII., for it was visited by Henry VII. in 
company with his queen and Prince Arthur. It was during 
the reign of Henry VII. that the greater part of the present 
church was erected. At the dissolution of monasteries and 
religious houses by Henry VIII., Latimer, then Bishop of 
Worcester, entreated the king to spare Malvern Priory, offering 
him the sum of 400 marks, and 200 marks for his secretary. 
He also pleaded the noble character of the Prior, " Toching 
prechynge, studye, with prayinge (to the which he ys much 
givyne), and hospitalyte." It was, however, given by the king 
to a Mr. William Pinnock, whose heirs sold the church for 
200Z. to the parishioners. 

The summits of the Malvern Hills were the sites of many 
ancient encampments. On the top of the Herefordshire Beacon 
are the remains of a British camp with a treble ditch, covering 
upwards of forty acres. It is supposed that it was afterwards 
occupied by the Romans, who invaded this district under 
Ostorius Scapula, A.D. 50. Some years ago many Roman coins 
were found here. Their date ranges from Diocletian to 
Maximinus Daza. My friend Mrs. Stone, of Chamber's Court, 
in this county, found some silver coins here, but as they have 
been lost I am unable to give their dates. There is not the 
least probability that, as has been supposed, this was the scene 
of the last struggle between Caractacus and Ostorius, for 
Tacitus clearly refers the geography of the spot where this 
h'ght occurred to the site of the Breiddan Hills. The Malverns 
do not at all correspond to his description. 

Another encampment, said to be Danish, is traceable on the 



33 RECOKDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. n. 

hill known as Midsummer Hill, north of the Tewkesbury and 
Ledbury high road. 

On the summit of the Worcestershire Beacon, among the 
syenitic debris, an old British drinking cup was dug up. It 
is now in the possession of Mr. Edwin Lees. 

A boss of syenitic rocks is protruded along the line of the 
Abberley Hills. It is seen only in one locality near Hartley, 
and also between Berrow Hill and King's Common. It is 
similar in character to the rocks of the Malverns, and if they 
be Laurentian this should claim the like honour of antiquity. 

Charnwood Forest is a difficult district to work out, with 
its bosses of syenite, its porphyritic ridges, and its slaty 
rocks. There is gneiss there, like the Laurentian gneiss of 
Scotland, and the strike of the rocks is S.E. by N.W., and 
altogether different from the strike of the Longmynd 
Cambrians. I was struck with this feature some years ago, 
and Dr. Holl believes in their pre-Cambrian age, and that 
they are an extension of the Malvern axis of Laurentian 
gneiss faulted to the surface by an earthquake upthrow. The 
principal upthrow is towards the S.W., and bosses of syenite 
and greenstone run from New Cliff towards Bradgate. Mount 
Sorrel is a syenitic mass, and so is Cliff Hill, and Bardon. 
In some localities there is a transition from syenitic gneiss 
to a porphyritic rock, and greenstone ; and sheets of green- 
stone have been poured over the coal measures at Snibston 
and Whitwick. The Drift of this district is interesting as 
showing that Charnwood Forest was submerged, during the 
period of the Northern Drift, and was under water when the 
quartz pebbles of those seas were deposited on the heights of 
the Cotswolds. My friend Mr. Lucy directed my attention to 
the boulders on the N.W. of Bardon Hills, and shewed me 
flints, lias, gryphites, and fragments of coral rag from Mount 
Sorrel, Beacon Hill, and Bawdou. 



CHAPTER III. 

CAMBRIAN KOCKS. 

Lower Cambrians. Seclgwick on Cambrians of Scotland Hugh Miller on 
Scenery of Assynt Cambrians of Ireland Cambrians of the Longmynds 
of St. David's, S. Wales Girald us Cambrensis, his Birthplace, &c. 
Boulder Rocks around St. David's St. David and his Preaching David 
the Second and his Pipes Cathedral of St. David Lower Cambrians of 
N. Wales Dolbadarn Castle Ramsay on Glacial Striae Glacier of Cwm 
Grainog Llyn Idwal Caernarvon Moel Tryfaen and its Drifts and 
Shells The Maenbras Glacier of Carnedd . Llewellyn Antiquities of 
Bangor and Rocks of Fossils of Lower Cambrians Upper Cambrians of 
Barmouth and Harlech, Gold Rocks of Porus's Grave Sam Helen 
Lingula Flags of Snowdon Penryhn Slate Quarries Lingula Flags of 
Shropshire, Herefordshire, and Malvern Hills Miss Margaret Lowe and 
Black Shale Trilobites Tremadoc Rocks Ramsay and Salter on near 
Portmadoc. 

CAMBRIAN VOLCANIC ROCKS. 

THERE are numerous examples in North Wales where rocks 
of the Cambrian epoch are traversed and altered by volcanic 
rocks, but as many of the greenstone dykes penetrate and 
metamorphose the overlying Silurian rocks, they can hardly be 
said to belong to the Cambrian period. 

In Merionethshire, the Cambrian rocks may be seen altered 
by porphyry and traversed by greenstone dykes in the district 
of Crawcwell, a few miles south-west of Ffestiniog, but on 
Llawllech, the long mountain range north of Barmouth, true 
beds of volcanic matter, felstone beds, and beds of ash, grey 
in colour and of every kind of hardness, are found inter- 
stratified with the hard Cambrian slate. Mr. Salter, while 
examining the gold district, found that some of the masses 
marked as greenstone in our maps are really beds of fine 



40 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

volcanic silt and felspar rocks, which pass by such insensible 
gradations into the slates which lie both above and beneath 
them, that no doubt can be entertained of their having been 
poured out as lava floods, and strewed as beds of ashes upon 
the floor of the old Cambrian sea. 

The same history occurs in the wide moory valley which 
opens towards Trawsfynydd, near the entrance to the passes of 
the Diphwys Hills. Here, among the beds of purple and 
greenish slates, are long ranges of a schistose, felspathic, rock, 
occasionally solid and crystalline, but in other beds flakey and 
mixed with the slate, and often assuming the form of that 
peculiar kind of rock which the Germans call " Schaalstein." 
This was distinguished long ago by the veteran Sedgwick as 
recomposed felspar trap. 

LOWER CAMBRIAN KOCKS. 

ORGANIC REMAINS. 



2. Upper Beds 



1. Lower Beds. 



Harlech grits. Menevian Beds 
Longmynd Rocks 



Worm tubes, &c. 
Llanberis Slates 



Conglomerates of Scotland 



Trilobites, Theca, &c. 
Palneopyge Ramsayi, 



Oldhamia, Worm bur- 



rows. 



As early as the year 1831, or 1832, the name of " Cambrian " 
was given by Professor Sedgwick to these rocks, as well as to 
many which overlie them, on account of their being found 
largely developed in Wales. The few fossils which had then 
been discovered in these formations were supposed to be the 
relics of the earliest created animals on the surface of the 
earth, but owing to the discovery of Foraminifera in the older 
Laurentian rocks, this idea must be abandoned. It has been 
already explained that the discovery in the West of Scotland 
of pebble beds at the base of the Cambrian rocks (the pebbles 
consisting of old Laurentian gneiss), together with the tm- 
conformability of the Cambrian deposits to the underlying 
Laurentians, indicates the lapse of a long intervening period. 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 41 

So again we haye evidences of a long continuance of the 
Cambrian period, in the vast thickness of sedimentary rocks 
accumulated in Shropshire to a depth of several thousand 
feet, and which are known as the rocks of the Longmynd. 

The Laurentian deposits of Great Britain are generally so 
altered, contorted, and upheaved from their original horizontal 
position, that it is sometimes difficult to realise the fact that 
the particles of which they are composed must have had the 
same history attached to them, and their rock structure, 
as that which applies to the newest sedimentary deposits we 
behold in our geological researches. But this is not the case 
with the overlying, and unconformable, Cambrian rocks ; their 
conglomerates, bedded sandstones, grits, and ancient mud 
layers changed into crystalline slates, all look as if they had 
been worn down by the action of water, had been transported 
by water, and deposited in water. There can be no mistake 
about these stratified Cambrian rocks of Sutherlandshire, of 
the Longmynds, and of Wales, for they bear in their structure 
indisputable evidences of having been deposited by the action 
of waters which denuded pre-existing land, and distributed the 
debris, and sediments, over the beds of seas, or lakes, in the 
very same manner as sediments are being deposited at the 
present moment by aqueous action. 

"We know somewhat of the effects of those aqueous and at- 
mospheric forces which act as powerful agents in changing 
the contour of the globe ; for the solid earth we live upon 
is everywhere wasted day by day, and night by night, by 
the action of the atmosphere, winds, rains, snow and frost. 
The weathered letters of an old tombstone are but the heralds 
of the decay of the tombstone itself; the air, the rains, the 
frosts, have weathered the legend that recorded the praises, or 
bemoaned the departure of some worthy of days gone by, but 
that weathering will go on until the stone itself shall have 
crumbled into dust. Water percolates into fissures upon the 
rocks of the mountain, and frost hurls enormous fragments 
down the glen, or on the glacier, while the mass that is thus 
detached from the mountain is in time distributed as mud, or 



42 EECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

gravel, or sand, over the beds of seas, estuaries, or lakes, and 
the pebble we gather upon the shore to-day, may be the relic of 
a great rock that lingered upon a glacier for years, or centuries. 
Every continent is gradually being wasted by the aqueous, 
and atmospheric forces. The sea does its slow but sure work, 
and every coast is now being wasted by the wash of waves 
along the shore ; while the action of frost and snow, rain and 
rivers, is still more marked. It has been calculated by Pro- 
fessor Geikie that denudation in the Highlands of Scotland 
proceeds at the rate of one foot in 6000 years, or 1000 feet in 
six million years, the carrying power of every river system 
depending upon the fall of the ground, the annual amount of 
the rainfall, and other circumstances. Enormous are the 
masses of sedimentary matter deposited in estuaries by such 
rivers as the Amazon, the Mississippi, and the Ganges, and 
which in future ages must be converted into land. Thousands 
of human dwellings now stand on sites where ages ago 
there rolled the waters of a sea, or lake. The vast plains 
of America, the prairies and the pampas of the wild Indian of 
the Far West, are derived from the water-worn debris which has 
been washed down from the mountain lands of the Andes and 
the Rocky Mountains ; and we may say the same of thousands 
of square miles among the plains of the Old "World. But if 
this be true of modern sediments, is it not equally true of old 
Laurentian and Cambrian rock sedimentary matter, that, as 
says the Preacher, " it hath been already of old time which was 
before us." The physical construction of the Laurentian and 
Cambrian strata had a history similar to that which modern sea- 
beds or lake-silts have now; but what of the land from whence 
they were derived ? what of the continents, and islands, the 
sea waves washed, or the rivers which rolled through them ? 
What of the animals and plants of those lands, if such there 
were ? Of these we know nothing, and perhaps never may ! 

CAMBRIAN ROCKS OF SCOTLAND. 

The Red Sandstone, which rests unconformably on a base of 
gneiss at Gareloch, in Ross-shire, and in Assynt, in Sutherland- 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 43 

shire, where it forms the insulated hills of Suilven, Coulbeg, 
and Coulmore, was considered years ago by Dr. Macculloch. to 
be but the mere fragments of a once continuous sandstone bed, 
varying from one to two thousand feet in thickness, and much 
the greater part of which had been washed away by the waves 
and cm-rents of untold ages. Hugh Miller, too, journeyed to 
Loch Inver, and, following in the wake of others, assigned to 
these red mountain rocks the geological position of the Old 
Red Sandstone. It remained for Sir E. Murchison and Mr. 
Carrick Moore to show that they were overlaid by Lower Silu- 
rian quartz rocks, and limestone, and eventually to identify 
them with the old Cambrian deposits of Wales and the Long- 
mynds, and having myself hammered in these localities, I fully 
concur in the correlation assigned. 

The red Cambrian sandstones, where not carved out or 
denuded, rise into some of the noblest mountains in Scotland. 
I have already alluded to the peculiar scenery which distin- 
guishes the aspect of the country around Queenaig, near Inchna- 
damph, the barrenness of the grey cold hills of Laurentian 
gneiss, with the multitude of tarns, and lochans, that lie in 
their dreary hollows, while at sunset few views are more strik- 
ing than the hill of Ardmore of Queenaig, rising with its red 
rocks against the sky. A closer examination convinces us 
that these accumulated strata of conglomerates, sandstones, 
and marls must have been gradually deposited, inch by inch, 
on the floor of the still older stratified but uptilted gneiss, 
as stratified sandstones, and silts, are deposited on sea-bottoms 
at the present day. These old Cambrian strata are, to all 
intents and purposes, ordinary sedimentary deposits. 

It is impossible to explore the Cambrian mountains of the 
North-west Highlands without being convinced that the cha- 
racter of Highland scenery has not been mainly determined by 
subterranean movements, but that, as Dr. Macculloch main- 
tained, erosion has removed hundreds of feet of solid rock from 
above the Laurentian gneiss, and, in other localities, from above 
the red Cambrians themselves. Waste is the agent which has 
carved out the present system of glen and mountain, valley and 



44 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. HI. 

lake. Waste by seas, and currents, long since passed away, 
waste by ice and frost, and rains and streams, in later times. 
There is little left of the effects of earthquake action, save for 
him who looks closely to the contortions and dislocation of the 
old gneiss, or to the underground movements which have 
caused faults often difficult to detect ; or the outburst of a 
volcanic dyke, splitting and altering the rocks which it 
traverses. 

The Cambrian rocks on the western shores of Loch Maree, 
in Ross-shire, rise into lofty hills, capped here and there 
by the lower quartz rocks of the Lower Silurians, the contrast 
of the snowy-white quartz giving rise to the local name of 
" Ben too leash," or the " Greyheads." There are fine sections 
to be seen in the mountains of Applecross, and on the southern 
side of Loch Torridon. 

The geologist should make himself well acquainted with the 
rocks which overlie the red Cambrian formation, as it is on 
them depend so much not only the picturesque scenery of 
the country, but also the numerous wild plants which abound 
in these northern districts. 

The Cambrians of Queenaig are covered by a Loiver Quartz 
rock (the same beds which occur at Loch Maree), with cylin- 
drical worm tubes, which long ago were regarded by Macculloch 
as organic, and numbers of which may be seen imbedded in 
the quartzite on ascending the hill from the east, beyond the 
farm of Auchmore. 

This lower quartz rock dips to the east from the summit of 
Queenaig, but the explorer will easily observe, when journey- 
ing north-westward on the Scourie road, how it dips under and 
is covered by a bed of limestone, which itself is surmounted by 
the upper quartz rock of Glashven. The rich green of the 
grass, and the numerous wild flowers, among which are Dryas 
octopetala, and Rubus saxatilis, with many ferns, such as Asple- 
nium viride, the Holly fern, and Osmunda regalis, mark at 
once the limestone dells. 

This Lower Limestone presents a noble range of rock escarp- 
ment, which rises immediately above the Lairg high road, near 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 45 

the inn at Inchnadamph. In this neighbourhood there are 
also limestone caves, and by following the course of a rushing 
stream, a junction may be seen of the limestone with the 
Upper Quartz rock, which rises in great thickness to the summit 
of Ben More, where, near the peak, it is overflowed by a 
greenstone dyke. The upper quartz rock, with the underlying 
limestone, and lower quartz rock of Queenaig, are believed 
to be about the age of the Llandeilo formations of Wales, 
and form the greater proportion of the highest hills in the 
country, such as Glashven, Ben More, and Ben Hie. In 
this upper quartz rock occur, however, two intercalated bands 
of limestone, and I am of opinion that the marble quarries near 
Ledbeg, on the road to Lairg, constitute a higher series of 
strata than the lower limestone near Inchnadamph. A 
similar history attaches to the strata on the shores of Loch 
Eriboll. Here the beds thin out on their eastern strike, 
but the succession is well displayed, and I was thoroughly 
convinced of the occurrence of two bands of limestone on the 
hills of upper quartz to the east of Eriboll House. Here also 
the upper quartz rock forms, on the west, the high mountain 
ranges of the Eeay Forest, and the noble hill of Fronven, 
while on the hill of Eriboll, and between Loch Eriboll and 
Loch Hope, we find that it is covered by an upper gneiss, 
which diifers entirely in its mineralogical character from the 
old Laurentian gneiss. The gneiss of the Moin, of Ben Hope, 
and of the east coast generally, is a far more micaceous deposit 
than the old gneiss of Cape Wrath, and Assynt ; and as regards 
their stratigraphical relations, they must be separated by some 
thousands of feet of intercalated deposits. One of the rarest 
British plants, Alsine rubella, grows on Ben Hope. It is 
eminently an Arctic plant, abundant in Lapland, but in all 
Great Britain it is only known on this wild hill in Sutherland- 
shire, and on Ben Lawers on the north shore of Loch Tay. 

If we were to sink a shaft on the top of Ben Hope, the 
great hill east of Eriboll, and west of Tongue, we should expect 
to find the upper gneiss (which is probably the representative 
of some Lower Silurian strata, perhaps Caradoc) underlaid 



46 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. nr. 

by the upper quartz rock of the summit of Ben More, and 
many other mountains to the west ; in these quartzites would 
occur the intercalated limestone bands of the Smoo caves near 
Durness, those of Inchnadamph, and the upper beds of Ledbeg ; 
while below these again would be the lower quartz which caps 
Queenaig, Suilven, Canisp, and the fine hills of Assynt. 
Sinking down through this lower quartzite, we should find the 
red Cambrian conglomerates and sandstones, which form so 
striking a feature in many of the mountains of Eoss-shire ; 
and at length below these again, the old Laurentian gneiss, 
grey, twisted, and contorted.* 

It is not long since we stood upon an old roche mou- 
tonnee close by that wild loch of Assynt, and read these 
words of one, who some years before directed our attention 
to a scene which must ever be a most striking one to 
the physical geologist who has learned to read its history. 
In the following words Hugh Miller describes the scenery ! 
" In looking up the dark narrow lake which takes its name 
from the district, we see the broad bases and naked storm riven 
summits of Ben More, and the neighbouring mountain 
Glashven, forming the background of the landscape. The 
ancient castle of Ardvorak, and the old mansion-house of 
Eddrachalda, both broken and roofless ruins, situated within 
a few hundred yards of each other, the one shattered by 
lightning, the other scathed by fire, comprise from one 
interesting point of view the only human dwellings visible 
in the prospect; solitude broods around, the distant hills, 
bald, verdureless, and hoary, seem the hills of a worn-out 
desolate planet, and harmonise well with the deserted ruins 
and the dark lonely lake beneath ; and altogether so impressive 
and unique is the scene, that, when I first looked upon it 
through the lurid haze of a stormy evening, it seemed sug- 
gestive of universal death and extinction, the lifeless old age 
of creation." 
As we read this, the mail car rattled past from Lairg to 

* Captain Price, M.P., found stratified sand and gravel on the summit of 
Ben Hope. 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 47 

Loch. Inver, with its postage, and telegrams, and it struck 
us how " little this earth with age is wan," when so full of 
the life and civilisation that now penetrates even to the shores 
of Assynt. Probably the great geologist's thoughts, on the 
scene, might have been more appropriate if they had been 
concentrated on those dawn days of the planet's history, when 
the waves of the Lower Silurian seas were washing the sand 
which now constitutes the quartzite of those strata which cap 
the peaks of Ben More, and Glashven. 

CAMBRIAN ROCKS OF IRELAND. 

The geology of Ireland does not lie within the scope of these 
notes, but as so strict a search for organic remains is now going 
on amongst the Cambrian deposits, it may be well to observe 
that large rock masses in the northern part of the county of 
"Wicklow; in the Hill of Howth; in county Dublin ; and in 
the mountain-district of South Wexford, are believed to be- 
long to the Lower Cambrian age. A few fossils have been 
detected, consisting of two or perhaps three species of what is 
supposed to be a Bryozoon, named Oldhamia by Prof. E. 
Forbes, after Prof. Oldliam ; a fossil -lobe-worm burrow, show- 
ing marks of the tentacles (Histioderma Hibernicum) ; and 
lastly, worm-tracks similar to those discovered in the rocks of 
the Longmynd. 

CAMBRIAN ROCKS OF THE LONGMYND HILLS. 

The rocks of the Longmynd Hills have long been celebrated 
as typical of the Cambrian series of strata, and the equivalents 
of the Harlech, Llanberris, Bangor, and other Cambrian forma- 
tions in Wales. The hills rise, between Ludlow and Shrews- 
bury, to a height of 1600 feet, and, in the sections of the geolo- 
gical surveyors, Mr. Aveline reckons that the strata of which 
they are composed attain a thickness of 23,000 feet. 

Near Church Stretton, which is the best locality from whence 
to visit the Longmynds, the basement or bottom rocks of the 
series may be seen traversed by greenstone dykes, and we may 



48 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAT. in. 

follow the beds in ascending order, by the Light Spout Water- 
fall, Portway, and Ratlinghope, till we arrive at the Stiper 
Stones, between which and Ratlinghope the Lingula Flags set in. 
The Longraynd beds appeared at first to be most unpromising 
ground for the discovery of organic remains, but in the year 




VIEW OF THE LONGMVNDS FROM NEAR CHURCH STRETTON. 

1846, Mr. Salter, the well-known paleontologist, determined to 
devote a month to making researches in these old beds, and 
before a week was gone he detected worm-burrows in sand- 
stone, red slate, grey schist, in fact, in every variety of rock 
excepting in the fine shales at the bottom, and in the coarse 
red grits at the top. He was thus fortunate enough to find 
both limestone bands, and relics of animal life, in the old 
Cambrian strata. At Callow Hill, Little Stretton, he disco- 
vered what he believed to be the remains of a crustacean (Pa- 
Iseopyge Ramsayi). He found also the fossilised burrows of 
marine worms (Arenicolites), in several localities, at Oakham 
Dingle, at the Light Spout Waterfall above Church Stretton, 
and on the west side of Yearling Hill, where, besides these 
organic remains, he discovered many interesting witnesses of the 
atmospheric agencies at work, at this vastly remote period of 
our planet's history, in shore deposits with suncracks, wave 
marks, and rain drops, thus recording the direction of the 
wind. 

Much doubt has been thrown upon the supposed crustacean, 
Palsopyge Ramsayi, mentioned above, but as five or six 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAX ROCKS. 49 

specimens were found in a limited locality, Mr. Salter never 
surrendered their claim, to be considered as casts of some 
crustacean. 

No beds of lava lie among the Longmynd Hills, but small 
dykes and protrusions of greenstone occur here and there. 
The rocks yield a little copper. 

The Cambrian beds of the Longmynds are continued into the 
smaller ,range of the Haughmond Hills near Shrewsbury, and 
the exudation of mineral pitch or bitumen from these old rocks 
is very remarkable. "Whence is it derived ? Are the rocks 
charged with animal oil derived from millions of worms, as the 
bituminous schist of Caithness, and the Alpine schists of 
Seefeld, owe their bitumen to the extinct remains of countless 
numbers of fish, or is it, according to M. Abich, a volcanic 
compound " engendered in the interior of the globe ? " 

CAMBRIAN ROCKS OF ST. DAVID'S. 

Cambrian rocks, resembling those of North Wales and of the 
Longmynds in Shropshire, were detected by Prof. Sedgwick and 
Sir R. Murchison in Whitesand Bay, near St. David's, in Pem- 
brokeshire, many years ago. They are also exposed in the 
northern cliffs of St. Bride's Bay, at the northern end of the 
Newgale Sands, and at Caerfai, and from thence they range 
inland. 

I had the advantage of visiting the sections of St. David's 
in company with my friend the Rev. H. Winwood, under the 
guidance of Dr. Hicks, who has done so much to elucidate 
the difficult geology of this district, and it was on this 
occasion that I observed that the so-called Syenite, and 
interbedded greenstone, formed an axial ridge, older than the 
overlying Cambrians. These are the. rocks which may prove 
to be an extension of the quartziferous breccias and crystalline 
rocks of the Caernarvon peninsula, and may belong, therefore, 
to a pre-Cambrian age. 

The order of the rocks as determined by Dr. Hicks is as 
follows : 



50 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

Feet. 
8. Menevian rocks, with Paradoxides and many trilobites and 

their fossils ........ 550 

7 Grey flaggy beds 150 

6. Grey, purple, and red flaggy beds, with the large trilobite 

Paradoxides 1500 

5. Yellowish grey sandstones, with the genera Plutonia, Cono- 

coryphe, Agnostus, and Theca 150 

4. Red flaggy beds, with Lingulella and Leperditia . . . 50 

3. Greenish sandstones 400 

2. Conglomerates of quartz in purple matrix . . . . 60 

1. Axial ridge of greenish hornstone and syenitic breccia with 
bedded greenstones 

The discovery of a Fauna rich in crustaceans in Lower 
Cambrian deposits is very important, as these formations 
in the Longmynds, and in North Wales, had been looked upon 
as nearly barren in fossils. In the rocks of St. David's no 
less than four distinct species of that fine trilobite, Paradoxides, 
have been discovered, a genus also found in Bohemia in the 
lowest strata of the primordial zone of M. Barrande. 

It has been argued by no less an authority than Prof. 
Kamsay, of the Geological Survey, that the red colour in rocks, 
due to peroxide of iron, which encrusts the sedimentary grains- 
as a thin pellicle, could not have been deposited in an open 
sea, but rather in an inland salt lake, or lakes. 

This red peroxide colours the Cambrian, Old Red Sand- 
stone, Permian, and Triassic rocks, and is believed by some 
geologists to have been deposited in inland waters, salt or fresh. 
It has also been said that the Cambrian formations were 
probably fresh water deposits. It is difficult, however, to 
accept these propositions, after examining the red beds (No. 4) 
at St. David's Promontory, which contain Lingulas and Le- 
perditia, besides which, the Trilobites, Conocoryphe Lyellii, 
and the Paradoxides, have both been found in purple beds, 
and surely Trilobites were marine animals and not fresh water. 
As for the supposition that the fossils of St. David's are 
found only in grey beds, which may mark occasional influxes of 
the sea due to oscillations of level, it was contradicted by 
the display of a series of fossils by Dr. Hicks, at the meeting 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 51 

of the Geological Society, May 10, 1871, when numbers of the 
marine fossils were seen to have been derived from the red 
beds of the Cambrians of St. David's. 

It is very difficult to separate the upper beds of the Cambrian 
series of St. David's from the Lower Lingula Flags. Dr. Hicks 
is of opinion that the absence of the trilobitic genus, Olenus, 
from the Menevian group, and its occurrence throughout the 
whole of the Lingula Flags, and the Tremadoc rocks, together 
with the fact that, as far as present observations have been 
made, no genus of Paradoxides ranges higher than the 
Menevian group, have afforded good palseontological grounds 
for placing the line of demarcation between the Upper and 
Lower Cambrians at this point, and for including the Menevian 
group in the Lower Cambrian series, to the bulk of which it is 
intimately connected palseontologicalty (See Geol. Mag. 3 July, 
1871). 

The best sections to visit are those at Caerbuddy, Porth-y- 
Ehaw, and Craclli. At Porth-y-Ehaw Dr. Hicks pointed out 
to us a fine Paradoxides, as large as a fair sized lobster, 
lying in situ in the rocks along the coast. The modern lobster 
is also found in abundance along this shore. 

"We must not omit to direct attention to the interbedded tuff, 
and lavas, which may be seen intercalated in the strata on 
the east side of Porth-y-Rhaw harbour, near the beautiful 
village of Solva. In some places the rocks below the volcanic 
matter are altered by the overflowing of the lava beds, but 
these having cooled, the deposition of sediment went on above 
them and these overlying sediments are unaltered. 

East of Porth-y-Rhaw are the Newgale Sands, " at which 
place," says Giraldus Cambrensis, "during the winter that King 
Henry the Second spent in Ireland, a very remarkable cir- 
cumstance occurred. The sandy shores of South Wales being 
laid bare by the extraordinary violence of a storm, the surface 
of the earth, which had been covered for many ages, reappeared, 
and discovered the trunks of trees cut off, standing in the very 
sea itself, the strokes of the hatchet appearing as if made only 
yesterday ; the soil was very black, and the wood like ebony." 

E 2 



52 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP, in, 

This submerged forest, which is also alluded to in Gibson's 
" Camden " (p. G35), was again partially laid bare during the 
Avinter of 1866, and Mr. Hicks informed me that he had 
obtained from it at Whitesand Bay, the antlers of a large 
deer. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, the celebrated preacher, scholar, and 
divine, whose Itinerary, or description of Wales, is often alluded 
to in this work, was born at the castle of Manorbeer, near 
Tenby in Pembrokeshire, in 1150. His father was "William 
de Barri, who probably came to England with the Conqueror. 
His mother was Angarad, daughter of Nest, who was daughter 
of Ehys ap Teudyr, Prince of South Wales, slain in a battle 
with the Normans in the year 1090. Giraldus Cambrensis 
was appointed Legate in Wales by Eichard, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, in 1175, and was shortly afterwards ordained 
Archdeacon of Brecknock. In 1185, he went with Prince 
John to Ireland as his Preceptor, and in 1188, he accompanied 
Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury (born at Exeter) on his 
journey, preaching the Crusades through Wales. His noble 
and princely lineage proved a bar to his appointment to the 
Bishopric of St. David's, although he was several times 
elected, and he made repeated journeys to the Papal court 
at Eome, in order to induce the Pope to sanction his election 
to the see. He passed the last seventeen years of his life 
as a recluse in Wales, revising his works. He died at St. 
David's in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and was there 
buried in the cathedral. 

At Porth-y-Ehaw, the geologist should not fail to visit 
the section to the west of St. David's, where the Lingula 
Flags are partially exposed ; but a still better view can be 
obtained of them by sailing round the Isle of Eamsey. It 
is a " trough," say Salter and Hicks (Eep. to Brit. Assoc.), 
a hard rim of Lingula Flag, enclosing Tremadoc, and Arenig 
(or Lower Llandeilo) rocks. 

St. David's itself stands on a range of felspathic rock, 
marked as syenite by the Geological Survey, but which consists 
of a grey band with pale crystals of felspar. There is a 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN KOCKS. 5& 

section a little north-west of St. David's, where the red grits 
of the Cambrians, which are exposed on the west of the 
little brook, are altered by a Trap rock. In fact, at St. 
David's, at Ramsey Island, and at St. Bride's Bay, igneous 
rocks are seen in contact with Cambrian deposits of the age 
of the Longmynd rocks. The Vernal Squill (Scilla verna) and 
the beautiful maiden-hair fern, are found growing on these 
volcanic rocks, near their junction with the Cambrians. Again, 
to the south of St. David's, a mass of volcanic rocks traverses 
Cambrian strata which trend from a point to the south of 
St. Elve's, near Brawdy, towards Trafgarn. The Brawdy 
rocks are granitic, and may be seen in roadside sections in 
contact with the true Cambrian slates and grits. 

Few places are more striking than the isolated and retired 
situation of the Cathedral Church of St. David's. " Menevia," 
says Giraldus Cambrensis, " is situated on a most remote 
corner of land upon the Irish Ocean, the soil stony and 
barren, neither clothed with woods, distinguished by rivers, 
uor adorned by meadows." Yet in days gone by, such was 
the devotion to its Cathedral, that it was esteemed as meri- 
torious to visit St. David's twice, as it was to visit Rome 
once. "Roma semel quantum bis dat Menevia tantum." 
Stony no doubt it was in the days of Giraldus, for until of 
late years, the country round was actually covered by trap 
boulders, transported from the adjacent rocky hills which 
run from St. David's across the country to the Precelly Hills. 
These boulders were formerly scattered all over the district, 
as I learn from Mr. Davis of Trewarren, who remembers 
their great abundance before they were used in building walls, 
and before the country was as much cleared as it is at present 
My opinion is that these boulders are all local, and have 
travelled over a slope of ice and snow which once reached 
from the Trap Hills of Precelly down to the sea. 

Giraldus gives farther details respecting St. David's. He 
says that " Dubritius of Caerleon, sensible of the infirmities 
of age," resigned his honours to David, who is said to have 
been uncle to King Arthur, and by his interest the see was 



54 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

translated to Menevia, although Caerleon was much better 
adapted for the episcopal see. 

David was remarkable for his sanctity and religion, and 
among the many miracles recorded of him three appeared to 
Giraldus "most worthy of admiration, his origin and con- 
ception, his pre-election thirty years before his birth, and what 
exceeds all, the sudden rising of the ground at Brevy under his 
feet while preaching, to the great astonishment of all the be- 
holders." From the time of David to that of King Henry I. 
there were numerous archbishops and bishops who presided 
over the see, of whom one "Morgenan," the first Bishop of 
St. David's who ate flesh, was there killed by pirates. He ap- 
peared to a certain bishop in Ireland on the night of his death, 
showing his wounds, and saying, "Because I ate meat, I am 
made meat." " The spot where the church of St. David's is 
built, is called the Vale of Roses, which ought rather to be 
named the Yale of Marble, since it abounds with one and by no 
means with the other." Giraldus also describes the visit of 
Henry II. on his return from Ireland, and his passing over a 
stone polished by continual treading of the passengers ; how 
he proceeded " towards the shrine of St. David, habited like a 
pilgrim, and leaning on a staff, he met at the White Gate a 
procession of canons of the church coming forth to receive 
him with due honour and reverence. The King supped at 
St. David's, and then departed for the Castle of Haverford, 
distant about twelve miles." It appeared very remarkable to 
Giraldus " that when David the Second presided over the see, 
the river should have flowed with wine, and that the spring 
called Pistyll Dewi, or the pipe of David, from its flowing 
through a pipe into the eastern side of the churchyard, should 
have ran with milk." 

The Cathedral is built principally of Cambrian sandstone which 
has weathered a good deal In the chancel is the tomb of Ed- 
mund Earl of Richmond, father of King Henry VII., and a monu- 
ment to Rhys-ap-Gruffydd, the Prince of South Wales, who as we 
shall presently see showed great hospitality to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and Giraldus Cambrensis, and died in 119G. 



CHAP. III.] 



CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 



5o 



LOWER CAMBRIAN ROCKS OF NORTH WALES. 

The Cambrian rocks of Llanberis, Dolbadarn, and Kant 
Francon are supposed with good reason to be the equivalents of 
the Longmynds in Shropshire, and of the series at St. David's in 
Pembrokeshire, with which they were doubtless once continuous. 




S, FROM THE LOWER LAKE. 



By tracing up the sections we find near Dolgelly, Menevian 
beds containing Paradoxides, and we pass on into the overlying 
strata which belong to the period of the Lingula Flags. 
Llanberis is an admirable locality for the physical geologist 
who intends to examine the Cambrian formations of North 
Wales, and the antiquarian also will find many interesting 
records of days gone by in the ruined castles and noted places 
of the neighbourhood. The old castle of Dolbadarn is a ruin 



56 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [< HAP. in. 

worthy of the ancient rocks on which it stands, for it is believed, 
on good authority, to have been built by Cambrians as early 
as the eighth or ninth century. It fell into the hands of Owen 
Glyndwr during his warfare against the English, and during 
the reigns of Henry IV., and Henry V., it was at one time in 
their possession, and was then again retaken by the Welsh. It 
had already become a ruin in the time of Henry VIII., for when 
Leland visited Llanberis he describes Dolbadarn as only 
possessing " a pece of a tour, where Owen Gough, brother to 
Llewellyn, first prince, was in prisn." We here see the Cam- 
brian conglomerates and slates which form the basement rocks 
of Snowdon, ranging on both sides of this old castle of Dol- 
badarn. The rocks in the upper beds consist of greenish grey 
grits, underneath which lie the purple slates of the Llanberis 
quarries, and these again pass downwards into the conglo- 
merates of Llyn Padarn, which themselves abut against the 
porphyritic rock of Llanllyfni. Near the copper mine above 
the lake Llyn Peris, " close to the small octagonal building 
marked ' office ' on the Ordnance Map," Professor Ramsay* 
directs attention to "a glaciated surface of hard Cambrian grit, 
and striations running down the valley, as fresh as if the ice 
had but lately disappeared." 

The Lower Cambrian beds are traversed by porphyritic quartz 
rock which may be seen at Llyn Padarn, and again at Moel 
Gronw, where a porphyry appears to have been injected over, 
and to be interbedded with, the Cambrian strata, in the same 
manner that the Basalts of Auvergne sometimes overlie and 
are interbedded with strata containing the remains of fresh 
water plants and animals. 

The best sections are in the passes of Llanberis and Nant 
Francon, the latter, which is on the Ogwen, between Nant 
Francon (the Beaver's Glen) and Bangor, is more simple and 
more easy to work out than the Llanberis sections. The walk 
from Cwm-grainog to the neighbourhood of Llyn Coron, 
across the Penrhyn slate quarries, furnishes a section from the 
Cambrians of these quarries to the base of the Bala beds. The 

* "Ancient Glaciers of TVales." 



CHAP, in.] . CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 57 

reading off of these faults is excellent practice for the physical 
geologist. These celebrated slate quarries of Penryhn are 
among the wonders of North Wales, and they yield an annual 
average of 120,000 tons of slate. 

At Cwm Grainog (the Stony Valley) we see the relics of a 
small glacier, and we also find another instance of these 
remains at Cwm Bochlwyd, under the Glyder-fawr. Here, 
too, is a romantic tarn containing the Torgoch, or Welsh char. 
There is a fine moraine at the upper end of the Tarn with 
well-marked roches moutonnees, and in the glen are several 
blocs perches. 

The relics of former glaciers are very striking round Llyn 
Idwal, and the range of the Glyder precipices are among the 
most remarkable in Snowdonia. Roscoe describes Trifaen, the 
northern spur of the Glyder-fawr, as like " some huge monster 
with human aspect strangely distorted, scowling upon the 
Carnedd y Gwynt, or Hill of Storms." 

Llyn Idwal itself is said to have been the scene of the 
murder of Idwal, one of the princes of North Wales, who 
was flung over the precipice, his death-shriek and yell of 
mortal agony still ringing in the thunder storms which so 
often rage round the bold rocks which rise precipitously above 
the loch. 

It was down the old glacier track of Llyn Idwal that I was 
led, some years ago, by William Williams, the once celebrated 
botanical guide of Snowdon, and on the precipices of the 
Glyder I saw him gather two specimens of the rare Spider- 
wort (Anthericum serotinum). 

The town and neighbourhood of Caernarvon present points 
of great interest both to the antiquarian and to the geologist. 
The town is a place of great historical interest, and was 
very early distinguished in the ancient annals of Wales. 
The Horn an Segontium stood at Llanbeblig, about half 
a mile from Caernarvon, on the Beddgelert road. It was 
a stronghold of great celebrity, and occupied a space of 
about seven acres. It is mentioned by Antoninus in his 
Itinerary, and is said to have been the birthplace of Con- 



,18 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. nr. 

stantine the Great. Numerous Koman relics, such as coins, 
tiles, and portions of a hypocaust, have been excavated on 
the site of Segontium. 

Caer Seiont was the old British name for Caernarvon, but 
the place had assumed its present title in the days of Henry II., 
for Giraldus Cambrensis speaks of "having passed through 
Caernarvon, that is the Castle of Arvou, the province opposite 
to Mon, because it is so situated with respect to the island of 
Mona " ( Anglesea). 

For the geologist, one of the most interesting features in this 
district will be Moel Tryfaen, with the Cambrian rocks under- 
lying the Boulder drift on its summit. 

It was on a glorious summer morning in 1863 that I set out 
from Caernarvon, with Sir Charles Lyell, to examine these 
Cambrian rocks, and to search for the Boulder drift which had 
been discovered on Moel Tryfaen, in 1831, by Mr. Trimmer, and 
in which he had found specimens of fossil shells. We first pro- 
ceeded to Nantle, where we examined the quarrying and mining 
of Cambrian slates. There is also a slate quarry on the southern 
side, near the summit of Moel Tryfaen, which is spoiled by a 
Trap dyke. The rocks on the summit of the hill are Cambrian 
conglomerates, caught up amongst traps and volcanic rocks, 
and thus elevated to the surface. The conglomerates lie at the 
base of the Cambrian slates. 

The Alexandra Mining Company had opened a section 
thirty-five feet deep in the drift near the summit of the hill on 
the north side, and we thus had a fine opportunity of seeing a 
splendid section of drift, well stratified, resting on vertical 
Cambrian slates, and containing in the lower gravel beds large 
boulders of transported rocks, glacially polished, striated, and 
scratched. We collected several nearly perfect specimens of 
fossil shells from the drift in situ, and obtained others from 
the workmen ; while Mr. Darbishire has formed a collection of 
no less than fifty-four species of shells from this elevated drift. 
Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys determined that all these Mollusca are now 
living in British and northern seas. The highest level of the 
shell- bearing drift is 1360 feet. 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 69 

Sir Charles Lyell* alludes to the unusual preservation of 
shells in porous drift, like that of Moel Tryfaen, and to the 
suggestion of Mr. Darbishire, that, they were preserved by a 
clay bed, one foot nine inches in thickness, which underlies the 
surface soil, and by its impermeable nature protects the drift 
with the shells. I would particularly recommend this pan of 
clay to the attention of future explorers ! We attributed its 
existence to the effect of land ice and snow, which swept down 
lor a long period from the higher hills around, and deposited 
the clay over the upraised sea bottom. There are also 
numerous fragments of local rocks scattered among the surface 
soil of Moel Tryfaen, local boulders, in fact, overlying the clay 
band, and which were also, I imagine, transported to the places 
they now occupy by the aid of the land ice and snow, which, in 
all probability, covered the whole of this district for many a 
long year after Moel Tryfaen with its marine drifts had been 
elevated to its present height. These boulders are very dif- 
ferent from those deposited at the base of the gravels and 
sands ; for these latter lie in a mass of boulder clay, and 
consist of large grooved and rubbed boulders. They are for 
the most part erratics from a distance, and not local boulders 
from the hills around. Among them we saw a black mass of 
basalt, which I believe must have travelled all the way from 
Ireland, with granite from Scotland, or Cumberland, and a 
dark porphyritic rock that does not belong to Wales, as far as 
I know. 

Nowhere do we possess more undeniable evidence of the sub- 
mergence of large portions of Great Britain beneath the glacial 
seas than among, and around, those old Cambrian rocks of 
which we have been treating. Glacial drift with erratic 
boulders, and containing marine shells, is elevated to the height 
of more than 2000 feet in some localities on the flanks of the 
mountains. These shells are all of existing species, many of 
them identical with those living in our seas, mingled with 
others of more northern habitats, and which frequent seas of 
colder temperature. Such are the drifts on Moel Tryfaen, five 

* " Antiquity of Man," p. 528 (3rJ eel.) 



60 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

miles east of Caernarvon, which occupy a height of nearly 1400 
feet ; and the drifts around the Maenbras, and its companion 
local erratics, which rest on drift with shells, and Avhich 
may be seen near the little lake Ffynnon-y-gwas, two miles 
west of the peak of Snowdon. 

These drifts also lie on the westward flanks of Carnedd 
Dafydd, and Carnedd Llewellyn, and they rest on those upheaved 
mountains at a height of more than 2000 feet. 

No one should visit this interesting district without being 
accompanied by Prof. Ramsay's " Ancient Glaciers of Wales." 
With this as a guide it is impossible to avoid arriving at the 
conclusions so admirably worked out by the Professor. Many 
a long summer's day have we spent in tracing out the proofs he 
has brought forward : first, of the submergence of this moun- 
tain land, and the deposition in its valleys, and depressions, 
during the period of its submergence, of drift containing marine 
shells. These drift deposits rest on boulder clays, and large 
foreign erratics, probably stranded by icebergs. Then we have 
evidence of the elevation of land to its present height above the 
sea, and with the elevation of land came the elevation of the 
drifts. Again, since the land was upraised to its present posi- 
tion, there are proofs that large glaciers swept down the vales, 
and ploughed out the drift and its marine* shells ; but leaving 
here and there patches and outliers of it, to certify of its former 
existence. There is a splendid example of these occurrences at 
Cwm Llofai, on the western side of Carnedd Llewellyn ; and 
another between the hills of Yr Elen, and Mynydd-die, where 
a small glacier, two miles in length, has ploughed out a long 
narrow hollow in the drift. There is also proof that the great 
glaciers became gradually reduced in size and were succeeded 
by smaller glaciers. 

This is but a poor and brief resume of the glacial wonders to 
be seen among these rocks of Cambria, but words cannot 
depict the history ! The records themselves must be studied 
on the hill side, by the lake, by the stream, and in the glen. 

Bangor. Leland, from the chronicle of John Harding, 
states that Condage, a British prince, erected a temple at 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 61 

Bangor, which he dedicated to Minerva. The historian Cressy 
places the date of the Cathedral in 516, and informs us that 
St. Deiniol was the first bishop. The cathedral was destroyed 
by the Normans in 1071, but was soon rebuilt, for Giraldus 
Cambrensis mentions that Archbishop Baldwin and his 
followers " were entertained by the bishop of the diocese " in 
1187. When King John invaded "Wales, A.D. 1210, he made 
the bishop, Robert of Shrewsbury, pay a fine of 200 hawks; 
which hawks, or peregrine falcons, the bishop is supposed to 
have obtained from Stackpole rocks, near Pembroke. 

Owen Glyndwr destroyed the cathedral again in 1402, and 
for ninety years it lay in ruins, after which time the present 
edifice was raised, built principally of the perpendicular work 
of the 16th century. 

Bangor is near at hand to some of the finest scenery in 
North Wales, and it is a good place whence to make excursions 
and examine Cambrian sections. 

To the west of the Penrhyn Arms, at Bangor, are altered 
Cambrian rocks, consisting of green and purple grits, con- 
glomerates and slates, closely resembling the lower beds of 
the Longmynds, near Church Stretton, and they rise from 
underneath strata containing fossils. These metamorphosed 
Cambrians are not, however, in the least like the metamorphic 
rocks of Holyhead. 

The Bangor rocks were long ago correlated with the Long- 
mynd rocks by Prof. Sedgwick, and some of the slaty beds at 
Perfeddgoed are very like those slaty rocks, over the Channel, 
at Bray Head, in Ireland, which contain the supposed Bryozoon, 
Oldhamia antiqua. Years ago, when geologizing with my 
friend, the Rev. Reginald Hill, over this district, we were 
struck with the mineralogical similarity between some of these 
greenish and purple Bangor beds and an Oldhamia slab from 
Bray Head, which I had with me. 

North of the Ogwen, near Llanllechia, is a section which 
displays the rocks in ascending order, from the conglomerates 
at the base to the Lingula Flags, near Bethesda. "Worm tubes 
occur in the sandstones of Mocl-y-ci. 



62 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 



FOSSILS OF THE LOWER CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 

Formerly the Oldhamia of Ireland, some burrowing worms, 
(Histioderma), and the crustacean Palseopyge Bamsayi, consti- 
tuted the whole of the organic remains found in the Lower 
Cambrian deposits. Now, thanks to the discoveries of Dr. 
Hicks, in Pembrokeshire, the equivalents of the Harlech grits 
have yielded highly organised trilobites, such as the Plutonia, 
and Paradoxides. Altogether a rich fauna of trilobites, 
brachiopods, phyllopods, and pteropods, has been discovered, 
showing that the Cambrian seas, once considered azoic, or life- 
less, nourished many animals of by no means a low state of 
organization. 

. The Menevian beds which pass into the Lingula Flags are 
separated from the overlying deposits on purely palasontological 
grounds, for I do not think it is possible to draw any line on 
physical data, and it appears that the most characteristic 
genera in these strata are unknown in the Lingula Flags 
proper. Such are the Trilobites Paradoxides^ Conocoryphe, 
Erinnys, Anopolenus, and Plutonia. It is supposed that these 
Crustacea swam on the surface of the waters and fed on minute 
marine animals. Some of the trilobites of the Lower Cambrians 
appear to have been blind, others possessed highly developed eyes. 

M. Barrande has traced various transformations like those 
undergone by existing crustaceans in no less than twenty 
species. 

The Thecas found in these beds are the oldest Pteropods yet 
discovered. 

The additions made to the fauna of the Lower Cambrians 
(Longmynd and Menevian groups) by Dr. Hicks's researches, 
now number about fifty species, belonging to twenty-two 
genera, as follows 

Trilobites 10 genera and 30 species. 

Bivalved and other Crustaceans, 3 genera , 4 species. 



Brachiopods 4 genera 

Pteropods 3 genera 

Sponges 1 genus 

Cystideans 1 genus 



6 species. 
6 species. 
4 species. 
1 species. 



CHAP. III.] 



CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 



G3 



UPPER CAMBRIAN ROCKS OF LYELL, PHILLIPS, AND SALTER. 
(Lowest Silurian rocks of Murchison and Ramsay). 

( Niobe Homfrayi. 

Angelina Sedgwickii. 
Asaphus affinis. 
Cheirurus Freclerici. 

Olenus humilis. 
Olenus alatus, Olenus pecten. 
Orthis lenticularis. 
Dictyonema sociale. 

Hymenocaris vermicauda. 
Olenus micrurus. 
Lingulella Davisii. 

Agnostus. Theca. Paradoxides, &c. 



3. Tremadoc Slates 



2. Upper Lingula Flags. 



1 . Lower Lingula Flags, 
passing into 

Menevian Beds .. 




a, Grits and Schists ; Cambrian (Longmynd) Rocks. b, Lingula Schists, with 
imperfect transverse Slaty Cleavage. 

The name of Lingula Flags was given to this group on 
account of the abundance of Lingulas found in some of the 
beds. The Lingulse were first discovered in 1845, near 
Tremadoc, by Mr. Edward Davis, of Presteign. In Merioneth- 
shire, in the neighbourhood of Barmouth and Harlech, masses 
of slaty rocks, nearly 5000 feet in thickness, are seen to imme- 
diately overlie the Lower Cambrian rocks. These are the 
Lingula "Flags of Professor Sedgwick, the first geologist who 
described their position and mineral character in "Wales. The 
Lower Lingula Flags are generally blue slaty beds, stained with 
oxide of iron. They occupy the district between the Cambrian 
rocks of Barmouth and Harlech, and the interbedded Llandeilo 
and Igneous rocks which run by Cader Idris, the Arans, 
Arenigs, and Moelwyu, round to Ffestiniog, and here they 
consist of coarse, greenish coloured, quartzose grits, and are 



64 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

probably derived from the denudation of such quartzose and 
granitic rocks as constitute the west coast of the Lleyn 
promontory, and Anglesea. There are also purple strata 
graduating downwards into thick masses of purple and green- 
ish slates. Similar beds in Shropshire are full of worm tubes. 
The junction of the Menevian beds, and Lingula Flags, with 
the underlying Lowest Cambrian rocks, may be seen at Aber- 
ramffroch, near Barmouth, the mineralogical differences at 
once marking the junction. Barmouth is a favourite spot for 
the headquarters of a geologist. It is situated on the Mawd- 
dach, or Maw, and at the mouth of the river is the " Friar's 
Island " (Ynys y Brawd), noticed by Leland, " At the north of 
the Maw ryver lyeth a little islet, scant a bowshot over, with- 
out habitation." Ten miles from Barmouth is the ancient 
town and castle of Harlech, which every traveller, however 
wanting in taste for natural history, should pause to see, if only 
for the sake of beholding one of the finest sea views in all 
Cambria, and of visiting the noble ruins which have withstood 
many a siege from the days of Bronwen, the white-necked 
sister of Bran ap Llyn, King of Britain, down to the last 
struggle in Wales for the luckless Charles I. 

It is also recorded in the history of the G widir family, that 
in the reign of Edward IV., William, Earl of Pembroke, 
"wasted the mountaine countreys of Caernarvon and 
Merioneth," and a Welsh rhyme thus describes the de- 
vastation 

Harlech a Dinbech poldor 

Yn Cunneo 

Nan Conway yn farwor 
Mil a phedwar cant mae Jor 
A thugrain agwyth ragor. 

" In Harlech and Dinbech every house 
Was basely set on fire, 
But poor Nant Conway suffered more 
For there the flames burnt higher." 

The Harlech district, as regards the Cambrian rocks, is that 
which lies between the Barmouth estuary and that of Traeth 
Bach, and the Harlech grits are the lower Cambrians which 



CHAP. III.] 



CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 



65 




pass upwards into the Lower Lingula Flags. The castle of 
Harlech stands upon a precipice of Cambrian rock, and it is 
difficult to understand by what possible pro- 
cess of mineralogical metamorphism the 
Harlech grits could be converted into the 
crystalline granitic rocks which strike along 
the west coast of the opposite peninsula of 
Lleyn. A new genus of Trilobites, called 
Plutonia Sedgwickii, has been discovered in 
the Harlech grits. It is nearly as large as 
the great Paradoxides Davidis, with large 
eyes and tuberculated. 

The centre of the great Merionethshire * 
anticlinal, thus termed by Professor Sedg- j 
wick, who was the first to elucidate the 
puzzling structure of the mountains of | 
Wales, is at Gorsgoch, north of the Llaw- s 
lech Hill. The central boss of Cambrian 5 
rock throws off the Lingula Flags all around. f 
The Merionethshire anticlinal is a series of <3 
great curves, anticlinal and synclinal, of g 
which the Barmouth and Harlech sandstones ! 
form the base. The great Diphwys range, 
forming a serrated crest of twelve miles J 
long, is perhaps more generally intelligible, t 
While speaking of this district we cannot g 
but recommend every one who wishes to g 
see a complete and beautiful section of the | 
lower Cambrian grits and slates across the J 
great Anticlinal, to pass over the moor from 
Trawsfynydd and to penetrate the romantic 
gorge of Cwm Bychan. Not only will he 
see the full succession of the grey and green 
grits contorted and thrown into broken 
curves, but the pass itself is most remarkable. 
For miles the Romans have laid down the 
great square Cambrian slabs quarried from 



a * 



66 RECORDS OP THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

the pass, in an enduring pavement, terraced from west to east. 
This pavement continues all through the most rocky part of 
the gorge. Cwm Bychan, and the valley to Llanbedr, is also 
a good locality for the study of glaciated rocks, moraines, 
perched blocks, and other phenomena appertaining to a glacial 
epoch long since passed away. 

Dolgelly lies in the midst of a charming district for the 
naturalist. There is little of interest about the town itself, but 
its proximity to Cader Idris and the adjoining mountains is a 
great attraction to the lover of the older rocks. Near Dolgelly 
are first-rate sections of the Lingula Flags ; those in the neigh- 
bourhood of the gold mines, and of the waterfalls, will naturally 
be preferred by the geologist as they contain the promise of 
abundant fossils. That large Menevian Trilobite, Paradoxicles, 
has been found by the waterfalls of the Mawddach valley, 
on the brow of the hill just above the lead mines of 
Tyddyngwladis. 

The most instructive section is that on the line of country 
from the Cambrian rocks of the Llawllech, by Y Fron-Henlog 
to the estuary ; and again from Coedd y garth, east of the 
estuary, across the interbedded traps and Lingula Flags of 
Lyn-yr-Wylfa. 

Eastward the ranges of Moel Hafod Owen, and the high 
pleasure grounds of Nannau on the left banks of the Mawddach, 
show excellent sections. These strata are conspicuous near 
the town, but the best route to take in order to examine the 
whole series, is to follow the course of the Mawddach river from 
the gold and lead mines at the waterfalls, up to the higher 
forks on the east. 

Lingula Flag fossils may be found in the same region at 
Gwern-y-Varcyd and Moel Hafod Owen, and among them is 
the shrimp-like crustacean Hymenocaris. At Dolyfrw-Ynog 
the Lingula Flags are altered into a talcose schist by a volcanic 
rock which is probably a spur from the great mass of green- 
stone, Rhobell-fawr. Cwm-eisen gold mine is in hard flags 
of the Menevian and Lower Lingula group, and the manner in 
which strata have been disturbed by faults may be seen by walk- 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN BOOKS. 67 

ing along this great quartz vein, which is full thirty feet broad 
and broken into a dozen fragments, some of them yards apart, 
others hundreds of feet asunder. The gold lode lies in an 
ancient fissure, itself a fault, which has again been fractured 
and broken up. 

Gold mines are abundant in this neighbourhood, if the inha- 
bitants are to be trusted. More than one person in Dolgelly 
offered to sell me "a digging" where a large fortune was "sure 
to be made by those who could afford to advance the capital 
necessary for the undertaking;" but from what I know of these 
gold mines I have no faith in 'Welsh gold, inasmuch as 
the precious metal occurs only on the surface, and dies out 
when followed into the heart of the rock. There are one or 
two points worthy of observation with respect to these gold- 
bearing rocks of "Wales. First, that gold has rarely been found 
excepting in the neighbourhood of trap rocks ; secondly, that it 
appears to have been formed in the crevices, veins, and inter- 
stices of quartz veins ; and thirdly, that the quartz veins and 
the gold have been infiltrated into the Lingula Flags and 
other Cambrian rocks, after the cooling and consolidation of the 
trap, and when the trap and sedimentary deposits were alike 
beneath the sea. 

Trawsfynydd, a village on the road from Dolgelly to Tan-y- 
bwlch, is a place of interest both for the geologist and the 
antiquarian. On the south-west of Ffestiniog near Traws- 
fynydd, runs the fault which throws down the Cambrian rocks 
on the east, against the Lingula Flags. It is a good locality 
from whence to observe the curving towards the westward of 
the Cambrian rocks, and the throw of a fault which has been 
calculated by Prof. Ramsay, to be 2400 feet. 

Fossils in the Lingula Flags are found in abundance on the 
road from Ffestiniog to Bala and Bedd Porws ; indeed, besides 
having been celebrated by various authors for its lovely Welsh 
scenery,* Ffestiniog has long been famous for fossils character- 
istic of this group. 

* The "Ffestiniog group" of the Dolgelly district is well described by 
Mr. Thomas Belt, F.G.S. See Geol. Magazine, Vol. IV. (1867), p. 493, &c. 

F 2 



68 RECOKDS OF THE KOCKS. [CHAP. in. 

South of the river every quarry contains them, and by going 
from Ffestiniog to Maentwrog, and thence south to Tafarn- 
helig, close to the great fault an entire section may be traced. 
That fine trilobite the Paradoxides Davidis, which in Pem- 
brokeshire is characteristic of the Menevian beds, has been dis- 
covered by Mr. Homfray, at Tafarn-helig in the black slate by 
the brookside, accompanied by many other trilobites of the 
Menevian and Lingula Flag groups, such as the Cono- 
coryphe, Agnostns, &c., and with them was associated a large 
Theca. 

Above these are dark grey slates, or true Lingula beds, with 
many small specimens of Lingula Davisii and Agnostus 
piinceps. At Caen-y-coed and the Waterfall, Velyn Rhyd, on 
the river, the strata, greatly squeezed, are full of crushed speci- 
mens of Agnosti. Crossing the river, we ascend in the section; 
at Tan-y-bwlch, the strata are higher in the series than those 
at Maentwrog, and close to the hotel is a quarry, where they 
contain many Lingulge. But this is not all ; the geologist 
must ascend the heathy brow of the hill above the hotel, 
hammering as he goes, for the rocks are rich in fossils, and he 
should find Hymenocaris in the bluish slate on the top of the 



On the line of railway we come at once upon the Upper 
Lingula Flags, an intensely black band. It appears as if the 
railway were excavated along the length of this band, for it 
follows it for some distance. The beds contain trilobites, and 
the net-like Dictyonema. 

Ffestiniog is an excellent locality for the botanist. The 
ferns Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense and H. Wilsoni, grow 
near the pulpit rock on the falls of the Cynfael. 

Near Ffestiniog, at Bedd Porws, we also find a Roman 
grave, on which is a very ancient inscribed stone. The 
following notice respecting this stone is given by Gibson, 
in his additions to " Camden's Britannia : " "I am told 
there are also a considerable number of graves near 
this causeway on the Demeans of Rhiwgoch, in the parish 
of Trawsvynydh, and in the year 1687 I copied this inscrip- 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 69 

tion from a stone called ' Bedh Porws,' or Poras' grave, near 
Lhedch Idris : 

" PORIVS 

HIC IN TVMVLO JACIT 

HOMO RIANVS FVIT." 

Rianus was supposed to stand for Christianus, but there was 
never any room between Homo and rianus for the syllable 
chris. 

The stone is probably of the same date as the " Maiden 
Stone," which like " Porwy's Grave," stands near the old 
Roman road, Sarn Helen, as it passes from Gaer Bannau to- 
wards Brecknock. Castell Prysor is a Roman fort where 
Roman coins and funeral urns have been found. It stands 
on a scarped hill of rock, but there is little left of the remains 
of buildings, or of the relics of human handiwork. Sir R. Colt 
Hoare describes another Roman inscription, from Tonnon-y- 
Mur, (or the Tumulus in the wall,) so named from a large 
mound within an encampment at the Roman station of Heriri 
Mons, through which the Sarn Helen road passes. This in- 
scription is preserved at Tan-y-bwlch Hall. From Heriri Mons, 
a Roman road of communication to the vale of the Conway 
passes by Dolwyddelan Castle. 

Camden says of this road, " There is a high road, or military 
way of pitched stones, which leads through these difficult and 
almost unpassable mountains ; and seeing it is called in British, 
Sam Helen or Helen's Way, it is but reasonable that we 
suppose it made by Helena, the mother of Constantino the 
Great, whose works were many and magnificent throughout 
the Roman Empire." 

In the Snowdon Country, the Lingula Flags may be seen in 
the Pass of Llanberis, resting on Lower Cambrian beds on the 
sides of Llyn Peris, and rising into the ridge of Elidyr-fawr. 
On the north of this hill they dip at high angles into Marchlyn- 
mawr, where Lingulse and Olenus have been found. The 
geologist stationed at Llanberis should take the route from 
thence, ascending Cwmdudodyn, and passing down Moel 



70 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

Perfedd to the stony valley, or Cwra-grainog. Moel Perfydd 
consists of a felspar porphyry, and on the west may be seen 
grand sheets of rippled rocks, the Lingula beds dipping down- 
wards and eastward into the Cwm at an angle of 60. We 
have already described this Cwm-grainog with its old moraines 
filled with pieces of scratched rocks, shed from the edge of 
the glacier as it passed from one side of the valley to the 
other. On the eastern side of the valley, the fragments are 
derived from the felspar rock of Moel Perfedd, while on the 
western side, the moraine matter consists of fragments of 
Lingula Flags, which form the rocks of Carnedd-y-tiliast. 
Here also are fossils, for I found a worn Lingula among the 
moraine detritus, and worm tubes, such as Scolites ; while 
Cruziana semplicata occur in the rippled marked Lingula 
slates, and Cruzianae of large size lie heaped among the broken 
flags at the base. 

In many localities near Bangor, the Lingula Flags, highly 
inclined, rest on Cambrian grits; this may be observed beyond 
the great Penrhyn quarries. They are black slates, contain- 
ing Lingulella Davisii, the Cruziaua, and an Olenus. 

It is worthy of remark that the Lingula Flags do not cross 
the Menai Straits, so that the Llandeilo, or Bala beds, rest 
unconformably on the so-called Cambrian rocks of Anglesea. 
The same remarks apply to the Caernarvonshire peninsula 
of Lleyn, where the crystalline rocks classed as Cambrians 
occur also. I have before stated that it has long been my 
opinion, which as an amateur I trust I may hold without pre- 
sumption, that the Anglesea and Bardsey rocks, called 
Cambrians, are not of the same age as those of Barmouth, 
Harlech, Llanberis, and Bangor, but are older Pre-Cambrian 
masses, which were elevated into dry land during the period when 
the Lower Cambrians, and Lingula Flags, on the other side the 
straits, were accumulating ; and that after the Cambrian epoch 
had passed away, the old Pre-Cambrian rocks were submerged , 
and the Llandeilo and Bala beds were deposited upon them, 
the true Cambrians, and Lingula Flags, being unrepresented 
either in Anglesea, or Lleyn. 



CHAP, in.] CAMBEIAN BOCKS. 71 

LIXQULA FLAGS OP SHROPSHIRE, HEREFORDSHIRE, AND 
THE MALVERN HILLS. 

The Stiper stones of Shropshire were ranked by Sir R. 
Murchison with the Lingula Flags of Wales, but it appears 
from the " Memoirs of the Geologieal Survey " (vol. iii., p. 257) 
that this narrow band of quartzose rocks is now classed 
with the Lower Llandeilo formation, the true Lingula Flags 
lying beneath them, and being represented by the earthy 
shales between llatlinghope, and the Stiper stones. In 
Herefordshire, at a place called Pedwardine, there is an up- 
throw of the Upper Lingula Flags through the Wenlock shale 
of Brarnpton Bryan Park. Here I was conducted some years 
ago by Mr. Lightbody of Ludlow, and at once recognised 
the Dictyonema* shales of the southern end of the Malvern 
Hills. The shales of Pedwardine afford a small Lingula, 
as \\cll as the Dictyonema sociale, a peculiar net-like fossil 
allied to the graptolites. 

Lingula Flays of Malverns. For a long period it was 
hoped, for the sake of antiquity, that the Hollybush sandstones 
of the South Malverns, were the representatives of the Lower 
Cambrians of North Wales and the Longmynds. They are 
now, however, known to be of Upper Cambrian date, for they 
lie below the Blade Shales, which the researches of Phillips, 
Strickland, and Barrande had ascertained to be primordial in 
character, and, in a general way, of the age of some part of the 
Lingula Flags. Professor Phillips did not find any fossils 
in the Hollybush sandstones ; but Dr. Grindrod has obtained 
a good series of worm tubes, and being thus in the situation 
occupied by the Middle Lingula Flags, Mr. Salter suggested 
to us some years back that these sandstones were of that 
particular period. Dr. Holl has endorsed this opinion, and he 
has found a number of minute fossils in them which support 
this view. These greenish, sandy, thickbedded rocks, may be 
seen in a large quarry on the high road from Ledbury to 

* This fossil occurs also at Bronfocl, near Tremadoc ; at Tan-y-bwlch, and 
near Ftcstiniog. 



72 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

Tewkesbury, near the summit of the Hollybush pass on the 
Eastnor side. Again they are exposed at the great quarry of 
the White Leaved Oak, between the Ragged-stone and Chase- 
end hills to the west of the Hollybush pass. The quarry is 
worked in a hornblendic greenstone. 

These greenish sandstone beds are overlaid by Black Shales 
which, as in Wales, have furnished several fossils characteristic 
of the Upper Lingula Flags. Among them are several species 
of the small Trilobites, Olenus, such as 0. scarabasoides, 0. 
alatus, 0. pecten, 0. humilis, the Agnostus trisectus, and the 
Obolella Salteri. In certain grey shales which overlie the Black 
Shales, and are seen along the south-western flank of the 
Chase-end hill, and to the south of Pendock Grove, I "was 
fortunate enough to discover the characteristic Dictyonema 
sociale, a bryozoon, always found at the top of the Upper 
Lingula Flags, and to correlate the position of these Malvern 
rocks with those of North Wales. 

In order to prevent disappointment at not finding fossils 
in these Black Shales of Malvern, it may be well to mention 
that it is a good plan to carry away portions of the shales, 
to wash them carefully one by one, or, better still, to expose 

TBILOBITE3 FROM THE BLACK SCHISTS OF THE MALVERNS. 




1, Olenus humilis, Phillips. 3, Olenus scarabreoides, Wahl. ? 

2, O. bisulcatus, Phillips. 4, Agnostus pisiformis, Linn. 

them to the frost for the purpose of splitting them. Miss 
Margaret Lowe of Malvern has done this for many years, 
and, indeed, all \vho have been successful investigators have 
found weathering the shales or drying them at a fire to be 
almost necessary to the detection of their minute though most 
interesting fossils. 



OHAP. in.] CAMBEIAN ROCKS. 73 

The volcanic rocks, associated with the Black Shales, are 
highly interesting. Bands of volcanic grit and felspathic trap 
traverse, but only slightly alter the shales, as seen between the 
White Leaved Oak, and Fowlet's Farm ; and these traps, full of 
gas cavities, like ordinary lavas, are interbedded with the Black 
Shales which have been denuded ; and thus the harder volcanic 
bosses are left standing out from the softer strata. There is a 
beautiful little section in a field below Coal Hill, west of a 
small cottage in the dingle, where baked shales and augitic 
lava are exposed in layers. 

There are also four bosses of a similar volcanic rock near 
Bronshill Castle, at the base of the Obelisk Hill, Eastnor. 

TREMADOC ROCKS. 

These strata, now that the fossils which they contain have 
been worked out and fully known, are by common consent 
allowed to constitute the uppermost rocks of the Primordial 
Zone, or Upper Cambrians. The Lingula Flags can hardly be 
visited in the Portmadoc district without meeting with this 
little-known but prolific formation. 

The discoveries of Mr. David Homfray and Mr. Ash have 
enabled the Geological Surveyors to separate the underlying 
Lingula Flags from the overlying Tremadoc strata, and to 
divide the latter group into upper and lower Tremadoc Slates. 
The position of these strata and their superposition to the 
Lingula Flags was determined by Professor Sedgwick in 1846. 
There is a peculiar band of pisolitic ore, and in this we find a 
commingling of Silurian types of fossils with those which M. 
Barrande termed " Primordial." 

Mr. Salter, who carefully examined the ground, told me re- 
peatedly that he believed the Tremadoc epoch followed more 
closely on that of the Lingula Flags than is generally supposed, 
and that the intervention of Tremadoc rocks, containing a re- 
markable assemblage of fossils, "indicates that the epochs of the 
deposition of the Llandeilo strata were separated from all the 
Upper Cambrians by an enormous period of time ; " and that a 
strong line of demarcation must be drawn between the Tre- 



74; RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

raadoc, and Llandeilo periods. Very few of the Tremadoc 
fossils are found in the Lingula Flags below, and none in the 
Llandeilo Flags above. It is this remarkable break in the 
succession, not only of species, but of genera, which induces 
Prof. Ramsay to believe that there is an actual unconformity 
in this part of the series of the older Palaeozoic rocks, and it is 
certain that the Tremadoc group is much overlapped by the 
Llandeilo strata. 

Across the Penrhyn promontory, between Traeth Bach and 
Traeth Mawr, the strata may be traced in ascending order, 
from the Upper Lingula Flags through the Tremadoc group, 
to the Lower Llandeilo strata at Garth Hill. 

There is also a fine section at Y Graiggdder, a promon- 
tory east of Criccieth ; and another in the Tremadoc district on 
the road running from Portmadoc to Treflys, where the lower 
dark shaly Tremadoc slates may be seen to overlie the darker 
coloured pyritous Upper Lingula Flags. Again the same bed* 
are seen at the village of Penmorfa, where they are full of 
fossils. Another section of these rocks occurs along the west 
flank of Moel-y-gest. The upper slates are light coloured 
flinty beds intercalated with layers of volcanic ashes, and are 
to be seen overlying the Lower Tremadoc slates on the west 
side of Portmadoc harbour, and at the rock Trwyn Cae lago, 
east of Borth. The west side of Moel-y-gest, Borthwood, and 
Aber-ia, are good localities for finding the fossils of the Lower 
strata, as are the Portmadoc quarries and the north side of the 
Penmorfa marsh for the fossils of the Upper beds. But the 
best of all localities is at Garth Hill across the Traeth Bach, 
where Messrs. Homfray and Ash, and the officers of the 
Survey, have collected thousands of specimens. 

It is perhaps one of the most exciting moments to the geo- 
logist, while sedulously tracing the bed of a well-known forma- 
tion, and noting its organic contents, to come upon a new for- 
mation, a tract of strata doubtfully grouped before, and be- 
lieved to be barren of traces of life. Such was the reward of 
the first explorers of the Tremadoc rocks which suddenly, as it 
were, yielded a rich strata of new organisms, allied indeed to 



CH.VP. in.] CAMBRIAN ROCKS. 75 

the forms of life in the rocks above and below them, but with 
new and distinct modifications of shape and structure. 

The Tremadoc rocks in their typical district near the town of 
Tremadoc, and all around the course of the Ffestiniog river, 
are full of igneous masses. Precipitous crags of massive green- 
stones overhang the town, and range through the country 
along the line of the Caernarvon road. Again the high ridge 
of Moel-y-gest on the south side of the marshy valley of Pen- 
morfa is wholly composed of greenstone, which alters and bakes 
the rocks below, which are in immediate contact with it, form- 
ing a hard porcelain rock of the slate and shale, and develop- 
ing in it imperfect crystals which give it a spotted appear- 
ance. It is hard to say whether some of the beds occurring in 
these rocks contain more of volcanic or of sedimentary matter ; 
and farther east as we follow up the valley, the beds become so 
highly altered and felspathic in character as to obliterate the 
fossils. The Tremadoc slates were believed to be a very local 
formation, but when visiting St. David's, I was enabled to 
recognise their occurrence in that district. Star-fish have 
been found in them by Mr. Lightbody. 

We learn from Professor Ramsay's important, and exhaustive 
work on the Geology of North Wales,* that certain masses of 
the igneous rocks, which traverse the Silurian strata west of 
Snowdon, date from the close of the Lingula Flags and Tre- 
madoc periods. Ehobell-y-fawr, to the north of Dolgelly, is a 
mass of greenstone, seven miles in length by three in breadth, 
and it must once have crossed the valley of the Mawddach 
to Craig-y-Dinas, and Moel-gron, two outliers of the same 
rocks. This igneous mass was erupted through the Lingula 
Flags. 

Between Barmouth and Rhaiadr Mawddach the Lingula 
Flags are penetrated by more than one hundred and fifty green- 
stone dikes. Igneous rocks of the same date run from Penmaen 
to Arenig ; they consist of different kinds of felspar rocks with 
ashy beds and a kind of porphyry, and again between Ffes- 

* "Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain." Vol. 3 by Ram- 
say & Salter. Longmans. 



75 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. in. 

tiniog and the sea, the Lingula Flags are interstratified with 
felspathic grits. Those who consult the earlier memoirs by 
Prof. Sedgwick, will find that he has described endless alterna- 
tions of volcanic rocks with these strata. 

FOSSILS OF THE LINGTTLA FLAGS AND TREMADOC BEDS. 

In the Lingula Flags, fossil Mollusca are found, and several 
genera of Brachiopoda have been described as occurring. 

The Brachiopoda are bivalve shell-fish, which were very 
abundant in the ancient seas, and of which the existing 
Lingula and Terebratula are examples. The Lingulse of the 
Lingula Flags differ little, save in size, from the shells of the 
same genus found in Torres Straits and other localities in the 
South Seas. According to Dr. S. P. Woodward,* Lingulae 
existed in the British seas up to the time of the Coralline 
Crag. The Obolella of the Black Shales of the Malverns, first 
discovered by -Miss Margaret Lowe, appears to be a form in- 
termediate between Lingula and the Obolus of Russia, &c. 

Several genera of Trilobites have been found, and Mr. Salter 
informed me that the Primordial, or Upper Cambrian, Trilo- 
bites have a peculiar facies of their own, dependent on the 
multiplication of their thoracic segments, and the diminution 
of their caudal shield. The Hymenocaris (or membrane shrimp) 
was a phyllopodus (leaf-footed) crustacean, supposed to be 
allied to the recent nebalia. The six-pronged tail of this 
animal occurs in the Lingula Flags. 

"With these we find Cystideans (so-called from their bladder- 
like form), animals allied to the sea-urchin or Echinus, and a very 
simple form of Sponge. In the Tremadoc beds are found a few 
Cephalopoda of the genera Orthoceras, and Cyrtoceras, animals 
allied to the Nautilus, and Cuttle-fish ; and a Pteropod (Theca) 
with a conical sheD, like the existing Creseis of the Mediter- 
ranean. The Cephalopoda are the highest forms of Mollusca, 
and have been termed the " Scavengers of the Silurian Seas." 
The Pteropoda (wing-footed) are on the other hand lowly 

* See Dr. S. P. Woodward's Treatise on Recent and Fossil Shells. 



PLATE I. 




1. Theca operculata. 
2. Lingulella Davisii. 

3. Agnostus princeps. Salter. 

4. Angelina Sedgwickii. 

5. Hymcnocaris vennicauda. 



0. Paradoxides Davidis. Salter. 

7. A^aphus Homfreyi. 

8. Conocoryphe verisimilis. 

9. Acidaspis. 

10. Olenus micrurus. Salter. 



[Page 70 



CHAP, in.] CAMBRIAN HOCKS. 77 

organised univalve Molluscs ; they mostly have thin glassy 
shells, and swim with a pair of wings like fins, to which the 
name refers, and which extend from the sides of the head. In 
structure they are, says Dr. S. P. Woodward, "most nearly 
related to the Marine univalves, but much inferior to 
them." 

A Bellerophon is found in the Tremadoc beds. This shell is 
believed to be allied to the modern Carinaria or glass-shell, 
which is a marine gasteropod, found in abundance in the 
Mediterranean, and Indian Ocean. The Gasteropoda comprise 
the univalve shells. 

No spiral Univalves are known in these old deposits. The 
Protozoans (first or lowest animals) are represented by the 
sponges of the Lingula Flags. 



CHAPTER IV, 



LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 



Llandeilo Rocks Cader Idris Glacier of Llyn-y-Gader Ramsay on Glacial 
Lakes -Plants of Cader Idris Lake of Tal-y-llyn Dolgelly Cymmer 
Abbey The Arans Volcanic Phenomena of Auvergne compared with 
those of N. Wales The Arenigs Llandeilo Strata of Snowdonia Pen- 
manmawr The Berwyns The Breidden Hills The Stiper Stones, and 
Fossils of Upper Llandeilos of Builth Builth Castle, and Antiquities 
of Llan Avan Llanwrytyd Wells. Llynderw Llangadock Carn-goch 
Llandeilo Roderick the Great Dynevor Merlin Caermarthen 
Pencader Cydwelli and the wife of Maurice de Londres Precelly Hills 
Musclewick Bay Caradoc or Bala Rocks Snowdon Different Periods 
of Volcanic Activity in N. Wales Dinas Mowddy Bala Limestone 
Valley of Hirnant Bala, Town and Lake of Vendace of Loch Maben 
Habitats of the Coregoni, &c. Caradoc Rocks of Caernarvonshire 
Dolwyddelan Capel Curig View from Snowdon William Williams- 
Plants of Snowdonia Hocks of Lleyn Criccieth Castle Copper Mines of 
the Parys Mountain Conway, Castle and Antiquities of Diaganwy 
Castle Caradoc Rocks of the Berwyns Corwen and Owen Glyndwr 
Castle of Powys Fault of the Valley of Stretton Onny, Section and 
Fossils of The Wrekin Horn of the Bannog Ox Beavers in the Teifi 
Llandewi Brevi, Miracles at Strata Florida Abbey Organic Remains of 
the Lower Silurians. 

, TYPICAL FOSSILS. 

TmloUtes. Asaphus Powisii, Calymene. 

Trinucleus. 

Cybele verucosa, Homalonotus 
bisulcatus. Hlanus, several 



Caradoc or Bala Rocks. 



Shells. 



Bellerophon bilobatus. 

Orthoceratites. 
JBrachiopods : Orthis actonia 

and 0. vespertilio. Stropho- 

mena grandis. Bivalve shells 

of the genera Palrearca, Mo- 

diolopsis, &c. 
Univalves : Cyclonena, Holo- 

pea, Raphistoma. 
Cystidue : Sphseronites, Echi- 

nosphserites, Hemicosmites. 



^ Starfish. Palfeaster. 



CHAP. IV.] 



LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 



79 



2. Upper Llandeilo. 





TYPICAL FOSSILS. 


1 J ( 


' Trilobites. 


Asaphus tyrannus, 
Ogygia Buchii, 
Ogygia Corndensis, 
Agnostus M'Coyii, 
Trinucleus fimbriatus, 
T. Lloydii, &c. 


^ 


Graptolites. 




I Shells. 


Orthis, Lingula, &c. 


'l 
aiM.d 


/ Trilobites. 


Calymene parvifrons, 
Eglina grandis, 
Ogygia Selwynii. 


s|l 


Graptolites. 


Many genera. 


'3 * m 



Shells. 
\ 


Obolella plumbea, 
Eedonia, Bellerophon, 
Orthoceras, Maclurea. 



1. Lower Llandeilo. 



UNDER the term Llandeilo rocks are included two great 
formations, each characterised by a series of black shales and 
slates interbedded with igneous masses. These igneous rocks 
are far thicker in the lower than in the upper group, which is 
a formation consisting of soft black and brownish slates, with 
which the igneous rocks are only here and there interbedded, 
while the lower group is chiefly composed of great igneous 
masses, spread out and intercalated with the slates. 

The Llandeilo group of rocks was named by Sir R. 
Murchison from the town of Llandeilo, in Caermarthenshire, 
where many of its characteristic trilobites were collected. It 
appears that the fossils of the Lower Llandeilo rocks are 
distinct from those of the upper series. Professor Sedgwick 
first described beds of this age as being largely developed in 
the Arenig Vawr and Aran Mowddwy, in Merionethshire. 

In this county, the Tremadoc, and underlying Lingula 
strata, are overlaid by vast accumulations of volcanic ashes 
and flows of the ancient lava, which circle round the Cambrian, 
Lingula, and Tremadoc rocks, and are interstratified with black 
slates, which by their position and fossils indicate that these 
slates belong to the Lower Llandeilo period of geologists. 
These volcanic rocks,. and interbedded slates, form accumula- 



EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. 



[CHAP. iv. 



tions many thousands of feet thick, and have been disturbed, 
and uplifted into mountains, and curved into great undula- 
tions ; yet, notwithstanding all this, the geologist who studies 
these strata, and their interbedded volcanic rocks, in the heights 
of Cader Idris, the Arans, the Arenigs, the Manods, and the 




VIEW OF THE BfiEIDDEN HlLLS NEAR WELSH POOL, FROM POWIS CASTLE. 

(From a Drawing by Lady Murchison.) 

Moelwyns, learns the great geological fact that, whatever may 
have been the intensity of volcanic action during the period of 
the deposition of the Llandeilo slates, and however evident 
the fact that volcanoes were then active in what is now 
Merionethshire, the igneous rocks at present associated with 
the Llandeilo strata were not the ultimate cause of the great 
disturbance of that country ; for those igneous rocks have 
themselves been disturbed, and have undergone precisely the 
same dislocations and movements as the Llandeilo strata with 



CHAP, iv.] DOLGELLY. 81 

which they are interbedded. The same history applies to the 
Cambrian strata. Another fact we learn from the study of 
the physical geology of North Wales is that the mountainous 
features of the country are owing to denudation as well as to 
igneous action, and are due to the unequal hardness of the 
rocks which form the ridges and summits of the mountains, 
and not to volcanic upheaval of Llandeilo date. Denudation, 
both submarine, and subaerial, denudation by sea currents, 
by glacial action, by rain and running waters, and by the 
action of the atmosphere, aided by faults and dislocations 
of the rock masses, has combined with earthquake movements 
to form the noble mountains of North Wales. It cannot be 
too often impressed upon the geologist, when exploring this 
country, that the volcanic rock masses, together with the 
Llandeilo slates interstratified with them, on Cader Idris, 
the Arans, the Arenigs, and other mountains, are of more 
ancient date than the volcanic series of rocks interbedded 
with the Bala or Caradoc strata of the great Snowdonian group 
of mountains. 

Dolgelly, "the dale of hazel groves," is the best locality for 
the naturalist who would examine the structure of Cader Idris, 
with its basaltic columns, remains of old glaciers, beautiful wild 
flowers, and exquisite scenery. When travelling in this district, 
we are struck with the symmetrical columns of felspar porphyry 
used for gate-posts, and especially at the turnpike on enter- 
ing Dolgelly. These columns are quarried on Cader Idris. 
The geologist will observe also that the felspar porphyries 
which set in around Dolgelly are of a different mineralogical 
character to the greenstone dykes in the Cambrian rocks and 
Lingula Flags. They are not met with among those older 
strata, and indicate the position of the overlying Llandeilo 
strata in the Cader Idris country. 

The geology of this district is very intricate and difficult. 
It must here suffice to say that the Lingula Flags, and 
Tremadoc beds (in which the iron beds occur), traversed by 
greenstones, may be seen on both sides of the estuary, while 
the overlying strata, or Lower Llandeilo beds, are the blue 



82 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

slates \vbich, interstratified with the volcanic masses of 
felspathic porphyries, ashes, and greenstones, form the moun- 
tain mass of Cader Idris, and lie between Dolgelly (passing 
by Llyn-y-Gader and Lyn-y-Cae) and Tal-y-llyn. These 
blue slates are regularly interleaved with pumice and ash beds. 
On Mynydd Mawr, on the north side of Cader Idris, are 
immense masses of porphyry of the columnar structure already 
alluded to. I possess a fragment, polished like marble, and 
marked with cross strias, which, when travelling through this 
country with Sir Charles Lyell, I obtained from the old glacier 
bed which once filled the hollow between Mynydd Gader, and 
Cader Idris. The rocks of Cyfrwy also consist of columnar 
porphyry, while south of Cyfrwy and Llyn-y-Gader are the 
Llandeilo slates, traversed and altered by a dyke of greenstone 
which runs up to the summit of Cader Idris. 

The Llyn-y-Gader lake, at the base of the Cader, is a deep 
basin, probably hollowed out, as Professor Ramsay supposes, 
by the masses of slowly moving snow and ice, which for long 
ages passed down from the cliffs and mountain tops which 
rise so boldly above the tarn. A similar history attaches to 
Llyn-y-Cae. Here the erosive action of the glacier has carved 
out a hollow in Llandeilo slates, greenstone dykes, and fels- 
pathic porphyry, without paying much deference to the hard- 
ness of the igneous rocks. Both of these mountain tarns 
are said to nourish the Torgoch, or Welsh Char, in their 
waters. 

And here I may remark that, since the publication of Prof. 
Ramsay's paper on the " Glacial Origin of Lakes," in 1862 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., Aug. 1862), I have paid much 
attention to the old glaciers of North and South Wales, and, in 
company with my friend Sir Wm. Guise, have studied the 
glacial phenomena of some of the Swiss and Italian lakes, as 
well as those of the great glaciers of the Alps, and of some of 
the extinct glaciers of North Italy. I have also twice been 
among the lakes of Sutherland and Ross-shire, and the more 
I have travelled and observed in glaciated regions, the more 
firmly convinced I am of the truthfulness of Prof. Ramsav's 



CHAP, iv.] GLACIAL LAKES. 83 

conclusions, with respect to the origin of most of the lakes in 
every district which has been swept over by glaciers. There is 
assuredly an intimate connexion between tarns, lochs, lakes, 
and glaciers in ah 1 the mountain districts of Switzerland, 
Wales, and the Highlands of Scotland, and, from the physical 
phenomena connected therewith, there can be no doubt that 
the great lakes of Maggiore, and Como, were once covered by a 
vast glacier, as were also the tarns of Llyn-y-Cae, and Llyn-y- 
Gader, by a comparatively minute glacier, " magna componere 
parvis." They all have been, I believe, swept over by land 
ice, and owe their origin to glacial action, although they 
may not have been actually scooped into hollows by glaciers. 
In examining the history of many of the lochs, and tarns, in the 
west of Scotland, I have found that, as a rule, few of them lie 
in lines of fault or fracture ; fewer still, in synclinal basins ; 
and that everywhere around them, as, for instance, near 
Laxford, and Loch Assynt, in Sutherlandshire, are proofs of 
the former existence of ice masses grinding downwards in 
direct contact with the rocks. 

So also in Wales, many of the tarns lie in rock basins 
directly in the line of an old glacier ; and in more than one 
example, as seen in the two tarns on the Vans of Caermarthen, 
the last of the glaciers which lingered among the mountains, 
the last relics, as it were, of retiring ice, have cut a small rock 
basin in Old Red Sandstone, and have deposited on the edges 
of the lochs moraine matter, carried only a few hundred yards 
from the summit of the surrounding hills. 

All around Dolgelly, bosses of greenstone are protruded 
through the Lingula Flags ; but between Mynydd Moel, and 
Mynydd Gader, is a good typical section of the country from 
Cader Idris to Arenig, and of the interstratification of the 
Llandeilo slates, and their igneous rock masses. The 
botanist will find some good plants on Cader Idris ; amongst 
them, Gnaphalium supinum, the rose root (Rhodiola rosea), 
a mountain Sedum, with the mountain Bearberry (Arbutus 
alpina), and the Alpine Meadow Rue (Thalictrum minus), 
also Myosotis alpestris, Veronica alpina, Linaria alpina, and 



84 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

Silene acaulis, which was the highest plant found by Saussure 
on the Alps, while Whymper met with it on Mont Blanc at a 
height of 11,388 feet above the sea. 

The Upper Llandeilo, or Lower Bala strata are hollowed out 
into the Lake Tal-y-llyn, which beautiful sheet of water has been 
described as the heaven of the disciples of Isaak Walton. The 
contrast between the scenery on the north and south of Cader 
Idris is owing to the absence of igneous rocks among the 
black shales, of which the smooth rounded hills towards the 
south are composed. 

There are but few points of archaeological interest around 
Dolgelly. There is a note in Gibson's " Camden," of Roman coins 
being found in a well called " Ffynon Yair." The Parliament 
House, near the Ship Hotel, is said to have held the parliament 
of Owen Glendwr in 1404; and about two miles from Dolgelly 
are the ruins of Cymmer Abbey, which was founded about 
1198, or ten years after the journey of Giraldus Cambrensis. 

The Aran range, with its mountain peaks, Aran Mowddy, 
and Aran Benllyn, resembles the rocks of Cader Idris 
lithologically, and has also much the same geological history, 
while the rocks of the Arenigs belong to the same horizon, and 
are constituted of interstratified igneous and Llandeilo rocks. 
The principal difference in the structure of these mountains is 
the thickening and thinning out of certain of the igneous 
series of rocks in different localities on different geological 
horizons. Thus, whereas on Cader Idris there is a thick bed 
of igneous rock in a certain position with regard to the 
Llandeilo slates, on the Arenigs this mass will have nearly 
thinned out, while on their flanks other thick-bedded igneous 
masses will appear in a different geological position to that 
which interbedded lavas and ash beds occupy on Cader Idris 
or on the Arans. This is precisely similar to examples 
observed by Sir Wrc. Guise and myself in the volcanic districts 
of Central France. Near Clermont Ferrand, on the hills of 
Gergovia, above Eomagat, at the Puy Girot, the Puy de 
Ballet, and in many other localities, we find, interstratified 
with the products of volcanic eruptions, the freshwater lime- 



CHAP, iv.] VOLCANIC DYKES IN AUVEKGKE. 85 

stone known as the " indusial limestone," on account of its 
being filled with the cases of the caddis-worms that frequented 
the Miocene lakes of ancient France. 

The deposits of the great Limagne lake contain, not only 
the remains of the May flies that flew over its waters, .together 
with the freshwater shells agglutinated round the cases of their 
larvae, but also the remains of the vertebrated animals which 
lived on its shores. Relics of these we saw in the museums of 
Paris and Clermont Ferrand ; and amongst them were the 
remains of Deinotheria, Ehinoceri, Palseotheria, Tapir, 
Pateocherus, Hysenodon, crocodiles, tortoises, birds, serpents, 
fish, and batrachians. But, to those who have studied the old 
rocks of Wales, the most interesting fact is the unquestionable 
evidence, here afforded, that volcanic eruptions of basaltic lava 
and scorise were poured forth into the freshwater lake of the 
Limagne long before its sedimentary matter of limestones and 
marls had ceased to be deposited. In the hills of Gergovia 
we have marls and limestones interstratified with volcanic 
ashes, and above and below are caddis-worms ; in the same 
manner, we may sometimes see, in Wales, trilobites covered 
with an overflow of greenstone. There are also true volcanic 
dykes in Gergovia, which penetrate the limestone strata, 
proving that volcanic eruptions were intruded through the bed 
of the lake itself. In the Puy de Dallet, near Pont du Chateau, 
we found casts of freshwater shells, such as Planorbis and 
Lymnea, imbedded in a regular volcanic ash, which had 
probably been ejected as pumice or peperino from a volcano 
into the air, and, falling into the lake, gradually sank to the 
bottom, where the shells and the caddis-worms were living and 
crawling beneath the waters. 

The hill of the Puy de Dallet is capped by an outlier of 
basalt, in the same way that Cader Idris is capped by basaltic 
felstone porphyry, the basalt of the Puy de Dallet being, how- 
ever, a representative of volcanic eruptions in the days of the 
Miocene tertiaries, when hundreds of great extinct quadrupeds 
frequented the land, whilst the basaltic columns of Cader Idris 
were poured forth in the days of the Llandeilo Crustacea, and, 



86 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS, 

as far at least as the geologist has any proofs, long before 
any mammalia had been called into being. 

Bala is the best place for head-quarters for a visit to the 
Arenig mountains. They rise to a height of 2800 feet, and 
their rocks consist of igneous porphyries, similar to those of 
Moelwyn and the Aran group, and they likewise exhibit the 
phenomena first alluded to, of the thickening out of masses of 
volcanic ashes on different horizons. It appears that there is 
no doubt about the age of the slates on the flanks of the 
Arenigs, as at Taiheiron, a mile S.W. of Arenig Bach, and in 
other localities, they furnish trilobites, such as Ogygia and 
Calymene, already given in the list of typical fossils, together 
with graptolites, proving that they belong to the Lower Llau- 
deilo group of Murchison, or the Arenig and Skiddaw group 
of Sedgwick, who was the first to define this group of 
rocks, and to discover its fossils. There are several 
slate quarries on the Manod mountains, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ffestiniog, in the Upper Llandeilo beds which 
overlie all the volcanic ashes and felspathic porphyries that 
range from Moelwyn to Arenig, and the Arans, while in 
the Arenigs the lowest Llandeilo beds are overlaid by moun- 
tain masses of felstone porphyries, and other igneous rocks, 
which will give the physical geologist some idea of the vast 
outpouring of volcanic matter which must have been erupted 
during the Llandeilo period 

In the Snowdon district the Llandeilo strata are thrown 
down by great faults ; but in certain localities, as between 
Marchlyn Mawr and Y-Garn, they appear interstratified 
with felspathic lavas, and traversed by greenstone dykes. 
Llandeilo fossils have been found east of Y-Trifan, on the 
N.N.TV. of Snowdon, in beds overlying the Lingula Flags ; and 
the black slaty shales on the banks of the Seiont, opposite Caer- 
narvon, have yielded some Llandeilo graptolites. The physical 
geologist, who observes the position of the Lower Cambrian 
rocks and the Lingula Flags on Moel-y-Trifan and the surround- 
ing district, will perceive the difficulty there is in assigning to 
these rocks the horizon of the Llandeilo strata. Mr. Salter 



CHAP, iv.] PENMAEXMAWE. 87 

who found graptolites on the hill-sides after three days' search 
for a single specimen, informed me that Bellerophon pertur- 
batus is one of the commonest fossils in the Upper Llandeilo 
Flags, and occurs very rarely in the Caradoc rocks above ; and 
as this fossil has been found in black slaty rocks below Pen- 
rhyn Park, Bangor, these strata are believed to belong to 
the Upper Llandeilo Flags. 

Penmaenmawr, near Conway, is an igneous rock which has 
been erupted through Llandeilo strata. It is the advanced 
guard, towards the sea, of the chain of hills which stretch east- 
ward to Capel Curig. On the summit of Penmaenmawr, the 
antiquary finds Braich-y-dinas, a British stronghold, where 
the remains of the Welsh army were posted during the nego- 
ciations between Llewellyn and Edward I. 

The botanist cannot fail to mark the contrast in the flora of 
Penmaenmawr as compared witli that of the Mountain lime- 
stone of the neighbouring rocks of Llandudno. The vegeta- 
tion is as different as the mineralogical character of the forma- 
tions. The ferns Hymenophylluin and Allosorus grow on 
Penmaenmawr, but they are unknown at Llandudno, while 
many a plant of the Great Ormes Head finds no footing on 
this noble hill on the other side of the narrow straits. 

The Berwyn mountains constitute the division between the 
counties of Merioneth, and Montgomery for more than thirty 
miles ; their highest peaks, Cader Berwyn and Cader Tronven, 
rising to the height of 2710, and 2585 feet respectively. In 
these hills the Cambrian rocks, and the Lingula Flags, are not 
elevated to the surface ; but in the lower rocks there are masses 
of felstones, and volcanic ashes, which are supposed to be the 
equivalents and representatives of the igneous rocks we find 
interstratified with the Lower Llandeilo strata of Wales. I am, 
however, inclined to believe that the Llandeilo strata of the 
Ber \vyns are altogether higher in the series than the Me- 
riononethshire strata, and that they belong to the Upper 
Llandeilo series, as developed near Builth, Llandeilo, and other 
localities. They may be the equivalents of the upper roofing 
Llandeilo slates, which underlie the Caradoc strata in the 



8S EECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

neighbourhood of Ffestiniog. Near Llangynnog are quarries 
and lead mines, which may be well seen by crossing the country 
from Bala, a distance of about thirteen miles. The village of 
Llangynnog is romantically situated at the confluence of the 
Tanat and the Eraith ; northwards Craig Ehiwarth towers 



LLANDEILO AND CARADOC ROCKS ox THE EAST FLAXK OF THE BERWYNS. 
KW. S.E. 

Craig-y-glyn. Llanrhaiadr. Tract watered by the Tanat. 



6 V c c 

b, Black Slates. I', Llandeilo Limestones and Schists. c, Caradoc Sandstones. 

above it ; other lofty ridges rising towards the south. The 
highest pass of the Berwyns is called Milltyr Gerrig (the mile 
of stone) ; and the country round this district, between Pennant 
and Llandrillo, should be examined ; also the pass leading down 
to Llanrhaiadr-yn-Moclmant. The Landeilo strata are exposed 
on the eastern slope of the hills, and near Llanrhaiadr-yn- 
Mochnant they become calcareous, forming a limestone crag, 
named Craig-y-Glyn. The characteristic fossils of the Upper 
Llandeilos, Asaphus tyrannus, and Trinucleus favus, are found 
here, with an Orthis. Pistyll Rhaiadr, some four miles from 
Llanrhaiadr, is one of the finest waterfalls in North Wales ; it is 
upwards of 240 feet in height, and rises in a dark wild glen with 
blue slaty Llandeilo rocks ranging on either side of the gorge. 
The river Rhaiadr runs upon a line of fault, the beds on the 
western side being elevated above those on the eastern. The 
coomb under Cader Berwyn, on which the river takes its rise 
from the lake Llyn Caws, shows glacial evidences. 

The Parsley Fern (Allosorus crispus), grows very luxuriantly 
near the cataract ; and many good plants flourish about Craig- 
y-Glyn. 

The Breidden hills, near Welsh Pool, rise to the height of 
1200 feet, the most precipitous peak being the picturesque 
Moel-y-golfa, 1143 feet. The whole range marks a line of 



CHAP, iv.] SUPER STONES. 89 

eruption ranging from S.W. to KE. The hills are a mass of 
igneous rocks, carrying up with them dark slaty rocks of the 
Llandeilo period, and throwing off pebble beds and the Upper 
Silurians of the Long Mountain. Fossils are found near the 
trap rocks at Welsh Pool. At Bauseley Hill shales and trappean 

SECTION ACROSS THE BREIDDEX HILLS. 
N.W. 




6, Lower Silurian Slaty Rouks. &*, Cotemporaneous Volcanic Breccia. 
*, Eruptive Rocks. 

ash beds are thrown off from the trap rocks, and contain fossils. 
The Black Eock is remarkable as a botanical station for 
several rare plants. This hill is the only British habitat for 
Potentilla rupestris, and on it also flourishes Lychnis viscaria, 
with Geranium sanguineum, Veronica spicata, V. hybrida, and 
Saxifraga hypnoides, most of which grow on Stanner rocks 
(volcanic rock also) near Kington in Herefordshire. 

The large Camp on the hill lays claim to be that on 
which the British chieftain, Caradoc (or Caractacus), made his 
last stand, although some antiquarians still contend for the 
Caer Caradoc of the forest of Clun having been the scene of 
this struggle. 

STIPEP. STOXES OP SHROPSHIRE. 

The Stiper Stones of Shropshire were first described by Sir 
Roderick Murchison in that splendid work, " The Silurian 
System," a work which every geologist will reverence who has 
examined the country to which it refers, and bears in mind 
how little was known of the rocks, or fossils, of that rugged 
land when, before the days of Geological Surveyors, the gallant 
Soldier and his devoted Wife went forth side by side, one with 



90 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAI-. iv. 

his hammer, and the other with her pencil, and unravelled 
their ancient history. And in order to appreciate the work 
done, let the geologist try his hand without survey maps, and 
survey books, and the aids we possess, now the days are over 
when'men worked out such histories for the love of the records 




THE EASTERN FACE OF THE STIPEK STOKES. 

of the rocks alone. The Stiper Stones form a very remarkable 
ridge of quartzose rocks, extending for ten miles, from 
Pontesbury, near Shrewsbury, on the N.N.E., to Snead, near 
Bishops Castle, on the S.S.W., and rising to a height of ] 500 
feet above the sea. They are now ascertained from their fossils 
to belong to the Lower Llandeilo period. Their position with 
regard to the Cambrians of the Longmynds may be best 
understood by consulting the section. Trap bosses and 
greenstone occur on both sides of the ridge, and the beds 
are without doubt much metamorphosed ; they contain, 
nevertheless, Lingula plumbea. There are worm tracks 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILUKIAX BOCKS. 91 

and burrows (Arenicolites linearis) in the rocks of the Stiper 
Stones. They occur as long vertical tubes, with trumpet-shaped 
openings, in the quartz rock. These worm-tubes are very 
similar to those observed by Dr. Macculloch on Queenaig in 
Assynt, and which are described by him in the " Transactions 
of the Geological Society" as early as 1814. There the 
numbers of these cylindrical tubes strike every observer ; and 
on an expedition two years ago, in company with Captain Price, 
I ascertained that the quartz rock of Queenaig with its tubes 
rests unconformably on Cambrian conglomerate. It is very- 
probable that this Queenaig quartz rock, as well as the Assynt 
limestones, is of Lower Llandeilo age, like the Stiper Stones. 
Dykes of greenstone were detected by Mr. Gibbs, collector to 
the Geological Survey, on the eastern side of the Stiper Stones; 
and on the western side of the ridge the Llandeilo rocks are 
interstratified with volcanic grits and ashes. These bands 
may be seen at Cefn-y-Gwynlle. The great Corndon Mountain 
is an igneous mass, erupted through these strata. The Stiper 
Stones district is the only one I know where the Lower 
Llandeilo rocks, containing Lingula plumbea, and Ogygia 
Selwynii, are seen to pass upwards into the Upper Llandeilo 
Flagstones of Builth and Llandeilo, with Ogygia Buchii and 
Asaphus tyrannus. This is the case between Shelve Hill and 
Meadow Town ; but the upper strata are not conformable to the 
lower, and there appears to be a break between the two 
formations. Sir Charles Lyell will remember my pointing out 
this unconformability to him in the year 1855, when we visited 
this district from Linley Hall in company with the Eev. T. T. 
Lewis of Aymestry, and when the Stiper Stones were believed 
to be the representatives of the Lingula Flags. 

I heartily recommend the student who wishes to master 
thoroughly the intricate geology of this district, to spend a 
considerable time at Church Stretton, Bishops Castle, and 
Montgomery. At Nils Hill, near Pontesbury, the Stiper 
Stones formation may be seen in two hollows, in the more 
northern of which ripple-marks occur, and worm-tubes, these 
beds are quarried for road stone, and are not much meta- 



92 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

morphosed. Granham again to the north of Vesson's Coppice, 
near Pontesbury, exhibits beds which are crystallised and 
apparently altered by heat. Eskridge near Lord's Hill, should 
also be visited. In the Shelve district, between Montgomery 
and Bishop's Castle, on the western flank of the Stiper Stones, 

LOWER SILURIAN TRACT WEST OF THE STIPEJI STONES (SHELVE, &c ), THE CORNDON 
MOUNTAIN IN THE DISTANCE TOWARDS THE NORTH. 




Lower Silurian Rocks, intcrstratified with contemporaneous ashes and lavas, and 
traversed by Eruptive Rocks. 

the Llandeilo formation contains, together with characteristic 
fossils, many interstratified bands of volcanic materials. Lead 
ore is obtained from these rocks, around the village of Shelve, 
and here too, the igneous mass of the Corndon mountain is 
erupted through the strata. Cefn-y-Gwynlle, White Grit Mine, 
and Lord's Hill are good localities for fossils. At the Bog 
Mine, the mineral veins traverse a vast number of the thin- 
bedded felspathic grits, or ashes, interstratified with the. schists 
and flags charged with trilobites and graptolites. Many fossils 
may also be found at Ritton Castle, and at Disgwylfa, near 
Suead. 

The geologist should visit the Whiterry quarries and their 
interbedded traps in Marrington Dingle. The lower Llandeilo 



CHAP, iv.] THE ROCKS," BUILTH. 93 

beds are succeeded by a series of flagstones partly calcareous, 
dark grey and light blue in colour ; they constitute the upper 
Llandeilos and contain Asaphus tyrannus, and Ogygia Buchii. 

UPPER LLANDEILO. 

In South "Wales we have the Llandeilo rocks appearing in 
the district extending from Llandegley in Eadnorshire, to 
Llandrindod, and Builth on the Wye. This elevation of these 
rocks by volcanic action to the surface, is ten miles in 
length by about five in breadth, and reminds us of the district 
of Shelve and Corndon. The strata belong to the upper 
Llandeilo Flags, and contain abundance of the typical trilobite 
Ogygia Buchii and 0. corndensis, with Asaphus tyrannus 
(rare), and Orthis calligramma. Igneous rocks are erupted in the 
Carneddau hills, and Llandrindod hills, and volcanic traps and 
ashes are interbedded with marine strata in the Llandegley 
rocks, and Gelli and Gilwern hills. The bedded rocks are best 
seen in the sections of the Gelli hills, and flagstones full of 
trilobites, Ogygia Buchii, and Ogygia corndensis, are found at 
upper Gilwern. The Carneddau hills carry up fragmentary 
portions of the Llandeilo Flags to considerable heights on their 
sides. In this district the upper beds are black shales and white 
sandstones which rest conformably on flaggy strata with inter- 
bedded traps and volcanic grit. The graptolites, Didymo- 
grapsus Murchisoni, and Diplograpsus pristis are found in 
the black shales, and also occur in the Upper Llandeilo slates 
of Abereiddy Bay. Asaphus tyrannus appears to be somewhat 
rare in the Builth country, and is generally found in the lower 
beds. 

There is a celebrated salmon catch about a mile above the 
bridge at Builth/' known as "The Eocks," where the igneous 
masses may be seen cutting through the Llandeilo beds. The 
fisherman wading will soon find them out, for the felspathic trap 
is rough and good walking, and the slate beds of the Llandeilo 

* Several geologists live around Builth, and the stranger will ever meet 
with kindly attention, and good local information, from Mr. Jones, gardener at 
Pencerrig, or Mr. Griffiths, of Builth. 



94 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

rocks are as slippery as glass. Close to Pencerrig, near Builth, 
is an instructive section, on a small scale, where the upper 
Llandeilo rocks may be seen interbedded with volcanic masses. 



SECTION ACROSS THE GELLI HILLS. 




b Llandeilo Flags. &*, Llandeilo Flags with interpolated cotemporaueous 
Felspathic ashes, &c. * Eruptive Rocks. 

The mineral waters of Builth are the result of the contact 
of a trap dyke, traversing black slates of the Llandeilo 
strata, which at the point of contact are highly charged 
with crystals of iron pyrites. Decomposition of the pyrites 
by the percolation of water is continually going on; other 
sulphates, chlorides, and sulphurets furnish their quantum, 
the result being about as distasteful a beverage as can well be 
imagined. 

The botany around Builth is good. The Moonwort (Botry- 
chium lunaria) grows in great profusion on a slope opposite 
the house of Pencerrig; while the Parsley Fern (Allosorus 
crispus) flourishes in abundance on the interstratified Llandeilo 
and volcanic rocks of Gilwern, as if it had been transported 
from the distant Berwyns, or the far-off hills of Arenig, to 
the isolated and uptilted range that runs from Builth to 
Llandegley. The moonwort has been found as far south as 
the Straits of Magellan. 

Camden, quoting Ptolemy as his authority, recognises in 
Builth, the ancient Bulleum Silurum of the Romans.* 
Antiquaries tell us that Builth Castle was built before the 
Conquest, and, at the time of the Norman invasion, was held 
by Cadwgan Glodrydd, a Breconshire chieftain, who was 
reduced to subjection in the days of "William Rufus, by 
Bernard Ncwmarch. It was held by Roger Mortimer in 12GO, 

* See Gibson's " Camden," p. 590. 



CHAP, iv.] THE "WOLVES' LEAP." 95 

and was taken by the Welsh under Llewellyn, the last native 
Prince of "Wales. Leland informs us that Llewellyn was killed 
near Builth, the narrow dingle called Cwm Llewellyn is said 
to be the place where he was taken. His head was cut off and 
sent to Edward I., then at Rhuddlan Castle in Flintshire, and 
he had it sent to London, there to be placed upon the Tower. 
The castle was standing in Henry VIII.'s time, as Leland saw 
it, and describes it as " a fair castel of the kinges." 

Near Builth, is Llan Avan, of which Sir E. Colt Hoare 
tells us that Giraldus Cambrensis thinks "it proper to 
mention," that in the reign of Henry I., the Lord of the castle 
of Eadnor entered the church of Llan Avan, and without 
sufficient caution and reverence, passed the night there with his 
hounds. " Arising early in the morning, according to the custom 
of hunters, he found his hounds mad, and himself struck blind." 

The rocks of Llanwrtyd- Wells, in Breconshire, are black 
schists and flags of Llandeilo age, traversed and altered by 
volcanic rocks. These wells owe their origin to phenomena 
similar to those we have described as occurring in the springs 
of Builth. The well is called " Ffynnon drewllyd," or the 
Stinking Well. Many years ago, I geologised on several 
occasions over this difficult district near Llynderw, the 
residence of an old friend, Captain Roberts, a geologist of 
the old greywacke school, who possessed a collection of 
fossils found in some lead mines worked near his house. 
Among them were graptolites, and trilobites, distorted by 
slaty cleavage. In walking from Llanwrtyd, by Abergwessin,the 
Drygan Mountain, and Claerwen, to Rhayadr, we pass through 
some wild scenery, and interesting geology. The excavations of 
the little river Gwessin, at the "Wolves' Leap," and other 
places, are especially worthy of attention, as showing the 
action of mountain streams upon hard rocks. There is also 
some good evidence of glacial phenomena around the Drygan, 
and the little glacial lake which lies at its base. The Kite, 
now become such a rare bird, may still be found among the 
rocks of the Drygan. 

In visiting this country, the geologist may enjoy a good day 



96 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

over the Upper Llandeilo strata by going to Llandovery, and 
thence by train to the station at Llangadock,in Caermarthenshire, 
and tracing the section from Tan-yr-allt with undulations of 
Llandeilo schists, flags, and interstratified traps, to Trichrug, 
where Upper Silurian rocks, and Old Red Sandstone, succeed. 

SECTION NEAR LLANGADOCK. FROM THE LOWER SILURIAN TO THE OLD RED 
SANDSTONE. 

(The spectator is looking to the South-West.) 

8.E. N.W. 

Trichrug. Cairn-goch. f Tan-yr-allt. 



6, Undulations of Llandeilo Schists, Flags, and Limestone, with interstratified Trap . 
b', Llandeilo Sandstones, &c. d, e, Upper Silurian. j\ Old Red Sandstone. 



This section is described in " Siluria." It exhibits an arched 
arrangement of the stratified deposits and interlaced traps. 
Fossils are found at Coed Sion, and the flags thrown up from 
Blaen-dyffryn-garn, on the Sowdde river, afford fossils, occur- 
ring in the interstratified trap beds. Amongst them is the typical 
Ogygia Buchii, Pen-y-goylan is another good locality for this 
trilobite. 

Sir Roderick Murchison was the first geologist, who dis- 
covered in 1833, the existence of volcanic rocks in Caermar- 
thenshire. The spot where he first recognised them is known 
under the name of " Blaen-dyffryn-garn," and is about three 
miles from the old town of Llangadock upon the river Sowdde. 

The geologist should ascend the hill of Blaen-dyffryn-gam 
and walk to the knoll at the northern extremity where the 
volcanic rock forms the ridge and throws off the Llandeilo 
siliceous rock of Carn-goch, and the overlying Llandeilo slates 
full of fossils on both sides of the ridge. On the northern 
slope of this hill, a little above the farmhouse, there is a re- 
markable boulder of red rock stranded against the quartzite, 
and which is probably derived frcm the Lower Old Red of the 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 97 

Trichrug-ridge above. The quarries of Coed Shon a quarter 
of a mile to the north-east, afford many fossils of the Llandeilo 
series. 

A little to the north of the hill of Blaen-dyffryn-garn was 
formerly a cromlech which stood in the low grounds. It was 
destroyed by a peasant ; but beneath it were found human 
bones, and the legend is that this was the last place in Great 
Britain where human sacrifices were offered. 

The British encampment of Carn-goch, on the summit of a 
detached hill, three miles S.W. of Llangadock, stands on a 
stratified siliceous rock of Llandeilo age. This quartzose rock 
has been heaped into massive defensive walls, enclosing what 
must have been a formidable stronghold in early times. When 
visiting Llandeilo some summers ago in company with Pro- 
fessor Harkness, we walked over the section from the Carboni- 
ferous limestone of Castell Cerrig-Cennen, by the Deserted 
House, and over Trichrug to this Llandeilo upthrow of Carn- 
goch. It is a walk which no physical geologist or lover of 
scenery would be likely to forget. 

Llandeilo is situated on the Upper Llandeilo Flags. Near the 
town are some good sections, and abundant fossils are to be 
found. "When the Pont Ladies section was laid open on the 
construction of the Llanelly and Llandovery railway, beds 
full of carbonaceous matter containing corals, and overlaid 
by beds containing fossils were exposed. This section is about 
a mile on the Llandybie road ; and exhibits a dome-formed 
arrangement of the strata. The typical trilobite of the Upper 
Llandeilos, Ogygia Buchii, is to be obtained in quarries close 
to the town as well as in Dynevor Park. 

It is necessary to mention that the Government Survey 
detected a hiatus of Caradoc rocks, on the left bank of the 
Towy, although on the opposite or right bank of the river they 
are exposed in proper order overlying the Llandeilo Flags. 
This is the case all the way from Caermarthen, by Llandeilo, 
and on to Builth, where the Middle Silurian Pentamerus beds 
may be seen in a quarry close to Pencerrig resting un- 
comformably on Llandeilo Flags, interlaced trap rocks and 



98 RECOKDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

siliceous deposits, like those of Carn-goch, without the inter- 
vention of the Caradoc rocks. 

The lowest strata at Llandeilo are sandy flags with beds of 
limestones, and the typical fossils are Asaphus tyrannus, A. 
peltastes, with a small variety of Ogygia Buchii, named 0. 
convexa (Salter). The upper strata are brown flags and black 
shales full of 0. Buchii, and graptolites ; they occur at Dy- 
nevor Park and at Llandybie road. Magnificent specimens of 
that fine trilobite Asaphus tyrannus may be obtained in the 
neighbourhood, and from the information I received from Mr. 
Williams, and Mr. Samuel of Cerrig-Cennen, it would appear 
that it is more commonly found in the lower strata than in 
those upper flags which contain such abundance of the Ogygia 
Buchii. One specimen, in the possession of Mr. Williams, 
measured eleven inches in length, and another, presented by 
the Earl of Cawdor to the British Museum, is still finer. 

There is a good deal of historic interest connected with 
Dynevor. About the middle of the ninth century Rhodr Mawr, 
or Roderick the Great, Prince of Gwynedd, wished to unite the 
whole of Wales into one kingdom, and established the seat of 
government at Dynevor. Subsequently Cambria was erected 
into a separate kingdom, and Dynevor, on the Llandeilo rocks, 
was bequeathed to his son Cadell as the future residence of the 
princes of South Wales. The remains of the castle stand upon 
a, bold headland ; and, ruinous and ivy-covered as they now 
are, they are interesting to the lover of antiquarian lore ; for 
the wars of the Welsh raged around the site of Dynevor for 
many a year, and one fortress after another rose on the ruins 
of the last. Giraldus mentions a spring at Dynevor " which 
like the tide, ebbs and flows twice in twenty-four hours," and 
it was close to Dynevor that Merlin's Cave was placed by 
Spenser on the banks of the Towy. 

' ' And if thou ever happen that same way 
To travel, go and see that dreadful place, 
It is a hideous, hollow, cave-like bay, 
Under a rock that has a little space 
From the swift Tyvi, tumbling down apaca 
Amongst the woody hills of Dynevowr. " 

Faerie Queen, 3 cant. 3. 



CHAP, iv.] LEGEND OF MERLIX. 99 

The ruins of Dryslwyn castle occupy a bold hill in the vale 
a few miles below Llandeilo. The earthworks are extensive, 
and the castle is said to have been erected about the time of 
Edward the First by one of the princes of Dynevor. I was in- 
formed by Mr. Samuel of Cerrig-Cennen that there is an 
account in the "Archseologia Cambrensis" of a letter written 
by the Governor of Cerrig-Cennen Castle to the Governor of 
Dryslwyn to ask his intercession with Owen Glendwr, who it 
appears took him prisoner and shut him up at Dryslwyn. 

Roman relics have been discovered at Llandyfeisant, and 
silver coins have been found when a portion of some 
buildings were exposed. 

Caermarthen, the Maridunum of Ptolemy is mentioned by 
Giraldus Cambrensis as an ancient city standing on the banks 
of the noble river Ty wy, surrounded by wood and pasture ; it 
was strongly enclosed with walls of brick, part of which still 
remain. The same author says that " Caermarthen signifies 
the city of Merlin," the renowned magician who lived in the 
days of King Yortigern according to the traditions handed 
down by the Norman writers of the courts of Henry II., or 
Richard I. 

The local legend is that at his birth, Merlin was covered 
with black hair, and gifted with the power of addressing 
expostulations to his nurse. An old legend also connects the 
fossils of Pensarn, and Mount Pleasant, with the deeds of the 
great magician, whose last days were as singular as the earlier 
portion of his life. He fell in love with an angel sprite, or fair 
fay, without succeeding however in gaining her affection in 
return. One summer's day when the birds were singing, and 
the butterflies flitting, the wizard and the fairy entered a rocky 
cave, and here by the aid of a spell taught her by Merlin 
himself, the fairy closed the cavern and entombed the magician 
and the butterflies. Thus Merlin was " lost to life, and use, 
and name, and fame," and hence the appearance of the butter- 
flies (or trilobites' tails) in the rocks of Mount Pleasant. A 
romantic origin for Asaphus tyrannus, and Ogygia Buchii. 

Caermarthen itself stands on Caradoc rocks, consisting of 

H 2 



100 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

black shale with grit bands. Near the town occur also Llan- 
deilo beds as well as Upper Silurians and Old Red Sand- 
stone beds. Barrandia Murchisonise, and Orthis alata, with 
Orthoceratites, may be found near Caermarthen. At Abergwili 
two miles north-east of the town, are slaty and trappean beds, 
and there are slates with graptolites at Bwlch Capel, three 
miles north-north-west of Caermarthen. 

Antiquaries should pay a visit to Pen Cader where the 
Welsh prince Rhys ap Gruffydd surrendered his sons as 
hostages to Henry II., who, two years after, because his troops 
were defeated by the gallant mountaineers, wreaked his 
vengeance upon the wretched hostages. " He did justice on 
the sonnes of Rees, and also on the sonnes and daughters of 
other noble men that were his complices, verie rigorouslie : 
causing the eies of the yoong striplings to be pecked out of 
their heads, and their noses to be cut off or slit." Alas for 
the treaty of Pen Cader, and the honour and justice of a king ! 

Giraldus, who was living at the time, and gives some account 
of the transactions connected with this invasion, and the 
surrender at Pen Cader, tells a curious history of a soldier 
sent by Henry II. to explore the situation of Dynevor Castle. 
He was misled by the Dean of Cantref Mawr, who " led him 
purposely aside by the most difficult and inaccessible paths," 
and himself " fed upon grass," asserting that in times of need 
the inhabitants of that country were accustomed to live upon 
roots and herbs. The soldier returning to the king and 
relating what had happened, affirmed " that the country was 
inaccessible, and only affording food to a beastly nation 
feeding like brutes." 

Nine miles distant from Caermarthen lie the fine old castle 
and town of Kidwelly. They are situated on the banks of the 
river Gwendraeth which rises on Mynydd-Mawr and flows 
into the Bay of Caermarthen. The* Castle is said to have 
been founded by "William de Londres, the founder of Ogmore 
Castle in Glamorganshire, but no Norman work is visible. 

A section of the Coal-measures on which the Castle stands is to be seen 
supporting its western wall. 



CHAP, iv.] BOULDERS AND CEOMLECHS. 101 

It is fairly preserved, its towers and walls still standing, but 
the present remains are evidently not of later date than 
the times of Henry III. or Edward I. The gate-house is 
Perpendicular, of the time of Richard II. or Henry IV., while 
the chapel dates from the reign of Edward I. 

Giraldus Cambrensis records visiting " Cydtvelli" and tells 
a story of the wife of Maurice de Londres, who had a forest 
there, " well stocked with wild animals, and especially deer." 
On the side of the wood next the sea were extensive sheep 
pastures. " His wife, for women are often very expert in deceiv- 
ing men," wished to get rid of the deer, and persuaded DC 
Londres that they attacked the sheep " with unheard-of rage 
and unusual ferocity ; " and having caused wool to be inserted 
into the bowels of two stags, showed it in proof that they had 
eaten the sheep. 

The Precelly hills in North Pembrokeshire form a range 
about seven miles in length ; the highest and central eminence, 
Moel-Cwm-Cerwyn, is 1735 feet above the sea. The hills are 
crossed by the Great Western Roman Road, called the Via 
Flandrica, as it was erroneously supposed to be the work of 
the Flemish settlers. They are studded with ice-carried 
boulders, which were used for cromlechs and tumuli by 
a pre-historic race of men. As regards their geological 
formation, we find that they belong to the age of the Upper 
Llandeilo Flags ; there are several hills, outliers from the 
main range. 

The wild neighbourhood of Pencaer, in North Pembroke- 
shire, is well worth a visit. The French have twice landed an r\ 
invading force among these rugged headlands ; once in 1071, / 
under Martin de Tours, who took up his residence on the 
scene of his conquest ; and again in 1797, when their leader, 
General Tate, found his quarters in Pembroke gaol. Through- 
out the wide district between Fishguard and Haverfordwest, 
between St. David's and the river Neven, the Llandeilo Flags, 
interlaced by great masses of trap, may be said to be the rocks 
of the country, and having resisted denudation, through the 
hard lava-like materials of which they are composed, they have 



102 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CII.YI'. IV. 



produced the undulating and rugged scenery which character- 
ises this part of Pembrokeshire. 

On the west coast, between Strumble Head and St. David's- 
Head, the Upper Llandeilo Flags are to be seen in a magnificent 
section at Abereiddy Bay. The beds are nearly vertical. This 
locality is given by Sir E. Murchison in his " Silurian System" 
(1839), as an instance where the lines of bedding and stratifi- 
cation are coincident with those of slaty cleavage. The 
coincidence occurs only in the south side of the bay and is 
proved by fossils, large double graptolites, found in the beds, 
appearing undistorted on the lines of slaty cleavage. 

LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS IN ABEREIDDY BAY. 




age and Bedding. 



At St. David's Head, in Whitesand Bay in a great reef, 
called Trevgyn-nowddyn, the Tremadoc beds are seen to pass 
upwards into dark slates with some peculiar fossils which are 
referred by Salter and Hicks to Lower Llandeilo beds. They 
also occur in force on Ramsay Island. At the northern side 
of the Bay, the black Llandeilo beds are vertical. 

This locality is celebrated for having furnished many 
specimens of peculiar trilobites and other typical fossils. The 
large rare trilobite Ogygia peltata is found here in the black 
schists. The section is nearly opposite to the dangerous out- 
lying rocks known as the " Bishop and his Clerks " " who 
preach deadly doctrine to their winter audience." It was on 
these rocks that the " Nimrod '' struck a few years ago, and 
every soul on board perished. 

In south Pembrokeshire, near Milford Haven, the physical 
geology of the Lower Silurians is very intricate. In the rocks 
of Musclewick the upper Llandeilo beds with their character- 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 103 

istic fossils are exhibited as hemmed in by faults. They are 
exposed for half a mile and are overflowed on their southern 
flank by trap masses, while on their northern flank, they are 
in contact with Old Eed Sandstone. Black shales full of 
graptolites are exposed at Clarbeston, north of Haverfordwest, 

LLANDEILO SCHISTS IN MUSCLEWICK BAY 



o, Old Red Sandstone. 6, Llandcilo Schists. *, Eruptive Rocks. 

and there are several roadside sections in the route between 
Haverfordwest and St. David's. In this district the observer 
cannot fail to be struck by the large boulders which are here 
and there deposited on the upturned Llandeilo Flags, and other 
strata. Some years ago they were far more numerous than at 
present. They were all derived from the volcanic and trappean 
hills which rise so abruptly from the plain towards the north. 
The boulders are often imbedded in masses of angular 
unrounded Llandeilo schists. 

CARADOC OR BALA ROCKS. 

The Caradoc Sandstone was so named by Sir R. I. Murchi- 
son, after the ancient British encampment of Caer Caradoc, 
which was once believed to have been the site where Caractacus 
made his last stand against the legions of the Roman general 
Ostorius Scapula. For a long time this formation was con- 
founded with the Hollies limestone beds, strata now known as 
the Upper Llandovery, or May Hill Sandstone group, and 
which lie at the base of the Upper Silurians, as defined by 
Professor Sedgwick in 1851. 

The activity of the volcanoes that poured forth their lava, 
scoria? and ashes, during the period of the deposition of the 
Llandeilo rocks, ceased for a time, and over the igneous masses 
and the Upper Llandeilo slates of Merionethshire, were deposited 



104 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAI-. iv. 

strata of great thickness, and containing the now well-known 
fossils of the Caradoc or Bala period. Before, however, the 
close of the Caradoc period in North Wales, volcanic activity 
recommenced, and, as happened in Auvergne, in far later 
geologic epochs, new volcanic vents poured forth their lavas 
and ashes, which in their turn were overlaid by the sediments 
of a Caradoc sea, and became interstratified with them. 

Snowdon is the remnant of an active volcano of the Caradoc 
epoch, and it is the repeated interstratification of the Caradoc 
slates with porphyries, greenstone, and other igneous rocks 
which causes the jagged and serrated peaks of this noble 
mountain to stand out in such clear, sharp, outlines. The geo- 
logist who ascends to the summit of Cader Idris and looks 
first north and then south, will understand that, although the 
smooth rounded hills on the south are rocks of the same age as 
those of Snowdon, Carnedd Davydd, and other Caradoc 
mountains seen in the distance, the reason of the 
difference in their outline is, that the Caradoc strata on the 
south were deposited beyond the flow of the lava currents, 
and are therefore entirely free from that interstratification with 
the igneous masses furnished by the old volcanoes of the 
Caradoc period, and of which Snowdon and other hills of 
Snowdonia are the roots and remnants. 

Caradoc strata are spread far and wide over the South Wales 
country south of Cader Idris ; these beds are let in by a fault at 
Tal-y-Llyn on the south east of Cader Idris. The district 
between Tal-y-Llyn, Towyn and Machynlleth, is particularly 
barren in fossils, and the rocks appear to resemble, rather the 
nearly unfossiliferous grits of the Lower Llandovery series, 
than the fossiliferous Caradoc strata of Bala and other 
districts. 

We must never forget when studying these strata, that there 
were in North Wales two well-marked periods of volcanic 
action. The more ancient of these periods probably com- 
menced in Cambrian times, and continued, as before said, with 
periods of intermission, throughout the epoch marked by the 
deposition of the Lower Llandeilo strata. This earlier period 



CHA. iv.] SXOVDOXIA. 105 

must have been long anterior to the Snowdonian outburst of 
igneous rock, for five thousand or six thousand feet of sedi- 
mentary beds are intercalated between the volcanic masses of 
porphyrj T , grits and ashes, which are interstratified with Caradoc 
strata and contain Bala fossils. 

It would appear that after this period of volcanic outbursts, 
which was prolonged into the Lower Llandeilo epoch, was 
over, volcanic action ceased for a time, and an interval of 
repose ensued, during which the muddy sediments carried 
down by river streams, and sea currents, collected above the 
igneous and volcanic materials, and blended together in masses 
of enormous thickness. The remains of animals that fre- 
quented those seas are found imbedded in stratified volcanic 
ashes, and thus prove beyond a doubt that there were periods 
of rest, during which the marine animals returned to their 
accustomed haunts, the muds and sands of the sea bottom, 
while again and again, groups of marine animals were de- 
stroyed and buried by the immense quantity of ashes which, 
ejected from the volcano in action above, filled the air and, 
descending on these seas, sank through the waves. 

Nowhere can the geologist study with greater advantage 
how the process of denudation is arrested by hard igneous 
rocks as compared with the softer aqueous rocks, with which 
they are associated, and how the former rise into hills and 
crags and the latter are eroded into plains and valleys. All 
the craggy heights which form so conspicuous a feature, west 
of Cader Idris, are composed principally of hard igneous or 
metamorphosed masses. It is hard to believe when we look 
upon Snowdonia that denudation has after all had more to do 
with the geological structure of the country than has elevation ; 
but so it is, and in vain do we look for any original structure 
of the country, or for the original outlines of volcanoes, where 
the long process of waste by denudation has been so rife for 
ages. 

The Caradoc beds set in to the sonth of the beautiful village 
of Dinas Mowddwy about ten miles from Dolgelly ; and the 
Bala limestone crops out in the river Dovey. Fossils may be 



106 RECORDS OF THE -HOCKS. [CHAV. iv. 

found on Moel Benddu, Moel Dinas, and Pum-rhyd. The 
Bala limestone of Dinas Mowddwy thickens out towards the 
Bala country, and lies in the middle of the Caradoc group. It 
is underlaid by slates, below which again are the " ashbeds" of 
the geological surveyors, and it is overlaid by grey slates and 
grits ; a limestone called Hirnant limestone ; dark grey shales 
and black sandy slates. 

The district round the town of Bala in Merionethshire, is 
celebrated as affording the most typical example of those 
Caradoc rocks which range over so large a surface of Wales. 
Gradually and without any abrupt break, they succeed the 
Llandeilo Flags of the Arenig and Aran mountains, and the 
government surveyors have assigned them a thickness, 
including the ash beds, of 10,000 feet. At Bala the central 
limestone is exposed in low hills near the town and lake. 
Here too, many very beautiful fossils have been found, and 
among them some rare star fishes and cystidea. Moel-y- 
Garnedd, Pen-y-rhiw, west of Bala, and Rhiwlas, are favour- 
able localities for these fossils, but indeed every acre of ground 
around the lake is full of them. 

In the valley of Hirnant, three miles east of Bala, a lime- 
stone occurs in the upper beds, called the Hirnant limestone ; 
it takes its name from the beautiful valley of Hirnant and the 
stream which flows through it ; the Bala limestone, which lies 
1500 feet below it, being again succeeded by the volcanic ash- 
bed before alluded to, and which enabled Professor Jukes to 
trace its range from the valley of the Dee to the Conway. 
These ash beds owe their origin to the fall of ashes into the 
sea at a distance from the volcanic vent, through which were 
erupted the great masses of felspar, porphyry and calcareous 
ash, which, with the Bala strata, constitute the mountain 
masses of Snowdonia. The fossils of the strata below the Bala 
limestone may be all obtained at Tyn-y-fron, and Tai-yn-y-nant, 
east of Aran Benllyn. The trilobites Homolonotus bisulcatus 
and Trinucleus concentricus are those most commonly found 
here. 

In the Hirnant limestone, fossils may be found below the 



CHAP, iv.] BALA LAKE. 107. 

precipitous escarpments of Craig Moel-y-Dinas near Aber- 
hirnant. At this latter locality the typical fossils of this lime- 
stone, Orthis Hirnantensis of McCoy, occurs, as well as another 
peculiar specimen Orthis sagittifera. There is a beautiful 
walk along the brook of Hirnant through the mountains that 
unite the Arans and the Berwyns, crossing over to the valley 
of the Fyrnwy. 

The town and lake of Bala should be visited not only by 
the geologist but by every antiquarian and naturalist, for it is 
surrounded by lovely and picturesque scenery, while hard by 
are old camps, and ancient ruins, and there is good ground 
around the lakes, and meres, for lacustrine and bog plants. 
The town is believed to date back from the Roman period, 
and our notes from old authors lead us to suppose that this 
conjecture is correct. There is a tumulus at the south-east 
end of the town called Tommen-y-Bala, which has furnished 
Roman coins; and the station of Caer Gai, where Roman 
pottery has been found, is mentioned by Camden, who says it 
was " built by one Caius, a Roman, of whom the common 
people of that neighbourhood report great things and scarce 
credible." Bala is also situated near the Roman road which 
ran by Meifod to Caernarvon (Segontium). 

Bala Lake also possesses peculiar interest to the physical 
geologist on account of the great fault which extends from 
Cheshire by Yale, in Denbighshire, through Bala Lake, and 
passes on the west side of the Aran mountains, and east of 
Cader Idris, through the lake of Tal-y-Llyn, to the coast near 
Towyn. This fault has a downthrow to the north-west of some 
3000 feet, and affects the Carboniferous rocks, as well as the 
Lower Silurians. The geologist will remark the lakes that 
lie on its route, and the great dislocations which traverse the 
Lower Silurians of this district in every direction. 

This lake, under the name of " Pennelsmere," is also men- 
tioned by Giraldus Cambrensis as the origin of the river Dee ; 
and Camden appears to have visited it in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, as he alludes to the " Gwiniad," as well as to the 
town of Bala. The Gwiniad, which takes its name from the 



108 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

whiteness of its scales, is, I believe, peculiar to this lake.* It 
is a fish belonging to the Salmonidae, and is closely allied to 
the Vendace of Loch Mabcn in Dumfriesshire, the Schelly of 
Cumberland, and the Powan of Perthshire, all of them being, 
I am informed by Sir William Jardine, closely allied species of 
the genus Coregonus. 

There is a legend in Scotland to the effect that the Yeudace 
was introduced to Loch Maben by the unfortunate Mary, Queen 
of Scotland ; but old Churchyard, f whose poem " The Worthines 
of "Wales " was published in 1587, the year Mary was executed, 
^ays : 

" A poole there is thro' which the Dee cloth pass, 
Where is a fish that some a whiting call." 

There can be little doubt that these whitings are the gwiniad 
of Bala Lake. 

At the meeting of the British Association at Exeter I called 
attention to the somewhat peculiar habitats of the Coregoni, 
the great lake trout (Salmo ferox), and the Chars (Salmo salve- 
linus, &c.). I have fished in and visited many of the lakes in 
Great Britain where these fish are known, and I never saw one 
in which they still exist that is not either a glacier lake, or 
rock basin, or that is not dammed, or otherwise surrounded, 
by glacial moraine matter. They are also inhabitants of the 
lakes of Sweden and Norway, which everywhere bear traces 
of the glacial epoch, and its close, and seem to me to be, like 
the Alpine plants that still linger among the mountains, 
fishes of that colder period, when the last of the glaciers still 
hung to the coombs of the Highlands of Scotland and 
"Wales. Only this summer I assisted some friends in 
capturing the Alpine char (Salmo salvelinus), from a small 

* Sir Philip Egerton took Salmo ferox in this lake in 1871. 

t Mr. Thomas Churchyard, a poet of some note in his time, was a native of 
Shrewsbury. His principal work is entitled "The Worthines of Wales," 
In 1588 he published a work, bearing the following title, "A Spark of 
Friendship and warm Goodwill, that shews the Effect of true Affection, and 
unfolds the Fineness of this World." This tract is dedicated to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, whom the author calls his " Honourable Friend." This dedication is 
dated London, at my lodging, the 8th of March. 



CHAP, iv.] ALPINE CHAE. 109 

rock basin on the east side of Ben Hope in Sutherland- 
shire ; and here, side by side with the fish, was the cloud- 
berry (Rubns chamaamorus) and Saxifraga aizoides, growing 
profusely on the banks of the lake, 2000 feet above the sea. 
The Coregoni are found in many of the lakes in Switzerland. 

In the lake of Bala grow the Isoetes lacustris, Ranunculus 
lingua, and Lobelia Dortmanna. 

The Caradoc rocks of Caernarvonshire are so complicated, 
folded, and sometimes reversed, that it is impossible for the 
amateur to do more than gain a very limited idea of the intri- 
cate geology, the elucidation of which required years of hard 
study, and great labour on the part of Professor Sedgwick first, 
and afterwards of Professors Ramsay, Jukes, Selwyn, and other 
gentlemen of the Geological Survey. Still, an idea of the phy- 
sical geology of Snowdonia may be attained by a steady exami- 
nation of certain points, especially as Professor Ramsay's work on 
North Wales should now be in the possession of every student. 

On leaving the Bala district, we recommend our brethren of 
the hammer to proceed to Bettws-y-coed, near Llanrwst, and 
to follow the valley of the Lledr up to Dolwyddelan, where 
they will see one of the most primitive villages in all "Wales, 
and an old castle splendidly situated among noble hills. Fos- 
sils may be found on the castle rock itself. The Lledr rises in 
the wild glens of Yr Arddu and Moel Lledr, and between 
Castell Dolwyddelan and Yr Arddu, the geologist may detect 
a bed of felspathic calcareous ash, containing Bala fossils. 
These beds are believed to be the actual representatives of the 
thin limestone on the south-east and north of Bala, and of the 
limestone band in the river at Dinas Mowddwy ; while the 
igneous and slaty masses underlying and overlying the fossili- 
ferous ashbeds of Dolwyddelan, are now ascertained to be the 
equivalents of the thin ashbeds and slates which underlie and 
overlie the limestone of Bala. The fact is, that the Dolwy- 
ddelan country was nearer than Bala to the volcanic centres 
from whence were derived the flows and eruptions of felspathic 
lavas and ashes, while Snowdon itself lies, if not within the old 
volcanic centre, at all events very near it. 



110 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

In going from the village of Dolwyddelan to Capel Curig, 
we may pass below Moel Siabod and observe the Caradoc 
fossiliferous rocks which form an anticlinal in the moors 
between Moel Siabod, and the Valley of Dolwyddelan. The 
crest of Moel Siabod is a great dyke of greenstone which has 
been erupted through the stratified ashes and slates of the 
Caradoc rocks. The greenstone forms the rocks above Llynfael, 
and alters, and metamorphoses, the slates through which it has 
been erupted. Here, as on Snowdon, the botanist finds none 
of the rare plants on the greenstone crags ; some grow how- 
ever on the north-western slope, on the equivalents of the 
Bala limestone. Among them we may mention Saussurea 
alpina, which grows in moist places on the ledges of the 
rocks, while the Lobelia Dortmanna, and the rare but insigni- 
ficant awlwort (Subularia aquatica) grow on the fringes of the 
lakes. 

The scenery around Capel Curig is not to be surpassed, and 
there are numberless geological and botanical excursions to be 
made. It is an excellent place to choose for head-quarters, 
when making a protracted examination of this country. Many 
years ago I studied the district between Capel Curig and 
Eettwys-y-Coed, and from thence to Llanrwst, and there are 
sections where the minor undulations of the country may be 
made out, and where the interstratifications of ashes and 
igneous rocks and slates may be observed. After arriving at a 
certain comprehension of the physical geology about Dolwy- 
ddelan, the explorer should ascend Snowdon, and from thence, 
single out the Caernarvonshire mountains, Carnedd Llewelyn, 
Carnedd Dafydd, Moel Hebog, and Y-Glyder-Fawr, remembering 
that these last mountain masses consist of igneous and volcanic 
products, interstratified with beds of the age of the Caradoc 
sandstone and Bala limestone, while the outlying ranges of 
Cader Idris, the Arans, Arenigs, and Moelwyn, are composed of 
igneous materials interstratified with rocks of Llandeilo age. 
It is well too to look across to Anglesea and at the low country 
near Bangor and Caernarvon, where denudation, probably by 
ice action, has cut down the strata to Cambrian, and Gneissic 



CHAP. IV.] 



SXOWDOX PLANTS. 



Ill 



rocks, and to reflect on the vast masses of stratified 
denudation has removed from above them. 

The geologist should also 
recollect that the rocks of 
the Snowdon area are 
merely a repetition on a 
large scale of the Dolwy- 
ddelan trough, and that in 
the words of Professor 
Eamsay " the grandest part 
of this country both as 
regards the scale of the 
igneous phenomena and the 
consequent magnificence of 
its scenery is owing to the 
hard and soft layers con- 
centrically interbedded in 
a great trough, shown in 
the easterly dips of the 
slates, grits, and traps, on 
the flanks of Moel Hebog, 
Snowdon, Y Garn, and 
Carnedd Dafydd, while the 
opposite inclination of the 
rocks on the summit of Y- 
Glyder-Fawr, Y Trifan, and 
part of Carnedd Dafydd 
forms the eastern side of 
the basin." 

I have paid several visits 
to this delightful district, 
and some years ago, in 
company with my friends, 
the Rev. E. Hill and Pro- 
fessor James Buckman, I 
carefully observed the geo- 
logy, and botany, of Snow- 




112 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

don and its neighbourhood. "We procured the services of 
"William "Williams the well-known botanist, and Llanberis 
guide. I could not ascertain from him whether there was any 
section of the Llandeilo beds where fossils could be obtained, 
although he took me to several localities where Caradoc fossils 
might be found, and in search of them, ventured to one of the 
most dangerous spots on the crags of Moel-y-"Wyddfa. Williams 
was a most daring cragsman, and my companions will not 
easily forget seeing him on the precipitous escarpment of Moel 
Siabod, searching for the Saussurea alpina, and the "Woodsia 
fern (Woodsia ilvensis). The purple Saxifraga oppositifolia 
was found by "William Williams on Glyder-Fawr. It grows on 
the Pyrenees, and on the Matterhorn above the Smutz Glacier. 
Williams was afterwards killed by falling down the precipice 
of Moel-y-Wyddfa, when searching for the Woodsia. 

I do not know whether Williams left behind him any 
account of the localities where he obtained his specimens of 
the rarer plants of Snowdonia, for he owned to us that several 
of the old stations were completely destroyed. The spiderwort 
(Anthericum serotinum) grew no longer among the crags above 
the Devil's Kitchen, though there was a station on Carnedd 
Dafydd where he obtained specimens worth half a guinea each. 
The Woodsia ilvensis grew in 1861 on a rock above Llyn 
Cwm, but in a locality only practicable for goats. Williams 
was an ardent lover of nature, and thoroughly appreciated a 
day's ramble with a botanist or geologist. It may be well 
to mention here for the information of entomologists, that on 
questioning him as to the habitat of the rare beetle, Mis- 
codera arctica, he informed me that the most probable locality 
for finding it, was on the Beddgelert flanks of Snowdon, and 
that it was never aeen far below the summit. Sir William 
Guise took this beautiful insect near the summit, on the ascent 
from Pen-y-gwryd, and by carefully turning the most likely- 
looking stones succeeded in taking also other rare coleoptera. 

The Welsh Char (Salmo salvelinus), known as the Torgoch 
or Red Belly, is found in Llyn Cawellyn, near Snowdon. 
When I was there last a number had been taken with a net. 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 113 

Snowdon was held in high veneration among the ancient 
Britons ; and we find Giraldus saying that he " must not pass 
over in silence the mountains called by the Welsh Eryri, and 
by the English Snowdon, or mountain of Snow." 

It is not probable that he and Archbishop Baldwin made 
the ascent ; but he seems to have been bamboozled by the 
natives ; for he informs us that a lake on Snowdon " is 
noted for a wonderful and singular miracle ; it contains 
three sorts of fish ; eels, trout, and perch, all of which have 
only one eye, the left being wanting." Edward the First 
held " a triumphant revel upon Snowdon, and then adjourned 
to conclude the ebullitions of joy for victory by solemn rites 
upon the plains of Mefyn." Camden visited Snowdon per- 
sonally. Mr. Pennant's description of a tour, made in 1778, 
is extremely graphic. 

It appears that the Lower Silurian rocks of Lleyn, although 
associated with innumerable masses of volcanic rocks, are not 
altered and metamorphosed to any great extent. They are found 
to be baked like those at St. David's, just at their junction with 
traps and greenstone ; but they are not metamorphosed like 
the crystalline and so-called Cambrian rocks of the western 
coast of the peninsula. Caradoc fossils occur here in great 
abundance in beds which overlie the Llandeilo beds of Llan- 
faelrhys. The neighbourhood of Boduan and Pen-yr-alt north 
of Pwllheli, is very rich in these fossils, especially Boduan, where 
Orthis flabellulum, retaining the shell, is found in millions 
at Dolbenmaen ; also rare fossils may be obtained as well, at 
Plas Penrhyn, Pwllheli, and other places. It is difficult to 
make out the physical geology of this country, as it is traversed 
to a great extent by trap, and obscured by drifts. 

Intrusive igneous rocks are seen to be developed in many 
places where the removal of the drift deposits allows the 
underlying rocks to become visible. Criccieth Castle stands on 
a felspar rock. The great cliff of Trwyn-y-gorlech is a horn- 
blendic greenstone. The peaks of Yr-Eifl consist of a syenitic 
porphyry. The Boduan rocks are a kind of greenstone, so also 
are the cliffs between Llanfaelrhys and Porth-Ceiread. Every- 



114 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

where in this district the so-termed Cambrian rocks are much 
more metamorphosed than the Silurian strata. 

According to Rowlands ("Mona Antiqua," 159), Criccieth 
Castle occupies the site of an old British encampment. The 
castle itself is said to have been repaired by Edward I. Its 
architecture resembles that of Dolwyddelan Castle. 

Passing over to Anglesea, we find that the Parys mountain 
is a mass of volcanic rocks which penetrate and traverse 
Caradoc strata. The rocks have evidently been much fissured, 
aud the fissures infiltrated with quartz and other minerals. 
This rugged hill is the highest point in the island, and is 
famous for its copper mines, the stores of copper it furnishes 
having once been so valuable, that in the early part of the 
century 20,000 tons were annually extracted. These mines 
were probably first worked by the Romans, a round cake of 
copper bearing a Roman stamp having been found at Llan- 
faethla. 

The Caradoc rocks on which Conway Castle is built, dip 
south at an angle of 60 degrees, and contain Bala limestone 
fossils. This district is full of faults, and black slates of 
Llandeilo age are faulted through the Caradoc beds near the 
castle. Carboniferous, Upper Silurian, Lower Silurian, and 
Volcanic rocks may all be seen and student within a walk of 
Conway. 

The Snowdonian hills which run from Moel Hebog by 
Carnedd Llewellyn to Conway, are composed of Caradoc for- 
mations, interstratified with submarine lavas and volcanic 
ashes. These have all been uplifted into a series of mountains, 
the beds of which are thrown into great anticlinal and syn- 
clinal curves, rising into lofty eminences in Carnedd-Dafydd, 
Carnedd Llewellyn, Moel Siabod, Moel Hebog, and Y Glyder- 
fawr, and then sweeping in sharp curves beneath the rocks of 
Denbighshire, Llandudno, and the bed of the sea. The rocks 
which constitute a part of the low lying strata near Llandudno 
and Conway, as well as those of Cwm Hewart, Maesdu Bryn 
Gosol, and of the neighbourhood of Dyganwy, are but parts 
and portions of the uplifted strata which crown the peak of 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 115 

Snowdon, and rise to a htight of 3571 feet above the 
sea. Nor are the volcanic rocks which enter so largely 
into the constitution of the mountain masses of Carnedd Llew- 
ellyn and Snowdon, absent from the less hilly country around 
Llandudno. The ancient site of Dyganwy Castle is a volcanic 
rock which was erupted through the strata of Cwm Hewart, 
and appertains to the Caradoc period. 

The old fortified town of Conway, was formerly supposed to 
be the Conovium of the Romans mentioned by Antoninus, but 
the site of that station is now generally acknowledged to be 
Caer Khun, three miles above Conway, at Aber-Conway. The 
Conway river was celebrated in Roman times for British pearls, 
derived from the freshwater Unio Margaritiferus, a mussel 
which abounds in its waters. Camden's account of the origin 
of the pearls is curious. He says that " the river breeds a 
kind of shell, which being impregnated with celestial dew pro- 
duces pearl." 

Giraldus and Archbishop Baldwin, did not visit Conway, 
but " crossed the river Conway under Diganwy, leaving the 
Cistercian Monastery of Conway on the western bank of the 
river, to our right hand." The castle and the embattled walls 
of the town were built by Edward I., in 1284 ; and, according 
to Leland, the castle was built upon the spot once occupied by 
the monastery alluded to by Giraldus. It was to Conway 
Castle that Richard II. came from Milford Haven, on his 
return from his Irish expedition ; and from it he was driven 
by famine to a prison at Flint Castle, there to be told by Henry 
Bolingbroke, that " he would help him to rule better the people 
he had ruled so harshly for two-and-twenty years." 

Again, during the civil wars, we read, that Archbishop 
Williams garrisoned the castle for the king, but afterwards de- 
serted the Royal cause and joined the Parliamentarians. The 
fortress was not dismantled until the time of Charles II., when 
the work of destruction was carried out by the profligate Earl 
of Conway, who stripped the noble pile, and transported the 
timber, iron, lead, and other materials to his estates in Ireland. 

There are still some remains of the ancient Castle of 

i 2 



116 EECORDS OF THE ROCKS, [CHAP. iv. 

Diganwy, near Conway, which also bore the English name of 
Gannock. It was standing when Giraldus Cambrensis made 
the tour of Wales, and mention is made of it according to 
Hoare, in the "Welsh Chronicle, as early as 810. The walls 
crossed the space between two hills and ran up their sides. 
King John " came to the Castell of Diganwy," according to 
Powell, in 1210, and remained there awhile "until the English 
souldiers, were glad to taste horsse flesh for pure neede," and in 
1245, King Henry TIL experienced great distress at this place, 
the king with his army being stationed at Gannock, where they 
were cut off by the "Welsh from their supplies, and lay in their 
tents "watching, fasting, praieing, and freezing with cold." 
Diganwy was totally dismantled in 1262 by Llewellyn. 

The castle slopes are celebrated for the Maiden pink (Dian- 
thus Deltoides). We saw it blossoming there, a few summers ago, 
when examining the trap hills of Dyganwy and Bryn Gosol, 

THE BEKWYNS. 

In the Berwyn country, the Caradoc or Bala beds are much 
thinner than their equivalents in Merionethshire. The highest 
interbedded igneous rocks represent the thin ash beds of the 
Bala district, and also the thick masses of interbedded ash beds 
and felstones of Snowdon. 

On the east flank of the Berwyn mountains, the Caradoc 
deposits stretch from the river Fyrnwy on the S.S.E., by Alt-y- 
Maen, Alt-y-Gader, and Coll-Melwyn, to the river Tanat on 
the N.N.W. The structure of this district is that of an 
undulating hilly country, and it is most rich in fossils of all 
kinds. 

A very instructive walk of about thirteen miles may be 
taken from Bala to Corwen. This village lies at the foot of 
Moel Ffenlli, the most northern hill of the Berwyn range, and 
which attains a height of more than 2000 feet. Just beyond 
Corwen is an instructive outlier of mountain limestone full of 
joints. Five miles westward is the fine waterfall of Pont-y-glyn, 
which flows in a fissure of Caradoc strata. Fossils and especi- 
ally corals may be obtained here. 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 117 

Corwen is associated in many ways with the memory of the 
great Welsh chieftain, Owen Glyndwr. His birthplace, Sych- 
nant, is about three miles distant. Holinshed relates that on 
the night before his birth his father's horses were found up to 
their bellies in blood. Caer Drewyn was used by Glyndwr as 
an encampment, although of far older date than his times. 
Rug, in the vale Edeyrnion, was a part of Glyndwrdwy, his 
possessions on the Dee, and it is said that some personal relics 
of one, " not found in the roll of common men," are preserved 
there. Near Llanfyllin the Bala beds are very fossiliferous, 
and the strata are thrown into a vertical position well worth 
observing. 

In the valley of the Ceiriog, south of Llangollen, the Bala 
group, rich in fossils, and especially in Bellerophons, is exposed 
on either side of the Eiver Tenw, between the New Inn and 
Pont-y-Meibon, at which latter locality there are also ash beds. 
The lowest beds of Bala limestone at Hafod-y-galley contain 
fossils, so also do the middle or central group of strata in the 
quarries of Nantyr and Llanarmon. The uppermost rocks of 
this limestone are exposed at Cefn-coch on the north, and afford 
many beautiful corals and bryozoa. 

Those who really wish to study these strata in detail should 
take the route from Welshpool. The Breidden Hills, N. E. of 
"Welshpool, run along a line of eruption, which separates the 
Lower Silurians of the Tanat and Fyrnwy district from the 
Upper Silurians of the Long Mountains. The section par 
excellence to be recommended, is the instructive one given by 
Sir R. Murchison in his " Silurian System," which takes the 
investigator by Powys Castle, the Gaer, over the Broniarth 
Hills to the vale of Meifod, and then across the Caradoc tract 
to Llanrhaidr. 

The Castle of Powys is the Castell Coch " (Red Castle) 
which stood so many a siege when the residence of the Princes 
of Powys. Its historical records are too voluminous to give 
here anything but a few notes. We read of Offa, King of 
Mercia, driving the kings of Powys from Pengwern (Shrews- 
bury) beyond the Wye ; but the earliest historical notice of 



118 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. IT. 

the castle itself is about 1109, when the building was com- 
menced by Cadwgan, Prince of Powys, who was, however, 
murdered by his nephew, Madwc, before it was completed. It 
seems that one of his sons named " Gruffydh," met Giraldus 
and Archbishop Baldwin at " Oswaldestree," or the tree of St. 
Oswald (Oswestry), and there they were sumptuously enter- 
tained " by William, son of Alan, a noble and liberal young 
man." In the days of Richard I, about 1195 or 1196, Hubert, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, is said to have besieged this fortress; 
and in 1233 it was dismantled by Llewellyn-ap-Jorwerth, a 
prince of South Wales. It came again into the possession of 
the family of " Gruffydh " through a lady, Hawys, and it con- 
tinued for several generations in the possession of her posterity, 
fighting a good battle for Charles I. in 1644. 

The Caradoc range of hills, near Church Stretton in Shrop- 
shire, consist of Caradoc strata traversed and altered by igneous 
rocks. This range stretches from the hill of Ragleath on the 
S. W., by Caer Caradoc to the Lawley, N. W. Unaltered sedi- 
mentary rocks may be seen at Cardington and Hope Bowdler. 
The valley of Stretton runs along the line of a tremendous 
fault, for immediately opposite the hills of Caradoc rocks, and 
only just across the valley, behind Church Stretton, are the 
Longmynd Cambrians. At Botville, on the north-western flank 
of Caer Caradoc, there is a mass of Wenlock limestone jammed 
between the Longmynd rocks and the Caradoc sandstone, a 
proof that considerable earthquake movements have affected 
the whole country since the deposition of the Upper Silurians. 

Owing to the great fault just alluded to, and the protrusion 
of volcanic rocks to the surface, the relations of the Caradoc 
rocks to the underlying Upper Llandeilo Flags are not exhi- 
bited in the Church Stretton district. The best section for 
studying their upward development and their position as 
regards the Upper Silurian series, is that given by Murchison, 
and which runs from the east flanks of the Caer Caradoc, and 
the Lawley, by Hoar Edge, Chatwall, and Gretton, to Apedale 
under Wenlock Edge. 

In the Hoar Edge we have the coarse lower grit beds 



CHAP. IV.] 



LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 



119 



quarried, and from thence we ascend by Enchmarsh, and Gret- 
ton, to higher and higher beds. Both these latter localities are 
good places for fossils. The examination of this section may 
be perhaps best undertaken from Church Stretton. 

The geologist should also visit the Onny section, near the 

THE CARA.DOC RANGE. 
(Sketched by Mrs. Stackhouse Acton.) 




The Lawley. Caer Caradoc. Hope Bowdler. 



Broccard's Castle. Ragleath, 



Craven Arms station, between Church Stretton and Ludlow, 
This section is held in high esteem, and commences at Stret- 
ford Bridge with Wenlock shale, and passes by Wistanstow 
north of Cheney Longville and Horderley, to Hillend at the 
base of the Longmynds. Near the junction of the Caradoc 
beds with the May Hill and the Wenlock shale, the beds are 
full of that beautiful trilobite, Trinucleus concentricus (T. carac- 
taci of Murchison). Between this place and Horderley are 
reddish beds full of characteristic shells of the Caradoc sand- 
stone, and the collector may easily obtain many of the typical 
forms, and especially that fine fossil, the Strophomena grandis, 
with the typical trilobite Trinucleus seticornis. 



120 -RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 

In passing on to the Cambrian rocks from the Caradoc strata 
at Cheney Longville, the geologist must be careful not to con- 
found the Upper Llandoveiy or May Hill rocks, which rest, 
like an ancient sea beach, against the south flank of the Long- 
mynds, with the Caradoc strata. They may be known at once 
by the Pentameri, which are so characteristic of these rocks, 
and which occur in abundance in them. 

The following directions may be useful to the geologist visit- 
ing the Onny section, as the whole country is greatly faulted, 
and it is useless attempting to do more than examine the 
broken strata where best exhibited. The Hoar Edge grits and 
Horderley limestone are Caradoc rocks ; so are the Cheney 
Longville flags ; and likewise the trinucleus shales of the river 
Onny. At Cheney Longville footbridge the Caradoc shales 



RELATIONS OF CARADOC SANDSTONE TO THE UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS IN SHROPSHIRE. 
N.W. S.E. 

Botville. Caer Caradoc. Wenlock Edge. 



* Eruptive rocks, e*. Caradoc Sandstone altered by eruptive rocks, c. Caradoc 
Formation, surmounted by Llandovery Limestone, rf. Wenlock rocks, e. Ludlow 
rocks. /. Old Red Sandstone, d*. Vertical Weulock Limestone (Botville). 



containing Trinucleus concentricus, with other tribolites, ampyx, 
and lichas occur, and overlying them are the May Hill or 
Upper Llandovery rocks, with Pentamerus, and Atrypa reticu- 
laris, and Petraia, a very characteristic coral of the May Hill 
group. There IB an overhanging holly-tree, which stands over 
the exact line of junction, but no Caradoc fossils cross this 
thin line into the unconformable May Hill rocks. The Caradoc 
rocks of the Onny district may be examined in other localities, 
at Soudley, and Tickleston, and Bellerophons, and small Nuculas 
occur in them. The purple shale in the Onny section which 
overlies the thin pentamerus limestone is known as the 
Tarannon, or "Woolhope shales, and is largely developed in 
North Wales. 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILmiAH EOCK& 121 

The "Wrekin has much the same geologic history as that 
which we have already traced in describing the formation of 
the Snowdonian range. Lavas were poured into the Caradoc 
rocks and were cooled and crystallised. Then long ages 
succeeded, during which Upper Silurian corals built their 
limestone masses around and over the cooled traps ; while, 
in still later ages, the Coal measures covered up the Upper 
Silurian and Lower Silurian formations and their dark grey 
traps. After the close of the Carboniferous period another 
interval of volcanic agencies and earthquake movements com- 
menced, for the principal elevation of the Wrekin, like that of 
the Malvern Hills, is of Permian date. 

Caradoc rocks do not overlie the Upper Llandeilo beds 
which range from Biiilth to Llandegley. They are altogether 
wanting. The Government surveyors also supposed that 
the Caradoc strata were deficient on the left bank of the 
Towy, but' on the right bank, in the hilly tracts on the north 
and west, they are recognised by their fossils and seen to 
overlie the Llandeilo flags. It is important to bear this 
in mind, although Mr. Salter ascertained that certain Caradoc 
strata, wholly unlike those of North Wales in a mine- 
ralogical point of yiew, but containing their characteristic 
fossils, occur on the left bank of the Towy near Llandovery, 
as, for instance, at Cilgwyn Park and under Blaen-y-cwm near 
Llangadock. 

The Gogofau gold mine, amidst hard Caradoc grits, may be 
visited from Llandovery. There are many relics at Dolau- 
cothy, the seat of Mr. Johnes, of the Romans, who Avorked 
this mine, and who appear to have had a station on the spot. 
Several gold ornaments, amongst others a gold necklace, have 
been discovered in the immediate neighbourhood, associated 
with Roman pottery. A good expedition may be made 
from Llandovery over the Caradoc hills to the west. The 
naturalist provided with an Ordnance Map of the country and 
a compass, should follow the river Towy up to the mountains, 
past the lead-mines of Nant-y-Moen, to Twm Shon Catty's 
Cave. This cave is a fissure in the rocks,, and in the pool 



122 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

below it is a capital salmon and sewin cast. I found fossils in 
the rocks to the west of the cave, but they are very ill denned. 
At Nant-y-Moen the rocks are close upon a trap dyke, and we 
may meet with pebbles of greenstone in the river-bed above 
the mines. 

For the lover of hill, and dingle scenery, there are many wild 
mountain walks of no ordinary character, in the tract of 
country between Nant-y-Moen, and Tregaron, and from thence 
to Rhayader by Strata Florida Abbey and Cwm Elan. 

During the summer of 1865, I travelled over the mountain 
route from Llandovery to Tregaron with my friend, the late Rev. 
Jas. Hughes of Glan Rheidol in Cardiganshire, who had in his 
possession a portion of the once celebrated horn of the great 
Bannog ox, said to have been preserved in the Church of 
Llanddewi Brefi ever since the days of St. David. Anxious to 
investigate the history of this relic, we visited Llanddewi 
Brefi, where we received much information from the vicar, and 
ascertained that the portion of horn now in the possession of 
Mr. Parry, had been given many years ago to his uncle by the 
sexton of the parish. The following is the note in Gough's 
Camden. " The sexton showed him a rarity called Mathorn 
yr jch Bannog, which he said had been preserved there ever 
since the time of St. David, adding the fable of the oxen called 
Ychen Bannog which drew away a monstrous beaver dead." 
On examining this relic I found it to be a portion of the horn 
of Bos primigenius well fossilised. It is curious, too, that the 
legends of the great ox should be connected with the legends 
of the now extinct beaver which, from the accounts of 
Giraldus, must have inhabited the Teifi lake and river in the 
time of Henry II. Giraldus especially treats of the beaver, 
and the peculiar construction of their u castles " in the middle 
of rivers. He speaks of beavers abounding in Germany and 
the Arctic ( ?) regions, "in Germania Artoisque regionibus." 
He mentions also, that the river Teivi is remarkable for 
its salmon, which are finer and more abundant than in any 
other river in Wales, and he dilates on the peculiar manner of 
the salmon-leaping. 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 123 

Cam den says that the beaver was unknown in the Teifi in 
his time. This Teifi beaver was doubtless the same as the 
Castor Europseus which also inhabited the Thames, and the 
contemporaries of which have left so many of their heads and 
jaws in the peat marls of Cambridgeshire. The beaver is 
specified in the laws of Hywel Dda (A.D. 930) as the broad tail, 
to distinguish it from the otter or water-dog. There is a large 
tract of marsh and bog between Tregaron and Pont-rhyd- 
vendigiad which must have been a lake in no very remote 
times, and which is very likely to furnish the bones of this 
animal. In North Wales we find that Nantffrancon signifies 
the valley of the beaver. 

There are some interesting legends connected with Lland- 
dewi Brevi, although this lonely village is the last place one 
would have expected a saint to have selected for the 
working of miracles and the display of supernatural mani- 
festations. It is a wretched place now, and it was no better 
in the times of Henry VIII. ; for Leland describes it as 
" but a simple and poore village." And yet it was at Llanddewi 
that St. David, " so remarkable for his sanctity and religion," 
compassed a miracle which astonished even Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, who was capable of swallowing any amount of 
astounding statements. 

Here a Synod was held, about the year 519, "and all the 
bishops, abbots, and clergy of Wales, and many other persons, 
were collected thither on account of the Pelagian heresy." The 
people, it appears, declined to listen to the bishops, and the 
abbots, and the clergy of Wales, and made strong objections 
to accepting the Catholic faith, when it was determined to 
send for St. David, who joined the convocation and preached 
to some purpose, for " a snow-white dove, descending from 
heaven, sate upon his shoulders ; moreover, the earth on which 
he stood raised itself under him till it became a hill." On the 
top of which hill a church was afterwards built, which remains 
to this day. 

It is probable that the church of Llanddewi is built upon a 
volcanic dyke, for, although we could find no section, there 



124 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

are several trap-like bosses between that place and Tregaron, 
and in the immediate vicinity we saw columnar portions of 
rock used for gate-posts. This dyke is of the Caradoc period, 
the time of its eruption, and the subsequent denudation of the 
country, dating from times far earlier than those of St. David. 
At Tregaron, the geologist will observe the way in which a 
vast mass of boulder clay, and till, once blocked up the outlet 
of the Teifi river, near the present bridge, and which no doubt 
once constituted the barrier of a large lake now silted into 
marsh and bog. 

Between Tregaron and these lakes, we pass the ruins of the 
once celebrated monastery of Stratflur, or Strata Florida Abbey. 
It is difficult to imagine that a monastery, situated in this 
wild district, should have been, for a long period, the centre of 
civilization, the repository of the national records of Wales, 
and the burial place of many of the princes and nobles of the 
land. And yet it is a spot that might well have been selected 
by such severe recluses as were the Cistercian monks. Now, 
all that is left of this once revered sanctuary, is a single rich 
Norman arch, surrounded by neglect and desolation, and hard 
by is a parish church which might be the temple of a savage 
race, so mean and wretched is its structure. 

The Abbey of Strata Florida was founded A.D. 1164, by 
Rhys Ap Grruifydth, Prince of South "Wales, and his donations 
were confirmed by Henry II. It has been said that the Abbey 
was erected in 1184, but this is not probable, as we find 
Archbishop Baldwin, and Giraldus Cambrensis, passing the 
night there on their road to Llanddewi Brevi in 1188, and the 
building would hardly have been completed in four years. 
Giraldus also sent his library to Stratflur for safety. In 1238 
Prince Llewellyn Ap Jorworth held a great assembly here. 
The abbey was burnt down in 1294 by the order of Edward I., 
and, although he afterwards granted the sum of seventy-eight 
pounds sterling to help to rebuild it, it never recovered its former 
grandeur, and was afterwards suppressed by Henry VIII. 
Leland, speaking of the monastery as it was in Henry's time, 
says " The Church of Strateflere is larg, side ilid, and cross 



PLATE II. 




1. Scolithus -worm burn 

2. jEgliua caligino,s;i. 

a. Diplograpsus pristis. 

4. llln-iius Howmanuii. 

5. Trinucleus. 



6. Ogygia Sehvyuii. 

7. Orthis c;illigr.mimii. 

8. Agtiostus Maccoyi. 

9. Obolelbi. 

10. Hph?ronites munitu: 



11. EchinosphiL-rites 13ul- 

thicus. 

12. Patetster asper.nus. 

13. Asaphus tyrannus. 

14. ProUister 8alteri. 

\Paye 12j. 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILTJKIAN KOCKS. 125 

ilid. By, is a large eloyster, the fraytry and infirmitori be now 
mere ruines. The cemeteri, wherein the counteri about doth 
buri, is very large and meanly waullid with stoones. In it be 
XXXIX. great hue trees." Dugdale has preserved many 
memorials of this abbey ; but Camden merely alludes to it as 
a monastery of the Cluniacs. 

It is interesting to observe the physical features of a 
peculiar district in the walk from the Teifi lakes to Rhayader, 
but there are few fossils to be met with. Caradoc fossils may 
be found between Rhayader and Builth, and among them is 
a typical fossil, Orthoceras vagans, one of those chambered 
shells, allied to the Nautilus, which were so abundant in the 
Upper Silurian seas. 

Caermarthen stands on the Caradoc rocks, which stretch far 
and wide towards the north. They are singularly uninteresting 
to the geologist the whole way from Caermarthen to Aberyst- 
with, by Lampeter, and I have never seen a fossil from these 
rocks all along this line of country. The old river drifts are 
instructive and worthy of observation. 

In Pembrokeshire there is a section at Sholeshook, about a 
mile north of Haverfordwest, which has furnished some Cystidias 
and many other typical fossils of the Bala and Caradoc strata. 
The whole country is faulted to such an extent as to render it 
difficult to comprehend the position of the rocks. At Robeston 
"Wathen, Caradoc fossils may be found in limestones ; but 
here care must be taken not to confound the Caradoc lime- 
stones with the Llandeilo limestones of Llanddewi Felfry, and 
Lampeter Felfry, for there, as at Llandeilo, they are brought 
close together by faults. 

ORGANIC REMAINS OF THE LLANDEILO AND CARADOC STRATA. 

The " Silurian System " of Sir R. Murchison was the first 
work in which the fossils belonging to this great formation 
were classified, and in which the geological position they 
occupy was determined and assigned to them. Some of the 
shells, however, had been figured and described by Mr. James 
Sowerby, in his " Mineral Couchology." 



126 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. iv. 

As the present work deals only with, the most typical forms, 
the reader should turn to " Siluria" for details and references, 
and consult the " Mem. Geol. Survey," vol. iii. 

Among the fossils of the Llandeilo formation, Graptolites are 
very abundant, indeed in some localities they appear to have 
existed in such vast numbers as to have formed Carbonaceous 
matter in the rocks. These fossils are known only in Silurian 
rocks, the double Graptolites being typical of the Lower 
Silurian series. It was formerly believed that Graptolites 
were allied to the Pennatulidse, but they are now supposed to 
be Hydroid Zoophytes, while some naturalists, again, consider 
that they belong to the Bryozoa (low forms of coral like 
Mollusks). Thus the question of their place in Nature is not 
yet settled. 

There are several forms of the true coral in the Llandeilo 
rocks, and among them the well-known Chain coral (Halysites 
catenularius), which occurs so frequently in the Wenlock lime- 
stone of the Upper Silurians. 

In the Llandeilo rocks appear also Orthoceratites Avelinii 
and 0. encrinale, and the curved forms of Cephalopod, Lituites, 
and Cyrtoceras. Some forms of Brachiopoda are abundant, 
especially the Orthides. The Orthis is known by its straight 
jL . . huge line ; the simple plaited species are most characteristic 
] 'of the Llandeilo and Caradoc beds. Certain forms of Gastero- 
poda, which include such animals as land snails, sea snails, 
whelks, volutes, cowries, &c., are found in the Lower Silurians. 

The genus Euomphalus, allied to Turbo, occurs in the 
Llandeilo rocks, with Ophileta, and other genera. The true 
Bivalves, or Conchifers, are poorly represented ; but Cucullella, 
and Ctenodonta, forms allied to Area, and Nucula, have been 
determined from these old strata. Trilobites absolutely swarmed 
in the seas of both the Lower and Upper Silurian periods. 
The genera most typical of the Lower Silurian rocks are 
Asaphus, Ogygia, and Trinucleus. 

Some beautiful forms of the Radiata occur in the Caradoc 
formation. A Cystidean (Echinospha3rites) is found in the 
Caradoc rocks of Bala, and Sholeshook, near Haverfordwest, 



CHAP, iv.] LOWER SILURIAN ROCKS. 127 

and a beautiful Crinoid (Glyptocrinus basalis), with two species 
of Star-fish (Pateaster), have been found near Welshpool, at 
Meifod, at Bala, Corwen, and in other localities. Crinoids 
are quite common in rocks of this age in Canada. 

Notwithstanding the delicate and beautiful organization of 
the Cystidea, Crinoidal animals and Star-fish, they all belong 
to one of the lower divisions of the animal kingdom, that of 
the Echinodermaia. The Cystidea appear to have been low 
forms of the Crinoidea or lily-shaped, animals, as the arms and 
tentacula are very short, and in some cases entirely wanting. 
The true Crinoids, which have not yet been met with below 
the Caradoc rocks, must have somewhat resembled a highly 
developed polype, supported upon a long calcareous stem, and 
consisting of innumerable pieces of definite shape, which, com- 
bined, formed a complete internal skeleton. The stems and 
arms of the flower -like animal were capable of bending and 
sweeping in every direction, the arms acting as instruments 
for seizing the prey, and conveying it to the mouth, in the 
centre of the body. 

The Star-fish are more highly developed than the Crinoidea, 
being capable of motion by suckers. In the Caradoc rocks the 
different organisms are more numerous and varied than in the 
lower rocks : new sponges, corals, bryozoa, brachiopod shells, 
conchifera, with many new gasteropoda, or sea snails, and 
pteropoda. Among the brachiopoda, we have the genera 
Rhynconella, Atrypa, Discina, and Strophomena, and among 
the Conchifera, the genera Ambonychia, Cardiola, and 
Ctenodonta. The Gasteropoda furnish many species of Mur- 
chisonia, with Holopella, Cyclonema, and Patella. The 
typical genera of the numerous Trilobites of the Caradoc 
rocks are Acidaspis, Harpes, Trinucleus, Illcenus, Cheirurus, 
and Asaphus. 

It will be seen that as yet no evidence has been detected of 
the existence of fresh water lakes or fresh water deposits, 
although we may feel assured that they were not wanting 
during the Lower Silurian epoch ; neither have we any proofs 
of the existence of vertebrate animals ; even fishes have not 



128 



KKCOllDS OF THE ROCKS. 



yet beeii discovered, notwithstanding that the remains of many 
types of other existing marine animals have been disinterred 
from the rocks. 

As we ascend the geological ladder in the series of stratified 
deposits, and read later chapters in the earth's history, we find 
that certain forms of animal life, which existed during the 
earlier epochs, dwindled, decayed, and gradually died out. 
Such is the case with the whole group of Graptolites, so 
abundant in Lower Silurian strata, but which are unknown 
in formations more recent than those of Upper Silurian 
strata. 




CHAPTER V. 



MIDDLE SILURIAN ROCKS. 



Lower Llandovery Rocks Noedd-y-grug Mallwyd Pont-y-Mynach Signs 
of Glacial Action around Llyn Rheidol Plynlimmon Rhayader Gwy 
Staff of St. Cyric in St. Harmon's Church Upper Llandovery or May 
Hill Sandstone Church Stretton Stokesay Castle Conglomerates at 
Old Radnor The Malvern Hills Section in Malvern Tunnel Discovery 
of Pterygotus problematicus at Eastnor Howler's Heath Fungi of The 
Lickey Quartz Rock of May Hill Marloes Bay Tarannon Shales 
Llandrindrod Cefn Llys Church Fossils of Middle Silurian Rocks. 



Tarannon Shales. 



Upper Llandovery Rocks, or 
May Hill Sandstone. 



Lower Llandovery Rocks. 



TYPICAL FOSSILS. 
Rare. Wenlock forms. 

Stricklandinia lens. 
Peutamerus oblongus. 
P. liratus. 
P. undatus. 
Nucu 



Shells. 



Trilobites. Few, and not characteristic 
of the formation. 



Shells. 



Atrypa crassa. 

A. reticularis. 

A. hemispherica. 

Murchisonia. 

Orthoceras. 

Lituites. 

Cyrtoceras. 



IN the above classification of the Middle Silurian rocks, 
I have followed the advice of the late Mr. Salter, who 
divided them both from the true Lower Silurian deposits on 
the one hand, and the typical overlying Upper Silurians on 
tiie other. 



130 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

LOWER LLANDOVERY ROCKS. 

These strata derive their name from the pleasant town of 
Llandovery in Caermarthenshire, round which they are 
exposed. They are also well exhibited to the north and west 

NOEDD-Y-GRtJO. 



n. Schists, A*c., representing- the Caradoc formation. 6. Lower Llandovery rocks 
(Llandovery Sandstone), c. Upper Llandovery rocks : equivalent of the May Hill 
Sandstone. </. Tarannon Shale, or 'pale slate.' . Wen lock and other Upper Silurian 
strata without subdividing limestones. /. Base of Old Red Sandstone. (Compare 
with Section, Sil. Syst. pi. 34, f. 3.) 



of Llandeilo. These rocks are unknown in the typical Silurian 
country, and at Llandovery it appears that they are unconform- 
able both to the underlying Caradoc rocks, and to the overlying 
May Hill beds (or Upper Llandovery rocks) and Upper Silu- 
rians. The best district for studying the Lower Landovery 
beds is the singular, bare, tract of hilly country called Noedd-y- 
grug, and on the Mwnifre hills to the north-east of Llandovery. 

It is a fine walk for a geologist to cross from the Old Red 
Tilestones of the Mynydd-Eppynt on the south-east by Castell- 
Craig-gwyddon, over Noedd-y-grug to Cerrig-gwynion on the 
north-west. It is one of Murchison's " Silurian System " sec- 
tions, and an extremely difficult bit of ground to unravel. 
Between Noedd-y-grug and Cefn-y-garreg, the strata are curved 
into basin-like depressions, and this hollow should be visited 
in order to understand the marked and peculiar character of 
this rugged tract. 

Some years ago I had the pleasure of conducting my friend 
Prof. Harkness over this section, and he was much struck with 
the peculiarity of the basin-like depressions and synclinals be- 
tween the hills. At Pont Dreinan, the large hollow at the foot 
of Cefn-y-garreg, Pentamerus oblongus, Petraia, and other May 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN ROCKS. 131 

Hill sandstone (Upper Llandovery) fossils, occur in the shelves 
of the strata, that crop out one above the other. The best 
method of tracing the beds downwards is to follow the course 
of the stream, by the gorge of Glynmock, where the Lower 
Llandovery rocks are seen to underlie the Noedd-y-grug penta- 
merus rocks. Atrypa crassa, a typical Lower Llandovery shell, 
is found at Cefn-y-garreg in coarse gritty slates in the beds 
below the May Hill sandstone. 

Some species of fossils occur for the first time in the Lower 
Llandovery rocks, such as the genus Pentamerus and Atrypa 
reticularis. Fossils are rare, however, and the best specimens 
I saw from this district were in the possession of Miss Hughes, 
daughter of the Bishop of St. Asaph, and there were also a few 
at the College, including Atrypa crassa, a Trilobite, a Pentame- 
rus, and a sponge. To the east of Llandovery the rocks of this 
formation rise into the undulations of Noedd-y-grug, and then 
rolling over to the west, cap the hills and higher grounds of 
South Wales, where later investigations prove that they occupy 
large tracks marked as Caradoc beds on the maps of the survey. 
Besides the localities already mentioned, the geologist should 
make a point of visiting Cefn Ehyddan, two miles S.S.W. of 
Llandovery, where there are vertical flagstones with the cha- 
racteristic fossil Atrypa crassa, also found at Mandinam, near 
Llangadock. 

The trained geologist who may wish to try his skill at con- 
structing a geometrical section of a difficult piece of ground, 
may take the country from the Llandovery valley on the north, 
to the ten-ace in Cilgyn Park, and Blaen-y-Cwm on the south. 
It will reward him by its complexity of structure ; and in a hilly 
tract of ground, not three miles square, he may gather in 
succession, Caradoc, Lower Llandovery, Upper Llandovery, 
and Wenlock fossils. We must not fail to note the old river 
Drifts along the Towy side, and the evidence we perceive, on 
the Builth railroad, of the way in which great masses of 
boulder clay with well scored and grooved blocks of stone 
have been deposited. 

The Upper Llandovery strata are wanting in North Wales, 

K 2 



132 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

(so also are the Lower Llandovery series in Siluria proper), but 
the Lower Llandovery rocks have been determined in this part 
of the country, and it has been ascertained, both from their 
position and fossils, that they overlie the Caradoc rocks to the 
south-east of Bala, and thicken greatly in their strike south- 
wards. They do not occur between Bala and Conway. In 
Merionethshire, fossils are almost unknown in these beds, and 
the strata may be distinguished from the underlying Bala, or 
Caradoc, slaty rocks by their sandy appearance. They are also 
marked by a conglomerate, showing that an alteration was 
taking place in mineral depositions ; while a certain change in 
the fossils informs the palaaontologist that new species of shells 
and trilobites had succeeded the species common to the Caradoc 
seas. There is no apparent unconfor inability between the Bala 
beds and the Lower Llandovery in the Merionethshire district. 

When visiting the neighbourhood of Bala, the geologist 
should extend his excursions to Mallwyd, where, besides the 
fine scenery, he will also have an opportunity of making out 
the correlation of the Lower Llandovery deposits with the 
Caradoc rocks of Dinas Mowddwy and the overlying Tarannou 
shales. 

The Lower Llandovery strata have also been determined in 
Montgomeryshire, in the Meifod and Welshpool districts. 
They occur in limestone bands with Pentamerus, and Petraia, 
and associated with conglomerates, on the banks of the 
Fyrnwy, south-west of Meifod, and also at Guilsfield, near 
Welshpool. Mr. Salter has quoted fossils as having been 
collected by himself and Prof. Sedgwick from several loca- 
lities, many of them being undescribed species. 

Strata of this age, hard, gritty, and unfossiliferous, overlie, 
in many places, the Caradoc rocks of Cardiganshire, Caer- 
marthenshire, and Radnorshire. They cap the heights of 
Plynlimmon, and of many of the highest hills in that country. 
The best rule in determining the line of their separation from 
the underlying rocks of the Caradoc series, is to look out for 
the conglomerate beds and sandy slates of the Lower 
Llandovery. 



MIDDLE SILURIAN ROCKS. 133 

There is a well-known waterfall and bridge about twelve 
miles from Aberystwith, known as the Devil's bridge. The 
place derives its Welsh name of Pont-y-Mynach, or the Monk's 
bridge, from the fact that the old bridge, for there is a double 
arch, was supposed to have been the work of the monks of 
Ystradfflur, or Strata Florida Abbey. The romantic scenery 
of the Devil's bridge and Pont Erwyd may well invite the 
geologist to enjoy the beauty of its denies ; but we cannot re- 
commend the physical geology to a stranger, and although a 
few fossils, including the characteristic A try pa crassa, have 
been found at the rocky promontory where the Mynach 
empties its waters into the Ptheidol, they are extremely scarce. 
The rocks are hard unfossiliferous slates and grits, and, in 
fact, the whole district is so contorted and undulating that, in 
the general absence of fossils, it is impossible to arrive at any 
definite conclusions. Thus the discovery of two or three 
fossils here is of great importance, and the evidence proves 
the capping, at least, of these Plynlimmon strata to be of the 
same age as that of Noedd-y-grug, and the grits of Dolfan, 
between Builth and Rhayader. 

The botanist will find some good ferns among the black, 
drippVag rocks that overhang the Kheidol at Pont Bren, near 
the Devil's bridge. Hymenophyllum Wilsoni grows there in 
considerable abundance, and Cistopteris fragilis flourishes on 
the bridge itself. 

The Lisburne lead mines are the most important in Cardi- 
ganshire, and it appears that the veins of ore and dykes of trap- 
rock run from east to west, while from the inquiries I made, 
it seems that the lead ore is always more or less associated 
with volcanic infiltrations of later date than the age of the 
deposition of the Lower Llandovery strata. 

In going from the Devil's bridge to Plynlimmon we may 
take the route through Yspytty Cenfaen, which, with Yspytty 
Ystradmeirig between Hatbd and Tregaron, are believed to 
have been Hospitia, or places of shelter, established in this 
wild region by the monks of Stratflur. The church of Cenfaen, 
or Cefn-y-faen, is said to have been erected within an ancient 



134 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

circle of large stones, or otherwise the name may apply to the 
rocky ridge behind the church. By following the course of the 
river Rheidol, from the falls of the Castel, and Rheidol, at Pont 
Erwyd to the lake called Llyn Rheidol, we may see some rock 
sections, and also the signs of ancient ice action along the hill 
sides. The action of streams too, among the upper slopes of 
the hills, lay bare a sandy drift among the bogs and morasses. 
It contains drift stones and pebbles, which, as far as I know, 
do not belong to the district, and which eventually will pro- 
bably prove to be glacial marine drifts on the flanks of Plyn- 
limmon. Crossing Plynlimmon to the Lyn Havren, the con- 
glomerates and sandy slates between the lake and Llanidloes 
are, for the most part, Lower Llandovery deposits. The Severn 
rises on the north-west of the hill, but I do not recommend 
crossing Plynlimmon from Pont Erwyd in order to reach the 
sources of the river. The walk is long and fatiguing, and the 
ground absolutely dangerous from morasses. The Rheidol 
ascent is far better. 

At Rhaiader Gwy, the "cataract of the Wye," we find 
beautiful rock, river, and mountain scenery, good botany, 
interesting archeology, and some very difficult physical 
geology not yet fully worked out. Nothing remains of the 
Castle save the fosse ; but Welsh archaeologists inform us that 
the fortress \vas built by Rhys-ap-Gruffydd, the same Prince 
of South Wales Avho met Archbishop Baldwin and Giraldus 
Cambrensis at Radnor in 1188, and who erected the castle 
about the year 1188, to check the incursions of the Normans. 
Powell, however, in his " Welsh Chronicle," says : " At this 
time (A.D. 1178) the Lord Rees did build the castell of Rayder 
Gwy, that is to saaie, the fall of Wye ; for the river Wye falleth 
there over a great and high rocke." The ancient name of tha 
Rhayader district is Warthrenion, and according to Giraldus it 
was famous in the days of Henry II. for prodigies and miracles. 
The archasologist will find a small church, now called St. Har- 
mon's, three miles from Rhayader, which, according to Sir R. 
Colt Hoare, is the church of St. Germanus of Giraldus. Here 
there was a staff of St. Cyric, which was especially efficacious 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN ROCKS. 135 

in the removal of glandular swellings, if " devout application 
to the staff were made," " with the oblation of one penny." 
The staff, however, was somewhat particular about receiving 
its due tribute, as it happened in the days of Giraldus that a 
patient presenting a halfpenny the disease subsided only in the 
middle ; and another coming with the promise of a penny was 
cured, but failing to fulfil his engagement, his sufferings re- 
turned, and he had to pay threepence to obtain a cure. 

Camden says that near " Rhaiadr Gwy there is a vast 
wilderness, dismal to behold by reason of many crooked 
ways and high mountains, into which, as a safe place of refuge, 
that bane of his native country, King Vortigern (whose very 
memory the Britons curse), withdrew himself." This "wilder- 
ness of crooked ways " is believed by local authorities to be 
the glen of the Marteg stream, and the Nannerth rocks beyond 
St. Harmons. 

From Rhayader Gwy I particularly recommend a visit to the 
Drygan mountain, which consists of Lower Llandovery rocks, 
apparently metamorphosed in some places, and where evidences 
remain of the last of one of the glaciers among the "Welsh 
mountains. On the west side is a little glacial lake surrounded 
with moraine matter. This lake contains the finest trout in 
the country, and the legend is that they were introduced into 
it by St. Cyric. They feed upon a small leech, and a fresh- 
water shell, one of the Lymneas. 

The geologist may examine the hills of Dolfan, Rhiwgraid, 
and Gwastaden, the summits of which exhibit Llandovery 
sandstones and conglomerates, much contorted ; while the 
Upper Silurians come in on the east of Dolfan, in the vale of 
the Ithon. 

Some years ago, I was inclined to believe that the boulder 
masses of conglomerate, which lie so thick as boulders, between 
Dolfan and the Builth district, and which occur so frequently 
in the till along the river courses, were Harlech Conglomerates 
from North Wales. Later investigations convince me that 
they are conglomerates of the Lower Llandovery age, and that 
they are local witnesses of the enormous denunciation and 



136 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP v. 

erosion which have been at work over the whole of this country. 
Here and there, too, are boulders of slaty grits. 

Slaty rocks and conglomerates, all much twisted and 
contorted, are seen in the gorges of the Elan river. A fine 
walk may be taken from Khayader to Cwm Elan, crossing the 
summit of Cefn Craig-y-Foel, whose crags are composed of 
interstratified Llaudovery slates and coarse conglomerates. 
The views are very beautiful from Cwm Elan. When I was 
at Ehayader, several years ago, the lead mines in the Clarwen 
were being worked, and the rubbish was poisoning the fish 
without a sufficient quantity of ore being extracted to pay the 
miners. I saw some rich specimens of ore, which (as was the 
case, no doubt, "with some of the Dolgelly gold) may have been 
imported, for the occasion, to Nant-y-Car, and also some hand 
specimens of greenstone said to have been found at Dalrhiw. 
There is, I expect, a trap dyke running from the Drygan, 
across the hills to Cefn Craig-y-Foel, which disturbs the strata, 
and lead ore occurs thinly along its strike. 



BADNORSHIEE, S. OF LLANBISTER. 
N.W. 




b. Tarannon shales (pale slates), e. Denbigh grits, &c. d. Wenlock shale in its 
ordinary characters. 



MAY HILL SANDSTONE. 

(UPPER LLANDOVERY OF MURCHISOu). 

These strata were originally confounded with the Caradoc 
rocks, but, at length, their proper horizon aud position were 
determined by the Rev. T. T. Lewis, Prof. Sedgwick, and 
Prof. McCoy, and their unconformability was worked out by 
Messrs. Aveline and Salter. 

They are nowhere exposed in North Wales, although the 
Tarannon shales, which immediately overlie them, attain their 
greatest thickness in Montgomeryshire. In Shropshire, they 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN EOCKS. 137 

skirt the Longmynds in a triple division of grit, limestone, and 
shale, and range to Builth, Llandovery, and Llandeilo, being 
also developed as far south as Pembrokeshire, where they occur 
at St. Marloes Bay. The upper beds are brownish yellow 
sandstones with thin limestones often concretionary, and there 
are conglomeratic beds at their base in many localities. As 
these rocks are of very little use for building or lime burning, 
they are rarely quarried to much extent. 

With reference to their organic remains, Pentamerus lasvis, 
P. oblongus, Stricklandinia lens, Petraia bina, and Tentaculites 
annulatus, may be said to be th& typical fossils. 

It was as long ago as in 1850, that my friend the late Rev. 
T. T. Lewis accompanied me from Aymestry to the Church 
Stretton district, and pointed out to me the site of a small 
quarry near the Hollies farm, to which, twenty years before, he 
had also conducted Sir R. I. Murchison, who was then engaged 
upon his " Silurian System." Here they obtained the typical 
Upper Llandovery fossils, and, although Mr. Lewis always 
maintained the unconformability of the Hollies limestone to 
the underlying Horderly, or Caradoc beds, the mineralogical 
similarity of the strata and the close proximity of one group of 
rocks to the other, at the Hollies Farm, misled Murchison, 
eventually, with regard to their true strati graphical position in 
this and in other localities. 

In 1855 I once more visited this spot with Sir C. Lyell and 
Mr. Lewis, who again pointed out how the farmhouse was 
built on Caradoc sandstone full of Bala fossils, and how the 
true May Hill beds abutted, and rested against them in other 
places. I mention these facts because I believe that Mr. 
Lewis endeavoured to convince Sir Roderick of this unconfor- 
mability, years before it was acknowledged and accepted. 

When tracing out the position of the May Hill rocks, the 
geologist cannot do better than again take up his quarters at 
the Craven Arms, Stokesay, and while pursuing his investiga- 
tions he must not omit to visit Stokesay Castle, a good 
specimen of the castellated mansion of former days. It was 
the abode of the Ludlow family in the reign of Edward I., for, 



133 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. v. 



in 1291 Laurence de Ludlowe obtained a license to strengthen 
with a wall of lime and stone, and to crenellate his mansion of 
Stokesay. "What now remains of the castle is supposed to 
be his work. The chimney piece of 
.2 carved oak is said to be of the time 
of Charles II., and the remarkable 
J gate-house of wooden framework 
| covered with carving, is believed to 
-A belong to the Elizabethan period. Of 
jo late years, this ancient gate-house has 
often afforded a night's shelter to the 
I" roaming geologist, who came to in- 
| vestigate the intricate section of the 
a Onny river, or knock out the fine 
^ Pentamerus Knightii from the "View 
Edge " which towers above the vale. 
* In the old hall there is, or was, an 
admirable model of the surrounding 

J country coloured geologically by the 
hands of my friend and brother geo- 
| logist the Eev. J. D. La Touche, 

JBK e g rector of the parish, and well known 
' for his extensive knowledge of the 
H&S z country. Ko geologist should pass his 
g door ! 

| I do not consider the much-visited 
I Onny section at all the place to under- 
^ stand the correlation of the May Hill 
rocks with the overlying and tinder- 
s' lying strata. In order to comprehend 
g their relations with the other beds in 
^ this district, it is necessary to observe 
r how they range unconformably round 
the Longmynds, resting in one place 
against Cambrian slates, in another against Llandeilo rocks, 
and in another against Caradoc rocks. I have already alluded 
to the section in the Onuy river at Cheney Longville. It is a 



t 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN ROCKS. 139 

celebrated section, but a very difficult one to see, and here the 
Hollies Pentamerus beds abut against the Caradoc rocks, con- 
taining the characteristic trilobite Trinucleus caractaci, and 
the Tarannon shale appears under the form of purple shales, 
much resembling those observed in the Malvern tunnel above 
the May Hill (Hollies) limestone. Northwards at the Eaton 
brook, the Hollies limestone forms "Jacob stones," and it 
appears that in an old limekiln near, the walls were built of 
stones from beds full of Bala fossils, in which were burned 
"Jacob stones" full of May Hill fossils, and, as is not sur- 
prising, this conglomeration led Sir E. Murchison wrong. 

The villages of Kinley, and Church Preen, N.E. of Church 
Stretton, are built upon sandstones and conglomerates, which 
lie below the Pentamerus or May Hill beds, while the door sills 
consist of Pentamerus limestone. Following the Caradoc 
strike of rocks north, to the Wrekin, we see them overlapped 
by the Hollies beds. 

In the early days of the Geological Society, and as long ago 
as 1811, Mr. Arthur Aikin drew attention to the many inter- 
esting features which the mineral formations of the county of 
Salop presented to the geological observer, and more especially 
he directed attention to the Wrekin, and the Coalfield of 
Shropshire. Mr. Aikin treats of the trap rocks of the Wrekin, 
and it reads strangely nowadays to find the Wenlock shales 
spoken of as "die earth;" their fossil shells as "bivalves 
chiefly of the genus Cardium," and the trilobite Calymene 
blumenbachii, as the " Entomolithus paradoxus, or Dudley 
fossil." (Trans. Geol. Soc. Old Series p. 199). Nevertheless 
he appears to have recognised the position of these rocks as 
occurring on the flanks of the Wrekin and Caer Caradoc. 
They crop out on the south-eastern slope of the Wrekin, where 
they dip under the Wenlock shales of Buildas. Fossils may 
be found at Gibson's Coppice, and there are also beds of 
conglomerate with jasper and quartz. 

Looking once more southwards we find the upper Llan- 
dovery or May Hill beds exposed at Corton, near Presteign, 
in Radnorshire. They underlie altered Woolhope limestone, 



140 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

cropping out around Nash Hill. They are highly inclined and 
contain the characteristic fossils. 

Again near Old Eadnor they occur as thick pebbly conglo- 
merates underlying the metamorphosed "Woolhope limestone, 
and they are thrown off from the volcanic rocks of Old Radnor 
hill. The conglomerate is well exposed between Harpton 
Court and Stock well. I have seen large transported boulders 
of this Old Eadnor conglomerate on the flanks of the hills 
near Kington, and on eminences as high as the Kington race- 
course, resting on strata which belong to a far higher geological 
position. The peculiar position of this May Hill or Pentamerus 
conglomerate indicates that the seacoast of the. period was 
along its line, as such conglomerates must be formed by shore 
action of the waves or by strong marine currents. Such 
shingle beds are not formed by deep seas. 

At Pencerring, near Builth, these beds are seen to overlie 
unconformably the Llandeilo Flags and interstratified traps, and 
many typical fossils, such as Pentamerus oblongus and Petraia 
occur in a small quarry near the fishpond. 

In the Llandovery district, the Upper series overlie uncon- 
formably the Lower Llandovery grits and building stones, and 
cap the summits of the hills of Noedd-y-grug and Cefn-y- 
garreg. 

In the valley of "Woolhope they rise into the dome of Haugh- 
wood ; but there are no sections, and the beds only crop out 
here and there, as thin brown sandy deposits. 

UPPER LLANDOVERY ROCKS OF THE MALVERN HILLS. 

In his paper " On the Mineralogy of the Malvern Hills " 
(Transactions of Geological Soc. Vol I. 1811) Mr. Leonard 
Horner evidently recognised the occurrence of the May Hill 
rocks among the stratified deposits on the western side of the 
Malverns, and he speaks of them as " compact quartoze sand- 
stones " containing impressions of fossils, while he notices a 
peculiar feature in the Pentamerus sandstones, viz., the 
tendency to " break into rhomboidal fragments " and this is the 
characteristic tendency of these beds. In the Malvern and 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN KOCKS. HI 

Abberley districts, Professor Phillips calculated that these strata 
assume a thickness of 600 feet ; and with regard to the 
Malvern Hills, it is worthy of remark that fragments and up- 
lifted outliers have been found clinging, as it were, to the axis 
of the range, against which they must have been deposited as 

SECTION FROM THE MALVERN HILLS TO LEDBURT. 

W. E. 

Ledbury. Eastnor. Obelisk. Malvern Hills. 



j i hg f t f g f e d e b a a 

This woodcut, slightly modified from a coloured section in the " Silurian System " 
(pi. :W, f. S). explains the general order and the undulations on the west side of the 
Malvern Hills, in the parallel of Midsummer Hill, Eastnor Park, and Ledbury. The 
eruptive rock.s, *, of the Malvern ridge are associated with and flanked by crystalline 
oilstone, schists, and gneissic rocks, a. To the west these are followed by the Holly- 
bush Sandstone and the Black Schists with Olenus. 6. The Upper Llandovery Sand- 
stone and Conglomerate are marked by c ; their higher portion dips down from the 
Obelisk Hill of Eastnor, and passes under the Woolhope, or Lower Wenlock limestone, 
d. The latter is followed by the Wenlock shale, e, and the Wenlock limestone,/; 
which last, bending under the Lower Ludlow, g, reappears in a dome that throws off 
towards Ledbury the whole of the Ludlow formation, h t, after a flexure in Wellington 
Heath, under the Old Red Sandstone, j. 



a. submarine shingle beach, the elevatory movements which 
affected the Malvern axis having carried up the May Hill and 
Pentamerus beds on its flanks. Such is the case at the Pass 
of the Wind's Point, where, above Mr. Johnson's residence, Mr. 
Dyson found them resting uucomformably upon the old 
stratified and contorted gneiss. At the Holly Bush Hill, Dr. 
Holl found them resting against, and overlapping, the black 
shales; and again at the "Ragged stone," where I myself found 
their fossiliferous sandstones overlapping the green Holly Bush 
sandstones of the eastern quarry, on the Ledbury high road. 

When engaged in investigating the sections in the Malvern 
tunnel, on the Worcester and Hereford railway, in 1861, I had 
the advantage of seeing and measuring foot by foot, an excellent 
section of the grey and purple slates which intervene between 
tke Woolhope limestone, and the Pentamerus, or May Hill 
sandstones and purple mudstones. The conclusions I arrived 
at, were, that in the Malvern district the May Hill strata lay at 



142 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

the base of all the Upper Silurian rocks. It was also evident 
that a considerable portion of the Malvern range must have 
lain beneath the seas of this Upper Llandovery period during 
the deposition of the May Hill strata, and their marine shells, 
for we found, almost in the centre of the axis, two thin bands 
of May Hill, or Upper Llandovery, limestone with strata of 
marl shales two feet thick, lying in a fissure of the gneiss. 
In these shales the Rev. Reginald Hill, Hon. Secretary of the 
Malvern Field Club, was the first to find specimens of the 
Pentameri so characteristic of these strata. We found evidences 
of great pressure and crushing, but no signs of any metamor- 
phism or alteration by volcanic agency. The sedimentary 
deposits were evidently laid down in a fissure in the syenitic 
axis, during that far distant epoch, when the waves of the 
Upper Llandovery seas washed above the syenitic range of the 
Malvern gneiss, and when the hills themselves must have been 
a submarine ridge, of which the rocky axis, even in that far 
remote period, was as consolidated and mineralised as at 
present. 

An interesting point for the lover of physical geology 
occurs near the pass known as the Gullet, east of the obelisk 
in Eastnor Park, and near a keeper's lodge. Here, by follow- 
ing the stream down the Fair Oaks vale, beds of Llandovery 
rock with fossils may be seen caught up in the hollows of the 
syenitic gneiss down which the streamlet flows, and from their 
position in this hollow, as well as on the eastern flank of the 
Swinyard Hill, it is evident that they extended on the eastern 
as well as on the western sides of the Malvern axis. 

The May Hill beds strike north in a kind of escarpment, 
passing above Bronsil Castle, and below the obelisk in Eastnor 
Park, up to the northern end of Midsummer Hill. In the 
" Silurian pass " of Phillips, they rest, as in the Malvern tunnel, 
directly against the old syenitic rocks. In Dr. Grindrod's 
Museum at Townshend House, Great Malvem, there are a 
number of plant like fossils which were obtained from the shales 
on the western side of the Malvern tunnel. They are similar 
to the specimen found by my friend Mr. Lees, the President of 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN EOCKS. 143 

the Malvern Club, and which was figured by Sir R. Murchison 
in " Siluria " (2nd. ed. p. 106). Mr. Salter informed me that 
he thought these branched, plant like bodies would prove 
eventually to be graptoloid animals, and not seaweeds or land 
plants. From the same beds Dr. Grindrod has large slabs of 
shale covered with the casts of that fine shell Stricklandinia 
lens (Atrypa lens of Sil. System). Perhaps the best way of 
collecting some of the characteristic fossils of this group of 
rocks, is to commence at an escarpment of rock exposed near 
the summit of the Gullet Pass. An hour's hammering at this 
little section will supply the geologist with Lingula parallela, 
and Lingula curta, which in these beds have a peculiar 
metallic look, and sometimes a purple tinge. Ctenodonta 
Eastnori (Area East. Sil. System) is a bivalve shell, allied to 
the Arcades, and Nuculse, and in some specimens found at the 
Gullet Pass, the teeth of the hinge are well marked. 

Following the path towards Bronsil westward, we come upon 
other hollows where a little rock has been excavated below the 
obelisk. In the first of these small rock sections the geologist 
may find besides Lingula, casts of a large Pterinea, a bivalve 
shell allied to the Aviculidse or wing shells, and of which 
several species occur in the May Hill strata. In the upper 
quarry above the pathway, Mr. John Burrow of Malvern found 
the swimming foot of a highly organised crustacean, Ptery- 
gotus problematicus. The specimen is figured by Sir Wm. 
Jardine in his " Memoirs of Hugh Strickland " (p. 357). The 
Pterygoti are believed to have been allied to the Limulus, or 
King Crab, of the tropical seas. These living Crustacea some- 
times attain the length of two feet, and in the regions they 
inhabit they are used for feeding pigs, the natives also employ- 
ing the horny style at the extremity of the body for pointing 
their arrows. Remains of crustaceans of immense size have 
been found in the Upper Silurian, and Old Red Sandstone 
strata, but this specimen of the Pterygotus occurring in beds 
so ancient as the Upper Llandovery rocks of Eastnor, is at 
present unique. 

At Howler's Heath, on the south-west flank of the Malverns, 



144 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

the Upper Llandovery beds are exposed in small quarries of 
purple and grey grits, dipping round the hill, as if from some 
trappoid masses underneath. These purple grits are overlaid 
by thin brown sandstones which crop out at the surface, in slabs 
used for wall stones, and they contain Pentameri, Stricklandinia 
lens, and numerous casts of Petraia bina. The purple beds 
below them have furnished a very large form of Lingula 
(L. crumena). The only specimens I have ever seen are in the 
collections of Dr. Holl, Mr. Lyell, and in the Museum of 
Practical Geology in Jermyn Street. These purple beds are 
as a rule very unfossilliferous, but the finest specimens of 
Stricklandinia lens I ever obtained were found in these purple 
sandstones, when making an expedition with Mr. Alex. Agassiz 
to Howler's Heath, in hopes of procuring the shell. It occurs 
abundantly in the equivalent strata, the Clinton Group, in 
America. Howler's Heath is particularly barren as regards 
wild flowers, but it is especially rich in fungi of various species, 
so also are the woods on the same beds on May Hill. In 
autumn the Heath is the resort of those who search for rare 
forms of Agarics, and more especially for the edible species, 
such as Cantharellus cibarius, Hydnum repandum, Agaricus 
procerus, &c. After the dry summers of 1869 and 1870, the 
woods of Howler's Heath furnished numerous forms of fungi, 
when it was vain to look for them elsewhere. 

The Lickey is a range of hills, north of the town of Broms- 
grove, where a few years ago the summit was a great waste 
covered with the heather (Calluna vulgaris), the gorse (Ulex 
Europaeus), and the cranberry (Vaccinium Oxycoccus). The 
latter plant still grows on portions of the hill-side, but en- 
closures and cultivation have left little that can now be 
termed " wild " on the Lie-key, and turnips, and clover now 
nourish where a hundred years ago the black cock and grouse 
were not uncommon. Dr. Buckland first made the Lickey 
quartz rock famous, through noticing the quantity of wreck 
derived from the hill masses, which he found dispersed over 
large tracts of country in the shape of gravel and debris. 
From the abundance of these rounded pebbles of " granular 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN ROCKS. 146 

quartz rock," which he observed at Cannock Chace in 
Staffordshire, and at Coleshill, east of Birmingham, at 
Shipston, and Moreton in the Marsh, and even in the vale 
of Evenlode, by Charlbury, this celebrated geologist drew 
conclusions with respect to denudation, and the distribu- 
tion of superficial gravel beds, which he referred to the 
Deluge, and its subsiding waters. Years have passed away, 
and the Deluge, and"Diluvian wave" theories, have given way 
to later investigations and discoveries, but the Lickey quartz 
drifts will ever have a high interest to the physical geologist, 
whether we look upon them as deposited by the waves of an 
iceberg traversed sea' strait, and when the vales of Worcester, 
and Gloucester, were submerged beneath the waves of the 
Malvern straits ; or whether we see them rolled into the 
low level drifts of an ancient Severn or Avon, and mingled 
with the bones of the hysena, the rhinoceros, the hippo- 
potamus, and the bear. My friend Mr. Lucy of Gloucester has 
published, in the Transactions of the Cotteswold Field Club, 
the most exhaustive paper ever penned, upon the subject of 
these northern drifts, and no one who has studied them, as he 
has done, can doubt but that in pre-glacial times, the quartz 
rocks of the Bromsgrove Lickey, had a far greater extension, 
and that in the times of the Severn straits, a most extensive 
denudation took place, and scattered their debris far and wide 
over the country. 

The best route for the examination of the Lickey, is to 
go from Holly Hill to Kendal End, where a ridge of quartzose 
rock is here and there exposed. This ridge is the Lickey 
quartzite, or the metamorphosed sandstone, which in 1834, 
was determined by Sir R. Murchison to be of the same age 
as the May Hill sandstone, then considered by him to be of 
Caradoc age. It was at the northern extremity of Snead's 
Heath, that he found the Pentamerus oblongus, which we now 
know to be so characteristic a fossil of the May Hill, and Upper 
Llandovery deposits, and since then the acquisition of many 
specimens, some of which are from the metamorphosed 
quartzites, settles the point that the quartz rock of the Lickey 



146 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

is altered May Hill sandstone. There is a large quarry 
between Eednall, and Rubery, where the strata are nearly 
horizontal ; it is worthy of observation as showing the eleva- 
tion of the beds. 

The fact that volcanic materials have been injected into the 
Lickey rocks may be seen between Kendal End, and Barnt 
Green, where a dyke of trap penetrates the rocks by means of 
a fissure ; and there is little doubt that the long elevated tract 
called " The Ridgeway," which extends to the south-east, owes 
its elevation to this trappean eruption. It is the western 
watershed of the Arrow brook. 

Thus, at Rubery Hill, Colmers, and Kendal End, we have 
masses of May Hill rock, for the most part much metamor- 
phosed, forced up through the Coal-bearing strata, and the 
overlying Triassic sandstones of the surrounding country, by 
earthquake action accompanied by volcanic infiltration. It is 
a most instructive district, and to the competent geologist well 
worthy of repeated visits. The New Red conglomerates of the 
Trias contain Lickey quartz pebbles, showing that extensive 
denudation took place in Triassic times. 

May Hill, which gives its name to these Upper Llandovery 
rocks, is a great prolongation of the axis of Silurian strata from 
"Woolhope to Purton, and Tortworth, across the Severn into 
Gloucestershire. It is supposed by some to take its name from 
Maia, the mother of Mercury, who we now behold in the 
heavens as one of the Pleiades; while the less antiquarian 
mind attributes the name to the fact, that on May-day in times 
gone by, the good folk of Gloucester danced upon the green, 
among, and around, the firs that are planted on its summit. 
Nowhere in this part of England is there a nobler view ! To 
the north rise the ancient Malverns, the Silurian rocks of Led- 
bury and "Woolhope clothed with wood, and to the north-west- 
ward peep out in the distance the Welsh mountains of Old Red 
Sandstone, with here and there an outlier of Carboniferous 
rocks, telling of the history of denudation between points so 
distant as the Pen Cerrig Calch, near Crickhowell, and the Clee 
Hills in Shropshire. Westward is the Forest of Dean, with its 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN ROCKS. 147 

Old Red base, and all the Carboniferous series on its summit ; 
and eastward is the Severn wandering by the old Norman 
cities of "Worcester, Tewkesbury, and Gloucester, among the 
battle fields of centuries, by ancient cathedrals, abbeys, and 
churches, until it expands into its fine estuary; and far away 
to the south we see its glistening waters bordered by the 
Cotteswold, the Mendip, and the Quantock Hills. 

The Llandovery, or May Hill rocks, throw off newer Upper 
Silurian beds on each side. On one side they are flanked by 
the Passage beds, Old Red, Coal measures, Permian conglome- 
rates, and New Red Sandstone, to which we shall allude else- 
where. But the lowest exposed strata are the fossiliferous 
Upper Llandovery rocks, which rise to the summit of the hill 
and strike on their south-eastern prolongation to Huntley Hill. 
The lower beds of these strata are greenish grit, and con- 
glomerates of grey and purple colours, much faulted and some- 
times nearly vertical, and the upper are grey shales, and thin 
bedded sandstones, with bands of fossils, which, as is generally 
the case in these deposits, appear as casts. The geologist who 
knows these rocks in the Malvern neighbourhood, may bring 
his experience to bear upon the rocks here, although we do not 
recommend May Hill as a locality for the stranger to examine 
the strata which bear its name. The Malvems afford far better 
ground for observation. The best places in the district to see 
the May Hill rocks proper, are Huntley Hill west of Huntley, 
and the south-east of May Hill near Huntley, with the small 
quarries at the summit near the firs. The oldest rock at May 
Hill, is seen on the turnpike road from Gloucester to Ross, near 
the village of Huntley. It stands out from the Triassic plain, 
a dark greenish rock with veins of quartz, and it is certainly 
more or less metamorphosed. Sir R. Murchison thought it 
might be of Cambrian age. After examining it, in company 
with Dr. Holl, and Mr. Salter, we came to the conclusion that 
it must be referred to the lower beds of the May Hill group. 
It underlies the Pentamerus beds, and the overlying group of 
rocks which were deposited on and around its flanks. Mr. 
Turner, formerly of Pauntley, found Lingula parallela in the 

L 2 



148 EECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. v. 

green grits of this quarry. The strata are strangely faulted, 
indeed the Silurians are here set in a frame of faults, with Old 
and New Eed all round. There is probably much more geology 
beneath the dome of May Hill than we are destined to see from 
its surface. In all likelihood, a tunnel through the centre of 
the hill would reveal an axis, consisting of rocks belonging to 
a far older period than that of the Llandovery beds ; it may be 
of Malvern gneiss, or some hardened trap of Laurentian or 
Cambrian date. The same north and south anticlinal which 
rises into the hills of May Hill and Huntley, is prolonged to 
the south, under Newnham ; crosses the Severn at Pyrton Pas- 
sage, and again rises at Tort worth, where the May Hill beds 
are exposed at Long's and Sheay's quarries, Charfield Green, 
and Damory Bridge. They are here traversed and altered by 
trap dykes. 

UPPER LLANDOVERY ROCKS IN SOUTH PEMBROKESHIRE. 

These May Hill and Upper Llandovery rocks, which are so 
discordant to the underlying Lower Silurians wherever seen in 
junction, appear in South Pembrokeshire, where I examined 
them some years ago in company with Sir William Guise. 
They appear in the extraordinary upcast of Silurian rocks 
in Marloes Bay, and Pentameri occur in nearly vertical 
strata. There is a good section taking the island of Gateholm, 
consisting of Old Red Sandstone, and the detached mass of 
Old Red on the mainland. This mass of Old Red is faulted 
against May Hill beds and Wenlock shales, or Tarannon 
shales. 

At Marloes Bay and Wooltack Park, the Pentamerus beds 
are jammed up, tilted, and broken, together with Caradoc 
strata with their fossils, but it is impossible to distinguish the 
one series of strata from the other. As a local geologist 
informed me, " They are slates just like one another, both 
faulted and tilted together, and both affected by that same 
confounding cleavage ; " and so we found them ! 

The mineralogical character of the May Hill beds is much 
changed in this district. North of Milford, they appear 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN EOCKS. 149 

between the Old Red rocks of Steynton and the trap of 
Johnston. Stricklandinia lens and other typical fossils occur 
in these beds, which are also charged with casts of encrinital 

stems. 

TAEANNON SHALES. 

These shales may be studied at Tarannon, a peculiar district 
in Montgomeryshire. The hill and river of Tarannon lie to 
the north-east of Blaen Hafren, the source of the Severn, and 
the Tarannon itself rises in a mountain outlier of Denbighshire 
grits, between Llanbrynmair, and Llanidloes, and west of New 
Town. These shales form the summit of the Middle Silurians. 

They are of a peculiar pale grey colour, hardening sometimes 
into pale slates interstratified with purple and greyish-green 
shales. Between Aran Mowddwy and the south side of the 
Berwyns, they rest unconformably upon Lower Llandovery 
grits and sandstones, and are overlaid conformably by the 
Denbighshire grits. They may be seen near the mouth of the 
Conway, and may be traced up to Melynllyn, between the town 
of Conway and Llanrwst, on the great line of fault along which 
the river flows. The Lower Llandovery strata are not exposed 
in the district between Bala and Conway, being probably 
overlapped by these beds and by the Denbighshire grits. 

There are also sections of these uninteresting beds, exposed 
on the banks of the Wye, near Newbridge, between Builth and 
Rhayadr, above the confluence of the river Ithon. They rest on 
Caradoc and Lower Llandovery strata. 

Sir R. Murchison gives sections, in his last edition of 
" Siluria," showing the position of the Tarannon shales in 
several localities, and in each instance their position is the 
same as that occupied by the Woolhope shales in the Malvern 
tunnel, viz., at the base of the "Wenlock beds and conformable 
to them. In fact, to the west, the Tarannon shales lie at the 
base of the Wenlock and Denbigh rocks (as do the Wool- 
hope shales to the east) all the way from Newbridge to 
Conway. 

Llandrindrod, well known throughout South Wales for its 



150 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

mineral springs, affords good head quarters for the geologist 
studying the Tarannon shales. The great volcanic district of 
Radnorshire extends from Llandegley, and Llanbadarnfawr on 
the north, to Builth, on the south-west ; and Lower, and Upper 
Silurian rocks afford manifold investigations in their intricate 
folds, and displacements. Owing to faulting in the Builth 
country, the Tarannon Shales, which occur near Newbridge, 
are cut out altogether at Pencerrig, north of Builth, in the 
section where the May Hill beds are seen resting against trap, 
interstratified with Llandeilo beds. Very striking, in this 
country, is the effect produced by intrusive rocks, and hard 
lavas, protecting marine sediments from denudation, especially 
when the sedimentary matter is interstratified with volcanic 
outpour of lava. Many of the hills in this district, such as 
Llandegley, and Cefn Llys, consist of stratified traps, alter- 
nating with sedimentary rocks full of fossils of Lower Silurian 
age. At Cefn Llys, on the hill rising above the river Ithon, 
formerly stood a castle, known as Castell Glyn Ithon. It was 
erected in 1242, and Leland tells us that it was demolished in 
his time, during the reign of Henry VIII. 

The situation of Cefn Llys church is remarked upon by Sir 
Roderick Murchison as singularly beautiful in its well wooded 
and deep valley, "where the Ithon, emerging from this 
volcanised region through a narrow gorge of trap rocks, passes 
between cliffs of about forty feet in height, from the sides of 
which a single plank serves as a bridge over the stream." 
(Sil. Syst. p. 329.) Many years ago, when visiting an old 
friend, noAv dead and gone, in the neighbourhood of Builth, I 
crossed this country with my hammer, and a light fishing rod, 
with sketches of Murchison's sections in my note book. A boy 
of the country accompanied me, and hearing that the Ithon 
was in first-rate order, I gave up the hammer for the rod. At 
Cefn Llys, however, I occasionally put into the fishing basket, 
carried by the lad, pieces of stone and gravel, from the bed of 
the river, to examine on my return to Llandrindrod. The fish 
ran well at the minnow, and I remember finding my youthful 
guide in tears, at having to carry " a big basket cram full of 



PLATE III. 




1. Lingula crumcna. 

2. StropUomena grandis. 

3. Stricklandinia lens. 

4. Pentamerus laevis. 

f>. Ortliis alternata. Sow. 

(5. Modiulopsis vel Morliola orbicularis. 



13. Ctcnodonta K.-istiiiiH. sow 



7. Petraia bina. 

8. Modiolopsis vcl Modiola orbicularis 
'.'. Atrypa ruticularis. 

10. OrtiH calliffraiiiina. 

11. Penfcinieriis oblongus. 

12. CtcHiMlcuita Mil (iialis. M'Coy. 



[Poije 151. 



CHAP, v.] MIDDLE SILURIAN EOCKS. 151 

fishes weighted down by stones to spite him, he supposed, and 
he didn't know why," at least, such was my friend's translation 
of his diction. 

In the Llandovery country, Mr. Salter informed me that the 
Tarannon shales occur in the Noedd-y-grug, and Cefn-y-garreg 
hills, and are conformable to the May Hill, or Pentamerus 
rocks, on which they rest. They strike in a south-westerly 
direction to Pen-y-lan. 

On referring to my paper on the Malvern and Ledbury 
tunnel in the "Proceedings of the Geological Society" 
(January 9, 1861), I find that there is a thickness of nearly 
350 feet of grey and purple shales, intervening between the 
Pentamerus limestones, and May Hill beds, and the Woolhope 
limestone. These I designated as " Woolhope shales " and I 
believe them to be the equivalents, in the Malvern district, of 
the Tarannon shales, or Pale slates, of Professor Sedgwick. 

ORGANIC EEMAINS OF THE MIDDLE SILUEIAN BOCKS. 

The genus Petraia, belonging to the group of cup corals, is 
very typical of the Llandovery rocks ; and when the geologist 
finds the common species, Petraia subduplicata, in abundance, 
he may be sure that he is working among the Lower 
Llandovery beds. The larger species Petraia elongata occurs 
more frequently in the May Hill group, as does also P. bina, 
which is found in the Woolhope limestone, and ranges into the 
Wenlock rocks. It is constantly met with at May Hill. 

Among the Brachiopoda, five species of Pentameri are 
characteristic of this zone of rocks. Stricklandinia lens and 
P. undatus are found in the Lower Llandovery strata, and 
Stricklandia lens, P. oblongus, P. liratus, and P. globosus, 
abound in the May Hill rocks ; the two latter fossils are how- 
ever rare in the Lower Llandovery deposits. Atrypa crassa is 
the typical species of the lower strata, A. hemispherica 
occurring in the Upper series only. Atrypa marginalis and A. 
reticularis are very abundant in both groups of rocks in some 
localities. 

Khynconella decemplicata is typical of the May Hill series. 



162 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. v. 

Orthides which occur in the Lower Silurians, are met with in 
these Middle Silurian rocks. 

There are no Trilobites which can be said to be strictly 
characteristic of this zone, except the Illaenus Thomsoni of 
Salter. Three or four Lower Silurian species range upwards 
into the May Hill beds, but the forms we meet with chiefly 
are Upper Silurian species ; among them is the well known 
Calymene Blumenbachii, which passes from the Caradoc strata 
into the Upper Ludlow shales. We have already mentioned 
that we find the first evidence of the appearance of those 
peculiar Crustacea, the Pterygoti, in the May Hill rocks of 
Eastnor, on the west side of the Malvern Hills. A portion 
merely of one of the swimming feet of this animal was 
discovered. The Pterygotus of the Upper Silurian rocks is 
supposed to have attained a length of five or six feet, thus far 
surpassing the largest living lobster or crab in size. 

SECTION ACROSS THE VALLEY OF WOOLHOPE. 
Ha\igh Wood. 



5. Up. Llandovery. 4. Woolhope beds. 3. Wenlock limestone. 2. Aymestryrock 
1. Base of Old Red. 



CHAPTER VI. 



UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 

Denbighshire Grits Denbigh Castle Striations on Carnedd Davydd and 
Carnedd Llewelyn Legend of St. Winef rede Bettws-y-Coed 
Mallwyd, Scenery of Woolhope Limestone Old and New Radnor 
Stanner Rocks, Rare Plants on the Dome of Haugh wood Earthquake 
Action and Denudation Drift Gravels Cerig-y-Druidion Ruthin, 
Antiquities of Dinas Bran, Eagles at Wenlock Edge, View from 
Coral Reefs Builclwas Abbey Landslip near Leighton Wenlock 
Abbey Milburga, Lady Abbess Wiguiore Castle, Ruins of Limestone 
Quarries at Dormington Crinoidea Ludlow Rocks Scaphaspis Luden- 
sis Offa's Dyke Bone Beds Milton at Ludlow Castle Grayling in 
the Teme Aymestry Limestone Ledbury Passage Beds Exposition 
of in Leclbury Tunnel Lycopodites in Bodenham Passage Beds Usk 
Organic Remains of the Upper Silurian Rocks. 



7. Ledbury Shales or 
Passage Beds. 

6. Downton Beds and 
Tilestones. 



5. Upper Ludlow Rocks. 
4. Aymestry Limestone. 
3. Lower Ludlow Rocks. 



fish. 



TYPICAL FOSSILS. 
Auchenaspsis, 



Cephalapsis, 

Onchus, Plectrodus, Pte- 
raspis, Scaphaspis. 

Crustacea. Pterygotus, Eurypterus, 

Beyrichia. 

Shells. Lingula, Platychisma, and a 

Lituite, also Murchisonia. 

Fish. Pteraspis, Scaphaspis. 

Crustacea. Calymene Blumenbachii, Ho- 
malonotus Knightii, Illae- 
nus Barriensis, Phacops 
caudatus. 

Shells. Pentamerus Knightii, and P. 

Galeatus. Uithonota seve- 
ral species. Murchisonia, 
Cardiolae, Phragmoceras. 

Graptolites. Starfish. Oldest 
known fish, Scaphaspis lu- 
densia. 



154 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. vi. 



2. Upper Wenlock. 



1. Lower Wenlock. 



TYPICAL FOSSILS. 
Fish. None yet discovered. 

Crustacea. Phacops caudatus, Calymene 
Blumenbachii and C. 
Downingiae, Illaenus Barri- 
ensis, Encrinurus variola- 
ris, Sphserexochus, Lichas. 

Shells. Atrypa reticularis, Discina 

Forbesii, Strophomena de- 
pressa, and Euglypha car- 
diola, Euomphalus discors, 
and Euomphalus funatus, 
Murchisonia, Bellerophon 
Wenlockensis, Conularia 
Sowerbyi, Lituites Bid- 
dulphii, Orthoceratites of 
several species. 

Many beautiful Encrinites, 
with Echino-dermata, and 
Annelids such as Tenta- 
culites. 



Ix North "Wales the Tarannon shales are succeeded by a thick 
series of grits, shales, and sandstones, named Denbigh grits by 
Mr. Bowman, and Professor Sedgwick, and believed by them 
to be the base of the Upper Silurian rocks of North "Wales. 
We learn from the investigations of the officers of the Geological 
Survey, that the Denbighshire grits are Lower Wenlock strata, 
changed and altered as regards their lithographical constituents, 
but containing Wenlock fossils. They are thick, sandy, repre- 
sentatives of the Woolhope strata. 

The geologist, acquainted only with the Woolhope limestones, 
and shales, as they occur in the districts of Malvern, Woolhope, 
May Hill, Gorton, and Radnor, is accustomed to search for 
them at the base of inconsiderable hills, and to see them rest- 
ing against the May Hill Pentamerus beds, in a very masked 
position. He is therefore unprepared for the complete change 
in mineralogical structure assumed by these beds in North, and 
South Wales, when they become the coarse, thick-bedded, 
Denbighshire grits, and rise into mountain ranges. The 
general character of the country occupied by the Denbighshire 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 155 

grits is particularly barren and bleak, but it is an interesting 
district to the lover of physical geology, as it affords him 
good opportunities of observing how vast masses of strata 
have been removed by subaerial denudation, and great valleys 
have been cut out in horizontal mountain plains by glacier 
action, melting snow, running water, and drainage waste. On 
ascending the hills we find a series of outliers of what must 
have once been a great table land ; while it is evident from 
the position of the underlying, contorted, rocks, that they were 
contorted and elevated before their upper surfaces were planed 
down, and before the denudation of the valleys took place. 

Between Llanrwst and Denbigh stretches a bare and wild dis- 
trict remarkable for the peculiar scenery of the Vale of Aled, and 
the Hiraethrog hills ; this bleak chain consists of Denbighshire 
rocks, and divides the watersheds of the Dee, and the Elwy. 
The Alwen, the Aled, and the Elwy all rise in the Hiraethrog 
mountains, the Alwen flows into the Dee, and the two latter 
into the Clwyd. 

Denbigh itself stands on a hill of Mountain limestone, the 
Silurian rocks having been greatly denuded, before the Carboni- 
ferous limestone which now underlies the vale of the Clwyd 
was deposited in the synclinal bend, of which the great Moel 
Fammau is the most elevated eastern edge ; while to the west, 
is the strange old table land cut into a network of valleys, 
which renders this part of Wales so difficult of access, that it 
is traversed by few save the wandering geologist or angler. 
Fossils may be found about Llansannon by following the 
route up the Aled river to the waterfalls. Orthoceratites are 
the most common here, and the Leptasna lata of the " Silurian 
System," a characteristic fossil of the Upper Ludlow shales, 
in Siluria proper, has been met with in this district, in sandy 
grits, with corals and encrinites. In the river drift below the 
first waterfall Llyn-yr-Ogo, are trap pebbles, derived from 
some dyke in the hills above. 

The district of the Denbighshire grits was comprised at the 
period of the Roman invasion, in that part of Cambria occupied 
by the Ordovices who peopled the desolate wastes between the 



156 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

vale of Clwyd and the Conway. It is said that they had ex- 
tended their dominions from Shropshire and Cheshire to these 
wild hills of Wales. We find that mention is made in Leland's 
"Itinerary," (vol. y. page 59) of the "Rounde Table" in the 
parish of Llansannon. It is a British amphitheatre known as 
Bwedd Arthur, Arthur's round table, and Leland says " it is in 
the side of a strong hille wher ther be 24 holes or places in a 
roundel for men to sit in, but sum lesse and some bigge cutte 
oute of the mayne rok by mannes hand.' ' 

The Castle of Denbigh is said by antiquaries to stand on the 
site of an ancient British fort, which on the fall of Llewelyn, 
was bestowed on Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, by Edward I., 
and Leland says the earl was a great lord marcher in Ewisland 
and that " afore his tyme I cannot lerne that there was other 
town or castelle." Nevertheless, from the name Dinbech (a 
hill fortress) and the still older appellation of Castell Cled 
fryn yn Rhos, there is little doubt that this hill was a fortress 
when surrendered to Edward. Leland saw it himself; and 
says that "The castelle is a very large. thing and hath many 
toures yn it. But the body of the worke was never finishid. 
The Gatehouse is a rnervelus strong and grate peace of work, 
but the fastigia of it were never finished. Sum say that the 
Erie of Lincolne's son felle into castelle welle and ther dyed, 
whereupon he never passed to finish the castelle." (" Itine- 
rary," vol. v. p. 57). 

Churchyard saw it after Leland's time (in about the year 
1560), and he gives a very quaint description of Denbigh, 
"garland of our daies." Writing of this fortress, he says : 

" This castle stands, on top of rocke most hye, 
A mighty cragge, as hard as flint or steele, 
A massie moint, whose stones so deepe doth lye 
That no device may well the bottom feele. 
The rock discends, beneath the auncient towne, 
About the which a stately wall goes downe, 
With buyldings great and posternes to the same, 
That goes through rocke, to give it greatn fame. " 

It was, however blasted with gunpowder in the days of 
Charles II., and little is now left to enable the antiquary to 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILdRIAN ROCKS. 157 

restore, even in imagination, " the diverse wardes and diverse 
portcoliciss " of Henry YIII.'s time ; or " the strength of 
state " " with dubble walles full thicke " of which Churchyard 
wrote that 

" Man might say 
The work thereof would last till judgement day." 

The fragment of the gateway and the relics of walls, and 
ramparts, contrast powerfully with the descriptions of the old 
historian and poet, who little deemed that the " castelle," so 
fair and strong in their eyes, shonld be shattered into ruins 
before even a century should have passed away. 

In the western part of Denbighshire, lies the small town of 
Llanrwst, which is surrounded by scenery of so varied a 
character, dense woods, fine hills, and the winding river 
Conway, as to draw from Burke the opinion that " it was the 
most charming spot he had seen in "Wales." A remarkable 
fault runs along the line of the Conway from a little to the 
south of Bettws-y-Coed to Llanbedr ; the right bank of the 
river is occupied by the Denbighshire grits, while Caradoc 
rocks range along the left bank. 

Denbighshire grit fossils may be obtained at Plasmadoc, 
where Calymene Blumenbachii, Phacops caudatus, and Atrypa 
reticularis, with other "Wenlock forms occur ; also at Marchlyn 
Mawr, three and a half miles south of Conway ; while we may 
gather Caradoc fossils by crossing the river to Trefriw. 

Excursions may be made to the hill regions of Carnedd 
Davydd, and Carnedd Llewelyn, with their dark rock recesses 
formerly filled with ice and snow, and striations on their 
higher flanks which Prof. Ramsay believes may have been 
produced by the grinding of icebergs, during the submersion 
of the country, when the shell-bearing drifts were deposited on 
Moel Tryfaen, the flanks of Penmaenmawr and the vale of the 
Llugwy. On the east side of Carnedd Llewelyn is a glacial 
lake, surrounded by moraine matter borne from the summit of 
the mountain above, by the ice slope which deposited it. On 
the summit of the hill is a camp, said to have been occupied 



158 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

by Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, the contemporary of Giraldus 
Cambrensis, and the husband of Joan, daughter of King 
John of England. Llewelyn was buried at Conway Abbey, 
but his remains were afterwards transferred to Maenant 
Abbey, and on the dissolution of this monastery they were 
carried to Llanrwst, where they are now said to rest in a large 
stone coffin. 

On a long summer's day, a walk of about twenty miles may 
be taken through a country of the most romantic character, 
from Llanrwst to Abergele. Wenlock fossils may be found in 
small quarries here and there along the road. In passing 
through the village of Gwytherin, it may interest the lover of 
legends, to know that the precious remains of St. "Winefrede 
were buried here in the church, after her second death, the 
saint having retired to this secluded spot for devotional 
purposes. It appears that her bones were removed to the 
Benedictine house at Shrewsbury, in the reign of Henry I. 

Again, the district between Cerrig-y-Druidion and Llyn 
Alwen, a lake about six miles north of Pentrevoelas, in which 
the Alwen takes its rise, is characteristic of the Denbighshire 
grits. Two miles farther north, the river Aled has its source 
in Llyn Aled, and good bog plants grow around both these 
lakes. Fossils also have been found near Llyn Aled. Bettws- 
y-Coed is situated amidst lovely scenery, at the meeting of 
the waters of the Llugwy, and the Conway. It is the best 
point from whence to explore the mountain valleys of the 
Machno and the Lledr. Above Bettws-y-Coed the Conway 
runs through a rocky ravine, where some years ago I witnessed 
a most exciting otter chase. I shall not easily forget the 
romantic scenery, the dash of the hounds, the boisterous men, 
and the rushing waters. The geologist will find good Caradoc 
fossils in the Bala beds of Bettws-y-Coed. They furnish the 
beautiful Crinoid, Glyptocrinus basalis, the Trilobite, Homa- 
lonotus bisulcatus, with Orthis calligramma, 0. crispa, and 
Orthoceras vagans. Crossing to Pentrevoelas, we come upon 
Denbighshire grits with Wenlock fossils. The Denbighshire 
sandstones of this district abut against the Caradoc strata, and 



GHAP. vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 159 

it seems as if the Tarannon shales, which occur lower down 
near Llanrwst, were cut out by a fault. 

West of Pentrevoelas is Coch Castell, where Camden de- 
scribes a stone as standing in his time, and which bore an in- 
scription partly in Latin and partly in Welsh, and supposed to 
be erected over a Prince Llewelyn. The letters are now 
illegible, but there are the remains of an earthwork ; and a 
cromlech was opened some years ago at Capel Garmon, opposite 
to Bettws-y-Coed, which contained human remains. Capel 
Garmon is on Caradoc strata, and the Denbighshire beds here 
form a kind of peninsula, running out against the Bala beds 
southward to Garnbris. 

The Upper Silurian strata are denuded over a considerable 
district to the south of Cerrig-y-Druidion, and Corwen ; but a 
narrow strip of Denbighshire rocks runs southwards to New- 
town, and by the village of Mallwyd to the north of Builth in 
Radnorshire. The relations of the Denbighshire rocks with the 
underlying strata may be traced in the neighbourhood of Mall- 
wyd ; thus at Cefn Coch, the rocks are Caradoc strata, which, 
east of Aran Mowddwy are overlaid by the felspathic grits and 
slates of the Lower Llandovery beds, and these again are over- 
laid by the Tarannon shales, and the Denbighshire sandstones. 

Mallwyd is " beautiful exceedingly." The scenery, whichever 
way the eye turns, is " prodigiously fine." " The mountains here 
form a grand natural amphitheatre having sylvan sides, amidst 
which peeps here and there a whitewashed cottage. Camlin rises 
immediately with rude grandeur on the right, and the conical 
Aran lifts its resplendent head to the left." * Nor is this descrip- 
tion overdrawn. The yew-trees in the churchyard are remark- 
able for their unusual size, and the whole neighbourhood is 
celebrated for both its geological and botanical associations. 

On the north side of the Berwyn Hills, the Denbighshire 
grits become more like the shales of the Wenlock series. In 
Radnorshire they may be seen north of Llanddewi-ystraed-enny, 
while near Llanbister they rise into the hills amongst which 
.the river Ithon has its source. 

* Evans's Merionethshire. 



160 RECORDS OP THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

Llanddewi-ystraed-enny is a place famous for its ancient en- 
trenchments. Between Llanbister and Newtown lies Cwm-hir 
Abbey, of which Leland says " The first foundation was made 
by Cadwathelan ap Madok for 60 monkes. No chirch in Wales 
is scene of such length as the foundation of walles ther begon 
doth shew." " Al the howse was spoiled and defaced by Owen 
Glindwr." * The " Monasticon " assigns it the date of 1143. It 
appears that it was to this abbey Cwm-hir, and not to Cymmer 
Abbey in Merionethshire, that Henry II. marched his army to 
attack Llewelyn ap Jorwerth. 

WOOLHOPE LIMESTONE. 

The rocks belonging to this division of the Upper Silurian 
series, are argillaceous representatives on the east, of the sandy 
Denbighshire grits on the west. The Woolhope limestone is 
a well defined group of rocks occurring at Gorton near Presteign, 
Radnor, Woolhope, Malvern, and May Hill, and also at Barr 
in Staffordshire. This thick bedded limestone is hardly recog- 
nisable in the Wenlock district, its place being occupied by a 
band of nodular and concretionary shales which lies between 
them and the May Hill (Pentamerus) beds. The Woolhope 
limestone occurs at Gorton, and in the quarries of Nash Scar, 
in a subcrystalline and partially metamorphosed state ; and as 
long ago as in 1850, I was enabled to determine its proper 
place in the geological sequence of strata, from its position 
with respect to the Upper Llandovery beds, and from the 
abundance of the Barr trilobite Illsenus (Barriensis) it con- 
tained ; and specimens of which are certainly more numerous 
in the Lower Wenlock series, than in the rocks overlying 
them.j 

Near Old Eadnor, the Woolhope limestone is elevated to the 
surface by trap rocks, near which its stratification is almost 
obliterated. Towards the west, the limestone shows stratifi- 
cation, and rests against the May Hill (Pentamerus) rocks, 
which range by the church and Yat Hill. The Woolhope beds 
are completely fused near the trap rocks, at Stanner, and at the 

* Leland's Itinerary, vol. v., p. 13. f Old Stones, p. 60. 



CHAP. VI.] 



UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 



161 



lime works of Even job. This interesting exhibition of Wool- 
hope rock is the last western development of workable limestone 
between Eadnor and the coast of Cardiganshire. Here, the 
geologist may see limestone strata which have been truly 
metamorphosed, and rendered crystalline and amorphous by 



VIEW FROM STAKNER ROCKS (WOESEL WOOD, HANTEB HILL, AND HERGEST RIDGE 

BEING SUCCESSIVELY SEEN IN THE DISTANCE). 




Stanner Rocks. 



the action of heat ; and here this change has been brought 
about by contiguous masses of volcanic rocks, which altered 
the stratified deposits ; but, judging from the appearance of 
the beds towards the west, the metamorphism does not appear 
to have extended over any large surface. 

It is interesting to the physical geologist to remark how 
the Llandovery conglomerate clings, as it were, in bosses 
to the sides of several of the hills in this district, on the 
western flanks of Old Radnor. Boulders of this conglomerate 
are scattered all over the country to the east, and it is my 



162 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

belief that all these volcanic hills were covered, nearly to their 
summits, by this conglomerate, which they upheaved ; and that 
the present exhibition of so much hypersthene rock is owing to 
denudation having cleared off a great part of this Llandovery 
crust, which thus swept round and over the trap hills of Stanner, 

N.W. YatHill. Hanter Hill. S.E. 




e, Ludlow Rocks, d' 2 , Wenlock Shale. d l , Woolhope or Lower Wenlock Limestone, 
(partially altered, with serpentine faces), c, Upper Llandovery, in parts altered. 
* Eruptive Rocks (syenite, greenstone, and hypersthene rock). 



Worsel, Hanter, and Old Radnor. These hills are severally 1000, 
900, 1200, and 1100 feet above the sea. "We have an instance 
here, too, of how faulting by volcanic disturbance, in conjunction 
with denudation, determines the direction of valleys, by 
elevating hard traps against soft shales. Thus the vale 
between Stanner rocks and Worsell wood has been cut out of 
Ludlow shales between two masses of hypersthene. 

We would advise every geologist, botanist, and lover of 
scenery, to visit Old and New Radnor. The neighbourhood 
was admirably described, and its geological wonders defined 
by Sir R. Murchison, in 1838, in his " Silurian System," but, 
as he says, although within one hundred and fifty miles of 
the metropolis, and within a few miles of Kington, he could 
not learn, when visiting the country a few years ago, that 
any "foreign gentleman," or traveller from a distance, had 
come to explore this interesting district, so remarkable for 
its ancient volcanic outbursts, rock metamorphism, and for 
its abundance of fossils. And it is not the hypersthene rock 
or lava eruptions of Old Radnor and Stanner, or the altered 
Lower "Wenlock beds that call solely for attention. "Within 
a walk are also the old shingle beaches of the Upper Llan- 
dovery period; the Upper Silurian rocks full of fossils at 
" "Water break its neck;" and on the hill sides and summits 



CHAP, vi.] UPPEE SILURIAN ROCKS. 163 

lie the relics of the Lower Old Eed and Downton beds, 
upheaved high above their former horizons by the volcanic 
and earthquake forces which acted from below. Here, 
also, the antiquarian may meet with many a record of past 
historic days, and may perchance detect some relic of a 
human race who lived in still more ancient times. 

The earlier name for Old Eadnor was Pen-crug or Pencraig, 
from its situation on a rocky eminence, and its castle is 
mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis under the title of " Cruker 
Castle," a corruption, according to Hoare, from " Crug caeran," 
alluding to the height on which the fortification stands. I 
find that Camden tells us that Old Radnor was called by the 
Britons " Maesyved-hen," and from its high situation 
" Pencraig." Also that it was " burnt by Rhys ap Gruflfydh 
in the reign of King John." * We may presume that this was 
the same Welsh prince who dined with Giraldus at the Bishop's 
Palace in Hereford, and who afterwards met him at New 
Radnor. 

New Radnor is where Giraldus commenced his Itinerary. 
Leland, speaking of the place in the time of Henry VIII., says : 
" The castle is a ruine, but that a pece of the gate was ameudyd. 
The towne was defacyd in Henry the fourth dayes by Owen 
Glindour." And again he says " the voice is there," " that 
after he wonne the castel he took a 3 score men that had the 
garde of the castel and causid them to be behedded on the 
brinke of the castel yarde, and that sins a certain bloodeworth 
groweth ther wher the bloode was shedde." 

Again, within a walk of Radnor is the beautiful district near 
Kington in Herefordshire, where igneous masses rise precipi- 
tately through Upper Silurian strata, on the rocky hills of 
Stanner, Worsel Wood, and Hanter Hill. The eruptive rocks 
are protruded through sedimentary deposits of Lower Wenlock 
age (Woolhope limestone). Here, too, is another example of 
how some of the rarer of our British plants select the isolated 
traps for their habitats. I visited the Stanner rocks with Sir 
William Guise, some summers ago, in the month of June ; and 

* Gibson's "Camden." 

M 2 



164 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

we gathered Lychnis viscaria, and Scleranthus perennis, in- 
considerable abundance. They seemed to flourish well on the 
black old lava, and the botanist may search the neighbourhood 
far and near without finding a single specimen of these plants 
on any other hill side. Lychnis viscaria particularly affects 
trap rocks and hills with volcanic ingredients in their compo- 
sition, and Sir William Jardine informs me that it grows 
plentifully on Arthur's Seat near Edinburgh, where rocks of 
Carboniferous age are traversed by volcanic masses ; and Mr. 
Pengelly has observed this plant growing under like circum- 
stances in Cornwall. 

The term " valley of elevation " does not convey an adequate 
idea of the wonderful geological history portrayed in the valley 
of Woolhope. The central dome of Haughwood is occupied 
by the May Hill rocks with Pentameri, and encrinital stems, 
(the central nucleus being no doubt composed of some far older 
formation, probably Cambrian or syenitic rocks); around the 
May Hill beds, the Woolhope limestone circles dip away on 
all sides under the Wenlock shale and limestone, and these 
again under the Ludlow rocks and Old Eed Sandstone. The 
Woolhope district in its extension from Marcle to Mordiford 
may be denominated as an elongated, pear-shaped, mass of 
Upper Silurian deposits, which were elevated through the over- 
lying Old Eed Sandstone, and were then denuded down to 
the May Hill beds at the dome of Haughwood. 

Thus the Woolhope district offers a peculiarly instructive 
history to the physical geologist, for when, after studying the 
rocks across and around this area, he beholds the shales 
hollowed into valleys, and the tilted limestones standing out 
like the walls of an encampment, he cannot doubt that the 
stratified masses now occupying hills far asunder, were once 
parts and portions of strata which were formerly conterminous, 
and joined together, and all of which must have swept nearly 
horizontally over the rocks which now form the dome of 
Haughwood. It is evident that earthquake agency upheaved 
the Silurian rocks through the overlying Old Eed deposits ; 
but that great power denudation has also wrought with 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN BOOKS. 165 

tremendous force ; for scarcely a fragment is left of the 
rock masses that once formed the roof, or overlying 
crusts of the elevated strata, which must have been denuded 
and carried off as the elevatory movement was gradually 
going on. 

Sir R. Murchison mentions in a note of " Siluria," that one 
of the most striking features for the consideration of geologists 
is, that neither the central dome, nor the surrounding ridges, 
including the outer encircling ring of Ludlow rocks, offer a 
trace of drifted matter or gravel, nor even any remnants 
of the various strata which must, in the process of elevation, 
have been first bent over, and afterwards demolished. All the 
debris resulting from the destruction of this once great solid 
mass have therefore been swept out ; the tract being one of 
clear denudation. A few years ago I should have agreed with 
Sir R. Murchison ; but I have since obtained evidence that 
the dome of Haughwood is not so deficient in drifted matter as 
was formerly supposed. This tract is covered with wood, and 
is difficult to examine, as there are no streams or gullies of suffi- 
cient depth to afford sections. When, however, I visited the 
district some years ago with Sir Charles Lyell, he directed the 
attention of the Rev. F. Mereweather, rector of Woolhope, to the 
question of drift gravel, and since that Mr. Mereweather has 
shown me several pebbles of quartz and other rocks, foreign to 
the district, which he himself gathered in the woods on and 
around the dome of Haughwood. For a long time I was dis- 
posed to attribute the presence of these pebbles to road mend- 
ing or some other local transportation, but Mr. Mereweather 
has since discovered too many erratics in Haughwood to admit 
of such an interpretation. The fact is, drift gravels are much 
more masked by woods and pastures than we are aware of, until 
some circumstance leads to their discovery. Such was the 
case with regard to a large deposit of drift, and stratified sand 
and gravel, which caps a hill two hundred feet above the river 
Lugg at Wilcroft and Hagley (Lugwardine), east of Woolhope. 
The existence of this deposit was absolutely unsuspected by all 
the local geologists, myself among the number, until my atten- 



166 EECOEDS OF THE KOCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

tion was directed to it, when it was being quarried for ballast 
for the Ledbuiy and Hereford railway, by Lady Emily Foley. 
This drift was evidently transported from the north east, and 
not from the "Woolhope country hard by. It is not merely a 
high level Lugg drift, but it appears to have been deposited by 
a broad stream which flowed from the Church Stretton district, 
partly, and only partly, in the direction of the existing Lugg. 
The pebbles are arranged like those of any other river drift, 
and the gravels are interstratified with thin beds of sand and 
clay. Imbedded here and there were large masses of Old Red 
Sandstone, the edges of which were quite angular and unworn, 
and looked as if they had fallen down from the side of a cliff 
but yesterday. With these were blocks of Cardington grits, 
(Caradoc grits) from the Church Stretton district, and frag- 
ments of Dhu Stone or Glee Hill basalt, with Hope Bowdler 
trap and quartz pebbles, none of which could have come from 
the sources of the present river Lugg. So this old stream 
must have flowed in its bed traversed by ice masses, when 
the physical contour of the country, and its watersheds, were 
very different from the present, and before the Lugg had 
eroded the track in which it now flows through the vales of 
Herefordshire. The deposit has been quarried largely at Hag- 
ley, and Wilcroft, and has rendered to searchers the teeth of the 
fossil horse (Equus fossilis), and a worn molar of Rhinoceros 
tichorinus. 

The Hereford and Ledbury railroad and the Stoke Edith 
station lie at the base of the hills which bound the great Wool- 
hope hollow and its inner, circumambient, vales, but few of the 
travellers that rush by have the slightest idea of the beauty of the 
view from the edge of the hill which rises in Stoke Edith Park, 
and displays a wonderful scene to those who can read off the Re- 
cords of the Rocks with an educated eye. And to the geologist 
who would thoroughly examine the district, we say " go to the 
Foley Arms, Tarrington, between Ledbury and Hereford (now 
easily reached by railway), and ensconce yourself with the 
Survey maps, hammer, chisels and other appurtenances, in 
' Sir Roderick's room,' and rest assured that a week may be 



CHAP, vi.] LTPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 167 

spent at that village hostelry in examining the geology of that 
remarkable district, and enjoying the picturesque and most 
peculiar scenery without fear of hazard or ennui." * 

The "Woolhope limestone is quarried at Scutterdine, near 
Mordiford, "Woolhope, Westington, and Eudge End. I have 
obtained some noble trilo bites f at Scutterdine about five 
miles from Hereford, and very large specimens of Rhynchonella 
Stricklandi have been found at this locality. 

In the Malvern country the Woolhope limestone occurs at 
North Malvern, north of Storridge farm, and north of Crumpend. 
It is displayed too at "Ballard's quarry," near the Wych, where 
it overlies the thick mass of "Woolhope or Tarannon shales 
which were excavated in the Malvern and Ledbury tunnel. It 
was cut through by the tunnel works at the western end, and 
Dr. Grindrod and his coadjutors obtained a rich harvest of 
specimens from these beds and the shales immediately below 
them ; while the basement or true Tarannon shales were 
particularly unfossiliferous. The tails of very large specimens 
of the great Barr trilobite were abundant among the debris 
thrown out on the railway heaps near the western shaft, and 
the other beautiful trilobites, such as Phacops, Acidaspis, 
Encrinurus, and Calymene, in Dr. Grindrod's collection, should 
be seen to be appreciated. With these, Avere the curious 
Ischadites, and Spongarium, with many brachiopodous shells, 
while from the shales, we have Pentamerus liratus found 
also in the Mordiford brook in the Woolhope district, just 
above the May Hill beds. Another good Malvem locality 
for studying the correlation of this limestone with the Wen- 
lock beds, and its position against the Llandovery or May 
Hill rocks, is the picturesque valley of Netherton, near Eastnor, 
or at Clincher's Mill, at the north-west side of Howler's Heath, 
at the base of the hill above the Glynch brook. 

Near May Hill the Woolhope limestone is exposed on the 
road from Huntley to Mitchell Dean, and Ross. Here it is 
rather a mass of nodules and shales than a true and well 

* Old Stones. 

f These are now in the Malvern Museum. 



168 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

bedded limestone. It is not quarried to any extent at May 
Hill or Huntley. 

Beds of this limestone are slightly exposed on the western 
and south-eastern flanks of the Lower Lickey Hills in Wor- 
cestershire, at a place called Colmer's End; and in Stafford- 
shire between Walsall and the Barr Beacon at the Hay Head. 

2. WENLOCK LIMESTONE. 
1. WENLOCK SHALE. 

These strata take their name from the well known district of 
Wenlock Edge in Shropshire, where the hard limestone trends 
for miles along an escarpment, and the soft shales occupy a 
valley of denudation named " Apes Dale." 

In North Wales and in Denbighshire, there is no trace of 
any of the Upper Silurian limestones, either of Woolhope, 
Wenlock or Aymestry, but the Wenlock shales appear near 
Conway, on the right bank of the river, by Llansaintffraid and 
Llanellan, where they overlie the Denbighshire grits. They 
range from Conway to Abergele, and cover a large tract of 
country watered by the rivers Elvvy, Aled, and Alwen. 

The peripatetic geologist who has been exploring the neigh- 
bourhood of Llanrwst, should go to Cerig-y-Druidion, about a 
mile and a half to the north of which place, the Tarannon 
shales and Denbighshire sandstones occur in due succession, 
and on the hill to the south, Garn Bris, are beds of conglome- 
rate, which overlie the Denbighshire grits, and are very abundant 
as boulders over the southern district. I imagine these beds 
constitute the boundary between the Woolhope or Denbigh- 
shire group, and the overlying Wenlock shales of the Geological 
Surveyors. The country here is covered with drift to such an 
extent as to make physical geology difficult to work out ; but 
from the frequent occurrence of the conglomerate in boulders, 
over the tract occupied by Lower Silurian rocks, S.W. of the 
Denbighshire country, I infer that the Wenlock beds were 
extended much farther to the S. and S.W. than at present. 
As it is, the Wenlock series, above the conglomerate, cover the 
wide expanse of country stretching from Conway to the north 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILUEIAN EOCKS. 169 

of Corwen, and range beyond Llangollen in the direction of 
Oswestry, and also surround the Vale of Clwyd. 

The fine range of hills of the east side of the Yale of Clwyd, 
including Moel Fammau (1845 feet) and Moel Fenlli (1600 
feet), are composed of Wenlock strata which extend north and 
south from Diserth near Ehyl, to Moel-y-Gamlin near Llan- 
gollen. Both these elevated mountain peaks were fortified by 
the Ordovices to shield themselves against the incursions of 
the Komans. 

On leaving Cerig-y-Draidion, the geologist should by 
all means visit Pont Glyn Diffiws, near the confluence of the 
Geirw with the Alwen, and then pass on over the drift covered 
hills to Euthin, thus following a route once taken by Caniden, 
who speaks of a lettered stone he saw at Clogreainog, in- 
scribed : 

AIMILINI TOVISAG. 

Euthin stands on the right bank of the Clywd, nearly 
in the centre of the celebrated vale of Clwyd. In the 
immediate neighbourhood we may see the rocks of the Trias ; 
Permian shale, in which plants were discovered by Mr. Maw, 
and determined by Mr. Etheridge of the Geological Survey ; 
curious patches and strips of Old Eed Conglomerate ; and the 
Wenlock rocks elevated into rolling hills. The antiquarian 
notes on the ancient buildings of Euthin are not uninteresting. 
The castle obtained its name " Ehyddin " or the red fortress, 
from the colour of its stone, and according to Camden it was 
built by Eoger Gray, in the time of Edward I. But few frag- 
ments of the pile now remain. In A.D. 1400, Owen Glyndwyr 
assailed the fortress without success, and, as his custom was, 
burnt the town, and pillaged the inhabitants. Churchyard in 
his " Worthines of Wales," thus described it in the reign of 
Elizabeth. 

' ' This castle stands on rock much like red bricke, 
The dykes are cut with toole through stonie cragge, 
The towers are hye, the walles are large and thicke, 
The work itself would shake a subject's bagge, 
If he were bent to buyld the like agayne." 



170 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

Camden represents it in his time as " a stately and beautiful 
castle," and Dr. Goodman, Dean of Westminster, a famous 
divine, and the patron and friend of the historian, was buried 
in the Church of Euthin in 1601. The castle was held 
for Charles I. in the time of the Civil War, and was dis- 
mantled in 1G46. 

In the Llangollen country, the Wenlock shale is worked for 
roofing slates in the valley of Glyn Ceiriog. Fossils may be 
found near Pontdolderwen, and at Craig-ddu-alt, on the crest of 
the hill, near] the rivers Ceiriog and Dee. The Actinicrinus 
pulcher was obtained at Nant-gwr-hyd-uchaf, on the south 
flank of the Ceriog. Wenlock fossils occur also on the summit 
of Dinas Bran, a conical hill rising six hundred feet above the 
Dee. On this rounded hill are the ruins of an ancient British 
fortress, said to have been built by the Britons before the 
Eoman invasion. In 1200 it was the residence of Madoc ap 
Gryffydd, the founder of Abbey Vale Crucis. He died at 
Dinas Bran and was buried in the abbey. The Pyrus 
intermedia of botanists grows on the hill, also one of the 
rare Hieracia, and, as a native informed me, " a blood-wort." 
He could not find a specimen to show me, but I imagine it 
to be the houndstongue (Cynoglossum). The fortress was de- 
serted and demolished before Leland's time, for he saw it in a 
state of decay, and mentions that an eagle used regularly to build 
her nest among the ruins every year,and that the robber of her 
eaglet had to shield himself by having his head protected by one 
basket, while he was lowered down for the purpose in another. 
("Itinerary," vol. v. p. 51). Eagles have been extinct for 
some years in Wales, and even the kite (Milvus regalis) is rare, 
although the last time I was on Moel Fenlli, I saw two soaring 
among the clouds. 

South of Llangollen, and Llansiantffraid-glyn-Ceiriog, there is 
the large area of Lower Silurian rocks, reaching from Corwen, 
Llanr-haiadr-moch-nant, and Llanfyllyn, to Welshpool, from 
which the overlying rocks have been denuded. South of Meifod 
the Upper Silurians again set in and range over large tracts of 
country. At Llanfyhangel, south-west of Llanfyllyn, and 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 171 

between Meifod and Welshpool, round the Long Mountain 
east of Welshpool, and from. Montgomery to Bishop's Castle, 
are large outliers and patches of Wenlock shale, which must 
once have been continuous with the rocks of Llangollen and 
Denbighshire. 

South of Newtown, the "Wenlock shale runs like a wedge by 
Llanbister in Radnorshire, and west of Eadnor forest, to Llan- 
drindod, Builth and Llangammarch, being everywhere overlaid 
by Ludlow rocks which range at a short distance eastward of 
the Wenlock beds. They also extend to the east of the Llan- 
deilo upheaveal of Builth and Llandegley. 

In the Builth district these shales are full of concretions, 
which occasionally contain fossils in the centre. They put on 
a brecciated appearance at their base up the river Yrfon at 
Maes-cefn-fford. 

In the neighbourhood of Llandovery and Llangadock, the 
Wenlock shales overlie the Llandovery rocks and Tarannon 
shales. Near Llandovery the beds maybe seen between Blaen- 
driffyn-garn, and Pont-ar-lleche, and in some localities the 
strata are nearly vertical. Southwards, the shales range from 
Llangammarch and the Yrfon river, dipping east, under the 
escarpment of the Lower Old Red Rocks, of .the Mynydd 
Essynt and Mynydd-Bwlch-y-groes. They occur also along 
the escarpment of Myddfai. 

The Wenlock shale is not developed farther south than 
Llanarthney, a place between Llandeilo and Caermarthen. In 
South Pembrokeshire, however, these beds again make their 
appearance near Marloes, where they occur on the coast, and 
are faulted through Old Red Sandstone. 

In the Church Stretton district the Wenlock shale may be 
seen about Bishop's Castle. It may be examined between 
Snead and Minetown, and it occupies a considerable area 
towards Montgomery on the north-west, and reaches to oSTew- 
town on the west. The best place, however, to study the 
physical position of the beds in the eastern division of 
Siluria, is to cross from Church Stretton by the Caradoc rocks 
of Hope Bowdler, to the line of the Eaton brook, and mark the 



172 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

hard escarpment of Wenlock limestone stretching north and 
south, and the denudation in the soft Wenlock shales which 
strike northwards to Coalbrook Dale, and Buildwas, and south- 
wards by Clungunford to Wigmore, and Burrington near 
Leiutwardine. They are also seen between Presteign and 
Titley, where they overlie the AYoolhope limestone of Knill ; 
and north of Old Eadnor, between that place and Kinnerton 
Chapel. 

In the May Hill country, the Wenlock shales are best seen 
on the eastern side of the hill, where they stretch from near 
Flaxley in a northern direction, and almost meet the prolonged 
t-fcem of the pear shaped elevation of the Upper Silurians of 
Woolhope. On the western flank of May Hill these beds strike 
from Blaisdon to Aston Ingham. Numerous fossils occur in 
the shales. 

In the Usk district, the Wenlock shales occupy a large 
central area, and are the lowest strata exposed, for the Wool- 
hope limestone, if it occur at all, is not brought to the surface. 
They may be seen at Bryn Craig, Craig-y-Garcyd, Glascoed, 
Eadyr Mill, and Tucking Mill, which is about the centre of the 
district. The mineralogical character of the Usk beds differs 
very much from the Woolhope, and Malvern tracts, being more 
sandy, and marked by a Lower Silurian appearance, which 
caused some trouble in the early days of Silurian geology, for 
Sir H. de la Beche, and Sir R. Murchison thought, from their 
mineral structure and position, that they must be Caradoc 
rocks or Llandeilo flags, save that no Ogygia Buchii had been 
discovered in the strata. Their true geological position was 
ascertained by Professor Phillips. 

WENLOCK LIMESTONE. 

This formation consists of a concretionary limestone in 
which occur large nodules of pure carbonate of lime. It is 
quarried near Wenlock as a flux for smelting iron. The 
limestone may be seen in its greatest development at Benthall 
Edge, and may be traced by Wenlock Edge on its southern 
strike. Benthall Edge overhangs the river Severn, opposite 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 173 

Coalbrook Dale, above Ironbridge. In both these localities the 
escarpments are rich in corals, remains of encrinites, and various 
shells. Trilobites are abundant, and heads, tails, and body 
rings lie among the stones in every direction and sometimes 
cover whole slabs as at Dudley. 

GENERAL ORDER OF THE UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS INCLUDED BETWEEN THE UPPER 
LLANDOVERY (MAY HILL) SANDSTONE AND THE OLD BED SANDSTONE. 



e. Upper Llandovery Rock, occasionally a Limestone, but often a Pebbly Sandstone, 
rf'. Shale, with Lower Wenlock or Woolhope Limestone. d~, Wenlock Shale, d 3 . 
Wenlock Limestone. e l , Lower Ludlow. e 2 , Middle Ludlow or Aymestry Limestone. 
e 3 , Upper Ludlow and Tilestone. ', Bottom of Old Red Sandstone. 

We must not forget an interesting phase in physical geology. 
"When standing on the abrupt escarpment a few miles south of 
Wenlock Edge, and looking across the valley of Wenlock shale, 
over the Caradoc rocks beyond, to the hills of Caer Caradoc, 
we see a mass of insulated and vertical Wenlock limestone at 
Botville, on the other side of the Caradoc hills, caught up 
between the Caradoc rocks and the Cambrians of the Long- 
mynds. Thus we learn the interesting fact that the thick lime- 
stone on which we stand at Wenlock Edge must once have been 
prolonged across the vale, across the Hope Bowdler district, 
and that it was once spread out where the Caradoc hills and 
the Lawley now rise. What a history of the elevation and 
denudation of rock masses have we before us in this single view. 

It is generally allowed that the geologist when examining- 
and working among this limestone at Wenlock, Dudley, in the 
valley of Woolhope, or in the Malvern and Ledbury district, 
is looking upon rock masses, which were originally formed 
under conditions similar to those now observed in many parts 
of the intertropical world, where the coral animal secretes its 
stony home and forms enormous coral rocks. In the Wenlock 
limestone much the same class of elements are combined in its 
production, as those described in the present day by travellers 



174 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

who have studied the living corals and their habitations. 
Mr. Charles Darwin, Professor Jukes and others, hare done 
much to enlighten us on this subject of late years. We learn 
that in almost all tropical seas, the shores are lined with 
masses of coral, occurring in banks along the coasts and called 
Fringing reefs by Mr. Darwin. Secondly, there are barrier 
reefs, which have a deep and navigable channel between their 
edges and the shore, such as the barrier which extends along 
the north-east coast of Australia in a regular chain, nearly 
1300 miles in length, by 10 to 100 miles in breadth. Thirdly, 
there are coral Atolls, which are coral rocks, at a long distance 
from land. They are believed to be huge coral structures 
built upon a descending and sinking area of submarine land. 
These Atolls often rise from great depths to the level of the 
waves. Masses of coral, sometimes 500 miles in length, and 
50 or GO miles in width, occur over vast surfaces in existing 
seas. Prof. Jukes calculated that in the " Coral Sea," between 
Australia, New Caledonia, and the Louisiade, there is "an area 
of something like a million of square miles over which car- 
bonate of lime is being deposited in great sheets, and in 
bank-like masses, which are, in some parts at least, more than 
1000, probably more than 2000, feet thick." Many marine 
animals frequent the coral reefs. Certain fishes, and large 
holothurias (sea slugs), subsist upon the living coral animals. 
Large Tridacnas (Hippopus maculatus) are found among the 
reefs, and are imbedded in uplifted coral surfaces. These 
Mollusca flourish in the midst of masses of Meanclrina, and 
Porites, precisely as the Strophomena and various shells existed 
among the Chain and other corals in the days of the Wenlock 
limestone. Mr. Maw informed me that all the "Wenlock corals 
described by M. Edwards and Jules Haime in the " Palseon- 
tographical Monograph," may be found at Benthall Edge. It is 
worthy of remark that the more ancient corals, viz., those 
found in Palaeozoic strata, have a quadripartite arrangement of 
their lamellae, or stony plates, the number being 4, 8, 1C, &c., 
while in the newer or Neozoic type, the number is C, or a 
multiple of 6, as C, 12, 18, 24, &c. 



CHAP. VI.] 



UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 



175 



"With regard to the extension of the Wenlock strata, it is more 
than probable that they are prolonged over a very considerable 
area of eastern Siluria, and underlie the Upper Ludlow rocks 
in sheets, eastward of the Church Stretton fault. Wenlock 
Edge may have been a barrier reef, which was formerly pro- 



CORALS OF THE WEJtLOCK LIMESTONE. 




1, Heliolitcs tubulatus, Lonsd. 2, H. petaliformis, Lonsd. 3, H. interstinctus, Wahl. ; 
a variety with large tubes. 4, 5, H. interstinctus, WabL ; ordinary variety. 



longed to the outlying mass at Botville. But the extension 
westwards, seems to have ceased at this point ; for there is no 
sign of any limestone associated with the shales after passing 
the Botville limestone on the north, or the Woolhope lime- 
stone on the south at Old Radnor. I am not aware that the 
Wenlock limestone crosses, in any instance, the fault which 
brings up the Longmynd Cambrian rocks in the Church 
Stretton district, and which runs by Clunbury and Presteign 
to Old Eadnor. 

It thins out rapidly in its south-western range, being but 
slightly represented near Ludlow, and still less so in the 
neighbourhood of Aymestry. 

At Buildwas, the relation of the Wenlock shales, on which the 
Abbey stands, with regard to the overlying limestone may be 



176 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

observed. Fossils have been found here in abundance in a 
shaft sunk in the "Wenlock shales for coal by a landed proprie- 
tor in the neighbourhood, contrary to advice given by myself. 

But before proceeding on farther geological investigations, 
the traveller should linger awhile among the ruins of the 
once far-famed Abbey of Buildwas. Our notes from the 
accounts given by antiquarians, inform us that these pictu- 
resque ruins are the remains of a noble Cistercian edifice, 
founded in the same year that Henry I. died, in consequence 
of eating lampreys, after a day's hunting in the woods of Lion 
la Foret in Normandy. Stephen confirmed the foundation in 
1139, and there are some instructive examples of the transition 
from the pure Norman style of architecture, to that of the 
Pointed period which superseded the massive round arch and 
chevron mouldings. Leland mentions Buildwas Abbey in 
his " Itinerary," and attributes its foundation to Matilda de 
Bohun, as also does Camden. 

Near Leighton is The Grove, between which and the Birches, 
a landslip occured in 1783, which was attributed to an earth- 
quake and caused immense sensation at the time. A large 
mass of earth and wood was precipitated into the Severn, caused 
it to overflow its banks, and " turned it out of the bed which it 
had enjoyed for countless ages." And "while some of the 
spectators picked eels and fishes on dry ground, others of 
different taste looked for curious fossils among the ruins of the 
rock, which in the morning formed the channel of the Severn, 
and a great many were found bearing the impression of a flying 
insect, not unlike the butterfly into which silkworms are 
changed." These we need hardly say were the tails of tri- 
lobites. 

The celebrated Abbey of Wenlock is said to have been 
founded about the year 880, by Milburga, a daughter of King 
Merewald, and granddaughter of the savage Penda, King of 
Mercia. Milburga was the Lady Abbess of Wenlock Abbey, 
and according to William of Malmesbury, who wrote in the 
time of King Stephen, when the abbey church was rebuilt 
during the reign of Edward the Confessor, the tomb of St. 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 177 

Milburga was broken open, and such a sweet odour came from 
it as to work many miracles and cure the king's evil. 

In Doomsday Book, Wenlock is called Patinterne Hundred, 
and the last restorer of the 14th year of William the Conqueror, 
converted it into a monastery. Leland describes it in the 
reign of Henry VIII. as " a markett towne where was an abbey 
of blak monkes, passing over a high hille, called "Wenlock 
Edge." Cainden says that it was then " famous for limestone," 
but had been formerly celebrated for a copper mine in the days 
of Richard II. The church is ancient and contains a noble 
Norman font. When I was there some years ago with the 
Worcester and Malvern Field Clubs, the Rev. Mr. Wayne 
explained the many interesting features it possesses, and also 
directed our attention to a note in the registers of the parish, 
to the effect that on a certain Sunday during the reign of 
" Good Queen Bess," the people of Wenlock for the first time 
heard the church service performed in the English language. 
When visiting Wenlock Edge, the geologist cannot misunder- 
stand the position of the two different series of Wenlock strata, 
for deep denudation has affected the shales in a line parallel to 
the limestone of the Edge, and between that ridge and the 
Caradoc Hills. The shales are also to be seen dipping every- 
where beneath the limestone, which is well exposed in many 
quarries on the summit and slope of Wenlock Edge. 

There is one locality in the Wenlock series, not far from 
Ludlow, which offers many points of interest. This is Wig- 
more, which lies in a great valley of denudation, the Aymestry 
rock of Bringwood Chase rising in a bold escarpment on one 
side, and that of Gatley on the other. Here we have a fine 
example of a broken anticlinal of Aymestry limestone, with a 
valley of denudation in the lower strata down to the base of 
the Wenlock shales. The drift of this district should be in- 
vestigated by local observers, for it was from the old gravels 
above Wigmore Lake, that the Rev. T. T. Lewis obtained some 
specimens of lias gryphites. 

The ruins of Wigmore Castle demand attention from the 
antiquary. According to Camden there was a stronghold here 



178 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

in Saxon times called " Wyn-gunga-Mene," which was " re- 
paired in ancient times by King Edward the Elder," son of 
King Alfred (A.D. 901), and was afterwards "fortified with a 
castle by William Earl of Hereford, in the waste of ground 
(for so it is in Doomesday Book) which was called Marestun, 
in the tenure of Randulph de Mortimer, from whom those 
Mortimers that were afterwards Earls of March, were de- 
scended." (Gibson's " Camden," p. 576.) Here once lived the 
notorious Mortimer, paramour of Isabella of France, and the 
murderer of Edward II. Years after his execution his estates 
were restored to his son by Edward III., and from that period 
they remained in the family which sent forth a king to the 
throne of England in the person of Edward IV. In the Wars 
of the Roses we find the Duke of York, father of Edward IV., 
" retiring to his castle of Wigmore," shortly before the defeat 
of Wakefield, in which battle he lost his life, and after which 
his head was planted over the gates of York by order of his 
victorious enemies. Five Earls of March, with many other of 
the Mortimers, were buried in Wigmore Abbey. Not a memo- 
rial now remains of their sepulture, save a record by Mr. Gough 
in his additions to " Camden " (vol. ii. p. 454), that there was 
found among the mouldering walls " a stone coffin, with a 
small urn holding ashes, with some silver coin in the leaden 
coffin, which contained a body perfect, but which mouldered 
on the opening." In all probability this was the body of one 
of the ladies of the Mortimers, the ashes in the little urn being 
the remains of a lover or husband who perished in some foreign 
war, and which were placed in the same tomb with the corpse 
of her who had loved him through life. 

In the Dudley countrj', the Wenlock limestone forms the 
heights of Castle Hill and the Wren's Nest. The hills of 
basalt near Rowley are witnesses of the violent volcanic action 
which protruded the Upper Silurians in this neighbourhood 
through the surrounding coal measures. The Wren's Nest is 
an upraised dome, resembling, on a small scale, the elevations 
of the Usk and Woolhope districts. The galleries, worked in 
the two bands of limestone here developed, are well .worthy of- 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 179 

observation. Some splendid collections of fossils have been 
made at Dudley, especially of Trilobites and Encrinites, for 
which the Weulock limestone here has been justly celebrated. 
Such were the collections of Captain Fletcher of Lawnswood, 
and Mr. Gray, the former of which has been sold to Manchester, 
and the latter to the British Museum. The Dudley Museum 
also contains some specimens of characteristic fossils. 

In the Woolhope district, the geologist will detect the lime- 
stone at a distance by its well-marked hills and escarpments. 
The hill of Haughwood is encircled by a broad valley, eroded 
by denudation in the soft Weulock shales. It varies from a 
quarter of a mile to a mile in width. Fossils abound in many 
localities, as at Checkley Common, south of Stoke Edith, and 
at Warsla\v, where some good sections also occur. The lime- 
stone quarries at Dormington, in the Woolhope valley, furnish 
many excellent specimens of Wenlock corals, and many Wen- 
lock brachiopoda, more especially the Strophomena euglypha, 
which appears to have lived among coral reefs, and which, with 
Strophomena depressa, is found glistening in the sun with a 
peculiar metallic hue. Here also is the common Wenlock 
fossil, Atrypa reticularis, with small corallines clustering on 
shells that drifted about dead on the Silurian reefs, before the 
coral animal became attached to the separated valves. The 
Dormington coral reef is now in a strange position, circling, 
as it does, within an escarpment of Aymestry rock, by which 
it is almost enclosed, as by a wall ; and yet this limestone, 500 
feet thick, elevated by volcanic agency, and from above which 
thousands of feet of solid rock have been denuded, now fur- 
nishes the condensed relics of millions of extinct animals. 
Every particle of the limestone, now utilised in so many 
different ways by man, once passed through the laboratory of 
life! 

In the neighbourhood of the Malvern Hills, the Wenlock 
shale and Wenlock limestone much resemble, on a diminished 
scale, the correlative rocks in the typical district of Wenlock 
Edge; the former occupying the valleys and slopes, and the 
latter rising into low hills. Next to the .escarpments of 

N 2 



180 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

Wenlock, and Beuthall Edge, this is perhaps the best district 
for examining this rock, as the Kidgeway of Eastnor Park some- 
what resembles Wenlock Edge in its prominent outline. On 
the western flank of the southern Malverns, these strata occur 
near Clincher's Mill, Eastnor, the Glynch brook running between 
them and the Woolhope limestone at the base of the hill of 
Howler's Heath. From hence they may be followed by Eastnor 
Park and its lake, to the valley of Netherton, where they are 
highly fossiliferous, and furnish many brachiopoda such as 
Strophomena euglypha and S. depressa, with the trilobites 
Phacops caudatus, P. Downingise, and Calymene Blumen- 
bachii. Phacops Downingae is generally found rolled up like 
a woodlouse. The eyes of this little trilobite are often 
beautifully preserved. Another good exposition of these beds 
is north of the Herefordshire Beacon between Winnings farm 
and Stonesway, and from thence to Croft farm. Northward of 
this it is developed between Storridge farm and Cradley toll 
bar. There are sections at Winnings farm, Colwall Copse, 
and Croft farm ; and many of the fine fossils in Dr. Grindrod's 
Museum, and in the Museum of the Malvern Field Club at the 
College, Great Malvern, were found in these quarries. At 
Winnings quarries especially, very perfect Orbiculas are 
obtained and occasionally some fine Trilobites, with most of the 
typical shells, Colwall Copse is also a good locale for Trilo- 
bites, and my old friend and coadjutor Mr. Dyson collected 
many fine specimens there in days gone by, and especially is it 
rich in that curious Pteropod, Couularia Sowerbyii. Purlieu 
Lane is a little watercourse with many a wild flower on its 
banks, and which, ascending from Brockhill Copse, affords 
sections of the Ludlow rocks, and near Malvern, of Wenlock 
shale and Wenlock limestone. An instructive walk may be 
taken from Malvern, up the Serpentine valley and across the 
hills to the Westminster Arms. Then, following the road 
towards Mathon, we may examine the May Hill beds and a 
narrow strip of Woolhope rock. We soon arrive at a broad 
band of Wenlock limestone, and this quarry near the Mathon 
road is especially famous for good specimens of the Acroculia 



CHAP. VI.] 



UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 



181 



haliotis, a univalve mollusk which has sometimes been found 
in the embraces of an enciinite, with its proboscis inserted in 
such a way into the shell, as to lead us to suppose that the 
Acroculia was being devoured by the Encrinite, when death 
came upon both, on the site in which they are discovered. 




1, Marsupiocrinites ctelatus, Phil. 2, Magnified base of the arms. 3, Proboscis of 
the same inserted in the shell of Acroculia haliotis. 4, Reduced figure of Crotalo- 
crinus rugosus, Miller ; the bag-like cluster of arms surmounting the small, round 
' pelvis.' 5, The latter, of the natural size, with the stomach-plates stripped off, and 
showing the base of the many-fingered arms. 6, The flat stomachal surface, showing 
also thy branching of the arms from their bases. 7, A part of the reticulate congeries 
of fingers, each joint being anchylosed to its neighbour on either side. [J. W. 3., 1859.] 

The Wenlock limestone may be followed northwards to the 
river Terne. It is exposed in some remarkable positions on 
the ridge called Watts Hill, where some of the dislocations 
and disturbances are exhibited in sections which afford excel- 
lent practice to the physical geologist. From Hartley the 
limestone trends northwards on the line of the Abberley 
upheaval. It is seen about Collins Green, in the northern part 



182 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

of Ankerdine Hill, and ranges from Hill side under "Woodbury 
Hill. North of Hartley, there is a ridge of Wenlock limestone 
with many typical fossils. 

In the May Hill district, the Wenlock limestone overlies the 
shales on their strike from. Blaisdon to Aston Ingham. It 
occurs also at Eistley Wood and at Jordan's Wood. It is 
extensively quarried for limeburning and building purposes, 
particularly on the western side along Blaisdon Edge, and on 
the strike of the limestone along the line of the Michell Dean 
road, the beds are stained red. It has been calculated that 
the whole thickness of the Wenlock limestones in this district 
is about 220 feet. Fossils are numerous, the gasteropodous 
shells Euomphalus discors, and E. rugosus, occurring plenti- 
fully in both shales and limestones. Athyris tumida, a 
typical brachiopodous shell, common in these strata, is here 
often found covered with a beautiful coralline or bryozoon, 
the Fenestella assimilis. A good collection of fossils from 
this district may be seen in the Museum at Gloucester. 
They were obtained by Mr. John Jones, formerly the Hon. 
Secretary of the Cotteswolde Field Club, and an accomplished 
naturalist. 

At Tortworth the Wenlock limestones range from Crockley 
farm as far as, and beyond Whitfield. This is a contorted, 
difficult district, not to be explained without going into 
considerable dissertation. The maps of the Geological 
Surveyors are absolutely necessary here for a stranger whose 
time is limited. Fossils are found at Whitfield. 

In the Usk district, this limestone forms nearly a continuous 
band round the dome of Wenlock shales and is seen at Trostrey, 
Radyr, Frescoed, Glascoed and Tynewydd. Fossils are plentiful 
and similar to those found near the Malvern Hills, Woolhope 
and May Hill. 

In Marloes Bay, Pembrokeshire, rocks have been observed 
containing Wenlock fossils. Not far from the great fault in 
the cliff are thin limestone bands with corals, and from these, 
we pass upwards to the Ludlow series and the Old Red of West 
Dale point. 



UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 183- 

A singular patch of Upper Silurian rocks is also exposed at 
Pen-y-Llan, near Cardiff. They have yielded both Wenlock 
and Upper Ludlow fossils to the researches of Mr. E. Lee. 

LUDLOW ROCKS AND PASSAGE BEDS. 

In the districts of Wenlock, Malvern, and "Woolhope, where 
different beds of limestone are developed, the Wenlock lime- 

LUDLOW CASTLE. 
(From a Sketch by Lady Harriet Clive.) 




In this sketch the River Teme is seen to flow in a chasm of the Upper Ludlow 
Rocks, the strata on which the spectator is supposed to be standing being the same 
as those on which the Castle is built. The basalt of the Titterstone Clee Hill is in the 
distance, surrounded by Old Red Sandstone, and covered by Carboniferous deposits. 

stone passes upwards into strata of grey-coloured shales, which 
in these typical Upper Silurian provinces, separate the Wenlock' 
from the Aymestry limestone, and form usually the inner slope 
of the hills of Ludlow rocks, which, on their external slope, 
throw off the Upper Ludlow shales and passage beds, and Old 
Red Sandstone. 

In other parts of Wales, where the Upper Silurian rocks are 
not subdivided by limestones, it is difficult to separate the 
Wenlock and Ludlow formations, although the geological sur- 
veyors have succeeded in doing so to a certain extent, by 
means of a few typical fossils. 
. There are several chambered shells allied to the Nautilus 



184 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

which are rare in the older rocks, but which become abundant 
as we ascend to the Ludlow strata ; such are the Phragmoceras 
(phragmos = a partition, and ceras = a horn), and the trumpet- 
shaped Lituite. The Phragmoceras, a pear-shaped cephalo- 
podous shell, is very characteristic of the Lower Ludlow shales, 
but perhaps the most typical fossil is the Graptolites ludense. 
Starfishes are numerous in some localities, and it was in these 
rocks that the oldest known fossil fish was discovered at Church 
Hill, near Leintwardine, Shropshire, by Mr. J. E. Lee of Caer- 
leon. This old fossil fish is regarded by Professor Huxley and 
Mr. Ray Lankester as allied to the sturgeon, and belonging to 
the genus Pteraspis, a form which appears in several species 
in the Old Red Sandstone. It is the " Scaphaspis ludensis" of 
Mr. Lankester. 

In " Siluria," when treating of the Lower Ludlow rocks, Sir 
R. Murchison says that his " chief reason for grouping them 
with the Ludlow, rather than with the Wenlock deposits, was 
that throughout the typical districts of Shropshire and Here- 
fordshire these shales occupy the base of the ridges, the harder 
summits and eastward slopes of which are composed of Aymes- 
try limestone and Upper Ludlow rocks." These shales then 
form the escarpments and contiguous valleys of the Upper 
Ludlow series. 

In North Wales the Lower Ludlow strata are developed in 
the Long Mountain. In this range of hills, which rise to a 
height of 1330 feet, these strata underlie the Old Red rocks 
of the Forest of Hayes. The absence of limestone and the 
scarcity of fossils in this district renders it almost impossible 
to separate the Upper and Lower formations. The Rhynconella 
nucula is, however, found in thin bands in the Long Mountain, 
and whenever this characteristic fossil occurs in abundance, it 
may be considered typical of the Upper Ludlow beds, while, as 
the underlying deposits contain Graptolites, they may be set 
down as belonging to the Lower Ludlow group ; at least in 
Siluria. On the western slope, near Gaithley, the strata con- 
tain Cardiolffi and Graptolites. On the summit of the Long 
Mountain is a fine earthwork, named Caer Digol, and here the 



diAV. vi.] ITPER SILUKIAX ROCKS. 185 

last battle for Welsh independence was fought by Madoc 
against Edward I. in 1294. 

The Lower Ludlow strata occupy undulating tracts of 
country between the Kerry hills, south of Newtown, in Mont- 
gomeryshire, and Bishop's Castle. They are quarried in Kerry 
Hill, and are found to contain Cardiolae and Graptolites, and 
they are also exposed on the eastern side of Clun Forest. 

South of the Long Mountain, the Upper Ludlow beds are 
denuded until we arrive at the Clun district, where they under- 
lie and support the great Old Red outlier of Clun Forest, 
which rises to the height of from 900 to 1300 feet above 
the sea, and forms a trough, in the centre of which rests the 
Old Red of the Forest. They are exposed in the railway 
quarries at Knighton, and they also support the outliers of 
Old Red Sandstone near Brampton Bryan and Presteign. The 
neighbourhood of Knighton in Radnorshire, is favourable for 
the investigation of both Upper and Lower Ludlow rocks. 
The town itself is built upon the right bank of the Teme, 
which has its source in Lower Ludlow rocks on the Kerry 
Hills. The celebrated Offa's Dyke, " Clawdd Offa," is also 
seen to advantage in the neighbourhood of Knighton, or, as it 
is called in Welsh, "Tref-y-Clawdd," the ''Town on the Dyke." 
This earthen rampart was raised by King Oifa about 760 A.D., 
as a line of partition between the kingdom of Mercia and 
the dominions of the Welsh princes. It commences near Chep- 
stow, on the Severn, and from thence it has been traced by 
Tintern to Bridge Sollers in Herefordshire, and by Knill 
Garroway to Knighton. It extended from thence to Basing- 
werke in Flintshire, not far from the mouth of the Dee, a 
distance of nearly 100 miles from its commencement on the 
Severn. The " Clawdd Offa " was a boundary of importance, 
for a law was passed by Edward the Confessor, after the Welsh 
had been defeated by Harold, that every Welshman found in 
arms to the east of Offa's Dyke should lose his right hand. 
The poet Churchyard alludes to this Dyke : 

" Within two miles there is a famous thinge, 
Calde Offa's Dyke, that reacheth farre in length ; " 



186 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

And so also does Camden, who quotes "Joannes Sarisburiensis'* 
and his Polycraticon on the question of Harold's law. 

The geologist will observe a remarkable valley of denudation 
in the Lower Ludlow shales, along a line of fault, through 
which the Teme passes between the hills of Brampton and 
Coxwall Knoll, the strata of these hills dipping in opposite 
directions. He should also remember that at Pedwardine, 
close to Brampton Bryan, rocks as old as the Upper Lingula 
Flags, are faulted to the surface against Upper Silurian strata. 

Every antiquarian should visit the old British encampment 
of Coxwall Knoll, five miles east of Knighton. The plan of the 
camp is given in "Roy's Military Antiquities," and Roy, 
supported by several authorities, believes it to have been the 
scene of the final struggle between Caractacus and Ostorius. 
The locality, however, does not correspond with the geography 
of the spot, as given by Tacitus, much better than that of Caer 
Caradoc near Church Stretton, the hill supposed by Camden to 
be the place where the noble Briton was brought to bay. 

The Upper and Lower Ludlow strata, divested of the 
Aymestry limestone, cover a large area of the county of 
Radnor, and extend from Knighton and Presteign in a south- 
westerly direction. At the beautiful waterfall called " Water- 
break-its-neck," near New Radnor, are strata passing upwards 
from the Wenlock shales into the Lower Ludlow rocks with 
Cardiola3, and other sections, in the hills beyond, show the 
presence of the Upper Ludlow beds overlying the lower 
deposits. The Tilestones, or Downton beds, are quarried on 
a hill in the neighbourhood, and they are overlaid by the 
Lowest Old Red. 

"Near Kington, the Lower Ludlow rock is seen in a section 
running north-west from Bradnor to Herrock Hill. Bradnor 
Hill, near Kington, is celebrated as showing the Passage beds 
in certain quarries on its southern flank. The Bone bed of 
the Upper Ludlow rock is there overlaid by brown-coloured 
strata containing a typical Upper Ludlow shell, Chonetes lata. 
These beds are again overlaid by strata containing the remains 
of fishes, especially the Cyathaspis Banksii, and portions of 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 187 

the Crustacean, Pterygotus (a small species of which, as 
already mentioned, is first known in the Upper Llandovery 
beds of Eastuor, near Ledbury) and also two species of 
Eurypteri. 

Bone beds are zones of bony and coprolitic matter which are 
found in strata of Kecent, Tertiary, Wealden, Oolitic, Rhoetic, 
Carboniferous, and Silurian ages, and probably owe their origin 
to the sudden destruction of fish, crustaceans, and marine 
reptilia, by the action of volcanic gases, or some cataclysmal 
epidemic which destroyed vast quantities of marine animals 
over considerable areas in the seas of the different periods. Ib 
is probable also that bone beds were deposited in shallow water, 
as on the fish banks of Newfoundland. In 1868, Dr. A. Leith 
Adams saw the whole surface of a lagoon, known as 
" Anderson's Cove," in the Bay of Fundy, covered with dead 
fish to a depth of a foot in some places, after a violent storm. 
Enormous numbers, too, were floating on the surface of the 
water. A sudden influx of lava, or turbid mineral, or gaseous 
impregnated waters, in the neighbourhood of the Dogger Bank, 
would cause the immediate death of thousands of fish and 
other marine animals. Some years ago I received an account, 
through Mr. John Jones, then Austrian Consul at Gloucester, 
of the traverse of the ship Harbinger through vast shoals of 
dead garfish (Sygnathus anguineus), floating on the surface of 
the waves between Mirimachi, New Brunswick, and Gloucester. 
The fish were most numerous in that latitude, through which 
the volcanic band of Iceland, the Azores, and the Madeira 
passes. It is probable that these shoals were destroyed by 
submarine volcanic action, as no doubt was the case in many 
instances with the fish of our fossil bone beds. 

The Bradnor quarries are very rich in fossils. "When I 
visited them a few years ago, in company with Dr. Melville, 
Mr. Banks of Ridgebourne and Mr. Lightbody, we succeeded 
in obtaining many characteristic specimens in a couple of 
hours. The fish plates are abundant, although seldom found 
in a good state of preservation. The Lingula cornea is a. fossil 
which demands attention, as it ranges^ at Ledbury, from the 



188 EECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 

Upper Ludlow beds through the Downton Sandstone and 
Passage beds, into Red strata with Cephalaspis near the base 
of the Old Red. 

The lover of geology should cross from Bradnor Hill to the 
Hergest Hills, and from thence to the Trewerne Hills on the 
Wye. Many good Upper Ludlow fossils may be obtained in 
the hills behind JS"ewchurch, and close to the inn is a capital 
quarry with Ludlow fossils. The beds are overlaid by Old 
Red Sandstone and Passage beds, within a short distance of 
this lonely hillside village, where Sir R. Murchison was 
quartered for a considerable time during his investigation of 
the district when writing the " Silurian System." Few 
amateurs, I suppose, have followed out the work done by 
Murchison so much as myself, and know so much of the 
" roughing " he underwent for the pure love of geology, in the 
days when he was writing or collecting the materials for the 
work which established his fame. He remained ten days at 
this out-of-the-way village inn, near the sources of the river 
Arrow, crossing the country in every direction, and sending to 
Kington for provisions. I slept in his room before the 
" public " was repaired, and they were indeed " soldiers' 
quarters " that he occupied. 

Shobdon Hill, between Aymestry and Presteign is occupied 
by the Upper Ludlow rocks. Coombe Wood, near Presteign, 
yields typical fossils, and the shrimplike Ceratiocaris has been 
found there. Some years ago I travelled to Presteign on 
hearing that the bones of a large animal had been found in 
the Lower Ludlow shale, and were to be seen in a garden near 
the town. The " bones " proved to be some argillaceous con- 
cretions, somewhat in the form of the ribs of a whale. It 
was not the first time (or the last) that I journeyed on a 
"gowk's errand" on the report of "a great geological dis- 
covery ; " but I was somewhat comforted on finding that the 
veteran Sedgwick and Prof. M'Coy had left Presteign only 
the day before, having travelled from Shrewsbury to see " the 
whale." 

Shobdon Church was built as early as the year 1140, by De 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 189 

Merylond, steward to Hugh Mortimer, who founded a small 
priory near it. 

In the neighbourhood of Hay, in Brecknockshire, are interest- 
ing sections showing the relations of the Lower Ludlow rocks 
to the Upper Series. It was here that Sir R. Murchison first 
observed the con-elation of the strata, and their downward 
passage from the Old Red Sandstone into the Upper Silurians. 
The old red rocks occupy the Clyro and Trewerne hills, above 
the town, on the left bank of the Wye ; and on the KW. they 
are underlaid by terraces of Ludlow rocks. The Lower Ludlow 
strata may be seen much twisted and contorted in a mountain 
gorge near Lyswen, at a picturesque spot called Craig-pwll-du, 
where the Bach Howy falls over a steep cliff into a pool at the 
base. The rocks in this romantic glen contain fossils, and 
the botanist may obtain the moonwort (Botrychium Lunaria) 
and the adder's tongue (Ophioglossum) on the woody slopes. 
The explorer should visit the Rhosgoch, a peat moss some 
miles north-east of Llanstephan, between Hay and Kington. 
It is apparently a silted up lake, and is now the haunt of the 
snipe, and many years ago, when snipe-shooting at Mrs. 
Griffiths's of Dolkenny, I saw a bittern rise from this marsh. 
Is this Rhosgoch one of the lakes said by Giraldus to have 
burst its banks on the night on which Henry I. expired ? Or 
is it the Boughlinne of Leland, who mentions " a Llyinne in Low 
Elvel, within a mile of Payne's Castel, by the Chirch Lanpeder. 
The Llinne is called Boughlline, and is of no great quantity, 
but is plentiful of pike, and perche, and eles." * 

My attention was directed by Mr. Walker of Llanstephan to 
a curious upright stone, known as The Druid's Stone, standing 
in a field not far from Llanstephan Church. It is an Old Red 
boulder set on end, and may be a burial stone. 

In the Brecon district the Ludlow rocks extend from Corn-y- 
fan, about six miles N.W. of Brecon, to Erwood on the Wye, 
below Builth. In this rocky and picturesque country of hills 
and moorlands, the geologist should visit the remarkable anti- 
clinals of Alt fawr, and the uplift of Corn-y-fan, where the 

* Jjeland, Itinerary, vol. v. p. 72. 



190 EECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

Ludlow rocks are the oldest beds, and throw off at high angles 
the Upper Ludlows, Passage beds or Tilestones, and the Old 
Red rocks. 

At Trecastle, in Breconshire, the instructive sections should 
be observed along the escarpments of Mynydd, Bwlch-y-groes 

BRECON ANTICLINAL OF LUDLOW RocKb, THROWING OFF OLD BED SANDSTONE. 

N.W. AltFawrand S.E. 

Corn-y-fan. 




c 2 , Middle Ludlow, with a calcareous band representing the 
lestoue. t 3 , Upper Ludlow. /, Old Red (lowest beds). 



e l , Lower Ludlow. 

Aymestry Lim 

and Mynydd Epynfc, where there are several instances of the 
junction of the Ludlow rocks with the Old Red Sandstones. 
There is a mound at Trecastle (Castletown) which was the site 
of an ancient fortress, said to have been the stronghold of 
the ancestors of the Gwyns ; and there is also a tradition that 
the low ground between Trecastle and the village of Llywel, 
half a mile distant, was formerly a lake, whereon the Chieftain's 
family were rowed in a fine boat on high days and holidays. 
An excursion among these hills and vales will convince the 
geologist, that ice has had much to do with the removal of 
the masses of strata swept out from the different valleys, not 
only during the emergence of the hills from the glacial seas, 
but also long, long after their upheaval into dry land ; for 
everywhere we meet with evidences of the action of land ice and 
snow moving down the grooves of the higher valleys, and of 
the power of land ice and snow in carrying blocks of rocks and 
stranding them far beyond the parent mass to which they were 
originally attached. The village of Devynock, between Brecon 
and Trecastle, is believed to have derived its name Dyfnawg, 
from the deep valleys of the country ; and there are many so- 
called Druidical stones in. the neighbourhood, which may have 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER 'SILURIAN HOCKS. 191 

been placed in position by some of the ancient inhabitants, but 
which assuredly owe their transport to other agencies than the 
hands of man. Near Horeb chapel on the valley of the Cwm 
Dor, between Trecastle and Llandovery, is a section affording 
many fossils. The Tilestones of this country are on the horizon 
of the uppermost Ludlow strata and Bownton beds. They 
contain some characteristic fossils, and are also quarried at 
Pont-ar-lleche, near the old decayed town of Llangadock. 

The geologist, when visiting the neighbourhood of Llan- 
dovery or Llandeilo, should take the opportunity of observing 
the way in which the Upper Silurian rocks are squeezed and 
faulted between the hard quartzose rocks of the Llandeilo 
period on one side, and the quartzose conglomerate, which runs 
along the ridge of Trichrug, on the other. One section may 
be traced from the eastern base of the old encampment of Cam 
Goch, near Llangadock, where the Tarannon shales occupy the 
lower part of the hill on the slope ascending to Trichrug, and 
we pass upwards, through representatives of the Weulock and 
Ludlow formations, to this remarkable yellowish and quartzitic 
conglomerate, which extends along the crest of the hill and 
dips under the Old Red Sandstone. This peculiar conglome- 
rate is on the horizon of the Downton and Passage beds. 
Near Llandeilo, the Upper Silurians are crushed into quite a thin 
line between the ridge above Golden Grove and the promon- 
tory of Nelson's monument. 

From the Sowdde river to the south-west, below Caermar- 
then, these rocks thin out to a mere band under the Old Red, 
although they may be seen in Mynedd Cyfad, east of Caermar- 
then, at Mount Pleasant and Pont Pibwr. "Without the aid of 
the fossils which have been detected, it would be difficult to 
recognise in these sandstones, the mudstones of the Lower 
Ludlow s of Radnor. The Passage beds are represented by 
grey, quartzose, micaceous sandstones, and reddish marls, 
dipping at an angle of 41 degrees to the south-east. Junctions 
of the Upper Silurian rocks with the Old Red, are exposed at 
Croesceiliog on the road between Kidwelly and Caermarthen, 
and also on the Towy at' Castel-Moen. 



192 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vr. 

In Pembrokeshire, junctions of these rock systems are 
exhibited near the little town of Narberth. The geologist may 
examine Lower Silurians (Llandeilo beds), Upper Silurians, 
Old Eed Sandstone, Mountain Limestone, Millstone grit and 
coal measures, in the course of a morning walk south of 
Narberth. In South Pembrokeshire, junctions of the Silurian 
and Old Red systems may be seen in the Bay of Freshwater, 
east-south-east of Pembroke, and again on the opposite side of 
the peninsula, west of Freshwater, near Castle Martin. Tn 
Marloes Bay, at Westdale Point, similar phenomena may be 
observed. The characteristic fossil of these beds is the 
Rhynconella navicula. 

We now revert to the Silurian districts, where the rocks of 
the Upper series are characterised by subdividing limestones. 
In the neighbourhood of Wenlock Edge, the different strata 
cannot be misunderstood, for the Wenlock limestone of the 
Edge, and the Aymestry limestone of View Edge and Norton 
Camp, near the Craven Arms, trend away to the north-east 
and towards Wenlock and Coalbrookdale, in parallel ridges 
that cannot be mistaken. The Lower Ludlow rock occupies 
the trough under the Aymestry limestone and constitutes the 
shales between that limestone and the Wenlock limestone. I 
know no district where the physical position of the Lower 
Ludlow strata is better marked, than within a walk of the 
Craven Arms, near Church Stretton. Here also the Aymestry 
limestone forms the bold hills of View Edge and Stokesay 
Camp, where it occupies a wooded ridge stretching away for 
miles, and overhanging the Wenlock limestone. The typical 
fossil of the Aymestry rock, the noble brachiopod, the Peuta- 
merus Knightii, is to be obtained at View Edge, where there 
is a band twenty feet thick, full of these fossils. In this 
district the Upper Ludlow rocks rise into the high grounds 
known as the Yeld, and dip by Broadstone Rough, under the 
lower Red strata of Corve dale, along which they trend 
southwards towards Ludlow, to the west of Holgate and 
Culmington. 

It will interest the lover of physical geology to observe the 



CHAP, vi.] ASTRANTIA MAJOR. 193 

faulting of the strata, and the dislocations around the Craven 
Arms, caused apparently by the elevation of a spur of 
Cambrian rock, an outlier of the great Longmynd mass, which 
rises into the hilly tract to the west of Sibdon. 

"Worthy also of notice are the excavations in the Drift, north 
of the Craven Arms on the line of the railway to Bishop's 
Castle. After examining the sections in company with several 
good geologists, we came to the conclusion, that the distortions 
and dislocations observable had probably been greatly 
influenced by ice masses drifting down the valleys from the 
direction of Cardington and Bishop's Castle, and grounding 
in the drift. A great portion of the drift was composed of 
Cardington grits interspersed with boulders from the Long- 
mynd. Some of them were grooved and scratched, and the 
whole mass has evidently been reasserted by water since its 
transportation from the hills. Stokesay Wood is a great resort 
for botanists, who often find there many rare plants to reward 
their researches. The Astrantia major is found here, but Mr. 
Benthain informs me that it is not a native British plant. In 
catalogues it is marked as " ambiguous." 

Near Dudley the Aymestry rock is to be seen at Sedgeley, 
where it is elevated through the coal measures, and rises in the 
Beacon Hill to the height of 650 feet above the level of the sea. 
The characteristic fossil Pentamerus Knightii occurs in the 
numerous limestone quarries. Hugh Miller's first acquaintance 
with Silurian geology commenced at Sedgeley, and in his " First 
Impressions of England and its People," he gives a graphic 
description of his explorations among the Aymestry deposits, 
and his researches for their typical fossils. 

Near Wenlock this formation commences at Sutton, and 
rises into an elevated escarpment which extends by Larden 
and Serefton to Mocktree forest. 

The term of Ludlow rocks was given to this group by Sir R. 
Murchison, because the town of Ludlow is built upon the upper 
beds of these grey-coloured Silurian strata, which in this dis- 
trict rise from beneath the Old Red sandstone into the bold hill 
ridges stretching to the west, north-west, and south-west of the 



194 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

town. The physical position of the upper strata may be gene- 
rally determined at a glance, by the way in which they slope 
off as rounded hills, and pass underneath the plains of Lower 
Old Eed Sandstone ; while the Lower Ludlow and Wenlock 
formations are exposed in escarpments and are grooved, and 
channelled by denudation. With the exception of being rather 
more micaceous, the lower strata of the Upper Ludlow rock, 
greatly resemble those of the Lower Ludlow ; while the Led- 
bury or Passage beds which overlie them and pass by in- 
sensible gradations into the Old Red Sandstone, assume 
different characters in different localities, being in one dis- 
trict grey, passing into red, in another grey and yellowish, 
and again in another grey and blueish-grey, passing into 
red beds. 

In the neighbourhood of Ludlow is a section given by Sir 
R. Murchison in his "Siluria,"in which the Lower Ludlow rock 
is exhibited in Mary Knoll Dingle and Comus Wood. The 
beds afford numerous fossils ; a section may also be seen in as- 
cending from Elton to Evenhay, the ridge being a prolongation 
of Gatley Coppice. Here the Lower Ludlow beds are argil- 
laceous strata underlying the Aymestry rock on the summit of 
the hill, and overlying the thin representatives of the Wenlock 
limestone. Fossils may be found at Elton Lane and Bow 
Bridge. Near Ludlow, the Aymestry limestone occupies the 
ridges of Mary Knoll (overlying the Lower Ludlow beds there 
exposed) and Brindgwood Chase, west of the town, and consti- 
tutes the High Vinhall, Whiteway Head, and Croft Ambrey. 
Mr. Lightbody of Ludlow has pointed out the close relation 
of the Lower Ludlow fossils with those of the Ajonestry 
rock, and has proposed to correlate this limestone with the 
rocks of the Lower Ludlow series. In the Ludlow district 
there are, without doubt, several bands of calcareous rock in 
the Lower Ludlow beds which consist principally of repetitions 
of strata containing Pentamerus Knightii. Nevertheless the 
Aymestry limestone is a well-marked divisional rock in other 
districts, where, as, for instance, at Malvern, Woolhope, and 
Lcdbury, no Pentamerus Knightii occurs. Geologists will 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 195 

probably therefore retain the division of the strata as originally 
marked out by Sir R. Murchison and Mr. Lewis. 

At Caynham Camp, and Tinker's Hill, south-west of Ludlow, 
are outlying upcasts of Aymestry rock containing the cha- 
racteristic Chonetes lata, and Rhynconella Wilsoni. The upper- 



SECTIOS ACROSS THE LUDLOW PROMONTORY. 
N.W. 

Brindgwood. Gatley. 

R. Onny. Wigmore. 




d 1 , Wenlock Shale, d*, Wenlock Limestone. e l . Lower Ludlow Beds, e 2 , Aymestry 
or Ludlow Limestone, t 3 , Upper Ludlow Beds. /, Old Red Sandstone (bottom beds of). 

most strata present in this district, and in many localities, a 
remarkable feature in the "Bone bed," which at Ludlow 
appears as a dark brown layer consisting of a confused mass of 
bony fragments, the relics of some minute fish and crustaceans. 
" Some of the fragments," says Sir. E. Murchison, " are of a 
mahogany hue, but others of so brilliant a black, that when 
first discovered they conveyed the impression that the bed was 
a heap of broken beetles." The late Eev. T. T. Lewis and 
Dr. Lloyd were the first to discover this bone bed ; they traced 
it in several localities around the Ludlow promontory, and 
observed that it was immediately overlaid by the Downton 
Castle beds, which are composed of yellowish micaceous sand- 
stones, containing Lingula cornea, a fossil found also in the 
Upper Ludlow shales and in the " bone bed." The Downton 
strata may be considered as the lowest beds of the Passage 
rocks, or Ledbury beds of Salter. 

There are many places in the environs of Ludlow where the 
Ledbury or Passage rocks are partially exposed, and in the 
railway cutting to the north-east of the town, considerably 
higher in position than the bone bed, they furnish remains of 
fishes. Mr. Lightbody has a fine collection of fossil fish 
and crustaceans from these railway beds, and they have afforded 

o 2 



196 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

many specimens to the researches of Mr. Marston, Mr. Cock- 
ing, and Mr. Salwey. Among the fish remains were Cepha- 
laspis ornatus, and C. Murchisoni'^the latter also having been 
detected at Ledbury) Auchenaspis Egertoni (a small fish allied 
to Cephalaspis), and another species, Auchenaspis Salteri, which 
is found in abundance at Ledbury in Passage rocks con- 
siderably above the corresponding railway shales of the Down- 
ton beds at Ludlow. These fish were described by Sir P. 
Grey Egerton. Among the Crustacea are Eurypterus pyg- 
mseus, and the gigantic Pterygotus Anglicus. From what we 
know of the Passage rocks in other localities, it is probable 
that all the Ludlow railway shales with their bone beds and 
fossils, are strata which overlie the older original " bone bed," 
but the river Teme runs along a line of fault which destroys 
the continuity of the Passage beds in the Ludlow district, 
and therefore it is almost impossible to determine their true 
sequence. It is, however, fortunately unbroken in the section 
exposed in and outside the tunnel at Ledbury. The best 
localities near Ludlow for fossils are as follows : Mocktree, 
Burrington, and Church Hill, near Leintwardine, Tinker's 
Hill, Brindgwood Chase, and Whitcliff, while for the fishes and 
fossils of the Passage rocks, we recommend the Paper Mills, 
Ludford Lane, the Railway beds, the Tin Mills, and Forge 
bridge near Downton. 

Ludlow Castle stands on the site of an ancient stronghold 
erected before the time of the Norman invasion, as the British 
name for Ludlow was Dinan Llys Tywysog, or the Prince's 
Palace. The relics of the present Castle are situated on a bold 
wooded rock, at the foot of which runs the river Teme. 
According to Camden it was founded by Roger de Montgomery, 
Earl of Shrewsbury, and it endured a long siege by King 
Stephen, who at the risk of his own life rescued the young 
Prince Henry of Scotland under its walls, from being made 
prisoner by the soldiers of the Empress Matilda's army. It was 
from Ludlow Castle that Edward Y. was removed to London, 
to be afterwards murdered by the order of Richard III., and here 
died Arthur Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Henry VII. 



CHAP, vi.] MILTOX AT LUDLOW. 197 

Giraldus Cambrensis says that it was a " noble castle " in 
the days of Henry II, although he does not appear to have 
visited either Ludlow or Leominster on his way to Hereford. 
He speaks nevertheless of passing by " the little cell of Brum- 
field," which was established, according to an ancient deed in 
Dugdale's " Monasticon," in the reign of King Henry I. Leland 
also mentions the "priory or cell of monks at Brumfield," and 
gives a particular description of the site of the Priory and its 
position between the Onny and the Teme. 

The magnificent courts of the Lords President of the Marches 
were held at Ludlow during the reigns of Henry VIII. and of 
Elizabeth. 

' ' Here Milton sung. What needs a greater spell 
To lure thee, stranger, to these far-famed walls ? " 

for it was at Ludlow Castle that the bard composed the "Masque 
of Comus" in 1634, during the Presidency of the Earl of Bridge- 
water. The Masque was acted in the Castle, and owed its 
origin to the fact of the two sons of the Earl of Bridgewater, 
and his daughter, Lady Alice Egerton, losing their way and 
being benighted in Eywood Forest. After the Restoration, 
Butler resided here as secretary to the Earl of Carberry, and 
he is said to have written a portion of " Hudibras " in one of the 
towers. 

Ludlow Church is also a grand building. It is of early 
English architecture, with decorated transepts. Edward IV. 
sent funds to assist in building the tower. The church has 
been admirably restored within the last few years. "When 
staying at Ludlow the antiquary will find a fitting haunt at 
the "Feathers Inn," an old panelled house of the days of 
James I. 

Around Leintwardine, at Mocktree and other localities, are 
several escarpments, where the relations of the Lower Ludlow 
rocks may be seen. The Church Hill quarry near Leintwar- 
dine is the spot where, as already mentioned, the earliest known 
fish (Scaphaspis Ludensis) was discovered, and it is also cele- 
brated for its Star-fish, Paleaster, Protaster, &c. The Leint- 



198 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



{CHAP. vi. 



wardine district appears to have been dislocated by faults, and 
the Aymestry limestone, containing Pentamerus Knightii, is 
seen north of Church Hill, on the same axial line with the 
Lower Ludlow beds of the celebrated quarry. It appears also 
that strata with fossils similar to those of the Church Hill 
quarry have been observed by Mr. Marston in a quarry on 
the west side of the old road to Leintwardine, lying between 
rocks bearing Pentamerus Knightii. Again, Mr. Lightbody 
detected a remarkable section at Mocktree, where the Church 
Hill quarry beds are in a trough of Aymestry limestone, and 
contain Star-fish, Lingula lata, and other Lower Ludlow fossils. 

STAR-FISHES OF THE LOWER LUDLOW ROCK. 




1, 2, Protester Miltoni, Salter ; a form of Ophiuridre with numerous plates. 
2 a, Small portion of a Protaster, magnified. 3, Pateocoma Marstoni, Salter. 
4, P. Colvini, id. These are Star-fishes allied to Palmipes and Pteraster. 



According to Dr. Thomas Wright, the antiquarian, the 
Roman town Bravinium stood on the banks of the Teme, 
near the village of Leintwardine, on the road which proceeded 
from Ariconium (Weston near Ross), by Magna (Kenchester 
near Hereford), to Uriconium (Wroxeter) on the Severn. 

A note in Gibson's Camden records a perfect Roman camp 
called " Brandon, near Lanterdin, very commodiously situated 
for aquation by reason of the nearness of the river Teme." 



CHAP, vi.] MORTIMER'S CROSS. 199 

Leintwardine is now famous for the abundance and size of 
the grayling, and in former days, when " grasshoppering " was 
allowed there, I have taken many a basketful from the gravelly 
Teme. This fish (Thymaallus vulgaris) is somewhat uncommon 
in England, but abounds in the Black Forest in Germany. It is 
said to have been called " the flower of fishes " by St. Ambrose, 
in whose time it was known as the Umber (umbra, a shadow), 
from its habit of turning and glancing when rising at insects. 
Giraldus writes: "The Wye alone produces the fish called 
Umber, the praise of which is celebrated in the works of 
Ambrosius, as being found in great numbers in the rivers near 
Milan. What," says he, " is more beautiful to behold, more 
agreeable to smell, or pleasant to taste?" 

At Aymestry, the limestone is seen on both banks of the 
river Lugg. Pentamerus Knightii and Lingula Lewisii are 
very fine here, and a good collection of the typical fossils of the 
neighbourhood is in the possession of Mrs. Lewis of Aymestry 
Court. The Garden House quarries at Aymestry afford excellent 
opportunities for examining the Lower Ludlow beds, and from 
them the Eev. T. T. Lewis obtained many specimens of the 
fossils figured in the " Silurian System." The rocks on the left 
bank of the river Lugg, between Aymestry and Deerfold Chase, 
appertain to this series of deposits. When investigating the 
Aymestry district, the travelling geologist should sojourn at 
the little inn of " Mortimer's Cross." It is close to the battle- 
field where on Candlemas Eve, 1461, Edward IV., then Earl of 
March, defeated the forces of Henry VI. under Jasper, Earl of 
Pembroke. Jasper's father, Owen Tudor (who married Catherine 
of France, widow of Henry V.), was here taken prisoner, and was 
afterwards beheaded at Hereford, and buried at the Grey Friars. 
The site of the battle was Kingsland Field. At the angle of 
the roads is a stone pedestal erected to perpetuate the memory 
of " the obstinate, bloody, and decisive battle," whereof Speed 
relates that " before the battail was strok, appeared visibly in the 
firmament three sunnes, which after a while joined together, 
and became as before ; for which cause Edward afterwards gave 
the sunne in his full brightness for his badge and cognizance." 



200 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

Croft Ambrey is a hill of Aymestiy limestone, on which is a 
camp, believed to have been British, and it is another of the 
many localities selected by antiquarians as the scene of the last 
struggle of Caractacus. 

In the neighbourhood of Presteign the subdividing limestone 
is no longer seen, and the only way of separating the Lower 
from the Upper Ludlow strata, is by the groups of typical fossils ; 
the Lower rocks also are rather more argillaceous than the 
Upper beds. 

In the Malvern district Professor Phillips assigns a thick- 
ness to the Lower Ludlow rocks of 750 feet. Near Malvern 
they occupy the space between Colwall Copse and Brockhill, 
and below Mathon Lodge by Bank Farm. Near Eastnor their 
position is well defined by the valley of Ockeridge. The Farm 
of Ockeridge is built upon the denuded shales, and is situated 
between the Wenlock limestone of the Ridgeway and the 
Aymestry rock of Chances Pitch, down which the Malvern 
road passes towards Ledbury. The Ockeridge valley affords 
characteristic Lower Ludlow fossils. Examples may be seen 
in the Museum of the Malvern Field Club, at Malvern, and 
among them the Phragmoceras pyriforme and the Orthoceras 
Ludense. The same rock was exposed in the Ledbury tunnel, 
from which excavations Dr. Grindrod obtained a magnificent 
specimen of the trumpet-shaped Lituite (L. Biddulphii). To 
the northward these shales run in a narrow strip, between the 
ridges, to Tunridge and Blackhouse Farm. 

In the Ledbury district, the Aymestry rock is conspicuous 
by the high, long ridges which it presents to the eye of the 
geologist on the western border of the Silurian strata, as in 
the narrow crested hill which runs northwards from Ledbury 
Church by the Doghill turnpike, Bradlow Hill, and Frith 
"Wood. The contortions of these strata are complicated, owing 
to undulations produced by great lateral pressure. 

Near Great Malvern the Aymestry limestone may be studied 
at Hales End quarry, where it passes upwards into the Upper 
Ludlow shales, surmounted by the Bone bed ; the Ledbury 
shales, or Passage rocks, being here faulted and thrown down. 



CHAP, vr.j LEDBURY AND ITS FOSSILS. 201 

The Upper Ludlow shales, with the Downton Passage beds, 
trend from Storridge on the north, to Ledbury on the south- 
west, and may be seen in contact with the Lower Old Red 
Sandstone in many localities, as at Lord's Wood, the western 
slope of Suckley Hills, Hales End Farm, Mathon Lodge, 
Brockhill, Frith Farm, and Dog Hill, near Ledbury. There 
is a good section at Hales End, exhibiting the passage from 
Lower Ludlow strata through the Aymestry rocks to the 
overlying Old Red Sandstone. Mr. J. W. Salter detected the 
Bone bed here, and describes it as being similar in almost all 
respects to that which occurs at Ludlow. It may be found 
behind the coach-house of Hales End House, on the south side 
of a small ravine opposite the great quarry. It contains many 
small spines of the little fish allied to the shark, Onchus 
Murchisoni. Similar strata have been observed at Brockhill, 
near Mathon, and there too the Bone bed was discovered by 
the late Mr. Dyson. 

The old border town of Ledbury stands partly on the Pas- 
sage rocks and Lower Old Eed Sandstone, and partly on the 
ancient river drifts of the Leddon, which have yielded the 
remains of the Rhinoceros and Mammoth, while on the one 
side it is flanked by wooded Silurian hills, and on the other by 
the Old Red of Wall Hills Camp. 

The Lower Ludlow series may be seen near the town in 
the little valley which runs between the Doghill and the 
Wenlock quarries to the south ; also below West Bank, 
where numerous fossils, among them some beautiful Ortho- 
notas and other bivalves, such as Cardiola3 and Modiolopsis, 
may be obtained from the detritus of the railway shaft. At 
the section at Doghill the dip of the Aymestry rock is 
nearly perpendicular ; this is also the case at the spot where 
the Aymestry beds are traversed by the Ledbury tunnel. A 
few dwarfed specimens of the characteristic Pentamerus 
Knightii were collected from these beds by Henry Brooks of 
Ledbury, but this fossil is very rare in the neighbourhood of 
the Malvern Hills. Lingula Lewisii abounds at Ledbury, and 
occurs in nodules, which, when split open, exhibit the enclosed 



5202 HECOKDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

Lingula, shining, and of a nut-brown hue. Lingula Symondsii 
is more characteristic of the Lower Ludlow shales, and is rarely 
met with in the limestone. There are sections in the Upper 
Ludlow shales at Frith Farm, and near the Doghill turnpike, 
north of Ledbury ; the Downton sandstone, however, is not 
exposed, neither has the Bone bed been detected here. 

The Ledbury, or Passage rocks, which connect the Upper 
Ludlow shales with the basement beds of the Old Eed Sand- 
stone epoch, were well exposed during the excavation of the 
Ledbury tunnel on the Worcester and Hereford railway.* 
Commencing in the tunnel with the Aymestry rocks, which 
yielded small specimens of Pentamerus Knightii, there followed 
a considerable thickness of Upper Ludlow shale, with the 
typical fossils Chonetes lata, Discina rugata, and Serpulites 
longissimus, succeeded by yellow Downton beds, but poorly 
developed, with the typical Lingula cornea. After the Downton 
beds came a series of red and mottled marls and sandy beds 
.which yielded a large Lingula and fragments of a fish, either 
Pteraspis, or Cephalaspis. A band of grey shale and thin 
grit surmounted these marls, &c., and furnished the head of 
Cephalaspis Murchisoni (also found in the Passage beds of Lud- 
low), and a portion of a Pterygotus. I believe the grey marl, 
and bluish grey rocks (Auchenaspis beds), with the purple 
shales below, to be the equivalents of the liver-coloured and grey 
rocks of Ludlow, which also contain the little Cephalaspidean 
fish, the Auchenaspis Salteri of Egerton. These same 
Auchenaspis grits also afforded portions of other fossil fishes, 
Plectrodus, Scaphaspis, and Onchus, as well as the crustacean 
Pterygotus, and a large Lingula. At Ledbury the Auche- 
naspis was so abundant that as many as four heads were found 
upon a small slab, a foot in diameter. The tail and body of 
this fish are as yet unknown. The Auchenaspis grits at Led- 
bury proved to be fifteen feet thick, and pass upwards confor- 
mably into a series of red marls with yellowish grey and pink 
sandstone, which contains portions of the plates both of 

* See Paper by the Author, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., May, 1860. 



CHAP. VI.] 



CAMDEX ON LEDBUBY. 



203 



Pteraspis and Cephalaspis. These fossil fishes are now in the 
Museum of the Earl of Enniskillen. 



CRUSTACEAN AND FISHES FHOM THE PASSAGE BEDS. 
1 3 




' 1, Pterygotus Ludensis, Salter; the caudal portion, much reduced in size. 
2, Aucheiiaspis Salteri, Egerton ; head-shield. 3, Cephalaspis? ornatus, Egerton; (an 
imperfect head-shield ; half the natural size.) 3*, Portion of Fig. 3, magnified. 

Camden mentions Ledbury as " a town of note which Edwin 
the Saxon, a man of great power, gave to the church of Here- 
ford, being persuaded that he was cured of the palsy by the 
intercession of St. Ethelbert." And there is little doubt that 
" the military works on the neighbour hill " which he alludes 
to, are the intrenchments on Wall Hills, about a mile and a 
half distant towards the north-west.* 

In the centre of the town is a curious old Market House, 
which stands on the site of a still older building where markets 
were held in the time of King Stephen ; and nearly opposite 
is the Hospital of St. Catherine, founded in memory of a 
religious lady of the days of Edward the Second. Of St. 
Catherine there is a legend that she had "a maid called 
Mabel, and not being fixed in any settled place, she had a 
revelation that she should not set up her rest till she came to 
a town where the bells should ring of themselves. She and 

* Gibson's Camden, p. 578. 



204 EECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

her maid coming near Ledbury, heard the bells ring, though 
the church doors were shut and no ringers there. Here then 
she determined to spend the remainder of her days, and built 
an Hermitage, living on herbs and sometimes on milk." * 

In the "Woolhope country it is easy to trace the Lower Lud- 
low shales by the denuded vales which lie between the high 
grounds of Stoke Edith Park, formed by the Aymestry rock 
and Upper Ludlow deposits, and by the bold outline of Wen- 
lock limestone which at the Dormington quarries, and other 
localities, separates the valleys of Lower Ludlow strata from 
the Wenlock shales. The Lower Ludlow graptolite (G. 
Ludensis) occurs in considerable abundance on the south- 
western slope of the ridge which runs from Adam's rocks 
(Backbury Hill) towards Stoke Edith Park. These shales 
should also be examined at a point between Marcle Hill and 
Pilliard's Barn. The high ranges of hill ground which circle 
round this celebrated " valley of elevation," and denudation, are 
occupied by Aymestry rock, save in those instances where the 
outline is broken, as at Mordiford, Fownhope, Seller's Hope, and 
Lindels. The best points from which to see its position are at 
Oldbury Camp, Seager Hill and Backbury Camp (Adam's 
Eocks) ; there are also sections at Pirton near Stoke Edith, 
and near the village of Fownhope. In this district the typical 
fossil of the Aymestry limestone is Pentamerus galeatus, which 
appears to take the place of P. Knightii ; it occurs in abun- 
dance at Niagara in the hard limestone below the Falls; the well- 
marked rotund brachiopod, Rhynconella Wilsoni,isalso plentiful 
in the Upper Ludlow shales. When this rock was quarried some 
years ago at Bodenham, in the parish of Marcle at the south 
end of the Woolhope upcast, I obtained several specimens of 
Pentamerus Knightii, but they were dwarfed and but little 
larger than the P. galeatus. My friend the Eev. P. B. Brodie, 
so well known for his researches among fossil insects, describes 
the Passage beds of Woolhope ("Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc." 
Aug. 1871) at Putley and Pirton, where he succeeded in ob- 
taining Pterygotus Banksii, three species of Eurypterus, and 

* Gough's Camden, vol. ii. p. 456. 



CHAP. VI.] 



LANDSLIPS. 



205 



an almost entire specimen of a new species of Eurypterus, 
named E. Brodiei by Mr. Woodward. Besides these crusta- 
ceans he found fossil plants somewhat similar to the Psilo- 
phyton described by Dr. Dawson as occurring in strata of 
nearly the same age in America. I have found remains 




THE PALMER'S CAIRN LANDSLIP. 
(Drawn by the late Rev. W. R. Evans.) 

of Scaphaspis in these Woolhope Passage beds. At Pirton 
these Passage beds may be seen resting directly on Upper 
Ludlow rocks full of Chonetes lata, but the higher Auchen- 
aspis beds are denuded along the Woolhope country. Schuck- 
nall Hill, two miles eastward of the Dormingtou side of the 
Woolhope valley, is an interesting wedge of Aymestry rock, 
faulted through the Lower Old Red, and presenting an edge 
of broken-off strata on the western escarpment. The large 
quarry furnishes many typical fossils, such as Chonetes lata, 
Rhynconella Wilsoni, &c. 

There are several large landslips in the Upper Ludlow 
rocks around the Woolhope district. The only records which 



206 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. rr. 

remain of the slip which took place at Adam's Rocks on the 
south side of Backbury Camp are the legends of the country 
people, who, in our schooldays, attributed the occurrence to the 
earthquake at the Crucifixion. The "Wonder" near Putley 
was a landslip which happened in the year 1575, and was also 
attributed to an earthquake. It is recorded in Drayton's 
" Polyolbion," and is thus described by Camden : "Near the 
conflux of the Lugg and the Wye, eastward, a Hill, which 
they call Marcley Hill, in the year 1575 roused itself up, as 
it were, out of a sleep, and for three days together shoving 
its prodigious body forward, with a horrible roaring noise, 
and overturning all that stood in its way, advanced itself (to 
the great astonishment of the beholders,) to a higher station : 
by that kind of Earthquake, I suppose, which the Naturalists 
call Brasmatia." (G-ibson's Camden, p. 578.) 

A few years ago, another great slip occurred between 
Dormington and Stoke Edith. Shortly afterwards I visited 
the spot with Sir Charles Lyell, then on a tour through 
Siluria, and he was particularly struck with the numbers of 
the typical fossil, Pentamerus galeatus, which lay scattered 
about in profusion. The cause of these great landslips may be 
referred to the jointed structure of the rocks, the steepness of 
the dip of the beds, and the percolation of much rain down 
the joints. 

The Passage beds of Bodenham, five miles west of Ledbury, 
on the Ross road, furnished the first determined specimens of 
the Silurian club moss, Lycopodites. They were described by Dr. 
Hooker as being undoubtedly the seed-vessels of a terrestrial 
plant, and as throughout all the vast thickness of the lower 
rocks no other terrestrial vegetable remains have as yet been 
discovered, these little pellets still hold the position of the 
earliest known relics of land vegetation. The Bodenham 
strata belong to that mass of Upper Silurian rocks, which 
have been elevated through the Old Red Sandstone of 
Herefordshire by the great Woolhope upheaval. It would 
be tedious to give the various sections which occur between 
Fownhope and Mordiford on the north, four miles from 



CHAT, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 207 

Hereford, and at Gorseley on the south, two miles west of 
Newent. At the latter locality they are seen near a large 
pool, overlying the Ludlow rocks, and contain remains of 
Pterygotus. They are also largely quarried at Clifford's Mine, 
near Newent wood, and furnish Lingula cornea. 

Around May Hill the Aymestry rock and the Lower 
Ludlow beds appear to have much thinned out. A thin 
impure limestone, worked at Gorseley common, north of May 
Hill, is the representative of the Aymestry beds, and affords 
specimens of Pentamerus galeatus. The workmen call these 
fossils "gold nuts," as in some instances this shell, when 
broken, contained in the septa the needle-like spiculse of sul- 
phuret of nickel. The Upper Ludlow rocks are exposed east 
of the Longhope station, where they dip at a high angle under 
the Old Red Sandstone, and contain many typical fossils. This 
district is full of faults, especially above the line of the brook. 
These rocks may be seen in Linton wood, and in several 
other localities in the neighbourhood. Mr. Hugh Strickland 
detected the Bone bed at the south end of May Hill in the 
railway cutting near Flaxley. There, also, remains of fish and 
crustaceans have been discovered, and I have found amongst 
them portions of the plates of Pteraspis. Again, at Pyrton 
passage on the Severn below Newnham, Professor Phillips 
detected portions of the Bone bed cropping out at low water 
from beneath the river mud. The elevated Ludlow rocks may 
be observed near Pyrton passage Inn, from whence the 
upheaved Silurians range southwards to a distance of nine 
miles, towards Berkeley and Tortworth. Rhynconella navicula 
characterizes the Upper Ludlow rocks of this district. 

The Silurian district of Usk is, like that of Woolhope, 
elevated through Old Red rocks, but the hills and vales are 
irregular, and differ much from that peculiar amphitheatre. 
The Usk hills range north and south, and the lowest beds 
exposed are the Wenlock shales, which near Cilfigan Park and 
Prescoed become sandstone rock, so like Caradoc sandstone as 
to deceive Sir R. Murchison and the Geological Surveyors. 
The Aymestry series is represented by calcareous bands which 



208 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

occur at Llancago Hill, at Hill Barn, and on the right bank of 
the Usk river at Llanbadock, where the " blue stone " yields 
Pentaraerus galeatus. Usk Castle across the river stands on 
Upper Ludlow rock overlaid by the Passage beds, and the 
river runs on a line of fault. The Downton rocks occur at 
Bettws near Trosta, and, if I read the section rightly, they are 
overlaid by masses of purple and grey grits, which surround 
Usk and rise into high ground. It is ray impression that 
these rocks are thinly represented in the Ledbury tunnel, 
where they overlie the yellow Downton beds and underlie the 
Auchenaspis grits. The equivalent beds at Ledbury furnished 
a Lingula and the carbonaceous markings of plants. In the 
Usk district these beds also occur at Llandegfydd, &c. If 
these rocks at Usk prove what I suppose them to be, they 
belong to the Downton series and not to the Old Red as marked 
in the maps. I am not aware that they have as yet furnished 
fossils. 

The town of Usk is supposed to have been built on the site 
of a Roman station, the Burrium of the Itinerary of Antoninus. 
The castle dates from the time of Henry I. Archbishop 
Baldwin preached there in 1188, for Giraldus Cambrensis 
records that " at the castle of Usk a multitude of persons 
influenced by the Archbishop's sermon were signed with the 
cross." King Richard III. was born here, but in the time of 
Elizabeth it was in a very dilapidated state, for the poet 
Churchyard describes it as " torne with wether's blast and time 
that wears all out." Around Usk are the remains of ancient 
camps and fortifications, the principal of which is Craig-y- 
Garcyd, two miles to the north-west. 

In the south of Pembrokeshire, these strata are brought to 
the surface in the St. Marloes district, and I saw some 
characteristic fossils in the possession of the Rev. Mr. Sanders, 
Vicar of St. Ishmael's, which had been found close to his 
picturesque Church and Vicarage. 

In the district of the Abberley Hills the Wenlock shales are 
but slightly exposed in the valley between Ridge Hill (700 
feet in height) and Fetlocks Farm, while the Lower Ludlow 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILTIBIAX BOCKS. 209 

series occur at Hole Farm, half a mile south-west of "Woodbury 
Hill. The Aymestry rock appears in well marked ridges, as 
around Ledbury, and strikes from Hill End, west of Martley, 
to the west of the Hundred House. Pentamerus Knightii has 
been found at Hole Farm. The Upper Ludlow rocks and 
Passage beds are flanked by Old Eed Sandstone on the west 
at Hole Farm, and at the end of Wallsgrove Hill (near 900 
feet in height;, where numerous typical fossils occur. There 
is also a quarry at the northern extremity of Abberley Hill, 
where these shales are seen dipping at a high angle and 
resting against the Aymestry limestone, which constitutes the 
characteristic rock ridges of this district. There also Mr. 
Eoberts discovered the equivalents of the Bone bed. 

At Ankerdine near Knightsford Bridge is a quarry where 
these rocks may be examined ; the same strata are also exposed 
on the northern flank of the hill, faulted against the Old Eed 
Sandstone on the west and the Permian strata on the east. 

At Trimpley, north-west of Kidderminster, the Passage beds 
are elevated to the surface by an upcast. Mr. George Eoberts, 
formerly clerk to the Geological Society, conducted me to this 
locality some years ago, and showed me many interesting 
fossils he had collected here. They included Parka decipiens, 
(the spawn of the Pterygotus), the tail spines of the shrimp-like 
crustacean Ceratiocaris, two species of the ganoid fish 
Pteraspis or Scaphaspis, and also a Cephalaspis. 

At Linley, Salop, four miles north of Bridgenorth, Mr. John 
Eandall, F.G.S., discovered a series of sections ranging from the 
upper Coal measures to the Aymestry rock, which, in places, 
forms the bed of the Linley Brook. The Upper Ludlow rocks 
and Passage beds are also exposed, the latter furnishing the 
remains of the fishes Plectrodus and Onchus. Lingulse occur 
here with remains of plants, while in the Upper Ludlow rock 
that typical annelid Serpulites longissimus appears at the base 
of the section.* 

There is an isolated upthrow of Upper Ludlow rock through 

* See Paper by Roberts and Eandall, with section (Quarterly Journal 
Geological Society, August, 1863). 

r 



210 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vi. 

the overlying sandstone at Keen Sollers, on the line of the 
Cleobury and Tenbury railway. The Passage beds only are 
seen in the cutting, but hills of Upper Ludlow rock rise on the 
left hand and on the right. The members of the Malvern 
Field Club visited this section during the summer of 1865. 
"We detected the Lingula of the Downton Sandstone and 
portions of the Bone bed in the railway section. 

On this occasion, our head quarters were at Cleobury 
Mortimer, a curious old town, and the birth-place of Robert 
Langland, who wrote the remarkable poem " The Visions of 
Piers Plowman," in 1362. The author supposes that he 
beholds a series of visions while asleep on the Malvern Hills. 
It is a clever allegorical description by a Wickliffite of the 
vices of the clergy and of the times. 

ORGANIC REMAINS OF THE UPPER SILURIANS. 

The geological history of the Upper Silurian formation is 
characterized by the evidence we find of a warm climate in the 
remains of marine animals and in the abundance of corals. 
We detect no remains of freshwater lakes or rivers, or fresh- 
water animals, and no tokens of Silurian land, until, in the 
uppermost beds, we find the first known representative of a 
land plant in the small club moss, Lycopodites. Until we 
arrive at higher deposits, the range of animal life is much the 
same as that of the Lower Silurians. 

Among the Cephalopoda (the highest forms of mollusca) are 
various genera, Lituites, Cyrtoceras, Orthoceras, Phragmoceras, 
Ascoceras, and Oncoceras. Conularia and Theca are tolerably 
abundant, and belong to the wing-footed Mollusks, or Pteropods. 

The Gasteropodous shells, allied to the existing sea shells 
Haliotis or Ormer, Turbo, Turritella, and Pyramidella, are 
represented by the Silurian forms of Pleurotomaria, Murchi- 
Bonia, Acroculia, Euomphalus, and Loxonema. 

The Conchifers, or Bivalves, have increased considerably 
in numbers and species, and furnish several species of Pterinea 
and Cardiolse, shells allied to the living Avicula. Modiolopsis 
and Orthonota belong to the family of mussels, Modiola and 



PLATE IV. 




1. Calymene Blumenbachii. 

2. Strophomeua depressa. 

3 Atrypa reticularis. 

4 Pliacops caudatus. 

5 Euomphalus rugosus. 
G Pterinea Sowerbyi. 

7 Acroculia haliotis. 

8. Pteraspis. 

9. HomaUmotus Delphino-ceplia'us. 



Phi-agtoocenis pyrifonue. 
Orthonota impressa. 
Peutamems Knightii. 
Cardiola fibrosii. 
Rhynchouella nucula. 
Uiscina striata. 
Tentaculites omatus. 
Liugula Symondsii. 
Eurypterus Brodei. 



[Page 210. 



CHAP, vi.] UPPER SILURIAN ROCKS. 211 

Cucullella to the Arcacese, while the Anatinidse are represented 
by Grammysia. Brachiopoda are very abundant, and although 
Orthis becomes rare, we find Chonetes and Athyris added to 
the Upper Silurian forms. The Bryozoa are represented by 
Ptilodictya, which is common in the Wenlock limestone, and 
Fenestella. 

Graptolites become scarce as regards species, as in the Upper 
Silurians only one or perhaps two species are found, and not 
one is known above the Ludlow rocks. 

Corals are abundant, the most prominent forms being 
Favosites, Heliolites, Coenites, and Halysites. 

Several species of Cystideae are known, and many beautiful 
Crinoidese. 

Star-fish abound in the Lower Ludlow strata. 

Several new genera of Trilobites make their appearance, and 
a new form of Crustacean in the Eurypterus, which diifered 
from the Pterygotus in having its eyes fixed on the shield 
instead of on one side. 

Lastly, Fish are known to have existed in the Lower Ludlow 
seas, and several species are now registered from the Upper 
Ludlow and Passage rocks, some of them being believed to be 
allied to the Sharks, and others to existing Ganoids. 



CHAPTER VII. 



OLD RED SANDSTONE. 

Classification of Old Red Strata Deposition of Outliers of Old Red 
Fossil Fishes of the Old Red Leominster Hereford, Historic Records of 
The White Cross Cornstones of Ewyas Harold Row] estone Beds 
Fossils of Abbey Core John of Kent Abergavenny Castle Scyrrid 
Fawr Lord Cobham Llanthony Abbey Foundation of Gadir 
Brownstones of the Onchus Major, from Cornstones of Cusop Hay 
Isle of Skomer, Birds of the Brecon Church of St. Almedha Breck- 
nockshire Beacons Llynsavaddon Old Red Conglomerates Daren 
Sandstones Farlow Sandstones Pterichthys Ross Sections near 
Tenby Manorbeer Castle Organic Remains of Old Red Sandstone. 



The Upper beds are Red 
Beds interstratified with 
yellowish grey sandstones, 
and below are Old Red 
conglomerates and red 
marls. 



Red marls overlying choco- 
late-coloured sandstones, 
passing downwards into 
reddish and grey sand- 
stones and marls, with 
thin cornstones. 

The Upper beds, where not 
denuded, are grey and 
greenish sandstones, with 
remains of plants, as at 
Rowlstone, near Aber- 
gavenny, and Cusop, near 
Hay. Below are impure 
limestone concretions, 
named cornstones, inter- 
Btratified with reddish and 
grey sandstones, red 
marls, &c. 



Fish. Pterichthys. 

Holoptychius. 

Mollusca. Conularia at the 
Glee Hills. 

Land plants. 



'o fossils known in these 
strata, but fragments of 
Pteraspis and Cephalaspis. 



Crustacea. 



Plants. 
Fish. 



Stylonurus. 
Pterygotus. 
Praearcturus. 

Probably Fucoids. 

Cephalaspis. 

Didymaspis. 

Zenaspis. 

Scaphaspis. 

Pteraspis. 

Cyathaspis. 

Onchus. 



CHAP. VIL] OLD KED SAXDSTOXE. 213 

It will be understood from what lias been already stated, 
that there is no visible break between the Upper Silurian 
rocks and the overlying Passage beds. As observed in the 
Ledbury tunnel and other localities, there is no unconforma- 
bility ; but the rocks of the Silurians pass into those of the 




SILURIAN ROCKS OF MARLOES BAY, DIPPIN-G UNDER THE OLD RED SANDSTONE OF 
HOOK POINT, PEMBROKESHIRE. 



Ledbury shales by an easy transition, only marked by a 
decided change in colour. The red marls that commence with 
the Passage beds and overlie all the Ludlow rocks cannot be 
mistaken by the most unpractised eye. 

Sir Charles Lyell, in his last edition of the " Elements of 
Geology," has placed the Ledbury shales or Passage rocks at 
the base of the Old Eed group. I have not followed this 
grouping, because, above the Ledbury shales, whether at 
Ledbury, Cradley, Ludlow, or Kington, there appears to be a 
decided break and unconformability in the strata, along which 
fault the river Leddon at Ledbury, the Teme at Ludlow, and 
the Arrow at Kington take their flow. Again, in the Ledbury 
shales (Passage beds), Silurian fossils undoubtedly occur, inter- 
mingled with forms of fishes closely allied to those found in 
the Lower Old Red. But no geologist has yet detected a 
single species which ascends from the Ledbury shales into the 



214 EECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vir. 

Old Red rocks above the break alluded to. This appears to 
indicate a decided unconformability at the base of the Ledbury 
shales, and, if this be the case, it would be better to place the 
base of the Old Red proper above the break, than in the middle 
of a series of strata which are absolutely conformable, and 
where fossils intermingle. 

The Old Red Sandstone received this name originally, 
because in Herefordshire and in Scotland these strata are 
covered up by the Carboniferous groups ; whereas the New 
Red Sandstone was deposited above the Carboniferous rocks. 
The term Devonian was afterwards applied by Murchison and 
Sedgwick to the whole series of Old Red strata, but this term 
nevertheless is more generally applied to the foreign represen- 
tatives of the Old Red group, and the ancient nomenclature 
Old Red is not likely to be changed to Devonian as regards 
the rocks of Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, or the far- 
famed Scotch strata of Hugh Miller. 

Objections have been raised against erecting an " Old Red 
System " or a " Devonian age," as a distinct geological forma- 
tion, and certain geologists have proposed to link this series of 
rocks to the Silurian group ; while others propose that they 
should be considered as belonging to the Lower Carboniferous 
rocks. There can be little doubt however that these strata 
mark a new epoch in the progress and development of animal 
life, and thus stand apart as a system of geological history from 
the Silurian groups ; while in the total absence of many of the 
fossil remains typical of the Carboniferous rocks, it seems 
advisable to draw a line of division between this epoch on the- 
one hand and the Silurian epoch on the other. 

The change from the grey rocks of the Silurian strata to the 
red marls and grey and red sandstones of the overlying- 
deposits, is hardly more striking than is the disappearance of 
the numerous fossils which are so characteristic of the Silurian 
epoch. The change is probably owing to oscillations of the 
land, changes of the sea-level, the flow of currents, and the 
deposition of strata, all of which would affect and often exter- 
minate the inhabitants of the seas. The period of the Bone 



CHAP, vii.] OLD RED SANDSTONE. 216 

bed and Upper Ludlow shales appears to have been one 
of shallow water and literal conditions, judging from the 
number of crustaceans found imbedded therein with remains 
also of land plants. The Old Eed rocks would seem to 
have been deposited on a sinking area and under conditions 
not favourable to the growth of corals and the life of marine 
mollusca. 

It has been advocated by Mr. Godwin Austen, and since by 
Prof. Eamsay, that the Old Eed of Scotland and Siluria may 
have been deposited in great freshwater lakes, but it is diffi- 
cult to correlate this theory with the occurrence of Old Eed 
fish, such as Coccosteus, in the rocks of Germany, and great 
numbers of Pteraspis in Devonshire, where they are associ- 
ated with true Devonian marine shells ; or with the 
presence of crustaceans in the Cornstones of Herefordshire, as 
these crustaceans are probably marine, and species occur in 
Silurian strata associated with Lingula, and other marine 

CRUSTACEAN FROM THE OLD RED OF HEREFORDSHIRE. 




Stylonurus Symondsii (Eurypterus, Salter, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. pi. 10, 
fig. I) ; from Rowlestone, south of the Hay, Brecknockshire. The cephalic shield of 
a Crustacean alii, d to Pterygotus. For figures of this and other species of Stylonurus, 
see Mr. H. Woodward's paper in the Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 4S2. 

shells. Should it be established that the Stylonurus is of 
marine, and not of fresh-water origin, we must regard the 
fresh-water theory of the Old Eed of Herefordshire as un- 
tenable, for although we find fresh-water shells and fishes 
drifted into marine depositions by the agency of rivers, it 
would be difficult to account for any agency through which 
marine lobsters should be transported into a fresh-water lake. 



216 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

LOWER OLD BED SANDSTONE. 

In North Wales the Old Eed Sandstone is but very slightly 
developed. When it occurs it appears to belong to the upper 
series of these strata, as the beds directly underlie the Car- 
boniferous limestone. In Anglesea the Old Eed appears be- 
tween the mountain limestone of Lligwy and Moclfre, and the 
volcanic rock of Parys Mountain, and also in Dulas Bay, from 
whence it may be traced in a south-eastern direction to Llan- 
gefni, in the vale of Cefni. Near the small town of Abergele 
is a thick bed of Old Red Conglomerate, made up of fragments 
of Silurian and Igneous rocks ; it rests unconformably upon 
Wenlock rocks, near Abergele, but it is conformable to the 
overlying mountain limestone. It strikes southwards, by 
Euthin, with the limestone, and appears to the north by 
Llangollen. The fields lying between the Eglwsey rocks and 
the hills bounding the Valle Crucis, or Valley of the Cross, are 
red, with its detritus. At Llanymynech, south of Oswestry, 
the conglomerate rests upon fossiliferous Bala beds. 

In studying the Old Eed Sandstone of Siluria, the geologist 
should examine the grand exhibition of strata, commencing 
with the Lower series of beds as seen succeeding the Silurian 
rocks, then follow up the middle group of beds as developed in 
the hills of central Herefordshire and Monmouthshire ; and 
finally pursue the investigation of the Upper rocks in the lofty 
hills of the Black Mountains, and in the Vans of Brecon and 
Carmarthen, which rise in the Brecon Mountains to the height 
of 2860 feet above the sea. 

The most northern district of Siluria where we know of the 
existence of the Lower Old Eed in situ, is in the Forest of 
Hayes, in the Long Mountain, where a considerable outlier of 
Old Eed deposits rests on Upper Ludlow strata with the typical 
fossils. This detached outlier, with its remains of Pteraspis and 
Scaphaspis, is especially interesting to the physical geologist, so 
completely does it exhibit how the masses that once connected 
it with the main formation have been removed by denudation ; 
and it is here evident that the Lower Old Eed of the Long 



CHAP, vii.] OLD RED SANDSTONE. 217 

Mountain district is a remnant of a large area of the same 
strata which was formerly continuous with that of the Ludlow 
country and Clun Forest, before the Silurian rocks had been 
upheaved and dislocated. 

Clun Forest, on the borders of Shropshire, between Mont- 
gomery and Knighton, is another great mass of detached 
Lower Old Red, which overlies the Upper Silurians, and 
occupies a district of nearly one hundred square miles. There 
are red beds near Felindre, which contain the characteristic 
fossils of the Passage beds, and these are again overlaid above 
Newcastle, and near Beltws, by Lower Old Red sandstones and 
marls, with plates of the characteristic fishes. This country 
also offers a study for the physical geologist who enters into 
the study of outliers, and the evidences of elevation and denu- 
dation, for around the town of Knighton are four outliers of 
Lower Old Red, separated by Silurian hill masses. Thus we 
have the Clun outlier, and that of Beltws-y-Cryn, with two 
smaller patches west of the Terne, and the outlier north of 
Knighton. Near Presteign we find a large mass of Lower 
Old Red running northwards, west of Brampton Bryan. These 
strata, like those of Clun Forest, are elevated with the Silurian 
hills. South of Presteign another small patch of great interest 
indicates the former continuity of the Lower Old Red over this 
country. It is called Lower Radnor Wood, and lies west of 
the upcast of Woolhope limestone by the Stanner trap, within 
a mile of Presteign. It is impossible to examine all these 
isolated patches of a great formation without feeling positive 
that the strata were once continuous with those of Clun Forest, 
and again of the Hayes Forest on the Long Mountain. 

We have already alluded to the beautiful scenery and inter- 
esting geology of the neighbourhood of Old Radnor, and we 
would now direct attention to the singular remnants of Lower 
Old Red, which in this district lie caught up among Silurian 
and Trap rocks. One patch runs from Weighthall, south of Old 
Radnor, for three or four miles, and another occurs at Llan- 
howel, in the parish of Gladestry. Again, nowhere in this 
neighbourhood are the relations of the Upper Ludlow shales 



218 EECORDS OF THE EOCIvS. [CHAP. vn. 

with the Passage beds better shown than about Pain's Castle, 
beyond Glasbury ; but the difficulty here, as elsewhere, is to 
shew a conformable passage upwards into the Old Red proper 
above the Passage rocks, which in this country are of consider- 
able thickness. 

If a geologist in search of rock sections and fossils, and who 
disdains not antiquarian and legendary lore, arrives perchance 
at the little village of Glascwm, in this border land, let him 
turn into the church, where in the days of Giraldus there was 
" a portable bell, endowed with great virtues, called Banyn, 
and said to belong to St. David. A certain woman secretly con- 
veyed this bell to her husband (who was confined in the Castle 
of Raidergwy, near "Warthrenion, which Rhys, sou of Gruffydh, 
had lately built) for the purpose of his deliverance. The keepers 
of the castle not only refused to liberate him for this considera- 
tion, but seized and detained the bell, and in the same night, 
by divine vengeance, the whole town, except the wall in which 
the bell hung, was consumed by fire." 

In the Wenlock country the Lower Old Red beds fringe the 
Upper Ludlow rocks, and run southwards by Holgate, down 
Corvedale to Ludlow. It was at Whitbach, about three miles 
north-east of Ludlow, that Dr. Lloyd first discovered the shield 
of a ganoid fish, which is still in the Ludlow Museum, and bears 
the name of Scaphaspis Lloydii. The strata are flagstones, and 
are overlaid by a band of thin Cornstones with scales of the 
Pteraspis, similar to those obtained by Mr. Ray Lankester at 
Cradley. I have frequently examined the Whitbach quarries, 
and I believe that they lie at the base of the Old Red proper 
in the Ludlow country. They yielded a specimen of a nearly 
perfect Cephalaspis Lyellii, to the hammer of Mr. Marston 
of Ludlow ; and here, and at Bouldon, the searcher for fossils 
may also obtain the Cephalaspidean fish, Zenaspis Salweyi, 
with Scaphaspis Lloydii, and the long-snouted Pteraspis 
Cronchii, as well as fish tracks, and egg packets of Pterygotus. 
The Zenaspis Salweyi is allowed to be a well defined species by 
Messrs. Ray Lankester and Powrie. It was first discovered in 
the Old Red Cornstones at Hinston, and Acton Beauchamp, 



CHAP, viz.] OLD BED SANDSTONE. 219 

near Bromyard, by my friend Mr. Humphrey Salwey of Ludlow, 
who has also detected it in Corvedale. 

In his great work, " Recherches sur les Poissons Fossiles," 
(1835) Prof. Agassiz established the genus Cephalaspis to in- 
clude four divisions of Devonian fishes, namely C. Lyellii, C. 
rostratus, C. Lloydii, C. Lewisii. 

Sir P. Egerton * described several new species related to C. 
Lyellii, viz. C. Murchisonii, C. Salweyi, C. ornatus, and a 
new genus, Auchenaspis, which had a distinct neck-plate. 
Pteraspis, supposed by Dr. Kner to be the internal shell of a 
Cephalopod allied to Sepia, was shown by Prof. Huxley to be a 
fish.f He says "No one can, I think, hesitate in placing 
Pteraspis among fishes. So far from its structure having no 
parallel among fishes, it has absolutely no parallel in any other 
division of the animal kingdom. I have never seen any 
Molluscan or Crustacean structure with which it could for one 
moment be confounded." Pteraspis is closely allied to Cepha- 
laspis in its structure, and Prof. Huxley believes that all the 
Cephalaspidean fishes are related to the existing Callichthys 
and Loricaria (Siluroid fishes) on one hand, and Scapirhynchus 
and Spatularia (Chrondrostean Ganoids) on the other. 

Mr. Ray Lankester, in his monograph | " On the Fishes of 
the Old Red Sandstone of Great Britain," divides the Cephal- 
aspidae into two sections, Heterostraci and Osteostraci. The 
reasons upon which the division is based, are derived from the 
structure of the Cephalic shields ; the terms meaning that the 
Heterostraci possess a shell or dermal plate of a structure 
differing (frepot - of another kind, and oa-rpanov = a shell, or 
dermal bone) from that of the Osteostraci (oartov = a bone) 
which possess true bony structure in their plates or shields, as 
Cephalaspis Lyellii ; the division may be as follows : 



Heterostracon Ce- 



etsT' 



Osteostracon Ce- 
phalaspidse ... 



Cephalaspis, 
Auchenaspis, 
Diclymaspis. 



* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 1857. 

t Memoirs of the Geol. Survey of Great Britain, Dec. 10, p. 38. 

j Palseontogr. Soc. vol. xxi. 



220 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. vii. 



In the same monograph Mr. Ray Lankester considers it 
necessary to divide the Pteraspidean fishes into the genera 
Scaphaspis, Cyathaspis, and Pteraspis; and the genus Scaphaspis 
includes the species Lloydii and truncatus, &c., with a simple 
ovate shield. Mr. Lankester mentions an interesting fact 
with regard to the original type specimen of the genus Pteraspis 
of Dr. Kner, which he saw at Vienna in 1870. " A. form like 
Pteraspis rostratus (C. rostratus of Sil. System) is present in 
one of the blocks ; and in the block with Kner's figured 
specimen there are marine shells. An Orthoceras is lying 
almost against the fish shield, which is very perfect, and there 
are two Lamellibranchs in close proximity. We must not 
therefore conclude from the Cornstones and Scotch beds that 
the Cephalaspidse were exclusively lacustrine or fluviatile.' * 
Kner's original specimen is exceedingly like Scaphaspis Lloydii. 

Pteraspis, Cyathaspis and Scaphaspis are distinguished by 
the following characteristics : 



Pterastrs 



Cyathaspis 



Shield composed of seven an- 
chylosed but distinct pieces 
or plates, with a posterior 
spine. 

Shield composed of four dis- 
tinct pieces, spine reduced to 
a mere point. 



(No distinct species recognisable 
in the large oval head-plate ; 
spine represented by the 
acute termination of the 
disc. 



SPECIES. 

Pteraspis rostratus 
Pt. Crouchii, 
Salter MS. 



Cy. Banksii, 

Huxley, and Salter. 
Cy. Symondsii, 

Lankester. 

Scaphaspis Lewisii, Aj 
(Cephalaspis Lewisii, Si 

Syst.) 

Sc. Lloydii, Ag. 
Sc. Ludensis, Salter. 



The genus Cephalaspis is divided by Mr. Lankester into 
three subgenera, Eucephalaspis, Hemicyclaspis, and Zenaspis. 

Cephalaspidean fishes occur in Lower Ludlow beds in 
Upper Ludlow Bone bed and shales Downton rocks Passage 
Red rocks at Ledbury and Ludlow Lower Old Red and 
Middle Old Red of Breconshire. They have been found in 



Geol. Mag., vol. vii. p. 399. 1870. 



CHAP, vii.] OLD EED SANDSTOXE. 221 

Scotland, in Siluria, and Devonshire, in America, in Russia, in 
Galicia, and in the Eifel, in rocks intermediate between the 
Upper Silurians (inclusive) and the Lower Carboniferous. 

In traversing the section from Whitbach to Hayton Sutton 
and Bouldon, we pass over successive beds of rocks ; the 
Devil's Mouth, at the top of Hayton, yielding the plates of 
Scaphaspis and Pteraspis in considerable abundance. At 
Hopton Gate, two miles east of Hayton, that large form of 
Cephalaspis, Zenaspis Salweyi, was found by Mr. Harley. Mr. 
Harley thus describes the beautiful structure of the inner plate 
of the head of this fish. " It presents lacunae and long 
branching caniculi precisely resembling those of human bone. 
Many of these are completely injected with a transparent blood- 
red material ; and so beautifully are they thus displayed, that 
one ignorant of the structure of bone would be able to 
apprehend it by a glance at a minute part of this ancient 
fragment. So wonderfully indeed has Nature treasured up 
her secrets in this disentombed relic of a time so distant as to 
be incalculable, that she distinctly reveals in their minutest 
details the structure of canals not more than the one fifty 
thousandth of an inch in diameter, and such as to defy the 
skill of the anatomist to inject." 

I do not consider the Clee Hill district near Ludlow at all a 
good neighbourhood for studying the physical relations of the 
Upper beds of the Lower Old Red, or those of the overlying 
Brownstones. In this country there is a great deal of faulting 
caused by the elevation of the Trap rocks through the Old 
Red and the Coal Measures, and this faulting throws down 
and dislocates the strata and obscures their physical positions. 
The Upper beds of the Lower Old Red are quarried above 
Bitterly Court, on the western side of the Titterstone Clee, 
and at Abdon and Ditton below the Brown Clee. I have 
never seen any fossils from these localities. 

Near Tenbury, bold hills of the Middle beds of the Lower 
Old Red rise around the picturesque country of Stamford and 
Shelsley Wallsall. In Sir Thomas Winnington's grounds a 
large rock of travertine, called the " South stone rock," 



222 RECORDS OP THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vir. 

owes its origin to the percolation of water through Old Red 
Cornstone. The chancel of the church at Quatford, near 
Bridgenorth, appears to have been built of this travertine. 

Leominster, in Herefordshire, is a place well adapted for 
pursuing investigations of the Lower Old Red. Leland 
describes the site of the town as " sumwhat lowe, and all the 
ground very neere about it is farre lower." These low lands 
are situated on those Lower marls and cornstones which are 
characterized by abundance of the remains of Cephalaspis 
Lyellii, and Scaphaspis Lloydii ; the hills which rise from the 
plain consist of higher beds of sandstone and cornstone. The 
quarries at Leysters Pole, about four miles north-east of 
Leominster, and around Puddlestone contain many of the 
enamelled plates of Scaphaspis Lloydii, and P. rostratus, 
which, when first struck out from the rock glisten with purple 
and blue, the effect of phosphate of iron. 

Ivington Camp, like all the hills in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Leominster, consists of cornstones, marls, and 
sandstones which overlie the Pteraspis-bearing beds of Puddle- 
stone and Leysters Pole. Such are also the hills of "Weobly, 
Dinedor, Moccas, and Tibberton, which stand out as rounded 
wooded hills on escarpments, and dip under the Upper Old Red 
strata of the Black Mountains. The fish remains in the Corn- 
stones are very fragmentary. 

Dinmore Hill between Hereford and Leominster is a good 
example of the succession of beds of the Lower Red epoch, 
capped by strata that pass into those which, for the sake of 
definition, we call the Middle Old Red. Fish plates were found 
in the tunnel when it was being excavated, but I saw nothing 
new or worthy of remark. The geologist will not fail to 
observe the great expanse of the Lugg meadows, the rich 
pastures whereof are the effect of the silting of the existing 
river during a comparatively late geological period. A 
circumstance of considerable interest happened in this district 
not many months ago. My friend Mr. Curley, who was 
engaged in draining the Dinmore country, obtained from the 
silts of the Lugg very fine specimens of the horns of the Red 



.CHAP, vii.] OLD RED SANDSTONE. 223 

Deer and of the head of Bos primigenius. They were both 
disinterred at some distance from the bed of the present 
stream. He also obtained from the workmen a worn tooth of 
Rhinoceros tichorhinus, which he imagined came from the same 
site as the remains of the Deer and the Bos ; but on our 
thoroughly investigating the localities together we were con- 
vinced that the Rhinoceros tooth came from the low level 
drifts and gravels on the Harden side of the Lugg, and not 
from the silts and alluvium of the existing river. Leland 
speaks of the view from Dinmore Hill " as a specula to see all 
the country about." 

The neighbourhood of Leominster abounds with subjects of 
interest to the antiquarian. The church is remarkable on 
account of its relics of Norman architecture. Leland says 
that, as he saw it, "Yt is a grate likelihood that yt is the 
church that was afore the Conquest." It was much injured in 
the fire of 1700. 

From the particulars recorded in the Doomesday book 
Leominster had become a place of considerable importance at 
the period of the Doomesday Survey. The town is spelt 
Leofminstre in Doomesday book. According to Leland " The 
antiquity of the towne is most famous by a Monastery of 
Nunnes that Merwaldus, Kinge of the Marches, built there." 
" Some say that the Nunnery was after in the Danes wars 
destroyed, and the certainty is known that the Abbey of 
Shaftesbury had rule at Lemster, and possessed much landes 
there, and sent part of the reliques of St. Edward the Martyr 
to be adored there." 

Henry I. " annexed the laws of Lemster to his Abbey of 
Reading," and in the time of Henry II. we find Giraldus 
Cambrensis and the preachers of the Crusades passing through 
Leominster on their road to Hereford. Giraldus mentions 
this town under its ancient name of " Leonis Monasterium." 
But Camden says the British name was " Llan Lieni," signify- 
ing a church of nuns. 

In the reign of King John, William de Breose, Lord of 
Brecknock, seized "Weobly Castle, and marching on Leominster 



224 RECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

burnt and plundered the town, together with the Priory and 
Church. 

In the reign of Henry IV., Owen Glyndwr defeated the 
" Eevolted Mortimer," on the banks of the river Arrow, (the 
"sweet Severn" of Shakespeare, being a mistake of the 
Poet) and confined him in a dungeon at Leominster. 
Ivington Camp is supposed to be the camp occupied by 
the Welsh chieftain after the battle of Shrewsbury, and from 
whence his army finally dispersed and fled. Many coins 
of the dates 1340 and 1390 were formerly found on the site 
of his camp.* 

Hereford is par excellence the city of the Old Red, and few 
are the localities in Great Britain where the geologist, natu- 
ralist, and antiquarian can meet with more of interest than 
lies around this old city. Our notes upon the antiquities of 
Hereford are far too long to quote in extenso here ; it must 
suffice to say that the precise era of its foundation is not 
known, and that wise men disagree as to the origin of its 
name. The most probable derivation is that given by Mr. 
Gough, in his "Additions to Camden's Britannia," viz., that 
the Britons called it Hen-fordd, or the Old Way, and from 
these words he believes the Saxons to have formed its present 
name, which in their language signifies the Ford of the Army.f 
It is probable that Hereford was founded soon after the decay 
of Magna Castra, or Kenchester, the Roman station a few 
miles to the westward. In Saxon times it became the capital 
of the Mercian kingdom, and possessed a church, which, ac- 
cording to Polydore Yirgil, was very fine. " Templum quod 
Herefordise id temporis magnificum erat." This early church 
is supposed to have been constructed of wood, as Polydore 
Virgil records that the edifice, which was erected on the site 
of the present cathedral by King Offa, in expiation of the 
murder of Ethelbert, King of the East Angles, was built of 
stone, "lapidea structura:" apparently, observes Mr. Duncumb, 
" as a marked distinction from that which preceded it." 

* See Price's Leominster, p. 25, and note. 

f Additions to Camden's Britannia, vol. ii., p. 451. 



CHAP, vir.] HEREFORD AND ITS HISTORY. 225 

Athelstan was at Hereford in the year 939, and made a 
treaty with the Cambrian chief and extorted an annual 
tribute. 

During the reign of Edward the Confessor, about 1055, 
an army, under Gryffyth, King of Wales, and Algar, Earl of 
Chester, who married his daughter, ransacked Hereford, pil- 
laged the cathedral, and killed Bishop Leofgar. According to 
Powell's " Chronicles of "Wales," " the Britons returned home 
with manie worthie prisoners, great triumph, and rich spoiles, 
leaving nothing in the town but blood and ashes, and the walls 
razed to the t ground." Edward the Confessor, who much pre- 
ferred fasting to fighting, sent Harold (afterwards King 
Harold) to avenge the slaughter of his subjects at Hereford. 
Harold rebuilt, and probably laid the foundation of, the Castle, 
which was afterwards completed by the Normans, and he re- 
duced the Welsh to such a state of submission that they put 
their King Gryffyth to death, and sent his head as a peace- 
offering to Harold. 

After the Conquest King William held Hereford in his own 
demesne ; and in ] 141 it is recorded that Stephen attended 
divine service in the Cathedral on Whitsunday. 

Henry III. and his gallant son Prince Edward were taken 
as prisoners to Hereford by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Lei- 
cester, and it was from Wide Marsh Common that the Prince, 
mounted on a swift horse, escaped to Dinmore Hill, and from 
thence to Wigmore Castle. During the Parliamentary wars 
Hereford held out so well for the King, under the gallant 
Barnabas Scudamore, that after the Eestoration the city re- 
ceived a new charter, with the motto "Invictse Fidelitatis 
Premium." 

The antiquary should remember that Sutton Walls, east of 
Hereford, is the site of the Palace of Offa, King of the Mer- 
cians, and here Ethelbert was murdered by Quendreda, Offa's 
wife, while courting her daughter. According to all accounts 
the body of Ethelbert was first buried where the little church 
of Harden now stands, but was afterwards removed to Here- 
ford. In his Life of St. Ethelbert," Giraldus Cambrensis 



226 EECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

mentions Button Walls under the name of " King's Sutton," 
and he also notices the ruins of a castle there. Leland speaks 
of the " notable ruines of some ancyent and great building 
sumtyme the mansion of King Offa, at such time as Kent- 
Chester stood, or els Hereford was a begynning." Camden 
says that Hereford owes " its greatest increase and growth to 
religion and the martyrdom of Ethelbert." 

The walk from Hereford to Button "Walls is interesting to 
the geologist who has learnt that the surrounding hills of Old 
Red Sandstone consist of the Cornstone series to their sum- 
mit, the Brown stones being denuded. The railway excava- 
tions on the line towards Shrewsbury, are in Lower Old Red 
Sandstones, and are inter stratified with Cornstones containing 
Pteraspis. Cephalaspis Lyelli has been found in these strata, 
and I have seen the plates of Pteraspis in stones lying around 
Sutton Walls and Harden. 

Dynedor Hill, S.W. of Hereford, consists of the Cornstone 
strata, but the sections are not satisfactory. The camp on the 
summit of the hill is said to have been occupied by the Eomans 
under Ostorius Scapula, although the principal reason for 
investing it with such dignity appears to have arisen from the 
fact that it was once called " Oyster Hill." * 

There is good field work for the geologist to the westward 
of Hereford, while some old history is attached to every village 
tower, or hill summit. The White Cross, that old relic of 
generations long since dead, on the steps of which many a 
pilgrim has rested in the days of yore, stands at the cross- 
roads leading to Weobley and Hay, only a mile from the old 
city itself. Tradition ascribes its erection to Bishop Cantilupe 
(1282) who, in commemoration of a miraculous ringing of bells 
at the cathedral, which he heard when journeying thither from 
his palace at Sugwas, built the cross on the spot where he first 
heard the bells. Dr. Buncombe, however, affirms that it was 
erected in 1348 by Dr. Charlton, afterwards Bishop of Here- 
ford, on the site where the weekly markets were held, during 
the visitation of a plague, known as " the black dethe." 

* Gil son's Camden, p. 579. 



CHAP, vii.] KEXTCHESTER. 227 

A pleasant walk from the "White Cross will soon place the 
rambler on Credenhill, a fine bold eminence of Cornstone. 
Of late years much stone has been raised there for railway 
and other purposes, but the only fossils are remnants of fish 
plates, and a few fragments of plants. On the summit of 
this hill are the remnants of a large Camp, supposed to have 
been the summer station of a Roman army, when the city of 
Magna (Kenchester) flourished within two miles of its base. 
" Kenchester," says Leland, " is far more ancient than Here- 
ford, and was celebrated in the Roman's time as apperith by 
many things, and especially by antique money of the Cassars. 
By likelihood men of old time went from Kenchester to Hay, 
and so to Breknock and Carrmardin. The place where the 
towne was is all overgrown with brambles, hazels, and like 
shrubs." Here, in 1669, a tesselated pavement was dis- 
covered, and we learn from Aubrey's Manuscripts that in 1670 
buildings of Roman brick were found, on which grew oak 
trees. A hypocaust was also discovered about the same time. 
The then Dean of Hereford, the Very Rev. John Mereweather, 
opened up many vestiges of this ancient Roman city. 

"Weobly is a quaint old town with curious timbered houses, 
and possessing one of the most remarkable church towers in 
the county of Herefordshire. From the days of Edward I. up 
to the time of the Reform Bill, it returned two members to 
Parliament. It is a good locality for examining the pheno- 
mena which is presented by the hard Cornstone and sandstone 
hills resisting the effects of denudation by former seas. The 
lowest beds at Weobly are Cornstones, with Cephalaspis, suc- 
ceeded by thick sandstones, which are again followed by 
Cornstones and sandstones. 

Robin Hood's Butts, Lady Lift, near Foxley, and "Wormsley 
Hill are all worth a visit. The strata, of which these adjacent 
hills consist, were certainly once continuous; and, without doubt, 
they were also once continuous with strata which now underlie 
the Upper beds of the Blorenge, the Scyrrid, and the Black 
Mountains, distant as these hills now appear, when seen from 
the summit of Lady Lift or Credenhill. The Upper beds, with 

Q 2 



228 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

vegetable remains, above Mr. Peploe's park, are probably the 
equivalents of those on the top of Eowlestone near Pontrilas, 
and also of those above Cusop, near Hay, which contain 
Stylonurus and remains of plants. 

Large quarries have been worked in the Lower Old Red at 
Lugwardine, south of Hereford, where fragments of fish may be 
found, but the sandstones rarely yield any but broken and tri- 
turated remains. The section is worth examining, as Drift 
occurs on the hill at Hagley ; and a mile and a half further S.W. 
the Upper Silurians and Passage beds are elevated in a dome. 
Near Lugwardine is the Trap dyke which alters the Old Red 
at the little hamlet of Bartestree. Sir R. Murchison describes 
this trap as " a highly crystalline greenstone, made up of horn- 
blende and felspar." The rocks into which the ancient lava is 
infiltrated by a fissure, belong to the lowest division of the 
system. 

* In the neighbourhood of Malvern the best Old Red section 
occurs at the northern extremity of the parish of Cradley. 
Here, as at Ledbury, there is a fault intervening along the line 
of the Cradley brook, between the Bone bed and the Passage 
beds of Hales-end, and the Old Red of the hill on the north. 
On ascending the hill from Stifford's Bridge to the great 
quarry on the summit, we see Cornstones and Marls cropping 
out on the flanks, and the western flank when quarried for 
road stone, yielded relics of Pteraspis rostratus, Scaphaspis 
Lloydii, and C. Lyellii. These sandstone strata represent, in 
my opinion, the summit of the Lower Cornstones of the 
Abergavenny districts. The Cradley sandstones have been 
largely employed at Malvern for building purposes, and that 
fine edifice, the College, is principally erected of these Old 
Red strata. The only fossils I ever saw in these Upper beds 
at Cradley, were a few remains of plants, but they were too 
triturated to make anything of the structure. And this is the 
case generally throughout the Old Red district. The fossil 
fish, plants, and Crustacea are found only in limited zones, the 
sandstones as a rule, being destitute of anything but an occa- 
sional cast of a spine. Mr. Gill of Cradley, paid a good deal 



CHAP, vii.] OLD EED SANDSTONE. 229 

of attention to the fossils in his district, and most of the 
specimens in the museums at "Worcester and at Malvern, 
both at Dr. Grindrod's and the College, were of his collecting. 
These specimens were principally found in some small quarries 
opened for road metal near an old timbered house about a mile 
from the great quarry on the hill. They were unusually fos- 
siliferous, and from them, Mr. Eay Lankester obtained the 
tail of a Pteraspis with the scales attached. In the Acton 
Beauchamp district, a little to the west, there are quarries, 
which afford Zenaspis Salweyii. Old Eed Cornstones are ex- 
posed at Heitington, near Bewdley, and contain the plates of 
the same species of fish. 

Near Ledbury the Lower Old Red is best seen between the 
Bush Pitch, where there is a railway cutting, and the summit 
of the Wall Hills. At the Bush Pitch, at the base of the hill, 
some fish spines and scales of Pteraspis were found by Henry 
Brooks of Ledbury. On the south side of the hill, is a large 
unworked quarry in thick bedded Cornstone, capped by reddish 
Sandstone, which yields here and there fragments of a fish 
which I believe to be Zenaspis Salweyii. The adjacent hills 
around Canon Frome and Bosbury consist of Sandstones and 
Cornstones, containing plates of Pteraspis and Cephalaspis. 

I would now transport the reader to the picturesque districts 
of Pontrilas, Kentchurch, and Eowlestone, on the borders of 
Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, for the study of some of 
the Upper beds of the Lower Old Eed. Close to the railway 
station at Pontrilas is a quarry of sandstone which affords a fair 
section ; and some years ago the plate of a Cephalaspis was still 
adhering to a stone in the tunnel. From these railway beds 
I and my friend, the Eev. "William Thackwell, obtained Parka 
decipiens, and remains of plants, with here and there portions 
of the plates of Scaphaspis or Pteraspis. Above these strata are 
the Cornstones of the High Common of Ewyas Harold ; and it 
is this hard Cornstone which arrested the denudation which has 
been so rife in this district, and which occupies the plateaux of 
many hills in this part of Herefordshire and Monmouthshire 
These Ewyas Cornstones are not on the same zone as those 



230 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

on the upper flanks of the Black Mountains, though both yield 
fish remains, which however are far more sparse in the upper 
zone. I saw portions of the plates of Pteraspis and a fish spine 
last year, in the Upper Cornstones when descending from the 
Black Mountain to Hay. Besides occurring in the railway 
beds at Pontrilas, Parka decipiens, (or the egg packets of 
Pterygotus) has been found on the common of Ewyas Harold ; 
in the beds which cap the hill at Rowlestone ; and also at 
Cusop, near Hay. This fossil marks no particular zone in the 
Old Red, as it is found in the very basement strata that abut 
on the Passage rocks. The castle of Ewyas Harold stood on 
Cornstones which form a concretionary limestone, such as, in 
former days, was burnt for lime in many parts of Herefordshire. 
In these beds fish remains occur, usually of a fragmentary 
character. A fine specimen of C. Lyellii was found some 
years ago on the Common ; and in the quarry at the summit 
of the Common, Dr. M'Cullough obtained a new Pterygotus ; 
Pterygotus taurinus (Salter). 

Proceeding from Ewyas Harold up the opposite hill to 
Rowlestone, thick marly and sandy beds cap the summit of 
the hill, and were formerly quarried near the church. These 
Rowlestone strata are, in my opinion, the equivalents of the 
building stones of Cradley which overlie the fish-bearing strata 
on the Bromyard road, and also the equivalents of a similar 
series of deposits which, at Cusop, near the town of Hay, in 
Breconshire, overlie the Lower Cornstones, and underlie an 
Upper Cornstone series which are associated with the Brown- 
stones of the Black Mountains. The Rowlestone beds have 
yielded the fossil crustacean, the " Stylonurus Symondsii " of 
" Siluria," which has not hitherto been found elsewhere ; a 
Cephalaspis ; and the remains of a giant Isopod, Praearcturns 
Gigas (Woodward), discovered by Dr. M'Cullough of Aber- 
gavenny, and figured in the " Transtacions of the Woolhope 
Club," by Dr. Bull. The geologist who has traced the Lower 
Old Red from Kilpeck, Whitfield, and Pontrilas upwards 
through the hills of Rowlestone, Kentchurch, Grosmont, and 
the Graig, will comprehend the geology of the district and the 



CHAP, vii.] KILPECK AXD KENTCHURCH. 231 

succession of a series of strata, which are nowhere better de- 
veloped than in this picturesque border-land; but walking up 
to a quarry, and finding a plate or two of a fish, should not 
satisfy the physical geologist with respect to the horizon of the 
strata he is examining. 

In exploring this district many interesting historic remains 
claim the attention of the antiquary. Near Pontrilas is 
Kilpeck church, with its Norman apse, standing close by the 
ancient castle of the family of Kilpeck, who lived there in the 
days of Edward I. ; but the castle was in ruins when Leland 
wrote. To the west, on the banks of the river from which 
it takes its name, stands Abbey Dore, founded in the reign of 
Henry I. by Robert, Lord of Ewyas, for Cistercian monks. 
The church was completed during the reign of Henry III., 
after a hortatory letter by Peter de Aqua Blanca, Bishop of 
Hereford. The tomb of this Bishop is one of the most re- 
markable in the Cathedral of Hereford. Several of the abbots 
were eminent men. One, named Cadugan, was Bishop of 
Bangor in the time of King John ; and in 1236 he gave up 
his bishopric to become a monk of Dore Abbey. Another was 
Richard Stradel, celebrated for his religious treatises ; while a 
third was one of the special ministers appointed by Edward III. 
to treat with the King of France. The remains of the church, 
with its remarkable chancel, stone altar, and massive tower, tell 
of its former magnificence. 

A mile to the east of Pontrilas is Kentchurch Court, called 
by Leland " Penchirche, the seat of the eldest House of the 
Escuedamours." The renowned chieftain Owen Glyndwr is 
said to have died here in obscurity, and is believed to have 
been buried at Monnington-on-the-Wye. At Kentchurch 
lived also John of Kent, a mathematician and poet. The 
tradition is that he sold his soul to the devil, and constructed 
the bridge over the Munnow in a single night. A mile 
beyond Kentchurch are the ancient church and ruined castle 
of Grosmont. The church is of Transition Norman architec- 
ture, with a remarkable octagonal tower. The castle was 
formerly the residence of the dukes of Lancaster, and was 



232 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 

the scene of many a conflict. Lambardi quaintly says of 
one of the sieges which it stood in the reign of Henry III., 
" The King coming with a great army to raise the siege, whereof 
as sone as the "Welshmen had understanding they saved their 
lives by their legges." Here, also, Henry of Momnouth de- 
feated the Welsh in a great battle in 1405, and took prisoner 
Griffith, the son of Owen Glyndwr. 

Three miles lower down the river are the ancient ruins of 
Skenfrith Castle. Its area forms a trapezium, and it is be- 
lieved to be the most ancient fortress in Monmouthshire. 
Leland speaks of it as being nearly perfect in his time ; but 
a survey, made during the reign of James I., describes it as 
"ruinous and decayed time out the memory of man." At 
the period of the Norman invasion, Skenfrith was the resi- 
dence of a "Welsh prince Bach, son of Gwaithvoed, Prince 
of Cardigan ; but shortly afterwards it became a Norman 
stronghold, like Grosmont and Long-town. At Eowlestone the 
little church should not be neglected, for there is a wonderful 
chancel arch, and beneath the carved canopy is a strange old 
effigy of a lady holding her heart in her hand. 

The derivation of the name of Ewyas Harold is a mooted 
point among archasologists and antiquaries. The Eev. TV. 
Fowle believes that it is derived from " Ea," Saxon for water ; 
but only a very small stream runs near. Mr. Flavell Edmunds 
of Hereford, a learned student on the origin and derivation of 
names, considers that Ewyas comes from the British " Yw, ys,'' 
the place of yews ; and these trees flourish here still in abun- 
dance. The lord of the castle bore, without doubt, the name 
of Harold ; but who he was is a subject of dispute. Mr. Free- 
man, author of the " History of the Norman Conquest," be- 
lieves that he was the natural son of one " Drogo Fitz Pontz." 
Leland says, " The fame is that the castle of Map Herald was 
builded of Harold afore he was Kynge, and when he overcame 
the "Walsche men." He describes the extent of the domain as 
" a myle in breadth where it is narrowest, and most in length 
two myles. It hath good corn and grasse and woode."* After 

* Itin., vol. vii., p. 83. 



CHAP, vii.] GIRALDUS AT ABERGAYENNY. 233 

the death of Harold, the Conqueror appears to have given it 
to Alured de Maryborough, who possessed it at the time of 
the Doomsday survey. Leland, when speaking of the inhabit- 
ants of Talgarth and Ewyas, says, " The natives of these parts, 
actuated by continual enmities and implacable hatred, are per- 
petually engaged in bloody contests." 

Having made acquaintance with the upper rocks of the 
Lower Old Red in the Pontrilas district, the geologist should 
proceed to Abergavenny. Abergavenny was the site of the 
Eoman station Gobanniiun of Antoninus, and lies embosomed 
among the hills of the Scyrrid Fawr on the east, the Sugar 
Loaf on the north-west, and the Blorenge on the south. 

The Castle is a mere ruin and appears to have been very 
dilapidated even in the time of Queen Elizabeth, for Church- 
yard wrote of the towers as "bare and naked left," and 
prayed, 

" Would God, therefore, the owner of the same, ' 
Did stay them up for to increase his fame." 

It occupies a good position towering above the Usk, but had 
a grievous reputation through the abominable atrocities 
committed by the Normans against the Welsh ; atrocities 
worthy of a Front de Boenf. It was here that William de 
Braose invited several Welsh chieftains to his hospitality and 
then butchered them in cold blood ; and it is of Abergavenny 
Castle that Giraldus remarks that " it was dishonoured by 
treason oftner than any fortress in Wales." Giraldus relates 
that when he and the Archbishop were at Abergavenny, and 
many persons were converted to the Cross, a certain nobleman 
of those parts named Artheum, came to the Archbishop, who 
was proceeding towards the Castle of Usk, and humbly begged 
his pardon for having neglected to meet him sooner. Being 
questioned whether he would take the cross, he replied " That 
could not be done without the advice of his friends ; " the 
Archbishop then asked him " are you not going to consult 
your wife ? " He modestly answered with a down-cast look, 
" When the work of a man is to be undertaken the counsel 



234 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vir. 

of a woman ought not to be asked," and instantly received the 
cross from the archbishop ! 

With respect to the geology around Abergavenny the 
explorer will have no difficulty in recognizing a portion of the 
Cornstone strata of the Old Red in the railway cuttings 
between Abergavenny and Llangvihangel. These are the 
lowest beds exposed in the district, and the Upper Cornstone 
group rises into the hills named the Deri and the Rolben below 
the Sugar Loaf, and again into the wooded escarpments that lie 
below the Blorenge. Above the Upper Cornstones and Sand- 
stones of the Deri and the Rolben, the Brownstones set in, and 
those unfossiliferous deposits constitute the higher strata of the 
Sugar Loaf, and the Scyrrid Fawr ; while in the Blorenge the 
Brownstones are themselves overlaid by the uppermost rocks 
of the Old Red, viz., the Old Red Conglomerate and the yellow 
and grey sandstones, these again being capped by the Carbon- 
iferous Limestone and millstone grit. The Lower Flagstones 
and Cornstones around the town are fossiliferous, and there 
are some fine specimens of fish scales, heads, tails and spines 
in the collections of Dr. Elmes Steele and Dr. M'Cullough. 
Some of these were obtained from beds upon which the Asylum 
stands, with some fine plates of Cephalaspis, and one or two 
remarkable Ichthyodorulites or fish spines. Again some good 
scales have been found in higher Flagstones and Cornstones at 
the base of the Scyrrid ; and among them a magnificent shield 
of the head of Zenaspis Salweyii was found by Mr. Stccle. 
I am not aware that any fish remains have been found in the 
upper beds on the Deri and Rolben. 

Every geologist should ascend the Scyrrid Fawr, as its 
summit commands a splendid view of the surrounding country. 
There is a downthrow on the Scyrrid, from the Sugar Loaf 
series which is not altogether satisfactory to those who have 
little time to spare for fault investigations. Every one, how- 
ever, should see the Scyrrid and the escarpment of Brown- 
stones laid open by the great slips which have descended from 
the northern slope. At the summit of the Cornstone group 
there is probably a break in the stratigraphical succession, 



CHAP, vii.] SIR DAVID GAM. 235 

for the Brownstones overlap the Rowlestone beds both on the 
Scyrrid, and the Sugar Loaf. It is on this line of break that 
denudation appears to have been arrested throughout a large 
area of the Cornstone hills of Herefordshire and Monmouth- 
shire. There are numerous hills where the Brownstones are 
denuded and only just denuded. We hope that local geologists 
will one day clear up this important question. This, however, 
can hardly be done without much trouble and research, nor 
by any but those who can give time and attention to the study 
of the phenomena of the district. 

Llantillio Crosseney should be visited from Abergavenny 
for the sake of the White Castle (Castell Gwyn) which was 
standing at the time of the Norman invasion, and was the 
habitation of Sir Gywn ap Gwaithfoed, Prince of Cardigan. 

Near Col. Clifford's park are the relics of an old house said 
to have been occasionally the residence of Sir David Gam, 
the faithful squire of Henry V., who, when sent to reconnoitre 
the French army before the battle of Agincourt, said that 
" there were enough to fight, enough to be killed, and enough 
to run away." It was of such men as Gam, who was knighted 
by his master, as he was dying at his feet, that Fluellen is said 
by Shakespeare to have reminded the king that " the Welsh- 
men did goot service in a garden where leeks did grow, 
wearing leeks in their Monmouth caps." 

The neighbourhood of Abergavenny was rich in heroes in 
olden days, for again about four miles to the north east and 
near Pandy station, is Old Castle, which every lover of religious 
freedom should visit in homage to the memory of Sir John 
Oldcastle, Lord Cobham, who suffered an ignominious death as 
a traitor and a heretic. He was the early friend of Henry V., 
the defender of religious liberty and of the persecuted Lollards, 
the follower of Wickliffe, and as Horace Walpole says, " the 
first author as well as the first martyr among our nobility ! " 
The last time I visited Old Castle I saw, at the farm-house 
close by, an ancient portrait which "old people said was a true 
likeness" of one who helped to plant the standard of the Re- 
formation in the English church. Alas ! he, like too manv 



236 EECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. VH. 

who lived before his day, and others who have lived since, 
found that any attempt to develop religious truth is followed 
of necessity by persecution on the part of the ecclesiastical 
powers that be. 

There are few more beautiful ruins than those of Llanthony 
Abbey, distant about six miles from the Llanvihangel station 
on the Hereford and Abergavenny Railway, and situated in a 
wild and secluded valley among the hills of the Black Moun- 
tains ; hills where 

" Moorcock springs 
On whirring wings 
Avnid the blooming heather," 

and where ages ago the hermit chose this secluded spot for 
retirement from the world. 

Giraldus Cambrensis gives a long account of the foundation 
and history of this Abbey and speaks of its " situation as truly 
calculated for religion and more adapted to canonical discipline 
than all the monasteries of the British isle." "It was founded 
by two hermits in honour of the retired life, far removed from 
the bustle of mankind in a solitary vale watered by the river 
Hodeni." From Hodeni it was called Lanhodeni, for Lan 
signifies an ecclesiastical place. " Owing to its mountainous 
situation the rains are frequent, the winds boisterous, and the 
clouds in winter almost continual." " Here the monks sitting 
in their cloisters, enjoying the fresh air, when they happen to 
look up towards the horizon behold the top of the mountains 
as it were touching the heavens, and herds of wild deer feeding 
on their summits." According to the notes of antiquaries a 
small rustic chapel dedicated to St. David was first built on or 
near to the site of this abbey, whither in 1103 William de 
Laci, a Norman knight, retired, and was afterwards joined 
by Ernicius, chaplain to the Queen Maud, consort of King 
Henry I. These hermits erected the first "mean church." 
At the request of Ernicius, Hugh de Laci, Earl of Hereford, 
founded a priory for Black Canons of the order of St. Augus- 
tine. Henry I. and his queen were benefactors, and Giraldus 
Cambrensis, who evidently visited Llanthony, describes the 



CHAP, vii.] OLD RED SANDSTONE. 



237 




238 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

conventual church as a good building having " an arched roof 
of stone and covered with lead." Evil days arose and the 
monks of Llanthony were ill-treated and pillaged by the Welsh, 
so their former prior, Robert de Betune, Bishop of Hereford, 
enabled them to erect a new monastery near Gloucester in the 
year 113G, and the church among the mountains was gradually 
despoiled of its valuables to enrich the monasteries at Glou- 
cester. Giraldus also says concerning the stones of the Black 
Mountains near Llanthony, " Parian stones are frequently 
found there and are called free stones ("qui et liberi vulgo 
dicuntur") from the facility with which they admit of being 
cut and polished ; and with them the church is beautifully 
built. It is also wonderful that, when after a diligent search 
all the stones have been removed from the mountains and no 
more could be found, upon another search a few days after- 
wards they appear in greater quantities to those who seek 
them." 

In this district, there is good work for the physical geologist 
in tracing up the Old Red strata along the hill sides, in the 
gullies and brooks. An interesting route passes by Capel-le- 
fin, a little "Welsh chapel among the hills, and in following the 
stream to the base of the Black Mountains the explorer arrives 
at a small waterfall. On the left of the waterfall, under the 
hill, is a considerable mass of travertine, a station for the 
somewhat rare fern Asplenium viride, and covered, in summer 
time, with a small Saxifrage. This travertine owes its origin 
to the percolation of water through a thick band of cornstone 
which may be seen in situ in the rocks above. These are, as 
far as I know, the highest Cornstones of this district, and they 
are succeeded by the great mass of Brownstones which, in the 
high hill to the west, called the Gadir, rise to a height of 2000 
feet, and from the summit of which the geologist will not fail 
to remark that the Carboniferous deposits are only just denuded. 
The geologist should now cross the hills to the Hay in 
Breconshire, and examine the Upper Silurian section on the 
banks of the Wye near Trewerne, and follow up the rocks, in 
ascending order, by Cusop, to the Brownstones on the summit 



CHAP. VII.] 



OLD SERMON AT HAY. 



239 



of the Black Mountains. Sir R. Murchison records an attempt 
made to find coal some years ago ; the , 

undertaking was suggested by the quan- 
tity of carbonaceous matter contained a j 
in some of the Old Red Flagstones. 
Vestiges of this attempt at mining may i 
still be seen on the eastern side of a 
ravine above the village of Cusop. I 
believe that these strata are the equiva- 2 
lents of the Stylonurus Flagstones of a 
Rowlestone near Pontrilas, and overlie 
the Lower Cornstones. From the Corn- 
stones, below the ( Rowlestone) flags and 1. 
building stones of Cusop, I obtained, 
last summer (1871) through the kind- 
ness of Mr. Thomas, C.E., of Hay, a | 
very fine fish spine, which has been * 
named " Onchus major " by Mr. Ethe- " rH - 
ridge, and is the largest yet found in ^.* 
the Lower Old Red Sandstone. It was g 
exhibited at the meeting of the British 
Association at Edinburgh, and is now . 
in the museum of the Earl of Ennis- 3 
killen. 

The early history of the town of Hay 
is involved in obscurity. Leland and 
Camden both state that Roman coins 
have been dug up here, and the latter 
says that it is " a place which seems * 
to have been Well known to the Ro- ^ 
mans." In the time of William Rufus 
the manor of Hay fell into the hands 
of Bernard Newmarch, who probably 
erected the Castle ; at all events, it was p 
built before the days of Giraldus Cam- 1 
brensis, for he records "preaching a 
sermon at Hay." and alludes to "the 



240 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vir. 

Castle." It was taken in 1265 by Prince Edward, together 
with the Castle of Brecon, and its final destruction is attributed 
to Owen Glyndwr in 1403. Leland describes its ruins and 
says that it " hath been some time right stately." On its site 
now stand the Parsonage, covered with ivy, a portion of the 
walls, and a gothic gateway. 

Within a short walk of the Hay is Clifford Castle, the birth- 
place of Rosamond Clifford, the mistress of Henry II. The 
ruins of this Norman castle stand upon a hill of drift, the 
deposits of an ancient Wye, which, long ages before the days 
of the Plantagenet, swept over the site where the ruins are now 
crumbling to decay. During the excavations made for the 
railway along the base of the castle hill, the workmen came 
upon a bed of bones partly stratified in the gravel. I examined 
the site and the bones, which were all appertaining to existing 
animals, the ox, boar, and deer. The animals must have been 
swept down in a flood and entombed at a remote period, as one 
Hundred feet of stratified silt and gravel lie above them. I 
have to thank Mr. Curley, C.E., of Hereford, for calling my 
attention to these drifted bones. Unfortunately, the hill-side 
sections are much masked by drifts of another character, viz., 
the debris brought down by the laud ice and snow, which in 
the latter days of the Glacial Period swept down the sides of 
the mountains and bore along large masses of local debris 
from the Old Eed Hills above. 

The village of Brynllys lies on the road between Brecknock 
and Hay. Giraldus Cambrensis speaks of "the castle of 
Brendlais " and notes that while Mahel, a son of Earl Milo, 
" remarkable for inhumanity," was " being hospitably enter- 
tained by Walter Clifford, the house was by accident burned, 
and he (Mahel) received a mortal blow by a stone falling from 
the principal tower on his head." The round tower still 
remains, and the church preserves its Norman windows. 
Llanthew, a village two miles from Brecknock, was occa- 
sionally the residence of Giraldus. He says concerning it, 
" In these temperate regions I have obtained a place of dig- 
nity but no great omen of future pomp and dignity, and 



CHAI-. vii.] ARTHUR'S STOXE. 241 

possessing a small residence near the Castle of Brecheinoc, 
well adapted to literary pursuits and to the contemplation of 
eternity." 

An agreeable day's ramble from Hay may be had by taking 
the rail to Letton station and walking by Brobury Scar, a 
good Lower Old Red section on the Wye, through the village 
of Bredwardine to the very fine cromlech on Merbridge Hill. 
It is known by the name of "Arthur's stone," and rests in 
the middle of an old road with a small mound near at hand. 
It is in a good state of preservation. The large incumbent 
stone was no doubt hewn from the rock close by. The rock 
was exposed in situ some summers ago, which enabled me to 
arrive at this conclusion. The other stones, some of which 
have fallen from their originally upright position, belong for 
the most part to the hard limestone of the Cornstones and are 
not in situ on the horizon of the cromlech, but lie scattered 
about as boulders upon the land. All the stones belong to 
the Old Red Sandstone of the country.* 

In Caermarthenshire, a section on the River Sowdde near 
Llangadock has already been alluded to, where the Lower Old 
Red may be traced from the Upper Ludlow and Passage Rocks 
at Pont-ar-lleche, through a series of marls and thin bedded 
limestones in the vale of Gwinfe, up to the Brownstones and 
Conglomerate of the Caermarthen Vans. This is an important 
section, the beds being highly inclined. It appears, the upper 
Cornstones of this section are unconformable with the Brown- 
stones of the mountains above, and there seems also to be an 
overlap which requires attention. Again, towards Caermarthen, 
the question arises as to whether the Conglomeratic series of 
the Tipper Old Red does not overlap the Lower Old Red. In 
this district I suspect there is a break in the succession of the 
strata between the Upper Cornstone series, and the Brown- 
stones, and again between the Brownstones and the Conglo- 
merate farther south. 

The old fortress of Llanstephan Castle stands upon a bed of 

* The return walk may be made over the old British Camp on Merbridga 
Hill by the Clock Mills to Eardisley station. 

R 



242 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vu. 

crystalline Corastone which probably represents the upper beds 
of the Lower Old Red. In South Pembrokeshire are two 
localities where the Old Red may be seen in contact with 
Upper Silurian rocks, viz., at Freshwater East and Freshwater 
"West. I visited the eastern section, but it is an unsatisfactory 
place for determining the relation of the beds, as they are 
much obscured by blown sands. From Llamphey, which is 
situated on the Carboniferous Limestone, I crossed over the 
Old Red Sandstone by Parelew to Freshwater Bay, and found 
a small quarry of nearly vertical Silurian rocks, on the hill 
above the bay and on the right hand of the road leading to 
Stackpole. The Old Red basement rocks consist of a con- 
glomerate of Silurian pebbles, consequently the Lower beds are 
probably wanting. The section at Marloes Bay is interesting. 
The Lower Old Red is seen at Hook Point on the east, at 
Gateholm Island and at the opposite promontory on the west 
of the bay, in contact with Upper Ludlow strata. The Upper 
Silurians are here faulted through the Old Red and interlaced 
with volcanic dykes. 

Igneous rocks may be seen in contact with Old Red 
Sandstone in the grounds of Mr. "Warren Davis of Trewarren, 
St. Ishmaers. They occur to the west of the Church. At 
Benton Castle, on the right bank of the river Haverford, 
volcanic rocks are erupted through Old Red strata. Towards 
the west the range of the Johnston traps traversed the Carbon- 
iferous deposits as well as the Old Red ; and Sir H. de la 
Beche records that he saw a large fragment of Carboniferous 
Limestone twisted into a large mass of trap. 

The Isle of Skomer off the south western coast consists 
entirely of trap rocks. During my last visit to Pembrokeshire 
I saw a number of the eggs of our rarer British birds, which 
had been collected by a lady and gentleman who had resided 
for many years on this lonely island ; they were carefully 
preserved in a cabinet at Solva near St. Davids, and they 
included the eggs of the "Woodcock, Snipe, Golden Plover, 
"Whimbrel, also of the Cornish Chough, Peregrine Falcon and 
Stormy Petrel. 



CHAP, vii.] OLD RED FISHES. 243 

BROWNSTONES AND UPPER OLD RED SANDSTONES. 

In Scotland the researches of Prof. Harkness and Mr. 
Powrie have established the fact that the Lower Old Eed is 
characterized by the presence of Cephalaspis, Pteraspis, and 
other peculiar fishes, as in the Silurian districts of Hereford- 
shire and Monmouthshire. The Middle Old Red of Scotland 
furnishes the fossil remains of numerous well preserved fishes, 
the best known of which are the Pterichthys, Coccosteus, 
Cheiracanthus, Diplacanthus, Cheirolepis, Dipterus, Osteolepis, 
and Diplopterus, all described by the graphic pen of the late 
Hugh Miller in his famous work " The Old Red Sandstone." 

GANOID FISH OF TtiE OLD RED SANDSTONE. 




Dipterus macrolepidotns, Ag. , of the Black Schists of Caithness. From a specimen in 
the cabinet of Sir Philip de M. Grey Egcrtoii, Bart. 

The Upper Old Red of Scotland is characterized by the 
presence of a peculiar Pterichthys, and the large scaled fish 
Holoptychius. A closely allied form of this Pterichthys is 
found in the Upper Old Red strata of Farlow, in Herefordshire 
near the northern base of the Titterstoue Clee, while the 
remains of Holoptychius have also been detected in strata 
overlying the Old Red Conglomerate on the Daren near 
Crickhowell. Unfortunately no fossils have hitherto been 
discovered in the Brownstones, i. e., those Old Red beds which 
in Siluria immediately underlie the Old Red Conglomerate, 
and overlie the Cornstone group. Some geologists have 
supposed that the central strata of Scotland, so rich in fishes, 
are wanting in Siluria. It is my belief that the Brownstones 
represent the Osteolepis bearing rocks of Scotland, and that 

n 2 



244 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

physically, they are largely developed in the mountains of 
Breconshire and Monmouthshire. A fair section of the lowest 
Brownstone beds may be examined at the Scyrrid near 
Abergavenny, where a landslip has laid bare the upper portion 
of the hill. They are capped by a marly conglomerate and 
dip away from the opposite hills of the Sugar Loaf and Black 
Mountains towards the Carboniferous rocks of Dean Forest. 
When examining this district some years ago I thought, from 
the dip and strike of the strata, that the Brownstones must 
have extended from the Scyrrid in the direction of the Sugar 
Loaf as a huge anticlinal in the direction of Pen-Cerrig- 
Calch. There are no sections on the Blorenge, or the Sugar 
Loaf, or on the Black Mountains, excepting where the rocks 
are partially bared by mountain rills. 

In the district of the Forest of Dean these rocks have 
very much thinned out, but they may be seen by commenc- 
ing at the Lower Old Red of Pyrton Passage and following 
the successive beds by Blakeney and Bryant's Green to 
Soudley Green. The Old Red in this district is much denuded, 
as well as thrown down and dislocated by faults. Anyone 
who has studied the physical geology of the Brownstones 
and flagstones in the mountain ranges of Brecon and Caer- 
marthen will be led to the determination that these strata 
of the Old Red system must formerly have extended over a 
large extent of surface now occupied by the Lower Old 
Red and Silurian deposits, from above which they have been 
denuded. In certain directions they are evidently thinned 
out as compared with the thick masses occurring in Brecon- 
shire and Caermarthenshire, but there can be no doubt of 
their former persistence over a far larger area than they 
occupy at present. 

The ancient British town of Aberhonddu, commonly known 
as Brecon, lies surrounded by old rocks and old ruins, while 
we agree with Hoare that it can hardly be surpassed for the 
picturesque beauty of its situation. " The different mills and 
bridges on the river Usk, and Honddu, the ivy mantled walls 
and tower of the Old Castle, the massive embattled turret and 



CHAK vii.] CASTLE OF BRECON. 245 

gateway of the priory, with its luxuriant groves added to the 
magnificent range of mountain scenery on the southern side of 
the town, form in many points of view, the most beautiful, 
rich and varied outline imaginable." 

The Castle was once the residence of Henry, Duke of 
Buckingham, who was executed at Salisbury by the orders of 
Richard III., although he was the "first that helped him to 
the crown " and " the last that felt his tyranny." Leland says 
of the castle, " The castel stondith in the suburbe and is 
devided from the toune by the Hondency river over the wich is 
a hy bridge of 2 arches to go into the castel, the wich is 
very large, stronge, welle mainteynid ; and the keep of the 
castel is very large and faire." During the reign of Charles I., 
the inhabitants nearly demolished the castle to avoid a siege. 
The unfortunate monarch was notwithstanding hospitably 
entertained at the Priory by Sir Hubert Price, and there he 
wrote the well known letter to the Prince of Wales advising 
him to fly to France. 

The Church of St. Almedha is mentioned by Giraldus Cam 
brensis* ; the saint was one of the twenty-four daughters of 
Brachanus "in ancient times ruler of the province of Bre- 
cheinoc and from whom it derived its name." He relates 
that at the anniversary of the holy Saint Alniedha, " you may 
see men and girls, now in the church, now in the churchyard, 
now in the dance, which is led round the churchyard with a 
song, on a sudden falling to the ground as in a trance, then 
jumping up as in a frenzy and representing with their hands 
and feet before the people whatever work they have unlawfully 
done on feast days." 

Three miles above Brecon, near the confluence of the rivers 
Yscir and Usk is the Gaer-Bannau, the Bannium of the 
Romans, where according to Mr. Jones, the historian of 
Brecknockshire, Ostorius Scapula built a fortress, and where 
gold coins of Nero and Trajan have been found associated with 
bricks, one of which still bears the inscription LEG. ir 

* Hoare's Giraldns Cambrensis, vol. i. p. 35. 



246 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAV. vn. 

A.U. G. Until the days of "William Eufus, Gaer-Baimium "was 
the site of the principal town of Brecknockshire ; it was then 
destroyed by the Norman knight Bernard Newmarch, who 
made the Welshmen carry away the stones of which it was 
built for the purpose of erecting his stronghold at Brecon. 
The Castle Hotel now stands on the site of this fortress, and 
hard by is the church of St. John, formerly the chapel of a 
priory founded by Newmarch for the good of his soul after a 
lifetime of savage violence, murder, and plunder. The geologist 
who visits the Gaer will observe a number of boulders of Old 
Eed from the neighbouring hills lying all along the remains of 
the Eoman road which leads by the " Maiden's Stone " to the 
Gaer. There is little doubt that boulders of large size were 
once scattered over the surrounding lowlands, but as cultivation 
increased they were broken up for roads and built into walls. 
The " Maiden Stone " (Maen-y-morwynion) is a large slab of 
Old Eed with sculptured figures ; it is probably a boulder set 
on end. Newton near Brecon was the birthplace of Sir David 
Gam. 

The highest mountain peaks in South "Wales are the Bannau 
Brecheinog or the Brecknockshire Beacons. They lie about 
five miles to the south-west of the town, and rising to a 
height of 28 G2 feet they command a noble view of very distant 
points in the surrounding countiy. The rocks on the summit 
consist of the Brownstone series of the Old Eed which dip to 
the south under the Old Eed Conglomerate and the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone of the South Wales coalfield. The summit of 
the Brecon Van is somewhat precipitous on the northern slope, 
where the rocks rise in a bold escarpment from a coomb which, 
we have no doubt, was once filled with the ice of a small 
glacier which stretched for a considerable distance down the 
vale. Indeed everywhere around these hills there are vast 
masses of angular local drift which have been swept down by 
land-ice and snow, those effective agents, which throughout a 
long period transported large boulders and lodged them at 
high levels and low levels along the flanks of the hills and 
against the sides of the valleys, so as in some instances to form 



CHAP, vii.] LLAXGOHSE LAKE. 247 

moraines. There is a marly conglomerate on the Brecknock- 
shire Vans similar to that on the Scyrrid. These are the 
basement beds of the quartzose conglomerates which underlie 
the yellow sandstone and tiie lower limestone shale of the 
Carboniferous rocks. It is lower in the series than the quartz- 
ose conglomerate which has been denuded from above the 
Vans of Brecon. The strata now on their summit are the 
equivalents of those which cap the Caermarthenshire Beacons 
on the west, and the Gadir Vawr on the north-east across the 
valley of the Usk above Talgarth, and they underlie the isolated 
outlier of Carboniferous rocks at Pen-Cerrig-Calch. The lake of 
Llyu Cwm Llwch lies below the Vans, and the depression 
which the waters now fill is surrounded by moraine matter 
brought from the summit of the Vans. 

Talgarth is a good locality from whence to visit the 
Bro \vnstones of the Gadir Vawr, and those of Skethrog and 
Derwaddon. It is near also to a fine lake Llynsavaddon, or the 
lake of Llangorse, celebrated for its fiiio pike, perch, and 
waterfowl. This lake is mentioned by Camden as the 
probable site of the Loventinum of Ptolemy, which " was 
swallowed by an earthquake." Llynsavaddon affords some 
good marsh plants to the botanist. The rare Spearwort 
(Ranunculus lingua) grows here, together with the white Water 
Lily (Xymphaea alba) and the flowering Rush (Butomus urn- 
bellatus). It is, after Bala lake, the largest lake in Wales ; 
and we find that in 1235 the monks of Brecon obtained 
leave from the Priory of Llanthony to fish in it three days 
a week, and daily in Lent provided they used only one 
boat. On the little island at the Llangorse end of the lake 
there have lately been discovered some remains of prehistoric 
human habitations, associated with bones of deer, horse, 
and ox. 

The Bwlch, a pass on the road from Brecon to Crickhowell, 
should be visited, for the Old Red is quarried on the ridge of 
the hill ; and here I once found the cast of a fish spine, and 
portions of fish plates. Kear the road, too, are the ruins of 
Blaen-lymii Castle, now only the haunts of rabbits. Under 



248 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CIIAI-. vn. 

the Alt is Buckland, the seat of the Gwynne Holfords, the 
representatives of the ancient family of Gwyns, who trace 
their descent from Gwrgan, Lord of Glamorgan, and a race 
who were British Chiefs before Bernard Newmarch had a 
beginning. 

The Boulder drifts along the valley of the Usk are most 
interesting. There is a fine rolled erratic in the "Chain 
Pool" near the grotto at Buckland. Lower down the vale is 
the Maenhir of Llynfedwen, which is a great angular mass of 
Mountain limestone set upright ; while the Maenhir in Sir 
Joseph Bailey's grounds between Gliffaes and Glanusk is of Old 
Red Sandstone. Both are erratic masses from the hills above. 

It would be interesting to know what has become of a flint 
implement which was found in this neighbourhood. It is 
recorded in Jones's Brecknock, that in the parish of Llanelin, 
to the eastward of Brynllys, was discovered, " within a cairn in 
a field, a remnant of antiquity, in comparison with which even 
the Roman remains in this island may be said to be modern; it 
was a spear head of flint, nearly seven inches long and two 
broad at the widest place. It is rudely chipped into its 
present shape, and seems to be more ancient than the use of 
iron in this country. In the same cairn was also found a coarse 
earthen vessel." 

UPPER OLD BED SANDSTONE. 

In Siluria and South Wales, the uppermost strata of the Old 
Red Sandstone consist of Conglomerates which are overlaid by 
red marly beds ; these are again succeeded by yellow and 
yellowish grey sandstones which pass upwards (as in Dean 
Forest) into the Lower Limestone Shale of the Carboniferous 
series. The Conglomerates of the Upper Old Red differ 
considerably from the conglomerates of the Millstone Grit, 
which, at first sight, are often difficult to distingush, as they 
lie in large boulders on the flanks of the hills. The Old Red 
Conglomerates consist of quartz pebbles with red jasper in a 
red pasty matrix, whereas the Millstone Grit pebble beds are 



CHAP. MI.] CIUCKHOWELL. 249 

made up of red and white quartz pebbles in a grey or 
yellowish silicious matrix. The geologist should note this 
difference in the matrix, which, when once observed, proves a 
well-marked distinction, as mistakes often occur, especially as 
regards transported masses of the two conglomerates. For 
example, the hill of Cefn Bryn in Gower is studded with 
Millstone Grit boulders resting on Old Red Conglomerate, the 
Millstone Grit and the Mountain Limestone being denuded from 
the upper part of the hill on which the boulders are stranded ; 
and yet, the debris of Millstone Grit lie so thick on the Old 
Red as to be easily mistaken for the rock in situ. The upper 
deposits of the Old Red or substrata of the Carboniferous 
Limestone are very persistent in Siluria ; we find them ranging 
from the Vans of Caermarthen, girdling the South Wales coal 
field, underlying Dean Forest and stretching far away on the 
slopes of the distant Glee hills of Shropshire. 

The uppermost strata may be seen in an extraordinary 
position in Caermarthenshire, about three miles from Llandeilo. 
They are thrown down from their proper position on the 
summit of the Caermarthen Vans, with the Carboniferous 
Limestone of Castel-Cerrig-Cennen, into the vale of the Cennen. 
I detected their place in situ on the rising ground just north- 
west of Castel-Cerrig-Cennen, when there with my friend Prof. 
Harkness, several years ago. 

The Daren Mountain, two miles north of Crickhowell, is 
capped by these uppermost sandstones. They were quarried 
as building stones for the house at Glanusk, the residence of 
Sir Joseph Bailey. There is some difficulty in detecting the 
position of the Old Red Conglomerate below the scar of the 
Daren, as it is masked by debris. Nevertheless, it may 
be found in situ in a small quarry hole to the east of the 
great quarry on the hill and considerably lower down.. 
From the sandstones on the Daren, Sir R. Murchison 
records the scales of Holoptychius. There are impressions of 
stems of plants on the rocks below the Scar. These Daren 
sandstones occupy the same physical position as the yellow 
beds of Dean Forest, and as the yellow sandstones of Farlow, 



250 IlECOEDS OF THE HOCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

near the Glee Hills, which hare afforded the remains both of 
Holoptychius and Pterichthys. 

The Conglomerate is exposed on the hills, the other side of 
the Usk, as on the Blorenge above Abergavenny, but I know 
of no section of the Upper Yellow and Grey Sandstones. The 
inscribed stone in Sir Joseph Bailey's park is a mass of Con 
glomerate, and I was informed once formed a footbridge on the 
high grounds above Llanwyse. 

The visitor to this district should see Crickhowell Castle, its 
Church and Monuments, and a Cistfaen, hard by the road side 
to Brecon. Tretower Castle also, and a remarkable Castellated 
Mansion of the Picards, lords of Ystradzw, are both within a 
short walk, and are well worth the notice of the antiquarian. 

Throughout the district of Farlow, in the Glee Hill country, 
there has been great dislocation both of the Old Pted rocks and 
of the Carboniferous series ; consequently, the sections of strata 
are unsatisfactory and difficult, and their physical positions 
are not so well seen as in Dean Forest, and other localities. 
The Farlow Sandstones afford fossils found, as yet, in no 
other Silurian regions, and they are famous as having yielded 
the remains of fishes which characterize the celebrated beds of 
Dura Den in Scotland. Here Mr. Baxter, of Worcester, found 
a Pterichthys which Sir P. Egerton pronounced to be closely 
allied to the Pterichthys hydrophilus of Dura Den. There is 
also another species of this fish in the collection of Mr. "\Yeaver 
Jones at Cleobury Mortimer. 

The Pterichthys, or winged fish, was first discovered by 
Hugh Miller, who thus records, in his graphic work, " The Old 
Red Sandstone," the feeling with which he contemplated his 
first found specimen. " It opened with a single blow of the 
hammer, and there, on a ground of light coloured limestone, 
lay the effigy of a creature fashioned, apparently, out of jet, 
with a body covered with plates. Two powerful arms 
articulated at the shoulders, a head as entirely lost in the 
trunk as that of the ray or the sun-fish, and a long angular 
tail." The Pterichthys belongs to that group of fish known as 
Placoganoids or Ganoid fish, protected with plates of enamel. 



CHAP. vii.J HOSS. 251 

The remains of Holopty chins (wrinkled scale), a large fish 
covered with scales of enamel instead of plates, have also been 
found there by Mr. George Koberts and Mr. Lightbody of 
Ludlow. Conularia also occur in these beds ; and these fossils 
are the remains of marine Pteropods. Farlow is a wild, out- 
of-the-way place, with a new church built of the rotten 
Ptcrichthys sandstone. 




UXDKRSIDE OF PTEIUCHTIIYS CORXL'TUS, AG.VSSIZ. 

The neighbourhood of Ross, in Herefordshire, may be ex- 
plored with advantage by the geologist, while the antiquary may 
see the house where lived " ye man of Ross," and may gather 
much information respecting John Kyrle, the bishop's dungeons, 
and the church ; how the little church of Bridstowe is built 
upon the very site where stood a church of wood in the days of 
King Harold ; and how the Greys-de-Wilton lived and died in 
Wilton Castle, the ruins of which are now seen just across the 
Wye. There is, too, much to be learnt respecting Goodrich 
Castle,* a stronghold in the time of Edward the Confessor, when 
" entrenched in a stockade of wood, Goderic de Winchcomb 
held the Ford." And there are also accounts of the Aricouium 
of the Romans, and the Hellan (or Old Church, now Hentland) 
of Dubritius. At Pengethly, the seat of my cousin, Lt.-Col. 
Symonds, in the parish of Hentland, Pope is said to have 
written his celebrated poem of " The Man of Ross." f The 
" Old Church " was restored by my friend, the Rev. W. Poole. 

* The reader is referred to " Castles of Herefordshire, " by Rev. C. Robinson, 
t See Powle's " lloss Guide Book." 



252 EECOBD8 OF THE KOCKS. [CHAF. vii. 

Nearly opposite Goodrich, at Hill Court, the residence of 
Captain Power, are low level Wye drifts with large boulders 
stranded in the gravel. 

There are two or three instructive sections in the Upper Old 
Eed Sandstone, which may be visited from Eoss. One is the 
Dry Brook section on the high road to Ross and Cinder- 
ford. Here the transition beds, from the conglomerate of 
the Upper Old Eed to the Lower Limestone Shale of the 
Carboniferous deposits, are well displayed. There is another 
section south of Cinderford between the tunnel at Sudely and 
a place called Euspitch.* At both these localities, the yellow 
sandstones, and other strata, yellow, red, and grey, which 
overlie the Old Eed Conglomerate, may be seen passing 
upwards into the shales of the Carboniferous Limestone. 
The yellow series of beds is masked in the section below 
Symonds Yat, on the Wye, excepting when carefully exa- 
mined. The Old Eed Conglomerate occupies the base of the 
hill below Symonds Yat, on crossing the Whitchurch ferry, 
while it is elevated on the Great Doward on the right bank 
of the river. 

The Buckstone, one of the most famous rocking-stones in 
Great Britain, is a detached mass of Old Eed Conglomerate 
which underlies the margin of the Forest of Dean, and the 
Carboniferous rocks opposite the town of Monmouth. There 
are several other large masses which have been detached 
through the atmospheric degradation of the marls below the 
conglomerate, and have rolled far down the slope of the wooded 
hills which rise from the valley of the Wye along the escarp- 
ments of the forest. Near the Buckstone is Stauton-on-the- 
hill, a pretty village with a church containing Norman relics, 
and a curious stone pulpit, which for many years was built up 
and hidden in a buttress to save it from being destroyed by 
the Puritans. 

Monmouth itself is said to have been built on the Eoman 



* The former of these two sections may be best reached from the station at 
Mitchell Dean Itoad, and the latter from Newuham. 



CHAP, vii.] MOXMOUTH AND THE BUCKSTOXE. 253 

station Blestium. There is but little of interest in the town, 
save the Welsh Gate and the memories of Henry V. 

The geology between Monmouth and Coleford is interesting 
as we pass from the lower Old Eed beds of Wonastow and 
Monmouth, containing the remains of Cephalaspis, to the Coal 
measures with their fossil ferns and Calamites. Still further 
down the Wye to the north of Tintern, the upper Old Red 
is well marked by thick masses of "pudding stone" which, 
as at the Buckstone, rise to the summit of the high ground of 
Wentwood. 

The author of the " Secret Memoirs of Monmouthshire" says 
that the forest of Wentwood was encompassed by six castles, 
" Dinham, Penhow, Pencoed, Llanvaches, Lanvaire, and 
Castrogy castles." Little remains of their ruins now, and 
Leland speaks of Pencoed as only " a fair manor place." 

In the neighbourhood of Bristol there is a section at the 
banks of the Avon river where the upper Old Eed Sandstone is 
developed and is overlaid by the limestone shales. 

There are some good sections in the uppermost Old Red 
in Pembrokeshire, near Tenby, and at the mouth of Milford 
Haven. The Tenby sections are on the coast of Caldy Island, 
and at Skrinkle Bay. At Caldy Island the Old Red Sandstone 
is seen overlaid by yellow sandstones with conglomerates at 
the top, and these are again overlaid by shales containing 
Carboniferous fossils. On the eastern side of the island the 
Upper Old Red beds form the south end of Drinkim Bay, and 
on the west side Mr. Salter detected Serpulse in masses of rock 
about 50 feet down in the Old Red series. The best view of 
the Skrinkle Bay section may be obtained by proceeding thither 
in a boat from Tenby, the path over the cliff being exceedingly 
precipitous. The bottom beds of the Old Red consist of some 
white sandstones (which occur also at Caldy Island) but there 
is a fault in the upper strata near their junction with the 
Carboniferous deposits. When visiting this country with Sir 
Wm. Guise, we were examining the coast for drift and cave 
phenomena, and taking no thought of the Upper Old Red and 
Carboniferous Passage beds, when we came upon this fine 



254 KECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. VH. 

section at Skrinklc, and were struck with the colour and effect 
presented by the grouping of the strata as being very similar 
on a larger scale to the roadside section near Drybrook in Dean 
Forest, and thus we at once hailed old friends in a new locality. 
At West Angle Bay at the mouth of Milford Haven, the yellow 
Conglomerates of Caldy Island are wanting, and brown sand- 
stones are intercalated in their place. There is a synclinal in 
the bay which shows the strata curved on either side. This 
section should be visited by every lover of physical geology. 

Near the section at Skrinkle are the noble ruins of Hanorbecr 
Castle, standing near the junction of the Old Red with the 
Lower Carboniferous slates. Manorbcer is noted as the birth- 
place of Giraldus Cambrensis, who describes the Castle in his 
time as being " excellently well defended by turrets and 
bulwarks, and situated on a hill extending on the western side 
towards the sea port, having on the northern and southern 
sides a fine fish pond under its walls, as conspicuous for its 
grand appearance as for the depth of its waters, and a beautiful 
orchard on the same side, enclosed on one part by a vineyard, 
and on the other by a wood remarkable for the projection of 
its rocks and the height of its hazel trees. On the right hand 
of the promontory, between the Castle and the Church, near 
the site of a very large lake and mill, a rivulet of never failing 
water flows through a valley, rendered sandy by the violence of 
the winds." We can readily recognize the site of the lake, mill 
and vineyard of the home of which the old scholar was so 
justly proud. The hazel grove on the promontory is there 
still. The sea washes the Old Eed in the " hollow bay " with 
" inconstant waves and a raging sea," while hard by in the 
church is the sepulchral effigy of a De Barri cross-legged and 
sword in hand, in memory it may be of a brother of Giraldus 
himself. 

ORGANIC REMAINS OF THE OLD RED SANDSTONE. 

During the latter part of the Silurian epoch, the Ganoid 
fishes and Placoganoids make their appearance in the rocks. 
This group of fishes, of which 113 or 114 species have been 




1. Oyatbaspis Symundsii. Lankester. 

2. Zenaspis Salweyi. 

3. Internal c;ist of Scaphaspis truncalus. 

4. Anchenaspis Egertoni. 

5. Convex cast of Scaphaspis rectus. 
f,. Cephalaspis Lyellii 



7. Restoration of the Cephalic Shield of 

fturasi.is Croiichii. Suiter. 

8. Sc iles of Ptenispis. attoched to a portion 

of the head-shield. Lankester. 

9. Internal cast of Pteraspis Crouchii. 
10. Holoptychius nobiiissimus. 

[Page 254. 



CHAP, viz.] FOSSIL FISHES. 255 

determined from the Old Red and Devonian rocks, were once 
apparently cosmopolitan, but dwindled away during the 
Secondary epoch, when they were replaced by other orders. 
The only remnants now left of this ancient fish fauna, are the 
Bony Pike of the North American lakes and rivers ; the 
Pulypterus of South Africa ; and the Ceratodus (mud fish) of 
Australia. The discovery of the Scaphaspis Ludensis in 
Lower Ludlow deposits is at present the earliest intimation we 
possess of the existence of vertebrate life upon the globe. 
The remains of other genera of Placoganoid fish, or fish 
protected with plates of enamel, such as Cephalaspis, Pteraspis, 
and Auchenaspis, have been found in the Passage beds which 
form a transition series between the Silurian rocks and the 
Old Red. The spines of some fish, which appear to be allied 
to the Onchi of the Upper Ludlow bone bed, occur in the 
Passage beds associated with the plates of Ganoids. The 
Onchi are generally believed to be the remains of a small shark- 
like fish allied to the Dog fish (Acanthias). 

Sir R. Murchison found that the Cephalaspis-bearing beds of 
Scotland belong to the Lower division of the Old Red ; this is 
also the case in Siluria, but the species of fish which occur in 
the Silurian rocks and Passage beds are altogether of different 
species as compared with those of the Lower Cornstones. The 
Middle Old Red of the district under review has hitherto 
supplied no fossils to enable us to determine whether they 
represent the Osteolepis-bearing strata of Scotland, but the 
Brownstones occupy the same physical position. 

The highest strata of the Upper Old Red furnish the 
remains of land plants on the Daren near Crickhowell, and 
Earl Ducie possesses the remains of Calamites and Knorria 
from beds below the Carboniferous rocks of Tortworth. 
In Ireland, yellow sandstones occupying a similar stratigra- 
phical position and of similar mineral character, yield in great 
abundance the beautiful fossil fern Sphenopteris Hibernica, 
associated with Stigmaria and Knorria, both Carboniferous 
forms of land plants, and also a shell supposed to be of fresh- 
water origin, the Anodon Jukesii. 



256 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vn. 

The Upper Old Red of Farlow has furnished the character- 
istic remains of Pterichthys and Holoptychius, and occupies 
the same zone of uppermost or transition Old Red strata in 
Herefordshire, Monmouthshire, and Scotland as that occupied 
by the Holoptychius-bearing rocks of Scotland and the yellow 
sandstones of Ireland which yield the Anodon. Mr. Godwin 
Austen has suggested that the fish of the Old Red Sandstone 
are freshwater forms like the existing freshwater Ganoids of 
America ; although numerous remains of Old Red fish have 




FOSSIL PLANT FROM THE YELLOW SANDSTONE OF IRELAND. 

been found associated with marine fossils in Russia and 
America, and more sparsely in Devonshire and Cornwall. 
This might be the case, and the fish might nevertheless have 
been freshwater genera, for freshwater fish must often be 
swept out to sea by floods. There are two or three facts, 
however, which appear to me to militate against the idea that 
the Old Red of Herefordshire may have been a freshwater 
deposit. We find a number of Eurypteri, Stylonuri, and other 
forms of crustaceans, which Mr. Woodward believes were 
marine, associated with Lingula3 in the Passage beds, and these 
crustaceans evidently lived and died in the same waters as the 
marine Linguke. At Rowlestone, Stylonurus occurs high up 
in the Cornstone series, and Stylonuri occur high up also in the 
Scotch Old Red, far above at least the Passage beds and 
Lower Old Reds. Again at Caldy, near Tenby, we have 
Serpula? which are marine fossils ; and at Farlow, Conularia 
and other marine forms occur in the Upper Old Red in the 
same beds with Pterichthys and Holoptychius. 



CHAP, vir.] OLD RED SAXDSTOXE. 



257 



Lastly, I have seen a regular fish bed in the marine Devonian 
rocks of Cornwall made up almost entirely of the remains of 
Pteraspidean fishes. 




WHYTHALL, NEAR Ross, OCCUPIED BY OLIVER CROMWELL DURING THE SIEGE 01 
GOODRICH CASTLE. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

DEVONIAN ROCKS. 

Grouping of the Devonian Rocks and their Equivalent Strata Porlock 
Dunkerry Beacon Glenthorne Quantock Hills M.S. at Crowcombe 
Court Cleave Abbey Lynmouth Valley of Rocks Heddon's Mouth- 
Combe Martin Fossils at Morte Slates Tomb of De Tracey in Morthoe 
Church Pick-well Down Grits Raised Beach at Croyde Bay St. 
Branock Legend of Sloly Quarries Fremington Raised Beach at 
South Devon and Cornwall Looe Fish Beds of Polperro Bovey Tracey 
Miocene Lake of Glacial Clay Kent's Cavern Submerged Forests- 
Windmill Hill Cavern Evidence of Change of Level Plymouth Lime- 
stone-South Cornwall Granites Abbey of St. Rumon Brent Tor- 
Organic Remains of the Devonian Rocks. 

IN 1 836 Sir Koderiek Murchison and Professor Sedgwick 
discovered that the Culm measures and sandstones of North 
Devon belonged to the Coal period. They were supported in 
these views by Mr. Lonsdale, who by his careful investiga- 
tion of the corals of the Devonian rocks, came to the de- 
termination that they belonged to a type which might be 
considered as intermediate between the Carboniferous and 
Silurian. 

The late Professor Jukes assigned all the Devonian rocks 
proper, from the Lynton and Lynmouth rocks upwards, to the 
Lower Carboniferous rocks of Ireland, known as the Carboni- 
ferous Slates, Coomhola Grits, and Lower Limestone Shales. 
Mr. Etheridge, Palaeontologist of the Geological Survey of 
Great Britain, in an admirable resume" of the rocks of Devon- 
shire and their fossils, * gives an elaborate account of the rela- 
tion of the different Devonian strata to their equivalent marine 

* Quart. Geol. Journ., vol. xxiii. 1867. 



CHAP, viii.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 2-39 

beds on the continent. Mr. Etheridge considers the whole 
of the rocks of Devon, including the Dunster and Fore- 
land rocks to be chronologically equivalent to the whole 
of the Old Red Sandstone ; this opinion was also held by 
Sir E. Murchison. 

Mr. T. M. Hall, who is an authority on the geology of his 
native country, divides the North Devonian rocks into the 
following zones, viz., 

1. Foreland Group (Base) 4. Ilfracombe Group 

2. Lynton Zone 5. Marwood Zone 

3. Martinhoe Beds 6. Pilton Beds (Upper Devonians). 

Mr. Pengelly has contributed several important papers on 
the relations existing between the Silurian and Devonian fossils 
and the Devonian and Carboniferous species. 

Dr. Holl of Worcester also published a valuable memoir * 
on the older rocks of South Devon and East Cornwall, the 
general results of which are in accordance with the views of 
Mr. Etheridge. 

I have twice carefully examined the Geology of North Devon, 
more especially the rocks of the beautiful line of coast which 
trends from Quantock Head to Hartland Point. I studied 
them when their place in the geological series of rock strata 
was questioned by Professor Jukes, and at first I came to 
the conclusion that the Foreland rocks were the equivalents 
of the Upper Old Red Sandstones of the Brecon and Caer- 
marthen Vans which crossed the Channel into Somerset- 
shire and Devon, and formed the basement beds upon which 
the slaty rocks of Lynmouth and Lynton rested. I have 
since changed my opinion and think it more probable that 
the Dunster, Porlock, Grlenthorne, and Foreland rocks occupy 
the position of the Downton sandstone in the "Welsh area 
and agree with Mr. Etheridge in the opinion that they must 
be correlated with the bottom rocks of the Lower Old Red 
Sandstone, or even with the Passage Beds. The paper of 
Mr. Etheridge, already alluded to, is absolutely necessary 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., Nov., 1868. 



260 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. via. 



to a travelling geologist who would follow out the succession 
and folds of the North Devon rocks ; all I shall attempt 
to do will be to give some notes of my rambles among them, 
and point out some localities where they may be seen and 
studied. 

The following table exhibits the grouping of the Rocks of 
North and South Devon, and some portions of Cornwall. 





NORTH DEVON. SOUTH DEVON. 


CORNWALL. 


CARBONIFE- 
ROUS SE- 
RIES. 


Barnstaple Beds. 
Carboniferous Se- 
ries of Sedgwick 
and Murchison. 


Carboniferous 
Beds. 


Carboniferous 
Series. 


UPPER DEVO- 
NIAN, OR 
UPPER OLD 
RED SAND- 
STONE. 


Pilton, Braunton, 
Croyde, Marwood, 
and Baggy Beds, 
with the Pickwell 
Down Sandstones 
at the base (Morte 
Bay Series). 


No representa- 
tive as yet 
known in South 
Devon. 


Petherwin Lime- 
stones and 
Slates, Tinta- 
gel and De la 
Bole Slates. 


CENTRAL OR 
MIDDLE 
DEVONIAN, 

M I D D L E 

OLD RED 

S A N D- 

STONE. 


Mortehoe, Woola- 
combe, Rockham, 
and Lee Slates. 
Ilfracombe and 
Combe - Martin 
Slates, Grits, 
Sandstones, and 
Limestones. The 
Hangman and 
Trentishoe Grits 
at base. 


Dartmouth 
Slates, Dar- 
tington, Og- 
well, Torquay, 
Newton, and 
Plymouth 
Li mestone s, 
Lummaton and 
Ramsleigh, &c. 


Mounts Bay 
Slates, Pad- 
stow (Hang- 
man Beds) ? 
Forth Towan 
Slates. 


LOWER DEVO- 
NIAN. Low- 
EST OLD 
RED AND 
PASSAGE 
BEDS. 


Heddon's Mouth, 
Woodabay, Lee, 
Valley of Rocks, 
Watersmeet, Lyn- 
ton, and Lynmouth 
Slates, &c. The 
Red Grits and 
Sandstones of the 
Foreland, Countes- 
bury, Glenthorn, 
and Dunster, &c., 
&c., at the base. 


Mudstone Bay 
Slates near 
Torbay, Meads- 
foot Slates with 
Phyllolepis 
concentricus, 
Yealmp ton 
Creek and 
Black Hill, &c. 
&c. Slates, 
Looe Island. 


St. Veep, Pol- 
ruan, Looe, 
Polperro, and 
Fowey Grits 
and Slates. 
Bone Bed at 
Lantivit Bay. 



CHAP, viii.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 261 

DUNSTER BASEMENT DEVONIANS, AND FORELAND ROCKS. 

The geologist may commence his examination of the Lowest 
Devonians of West Somerset at Dunster, beginning with the 
North Hill near Minehead, about three miles distant. Porlock, 

SIBYL HEAD, WEST COAST OF IRELAND. 
(Sketched by the late Mr. Du Xoyer.) 




The upper rocks are Upper Devonians resting uuconformably against Silurian Rocks. 

Culborne and Oare Hills, which overhang the Bristol Channel, 
are all the rocks of the Foreland rolled from north to south to 
the North Hill over Minehead, and thus are explained the 
reversed dips seen here and there along the line of rocks from 
near Lynmouth to Minehead. At Hurlestone and Greenlay 
points above Minehead, this rolling is well seen, and there is an 
inversion of the beds at Hurlestone Point, those to the seaward 
dipping south-east and the southward beds dipping north-east. 



262 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vin. 

It seems to me that we should never forget that two distinct 
series of earth movements and faulting have much affected the 
rocks of Devonshire. The great upheaval of the granite of 
Dartmoor occured in Post Carboniferous times, and we can 
hardly judge now of the effect of those upheavals on the rocks, 
both of North and South Devon, while in North Devon great 
disturbances again took place in Post Liassic times which in 
some instances have evidently faulted the beds and changed 
their dip since the Dartmoor upheaval. 

From Minehead the walk from Grabbist Hill to Croydon 
Hill should by all means be taken, and south of a place called 
Hopcot, the red sandstones of Grabbist Hill may be seen 
dipping north and north-east until they reach the valley of 
"Wotton Courtney, where there is a fault along the course of the 
river and a reversion of dip takes place. Mr. Etheridge found 
this fault corresponded with that of the St. Decumans fault 
on to Quantock Head, and that this reversion of dip is 
traceable to the Foreland, and to Lyuton. " It is," he says, 
" the southern dip of these red sandstones which constitutes 
them the base of the whole of the superincumbent grits, slates, 
and limestones of West Somerset and North Devon." The 
strike of these red basement Devonian rocks is from Timbers- 
combe and Dunster Park to the Foreland and Lynmouth on 
the west. Hitherto no fossils whatever have been found in these 
rocks, with the exception of some vegetable remains which I 
observed in the yellow beds of Countesbury near Lynmouth. 

The picturesque village of Porlock, where the traveller may 
well spend a few days among some of the finest scenery in 
Somersetshire, is surrounded by a series of hills, all composed 
of basement Devonian rocks and all dipping from the fault of 
the Porlock valley towards the sea. This fault along the 
Porlock valley is supposed to be connected with those Post 
Liassic movements which have so much disturbed the rocks 
about Watchet, Quantock's Head and St. Decumans. There 
are some good sections between West Porlock and Culbone 
along the cliff road by the sea. The hill of Dunkeny and the 
ridge of Bossington should both be visited before taking to the 



CHAP, viii.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 263 

coast. The summit of Dunkerry Beacon commands a noble 
view, and is the site of ancient beacon fires, which were answered 
by those on the Welsh Hills opposite, and the distant Malverns. 
These red sandstones and grits much resemble in mineralo- 
gical character, the Upper Old Eed series of the Brecon and 
Caermarthen Vans. I know nothing like them in the Lower 
Old Reds of the Silurian area. The walk along the coast by 
Ashley Combe and the small church of Culbone, should be 
extended to a spot where there is a remarkable erosion of strata 
into a regular amphitheatre, in which is the "Pet" farm of 
Lord Lovelace. This amphitheatre is a good example of the 
effect of streams and subasrial decay with the removal of soil 
by water. 

The romantic dell of Gleuthorne is only five miles from 
Lynmouth by the coast path, and the sides of the hills often 
exhibit sections. A little beyond Glenthorne we come upon an 
old limekiln which has more than usual interest, for in it were 
burned, some years ago, several cartloads of the remains of the 
extinct Mammalia, Rhinoceros, Mammoth, &c., which were im- 
ported with Mountain limestone from a fissure at Caldy Island. 
Portions of teeth, &c., were lying about among the debris 
when I was there a few years since. The red grits, shillets, 
and sandstones maintain their character all the way to the 
Foreland, where, at Countesbury, they pass into yellow beds and 
the reddish Lynmouth slates of the Tor. These rocks from 
Porlock Hill to Countesbury form the northern edge of the 
anticlinal. 

THE QUANTOCK HILLS. 

As Dunstcr is the best station for investigating the geology 
of the Quautock Hills, I may give a few notes of the most 
interesting localities to visit, although I am strongly of opinion 
that the basement red grits of Dunster and the Foreland are 
not exhibited there at all, but are thrown down by the Post 
Liassic fault of Watchet. After visiting the Trentishoe, 
Hangman, and Combe Martin districts, and returning again 
to the Quantocks, I formed the opinion that their red sand- 



264 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

stones, grits, and shillets, with their limestones, are the 
equivalents of the Trentishoe, Martiuhoe, and Hangman grits, 
and the Combe Martin limestone, and are altogether higher in 
the series than are the Foreland and Dunster group of rocks 
just alluded to. 

Visiting the Quantocks, from Dunster, the best route is by 
Williton, along the northern slope of the hills to Doddington 
and Quantock Lodge. At Doddington, there is a Keuper 
quarry of white sandstone, exactly like the Middle Keuper of 
Pendock and Eldersfield, in Worcestershire, faulted against 
the Quantock Devonians, and both are upheaved together 
by the Post Liassic earthquake movements and faulting, of 
which there is so much evidence in this district. Ashholt 
Wood, and its quarries of Devonian limestone, are well worth 
a visit. The limestone contains Devonian corals, and has 
furnished many pillars, mantel-pieces, &c., for the mansion 
at Adscombe. The house itself is built of a very remarkable 
green porphyritic felstone, or trap rock, which penetrates the 
Devonian beds. 

The Cannington limestone at Cannington Park is faulted 
with slaty beds in a remarkable manner through Xew Eed 
rocks to the north-east of the Quantocks. The chocolate- 
coloured slates are like some of the Hangman beds near Combe 
Martin, and those on the eastern slopes of the Quantock 
Hills. They are, I imagine, a faulted outlier of the Middle 
Devonians. Altogether, I do not recommend the district of 
the Quantock Hills to the student of physical geology. It is 
too much of an outlier, and is very difficult to work out and 
to understand without having previously acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the North Devon beds between Lynton and 
Ilfracombe. Perhaps the best geological section is to cross 
the Quantocks from Crowcombe, by Over Stowey and Ashford, 
to the Cannington limestone. 

At Crowcombe Court, Col. Carew directed our attention to a 
remarkably fine pair of antlers of the red deer (C. tarandus), 
found in digging a well in marshy ground near the house. 
And for the Antiquarian a gem of a manuscript of olden times 



CHAP, viii.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 265 

is preserved in the library. This is an MS. of the gospels in 
vellum, of a date not later than the eleventh century. At the 
end of the MS. is a letter addressed to King Alfred by Fulco, 
Archbishop of Rheims. This Fulco was one of the most 
eminent ecclesiastics of the day. He was made Abbot of Saint 
Bertin, A.D. 877, Archbishop of Rheims, 883, and died A.D. 
900, having been assassinated by a ruffian hired by Baldwin, 
Count of Flanders. King Alfred had applied to Fulco for 
assistance in the attempt he was then making to raise the 
clergy of England from the state of ignorance and degradation 
they were then in, by bringing over men of piety and learning 
from France. Archbishop Fulco approved of the king's design, 
and the object of the letter at the end of the MS. is to introduce 
to Alfred a priest named Grimbald, whom he praises highly for 
his learning and piety. Assur was a monk and companion of 
Grimbald, and associated with him in the foundation of the 
university of Oxford. He became bishop of Shireburn and 
died A.D. 909, leaving behind him a life of Alfred which is of 
great value as being the work of a contemporary. The best 
edition of his life was printed at Oxford in 1722 by the Rev. 
Franc Wise, who has prefixed to it an introduction in which he 
has published the letter of Fulco to Alfred. This fine MS. 
was adorned originally by some full page illustrations re- 
presenting the four Evangelists and the same number of 
full paged initial letters, but those prefixed to the Gospel of 
St. Luke have been abstracted. These are the finest ex- 
amples of the art of the period and in clear, bright excellence 
of condition cannot be excelled. The MS. is in the original 
oak binding. 

Between "Williton and Dunster the road passes by a pictu- 
resque ruin, Cleave Abbey. It is in a state of lamentable 
neglect, dovetailed into a farmhouse, the barns of which are 
formed out of the old ecclesiastical buildings. The chapel has 
been replaced by cowsheds, and barns and granaries usurp the 
place of dormitories and refectories ; while the cloister is 
appropriated to still fouler purposes. The refectory is a noble 
apartment full fifty-six feet long, with a tine vaulted roof of 



266 KECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vin. 

carved oak, and still in good preservation, with wall springers 
representing angels resting on corbels. At the east end is a 
large painting in distemper representing the crucifixion. The 
dormitory is seventy feet long. This Abbey is reported to 
have been founded in the twelfth century. The earliest 
portions now existing do not apparently date back much 
beyond the middle of the thirteenth century, but the structure 
appears to have undergone extensive alterations late in the 
fifteenth century, to which period all the upper portions of the 
building, including the windows, etc., of the refectories, appear 
to belong. 

Lymnouth and Lynton are situated on the outskirts of 
Exmoor, amid scenery celebrated by Southey, and among 
geology difficult enough to puzzle the most accomplished 
explorer of physical phenomena. Walking up from Lynmouth 
(which village I recommend as a residence while studying the 
geology of this district) by Countesbury Hill, we pass over grey 
and pink slaty beds of great thickness, and these as far as we 
can judge, are underlaid by yellow sandstones which are seen 
close to Countesbury Church and these again pass into the Old 
Red Sandstone looking grits of the Foreland series. It is well 
to examine these basement beds up the coast to Glenthorne. 
At Countesbury the yellow sandstones contain impressions of 
plants and would repay working for fossils. 

Starting from Lynmouth up the Lyn, the slates on the side 
of the road to Watersmeet are fossiliferous. East of the river 
the beds are much arched and folded, but the junction between 
the yellow Countesbury beds and the Lynton and Lynmouth 
slaty and fossiliferous rocks, may be traced between the Tors 
and Countesbury Church. The lover of physical geology will 
do well to follow up the rock sections on the east side of the 
river Lyn, for about five miles, to a bridge near a place marked 
Barton on the Ordnance Map, and then crossing by a bridge 
one of the tributaries of the Lyn, to return to Lynmouth by 
the western bank, west of the Lyn. The strata which are so 
arched, faulted and rolled on the east bank of the E. Lyn, 
appear again on the west bank, but are more horizontal and 



CHAP, vin.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 267 

dipping to the south. The rocks at Watersineet afford fossils,* 
the most typical forms are Orthis arcuata, and Chonetes sordida. 
The " Steganodictyum " of McCoy (which has since proved 
to be the cancellated structure of the Old Red fish, Pteraspis 
or Scaphaspis), is not uncommon. 

The Lyn cliff should be ascended from Watersmeet, not 
only for the sake of the scramble and the beauty of the view, 
but for an especial bird's eye look at the surrounding country, 
Countesbury and its Church and the yellow sandstones on 
which it stands, with the red rocks of the Foreland come into 
view, and, knowing their position and mineralogical character, 
let the geologist walk on to the escarpment above the Devil's 
Cheesewring. This escarpment is composed of red, grey and 
yellow grits and sandstones, which also constitute the table- 
land above Lyn ton, and which are enough to puzzle his Satanic 
majesty himself, for they are precisely similar to the rocks of 
Countesbury and the Foreland, and appear to be a repetition 
of the Foreland and Countesbury beds, caused by the anticlinal 
of the Lyn valley. This would be the general reading, espe- 
cially in the absence of fossils, but Mr. Etheridge, who has 
paid much attention to these Devil's own grits, assures me that 
they have positively no correlation whatever with the Foreland 
rocks, but are a higher and succeeding series of red grits and 
yellow sandstones which rest above the Lynton and Lynmouth 
slates, and which underlie at Trentishoe and Martinhoe, the 
Combe-Martin and Ilfracombe series. Descending from the 
escarpment above the Cheesewring, we come upon the re- 
markable scene of the Valley of Rocks, where crags and pinnacles 
stand out in strange confusion, the effect of sub-aerial denuda- 
tion and weathering along the planes of bedding. The Castle 
Rock faces the Devil's Cheesewring and is situated on crags 
which overhang the sea. It looks wonderfully like a Norman 
fortress falling into ruins and decay. "Ragged Jack" and 
the " Chimney Rock," were once conterminous with the strata 
on the hill sides opposite before the Valley of Rocks had a 
beginning. I have knocked out fossils from the " steps " of 

* They are collected by the man who looks after the road. 



263 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

the Castle Rock. Two kinds of Orthides, and Spirifer Isevicosta 
occur there. 

Mr. Etheridge has traced the succession and physical changes 
of these rocks along their river gorges of the East and West 
Lyns and also along their different exposures by roadside 
sections. The coast-line sections are more easy to follow out 
than those in the interior of the country, the scenery too is far 
more beautiful and the inhabitants are more courteous. The 
cliffs, and rock escarpments a short distance inland ; the richly 
wooded heights ; the combes and rushing rivers ; the crags and 
heathery slopes ; and the coast towns and villages are beautiful 
exceedingly. 

Leaving the Valley of Rocks, the geologist may descend to 
the beach at Woodabay, and observe the Lynton slates with 
fossils dipping to the south, and then ascend the hill to 
Martinhoe. In a quarry about four hundred feet above Wood- 
abay, Sir Wm. Guise and I noted slaty beds similar to those in 
the Valley of Rocks, and at a quarry above Slattendale, come in 
pinkish grey slates, strongly resembling those of the Upper 
Lynmouth series by the Tors, and these pass into red grits and 
sandstones surmounted by yellow sandstones. The Yellow 
beds occur in the road near Martinhoe Church, and again in a 
quarry from which large blocks were being raised for the 
repairs of the church when we were there in 1868. It would 
seem that these Martinhoe red sandstones, grits, and yellow 
sandstones must be correlated with those above the Devil's 
Cheesewring, as they also overlie the Upper Lynton and Lyn- 
mouth beds with fossils, and are also similar in mineralogical 
character to the Countesbury and Foreland rocks. About a 
mile beyond Martinhoe the road leads into a deep combe which 
opens seaward at Heddon's Mouth. Here in a sequestered glen 
is a lone cottage known as "The Hunter's Inn," where a 
geologist may stay, and from whence he may visit the coast 
sections in a boat. There is a section at the mouth of the 
Heddon, at the base of which are the Lower Devonian slates. 
It is similar to the Woodabay section. A bright red Sedum 
grows on the cliffs, and in the fissures are fine fronds of 



CHAP, vin.] DEVONIAN KOCKS. 269 

Asplenium marinum. There is a ghost too at " Sir Robert's 
road," who the boatmen often hear sighing round Heddon's 
Mouth and who " walks " by the side of the stream on moon- 
light nights to such an extent as to frighten many a poacher 
of the Suen (Salmo alba) a fish which ascends this stream in 
the autumn. Altogether it is a strange weird place. 

Ascending the hill up to Trentishoe Church we observe the 
Upper Lynton rocks passing upwards into Martinhoe slates, 
like those eastward at Slattendale ; and in the road beyond 
Trentishoe Church the yellow beds occur and are traceable on 
their strike for some distance. Thus the churches of Countes- 
bury, Martinhoe, and Trentishoe all stand on yellow sand- 
stones. The highest part of the road passes below Trentishoe 
Barrow, which is nearly 1200 feet above the sea. "We ques- 
tioned here whether the terminal Hoe, which is attached to so 
many of these headlands, may not be synonymous with How, 
a term applied, in the north of Scotland, to a barrow and 
believed to be of Scandinavian origin. Both in Devonshire 
and Cornwall such prominent situations appear to have been 
selected for the interment of chiefs, or men of renown, of 
ancient races, of whom we know nothing, save their burnt 
ashes, rude pottery, and flint chips. 

The trailing Club moss (Lycopodium clavatum) grows on 
the hills between Trentishoe Barrow and the glen of Sher- 
combe, and reminds us, in its seed vessels, of the old Silurian 
land plant that has left its globular spores among the remains 
of the Scaphaspis, vestiges of which we hoped to find in 
the Devonian yellow beds. Shercombe Dingle furnishes the 
Bog pimpernel (Anagallis tenella) and Chrysosplenium alterni- 
folium, while some of the Hangman fossils are known to occur 
among its loose stones, but we did not succeed in finding 
them here in situ. 

Always bearing in mind that the rocks dip on their strike 
seaward and westward, we find the Martinhoe, Trentishoe, and 
Great Hangman red grits are overlaid by the red fine grained 
sandstones and slaty rocks of the Little Hangman. Having 
thoroughly examined the rocks of this district, in a boat along 



270 EECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

the coast, as well as inland. I read their succession as 
follows : 

Middle Devonians. 

Combe Martin limestones. 

Satiny slates. 

A volcanic Ash and Trap intercalated. 

Hangman Conglomerates, with red and yellow sandy rocks. 

Hangman fossiliferous beds, containing Natica, &c. 

Grits. 

Trentishoe and Great Hangman grits. 

Martinhoe and Trentishoe grits. 
Lower Devonian Slates, the Bottom rocks at Heddon's Mouth. 



MIDDLE DEVONIANS. 

It is not possible to examine the Combe Martin district 
properly without sojourning awhile in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood. The little town itself is long and irregular, with an 
interesting Church and a fine perpendicular tower. There is 
good sea fishing off the cliffs, and it is by far the best locality 
in North Devon for collecting the fossils of the Middle 
Devonians, while the botanist cannot fail to obtain many 
interesting plants ; amongst them he may see the green Laver 
of the epicure collected in great quantities ; it is preserved for 
winter consumption. 

Under the Little Hangman I obtained a number of well- 
preserved fossils in red grits ; in situ, they occur about half 
way up the cliff, and fall in masses on the shore. Among them 
were Stringocephalus Burtini, Naticas, and large Myalinge. 
The junction of these beds runs up the road from Combe 
Martin to Knap Down Mine, but the plan to obtain good fossils 
is to take a boat and land under the cliffs. 

Boating from Combe Martin round the Point, we see a 
decomposing volcanic rock traversing the slates. I could not 
make out whether it was a contemporaneously bedded trap, or 
an erupted dyke, but I expect it is the former weathering on its 
edges. Rounding the Headland, a red and yellow conglo- 
merate is seen to lie between the satiny elates and the fossili- 
ferous red rocks of the Little Hangman. A cliff path, called 
the Miner's Path, leads from the beach up to the summit of the 



CHAP. VIII.] 



DEVONIAN ROCKS. 



271 



cliff, from whence the explorer may walk back to Combe 
Martin. Some good plants flourish on the Little Hangman 
cliffs, and report says that the Maiden Hair fern (Adiantnm 
Capillus Veneris) grows here in one or two localities. At all 
events, my boatman pointed out a light green streak which he 
declared was this much coveted botanical treasure. When I 

FOSSILS OF THE MIDDLE DEVONIAN LIMESTONES. 




1. Calceola* sandalina, Lin. 2. Meealodon cucullatus, Sow. 3. Murchteonia 
bilineata, Goldf . 4. Stringocephalus Burtini, Def. 5. Atrypa desquamata, Sow. 

was last at Combe Martin, there was a good section on the 
road between the town and Watermouth, in the limestone 
and slaty rocks that pass into the Ilfracombe group. Numerous 
Devonian corals have been found in these beds, with trilobites 
and the Silurian shell Atrypa reticularis. 

" It is these limestones," says Mr. Etheridge, " which so 
eminently characterise the Middle Devonians, and, as on the 
continent, contain that peculiar group of corals totally unlike 
and different from those of the underlying Silurian rocks as 
well as, without exception, the Carboniferous ; for of the fifty 
species of coral known as the Middle Devonian series of North 
and South Devon and Cornwall, one doubtful species only is 
said to occur in the Silurian rocks, viz., Favosites fibrosa, and 



272 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

only one is said to pass up into the Carboniferous series, viz., 
Amplexus tortuosus, of which, however, we have no authentic 
evidence." 

The geologist cannot do better than follow the rocks by the 
coast series from the bay at Combe Martin to Ilfracombe, as 
they are far easier to read off there than inland. Hagginton 
Hill quarry is famous for its fossils. They include Atrypa 
reticularis, Rhynconella pleurodon, and Spirifers of several 
species. Fossils may be found at the headland of Heles- 
borough. Mr. Valpy, a gentleman who geologised the Ilfra- 
combe district, obtained many specimens from the Helesborough 
beds. Among them are some fish spines. I saw a small ich- 
thyodorulite in some silicious beds, but unluckily broke it 
with the hammer. There are numerous brachiopods, but they 
are badly preserved ; indeed I never obtained a well defined 
fossil from this headland. 

A visit should be made from Ilfracombe to Muddiford, to 
examine the volcanic rock which is poured over the Morte 
slates and apparently bedded with them. It consists of a 
greenish felstone porphyry. Another igneous rock occurs in 
the coast section near Eockham, between Ilfracombe and 
Morthoe ; it may be seen by crossing the little river to the 
rocks at the mouth of the stream. This Trap is not on the 
same horizon as the Muddiford or Bittadore porphyry, for that 
porphyry is nearer the junction of the Morte slates with the 
red sandstones by which they are overlaid at Swinham Down 
and Pickwell Down. 

At Rockham Bay, the Devonian Morte slates are traversed 
by a number of quartz veins, the result of fracture and segrega- 
tion of the quartzite in the fissures. The slates are much 
folded, and when in a boat off Bull Point I observed a rock 
which looked like a dyke elevating the slates at a high angle, 
but I was unable to land and examine it in situ. These 
quartz veins are useful to the geologist through N. Devon, as 
indicating the horizon of the Morte slates, which are unfossili- 
ferous. I have several times traced the coast section from 
Ilfracombe by the Valley of Lee, Rockham, and Morthoe to the 



CHAP, viii.] MORTHOE AXD TRACEY. 273 

Woolacombe sands, but never found a fossil. The geologist 
may stay at the Barricane Inn when engaged in working 
out the Morte slates, and the mooted question as to whether 
there is unconformity between the Morthoe and Woolacombe 
slates and the overlying sandstones of Pickwell Down, Potter's 
Hill and Croscombe. This may be done by carefully ob- 
serving the dip of the Morte slates from Morthoe past the 
Barricane beach, (where the beautiful blue Tanthina of the 
Mediterranean may sometimes be found living among the 
shells) to the' place where they abut against the Woolacombe 
sands, and where they show signs of having their dip reversed. 
Not quite half way across the sands is a stream of water which 
flows under Potter's Hill, and this stream occupies a line, of 
fault, the Morte beds consisting of dark slates and bands of 
quartz, with a nearly vertical dip, being thrown off at an 
angle in a direction opposite to the Pickwell Down beds. I 
think there is here, distinctly traceable, a line of fracture 
between the Pickwell Down beds and the Morte slates, and 
that this fracture runs between the same beds at Liddon Hill 
near Dulverton, many miles to the eastward. Nevertheless, as 
the Pickwell Down beds are seen above Yentian dipping at an 
angle which would carry them far over the Morte slates, the fault 
at Woolacombe may not interfere with the regular succession. 
The church at Morthoe has " been done up," as we were 
assured at Barricane Inn, and for an old church is as much 
" done for " as new masonry, a new pulpit, and new stained- 
glass windows can make it, but happily the beautiful carved 
benches were spared, and the tomb of the Tracey. The latter 
is indeed a beautiful monument and well worthy of note. On 
an altar tomb of white stone, adorned with architectural work, 
and niches, with figures a good deal dilapidated, but of 
arly thirteenth-century workmanship, rests a slab of black 
Purbeck stone on which is an incised effigy of a man, 
apparently in the garb of a priest, holding in his hand the 
sacramental cup. The features are entirely obliterated, but 
on the head the outline of a peculiar cap, not unlike a coronet, 
is plainly traceable. Eound the west and south sides of the 



274 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. 

slab the following inscription is visible, as traced by Sir 
William Guise, 



which may be read thus " Syre Guillame de Traci git ici Deu 
de sa alme eyt mercy." Sir William de Tracy lies here : may 
God on his soul have mercy ! That this is the memorial of 
the bold slayer of Beckett may well be doubted, as the priestly 
habiliments and the cup of blessing are not emblematic of him ; 
but tradition has it that he was long in hiding in these parts, 
where his family had possessions which is very probable. Any 
way the effigy is one of great interest, and cannot, I believe, be 
of later date than early in the thirteenth century. 

From a book called " Memorials of Barnstaple," which we 
met with at the residence of the Eev. Mr. Hall, of Pilton, we 
made the following extracts. " In the church of this place is 
a handsome monument said to have been made the depository 
of the remains of De Tracy, Beckett's murderer, but more 
generally believed to be that of a clergyman named William 
Tracy, who died at Morte in 1322, and who, as the title of Sir 
or Syre was commonly applied to the clergy at that period, had 
it inscribed on his tomb as a customary thing. The northern 
side is occupied by some armorial bearings, consisting of three 
escutcheons : one containing three lions passant gardant, a 
second three bends, and the third a Saltire." 

Close by the Church is a Mortuary for the reception of those 
bodies which the sea throws up only too frequently on this 
dangerous coast. In the winter few weeks pass without 
tenants for this sad receptacle. At Morthoe I recommend the 
geologist to obtain a boat and examine the cliff sections (on a 
fine day !) off Bull Point. There are dykes of igneous rock in 
the slates, as well as bedded masses of a volcanic conglomerate ; 
and the rock fissures are full of beautiful ferns in the summer. 
time, which are almost eradicated by the eternal fern destroyers 



CIIAP. viii.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 275 

in the neighbourhood of Ilfracombe. Here also I saw a Pere- 
grine Falcon, which bred there in 1868 ; the young birds 
were sent for hawking purposes to Oxfordshire. 

The Middle Devonian rocks from the Little Hangman and 
Combe Martin to the bass of the Pickell Down beds beyond 
Morthoe, are believed to be the representatives of the great 
coralline limestones of Plymouth and Torbay, which have 
furnished so many beautiful specimens to the museum of Mr. 
Vicary, and also of the Eifel limestone of the continent. The 
Calceola schiefer is found in South Devon ; and the Stringoce- 
phalus Burtini of Combe Martin is so abundant in the Ehenish 
Devonians as to give its name to a limestone. 

UPPEK DEVONIANS. 

Taking the coast sections in North Devon, the Pickwell 
purple slates and sandstones may be seen in a quarry at the 
foot of "Wbolacombe Hill dipping slightly to the south, but 
nearly vertical. We ascended Potter's Hill and Pickwell 
Down, going down again to the shore at Yentian. From here 
the explorer may boat round Baggy Point, see the cave, and 
obtain a view of the Headland and its coloured rocks. From 
here we have as follows : 

ORGAXIC REMAINS. 
Avicula Damnoniensis. Strophalosia 



Modiola. 



Basrcrv Point ( Cucujlaea trapaeziani, abundant. 

SSSoS and Sloly rocks, very Avicula Damnoniensis. 



fossiliferou, rnia and Knorri, 

1-?-- j *o fossils.no. 

The Pickwell Down red grits pass up into a series of pale 
slaty beds and conglomerates as seen along the coast section 
between Yentian and Baggy Point ; and from the grey slaty 
beds I possess a portion of the stem of Knorria, or Bornia , 
similar to those found at Mar wood by the Eev. Mr. Mules. 
These slaty strata pass into a thick series of yel owish and 

T 2 



276 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

grey shales, sandstones and thin limestones full of fossils, 
with vast numbers of Cucullgeas and Avicules in beds which 
crop out on the summit of the hill of Baggy Point. As 
I write I have before me a drawer full of beautiful fossils 
which I have obtained at different times from Baggy Point, 
Braunton, and Marwood. Lingula Mola occurs on the beach 
at Baggy Point, and, in situ, is below the Cuculleea bands. It 
is named after the Eev. Mr. Mules, whom I have to thank for 
much local information. Above the Baggy and Marwood beds, 
set in the grey slates and calcareous sandstones of the Pilton 
group, I had the advantage of seeing these rocks with Mr. 
Townshend Hall, and obtained, under his guidance, some ot 
the typical fossils. On the cliffs between Baggy Point and 
Croyde Bay, Mr. Hall discovered some worked flint implements 
with coarse sun-baked pottery, near a small stream flowing to 
the sea. A short search rewarded us with several flakes and a. 
good core, still in my possession. It seems as if there had 
been a manufactory of these flints near where they are now 
found, as no flint is known within sixteen miles of the spot. 
The Drift, which is an atmospheric wash, rests on the coast in 
some thickness on the dark, slaty, Devonian rocks, in which 
occurs in some abundance Rhynconella laticosta, contorted by 
slaty cleavage. Near this locality are also patches of a raised 
beach, lying nearly horizontally on the slates which dip at a 
sharp angle. They contain the Mytillus of our present seas, 
Purpura lapillus, and other shells. At Saunton, near Braunton, 
there are two beaches ; the lower beach, on which the upper one 
rests, is cemented in layers, and they both contain rounded 
pebbles and numerous shells. 

The Rev. D. Williams, in his paper On the Croyde Raised 
Beach," * describes a large block of granite which was resting 
directly on the fundamental slates, and covered and imbedded 
by the base of the beach. It is a true erratic boulder, but 
comes only from Lundy Island to the westward. 

Braunton Burrows is celebrated for its rare plants, and 
especially for a rare euphorbia and geranium. It is said to 

* It can be best reached from Braunton. 



CHAP, viii.] LELAXD OX ST. BRANOCK. 277 

derive its name from St. Branock, an Italian, who came to 
England A.D. 300. Leland, in his " Itinerary," speaks of a 
window in the church, in which were represented St. Branock's 
cow, his staff, his oak, his well, and his servant, Abel. The 
window has disappeared, but on one of the panels of the roof 
is a sow with a litter of pigs, in allusion to a legend that St. 
Branock was directed in a dream to build a church wherever 
he should first meet a sow and her family. Hence the church ! 
The Eev. Mr. Mules was my guide from Muddiford to 
Barnstaple, where sections may be traced from the Pickwell 
Down beds of the coast through the Baggy (Marwood and 
Sloly beds) rocks to the overlying Pilton rocks. The quarries 
at Sloly have furnished many plants, such as Knorria, a species 
found in the Upper Old Eed of Ireland and England, and 
Bornia, associated with Cucullasa?, Lingula, Orthoceras, and 
Bellerophon. Between Sloly and Barnstaple the Pilton beds 
succeed the Marwood group in ascending order; but neither 
here nor on the coast was I satisfied that they were conformable. 
At all events the Pilton rocks are rolled and troughed to a 
great extent about Ashford ; and off the coast at Baggy Point 
the Cucullasa beds do not conform in their southward dip to 
the Pilton group, which appears to be faulted against them. 
Such at least was my impression. At Orchard quarry near 
Piltou, Mr. Townshend Hall obtained numbers of typical De- 
vonian fossils, such as Spirifer disjuncta, Athyris concentrica, 
and Curtonotus unio (Salter), a species of bivalve found in the 
Old Ked Passage beds in Pembrokeshire and Ireland. I am 
not aware that there is any section south of Barnstaple 
showing the succession of the Carboniferous rocks to the Pilton 
group ; but Pilton rocks and fossils are found at Ashford 
Strand, rolled and faulted, and also at the railway station, 
south of the river. It is, I believe, Mr. Hall's opinion that 
the Carboniferous shales lie in troughs of the contorted and 
twisted Upper Devonians, or Pilton group. At Fremington 
there are Mountain Limestone fossils ; and Millstone grit comes 
on on Coddon Hill. This hill rises to the height of 630 feet 
above the river ; it is a good site wherefrom to survey the 



278 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

neighbourhood and the rocks, which rise from underneath the 
Millstone grit northwards and eastward. Near Coddon Hill 
was the birthplace of Gay, the poet. 

Barnstaple is a good place to stay at to obtain a collection 
of fossils, and while carrying on the intricate study of the 
Upper Devonians. I found the only way of satisfying oneself 
at all as to the correlation of the rocks, was to take the coast 
sections in detail, and then, armed with Mr. Etheridge's paper* 
already quoted, to take the inland sections. 

Fremington, with its deposit of clay, lies three miles to the 
south-west of Bamstaple. Mr. Mawj carefully examined 
this formation in 1863, and since that time I have paid 
some attention to it. It rests on a shingly gravel, the 
Fremington raised beach of Sir H. de la Beche ; this ancient 
beach is probably of the same age as the deposition of the 
granite boulder of Croyde Bay, which, as before described, 
rests on Devonian slates, and is covered by the hard sandy 
layers of the lower raised beach. I imagine that the Freming- 
ton beach is older than either of the Croyde beaches. It 
has furnished no shells, and is covered by a till, or clay, 
which, as Mr. Maw has shown, contained a true erratic 
boulder at the hamlet of Combrew. This erratic is composed 
of basalt, and was imbedded in the clay itself. The Fremington 
clay occupies a height of 110 or 120 feet. It may be a glacial 
till like that of Bovey Tracey, which there covers the Middle 
Tertiary lignite, and which afforded arctic plants such as Betula 
nana and Salix herbacea, to the researches of Mr. Pengelly. 
As regards the question of the submergence of Devonshire during 
the glacial period, I must confess I have never seen any evidence 
whatever of such submergence, with the exception of certain 
low-lying lands which skirt the country. On the contrary, 
there is an extraordinary deficiency of anything like erratics in 
the interior, as compared with most other parts of England. 

I do not recommend the cross sections of North Devon in 
the interior of the country, to anyone who is not an ardent 
lover of physical geology for its own sake. The fossils are coii- 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xxiii., 1867. t Quart Joura , Nov., 1864. 



CHAP, vni.] DEVON SECTIONS. 279 

fined to a few localities, not easy to find, and the faults and 
unfossiliferous quarries are manifold. Nevertheless, to those 
who have studied the coast sections, the traverses from Dunster 
to Dulverton, and across the country from the basement beds 
of Glenthorne, by Paracombe and Challacombe to Barnstaple 
and on to Bideford, are very instructive, while it is hardly 
possible to understand Mr. Etheridge's conclusions without 
following out some of his routes across the country. It was 
owing to my having worked out some of these sections, that I 
became myself convinced that the series of Devonian rocks as a 
whole group must be more or less the chronological equi- 
valents of the Old Red Sandstone of the Silurian area, but 
deposited under different conditions as regards animal life and 
in a different geographical area. 




1. Clymenia undulabv, Mttnst. 2. Cucullasa Hardingii, Sow. 3. Strophalosia 
caperata, i-ow. 4. Spirifer disjunctus, Sow. (Verneuilii, March.). 5. Phacops 
granulatus, Milnst. 

SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL. 

During the last few summers I have examined some of the 
typical sections of South Devon and Cornwall for the purpose 
of satisfying myself with respect to their co-ordination and 
correlation with the rocks of North Devon. 

Many of the difficulties which long shrouded these rocks had 
been dispelled by the discoveries of Murchison and Sedgwick, 
De la Beche and Godwin Austen. Nevertheless I found the 



280 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. YIII. 

relations of the South Devon rocks, when compared with those 
of West Somerset and North Devon, very difficult to under- 
stand, and I believe that their correlation is not yet estab- 
lished ; while the regular succession of the rocks of Cornwall 
still remains to be unravelled. An exhaustive paper by my 
friend Dr. Harvey B. Holl was published in the Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society for 1868, "On the older 
Rocks of South Devon and East Cornwall," but he did not 
attempt the co-ordination of the rocks of the South with those 
of the North ; and contented himself with a most valuable and 
closely written resume of the order of succession in South 
Devon and Cornwall. 

The few notes I shall contribute to the subject must be re- 
garded as merely supplementary ; the object being to furnish 
the amateur and wanderer, among the rocks, with a few hints 
from my own endeavours to make out their succession and 
correlation in this intricate country. 

The remains of fossil fishes were found by the late Mr. 
Couch of Polperro, and were described by Mr. Peach in 184G 
in the Transactions * of the Eoyal Geological Society of Corn- 
wall ; the rocks in which they were discovered were described 
by Murchison and Sedgwick. f The fish remains however were 
supposed by Professor McCoy to be the remains of fossil 
sponges, and as such were named by him " Steganodictyum 
Conmbicum," and even now these relics go by the name of 
" Polperro sponges." In 1868, when on a visit to Torquay, 
I was examining the collection of my friend Mr. Pengelly, 
in the company of Mr. Leonard Lyell and Mr. R. M. Lingwood, 
and at once identified the structure of Steganodictyum with 
that of the Old Red and Silurian fish Pteraspis. This iden- 
tification was afterwards confirmed by Professor Huxley and 
Mr. Ray Lankester. This identification of the genus Pte- 
raspis or Scaphaspis in the Devonian rocks had an important 
signification as regards their age, especially as the remains of 
the same " Steganodictyum " had been detected by Mr. Ethe- 
ridge in the Lower Devonians of Lynton and Lynmouth. 

* Vol. vi., p. 79. t New Series Trans. Geol. Soc., vol. v. 



CHAP, vnr.] DEVONIAN KOCKS. 281 

When in Cornwall, therefore, during the early part of this 
year, (1872) I endeavoured to make out the position of the fish- 
bearing rocks, and I have little doubt that they belong to the 
Lynton and Lynmouth group of North Devonshire, possibly 
to the upper portion of that group. 




1. Pteraspis trimcatus. 2. C. Bunksii. 

To illustrate the structure of Pteraspis, Scaphaspis, and Cyathaspis, as found in the 
Lower Devonians of Xorth Devon and Cornwall. 



LOWER DEVONIANS OF SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL. 

From Torquay the geologist \vill probably visit Brixham 
and Berry Head. Let him extend his walk to Mudstone Bay, 
a pleasant coast ramble "W. of Berry Head.* Here he will 
see a series of Silurian-looking shales faulted against the 
Plymouth and Middle Devonian Limestones. Mr. Pengelly 
has found the remains of fish in these faulted rocks, and in 
mineralogical structure they greatly resemble some of the 
Lynton and Lynmouth slaty beds of North Devon. These 
rocks cross the river Dart, and run by Cornworthy westward in 
an anticlinal axis. I think that if well examined they would 
yield fossils, but hitherto hardly any have been found. 

At Cornworthy, four miles south of Totnes, are the ruins 
of the Church of Cornworthy Priory, and an old gateway; 
these are the only relics of a monastery founded in the 14th 
century. There is also a most interesting church at Harberton, 
three miles to the north-westward, remarkable for its pulpit, 
fine screen, and a i^ood loft. 

* From here he may return by a short cross-country- path to Brixham. 



282 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

At Meadfoot sands, a little west of Torquay, are some 
strata which are supposed to be Lower Devonian. They 
resemble the beds of Whitesand Bay in the Looe district, which 
I believe are higher than the fish bed of Looe, Polperro, and 
Lantirit Bay. In both localities they contain Pleurodictyum 
problematicum, Athyris concentrica, Orthis hipparionyx, 
Bellerophon bisulcatus, which occur in the Middle Devonians 
of North Devon. In the cliff between Meadfoot sands and the 
Thatchen rock, Mr. Pengelly found scales of an Old Red fish, 
Phyllolepis concentricus, and another scale of a similar fish is 
figured by Professor Phillips as belonging to Holoptychius. 

When in the Plymouth district Whitesand Bay should be 
examined. This may be done by crossing the water to 
Anthony, and going by St. John's to the coast. Eame Head 
is the termination of a range of cliffs which form a semi- 
circle between Polperro and Rame Head. Maker Heights 
rise upwards of 400 feet above the sea, and the Church was 
a signal station during the French war on account of its 
commanding position. Descending to the shore, the geo- 
logist may work out the cliff sections from below West 
Maker to East Looe. It is my impression that the Looe fish- 
learing teds are faulted against the strata of Whitesand 
Bay and cannot le correlated ivith them. In elucidation of 
this difficult question Mr. Pengelly says : " The key to the 
succession of beds about Polperro, Pencarrow Head, &c., is to 
be seen in the cliff about a mile to the west of my native 
place Looe." " In passing from Liskeard to Looe we have a 
continuous ascending series, which is continued beyond the 
latter place to Port-Nadler, the spot in the cliff just mentioned. 
Here there is a synclinal axis, and beyond, that is south-west 
of it, we get, by continuing along the coast, an entire reversal 
of dip, and successively lower and lower beds, instead of as 
before, higher and higher. In short we get beds we had 
passed between Looe and Port-Nadler repeated. The bone 
bed is directly above the Pleurodictyum Slates and directly 
below the Plymouth Limestones ; i. e. the place of the Slates of 
Mudstone Bay, in which I have also found the Polperro fish. 



CHAP, vin.] LOOE AND POLPERRO. 283 

If, however, there is not a great fault in Whitesand Bay, by 
which the lower slates are brought up again at the Rame 
Head, the fish remains must occupy the slates above the lime- 
stones as well as those below them." 

What between a fault from Bodmin by Lostwithiel; another 
cross fault by Gribbin; a synclinal at Looe river; and an appa- 
rition of red rocks at the mouth of the river Seaton; the 
geologist will probably find the problem of their correlation 
attended with considerable difficulty ! 

The little town of Looe * is well worth a visit from every 
lover of the picturesque. The view from the sea side shows 
a series of dark Devonian cliffs, and in front is Looe Island, 
nearly 200 feet in height. Inland, considerable hills rise 
above the little estuary, and the Devonian slates are dipping 
as if from some upheaval out at sea. The inversion of the 
strata may be seen in Pottledler Bay, opposite Looe Island, 
and may be traced inland and westward along the coast to 
Pencarrow Head, beyond Fowey Haven. Middle Devonian 
fossils have been found in Red rocks on West Looe Down, and 
these beds are not conformable to the Looe fish-bearing strata. 
Scales and plates of Pteraspis, and some ichthyodorulites, have 
been detected at Gribbon near Menabilly, and at Mellendreath 
beyond East Looe. I expect that these beds are higher than 
the Lantirit bone bed. 

The walk from Looe to Polperro is interesting. Boating by 
the cliffs in fine weather is better still, and all along the coast 
the Devonian fish-bearing rocks may be seen dipping inland, 
whereas, as a rule, and away from local Trap upheavals, the 
rocks of the southern coast of Cornwall dip away, from the 
granite of the interior, towards the sea. Polperro is an ancient 
place, mentioned by Leland " as a fishar towne with a peere," 
and few places I have ever seen have struck me more than the 
nestling beauty of this old haunt of Cornish smugglers. Let 
me recommend the clean little hotel of " The Ship " to any 
brother of the hammer who loves the lore of the rocks, sea 

* The quickest way of reaching Looe is by rail from Plymouth to Liskeard, 
from whence it is a nine miles' drive. 



284 EECORDS OF THE EOCKS. 

fishing, and romantic scenery. Polperro was long the home 
of a Cornish naturalist, Mr. Couch, well known for his work 
on " British Fishes," and who was the first to discover the re- 
mains of fossil fish at Stilly Cove, on the east side of Polperro 
harbour, where he pointed them out in situ to Mr. Peach. 
At Polperro, whither I was accompanied by Sir W. Guise, we 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Loughrin, formerly of the Coast 
Guard Service, and a good naturalist, who has accompanied 
Dr. Carpenter and Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys on more than one of 
their deep-sea dredging explorations. Mr. Loughriu has a good 
collection of local fish, and Crustacea, well arranged in a little 
museum, and he is acquainted with the botany of the district. 
Polperro Ichthyolites are found under the Signal station, and 
in other spots east and west of the village ; but Mr. Loughrin 
was good enough to conduct us to a locality some distance 
from Polperro, where he showed us the fish bed in sity. 
The rocks dip at a high angle, and are covered by the sea 
at high tides. This fish bed appears to be underlaid by a 
series of red and yellowish slaty rocks, which it is not im- 
possible may prove to be the eroded edges of the Foreland 
beds of North Devon, which underlie the .Lynton slates 
that contain remains of Scaphaspis and Pteraspis. As 
far as I could read the geology, the Lantirit and Polperro 
rocks lie at the base of the exposed Cornish Devonian strata, 
and both these basement Devonian and the Lower Silurian 
(Caradoc) rocks of Gorran Haven, Caerhayes, and Gerrans Bay 
have, I expect, been faulted and upheaved since the intrusion 
of the Dartmoor and Cornish granites, which has so generally 
affected the rocks of Cornwall, and which is now ascertained 
to have been post-Carboniferous. In the Museum of the Eoyal 
Geological Society of Cornwall, at Penzance, are some specimens 
of the remains of Pteraspis or Scaphaspis, and some fragments 
of icthyodorulites, presented by Mr. Peach and Mr. Couch, 
also some Caradoc fossils (not Upper Llandovery as generally 
supposed) from Gorrans Haven ; but a few geologists under 
the guidance of Mr. Loughrin at Polperro, would soon obtain, 
far finer specimens than any now in the Museum, and would do 



CHAP. Yin.] FISH BEDS OF COENWALL. 285 

good service, it might be, in finding other fossils typical of the 
Lowest Devonian rocks.* 

To the best of my judgment the Red rocks on the north of 
St. Veep, which overlie the fish-bearing slates, are unconform- 
able to them. These reddish rocks may be the equivalents of 
those Trentishoe and Hangman strata of North Devon which 
lie below the Combe Martin limestones. Working northward 
from the Looe coast to St. German's and Saltash, there come on 
a series of fossiliferous slates with interbedded volcanic ashes 
and intruded masses of volcanic rock, as may be seen close to 
the station at St. German's. These, I imagine, again overlie 
the red slates and grits which succeed to the north of St. Veep 
and Looe (Hangman beds ?) and which pass upwards into 
limestones (Combe Martin beds ?). Again, if I read the pro- 
blem aright, the Pteraspis beds of Looe underlie the Red rocks 
of Talland and Lansalloe, which again pass under and underlie 
the St. German's slates and limestones. 

MIDDLE DEVONIAN ROCKS OF SOUTH DEVON. 

Whatever may be the relation of the Lower Devonians of 
South Devon to the Lower Devonians of North Devon, there 
can be no doubt concerning the position of the great group of 
the Plymouth aud Torbay limestone, as may be seen by consult- 
ing Mr. Etheridge's list of the numbers of marine animals 
whose fossil remains are found both in the North and South 
Devon limestones, notwithstanding the great excess of workable 
limestone in the southern area. 

In 1868 I took up my quarters at Exeter for some weeks to 
pursue the study of the South Devon rocks, coming to them 
fresh from the examination of the North Devon series. I can- 
not pass on without acknowledging the information I received 
from Mr. Yicary of Exeter, and Mr. Pengelly of Torquay. The 
museum of the former gentleman in Colyton Crescent is a fine 
collection of Devonian fossils, and admission to it is a great 

I wish here to record the courtesy I received, when visiting Penzance, 
from the Hon. Secretary and Hon. Curator of the Museum E. Batten, Esq., 
and Miss Carne. 



286 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

boon to the passing amateur, who cannot expect to collect suffi- 
cient typical fossils to enable him to judge of the synchronism 
of rocks so difficult as are those of North and South Devon. 

Chudleigh lies in an interesting district, and the walk is very 
beautiful over the Haldon Hills, with their green sand capping 
and chalk debris of flints and quartzites. The Chudleigh 
rock of Middle Devonian limestone rises on the flanks of 
Ugbrook amidst glens, and wild wood, and streams, the 
combined effect of which is unusually picturesque. North 
of Ugbrook is a long faulted mass of limestone containing 
Devonian fossils, and in the park, which is bounded by the 
limestone of Chudleigh, Carboniferous sandstones are quarried, 
while at "Weddon Barton the Devonian limestone is overlaid by 
Carboniferous slates with the typical Posidonomyce. We also 
learn, on the authority of Mr. Godwin Austen, that on sinking 
a well on the line of the Chud brook, horizontal carbonaceous 
slates and sandstones were found to be resting on faulted and 
highly inclined Devonian slates. From what we see in this 
district and about Kingsteignton near Newton Bushel, where 
there are igneous rocks associated with and altering the Middle 
Devonians, it appears that the Chudleigh limestones were 
upheaved before the Carboniferous rocks were deposited. The 
geologist should go from Chudleigh to Bovey Tracey, and 
westward, to see the way in which the Carboniferous rocks 
are broken through by spurs of Dartmoor granite. Volcanic 
rocks abound in this district, and traverse alike Devonian and 
Culm measures, as for instance at Botter Rock. 

Bovey Tracey is near Chudleigh, and lies at the Berth-eastern 
extremity of Dartmoor, and although its celebrated Lignite 
does not come within a treatise on Devonian rocks and strata, it 
has too important a geological history to be passed by without 
allusion. The Bovey Heathfield, as the valley is called, is 
about six miles long, and its greatest breadth is four miles from 
Chudleigh Bridge to Blackpool. Situated in the midst of a 
rugged country, with hills of granite, trap and Devonian lime- 
stone rising on every sf de, it looks exactly what it is, viz. a 
silted-up lake. Excavations in the deposits of this old lake 



CHAP, viii.] BOVEY TEACEY. 287 

basin have shown that they consist of strata of gravel and 
coarse drift unconfonnably resting upon stratified layers of 
silt, lignite, or fossil wood, clay and sand, and we are indebted 
to the researches of Mr. Pengelly, and M. Oswald Heer, for 
information as to the age and character of these strata.* 
Close to the village is a Pottery in which the upper clay, which 
consists principally of decomposed granite, is used while the 
baking of the pottery is carried on by means of the Bovey 
coal or Lignite. 

I visited Bovey Tracey twice in 18G8, and with the assistance 
of Mr. Phillips, then manager of the potteries, thoroughly 
examined the long underground lignite galleries, and saw the 
" seed bed " and portions of trees in situ. 

The sections, with the aid of Mr. Pengelly's descriptions, 
may be briefly given as below. 

( Peat. 

1. Pengelly's "Head "(or glacial White Clay. -Arctic plants, 

clay and gravel). Sandy Clay, &c. 

\ Sub-angular stones. 
Besting on 



Old Lacustrine. 



2. Bovey Lignite. 



Clay, black with vegetable re- 
mains. 

Lignite. Miocene plants. 

Sand. 

Clay. 

Lignite, and so on to the depth of 
66 feet. 



First as regards the lower or Lignite formation. It has the 
appearance of a collection of driftwood in a peaty formation, 
and looks as if it were of comparatively modern date, for 
Coniferous trees are sometimes found in it nearly entire, and 
there are cones, seeds, ferns, and sections of trees showing the 
rings of annual growth. Altogether more than 40 species of 
plants have been determined from these lignite beds, but the 
extraordinary part of the history is that they belong to that 
vastly remote period of the Planet's history, viz., the Miocene, 

* See " The Lignite Formation of Bovey Tracey," Pengelly and Heer, Phil. 
Trans., Part 2, 1862. 



238 RECORDS OP THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vnr. 

or Middle Tertiary epoch ; and a conception of the changes 
that have occurred not only in Devonshire, but throughout all 
Northern Europe since those times, may be gathered from a 
brief resume" of the evidence afforded by the fossil vegetation 
of that Miocene Period. We all know what Greenland is now ! 
The geologist is aware that in Miocene times there were wide 
spreading lands, islands, and low lying continents covered 
with a luxuriant vegetation of forest trees, flowering shrubs 
and plants, where now Arctic America, Greenland, and Spitz- 
bergen lie covered with nearly eternal snow. These Miocene 
fossil plants and trees are of the utmost importance, as they 
convey to us intelligence respecting' the climate of different 
latitudes, during times and periods long passed away, -when 
the temperature of the northern hemisphere was very different 
from what it is now. Nor is it only of climate that they 
afford us valuable information; the fossil Miocene flora, and 
the contemporaneous fauna, present us with valuable evidence 
respecting the ancestry of our living animals and plants, which 
since that epoch have been distributed over the face of the 
earth. Without having seen the animal relics found in 
lacustrine strata of these Middle Tertiary periods and pre- 
served in the collections at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, 
and other foreign museums, no one can have the slightest idea 
of the great number of quadrupeds allied to, but all differing 
from, the carnivores, herbivores, ruminants, and marsupials of 
existing times. 

But the Fossil flora, of which in Switzerland alone 800 
species of flower-bearing plants have been determined, tells us 
more than do the animals, of the climatal adaptations of the 
northern hemisphere in those days. These fossil plants are 
met with in Devonshire, the Isle of Wight and Hampshire, in 
Scotland, Ireland, Switzerland, Germany, Iceland, Greenland, 
and Spitzbergen where they form beds of lignite or brown coal. 
The total number of plants registered from all these localities is 
upwards of 3000, and out of these 330 species were ever- 
greens. One great peculiarity which strikes the botanist is 
that this Miocene flora, which in those times was European, is 



QAP. viii.] .," DEVONIAN EOCKS. 289 

now more or less distributed over the whole globe. In the 
lignites of this age deposited at Bovey Tracey are numerous 
remains of Wellingtonias (Sequoias) which now are limited 
to California ; fig trees, vines, laurels, dryandras, and custard 
apples, many of which indicate a much warmer climate than 
that which at present exists in Devonshire. On the con- 
tinent are found numbers of magnolias, tulip trees, ever- 
green oaks, robinias, figs, cinnamons and camphor trees, the 
analogues of which grow some in America, some in Japan, 
and others in Africa and Australia. The Swiss lignites of 
this age have yielded over 1,300 species of fossil insects, 
many now peculiar to sub-tropical regions, some of the 
butterflies being Indian. The fossil Miocene flora of Iceland, 
and Greenland, have furnished between four and five hundred 
species of true flower-bearing plants ; and amongst them we 
find numerous forest trees, analogues of those that now live 
in our temperate climates. Among them are birch, willow, 
juniper, rose, oak, plane trees and walnuts. These plants 
evidently grew on or near the spot where they have been found, 
for in many instances the petals, stamens and even the pollen 
of the flowers have been preserved. It is interesting to know 
that four species of the Miocene plants of Greenland are found 
in our Devonshire lignites at Bovey Tracey ; they include the 
Sequoia Couttsiae, a noble fir closely allied to Wellingtonia, 
while the difference of latitude between Devonshire and 
Greenland in those times is also registered by the far more 
sub-tropical aspect of such plants as the prickly palm (Palma- 
cites Diemonorops) and tree ferns which flourished on the 
banks of the ancient Miocene Lake of Dartmoor, but did not 
grow so far north as the latitude of Iceland and Spitzbergen. 
Yet there is the fact that magnificent forests grew in high 
northern latitudes where, since the Glacial period came on, 
nothing can thrive save the Arctic willow and birch. 

When at Bovey Tracey we saw, at the residence of Mrs. 
Croker, a small collection of the plants of the Lignite, made by 
the late Dr. Croker. The Miocene plants disintegrate sadly on 
exposure to the air. Among them were the seeds of water- 

u 



290 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vin. 

lilies, evidence of the fresh water conditions of the old lake, 
the fronds of Pecopteris, a large tree fern, and sections of the 
tree stems of the great fir, Sequoia Couttsise, so called in honour 
of the lady who supplied the funds for Mr. Pengelly's explora- 
tions and publications, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. We saw 
also what particularly interested us, viz., an erratic pebble 
covered with a soft white clay, on which was an impression of 
a leaf; and on this clay, and willow leaf, hangs another history 
almost as strange as that the slopes of Dartmoor were once 
clothed with a luxuriant sub-tropical vegetation. I believe 
that the pebble, clay, and leaf impression, came from "the 
Head," which, with its gravels, flints and white clay, overlies 
unconformably the Bovey Tracey lignite and associated beds. 
Mr. Pengelly watched the digging of a section in " the 
Head," on the Heathfield, measured it oif, and observed its 
unconformability. He also found a considerable number of 
dicotyledonous leaves lying in the white clay nine feet below 
the surface of the heath, and below them some roots of trees. 
The plants from this white clay exhibited a totally different 
history to that of the subtropical vegetation of the underlying 
lignite. Mr. Pengelly obtained four species of plants from the 
" Head," three of willows, which now inhabit cold northern 
parts, and one species of birch, viz., the dwarf Arctic birch, 
Betula nana, which has no British habitat south of Scotland, 
and which we consider rather a prize when found among the 
deer forests of Sutherland or Ross. I particularly examined 
the position of the " Head " and its drifts and clays in several 
localities, and I believe that it is a glacial till, derived from 
the denudation of Dartmoor in glacial times, and which was 
washed into the Bovey Tracey hollow, above the lignite of the 
old silted up Miocene lake. It is certainly a strange fact that 
the leaves and roots of Arctic and sub-Arctic plants should lie 
in such close proximity to those of tree ferns, figs, vines, cin- 
namons, and custard apples, and it is not uninteresting to note 
that Mr. Divett's pottery should be fabricated of glacial clays, 
and baked with the brown coal that underlies it, and which is 
ormed out of the wreck of a rich Miocene vegetation. 



CHAP, vin.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 291 

Newton Bushell lies at the southern extremity of the old 
Miocene lake of Bovey Tracey, and the Devonian quarries of 
Bradley and the surrounding neighbourhood are well worth 
visiting. These Devonian limestones are underlaid and over- 
laid by slates and shillets, as at Combe Martin or Ilfracombe. 
We found, in situ, Favosites cervicornis, at Bradley, a coral 
common to both these North Devon localities, and from these 
quarries Mr. Vicary obtained many of his best specimens of 
trilobites, spirifers, orthoceratites, Murchisonias, and the beau- 
tiful corals with which his cabinets are enriched. On a hill 
above Newton, known as " The Decoy," there is an admirable 
section of chalk drifts with flints capping the hill and dipping 
at an angle of 20. There is also an interesting section 
east of the Devonian limestone of Ogwell, where a patch of 
undenuded Carbonaceous grits and slates occupies a hollow in 
the Devonian rocks. These Culm measures are unconformable 
to the underlying Devonians, and at their base is a conglome- 
rate made up of angular fragments of limestone. This singular 
little outlier was discovered by Mr. Godwin Austen. The 
Chudleigh, Newton Bushell, Ogwell, Plymouth, and Torquay 
limestones are, I believe, considered to constitute an upper 
range of limestones, corresponding to those of Combe Martin, 
while the limestones of Ashburton and St. Germans form 
a lower group equivalent to the lower limestones of North 
Devon near Ilfracombe. 

The celebrated watering place Torquay is too well known to 
need description. The rocks of the entire peninsula of Torquay 
are Devonian limestones, with interbedded slates and red 
grits, interstratified with volcanic greenstones and traversed 
by quartz veins. Austin's Cove, Babbicombe and "Watcombe, 
should be visited by the geologist ; Babbicombe affording a 
remarkable section, at Petit Tor, of arched slates and lime- 
stones. About three quarters of a mile from Torquay, to the 
right of the Babbicombe road, is the celebrated Kent's Cavern, 
where bone implements, flint implements, and flint flakes, with 
other human relics, have been found in considerable abundance, 
associated with the remains of the extinct mammalia, including 

v 2 



292 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. VIIT. 

the Cave Lion, Cave Bear, Hyrena, Machairodus, Mammoth, 
Rhinoceros, Megaceros, Norway Hare, Lemming, and two kinds 
of Deer. The discovery of these remains was commenced as 
early as the year 1825 by Dr. McEnery, who rendered Kent's 
Cavern famous through his researches. In 1840, Mr. Godwin 
Austen, who, as an amateur, has done such excellent work for the 
geology of Devonshire, read a paper descriptive of the cavern, 
and declaring his belief in the contemporaneity of man with 
the extinct Mammalia. Since that time the discoveries made 
by the Committee appointed by the British Association, with 
Mr. Pengelly and Mr. Vivian as the superintendents of the ex- 
cavations, are too well known to require comment here. 

The raised beaches near Torquay are entitled to attention. 
They have been observed at several places along the coast ; but 
the one at Hope's Nose is the most remarkable. The waters of 
Tor Bay roll over the site of a submerged forest which extends 
seaward for a considerable distance. The remains of the 
Mammoth, with those of the Bos longifrons, have been found 
between Torquay and Torbay in forest peats. It is very 
doubtful, however, whether the Mammoth remains are not 
derived from some more ancient deposits. There is no good 
evidence that this animal lived up to the period of the sub- 
merged forests. I have before observed that these submerged 
forests occur in many places along the coasts of Wales and 
Devonshire. They were observed long ago ; that of St. Bride's 
Bay, near St. David's, was noticed by Giraldus Cambrensis 
700 years ago ; that of Mount's Bay in Cornwall, is recorded 
by Leland more than 300 years since ; and that of Whitesand 
Bay, near the Land's End, is mentioned in 1758 by Dr. Borlase, 
the great Cornish antiquary, whose private notes I have seen, 
and who states that trees and large horns of deer were excavated 
at Sennen Cove from a peaty deposit now covered by the sands. 

There is an upthrow, already alluded. to, of Lower Devonian 
rocks extending from Upton near Brixham, to Livermead and 
Meadfoot ; in these Torquay beds Whitesand Bay* fossils have 
been found, and among them Pleurodictyum problematicum 



CIIAP. vin.] DEVONIAN HOCKS. 293 

and Bellerophon bisulcatus. The Middle Devonians, however, 
appear east of Brixham. When quarrying for limestone in 1868 
at Brixham, not far from the railway station, the workmen laid 
open a fissure from which more than 500 jaws of hyaenas were 
extracted. "We saw some teeth and bones still fixed in the 
breccia on the side of the fissure. One perfect canine of a 
hyaena adhered to the cliff, and my friend Mr. Lyell picked up a 
perfect pre-molar as it was lying in the debris below. We felt 
inclined to fill our pockets with the bones and relics of the 
extinct mammalia, but the owner of the quarry had particularly 
requested that no one would touch these fossil treasures. 
This bone fissure was nearly opposite the celebrated Brixham 
cavern which lies across the Brixham harbour, and which 
tells the history of the antiquity of cave men and cave 
animals even more distinctly than does Kent's Cavern. 
Crossing to the other side of Brixham, and taking a look at 
the stone where William of Orange landed, we see Wind- 
mill Hill rising to a height of 180 feet above tide water. 
Windmill Hill Cavern is situated on the western side of the 
hill. It is about 80 feet above the bottom of the existing 
valleys and 100 feet above the tide-way, and it has four external 
entrances, three on the western, and one on the northern slope 
of the hill. The bottom of the valley consists of blue clay, 
which is full of stumps of trees and vegetable remains, and is 
a portion of the submerged forest which underlies the Bay of 
Torbay, and contains remains of red deer, horse, and wild boar. 
It was not until I had examined the physical hi&tory of the 
Brixham cavern under the guidance of Mr. Pen, r elly that 1 
realised the great physical and geological changes which that 
portion of England has undergone since the cave men and cave 
animals left the relics of their existence in the caverns of Wind- 
mill Hill. The cave deposits contained many flint implements 
worked by man, associated with numerous bones of the extinct 
mammalia. It is evident that in this cavern, unlike many of 
the hysena dens, the bones were deposited by running water, as 
every bone lay with its longest axis to the place of deposit, and 
with the bones and flint tools were many well rounded frag- 



294 RECORDS OF THE HOCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

ments of quartz, trap rocks, and brown hematite of iron, none 
of which could have come from Windmill Hill, which consists 
entirely of Devonian limestone ; neither could they have been 
derived from any of the limestone valleys by which the cavern 
is now bounded. 

Indeed it is quite evident that since the remains of men 
and cave animals were carried into the cavern by such a 
stream as flows at the bottom of the present valley, a series of 
changes in the district must have happened as follows : 

1st. The valley was eroded to a depth of at least 100 feet since the deposition 
of the cave relics. 

2nd. After its excavation was completed, it was partially refilled by a deposi- 
tion of blue clay. 

3rd. On this clay grew the trees of the submerged forest period, and the 
forest animals lived. 

4th. Since the forest period, the entire country was lowered to the extent of 
at least 40 feet. 

The geologist should examine the rocks along the coast 
between Windmill Hill and Berry Head, where fissures in the 
Devonian limestone may be seen at low water, as well as along 
the cliff's, filled with infiltrations of New Red Sandstone which 
once overlaid the whole of this district, and which has been 
denuded over the principal part of the Brixham area. Near 
Crocker's Cove these infiltrations may be observed with cross 
fissures of carbonate of lime. Outliers and small patches of the 
New Eed Sandstone lie here and there, un conformably, on the 
Devonian limestones ; and large boulders may be seen along the 
cliffs, lying on the planed off and eroded surface of the limestones. 

Berry Head is a fine escarpment of limestone, and near the 
ruined camp on the summit was a fissure containing remains 
of hyaena and bones of other extinct mammalia. I have 
already alluded to the walk from hence to Mudstone Bay to 
see the faulted Lower Devonians rising through the Torbay 
limestones of Berry Head on the east and Sharkham Point 
on the west, and the walk to Dartmouth should be taken if 
only to see the relics of the New Red Sandstone formation 
resting above the Devonian slates and limestones of the cliffs. 
From Dartmouth, it would be well to visit the metamorphic 



CHAP. Yin.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 295 

rocks of the Salcombe district. They consist of mica slate, 
quartz rock, and chlorite schists which, on the coast, form a 
grand series of cliffs. The slates of Slapton sands, between 
Dartmouth and Start Point, are Middle Devonian and of a 
green colour, like those of Aveton Giffard, and to the north of 
Kingsbridge ; I am not aware that they have yielded any fossils. 
Near Huckham, Laurentian looking rocks set in, and from 
them to Start Point, chlorite rocks dip inland and north- 
ward, as indeed do the Slapton argillaceous slates. It is 
my impression that the Start and Bolt Head strata are 
Laurentian or Cambrian rock masses which have been 
upheaved from below through the Lower Devonian rocks, and 
which have served as a counteracting force to the earth 
movements that upheaved the granite of Dartmoor. At Holt's 
Cove are Cambrian looking slates with veins of quartz. Kings- 
bridge would be a good starting point when proceeding to visit 
Bolt Head. This cliff rises 430 feet from its base and consists 
of mica slate very like the Holyhead rocks of North Wales. 
These rocks are unconformable to the Middle Devonian strata 
which come on near Marlborough Church, and by Bolt Tail. 
I believe that they run east and west in a hidden anticlinal 
under the sea, and are the cause of the inward dips of the coast 
strata from their seaward axis. In going from Bolt Head to 
Bolt Tail, over Bolbury Down, the geologist must beware of 
some treacherous gullies and chasms which have been caused 
by a landslip seaward. They are absolutely dangerous and 
require caution. The landslip of Bolbury Down is a singular 
scene ; indeed the coast is most interesting notwithstanding 
that the rocks are unfossiliferous. 

PLYMOUTH LIMESTONE. 

In the south of England, Plymouth and its neighbourhood 
stands unrivalled for the numerous and instructive objects it 
offers alike to the geologist and the antiquarian. There is 
nothing in all England equal in scenery of its kind to 
Plymouth Hoe, the Sound and its ships, and the view from 
the Park at Mount Edgecombe. 



296 EECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAT. vm. 

The Plymouth limestone commences at the west, at Impa- 
combe, south of Devonport, and it is overlaid by the red grits 
and slates of Mount Edgecombe Park. Slaty rocks resembling 
those of Ilfracombe, and like them imbedded with volcanic 
ashes, appear from below the Plymouth limestone on the 
North. It appears that a long synclinal trough extends from 
Tor Bay on the east to Plymouth Sound on the west. The 
beds contained in this trough are believed to represent the 
upper and lower Ilfracombe slates of North Devon. Sections 
of the slaty beds on the Torbay side occur at Totness and 
Harburton where they may be compared with the faulted 
Lower Devonians of Cornworthy, and near Plymouth the 
upper slates may be seen south of Plymstock ; and in the 
railway sections west of Plymouth the lower slates underlie the 
Plymouth limestone. The argillaceous slates which overlie 
the Mount Edgecembe limestone, correspond to those of Jenny 
Cliff Bay, where they may be seen on the coast, while at 
Cawsand Bay there is an intrusive Trap rock at the Barracks. 
This trap is a reddish fel stone and it sends veins into the 
Devonian rocks which are continued to Penlee Point and 
Eame Head. The Preston quarries lie a little east of Plymouth, 
and are fine excavations in the limestones. They may be easily 
reached by the little steamers which continually run up and 
down the Catwater from the Barbican. The Preston quarries 
supplied all the limestone employed in building the break- 
water of the Sound, and the extent of ground over which the 
limestone has been quarried must be seen to be understood. 
During the excavations for these works numbers of bones, 
teeth, and jaws of the extinct Mammalia, among them those of 
hyasna, mammoth, rhinoceros, Irish elk and deer were 
discovered by the workmen. I saw a collection of these 
remains in the possession of Mr. Hodge of Preston. The most 
remarkable specimen in his collection was a well preserved tusk 
of hippopotamus which he obtained from a cave which was 
discovered in quarrying limestone below Plymouth Hoe, on 
the other side of the water. According to Mr. Hodge's 
account, the remains of many of the extinct Mammalia in this 



CHAP, vni.] DEVONIAN EOCKS. 297 

district were washed into fissures, while others falling in were 
cemented to the sides by carbonate of lime, the cracks after- 
wards becoming filled with loam and angular fragments, thus 
forming a breccia. There was no cave or hyaena's den exposed 
in the Preston quarries. Following the Catwater up to Laira 
Bridge a junction of the limestone and the lower slates may 
be seen well displayed. South-east of Oreston are the lime- 
stones of Plymstock and the volcanic rocks and limestones of 
Yealmpton, all of which should be examined. Above the river 
Yealm, at Yealm Bridge, is a cavern which from all I could 
learn was sealed with a mass of old river drifts, and must have 
been a hyena's den like that on the "Wye near Ross. In it 
were discovered numerous bones of hyaenas with their coprolitic 
matter ; mammoth teeth and bones ; with teeth and bones of 
rhinoceri, horse, and bos. The walk back may be taken by the 
leaning spire of Ermington Church * (said to have been struck 
aside by lightning), over some lower Devonian strata which 
are brought up between Yealmpton and Burratton, and which 
re a prolongation westward of the Mudstone Bay and Corn- 
worthy slaty rocks. The volcanic rocks here exposed may be 
the igneous representatives of the forces which upheaved these 
Lower Devonians. 

SOUTH CORNWALL. 

I found it impossible to ascertain the relative position of the 
Devonian rocks in the extreme south of Cornwall. At Michael's 
Mount we find slate and granite, and " elvans " with greenstone 
resting on the slate. At Penzance are slates traversed by 
greenstone, and felstones which occur again at Newlyn, but 
what those slates are it is difficult to determine. The 
Geological Surveyors have marked them Devonian on their 
maps. I examined the coasts between Mount's Bay and the 
Lizard, and between St. Ives Bay and St. Agnes Head, but 
did not succeed in finding the vestige of a fossil in the slate 
rocks along either shore. There are numerous interbedded 
traps, or elvans, everywhere associated with the slates, and the 

* The railway at Ivy Bridge may be reached in three miles from Ermington. 



298 RECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vin. 

north const between Godevrey Lighthouse and Samphire Island, 
which is nearly opposite Tehidy, presents a good example of 
the weathering of cliffs by the action of the sea. Opposite 
Samphire Island are the remains of an old camp, which I 
visited with Mr. William Borlase of Castle Horneck, and 
we agreed that it must have been half destroyed by the falling 
of the cliff since man established his defences on the brows 
of the precipice. Now, scarcely half of the outer portion 
is left, the waves having undermined and brought down the 
seaward side. Northward of St. Agnes Head, at "Watergate 
Bay, Middle Devonian fossils are found in abundance, and at 
Perminzen Bay, Dinas Cove and Pengueen in the Padstow 
district they occur in great numbers. Among them are 
Stringocephalus, Pentamerus brevirostris, Atrypa desquamata, 
and Spirifer hysterica, a North Devon form, found at the 
Valley of Rocks near Lynton. 

Mr. Pengelly has discovered plates of Pteraspis (or Scaph- 
aspis) at Bedruthen Steps, and this combined with the 
Lynton spirifer looks as if the Lower Devonians were brought 
up at Padstow. I am not acquainted with the Tintagel 
district, but am informed by Sir William Guise, and Dr. Holl, 
that the Middle Devonian slates are there much traversed by 
volcanic rocks, and they contain numerous fossils, especially in 
the neighbourhood of Trevenna, Spirifer disjuncta being the 
most characteristic species. 

The Upper Devonians of Braunton and Baggy Point in 
North Devon, do not appear to be represented anywhere in 
South Devon and Cornwall, for neither the Pickwell recks nor 
the highest Devonians of Braunton occur on the south of the 
Culm measures, which in the south are unconformable to the 
Devonians proper. 

Everywhere in the south we see evidence of the great 
volcanic action and pouring forth of igneous matter during the 
deposition of the Devonian rocks, which were upheaved and 
distorted to a certain extent before the Carbonaceous series 
were deposited, although the earthquake movements of Dart- 
moor and Camelford were continued in Post-Carboniferous 



CHAP, viii.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 293 

times. Dr. Holl, who has given much attention to the subject, 
believes that in the south the Culm measures have been laid 
down on the denuded surface of the older rocks. The fossili- 
ferous rocks of South Petherwin were generally held to be 
Upper Devonian and are placed by Mr. Salter on the horizon 
of the red slates of Morte Bay, but Dr. Holl gives reason for 
believing them to be Middle Devonians. 

GRANITES OF DARTMOOR, BROWN WILLY, AND CORNWALL. 

The Dartmoor Granite has been described by Sir H. de 
la Beche, Sir R. Murchison, Prof. Sedgwick, Mr. Godwin 
Austen and others. There are several localities in which its 
relation to the Culm measures and Devonian rocks may bo 
studied. 

Near Bovey Tracey, as already mentioned, and between that 
place and Skerrington the Dartmoor granite throws off the 
Culm measures to the S.E. Indeed the geologist who will 
stay a day or two at the pretty village of Moreton Hampstead,* 
and will examine the ground between that place and Dunsford, 
will see for himself the impossibility of doubting the igneous 
character of certain masses of granite, whereas, in other locali- 
ties, the granite appears to have become consolidated before its 
upheaval through the stratified rocks. On the south side 
of Dartmoor the granite may be seen throwing off the De- 
vonian rocks near Ivybridge, and any one staying at 
Plymouth and taking the route to Tavistock may see 
numerous sections showing the stratified rocks dipping away 
from the granite. Around Tavistock also are some important 
igneous rocks. 

The Brown Willy granite throws off the rocks southwards, 
and they dip towards Liskeard, and on the north it has carried 
up the strata northwards of Kingston Down. In short the 
beds dip away all round it. 

The Penzance and Land's End granites throw off the beds 

* A railway runs to Moreton Hampstead 'from Newton Bushell through 
Bovey Tracey. 



SOO EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vin. 

that flank their edges wherever they are exposed, and in some 
instances penetrate the slates with veins. This is the case W. 
of Mousehole and E. of Gurnard's Head on the N. coast of the 
Land's End peninsula. Nevertheless the masses of intru- 
sive trap in this country are very puzzling, and it is often 
impossible to unravel the jumble of slate and granite, 
elvan and greenstone that everywhere occur. On several 
occasions when exploring the granite districts of Penzance I 
was accompanied by Mr. William Borlase. He was good 
enough to show me many of the most celebrated antiquities 
of the country and the rude stone monuments of a pre-historio 
race. 

On the banks of the rocky Tavy, and on the west flank of 
Dartmoor, are the ruins of the Saxon abbey of St. Eumon 
founded by Ordgar, Ealdorrnan of Devon. He was the father 
of Elfrida Queen of King Edgar, and it was to his castle 
that Edgar sent his favourite courtier Athelwold, to see the 
beautiful Devonian lady who ended by murdering first 
her own husband Athelwold, and then King Edgar's eldest 
son. The " Bedford " at Tavistock stands on a part of the 
site of this Saxon abbey, they say on the site of the Chapter 
House. 

Brent Tor is a volcanic rock rising to the height of more 
than 1100 feet, and is within a pleasant walk of Tavistock. It 
was supposed by Sir H. de la Beche to have been a centre of 
volcanic action, and there is little doubt that this was the case. 
The rocks forming the Tor are composed of volcanic cinders 
and ashes, their vesicles being filled with carbonate of lime 
and cemented into a conglomerate. The term Brent is as old 
as the time of Ordgar and Elfrida, and is derived from the 
Saxon " brennan," to burn, not in allusion to its volcanic ashes, 
but originating in the beacon fires which no doubt often blazed 
upon its summit. The little church on the top of the hill 
stands on lava, and the vesicular structure of the rocks looks 
as if the igneous masses were sub-aerial, and had not been 
accumulated under water. These volcanic rocks and those of 
Milton Abbot are generally understood to be of Carboniferous 



CHAP, vni.] DEVONIAN ROCKS. 301 

age and to have been contemporary with the volcanic ash beds, 
grits, and chert which characterise the Culm or Carbonaceous 
system of Devonshire. It is probable too that we behold here 
the heralds of those volcanic and earthquake movements which 
in post-Carboniferous times brought up the Dartmoor granite 
and with it the overlying Devonian rocks and Culm measures, 
throwing off these beds in some localities into nearly vertical 
positions. 

ORGANIC REMAINS. 

The organic remains of the Devonian rocks, or of the 
Marine Devonians, are now ascertained to comprise Fish which 
are common to the Old lied Sandstone and which are of that 
peculiar palasontological type found in the Upper Silurians, 
the Passage Beds, and the Lower Old Red. Among the typical 
shells of the Lower Devonians are Orthis arcuata and Chonetes 
Hardrensis with Alveolites suborbicularis, a coral common in 
the Lower Devonians of the Rhine. These Lower Devonians 
of England are believed by Mr. Etheridge to be the equivalents 
of the Spirifer sandstone of Coblentz. 

The Middle Devonians of England are full of Corals, with 
many shells and trilobites. The fish remains are scanty, 
and undeterminable, although they occur in the Ilfracombe 
beds. Fifty-one species of corals are enumerated by Mr. 
Etheridge, none of which pass into the overlying Car- 
boniferous rocks. Favosites cervicornis is a typical Devon- 
shire coral. Stringocephalus, Megalodon, and Uncites are 
genera of shells peculiar to the Middle Devonians both in 
England and the Eifel Limestone of the continent. In 
the Eifel Limestone in Germany the Old Red fish Cocco- 
steus has been found associated with the Stringocephalus. 
Pteropods occur ; and Orthoceras and Cyrtoceras are Devonian 
forms of Cephalopoda. 

The Upper Devonians are rich in Mollusca, and more than 
150 species are enumerated by Mr. Etheridge, of which a fifth 
pass upwards into the Culm measures or Carboniferous deposits. 
Spirifer disjuncta, Lingula Molei, Curtonotus, Avicula Damno- 



802 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. vm. 

niensis, Cucullsea Hardingii, with the Trilobite Phacopslatifrons, 
may be said to be typical forms characterising the Upper 
Devonians. With these are Spirifer Verneuilii, Ehynchonella 
pleurodon and casts of plants such Knorria and Bornia. 
Clymenias also are found, and these Cephalopods are so abun- 
dant in Germany as to give to the Upper Devonian strata on 
the continent the name of Clymenian Schiefer. 



CHAPTER IX. 



LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS (MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE). 

Age of Carboniferous Deposits Mountain Limestone of North Wales Tregar- 
nedd Owen Tudor Puffin Island Historical Records of Great Ormes 
Head Geological Changes of the Rare Plants on Caves of Cefn Vale 
of Clwyd Eglwyseg Rocks Outliers Clee Hills Former Continuity of 
Mountain Limestone Pen-Cerrig Calch Castell Cerrig Cennen Cardiff 
Castle Llandaff Cathedral Ewenny Priory Section of Southerndown 
Cliff Peninsula of Gower Caves and their Remains Swansea Castle 
Tenby St. Govan's Head and Eligng Stacks Sea Birds of Caldy 
Island Bone Caves of Pembroke Castle Chepstow Sections near 
Valleys Excavation of Tintern Abbey Wye Ancient Course of Caves 
of the Doward Hills King Arthur's Cave -Evidences of the Antiquity of 
Man Organic Remains of the Carboniferous Limestone. 




THE ROCKS OK THE DOWABDS, ON THE WYE, 
In which are situated the Hyena's Den of Arthur's Cave. 



304 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. ix. 



Carboniferous (Moun- 
tain) Limestone. 



Limestone Shale. 



Corals. 



Bryozoa. 



ORGANIC REMAINS. 

Lithostrotion basaltiforme, 
Lonsdaleia floriformis, 
Amplexus, Cyathopbyl- 
lum, Clisiophyllum, Syrin- 
gopora, Michelinia. 



Fenestrella, 
Polypora. 



Hemitrypa, 



Crinoidea. Pentremites, Actinocrinus, 
Platycrinus. 

Mollusca. Brachiopoda. Productus 
giganteus, P. hemisphaeri- 
cus, P. semireticulatus, P. 
scabriculus, Spirifera stri- 
ata, S. rotundata, S. tri- 
gonalis, S. glabra, Tere- 
bratula hastata, Aviculo- 
pecten sublobatus, Pleuro- 
tomaria carinata, 

Cephalopoda. Orthoceras 
laterale, Goniatites cre- 
nistra. 

Crustacea. Griffithides longiceps, Phil- 
lipsia. 

Fish. Cladodus, Psammodus, Coch- 

liodus, Oracanthus, Cteno- 
canthus, Onchus, Mega- 
lichthys Hibberti. 



THE term Carboniferous is applied to those Palaeozoic strata 
which overlie the Old Red Sandstone, and which are the 
repository of the chief supplies of that all important mineral, 
Coal. 

Coal, nevertheless, is not confined to these Palasozoic strata, 
as the term Carboniferous somewhat implies. The coal-field of 
the State of Virginia, in the United States, is of the age of the 
Upper Trias, and according to Sir Charles Lyell, who visited 
the Blackheath mines in Chesterfield county, these Mesozoic 
coal seams rival or even surpass those of the Palaeozoic coal- 
fields. The coal strata of Brora, in Sutherlandshire, belong to 
the Oolitic period ; while coal of Tertiary age is worked in 



CHAI-. ix.] OLD RED PLANTS.. 305 

some localities in Germany and Switzerland. Neither can the 
plants which constitute the Palaeozoic coal be considered pri- 
meval, for, although few traces of land plants have been 
discovered in Great Britain and Europe, either in the Silurian 
or Old Eed strata, in America Dr. Dawson has determined 
nearly one hundred species of fossil plants from rocks of the 
Old Eed Sandstone epoch. Some of these belong to Coniferous 
trees, while some fragments of fossil wood exhibit the structure 
of Exogens. 

It is well to remember that in European areas the Silurian 
and Old Red fossils hitherto obtained are records only of the 
sea beds of those long epochs. We know nothing as yet of the 
plants and animals of their islands or continents, and the fact 
of the detection of a highly organised exogenous tree in strata, 
in America, intermediate between the Silurian and Carboni- 
ferous periods, is a warning against the supposition that all 
land vegetation antecedent to the Carboniferous epoch was 
necessarily low in organisation and structure. 

MOUNTAIN (CARBONIFEROUS) LIMESTONE. 

The Mountain limestone is beloved by the Geologist for its 
picturesque scenery, its caves with their stores of old bones, and 
the number and variety of its fossils ; by the Botanist for the 
rare and beautiful plants nourished in its fissures and on its 
slopes ; by the Archaeologist for its cromlechs, old camps and 
ancient dykes ; and by the Historian for its memories of many 
a hard battle, and many a struggle for independence fought out 
to the death among its ravines and dingles. 

The Mountain limestone of- North Wales is divided by local 
geologists into three groups or divisions. The lowest consists 
of a series of strata of pale coloured rocks, interbedded with 
layers of red clay, and marked by the occurrence of the Pro- 
ductus hemisphericus. P. cora and P. semireticulata are the 
characteristic Brachiopoda of the lower beds, and the smaller 
corals, as Syringopora, Favosites, and Chsetetes, are the pre- 
vailing forms of Zoophytes. The Producti are a family of well 



306 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

defined Brachiopoda, which are not found in the Silurian rocks. 
These lower limestone beds are used for fluxing. The upper 
and middle beds show a difference both in the mineralogical 
character of the rocks and in the fossils which they contain. 
Large corals are abundant, and the large Productus, P. gi- 
ganteus, associated with P. quicuncialis, P. longispinus, and 
other smaller Producti, takes the place of P. hemisphericus 
and P. Martini. 

In North "Wales the Mountain limestone is well exposed in 
the Isle of Anglesea, between Eed Wharf Bay and Dulas Bay, 
and in passing from east to west the geologist may commence 
with a cliff section of Cambrian rocks to the east of Eed Wharf 
Bay, and examine Mountain Limestone and Old Red Sandstone 
flanked on the west, at Dulas, by Llandeilo beds traversed by 
volcanic rocks. Traeth Coch, or Eed Wharf Bay, is famous for 
its rare shells. The hill of " Bwrdd Arthur," or Arthur's Eound 
Table, which rises on the east, is a mass of Carboniferous rock. 
The view from its summit (on which are the remains of a large 
camp) is very fine, and is described by Mr. Pennant as " an 
intermixture of rock, sea, and alps, most savagely great." 
The Moelfre limestone stretches southward, by Llangefui to 
Maeldraeth Bay, where, though slightly developed, it is sur- 
rounded by the Millstone grit and Coal measures of Maeldraeth. 
The physical geologist will observe particularly the isolated 
masses of Carboniferous limestone as occurring in Anglesea, in 
the Moelfre and Llangefni district, on the south-east across 
the river Braint, where we may call it the limestone of 
Llanidan, at the Menai Bridge, and at Llanvihangel and 
Puffin Island. These are all fragments of strata, no doubfc 
once continuous with the limestone of the Ornies Head and 
the Carboniferous rocks of Denbighshire. 

Again the great downthrow on the north-west, between 
Berw-uchaf and the sea, causes the Permian and Coal Measure 
rocks to abut on Cambrian strata, and it is this great boundary 
downthrow which Prof. Ramsay believes has preserved the Coal 
measures of Maeldraeth from the effects of old denudation. 
It was against the Mountain limestone rock of Moelfre Bay, 



CHAP, ix.] ROWLANDS THE ANTIQUARY. 307 

westward of Eed Wharf Bay, that the " Eoyal Charter " 
struck in October 1859. Four hundred and sixty-five persons 
lost their lives through this fearful shipwreck. Upwards of 
two hundred corpses, which were recovered from the waves, 
rest in the little graveyards of Llanallgo and Penrhos Llugwy; 
others the sea never restored. 

Near the little town of Llangefni, in the pleasant vale of 
Cefni, is Tregarnedd, the once famous residence of a distin- 
guished Welsh chieftain, Ednyfed Vychan, who lived during 
the fourteenth century, and was the minister of Llewellyn the 
Great. Eowlands tells us that he took up arms against the 
English in 1322, and suffering a defeat by the English troops, 
he retreated to his house at Tregarnedd, which he had strongly 
fortified with a foss and ramparts. He was afterwards taken 
prisoner and executed at Rhyddlan Castle. From Ednyfed 
Vychan descended Owen Tudor, the husband of Catherine of 
France, widow of Henry V., the progenitor of a race of kings, 
and, according to Halle, a man " garniyed with many goodlye 
giftes both of nature and of grace," "brought furth and come 
of the noble lynage and ancient lyne of Cadwallader, the last 
kynge of the Britonnes." He was born at Penmynydd, near 
the Llanfair station. We know not if Queen Catherine was 
ever there, but she was buried at Westminster by the side of 
Henry Y. ; while Owen Tudor, who was beheaded at Hereford, 
after the battle of Mortimer's Cross, was there buried, according 
to Leland, in the church of the White Friars, long since a ruin. 
Tregarnedd is now only a farm house ; it owes its appellation 
to the Carnedd, or heap of boulders, which stands near, arranged 
in position by the " old people," a long time ago. 

Rowlands, the antiquary and author of the " Mona Antiqua 
Restorata," was vicar of Llanidan. He died in 1723 and was 
buried in the old church, famous for the miraculous stone of 
Giraldus Cambrensis called the " Maen Morddwydd" which 
was built into one of the walls. It resembled a human thigh, 
and whatever distance it was carried, returned of its own 
accord the following night. " Hugh, Earl of Chester, in the 
reign of King Henry I., having by force occupied this island 

x 2 



308 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

and the adjacent country, heard of the miraculous power of 
this stone, and for the purpose of trial ordered it to be fastened 
with strong iron chains to one of a larger size and to be thrown 
into the sea ; on the following morning, however, according 
to custom, it was found in its original position, on which 
account the Earl issued a public edict, that no one from 
that time should presume to move the stone from its place."* 
The old church has been demolished and a new one has been 
erected at Bryn Siencyn. The district between Llanidan and 
the river Braint is described by Rowlands in his "Mona 
Antiqua," as crowded with cromlechs and other antique re- 
mains, many of which, like the boulder stones of St. David's, 
have no doubt been broken up for roads and buildings. Several, 
however, still remain, as at Bodowyr and Perthi-Duon. 

The Carboniferous limestone extends along both shores of 
the Menai Straits. On the Caernarvonshire side these rocks 
are faulted against Cambrian strata, and at the base of the 
cliffs on both sides of the Menai Bridge, are beds of Old Red 
Marl with conglomerates which dip under the limestone of 
Plas Newydd. There are also red beds with conglomerates 
which overlie the Carboniferous limestone of the south of 
Anglesea opposite Caernarvon, and which I believe are rem- 
nants of the Permian series discovered in Denbighshire by 
Mr. Maw. A Trap dyke, 134 feet wide, and consisting of a 
compound of felspar and augite, was described by Prof. Henslow, 
near Plas Newydd in Anglesea. It indurates Carboniferous 
shales and converts them into a hard jasper. The shale con- 
tains fossil shells, such as Producti, which in contact with the 
trap are nearly obliterated. The limestone also is changed by 
the dyke and crystallised. 

The Outliers of Llanvihangel and Priestholm, or Puffin Island, 
on the north-east corner of Anglesea are remarkable both for 
their geology and their historic lore. The island appears to 
have been a place of retirement for religious recluses, and in 
the sixth century a saint of that period, Seiriol, established a 
cell there called Tnys Seiriol, while Giraldus tells us that it 

* Hoare's Giraldus, vol. ii., p. 103. 



CHAP, ix.] PRIEST'S ISLAND. 309 

was called Priest's Island, " because many bodies of saints are 
deposited there and no woman is suffered to enter it." Mr. 
Bloxam, the well-known authority on ecclesiastical architec- 
ture, told me lately that he has discovered at Priestholm. re- 
mains of Anglo-Saxon architecture. After this once revered 
spot was deserted by man it became the colony and building 
place of swarms of sea-birds, and Bingley describes the island 
as " literally covered with puffins " which were allowed to be 
eaten in Lent, instead of fish, and were sold at one shilling 
per dozen for pickling. On this north-eastern spur of Anglesea 
stands Penmon (Head of Mona). The Priory is said to have 
been founded by Maelgwyn Gwynedd, King of Wales, the 
head of the family of the Gwynnes, during the sixth century, 
and a school was established there by the saint Seiriol above 
alluded to. The ruins of the refectory are all that now remain 
of Penmon Priory. The fragment of denuded limestone of 
which Puffin Island is composed is of great interest to the 
geologist as, after studying this district, he cannot for one 
moment doubt that it was formerly a connecting link between 
the Great Ormes Head, eastward over the sea, and the Llan- 
vihangel mass close by. 

The Mountain limestone masses of the Great and Little 
Ormes Head are worthy of especial study. There can be little 
doubt that, until within a late geological period, the Great 
Orme was separated from the Little Orme by a narrow strait. 
There is a legend that the whole area of sand and sea from 
Llandudno to Puffin Island was dry land within the human 
epoch, and taking into consideration the evidences we possess 
of the extreme antiquity of the human race in Great Britain, 
it is very probable that such may have been the case. 
From a survey of the Great Orme with the eroded sea 
bottom on its summit, its raised sea cliffs and other pheno- 
mena, it is evident that the whole hill was submerged during 
that period when the boreal marine shells of Moel Trifaen 
and Aber were deposited together with glacial boulders on 
a sea bottom now elevated nearly 1500 feet above the sea. 
"With respect to the narrow strait which intervened between 



310 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

Diganwy and the Mountain limestone of the Great Orme I 
believe that firstly, after the upheaval of the Great Orme, 
and on the emergence of the land after the glacial submergence, 
it was filled with boulder clay, which very probably formed flat 
low lands during a long period ; secondly, that after the denu- 
dation of the boulder clay, the sea washed for a time through 
the Llandudno straits ; and thirdly that the sea has silted up 
these straits with the recent sands and drifts that overlie the 
boulder clay which is exposed near the baths at Llandudno 
and in which Mr. Darbyshire found glacial shells. 

The strata at the Ormes Head have been worked for copper 
for centuries past. The Ty Gwyn mine is become unproduc- 
tive owing to the sea water covering the works, after 93,000 L 
worth of ore had been obtained. In the course of their labours 
in this mine the workmen broke into an old work, where they 
found the tools of some ancient miners, stone hammers, and 
bone augers. The bone instruments were impregnated with 
copper. Mountain limestone fossils may be found on the top 
of the hill north-west of the copper mine. In the Museum of 
Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, there is a specimen from 
this locality of one of the last of the trilobites, Griffithides 
longiceps, and also the Productus longispinus.* Both these 
are Carboniferous limestone fossils. 

The platform of rock beyond the telegraph, and marked 
in the Guide Book as Hwylfargaino, is remarkable, as it is 
neither more nor less than an elevated sea bottom with pot 
holes, water worn ridges, and boulders'. When there with Sir 
C. Lyell, I obtained a pebble from a deep pot hole filled with 
clay. This pebble was of a hard trap rock, and I have 
little doubt that it was washed into the pot hole when the sum- 
mit of the Ormes Head lay beneath the waters of the glacial 
seas, and thus, like the glaciated slabs we find protected 
by a roche moutonnee, or a great mass of moraine matter, 
it tells no uncertain tale of a bygone history of the rocks of 
Llandudno. 

The Great Orme and its neighbouring hills of Mountain 

* Catalogue of Fossils by Huxley and Etheridge. 



CHAP, ix.] COTONEASTEll VULGAEIS. 311 

limestone are favourite localities for the botanist, and the fact 
that limestone rocks and a calcareous soil especially promote 
the vegetation of certain plants, while trap rocks are favour- 
able to the growth of other kinds, is well exemplified around 
Conway and Llandudno, as in a walk of only five or six 
miles the botanist passes from a comparative desert as regards 
beautiful wild flowers, to a garden of Nature's own growing. 
The Silurian rocks between Conway and the Ormes Head 
are barren of wild plants of any interest, and the outlier of 
Millstone grit which overlies the limestone S.E. of the Little 
Orme is still more destitute of botanical treasures, but when 
in the summer months we pass from these strata on to the 
Mountain limestone itself the beautiful blossoms of the 
Geranium sanguineum, and Helianthemum, tell us almost as 
surely as would the occurrence of a Productus, or a Grifnthides, 
what are the strata we are treading under foot. If by chance 
a stray specimen is met with out of bounds (which happens 
but rarely) it looks stunted and unhealthy. The Great Orme 
is celebrated as being the only locality in Britain where the 
Cotoneaster vulgaris, a Pyrenean plant, is known. It has now 
become so rare, through the rapacity of collectors, that the few 
struggling plants that are left are confined to one limestone 
ledge. When searching for the Cotoneaster, some years ago, 
we failed to find it, notwithstanding the assistance of kind and 
active friends, until by good fortune we happened to meet with 
Mr. Inchbald, the author of the Botany of Llandudno,* who 
generously supplied us with a specimen, and on a rocky ledge 
covered with hazel, spindle tree, holly and privet, pointed out 
the Cotoneaster with an earnest supplication that we would 
not eradicate and utterly exterminate it. Other plants which 
nourish on the limestone of the Ormes Head are the Wild 
Madder (Rubia), Silene nutans, and Hippocrepis (Horseshoe 
Vetch) a common plant on chalky downs. On the trap rocks 
of Dyganwy grow the Maiden Pink (Dianthus deltoides) and 
Lathyrus sylvestris (Everlasting pea), Chenopodium (Good 
King Henry) and the Digitalis purpurea (Fox-glove), which 

* See Mr. Williains's Guide Book. 



312 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

particularly favours volcanic rocks. I gathered on the shore 
near the Little Orrne the beautiful Mertensia maritima (Sea 
Gromwell) a plant both rare and local. It belongs to the 
Boraginacea?, but it has fleshy glaucous leaves. 

From the Ormes Head the Mountain limestone of North 
Wales trends eastward towards Colwyn and Abergele, and by 
St. Asaph, Denbigh and Euthin. In the vale of Clwyd it 
flanks the Silurian hills, known as the Clwydian range, on 
both sides the vale. Northwards it is developed from Llanasa, 
by Holy well, and west of Mold to Llandegla, and ranges south 
by the fine escarpment known as the Eglwyseg Bocks, three 
miles east of Llangollen, then makes a detour three miles west 
of the town of Oswestry, and rises on its most southward 
prolongation into a bold headland north of the village of 
Llanymynech. Between this point, save the Clee Hills in 
Shropshire, the Mountain limestone is nowhere to be seen 
until we reach the little isolated outlier of Pen Cerrig Calch 
high up on the summit of the Black Mountains in Monmouth- 
shire. But these isolated outliers are just the points that 
teach volumes to the physical geologist with respect to the 
former continuity of strata, as I have endeavoured already to 
impress on my readers. 

The Mountain limestone is developed in the neighbour- 
hood of Abergele. "We have already alluded to this little 
town as being surrounded with many points of interest. 
Within reach is the wild tract of hills composed of the 
Denbighshire grits, scarped and rugged, and a country cut up 
into valleys, first by the action of the glacial sea and since by 
atmospheric denudation ; while the geologist should especially 
mark the way in which the streams, here and there, cut right 
through the escarpment of Mountain limestone that bounds 
the Wenlock shales and flow into the Clywd. Traces of a 
submerged forest have also been seen at low water on the 
shore at Abergele, furnishing proof that here, as at Borth, near 
Abersytwyth, Tenby, and many other places on the Welsh coast, 
low flat lands extended which are now covered by the sea. 
Mr. Pennant, who wrote a description of a tour in Wales in 



CHAP, ix.] BONE CAVES OF CEFN. 313 

1770, notices a traditionary account that the sea in old times 
had overwhelmed a large tract of inhabited country which had 
once stretched for two miles northward of Abergele, and he 
quotes a "Welsh epitaph to the effect that " In this churchyard 
lies a man who lived three miles to the north of it." This 
may be a tradition but there is no doubt of the fact of the 
existence of trunks of trees being imbedded in what is now 
the bottom of the sea. The wood is not fossilised but has 
been used as fuel after being well exposed and dried. "West of 
Abergele, at Lysfaen and Colwyn, the lower limestone beds 
put on a dolomitic structure. 

The Caves of Cefn, six miles from St. Asaph, are situated 
in an escarpment of Carboniferous limestone which ranges 
above a lovely ravine through which the river Elwy flows. 
The cave phenomena at Cefn are somewhat peculiar. First, 
with respect to the formation of the caves in the Mountain 
limestone. There is little doubt that they owe their origin 
to the action of water on old fissures and cracks which were 
originally formed by the dislocating movements to which the 
whole country has been subjected. Secondly, the Cefn caves 
appear to have once constituted part of an ancient coast line, 
for on their sides and roofs are wave marks, pot holes, and 
swallow holes, and out of one of the very highest pot holes I 
and Sir C. Lyell obtained a quantity of marl and detritus 
which, when forwarded to Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys for examination, 
proved to contain fragments* of marine shells and corallines. 
It appears also that considerable upheaval and dislocation of 
the Mountain limestone has .occurred since the deposition of 
the mud with marine remains in the pot hole, for the dip of 
the beds has been altered, and the old sea caves with their 
wave and water marks now dip into the hill and not, as for- 
merly, towards the valley. Thirdly, the cave earth, which once 
nearly filled the caves was so full of animal remains that it 
was carted away for manure, a few only of the relics of bears, 
hyaenas and hippopotami being preserved by Dr. Falconer, and 
Mrs. "Williams Wynn, the owner of the caves. Dr. Falconer 

* These fragments are now in the Worcester Museum. 



314 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

also found sea shells below the remains of the cave animals. 
Lastly, a long lapse of time has evidently passed away since 
the Marine period of the caves, for not only are they situated 
at a considerable height above the river, but at the base of 
the cliffs there is a striking example of an old river bed with 
unmistakable river shingle at a level above the highest floods 
of the existing river Elwy. From a cave in the Cefn district, 
my friend, Mr. McKenny Hughes, last year obtained the 
remains of The Glutton (Gulo Luscus), an animal now con- 
fined to Northern Europe. 

From St. Asaph there is an interesting excursion up the 
vale of Clwyd to Denbigh and Ruthin. The physical struc- 
ture of the vale is that of a great synclinal curve the eastern 
boundary of which is formed by the "Wenlock rocks of the Moel 
Fammau range, and the western by the hills which stretch 
from Conway, and run east of Llanrwst to Derwen. Thus the 
rocks which are newer than the Upper Silurians, including Old 
Red, Carboniferous, Permian and New Red strata, lie in a 
trough. The Upper Old Red may be seen between the "Wen- 
lock shale, which forms the base of the trough, and the 
Carboniferous limestone a little south of Denbigh ; and again 
west of Llanfwrog, near Ruthin, where also a patch of Caradoc 
slates with fossils, is faulted through the Wenlock shales. It 
appears that the Carboniferous limestone which now under- 
lies the vale of Clwyd was deposited in an ancient synclinal 
curve which was formed and denuded before the Carboni- 
ferous period, while it is certain that the Coal measures were 
eroded by still later denudations and before the deposition 
of those Permian rocks which occur on the eastern side of 
the vale of Clwyd, and which intervene between the Lower 
New Red Sandstone and the Mountain limestone. The 
section where these rocks are exhibited in situ, extends near 
Llanfair Chapel, on the road between Pentre Glyn and Caer 
Owen, to a point on the road to Llandegla where the Carboni- 
ferous limestone dips away from the Upper Silurian boun- 
dary * The New Red Sandstone occupies the bottom of the 

* See Geological Magazine, Aug. 1SC5. 



CHAI-. ix.J PILLAR OF ELISEG. 315 

vale of the Clwyd and it appears from the position of these 
rocks in certain localities, as between Denbigh and Llanrhaiadr, 
that hollows had been excavated in the Carboniferous lime- 
stone before the deposition of the New Red strata ; indeed, 
everywhere throughout this part of Wales we see proofs of the 
denudation which took place before the commencement of the 
Carboniferous limestone epoch and of the still greater denuda- 
tion which succeeded its deposition. 

The Mountain limestone is well developed at the Eglwyseg 
cliffs near Llangollen. Here we have in ascending order 
the lower light coloured beds, the characteristic fossils being 
the Productus hemisphericus, and typical coral the Syringo- 
pora ramulosa. The middle strata, which consist of dark grey 
rocks, furnish Spirifera and the bivalve Sanguinolites ; while 
in the uppermost beds are specimens, occasionally of large size, 
of Productus giganteus. We learn from Mr. D. C. Davies 
that these uppermost beds of grey fossiliferous limestone have 
in some localities " dirt beds a yard or more in thickness." 
The Eglwyseg rocks which constitute a fine escarpment, 
derive their name from the Pillar of Eliseg. It is believed 
that Eliseg lived at Dinas Bran about A.D. 600, and that the 
pillar was erected by his grandson Concenn. It was origin- 
ally twelve feet high and is inscribed all round with letters, 
and we are told that it was supposed to have been broken 
down in about the time of the civil wars and was re-erected by 
Mr. Lloyd of Trevor. When this took place Mr. Davies does 
not say ; but he records that the tumulus was opened before 
the restoration of the pillar, and " the remains of a full sized 
man were found reposing on a large slab, guarded with flat 
blue stones and covered with the same, the whole forming a 
stone box or coffin. The bones were entire and the skull and 
teeth, which were very white and perfect, were particularly 
sound. They were supposed to be the remains of Eliseg." 

The rambler on the banks of the Ceiriog should not fail to 
visit Chirk Castle, which stands on the site of the ancient 
fortress of Castell Crogen, near which the bloody battle was 
fought between Henry II. and the Welsh in 1165. Mr. 



316 EECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

Pennant says that the place is still called " Adwyr Beddan," 
or " the pass of the graves of the men who were slain there." 
Portions of the present building date from the time of 
Edward I. but a great deal of it was destroyed during the 
civil wars. Leland describes its appearance as follows : 
" There is on a smaul hille a mighty large and strong castel 
with divers towers, of late welle repayred by Sir William 
Standeley the yerle of Darby's brother." The rare Noli-me- 
tangere (yellow balsam) grows hard by, and near the junction 
of the Ceiriog and the Dee flourishes the noble Inula Helenium 
(Elecampane), a true British sunflower, which grows also on 
Mountain limestone in Gower. The Moonwort (Botrychiuin 
Lunaria) grows near Chirk Castle which is on the Coal 
measures ; and Lycopodium clavatum with L. Alpinum are 
found on Dinas Bran and the Eglwyseg rocks. 

The Mountain limestone and Lower Carboniferous rocks 
are more fully developed in North Wales, and the upper Coal 
bearing series of shales and sandstones are thicker towards the 
south as in the great basin of Caermarthen, Glamorgan, and 
Monmouth and still farther south in the county of Pembroke. 

In the Coalfields of Dudley and Wolverhampton, east of the 
Silurian region, the Mountain limestone and the limestone 
shale are wanting altogether. The coalfield of Wyre Forest is 
deposited on Old Red Sandstone, and we find the Carboniferous 
limestone setting in towards the north and south-west. 
Professor Jukes believes that " a narrow rocky island or chain 
of islands, stretched east and west across the centre of what is 
now England, during the early part of the Carboniferous 
period, so that while the Carboniferous limestone was being 
formed in the seas to the north and south, it thinned and died 
out as it approached the ridge of dry land." 

At the Clee Hills, the Carboniferous limestone only appears 
in two small patches, one on the north and the other on the 
south of the Titterstone Clee. These thin beds of limestone 
form the basement of the Titterstone Clee coalfield, and are 
exposed north-eastward of the hill at Oretou and Farlow. 
The Upper Old Red Sandstone of Farlow has already been 



CHAP, ix.] LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 317 

alluded to, and the junction of the Yellow Sandstone and 
Mountain limestone may be seen in a quarry south of the 
road on walking southwards over the Farlow ridge. There 
are large quarries at Oretou which have afforded many fish 
teeth and spines to the researches of Mr. Weaver Jones 
of Cleobury Mortimer and Mr. Baugh of Bewdley.* Fine 
specimens of the palatal teeth of Orodus ramosus are the 
gems of Mr. Jones's collection, with a new form of tooth 
named deltodus, and there are also the teeth of helodas, 
cochliodus, cladodus, and psammodus. These Mountain 
limestone fishes are believed to have been forms allied to the 
existing Cestracion or Port Jackson shark now living in the 
seas of China and Australia. The palatal teeth of cestracion 
fishes are adapted for crushing shell fish and crustaceans as in 
a mill. The backs of these fish are also armed with strong 
spines, many fine fossil specimens of which, belonging once 
no doubt to the owners of the teeth, were found at Oreton. 

The Fossil Shells lead us to suppose that the limestone was 
a deep water deposit, on account of the abundance of Brachio- 
poda and the absence of the Lamellibranchiate bivalves which 
inhabit shallower water. Spiriferre and Khyncouella are the 
species most frequently met with, as is the case in the 
lower strata of Carboniferous shale and limestone of Dean 
Forest and the South "Wales coalfield. Rhynconella pleurodon 
abounds at the bottom of the series, and Conularia also occurs. 
Of Gasteropoda, Professor Morris determined Euomphalus 
pentangulatus. 

The southern mass of the Clee Hill limestone occurs between 
Cornbrook and Knowl. On the eastern side it is nearly 
vertical, and the sections here aiford a clue to the physical 
history of the neighbourhood. There is little doubt that 
great dislocation of the Mountain limestone of the Clee Hill 
district occurred before the deposition of the Upper Carboni- 
ferous rocks. The earthquake forces underneath this tract 
were active before the Coal beds were laid down, and before 

* Professor Morris and the late Mr. G. E. Roberts published a list of fossils 
collected by these gentlemen. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., May, 1862, p. 99. 



318 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. ix. 



the masses of lava which now fill the fissures had been 
injected and poured out over the surface of the coalfield. It 
appears also that considerable denudation was going on during 
the same period ; and the effect of strong currents probably 
extended eastward, and swept clear the Carboniferous areas of 
Dudley and Wolverhampton during the Mountain limestone 

SOME FOSSILS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE. 




1, Brachymetopus Ounxlicus, de Vern. 2, Phillipsia pustulata, Schloth. (Ph. 
gemtnulifera, Phill.). 3, Spirifer striatus (?), Martin. 4, Productus giganteus, Sow. 
5, Pleurorbynchus aliformis, Sow. (5, Goniatites crenistria, Phillips. 



period. Both at Oreton and at Knowlbury there is proof of 
great dislocation of the limestone anterior to the deposition 
of the Millstone grit, and this is a fact of some importance 
for physical geologists. Nothing in physical geology appears 
to me to have less foundation than the supposition that such 
outliers as the Clee Hill limestone and those of North "Wales 
were little, isolated coral reefs. The Millstone grit which 
overlies them should be sufficient to overthrow such theories, 
for, even allowing that isolated coral reefs may have accu- 



CHAP, ix.] "DHUSTOXE" OF THE CLEES. 319 

mulated in the Lower Carboniferous seas, we cannot 
suppose that the Millstone grit could have been deposited 
above every outlier, by accommodating and peculiar currents 
which spread their particular and peculiar pebbles over those 
accommodating coral islands, and adapted their flow to such 
widely distant and separated areas as are those of the Little 
Orme district near Llandudno, the Titterstone Glee, and Pen 
Cerrig Calch near Crickhowell. Fossil shells and fish spines 
(Ctenacanthus) similar to those found at Oreton occur at 
Knowlbury. Producti have been obtained at Gorstly Rough ; 
thus the fossils yielded by these patches of limestone are 
identical with those found in Carboniferous limestone districts 
miles and miles away, on the flanks of Dean Forest, in the 
South "Wales coalfield, or on the isolated outlier of Pence rrig 
Calch. 

SECTION- ACROSS THE CORXBROOK COAL-BASIS OF THE CLEE HILLS. 




a, Upper beds of Old Bed or Devonian. 6, Carboniferous Shale and Limestone. 
c, Millstone-grit, d. Coal-measures. * Erupted Basalt, which has risen through 
and overflowed the CoaL 

There is a fine example on the Titterstone Glee Hill of a 
volcanic rock penetrating among and overflowing three divi- 
sions of the Carboniferous series. The local name for this 
trap is " Jewstone" or "Dhustone," and in one or two places, 
as at the " Giant's Chair," it puts on a columnar structure. 
The coal is baked and altered in contact with the Dhustone 
and is worked by means of shafts and galleries which are 
driven underneath the platform of the igneous and basaltic 
rock which caps the hill. The brown Clee Hill has but a 
thin covering of igneous rock on its summit. 

The physical geologist, having concluded the examination of 
the Clee Hills and having seen the downthrow of the Carboni- 
ferous limestone and the Upper Yellow Sandstones on the 



320 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAI-. ix. 

east at Farlow and Oreton, should cross the hill to Ludlow, 
take the train for Abergavenny and then proceed to Crick- 
howell and prepare to investigate Pen Cerrig Calch the next 
day, as outliers so distant as the Mountain limestone of the 
Clee Hills and Pen Cerrig Calch, should be visited in succes- 
sion as soon as possible while yet fresh in the memory. I 
have more than once compassed this expedition and visited 
the Clee Hills one day and Pen Cerrig Calch the next. 

The walk from Abergavenny along the banks of the Usk 
to Crickhowell is very instructive, and close to the former 
place, near the bridge, is a fine section of Old River drifts. 
These drifts occur at intervals all along the river side, while 
high up on the flanks of the hills, even to a height of a 
thousand feet above the river, are masses of Boulder drift, the 
accumulations of vast quantities of glacial detritus which 
nearly filled the valley before it had been scooped out by 
river action. These terraces of gravel and detritus tell their 
own tale and attest the work of denudation in past times. 

And now for Pen Cerrig Calch ! This insulated outlier of 
Lower Limestone shale and Carboniferous limestone capped 
by Millstone grit and attaining a height of 2200 feet above 
the sea, is about five miles distant from the edge of the 
northern rim of the South Welsh coalfield and is separated 
from the mass of that great coalfield by the denudation of the 
intervening valley of the Usk, the valley itself running along 
a line of fault which has upheaved the Old Red hills of the 
Black Mountains, with Pen Cerrig Calch on their summit, 
on the north bank of the river, and depressed the strata on 
the south. The distance of the Mountain limestone of Pen 
Cerrig Calch from the northern mass of Llanymynech south 
of Oswestry, cannot be less than sixty miles as the crow flies, 
while it must be nearly forty miles from Oreton and the Clee 
Hills on the north-east, and about twenty miles from the 
Carboniferous rock of Dean Forest. When examining Pen 
Cerrig Calch the best way is to trace up the series of rocks 
from the Lower Old Red Cornstones of the vale to the Mill- 
stone grit where it rests on the summit of the Blorenge on 



CHAP, ix.] CASTELL CERRIG CENKEX. 321 

the right bank of the Usk, and then to cross the valley and 
take up the section on the left bank of the river by the Upper 
Old Red of the Daren, to the overlying Carboniferous lime- 
stone and Millstone grit of Pen Cerrig Calch. And he who 
does this and remembers the record of the corresponding 
strata across the valley and beholds the Usk now flowing in 
its deep broad vale, will assuredly not return without having 
strongly marked upon his mind the impressive truths here 
revealed of former dislocations of the earth's crust, of the 
long continued denudation of past ages, and other records 
taught him by the physical history of that noble isolated 
Limestone Peak. Sir E. Murchison investigated the remark- 
able geological position and features of this outlier, when 
engaged upon his " Silurian System," the name Pen Cerrig 
Calch, the top of the limestone crag, being inserted upon the 
Ordnance map, led him to ascend the Black Mountains in 
order that he might " ascertain why such a name had been 
used in a district appearing to consist exclusively of Old Red 
Sandstone." 

Between Merthyr Tydvil and Brecon are two outliers of 
Mountain Limestone which are cut off from the rim of the 
South Welsh coalfield and surrounded by Old Red Sandstone. 
They lie to the east of the road between Merthyr and Brecon, 
among the beautiful glen scenery of Aberscriban and Cwm. 
Cellan. 

Another most interesting Mountain Limestone outlier is an 
insulated rock on the little river Cennen, three miles and a 
half S.E. of the town of Llandeilo, and on which stands the 
picturesque ruin " Castell Cerrig Cennen." This singular 
fortress is situated in a small valley on a precipitous outlier, 
and downthrow, of Mountain Limestone which rises to a 
height of 300 feet above the Cennen and is faulted between 
hills of Old Red Sandstone. It is a most remarkable place, 
both as regards the position of the old Castle, the phy- 
sical geology of the district and the striking and peculiar 
scenery. 

I invite attention to a few of the leading features of these 

Y 



322 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAT-, ix. 

Mountain Limestone outliers. First : Those who visit the 
districts of Pen Cerrig Calch, near Crickhowel; Cefn Sil 
Samus, between Merthyr Tydvil and the Brecon Beacons; 
and Cerrig Cennen, near Llandeilo, cannot fail to observe 
that the Mountain Limestone once covered a considerable 
area north of the South "Wales coalfield where now it is 
entirely denuded. This is a plain and self-evident fact. 
Secondly : The isolated outlier of Pen Cerrig Calch is 
elevated with the uppermost strata of the Old Red of the 
Daren ; while on the other hand the Mountain Limestone of 
Cerrig Cennen with its underlying Upper Old Red, is thrown 
down to an extraordinary extent, as may be seen at once by 
any visitor to the spot who will consider that the elevated 
summits of the neighbouring mountains, the Caermarthen 
Vans, are composed of the same beds as those on which the 
limestone rock of Cerrig Cennen is supported. In short, 
instead of occupying its present position in the valley, the 
proper place for the Cerrig Cennen is on the summit of the 
Caermarthen Van-sir-gaer which is 2300 feet above the sea, 
consequently the Van-sir-gaer is elevated and the Cerrig 
Cennen thrown down, a dislocated mass of rock dropped as it 
were against the Lower Old Red and Upper Silurians of the 
southern prolongation of Trichrug. This downthrow is very 
instructive and is an admirable lesson to those geologists who 
are inclined to dispute the dislocations and contortions of 
strata. The faults around this district are particularly 
worthy of observation, and, as Professor Harkness remarked, 
"let you know what a fault is." There are two transverse 
faults running from north to south, in one of which is situ- 
ated Castell Cerrig Cennen. Producti and other fossils of 
the Carboniferous limestone occur here, and the strata are 
lissured. The so-called "Well" is a natural fissure pierced 
by loopholes. There are also caves in the limestone. The 
Old Red Conglomerate is seen in the lane near Cerrig Cennen 
House and the Upper Yellow beds appear on the rising 
ground N.W. of the Castle. But little is known respecting 
the history of the Castle. The site has however long been a 



CHAP, ix.] LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 323 

haunt of human beings, for we learn from Rees that a stone 
hatchet resembling a chisel was dug up here, as well as some 
Eoman coins of the time of Domidan ; also that there is a 
manuscript in the British Museum* which ascribes its erec- 
tion to Urien, Lord of Is Cennen, who was supposed to have 
been a knight of King Arthur. The architecture of the 
existing ruins does not, I imagine, lead us to ascribe greater 
antiquity to them than the days of Edward I. 

No other outliers of Mountain Limestone occur along the 
northern rim of the South Wales coalfield with the exception 
of a patch at the mouth of Taff river, near Llanstephan, and 
another isolated mass south of Llaugharne, and Llansadurnen 
on the right bank of the Taff, both of which arc without doubt 
remnants of an area of Carboniferous limestone which 
formerly connected that of the northern edge of the Pembroke- 
shire coalfield at Oilman Point and Pendine, with the 
opposite limestone between Kidwelly and Llan Ishmael at 
the western extension of the South Wales coalfield. 

The Carboniferous limestone of the South Welsh Coalfield 
forms a girdle to the coalfield and everywhere dips under the 
Upper Carboniferous strata. The most instructive points for 
the geologist to visit are places on the northern and north- 
western escarpments, as showing the succession of strata 
between the Carboniferous and Silurian series of rocks, and 
also at the eastern extremity of the Coalfield in the neigh- 
bourhood of Pontypool in the vales of the Ebbw and 
Ehymney, where the same regular order and succession of 
strata may be studied between the upthrow of Silurian rocks 
at Usk and the Carboniferous limestone which supports the 
Coal measures. 

On the western escarpment the section which occurs be- 
tween Llandeilo aud Llandybie is interesting with its contorted 
Coal measures and the neighbouring Mountain Limestone of 
Cerrig Cennen Castle and Fair Carn Isaf, and on the southern 
escarpment of the Coalfield these strata may be studied on 
the Taff Vale Railway, a few miles from Cardiff. Here the 

* Harl. MSS. 2300. 

Y 2 



324 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

points of interest which may be seen in a walk of ten miles 
are numerous. 

Cardiff, the old metropolis of the county of Glamorgan, owes 
its name to its position on the Taff, the word being derived 
from Caer-Taff, the fortress on the Taff where it is believed 
that the Eoman general Aulus Didius erected a fort. In 
1089 Caradoc of Llancarvan relates an inroad of Rhys ap 
Tuwdwr into Glamorganshire and the building of a " strong 
castle" by Jestyn ap Gwrgan. In the natural course of events 
Ehys was killed and Jestyn also, and the Norman, Robert 
Fitzhamon, established himself at Cardiff and reigned in their 
stead. The ruins of the memorable fortress, winch Giraldns 
calls " the noble castle of Caerdyf," can never be surveyed by 
the historian and antiquarian without a shudder at the recol- 
lection of the monstrous cruelty inflicted within its walls 
upon Duke Robert of Normandy by one who called himself a 
Christian king. Taken prisoner after the siege of Tcnchebray, 
the eldest son of the Conqueror was shut up for life in Cardiff 
castle by Henry I., surnamed Beauclerk; who not content with 
usurping his brother's English crown, next essayed to rob him 
of his Norman dukedom and succeeded in his attempt. It 
was not to be supposed that Robert would neglect any oppor- 
tunity of regaining his liberty, and upon hearing of a fruitless 
endeavour to make his escape, we read that the king not only 
prescribed " a greater restraint and harder durance " but 
commanded that the eyes of his unfortunate captive should be 
put out. " And a basin of copper or iron made red hot was 
held close over the victim's eyes till the prgans of sight 
were seared and destroyed." An apartment in the gate 
house is said to have been the duke's prison for twenty-six 
years. 

We learn that Henry II. passed the night at the Castle on 
the first Sunday in Easter after his return from Ireland, and 
received sundry predictions as he left the chapel of St. Piranus 
from " a man of a fair complexion with a round tonsure and 
meagre countenance," as to what would happen to him if he 
did not command a strict keeping of Sunday throughout his 



CHAP, ix.] LELAND OX CARDIFF. 325 

dominions. This " chepelle of St. Ferine," where Henry 
offered up his devotions, was, we are informed by Leland, in 
Shoemaker Street. Leland has been very particular in his 
account of the town as it appeared in his days. He says it 
"is well waullid and is by estimation a mile in cumpace, in the 
waullie be five gates." The castelle "is a great thing and 
strong, but now in sum mine." " The dungeon town is large 
and fair." Speaking of the convent of Grey Friars he says : 
" In the year 1404, Owen Glendwr burnt the southern parts of 
Wales and besieged the town and Castle of Caerdyf. He took 
the town and burnt it all except one street in which the friers 
minors dwelled, which together with their convent he left 
standing for the love he bore them." In the time of Charles I. 
the troops of Cromwell are said to have entered the castle 
by a subterranean passage which was betrayed by ono of the 
royalists. 

Within two miles of Cardiff, on the right shore of the Taff, 
stands the old city of Llandaff with its venerable Cathedral, 
ancient cross, and its once fortified Bishop's palace. We 
gather from Sir E. Colt Hoare that the original foundation of , | 
this church has been attributed to a British King, Lucius, ! 
and dates as early as the year ISO] Its first bishop was Du- 
britius, who, on being promoted to the archbishopric of Caer- 
leon, was succeeded by St. Teilo. In the year 1107 Urban 
was appointed bishop and he " pulled down the ruinous old 
church which was only twenty eight feet in length and thirty 
feet in height. Most interesting also is the geology around 
Cardiff, with the magnificent section of Ehastic and Lower 
Lias beds, as displayed in the headland of Penarth. This 
section should be examined with care, in order to compare it 
with the remarkable series of Lower Lias and Ehaetic strata 
which are developed near Southerndown, and Dunraven, on the 
Channel, and rest on the Mountain Limestone. The change 
in the mineral condition of the Ehsetic strata should be 
observed. 

A short run of seven miles on the Taff Valley railway, will 
land the geologist at Pentyrch where boldly rises the Great 



326 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [ciiAr. ix. 

Garth ; and Castell Coch, or the Red Castle, overhangs the 
pass on an escarpment of Mountain Limestone. Tradition 
says that it was through this pass that Owen Glyndwr 
descended to attack Llandaff and Cardiff. From hence an 
interesting walk may be taken across country to the magnifi- 
cent ruins of Caerphilly Castle, which stands some three miles 
to the north-east, upon the Coal measures, and faces a ridge of 
Mountain Limestone hills on the south. It is worth visiting 
for the sake of its extensive ruins and also on account of the 
change of scenery involved in the position of a fortress 
situated on the Coal measures as compared with Castell Coch, 
on the Carboniferous limestone. Mr Daines Barrington, 
maintains that Caerphilly was built by Edward I. Camden 
says that it is of such vast and stupendous antiquity that it is 
almost universally allowed to be a Roman work. Probably 
both are right, for from the style of its architecture there is 
little doubt that much of the structure now standing was 
built in Edward I.'s time, and Avas erected on the ruins of a 
Roman city, as indicated by Cacr a term suggestive of Roman 
occupation. There are few historical accounts respecting this 
castle. It stood a siege during the reign of Edward II., when 
it was held by Hugh le Despencer for the king, who, how- 
ever, was obliged to fly to the priory of Neath. Leland de- 
scribes it as " sette emonge marisches." Again, the erection 
of a redoubt, with the evident application of gunpowder to 
effect the overthrow of the stronghold, tell a history of de- 
struction which may probably be referred to the time of 
Charles I. and the presence of the Parliamentarians. There 
is a notice in Gough's " Camden " that tumuli, or barrows, 
containing urns with burnt bones, were opened on Gelligaer, 
a hill to the north of Caerphilly. 

Westward of Cardiff and Llandaff, near Cowbridge and 
Bridgend, are masses of Mountain Limestone, which are 
worthy of examination on account of their physical position 
with respect to the Tr lassie and Rhastic series, and that of 
the Lower Lias. It will be understood by the Geologist that 
the Carboniferous limestone of this district is but a portion 



CHAP, ix.] EWEXNY PRIORY. 327 

of a great extent of this rock, which once swept over the area 
now occupied by Swansea Bay, and was formerly conterminous 
with the limestone on the opposite coast of Gower. 

The run by railway from Cardiif to Bridgend is about 
twenty miles, and in a walk from Bridgend by Ewenny 
Priory, Ogmore Castle, and Southerndown to Dunraven 
Castle, the naturalist passes over some most interesting- 
geology and by some very venerable edifices. Near Bridgend 
are some sections which should be examined before starting 
to investigate the geology of the coast. On the Ogmore 
river, about two miles to the north of the town, the Middle 
Keuper Sandstone of Worcestershire and Warwickshire is 
quarried, and is overlaid by Upper Keuper marls; while a 
section of Rhaetic strata, with the Bone bed of Aust, may be 
seen at Cwrt-y-Coleman, on the South Wales railway, about 
a mile and a half west of Bridgend. Close to the station 
is a fine section of Lower Lias, with numerous gryphites 
and other characteristic fossils ; and these beds pass up- 
wards, on the north-east, into strata containing some of 
the fossils of the Middle Lias or Marlstone. At Ewenny, 
two miles south of Bridgend, the rising ground above the 
river is capped with a mass of till containing drifted and 
angular blocks. 

Every lover of antiquity should visit Ewenny Priory, a relic 
of Norman times, which still remains much as it was in the 
days of Giraldus Cambrensis. He says, in his " Itinerary," 
" The Archbishop having celebrated mass early in the morn- 
ing before the high altar of the Cathedral (Llandaff), we pur- 
sued our journey by the little cell of Ewenith to the noble 
Cistercian monastery of Margan." Sir Richard Colt Hoare, 
the annotator of the u Itinerary," informs us that both Leland 
and Tanner ascribe the foundation of this religious house to 
Sir John de Londres, Lord of Ogmore Castle, but that " an 
ancient tombstone which lies neglected in the floor of the 
chancel, fixes for a certainty the foundation of this church on 
Moris de Londres," who, it appears, founded the church of St. 
Michael de Ewenny in 1141. The simple groined roof of the 



328 RECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

choir, and the neglected tombstone of its founder bearing this 
inscription, in old characters, claim particular attention : 

ICI GIST MORICE DE LUNDRES LE. FVNDUR 
DEU LI RENDE SUN LABUR . AM. 

" In the southern transept is an ancient altar-tomb, sup- 
porting the mutilated effigy of a knight in armour." " The 
same happy gleam of sunshine, a pail of water and a broom, 
enabled me to ascertain the true original of this effigy, which 
was intended probably to commemorate a friend or follower of 
Moris de Londres." 

SIRE ROGER DE REMI . GIST ISCI 
DEU DE SON ALME BIT MERCI . AM. 

Having visited this Priory more than once, we can heartily 
sympathise with the feeling of this distinguished antiquary 
(Sir R. Colt Hoare) when he says, " The satisfaction with 
which I viewed this building, as having remained untouched, 
unaltered since the days of Giraldus, and, I might add also, 
from the period of its foundation, was considerably damped 
upon beholding its present ruinous and dilapidated condition." 

Ogmore Castle is situated in a Scotch-like vale at the 
junction of the Ewenny and Ogmore rivers. But little of it 
is now left save the Norman keep ; and it must always have 
been a small fortress. It appears from the pedigree of the 
Lords of Ogmore, given by Powel in his history of Wales, that 
"William de Londres received in reward of service from 
Robert Fitz Hamon the castle and manor of Ogmore." Moris 
de Londres also lived here. 

In going from Ewenny Priory to Southemdown we pass 
through an elevated bare district of Mountain Limestone, and 
following the river Ogmore, by the side of the limestone downs, 
to the sea coast, we see a series of strata known as the " Sutton 
Stone series," resting on the Carboniferous limestone. The 
basement beds of the Sutton series consist of a remarkable 
conglomerate of Mountain Limestone fragments set in a white 
paste, and they are apparently conformable to the Mountain 



CHAP, ix.] GEOLOGY OF DUXKAVEN. 320 

Limestone upon which they rest. The Carboniferous floor of 
the ancient sea, upon which the Button beds were laid down, 
exhibits in places, where these strata are eroded, pavements 
full of beautiful weathered Corals, Encrinites, and Producti. 
The Sutton strata, which are very like the White Lias of 
Lyme Regis, are claimed as Eha3tic by Mr. Tawney and Mr. 
Etheridge ; but they are, I understand, considered to be the 
lowest beds of the Lias by Mr. Charles Moore, Dr. Wright, 
and some other geologists.'"" We found many fossils in the 
quarries on the coast below the farmhouses of Sutton, and 
among them were Ostrea multicostata (a Muschelkalk species) 
and Pecten Suttoniensis. 

Towards Southerndown the Mountain Limestone dips at a 
considerable angle, while the Sutton series continues nearly 
horizontal, showing the alteration of dip in the limestone 
here, before the deposition of the Rhaetic and Liassic strata. 
The Southerndown strata which overlie the Sutton beds 
have been hitherto regarded as Liassic. They may be seen 
in Southerndown cliff, and are a very singular series of strata 
as regards their mineralogies] character, and are altogether 
unlike any Rhastic or Liassic beds I have ever seen elsewhere. 
At their base is a bed of conglomerate full of chert fragments, 
at the very bottom of which Sir W. Guise found Ostrea liassica, 
an acknowledged Lias shell. There is a grand section along 
the coast, from the hut built for a coastguard shelter below 
Sutton to the great fault at Dunraven, where the Carboni- 
ferous limestone is seen to be tilted, as if by a Trap dyke, 
and the Sutton and Southerndown series curving over it at a 
low angle. The colour of this cliff section, with its brown, 
black, grey, and light-coloured strata of different geologic 
epochs, studded by the bright green foliage of some plants, 
and the beautiful blossoms of others, will not easily be for- 
gotten by those who see it under a clear sky and a setting sun. 
At the summit of the Southerndown cliffs, and at Dunraven 
above the coast line, the well-known zone of Ammonites Buek- 
landi, and Gryphaea incurva, of the Lower Lias set in, in their 

* See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., May, 1866, p. 73. 



330 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

usual form, and succeed the singular beds with the peculiar 
focsils already mentioned.* 

Dunraven Castle, the Dindryfan of Welsh history, is believed 
to stand on the site of an ancient structure once frequented 
by Caractacus and his father, Bran ab Llyr. In the cliffs on 
the shore there are some caverns worn by the sea, respecting 
which a rather curious ornithological note is recorded. " In 
one of these caverns Mr. Williams, the Welsh poet, found 
several swallows in a torpid state clinging in clusters to each 
other by their bills." 

North-east of Dunraven lies Llantwit Major, or Llan Illtyd 
Fawr. Every antiquary looks with reverence on the church of 
St. Illtyd, for it is said to have been the schoo of St. David, 
St. Teilo, St. Leonorius, St. Magliore, St. Sampson, of the 
historian Gildas, and of the Welsh bard Taliessin. This in- 
formation is derived from the Liber Landavensis, an ancient 
manuscript history of the Bishops of this see. 

The Mountain Limestone is developed in the peninsula of 
Gower across Swansea Bay. It commences at Oystermouth 
Castle, on the north, and ranges along the southern coast in a 
succession of fine headlands and retreating bays, to the singular 
rocks on the western coast known as Worm's Head, which at 
low tide constitute a rocky promontory, and at high water 
become two little islands and outliers of Mountain Limestone. 
The scenery here is more striking than anywhere else in 
Gower, and the geology is instructive as showing the gradual 
but certain destruction that ensues from the action of the 
waves upon the hardest rocks. Leland mentions the " little 
promontori caullid Worms Heade," and it would be interesting 
to know how much of the rocky causeway, now covered at 
high water, has been worn away by the waves since the days 
of Bluff King Hal. Numerous common fossils are found 
in the Mountain Limestone quarries. The pleasant vil- 
lage hostel in the centre of the peninsula, known as the 
" Gower Inn," is nearer to the localities which interest the 
geologist and naturalist than the Mumbles or Swansea. It is 

* See Section, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. xxii., May, 1866. 



CHAP, ix.] RARE PLANTS OF GOWER. 331 

situated in a nook of woodland by a brawling stream, and is 
within a walk of the most interesting geological localities 
in Gowerland. " And whether," says Mr. Bevan, " the visitor 
be geologist, antiquary, botanist, aquavivarian, artist, or 
simply a pedestrian seeking a pleasant excursion, he will be 
sure to find something to repay him. Iron bound coast with 
glorious sea views, picturesque little valleys and inland dells, 
old churches, still older castles and camps, druidical remains, 
and those of incomparably more ancient date the remains 
of a former world are the principal features to tempt an 
excursionist."* 

The first point for the geologist to visit from Gower Inn 
should be the long tract of hilly land running nearly east and 
west, known as Cefn Bryn. Here the position of the Mountain 
Limestone with respect to the Upper Old Red, of which the hill 
is composed should be especially observed, as the limestone 
is thrown off from the flanks of Cefn Bryn, and has a totally 
different dip from that which occurs on the sea shore. This 
tells a tale to the geologist respecting an upheaval of the coast 
line since Cefri Bryn and the limestones on its flanks were 
elevated into the high moorlands that form the axis of 
Gowerland. The Old Red Conglomerate is seen in situ on the 
summit of this hill, and the sides are studded with boulders 
and masses of drifted Millstone grit, which occur also in all 
the valleys of Gower, and were probably deposited during the 
drift epoch, when the whole of the peninsula was beneath the 
glacial seas. The cromlech, known as " Arthur's Stone," is a 
transported mass of Millstone grit, of which the nearest parent 
rock in situ is near Kidwelly, fifteen or sixteen miles to the 
northward. A walk southwards leads to the promontory of 
Pwlldu Head, to the Bone caves, now celebrated through the 
investigations of Colonel "Wood, and Dr. Falconer ; and to 
Pennard Castle where the rare Draba aizoides grows on the 
time-worn walls, as it also grows on the cliffs between Pennard, 
and the Worm's Head, these being the only localities where it 
is found in England. Anemone ranunculoides (the yellow 

* A Week's Walk in Gower. 



332 



EECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. ix. 



wood anemone) also grows wild in the woods of Stout Hall, 
and I possess a specimen kindly sent by Mrs. Wood. It is 
one of our rarest British plants, but is abundant in Norway. 

The Caves of the peninsula of Gower have long been cele- 
brated. I had the pleasure of visiting them in 1863, in com- 




TIIE HOME OF DRABA AIZOIDES, GOWEK PENINSULA, S. WALES. 
W. V. Guise. (Mountain Limestone.) 

pany with Sir C. Lyell, Lieut-Col. E. E. Wood of Stout Hall, 
and Mr. Starling Benson, and in 1865 I again examined the 
physical geology of the coast line. The conclusions I arrived 
at from the investigation of the caves and their physical his- 
tory, differ somewhat from the opinions held by other geologists 
on this subject, and may be erroneous. I therefore give a few 
notes on the phenomena I observed, with respect to the eleva- 
tion, and alterations of level, of the land and coast, leaving 



CHAP, ix.] CROMLECHS OF COWER. 33 

the geologist to work out his own convictions on the very in- 
tricate and difficult problem presented by these cave deposits. 

It appears to me that the whole of the Gower peninsula was 
totally submerged during the glacial submergence period. We 
see it in the masses of Millstone grit, known as Arthur's Stone, 
which rest stranded on the Old Red of Cefn Bryn, from which 
the whole series of Mountain Limestone shale and Carbonife- 
rous limestone have been denuded. We see it in the other 
drift masses which stud the Old Eed moorlands above Scurlege 
Castle, and between Llandewi and Llangenydd, a little north of 
the Worm's Head. No human hands, or human agency trans- 
ported those rocks and placed them on the sites they now 
occupy. They stand now as they stood thousands of years ago, 
geological, witnesses of an epoch long since passed away, an 
epoch when the waters of a sea traversed by icebergs and ice- 
rafts, washed above the highest lands of Gower, and these ice- 
bergs laden with rocks torn from some point more or less dis- 
tant, grounded and melted, leaving their freight of transported 
materials to be upheaved upon the hill-top, or scooped out vale, 
of the slowly emerging land. And these strange rock frag- 
ments in later periods were appreciated by an early people who 
marked their weird characters and strange positions. Some of 
the smaller stones they moved into the proximity of the larger 
masses, and thus we have the cromlechs and stone circles the 
rude religious monuments of a rude human race, constructed of 
the transported boulders of the glacial period. It is not, how- 
ever, only upon the hill-top that these boulder masses occur in 
Gower. They may be seen in many localities on the sides of the 
vale. I detected several large boulders of Old Red Conglome- 
rate standing on the sides of the little valley which leads from 
the Gower Inn, by Pennard Castle, to Oxwich Bay, and resting 
against the base of the Mountain Limestone hills. There is also 
a place above Stout Hall where Lieut-Col Wood directed my 
attention to elevated beds of drift on the flanks of Cefn Bryn. 
Another point to be observed is the angular character of 
some of the Boulders proving that they have never been sub- 
merged or exposed to the action of waves or currents. This 



334 SECONDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAI-. ix. 

remark applies to certain boulders in the low valleys as well 
as to those upon the hills, and may be worthy of the attention 
of those geologists who imagine that since the glacial period, 
the land of both North and South "Wales has been subjected to 
a series of movements similar to those of a figure known as 
" Jack-in-the-Box," and has been continually " emerging " only 
to be again " submerged." It appears that in Gower, as in 
other parts of "Wales, there are two kinds of boulders, one 
kind rounded and rolled, belonging to the period of the marine 
stratified drifts, and the transportation of which we may attri- 
bute to iceberg and iccnift agency ; while the other kind 
appertains to a laier epoch, a time when the land was elevated 
to much the same position that it now occupies, and owes 
the transportation of its boulders to the agency of land ice and 
snow as they were moved down the valleys and slopes from 
parent rock masses now in situ in Goweiiand. 

I have already alluded to the difference of dip in the 
Mountain Limestone from the Old Red axis of Cefn Bryn, as 
compared with the dip of the same strata along the line of 
coast. The geologist will not fail to mark this alteration of 
dip in the short distance between Cefn Bryn and the coast 
near Paviland and other localities. There has evidently been 
elevation of the limestone along the coast line, which elevation 
has not affected the same beds in the interior of the peninsula. 
Another point, also worthy observation, is that the limestone, 
and with it the Bone caves, is more elevated towards the west, 
as at the "Worm's Head and Spritsail Tor, than eastward at 
the Mumbles. 

The Raised Beach of Mewslade Bay, near Paviland, was first 
observed by Mr. Prestwich, who came to the determination that 
it was of later date than the boulder clay on Cefn Bryn ; and 
at Rhossily a modern angular breccia overlies the raised beach. 
Depressions of level have been inferred to have taken place on 
this coast in comparatively modern geological times, for it is 
ascertained that, along the shore, the sea now rolls over the 
site of an ancient land, with the remains of a submerged forest. 
The probability is, that this was a low tract occupying a 



CHAP, ix.] GOWER BOi\E CAVES. 335 

valley between the coasts of Grower and Devonshire ; and which, 
on the elevation of the land, towards the close of the glacial 
(submergence) period, was a tract of elevated Boulder clay, 
then a forest, and since that, the present submerged sea area. 

I would now direct attention to certain phenomena regard- 
ing the Bone caves themselves. The bottom of the Caves 
has been filled with marine silt and shingle, while the sides 
and roofs exhibit marks of the washing of the waves and the 
usual effects of tidal action on coast caverns. This is the 
marine period of the caves. "When this sea floor was elevated 
above the reach of the tides, a succession of floors, which may 
be termed land floors, were formed by the dripping of stalag- 
mite and the intermixture of angular debris of the Mountain 
Limestone. This breccia contains bones of the extinct cave 
mammalia, and is itself overlaid by a modern " head," or talus, 
consisting of fragments which are loosened from the rocks by 
frost and atmospheric agencies, and roll down the sides. The 
old talus of breccia was probably contemporaneous with the 
habitation of the caves by some of the extinct animals, when 
the rocks of the coast presented a different slope to the shore 
than at present. It is cemented with carbonate of lime, and is 
as hard as the limestone rock itself, and shows by its dip that 
it was upheaved with the caves and the coast. The talus of 
angular breccia at Devil's Hole (or Bowen's Parlour) and at 
Bacon Hole, which appears to be an ancient cliff talus, cemented 
by carbonate of lime, is well worthy of remark. 

The contents of the different Bone caves were chiefly 
examined by Lieut.-Col. E. K. Wood, and a description of them 
was given by Dr. Falconer.* The principal caves are Spritsail 
Tor, on the west coast, the Paviland caves, Raven's Cliff, Long 
Hole, Bosco's Den, Minchin Hole, and Bacon Hole, all on the 
south coast. Spritsail Tor Cave, when explored by Colonel Wood, 
was proved to have been a hyaena's den. Sealed hermetically 
underneath the stalagmitic bone breccia were found many 
gnawed bones of the ox, horse and stag, associated with the 
bones, teeth and coprolites of the hyasna. Besides these, 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., November, 1860, &c. 



336 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

were the bones and teeth of two species of elephant, Elephas 
antiquus, and E. primigenius ; the long-haired rhinoceros, R. 
tichorinus, the same species as that found by Pallas in frozen 
soil in Siberia ; the cave bear (Ursus spelseus), the cave lion 
(Felis spelasa), the wolf (Canis lupus), the fox (Canis vulpes), 
horse, wild boar, badger, and weasel. 

The Paviland caves were explored by Dr. Buckland in 1823, 
and Goat's Hole, the largest of them, furnished the remains of 
hysena, mammoth, rhinoceros, bear and wolf, and associated 
with the bones of deer, ox, horse and some smaller animals, 
such as the rat and weasel. Above all these remains of cave 
animals were the bones of a Woman, lying in earth intermixed 
with pieces of limestone, and cemented and coated with 
stalagmite. The bones were stained by the red oxide of iron, 
and hence the name of the " Red Lady " given to the skeleton. 
Coins of the reign of Constantius, fragments of charcoal, and 
some ancient bone ornaments, were also found cemented 
together in this upper earth, so it is doubtful if the "Red 
Lady " dates back beyond the Roman period. There was a 
floor of stalagmite between the human relics and those of the 
extinct animals. 

In Raven's Cliff Cavern, teeth of several individuals of 
Hippopotamus major, both old and young, were found, and 
this in a district "where," as remarked by Sir C. Lyell, "there 
is now scarce a rill of running water, much less a river in 
which such quadrupeds could swim." It is worthy of remark, 
that the old river drifts of the Avon at Cropthorne, near 
Pershore, afforded the bones and teeth of Hippopotamus 
major in considerable abundance to the researches of Mr. 
Hugh Strickland. These relics are now in the possession of 
Miss Strickland, at Apperley Court, and a fine tusk of Hippo- 
potamus from the same river gravels may be seen in the 
Worcester Museum. So abundant in this locality were the 
remains of the extinct Mammalia, that on the occasion of 
a lecture given at Worcester by Mr. Strickland, it was 
suggested that Julius Caesar brought wild animals with him 
to Great Britain, and that it was just possible they lived for 



CHAP, ix.] LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 337 

a time and then were drowned in crossing the Avon ; while 
another theory was that a caravan of wild beasts had been 
upset in attempting to cross a ferry. 

In Long Hole, Colonel Wood found some flint flakes associated 
with the remains of two different species of rhinoceros, the R. 
tichorinus, and the R. hemitsechus of Falconer.* These flint 
tools are undoubtedly relics of human workmanship, and 
furnish evidence that man was contemporary with the cave 
animals on the ancient land of Gower, as he was with the like 
wild beasts on the banks of the Wye, the Somme, the Lesse, 
or by the old rivers of Salisbury, and Bedford. 

From Bosco's Den Colonel Wood obtained no legs than one 
thousand antlers of the reindeer, chiefly of the variety called 
" Cervus Guettardi." They were mostly shed horns of young 
animals, and have been rolled and water washed ; with these 
were the remains of the cave bear, wolf, fox, ox and stag. 

Minchin Hole furnished the remains of the fossil Elephant, 
(E. antiquus), together with the bones, skulls, and teeth of the 
rhinoceros and ox. Two of the skulls of Rhinoceros belonged 
to the species R. hemitsechus. Some of the lower jaws of 
this quadruped were associated with marine shells encrusted 
on the matrix in which the bones were enveloped; these 
shells occurred at Minchin Hole in much the same position as 
were the flint flakes found in the Long Hole cave. 

Bacon Hole was also worked out by Colonel Wood. At the 
bottom of the cave, on the rocky floor, was marine sand con- 
taining abundance of marine shells, Littorina rudis and L. 
litoralis, with bones of birds and field-mice. Above this bed 
was a layer of stalagmite, and over this again came a bed of 
black sand, in which was found a nearly perfect skeleton of 
Elephas antiquus, with remains of other animals. This sand 
was in fact filled with the bones of several individuals of this 
fossil elephant, among them being the humeri, femora, and 
phalanges. Over this was a bed of limestone breccia and 
cave earth, with bones and teeth of Elephas antiquus, Rhino- 
ceros hemitoechus, Hyaana, cave Bear, wolf, ox and stag. Then 

* See Lyell's "Antiquity of Man," p. 172, 513, &c. 



338 EECOEDS OF THE KOCS. . [CHAP ix. 

came other layers in which were also found bones of the bear, 
bos, and stag ; and above all, at the top, was a bed of alluvial 
earth, containing remains of the ox, stag, fox, and horns of 
the red deer and roebuck, as well as recent shells brought in 
by sea-gulls.* Some of the remains of these animals are in the 
Museum at Swansea, others are in the Museum at Stout Hall, 
the residence of Colonel Wood. Both these collections are 
well worth visiting. 

The ancient name of Gower is derived from the word Gwyr, 
which signifies " a crooked country." The men of Gwyr are 
mentioned in Welsh records of very ancient date. Henry I. 
planted a colony of Flemings in Gower, who diffused indus- 
trial arts and habits around them, introduced the preparation 
and weaving of wool, and formed a border of defence against 
the Welsh. 

Swansea Castle was built by Henry Beaumont, Earl of 
Warwick. It was attacked in 1113, by the Welsh under 
Gruffydd ap Rhys, but without success. We also learn from 
Leland that it afterwards became a part of the possessions of 
the see of St. David's, and was rebuilt by Bishop Gower, who 
was elected to that dignity in the second year of the reign of 
Edward III. (1328). He died in 1347. We are not aware 
that either Bishop Gower, or John Gower the poet, the 
" Moral Gower " of Chaucer, whose friend and contemporary 
he was, and the "Ancient Gower" of Shakspeare, had any 
connection with Gowerland. Bishop Gower was a native of 
Western Pembrokeshire which, as well as the peninsula of 
Gower, had been colonised by Flemings. The physique of 
the present inhabitants still bears the characteristic type of 
their ancestors. When travelling through Pembrokeshire we 
were struck with the contour of the head among all classes, 
the round cranium, the massive jaw, and the regular and 
beautiful teeth. These were also the marked characteristics 
of the skull of Bishop Gower, whose remains were discovered 

* An interesting account of this great cave and its remains of extinct Mam- 
malia was communicated by Mr. Benson to the Swansea Literary and Scientific 
Society in 1851. 



CHAP, ix.] CHURCH OF SWANSEA. 339 

a few years ago during the excavations which were being 
carried on for the repair of the Cathedral of St. David's. The 
skull of one who was laid in the tomb only a few months after 
the great battle of Crecy, might well have passed as a typical 
example of a Pembrokeshire cranium of the present time. 

The old Church of Swansea fell down in 1739, but the 
present building contains monuments of some interest. On 
one is an inscription which tells us that "Here lieth Sir 
Mathie Cradock Knight and my Ladie Katerine his wife." 
My Ladie Katerine was once the White Rose of England, the 
beautiful Lady Elizabeth Gordon, wife and widow of Perkin 
"Warbeck. Oystermouth Castle (the place of armed men), not 
far from the Mumbles, is a fine ruin, and in the Coal shales 
near, the geologist may find specimens of the last of the 
trilobitcs, " Phillipsia," so named after the distinguished 
Professor of Geology for Oxford University. Swansea Bay, 
the " Sinus Tinbechicus " of Leland, is a great area of 
denudation between the land of Gower and the coast of South 
Pembroke. 

Tenby stands on the upper beds of the Carboniferous lime- 
stone, which is much dislocated and dips to the south at a 
high angle. There are in fact long ridges of Old Red Sand- 
stone, which have been elevated through the Mountain Lime- 
stone, and which strike across the country of South Pembroke 
from east to west. The Mountain Limestone or Lower Lime- 
stone shale has at the base a Bone bed, which, occurring at 
the junction of the shale with the Upper Old Red, occupies a 
position similar to that of the celebrated bone beds of Bristol 
and Tortworth. Sir H. De la Beche and Professor Ramsay 
have given sections of the junction beds at Skrinkle Bay. 
The Bone bed contains the teeth of several cartilaginous fish, 
such as Psammodus and Orodus, with scales of Palaaoniscus. 
The Lower Limestone shales are charged with worm burrows 
often three inches broad and many feet in length. There is 
also a well marked group of Oolitic looking beds at the base of 
the Mountain Limestone with a series of thin cherty sandstones 
traversed by worm tubes which can be followed throughout 

z 2 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. ix. 



340 

South Pembrokeshire, and which lie about seventy or eighty 
feet from the actual base of the Carboniferous shales. Corals 
are found in some abundance in the middle beds of the Moun- 
tain Limestone near Tenby, while the upper strata contain 
the characteristic Producti and other mollusca. The Coal 




measure sandstones lie to the north of Tenby, and their junc- 
tion with the uppermost strata of the Mountain Limestone 
occurs near the Fish-market, the Castle Hill being composed 
of Mountain Limestone. The isolated rock known as the 
Goscar rock is a Coal measure, silicious, sandstone, and occu- 
pies the position of the Millstone grit. 

Giltar is a fine mass of limestone rising perpendicularly 
from the sea to a height of 170 feet, and the Lydstep caverns, 
four miles from Tenby, should be visited for the sake of the 
interesting physical geology exhibited in the bays of Droch 
and Skrinkle. The Lower Limestone shale between Lydstep 



CHAP, ix.] STACKPOLE COURT. 341 

Point and the Old Eed of Skrinkle looks as if the stratification 
were absolutely vertical. Nevertheless, on examining the 
physical position of the beds we were satisfied that the true 
stratification is not vertical but that it owes this appearance to 
cleavage, the lines of which affect this Lower Limestone shale 
as it does the Carboniferous slates of Ireland and the strata at 
the bay of West Angle at the mouth of Milford Haven. In 
this little bay is an outlier of undenuded Lower Limestone 
shale preserved between two masses of Old Red Sandstone, and 
here also, Mr. Salter discovered nodular limestone bands 
containing a number of bivalve fossil shells which he named 
Curtonotus elegans. These bivalves occur in red limestone 
in beds near the base of the Lower Limestone shale on the 
south side of the bay. It is worthy of remark that the genus 
Curtonotus is characteristic of the Pilton Group of the Devon- 
shire rocks across the straits. Mr. Salter correlated the lowest 
Carboniferous shales of South Pembrokeshire as the equiva- 
lents of the upper part of the Pilton group of Devonian de- 
posits. I saw some of these Curtonoti in red limestone near 
Manorbeer Station. 

The bold Coast cliffs of Stackpole display the Mountain 
Limestone much contorted. Indeed South Pembrokeshire 
everywhere shows the violence of the elevatory forces which 
have affected the rocks of that region. Stackpole Court is on 
the Carboniferous limestone and stands on the site of the old 
baronial residence of Sir Elidur de Stackpole whose tomb is to 
be seen in the beautiful church of Cheriton, and who is said 
to have gone to the Holy Land after the preaching of the 
crusade by Archbishop Baldwin and Giraldus Cambrensis. 
In Giraldus's time a spirit appeared in " the house of Elidore 
de Stackpole, not only sensibly but visibly, under the form 
of a red haired young man." "Whatever the master or mis- 
tress secretly thought of having for their daily use or pro- 
visions he procured with wonderful agility and without any 
previous directions, saying you wished that to be done, and it 
shall be done for you." On leaving Stackpole Court and 
walking to the cliffs we are struck by some remarkable fissures 



342 KECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

in the rocks, especially at the Huntsman's Leap and Bosherton 
Meer. The little chapel of St. Govan (to which Sir Richard 
Hoare recommends all travellers in Pembrokeshire to make a 
pilgrimage, and which advice we heartily endorse) is built across 
one of these fissures, which is said to have been first rent to 
save St. Govan from his persecutors, and after enclosing him 
in safety, until the pursuit was over, again opened to let him 
out and never closed again. The Geologist soon ascertains 
one point, viz., that no upheaving of the coast, or submerg- 
ence, or " convulsion of nature " of any kind has taken place 
at St. Govan's since this ancient structure was erected. The 
rocks have been stationary since that time, for this singular 
and rude little church is built across the fissure in such a 
manner that the slightest movement must have left traces of 
its effects. The rocks in the interior of the cleft also show 
marks of former coast action, when the salt waves must have 
washed into the hollow which afterwards formed the dwelling 
of a saint, and before the limestone of the cliffs had been 
upheaved to its present position. 

Sir F. Madden observes that the traditions of the locality 
point out St. Govan's Head as the burial place of Sir Gawain, 
King Arthur's nephew, and attempts have been made to con- 
nect the old chapel of St. Govan in some way or other with 
this famous knight of the Round Table. I am heretic enough 
to believe that the chapel has been erected since the days of 
Giraldus Cambrensis, for he particularly alludes to these cliffs, 
when describing the falcons for which they are famous, and 
had St. Govan been already erected and become a noted 
chapel in his days, I imagine he would have mentioned so 
remarkable a structure among the rocks. This once venerated 
spot is now deserted by man, and, in the winter months, 
save a few sheep, and an occasional sea gull flitting past, all 
is still. 

" All's hushed except the sea fowl's notes, 
Hoarse murmuring from yon craggy brow. " 

During the summer the cliffs swarm with various kinds of 
Sea fowl, such as cormorants, razor-bills, guillemots, oyster 



CIIAIMX.] THE ELIGITG STACKS. 343 

catchers, different kinds of gulls, and puffins. The (Jornish 
chough (Corvus Graculus, Lin.) also builds occasionally among 
the noble cliffs between St. Govan's Head and the Stack 
Rocks. A few species of the hawk tribe still linger here, such 
as the kestrel (Falco Tiniculus) and the sparrow hawk (Falco 
nisus), but the Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) is now 
extinct on this coast, having been harried to death by the 
game-keepers and pheasant-preservers. In olden days, 
Pembrokeshire was famous for these hawks, and Giraldus 
Cambrensis gives an account of the death of a Norwegian hawk 
which was let fly at a Peregrine falcon by Henry II., and 
was struck dead by the Peregrine " at the feet of the king." 
" From that time the king sent every year, about the breeding- 
season, for the falcons of this country, which are produced on 
the sea cliffs." 

Notwithstanding the extinction of some of the finest species 
of birds, every ornithologist and lover of nature should visit 
the haunts of the sea birds between St. Govan's Head and the 
Eligug Stacks. It is a sight to be remembered, for, in 
summer time, they are in such numbers that their flocks, for 
multitude, can only be compared to swarms of bees. When I 
was there the two lofty outliers of Mountain Limestone, 
known as the " Stacks," which stand out like isolated rock 
giants, and are yet within a stone's throw of the cliff, were 
thickly covered with birds. Before visiting the Stacks, Sir 
William Guise had engaged an egg-gatherer to go over the 
rocks in search of eggs and young birds. It was rather late 
in the season, but we saw the interesting performance of egg 
gathering, a boy being lowered by ropes slung under his arms 
over the craggy precipice of Bull Slaughter Bay. There was 
little real danger in the proceeding, as the ropes were strong 
and handled by experienced men ; but looking on was giddy 
work, and the whole coup tfceil reminded us of one of Bewick's 
exquisite vignettes. There is a danger, however, at the Eligug 
Stacks, which may as well be mentioned, as I had a narrow 
escape myself. Lord Cawdor has fortunately forbidden shoot- 
ing at, or disturbing by fire-arms, the swarms of sea fowl which 



344 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

frequent the coast rocks, or no doubt, what has happened at 
Puffin Island, near Beaumaris, would occur here, and the birds 
would be persecuted, mangled, and destroyed. Still it is hardly 
possible to see the flocks of guillemots and puffins which cover 
the Stacks, apparently within a stone's throw, without jerking 
a pebble in hopes of persuading the multitudes, which are there 
sitting and screaming, to rise and fly. I had made one or two 
attempts at a long and strong throw, when my foot slipped 
and I had a heavy fall on the slippery grass with my feet over 
the precipice. Only a week afterwards, a number of school- 
boys went from Pembroke to the coast for a holiday, and one 
of them, in throwing a stone, lost his footing, shot over the 
rock, and was dashed to pieces. Among these cliff's we saw 
the beautiful Tree Mallow (Lavatera arborea) growing, but in 
nearly inaccessible places ; our egg collector, however, sprang 
across a chasm, which would have puzzled an Anne of Geier- 
stein, and returned in a few moments with a handful of the 
lovely rose-coloured blossoms, all the more valuable as being 
gathered in a truly wild locality. Arabis stricta grows on 
these cliffs near the Stacks. 

The Bone Cave of Hoyle's Mouth, near Tenby, and some 
caves in the island of Caldy, were explored with great success 
by Mr. Smith of Gumfreston, and the Rev. H. Winwood 
during the summer of 1865. The caves on Caldy Island 
yielded the remains of the Mammoth, rhinoceros, hyana, bear, 
horse, ox, deer, wolf, and fox, mingled with stone implements, 
flakes, and knives. Some years ago a cave was discovered at 
Caldy by quarrymen, which was so full of bones of the extinct 
mammalia that they were sent over to Devonshire as manure. 
The elevation of this cave was upwards of 100 feet above the 
sea. There was no external opening until the quarrymen 
blasted the face of the cliff, and the cave is now completely 
destroyed.* Caldy Island is an outlier from the rocks of 
Skrinkle. 

Hoyle's Mouth furnished many organic remains to Mr. 
Smith's collection, and associated with them were several 

* Paper on Tenby Bone Caves, by a Pembrokeshire Rector. 



CHAP, ix.] HOYLE'S MOUTH. 345 

ancient flint implements of human manufacture. "We were 
particularly struck with one very perfect " knife," which was 
derived from a peculiar green, pellucid, and compact silicious 
rock, with which we were altogether unacquainted. When 
examining Hoyle's Mouth, which is now an inland cavern, but 
which formerly opened out on an arm of the sea, we observed 
in the interior the marks of wave, or water action, at the end 
of the fissure, and we also found some well-rounded pebbles 
among the detritus on the floor. Mr. Smith possesses a portion 
of the jaw of that singular fish the Lophius piscator, which he 
obtained when quarrying the floor of the cave. 

Remains of a submerged forest land are laid bare at low 
tides at several points on this coast. At Amroth the stumps 
of the oak and fir still remain, and they are often perforated 
by Pholades. The nuts of the hazel occur among the roots, 
and occasionally large trunks of trees are washed upon the 
beach after a heavy storm. Similar phenomena may be ob- 
served at Portclew and off the coast of Caldy Island, also at 
Swanlake Bay and at Whitsand Bay, near St. David's, as pre- 
viously described. In short, there is little doubt that in a 
comparatively recent geological period forest lands occupied 
sites far out on both sides of the channel, where now the salt 
waves roll, as I have already said of Gower and other localities. 

As regards Pembroke, we are told by Giraldus Cambrensis 
that the name " Penbroch signifies the head of the estuary," 
and that " Arnulph de Montgomery, in the reign of King 
Henry I., erected here a slender fortress with stakes and 
turf," which, on returning to England, he consigned to the 
care of Giraldus de Windesor.* Henry VII. was born at 
Pembroke Castle in 1457. Before gaining the crown of 
England this monarch was destined to pass through many a 
perilous adventure. Comines says : " He told me, not long 
before his departure from France, that from the time he was 

* Mason's Guide-book informs us that the castle was granted by Henry I. to 
Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, but this is a mistake, as well as the statement 
that Giraldus visited Jerusalem. Archbishop Baldwin went to Jerusalem and 
there died, but not so Giraldus Cambrensis. 



346 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

five years old he had always been a fugitive and a prisoner." 
Leland writes of Pembroke Castle : " It staudith hard by the 
waul on a hard rokke, and is veri larg and strong, being doble 
wardid. In the utter ward I saw the chambre wher King 
Henry VII. was borne, in knowledge wherof a chymmeney is 
new made with the armes and badges of King Henri the 7th."* 
It was dismantled during the civil wars. 

Lamphey Palace was the episcopal residence in Pembroke of 
the Bishops of St. David's, and its erection has been generally 
attributed to Bishop Gower from 1328 to 1347. It is a good 
example of the domestic architecture of those times. The 
Palace, as well as Pembroke Castle, is on the Mountain Lime- 
stone. The Ridgeway is a good specimen of a massive wedge 
of Old Red Sandstone, formerly an anticlinal which throws 
off the Carboniferous limestone of Lamphey on one side, and 
that on which Carew Castle stands on the other. 

The magnificent ruins of Carew Castle rest upon a mass of 
Mountain Limestone, which rises in a slight elevation above a 
narrow strait of Milford Haven. It was formerly one of the 
royal residences of the Princes of South Wales, and Rhys ap 
Tudor gave it as a marriage-portion with his daughter Nest, 
to Giraldus de Windesor, the chieftain before alluded to. The 
reception of the Duke of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., by 
Sir Rhys ap Thomas, and the great tournament of St. George's 
day in 1488, are events connected with Carew Castle. It was 
dismantled in lG44.f The Geologist will observe that there 
can have been little or no change in the position of the land 
and the waters of the narrow estuary that flows at the base of 
the Castle rock. The beds of Mountain Limestone cropping 
out on the south side, below the little hill on which the 
Norman towers stand, have been untouched by the waters 
which for centuries have rolled on in their present course, and 
are sharp and angular. 

* Itra., vol. v., p. 19. 

t Lieut. -Col. Carew, of Crowcombe Court, near Taunton, is the owner 
of Carew Castle, and a descendant of the old family mentioned by Giraldus 
Cambrensis. 



CHAP, ix.] v THE WYNDCLIFF. 347 

In examining the physical contour of the country around 
Chepstow, every geologist who has seen the Welsh rocks 
will arrive at the determination that the Carboniferous 
limestone which encircles Dean Forest and runs south- 
ward towards Newport was once continuous with the group 
of rocks which encircles the great "Welsh coal basin. The 
neighbourhood of Chepstow, on the banks of the Wye, 
affords some fine sections of Mountain Limestone and the 
underlying rocks. The Old Red Conglomerate is exposed 
to the north of Tintern Abbey on the right bank of the 
river, and rises to the summit of Wentwood ; affording 
here a striking lesson of the upheaval of the same beds, 
which in other localities, as at Symonds Yat near Whit- 
church, dip into the Wye. In the succession of the Lower 
Limestone bhale to the Upper Old Keel, much the same 
characters are presented as those observed in the South 
Wales Coalfield. A good section may be traced out by 
going from Chepstow to Earlswood Common and Went- 
wood, and thence to Tintern Abbey. We thus pass from 
the Upper limestones to the lower beds which are exhibited 
between Well Head and Rugs Hole. Here there is a stream 
which, as is so often the case in the Lower limestone in 
Ireland, flows for more than a mile through a subterranean 
fissure. The passage from the lowest beds of the limestones 
into the uuderlying Old Red series may also be traced in this 
walk. There are few scenes in England more beautiful than the 
view from the summit of the Wyndcliff. Nine counties may 
be seen from the heights, and the river runs nearly 900 feet 
below, in a great fissure of Carboniferous limestone, widened 
by the denudation of the stream during long ages, and separates 
the bold escarpment of the rocks of the Wyndcliff from the 
frowning Bannagor crags. The geologist may learn a lesson 
from the summit of the Wyndcliff on the excavation of 
valleys along ancient lines of fault, for after studying these 
limestone sections he cannot suppose that these great gorges 
of the Wye owe their origin either to river or subaerial denu- 
dation alone, for a mere glance at the physical contour of the 



348 RECORDS OF THE KOCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

country affords satisfactory evidence that the original disloca- 
tions were caused by earthquake movements acting on lines 
of fault, but which fissures have no doubt been since widened 
by marine, glacial, old river, and present river action, as well 
as by long ages of subaerial denudation, ages we may never 
reckon. 

The neighbourhood of Chepstow is rich in historical asso- 
ciations and archaeological lore. The town was known as Gas 
G-went by the ancient Britons, and Strigoiel by the Romans. 
Charston Rock near Portscuett, is believed to be the place 
where the Romans, under Julius Frontinus, landed in the 
reign of Vespasian to attack Siluria and the Silures. Harold, 
the last of our Saxon kings, built a palace at Portscuett, at 
which he entertained King Edward the Confessor. In 
Doomsday Book, Chepstow Castle is mentioned as " Castillum. 
de Estrighoiel." Part of the keep is of Norman architecture, 
and is supposed to have been built by William Fitz Osborn, 
Earl of Hereford, soon after the battle of Hastings. The later 
structure is generally believed to be Edwardian. Leland says, 
"A great likelihood ys that wen Carigent (Caerwent) began 
to decay then began Chepstow to flourish, it standeth far 
better as upon Wy, there ebbing and flowing by the 
rage cumming out of the Severn." It was taken and 
retaken several times during the struggle between 
Charles I. and the Parliament. The tower on the left of 
the entrance was for many years the prison of Henry Martin, 
one of those who signed the death-warrant of Charles I. I 
find Camden mentions a great inundation which occurred 
in January 1607, over the fenny tract below Chepstow, called 
the moor, which he says, " at my present reviewing these notes 
has suffered a most lamentable devastation." " For the Severn 
sea after a spring-tide, being driven back by a south-west 
wind, raged with such a tide as to overflow all this lower tract, 
and also that of Somersetshire over against it ; undermining 
several houses and overwhelming a considerable number of 
cattel and men." Notwithstanding the power of these floods, 
they never deposited a single pebble like those of the old river 



CHAP, ix.] TINTERN ABBEY. 349 

low level drifts, with their great rolled pebbles and their 
teeth and bones of the extinct mammalia. 

Tintern Abbey stands on river alluvium, and from the 
position of some old drifts on the banks, I do not believe the 
Wye has altered its course to any extent since the year A.D. 
COO, when Theoderic, the British chieftain, fought a battle 
with the Saxon invaders of England in Tintern vale. The 
architecture of the far-famed Abbey indicates the transition 
from the Early English style to the Decorated, and our his- 
torical notes inform us that it was originally founded for 
monks of the Cistercian order in the reign of Henry I. 
(1131), by Walter de Clare, and dedicated to St. Mary. 
The building of the Abbey and the endowments thereof 
were carried on by Gilbert de Clare, surnamed Strongbow, 
the first Earl of Pembroke, and the conqueror of Ireland 
in the reign of Henry II. Strongbow married Eva, the 
daughter of Dermond, Prince of Leinster, in the midst of the 
desolation which follpwed the slaughter and harrying of the 
Irish after the siege of Waterford, when, as is recorded by 
Giraldus, " they entered into the city, and killed the people 
in the streets without pity or mercy, leaving them lying 
in great heaps; and thus with bloody hands obtained a 
bloody victory." After the death of Dermond, it appears 
that Strongbow took the title of King of Leinster, in right 
of his wife Eva daughter of the savage ; and it is worthy 
of note that his submission to King Henry, before that 
sovereign embarked at Milford for Ireland, was made at 
Xewnham in Gloucestershire, on the other side of the Forest 
of Dean. Among the sepulchral effigies is a figure of a knight 
in a coat of mail, which is supposed to be commemorative of 
Eichard Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, and is said before it 
was mutilated to have shown a hand with five fingers and a 
thumb ; a physical characteristic of Strongbow. The Church, 
however, was not finished until 1257, and it appears that Roger 
Bigod, the celebrated Earl of Norfolk who withstood the 
commands of Edward I. in the haughty speech, "By God, 
Sir King, I will neither go nor hang," was the principal 



350 EECOKDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP, ix, 

founder of the ruined edifice of Tintern. On the Wye, below 
Penalt, arc some outliers of Carboniferous limestone sur- 
rounded by Old Red valleys of denudation which are highly 
instructive as being the remains of denuded masses, which 
once connected the rocks of the Forest of Dean with those of 
the South Wales coalfield near Pontypool. 

Whitchurch, a village about four miles from Monmouth, 
lies in the midst of a district celebrated for the beauty of its 
scenery and rich in features of interest for the geologist and 
botanist. In the great gorge between Whitchurch and the 
Mountain Limestone escarpment of Symonds Yat, flows the 
river Wye, thus cutting off the Doward Hills, and Coppet 
Wood Hill, which may be said to be outliers of Carboniferous 
limestone, from the great mass of Carboniferous strata of the 
Forest of Dean. There is evidence, as we shall see, that a 
stream which had its sources where the Wye rises, once 
flowed at a far greater height than the level of the present 
course of that river. For ages it has been deepening its, 
channel, and dark craggy cliffs of Mountain Limestone clothed 
with rich foliage, now rise high above its waters. The hill 
of the Great Doward rises on the right bank of the Wye 
to the N.W. of Symonds Yat. A good section may be seen 
by ascending the hill from the Monmouth road, a quarter 
of a mile from the village of Whitchurch. The basement 
beds consist of Upper Old Eed Sandstone, which thins out 
considerably in its southern strike from the Brecon Vans ; it 
is succeeded by the Old Eed Conglomerate and the Passage 
beds of the Upper Yellow Sandstones, while the Great Doward 
itself is capped by the Lower limestone shale and the Carbon- 
iferous limestone. There are several caves on the Great 
Doward, and from their position, I hoped that, if opened up and 
examined, they might furnish the remains of some of the cave 
Mammalia ; and some years ago, when exploring the cavern on 
the western slope of the hill, known as King Arthur's Cave, I 
was struck with the accumulation of cave earth in the interior, 
and endeavoured to obtain leave to make some excavations, 
but without success. However, in 1870, some miners engaged 



CHAP, ix.] THE WYE BONE GATES. 351 

in working for iron -ore removed a good deal of the surface 
soil and cave earth, and in these excavations several fossil 
bones were discovered, which, when forwarded for examination 
to Professor Owen, were at once pronounced by him to be the 
relics of mammoth, rhinoceros, and horse ; it was also clear 
from the state of the bones that the cave had been the resort 
of hyaenas, as many of them had evidently been dragged in 
and gnawed. I then succeeded in obtaining permission, 
through the courtesy of Sir James Campbell, the Gaveller of 
Dean Forest, to carry on the exploration of the cave, and, 
assisted by a grant from the Malvern Field Club, we proceeded 
to institute a series of cuttings in order to ascertain the true 
position of the cave deposits. We were accompanied by Mr. 
Boyd Dawkins, the well-known osteologist, and we found the fol- 
lowing was the order of deposition of materials in the Cave : 

1st. Fallen debris from the roof mingled with decomposed 
stalactitic matter and decayed vegetable matter, forming 
a superficial soil, which contained Pottery, considered by 
Mr. John Evans, the well-known Archaeologist, to be pro- 
bably British, and also unfossilised Human bones, and 
bones of birds, badgers, and foxes. In the interior of the 
cave, where the accumulations had been undisturbed, was a 
thin band of stalactitic matter, much decomposed, which, in 
all probability, had formed a thin stalactitic floor, the results 
of the droppings of water, charged with carbonate of lime 
from the roof. This separated the first layer of cave earth 
from the superficial debris above. 

2nd. Earth, No. 1. This Earth was about two feet in 
thickness. In it were discovered flint flakes and chips, 
with three pebbles unmistakably chipped by human work- 
manship. Two of these are of black chert, evidently 
formed from rolled pebbles, while the third has been chipped, 
and is a pebble of some Lower Silurian rock. I exca- 
vated with my own hands one of the cores of chert from 
which flakes had been struck, and the second was found 
by my companion at the time, Mr. Scobell. Associated 
with these were the teeth and jaw of a Bear, with those- 



352 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

of the horse, and in Mrs. Bannerman's cave those of the 
Beaver. 

3rd. Stratified Silt and Sand. Below this upper earth, and 
separated from it by a layer of thin stalagmite, we found a 
thick mass of regularly stratified red sand and silt, containing 
some rolled river pebbles. It appears to me that this stratified 
sand and silt with its rolled pebbles, tells its own history, 
for I cannot account for its accumulation excepting by the 
supposition that they were introduced into the cave by the 
action of a stream which once flowed at a very different level 
from that of the present Wye, and which had access to the 
cave in former ages. The river indeed now flows more than 
300 feet below the mouth of the cave ; but those acquainted 
with the geology of the Wye, will readily recognise these 
pebbles as belonging to the silt of an ancient stream which, 
in those days as now, must have had its source in the heights 
of Plynlimmon, and washed down those cave stones from the 
Lower Silurian and trap rocks of Rhayader and Builth, a dis- 
tance of seventy or eighty miles from the cave's mouth. 

4th. Here a floor of stalagmite, about two feet thick, 
occurred, underneath which we came to a second accumulation 
of Cave earth. 

5th. Cave earth, No. 2. This Cave earth contained a great 
number of bones and teeth of the Rhinoceros, and fossil Horse, 
the teeth and horns of the Reindeer, the teeth of the Irish elk, 
and Bison, teeth and jaws of the cave Lion, Hyaena, and the 
teeth of the Mammoth (three sizes and ages), and here and 
there we disinterred some flint flakes, principally from the 
upper layers. One or two of these flakes I discovered myself 
in situ, imbedded with the bones of the mammoth. It is not, 
however, the association of the bones of the extinct animals with 
the rude flints of ancient Men,* that tell us more than do other 
caves of the antiquity of the history with which we have to 
deal. It is the fact of the Cave earth with its relics of the 
presence and handiwork of Man, and its remains of the extinct 

* On this subject the reader is referred to Sir John Lubbock's "Prehistoric 
Times," and Mr. Evans's work "Ancient Stone Implements." 



CHAP, ix.] PLANTS OF THE DOTVAEDS. 353 

Mammalia, being sealed with the thick floor of stalagmite, and 
the stratified sand and gravel of an ancient stream ; which 
overlies this stalagmite, and which must have been deposited 
by waters which flowed 300 feet above the present level of the 
river, which stamps the antiquity. The Mountain Limestone 
gorge between Symonds Yat and the Great Doward, has been 
excavated since those old men of Herefordshire chipped their 
flints and river pebbles when sheltering awhile in the hyaena's 
den ; and it is probable, too, that the soft Old Eed strata 
north of the Great Doward once rose higher than the harder 
limestones of the Dowards, and that long ages of atmospheric 
denudation have reduced their height since the days of the 
Cave Men and extinct Mammalia. Other excavations during 
the present summer (1872) have not induced me to alter my 
opinions respecting the introduction of the Wye silt and 
pebbles into this cave. Nor is the history very different from 
that presented by river action at the caves on the Lesse, in 
Belgium, where a human jaw, associated with remains of 
rhinoceros, was found under somewhat similar conditions. 
My friend Mr. Scobell, of Doward House, succeeded in finding 
a large humerus of mammoth, and some fine molars of Rhino- 
ceros tichorhinus, in a cave belonging to Mrs. Bannerman, 
fifty feet higher than is the cave of King Arthur. In the 
upper debris of this cave was found a perfect lower jaw of a 
beaver, probably one of the last of those animals that fre- 
quented the banks of the Wye. 

There are many quarries on the Great Doward, some of 
which have yielded large tuberculated ganoid scales, and 
portions of the spines of Ctenacanthus, also fragments of teeth, 
known as Orodus, of a Cestraciont fish. Several rare plants 
flourish on this hill, among them are the Fly Orchis, Bee 
Orchis, Carex Montana, Aquilegia vulgaris, Arabis stricta, 
Geranium sanguineum, G. lucidum, &c., and also a curious 
form of Rubus, mentioned by Mr. Edwin Lees, in his " Bo- 
tanical Looker Out," under the name of " Eubus Ballidus." 
The Great Doward is the home of the well-known cave 
dweller of modern days, " Jem the Slipper," under whose 



354 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. ix. 



guidance I first visited the hyaena's den and the other 
caves. 

The Little Doward Hill lies to the west of the Great 



W. V. Guise. 




Doward. The remains of an old encampment are very con- 
spicuous on its summit, and, according to Gibson's Camden, 
" broad arrow heads " have been found here, and a human 
skeleton, " whose joints were pretended to be twice the 
length of those of the present race." 

The geologist should not fail to visit the New Weir on the 



CHAP, ix.] THE MACHEX BOULDER. 355 

"Wye, and examine the fissure through which the river flows, and 
which forms a regular chasm between the Dowards on the 
right bank, and Symonds Yat on the left. From Symonds 
Yat the view is romantic in the extreme, while the dislocations 
of the earth's crust, which have taken place in this district, 
are well shown forth in the range of Mountain Limestone by 
Ravenscliff, with the dipping masses of Old Red Conglomerate, 
along Coppet Wood Hill, on the opposite side of the river. 
Symonds Yat is an excellent station for the rarer limestone 
plants and ferns. Polypodium Dryopteris and P. calcareum 
both grow among the cliffs, and Campanula patula, Geranium 
sanguineum, Pyrus Aria, Eubia peregrina, and Tilia parvifolia. 
I have also seen Aquilegia vulgaris (the wild columbine) 
growing truly wild in the woods. 

On the broad pathway, leading from Symonds Yat to 
English Bicknor and Lydbrook, stands a large Boulder of 
Coal Measure Sandstone. It was enveloped with others in a 
mass of angular and sub-angular drift, which, I believe, owes 
its transportation entirely to the ice agencies of an ice 
epoch, to which I have already alluded, viz., the period of 
cold which affected Great Britain for long ages after the land 
had assumed much the same physical configurations as at 
present. The origin of these drifts can hardly be attributed 
to the epoch of the great Glacial depression of Great Britain, 
and that of the sub-marine boulder drifts ; they belong to a 
later stage of the glacial epoch, to the time when glaciers 
occupied the hollows of the mountains, when, even in our 
lowlands, perennial ice and snow covered every hill side, and 
filled every vale, when winter protracted his stay far into the 
spring, and the melting snow and ice of every summer forced 
the masses, lifted by winter frosts, inch by inch, and foot by 
foot, downwards towards the vales. I believe that when the 
Machen boulder made its first start from its mother rock, a 
glacier filled the Coomb, on the summit of the Brecon Vans, 
and great sheets of ice and snow swept from the flanks of the 
Malvern Hills down to the vales ; that sub-arctic plants grew 
on what is now the land of Dean Forest, and the cloudberry 



356 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. ix. 

(Eubus Chamaemorus) blossomed where now flourish the elm, 
the oak, and the ash ; while the woolly-haired Rhinoceros, the 
long-haired Mammoth, and the Reindeer wandered where now 
may be seen only the rabbit and the hare. I have called the 
Boulder the Machen boulder in remembrance of a gentleman 
(the Rev. Mr. Machen of Staunton) who, at my request, pre- 
served this geological relic from destruction when it was on 
the point of being destroyed. 

ORGANIC REMAINS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE. 

In many localities, the Mountain Limestone is very rich in 
the remains of marine animals. The corals are declared by 
M.M. Milne Edwards and Jules Haime to display a pecu- 
liarity of structure which distinguishes them from the Neozoic 
corals, or from those species found in rocks newer than the 
Permian. The Bryozoa and Crinoidea are also numerous in 
the Mountain Limestone, and the collection of Mr. Wood of 
Richmond, in Yorkshire, is especially rich in beautiful crinoids. 
The genus Paloechinus is the analogue of the modern Echinus. 
Dr. Wright of Cheltenham, Vice-president of the Cotswold 
Club, possesses a wonderful collection of the Echinodermata 
and the genera characteristic of various formations. 

Mr. Etheridge enumerates eighty-six genera, and upwards 
of 650 species of Mountain Limestone shells, of which the 
most characteristic are the large Product! and Spirifers, with 
a certain number which belong to existing genera, as Avicula, 
Nucula, Solemya, and the boring shells, Lithodomi. The 
modern glass shells (Carinaria) are represented by more than 
twenty species of Bellerophon. The Cephalopoda of the 
Carboniferous limestone are represented by the straight forms 
of Orthoceras and the coiled Goniatite, which looks like a 
Nautilus, but has its siphuncle in a different position, and 
belongs to the Ammonites, not the Nautili. Fish must have 
been abundant, as there is a "bone bed" known as the Bristol 
bone bed, almost made up of fragments of fishes. Many of 
the teeth of these fishes are similar in form to those of the 
Port Jackson shark, a Cestracion ; and are palatal teeth, 



CHAP, ix.] LOWER CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 357 

adapted to crashing and grinding, and set in the jaw like 
tesselated pavement. Some of the teeth are similar to those 
of common sharks, and were set in massive and powerful jaws. 
The defensive spines and fin-bones of these fishes are some- 
times found very perfect. The Earl of Enniskillen possesses 
a wonderful collection from the Carboniferous limestone of 
Ireland. 

The Earl of Ducie possesses the finest ichthyodorulite from 
these rocks I ever saw. He obtained it from the limestone of 
Clifton, near Bristol. These fish-spines are known under the 
terms of Oracanthus, Ctenocanthus, Orodus, &c. Some of 
these spines are believed by M. Agassiz to be the spears of 
fish allied to our modern sting ray (Trygon), which has on 
the tail a strong spine, notched on each side. The great 
Megalicthys Hibberti has a very reptilian-looking mouth and 
teeth ; and the palaeontologist cannot help remarking the 
difference between the small spines and teeth of the Upper 
Silurian and Old Red fishes, when compared with those of 
their far more gigantic successors of the Carboniferous epoch. 

The Trilobites of the Silurian rocks appear to have been 
rapidly passing away as representatives of crustacean life, 
for very few forms pass upwards from the Devonians, and 
would seem in the Carboniferous period to have died out 
altogether. 




OF THE BONE CAVES, BAXWELL. 



CHAPTER X. 

CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 

Millstone Grit Area of Deposition of -Conglomerate Watt's and Offa's 
Dykes Oswestry Whittington Castle Tournament at the Castle of the 
Peak Carreg-o-gof Fault of Section near Ross Boulders near St. 
Bride's Bay Coal Measures Historic Notes on Coal Palaeozoic Coal- 
fields Formation of Carboniferous Flora Chemistry of Coal Coalfield 
of Anglesea of Flintshire Basingwerk Abbey Denbighshire Holt 
Castle Church of Bangor Iscoed Rocks of Haughmond Bitumen 
Haughmond Abbey Glee Hills Forest of Wyre Rare Plants of 
Coalbrook Dale Fossil Fishes of Coalfield of Forest of Dean of South 
Wales "Patch Working" Pennant Grit Series Neath Abbey Former 
Continuity of the Coal Measures Organic Remains of the Coal. 



PLANTS. 



/ORGANIC REMAINS. 





Fish. 




' Ferns. 


Rhizodus. 




Pecopteris. 


Coelacanthus. 




Shales and 
Sandstones. 
Coal Measure. 

Trial 


Neuropteris. 
Caulopteris. 

Lepidodendron 


Megalichthys. 
Gyracanthus. 
Cochliodus. 
Hybodus. 


1. Coal 
Measures. 


voai. 
Sandstones. 
Coal. 
Shales. 
Sandstones. 
Coal Measure. 


Sternbergii. / 
Lycopodium 
densum. 
Calamites. 
Sigillaria, with 
Stigmaria. 


Reptilia. 
Labyrinthodon. 

Land Shells. 
Pupa. 






Helix. 




v Conifers. 






Insects. 




Dragon flies. 




^ Spiders. 




A quartz rock, 
often passing 


( In North Wales it 


2. Millstone 
Grit. ( 


into a conglo- 
merate in a si- 
licious matrix. 
It is sometimes 


Occasional im- 
> pressions of 
plants. 


ly preserved fos- 
sil shells of Moun- 
tain Limestone 




600 feet thick. 




species. 



CHAP, x.] CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 359 




IDEAL VIEW OF THE VEGETATION OF THE CARBONIFEROUS ERA. 



MILLSTONE GRIT. 

THE geologist cannot fail to observe the remarkable differ- 
ence in the mineralogical characters of the Mountain Lime- 
stone and the overlying Millstone grit, which was thus named 
from being formerly much used for millstones, and the grinders 
of cider mills. So great is the difference in the mineral nature 
of these Carboniferous rocks, that we are led to inquire into 
the causes to which we may attribute this change, for the 
Millstone grit, although sometimes absent, like the Mountain 
Limestone, occupies a large area over Great Britain and the 
Continent. In the western districts of North "Wales, it is 
found principally as outliers, and here and there in patches, 
overlies the Mountain Limestone, as near Llandudno, thus 
showing the great denudation which has cleared away much 
of the intervening strata of this hard unyielding rock, once so 
continuous over this area. It overlies the limestone of the 
great South Wales coalfield, and ranges from Carmarthen into 
Pembrokeshire. It occurs in the same situation in the great 
outlier of Dean forest ; and in Derbyshire, the west of York- 
shire and Lancashire swells into a thickness of 600 or 800 feet. 

The Upper Carboniferous limestones of the midland and 
southern districts of Ireland, are surmounted by the equi- 



360 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

valents of this rock, and Sir Roderick Murchison traced them 
even into Germany and Spain. 

In some localities in the Silurian region, the Millstone grit 
partakes of the character of a coarse conglomerate, and in hilly 
districts where the Old Red conglomerate has been also exposed 



GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS IN THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN 
PARTS OF ENGLAND. 




a, Upper beds of the Old Red Sandstone (Devonian). I, Sandstone and Lower 
Limestone-shale, e, Carboniferous Limestone, tl, Millstone-grit. , Coal and iron- 
stone. /, Main Coal measures. .</, Upper Coal, with a peculiar Limestone, h, Red 
Sandstone ; bu.se of the Permian Rocks, here represented as conformable to the Coal, 
but usually transgressive.) 



and denuded, it is difficult to the unpractised eye to determine 
to which conglomerate the boulders or rock fragments belong. 
It is evident that the Mountain Limestone must have been 
deposited under very different circumstances to those which 
brought about the deposition of the Millstone grit, which, 
where it contains rolled and water-worn pebbles, probably the 
result of powerful currents, may have formed sea-beaches, 
while the limestone must have been segregated in deeper and 
tranquil waters. The limestone often consists of one mass of 
the segregations of coral animals, and contains shells, and 
fishes of marine origin. In the Millstone grit, the elevation of 
the old bed of the ocean was apparently going on, for we meet 
with no corals and few shells : while the remains of land plants 
are not uncommon, and especially in the South Wales country we 
often see the impressions of Carboniferous trees and plants im- 
bedded in the old sea grits, which were afterwards to be covered 
up by the vast accumulations of the Coal-measure period. 
In the Silurian region, this rock is commonly known as the 
" Farewell Rock," or " good-bye " to the coal seams when once 
it is reached by the boring rod. 

In Derbyshire, and the eastern districts of the Carboniferous 



CHAP, x.] MILLSTONE GRIT COUXTRY. 361 

rocks of England, the Millstone grit is underlaid by a series 
of black shales called the Yoredale Rocks. They are full of 
marine fossils, and especially abound in stems and remains of 
encrinites, or stone lilies, which fonn beds of limestone, ex- 
tending often for many miles on their strike, in every direction. 

When rambling in the vales of Monmouthshire, among the 
debris of the rocks which lie scattered in boulders over the 
hills, the geologist will be struck with the abundance of Mill- 
stone grit boulders in localities where we should expect to see 
boulders of Mountain Limestone occurring at least as plenti- 
fully, whereas they are extremely rare. I mentioned this on 
one occasion to a friend who knew much of the chemistry of 
rocks, and he remarked that during long ages of subaerial 
exposure,- the fragments of exposed Mountain Limestone would 
dissolve through atmospheric agencies, whereas the Millstone 
grit would yield far more slowly. 

A Millstone grit country is, as a rule, sterile and bleak, and 
the naturalist and botanist are glad to leave it for a limestone 
district. It affords very few fossils, and is the habitat of few 
good plants ; thus the lover of physical geology alone cares to 
bestow upon it any examination in detail. There are, however, 
some localities where interesting lessons may be learned re- 
garding the position of rock masses, and denudation, from 
these deposits. In the north-eastern portion of North Wales 
the Millstone grit may be seen well developed in the south east 
of Denbighshire. It caps the summit of the Eglwyseg rocks, 
near Llangollen, and there it is fossiliferous, yielding stems of 
encrinites and casts of shells, which have the appearance of 
being derived from older beds. It may be seen also at the Trevor 
Rocks, where there are casts of fossils that look as if they might 
be casts of Producti, washed out of the Mountain Limestone. 

Sir Roderick Murchison in his " Silurian System," divides 
the Millstone grit of Oswestry into three series, but this does 
not hold to the westward, as this rock varies much in its 
lithological characters. In the neighbourhood of Oswestry, 
these deposits occur at Selattyn and Porkington, also on the 
summits of Cern-y-bwch and Mynydd Myfryr. Sir Roderick 



362 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAI>. x. 

gives a section through the Millstone grit of Mynydd Myfryr, 
indicating the position of the different strata ; * he notices also 
the fossiliferous character of this rock in Shropshire, and the 
red strata associated with its white and grey sandstones. 
The lowest beds of the formation may be observed in the 
promontory of Sweeney Mountain, and on the west in the 
hills of the Race course. 

The Millstone grit of the Flintshire coalfield differs from 
that rock in the South Welsh coalfield, in being more of a 
silicious sandstone, and containing more organic remains. 
These are evidently of marine origin, inasmuch as Orthocera- 
tites, Producti, Lingulae, and Orthides, with Rhynconella 
pleurodon, have been found in abundance by Mr. W. Prosser,f 
at Sweeney near Oswestry. With these occur occasionally 
the remains of Coal plants, such as Sigillariee. It appears 
also as if. in some localities of the Flint coalfield, the Mill- 
stone grit had either not been deposited, owing to currents 
sweeping along the edges, or else had been denuded before 
the deposition of the coal measure shales; for at Selattyn 
Hill, five miles from Oswestry, the coal shales lie unconform- 
ably, and without the interposition of the grit, on Silurian 
slate rocks. 

The visitor to Selattyn should not fail to mark the position 
of Offa's Dyke, the old line of demarcation already spoken of, 
between the kingdom of Mercia and Wales. It may be seen 
three miles west of Gobowen, while to the east of Belmont is 
Wail's DyJce, another ancient boundary, which commences 
three miles south of Oswestry, is nearly parallel with Offa's 
Dyke, and runs northward into Flintshire. Churchyard, 
writing of these two Dykes, says : 

" There is a famous thing 
Callde Offa's Dyke, that reacheth far in length, 
All kind of ware the Danes might thether bring ; 
It was free ground, and callede the Briton's strength. 
Wat's Dyke likewise, about the same was set ; 
Between which two both Danes and Britons met. " 

* Silurian System, p. 144. f Geo1 - Ma 8-> vo1 - "' P' 107> 



. x.] CHURCHYARD OX OSWESTRY. 363 

Oswestry stands on the site of a very ancient town in the 
district between Watt's and Offa's Dykes. The Saxons called 
this place Macerfelth, or the field of acorns ; and the "Welsh 
called it Croes Oswalt (Oswald's cross) in memory of Oswald, 
King of Northumberland ; who was slain there and his body 
nailed to a cross by Penda, King of Mercia, A.D. 642. A 
little distance from the church is a well, still called Fynnon y 
Oapcl Oswalt. In 1212 King John burnt the town and 
castle, and, as his habit was, plundered the place and people. 
In 1044 the Eoyalists destroyed the Church tower. In the 
town there still remain some of the old timber houses that 
stood in the days of Queen Elizabeth, and Churchyard, who 
says of " Oyestri," 

' ' It stands so trim, and is maintayned so cleane, 
And peopled is with f olke that well doe meane, 
That it deserves to be enrouled and shryned 
In each good heart and every manly mynd." 

About a mile to the north, to the right of the branch 
railway to Gobowen, is the Hen Dinas of Camden, also called 
Caer Ograu and Old Oswestry. It is a British camp, defended 
by a deep triple entrenchment. At Porkington there is 
. another entrenchment on the west side of the Park ; and both 
here and at Selattyn Hill, Henry II. is said to have lost a 
great number of men in his raids on the Welsh. 

From Oswestry the ruins of the Castle of Whittington 
may be visited. Nightingale, in his account of Shropshire, 
says that after the Conquest it was held by Roger de 
Montgomery ; and afterwards by Peverell of the Peak of 
Derbyshire, who oifered his daughter Mallet in marriage to 
the Knight who should display the greatest prowess in the 
tilting court. The Castle of the Peak was the tilting ground ; 
and there entered the lists Guarine de Metz, of the house of 
Lorraine, Lord of Alberbury and sheriff of Shropshire. He 
entered with " his silver shelde, and a proude pecock upon 
his heaulme creste," overthrew his rivals, won the Ladye, and 
received the castle of Whittington from Peverell of the Peak, 



364 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

as her dower. Fulke Fitz Guarine, a descendant of PeverelFs 
daughter and Guarine de Metz, was one of the barons who 
forced King John to sign Magna Charta. Among the ruins 
are remains of eight towers, four of which belonged to the 
keep, and it is evident that in feudal times it was a place of 
great consequence. 

" In ancient days of high renown 
Not always did those castles frown 

With ivy-crested brow ; 
Nor were their walls with moss embrowned, 
Nor hung the lanky weeds around, 

That fringe their ruins now." 

In clearing the bottom of one of the towers about 1812, 
some huge iron fetters were found, a gyve of ponderous size, 
and numerous heads and antlers of red deer. When visiting 
these ruins some years ago, I knew nothing of the history of 
this once important border fortress; and it then struck me 
how useful to the rambling geologist would be a few historical 
notes upon the remote old places where neither Pennant, nor 
Gough's Camden, can be obtained, and it was then that I 
determined to search in Old Records for some account of the 
ancient ruins I might come across when rambling in pursuit 
of fossils or physical geology. I have never regretted the 
combination of historical with geological lore, nor have I ever 
found the one interfere with the other. 

Travelling in a north-westerly direction the Millstone grit 
may be seen on the Hope Mountain* south of Mold. At 
Caergwrle, a mile to the south, Roman tiles, bricks, beds of 
iron, scoriae, and bits of coal, have been found. The gorge of 
Alyn below Caer Estyn is romantic, and Gresford is a lovely 
village, with a church remarkable for its bells, its ancient 
monuments, grotesque mouldings, and its tower. 

At the Titterstone Glee, the Millstone grit formation consists 
of a pebbly silicious conglomerate, similar to that of the South 
Wales coalfield. It is best seen on the north side of the road 

* Hope Mountain may be best reached from Chester, going to Hope station. 



CHAP, x] PEYERELL OF THE PEAK. 365 

to the Carboniferous quarries of Oreton, and its boulders strew 
the hill all the way down the slopes. It may be seen in 
position above the limestone at Knowl. Impressions of coal 
plants occur in the scattered blocks on the north side of the 
hill, and here and there great boulders of this rock are stranded 
far down the valley. 

In the counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire, the 
Millstone grit appears in many localities in situ supporting 
the Coal measures of the South "Wales coal-field, and is strewed 
in every direction as boulders on the hill sides, Varteg Hill, 
near Pontypool, being covered with them. The most pic- 
turesque situations, however, and the most instructive are Pen 
Cerrig Caleb, the great outlier on the Black Mountains already 
alluded to, nearly 200 feet of Grit covering the Mountain 
Limestone of that isolated peak ; and the hill of Carreg-o-gof 
near the Van-sir- gaer of the Vans of Caermarthen. Here 
there is a grand fault, the Old Red of the Yan-sir-gaer rising 
2300 feet above the sea, while the neighbouring hill of Carreg- 
o-gof, covered by Millstone grit and Mountain Limestone, is 
thrown down on the west, and rises only to about the height of 
1400 feet. A little stream runs along this line of fault. The 
lake at the base of the Old Red of the Van-sir-gaer is dammed 
up by a small moraine of Old Eed Conglomerate ; while the 
walk across the moors over the Old Red to Trecastle shows a 
multitude of boulders of Millstone grit which must have been 
denuded from the eroded summits of the Caermarthen Vans. 

The fault that throws down the picturesque rock upon which 
Castell Cerrig Cennen near Llandeilo stands, is well illustrated 
by examining the Millstone grit on the left bank of the 
Lwchwr stream beyond an old farm house, and comparing its 
position and strike with that of the Old Red Conglomerate on 
the right bank, Avhere, near Cennen house, it underlies the 
Mountain Limestone which supports the ruined castle. 

In the Forest of Dean district, there is an instructive 
section within a walk of the town of Ross. It may be reached 
by going from the Ross and Lydbrook road by Whythall (the 
residence of Mr. Collins, a picturesque old manor-house 



366 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

occupied by Cromwell during the siege of Goodrich Castle) 
and ascending towards the Forest by Kiln Green and Dundle 
Hole. The Millstone grit lies over the wild district known 
as Howl Hill, Egypt, and Howl Green, and on the grit rests a 
thin seam of the lowest coal measures ; the upper coal seams 
of the Forest being here denuded. This is a dreary country 
as compared with the beautiful Old Red Sandstone vales, but 
presents an outlier of the Coal measures as it is separated 
from the regular Dean Forest coal measures at Ruardean, by 
a mass of Carboniferous limestone which intervenes, and from 
above which the Millstone grit and coal are denuded. Beyond 
Symonds Yat these rocks may be seen by following their 
strike by Braceland and Scowles' Farm to Coleford ; and near 
Monmouth is High Bury, an outlier and regular island of 
Carboniferous rocks, sui-rounded by Old Red Sandstone, a 
Pen Cerrig Calch on a smaller scale. 

In Pembrokeshire the Millstone grit is a whitish, silicious 
rock like that of Caermarthenshire, and to the east of the 
estuary of Milford Haven the Coal measures may be seen 
underlaid by great masses of this silicious grit and Mountain 
Limestone. The grits occasionally contain stems of Calamites 
and Lepidodendrons as at Amroth near Tenby. Westward of 
the estuary of Milford Haven the Mountain Limestone thins 
out ; but all along the coast-line I observed great masses of 
silicious Millstone grit stranded as boulders on the escarpments 
of the cliffs of St. Bride's Bay. At a place called Haroldstone 
there is one of especial size and well worthy of notice : it rests 
on Culm shales instead of under them, as is its proper position. 
It is not always easy to determine these rocks from coal 
measure sandstones by their mineralogical character. This 
was shown in 1864 by Mr. Handel Cossham, F.G.S., who read 
a paper at the meeting of the British Association in that year, 
which proved that the supposed Millstone grit of Kingswood 
Hill, Bristol, instead of lying below the productive coal 
measures and being a Farewell Rock, was in truth a coal 
measure sandstone having twenty-one seams of coal lying in 
regular order below it. 



CHAP. X.] 



COAL AND ITS HISTORY. 



367 



THE COAL MEASUEES. 

Coal is now so intimately associated with the future 
destinies of Great Britain as well as with our ideas of comfort 
and enjoyment, that it is not surprising if some of us believe 




that there is something in the history of its composition, 
storing, and preservation through an interminable series of ages 
and mutations, which must be referred to a scheme of Provi- 
dence and Design rather than to a blind collection of vegetable 
matter which grew by chance, was accumulated by chance, and 
was turned into coal by chance. Some persons ignore all 
ideas of Providence and design in the bygone history of our 
planet, and attribute the accumulation of such terrestrial 
treasures as our coalfields to a series of blind laws; while 
others believe in the forethought of that Providential care 
which elaborated them for the use of Man. I prefer the 
latter theory. 

The question of the exhaustibility of our Coal-fields is highly 
complicated, and I refer my readers to the excellent treatise on 



368 RECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. x. 

this subject by Prof. Hull, Chief of the Geological Survey of 
Ireland, on " The* Coalfields of Great Britain." Referring the 
Coal mentioned in the Bible to charcoal, Mr. Hull observes 
that Theophrastus, who lived about 240 years before the Chris- 
tian era, describes actual coal in definite language, while it is 
established on incontestable evidence that coal was worked, to 
a certain amount, by our pre-historic British ancestors, although 
the vast forests of England supplied an abundance of wood for 
fuel in the days of the Anglo-Saxon and Xorman periods. 
Stone implements have been found in old mines in Monmouth- 
shire, and at Ashby-de-la-Zouch. Again, Mr. Huh 1 remarks 
that the Latin proverb quoted by Phasdrus, " Carbonem ut 
aiunt pro thesauro invenimus," loses all its significancy 
if considered as referring to charcoal. Cinders have been 
found among the ruins of Roman towns and villas, as at 
Caergwrle near Chester, already alluded to, and some years 
ago I saw several fragments of coal lying about on the site 
of Ariconium, near Ross ; while at Uriconium, or Wroxeter, 
coal has been found in the flues. Whittaker, also, in his 
" History of Manchester," relates instances of the association 
of coal cinders with Roman remains and coins. 

In the Anglo-Saxon period it is probable that coal mining 
was practised to some extent, as the Saxon Chronicle of the 
Abbey of Peterborough records that about A.D. 852 the Abbot 
Ceolred let the land of Sempringham subject to the delivery, 
among many other requisitions, of twelve loads of coal. The 
term coal is identical with the Saxon or German " kohle," and 
appears to have superseded the British name " glo." 

References to coal are made in the Boldon Book in the time 
of Henry II. ; and in the reign of Henry III., 1259, a charter 
was granted to the freemen of Newcastle-on-Tyne for liberty 
to dig for coals. 

The Coal pits of Bychton and Mostyn in Flintshire had been 
discovered in the days of Edward I., for they are mentioned in 
a deed issued in the twenty-third year of his reign, and in the 
latter part of the fourteenth century collieries were opened in 
many parts of Great Britain. In Elizabeth's time coal had 



CUAV. x.] AGES OF COAL. 369 

become an important source of revenue, and Camden mentions 
coalpits being on fire in Scotland ! The importance of Coal 
in a national point of view can only be estimated by reflecting 
on what would become of Great Britain without the agent 
which warms our hearths, heats our forges, smelts our metals, 
illumines by its gases at night our cities, streets, and dwelling- 
houses, propels our locomotive engines and carries thousands 
of steam vessels, often against the storm wind, over the most 
distant seas. 

There is little doubt that the physical conditions of the 
Paleozoic Coal period must have been very different to those 
under which we now live ; but it must not be supposed that 
the accumulation of coal was altogether limited to that epoch. 
The Coalfield of Virginia in America extends from north to 
south for a distance of nearly thirty miles, and is from four to 
twelve miles in breadth. The plants of which that coal con- 
sists have the nearest affinity to those of the European Trias, 
and the coal seams often surpass in thickness those of the 
Primary or Paleozoic formation. The "Brown coal" of 
Switzerland and Germany is of the age of the Middle Ter- 
tiaries ; and at Wildsfluth in Austria coal is worked which is 
probably of still later date. Nevertheless the geographical 
area occupied by the Palaeozoic coalfields is very remarkable, 
and none of the later accumulations of this mineral can be 
said to be strictly analogous. In the United States of America 
the Primary coalfields cover more than 600,000 square miles, 
or a tract of nearly seven times the size of Great Britain. The 
vegetation of this great formation must also have extended 
over many latitudes and longitudes, for Coal plants once grew 
in the area of Melville Island, in 75 north latitude, where 
there is little else now but ice and snow. Fossil coal-plants 
have been found in localities as distant as Spitzbergen and 
Peru, and the same species of plants occur scattered over 
areas which are altogether at variance with the present dis- 
tribution of vegetable life. 

There has been much dispute on the subject of the forma- 
tion of Coal, and the way in which such enormous masses of 

B B 



S70 HECOltDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

vegetation were accumulated; whether they were drifted by 
rivers and deposited in estuaries or lakes, or whether the 
plants grew, as in recent peat mosses, jungles, and cedar 
swamps, and gradually sank and were covered up by layers of 
mud and sand, while fresh masses of ferns, club mosses, &c., 
again grew on the new surface, to be in their turn submerged, 
until subsidences and accumulations of mud and silt overlaid 
as many successive vegetable areas as there are seams of coal 
in our various coal-fields. The Great Slave river of North 
America, carries down enormous masses of drifted trees and 
timber into the Slave lake, where the wood becomes waterlogged, 
sinks, and is covered by sediment ; and the great swamps 
of the Mississippi of Louisiana and Nova Scotia have been con- 
sidered as somewhat analogous representatives of the character 
of the ancient forest vegetations, and of the conditions which 
formed our coal-fields. 

Perhaps the "Sunk Country" of the Mississippian valley, so 
graphically described by Sir Charles Lyell, and which was 
submerged by an earthquake in 1811 1812, is as good an 
example as we can bring forward of recent physical conditions 
under which lacustrine, or fresh water coal-beds, may accumu- 
late, although it will not apply to those seams of coal which 
are interstratined with beds containing organic remains of 
marine animals, which must have been inhabitants of sea 
coasts and margins. When Sir Charles Lyell visited the 
" Sunk Country " he observed erect trees which had been 
standing ever since the earthquake and submergence of the 
area ; lacustrine and swamp plants growing in the shallows ; 
and an immense amount of swamp vegetation accumulating ; 
also that this great morass was surrounded by so dense a 
marginal belt of reeds and brushwood, that although several 
rivers have annually inundated the whole space, no sediment 
whatever has been carried by the waters into the vegetable 
morass within. " The dense growth of reeds and herbage 
which encompasses the margins of forest-covered swamps in 
the valley and delta of the Mississippi, is such that the fluvia- 
tile waters in passing through them are filtered and made to 



CHAP, x.] HULL ON COAL. 371 

clear themselves entirely before they reach the areas in which 
vegetable matter may accumulate for centuries, forming coal. 
If the climate be favourable, there is no possibility of earthy 
matter in such cases." * But if some of the strata of the coal 
measures are of fresh water, recent investigations prove that 
a large portion of the deposits associated with coal are of 
marine origin. 

LIMULOID CRUSTACEAN OF THE CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD. 




Prestwichia otundata (Limulus, Prestwich.) From the Coal-measures of 
Coalbrook Dale. 



The observations of Sir William Logan, when surveying the 
South "Wales coal-field, established the fact that the plants 
which formed the coal grew upon the spot where they are now 
found changed into coal, and that the underclays, which are 
penetrated by Stigmaria3 (the roots of Sigillaria?), formed the 
actual soil on which those great club mosses grew. One of 
the remarkable points connected with some coalfields both 
in England and America, is the displacement, faulting, sub- 
mergence, and re-elevation of the coal-bearing rocks. It has 
been calculated by Mr. Hull " that in the case of the coal- 
field of South Wales, every bed of true coal represents a land 
surface, or at least a former sea level, and that the vertical dis- 
placement which the South Wales coalfield underwent, was 
nearly sufficient to have brought the summit of the Alps to the 

* Lyell's Visit to the United States, vol. ii., p. 245. 

B B 2 



372 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

sea-level. The geologist who really studies the physical his- 
tory of this Coalfield, feels the impossibility of comprehending 
the time necessary for the fulfilment of the phenomena he 
there beholds ; viz. the evidence of slow and gradual subsi- 
dence accompanied by a series of pauses in that subsidence 
marked by thick seams of ancient vegetation, the deposition 
of thick beds of strata one above another, the conversion 
of the vegetation into coal, the shifting of the strata and 
their re -elevation into high hills, all this leaves him 
utterly inadequate to form a conception of the lapse of time 
occupied in their elaboration. Prof. Phillips in his " Life 
on the Earth," on the supposition of the amount of sedi- 
mentary matter laid down at the mouth of great rivers, such 
as the Ganges, calculates that the time required for the pro- 
duction of the South Wales coalfield would be about half a 
million of years. 

Mr. Hull calculates that the formation of this Coalfield would 
have occupied 640,000 years, but the higher estimates given by 
Sir C. Lyell,* appear to me to be the more probable approxi- 
mation when we consider the multiplicity of the phenomena 
involved in its history. 

BOTANY OF COAL CHEMISTRY OF COAL, ETC. 




Pecopteris lonchitidis, Sternberg. 



"We have not long been acquainted with the fact that Coal is 
of vegetable origin, however surprising it may appear that men 

* Lyell's Elements of Geology, pp. 3867. 



CHAP, x.] CAMDEX OX FOSSIL PLAXTS. 373 

could have worked for so many years among the impressions of 
fern leaves and other plants which are brought up in thousands 
among the debris of every shaft, without suspecting the history 
of the structure of coal. For centuries it was believed to be of 
mineralgjjBi rather than of vegetable origin. The earliest 
record with which I am acquainted of any Coal-plant in a 
fossil state, is in Queen Elizabeth's time, by Camden, who 
mentions having seen some impressions which had the appear- 
ance of oak leaves, near the town of Caerwys, in Flintshire ; 
yet even as late as 1812 we find the impressions of plants 
upon the coal shales spoken of as "mock plants or re- 
semblances," and " mineral sorts of foliage," after the fashion 
of " Omphalos." Now it is accepted as a simple matter of 
fact that all coal is of vegetable origin, as demonstrated not 
only by the masses of plant remains with which it is sur- 
rounded, but by its microscopic structure and combustible 
properties. 

Two things, however, strike the botanist with regard to the 
luxuriant vegetation which flourished in the Palaeozoic coal 
period ; first, the peculiarity in structure of the trees and 
plants of that epoch, differing greatly in many respects from 
any forms now living ; and secondly, the uniformity in that 
vegetation which ranged from the Arctic regions of Spitzbergen 
to the 30th parallel of latitude. In many instances the plants 
of the Coal are supposed to belong to groups and families 
differing altogether from existing forms, but of the plants 
most commonly preserved, the Ferns which form a large pro- 
portion of the Carboniferous flora are evidently allied to our 
modern species. The most abundant are Pecopteris, of which 
more than GO species are determined, Sphenopteris, and Neu- 
ropteris. Of Pecopteris, the young fern leaves coiled up ready 
to unfold with the return of spring have been found, and speci- 
mens have been obtained with the marks of the sori, or seed 
vessels, on the backs of the leaves. No less than 130 species 
of fossil ferns are known from the British coal strata, many 
of them being allied to the tree ferns of New Zealand and the 
Indian Archipelago. 



374 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAT. x. 

CALAMITES. 

The common Horsetail of our ponds and swampy marshes 
is a recent ally and example of two fossil genera of plants 
of the coal, Calamites and Equisitites. Dr. "Williamson 
believes that the Calamites grew to the size of great trees, 
attaining a height of more than 20 feet, with a fistular pith, 
exogenous woody stem, and a thick bark which has been 
turned into coal, leaving only the cast of the pith. They 
show no leaves attached, but the plants known to collectors 
as Annularia and Sphenophyllum, are believed by Prof. Car- 
ruthers to be the leaves of Calamites. 

SIGILLAEIA AND STIGMAEIA. 

The Sigillaria was a great tree of the Carboniferous period, 
and twenty-eight species are enumerated as British. Stig- 
maria has been clearly demonstrated by Mr. Binney to be the 
root-stalks, radiating outwards and spreading horizontally ; 
and in the Manchester Museum is the stem of a large Sigillaria 
passing downwards into massive rootlets, or the Stigmaria 
ficoides of former collectors. Dr. Hooker believes that the 
Sigillaria were large Cryptogams, but very highly developed ; 
and Mr. Carruthers ranks them with the club mosses (Lyco- 
podiaceae). Sir C. Lyell mentions a Sigillaria found at New- 
castle, 72 feet in length ; and Hugh Miller, when visiting the 
Wolverhampton coalfield, saw seventy-three stumps of these 
trees in three tiers, one above another, packed in such a way as 
to convince him that three successive forests grew on the same 
site.* It was within the hollow cylinders of some Sigillaria?, 
in Isova Scotia, that Prof. Dawson and Sir C. Lyell found 
the remains of the skeleton of a land Reptile, the first ever 
detected in carboniferous strata. In the same hollow cylinders 
were also found numerous land snail shells, and some mille- 
pedes or myriapods. Since that Dr. Dawson has discovered 
nine skeletons of reptiles belonging to four species, all preserved 
in hollow carboniferous trees. 

* " First Impressions of England," &c., p. 233. 



COAL HEl'TILES AXD PLANTS. 37-5 



LYCOPODIACE^. 

Lepidodendron. The Lepidodendra are abundant and large- 
sized plants of the British Coal measures, and they bore 
sporangia and spores similar to those of existing club mosses. 
Conical-shaped fruit cones known as Lepidostrobi have been 
found in the trunks of Lepidodendron, and it was the opinion 
of M. Brongniart, that the Lepidostrobi were the fruit of the 
tree itself. This has been confirmed by finding specimens in 
Coalbrook Dale with the fruit attached to the branch. Lepi- 
dodendra differ from Sigillaria in the arrangement of the leaf 
scars which are diamond shaped. The fossils known as Knorria 
have been determined by Mr. Carruthers to be the roots of the 
Lepidodendron. This great coal-tree has been found 49 feet 
long in the Newcastle collieries. 

CONIFERS. 

The Conifers, or the Fir Tribe, take a high position in 
the ranks of vegetable organisation, and the fact that con- 
iferous trees were abundant when the Palaeozoic coal plants 
grew, overthrows the idea that the Carboniferous flora was alto- 
gether made up of cryptogams, and plants of low organisation. 
The Coniferous trees of the Palaeozoic period are referred to the 
Pine genera, but they differ, as a rule, from the more modern 
spruce, larch, juniper, cypress, and yew, and are more nearly 
allied to the Norfolk Island Pine, a species of Araucaria, now 
confined to a very small area of our globe. The pith, too, in 
the old Pine trees of the coal period was of large size, whereas 
living firs have no pith. The fossil known to collectors as 
Sternbergia has been shown by Prof. Williamson of Manchester 
to be the pith of coniferous coal trees. Dr. Hooker also has 
determined that the fossil fruit known as Trigonocarpum is the 
fruit of a coniferous tree, which like the fruit of the yew was 
enclosed in a pulpy envelope. Such is the fruit of the Japanese 
tree Salisburia, occasionally seen on lawns in England, and of 
which there is a fine specimen at Kew. Heart-shaped leaves 
like those of the living Salisburia, or the Stricklandinia of the 



376 KECORDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. x. 

Oolites, occasionally occur in the coal measures, and these are 
probably the leaves of coniferous trees. The Nceggerathia of 
the cabinets of collectors is believed to be a coniferous leaf. 

The Antholithcs of Lindley are considered by Mr. Carru- 
thers to belong to a tribe of plants which grew parasitically on 
the trees of the coal forests, and to be allied to the Broom 
rapes (Orobanche). Dr. Hooker believes that the present 
vegetation of New Zealand with its tree fern's, its club mosses, 
and its great variety of conifers, makes the nearest probable 
approach of any existing vegetation, to that wonderful plant- 
growing period which produced our coal. 

Many writers have attempted to give us imaginary pictures 
of a dark and dank though luxuriant vegetation, supposed to 
grow in a steamy atmosphere without a bird to sing from the 
branches, or an insect to flit among the leaves ; without a flower 
or fruit, a dense sombre forest Avithout beauty, and almost 
without life. I doubt the correctness of these conclusions, and 
expect that we possess but a very fragmentary knowledge of 
the plant or animal life of the Coal period, although it is very 
probable that both were in a less highly developed state than 
the flora and fauna of modem days. Be this as it may, millions 
upon millions of tons of carbon, the remains of millions of 
trees and plants, are fixed in solid masses in the crust of the 
planet, stored up for the benefit, as far as we can divine, of no 
being in the wide world save one, and that is Man. 

CHEMISTRY OF COAL. 

The Chemist learns from investigation that Coal is the result 
of the chemical transformation of vegetable matter which 
existed myriads of ages ago, and which, for myriads of ages, 
was locked up in the recesses of the earth to come forth as 
the most valuable of all Nature's treasures to the Human race. 
The ancient Coal plants, as with those which now exist, de- 
rived their nourishment from the elements contained in the 
air, water, and soil. All plants are composed of carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen, with a certain amount of nitrogen, 
which they separate and combine in their seeds, sap, wood, 



CHAP. x.J COAL GAS. 377 

fibre, and leaves ; they derive their carbon from the atmos- 
phere ; water is the source which furnishes them with their 
hydrogen. Thus sunshine and heat, soil, air, and water, were 
as necessary to the Sigillarise and Lepidodendra, as they now 
are to our oaks and elms, for it is through the heat and light- 
of the Sun that the plant is enabled to store up heat and light 
for vegetable life and existence. It is the light and heat of 
the Palasozoic coal period which was stored and hidden away, 
first in millions of Carboniferous trees and plants, and after- 
wards in Coal mines where they underwent chemical transfor- 
mation, which are now again evolved as light and heat in the 
fires of our hearths and the brightness of our gas. Stephenson 
used to say when he saw a steam-engine rushing on at the 
rate of a mile in a minute, " There goes the bottled sunshine," 
and it was the influence of the sunshine and heat of the Car- 
boniferous period that converted the carbonic acid and water 
of that period into that marvellous vegetation which was after- 
wards to be secreted and stored up, through the action of a 
series of geological phenomena brought to bear upon that 
storing, which no physical geologist who has entered into the 
history is likely to attribute to any cause but premeditated 
and intelligent Design. 

" There is no end," says Mr. Binney, " to the combinations, 
solid, liquid, and gaseous, which belong to the chemistry of 
coal." And so it will appear if we examine some of its 
products. First there is Coal gas, which alone would require 
a chapter to itself if dealt with at any length. It was first 
discovered in about 1700, by an amateur in science, the Rev. 
Mr. Clayton, a country clergyman in Yorkshire, who filled 
bladders with Coal gas, and on penetrating the bladders and 
implying a light to the hole, found that the air escaped in a 
bright flame.* The use of gas was first introduced at 
Redrath in Cornwall, in 1792, by Mr. Murdoch, an en- 
gineer, who lighted his own house with it. In 1797 he 
published his plans for gas-works, and in the following year 
erected an apparatus, with which he lighted the Soho Foundry 

* His discovery is published in the Transactions of the Royal Society. 



\ blad 

c?pl 

brig- 



378 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 

at Birmingham. In 1809 the first gas company was formed 
in London, and it is estimated that the quantity of coal 
now used to supply London with gas amounts annually 
to about six hundred thousand tons. In distilling gas 
from coal there are several residuary products, which have 
been utilized in a wonderful manner by our chemists. 

Coal Tar has been made to yield by distillation, tar and coal 
naphtha, from the constituents of which are obtained Parafine, 
Creasote, and Aniline. Parafine, when purified by other 
chemicals, yields beautiful candles, and aniline furnishes the 
celebrated dyes, known as " Mauve," " Magenta," " Solferino," 
&c. ; while Prof. Hoffman has succeeded in producing some 
deliciously scented ethers from coal naphtha and benzole. 

Clay iron stone abounds in the coal shales and forms nodules 
round plants or other organic remains. These often occur in 
bands, and the iron they contain was probably derived from 
the decomposing vegetable matter of the coal measures, as we 
know that a good deal of iron is now segregated by trees and 
plants. "With this brief sketch of the nature of Coal, its origin 
and its products, we will pass on to the consideration of the 
Coal-fields of the Silurian and other districts under review. 

COAL-FIELDS OF NORTH WALES, AXGLESEA. 

When travelling in Anglesea, from the Watering place near 
Amlwch to the Menai Bridge, we cross the melancholy and 
dreary marsh, known as Maldraeth Marsh, and behold some 
desolate-looking collieries. Maldraeth was supposed, by the 
learned antiquary, the Rev. Henry Rowlands, to have been 
formed by the deluge, and such is the opinion of the inhabi- 
tants at the present time. This little outlying coal-field in 
Anglesea presents, however, a remarkable geological pheno- 
menon, inasmuch as its preservation is due to a great fault 
which has thrown down the Carboniferous rocks and protected 
them from denudation. Prof. Ramsay determined the succes- 
sion of these strata, and it seems that, at the base of the Coal 
measures, the Carboniferous limestone rests on highly con- 
torted old schists, either of Laurentian or Cambrian age. 



CHAP, x.] EASINGWERK ABBEY. 379 

The Millstone grit is not absent, but supports the coal 
measures, as in other parts of North Wales. The Coal mea- 
sures which are worked at Berw Colliery are overlaid towards 
the north by Permian rocks. 

FLINTSHIRE COAL FIELD. 

The Coal measures of Anglesea are separated from the Flint- 
shire coal-field by a hilly tract of mountain lands nearly 50 
miles in breadth, and the Flintshire coal measures again, are 
separated from the Denbighshire coal-field by the elevation 
of the Mountain Limestone and Millstone grit between Gres- 
ford and Hope. 

Flint, the county town, has been ruined in importance, 
owing to the silting up of the estuary by the river Dee ; but 
we prefer it infinitely to Mold as a starting point for geological 
and archaeological investigations. The Coal-measures may be 
traced extending along the western shore of the Dee estuary 
to Ari lighthouse, and the walk from Flint across the mill- 
stone grit to the Mountain Limestone west of Holywell offers 
excellent geology. 

Near Holywell station, but about two miles from the town 
itself, are the ruins of the famous Basingwerk Abbey, 
founded, according to Dugdale, by Eanulph, Earl of Chester, 
A.D. 1131 ; but from some old Welsh charters it is supposed 
that the original founder was one of the Princes of Wales. 
The remains of the Castle are yet visible at a short distance 
from the Abbey. It was at Basingwerk that the Welsh chief- 
tain, Owain Gwynedd, was encamped when Heniy II. and his 
army were defeated at Coleshill. The Welsh allowed the king- 
to penetrate as far as the difficult country about the Forest of 
Coleshill when they attacked him in a narrow defile. The 
slaughter was prodigious ; the standard-bearer ran away, and 
ended in becoming " a shorn monk in Reading Abbey ; " and 
Henry himself narrowly escaped with his life. Wolves appear 
to have lingered in these parts of Wales up to the time of 
Giraldus, for he says that the corpse of a young Welshman who 
fell in this battle of " Coleshulle? was saved from becoming 



380 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

the prey of wolves and other wild animals by the guardianship 
of his dog. Thus the name of " Coleshulle," or hill of coal, 
was already known in those days ! Giraldus, when travelling 
through the country some years after the battle, speaks of 
proceeding by a long and tremendous journey, and of ex- 
periencing great trepidation by being obliged to pass the 
pathless deserts through the dense and darksome woods where 
Henry " suffered for his rash presumption." 

The walk between Flint and Halkin repays us by the 
scenery of the estuary of the Dee, and of the opposite coast. 
Halkin mountain is a rich mining district with the lead works 
of Pen-y-bryn and Henblas. The general dip of the Coal- 
measures is towards the north-east, and they dip under the 
Triassic rocks of Cheshire, which in all probability will be 
penetrated at some future time in search of these underlying 
coal beds. The Flintshire coal strata are faulted through the 
Cheshire Trias at a place called Parkgate, opposite Flint, 
between Neston and Birkenhead. This coal-field is much 
traversed by faults and the beds considerably upheaved by 
dislocations. Near Hope the lower coal-measures with fossils 
are faulted to the surface, and are unconformably overlaid 
by Permian sandstones. 

The Denbighshire Coal-field may be seen from Wrex- 
ham, to the north of which place there is a section exposed 
along the banks of the river Alyn, west of Gresford. It is 
separated north of the valley of the Alyn from the Flintshire 
coal-measures by the great fault which has been traced by the 
Geological Surveyors from the coast of Merionethshire, through 
Bala Lake, into Cheshire.* There are a great number of iron 
furnaces in the neighbourhood of Wrexham, and the district 
of Minera, about five miles distant, displays the outcrop of the 
coal-measures in the immediate vicinity of lime and slate 
quarries. The remains of fossil fish have frequently been 
found in this coal-field, and among them Rhizodus, Crela- 
canthus, and others described by Sir Philip Egerton. The 
coal-field extends southwards three miles beyond Oswestry. 

* See Maps, Geol. Survey, Sheet 74, N.E. and N.W. 



CIIAP. x.] MONKS OF BANGOR ISCOED. 381 

An expedition should be made from "Wrexham to Holt and 
Overton on the Dee. Holt Castle was built of New Eed Sand- 
stone quarried near. This fortress, of which there are now but 
few traces, was erected by Earl Warren in the reign of 
Edward I. Norden saw it in 1620,* at which time it was still 
entire. It was of a pentangular shape with a bastion tower at 
each angle, four of which were circular, and the one facing the 
river square. The entrance was by a drawbridge over a deep 
moat, and over the gateway was a square tower. Churchyard 
says that, 

" The seat is fine and trimly built about 

With lodgings fayre and goodly roumes throughout, 
Strong vaults and caves, and many an old device." 

Two miles to the north of Overton, close to the river Dee, 
is the Church of Bangor Iscoed, near which once stood one of 
the largest and most ancient monasteries in Great Britain. 
Not a vestige, however, of the building now remains, although 
at various times human bones and stone coffin-lids with ancient 
carvings have been ploughed up. It is said to have been 
founded by Lucius, son of Coel, first King of Britain, A.D. 180. 
In 603 the monks of Bangor Iscoed numbered 1200, and when 
Ethelfrid, King of Northumberland, attacked the "Welsh forces 
under the King of Powysland, they were engaged in praying 
for the success of their countrymen, and- notwithstanding that 
they fought only with prayers, the Northumbrian king de- 
stroyed them wholesale and levelled their monastery to the 
earth. William of Malmesbury, writing in the reign of 
Stephen, says of this edifice, " there remained only some relics 
of its ancient magnificence." Leland, describing its site many 
centuries later, notes a circumstance interesting to the 
geologist, viz., that the river that used to flow on one side of 
its walls had, in his time, changed its bed and made a new 
channel for its waters, running through the middle of the 
monastic site. 

Mr. Hull says that the Coal-fields of Shrewsbury, the 

* MSS., Harleian, in British Museum, and vol. i. Pennant's Tours. 



382 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

Glee Hills, and the Forest of Wyre, are of so valueless a 
nature as regards their coal deposits, that he does not 
consider it necessary to attempt an estimate of their 
resources.* I shall, therefore, content myself with draw- 
ing attention to a few of the Geological phenomena of these 
districts. 

SHREWSBURY COAL-FIELD. 

Here the Coal-measures extend in a narrow strip from the 
base of Haughmond Hill, four miles east of Shrewsbury, to 
Allerbury on the banks of the Severn, a distance of nearly 
twenty miles. Haughmond Hill is a mass of Cambrian rocks, 
which rises through the surrounding district of New Red 
Sandstone, Carboniferous and Permian Strata. 

At Haughmond the coal strata repose on Cambrian rocks, 
and to the westward on Silurian rocks, without the intercala- 
tion of either Carboniferous limestone or Millstone grit. Sir 
Roderick Murchison directed attention,! years ago, to the 
manner in which certain cavities of the rocks of Haughmond, 
and also at Pitchford, east of Shrewsbury, are filled with 
bitumen and mineral pitch. This bitumen occurs in fissures, 
and a large dyke of Trap rock penetrates through the 
Cambrian strata of the hill on the " Warren." It was the 
impression of myself and other geologists, when closely 
examining the phenomena of this exudation of mineral pitch, 
that the bituminous matter may have been derived from the 
carbonaceous deposits which once probably overlaid the 
Cambrian rocks, and may have exuded from them into the 
interstices of the older deposits before their upheaval into 
mountain ridges, especially as the bituminous matter occurs 
most abundantly where Trap rocks appear at the surface, and 
the Cambrian masses are fissured. 

The Coal-measures in the neighbourhood of Shrewsbury, 
furnish a band of limestone in the upper strata, containing a 
peculiar collection of fossils. Among them are a number of 
minute crustaceans, the Estheriae of Professor Rupert Jones 

* Coal-fields of Great Britain, p. 92. f Silurian System, p. 266. 



CHAP, x.] BATTLEFIELD, SIIEEWSBUHY. 383 

(Leperditia inflata, Siluria), a bivalve shell (Anthracosia), and 
a marine shell (Spirorbis). But the remarkable history 
attached to this limestone is that mentioned by Mr. Hull, viz., 
its persistency with the uppermost coal strata over an area of 
10,000 square miles, as it can be traced in the upper coal- 
measures of Coalbrook Dale, Lancashire, Warwickshire, and 
in the Forest of Wyre in Worcestershire. 

UPPERMOST LIMESTOXE OF THE COAL-MEASURES. 




Microconchus (or Spirorbis) carbonarius. Sil. Syst. The real size is given in the 
minutest of these figures, whilst the upper figures are somewhat magnified, and the 
lower very greatly so. * * The mark of attachment to some small cylindrical body. 



Haughmond Abbey was situated on the edge of a once 
extensive chace or forest. It was founded in the last year of 
the reign of William Rufus, and the ruins, though small, are 
picturesque. The portions best preserved are a fine doorway 
and the chapter house. Leland says that a hermitage and 
chapel stood here before the building of the Abbey. Near 
the ruins is Battlefield, the scene of the memorable battle 
of Shrewsbury, and the legend goes that close by Lord 
Douglas was taken prisoner. In a plot near the churchyard 
is a mound where the numerous slain are said to have been 
buried, and a field called the King's Croft is supposed to 
have been the head-quarters of Henry IV., while Percy lay at 
Shrewsbury. 



384 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

COAL-MEASURES OF THE CLEE HILLS. 

The Glee Hills have already been referred to as being the 
remnants and outliers of great formations, which once un- 
doubtedly spread far and wide, continuously, from the Coal- 
fields of South Wales and the Forest of Dean, over the plains 
of Herefordshire to the Titterstone and Brown Glee Hills of 
Shropshire. Encircled on all sides by the Old Red Sandstone 
and its fossil fishes, these outlying coal measures, capped by an 
overflow of hard basalt known as Dhu Stone, rise to a height 
of nearly 1800 feet above the sea, and it is to the basalt, and 
the resistance it offers to the denuding forces, that, in all 
probability, the Glee Hill coal deposits owe their preservation. 
The igneous masses of basalt were poured forth as liquid 
lava after the formation of the lower coal-measures ; they may 
be seen at " The Giant's Chair" standing out in rude columns. 
The shafts of the collieries were drove through the basalt 
before quarrying the coal. A great fault cuts off the coal- 
measures of Cornbrook on the south-east from those of Hoar 
Edge and Horse Ditch on the north-west. The Millstone grit, 
too, on " The Common," is thrown down into a valley, and 
theunderlying Old Red is faulted against it like a cliff upheaved. 

COAL-MEASURES OF THE FOREST OF WYRE, WORCESTERSHIRE. 

Although this Coal-field is nearly as large in superficial area 
as that of the Forest of Dean, its products have never proved 
of much mineral value. It extends from the north end of the 
Silurian ridge of the Abberley Hills to a little south of 
Bridgenorth, its principal expanse being the Forest of Wyre. 
The forest trees of "Wyre were cut down before the days of 
Drayton, who says : 

" When soone the goodly "Wyre, that wonted was so hie 
Her stately top to reare, ashamed to behold 
Her straight and goodlie woods unto the furnace sold." 

Still it is for England a fine stretch of woodland, and is 
always connected with pleasant memories to the geologist, 



CHAP, x.] SIIATTERFORD TRAP. 385 

botanist, and naturalist. I had the pleasure more than once 
of going over this district in company, and under the guidance 
of the late Mr. George Eoberts, formerly clerk to the Geo- 
logical Society, who knew it thoroughly, and who has given 
an account of its mineral and fossil contents in a work known 
as " The Eocks of Worcestershire." 

The strata of which this Coal-field is composed, consists 
merely of the Upper Coal-measures, and along the western 
edge Mr. Eoberts found in them the fossiliferous band 
alluded to as extending into Lancashire and Yorkshire, 
and containing Spirorbis, Estherias, &c. Entering the 
forest from Bewdley, the explorer may walk to Bowles, 
following the Dowles brook in its course through the woods. 
At the Hill Farm on the eastern bank of the river, and 
at the Town Mills, there are expositions of Coal-measure 
shales and sandstones, crowded with the impressions of 
ferns. Here, were obtained some specimens of Pecopteris, 
and other ferns, retaining their sori or spores of fructification. 
These Coal-measure shales and sandstones cross the Severn at 
Dowles Point, where there is a quarry with remains of Stig- 
maria and Calamites. At Arley Colliery, near Bewdley, the 
coal-measures were sunk through the depth of 450 yards, and 
then a basaltic rock was reached similar to that which has 
come to the surface at Shatterford. The banks of the Severn 
from Bewdley to Upper Arley, afford good sections, particu- 
larly on the right bank below Cliff Wood. 

At Shatterford, about five miles from Kidderminster, the 
Basalt has elevated the Coal to the surface, and alters and 
roasts the shales. At a place known as Belman's Cross, 
excellent examples of metamorphism are exhibited, and I 
have seen impressions of plants in the metamorphosed shales. 
At Coleridge Wood the basalt is quarried for road stone, and 
forms in one place quite a rock pinnacle which commands a 
fine view of the surrounding country. The coal-measures are 
also well seen at Blakmoor, and Gib House pits, from which 
places Mr. Eoberts obtained some remains of Carboniferous 
fishes. 



336 EECOEDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAV. x. 

Wyre Forest offers one of the best localities in this part of 
England for botanical researches, and many a good plant 
have I seen when rambling there with our Worcestershire 
botanist, Mr. Edwin Lees. Here grows the reindeer lichen, 
side by side with the ling, and it probably has grown there 
ever since the time when the reindeer, and perhaps the 
mammoth wandered thousands of years ago through the 
woods. The Alpine Club moss (Lycopodium alpinum) was 
once gathered here by Mr. Babington, and a specimen of 
another plant is still in the possession of a lady at Stourport.* 
Both in "Wyre Forest and on Hartlebury Common relics of an 
alpine and sub-alpine flora are occasionally found on forest, 
unbroken ground, where still linger a few relics of that alpine 
vegetation, which in the days of the reindeer, the mammoth, 
and the tichorine rhinoceros, we may well believe grew gene- 
rally over this part of Great Britain. 

COAL-FIELD OF COALBROOK DALE. 

This- Coal-field is so well known, having been the subject of 
an elaborate memoir by that distinguished geologist, Mr. 
Prestwich,f that I consider it unnecessary to do more than 
refer to the fact that Silurian rocks form the general founda- 
tion of the Carboniferous deposits in this district. The coal- 
measures have furnished many fine fish remains, among them 
are Hybodus, Gyracanthus, Cochliodus, and Megalichthys, 
while I have before me as I write, the cast of a large reptile 
(Labyrinthodon) presented to me by Mr. George Maw, the 
original of which was found in the Coalbrook Dale coal- 
measures. Eophrynus Prestwicii (Woodward) from these rocks 
is the oldest known spider. 

FOEEST OF DEAN COAL-FIELD. 

This is an undoubted outlier of the Coal-field of South Wales, 

which it resembles in every particular in geological structure. 

The Forest district is separated from the rest of the county 

* Lee's Pictures of Nature, p. 265. 

t Geol. Transactions, vol. v., 2nd series. 



CHAP. X.] 



TOEEST OF DEAX. 



387 



of Gloucester by the river Severn, which runs along the line 
of a fault which has elevated the forest on the one side, 
and thrown down the district around Bristol on the other. 
The Royal Forest is an area of 29,000 acres, about half of 
which is covered by woodland. Its oaks were so renowned in 




SPEECH HOUSE, DEAX FOREST. 



the time of Queen Elizabeth, that an ambassador was pur- 
posely sent from Spain by Philip the Bloody, to procure its 
destruction either by negociation or treachery. Even now the 
magnificent beech trees in the neighbourhood of the Speech 
House are well worth a visit. William the Conqueror was 
hunting in the Forest of Dean when he received the news of 
the burning of York by the Northumbrians ; and then and 
there swore "By the splendour of the Almighty," that he 
would utterly exterminate that people. A havoc more dia- 
bolical was never perpetrated, for William of Malmesbury, 
writing about eighty years afterwards, says, " From Yorke to 
Durham not an inhabited village remained. Fire, slaughter, 
and desolation made a vast wilderness there, which continues 
to this day." 

c c 2 



388 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

The Coal-measures are surrounded by belts of Millstone grit 
and Carboniferous limestone which dip into the coal-field on 
all sides, forming a regular basin of which the Old Red Sand- 
stone is the basement rock. The scenery is very beautiful. 
From the edges of this basin westward rise the Welsh Hills, 
the Vans of Brecon, and Pen-Cerrig Calch, rocks there elevated 
to the height of nearly 3000 feet, being the equivalents of 
those upon which the geologist stands when rambling along 
the ridges of the Forest of Dean. On the westward too are 
the great escarpments which form the limestone gorges of the 
Wye, with their weird caves full of the bones of the extinct 
Mammalia, and the vestiges of Human races that have long 
ceased to exist. On the east are the bold elevations of the 
Cotswold range, the rich vale of Berkeley and the Severn, 
often in its lower reaches studded with sails and flowing 
through rich pastures and peaceful villages ; while on the 
south is the estuary of the Severn, and the Mendip Hills. 

The Area of this Coal-field is about thirty-five square 
miles and the Coal-measures contain thirty coal seams. Some 
years ago I gave a good deal of attention to the geology 
of this coal-field, and examined all the coal seams wherever 
they presented themselves in situ, and the position of the- 
coal-measure sandstones. The Bottom coal, as at Kuspitch, 
is only about a foot in thickness, and is then overlaid by 
nearly eighty feet of greenish-coloured sandstone full of the 
remains of coal plants. In one of the coal seams called the 
Coleford High Delph is an old river-bed filled with sand, clay 
and pebbles. It is known by the local name of " The Horse," 
l>ut is different from the " horses " of the northern coal-fields 
which are merely faulted rock masses, or trap dykes, and not 
old river channels. Towards the westward margin of the 
coal basin between the Speech House and Lydbrook, the coals 
are being worked on their outcrop ; and the pits are entered by 
horizontal tunnels. The Coal-measures are wretched bota- 
nising ground and famous principally for Nettles. The poorer 
miners still use nettles as an ingredient in spring salads and 
for nettle broth. 



CHAP, x.] SOUTH WALES COAL-FIELD. 

" Of Nettels lykwyse there be store 

In sallets at this season, 
For men be nettled more and more 
With palltrys 



THE SOUTH WALES COAL-FIELD. 

This Coal-field is the most important in Great Britain, as it 
has been ascertained to present a thickness of strata amounting 
to more than 10,000 feet. The greatest length of the South 
Wales coal basin is from east to west extending from Ponty- 
pool to Kidwelly, a distance of about sixty miles, while its 
greatest breadth, from Hirwain to near Cardiff, is about twenty 
miles. The Pembrokeshire coal-field extends from Tenby to 
St. Bride's bay, a distance of eighteen miles. The South 
Wales coal-field is bounded on the south next the Severn 
estuary by Old Red Sandstone, Mountain Limestone, and 
Millstone grit, on which rest unconformably Triassic and 



SLASH OF CULM, is PEMBROKESHIRE. 




a, Contorted Culm strata, with Stone-coal, a. 6, Fault c, "Slash" f finely 
triturated Culm between violently contorted strata, and probably upon a great line 
of fracture. 

Liassic rocks, while to the north, east, and west an almost 
uniform belt of Millstone grit and Mountain Limestone 
supports the Coal-measures and rests on the Old Red Sandstone. 
Crossing to Pembrokeshire over Caermarthen Bay, the coal 
seams become anthracitic, and lose their bituminous qualities, 
which may be owing to the numerous Trap rocks which in 
Pembrokeshire run from east to west along the strike of the 
Coal-measures. As the Pembrokeshire coal-measures are very 
inferior to those of the South Wales coal-field in scenery, in 

* MSS. (Lenten Stuff) in Ashmolean Museum. 



390 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

exposition at the surface, and in works by means of galleries ; 
I shall pass them by. 

For the study of the physical geology of the Coal-measures T 
consider no district can compare with the beautiful hills and 
vales of Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire. The country is, 
as a rule, subdivided into a number of narrow valleys which 
run from the encircling belt of Mountain Limestone towards 
the sea, they are separated by long rounded or tabulated hills 
which thus impart a mountainous character to the general 
scenery. The best route to take for examining the physical 
geology and scenery of a portion of this coal-field, is to 
start from Abergavenny on the Old Red Sandstone in the 
vale of Usk. Ascending from the Lower Old Red with its 
wooded hills of comstone, and leaving behind the Sugar Loaf, 
and Skyrrid, capped with Old Red Conglomerate, the summit 
of the Blorenge Mountain forms the corner of the line of the 
great escarpment of Mountain Limestone which dips under 
the coal-measures of Blaenavon. Passing from the vale of 
Usk by the limestone gorge of the Clydach, the junction of the 
Millstone grit may be seen at Trefil. The Millstone grit 
occupies a large area of table land ; and the pleasantest walk is 
up the bed of the Clydach stream past several waterfalls, and 
where occasional sections crop out. The fossils of the Lower 
Coal-measures were thoroughly Avorked out by Dr. Bevan, to 
whose guidance I have been much indebted on several occa- 
sions, in enabling myself and friends to understand the 
correlation of the coal-measure rocks in this part of the basin. 
Brynmawr is an ugly mining town not much resembling 
picturesque Abergavenny, and the other old Welsh towns of 
the vale. It is, however, built at the head of one of the 
mountain upland valleys of the district, and at the outcrop 
of the coal-measures, while considerable hills, composed of 
greenish Pennant sandstones, which overlie the Lower Coal- 
measures, rise all around. Seams of coal occur in the Pennant 
series, but they are comparatively poor, so the principal bear- 
ing strata in the South Wales coal-field are the Lower Coal- 
measures which underlie the Pennant sandstones ; and the 



CHAP, x.] "PATCH WORKING." 391 

Mynydd Isslyn series of coal-measures, which rest upon the 
Pennant rocks. 

In the South Wales coal-field much of the coal is obtained 
by " working a level " along a vein of coal occupying a certain 
position in a hill, and in some places the underground excava- 
tions extend for miles. " Patch working " is nothing more 
than quarrying coal in the open air, and I had the pleasure 
of watching this process, in company with Dr. Bevan, 
at a place called the Elled Patch between Nantyglo and 
Beaufort. "We actually stood upon a floor of coal and saw the 
seams of coal interstratified with sandstones, shale, and iron- 
stone, and we hammered out beautiful impressions of ferns 
from the overlying clays. Some Sigillarias were standing 
erect, and Dr. Bevan obtained about sixty species of coal 
plants from these open Elled quarries. One bed of shale 
at the base of these deposits was very rich in the remains 
of fish belonging to Holoptychius, Ctelacanthus, and Ctena- 
cantlms. Some thin coal seams were found in the Mill- 
stone grit abounding in marine fossil remains, including 
Productus, Bellerophon, and Goniatites. In some higher beds, 
in mines of the valley of the Ebbw, Dr. Bevan found 
Anthracosia and Spirorbis ; so the Lowest Coal-measures 
appear to form the upper limit of the marine fauna, such 
as Goniatites, Spirifers, Bellerophons, &c. The segregation 
of iron in nodules, interstratified with coal, is a very im- 
portant feature in the Carboniferous deposits, and in the 
remarkable section first alluded to near Beaufort. Coal seams 
were seen resting with ironstone nodules lying above and 
below them. The iron in this instance was segregated 
with clay around the leaves and stems of fossil plants, 
while some nodules were segregated round a fish-tooth, or 
shell. Merthyr Tydvil, where are the great Ironworks of 
Mr. Robert Crawshay ; and Taff Vale, near Cardiff, are both 
famous localities for these ironstone nodules. There is some 
interesting geological ground near Cyfartha Castle, Merthyr, 
up the little river ; and sections may be traced by going up, 
along its banks, towards the hills on the north-east. 



392 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

PENNANT GRIT SERIES. 

Above these Lower Coal-measures are the Middle Coal seams 
of Glamorganshire and the Pennant rock of Monmouthshire. 
In Monmouthshire this rock is comparatively unproductive, 
whereas in Glamorganshire it contains coal seams 3000 feet 
in thickness. Within the escarpments formed by these Pen- 
nant coal -measure sandstones, which rise in some places to 
the height of 1000 feet, lie the higher and Upper Coal-measures 
of the great table -land of Glamorganshire, known as the 
Pellengare and Isslyn series. The Pennant grit has much to 
do with the formation of the physical features of the country, 
and it is impossible to ramble over the tops of the hills 
crowned with this hard rock without observing how it has 
resisted the denuding forces which have hollowed out the 
softer strata. 

At Pontypool this rock is about 1000 feet thick, and over 
it lies the great Mynydd Isslwyn seam, the only upper coal- 
measure seam east of the Taff. It principally supplies New- 
port and Cardiff with coal, and furnishes also Anthracosiae, 
and fish remains. It is somewhat singular that ironstone was 
smelted at Pontypool in 1560 by charcoal from the forests of 
the neighbouring hills before the discovery of coal in these 
regions. The largest faults in the South Wales coal-field are in 
the north-eastern part of Glamorganshire, and one runs from 
Merthyr to Llancaiach, where the Mynydd Isslwyn vein, which 
is worked by a level at a place called Tophill, is worked, at the 
colliery, only a few hundred yards south of the fault, by a deep 
pit. The scenery of the Sirhowy and Ehymney valleys is wild 
and peculiar, with collieries dotting the high grounds between 
the valleys. Above Ehymney Gate, cropping out along the 
river-bed, is the band full of marine shells, already described 
as close on the horizon of the Millstone grit. 

At Llantrissant in Glamorganshire, there are hsematite iron 
ores, believed to be of Permian age ; and at Llanharry, three miles 
to the south, remains of Roman pottery have been found where 
that people worked a bed of ore long ago. The Coal-beds at 



CHAP, x.] NEATH ABBEY/. 393 

Llantrissant have been much disturbed, but they are referred 
to the Middle Coal-measures of the South Wales basin, and 
from them Mr. John Edward Lee, obtained portions of the 
skeleton of an air-breathing vertebrate allied to the modern 
batrachians, and which is described by Prof. Owen as belonging 
" to that low, probably primitive, air-breathing type, which 
with developmental conditions of the bones, like those in some 
fishes, and very common in Devonian fishes, showed forms of 
the skeleton more resembling those in saurian reptiles than one 
attained by any of the more specialised batrachian air-breathers 
of the present day." * 

The Llanelly coals belong to the uppermost series, being 
higher than the Penllengare seams. Perhaps the best place to 
see the Upper Coal-measures is in the neighbourhood of Neath, 
distant about eight miles from Swansea. The geology should 
be examined between Bishopston on the south near Swansea, 
to Llandibie on the north ; and again between Neath and Cwm 
Trwch, in Breconshire (near Ystradgynlas) where the coal is 
anthracitic. Mr. Hull believes that the cause of the change 
of the bituminous coal seams of the southern and eastern divi- 
sions of the "Welsh coal-field, into the anthracitic coal seams 
of the western area, is owing to the fact that the strata of 
the western side have been exposed to a higher degree of 
internal heat than those of the eastern, and have thus become 
altered into anthracite. 

Neath Abbey must have been a splendid edifice, although 
no adequate idea can now be formed of its original mag- 
nificence. Leland describes it as " the fairest abbey in all 
Wales." It was founded by Eichard de Granvil, younger 
brother of Robert Fitz Hamon, on returning from the Holy 
Land in 1111, when he brought with him an eminent architect, 
Lalys, who also built Margam Abbey. The first abbot died in 
1145. The monks were Cistercians, and in the Annales de 
Margam, Morgan ap Owen a Welsh chieftain is said to have 
burnt the monastery, and killed one of the holy brethren. 
Edward II. and D'Espenser took refuge at JSeath. after their 

* Geol. Mag., vol. ii., p. 8. 



394 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. x. 

flight from Caerphilly, and were afterwards betrayed by a monk 
into the hands of the enemy at Llantrissant, when D'Espenser 
found his doom at Hereford, and the king at Berkeley. 

It is only by following up good sections that the geologist 
can possibly comprehend how at the close of the Carboniferous 
period, so large an area of Wales and Siluria must have 
been covered by continuous sheets of coal-measures, and can 
realise the enormous destruction of rocks that has taken 
place, leaving only the mere fragments of the strata \vhich 
once spread far and wide ; how the Pembrokeshire coal-field 
must formerly have joined that of the South Wales field, 
which again must have been continuous with the coal-field of 
the Forest of Dean, and with that of the Clee Hills and Shrop- 
shire. There is a remnant of Carboniferous limestone near 
Corwen in North Wales, which shows that a fragment only 
remains of this great Carboniferous formation of South Wales, 
which, in all probability, once spread over the greater part of 
North Wales, and of which the Denbighshire and Flintshire 
coal seams are the wrecks. This may seem astonishing until 
we remember that the North American coal-fields from the 
Appalachian basin to Texas, cover 200,000 square miles ; and 
that it is not impossible that the British area of coal- 
measures which now occupies only about 5,500 square miles, 
may have been previous to its denudation, as extensive as the 
American. 

ORGANIC REMAINS OF THE COAL. 

Besides the evidence of the former existence of immense 
Forests of trees and plants during the Coal period, we find 
proofs of the existence of Batrachians, and lizard-like Reptiles 
of several species. Besides these, Land-shells allied to our 
Pupas and Helix have been found in America ; and Insects 
representing our myriapods, spiders, and dragon-flies. The 
wing of a dragon-fly found in coal shales in America, 
measured seven inches from tip to tip of the expanded wings ; 
and although fossil insects are scarce in England, the Spider 
from Coalbrook Dale, already alluded to, is larger than any 



CHAP. X.] 



CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 



395 



known European species. Few remains of reptiles and insects 
have as yet been discovered in the Carboniferous rocks of Great 
Britain, and more especially in those within the Silurian 
area, although we know that the carboniferous seas supported 
numerous fishes, radiata, mollusca and articulata. This may 
be owing to the fact that some of the coal-seams are found 
to have been deposited under sea-water, and to be associated 
with strata containing marine organic remains. 



AND SHELLS OF THE COAL-MEASURES. 




1, Wing of Corydalis ? Bron^niarti, Mantell. 2, Productus scabriculus, Sowerby. 
3, Anthrncosia acuta, Sow., sp. (Formerly supposed to be allied to Unio. Silur. 
Syst. p. 105.) 



CHAPTER XI. 

PERMIAN ROCKS. 

Classification of Permian Rocks Development of Magnesian Limestone 
Fossil Remains of Breccias Position of In Scotland In Silurian 
District Permian Strata of North Wales Alberbury Breccia Bridge- 
north Historic Records of Drifts Church of Quat Outlier of Church 
Hill Alveley Q.uarries at Conglomerate at Coton En ville Erratics 
in Permian Breccia Hagley St. Kenelm Clent Hills Warshill Grit- 
Breccias of the Abberley and Malvern Hills Of May Hill Organic 
Remains of the Permian Rocks. 

THE series of Strata now termed Permian were for a long 
time classed as Lower Triassic from their great resemblance 
in colour and mineral character, to that group of Secondary 
rocks. It is now ascertained, through examination of their 
position as regards the underlying Palseozoic rocks, and the 
overlying Triassic strata, combined with the determination of 
their organic remains, that the Permian rocks constitute the 
uppermost series of the Palaeozoic or Primary formations. 
They were described, many years ago, by Prof. Sedgwick, as 
regards their position, and were compared by him with 
German strata of contemporary age. The name Permian was 
given by Sir Eoderick Murchison after his explorations in 
Kussia, and is derived from an extensive region which 
composed the ancient kingdom of Permia, and where these 
strata contain numerous fossils. The principal development 
of British Permian strata is in the north of England, where 
geologists have divided them into three groups, Upper, Middle, 
and Lower. These divisions do not hold good as regards the 
North Wales and Silurian areas, where the Permian rocks are 
often seen clinging, as it were, to lines of fault, and where 



OHAV. XI.] 



PENRITH SANDSTONE. 



397 



only the lower beds are exposed, the Breccias, as a rule, being 
uppermost. I therefore give the following table of the strata 
in the north : 



Upper Permian 



Middle Permian 





' ORGANIC REMAINS. 




Fish. 




Palaeoniscus. 


{ Bunter Schiefer of 


Pygopterus. 


\ Germany. 


Acanthodus. 




Cselacanthus. 




Platysomus. 


a } 


i 


Mollusca. 


J 




Lingulae. 


<S "trt 




Producti. 


jl 


Zechstein and 
Kupfer Schiefer. 


Strophalosia. 
Spiriferae. 
Schizodus. 


l.'S 




Area. 


0? * 




Avicula. 


S X 1 




Camaraphoria. 


PLANTS. 


/ Psaronius. 


Lepidodendron. 


Asterophyllites. 


Rothliegende ( 


Ferns and 




Walchias. 




Noeggerathia and 




Conifers. 



Lower Permian 



The Upper Permians are best developed at St. Bee's Head 
on the coast of Cumberland. 

The Middle formation is the celebrated Marl slate and 
Magnesian limestone of Durham and Yorkshire. It has 
furnished the genus of reptiles known as Protorosaurus, found 
also in the Kupfer Schiefer of Germany, several remains of 
Labyrinthodonts, numerous fossil fishes of Palaeozoic type, 
seventy-seven mollusca, more or less allied to Carboniferous 
forms, and some corals also of Palseozoic type. These beds 
are marls and sandstones which separate the Magnesian lime- 
stone, where that rock is present, from the Coal-measures. 
To this series belong the Penrith Sandstone of Prof. Hark- 
iiess, and the celebrated Corncockle Muir Sandstone of 
Annandale. 



RECOEDS OF THE HOCKS. 



[CHAP. xi. 



In Scotland, Breccias appear to lie at the base of the 
Permians, but in the Silurian region they occupy a higher 
position, and overlie purple sandstones with silicified plant 
remains. In many parts of England, the Lower Permians 
contain plant remains similar to those found on the continent, 
especially the silicified trunks of tree-ferns called Psaronius. 




THE GDRMAYA HILLS OF THE SOUTH URAL MOUNTAINS. 



The quarry of Corncockle Muir, in Annandale, has furnished 
Sir William Jardine with his valuable collection of reptilian 
footprints.* From it have been excavated slabs bearing 
the fossil footprints of reptiles. So perfect are the fossil 
impressions of the footprints, that the regular succession of 
step after step can be distinguished on the quarried slabs of 
the bright red stones. No bones or teeth, whatsoever, have 
been discovered of these reptilia. Merely their footprints, 

* See "Ichnology of Annandale," by Sir Win. Jardine, Bart. 



CHAP, xi.] JARDIXE ON CORNCOCKLE. 399 

impressed as they walked over the yielding mud, have come 
down to us, singular records which have endured throughout 
a vast lapse of time, while every other trace of their existence 
has apparently passed away from the sandstone matrix of the 
rock. Jardine Hall, and some other good houses in this 
neighbourhood, are built of this Corncockle sandstone. 

THE PERMIAN STRATA OF NORTH WALES, SILURIA, AND 
THE CLENTS. 

The visitor to the little Coal-field of Anglesea, will re- 
cognise the Permian red marls, sandstones, and conglome- 
rates which there overlie the coal-measures unconformably. 
The point the geologist should remember is, that the 
coal-field of Anglesea and its overlying Permian strata, are 
outliers of two distinct formations, separated by mountain 
tracts fifty miles in breadth from the Coalfield and Permian 
fringe of Flintshire on the east. One relic of a Permian 
outlier between these two points, was discovered some years 
ago by Mr. Maw. This is in the Vale of Clwyd, but here the 
Coal-measures were denuded before the Permian rocks were 
laid down, for they rest unconformably on Mountain Lime- 
stone. The Anglesea outliers should be studied in conjunc- 
tion with those of the Yale of Clwyd as evidencing the 
enormous upheaval, dislocation, and subsequent denudation 
through which the Coal-measures and Permians of Anglesea 
have been isolated from those of Flintshire, as well as the fact 
that, in the Vale of Clwyd, local denudation had cleared away 
the coal-measures before the Permian rocks were deposited in 
that area. The situation where Mr. Maw discovered this 
Permian sandstone, is at the head of the Vale of Clwyd, near 
the road between Pentre Glyn, and Caer Owen, and the rock 
has been pierced by mining in search of hematite ; it inter- 
venes between the Bunter Sandstone (Lower Trias) and the 
Mountain Limestone. All indicates a great erosion of Carbon- 
iferous rocks in this district before the accumulation of the 
Permian strata, for they are laid down on nearly horizontal 
Carboniferous limestone, and the upheaval and dislocation of 



400 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. xi. 



both formations must have taken place before the unconform- 
able deposition of the overlying Bunter Sandstone. At Pentre 
Celyn Mr. Maw succeeded in obtaining some impressions of 
Permian plants.* 




PERMIAN PLANTS AND POLYZOAN. 



The next locality, as far as I know, where Permian strata 
may be seen in situ, is between Wrexham and Oswestry, where 
the Lower Permians, with their peculiar purple and red marls 
and sandstones, are ascertained to be upwards of 1000 feet 
thick. They flank the Coal-measures on the east uncon- 
formably, being themselves covered unconformably by the 
Trias or New Eed Sandstone. They occur along the banks of 
the Dee, near Overton ; and east of Wrexham. North of 
Wrexham, the Trias rests unconformably on the Coal-measures 
without the interposition of the Permians, as may be seen 
near Hope (some two miles from Hope station) on the Chester 
and Holyhead Railway. We pass over Permian rocks on the 
road between Oswestry and Ellesmere. 

About eighteen or twenty miles from Shrewsbury, in the 
neighbourhood of the beautiful Breidden Hills, is Alberbury, 
where may be seen the famous " Alberbury breccia," described 
by Professor Sedgwick long ago. From Alberbury to Carde- 
ston the breccia runs in an escarpment for nearly two miles. 

* Geol. Mag., vol. ii., pp. 380523. 



CHAP, xi.] LELAND OX BRIDGEXOETH. 401 

It is composed of fragments of carboniferous limestone and 
white quartz, the relics of broken-up and re-aggregated Car- 
boniferous and Lower Silurian rocks, for I believe that the white 
quartz was derived from Llandeilo strata, such as now flank 
the Breidden range, in which it has been segregated in fissures. 
Underneath the breccia are purple shales and sandstones, as at 
"Warshill, near Kidderminster. These lower sandstone strata 
may be seen at the escarpment at Cardeston, and at Pecknall, 
west of Alberbury underlying the conglomerate, and dipping 
away from the coal-measures of Coed "Way. A good way of 
following up the succession of rocks, is to go from Shrewsbury 
to the Middletown station on the "VVelshpool Eailway, to ascend 
Middletown Hill, observing the peculiar felspathic conglomerate 
at its base, and then to strike for Bauseley, and cross from 
thence by Pecknall and Alberbury to the banks of the Severn- 

When exploring the neighbourhood of the Wrekin, or Coal- 
brook Dale, the geologist will do well to cross over to the 
retired village of Lilleshall, at the northern extremity of the 
Coalbrook Dale basin. Yery singular is here the occurrence 
of Trap rocks, bringing Silurian strata to the surface ; and 
the relations between the Coal-measures and the Permian 
rocks, may be seen in the short distance between Lilleshall 
and Lilleshall House, while towards the northern edge, near 
Newport, all the Paleozoic series sink below the plain, and are 
unconformably covered up by the Trias. Here, too, stand the 
ruins of Lilleshall Abbey, with its decorated Norman archways, 
and beautiful windows of later date. 

The neighbourhood of Bridgenorth is good ground for the 
geologist who would study faults, river drifts, erratic boulders, 
and the relations between the Trias and the Permian, and the 
Permian and Carboniferous rocks ; while the town is famous for 
its antiquarian lore. A few words with respect to this ancient 
place ! Bridgenorth is said to be of Saxon origin, and to have 
been founded by The Lady Ethelfleda, as she is called by the 
chroniclers, daughter of King Alfred the Great. Leland says, 
" the name of Bridgenorth is but of late tyrnes usurped," 
and that " in all antient records it is called Bridge Bridge." 



402 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. xi. 

Bishop Gibson supposes it to be the Ghatbrigge of the Saxon 
Chronicle, where the Danes built a castle in 896. In a charter 
of King John, it is called Bruges, and in another of Edward III. 
Bruggnorth. Speed writes that in ancient records it was 
called Bruge. Only a fragment remains of the Castle, and this 
apparently must soon fall to pieces. Much historical interest 
is attached to the ruins. During the reign of Henry I., in the 
year 1102, the castle was held by Robert de Belesme, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, a monster of cruelty, according to Lingard, and 
" whose delight was to feast his eyes with the contortions of 
the victims, men and women, whom he had ordered to be 
impaled." Bridgenorth was besieged, fell, and De Belesme 
took to flight, as his custom was, and afterwards capitulated 
at Shrewsbury. His estates were confiscated, but he was 
permitted to retire to Normandy, where he joined the Duke 
Eobert, and deserting him in the battle of Tenchbray, by 
withdrawing his troops, added treachery to a name already 
stained by cruelty, rapacity, and cowardice. 

In 1155 Henry II. set to work to reduce the "dens of 
thieves," otherwise the numerous castles which were then the 
curse of England, and we read that 1100 of these dangerous 
strongholds fell before his troops. Hugh de Mortimer, accord- 
ing to Grafton, " a very prowde and hawtie man, fortified 
dyvers townes and holdes against the king as Glocester, 
"Worcester, and the Castle of Bridgenorth " to which in conse- 
quence, Henry laid siege. Here his life was saved by Hubert 
de St. Clare who seeing an arrow flying with deadly aim, 
stepped forward and received in his own heart the shaft 
which otherwise would have killed his king. Little is recorded 
of its later history, but Leland notes that " the walls of it be 
of great height," and " I count the castle to be more in 
compasse than the third part of the town." In the wars of 
Charles I. and the republicans, Bridgenorth espoused the cause 
of that unhappy king it was taken and nearly demolished by 
the Parliamentarians. The tower owes its leaning condition 
to having been undermined by their forces during the siege. 

The Church of St. Mary Magdalene is supposed to have 



CHAP, xi.] ROBERT DE BELESMO. 403 

been built upon the site of an ancient chapel that stood 
within the castle walls. Leland says, " It was first made by 
Eobert de Belesmo for a chappel onely for the castle, and he 
endowed it with landes, and upon that this chappel was 
established in the castle ; there was a like foundation made at 
Quateford, a chappel of St. Mary Magdelene, by Eobert de 
Belesmo, Earl of Schrobbesbury, at the desire of his wife 
that made vow thereof in the tempest of the sea."* 

Bridgenorth stands on Bunter rock, which is exposed in a 
good section, and has been excavated in several places for 
cellars and foundations of houses. It is of peculiar brick red 
colour like the Bromesberrow Sandstone. 

Among the first of the geological phenomena to observe 
around Bridgenorth are the fine sections of Drifts exposed by 
the cuttings of the Severn Valley Kail way, and in order to 
investigate their history well, the course of the river should 
be followed upwards, by picturesque cliffs of Bunter and 
Permian Sandstone, to Coalbrook Dale and Buildwas. The 
Buildwas and Strethill beds were extraordinarily rich in 
shells, and in the drift at the latter locality, Mr. Maw found 
thirty-five species of marine shells, four Cirripedes, an Annelid 
and a sponge. Among the shells were Ostrea edulis, Cyprina 
Islandica, Astarte borealis, Tellina Balthica, Teredo Norvegica, 
Litorina, Aporrhais, Purpura lapillus, Buccinum undatum, 
Fusus antiquus. In all probability these drifts were deposited 
in a hollow dammed up by a barrier of rock which ran between 
Benthall Edge on the west and Lincoln Hill on the east. The 
valley of Ironbridge is now shut in by hills rising 500 feet 
above the Severn and its drifts, which now lie at a height of 
upwards of 200 feet, and once extended across the valley, and 
helped by their silting to form a barrier to the gorge. Nor 
are these the highest drift beds in the country, Mr. Maw 
pointed out to me similar drift sands and shingles 250 feet 
above the stratified and nearly horizontal sands on the summit 
of Strethill.f From Ironbridge the Severn descends rapidly 

* Itinerary, iv., 1826. 

t See Maw on Severn Valley Drift. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xx.. 
May, 1864. 

D D 2 



404 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAT-, xi. 

through a gorge, and the drift beds are denuded in the 
narrow valley through which it runs to Bridgenorth. After 
the river escapes through the gorge below Bridgenorth the 
valley widens out into alluvial meadows, which once were 
probably lakes, and on the sides of these, the shell-bearing 
drifts rise in terraces on the flanks of the low hills that bound 
the river. I have myself found fragments of shells in the 
Bridgenorth gravels, and Mr. Maw obtained a few perfect 
specimens during the railway excavations. 

Nor must we forget to direct attention to the large erratics 
which lie sometimes on the surface of the drift as if they were 
dropped there after its deposition, and which occur abundantly 
on the higher lands both west and east of Bridgenorth. 
At Worfield an old man informed me that he remembered 
" big stones all over the country before they broke them up 
for the roads." Blocks of grey granite may still be seen built 
into walls, and the site they travelled from is Cumberland. 
There is little doubt that the only way of accounting for the 
distribution of these erratics is by floating ice carrying these 
boulders during the great general, glacial, submergence. Mr. 
Maw directed my attention to a mass of granite drift with 
blocks of granite in it, on some high ground between his 
residence at Benthall Hall and Mount Wenlock. I saw no 
way of accounting for such isolated patches of granitic shingle 
save by the theory of stranded icebergs. The strongest 
advocate of the land-ice theory could hardly expect a " mer de 
glace " to extend from Cumberland to Bridgenorth. 

Near Bridgenorth the relative positions of the Permian beds 
and the Coal-measures may be seen between Oldbury and the 
Hundred House, but there is a fault along the Severn which 
throws down the Permian rocks. In walking westward from 
Bridgenorth to the Leasowes, we pass over the Bunter, over 
Permian beds, Coal-measures, and on to Old Eed. Another 
pleasant and instructive walk with the hammer and pencil, is 
from Bridgenorth by the Hermitage, along the conglomerate, 
at the base of the Lower Keuper Sandstones (Waterstones), by 
Quatford Castle to Quatford. Here we come on to Bunter beds 



CHAP. xi.J QUAT CHURCH. 405 

which dip from the river under the conglomerates, and crossing 
from Quatford to Quat by Dudmaston, we come upon the Lower 
Permian Grits as is soon seen by the change in the character 
of the soil. The care in the rock of the Hermitage is said to 
have been the habitation of the brother of King Athelstan, 
and the country round called " Morfe " in the time of Leland, 
was " a forest or chace having deer." It also seems to have 
been the burial-place of distinguished warriors after some 
great battle, for it is recorded that " on Morfe are five tumuli 
in quincunx." In the middlemost, at about nine yards over, 
in the depth of one foot to the solid rock, was found only an 
iron shell of the size of a small egg, and supposed to be the 
boss of a sword, and in a hollow in the gravel some of the 
larger vertebras and other human bones, as in the other tumuli.* 
At Quatford still stands a portion of the church founded at 
the desire of the wife of "Robert de Belesmo," and the 
Norman chancel arch is remarkable as being built of traver- 
tine, which, as I have already observed, was probably brought 
from Ribbesford. 

It is recorded of the church of Quat when rebuilding in 
1763, that it contained a piece of vellum nailed to an oak 
board, on which was a figure of Christ rising from the tomb, 
and that under the figure were the following lines : 

" Saynt Gregory and other popes 
and byschops grantes sex and 
twenty thousand zere of pardonz 
thritti dales to alle that sales devou 
telye kneling afor y s ymage fife 
paternosters, fyfe aves, and a Cred." 

Over the head of the figure was 

" ihs is my lorde and lyff." 

(Gough's Camden, vol. iii., p. 19.) 

South of Quat is Higley, which lies on the Lower Permians 
in a singularly faulted district. The Coal-measures are faulted 
on the east, and we pass over them in going down to the 
Severn, while to the westward, at a place called " The Hind," 

* Phil. Transactions, No. 464, p. 27. 



406 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [ciiAr. xi> 

is an outlier of undenuded Permian rock. In a quarry at 
Higley, I saw what appeared to me to be silicified wood, but 
in all that district I never succeeded in obtaining a good 
Permian fossil, or of hearing of any one who ever did. At 
Stanley, near Higley, there were formerly coal works, but the 
beds were found to be so broken up and dislocated by the 
faults running eastward and westward from the Severn, that 
mining had to be abandoned. To the west of Higley is the 
exposition of Kinlet trap, and I have little doubt that this 
outburst is a continuation of the volcanic vent that poured forth 
the basalt of theTitterstone Clee into and over the coal-measures. 
The Old Red Sandstone is brought up in masses at Kinlet by 
the volcanic outbursts which poured forth the Trap rock on 
the Kinlet Hills. 

Six or eight miles to the south of Kinlet, and about three 
miles S.E. of Cleobury Mortimer, is a very remarkable outlier 
of Permian breccia, known as Church Hill. It is over 900 
feet in height, and is a puzzle to geologists. The Church Hill 
breccia is to all intents and purposes an outlier of Permian 
breccia, similar to those of the Clents, Warshill, and Stagbury 
Hill, which is immediately opposite to, but separated from it 
by six or seven miles of Coal-measures, and to the eastward by 
the Old Eed. To the east of Church Hill and about two miles 
and a half distant, is the upcast of Silurian rock at Keen 
Sollers, and to the north, Old Eed strata are faulted against 
and through the coal-measures. It is my impression that the 
centre of Church Hill is a trap rock, which is the real cause of 
the disturbance of the strata in this district, and that Permian 
broken and reaggregated rocks still cling to the uplifted 
igneous masses. But if this be the case, we must not lose 
sight of the fact that Church Hill reveals to us, that the 
Permian rocks were once deposited over a large area of 
country westward of the Abberley and Bridgenorth districts. 
I believe that they once extended above the now denuded 
Coal-measures, across the Old Eed rocks over the sites where 
Cleobury Mortimer and Hopton "Wallys now stand, to the Clee 
Hills on the west. The breccia of Church Hill consists of 



CHAP, xr.] PERMIAN ROCKS. 407 

often good-sized angular fragments of Permian rocks, and it 
has partaken of the dislocation to which the coal-measures 
have been subjected. The geology of this district is peculiar, 
as any lover of the science will find, who will take the 
trouble to investigate the points from the Upper Silurians of 
Neen Sellers, crossing the Old Eed and Coal-measures to the 
outlier of Permians at Church Hill, and then by the Old Red 
of Heitington to the Permians of Stagbury. I may mention 
that the Brock Hill trap dyke which is seen in contact with 
Old Red at Shelsley Beauchamp on the Teme, is about seven 
miles directly south of Church Hill, and a line drawn from 
this dyke northwards to the igneous rocks of Kinlet, would 
almost pass under the breccias of Church Hill. 

At Alveley there arc quarries in the Lower Permians, near 
Shropshire Farm, and at Lane's quarry many remains of fossil 
plants have been found ; they are in a very fragmentary state 
although they evidently belonged to trees of considerable 
size. They are regularly silicified, the vascular tissues being 
here and there filled up with sulphate of barytes. The plant 
stems which occur in these beds have been identified as similar 
to those of Allesley, near Coventry, and of the Rothliegende 
of Germany. The ironstone nodules at Alveley are remarkable, 
and look like cannon-balls, and are nearly as heavy. The 
highest beds of the Permian series in this part of England 
may be seen on travelling from Higley, near Bridgenorth, by 
Alveley to Enville. North-east of Alveley, higher beds come 
on at Coton, and the lower, plant-bearing, strata of Alveley 
may be traced across the valley to the escarpment or ridge at 
Coton, where they dip eastward, and are covered up by the 
crystalline conglomerate, which, in this district, rises into a 
bold eminence. The calcareous conglomerate of Coton is com* 
posed of pebbles and fragments derived from the Carboniferous 
Limestones, broken-up Permian rocks, and Millstone Grit, 
cemented together in a calcareous paste. It is best seen near 
Coton Hall to the westward. Between Coton and Enville it 
is burnt for lime, a necessity in the poor cold soils of Permian 
marls and sandstones. North-eastward of Coton is Tuck Hill 



408 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [OHAP. xi. 

quarry, with a capping of conglomerate which differs from 
that seen at Coton, as it supports some broken-up sandstones. 
I imagine that it lies higher than the conglomerate at Coton, 
but it occupies a lower position than the upper breccias of 
Warshill, and those of Haffield and May Hill. 

North of Tuck Hill the Warshill breccias come on at a 
place known as Eickthorn Hill, and here we find the so-called 
" Trappean Breccia," the only representative of the Permian 
system which occurs westwards, or in the Abberley and Mal- 
vern districts. This rock contains here and there trappean 
fragments, but the greater part of the breccia consists of Irolcen- 
up Permian Grits re-cemented into a hard, well stratified mass, 
dipping away from the more ancient, upheaved deposits. 
These upper angular breccias, and thin sandstones and grits, 
are not strictly the highest beds of the Permian rocks in the 
West of England, for near Enville they are overlaid by strata 
which may be considered as the lower beds of the Magnesian 
series of Durham and Yorkshire, and of the Zechstein of 
Germany. These are the Upper Permian sandstones and 
marls of Enville, which are themselves overlaid by the Bunter 
Red Sandstone and the pebble beds of the Lower Trias. It 
is to Enville that the geologist must go, if he would understand 
the evidence and observations which induced Professor Eamsay 
to believe that fragments of some of the rocks imbedded in the 
upper breccias were borne by ice floating over the Permian seas.* 
Specimens from the breccias are exhibited in the Jermyn 
Street Museum in London, and one of the most characteristic 
is a fragment obtained from a place near Enville, and which 
has had the honour of obtaining a record in Sir Charles 
Lyell's "Principles of Geology ."t The pebble is "of hard 
Cambrian Grit, with a smoothed surface, exhibiting parallel 
sets of stria? in more than one direction." Sir Charles goes 
on to say that he is fully satisfied that such fragments have 
been taken out of the breccia, and indicate a glacial period in 
Permian times. As far as my own experience goes, I have 

* Ramsay, Quart. Geol. Journ., vol. ii., 1S55. 
t Ed. 11, p. 223. 



CHAP, xi.] LYELL ON PERMIAN BRECCIAS. 409 

been singularly unfortunate. I have travelled a great many 
miles to see these Permian erratics, but I never have seen in 
situ, in Permian breccias, " those masses of angular rock, some 
of them weighing more than half a ton, and lying confusedly 
in a red unstratified marl, like stones in a boulder drift, and 
in some cases polished, striated, and furrowed like erratic 
blocks in the moraine of a glacier, and which can be shown in 
some cases to have travelled from the parent rocks, thirty or more 
miles distant, and yet not to have lost their angular shape."* 

I have seen Boulders, many of them of considerable size, 
which, on the Clents and in the country between Bridgenorth 
and Enville, are stained by the Permian marls, and, indeed, 
are sometimes intermingled with the Permian pebbles them- 
selves ; but I have attributed these boulders to the age of the 
Northern Drift, which stranded so many erratics on and 
amongst rocks of all ages, rather than to the action of drift 
during the Permian period. My experience, however, is not 
brought forward as throwing any doubt on the authenticity of 
the Permian boulders as found by Professor Eamsay. I record 
my own want of success in seeing such specimens in situ, as 
showing how advantageous it is for local observers to mark 
where such specimens occur in country places, as around 
Enville, inasmuch as the amateur, and wandering geologist, 
may make half a dozen pilgrimages to see such recorded 
phenomena and not see them. I have never seen an angular 
erratic in Permian breccia weighing half a hundredweight, 
much less " more than half a ton." 

The Boulder Drift covers a large area between Bridgenorth 
and Wolverhampton. Eudge Heath is an excellent locality to 
see travelled blocks of granite from Cumberland, and green- 
stone masses from the north ; Bushbury hill, near Wolver- 
hampton, also is remarkable for the number of erratics lying 
against its north-western flank, the side facing the line of 
deposition of the Northern Drift. There are fossiliferous sands 
and gravels near Bushbury Hill which were excavated during 
the railway cuttings, and from which the Rev. Wm. Lister 

* Lyell's Student's Elements, p. 372. 



410 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. xr. 

obtained a series of shells similar to those obtained by Mr. 
Maw near Buildwas, on the Severn. Among them were Astarte 
arctica, Cyprina Islandica, Nassa, Turritella, Purpura, and 
many others common to our British seas. I have observed one 
peculiarity as regards this sand and gravel, and fossiliferous 
drifts in several localities, as near Wolverhampton, near 
Shrewsbury, and in Yorkshire; it' is that they often have 
large boulders lying immediately above them, or on their 
upper surfaces, as if the boulder erratics had been deposited 
after the accumulation of the shell-bearing sands and gravels. 
At Oxley Manor, north-west of Bushbury, a bed of Boulder 
clay overlies the sands and gravels, and has yielded some frag- 
mentary shells, many of which I saw in the possession of Mr. 
Lister. Mr. Gwyn Jeifreys thought it not unlikely that these 
boulder clay shells may have been stranded by icebergs after 
traversing the glacial seas, it may be from the far north. These 
clays with shells require further investigation in this country. 
They occur west of Wolverhampton, and I believe overlie and 
are newer than the sand and gravels and their shells. At 
Acleton, eight miles south-west of Bushbury, the boulder clay 
yields TurritellaB and Cardia. 

Hagley, " The British Tempe " of Thomson's Seasons, and 
associated in the poems of Pope, Shenstone, and Hammond 
with the famous Lord Lyttelton, lies at the western base of 
the Clent Hills. Hugh Miller visited Hagley, and the Leasowes, 
in 1845, and has left an elaborate description of what he saw, 
and what he thought, in his " First Impressions of England 
and its People." The Clent Hills rise on the southern side of 
the Dudley coal basin, the Coal measures being elevated on 
the north by the Trap rocks of Dudley and Rowley, which 
have also brought to the surface the well-known Upper Silurian 
rocks of Dudley and Walsall. In Hugh Miller's time the 
Clents were believed to be a range of Trap rocks, extending 
seven miles in length and rising to about 800 feet above the 
sea, and lying parallel to the Silurians of Dudley in their 
range. They are now known to consist of Permian rocks 
which nearly flank the Dudley coal-field, and at Barr, on the 



CHAP. xi. J HAGLEY AND HUGH MILLER. 411 

eastern side of the Silurian upcast, they are thrown off from 
Wenlock and Woolhope strata. The Dudley coal-field and the 
Permian deposits rise out of the Lower New Red Sandstone, 
which occupies a rich undulating country capped in different 
localities Avith Northern Drift. Hagley Tillage stands on the 
Lower New Red, but a section of the Permian rocks may be 
seen in Hagley Park below the Rectory. The conglomerates 
here are, I believe, the lower conglomerates which overlie the 
lowest red sandstones and marls of the Rothliegende. They 
are not so calcareous as those of Coton, and do not resemble 
the upper breccias. North of this section are beds which are 
probably higher in the series, and may be the equivalents of 
the Coton conglomerates north-west of Stourbridge. 

Hagley village possesses a comfortable village inn where 
many a naturalist has taken his ease, and many a geologist has 
met with his " warmest welcome " " where'er his stages may 
have been," when he was rambling over the Clents. Hugh 
Miller "baited" there, drank cider, and fell in with an "old 
grey-headed man," " who was engaged by the wayside in saw- 
ing into slabs a large block of New Red Sandstone." ^He also 
met with a gardener who conducted him to the^'landscape 
which Thomson loved, and who showed him the temple dedi- 
cated to the memory of " a sublime poet " " and a good 
man," "who greatly loved, when living, this hollow retreat." 
Passing upwards to the hilly region of Hagley, we come 
upon the favourite haunts of Pope and Shenstone, and where 
the noble oaks on every side, which Shenstone so admired, 
particularly struck the Scotch geologist. South of Hagley 
wood is Shenstone's " various wild," " for Kenelm's fate re- 
nowned," where stands the curious old Church of dark red 
sandstone, said to mark the site of the murder of Kenelm, in 
the time of the Heptarchy, at the instigation of his sister 
Kendrida, who wished him out of the way of her own lover, 
who himself sought the Mercian throne. " Such," says Hugh 
Miller, " was the odour of sanctity which embalmed the 
memory of St. Kenehn, that there was no saint in the calendar 
on whose day it was more unsafe to do anything useful." 



412 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. xi. 

" The chapel received gifts in silver, and gifts in gold/' 
" crowns " and " ceptres " and " chalysses." There grew up 
around it, mainly through the resort of pilgrims, a hamlet, 
which in the times of Edward I. contained a numerous popu- 
lation, and to which Henry III. granted an annual fair. 

There is a section on the eastern flank of the hills near this 
old church of St. Kenelm, and below it, is a farm-house and a 
bridge over a small brook. By walking down the stream, 
Permian sandstones may be seen in situ. Above the church, 
on the road to the hill, we find bands of Permian " Corn- 
stones," which might easily be mistaken for Old Red Corn- 
stones. They have occasionally been quarried for lime. The 
Permian breccia caps the hill, but the beds are much 
weathered and broken up. The slabs of stone on the summit 
of the Clents, look as if they had once formed a cromlech, and 
consist of this Permian " comstone " or middle conglomerate ; 
probably they were quarried near at hand. 

The prospect from the Clents is very varied. On one side 
we have the strange Coal country with its furnaces, chimneys, 
pit-fires, its innumerable dingy villages and endless smoke ; 
while on the south we behold the Malverns and the Abberley 
Hills, and to the westward rise the Wrekin and the distant 
mountains of "Wales. It is this side of the landscape that the 
poet Thomson describes from the hill above the Hall of Hagley. 

Halesowen, the residence of Archdeacon Hone, was the 
place wherefrom Hugh Miller visited The Leasowes, " the 
patrimony which poor Shenstone converted into an exquisite 
poem, written on the green face of nature, with groves and 
thickets, cascades and lakes, urns, temples, and hermitages, 
for the characters." At the Inn too there he met with an 
English squire who offered him hospitality, and the only 
hospitality he appears to have met with throughout his English 
tour. The Poet's ideas, dreams, and efforts for the picturesque, 
as also those of the button-maker who succeeded him, are 
well told in Miller's "First Impressions," which were not 
written under favourable circumstances, with bad weather, 
dull, solitary inn-rooms, and failing health. 



CHAP, xi.] THE LEASOWES. 413 

The Lower Permians or Eothliegende are quarried at Hales- 
owen, at which place there appears a fault running through 
the Clents from the Dudley upheaval. This fault appears to 
have affected the Coal-measures in the Halesowen district, 
inasmuch as shafts which have lately been sunk for coal, show 
that the coal-measures have been denuded along a line of 
upheaval. My friend, the Eev. Mr. Thompson, of Cradley, 
has seen remains of Permian plants in these rocks of Hales- 
owen. 

Another example of Permian rocks skirting the old coast 
line of the Straits of Malvern, is "Warshill Camp, near Kidder- 
minster. I visited this district in company with Mr. George 
Eoberts, who pointed out to me the singular situation of the 
Old Eed Cornstone, and the Permian " Cornstone " within a 
short distance of each other. The Permian beds are seen on 
"Warshill on the east, whereas on the west, at a place called 
Hall's Barn, the Lower Old Eed Cornstones appear with their 
characteristic fish plates of Pteraspis and Cephalaspis. This 
is a notable spot for any geologist to visit. Measured across 
a gullet these two bands of rocks, representing two great 
systems in geology, the Devonian and the Permian, are sepa- 
rated only by about 150 feet. Yet they are divided in 
geological history by the whole of the great Carboniferous 
series, and not one animal or plant is common to both. 
"Would that we knew more of the history those two rocky bands 
of strata might tell us, if they could compare notes of the past 
across that little dingle. 

At Hoarstone Farm the Permian grits and sandstones are 
seen dipping into the Camp Hill and underlie the breccia. A 
quarry at the brick-kilns exhibits a breccia interstratified 
with grits and sandstones. It was after having examined 
the Permian sections in the neighbourhood of Alveley and 
"Warshill, that I became satisfied that the upper breccias of the 
Abberley Hills* along the flanks of the Malverns as at Howler's 

* It may be useful to remind the amateur that the term "upper" here 
refers to upper strata of the Loiver Permians in the above districts. Higher 
breccias come on to the East. 



414 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP. xr. 

Heath and Haffield, and again at May Hill are not composed 
of foreign erratics, but consist principally of broken-up frag- 
ments of the Permian grit, which I have called "Warshill 
grit," in numerous lectures and public addresses, re-aggregated 
and cemented together. Here and there, as we might expect, 
fragments of the local rocks, against which these Permian 
breccias fringe, occur in the conglomerates, but the main 
elements are Warshill grits. 

From Stourport the explorer should visit Eedstone Cliff, a 
fine escarpment of Lower New Eed Sandstone rising from 
the river. It has yielded to the botanist the rare Geranium 
pha3um and the Saxifraga granulata. From thence he should 
ascend Stagbury Hill, an eminence of Permian rocks, which 
attains a height of more than 700 feet. The breccia is like 
that of Warshill, and on the western side of the hill, there is 
an exposure of Permian sandstone and grit, dipping eastward. 
A deep ravine occupied by a narrow strip of Carboniferous 
rocks, faulted on edge, intervenes between this Permian hill 
and the woods on Old Red Sandstone beyond. Fragments of 
coal lie about here and there where the ground was worked, but 
the beds are too much faulted and broken to pay for mining. 
Stagbury Hill commands a fine view of other Permian rocks 
for those who like to read off the physical geology of the 
country. We may see Enville, Warshill, and the Clents, the 
hills that flank the Abberley range, viz., the Berrow Hill and 
Woodbury, while we bear in mind that the same breccia is 
now known to have once flanked the hill of North Malvern, 
and occurs on the outlier of Church Hill to the west. 

There is a remarkable exposition of Permian conglomerate 
at Rosebury Rock, forming the southern bank of the river 
Teme, a short distance below Knightsford bridge. North-west 
of this is the Silurian ridge of Ankerdine, and the Permian 
breccia of Rosebury rests against faulted and upheaved Old 
Red Sandstone. The fragments in the conglomerate are of 
all sizes below two feet in diameter, and worn at the edges 
and angles. I have searched in vain for any evidence of the 
accumulation of fragments of the Silurian rocks of Ankerdine 



CHAP. XL] PERMIAN PUZZLE AT MALVEEN. 415 

in this breccia, although those hills are so close at hand. The 
Teme here flows through a line of fracture, and divides the 
faulted rocks. The re-aggregated Permian breccias extend 
northwards from Rosebury rock by Ankerdine Hill, where 
they rest against Upper Llandovery, by Berrow Hill, where 
they flank Old Red Sandstone, and on the summit of which 
the conglomerate crops out, to Woodbury Hill. Here they 
abut against Wenlock rocks on to the slopes of the Abberley 
Hills, where they flank Upper Silurian strata, thus everywhere 
ranging along an ancient line of fault, and everywhere con- 
taining the Warshill grits. The history of these singular 
beds of stratified angular fragments is highly interesting, 
and may be well investigated from Knightsford Bridge. 
Rosebury Rock itself is a picturesque object for the painter, 
and we sadly want illustrations of our most remarkable 
geological phenomena. It is beautifully wooded, and with 
the Teme rolling rapidly at its base, affords a scene worthy 
of the pencil of one who is at the same time an artist and a 
geologist. 

The Permian breccias, though now they are nearly all 
denuded, were laid down against the North Malverns, for a 
little patch with its glazed pebbles still remains in a hollow in 
the syenitic gneiss in Cowley Park. Again, when excavating, 
lately, in the great quarries on the northern flank of the 
North Hill, Great Malvern, the breccia was exposed with its 
peculiar purplish red pasty deposit and its shiny pebbles. The 
pebbles are small but are mostly of Warshill rock. I saw here 
an angular block which the workmen declared came from the 
" purple ground " against the quarry. It was of a hard silicious 
rock, certainly no Malvern rock, and weighed several hundred 
weight. It was the occurrence of masses similar to this great 
fragment, which induced Professor Ramsay to attribute their 
presence in the breccia to the action of floating ice stranding 
and melting with its burden along a coast during the Permian 
period. But it is difficult to separate these erratics from 
those of the true Glacial boulder drift which has I know 
in some instances, as at Enville and at the Clents, deposited 



416 EECOEDS OF THE EOCKS. [CHAP. xi. 

glacial boulder drift right against and among the Permian 
breccias. 

When excavations were being made several years ago against 
that part of the Malvera range where the Imperial Hotel 
now stands, I was informed that some large bones had been 
discovered in digging out the foundation of the building. I 
at once proceeded to examine the site, and found that the work- 
men had cut into an old glacial till which had evidently been 
deposited in and against the Permian strata that once flanked 
this part of the old coast-line. The till consisted of stiff purple 
clay and in it were some glazed pebbles, northern drift pebbles, 
and some angular boulders, one of which is a distant erratic 
probably from Wales. It is now in the Malvern Museum 
at the College. The till yielded the remains of the Mam- 
moth and Rhinoceros tichorinus, the teeth and some of the 
bones of which may also be seen at the Museum. I mention 
the occurrence of this glacial till with Permian pebbles to 
show how puzzling are these boulders and breccias when 
found together. 

No Permian conglomerate or breccia appears along the 
eastern flanks of the Malverns until we pass the southern 
extremity of the chain, and arrive at the south-western end of 
the Chase-end Hill. Here it abuts against the Malvern gneissic 
rocks, and rises in a wooded knoll north of Bromesberrow 
Place, the seat of Mr. Osman Eicardo. It is to be seen dip- 
ping away from the Llandovery rock of Howler's Heath in the 
lane between the Chase-end Hill and Bromesberrow Eectory, 
and just beyond the farm-house known as Toney's Farm, is a 
section Avhere good-sized fragments of Permian grit may be 
obtained from a matrix of red pasty rock. It is seen dipping 
away from Woolhope limestone, N.W. of Toney's Farm; Wenlock 
limestone, near Clincher's Mill ; and Old Ked Sandstone at 
Haffield Camp. The Bunter Sandstone of Bromesberrow rests 
unconformably on the uplifted Permian breccia, and is laid 
down at a much lower angle. It is probable that the Bunter 
beds once overlapped the Permian breccia, if we may judge 
from the position of those rocks and the overlying Waterstones 



CHAP, xi.] HAFFIELD CAMP AND BRECCIA. 



417 



against the gneiss axis of the Malvern range in the wood 
behind the Hawthorns, the residence of Mr. Winnall, well 
known for his hospitality to numerous Naturalists who visit 
the Southern Malvems. 

A good section of Permian breccia occurs below Haffield 




PERMIAN BRECCIA AT HAFFIELD, NEAR LEDBURY. 

Camp, three miles S. of Ledbury, the residence of my friend 
Dr. Henry. A fine escarpment faces the Hall door ; and the 
stratified condition of the Conglomerate is well displayed, 
dipping eastward under the Bunter beds, which were lately 
exposed at the base of the hill between the Dick House Farm 
and the entrance Lodge, a pit being opened for gravel. In 
this hollow is a mass of Northern Drift, and, on quarrying the 
gravel for road purposes, the rocky bottom of the old sea bed 
of the ancient Severn straits was exposed to view. It consists 
of Bunter sandstone dipping away at a low angle from the 
hill, and is grooved and scooped, across the line of dip, into 



418 RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. [CHAP, xi, 

irregular ridges. On this old sea bed, surrounded by other 
smaller fragments of local rocks, was a great block of "Wenlock 
limestone, grooved and scratched on one side. It was covered 
up by a mass of Northern Drift pebbles, among which we 
found Lias gryphites and a few chalk flints. Haffield 
Camp is one of several earth-works which, in olden times, 
were numerous at the south-western end of the Malvern 
chain, and appear to have run from Gadbury Camp and 
Eldersfield, by the Conygree Hill of Bromesberrow and 
Haffield Camp, to the large fortress of the Wall Hills, west of 
Ledbury. The camp at Haffield is surrounded by a steep 
bank and fosse, and is about 300 yards long by 200 in breadth. 
Near the summit, on the eastern side, there are openings 
where stone has been raised, and all the fragments I could 
find therein were, without exception, angular and sub- 
angular fragments of Permian grit. Here and there are 
pieces of Trap rock, but they are by no means common, and 
I have often speculated whether, in this district, there may 
not have been a series of Trap bosses injected along the 
fissures of the ancient line of fault, over which the Permian 
rocks were laid down, both Traps and Permians being again 
upheaved and broken up by the later earth movements 
which affected all the strata along this line of fault. One 
point with regard to the angular breccias in this district is 
still unexplained, viz., the glaze upon the angular fragments. 
In Scotland and Germany, we find proofs, in the presence 
of ash beds and bedded lavas, that the Lower Permian 
period was one of great volcanic activity; while in the 
Silurian districts we observe these rocks generally ranged and 
upheaved along a line of fault. Earthquake action was 
evidently rife along these lines of dislocation, in many 
localities, in later periods, and it is possible that sulphurous 
and volcanic vapours emanated along this line which gave the 
glaze to the fragments in the breccias. The rocks, too, are 
deeply stained with peroxide of iron, and the celebrated 
haematite iron ores are now generally believed to be mineral 
segregations from Permian waters. 



CHAP, xi.] MAY HILL PERMIAXS. 419 

The Permian breccias were not known in the neighbourhood 
of May Hill until 1870, when in company with my friend 
Captain Price of Tibberton Court, Gloucestershire, I dis- 
covered them resting against Upper Silurian rocks, between 
Newent's "Wood, which is on Old Red Sandstone, and Judge's 
Lane and the Ploddy House, where are seen the Bunters 
and "Waterstones of the Trias. They dip at a high angle 
from the Silurian rocks of Jordan's "Wood, and are imme- 
diately overlaid by Bunter red sandstones, which also dip 




1, Spirifer alatus, Sclil. 2, Productus horridus, Sow. 3, Schizodun (Axinu) ob- 
scurus, Sow. 4, Strophalosia lamellosa, Geinitz. (All from the county of Durham. 
These species, except, perhaps, the Schizodus, are equally common in Germany and 
Britain.) 

under the "Waterstones of the plain, and are unconformable to 
the breccia. The Permian pebbles in this neighbourhood are 
precisely similar to those of Haffield and other places on 
the opposite shores of the Malvems, they have the same 
glaze, and when broken are seen to consist of " "Warshill grit." 
Captain Price has since traced these breccias, southward of 
the locality where we first found them by Lynes Place and the 
Byfords. Here, as at Malvern, they run along a line of fault. 

ORGANIC REMAINS OF THE PERMIAN ROCKS. 

The Fossils of the Permian rocks in the parts of England 
described in this chapter, consist only of a few plants, and it 



420 



RECORDS OF THE ROCKS. 



[CHAP. xi. 



is not until we find this formation thickening on its north- 
ward and eastward strike that fossils become at all numerous. 
The total known fauna of the Permian series of Great Britain 
numbers about 150 species, of which 77 are Mollusca. The 
Lower Permian strata are characterised by their silicified 
plants such as Psaronius, the trunks of tree-ferns, Lepido- 
dendron common also to the coal, Asterophyllites also a coal 
plant, several species of Ferns and Walchias, Noeggeralhia, 
and Conifers allied to Araucaria. 

In the Middle Permians of Durham numbers of beautiful 
specimens of fossil fishes have been found ; they have been 
described by Sir Philip Egerton in a monograph by Prof. 
King, and in all, the heterocercal tail predominates. The 
genera are Palaeoniscus, Pygopterus, Acanthodus, Coclacan- 
thus and Platysomus. 

Reptilian remains have been found in the same marl slates 
near Durham. Lingulas, Producti, Strophalosia, and SpiriferaB 
of peculiar forms, occur in the yellow magnesian limestone 
with Schizodus, Area and Avicula ; spiral Univalves are rare. 

The Upper Permians of Cumberland have a thin limestone 
bed containing fossils similar to those of the Middle Permians, 
among them are the Camaraphoria of Prof. King. 




PAL.EONISCUS AND HETEROCERCAL TAIL, FROM THE KUPFER-SCHIEFER OF 
MANSFELD IN GERMANY. 



" To Thee, whose Temple is all space, 
Whose Altar, earth, sea, skies, 
One chorus let all Beiny raise, 
All Nature's incense rise." 



INDEX. 



Abberley Hills, 203 

Abbey Dore, 231 

Abergavenny, 233, 234, 390 

Abergele, 216 

Abereiddy Bay, 102 

Aberramifroch, 64 

Abich, M., on exudation of bitumen 

from rocks, 49 
Acton Beauchamp, 229 
Adam's Rocks, landslip at, 206 
Adams, Dr. A. Leith, 187 
Agassiz, Mr. Alex., 144, 219, 357 
Aiken, Mr. Arthur, on, 139 
Alberbury, 400 
Aled, river, 158 
Alsiue rubella, 45 
Alveley, quarries of, 407 
Amrotb, 366 

Andes, volcanoes of the, 14 
Anemone ranunculoides, 331 
Anglesea, crystalline rocks of, 28 

Permian outliers of, 399 
Ankerdine, 209 
Annelides, burrows of, 24 
Anodon Jukesii, 255 
Anticlinal of Merionethshire, 65 
Antioch, earthquake of, 17 
Antiquity of Man, 352, &c. 
Applecross, sections of, 44 
Aran, range of, 84 
Arbutus alpina, 83 
Arenicolites, in Longmynd beds, 48 
Arenig Mountains, 86 
Ariconium, 251 
Arthur's Seat, 16 
Arthur's Stone, 241 
Anthericum serotinum, 112 
Ash, Mr., 73 
Ashholt Wood, 264 
Assynt, Loch, 25 



Astronomy of Ancients, 3 t 
Atmospheric forces, 41 44 
Atolls, coral, 174 
Auchenaspis, 202, 219 
Austen, Mr. Godwin, on Old Ecu, 
215, 256 

Chudleigh slates, 286 

Culm measures, 291 

Kent's Cavern, 292 
Auvergne, extinct volcanoes of, 14 
Aveline, Mr., on the Longmynds, 47 

Llandovery rocks, 136 
Avon, section of, 253 
Aymestry, 199 

correlation, 194 

Dudley, 193 

Limestone, 192 

Ludlow, 194 

Malvern and Ledbury, 200 

May Hill, 207 

Wenlock, 193 



Babbicombe Bay, 291 
Babington, Prof., 386 
Bacon Hole, 337 
Baggy Point, 275 
Bailey, Sir Joseph, 248 
Bala, limestone, 105 

town and lake, 107 
Baldwin, Archbishop, 54, Cl, 118, 

208 
Bangor, 60 

Iscoed, Church of, 381 
Banks, Mr., 187 
Bannennan, Mrs., 352 
Bannog ox, horn of the, 122 
Bardsey Island, 29 
Barmouth, 64 

; Barnstaple, 278 



422 



INDEX. 



Barrande, M., 60, 62, 71 

Barricane Inn, 273 

Barrier Reefs, 174 

Basalt, columnar structure of, 16 

- of Clee Hills, 384 
Basingwerk Abbey, 379 
Baugh, Mr., 317 

Baxter, Mr., on Farlow sandstones, 

250 

Beaches, raised, in N. Devon, 276 
Beavers, in the Teifi, 122 
Beche, Sir H. de la, 29, 242, 300, 

339 

Bedd Porws, Roman grave at, 68 
Bentham, Mr., 193 
Ben Hie, 45 
Ben Hope, 45 
Ben More, 45 
Benson, Mr. Starling, 332 
Ben Stack, 23 
Benthall Edge, 172 
Berry Head, 294 
Berwyn Mountains, 87 
Bettws-y-Coed, 158 
Bettws-y-Cryn, 217 
Bevan, Mr., 331, 390, 391 
Bewdley, sections near, 385 
Bingley, Mr., on Priestholm, 309 
Binney, Mr., 374, 377 
Bischoff, Professor, 14 
Bishop's Castle, 171 
Black Mountains, 238, 239 
Black Rock, 89 
Black Shales of Malvern, 72 
Blaen-dyffryn-garn, 96 
Blaen-lyfnn Castle, 247 
Blaenavon, 390 
Blorenge, 234 
Bloxam, Mr., 309 
Bolbury Down, 295 
Bolt Head, 295 
Bone beds, formation of, 187 

Tenby, 339 

Upper Ludlow, 186, 195 
Bone Caves, of Gower, 332 

- contents of, 335 

phenomena of, 335 

S. Pembrokeshire, 344 
Borlase, Dr., 292 

Mr. W., 298, 300 
Bosco's Den, 337 
Botvillle, 118 
Bowman, Mr., 154 



Boulder Clay, 124 

Drifts, 248, 400, 410 
Boulders, 246, 333, 365, 366 
Bouldon, 218 

Bovey Tracey, 286, 289, 299 
Brachiopoda, definition of, 76 
Bradley quarries, 290 
Bradnor Hill, quarries of, 187 
Braunton Burrows, 276 
Bravinium, Roman town of, 198 
Breccias, Permian, 398 
Brecknockshire Beacons, 246 
Brecon, Anticlinal of, 190 

Castle, &c, 244 
Breidden hills, 88 
Brent Tor, 300 
Bridgeud, sections near, 327 
Bridgenorth 401 
Bridstowe Church, 251 
Brixham, 292 
Brongniart, M., 375 
Bronsil Castle, 142 
Brooks, Henry, 229 
Brown Willy granite, 299 
Brynlls Castle, 240 
Buckland, Dr., 144, 248, 355 
Buckman, Professor, 111 
Buckstone, the, 252 

Builth, 94, 171 
Buildwas, 175 
Bull, Dr., 230 
Bull Point, 272, 274 
Bunter Sandstone, 403, 417 
Burrow, Mr. John, 143 
Bwlch, the, 247 
Bwrdd Arthur, 306 



Cader Idris, 81 

plants on, 83 
Caerbuddy, sections at, 51 
Caergwrle, Roman relics at, 364 
Caernarvon, peninsula, gneiss, and 

schists of, 29 
Caernarvon, 57 
Caerphilly Castle, 326 
Calaruites, 374 
Calceola Schiefer, 275 
Caldy Island, 253 

- caves of, 344 
Cambrian conglomerate, 27 

fossils, 63 

Ireland, 47 



INDEX. 



423 



Cambrian, Longmynds, 47 
- N. Wales, 55 

- Rocks, 39 

- rocks of Scotland, 42 

Upper, 63 

Caraden, Beavers in the Teifi, 122 

Bedel Porwys, 69 

Build was Abbey, 176 

Caerphilly Castle, 326 

Clograiniog, 169 

Coch Castell, 159 

Hay, 239 

Hereford, 226 

Ledbury, 203 

Leominster, 223 

Llynsavaddon, 247 

Newgale Sands, 52 . 

Old Radnor, 163 

on Bala, 107 

on British pearls, 115 

- on coalpits in Scotland, 369 

on impressions of plants, 373 

on Little Do ward, 354 

on Ludlow Castle, 196 

on Offa's Dyke, 186 

on Ruthin Castle, 169 
. on Wenlock edge, 177 

on Wigmore Castle, 177 

Rhaiadr Gwy, 135 

Roman coins at Dolgelly, 84 

Sarn Helen, 69 

Strata Florida, 125 

the Wonder, 206 
Campbell, Sir James, 351 
Cannington Park, 264 
Canisp, 24 

Cape Wrath, 26 

Capel Curig, 110 

Capel Garmon, Cromlech, 159 

Caradoc or Bala rocks, 103 

Carboniferous rocks, 358 

fossils of, 394 

Lower, 303 

Upper sec Coal-measures. 
Cardiff, 324 

Carnedd Davydd, 114, 157 
Carnedd Llewellyn, 114, 157 
Carneddau hills, 93 
Carn-goch, 97 
Carreg-o-gof, 365 
Carruthers, Prof., 374, 375 
Carew Castle, 346 

Col., 264 



Carpenter, Dr., on Eozoon, 22, 248 
Castell Cerrig Cennen, 321 
Castell Coch, 326 
Castell Prysor, 69 
Cawdor, Earl of, 98 
Cefn Bryn, 331 
Cefn, caves of, 313 
Cefn Lys, Castle of, 150 
Cefu Ryhddau, 131 
Cefn-y-garreg, 130 
Cenfaen, Church of, 133 
Cephalaspis, 219 
Cerig-y-Druidion, 168 
Cestraciont fishes, 317 
Char, Northern, 27, 112 
Charnwood Forest, 38 
Chase-end Hill, 35, 416 
, Chepstow, sections near, 347 
Chirk Castle, 315 
Chudleigh, 286 
Church Hill, 406 
Church Stretton, 47, 118 
Churchyard, Thomas, 108 

011 Abergavenny Castle, 233 

Denbigh Castle, 156 

Holt Castle, 381 

Offa's Dyke, 185 

Oswestry, 363 

Ruthin Castle, 169 

Usk Castle, 208 

Watt's Dyke, 363 
Clarke, Mr. Alexander, 27 
Clarwen, lead mines of the, 135 
Clay-iron Stone, 378 
Clayton, Rev. Mr., 377 
Cleave Abbey, 265 

i Clee Hills, Lower Old, 221, 317 
! Clent Hills, 410 

Cleobury Mortimer, 210 

Clifford Castle, 240 

Clincher's Mill, 180 
i Clun district, 185, 217 

Clwyd, vale of, 312 

Coal-measures, Middle, 393 

Lower, 384 

Upper, 385 

j Coal, Botany of, 378 

Chemistry of, 376 

origin of, 372 
Cobham, Lord, 235 
Cocking, Mr., 196 
Coch Castell, 159 
Coddon Hill, 277 



424 



JXDEX. 



Coleshill, 379 
Colwall Copse, 180 
Combe Martin, 270 
Conglomerate Old Red, 248, 249, 250, 
347 

Llandovery, 135 

Lower, 132 

Passage beds, 191 

Con way, historical records of, 115 

Coral, formation of, 173 

Corncockle Muir, fossil footprints, 398 

Cornwall, relation of rocks of, 279 

Corn worthy, 281 

Gorton, May Hill beds of, 130, 160 

Corwen, 116 

Cossham, Mr. Handel, 366 

Coton, 407 

Cotoneaster vulgaris, 311 

Couch, Mr., 280, 284 

Coulbeg, 24 

Coulmore, 24 

Countesbury, 266 

Coutts, Baroness Burdett, 290 

Coxwall Knoll, 186 

Craclli, 51 

Cradley, 228 

Craven Arms, 137, 192 

Credenhill, 227 

Criccieth Castle, 113 

Crickhowel, 243, 250, 320 

Croft Ambrey, 200 

Crowcombe Court, 264 

Crustacea of Passage beds, 196 

Culbone, 262 

Culm measures, 258, 291, 299 

Cm-ley, Mr., 222, 240 

Cusop, 238 

Cwm Bychan, 65 

Cwm Elan, 135 

Cwm Grainog, 57 

Cwm-hir Abbey, 160 

Cyfartha Castle, 391 



Darbyshire, Mr., 58, 310 
Daren Mountain, 249 
Dartmouth, 294 

Darwin, Mr. Charles, on coral struc- 
tures, 174 

Dawkins, Mr. Boyd, 351 
Dawson, Dr., 21, 205, 305, 374 
Davis, Mr. Edward, 63 
Davis, Mr. Warren, 53, 242 



Da vies, Mr. D. C., 315 
Dean, Forest of, 244, 386 
Deerhurst, Monasteiy of, 36 
Denbigh, 155 

Castle, 156 
Denbighshire, grits, 154 
Denudation, 35, 42, 105, 315 
Devonian Rocks, 258 

Cornwall, 281 

N. Devon, 270 
- S. Devon, 260 

organic remains, 301 

W. Somerset, 261 
Diganwy Castle, 116 
Dinas Brau, 179 

Dinas Mowddy, 105 
Dinmore Hill, 222 
Doddington, quarry at, 264 
Dolbadarn, Castle of, 55 
Dolgelly, 66 
Dolwyddelan, 109 
Dormington, 179 
Downton beds, 195 
Doward, Great, 350, 353 
Draba aizoides, 331 
Drayton, on Wyre Forest, 384 
Druidical stones, 193 
Dry Brook, 252 
Drygan Mountain, 95, 135 
Dryslwyn Castle, 99 
Ducie, Earl, 255, 257 
Dugdale, 125 
Duncombe, Dr., 224, 226 
Dunkerry Beacon, 263 
Dunraven Castle, 330 
Durness, limestone of, 27 
Dunster, 261 
Dyganwy, 311 
Dynedor Hill, 226 
Dynevor Castle, 98 
Dyson, Rev. Mr., 141, 201 



Earthquake action, 16 

in Devonshire, 262 
Eastnor Park, 180 
Edwards, M. Milne, 174, 356 
Edmunds, Mr. Flavell, on origin of 

names, 232 
Egerton, Sir Philip de Grey, 196, 

219, 250, 380 
Eglwyseg Rocks, 315, 361 
Eifel Limestone, 301 



INDEX. 



425 



Eligug Stacks, 343 

Elled Patch, 391 

Enniskillen, Earl of, 203, 239, 357 

Enville, 408 

Eozoon Canadense, discovery of, 22 

Eriboll, Loch, 27, 45 

Ermington Church, 297 

Erratics, in drift, 404 

in Permian breccias, 408 
Etheridge, Mr., 239, 258, 262, 267, 

271, 280 

on Lower Devonians, 301, 329, 
356 

Evans, Mr. John, 351 
Ewenny Priory, 327 
Ewyas Harold, 232 



Falconer, Dr., 313, 335 

Farewell Rock, 360 

Farlow, 243, 240, 251, 317 

Faults, 221, 283, 365, 371, 380, 392 

Felindre, 217 

Ffestiniog, 67 

Fishes, at Abergavenny, 234 

in Devonian rocks, 301 

Ganoid, 250 

- in Passage Beds, 196 

in Ledbury beds, 202 

in Mountain Limestone, 317, 

356 

in Old Red, 219 

oldest known, 184, 197 

at Polperro, 284 

Scotland, 243 

Flint implements, 246, 248, 344, 

352, 379 

Foley, Lady Emily, 166 
Foreland rocks, 261 
Forest, submerged near Torquay, 292 
Fowle, Rev. \V., 232 
Fossils, 62, 66, 76, 125, 151, 210, 

277, 279, 306 

Freeman, Mr., on Ewyas Harold, 232 
Fremington clay, 278 
Freshwater East, 242 

West, 242 
Fulco, Archbishop, 265 
Fungi, on Howler's Heath, 144 



Gadir Brownstones 
Gaer-Bannau, 245 



Galileo, 5 

Gam, Sir David, 235 

Gareloch, 28 

Gateholm Island, 242 

Geikie, Prof., 42 

Geological Surveyors, 207, &c. 

Giant's Causeway, 16 

Chair, 16 

on Glee Hills, 319 
Gibbs, Mr., 91 

Gill, Mr., 228 

Giltar, 340 

Giraldus Cambrensis, his life, 52 

on Abergavenny, 233 

Bangor, 61 

Beavers in the Teifi, 122 

Brendlais Castle, 240 
Caermartheu, 99 

Caernarvon, 58 

Con way, 115 

Dynevor, 98 

__ _ Ewenny Priory, 327 

Hawks, 343 

Hay Castle, 239 

- Leominster, 223 

Llanavon Church, 95 

Llanthew, 240 

Llanthony Abbey, 236, 

233 

Ludlow Castle, 197 

Maen Morddwydd, 307 

Manorbeer Castle, 254 

Miracles at Llandewi 

Brefi, 123 

Miraculous Well at Glas- 

cwm, 218 
_ _ Newgale Sands, 51 

OldandNew Radnor, 163 

Oswestry, 118 

- Pembroke, 345 

Pennelsmere, 107 

Priestholm, 308 

Snowdon,113 

- Stackpole Court, 341 

- St. AlmedhaChurch, 245 

St. David's Cathedral, 53 

St. Harmon's Church, 

134 

Submerged Forest, 292 

Sutton Walls, 225 

Usk,208 

_ _ Wife of Maurice de Lon- 
dres, 101 



426 



INDEX. 



Giraldus on Wolves in Wales, 379 
Glacial evidences, 57,59, 60, 83, 108, 

333, 355 

Glascwm, miraculous bell at, 218 
Glasgow, change in level of land round, 

19 . 

Glen Baile, 26 
Glenthorne, 263 

Glyndwr, Owen, 61, 218, 231, &c. 
Gneiss, Laurentian, 22, 32 
Goodrich Castle, 251 
Gogofau gold mine, 121 
Gorseley Common, 207 
Gough, Mr., 224 
Gower, Bone Caves of, 332 

Peninsula of, 330, 338 
Grabbist Hill, 262 
Grabeg, gneiss of, 28 
Graham, Dr., 8 

Granite, of Dartmoor, 262, 299 
Grayling, 199 
Gravitation, law of, 4 
Great Hangman, 269 
Grecian Archipelago, islets of, 14 
Gresford, 364 

Grindrod, Dr., 71, 142, 167, 200 
Griffiths, Mr., 189 
Grosmont, 230 

Guise, Sir William, 82, et passim 
Gullet Pass, 142 
Gwiniad, in Bala lake, 107 
Gwytherin, 158 



Haffield Camp, 417 

Hagginton Hill, 272 

Hagley, 410 

Haime, M. Jules, 174, 356 

Hales End, section at, 201 

Halesowen, 412 

Haldon Hills, 286 

Halkin Mountain, 380 

Hall, Rev. Mr., 274 

Hall, Mr. Townsend, 259, 276, 277 

Hangman, Little, 270 

Harberton Church, 281 

Harkness, Prof., on Eozoon Canadense, 

22, 97, 130, 243, 249, 321, 397 
Harlech, grits, 64 

town and castle of, 64 
Harley, Mr., 221 
Haroldstone Boulder, 366 
Haughmond Abbey, 383 



Haughmond Hills, 49, 382 
Haughwood, 140 
Hay, 189 

Castle, 239 

Hayes, Forest of, Outlier of, 216 
Hayton Sutton, 221 
Hebrides, Laurentian gneiss of, 26 
Heddon's Mouth, 268 
Heer, Mr. Oswald, 287 
Heitington, Old Red, 229 
Helesborough, 272 
Henry, Dr., 417 
Herefordshire Beacon, 33 
Hereford, 224 

historic records of, 225 
Henslow, Prof., 30, 308 
Hentland Church, 251 

Hicks, Dr., 31, 49, 50, 52, 62, 102 

Highbury, Millstone Grit outlier, 366 

Hill, Rev. Reginald, 61, 111, 142 

Hiraethrog Hills, 155 

Hirnant limestone, 106 

Hoare, Sir Richard Colt, 69, 244, 327, 

342 

Hoar Edge, 118 
Hodge, Mr., 296 
Hoffman, Prof., 378 
Holford, Mr. Gwynne, 248 
Holl, Dr. Harvey B., on Malvern 

Hills, 26, 33, 34, 38, 71, 141, 147, 

259 

on Devonian Rocks, 259, 289, 299 
Holly Bush Sandstone, 34 
Hollies limestones, 137 
Holoptychius, 243, 251 
Holt Castle, 381 
Homfray, Mr., 68, 73 
Hooker, Dr., on Lycopodites, 206, 

374, 375, 376 
Hope Mountain, 364 
Horderley limestone, 120 
Horner, Mr. Leonard, on Malvern 

Hills, 32, 140 
Howler's Heath, 144 

fossils of, 144 

fungi of, 144 
Hoyle's Mouth, 344 
Huckham, 295 
Huggins, Mr., 6, 7 
Hughes, Rev. James, 122 
Hughes, Mr. McHenry, 314 

Hull, Prof., on Coalfields, 368, 371, 
372, 381, 393 



INDEX. 



427 



Huntley Hill, 147 
Hurlestone Point, 261 
Huxley, Prof., 184 

- on Pteraspis, 219, 280 

Ice, action of, 24, 190, 133, &c. 
Igneous rocks, 1 1 
Ilfracombe, 272 
Inchbakl, Mr., 311 
Inchnadamph, 23 
Indusial limestone, 85 
Iron-stone nodules, 391, 407 
Ironbridge, 403 

Islands, volcanic elevation of, 14 
Ivington Camp, 222, 224 
Ivybridge, granite near, 299 

Jardine, Sir William, on the Gwiniad, 

&c., 108, 143, 164, 398 
Jeffreys, Mr. Gwyn, 58, 284, 313, 410 
Jem the Slipper, 353 
Johnes, Mr., 121 
Johnson, Mr., 141 
Johnston, Trap Hills of, 242 
Jones, Mr. Weaver, 250, 317 
Jones, Mr. Rupert, on Eozoon Cano- 

dense, 22, 383 
Jones, Mr. John, 182, 187 
Jukes, Prof., on Bala limestone, 106, 

109, 174, 258, 316 

Kenchester, 227 

Kent, John of, 231 

Kent's Cavern, 291 

Kentclmrch, 230 

Keuper, Middle, on the Ogmore, 327 

Kilpeck, 230 

Kidwelly, 101 

King, Prof., 22, 420 

King Arthur's Cave, 350 

Kington, 163, 186 

Kinlet, trap of, 406 

Kites, in Wales, 170 

Kner, Dr., on Pteraspis, 219, 220 

Knighton, 185 

Knowl, Millstone Grit of, 365 

Knowlbury, 319 

Lady Lift, 227 

Lambardi, on Grosmont Castle, 232 

Lament, Mr., 18 



| Land's End, Granite, 299 

Landslips, 176, 206 

Landyfeisant, 99 
I Langsdorff, M., 14 

Lankester, Mr. Ray, 184, 218, 229, 
280 

La louche, Rev. J., 138 

Laurentian Rocks, 21 

of Sunderland, 22 

Wales, 28 ' 
Lava, 13 
Laxford, 24 
Ledbury, 201 

Beds, 202 

historic records of, 203 
Lee, Mr. J. E., 183, 184, 393 

! Lees, Mr. Edwin, 143, 253, 386 
i Leintwardine, 197 
Leland, on Bangor, 60 

Bangor Iscoed, 381 

Yarmouth, 64 
Braunton Church, 275 

Brecon Castle, 245 

Bridgenorth, 402 

- Buildwas Abbey, 176 

Caerphilly Castle, 326 

Cardiff Castle, 325 

Cefn Llys Castle, 150 

Chepstow, 348 

Chirk Castle, 316 

Conway Castle, 115 

Cwm-hir Abbey, 160 

Deerhurst Abbey, 36 
Denbigh Castle, 156 

Dinas Bran, 170 

Dolbadarn Castle, 56 

Ewyas Harold, 232 

Haughmond Abbey, 383 

Hay, 239 

Leominster, 222 

Llandewi Brefi, 123 

Malvern Priory, 37 

Neath Abbey, 393 

New Radnor, 163 

Offa's Palace, 226 

Pembroke Castle, 346 

Polperro, 283 

Prince Llewellyn, 95 

Skenfrith Castle, 232 
Strata Florida Abbey, 124 

submerged forest near 

Mount's Bay, 292 

Swansea Castle, 338 



428 



INDEX. 



Leland on the Boughlinne, 189 

thePrioryofBrumfield,197 

the Rounde Table of Llan- 

sannon, 156 

Worm's Head, 330 

Wenlock Abbey, 177 
Lenarto meteorite, 8 
Leominster, 222 

church, 223 
Lewis, island of, 26 

Mrs., 199 

Rev. T. T., 91, 136, 137, 177, 

195, 199 

Sir George Cornewall, 3 
Leysters Pole, quarries at, 222 
Lias, Lower, in S. Wales, 325, 329 
Lickey, The, 144 

Quartz rock of the, 145 
Lightbody, Mr., 71, 187, 194, 195, 

198, 251 

Light Spout Waterfall, 48 
Lilleshall, 401 
Limagne, lake of, 85 
Limestone, band in coal measures, 382 

Middle Devonian, 271 

plants of, 311 

S. Devonian, 291 
Lingwood, Mr. R. M., 280 
Lingula Flags, 63 

Ffestiniog, 68 

Herefordshire, 71 

Lower, 63 

Malvern Hills, 

Shropshire, 71 
Linley, 209 

Lisburne, lead mines of, 133 

Lister, Rev. Wm., 410 

Llan Avan, 95 

Llanbadock, 208 

Llanberis, 55 

Llandaff, 225 

Llandeilo rocks, Lower, 79 

Old Red at, 249 

_ _ Upper, in S. Wales, 93 

town of, 79, 97 
Llandewi Brefi, 122 
Llandewi-ystraed-enny, 160 
Llandovery, 129, 140 

Rocks, Lower, 129 

Malvern, 140 

- N. Wales, 131 

- Pembrokeshire, 136 

Shropshire, 136 



Llandovery Rocks, Upper, 136 

Upper, in S. Pembroke- 
shire, 148 

Woolhope, 140 
Llandrindrod, 150 
Llangefin, 307 
Llangollen, 170 
Llangynnog, 88 
Llandau, 307 

Llan Illtyd Fawr, 330 
Llansannon, 156 
Llanstephan Castle, 241 

Druid's stone near, 180 
Llantillio Crosseuey, 235 
Llanrwst, 157 

Lantirit rocks, 284 

Llanthony Abbey, 236 

Llanthew, 240 

Llantrissant, 392 

Llanvihangel, 308 

Llawllech hills, 39 

Llanwrtyd-wells, 95 

Lleyn, rocks of, 29, 113 

Lloyd, Dr., 195, 218, 315 
I Llyn Cwm Llwch, 247 
! Llyn Idwal, 57 
i Llyn Padarn, 56 

Llyn Rheidol, 133 

Llynsavaddon, 247 

Llyn, sections, 266 

Llyn-y-Cae, 82 

Lljn-y-Gader, 82 

Logan, Sir William, 21, 371 

Longhole, 337 

Long Mountain, 184 

Longmynd Hills, 47 

Lonsdale, Mr., 258 

Looe, 283, 285 

Island, 283 
Loughrin, Mr., 284 

Lowe, Miss Margaret, 72, 76 
Lucy, Mr., 38, 145 
Ludlow Castle, 196 

Church, 197 

Rocks, 183 

Chin district, 185 

Ludlow, 193 

Malvern, 200 
_ _ N. Wales, 184 

Woolhope, 204 
Lugg, 199, 222 

Lugwardine, trap dyke near, 228 
Lychnis viscaria, 89, 164 



INDEX. 



429 



Ljdstep Point, 341 
Lyell, Sir Charles, on consolidation of 
of granite, 12 

on Sunk country, 370, 

et passim 

Mr. Leonard, 280, 293 
Lynmouth, 266 

Lynton, 266 



Macculloch, Dr., on igneous rocks, 16, 

43, 44, 91, 230, 234 
Machen, Mr., 356 
Madden, Sir F., 342 
Maeklraeth Bay, 306 
Magnesian Limestone, 397 
Maiden Stone, 246 
Malner Heights, 282 
Maldraeth Marsh, 378 
Mallet, Mr., on Earthquakes, 1617 
Mallwyd, 132, 159 
Malmesbury, \Villiam of, 381 
Malvern, 36 

Field Club, 210 

Priory, 37 

Tunnel, section of, 141 
Mammalia, extinct, 293, 296 
Manod Mountains, 86 
Manorbeer Castle, 254 
Maree, Loch, 28, 44 
Marloes Bay, 148, 242 
Marston, Mr., 196, 198, 218 
Martinhoe Church, 268 

Martley, Syenitic boss near, 38, 181 
Marwood beds, 276 
Maw, Mr. on Permian Plants, 169, 
174, 278, 308, 386, 399, 403, 410 
May Hill, 146 

Permian Breccia, 419 

Sandstone, 136 
Mc'Coy, Prof., 136, 188, 280 
Mc'Enery, Dr., 292 
Meadfoot Sands, 282 
Melville, Dr., 187 

Merlin, Cave of, 98 

Legend concerning, 99 
Mereweather, Dean, 227 

Kev. P., 165 
Merthyr Tydvil, 391 
Meteorites, 8 
Michael's Mount, 297 
Midsummer Hill, 34, 38 



Miller, Prof., 5, 6 

Miller, Hugh, on Canisp, 24, 43, 46 

193, 243, 250, 374, 410, 412 
Millstone Grit Boulders, 361 

Conglomerate, 360 

Dean Forest, 365 

Flintshire, 362 

S. Wales, 365 

Titterstone Clee, 364 
Minchin Hole, 337 
Minehead, 261 

Minerals composing Igneous rocks, 12 
Miscodera Arctica, 112 
Mocktree, section at, 198 
Moel Fammau, 155, 169 

Fenlli, 169 

Gromv, 56 

Hebog, 114 

Perfydd, 70 

Siabod, 100 

Tryfaen, Boulder Drift of, 58 
Moelfre, 306 

Moin, gneiss of the, 45 
Monmouth, 252, 253 
Montpezat, Valley of, 16 
Moore, Mr. Carrick, 43 

Mr. Charles, 329 
Moreton Hampster.d, 299 
Morris, Prof., 317 

i Morte Slates, 272, 273 

Morthoe, 273 
I Mortimer's Cross, 199 

Mount Edgecombe Limestone, 296 

Etna, 13 
Mountain Limestone, 305 

Clee Hills, 316 

Dean Forest, 347 

Organic Remains, 356 

of North Wales, 315 

Range of, in North Wales, 312 

South Wales, 323 
Muddiford, Volcanic Rock of, 272 

i Mudstone Bay, 281 
I Mules, Rev. Mr., 275, 276, 277 
Murchison, Sir Roderick I. on funda- 
mental gneiss, 22 
- on rocks of St. David's, 49, et 
passim 

; Musclewick Bay, 103 
Mynydd Mawr, 82 

Xarbeth, 192 
Neath, 393 



430 



INDEX. 



Neath Abbey, 393 

Nebular theory, 4 

Keen Sellers, 210 

Nevin, 29 

Newchurch, 188 

Newgale Sands, submerged forest of, 

51 

New Radnor, 163 
Newton, 246 
Newton-Bushell, 290 
Netherton, Valley of, 167 
Newbridge, 149 
Noedd-y-Grug, 130 
Noli-me-tangere, 316 
Norden, on Holt Castle, 381 



Ockeridge Farm, 200 
Offa's Dyke, 185, 362 
Ogmore Castle, 328 
Old Castle, 235 
Old Radnor, 139, 160, 163 
Old Red Sandstone, 212 

deposition of, 215 

_ _ Lower, in Wales, 216, 

211 
_ _ _ i n Malvern, 228 

Middle, in Scotland, 243 

Organic remains of, 254 
_ _ Upper, in Wales, 249 

Onny section, 119, 138 
Orchard quarry, 277 
Oreton quarries, 317 
Ormes Head, 309 

- Great, 311 
Oswestry, 363 

Outliers, 217, 312, 321, 350 
Overton, 381 
Owen Glyndwr, 117, 169 
Owen, Professor, 351, 393 
Oystermouth Castle, 339 



Pain's Castle, 218 

Palaeozoic rocks, divisions of, 20 

Parka decipiens, 209 

Parph, quartz rock of, 27 

Parwyd, precipices of, 29 

Parys Mountain, 114 

Passage Rocks, near Ledbury, 202 
grouping of, 213 
_ _ Woolhope, 204 

Paviland Caves, 336 



Paviland, Raised Beach near, 334 
Peach, Mr., on fossil fish, 280 
Pearls, British, 115 
Pedwardine, 71 
Pecknal, 401 
Pembroke, 345 

shire coal-measures, 389 
Penalt, 350 

Penarth, section of, 325 

Pencaer, 101 

Pen Cader, 100 

Pcncerrig, section near, 94, 140 

Pen Cerrig Calch, 320, 365 

Pencoed Castle, 253 

Pengelly, Mr. W., 164, 259, 280, 

282, 287, 292, 298 
Pengethly, 251 
Penmaenmawr, 87 
Penmon, 309 
| Pennant, Mr., 113, 306, 312, 316 

Grits, 392 

i Pennard Castle, 331 

! Penrith Sandstone, 397 

1 Penryhn, slate quarries of, 57 

Pen-y-Llan, 183 
| Pentrevoelas, 158 

Penzance, 297, 299 

Permian Rocks, 396 

of N. Wales, 399 

Breccia, 408 

Malvern Hills, 415 
_ _ _ May Hill, 419 

Lower, 413 

organic remains of, 419 
Petherwin, South, 299 

Phillips, Prof., 32, 71, 141, 172, 
207, 282, 287, 372 

Pickwell Down beds, 275 

Pilton group, 276 

Pirton, Passage beds of, 204 

Pistill granite, 29 

Pistyll Rhaiadr, waterfall of, 88 

Plutonic rocks, 11, &c. 
: Plynlimmon, 133 
j Plymouth, 295 
i Polperro, 283, 284 
I Pont Erwyd, 132 
. Pontesbury, 91 
! Pontrilas, quarry at, 229 
i Pont-y-Mynach, 132 

Pontypool, 392 

Poole, Rev. W., 251 

Pope, 251 



INDEX. 



431 



Porlock, 262 

Porkington, 363 

Porth-y-Rhaw, sections at, 51 

Ports-cuett, 348 

Potentilla rupestris, 89 

Powell, " Glironicles of Wales," 225 

Powrie, Mr., 218, 243 

Powys Castle, 117 

Precelly Hills, 53, 101 

Presteign, 188, 200, 217 

Preston quarries, 296 

Prestwich, Mr., 334, 386 

Price, Captain, 28, 91, 419 

Primula Scotica, 27 

Puddingstone, 253 

Puffin Island, 308 

Ptaraspis, 219, 280, &c. 

Pterichthys, 243, &c. 

Putley, 204 

landslip, 206 



Quantock Hills, 263 
Quatford Church, 222, 405 
Quat Church, 405 
Queenaig, 23 

Cambrian rocks of, 43 

quartz rock of, 91 
Quito, earthquake of, 17 



Ragged Stone Hill, 34 
Rame Head, 282 

Ramsay, Prof. , on rocks of Lleyn, 29 
Glacial origin of lakes, 82, et 



Randall, Mr. John, 209 

Ranunculus lingua, 109 

Ratlinghope, 48 

Raven's Cliff cavern, 336 

Redstone Cliff, 414 

Red Wharf Bay, 306 

Rhsetic Strata 'in S. Wales, 325, 327 

Rhaiader Gwy Castle, 134 

Rhaiadr, The, 88 

Rhosgoch, The, 189 

Roberts, Captain, 95 

Roberts, Mr. George, 209, 251, 385, 

413 

Robin Hood's Butts, 227 
Rockham Bay, 272 
Rolben, 234 
Roscoe, Mr. 57 



Rosebury Rock, 415 
Ross, 251, 365 

shire, Laurentian rocks of, 28 
Rowlands, Rev. Henry, 378 

on Criccieth Castle, 114 

Cromlechs, 308 

Ednyfed Vychau, 307 

death, 367 
Rowlestone, 230 

Church, 232 
Rowley Rag, 16 

Hills, 232 
Rowney, Mr., 22 
Rubus Arcticus, 27 

Chamaemorus, 25 
Ruspitch, 252 
Ruthin, 169 



Salcombe, 294 

Salmo salvelinus, 108 

Salter, Mr., on rocks of Lleyn, 29 

on the Longmynds, 48, et 
passim 

Salway, Mr. Humphrey, 196, 219 

Samphire Island, 297 

Samuel, Mr., 98, 99 

Sanders, Rev. Mr., 208 

Sara Helen, 69 

Saunton, raised beach, 276 

Saussurea alpina, 110 

Saxifraga aizoides, 25 

Scaphaspis ludensis, 197 

Scleranthus perennis, 164 

Scobell, Mr., 351, 352 

Scrope, Mr., 15 

Scutterdine, 167 

Scyrrid Fawr, 234 
- The, 244 

Sedgeley, 193 

Sedgwick, Professor, on Laurentian 
gneiss of Ross-shire, 28, et pas- 
sim 

Selattyn, 362 

Selwyn, Professor, 109 

Severn, source of, 134 

Shatterford, 385 

Shelve, 92 

Sholeshook, 125 

Shobdon Church, 188 

Silene acaulis, 84 

Silurian Rocks, Lower. 78 

Middle, 129 



432 



INDEX. 



Silurian Rocks, organic remains of, 

125, 151, 210 

_ _ Upper, 153 
Skaptar Jokul, 14 
Skomer, Isle of, 242 
Skenfrith Castle, 232 
Skrinkle Bay, 253 
Sloly quarries, 277 
Smith, Mr., 344 
Smoo, Caves of, 27 
Snowdon, 69, 104, 110, 113 
Solva, 51, 242 
Sorby, Mr., 8, 12 
SoutherndowD, 329 
South Stack Lighthouse, 30 
Sowdde, The, 241 
Sowerby, Mr. James, 125 
Spectrum investigations, 5-7 
Spider of Coalbrook Dale, 386, 394 
Spiderwort, 57 
Spritsail Tor Cave, 335 
St. Almedha, Church of, 245 
St. Bee's Head, 397 
St. David's Cathedral, '53 

Head, 102 

Syenitic axis near, 31, 49 
St. David, at Llandewi Brefi, 123 
St. Govan's Chapel, 342 

St. Kenelm's Church, 412 
St. Rumon's Abbey, 300 
St. Veep, 285 
Stackpole Rocks, 341 
Staffa, 16 
Stagbury Hill, 414 
Stanner Rocks, 162 

plants of the, 163 
Stanton-on-the-hill, 252 
Starfish, 127, 198 ' 

Steele, Dr. Elmes, 234 
Stigmaria, 374 
Stiper Stones, 89 
Stoke Edith, 166 
Stokesay Camp, 192 

Castle, 137 
Stone, Mrs., 37 

Strata Florida Abbey, 124 
Strethill, Drift of, 403 
Strickland, Miss, 336 

- Mr. Hugh, 35, 71, 207, 336 
Submergence, Few evidences of in 

Devonshire, 278 
Subularia aquatica, 110 
Suen, 269 



Sugar Loaf, 234 
Suilven, 24 

Sutton Stone series, 328 * 
Sutton Walls, 225 
Symonds, Lieut. -Col., 251 
Yat, 252, 350, 355 
Swansea Castle, 338 
Sweeney Mountain, 362 



Taff Vale, 391 

Talgarth, 247 

Tal-y-llyn, lake, 84 

Tanner, Bishop, on Great Malvern, 36 

Tarannon Shales, 149 

in Malvern district, 151 

near Llandovery, 151 
Tarrington, 166 
Tavistock, 300 

Tawney, Mr., 329 

Tenby, 339 

Tenbury, 221 

Teme, The, 185 

Thackwell, Rev. William, 229 

Thomas, Mr., 339 

Thompson, Rev. Mr., 413 

Timins, Rev. Mr., 33 

Tintern Abbey, 349 

Titterstone Glee, 317, 364 

Torgoch, or Welsh Char, 57, 82, 112 

Torquay, 291 

Torridon, Loch, 44 

Towy, river drifts along the, 131 

Trap, 15, 272, 282, 296, 297 

dykes, 228, 308 
Trappean Breccia, 408 
Travertine, 221 
Trawsfynydd, 67 
Trecastle, 190 
Tregarnedd, 307 
Tregaron, 124 
Tremadoc Rocks, 73, 242 

rocks near Tavistock, 299 

slates, 75 

town of, 75 
Trentishoe, 269 

Tre'r Caeri, ruins of, 29 
Tretower Castle, 250 
Trevor Rocks, 361 
Trewerne, section, 238 
Trichrug, 96 
Trimmer, Mr., 58 



INDEX. 



433 



Trimpley, 209 


Werstamus, Prior, 36 


Turner, Mr., 148 


West Angle Bay, 341 


Twt Hill, 31 


Whitbatch, 218 




Whitchurch, 350 




White Cross, 226 


Cgbrook, 286 


Whiterry Quarries, 92 


Usk, 172, 208 


White Leaved Oak, Quarry of, 34 




Whitesand Bay, 282 




Whittington, Castle of, 363 


Valle Crucis, 216 
Valley of Rocks, 267 


Wigmore Castle, 177 
Williams, Mr., 98, 330 
Rev. D. 276 


Valpy, Mr., 272 
Velay, Extinct Volcanoes of, 14 
Vendace, in Loch Maben, 108 


William^ 57, 112 
Williamson, Dr., 374, 375 
Wilton Castle, 251 


Ventian, 275 
Vernal Squill, 53 


Windmill Hill Cavern, 293, 294 
Winnall, Mr., 417 


Vesuvius, 13 
Via Flandriea, 101 
Vicary, Mr., 285, 2^1 
Vivian, Mr., 292 
Vivarias, Volcanoes, 14 


Wilmington, Sir Thomas, 221 
Winwood, Rev. H., 49, 344 
Woodabay, 268 
Wood, Lieut. -Col. E. R., 333, 335 

1WV QKfi 


Volcanoes, 11, 13 


jyir. , ooo 
jj rs 332 


Volcanic Action, 104, 298 
Rocks, 11, 79, 150, 319 


Woodward,' Dr. S. P., 256 
Mr., 76, 205 




Woolacombe, 273 




Woolhope Limestone, 160 


Wallsgrove Hill, 209 


May Hill, 167 


Warshill, 401 


near Malvern, 167 


Grit, 413 


Staffordshire, 168 


Water-break-its-neck, 186 


Valley of Elevation, 164 


Watt's Dyke, 362 


Worcestershire Beacon, 33 


Watts Hill, Sections of, 181 


Worm's Head, 330 


Watersmeet, 267 


Wonnsley Hill, 227 


Wenlock Abbey, 176 


Wotton Courtney, 262 


Edge, 177, 192 


Wrekin, The, 120 


Limestone, 172 


Wren's Nest, 178 


Dudley, 178 


Wrexham, 380, 400 


Malvern Hills, 179 


Wright, Dr. Thomas, 198, 329 


Mai-loes Bay, 182 


Wye, 350, 351 


- May Hill, 182 


Wyndcliff, 347 


Usk, 182 


Wynn, Mrs. Williams, 313 


Woolhope 179 


Wyre Forest, plants of, 386 


Shale, 168 




Malvern Hills, 179 




May Hill, 172 


Yealm Bridge, 297 


S. Pembrokeshire, 171 
Wentworth Forest, 253 


Y Glyder Fawr, 114 
Yordale Rocks, 361 


Weobley, 227 


Yr Eifel, 29 



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LIFE OF THOMAS STOTHARD, R.A. With Per- 
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BROGDEN'S (R E v. JAS.) ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE 

LITURGY AND RITUAL OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND 
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CATHOLIC SAFEGUARDS AGAINST THE ERRORS* 

CORRUPTIONS, AND NOVELTIES OF THE CHUKCU OF ROME. 3 vols. 8vo. 42s> 

BULGARIA; NOTES on the RESOURCES and ADMINISTRATION of 
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the CHRISTIAN and MUSSULMAN POPULATIONS, &c. By S. G. B. ST. CLA1B 
and CHARLES A. BROPIIY. 8vo. 12s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



CAMPBELL'S (LORD) LIVES OF THE LORD CHAN- 
CELLORS AND KEEPERS OF THE GREAT SEAL OK ENGLAND, from 
the Earliest Times to the Reign of George the Fourth. 10 vols. Post 8vo. 
60s. 

LIVES OF LORDS LYNDHURST 

AND BROUGHAM. 8vo. 16s. 

(SiR NEIL) JOURNAL OF OCCURRENCES, 

and Notes of Conversations with Napoleon at Fontainbleau and Elba in 
1814-15. With a Memoir of that Officer. By his Nephew, REV. A. N. C. 
MACLACHLAN. With Portrait. 8vo. 15s. 

(GEORGE) MODERN INDIA. A Sketch of the 

System of Civil Government. With some Account of the Natives and Native 
Institutions. Second Edition. 8vo. 16s. 

INDIA AS IT MAY BE. An Outline of a 

Proposed Government and Policy. 8vo. 12s. 

CASTLEREAGH'S (VISCOUNT) MEMOIRS, CORRESPOND- 
ENCE, AND DESPATCHES. Edited by THE MARQUIS OF LONDON- 
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CATHCART'S (Sin GEORGE) COMMENTARIES ON THE 

WAR IN RUSSIA AND GERMANY, 1812-13. With Plans. 8vo. 14s. 

MILITARY OPERATIONS IN KAFFRARIA. 



Second Edition. 8vo. 12s. 
CHALMERS' (GEORGE) POETICAL REMAINS OF SOME OF 

THE SCOTTISH KINGS. Post 8vo. 10s. 6ii. 

CHURCH AND THE AGE. Essays on the Principles and 

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REV. W. D. MACLAGAN and REV. A. AVEIR. 1st and 2nd Series. 2 vols. 
8vo. 

CHURTON AND JONES' (ARCHDEACON) NEW TESTAMENT. 

With a Plain Explanatory Commentary for Families and General Readers ; 
with more than 100 Illustrations of Scripture Scenes, from Photographs 
and Sketches by REV. S. C. MALAN and JAMES GBAHAM taken on the Spot. 
2 vols. 8vo. 21s. 

CICERO'S LIFE and TIMES ; with a Selection from his Cor- 
respondence and Orations. By WILLIAM FORSYTH, LL,D. Third 
Edition. With 40 Illustrations. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

CLODE'S (C. M.) HISTORY OF THE ADMINISTRATION 
AND GOVERNMENT OF THE BRITISH AKMY FBOM THK REVO- 

LDTION, 1688. 2 vols. 8vo. 42s. 

COLCHESTER'S (LORD) DIARY AND CORRESPONDENCE 

WHILE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, 1802-1817. Edited 
by HIS SON. With Portrait. 3 vols. 8vo. 42s. 

COOPER'S (T. T.) TRAVELS OF A PIONEER OF COM- 
MERCE ON AN OVERLAND JOURNEY FROM CHINA TOWAKDS 
INDIA. With Map and Illustrations. 8vo. 16s. 

CORNWALLIS'S (MARQUIS) CORRESPONDENCE DURING 

THE AMERICAN WAR: Administrations in India, Union with Ireland, 
and Peace of Amiens. Edited by CHARLES ROSS. Second Edition. With 
Portrait. 3 vols. 8vo. 63*. | 

COWPER'S (LADY) DIARY WHILE LADY OF THE 

BEDCHAMBER TO THE PRINCESS OF WALES, 1714-20. Edited 
by Hon. SPEXCEB COWPEB. Second Edition. Portrait. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

B 2 



LIST OF STANDARD WORKS 



CRABBE'S (REV. GEORGE) POETICAL WORKS; with his Life, 

Letters, and Journals. By HIS SON. Cabinet Edition. With Plates. 8 vols. 
Fcap. 8vo. 24s. a 

CROKER'S (RT. HON. J. W.) WORKS OF ALEXANDER 

POPK. With Introductions and Notes by REV. WHITWF.LL KLWIN. Vols. L, 
II., VI., VII., and VIII. With Portraits. 8vo. 10s. 6cJ. each. 

BOSWELL'S LIFE OF SAMUEL JOHNSON, D.D., 

including their Tour to the Hebrides. Edited with Notes. With Portraits. 
1 vol. Royal 8vo. 10s. 

ESSAYS ON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



CROWE AND CAVALCASELLE'S HISTORY OF PAINTING 

IN ITALY, including the little-known SCHOOLS OF NORTH ITALY, 
from the Second to the Sixteenth Century, drawn up from fresh materials 
and recent researches in the Archives of Italy, as well as from personal 
inspection of the Works of Art scattered throughout Europe. With Illustra- 
tions. 5 vols. 8vo. 21s. each. 

EARLY FLEMISH PAINTERS ; their 

Lives and Works. New and Revised Edition. With Illustrations. Crown 
Svo, or large paper 8vo. 

CUNNINGHAM'S (PETER) GOLDSMITH'S WORKS. Edited 
with Notes. With Vignettes. 4 vols. Svo. 30s. 

JOHNSON'S LIVES OF THE MOST 

EMINENT ENGLISH POETS. With Critical Observations on their Works. 
Edited, with Notes. 3 vols. Svo. 22s. 6d. 

(J. D.) HISTORY OF THE SIKHS, from 

the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of the Sutlej. Second Edition. With 
Maps. Svo. 15s. 

CUST'S (Sis EDWARD) ANNALS OF THE WARS OF THE 

18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES, 1700-1815. With Maps. 9 vols. Fcap. 8vo. 
5s. each. 

WARRIORS OF THE I?TH CENTURY Thirty 

Years' War Civil Wars of France and England Commanders of Fleets and 
Armies. 1604-1704. 6 vols. Post Svo. 50s. 

DARWIN'S (CHARLES) Journal of Researches into the Natural 
History of the Countries visited during a Voyage round the World. Post 
Svo. 9s. 

ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL 

SELECTION ; or, the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. 
With Glossary of Terms. Post 8vo. 7s. 6<Z. 

FERTILIZATION OF ORCHIDS THROUGH 

INSECT AGENCY, and on the good effects of Intercrossing. With Woodcuts. 
Post Svo. 9s. 

VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS 

UNDER DOMESTICATION. With Illustrations. 2 vols. Svo. 28s. 

DESCENT OF MAN, and on SELECTION in 

RELATION to SEX. With Illustrations. 2 vols. Crown 8vo. 24s. 

DE BEAUVOIR'S (MARQUIS) VOYAGE ROUND THE 
WORLD WITH THE ORLEAN1ST PRINCES. Vol. III. Wiih Illustra- 
tions. Post Svo. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



DELEPIERRE'S (OCTAVE) HISTORY OF FLEMISH LITERA- 
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HISTORICAL DIFFICULTIES AND CON- 
TESTED EVENTS. Post 8vo. 6s. 
DENISON'S (E. B.) LIFE OF BISHOP LONSDALE. With 

Portrait Crown 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

DERBY'S (EARL OP) HOMER'S ILIAD rendered into ENGLISH 
BLANK VEKSE. Seventh Edition. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 10*. 

DE ROS' (LORD) MEMORIALS OF THE TOWER OF LON- 
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DEVEREUX'S (W. B.) LIVES OF THE EARLS OF ESSEX 
IN THE REIGNS OF ELIZABETH, JAMES I., AND CHARLES I. 
Portraits. 2 vols. 8vo. 30s. 

DOUGLAS' (Sin HOWARD) LIFE AND ADVENTURES. By 
S. W. FULLOM. 8vo. 14s. 

TREATISE ON GUNNERY. Fifth Edition. 

Woodcuts. Svo. 21s. 

CONSTRUCTION OF MILITARY BRIDGES 



AND THE PASSAGE OF RIVERS IN MILITARY OPERATIONS. Plates. Svo. 21s. 
DUCANGE'S MEDIEVAL LATIN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. 

Illustrated and enlarged by numerous additions. By E. A. DAYMAN, B.I). 

4 to. [In Preixiratwn. 

DUDLEY'S (EARL OF) LETTERS TO BISHOP COPLESTONE. 

Second Edition. Portrait. Svo. 10s. 6<J. 
DYER'S (THOS. H.) HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE, from 

the Taking of Constantinople by the Turks to the Close of the War in the 

Crimea, 1453-1857. With an Index. 4 vols. Svo. 42s. 

LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN CALVIN. Com- 
piled from authentic Sources. With Portrait Svo. 15*. 

EASTLAKE'S (SiR CHARLES) CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 

LITERATURE OF THE FINE ARTS. WITH SELECTIONS FBOM HIS COR- 
RESPONDENCE, and a Memoir. By LADY EASTLAKE. 2 vols. Svo. 12s. each. 

ITALIAN SCHOOLS OF PAINTING. From 

the German of KUGLER. Edited, with Notes. Sixtk Edition. With 100 
Illustrations. 2 vols. Post Svo. 30s. 

EGYPTIANS (ANCIENT) : A Popular Account of their Manners 
and Customs. By SIR J. GARDNER WILKINSON. New Edition. With 
Illustrations. 2 volg. Post Svo. 12s. 

(MODERN) : An Account of their MANNERS and 

CUSTOMS. By E. W. LANE, fifth Edition. With Illustrations. 2 vols. 
Post Svo. 12*. 

ELGIN'S (LORD) LETTERS AND JOURNALS, while Governor 
of Jamaica, Governor-General <if Canada, Envoy to China, and Viceroy of 
India. Edited by THEODORE WALROND, C.B. With Preface by DEAN 
STANI.ET. 8vo. 

ELLESMERE'S (LORD) ESSAYS ON HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, 

GEOGRAPHY, and ENGINEERING. 8vo. 12s. 

ELPHINSTONE'S (MOUNT STUART) HISTORY OF INDIA. 

The Hindu and Mahometan Periods. Fifth Edition. With Notes and 
Additions by PROFESSOR COW ELL. With Map. Svo. 18s. 

(H. W.) PATTERNS FOR TURNING ; com- 
prising elliptical and other Figures cut on the Lathe, without the use of any 
ornamental chuck. With 70 illustrations. Small 4to. 



LIST OF STANDARD WORKS 



ELWIN'S (KEV. WHITWELL) WORKS OF ALEXANDER POPE. 

With Introductions and Notes, and many original Letters now for the first 
time published. Vols. I., II., VI., VII., & VIII. With Portraits. 8vo. 
10*. 6d. each. 

ELZE'S (KARL) BIOGRAPHY OF LORD BYRON, with a Cri- 
tical Essay on his place in Literature. With Portrait. 8vo. 16s. 

ENGEL'S (GAEL) MUSIC OF THE MOST ANCIENT 

NATIONS; particularly of the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Hebrews; with 
Special Reference to the Discoveries in Western Asia and in Egypt. Second 
Edition. With 100 Illustrations. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

ESSAYS ON CATHEDRALS. By Various Writers. Edited Ly 
DEAN HOWSON. 8vo. 12*. 

FARRAR'S (REV. A. S.) CRITICAL HISTORY OF FREE 

THOUGHT IN REFERENCE TO THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION. 8vo. 
16*. 

FEATHERSTONHAUGH'S fG. W.) TOUR THROUGH THE 
SLAVE STATES OF NORTH AMERICA, from the River Potomac, to 
Texas and the Frontiers of Mexico. 2 vols. 8vo. 26*. 

FERGUSSON'S (JAMES) HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE IN 

ALL COUNTRIES. From the Earliest Times. With 1200 Illustrations. 
VOLS. I. & II. 8vo. 42*. each. 

RUDE STONE MONUMENTS in all COUN- 
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FERRIER'S (T. P.) CARAVAN JOURNEYS IN PERSIA, 

AFFGHANISTAN, HERAT, TURKISTAN, AND BELOOCHISTAN, with 
Descriptions of Meshed, Balk, and Candahar, and Sketches of the Nomade 
Tribes of Central Asia. Second Edition. With Map. 8vo. 21*. 

HISTORY OF THE AFFGHANS. With Map. 

8vo. 21*. 

FORSTER'S (JOHN) HISTORY OF THE GRAND REMON- 
STRANCE, 1641. With an Introductory Essay on English Freedom under 
Plantagenet and Tudor Sovereigns. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 12*. 

CROMWELL, DEFOE, STEELE, CHURCHILL, 

FOOTE. Biographies. Post 8vo. 

FORSYTE'S (WM.) LIFE AND TIMES OF CICERO. With 
Selections from his Correspondence and Orations. Third Edition. With 
Illustrations. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

NOVELS AND NOVELISTS OF THE XVHIra 

CENTURY; in Illustration of the MAXNEBS and MORALS of the AGE. 
Post 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

FO3S' (EDWARD) JUDGES OF ENGLAND. With Sketches of 
their Lives, and Notices of the Courts at Westminster, from the Conquest to 
the Present Time. 9 vols. 8vo. 126*. 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF THE 

JUDGES, FROM THE CONQUEST TO 1870. Condensed from the larger work, 
but arranged in alphabetical order. Medium 8vo. 21*. 

GEORGE THE THIRD'S CORRESPONDENCE WITH LORD 

NORTH. 1769-82. Edited, with Notes and Introduction, by W. BODHAM 
DONNE. 2 vols. 8vo. 32s. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



GIBBON'S (EDWABD) HISTOEY OF THE DECLINE AND 

FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. With Notes by DEAN MILMAN 
and M. GU1ZOT. A new Edition. Edited, with additional Holes incor- 
porating the Researches of recent writers, by WM. SMITH, D.C.L. With 
Portrait and Maps. 8 vols. 8vo. 60*. 

GOLDSMITH'S (OLIVER) WORKS. Edited, with Notes, by 

PETER CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. With Portrait and Vignettes. 4 vols. 8vo. 
30s. 

GRENVILLE'S (GEOKGE) PUBLIC AND PRIVATE COR- 
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during a period of Thirty Years, including his Diary of Political Events 
while First Lord of the Treasury. Edited, with Notes, by W. J. SMITH. 
4 vols. 8vo. 16*. each. 

GREY'S (EARL) CORRESPONDENCE WITH KING WILLIAM 

IV. and SIR HERBERT TAYLOR, from November, 1830, to the Passing of 

the Reform Act in 1832. Edited by HIS SON. 2 vols. 8vo. 30*. 
GROTE'S (GEORGE) HISTORY of GREECE, from the Earliest 

Period to the Close of the Generation contemporary with Alexander the Great. 

Fou.rO>, Edition. With Portrait, Maps, and Plans. 10 vols. 8vo. 12*. 
Cabinet Edition. With Portrait and 

Plans. 12 vols. Post 8vo. 6s. each. 

PLATO AND THE OTHER COMPANIONS OF 

SOCRATES. Second Edition. 3 vols. 8vo. 45*. %* An Index, 8vo. 2s. Gd. 

ARISTOTLE. Edited by PROFESSORS ALEX- 
ANDER BAIN, LL.D., and G. CROOM ROBERTSON, M.A. 2 vols. 8vo. 

GRUNER'S (LEWIS) TERRA-COTTA ARCHITECTURE OF 

NORTH ITALY. From careful Drawings and Restorations. With Illus- 
trations, engraved and printed in Colours. Small folio. 51. 6s. 

GUIZOT'S (M.) MEDITATIONS ON CHRISTIANITY. 3 vols. 

Post 8VO. 

GURWOOD'S (CoL.) SELECTIONS FROM THE WELLING- 
TON DESPATCHES AND GENERAL ORDERS. Intended as a convenient 
Manual for Officers while Travelling or on Service. 8vo. 18*. . 

GUSTAVUS VASA (LIFE OF). His Exploits and Adventures. 
With Extracts from his Correspondence. With Portrait. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

HALLAM'S (HENRY) CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF 

ENGLAND, from the Accession of Henry VII. to the Death of George IL 
ighth Edition. 3 vols. 8vo, 30*. ; or, 3 vols. Post 8vo, 12*. 

HISTORY OF THE STATE OF EUROPE 

DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. Eleventh Edition, 3 vols. 8vo, 30*. ; or, 
3 vols. Post 8vo, 12*. 

LITERARY HISTORY OF EUROPE. Fourth 

Edition. 3 vols. 8vo ; or, 4 vols. Post 8vo, 16*. 

** The public are cautioned against editions of Hallatn's Histories recently 
advertised, which are merely reprints of old editions, which are full of errors, 
and do not contain the author's additional notes and latest corrections. 

HAMILTON'S (JAMES) WANDERINGS IN NORTHERN 

AFRICA, BENGHAZI, CYREN E, THE OASIS OF SIWAH, &c. Second 
Edition. With Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 12s. 

(W. J.) RESEARCHES IN ASIA MINOR, 

PONTUS, AND ARMENIA; with some Account of the Antiquities and 
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LIST OF STANDARD WORKS 



HANDBOOK TO THE CATHEDEALS OF ENGLAND; 

Concise History of each See, with Biographical Notices of the Bishops. By 
KICHAED J. KIXG, B.A. With 300 illustrations. 7 vols. Post Svo. 
Containing : 

Southern Division; WINCHESTER, SALISBURY, EXETER, WELLS, 
ROCHESTER, CANTERBURY, AND CHICHESTER. With 110 Illustrations.- 
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Eastern Division; OXFORD, PETERBOROUGH, ELY, NORWICH, 
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Western Division ; BRISTOL, GLOUCESTER, HEREFORD, WORCES- 
TER, AND LICHFIELD. With 60 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 16*. 

Northern Division ; YORK, RIPON, DURHAM, CARLISLE, CHESTER, 

AND MANCHESTER. With 60 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 2 vols. 21,'. 
Welsh Cathedrals; LLANDAFF, BANGOR, ST. ASAPH, and ST> 

DAVID'S. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 

HANNAH'S (EEV. DR.) DIVINE AND HUMAN ELEMENTS 
IN HOLY SCRIPTURE. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

HATHEKLEY'S (LORD) CONTINUITY OF SCKIPTUEE, as 

declared by the Testimony of our Lord and of the Evangelists and Apostles. 
fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

HEAD'S (SiR F. B.) ROYAL ENGINEEE, AND THE ROYAL 
ESTABLISHMENTS AT WOOLWICH AND CHATHAM. With Illustrations. Svo. 12s, 

DEFENCELESS STATE OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Contents 1. Military Warfare. 2. Naval Warfare. 3. The Invasion of 
England. 4. The Capture of London by a French Army. 5. The Treatment 
of Women in War. 6. How to Defend Great Britain. Post Svo. 12s. 

FAGGOT OF FRENCH STICKS ; or, Description of 

Paris in 1851. 2nd Edition. 2 vols. Post Svo. 12s. 

DESCRIPTIVE ESSAYS. Contributed to the ' Quar- 
terly Review.' 2 vols. Post Svo. 18s. 

HERODOTUS: A New English Version. Edited, -with copious 
Notes, from the most Recent Sources of Information. By GEORGE 
RAWLINSON, M.A. Assisted by Sir HENRY RAWLIXSON and Sir GARDNER 
WILKINSON. Second Edition. With Maps and Woodcuts. 4 vols. Svo. 
48s. 

HESSEY'S (REV. DR.) SUNDAY: its Origin, History, and 
Present Obligations. Second Edition. Post Svo. 9s. 

HILL (FREDERICK) ON CRIME: its Amount, Causes, and 
Remedies. Svo. 12*. 

HOMER'S ILIAD, rendered into English Blank Verse. By the 
EARL OF DERBY. Seventh Edition. 2 vols. Small Svo. 10s. 

HOOK'S (DEAN) CHURCH DICTIONARY : a Manual of Reference 
for the Clergy Students and General Readers. Tenth Edition. Svo. 16s. 

HORACE. A New Edition of the Text. Edited by DEAN 
MILMAN. With 100 Illustrations. Small Svo. 7s. 6d. 

LIFE. By DEAN MILMAN. With Illustrations. Svo. 9s^ 

JAMESON'S (MRS.) LIVES OF THE EARLY ITALIAN 
PAINTERS and the Progress of Painting in Italy from Cimabue to Bas&tno 
Tenth Edition. With 50 Portraits. Post Svo. 12s. 

JERVIS' (PREBENDARY) HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OP 
FRANCE, from the CONCORDAT OF BOLOGNA, 1516, to the REVOLUTION, 
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PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



JOHNSON'S (SAMt-EL) LIFE. By JAMES BOSWELL. In- 

eluding the Tour to the Hebrides. Edited by the KT. HON. J. W. CROKEE. 
With Portraits. Royal 8vo. 10*. 

LIVES OF THE MOST EMINENT ENGLISH 



POETS, with Critical Observations on their Works. Edited, with Notes, 
by PETER CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. 3 vols. 8vo. 22*. 6d. 

JOHNSTON'S (Wai.) ENGLAND AS IT IS : Political, Social; 
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JONES AND CHURTON'S (ARCHDEACON) NEW TESTA- 
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FAMILIES and GENERAL READERS. With 100 Panoramic and other Views 
from Sketches and Photographs, by REV. S. C. MALAN and JAMES 
GRAHAM, made en the Spot. 2 vols. Crown 8vo. 21*. 

JUNIUS; the Handwriting of, professionally investigated. Bjr 
MH. CHAHOT, Expert. With Preface and Collateral Evidence, by the 
HON. EDWARD TWISLETON. With Facsimiles, Woodcuts, &c. 4to. 63*. 

KEN'S (BISHOP) LIFE. By A LAYMAN. Second Edition. With 

Portrait. 2 vols. 8vo. 18.<r. 
KERB'S (ROBERT) GENTLEMAN'S HOUSE; or, How to Plan- 

English Residences, from the 1'arsonage to the Palace. Third Edition. 

With Views and Plans. 8vo. 24*. 
(R. MALCOLM) BLACKSTONE'S COMMENTARIES,. 

adapted to the present state of the Law. J-'uui th Edition. 4 vols. 8vo. 

[In the Press. 

KIRK'S (J. FOSTER) HISTORY OF CHARLES THE BOLD, 

DUKE OF BURGUNDY. With Portraits. 3 vols. 8vo. 45*. 

KORFF'S (BARON) ACCESSION OF NICHOLAS I., compiled 

by special command of the Emperor Alexander II. Translated from the 
Russian. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

KUGLER'S (FRANZ) HISTORY OF PAINTING (THE ITALIAN 

SCHOOLS). Edited, with Notes, by SIR CHARLES EASTLAKE. Sixth 
Edition. With Illustrations. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 30*. 

(GERMAN, DUTCH, AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS). 

Edited, with Notes, by DR.WAAGEN. Second Edition. With Illustrations. 
2 vols. Post 8vo. 24*. 

LANE'S (Emv. W.) ACCOUNT OF THE MANNERS AND 
CUSTOMS OF THE MODERN EGYFflANS. fifth Edition. With Wood- 
cuts. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 12*. 

LAYARD'S (A. H.) TRAVELS AND RESEARCHES AT 

NINEVEH AND BABYLON. With an Account of the Manners and Arts 
of the Ancient Assyrians ; being the Narrative of a First and Second Expe- 
dition to the Ruins of Assyria. With Maps and Illustrations. 3 vols. 8vo. 
57*. 

LENNEP'S (H. VAN) TRAVELS IN ASIA MINOR. With 

Illustrations of Biblical Literature and Archeology. With Maps and Illus- 
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LEVI'S (LEONE) HISTORY OF BRITISH COMMERCE, and 

of the Economic Progress of the British Nation, 1763-1870. With an Index. 
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LEWIS' (SiB G. C.) ESSAY ON THE GOVERNMENT OF 

DEPENDENCIES. 8vo. 12*. 

LEXINGTON (THE) PAPERS ; or, Some Account of the Courts 
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MANNERS SUTTOX. 8vo. 14s. 



10 LIST OF STANDARD WORKS 



LIDDELL'S (DEAN) HISTOEY OF EOME : from the Earliest 
Times to the Establishment of the Empire. With Chapters on the History 
of Literature and Art. 2 vols. 8vo. 28s. 

LINDSAY'S (LORD) LIVES OF THE LINDSAYS; or, a 

Memoir of the Houses of Crawford and Balcarres. 3 vols. 8vo. 24s. 

LOWE'S (SiR HUDSON) HISTOEY OF THE CAPTIVITY OF 

NAPOLEON AT ST. HELENA. Edited by AVILLIAM FORSYTH. With 
Portrait 3 vols. 8vo. 45s. 

L YELL'S (Sis CHARLES) PEINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY; or, 

the Ancient Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants, as illustrated by Geolo- 
gical Monuments. Eleventh Edition. With Illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo. 32s. 

STUDENT'S ELEMENTS OF GEOLOGY. With 



600 Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 9s. 

LYTTELTON'S (LORD) EPHEMEEA. 1st and 2nd Series. 
2 vols. Post 8vo. 18s. 

LYTTON'S (LORD) LOST TALES OF MILETUS. Second 

Edition. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 



POEMS. A New Edition. Post 8vo. 10s. 6d. 



MACDOUGALL'S (CoL.) MODEEN WAEFAEE AS IN- 
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MACGEEGOR'S (JOHN) CEUISE IN THE 'ROB EOY' 

CANOE ON THE JORDAN, THE NILE, THE RED SEA, LAKE OF 
GENNESARETH. &c. Third Edition. With Maps and Illustrations. Crown 
8vo. 12*. 

MAETZNER'S (PROFESSOB) COPIOUS ENGLISH GEAMMAE. 

A Methodical, Analytical, and Historical Treatise on the Orthography, 
Prosody, Inflections, and Syntax of the English Tongue. With numerous 
authorities, cited hi the order of historical development. 3 vols. 8vo. 

[/n the Press. 
MAHON (LORD). See STANHOPE (EABL OF). 

MAINE'S (SiR H.) ANCIENT LAW; its Connection with 
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VILLAGE COMMUNITIES IN THE EAST AND 

WEST. Second Edition. 8vo. 9s. 

MANSEL'S (DEAN) LIMITS OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT 

EXAMINED. Fifth Edition. Post 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

MAECO POLO'S TEAVELS. A New English Version. Illus- 
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MAEEYAT'S (JOSEPH) HISTOEY OF MEDIEVAL AND 

MODERN POTTERY AND PORCELAIN Ttiird Edition. With Coloured 
Plates and 240 Woodcuts. Medium 8vo. 42s. 

MEADE'S (HoN. HERBERT) ADVENTUEES IN NEW ZEA- 
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ME. MUEEAY'S 

LIST OF POPULAR WORKS. 

One Shilling. 

THE PRINCIPAL SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES OF 

H.R.H. THE PRINCE CONSORT, with an Introduction giving some Out- 
lines of his Character. With Portrait. 

MUSIC AND THE ART OF DRESS. Two Essays. By A 

LADY. 

THE FALL OF JERUSALEM. A Dramatic Poem. By DEAN 

M1LMAN. 

THEODORE HOOK. A Sketch. By J. G. LOCKHART. 
HISTORY OF THE GUILLOTINE. By RT. HON. J. W. 

CHOKER. Woodcuts. 

THE CHACE. A Descriptive Essay. By C. J. APPERLEY 

(NiMEOD). With Woodcuts. 

REJECTED ADDRESSES; or, The New Theatrum Poetarum. 
By HORACE and JAMES SMITH. With Woodcuts. 

THE ROAD. A Descriptive Essay. By C. J. APPERLEY 

(NiMBOD). With Woodcuts. 

MAXIMS AND HINTS ON ANGLING, CHESS, SHOOTING, 

AND OTHER MATTERS; also, the Miseries of Fishing. By RICHAilD 
PENN. With Woodcuts. 

THE STORY OF JOAN OF ARC. By LORD MAHON. 

THE PROGRESS OF LITERATURE AND SCIENCE 

THE STUDY OF HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES AND ART IN 
ROME. By EARL STANHOPE. 

CHILDE HAROLD'S PILGRIMAGE. A Romaunt. By LORD 
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HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

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THE HONEY BEE. By REV. THOMAS JAMES. 

THE FLOWER GARDEN, with an Essay on the Poetry of 
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LIST OF POPULAR WORKS 



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THE ART OF DINING ; or. GASTRONOMY AND GASTRONOMERS. 
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WELLINGTON ; His CHARACTER, ACTIONS, AND WRITINGS. 
By JULES MAUREL. With Preface by LOKD ELLESMEMS. 

THE TUEF. A Descriptive Essay. By C. J. APPEELEY 

(NlMKOD). With Woodcuts. 

THE STOEY OF PUSS IN BOOTS. With 12 Illustrations. 
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PEOGEESSIVE GEOGEAPHY FOE CHILDEEN. By Ex. 
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THE AMBEE WITCH : the most interesting Trial for Witchcraft. 
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OLIVEE CEOMWELL AND JOHN BUNYAN: Biographies. 
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LIFE OF SIE FEANCIS DEAKE. With his Voyages and Ex- 
ploits by Sea and Land. By JOHN BARROW. 

CAMPAIGNS OF THE BEITISH AEMY AT WASHINGTON 
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THE FEENCH IN ALGIEES ; the Soldier of the Foreign Legion 
and Prisoners of Abd-el-Kadir. Translated by LADY DUFF GORDON. 

HISTOEY OF THE FALL OF THE JESUITS IN THE 18TH 
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LIYONIAN TALES ; the Disponent the Wolves the Jewess. 
By A LADY. 

NOTES FEOM LIFE. MONEY Humility Independence 
WISDOM Choice in Marriage CHILDREN Life Poetic. By HENRY 
TAYLOR. 

THE SIEGE OF GIBEALTAE, 1779-83. With a Descrip- 
tion and Account of that Garrison from the Earliest Periods. By JOHN 
DR1NK.WATER. 

SIE EOBEET SALE'S BEIGADE IN AFFGHANISTAN AND 
THE DEFENCE OF JELLALABAD. By REV. G. R. GLEIG. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



THE TWO SIEGES OF VIENNA BY THE TURKS. Trans- 
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THE WAYSIDE CROSS ; or, The Raid of Gomez : a Tale of tho 
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ADVENTURES ON THE ROAD TO PARIS DURING THE 

CAMPAIGNS OF 1S13-U. From the Autobiography of HENRY 
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STOKERS AND POKERS ; or, The North-Western Railway. 
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HEAD. 

TRAVELS IN EGYPT, NUBIA, SYRIA, AND THE HOLY 

LAND, with a Journey round the Dead Sea, and through the Country East of 
the Jordan. By 1RBY and MANGLES. 

WESTERN BARBARY : An Account of the Wild Tribes and 
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LETTERS FROM THE SHORES OF THE BALTIC. By A 
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NOTES AND SKETCHES OF NEW SOUTH WALES 

DURING A RESIDENCE OF MANY YEARS IN THAT COLONY. 
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RECOLLECTIONS OF BUSH LIFE IN AUSTRALIA, during 
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JOURNAL OF A RESIDENCE AMONG THE NEGROES 
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MEMOIRS OF FATHER RIPA DURING THIRTEEN YEARS' 

RESIDENCE AT THE COURT OF PEKIN, in the Service of the Emperor 
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PHILIP MUSGRAVE; or, Memoirs of a Church of England 
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A MONTH IN NORWAY. By JOHN G. HOLLWAY. 
LETTERS FROM MADRAS ; or, First Impressions of Life and 

Manners in India. By A LADY. 

ROUGH NOTES TAKEN DURING SOME RAPID RIDES 

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A VOYAGE UP THE RIVER AMAZON, including a Visit to 
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B 2 



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A POPULAR ACCOUNT OF THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 

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ADVENTURES IN THE LIBYAN DESERT AND THE 

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LIFE OF SIR FOWELL BUXTON. By his Son, CHARLES 
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THE CONTINUITY OF SCRIPTURE, as declared by the 
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CHILDE HAROLD'S PILGRIMAGE. A Romaunt. By LORD 

BYRON. 

TALES AND POEMS. By LORD BYRON. 

LITTLE ARTHUR'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. By LADY 

CALLOQTT. With 28 Woodcuts. 

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Biographical Notice. 

THE FRANCHISE ; a Privilege and not a Right. Proved by the 
Political Experience of the Ancients. By H. S. TREMENHEERE. 

THE BIBLE IN THE HOLY LAND; being Extracts from 
Dean Stanley's 'Sinai and Palestine.' With Woodcuts. 



Three Shillings. 

' THE FORTY-FIVE ; " A NARRATIVE OF THE INSURRECTION OF 
1745 IN SCOTLAND. To which are added Letters of PKINCE CHAKLES SitTAiis.. 
By LORD MAHON. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



Three Shillings and Sixpence. 

THE BIBLE IN SPAIN ; or, The Adventures and Imprisonment 
of an Englishman in attempting to Circulate the Scriptures in the Peninsula. 
By GEORGE BORROW. 

THE GYPSIES OF SPAIN; their Manners, Customs, Religion, 
and Language. By GEORGE BORROW. 

THE BEAUTIES OF LORD BYRON'S WRITINGS ; POETBY 

AND P.KOSE. With Portrait. 

LIFE OF LOUIS PRINCE OF CONDE, SURNAMED THE 

GREAT. By LORD MAHON. 

SKETCHES OF GERMAN LIFE AND SCENES FROM THE 
WAR OF LIBERATION IN GERMANY. By VARNHAGEN YON 

EANSE. Translated by SIR ALEXANDER DUFF GORDON. 

THE STORY OF THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. By 

KEY. G. R. GLEIG. 

DEEDS OF NAVAL DARING; or, ANECDOTES OP THE 
BRITISH NAVY. By EDWARD GIFFARD. 

T YPEE ; or, The Marquesas Islanders. By HERMAN MELVILLE. 

OMOO : A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas ; a Sequel 
to'Typee.' By HERMAN MELVILLE. 

AN ESSAY ON ENGLISH POETRY. With Short Notices of the 

British Poets. By THOMAS CAMPBELL. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ESSAYS. By LORD MAHON. 
LIFE OF LORD CLIVE. By REV. G. R. GLEIG. 

LIFE OF SIR THOMAS MUNRO. With Selections from his 
Correspondence. By REY. G. R. GLEIG. 

THE RISE OF OUR INDIAN EMPIRE : being R History of 
British India from its Origin till the Peace of 1783. By LORD MAHOX. 

LETTERS ON THE ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY 

By LORD ELCHO, M.P. 



LIST OF POPULAR WORKS 



A MANUAL OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY FOR THE USE 

OF OFFICERS AND TRAVELLERS. Edited by REV. ROBERT MAIN. 

A NARRATIVE OF THE SIEGE OF EARS, and of the Six 

Months' Resistance by the Turkish Garrison under General Williams. With 
Travels and Adventures in Armenia, &c. By HUMPHREY SANDWiTH, 

SKETCHES OF PERSIA. By SIR JOHN MALCOLM. 

THE WILD SPORTS AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE 

HIGHLANDS. By CHARLES ST. JOHN. 

GATHERINGS FROM SPAIN. By RICHARD FORD. 

TRAVELS IN MEXICO AND THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 
By G. F. RUXTON. 

PORTUGAL AND GALLICIA; -WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE 
SOCIAL AKD POLITICAL STATE OF THE BASQUE PROVINCES. By LORD 
CARNARVON. 

A RESD3ENCE AT SIERRA LEONE. Described from a 

Journal kept on the Spot, and Letters written to Friends at Home. By 
A LADY. 

THE REMAINS IN VERSE AND PROSE OF ARTHUR 

HENRY HALLAM. With Preface, Memoir, and Portrait. 

THE POETICAL WORKS OF BISHOP HEBER ; containing 
Palestine, Europe, the Red Sea, Hymns, &c. With Portrait. 

GLEANINGS IN NATURAL HISTORY. By EDWARD 
JESSE. With Woodcuts. 

THE REJECTED ADDRESSES; or, The New Theatruro 
Poetarum. By HORACE and JAMES SMITH. With Portrait and 
Woodcuts. 

CONSOLATIONS IN TRAVEL ; or, The Last Days of a Philoso- 
pher. By SIR HUMPHRY DAVY. With Woodcuts. 

SALMONIA; or, Days of Fly-fishing. By SIR HUMPHRY 
DAVY. With Woodcuts. 

THE INTELLECTUAL POWERS AND THE INVESTIGA- 
TION OF TRUTH. By JOHN ABERCROMBIE. 

SPECIMENS OF THE TABLE-TALK OF THE LATE 

SAMUEC TAYLOR COLERIDGE. With Portrait. 

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS IN GARDENING, for every 
Month in the Year. By MRS. LOUDON. With Woodcuts. 

THE FIRST BOOK OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY; an 

Introduction to the Study of Statics, Dynamics, Hydrostatic?, Optics, and 
Acoustics, with numerous examples. By REV_ SAMUEL NEWTH. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the FIRST INVASION by the 
ROMANS, continued down to 1865. With CONVERSATIONS at the end of each 
CHAPTER. By MRS. MARKHAM. With 100 Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Edited by DE. WM. 
SMITH. With Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER HISTORY OF GREECE. By DR. WM. SMITH. 

With Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER HISTORY OF ROME. By DR. WM. SMITH. 

With Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE EAST, from the 

Earliest Times to the Conquests of Alexander the Great Including Ezypt, 
Assyria, Babylonia, Media, Persia, Asia Minor, and Phoenicia. By PHILIP 
SMITH. With Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY. With Translations 
from the Ancient Poets. Edited by DR. WM. SMITH. With Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE, from 
the earliest period to the Georgian Era. Edited by DR. WM. SMITH. 

SMALLER SPECIMENS SELECTED FROM THE CHIEF 

ENGLISH WRITERS. Chronologically arranged. Edited by DR. WM. 
SMITH. 

A SMALLER SCRIPTURE HISTORY OF THE OLD AND 

NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY. Edited by DR. WM. SMITH. With 

Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER MANUAL OF ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY. By 

REV. W. L. BEVAN. With Woodcuts. 

Four Shillings. 

HISTORY OF FRANCE, from the CONQUEST by the GAULS, con- 
tinued down to 1867. With CONVERSATIONS at the end of each CHAPTER 
By MRS. MARKHAM. With 70 Woodcuts. 

HISTORY OF GERMANY, from the INVASION of the KINGDOM by 
the ROMANS under MARIUS, continued down to 1867. On the Plan of MRS 
MARKHAM. With 50 Woodcuts. 

SHALL AND WILL ; or, the Future Auxiliary Verb. By SHI 

EDMUND HEAD. 

Four Shillings and Sixpence. 
CHILDREN OF THE LAKE. A Poem. By EDWARD 

SALLESBURY. 

A LADY'S DIARY OF THE SIEGE OF LUCKNOW. 

HOUSEHOLD SURGERY ; or, Hints on Emergencies. By JOHN 
F. SOUTH. With Woodcuts. 



LIST OF POPULAR WORKS 



Five Shillings. 
ANCIENT SPANISH BALLADS; HISTORICAL AND ROMANTIC. 

Translated witn Notes by J. G. LOCKHART. \VitU Portrait and Illustra- 
tions. 

MISCELLANIES. By LOED BYRON. 2 vols. 
INTRODUCTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE GREEK 

CLASSIC POETS. By HENRY NELSON COLERIDGE. 

HYMNS IN PROSE FOR CHILDREN. By MRS. BARBAULD. 

With 112 Illustrations. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF THE DRUSES, AND SOME NOTES ON 
THEIR RELIGION. By LORD CARNARVON. 

THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE, BASED ON MODERN RE- 
SEARCHES. By REV. F. W. FARRAR. 

MODERN DOMESTIC COOKERY. Founded on Principles of 
Economy and Practical Knowledge, and adapted for Private Families. 
With Woodcuts. 

DRAMAS AND PLAYS. By LORD BYRON. 2 vols. 

THE HORSE AND HIS RIDER. By SIR FRANCIS HEAD. 

With Woodcuts. 
HANDBOOK OF FAMILIAR QUOTATIONS, chiefly from 

English Authors. 

THE CHACE THE TURF AND THE ROAD. A Series of 
Popular Essay*. By C. J. APPERLEY (NIMEOD). With Portrait and 
Illustrations. 

AUNT IDA'S WALKS AND TALKS. A Story Book for 

Children. By A LADY. 
STORIES FOR DARLINGS. A Book for Boys and Girls. With 

Illustrations. 

THE CHARMED ROE. A Story Book for Young People. Illus- 
trated by OTTO SPECKTER. 

DON JUAN AND BEPPO. By LORD BYRON. 2 vols. 

LIFE IN THE LIGHT OF GOD'S WORD. By ARCHBISHOP 

THOMSON, DD. 
JULIAN FANE; A Memoir. By ROBERT LYTTON. With 

Portrait. 
ATHENS AND ATTICA; Notes of a Tour. By BISHOP 

WORDSWORTH, D.D. With Illustrations. 
ANNALS OF THE WARS-XVIIlTH CENTURY, 1700-1799. 

Compiled from the most Authentic Sources. By SIR EDWARD CUST, D.C.L. 

With Maps. 5 vols. Post 8vo. 

ANNALS OF THE WARS XIXTH CENTURY, 1800-15. 

Compiled from the most Authentic Sources. By SIR EDWARD CUST. 
4 vols. Fcap. 8vo. 

THE POEMS AND FRAGMENTS OF CATULLUS. Trans- 
lated in the metres of the original. By ROBINSON ELLIS, M. A. 

CONSTITUTIONAL PROGRESS. By MONTAGU BURROWS. 

THE LOCAL TAXATION OF GREAT BRITAIN AND 
IRELAND. By R. H. INGLIS PALGRAVE. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 



Six Shillings. 

BENEDICTTE; or, THE SONG OF THE THREE CHILDREN. 

Being ILLUSTKATIOKS of the POWER, BENEFICENCE, and DESIGN manifested by 

the CKEATOK in His WOUKS. By DR. CHAPLIN CHILD. 
LIFE OF WILLIAM WILBERFORCE. By the BISHOP OF 

WINCHESTER. With Portrait. 
OLD DECCAN DAYS; or, HINDOO FAIRY LEGENDS 

current in Southern India. By M. FRERE. With Introduction by SIK 

BARTLE FRERE. With Illustrations. 
THE WILD GARDEN; or, OUR GROVES AND SHRUBBERIES 

MADE BEAUTIFUL BT THE NATURALIZATION' OF HARDY EXOTIC PLANTS. 

By WILLIAM ROBINSON. With Frontispiece. - 
MISSIONARY TRAVELS AND RESEARCHES IN SOUTH 

AFRICA. By DAVID LIVINGSTONE, M.D. With Map and Illustrations. 
FIVE YEARS OF A HUNTER'S LIFE IN SOUTH AFRICA ; 

By GORDON GUMMING. With Illustrations. 
THOUGHTS ON ANIMALCULES ; or, The Invisible World, as 

revealed by the Microscope. By GIDEON A. MANTELL. With Plates. 
INDUSTRIAL BIOGRAPHY : Iron-workers and Toolmakers. A 

Sequel to Self-Help.' By SAMUEL SMILES. 
LIVES OF BRINDLEY AND THE EARLY ENGINEERS. 

By SAMUEL SMILES. With Woodcuts. 
LIFE OF TELFORD. With a History of Roads and Travelling 

in England. By SAMUEL SMILES. With Woodcuts. 
LIVES OF GEORGE AND ROBERT STEPHENSON. By 

SAMUEL SMILES. With Woodcuts. 
SELF-HELP. With Illustrations of Conduct and Perseverance. By 

SAMUEL SMILES. 
CHARACTER. A Companion Volume to 'Self-Help.' By 

SAMUEL SMILES. 
A BOY'S VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD; including a 

RESIDENCE IN VICTORIA, and a JOURNEY by RAIL across NORTH AMEUICA. 

Edited by SAMUEL SMILES. With Illustrations. 

THE HUGUENOTS IN ENGLAND AND IRELAND : their 

Settlements, Churches, and Industries. By SAMUEL SMILES. 

WILD WALES ; its People, Language, and Scenery. With In- 
troductory Remarks. By GEORGE BORROW. 

A MANUAL OF ETHNOLOGY ; or, A POPULAR HISTORY of the 
RACES of the OLD WORLD. By CHARLES L. BRACE. 

Seven Shillings. 
JOURNALS OF A TOUR IN INDIA. By BISHOP HEBER. 

2 vols. 

ADVENTURES AMONG THE MARQUESAS AND SOUTH 

SEA ISLANDERS. By HERMAN MELVILLE. 2 vols. 
LIFE AND POETICAL WORKS OF REV. GEORGE 

CRABBE. Edited by HIS SON. With Notes, Portrait, and Illubtrations. 
ESSAYS FROM 'THE TIMES.' Being Selections from the 
Literary Papers that have appeared in that Journal. By SAMUEL 
PHILLIPS. With Portrait. 2 vols. 



10 LIST OF POPULAR WORKS 



Seven Shillings and Sixpence. 
THE OEIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATUEAL 

SELECTION;' or, the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for 
Life. By CHARLES DARWIN. Sixth JSdition. With Glossary of Terms. 
Post 8vo. Is. 6d. 

THE AKT OF TEAVEL ; or, Hints on the Shifts and Con- 
trivances available in Wild Countries. By FRANCIS GALTON. With 
Woodcuts. 

VISITS TO THE MONASTEEIES OF THE LEVANT. By 

HON. R. CURZON. With Illustrations. 
LETTEES FEOM HIGH LATITUDES ; an Account of a Yacht 

Voyage to Iceland, Jan Mayen, and Spitzbergen, &c. By LORD DUFFERIN. 

With Illustrations. 
BUBBLES FEOM THE BEUNNEN OF NASSAU. By an 

Old Man (SIR FRANCIS HEAL)). With Illustrations. 

NINEVEH AND ITS EEMAINS ; a Narrative of an Expedition 
to Assyria in 1845-47. By A. H. LAYARD. With Illustrations. 

NINEVEH AND BABYLON ; a Narrative of a Second Expedi- 
tion to Assyria in 1849-51. By A. H. LAYARD. With Illustrations. 

THEEE YEAES' EESIDENCE IN ABYSSINIA, with Travels 

in that Country. By MANSFIELD PARKYNS. With Illustrations. 

FIVE YEAES IN DAMASCUS, with TRAVELS in PALUYKA, 

LEBANON, and among the GIANT CITIES OF BASHAN and THE HAURAN. By 

REV. J. L. PORTER. With Illustrations. 
THE VOYAGE OF THE ' FOX,' and Discovery of the Fate of 

Sir John Franklin and his Companions. By SIR LEOPOLD McCLlNTOCK. 

With Illustrations. 
EEMINISCENCES OF ATHENS AND THE MOEEA, during 

Travels in Greece. By LORD CARNARVON. With Map. 
PEN AND PENCIL SKETCHES IN INDIA. By GENEEAL 

MUNDY. With Illustrations. 

PHILOSOPHY IN SPOET, MADE SCIENCE IN EAENEST : 

or, The First Principles of Natural Philosophy explained by the Toys and 1 

Sports of Youth. By DR. PARIS. With Woodcuts. 
BLIND PEOPLE ; their Works and Ways. With Lives of some 

famous Blind Men. By REV. B. G. JOHNS. With Illustrations. 
HOEACE: A New Edition of the Text. Edited by DEAN 

MILMAN. With 100 Woodcuts. 

THE BOOK OF THE CHUECH. By EOBEET SOUTHEY. 
A HANDBOOK FOE YOUNG PAINTEES. By C. E. 

LESLIE, R.A. With 24 Illustrations. 

A GEOGEAPHICAL HANDBOOK OF FEENS, with Tables 
to show their Distribution. By K. M. LYELL. With a Frontispiece. 

THE STOBY OF THE LIFE OF LOED BACON. By W. 
HEPWORTH DIXON. 

THE SUB-TEOPICAL GAEDEN ; or, BEAUTY OF FOEM 
in the FLOWER GARDEN, with Illustrations of all the finer Plants used 
for this purpose. By W. ROBINSON, F.L.S. With Illustrations. 

THE CHOICE OF A DWELLING ; a Practical Handbook of 
useful Information on all Points connected with Hiring, Buying, or Building 
a House. By GERVASE WHEELER. With Plans. 



PUBLISHED BY MR. MURRAY. 11 



A SMALLER DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE ; Its Antiquities, 
Geography, Biography, and Natural History. . By DR. WM. SMITH. With 
Maps and Illustrations. 

A SMALLER CLASSICAL DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY, 

BIOGRAPHY, AND GEOGRAPHY. By DR. WM. SMITH. With 
200 Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN 

ANTIQUITIES. By DR. WM. SMITH. With 200 Woodcuts. 

A SMALLER LATIN - ENGLISH DICTIONARY. With a 

Dictionary of Proper Names, and Tables of the Roman Calendar, Measures, 
Weights, and Moneys. By DR. WM. SMITH. 

A SMALLER ENGLISH-LATIN DICTIONARY. By DR. WM. 

SMITH. 

THE STUDENT'S HUME; AN EPITOME of the HISTOBY OP 
ENGLAND. By DAVID HUME. Corrected and continued to 1868. With 
Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S HALLAM'S CONSTITUTIONAL HIS- 
TORY OF ENGLAND. From the Accession of Henry VII. to the Death of 
George II. Edited by DR. WM. SMITH. 

THE STUDENT'S HALLAM'S HISTORY OF EUROPE 

DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. Edited by DK. WM. SMITH. 

THE STUDENT'S HISTORY OF FRANCE. FROM THE 

EAKLIEST TIMES TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SECOND EMPIRE, 1852. 
With Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S HISTORY OF ROME. FROM THE EARLIEST 
TIMES TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE EMPIRE. With Chapters on the 
History of Literature and Art. By DEAN LIDDELL. With Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S GIBBON; AN EPITOME OF THE HISTORY OP 
THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. By EDWARD GIBBON. 
With Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S HISTORY OF GREECE. FROM THE 
EARLIEST TIMES TO THE ROMAN CONQUEST. With Chapters on the 
History of Literature and Art. By DR. WM. SMITH. With Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE EAST. 

From the Earliest Times to the Conquests of Alexander the Great, including 
Kgypt, Assyria. Babylonia, Media, Persia, Asia Minor, and Phoenicia. By 
PHILIP SMITH, B.A. With Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF OLD TESTAMENT HIS- 
TORY. FROM THE CREATION TO THE RETURN OF THE JEWS FROM CAPTrvrrr. 
With.Maps and Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF NEW TESTAMENT HIS- 
TORY. With an Introduction, containing the connection of the Old and 
New Testaments. With Maps and Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF THE ENGLISH LAN- 
GUAGE. By GEORGE P. MARSH. Edited, with additional Chapters and 
Notes. 

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

By T. B. SHAW, M.A. Edited, with Notes and Illustrations. 



LIST OF POPULAR WORKS. 



THE STUDENT'S SPECIMENS OF ENGLISH LITERA- 
TURE. Selected from the BEST WBITEHS. By THOS. B. SHAW, M.A. 
Edited, with Additions. 

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF ANCIENT GEOGEAPHY. 

By EEV. W. L. BEVAN. With Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF MODERN GEOGRAPHY. 

Mathematical, Physical, and Descriptive. By REV. W. L. BEVAN. With 
Woodcuts. 

THE STUDENT'S MANUAL OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY. 

With Quotations and References. By WILLIAM FLEMING, D.D. 

THE STUDENT'S BLACKSTONE ; THE COMMENTARIES 

OX THE LAWS OF ENGLAND, abridged and adapted to the present 
state of the Law. By R. MALCOLM KERR, LL.D. 

A PRACTICAL HEBREW GRAMMAR. With the Hebrew 

text of Genesis i.-vi. and Psalms i.-vi., Grammatical Analysis and Vocabulary. 
By REV. STANLEY LEATHES. 

Eight Shillings and Sixpence. 

ELEMENTS OF MECHANICS, including Hydrostatics, \vith 
numerous Examples. By REV. SAMUEL NEWTH. 

MATHEMATICAL EXAMINATIONS. A Graduated Series 
of Elementary Examples in Arithmetic, Algebra, Logarithms, Trigonometry, 
and Mechanics. By REV. SAMUEL NEWTH. 

Nine Shillings. 
THE CONNECTION OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES. By 

MARY SOMERV1LLE. With Woodcuts. 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By MARY SOMERVILLE. 

Revised by H. W. BATES. With Portrait. 

THE STUDENT'S ELEMENTS OF GEOLOGY. By SIR 

CHARLES LYELL. With 600 Woodcuts. 

POETICAL WORKS OF LORD BYRON. With Notes, Illus- 
trations, and Portrait. 

LIFE OF LORD BYRON; with his Letters and Journals. By 
THOMAS MOORE. With Portraits. 

ARCHBISHOP BECKET; A BIOGRAPHY. By CANON 

ROBERTSON, M.A. With Illustrations. 

PICTURES OF THE CHINESE, DRAWN BY THEMSELVES. 
Described by REV. R. H. COBBOLD. With 34 Illustrations. 

THE ENGLISH BATTLES AND SIEGES OF THE PENIN- 
SULAR WAR. By SIR WILLIAM NAPIER. With Portrait. 

THE YOUNG OFFICER'S COMPANION ; or, ESSAYS on 
MILITARY DUTIES and QUALITIES : with ILLUSTRATIONS from HISTOKY. By 
LORD DE ROS. 

DOG-BREAKING; the most Expeditious, Certain, and Easy 
Method, whether great Excellence or only Mediocrity be required. With 
a Few Hints for those who Love the Dog and the Gun. By GENERAL 
HUTCHINSON. With Woodcuts. 



LIST OF SCHOOL CLASSICS. 10 



SCHOOL BOOKS by DR. WILLIAM SMITH. 
PEINCIPIA LATINA, PART I. A FIRST LATIN COURSE. A 

Grammar, Delectus, and Exercise Book with Vocabularies. 13th, Edition. 
3s. 6d. 

V s Edition contains the Accidence arranged for the ' Public School Latin 
Primer.' 

PRINCIPIA LATINA, PART II. LATIN READING BOOK. Am 

Introduction to Ancient Mythology, Geography, Roman Antiquities, and 
History. With Notes and a Dictionary. 3s. Gd. 

PRINCIPIA LATINA, PART III. LATIN POETRY. 1. Easy 

Hexameters and Pentameters. 2. Ecloga; Ovidianse. 3. Prosody and Metre. 
4. First Latin Verse Book. 3. 6d. 

PRINCIPIA LATINA, PART IV. LATIN PROSE COMPOSITION. 

Rules of Syntax, with Examples, Explanations of Synonyms, and Exercises- 
on the Syntax. 3s. 6d. 

PRINCIPIA LATINA, PART V. SHORT TALES AND ANECDOTES 
FROM ANCIEXT HISTORY, FOB TRANSLATION INTO LATIX PROSE. 3s. 

A LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY, with a Latin-English 
Dictionary to Phaidrus, Cornelius Nepos, and Ca.-sar's ' Gallic War.' 3s. 6eL. 

THE STUDENT'S LATIN GRAMMAR. For the Higher 

Forms. By WM. SMITH, D.C.L., and THEOPHILUS D. HALL. 6s. 

A SMALLER LATIN GRAMMAR. Abridged from the above 
Work. 3*. 6d. 

TACITUS. GERMANIA, AGRICOLA, AND FIRST BOOK 

OF THE ANNALS. With English Notes. 3*. 6ti. 
INITIA GR.ECA, PART I. A FIRST GREEK CorusE, containing 

Grammar, Delectus, Exercise Book, and Vocabularies. 3s. 6<i. 
INITIA GRvECA, PART II. A READING BOOK ; containing short 

Tales, Anecdotes, Fables, Mythology, and Grecian History. With a Lexicon. 

3s. 6<2. 

INITIA GR^ECA, PART III. GREEK PROSE COMPOSITION; con- 
taining the Rules of Syntax, with copious Examples and Exercises. 3s. 6d. 

THE STUDENT'S GREEK GRAMMAR. For the Higher 
Forms. By PROFESSOR CURTIUS, and WM. SMITH, D.C.L. 6s. 

A SMALLER GREEK GRAMMAR. Abridged from the above 
Work. 3s. 6d. 

PLATO. THE APOLOGY OF SOCRATES, THE CRITO,. 

and PART OF THE PH^EDO. With Notes in English from STALLBAUM. 
SCHLEIEUSIACHER'S Introductions. 3s. 6d. 



PRINCIPIA GR^ECA. A FIRST GREEK COURSE. A Grammar,. 
Delectus, and Exercise Book, with Vocabularies. By H. E. HUTTON, M.A 
3s. 6(2. 

MATTHIAS'S GREEK GRAMMAR. Abridged by BLOM- 
FIELD. Revised and enlarged, by E. S. CROOKE, B.A. 4s. 

KING EDWARD VI.'S FIRST LATIN BOOK; including 
a Short Syntax and Prosody with an English Translation. 2s. 6d. 

KING EDWARD VI.'S LATIN GRAMMAR. 3s. 6d. 

ENGLISH NOTES FOR LATIN ELEGIACS; designed for 
Early Proficients in the Art of Latin Versification. By REV. W. OXENHA.M, 
3s. 6cJ. 



LIST OF HANDBOOKS FOR TRAVELLERS. 



THE CONTINENT, &c. 

HANDBOOK TKAVEL TALK, ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, 
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HANDBOOK SOUTH GERMANY, THE TYROL, BAVARIA, 
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BLACK SEA. With Map and Plans. 12*. 

HANDBOOK SWITZERLAND, THE ALPS OP SAVOY AND 
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HANDBOOK FRANCE, NORMANDY, BRITTANY, THE FRENCH 
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HANDBOOK PARIS AND ITS ENVIRONS. With Map and 
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HANDBOOK CORSICA AND SARDINIA. With Map. 4s. 

.HANDBOOK SPAIN, MADRID, THE CASTLLES, THE BASQUE 
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HONDA, GRANADA, MURCIA, VALENCIA, CATALONIA, ARAGON, NAVARRE, 
THE BALKABIO ISLANDS, &c., &c. With Maps. 2 vols. 24s. 

HANDBOOK PORTUGAL, LISBON, PORTO, CLNTRA, MAFRA, 

&C. With Map. 9s. 

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HANDBOOK GREECE, THE IONIAN ISLANDS, CONTINENTAL 
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LIST OF HANDBOOKS FOR TRAVELLERS. 15 



HANDBOOK TURKEY IN ASIA, CONSTANTINOPLE AND 

THE BOSFHOHUS, DARDANELLES, BKOCSA, PLAIN OP TROY, THE ISLANDS OF 

THE IEGJRA.X, CRETE, CYPRUS, SMYRNA, EPHESCS AND THE SEVEN CHUIICHKS, 
COASTS or THB BLACK SEA, ARMENIA, MESOPOTAMIA, &c. Maps and Plans. 
Post 8vo. 15*. 

HANDBOOK DENMARK, NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND ICELAND. 

With Map and Plans. 1 5s. 

HANDBOOK RUSSIA, ST. PETERSBURG, Moscow, FINLAND, &c. 
With Map. 15*. 

HANDBOOK INDIA, BOMBAY AND MADRAS. Map. 2 vols. 

Post 8vo. 12s. each. 

HANDBOOK HOLY LAND, SYRIA, PALESTINE, SINAI, EDOM. 
AND THE SYRIAN DESERTS. With Map. 2 vols. 24*. 



KNAPSACK GUIDES FOR TRAVELLERS. 
KNAPSACK GUIDE TO SWITZERLAND. With Plans. 5. 
KNAPSACK GUIDE TO NORWAY. With Map. 6*. 
KNAPSACK GUIDE TO ITALY. With Plans. 6s. 
KNAPSACK GUIDE TO THE TYROL. With Plans. Cs. 



ENGLAND AND WALES. 



HANDBOOK LONDON AS IT IS. With Map and Plans. 
81. M. 

HANDBOOK ESSEX, CAMBRIDGE, SUFFOLK, AND 

NORFOLK CHELMSFORD, COLCHESTER, MALDON, CAMBRIDGE, ELY, NEW- 
MARKET, BURY, IPSWICH, WOODBRIDGE, FELIXSTOWE, LOWESTOFT, NORWICH, 
YARMOUTH, CROMER, &c. With Maps and Plans. 12*. 

HANDBOOK KENT AND SUSSEX CANTERBURY, DOVER, 
RAMSGATE, ROCHESTER, CHATHAM, BRIGHTON, CHICHESTER, WORTHING, HAS- 
TINGS, LEWES, ARUNDEL. With Map. 10*. 

HANDBOOK SURREY AND HANTS KINGSTON, CROYDON, 

REIGATE, GCTLDFORD, DOKKING, BoxnrLL, WINCHESTER, SOUTHAMPTON, PORTS- 
MOUTH, AND THE ISLE OF WIGHT. With Map. 10*. 

HANDBOOK BERKS, BUCKS, AND OXON WINDSOR, 

ETON, READING, AYLESBUKY, HENLEY, OXFORD, AND IKK THAMES. With 
Map. 



16 LIST OF HANDBOOKS FOR TRAVELLERS. 



HANDBOOK WILTS, DORSET, AND SOMERSET 
SALISBTJKV, CKTPPENHAM, WEYMOUTH, SIIERBOIINE, WELLS, BATH, BRISTOL, 
TAUNTON, 4c. With Map. 10s. 

HANDBOOK DEVON AND C RN WALL EXETER, 

ILFRACOMBE, LINTON, SIDMOUTH, DAWLISH, TEIGXMOCTH, PLYMOUTH, DEVON- 
PORT, TORQUAY, LAUNCESTOX, PEXZANCE, FALMOUTH, THE LIZARD, LAND'S 
END, &c. With Map. 10s. 

HANDBOOK GLOUCESTER, HEREFORD, AND 

WORCESTER CIREXCESTER, CHELTENHAM, STRODD, TEWKESBURY, LF.O- 

HINSTER, ROSS, MALVERN, KlDDKUMIXSTER, DUDLEY, BROMSGKOVE, EVESHAM. 

With Map. 

HANDBOOK NORTH W A L E S BANGOR, CARNABVON, 

BEAUMABIS, SNOWDON, CONWAY, &c. With Map. 6s. 6d 

HANDBOOK SOUTH WALES - MOXMOUTH, CARMARTHEN, 
TENBY, SWANSEA, AND THE WYE, &c. With Map. 7s. 

HANDBOOK DERBY, NOTTS, LEICESTER, AND 
STAFFORD MATLOCK, BAKEWELL, CHATSWORTH, THE PEAK, BUXTOX, 
HARDWICK, DOVE DALE, ASHBORXE, SOUTHWELL, MANSFIELD, RETFORD, 
BURTON, BELVOIR, MELTON MOWBRAY, WOLVERHAMPTON, LICHFIELD, 
WALSALL, TAMWORTH. AVith Map. 7s. 6d. 

HANDBOOK SHROPSHIRE, CHESHIRE, AND LANCA- 

SHIRE SHREWSBURY, LUDLOW, BRID<;NOKTH, OSWESTBY, CHKSTEK, CKEWK, 
ALDERLEY, STOCKPORT, BIRKEXHKAD, WARRIXGTOX, BURV, MANCHESTER, 
LIVERPOOL, BURNLEY, CLITHEROE, BOLTON, BLACKBURN, WIGAX, PRESTOS, 
ROCHDALE, LANCASTER, SOUTHPORT, BLACKPOOL, &c. With Map. 10s. 

HANDBOOK YORKSHIRE DONCASTER, HULL, SELBY, 
BEVERLEY, SCARBOROUGH, WHITBY, HARROGATE, RIPOX, LEEDS, WAKEFIEI.D,. 
BRADFORD, HALIFAX, HUDDEHSFIELD, SHEFFIELD. With Map. 12s. 

HANDBOOK DURHAM AND NORTHUMBERLAND 

NEWCASTLE, DARLINGTON, BISHOP AUCKLAND, STOCKTON, HARTLEPOOL, SUN- 

DERLAND, SHIELDS, BERWICK, TYXEMOUTH, ALNWICK. With Map. 

HANDBOOK WESTMORLAND AND CUMBERLAND 

LANCASTFJS, FUENESS ABBEY, AMBLESIDE, KEXDAL, WINDERMERE, COXISTOX, 
KESWICK, GRASMERE, CARLISLE, COCKEKMOUTH, PEXRITH, APPLEBY. With 
Map. 6s. 

%* MURRAY'S MAP OP THE LAKE DISTRICT, 3s. 6d. 

HANDBOOK SCOTLAND EDINBURGH, MELROSE, KELSO, 
GLASGOW, DUMFRIES, AYR, STIRLING, ARRAN, THE CLYDE, OBAN, INVERARY, 
LOCH LOMOND, LOCH KATRINE AXD TROSACHS, CALEDOXIAN CANAL, INVER- 
Nt^s, PERTH, DUNDEE, ABERDEEN, BRAEMAR, SKYE, CAITHNESS, Koss, AND 
SUTHERLAND. With Maps and Plans. 9s. 

HANDBOOK IRELAND DUBLIN, BELFAST, DONEGAL, GAL- 
WAY, WEXFORD, CORK, LIMERICK, WATBRFORD, KILLARNEY, MUNSTER. 
With Map. 12s. 



JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 



LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET 




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