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OKTHgPAST 

iiiiiii^ ^^i^Tfffii^j^y^fti^ 11 ] f ^ f ^ 

VOL^VII. 





LIBRARY 



TORONTO 



"I 

r- Shelf No. 

J 



Register No.Jd.-4 -. 7 Q 



J. D. FALCONBRIDGE, ESQUIRE, K.C. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST, 



VOL. VII. 



ASSYRIAN TEXTS. 



NOTE. 

Every Text here given is either now translated for the first 
time, or has been specially revised by the Translator to the 
date of this publication. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST 

BEING 

ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS 

OF THE 

ASSYRIAN AND EGYPTIAN MONUMENTS. 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE SANCTION 
OF 

THE SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

VOL. VII. 
ASSYRIAN TEXTS. 



JFJ 
Multsc terricolis linguse, coclestibus una. 



LONDON: 
SAMUEL BAGSTER AND SONS, 

15, PATERNOSTER ROW. 




J 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

PREFACE i 

Inscription of Agu-kak-rimi ... ... ... ... i 

By W. ST. CHAD BOSCAVVEN. 

Standard Inscription of Ashur-akh-bal ... ... 9 

By H. Fox TAI.BOT, F.R.S., etc. 

Monolith of Ashur-akh-Bal ... ... ... ... 15 

By H. Fox TALBOT, F.R.S., etc. 

Annals of Sargon ... ... ... ... ... 21 

By DR. JULIUS OPPERT. 

Bull Inscription of Sennacherib ... ... ... 57 

By REV. J. M. RODWELL, M.A. 

A Prayer and a Vision ... ... ... ... 65 

By H. Fox TALBOT, F.R.S., etc. 

Senkereh Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar ... ... 69 

By H. Fox TALBOT, F.R.S., etc. 

Birs-Nimrud Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar ... 73 

By H. Fox TAI.BOT, F.R.S., etc. 

Susian Texts ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

By DR. JULIUS OPPERT. 

Median Version of the Behistun Inscription ... 85 

i By Dr. JULIUS OPPERT. 

Three Assyrian Deeds 1 1 1 

By DR. JULIUS OPPERT. 

Ancient Babylonian Moral and Political Precepts ... 117 
By REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

The Revolt in Heaven 123 

By H. Fox TALBOT, F.R.S., etc. 

Legend of the Tower of Babel ... ... ... 129 

By W. ST. CHAD BOSCAWEN. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 



Eleventh Tablet of the Izdubar Legends ... ... 133 

By the late GEORGE SMITH. 

Accadian Penitential Psalm ... ... ... ... 151 

By Rev. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

Babylonian Saints Calendar ... ... ... ... 157 

By Rev. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

Lists of Further Texts, Assyrian and Egyptian ... 171 

Selected by the late GEORGE SMITH, and 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, F.R.S.L. 



PREFACE, 



THE Seventh Volume of the " RECORDS OF THE 
PAST " contains a selection of translations of Cunei 
form inscriptions of various kinds, chiefly mythological 
and historical. The attraction of this new branch of 
study, and the publication for general use of the 
records, have given a new impetus to the research ; 
and it will be seen that new students have entered 
upon the paths, and others are rapidly training under 
the public lectures given by the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology. On the other hand, Assyriology has to 
deplore the loss of the late Mr. George Smith, whose 
translations had contributed so greatly to the study 
of the Cuneiform by an unrivalled knowledge of the 
monumental inscriptions. Although the actual ex 
cavations have been suspended, and it might be antici 
pated that the study might therefore be arrested by 
the want of a fresh supply of original documents, it 



11 PREFACE. 

must be borne in mind that a great mass of material 
already obtained still remains untranslated, the inter 
preters having principally directed their attention to 
historical and mythological texts, while numerous 
reports, letters, and miscellaneous documents still 
remain untouched. Besides which sporadic excava 
tions, which continue to be carried on in the country, 
have recently discovered several thousand inscribed 
tablets, several of which are on their way to Europe, 
and will, no doubt, prove contributions to Babylonian 
literature, a branch of Cuneiform of which less re 
mains than the more prolific Assyrian. Although 
the main outlines of Assyrian history have been made 
out, the annals of Babylonia from contemporary 
sources have still to be made out. 

S. BIRCH. 

September, 1876. 



INSCRIPTION OF AGU-KAK-RIMI. 



AN EARLY BABYLONIAN KING. 



TRANSLATED BY 

W. ST. CHAD BOSCAWEN. 



T HIS inscription, which is as yet unpublished, is 
found on a terra cotta tablet, marked 527 in the 
British Museum. It was brought by Mr. Smith from 
Assyria, in his last expedition, and a translation of it 
was given by him in his work on Assyrian Discoveries, 
1875. The inscription is contained in eight columns, 

VOL. VII. 2 



2 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

but four of them only are of any general interest, the 
remaining ones are very much broken. I have given 
a translation of the text in the Transactions of the 
Society of Biblical Archeology, Vol. IV., Part i. 



INSCRIPTION OF AGU-KAK-RIMI. 



COLUMN I. 

1 AGU-KAK-RIMI * 

2 Son of TASI-GURUMAS 

3 of the noble seed of 

4 SUGA-MUNA 

5 The glory of ANU and BEL 

6 of HEA and MARDUK 

7 of the Sun and Moon 

8 the powerful hero 

9 of ISHTAR, the archer 
10 of the goddesses, am I. 



1 1 King of Kings 

12 King of the obedient 

13 Son of TASI-GURUMAS 

14 Grandson of 2 

15 ABI 

1 6 The warrior 

17 in 

1 8 the offspring of 

19 AGU-RAGAS 

20 of the noble and royal race 

21 of UMMAH-ZIRITI 
22 I am 

23 Shepherd 

24 of a vast people 

1 " The Moon makes our brilliance." Literally " Heart of Hearts. 



4 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

25 warrior 

26 Prince 

27 establisher 

28 of the foundation of the throne of his fathers 

29 I am. 



30 King of the Kassi l 

31 and (of the) Accadi 

32 King of the vast land 

33 of Babylonia 

34 Colonizer 

35 of the land of As-nun-nak with a people 

36 vast, King of Padan 

37 and Alman. King of the Goim, 2 

38 male and female 3 

39 the King, the establisher 

40 of the four regions 

41 worshipper of the great gods 

42 Lo ! MARDUK 

43 prince of Bit-Saggal 4 

44 (to) Babylon 

45 the great gods 

46 (with) their noble mouths 

47 his return ordered 

48 MARDUK to Babylon 

49 his face set 

50 3 MARDUK 3 

51 3 never 3 

1 The Kassidim of the Bible. 

2 The tribes of Northern Elam, the old home of the Accadi or High 
landers. 

3 Lacunae. 

4 This temple was the acropolis of Babylon, its name mearts "House 
of the lofty head." 



INSCRIPTION OF AGU-KAK-RIMI. 



COLUMN II. 

i I glorified 

2 and to take MARDUK 

3 to Babylon 

4 his face I set and 

5 (in) the paths of MARDUK 

6 Lover of my life 

7 I walked and 



8 SARU SAMAS, (an Officer) 

9 to the land to the land of Khani* 

10 I sent. Him MARDUK 

11 and ZlRAT-BANIT 3 

1 2 they had taken hold of, and 

13 MARDUK and ZIRAT-BANIT 

14 lovers of my life 

15 to Bit-Saggal 

1 6 and Babylon 

17 I restored them 

1 8 In the temple of the Sun 4 

19 for the (division) of the future 

20 I placed. 

[One or two lines are gone.] 

23 four talents 

24 for the robes 

25 of MARDUK and ZIRAT-BANIT 

26 I had given and 

27 a splendid dress 

1 Lacunae. 

2 A country to the North-west of Assyria. It is mentioned on an obelisk 
of Tiglath Pileser I. 

3 Succoth-benoth of the Bible. 4 A famous Babylonian temple. 



6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

28 a dress of gold and (blue) 

29 for MARDUK and ZIRAT-BANIT 

30 I had clothed them 

[Here follows a long list of names of precious stones, the 
translation of which being very uncertain is omitted.] 

35 (precious stones) to the shrine of MARDUK 

36 and ZIRAT-BANIT 

37 I had given 

38 and (with) quantities of robes 

39 the great 

40 divinity 

41 I had adorned 

42 horned crowns 2 

43 lofty crowns 

44 of Lordship 

45 and image of divinity 

COLUMN VII. 

1 MARDUK 

2 to his throne 

3 I caused to enter 

4 a band of 

5 sons of the people 3 

6 them 

7 a grove a house field 

8 to MARDUK 

9 and ZlRAT-BANIT 4 

10 I dedicated them. 



1 1 Of the King AGU 

1 2 may his days be long 

1 Lacuna. 
2 Compare the crowns which adorn the wing-ed bulls, lions, etc. 

3 A temple guard of chosen soldiers. 
4 The Succoth-benoth of 2 Kings xvii. 29, 31. 



INSCRIPTION OF AGU-KAK-RIMI. 

13 may his years be extended 

14 his life in prosperity 

15 may he live 

1 6 The highest heaven 

17 wide 

1 8 may he behold it 

[Lacuna of six lines.] 

25 The god 

26 (existing) 1 

27 for ever 

28 may he exist 

29 may he exalt (him) 

30 to the lordly King 

31 AGU 

32 who the shrine of MARDUK 

33 has made (and) 

34 sons of the people 

35 has dedicated 



36 ANU and ANUNITU" 

37 in heaven may they be favourable to him 

38 BEL and BILAT 

39 In the house and land of life 

40 may they seat him 

41 HEA S 

42 and DAV-KiNA 4 

43 dwelling in the great deep 

44 a life of days 

1 Lacunae. 

2 The highest heaven was the realm of Anu. 

3 Hea was the lord of chaos or the great deep. 

4 The goddess of the underworld, also called Bau, the Heb. ma. 



8 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



45 

46 may they grant him 

47 The goddess ZIRA, lady of the great land 1 

[The remainder is lost.] 

COLUMN VIII. 

1 Greatness 

2 may he complete 

3 SIN 2 illuminator of heaven 

4 the revolver the paternal King 

5 many days may 

6 he appoint him 

7 The Prince the Sun 

8 ruler of heaven 3 

9 and earth, 

10 his reign 

1 1 for days extended 

12 may he establish 

13 HEA 

14 the old Lord 

15 wisdom 4 

1 6 may he complete for him 

1 8 MARDUK lover of his life 

19 Lord of fountains 

20 his (fertility) 

2 1 may he complete for him. 



1 An unknown goddess. 
5 The Moon. 

3 The Sun was also called dayan nisi, "Judge of Men," 

4 Hea was called " the lord of wisdom." Compare " Descent of Ishtar, 
col. ii., Records of the Past, Vol. I. 



THE STANDARD 
INSCRIPTION OF ASHUR-AKH-BAL. 



TRANSLATED BY 

H. F. TALBOT, F. R. S. 



A FINE copy of this inscription exists in the 
Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland at Edinburgh, to whom it was presented 
several years ago by Professor Sir James Y. Simpson, 
Bart. At the request of the Council I gave a trans 
lation of it in Vol. VI., part i., of their Proceedings 
(Edinburgh 1866), which I have now revised and 
corrected. 

This sculptured slab represents Ashur-akh-bal, a 
monarch of the ninth or tenth century B.C. holding a 
cup of wine, with which he is about to offer a libation 
to the gods. The sculpture is accompanied by an 
inscription of twenty-one lines in very good pre 
servation. 

This inscription is a well-known one, more than 
100 copies of it having been found by Mr. Layard 
while he was engaged in the excavation of Ashur- 
akh-bal s palace ; for which reason it has been called 
the " Standard Inscription." 



10 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Scholars are not agreed as to the pronunciation of 
this king s name ; which signifies " Ashur protect the 
child ! " Until this point is settled, I follow the read 
ing proposed by Dr. Hincks ; but I think it probable 
that the name was Ashur-ussur-bal, but was pro 
nounced in the reverse order Ashur-bal-ussur, like 
Nabo-bal-ussur (commonly called Nabopolassar, 
meaning " Nabo protect the child ! ") 

Ashur-akh-bal was a great warrior and conqueror, 
but he appears to have been destitute of any taste for 
literature. This may be inferred from the fact that 
he gave orders to inscribe the same inscription upon 
so many of the slabs which lined the apartments and 
galleries of his palace ; whereas, if he had given upon 
each slab the description of some different battle, or 
other remarkable event of his reign, our knowledge of 
his career would now have been much more complete. 

There have been found, however, two pavement 
slabs, engraved on both sides, at the entrance of the 
temple of Hercules on the mound of Nimrud, which 
give a much more full and perfect account of his reign 
and his conquests. These have been lithographed by 
the British Museum and occupy ten plates (17 to 26) 
of one of their volumes of inscriptions. A transla 
tion of them has been published by the Rev. J. M. 
Rodwell in the Records of the Past, Vol. III., 
pp. 37-80. 



IT 



INSCRIPTION OF ASHUR-AKH-BAL. 



1 THIS is the palace of ASHUR-AKH-BAL, servant of ASHUR, 
Priest of BEL and NINIB, beloved by ANU and DAGON, 
worshipper of the great gods : the great King, the King 
of the nations, the King of Assyria. Son of TUKLAT- 
NiNiB 1 the great King, the powerful King, the King of 
the nations, the King of Assyria : who was the son of 
Hu-NiRARi, 2 also King of nations and King of Assyria. 

2 The noble hero who went forth in the armed service of 
ASHUR his Lord against the Kings of the four regions of 
the world, as none had ever done before ; and smote the 
heretics who worship not the exalted things, in battles too 
numerous to be counted. 

3 The King who humbled to the dust all those who did 
not obey him ; and who subdued all the races of men- 
The great worshipper of the gods ; the trampler upon the 
necks of his enemies ; the conqueror of hostile lands ; 
the destroyer of powerful fortresses. The King who ad 
vanced in the arms of the great gods his lords, and seized 
with his hand all hostile countries, fixed the tribute of all 
their territories, and took hostages from them as a pledge. 

4 The favour of ASHUR, who called me to the sovereign 

1 Means probably " Servant of Ninib." 
2 Means probably "The god of the sky is my helper." 



12 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

power, and is the supporter of my throne, gave his irre 
sistible arms into the hands of my Majesty. The armies 
or the wide world I overthrew in battle. 

5 By the help of the SUN, and In, 1 the gods to whom I 
trust, I conquered the armies of the Highland Nahiri, the 
land of Kirkhi, the land of Subari, 2 and the land of Nireb; 
and like the god IM himself I rode thundering over 
them. 

6 The King who subdued all the regions from the great 
stream of "the Tigris unto the land of Lebanon and the 
Great Sea : with the land of Laki throughout all its pro 
vinces, and the land of Tsukhi as far as the city Rapikhi, 
and compelled them to fall down at his feet. And who 
seized with his hand the region from the source of the 
river Supnat unto the land of Urardi. 3 

7 All the region from the entrance of the land of Kirruri 
unto the land of Kirzan ; and from the great stream of 
the lower Zab as far as the fortress of Til-bahari which 
protects the city of Zakim ; and from the fortress of Aptan 
unto the fortress of Zabdan, along with the cities of 
Khirimu and Birrutu which is a fortified city of the land 
of Kardunias 4 I restored once more to my country s rule. 
All the region from the entrance of the land of Babiti, as 
far as the city of Khasmar, I distributed among the men 
of my own land. 

8 Over the regions which I had conquered I placed my 
Lieutenants, and they did homage to me. 

9 ASHUR-AKH-BAL the glorious Ruler, the favourite of the 
great gods. The Sun of great splendour, the conqueror 
of cities and lands with all their people ; the King of 
Kings, the chastiser of heretics; the scourge of those 
who worship not the sacrifices ; the great smiter of the 

1 The god of the sky. s Or Mesopotamia. 3 Armenia. 

4 Babylonia. 



INSCRIPTION OF ASHUR-AKH-BAL. 13 

disobedient ; the destroyer of rulers who reject my royalty, 
and of heretics and rebellious men. The King whose 
name caused lands and seas to tremble ; and who enrolled 
in the federation of his empire glorious foreign Kings, 
from the rising of the sun unto the setting of the sun, 
every one of them. 

10 The former city of Calah, which SALMANURISH King of 
Assyria, one of the Kings who reigned before me, had 
built, that city had fallen into ruins. 

1 1 That city I built again. I peopled it with the captives I 
had taken in the various lands which I had conquered : 
the land of Tsukhi ; the land of Lakhi through all its 
provinces ; the city of Tsirku which is placed at the great 
passage of the river Euphrates : the land of Zamia through 
out its whole extent : the land of Bit-Adini, and the land 
of Syria ; together with the people of LUBARNA King of 
the Patinaeans whom I had carried off. 

12 I pulled down its old citadel, and I built it new. as far 
as the surface of the waters (in its moat?). One hundred 
and twenty spans of the lower part I built in fine masonry. 
Within the circuit of this fortress I constructed a palace 1 
of cedar ; a house of cypress wood ; a house of taprani 
wood ; a house of ku wood ; a house of meshkani wood ; 
a house of terebinth wood ; and of tarpikhi wood, for the 
residence of my Majesty, and for a remembrance of my 
reign for evermore. 

13 I made sculptures of the animals of the lands and seas, 
carved in pari stone and in paruti stone, 2 and I set them 
up at the doors of my palace. 

1 4 I made it grand , I made it splendid ; and with images 
of bright copper I adorned it. 

15 Columns of cedar wood, cypress wood, taprani wood, 

1 Or fine house. * White alabaster. (?) 



14 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

and meshkanni wood I erected at its gates : and the stores 
of silver and gold ; of lead, copper, and iron, captured by 
my hand in the lands which I had conquered, which I 
had seized in vast quantities, I treasured up within it. 

[It will be understood that this translation represents the 
Edinburgh copy of the inscription. Other copies which were 
found by Layard in great numbers, may differ somewhat in the 
phrases employed, and in the arrangement of the subjects.] 



MONOLITH OF ASHUR-AKH-BAL, 



KING OF ASSYRIA. 



TRANSLATED BY 

H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 



r ~FHIS inscription is now preserved in the British 
Museum. A lithographic copy of it was published in 
Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vol. I. pi. 27. 
I published a translation of it in 1862 in the Trans 
actions of the Royal Society of Literature, Vol. VII. 
p. 184. 

It is distinguished by a long and earnest adjuration 
to his successors on the throne, not to injure or deface 
his monuments, as they value the happiness of their 
own lives, and the favour of heaven. 



1 6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Ashur-akh-bal was the most powerful of the ancient 
kings of Assyria. He seems to have been almost 
always at war. His conquests were very extensive, 
reaching as far as the Mediterranean Sea, upon which 
his love of adventure prompted him to embark and 
join in the exciting chase of the dolphin. As a 
warrior he was doubtless very active and skilful, but 
he was cruel and merciless as we know from his own 
account of his campaigns. 



INSCRIPTION OF ASHUR-AKH-BAL. 



THE former city of Calah, which SALMANURISH King of 
Assyria, my ancestor, had built; that city had fallen to decay, 
and its buildings had sunk into ruins and rubbish. That 
city I built again. And I dug a canal from the Upper 
Zab river, and I gave it the name of the Stream of 
Fertility. And I planted beautiful trees along its banks, 
and fruit trees the best of every kind, and vines. The 
finest I devoted to ASHUR my Lord, and the temples of my 
country. 

I erected palaces, and from the foundation to the roof I 
built and I finished them. A palace for my royal residence 
and for an eternal remembrance of my reign I founded within 
the city. I adorned it, I embellished it ; with a crowd of 
precious bronzes I filled it. Great gates of ... . 2 wood I 

1 Bronze or perhaps polished brass. 

2 Lacuna. 
VOL. VII. 8 



1 8 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

made : with nails of bronze I fastened them together and 
I placed them at the entrance. Thrones of cedar and 
various other precious woods : ornamental ivories skilfully 
carved : heaps of silver, gold, lead, copper and iron, the 
spoils gained by my valour which I had brought away from 
the nations I had conquered : all these treasures I deposited 
within it. 

The King of future days who shall repair its injuries, and 
shall replace the written tablets in their places, ASHUR will 
hear his prayers ! 

That good King shall never fly before his enemies, nor 
abandon this palace, my royal dwelling, in the city of Calah. 
Its gates, its rafters, the crowd of bronze ornaments which 
now stand within it, shall not be carried off. They shall not 
be removed to the city of his enemies, nor to the palace of 
his foes. Its roofs shall not be broken : its statues shall not 
be torn up : the sources which supply it with water shall 
not be cut off: its spring shall not be closed up. 1 Its 
chambers of treasure shall not be plundered : its harem 
shall not be burst open with violence. Its inhabitants 
shall not be made captives, nor with unseemly shameful 
and immodest treatment be dragged away to the enemy s 
palace, during the destruction and downfall of their own 
city. 

The King who shall not injure the sculptures of my 
palaces, nor write on them wicked words : who shall not 

1 Bal-sha la ipakhi. 



INSCRIPTION OF ASHUR-AKH-BAL. 19 

suffer the front of my throne and my royal dwellingplace to 
be broken ; who shall protect the face of these my written 
tablets and shall not hurt the records of my reign ; May 
ASHUR Chief of the great gods, who is the supporter of my 
kingdom, uphold his rule over all the nations and place him 
on my throne of glory and in my seat of power ! May he 
subject the country of the four nations to his arms, and make 
him live in prosperity joy and abundance ! 

But the man who shall not spare the face of these my 
tablets, who shall injure the written records of my name, who 
shall destroy these sculptures, or tear them off or hide them 
in the earth, or bury them in the ashes, or burn them with 
fire, or drown them in the waters : or who shall remove 
them from their place and shall throw them down where 
they will be trampled on by animals, and shall place them 
in the pathway of the cattle : or who shall falsify my tablets, 
which are now sculptured with good and pious words, and 
shall write on the face of my records anything that is bad and 
impious : or who shall change the words so as to confound 
their meaning; whether he be a nobleman, or an officer 
or any one else among my people, or who shall scrawl 
on the tablets that I have written, and shall say that they are 
not true; or out of contempt 1 shall turn the face of my tablets 
backward : 

May ASHUR the great Lord, the god of Assyria, the Lord 
of all royal crowns, curse his reign and destroy his works ! 

1 As nisti. 



20 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



May he shake the foundations of his kingdom ! May 
want and famine ; sickness and distress, prevail throughout 
his land ! 



1 This inscription contains a few more lines, but they are much defaced. 



21 



THE ANNALS OF SARGON. 



TRANSLATED BY 

DR. JULIUS OPPERT. 



annals of Sargon are the largest of all 
Assyrian texts. They have been engraved in the 
two halls of Khorsabad, which are noted in the plan 
of Botta as Nos. II. and V. The annals formed an 
immense ribbon of inscriptions, disposed in columns 
like the papyrus rolls. Evidently the manner of the 
writing of this great text is an imitation of the 
usual style of papyrus rolls. In entering the hall, the 
reader commenced at his left hand, and followed all 
the sides and angles of the room, until he returned to 
the entrance door, where the last lines of the inscrip 
tion were opposite to its beginning. 

I have restored the texts by the four copies of 
Hall II, V, XIIL, and XIV. The Roman cyphers at 



22 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

the margin designate the rooms, and the Arabic 
number indicates the tablet in the Botta collec 
tion. 

My translation of this important text appeared 
first in the work entitled D our -S ark ay an, Paris, 1870, 
and has been re-edited by M. Menant in his Annales 
des Rois d Assyrie, with some alterations. I have cor 
rected in this English edition a great many of the 
errors which existed in my former version. 

The Annals are arranged in a chronological order 
by the years of Sargon, commencing with the civil year 
(palu), and distinct from the computation after the 
real accession (from one date of the accession to 
another, sanat). Every year commences therefore 
about March or April. 

The text contains, moreover, one of the most im 
portant documents concerning chronology. In this 
inscription, as in the great inscription of the Hall, there 
is the mention of a period of Sin, or lunar period, 
which ended in B.C. 712. I have proved that this 
period was an eclipse epoch, and contained 22,325 
synodical months, or 1805 years. By the aid of this 
text we can with a mathematical certainty fix the 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 23 

Median Dynasty in Babylon at 6.0.2517 (712+1805). 
Indeed, 234 after this event, took place the Elamite 
invasion, 2283; and we equally obtain this date 
from the Assurbanipal texts, which put the capture 
of Babylon by the Elamites 1635 years before 648, 
that is, B.C. 2283. 

In the Larnaca text of Sargon, now at Berlin, the 
parallel confirming passage is as following : 
(idtu yii)me rnkuti sibit Assur 
(adi muaii)na. 

" From the most remote days, the constitution of 
Assyria, until now." 

Here follows the true chronology of Babylon, after 
Berosus : 

10 antediluvian kings .... 432,000 years. 
Deluge according to the Babylonians . B.C. 41,697 
86 Chaldean kings, 39,180 years, cycli 
cal time of 12 periods of 1805, and 

12 sothiac periods of 1460 years . 41,697-2517 

8 Median kings (Aryan) 234 years . 2517-2283 

11 Median kings (Elamite) 224 years . 2283-2059 
49 Chaldean kings 458 years . . 2059-1601 

9 Arabian kings 245 years . . . 1601-1356 



24 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Semiramis 42 years . . . 1356-1314 

45 Assyrian kings 526 years . . 1314-788 

(Until the Babylonian and Median revolt.) 

Downfall of Nineveh, B.C. 606. 

Median empire, 228 years . . . 788-560 

Sargon states that from the ancient times until his 
reign three hundred and fifty kings had ruled over 
Mesopotamia, but this Berosian canon, restored by 
aid of the inscriptions, contains only the names of 
the Babylonian monarchs. 



INSCRIPTION OF THE ANNALS OF SARGON. 



XIV.-3. PALACE of SARGON, the great King, the mighty 
King, King of the legions, King of Assyria, Vicar of the 
gods in Babylon, King of the Sumers and the Accads, 
King of the four regions, Favourite of the great gods. 

The gods ASSUR, NEBO and ME.IODACH, the gods of my 
worship have entrusted me with the royalty without equal, 
and have propagated the glory of my name until the end 
of the world. I caused the contentment of Sippara, 
Nipur, Babylon and Borsippa, I have made men respect 
the laws and I have punished the transgression. I have 
restored to the towns of Kalu, Ur, Orchoe, Rata, Kullab, 
Kisik, the dwelling of the god LAGUDA, the gods who are 
living there, I have dispersed their inhabitants. The 
laws of the "old empire" 1 and of the town of Harran had 
fallen into oblivion since many years, I have re-established 
their altered dispositions. 

I walked in the obedience of the great gods; I forced under 
my dominion the lands, which would not bow to me, I 
opened forests which have never been crossed, I explored 
their retreats. 

I broke the pride of HUMBANIGAS, King of Elam, I sub 
dued the lands of Karalla, of Surda, the towns of 
Kisasi, of Kharkhar, of Media, until the ends of Bikni. I 
put under the domination of Assyria the land of Ellip ; 
I brought war into Armenia, I destroyed MUSASIR, I sub 
dued the land of Andia, I transported the populations to 
the land of Van, I placed them into a delicious spot in 

; I This term is explained by Assur, but it means Sumir. 



26 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

transporting them to the dwellings of Syria, of Carcamis, 
and of Commagene. I took away GUNZINAN of Kham- 
manua of the town of Miliddie, 1 the town of his royalty; 
I instituted my Governors as Lieutenants. I changed 
the royalty of TARKHULAR in the town of Markas. I 
carried into Assyria the whole of the tribes of GAMGUM 

the Great 2 YAMAN of Asdod despised my power, 

he left his wife, his sons, his daughters, and fled through 
the lands of the midday sun to the limits of Libya. 3 I 
established him on the throne powerfully ; I put over the 
whole of his extent country and on the men iihati, the 
Satraps my Lieutenants for governing them ; I extended 
the limits of Assyria. 

XIV.-2. Then the King of Libya was overwhelmed by the 
immense fear of ASSUR, my Lord, he bound his (Ya- 
man s) hands and feet with iron chains, he sent his 
envoys in my presence to Assyria. I plundered the dis 
trict of Samaria and the entire house of OMRI, I entered 
to Tamna, which is situated in the middle of the Western 
sea, swimming like a fish. I took away the treasure of 
the lands of Kaska, 4 Tabal, Hilakhu. 5 I expelled 
MITATTI, King of the Moschians. I overpowered Egypt 
at Raphia ; I treated like a slave HANON, King of Gaza. 
I made tributary seven Kings of the land of Yahnagi, the 
land of Yatnan, 6 who have established their dwellings in 
the midst of the sea of the setting sun, within seven days 
of navigation. 

MERODACHBALADAN, King of the Chaldeans, who inhabited 
the shores of the sea had exercised the supreme power 
against the will of the gods of Babylon ; my hands reached 
him. I took for hostage his entire country, and I 
entrusted it to the hands of my Lieutenant of Babylon, 

1 The Melitene. 2 Lacuna. 3 Meluhhi. 4 Colchis. 

5 Cilicia. 6 The island of Cyprus. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 27 

and of my Lieutenant of Gambul. I subdued to ASSUR 
UPER, King of Dilmun, who has established his hidden 
dwellings in the middle of the sea like the fishes ; he sent 
presents to me to submit himself under my royalty. 

By the assistance of the great gods ASSUR, NEBO and MERO 
DACH, I became victor by my arms, and obtained the 
destruction of my enemies. I reigned from Yatnan, 
which is in the midst of the sea of the setting sun, until 
the limits of Egypt and of the land of the Moschiens, 
from the great Phoenicia, Syria in its totality, to all the cities 
of remote Media, near the country of Bikni from Ellip, 
Ras, 1 which is neighbour to Elam on the border of the 
Tigris until the tribes of Ituh, Rubu, Haril, Labdud, 
Hauran, Ubul, Ruhua, Litai, who live on the rivers of 
Surappi and Ukne, the suti of the desert which are in the 

land of latbur, the 2 until the towns of Samhun, 

Babdur, Dur-Telit, Bilat, Dunni-Samas, Bubi, Tell- 
Khumba, which belong to Elam ; and Kar-Duniyas, the 
Higher and the Lower, from the lands of Bet-Amukkan, 
Bet-Dakkur, Bet-Silan, Bet-Pahalla, which form Chaldea 
in its totality, the land of Bet-Iakin, which is on the sea 
shore until the prescinity of Dilmun. 3 I took their tri 
butes, I put over them my Lieutenants as Governors and 
I forced them under my sovereignty. 

II. -2. That is what I did until the fifteenth year of my 
government 2 

Selected by the Kings who to my favour explained the 
eclipse 4 visible over Haran and signed their pacts accord 
ing to the will of CANNES and of DAGON. Long and 

1 The Rosof the Bible; some scholars believed them to be the Russians; 
Ras, Mesek Tubal were explained by Russia, Moscan Tobolok. 

2 Lacunae. 

3 The modern Daylem, near Bunder-Bushir. 

4 This is the lunar eclipse of 721 (9, 280), March 19, mentioned in the 
Almagest. 



28 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

mighty, I employed my weapons for submitting the rebels. 
Being King, I have had no equal among the Kings from 
the first day of my accession ; being a warrior I did not 
withdraw battles and fights. All the countries I crushed 
like the hasbet. 

I asked from them the symbols of submission in the four 
elements. I crossed forests without numbers, deep and 
of a great extent ; I levelled their unequality. I crossed 
winding and dry valleys, which were the seat of heat, 
and in passing I ordered cisterns to be dug. 

From the land of Ras, in the province of Elam, the tribes of 
Rupud, Tamun, the towns of Dur-Kurigalzi, Rapik, the 
lands of Maskak-Abi, until the river Musri (Egypt) of 
Phoenicia, of Syria, all those gave me tribes. 

My mighty hand reached from the town of Hasmar until 
the town of Simaspatti in Media the far one, which is 
situated at the rising sun, the lands of Namri and Ellip, 
Bet-Hamban, Parsua, 1 Van, Armenia, Kaska (Colchis), 
Tabal, until the Moschians, I instituted my Lieutenants 
as Governors over them and I imposed to them the 
prestation of the tributes like to the Assyrians. 

II. -3. In the beginning of my reign 2 3 the Sa 
maritan 4 

[Three lines are wanting.] 

with the help of the Sun, who aided me to vanquish my 
enemies, I besieged, I occupied the town of Samaria and 
I brought into captivity 27,280 persons; I took before all 
parts over them 50 chariots, the part of my kingdom. I 
took them to Assyria and instead of them I placed 
men to live there whom my hand had conquered. I 
instituted over them my Lieutenants as Governors, and 
I imposed on them tributes like over the Assyrians. 

1 Parthia. 2 B.C. 721. 

3 Unfortunately the name of the Samaritan king- is lost. 4 Lacuna. 



ANNALS OF S ARGON. 29 

In the first year of my reign, HUMBANIGAS, sinned against 
the precepts of the great gods and revolted himself. He 
came into my presence for delivering a battle. I van 
quished him. I submitted the land of Tuhmun under 
the domination of ASSUR. 

MERODACH-BALADAN having usurped against the will of the 

gods, the kingdom of Babylon * I led away 2 

men whatever they possessed "I transported them 

to Syria. 

In the second year (720-719) of my reign, ILUBID of 

Hamath ; he established himself in the town of 

Qarqar and excited against me the towns Arpad, Simyra, 
Damas and Samaria .... 

[The Inscriptions of Hall II. pis. 4, 5 are destroyed. Forty 
lines are wanting here and unfortunately the whole passage 
concerning the battle of Raphia against Sebech and other 
most important matters.] 

II. -6. SEBECH had confidence in his armies and came 
towards me for delivering a battle. I defeated them, 
in remembrance of the great god ASSUR, my god. 
SEBECH went away with a shepherd who watched his 
sheep and escaped. HANON was taken by me, and I took 
with me to my city of Assyria all he possessed. I 
destroyed, I demolished his cities, I burnt them by fire ; 
I took with me 9033 men with their numerous properties. 
In the third year (719-718) of my reign, the towns of 
Suandakhu and Durdukka, the capitals, thought of with 
drawing themselves from the domination of IRANZU of 
Van, their Sovereign, who was faithful to me. They 
trusted to MITATTI the Zikirtian. And the latter added 
his men of war to their horsemen, and they made them 
selves his allies. 
XIV.-i. I counted all the armies of the god ASSUR and I 

1 Lacunae. 3 The numbers are wanting. 



30 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

marched against these towns. By the catapults (asibi 
danni) I besieged, I broke the walls of their forces; I 
took with me the inhabitants like slaves with all they 
possessed. I destroyed, I demolished these towns, I 
burnt them by fire. 

II. -7. The inhabitants of Sukkia, Bala, Pappa, Abitekna 
had followed the counsel of revenge, in transporting their 
sursi, and in order to make submission to URSAHA, the 
Armenian, they had given him the kiss of peace and had 
committed great sins. I pulled them from their dwellings 
and I made them live in the land of Syria and in Phoenicia. 

In the fourth year of my reign (718-717), KIAKKU of 
Sinukhta forgot the precepts of the great gods, his heart 
became hard he did not send any more his tributes. I 
lifted my hand to the gods, my Lords, and I burst over 
Sinukhta like a cloud. I treated him and his soldiers 
like prisoners, 7350 inhabitants, his wife, his sons, his 
daughters, the servants of his palace, and I took a great 
deal of booty. I gave Sinukhta, his capital, to MATTI of 
Atuna, and I added to the preceding tributes, horses, 
donkeys, gold and silver. 

In the fifth year of my reign (717-716), PISIRI, of Karkamis 1 
sinned against the great gods and sent against MITA 
the Moschian messages hostile to Assyria. He took 
hostages. I lifted my hands to ASSUR, my Lord. I 
made him leave the town, I sent away the holy vases out 
of his dwelling. 

I made them throw into chains of iron, I took away the 
gold, the silver and the treasures of his palace, the 
Circesian rebels who were with him and their properties, 
I transplanted them to Assyria. I took among them 50 
cars, 200 riders, 3000 men on foot, and I augmented the 
part of my kingdom. I made the Assyrians to dwell in 

1 Carchemish or Circesium. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 31 

Circesium, and I placed them under the domination of 
ASSUR, my Lord. 

The inhabitants of Pappa and of Sallukna had seduced 
the Overseer (the dogs), the scholars of my palace in 
the land of Kakim, napadis. I pulled them out of their 
habitations and I made them live at Damascus in Phenicia. 

In the sixth year of my reign, URSAHA, King of Armenia, 
enticed to rebellion BAGADATTI, of the mountain of 
Mildis, and the great of Karalla, of Zikirtu, of Van ; they 
prepared the defection, and conspiration. 

II. -8. He made them doubt the power of SARGON and 
superseded AZA, their legitimate Lord * he con 
ducted them In the high mountains, they pre 
pared the revolt of the country of Van On the 

summits of high mountains, they threw the body of AZA, 
their master. I lifted the hand to the god ASSUR, my 
Lord, to interfere in the troubles of the country of Van 
and to spare similar discords in Assyria. In the high 
mountains, in an inaccessible place, there, where they 
had thrown the corpse of AZA, I had BAGADATTI flayed, 
and I terrified the country of Van; and I placed ULLUSUN 
on the throne, the brother of AZA ; I entrusted to him the 

whole country. But ULLUSUN had confidence 

in URSAHA, the Armenian. He associated in his revolt 
against me ASSURLIH of Karalla, ITTI of Allabur and 
accepted the supremacy of URSAHA, the Armenian. In 
the anger of my heart, I invaded these countries like 
a raven. I counted the armies of the god of ASSUR, and 
I fell into the country. I plunged like a storm on Izirti, 
the capital of the country of Nairi, I killed a great many 
people ; I burnt by fire Izirti and I occupied the towns 
of Izibia and Armit. 
ULLUSUN and the race of his country came all to me and 

1 Lacunae. 



32 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

kissed my feet. I forgave him his sins and I replaced 
him on the throne of his royalty and I imposed him a 
tribute in addition to the preceding tributes. When I 
went to ITTI of Allapur, I dragged him out of his dwelling 

I deported all the men of Karalla; and him and 

his suite, I placed them in Hamath the town 

XIII.-9- of Ganon, the land of See 1 I took with 

my own hand NIRISAR, Governor of the town of Surgadia. 
I joined these towns to the government of Parsuas. 2 
BELSARUSSUR was the King of the town of Kisasi, . . . . 
I had them transported to Assyria with the treasure of 
his palace. I put over him my Lieutenants as Governors. 

V.-iy. I placed in the middle of the town the gods who 
show me the way and I called this town Kar-Ninip. I 
erected there an image of My Majesty. I occupied the 
lands of Bet-Sakbat, Bet-Hirmami, Bet-Umargi, the towns 
of Harhubarnua, Kilamoti, Armangu, I joined these to 
his government. The people of Kharkhar had enforced 
KIBABA, the Chief of the town and had sent to DALTA of 
Ellip for submitting themselves. I occupied this town, 
I delivered the prisoners, I installed those men whom 
my hand had conquered. I put over them my Lieu 
tenants as Governors. I occupied the superior banks 
which form the land of Aranzi, the inferior banks where 
are situated the lands of Bet-Ramatua, Uriqatu, Sikris, 
Saparda, Uriakku, five districts and I joined them to 

those ; I imposed them besides their divinities, 3 

in ASSUR. I called the town of Kar-Sarkin. 4 I raised 
the considerable tributes of 28 prefects of the capital 
places of Media, I put the image of my royalty in the 
midst of the town. 

In the seventh year (715-714) of my reign, URSAHA, the 
Armenian, conspired about the defection with ULLUSUN 

1 Lacunae. 2 Parthia. 3 Unintelligible. 4 Kharkhar. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 33 

of Van, and took from him 22 strong places. Mat 
taspisti dabilte ULLUSUN conspired with DAYAUKKU. the 
Prefect of Van, 1 and took with him his son as hostage. 
I lifted my hand unto ASSUR, my Lord, I occupied 
these 22 strong places and I incorporated them to the 
dominion of Assyria. I took with me DAYAUKKU and 
his tribute, I re-established the tranquillity in the land of 
Van. 
H.-Q. I imposed as tribute to YANZU, King of Nairi, in 

Hupuskia, the town of his power ~ the town of 

2 the town of 3 the towns of his power, 

horses, oxen, lambs 2 their oxen, their lambs 

2 

I attacked the strong places of TILUSINA of Andia, I took 
with the inhabitants of the two towns and all they 

possessed 2 I had an image of my royalty made, 

I inscribed the glory of the god ASSUR, I erected it in 

the middle of Izirti 2 The land of the superior 

banks and of the inferior banks which I had submitted 
with the inhabitants of Kharkha in my preceding cam 
paign, the Bet-Aranzi 2 Bet-Ramatua, Uriqatu, 

Sikris, Saparda, UPPARIA had abandoned me and con 
spired against me. I 2 I subdued them under 

my domination. I carried off the inhabitants as prisoners. 

I occupied the towns of Ka 2 of Kisirzariba, of 

Halbuknu 2 of 2 ua, of Anzaria, which 

were situated on the superior and inferior banks. I 
carried off ... . 2 their soldiers 4820 . . . . 2 I imposed 
to them tributes . . . . 2 arms of war. I occupied the towns 
of Tell-Akhitub, of Hindau, of Anzaria, of Bit-Bagaia; 
I transported the inhabitants to Assyria. I restored them 
again and I gave them the names of Kar-Nabu, Kar-Sin, 
Kar-Bin, Kar-Istar. 

1 This is the Median name of Dejoces. 2 Lacunae. 

VOL. VII. 4 



34 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

To keep my position in Media, I built fortifications in the 
neighbourhood of Kar-Sarkin, I fortified * I re 
ceived the tributes of 22 Prefects of the capitals of Media. 

I occupied the towns of * Kimurru, the lands of 

Bet-Hamma, I carried 

IL-ii. away 2830 inhabitants with all they possessed 

i 

[Two lines are wanting.] 

who since and had killed the men of Que 

* I expelled them unto the sea r I sub 
jected them again under my domination. I occupied 
the towns of Harrua and of Usnani of the land of Que, 
which MITA, King of the Moschians had ravished, I 
ravaged and plundered them. 

I marched against the tribes of Tasidi, of Ibadidi, of 
Marsimani, of Hayapai, of the land (of Arabia) the 
remote inhabitants of the land of Bari whom the learned 
and the wise men had not known ; no one among the 
Kings my ancestors had ever heard this name. I sub 
mitted them to the obedience of ASSUR, and those who 
remained, I pulled them out of their dwellings and I 
placed them in the town of Samaria. 

PHARAOH, King of Egypt, SAMSIE, the Queen of Arabia, IT- 
AMAR, the Sabean, are the Kings of the far seaside and of 
the land of l I got from them, as tributes, frank 
incense, metals * of the town of Am . . . gu, all 

sorts of dogs of different races, horses and camels. I 
helped MITA, the King of the Moschians, in the districts 
of his kingdom . . . .* the fortified places of Harrua and 
Usnani, of the land of Que, which had belonged to the 
men of this land since an infinite time, I gave them back 
to him. 

In the eighth year of my reign, 2 I received the tributes of 

1 Lacunae. 2 B.C. 714-713. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 35 

Van, of Media, which the men of the land of Van and 
Ellip had kept from me. 

II.-I2. I imposed a considerable tribute on ZIRZIRAZALA, 
the Governor of the towns who belong to the district of 

T from whom the Kings my ancestors had never 

obtained a contribution * 

[A line wanting.] 

I killed a great many people in Mitatti of Zikirta, I took 
three large towns with 24 boroughs in the environs, I took 
all that appertained to them, I destroyed by fire Parda, the 
town of his power. He and his men of his country 
fled and one never saw again their traces. I killed in 
quantities without number, people of URSAHA,* the Arme 
nian, and 250 persons of his royal race, and I made 
prisoners his horsemen. He, he fled on his stud to save 
his life ; he escaped in the mountains ; for five months 
he wandered about alone in the mountains, in going from 
the heights of the land of Zihar unto the valleys of the 
mountains. I took from him the districts of the land 
of Van, and I gave them to ULLUSUN of Van. 

I occupied the towns of Uskaya, of Birtu, which are in 

the dependency of the land of Zaran hi, in 

the land of Mallan, the valleys of the cypress raksat and 
the 115 towns 3 

Astania, which is in the dependency of Bet-Sangibut, the 

town(?) of ni(?) the town of Salmaki of the land 

of Sala l which are in the neighbourhood of the 

town of Ulhu, near the land of Kispal, of Ezu, the 
capitals and 140 towns of the neighbourhood which are 
situated on the mountains of Arzabia, I destroyed them 
to ashes. I attacked the principal 

II. -i 3. towns and 30 small towns in the neighbourhood of 
the land of Armari "of Ubiarda, the town of 

1 Lacunae. 3 The Armenian Harcea. 3 This passage also is mutilated. 



36 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Abu, the residence of RUSAN the towns which 

are in the neighbourhood of the land of Arah, the districts 
which are on the other side of the sea, the town of 

Ar T the town of Qa which * the lands 

erukku sabi the five towns of the neighbourhood 

of the land of Uaya ; 30 towns of the land of Uaya, I 
occupied them, I destroyed them to ashes. I imposed 
upon YANZU, King of Nairi, as tribute in his capital 
Hubuskia, horses, oxen, and lambs. 

URZANA of Musasir had refused the protection of ASSUR 
and of MARDUK and had thrown the eyes on URSAHA, 
the Armenian. I recommended myself to the gods, my 
Lords, I counted my cars and 1000 riders of my guard, 

the men of my reserve zukruya and the r 

of the battles I went through the lands of Sihak, of 
Ardi . . , T of Ulayan, of Alluria, inaccessible mountains 
. . . . . impossible for the horses and inaccessible for 
myself ; URZANA heard of the march of my expedition ; 
he escaped like a bird and he went to the high mountains. 
I took the town of Musasir, the residence of the god 
HALDIA ; I seized the booty of URZANA, his wives, his 
sons, 8160 men, 682 donkeys, sheep, 920 . . . .* 125 . . . . 
lambs, and I allowed them to leave, 30 talents, 18 mines 

of gold, 1 60 talents, T minehs 2 of silver, cloths of 

berom and cotton in great quantities . . . .* with * 

talent, 3 mines of gold 27 

[Two lines are wanting.] 
I took with me, the gods HALDIA and BAGABARTU . . . . r 

V.-i8. All these I took with me to Assyria and I confided 
it to the hands of my Lieutenant, Chief of the dominion. 
URSAHA heard the downfall of Musasir, the capture of 
his god HALDIA; he despaired on account of the 
victories of ASSUR, and he with his own hand with the 

1 Lacunae. * I.e., a weight. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 37 

dagger of his belt he pierced his entrails, as to a wild 
beast * 

In the ninth year (713-712) of my reign I went to Ellip, 
Bet-Dayaukhu and Karalli; the people of Karalli had 
turned out my Lieutenant and had elevated to the highest 
dignity AMITASSI, the brother of ASSURLIB. I ordered 
them to come to Assyria into the palace, and I imposed 
upon them two thousands of horse harness. I pursued 

AMITASSI, him and his T 

[The Inscriptions in Hall II. pi. 15 are wanting, and those in 
Hall V. pi. 14 are very mutilated.] 

and I named of his royalty and I rejoiced the heart 

of DALTA, and I re-established the tranquillity in his country. 

II.-i6. The lands of Bait-Ili, the district of Media, which 

belongs to Ellip r The lands of Parnusiti, of 

Utirna, the town of Eristani and the lands of Uriakku, of 
Rimanuta, the lands of the district of Uppuriya, of Uya- 
dane, of Pustis, of Agazi, of Ambanda, of Dananu, the far 
districts of the territory of the Arabs from the rising sun 
and the principal districts of Media had shaken off the 
yoke of ASSUR and had terrified the mountain and the 

valley l I distributed sarrakis the sakukat as the 

belonging portion of every town and I pacified their 
districts. I received the tributes of ULLUSUN of Van, of 
DALTA of Ellip, of NINIP-BALADAN of Allapur, and of 
45 Governors of the Median towns, consisting of 4609 
horses, donkeys and lambs of an innumerable quantity. 

IL-iy. AMBARIDI, of Tabal HULLI his father, 

was on the throne of the royalty ; one had given him Bet- 
Burrutes, and he had entrusted it to his hand. In the 

days of Hulli I had left him there and I had 

given him my daughter with the town of Hilakku, 2 and I 
had extended his dominion. But he, an unfaithful man, 

1 Lacunse. 2 Cilicia. 



38 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

did not observe his alliance, he had confidence in 
URSAHA the Armenian, and in MITA the Moschian, who 
had taken my provinces and my towns in the land of 
Tabal, and he had sent him ambassadors. I counted 
all the armies of the god of ASSUR, and I cut like corn 
(ukatti seeds) the whole land of Tabal. AMBARIS, King 
of Bet-Buritis, and the descendants of his paternal house, 
the great of the land, with 100 cars, were taken to 
Assyria. I established in the land of Bet-Buritis, the 
land of Hillakku, aburris, strong places in this country, 
and I placed the men whom ASSUR had submitted by 
his arms, I placed my Lieutenant as Governor over them, 
and I subjected them under my crown like the Assyrians. 

In the tenth year 1 of my reign, TARHUNAZI of Mulid 

2 did not remember the religion of the great 

gods. The great land of Khamman had not accepted 
obedience nor the due respect to ASSUR. I had put 
him out -, GUNZINAN took possession of the throne of his 

royalty 2 he had filled his hands with their tributes, 

he had listened to his enemies and he had sent hostile 
messages to Assyria. In the anger of my heart, I went 
into the land of Khamman and I filled with terror 

Miliddu, the town of his royalty like the 2 All 

their men, the herds I treated 2 

II.-i8. And he for saving his life, retired himself to the 
town of Tell-Garimmi. I took this town by stratagem. (?) I 
diminished those who had withdrawn their obedience to 
me. I threw TARHUNAZI and his warriors into chains of 
iron and I transported his wife, his sons, his daughters, 
with 5000 prisoners and warriors into my capital. I re 
made Tell-Garimmi, I got it quite occupied by the . . . . 2 
of the land of Khamman, which my hand had conquered, 
and I consigned it to the hands of my Lieutenant ; I put 

1 B.C. 712-711. 2 Lacunae. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 39 

over him my Vice-king, as it was in the time of GUNZINAN, 
the preceding King. I rebuilt ten strong places of 
his environs and I made there a place of rest. 

I fortified the towns of Suhsu, of Ursia, of Ammuaru, of 

Ku of Anduarsilia, of the side of Armenia. I 

rebuilt the towns of Usi, Usi ....,* of . ..., f who 
are near the Moschians, and I occupied the places which 
one could not leave. The towns of Illibir, of Sindarara, 

against I Duir, the town of his royalty, with the 

districts of the town of Commagene 

In these times, I had I the retreats of the moun 
tains of Syria. 

II.-iQ. In these times of my campaign, they brought me 

* the (boxes ?) containing the treasures of the palace of 

SARIS, of Suruman consisting in r the 

products of or during brilliant ore, of the land of 

Susanira, of the land of Ilipu or Dariu, of sti, crowns, 

of nibban in iron of the land of Sanmun which l 

making it bright like tin, their white lead of the 

land of Ammun, the mountain before the arms, 

the treasure of the royalty which, like white marble 
the 1 the land of Ba ilzabuna, the great 

mountain of copper, one after one, he worked them 

i 

These treasures without number which our fathers had not 
heaped up, I amassed them in the cells of the palace of 
Dur-Sargon, my town, and the collectors of silver made 
themselves obeyed like in the whole of Assyria. 

II. -20, XIII.-4. In the eleventh year (711-710) of my 
reign, TARHULARA of Gamgum had been obliged to 
recognize the power of MUTALLU, his son, who had taken 
his seat on his throne against my will, and administered 
the country. TARHULARA asked me to decide on his 

1 Lacunae. 



40 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

quarrel In the wrath of my soul, I marched in 

haste with my cars and my horsemen, who did not leave 
the trace of my sandals, to Varkasi. I took MUTULLU, 
his son, and the family of the land of Bet-Pahalla, in its 
whole extent ; I took as booty, the gold, the silver, the 
of his palace of which the number is l 

II.-2I. I reinstated the people of Gamgum and the terri 
tory of their tributes; I instituted my Governor over 
them like my Lieutenant, and I treated them like 
Assyrians. 

AZURI, King of Asdod, made up his mind not to be obedient 
to ASSUR and not to supply any more his tributes. He 
sent to the Kings his neighbours hostile messages to 
Assyria. Then, I meditated a vengeance, and I replaced 
him in the domination of his lands. I elevated to his 
place his brother AKHIMIT to the royalty. But the people 
of Syria inclined to revolt, and were tired of the government 
of AKHIMIT and elevated IAMAN, who like him was not 
the legitimate master of the throne. In the wrath of my 
heart, I did not divide my army and I did not diminish 
the ranks, but I marched against Asdod with my warriors, 
who did not separate themselves from the traces of my 
sandals. I besieged, I took Asdod and Gimt-Ashdodim. 
I took with the gods who inhabit these towns, the gold, 
the silver, the whole contents of his palace. 

II.-2T0. I then made again these towns. I placed the 
people whom my arm had conquered. I put over them 
my Lieutenant as Governor; I considered them like 
Assyrians and they practiced obedience. 

In the twelfth year 2 of my reign, MERODACH-BALADAN, 
son of JAKIN, King of Chaldea, who had established 
his dwelling amidst the sea of the rising sun, he had con 
fidence in the sea and gubus idi. 

1 Lacunae. 2 B.C. 710-709. 



ANNALS OF S ARGON. 4! 

V. ii, XIII. -4. He . . . .* the precepts of the great gods 
and refused his tribute. He had first engaged an alliance 
with HUMBANIGAS, King of Elam, and excited against me 
all the tribes of Mesopotamia. He prepared himself to 
war and he descended to the land of the Sumers and 
the Accads. Against the will of the gods of Babylon, 
the town of BEL, who judges the gods, he had sent 
during twelve years ambassadors. But MERODACH, the 
great god, did not accord his protection to the hostile 
actions of Chaldaea, which he had seen, and the loss of 
the sceptre and the throne of his royalty was made with 
his help. 

I who am SARGON, the pious King, I have been chosen by 
him among all the Kings, and he elevated my head in 
the land of Sumer and Accad, and in order to make to 
submit the Chaldeans, a people rebellious and perverse he 
augmented my forces. 

With the help of MERODACH, my Lord, I kept up my 
heroism ; I arranged my plan of the battle, and I pro 
claimed an expedition against his hostile enemies. But 
he, MERODACH-BALADAN, heard of the approach of 

V.-io. my expedition; he fortified his strong places, he 
assembled the parties of his army and he united all the 
troops of Gambul to the town of Dur-Atkhar, and 
when my expedition passed, he augmented his garrison. 2 
He left to them 600 horsemen and 4000 . . . . who 
formed the front guard of his army, and he incited their 
courage. They joined new works to those which the 
fortress had already, and they bored a channel from the 

river Surappi, and . . . . a swarm they his 

environs. 

II.-26. I marched until the hour of the setting of the 
sun, and I captured 18,430 men with all they possessed, 

1 Lacunae. a Masartu. 



42 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

their horses, donkeys, mules, camels, oxen and lambs. 
The rest fled before my arms ; they directed themselves 
to the river Uknu, the inaccessible one, and the reeds 

(of) the (marshes) . . . , after the They heard 

that I attacked the town; their courage left them, they 
fled like birds, taking with them from the river Ukni great 
tributes in oxen and lambs. I re-built this town, and I 
gave to it the name Dur-Nabu. I put over these men my 
Lieutenant as Governor and I imposed to every one of 
them like a yearly tribute i talent, 30 minas of silver, 2000 
acres of corn, besides twenty oxen, one ox besides 10 

and one lamb. I left there these men and 

T which I had taken. 2 

II.-22. The town of Karet-Nami, the town of Nabu- 

Yusalla, 3 the 3 of Dur 3 the town 

of Mahiru, six towns of the^and of Hubagu 3 

the town Oran-Rahmiel, the town of Yahdi, two great 
towns of ... . 3 -nanagi, the town of Parasa, the town 
of Yah . . . ., 3 three towns of Nahar-hirit, the district of 

the town of Higaya, the town of 3 the town of 

Asie l, the strong place of Vannuyasana, the town of 
Rahi . . . . 3 the town of . . . 3 unaisidan, six towns be 
longing to the city of Hilti, the town of Haza . . . 3 the 
town of Sap harri, the town of Hamadani, the town of 

3 the town of Yahyanu, six towns of Sahalani, 

the town of 3 the town of Namri, the town of 

Zaruti, the town of Saadani, the town of 3 the 

town of . . . 3 sali, seven towns which belong to the dis 
trict of Nagia, the town of 3 of Astamu, whose 

* are numberless, the Zikri of A isamu, . . . 3 paha, 

the town of Dinega, the town of Samibnaya, the town of 

1 Lacunae. 

2 The Hall II. pi. i has a different copy; there are the names of 
Bar, Hazael, Hamdan, Zebit, Amava, and others. 

3 Unfortunately the names of all these towns are obliterated. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 43 

V.-9<r. Babilie, the town of . . . mi, the town of Andan, 
Sihrai, Patiyail, Khula . . . su, the town of Usiyadah, 
Hailai . . . the town of Hukanu, the lands of Silburatti, 
Tibarsun, Pasur, Hahimt, Hilmut, the six districts of 
Gambul and the treasures of the fortified towns them 
selves, were joined by me to the crown of Assyria. 
[The Inscriptions in Hall II.. pis. 23, 24 are wanting.] 

The tribes of Rubua, of Hindear, of Jatbur, of Pukud, 
learned the seizure of Gambul ; they left at the approach 
of the night, and directed themselves to the inaccessible 
Uknu. I made a bridge over the river Undias, the river 
of their l through woods and plants. I got con 
structed two forts on the other side of the river. I allowed 
them to quit with their goods, and they left the environs 
of Ukni, and they kissed my feet. YANUK, the Lieutenant 
of the town of Zame / , belonging to NABUYUSALLA, of the 
town of Abure, PASSAN-HAUKAN of Nuhan, SATAL of 
Ibuliya, the men of the nasikat of Pukud, ABHATA of Ru- 

XIII. -7. hua, HUNIN, SAMEA, SABHARRU, RAPIG of 

II.-2I. Hindar, the horses and the oxen, the lambs of the 
Chief of Hindar and the warriors came to Dur-Atkhar and 
kissed my feet I took their hostages, and I constituted 
a tribute like to the Assyrians. I handed them to the 
hands of my Governor of the land of Gambul. I con 
secrated the spoil of the oxen, numerous muttons at 
NEBO. The rest of the arameen people, wicked people 
and those who inhabit their districts, had placed their 

hopes On MERODACH-BALADAN,and OnSUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, 

and had directed themselves to the river Uknu. I 
ravaged their country, the great buildings like the light 
ning. I hewed down the palms of their plantations, their 
gardens, the product of their districts and I distributed 
their villages among the army. I sent them out to the 
1 Lacunae. 



44 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

river Ukni, at the place where they should meet their 
dispersed bands; I defeated them and put them to 
flight. They took as prisoners their men and their goods, 
and 

[The Inscriptions in Hall II. pi. 26, 27 are wanting.] 
they made an invasion in the towns of Rame, Abure, 
Saptir, Mahis, Hilipan, Kaldan, Pattian, Hayaman, Ga- 
diya, Amat, Nuhan, Ama, Hiur, Sa al, the fourteen strong 
towns and the neighbouring towns in the . valley of the 
river Ukni, which had withdrawn themselves under the 
strength of my weapons. They came back humiliated 
from the river Ukni and they kissed my feet. I threw 

down like T this district more than it had been 

done formerly, and I intrusted it to the hands of the 
Prefect. The towns of Sam un and of Bab-Dur, fortress 
of SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, King of Elam, were incorporated 
to the land of Jatbur. I took into captivity Ninu and 
Singansibu, the chief of the fortresses and 7520 Elamites 

who were with them and 12,062 men of T the 

issumbi, horses, donkeys, sheep, camels and a great many 
treasures. 

.-Qfl. I rebuilt the town of Samuna, I made to change 
its name and I called the town Bel-Bagar. I named 
MUSEZIB, NATNU, AILUN, DAIZZAN, of the land of Sahir, 
AIRIMMU, the only chief of the town of Sula . . . and 
. . . ."a, the seven nisikat of the Jatbur brought to my 
camp horses, donkeys, oxen and lambs ; and to complete 
their submission, they kissed my feet. I incorporated 
to the territory of Assyria the town of Sahir, of the land 

of Tadibir, the towns of Salan, of of Samuna, of 

Bab-Dur, the fortresses of Jatbur, the towns of Akhilimmu, 
of Pillut, the dominion of Elam and the towns which they 
environ in the valley of the river Nadit. The towns of 

1 Lacunae. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 45 

Tul-Humba Dube, Haman, the fortified refuges 

of the land of Ras, had retired themselves before my 
mighty battles and were entered into the town of Bet- 
Tinbi ; and this SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, their King, retired 
himself with them into the far mountains to save his life. 
With the help of ASSUR, of NEBO, of MERODACH, I 
traversed with the force of my armies the Euphrates, and I 
directed my face to the town of Dur-Ladinna, of the land 
of Bet-Dakurri. I rebuilt the town of Dur-Ladinna 
nada, and I united my soldiers, the selected troops of 
my battles. 

Concerning the glory of ASSUR, of NEBO and of MERODACH 
which I had spread in these countries, MERODACH-BA- 
LADAN, King of Kar-Dunyas, heard of it at Babylon, in 
the midst of his palace, his distrust 

II.-2S. overcame him ; he made go out in the night 
time with his auxiliaries, his troops of battle, and he 
directed his steps against the land of Yatbur in Elam. 
He gave as a propitiatory present his pasur in silver, his 
throne in silver, his parasol in silver, his ... . 2 in silver, 
his nirmaktu in silver, the insignia of his royalty, of a 
considerable weight, to SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE the Elamite, 
that he might support his party. He took by violence 
ddtus, the cattle of the Elamite and avoided my arms 

in pursuing l his march and did not announce 

his itinerary. He heard of the abstention of the chief 
of his party, and he turned 3 in a circle. He made 
wear his cotton (proverbially), he took with him what 
remained to him, and prepared himself for every eventu 
ality. He and his auxiliaries withdrew their soldiers from 
Jatbur, he went to the town of Ikbibel and stopped there 
in safety. 

The people of Babylon and of Borsippa, the men who 

1 Lacunae. 2 Unknown. 3 Ippalsih. 



46 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

enter the palace, the men of the army, the learned people 
of books, and those who march before the muherat of the 
land which he had entrusted to him, carried in my pre 
sence the sihat of BEL, ZARPANIT, NEBO and TASMIT in 
the town of Dur-Ladinni. The inhabitants of Babylon 
called on me, and I made shake the entrails of the town 
of BEL and of MERODACH, who judges the gods. I 
entered immediately to Babylon, and I immolated the 
expiating victims to the great gods. 

I established my power in the midst of the palace of 
MERODACH-BALADAN ; and I received the tribes of the 

V.-Q. lands of Aram, of Amukkan, of Dakkuri. The 
Kings my predecessors had dug an ancient channel at 
Borsippa ; I have made a new one, to the glory of NEBO 

II.-29. and of MERODACH, unto the town of Suanna 
(Babylon). 

The people of Hamaran who had withdrawn from my mighty 
arms were entered in Sippara, and had resisted to the 
approach of the expedition of the Babylonians. In my 
constancy, I sent them my judges as my Lieutenants; 
they approached themselves in confidence and, great and 
small, they fled no more. 

During the rest, during the calm, the month of Sebat 
approached, the month of the rise of the Master of the 
gods ; I took the hands of BEL, of MERODACH, of NEBO, 
the King of the legions of the sky and of the earth, and 
I searched the road of the house of treasures. Two 

sculptured bulls, equal, winged, birds * with their 

katri without T were erected before them. I ac 
complished sacrifices to the gods of the 

Sumirs and the Accads. 

In the thirteenth year 2 of my reign, in the month of lyar, 

1 Unexplained words. 2 B.C. 709-708. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 47 

I left the town of Suanna (Babylon) ; I raised my courage 

and I disposed of my strength I 

[The Inscription in Hall II. pi. 30 is wanting.] 
went to the towns of . . . bidaya, Ikbibel, Hi . . ., ME- 
RODACH-BALADAN forced a contribution of the towns of 
Ur, of Larsa, of Kisik, the dwelling of the god LAGUDA ; 
he assembled his forces 

V.-8. at Dur-Jakin, and he fortified his citadels. He 
made measure almost a plethrum around his fort, and dug 

II. 31. a ditch of 200 spans of longitude and of one 
fathom and a half of depth, until he arrived at the waters 
of the channels. Then he pierced a trench beginning 
from the Euphrates, and he divided in several branches the 
height of the course of the river. He provided the town 
the centre of his rebellion, with a dam, he filled all with 
water, and cut the conductings. He and his auxiliaries 
commanded to the soldiers of his battles to raise into the 
air like birds, the insignias of his royalty, and he arranged 
his camp. By the grace of ASSUR, of the SUN and of 
MERODACH, my warriors extended themselves along the 
courses of the water like l 

I approached myself with courage to him and his royal 
courtiers, whom I pulled before his feet like the asli. I 
put disorder among his soldiers and the horses, among 
the harness of his feet, when they advanced. I pierced 

myself the T in the zibit mulmulli, and the King 

pierced, like a sihku, with trouble the great gate of his 
town. I harvested like the asli the people of Pukud, 
, x and the Marsanians who accom 
panied them. I filled with terror of death the other 
soldiers. I captured the insignias of his royalty, the 
throne of his royalty in gold, the sceptre in gold, the 
pasur in gold, the parasol 

1 Lacunae. 



48 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

V.-y. in gold, udini in gold and in silver, arms thisnat, 
. . . .* ganin sutilli, instruments of the battle. I made 
prisoners all the men who inhabit the interior of this 
land and who had withdrawn from my arms in Dur-Jakin. 
The pasir, the herds 

[The Inscriptions in Hall II. pi. 32, 33 are wanting.] 
of oxen, of camels, of sheep and lambs were taken away 

T The mighty armies of the god of ASSUR pillaged 

this town during three days and three nights and took 

with an immense booty x I carried off 80,570 men, 

2070 horses, 700 donkeys, 6054 camels * I received 

what my army had taken. Then I ordered that 

nothing should come out of the town or come in of what 
they had appropriated with respect to oxen and sheep, and 
I enclosed all in the town rusukis. I destroyed the parks, 

I cut the trees r Then I limited the surface of 

the town, like a , T I heaped up . . . .* a . . . / 

great in a pile which I put into the fortress. And this 
MERODACH-BALADAN, recognising his own weakness, was 
terrified; the immense fear of my royalty overwhelmed 
him, he left his sceptre and his throne ; in the presence 
of my ambassador, he kissed the earth. He abandoned 
his castles, fled and one saw no more his trace. 2 His 

* I called him, he blessed my honour and I 

accorded him the grace. The gold, the silver, the stones, 

the metals, the bdelliuim / the nmnati, the stones 

ka . . . the . . . .* the copper, the minerals which had 
been accumulated by the princes his predecessors and 
ancestors since many years, 1000 horses, 800 donkeys 
* 30,000 giziati in gold, the instruments 

V.-6. r the thrones in gold, the "in gold 

. . . . / productions of the river, T 

I burnt by fire the town of Dur-Yakin, I destroyed, I 

1 Lacunae. 2 Literally "and no one saw him again." 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 49 

ruined by fire his ancient pinnacles ; I pulled out the 
fundamental stone, I have made a place of desolation. 
Concerning the people of Sippara, of Nipur, of Babylon 
and of Borsippa, I allowed them to continue in the 
midst of the town their ancient professions, in surveying 
them. They took the culture of the fields, which be 
longed since an immemorial time to the people of Suti, 
and they appropriated them to themselves. I replaced 
under my domination the Suti of the desert. I put 
again in their former places their limits. 

I re-established at Ur, Orchoe, Rat, Sarsa, Kullab, Kisik, 
the dwelling of the god of Laguda, the god of their sanc 
tuary and I restored the gods who had been taken 
away from them ; I restored their habits which were 
fallen into oblivion. 

I subjected to a regular contribution the land of Bet-Yakin 
both superior and inferior, unto the towns of Sam-una, 
Bab-Dur, Dur-Telit, Bube, Tul-Humba, which belong 
to the dominion of Elam, and I placed, in changing 
the respective places the men of the Commagene in 
Syria, whom my arm had reached, in the adoration of 
the great gods, my Lords. I established the administra 
tion containing the dominion of Elam in the town of Sak- 
bat. I ordered NABUPAKIDILAN to make enter the im 
positions of the Elamite people. 1 I took for mortgage 

V.-5- the fortress (Birtu) of this land and I trusted her 
to my Lieutenant the Governor of Babylon and to my 
Lieutenant the Governor of Gambul. 

UPERI, King of Dilmun, whose hidden dwelling is estab 
lished in the midst of the sea, thirty parasangcz off 

II.-34. the coast, like those of the fishes, he heard of 
the glory of my domination and he brought his tribute. 

While I made them repent their punishment to the 

1 Literally, " to impose tribute upon the Elamites." 
VOL. VII. 5 



50 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Chaldeans and to the Arimi of the sea of the rising sun 
and while I made feel my domination to the men of Elam, 
my Lieutenant of the land of Que whom I had instituted 

in the land of in the countries of the setting sun, 

and to whom I had trusted my subjects, he attacked 
MITA the Moschian in his countries, he went on the good 
roads with his cars and he marched on the bad roads 
by foot, being under water until three silbu. He took 
2000 men, amongt he soldiers of their battalions and there 
were no more. He occupied two fortresses, the protec 
tion of these districts whose position is inaccessible in 
the mountains and in the far region. 

(He killed) the men of war (who had opposed themselves) 
in his forts ; he let the life to the others. He carried 
into captivity 2400 men, free and slaves, of this land; he 
pillaged these two towns and the neighbouring towns ; he 
demolished and ruined them and burnt them by fire. 
His ambassador, who was of the family of his wife, carry 
ing thousand * took with in my presence the man 

J in the town of Irmai in Elam, and he rejoiced 

my heart. And this MITA, the Moschian, who had not 
presented homages to the Kings my predecessors and 
who had not sent ambassadors for asking peace and 
friendship, hearing the record of my glory and of the prey 
of my hand which ASSUR the great Lord had granted to 
me for what I had done in the sea of the rising sun ; 
(and hearing) of the defeat of the land and of the captivity 
of the inhabitants and of the humiliation of UPERI, King of 

Dilmun, who is living in the midst of the sea T 

this MITA sent in my presence his ambassador for making 
his submission and for bringing his tributes unto the shore 
of the Eastern sea, and presented me his expiatory pre 
sents, and recognized the power of the god of ASSUR. 

1 Lacunae. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 51 

II.-35. A n d the seven Kings of lahnagi of the land of 
latnan, 1 whose dwelling is situated at a distance of 
seven journeys in the middle of the Western sea and who 
have elevated there their dwellings, and whose names 
since the most remote times until the renewal of the lunar 

period, were not known by the Kings my fathers 2 

they had refused their contributions, but after the news 
of the humiliation of the Kings of Chaldea . . . . 2 which 

they heard far away ~ they brought in my presence 

to Babylon, gold, silver, utensils, ebony, sandal wood, and 
the products of their countries and they kissed my feet. 
[Hall II. pis. 36 and 38 are wanting. Some lacunas are re 
stored by the so named Great Inscription.] 
.-4. In the fourteenth year (708-707) of my reign, Mu- 
TALLU, of Commagene, a wicked man and an enemy, who 
had not honoured the cult of the gods, had confidence 
in ARGISTI, King of Armenia, and he had trusted to him the 
town of Ulid. In the virgin forests he . . . . 2 had refused 
his tribute and he sent his ambassador in my presence 
into the land of Bet-Iakin, to ask from me peace. He 
had learned what I had done in the preceding campaign, 
which I had undertaken in Assyria, and the high deeds 
which I had executed over the land of the Chaldeans and 
in Elam. He fled alone to save his life ; he wandered, even 
ing and morning, on the inaccessible mountains with his 
Princes. I ordered my Judges to administer these large 
territories as a part of my royalty. I marched during 
six sc/wenes, he abandoned his palace and he fled alone, 
and his trace was no more seen. They (my Judges) be 
sieged this town, and they carried from it as spoil, his wife, 
his sons, with the inhabitants of the land, the horses, 
the donkeys, the mules, the camels, the oxen and the 
sheep. They took also the gold, the silver, clothes in 

1 Cyprus. 2 Lacunae. 

5* 



52 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

berom and in cotton, blue and purple dresses, bdellium, 
skins of sea calves, ebony, sandal, the treasure of the 
palace, and they brought all this in my presence into 
the town of Calach. I rebuilt this town, I placed there 
the men of the land of Bet-Iakin. I instituted over 
it my Lieutenant as Governor, I called him BIT-KAT 

T and I joined a tribute to that one which I 

had paid formerly, and I replaced the Governor on his 
throne. I fixed his contribution to 150 cars, 1400 horse 
men, 20,000 archers, 10,000 shield bearers; spear casters 
were taken among his men. I entrusted to him the 
country, and I considered him as one of my Lieutenants, 

and 

In the fifteenth year 2 of my reign, the following passed : 
I had subjected to the power of the god ASSUR the country 
of Ellip in one of my former campaigns ; as long as 
DALTA of Albany lived, it was subject to me. But the 
illness of age came and his last day arrived, and went 
with him in the path of death. NIBIE and ISPABARA, the 
sons of his wives, asked each of them for himself the occu 
pation of the royal throne, the country and the tributes, 
and they prepared themselves to combat. 
V.-3. NIBIE asked SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE King of Elam, that 
he should support his party, and he gave him, as mortgage, 
the promise of his submission, and he left assisted by him. 
ISPABARA asked me, in his prostration and humiliation, to 
support his party and to fortify his courage, and he offered 
allegiance to me. I sent then seven of my Lieutenants, 
my Governors, to make triumph his party. NIBIE and 
the army of the four rivers (of the Susians) his auxiliaries 
retired themselves. He and 1500 Elamite archers fled, 
to save their lives, unto the town of Mareobisti. He 
locked himself up at Mareobisti, his fortress, which is 

1 Lacunae. 2 B.C. 707-706. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 53 

situated on the summit of a mountain. My warriors drew 
away once more in their attack the inaccessible fort. 
They carried before me NIBIE, covered with ties and 
chains. I raised once more the town of Mareobisti, and 
I crucified on the cross the adherents of NIBIE. On 
the whole land, I established the regency of ISPABARA 

l I trusted him the government over all the men 

of Ellip ; I made of the whole country a place of peace, 
I re-established it under his domination, and they be 
haved like pious men. 

In these times, these people and these countries which my 
arm had conquered and which the gods ASSUR, NEBO 
and MERODACH had united under my domination, fol 
lowed the road of righteousness. With their help I made a 
town with the divine will and the wish of my heart, which 
I called Dur-Sarkin at the feet of Musri, to replace 
Nineve. 2 SALMAN, SIN, SAMAS, NEBO, BIN, NINIP and 

1 Lacuna. 

2 In some inscriptions are given the dimensions of Khorsabad, as 3^ ners, 
i stadium, 3 canes, and 2 spans (/ ). 

This is : 

3s ners, at 7200 spans . . . 24,000 spans. 

1 stadium at 720 ... 720 
3 canes 18 

2 U . 2 



24,740 

The great side, according to the measurements of Botta, are just in the 
proportion of 6000 to 6370. The great sides or the square were therefore : 

2 sides at 6000 12,000 

2 sides at 6370 ...... 12,740 

24,740 

By this means, the length of the span or the half cubit has been fixed 
at o m 27425, or English inches, as the whole of the walls of Khorsabad 
are 6790 metres, 7427 yards ; the sides are : 

2 sides of 1645 metres, 6000 spans 
2 sides of 1750 metres, 6370 spans 

6790 metres, 24,740 spans. 
See the explanation in my Etalon des mesures assyriennes. 



54 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

their great wives, who reign eternally in the high regions 
and in the infernal tracts of ARALLI, have blessed the 
splendid wonders, the beautiful streets of Dur-Sarkin. I 
rectified the institutions which were not corresponding 
with their wills. The priests, the nisi ramki, the sarmakki 
supar debated, in their learned discussions, the pre 
domination of their domination and the efficiency of their 
sacrifices. 

I built in the town, palaces covered with skins, sandal, 
ebony, tamariscus, cedar, cypress, wild pistachio-tree, of 
an incomparable splendour, for the seat of my royalty. I 
have disposed their dima on golden boards, in silver, in 
copper, in stone tihpi, in polished stones, in tin, in 
lead, in iron, in steel and in hibisti arranged. I have 
written about this the glory of the gods ; on the top I 
have built doors in cedar. 

V.-2. I have surrounded with rings of copper the doors 
of fir and of tamariscus, and I disposed their distance 
symmetrically. I made a spiral staircase equal to that 
one of the great temple in Syria, and which is called in 
the Phenician language, Bit-hilanni. Between the doors, 
I put eight double lions of which the weight is of a 
ton, of six quintals, of fifty talents 1 of massive copper 

employed in honour of MYLITTA. Their 2 was 

of wood in timmi and of fir, and I placed their 4 kubur 
in materials of the mountain Amanus, on the nirgalli. 
I fortified the vaults of the doors by timmi and I painted 
at the exterior the animals of the field of all size and 
winged, in stone of mountains. 

1 This is i ton .... 600 talents. 
6 quintals . . . 360 
50 talents ... 50 

1010 talents, 
or nearly 67,000 English pounds. 

2 Lacuna. 



ANNALS OF SARGON. 55 

Towards the four regions of the sun, I disposed the cornices 
and the door posts; I placed over them architraves in 
gypsum stone of great dimensions originally from the 
countries which my arm had conquered. I covered their 
walls and for the admiration of men, I had the images 
of the lands sculptured since the beginning until the 
end, which I had occupied with the aid of ASSUR, my 
Lord. After the rules of art of skilful men, I have 
made these palaces, I have built the rooms of treasures. 

In the month of hearing, on the day of blessing, I 
have invoked amidst my followers ASSUR, the Father and 
the Sovereign of the gods, and the goddesses who inhabit 
Assyria. I presented them frankincense vases in glass, 
chiselled objects in pure silver heavy jewels, in great 
quantities, and I rejoiced their mind. I exposed sculp 
tured bulls, coupled, winged, winged, * 

winged quadrupeds, reptiles, fishes and birds, symbols of 
abundance of an incomparable fecundity, then of midit 
expiatory silaru, to present the elevated mountains, the 
summits of the heights which my hands had conquered. 
For the glory of my royalty, the arm of the gods, ASSUR 
has received them and his heart became favourable to 
me. I immolated, in the presence of the gods, pure 
victims, supreme sacrifices, expiatory holocausts to excite 
them to pardon, which was difficult to be gotten, I asked at 
the same time a happy existence, a long life, an illustrious 
descendance, the constancy in victory, and I relied upon 
him. 

The great Lord BEL-EL, Master of the earth, inhabits the 
Sennaar; the gods and the goddesses inhabit Assyria; 
they live there in pargiti and martakni. 

With the Chief of the provinces, the Satraps, the Wise 
men, the Doctors, the Magnates, the Lieutenants and 

1 Unexplained objects. 



56 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

the Governors of Assyria, I sat in my palace, and I 
practised justice. 

This palace contains gold, silver, vases in gold and silver, 
precious stones, copper, iron, the products of rich mines, 
blue and purple stuffs, cloths in berom and cotton, 

V.-i. amber, skins of sea calves, pearls, sandal, ebony, 
horses of Egypt, oxen strains, donkeys, mules, camels, 
oxen, these are the tributes which I asked for the gods 
whose heart I rejoiced. 

May ASSUR bless this town and these palaces in giving to 
his images an eternal brightness. Might it be accorded 
to them to be inhabited until the most remote days. 

May dwell before its supreme face the sculptured bull, the 
protector the accomplishing god, may he watch there 
the day and night time, and never his feet may move 
from this threshold ! 

With the aid of ASSUR, the King who has founded this 
palace may attain the old age, and may he have seven 
fold offspring ! Until the last days may last its battlements. 

And may it be that I, SARGON, who inhabits this palace, 
may be preserved by destiny during long years for a 
long life, for the happiness of my body, for the satisfaction 
of my heart, and may I arrive to my end ! 

May I accumulate in this palace immense treasures, the booties 
of all countries, the products of mountains and valleys ! 

Whoever, in the following days, among the Kings my sons, 
will succeed to me, may he restore this palace if it is 
threatened with ruin, may he read my inscriptions, may he 
count the tablets, and perform a sacrifice, may he put 
all back in its place. Then ASSUR will listen to his prayer ! 
But whoever shall alter my writings and my name, may 
ASSUR, the great god, throw down his sword; may he 
exterminate in this land his name and his offspring, and 
may he never pardon him this sin ! 



57 



BULL INSCRIPTION OF SENNACHERIB. 

B.C. 705-681. 



TRANSLATED BY 

REV. J. M. RO DWELL, M.A, 

RECTOR OF ST. ETHELBURGA, LONDON. 



"THE following translation is part of the history of 
Sennacherib, found on slab i, belonging to the Ko- 
yunjik bulls in the British Museum, and published in 
the Western Asiatic Inscriptions, p. 12. It has not 
been thought desirable to encumber these pages with 
the text of the three remaining slabs, as they are in a 
very fragmentary state, and have reference mainly to 
the buildings erected at Nineveh, consisting chiefly 
of uninteresting lists of material (wood and stone) and 
of architectural terms for which it is always difficult, 
and often impossible, to find modern equivalents. 



58 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

The perusal of this inscription will present many 
important points of contact with the Books of Kings 
and the prophecies of Isaiah, and should be compared 
with a different text recently translated by the late Mr. 
G. Smith, at p. 295 of his Assyrian Discoveries, and of 
which the text here given is obviously an abbreviated 
copy. It need not be remarked that the Sennacherib 
inscriptions are a remarkable confirmation of the 
scriptural accounts of the same events. 



59 



INSCRIPTION OF SENNACHERIB. 



1 The palace of SENNACHERIB, great Prince, powerful 
Prince, Prince of legions, King of the land of Assyria, 
King of the four regions, worshipped of the great gods 
irsu valiant, the manly, the brave, Chief of the Kings 

2 of disobedient people, subverter of evil designs. The 
god ASSUR, the mighty god whose rule hath no equal, 
hath established me, and over all the inhabitants of 
realms hath amplified my sway 

3 from the upper sea towards the sunset to the lower sea of 
the sunrise, all the Kings of the four regions have I sub 
jugated ....*.. . l In my first 

4 expedition, of MERODACH-BALADAN King of Kardunias 
together with many warriors of Syria his allies, in the 
vicinity of the town Kiski I effected the overthrow. For 
the preservation of his life, by himself 

5 he fled away : his chariots, his horses, his goats and oxen, 
and beautiful woollens my hands captured ; I went up to 
his palace in the heart of Babylon - } I opened it, and 

6 his treasure house, with gold and silver, vessels of gold 
and silver, the precious stones, the choice spoils (kept in) 
that palace, I plundered ; his strong cities, the castles of 
the land of the Chaldees together with the wide-spread 
cities of their territory 

7 I captured and spoiled (together with) their women. On 
my return I captured and despoiled the Aramaeans on the 
banks of the Tigris and Euphrates with their women. In 
the course of my expedition 

1 Lacunae. 



6o RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

8 from the Governor of Hararati I received abundant 
tribute ; I cut off the hostile population of the city of 
Hirimmi and destroyed them with the sword; but few 
were there whom I left : that city I took 

9 together with its oxen, sheep and goats and all its prin 
cipal possessions I took possession of for the land of 
Assyria. 

In my second expedition to the lands of Bisiya and 
Yasibi with my forces I went. Through forests 

10 and difficult places I rode on horseback to a remote 
spot : to my yoke I subjected it : the cities of Kilamzah, 
Hardispi, Bit-Kubili, their cities, their fortresses 

ill captured and despoiled : their women and their cities 
their sons without number, I destroyed and cut off : the 
palace I burned with fire : I then returned and Bit- 
Kalamzah 

1 2 to Birtutu I annexed : the inhabitants of these lands, the 
acquisition of my hands, I settled in it ; and reckoned 
them to the city of Arbuha in the hands of a Viceroy : I 
turned and to the land of Illipi 

13 the road I took : before me ISPABARA its King his strong 
city evacuated and to a distance fled : the city Marugarti, 
the city Akupardu, cities of his sovereignty, 

14 together with the cities of their territory I captured and 
plundered : their spoil I laid waste, cut off, and burned 
with fire ; the city Umumirta, the city Hapumah, fortified 
cities as well as smaller cities 

1 5 within their territory I captured : the land of Bit-Parua 
I formed into a complete province and annexed it to the 
borders of Assyria : the city Ilinzas for the protection of 
that province I took 



INSCRIPTION OF SENNACHERIB. 6 1 

1 6 its name I changed, and gave it the title of Kar-Senna- 
cherib : the men of the land the acquisition of my hands 
I caused to dwell in its midst, and in the hands of the 
Governor of the city Harhar 

1 7 I placed them. On my return I received through my 
prowess the tribute of the remote land of Media of which 
the Kings my fathers had not even heard, and subjected 
them to my yoke. 

1 8 In my third expedition I proceeded to the land of 
(Hatti) 1 : fear at my approach overwhelmed ELULAUS 
(LuLi) the King of Zidon, and from the midst of the land 
of (Aharri) 2 to (Yatnana) 3 

1 9 which is in the midst of the sea he fled and quitted his 
country : I placed TUBALU on the throne of his kingdom : 
I established over them a tribute for My Majesty : the 
Kings of the West country, all of them, their abundant 
tribute 

20 as a gift, each for his own city, to my presence brought, 
and ZIDQA King of Ascalon who had not submitted to my 
yoke. The gods of his fathers house together with his 
family 

21 I removed and deported to Assyria. SARLUDARI the 
son of RUKIPTI the former King I appointed of the 
people of Ascalon, and ordained for him the tribute due 
to my dominion. 

2 2 In the course of my expedition I captured and took the 
spoil of his cities which had not submitted to my yoke. 
The Governors and the population of the city (Amgaruna) 4 
who PAD i their King 

23 an ally of Assyria with a chain of iron had bound and to 

1 Syria. 

Phoenicia. The Assyrian word Ahirra implies that Phoenicia was a 
land which stood far back, i.e. westward. 

3 Cyprus. Yatnana has reference to the mercantile transactions. 
4 Ekron. 



62 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

HEZEKIAH King of Judah had delivered him, the shadows 
of death overwhelmed them. The Kings of Egypt 
gathered archers 

24 chariots and horses of the King of Meroe, 1 a force 
without number. Under the walls of Albaku I fought 
with them, and effected their overthrow. The Com 
mander of the chariots 

25 the sons of the Egyptian Kings together with the Com 
manders of the chariots of the King of Meroe alive my 
hand captured. To Ekron I approached; and the Princes 
who rebellion 

26 had brought about, I slew with the sword ; the sons of 
the city who had thus behaved to me I treated as prey ; 
the rest of them who had done nothing (amiss) I pro 
claimed as innocent. PADI their King 

27 I brought forth from the midst of Jerusalem and on the 
throne I set over them, and fixed upon him the tribute 
due to my dominion. HEZEKIAH King of Judah did not 
submit to my yoke ; 

28 46 of his cities, strong fortresses and cities of their 
territory which were without number, I besieged, I cap 
tured, I plundered, and counted as spoil. Himself I 
made like a caged bird in the midst 

29 of Jerusalem the city of his royalty : garrison-towers over 
against him I raised : his cities which I had plundered, 
from the midst of his country I separated, and to the 
Kings of Ashdod, Askelon 

30 Ekron and Gaza I made them over, and diminished his 
land. In addition to previous taxes, I imposed upon 
them a donation from their own resources as tribute. 
HEZEKIAH himself the fear of the approach 

31 of My Majesty overwhelmed, and the #r&"and his own 
soldiers and the (other) soldiers whom he had caused to 

1 Ethiopia. 



INSCRIPTION OF SENNACHERIB. 63 

enter Jerusalem his royal city. He consented to the pay 
ment of tribute : 30 talents of gold, 800 talents of silver : 

32 the bullion the treasure of his palace, his daughters the 
women of his palace, male musicians and female musicians 
to within Nineveh the city of my power he caused to carry 
and for the payment of the tribute he sent his messenger. 

33 In my fourth expedition to the land of Bit-Yakin I pro 
ceeded. In the course of the expedition against SUZUB a 
Chaldean dwelling in the midst of marshes, at the city 
Bit-but I effected 

34 his overthrow. My arms he avoided and fled alone, and 
his place was not discovered. I then faced about and to 
the land of Bit-Yakin took the road. He, 

35 MERODACH-BALADAN 1 whose overthrow I had accom 
plished in the course of my former campaign, avoided the 
blows of my powerful arms, and to the city of Nagiti 
which is in the midst of the sea he fled. 

36 His brothers the seed of his father s house whom he had 
left on the sea coast and the rest of the people of his 
land, from Bit-Yakin in the midst of the marshes and 
swamps, I took as spoil. I returned, and his cities 

37 I laid waste and burned with fire. On my return, I 
seated ASSUR-NADIN-SUM my son on the throne of his 
dominion, and entrusted him with authority. In my fifth 
expedition, 

38 against the people of Tukharri, whose abode like nests of 
birds upon the rugged mountain tops over Nipur was 
established, but who had not submitted to my yoke. 

39 I got ready my chariots at the foot of Nipur, and with 

my soldiers I, like in their front with an attack 

that turned not back ; hollows, streams, mountain crags, 
in a palanquin I passed over 

1 Merodach Baladan. This name may also be written Marduk Bel- 
Adon, and is obviously Semitic. 



64 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

40 a place that was impracticable for the palanquin I passed 

over on foot * to a place where my knees had 

rest : the sheep, the cattle, I collected ; waters 

41 nauseous (to quench) my thirst I drank: by crags and 
forests I reached them, and beneath them I took up my 
position : their cities I captured and plundered, 

42 laid waste, razed and burned with fire : I again faced 
round and took the road towards MANIYA, King of Ukki, 
who had not submitted to me : rugged paths, such as 
never before (I had seen), mountains 

43 difficult (of access) in their midst, where no Prince 
before me had ever been I traversed on foot : at the foot 
of Anara and Asku, powerful countries, I caused my 
chariots to halt : 

44 I seated in my splendid palanquin, with my men of war 
painfully climbed up crags and broken mountains . . . . 

45 He, MANIYA heard of the approach of my army, and 
evacuated Asku his royal city, and fled to a distance. I 
went up 

46 to the interior of his palace ; his bullion, his stores of 
untold number, I plundered. His vast treasure : his city I 
laid waste, razed and burned with fire ; and took possession 
of like a heap of corn. 

1 Lacunae. 



A PRAYER AND A VISION. 

FROM THE ANNALS OF ASSURBANIPAL, KING OF ASSYRIA. 



TRANSLATED BY 

H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 



HP HE passage of which the following is a translation 
forms an episode in the great war of Assurbanipal 
against the Elamites. The original text is given in 
the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vol. III. 
pi. 32, and in the late Mr. George Smith s Annals of 
Assurbanipal, p. 119-126. This translation was first 
published in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical 
Archceology, Vol. I., p. 346. 

In this poetic narrative Ishtar is not the goddess of 
love and beauty, but the goddess of war, Bellona of 
the Latins, Enyo of the Greeks. Under the name of 
Anaitis or Anahid the goddess was greatly wor 
shipped at Comana in Cappadocia ; and also in Pontus 
and Armenia. At Comana she had a splendid 

VOL. VII. 6 



66 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

temple, served by a college of priests and more than 
six thousand hierodouli or temple-servants. Her statue 
was of solid gold : her high priest was second only 
to the king in rank. 

Strabo calls this goddess Enyo, and Berosus makes 
her the same with Aphrodite or Venus. The inscrip 
tions of Artaxerxes discovered at Susa call her 
Anahid, which was the Persian name of the planet 
Venus. 2 

The promises which the goddess Ishtar made to the 
King in this vision of the month Ab were fulfilled. 
In the following month (Elul) Assurbanipal took the 
field against Tiumman, and his army speedily achieved 
a brilliant victory. Tiumman was slain, and his head 
was sent to Nineveh. There is a bas-relief in the 
British Museum representing a man driving a rapid 
car, and holding in his hand the head of a warrior, 
with this inscription, Kakkadu Tiumman, " The head 
of Tiumman." 

1 Pliny Hist. Nat., Vol. II., p. 619, Harduin. 
3 Silvestre de Sacy. 



6 7 



A PRAYER AND A VISION. 

I. 

In the month Ab, the month of the heliacal rising of 
Sagittarius, in the festival of the great Queen (ISHTAR) 
daughter of BEL, I was staying at Arbela, the city most be 
loved by her, to be present at her high worship. There they 
brought me news of the invasion of the Elamite, who was 
coming against the will of the gods. 

Thus : TIUMMAN has said solemnly, and ISHTAR has re 
peated to us the tenor of his words : thus : " I will not pour 
out another libation until I shall have gone and fought with 
him." 

Concerning this threat which TIUMMAN had spoken, I 
prayed to the great ISHTAR. I approached to her presence, 
I bowed down at her feet, I besought her divinity to come 
and save me. Thus : O goddess of Arbela, I am ASSUR- 
BANIPAL King of Assyria, the creature of thy hands, (chosen 
by thee and) thy father (ASSUR) to restore the temples of 
Assyria and to complete the holy cities of Akkad. I have 
sought to honour thee, and I have gone to worship thee. 

But he TIUMMAN King of Elam who never worships the 

gods 

[Here some words are lost.] 

O thou Queen of queens, Goddess of war, Lady of battles, 
Queen of the gods, who in the presence of ASSUR thy father 
speakest always in my favour, causing the hearts of ASSUR 

and MARDUK to love me x Lo ! now, TIUMMAN 

King of Elam who has sinned against ASSUR thy father, and 

has scorned the divinity of MARDUK thy brother, while I 

ASSURBANIPAL have been rejoicing their hearts. He has 

1 Lacunae. 



68 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

collected his soldiers, amassed his army, and has drawn his 
sword to invade Assyria. O thou archer of the gods, come 

like a in the midst of the battle, destroy him, and 

crush him with a fiery bolt from heaven ! 

ISHTAR heard my prayer. Fear not ! she replied, and 
caused my heart to rejoice. According to thy prayer thy 
eyes shall see the judgment. For I will have mercy on 
thee ! 

II. 

In the night-time of that night in which I had prayed to 
her, a certain seer lay down and had a dream. In the midst 
of the night ISHTAR appeared to him, and he related the 
vision to me, thus : ISHTAR who dwells in Arbela came unto 
me begirt right and left with flames, holding her bow in her 
hand, and riding in her open chariot as if going to the 
battle. And thou didst stand before her. She addressed 
thee as a mother would her child. She smiled upon thee, 
she ISHTAR, the highest of the gods, and gave thee a com 
mand. Thus : Take (this bow) she said, to go to battle 
with ! Wherever thy camp shall stand, I will come to it. 

Then thou didst say to her : thus : O Queen of the 
goddesses, wherever thou goest let me go with thee ! Then 
she made answer to thee : thus : I will protect thee ! and I 
will march with thee at the time of the feast of Nebo. 
Meanwhile eat food, drink wine, make music, and glorify 
my divinity, until I shall come and this vision shall be 
fulfilled. 
[Henceforward the seer appears to speak in his own person.] 

Thy heart s desire shall be accomplished. Thy face shall 
not grow pale with fear : thy feet shall not be arrested : 
thou shalt not even scratch thy skin in the battle. In her 
benevolence she defends thee, and she is wrath with all thy 
foes. Before her a fire is blown fiercely, to destroy thy 

enemies. 

1 Lacuna. 



6 9 



SENKEREH 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR. 



TRANSLATED BY 

H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 



"THIS text is inscribed on the cylinders which were 
found at Senkereh in the ruins of the temple of the 
Sun, which are now in the British Museum. 

The original text of this inscription was published 
in Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vol. L, 
pi. 51. 

The inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar relate chiefly 
to the repairs of temples, which are often given at 
great length. 



70 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

If we possessed a single historical inscription of 
that monarch, it could not fail to cast a strong light 
on Babylonian history, and perhaps on that of the 
Jews also. But hitherto the researches of our explorers 
have been unsuccessful in finding any annals or civil 
records of his reign, unconnected with the public 
worship of the temples. 



SENKEREH 
INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR. 



COLUMN I. 

1 NEBUCHADNEZZAR King of Babylon 

2 the monarch devout and pious 

3 worshipper of the Lord of Lords l 

4 restorer of the temples of SAGGATHU and ZIDA 

5 the noble son of NABOPOLASSAR 

6 King of Babylon, I am he. 

7 When the great Lord MARDUK 

8 the renowned Chief of the gods 

9 this land and people 

10 gave unto my rule, 

1 1 at that time the temple of Tara 

1 2 which is the temple of the SUN at Senkereh 

13 from extreme old age 

14 had mouldered into ruin : 

15 its interior had fallen, and lay scattered about : 

1 6 its figures 3 were no longer visible. 

1 7 And during my reign the great Lord MARDUK 

18 that temple 

19 shook with an earthquake. 

20 Towards all the four quarters of the heavens it was 
thrown down 

2 1 the earth of the interior had been dug up 

22 in looking for the figures. 

23 Then me NEBUCHADNEZZAR King of Babylon 

24 his chief worshipper 

25 to restore that temple 

1 The god Marduk. 2 Senkereh is the modern name of the city. 

3 Idols, or symbolic figures. 



72 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



COLUMN II. 

1 greatly he commanded me. 

2 Of its ancient platform 

3 I made a repair. 2 

4 On its ancient platform 

5 fine earth I broke small, 

6 and flat bricks I placed thereon. 

7 Then the temple of Tara, a noble temple, 

8 the dwelling of the SUN my Lord 

9 for the SUN dwelling in Tara 

10 which is within the city of Senkereh, 

1 1 the great Lord, my Lord, I built. 

1 2 O SUN ! great Lord ! 

13 into the temple of Tara, thy divine dwellingplace 

14 in joy and gladness 

15 when thou shalt enter 

1 6 the pious works of my hands 

1 7 regard with pleasure ! 

1 8 and a life of prolonged days 

19 a firm throne 

20 a long reign 

2 1 may thy lips proclaim for me ! 

22 and may the gates and doors, and halls, and apartments 

23 of the temple of Tara 

24 which I have built 

25 with no sparing of expense 

26 remain recorded in thy book ! 3 

1 Or foundation of the old temple. 2 Akhit. 

3 The good deeds of the Babylonians were recorded in heaven. 



73 



THE BIRS-NIMRUD 



INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR. 



TRANSLATED BY 

H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 



"THIS text was first published in the Cuneiform 
Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vol. L, pi. 51, from 
the cylinders found at the corners of the third stage 
of the temple of the Seven Spheres at Birs-Nimrud 
(anciently Borsippa), and now deposited in the British 
Museum. 

It was first translated by Sir Henry Rawlinson, 
in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XVIL, 
and soon afterwards in Vol. XVIII., p. 35, published 
in 1860, I added various remarks upon it. I have 



74 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

now revised my translation and made a few emen 
dations. 



The ruins of the Birs-Nimrud still rise 153 feet 
above the level of the plain. It appears from the 
researches carried on by Sir H. Rawlinson in the 
year 1854 that it was originally a building in seven 
receding stages, which were coloured so as to re 
present the seven planetary spheres, according to the 
tints regarded by the Sabaeans as appropriate to each. 
See Rawlinson s Herodotus, Vol. II., p. 583. 



75 



THE BIRS-NIMRUD 
INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR. 



COLUMN I. 

1 NEBUCHADNEZZAR King of Babylon 

2 the noble King, proclaimed to you by the will of MAR- 
DUK : 

3 the great high priest, beloved by NEBO : 

4 the wise Mage who unto the doctrines of the gods 

5 raised his intelligence : 

6 the high priest ever active in adorning the temple of 
SAGGATHU 

7 and the temple of ZIDA : 

8 the eldest son of NABOPOLASSAR 

9 King of Babylon, I am he. 

10 When MARDUK the great Lord 

1 1 had created me a King 

12 he commanded me to complete his holy buildings. 

13 NEBO who bestows the thrones of heaven and earth 

14 placed the sceptre of justice in my hand, 

1 5 the temple of SAGGATHU, the great temple of heaven and 
earth 

1 6 the dwelling of MARDUK Lord of the gods ; 

1 7 the temple of KUA, the (shrine) of his Lordship 

1 8 with shining gold I splendidly adorned. 

1 9 The temple of ZIDA I built anew. 

20 With silver, gold, and precious stones 

21 mesukan wood and cedar 

22 I completed its roof. 

23 The temple of the Planet, which is the tower of Babylon 

24 I built, and I finished it. 



7 6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

25 With slabs of precious zamat 1 stone 

26 I finished its summit. 

27 The temple of the Seven Planets, which is the tower of 
Borsippa 

28 which former Kings had built 

29 and raised it to the height of forty-two cubits, 

30 but had not finished its upper part 

3 1 from extreme old age had rotted away. 

32 The water springs beneath it had not been kept in order : 



The zamat stone appears generally to have been the onyx (Hebrew 
: but when large slabs of it are said to be used, it was probably 
alabaster. The onyx pavements of the Romans were almost certainly 
alabaster; vide the line in Martial: 

" Calcatusque tuo sub pede lucet onyx." 



THE BIRS-NIMRUD INSCRIPTION. 77 



COLUMN II. 

1 the rain and the tempest 

2 had ruined its buildings : 

3 the slabs that covered it had fallen off. 

4 The bricks of its wall lay scattered in heaps. 

5 To repair it, the great Lord MARDUK 

6 incited my heart. 

7 Its site had not been disturbed : T its timin 2 had not 
been destroyed. 

8 In a fortunate month, and on a lucky day 

9 the bricks of its wall, and the slabs that covered it 

10 I collected the finest of them 

11 and I rebuilt the ruins firmly. 

12 Inscriptions written in my name 

13 I placed in the finest apartments 

14 and so of rebuilding (the ruin) 

1 5 and of completing the upper part, I made an end. 

1 6 O NEBO ! noble son, exalted (messenger) 

1 7 and beloved offspring, of MARDUK ! 

1 8 my works of piety 

19 behold joyfully ! 

20 A long life, abundant offspring, 

21 a firm throne, a prolonged reign, the subjection of all 
rebels 

22 the conquest of my enemies land, grant to me as a re 
compense ! 

23 By thy noble favour, O founder of the (fabric) 

24 of heaven and earth, 

25 may my days be blessed with vigorous children. 

1 I.e., by an earthquake. 

2 Platform containing the dedication cylinders. 



7 8 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

26 In the presence of MARDUK King of heaven and earth 

27 thy father, present these my works ! 

28 and may my fortunate name 

29 NEBUCHADNEZZAR 

30 or, the "Heaven-adoring King" 1 

31 dwell continually in thy mouth ! 



1 This seems to be a fancy name, assumed by Nebuchadnezzar, to 
express his great zeal in building temples and worshipping the gods. 



79 



SUSIAN TEXTS. 



TRANSLATED BY 

DR. JULIUS OPPERT. 



J HEREWITH lay before the learned public the 
translation of the texts written in the language of 
Susa, which have been only explained after a long 
study of the Median documents, written in an idiom 
of the same family as the tongue of Susa. 

These documents together with others were kindly 
handed over to me twenty years ago by my late friend 
William Kenneth Loftus. From his copies, they 
have been partly published by M. F. Lenormant, in 
his Choir de Textes Cuneiformes inediis ou incomplete- 
ment publics, and I presented the first translation to 
the Paris Congress of Orientalists, in 1873, with a 
commentary justifying the version. Since that time, 



8o RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

the Rev. A. H. Sayce has commented on some 
expressions contained in these texts in the Transac 
tions of tJie Society of Biblical Archeology, Vol. III., 
but they have never been, until now completely, 
translated. 

This first attempt to render intelligible a language 
hitherto entirely unknown, and where no bilingual text 
supports the student in his difficult task, may of course 
be subject to emendation by future scholars, disposing 
of more materials than I did ; nevertheless, I think, 
that the general sense has been exactly made out. 



8i 



SUSIAN TEXTS. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE. 

CONTEMPORANEOUS WITH SARGON, B.C. yiO. 

I AM SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, son of HALLUDUS, the Susian 
King, who reigns over the plains of Susiana. 

I have constructed this house in bricks, and I never 
sullied the name of the Susian King in the service of the 
gods. 

This monument may exist, free from the dishonour of the 
Susian King, servant of the gods. 



GREAT INSCRIPTION OF SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE. 

(PARTLY DESTROYED, PARTLY UNINTELLIGIBLE.) 

I am SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, the son of HALLUDUS, the 
Susian King, the mighty King, the King who reigns over 
the plains of Susiana. 

Susian King, I have meditated, the 365 days of the year, 
on the future life. 

I occupied this palace and the family s house, the palace 
of the land of rivers, to govern the people of Susa, 1 and I 

1 The name of this town is Susun, and signifies " lily." The country is 
named Susunqu. 

VOL. VII. 7 



82 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

hold it for myself alone, the Susian King, the servant of the 
gods. 

I am SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, son of HALLUDUS, the Susian 
King, the mighty King, who reigns on the plains of Susiana. 

The subdued people which the foregoing Kings had 
governed, and whatever any one of them (has acquired), 
SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, the Susian King, will fortify it, and 
govern it without dishonour. 

[Here follow 12 lines which have not yet been made out] 

The former Kings occupied the mountains of Habardi 1 
and they occupied also the Rivers land, the realm of 
AiTARKiTTAH, 2 and they put in the palace of Susa the siege 
of the Susian King. 

I SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, have received the royalty of the 
Susian land, which is the first of the earth, and as long as I 
have inhabited Susa, the land of the earth, and the centre of 
all mankind, I have received a great deal of tributes during 
numerous years. 



INSCRIPTION OF KUDUR-NAKHUNTE, 

SON OF SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE. 
CONTEMPORANEOUS TO SENNACHERIB, B.C. 690. 

I am KUDUR-NAKHUNTE, the mighty Lord, the Emperor, 
the Susian King, who reigns in the plains of Susiana. 

I have demolished the ancient temple of the god LAGA- 
MAR, 3 I have consecrated a new temple, and I have founded 
a palace for the Susian King, the servant of the gods. 

1 This is the name under which the whole land of Susiana occurs in the 
Median texts. 

2 A quite unknown proper name. 

3 This god s name occurs in the name of the Biblical Kedorlaomer, in 
Susian Kugurlagamar. 



SUSIAN TEXTS. 83 

It has been constructed, and may the people always live 
in it. 



TEXT OF TARHAK OR SILHAK, 

BROTHER OF THE PRECEDING. 

I am SILHAK, the Susian King, son of SUTRUK-NAKHUNTE, 
the mighty Lord, the Emperor, the Susian King, who . . . . 

I founded on the hill a wall, and have destroyed the old, 
and I have founded a house in the enclosure, in bricks, and 
I have consecrated it to the glory of the Susian King, slave 
of the gods. 

May this house of the Susian King exist always, without 
dishonour, and may I never deny the name of the divinities ! 



TEXT OF KING UNDAS-ARMAN. 2 

I am UNDAS-ARMAN, son of HUMBABBAK-MASNAGI, who 
reigns over the plains of Susiana. 

The god NAKHUNTE, the Chief of the gods, will 

protect the palace and will grant to him all blessings. 

I have destroyed entirely the temple Sata, the ancient 
temple, the high spot of the Uxians, the work of LASIH- 
NAKHUNTE ; in the place of the temple Sata, there have 
been made new temples. 

1 Lacunae. 

2 This king- Undas-Arman must be one of the latest kings of Susiana, 
shortly before the submission of the Elamite power by the Persians. The 
name signifies " God Arman sees." In Median umde has the meaning of 
"eye." Arman is according to the Assyrian syllabaries, the name of the 
god of Susa. In the texts of Assurbanhabal, there is to be found a god 
Ammankasimas whose name is composed of this deity s. A quite different 
term is umman, occurring in many Susian proper names, the meaning of 
which is "house." It is possible, that Umman Amman "house of the god 
Amman," was corrupted by the Greeks to Memnonian, the great edifice of 
Susa. Amman may be an altered form for Arman. 



84 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

By the favour of NAKHUNTE, may these temples exist for 
ever, during long times, for all future times. 

And I myself, I well exercised the royalty: may I rejoice 
in a long life. 1 

1 There are existing several other fragments of Susian texts, but they 
are too mutilated to be satisfactorily explained. 



THE MEDIAN VERSION OF 

THE BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION 
OF DARIUS HYSTASPES. 



TRANSLATED BY 

DR. JULIUS OPPERT. 



scientific world is greatly indebted to the 
manly exertions and indefatigable labours of Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, who copied, at the danger of his 
life, the three texts of Behistun, and who explained, 
in so masterly a manner, the Persian original and the 
Assyrian version. 1 The Median text has been given 
after Sir Henry Rawlinson s casts by Norris in his 
highly valuable work entitled, The Scythic Version 
of the Behistun Inscription. 

MM. Westergaard, de Saulcy, and Holtzmann did 
not explain the Behistun, but worked especially on the 

1 See Records of the Past, Vol. I., p. 107. 



86 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Persepolitan documents. M. Mordtmann endeavoured 
to decipher these texts, but with scarcely more 
success than his predecessor Norris. 

I occupied myself some twenty years with the 
Median version, and I believe that I have made 
out the sense of many difficult passages in a definite 
way. The Median version being the most complete 
of the three documents, several of the most original 
parts of the text have now been satisfactorily 
explained. 

I have also added some notes, to justify the exact 
ness of the translation, and to point out some facts 
which had not been made known before. 



MEDIAN TEXT OF 
THE BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 



COLUMN I. 

1 I AM DARIUS, the great King, the King of Kings, the 
King of the Persians, the King of the Lords, the son of 
HYSTASPES, the grandson of ARSAMES, the Achaemenian. 

2 And DARIUS the King says : My father is HYSTASPES, 
and the father of HYSTASPES father was ARSAMES, and 
ARSAMES father was ARIARAMNES, and ARIARAMNES 
father was TEISPES, and TEISPES father was ACHAE- 

MENES. 1 

3 And DARIUS the King says : On that account we called 
ourselves Achaemenian of race : from ancient times we 
have been mighty, from ancient times we have been 
Kings. 

1 Achaemenes was the last king independent of Persia, and therefore the 
kings after Cyrus declared that they were his descendants. He was the 
sixth of his race. It is highly probable that Achaemenes was superseded by 
Phraortes, the Median king (657-635), as it was he who first subdued the 
Persians; he was the great grandfather of Cyrus. As Cyrus was born 
599 B.C., the chronology agrees perfectly well. 

There is the pedigree of the race. 

Five unknown kings. 



Achaemenes, king 
1 
Teispes 


Cambyses 
Cyrus, king 
Cambyses, king 




1 
Ariaramnes 

Arsames 
Hystaspes 
Darius, king 



88 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

4 And DARIUS the King says : Eight Kings of my race 
have before me held the kingdom. I am the ninth, who 
hold the kingdom. Twice * we have been Kings. 

5 And DARIUS the King says : By the grace of ORMAZD I 
hold the kingdom : ORMAZD granted me the kingdom. 

6 And DARIUS the King says : These are the countries 
which called themselves mine : by the grace of ORMAZD 
I held their kingdoms : Persia and the Amardes (Susians), 2 
and the Babylonians, and the Assyrians, and the Arabs, 
and the Egyptians, and the maritime people, and the 
Sapardes, 3 and the lonians, and the Medes, and the 
Armenians, and the Cappadocians, and the Parthians, 
and the Sarangians, and the Arians, and the Choras- 
mians, and Bactria, and the Sogdians, and the Paropa- 
misus, 4 and the Saces, and Sattagydia, and Arachosia, in 
all 23 provinces. 

7 And DARIUS the King says : These are the provinces 
which called themselves mine. By the grace of ORMAZD, 
to me they made subjection, brought tribute to me, what 
was ordered by me unto them in the night time as well as 
in the day time, that they executed. 

8 And DARIUS the King says : In these provinces, the 
man who was a friend, 5 I cherished him, the man who was 
an enemy, I punished him thoroughly. By the grace of 
ORMAZD, in these lands, my law was observed : what was 
ordered unto them by me, that they executed. 

9 And DARIUS the King says : ORMAZD gave to me this 

1 Twice, at two different epochs, once before Achaemenes, the second 
time beginning" with Cyrus. The Persian duvitutaranam cannot be explained 
otherwise. Teispes, Ariaramnes, Arsames, Hystaspes, have never been 
kings. 

2 Habirdip is the name of the Susians, the Persian Uvdza, Khouz, the 
Semitic Elam. Norris has already compared the name of A^apSoi, in Strabo. 

3 Lycians. The word Sapard, Sepharad of Obadiah, has been conserved 
also in the Greek Sarpedon. 

4 Paropamisus replaces the Gandara of the Persian. 

5 The Persian text has daustu, badly read until now agata. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 89 

kingdom, and ORMAZD was my helper until I gained this 
kingdom, and by the grace of ORMAZD I possessed this 
kingdom. 

10 And DARIUS the King says: This is, what I did, by the 
grace of ORMAZD, when I gained the kingdom : The 
named CAMBYSES, son of CYRUS, was king here before 
me. This CAMBYSES had a brother, named SMERDIS 
(BARDIYA), they had the same mother and the same 
father. Afterwards, this CAMBYSES killed SMERDIS. 
When CAMBYSES killed SMERDIS, the people did not 
know, that SMERDIS was killed. Then CAMBYSES went to 
Egypt. The people became bad, and many falsehoods 
grew up in the provinces, as well in Persia, as in Media, 
as in the other lands. And then a man, a Magian, named 
GOMATES, from Pasargada, 1 near the mount named Ara- 
kadris, there he arose. On the i4th day of the month 
Viyakhna, 2 thus he arose : To the people he told lies, and 

1 Pasargada, in Persian Paisiyauvrula, literally, Valley of Sources, a spot 
near Darabdjerd, in the South-east of Farsistan, where exist till now the 
ruins of the fortress which enclosed the tomb of Cyrus. I explained myself 
on this question in the Journal Asiatique, 1872, T. xix., p. 548. Pesiachada 
is not accompanied by the word hise, " named," it was therefore a very 
well known place. 

Murghabwith its tomb cannot be possibly the Pasargada of the ancients, 
and the monument of Murghab is not the tomb of Cyrus. It is on the 
same river as Persepolis, on the Araxes, while Pasargada was situated on 
the river Cyrus, which goes into the Persian Gulf. 

Moreover, the monument now seen at Murghab, and named " Throne of 
the Mother of Suleiman," is surely the tomb of a woman. No archaeolo 
gist can be uncertain on this point, as the same difference, now observed 
in the East, between the flat or round covers of men s sepulchres, and the 
covers of female tombs in form of a gable-roof, is to be found in the royal 
tombs of Persepolis. The modern inhabitants of Persia have not been 
mistaken on that subject. But the construction of the Murghab monu 
ments is due to Cyrus, whose inscriptions exist there; it was the ancient 
Marrhasion. I therefore consider it as almost certain that the monument, 
often erroneously styled the tomb of Cyrus, althoug-h already Lassen 
suggested judicious remarks against that opinion, is in fact the sepulchre 
of Kassandana, the beloved wife of Cyrus, mother of Cambyses. Compare 
Her. II. 

2 The month of Viyakhna is the Assyrian Adar, March. On the suppo 
sition, that the Persians had a solar year, commencing with the vernal 
equinox, falling at the epoch of Darius, March 22 Gregorian, March 23 



90 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

said : " I am SMERDIS, the son of CYRUS, the brother of 
CAMBYSES." Then all the people revolted from CAM 
BYSES, went over to him, and the Persians, and the 
Medes, and the other nations. He seized the kingdom. 
On the Qth day of the month Garmapada 1 he took the 
royalty from CAMBYSES. Then CAMBYSES 2 died, killing 
himself. 

1 1 And DARIUS the King says : Of this my kingdom the 
Magian GOMATES had deprived CAMBYSES, this kingdom 
had belonged to our race since the most ancient times. 
Now, GOMATES the Magian, deprived CAMBYSES as 
well of the Persians, as of the Medians, as of the other 
nations, he did according to his own will, and seized the 
royalty over them. 

1 2 And DARIUS the King says : There was neither a man in 
Persia, nor a Median, nor any one of our race who would 
have dispossessed GOMATES the Magian of the kingdom. 
The people feared him utterly. He killed many people 
who had known the former SMERDIS. He killed many 
persons for the following reason, thinking : " May they 
not acknowledge me, that I am not SMERDIS, son of 
CYRUS ? " And nobody dared to say about GOMATES 
the Magian, any thing whatever, until I came. And I 
prayed to ORMAZD. ORMAZD was my helper. By the 
grace of ORMAZD, on the loth day of the month of 
Bagayadis, 3 then accompanied by a few men, I killed 

Julian, i4th of the Viyakhna would be the 6th or the I2th of March, 522, 
or 9,479, in adding- 10,000 years to the Christian era. I have adopted this 
way of computation in order to prevent the inconvenience of the negative 
numbers. 

1 If Garmapada is August as it is probable, the loth Garmapada would 
coincide with the end of July. 

2 Cambyses killed himself. A suicide is evidently in the thought of 
Darius, and by no means an accident. His mother was Kassandana, 
Persian Kaiandana, with the swan s neck, de kazanda, swan. 

3 Bagayadis must be the Nisan ; the Assyrian coincidence is lost. As 
Garnapada, " the time of the heat," must be July August, or Ab, the 
Magian reigned just seven months, as says Herodotus, who adds many 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 91 

GOMATES the Magian, and with him the men who were 
his principal adherents. There is a fortress, named 
Sikhyuvatis, 1 in the country called Nisaea, in Media ; 
there I killed him, I dispossessed him of the royalty, by 
the grace of ORMAZD, I had the kingly power, ORMAZD 
gave to me the royalty. 

13 And DARIUS the King says : The kingdom which had 
been robbed from our race, I restored it. I put again in 
its place. As it had been before me, thus I did. I re 
established the temples of the gods which GOMATES the 
Magian had destroyed, and I reinstituted, in favour of 
the people, the calendar and the holy language, and 
I gave back to the families what GOMATES the Magian 
had taken away. And I replaced (the) people in their 
ancient state, as well the Persians, as the Medians, as 
the other nations, just as they had been before. I restored 

details, more or less credible. But the first arising- of the Magian amounts 
still until midst of March, 14 Viyakhna, 522 B.C. 9,479. 

In taking as a base the now existing commencement of the Persian year, 
at the spring s equinox, we would have for the dates : 

First revolt of the Magian . . 4 March 522 ; 9,479 
Real accession to the royal power . i August 522 ; 9,479 
Death of the Magian ... 2 April 521 : 9,480 
1 The name of the spot where the Magian was killed, is Cikhyuvatis 
not Cikhthwatis. The character y has been taken for th. Here the state- 
men t of Darius proves a minor error of Herodotus, who says that the 
Pseudo-Smerdis was killed at Susa. But the Father of History is right, in 
speaking of the love that all people, except the Persian, had towards the 
Magian, who had retired to Media. 

The revolt of the first Pseudo-Smerdis was not only the rebellion of an in 
dignant impostor, who took only the name of Smerdis for his proper purposes. 
It vvas an attempt to restore the ancient Median dynasty and to abate the 
faith of Zoroaster, reigning since the accession of Cyrus, 560. The 
Magian changed the calendar, I think (gaitha the world) and the language 
maniya, or the faith, which Darius restored " for the sake of the people " 
(Persian karahyu abicaris, Median Dassumunna nutas). Darius restored 
the temples of the gods which Gomates had destroyed. It was therefore a 
political and religious revolution. 

There is a difficulty which nobody, I think, suggested. How is it possible 
that the son Smerdis should have abolished all that his father, Cyrus, had 
established ? At least, the Magian borrowed the name of the son of Cyrus. 
It was therefore only a measure to take possession of the kingly power 
under a pretext, and to throw off the mask, when he believed that he could 
do so without any danger. 



92 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

what had been robbed. By the grace of ORMAZD, thus I 
did ; I made great efforts, until I established again our 
house in its state, as it had been before ; and thus I made 
my efforts, by the grace of ORMAZD, as if GOMATES the 
Magian had never dispossessed our family. 

14 And DARIUS the King says : This had been done by 
me, after I seized the kingdom. 

15 And DARIUS the King says : When I killed GOMATES 
the Magian, then a Susian, named ASSINA, son of UM- 
BADARANMA, rose in Susiana and said : " I have the 
kingdom over the Susians." Then the Susians revolted 
from me and went over to this ASSINA, and he had the 
kingdom over the Susians. And also a man, named 
NmiNTABEL, 2 a Babylonian, son of AINAIRI, he arose in 
Babylon, and spoke thus to the people, lying : " I am 
NEBUCHADNEZZAR, son of NABONIDUS." Then all the 
people of the Babylonians went over to this NIDINTABEL. 
Then the Babylonians made defection, and he seized the 
kingly power over the Babylonians. 

1 6 And DARIUS the King says : Then I sent an ambassa 
dor to the Susians. This ASSINA was taken, bound and 
brought to me : then I killed him. 

1 7 And DARIUS the King says : Then I marched against 
Babylon, against this NIDINTABEL, who said : " I am 
NEBUCHADNEZZAR." The army of this NIDINTABEL was 



1 The name of the man is in Babylonian Asina, and is Aryanized to 
Athrina; his father called himself Upadar(an)ma in Persian, in Median 
Hum-badaranma; this is also the genuine form, and in the inscriptions of 
Assurbanhabal occurs the Susian name Umbadara. 

2 Nidintabel was, according to Darius, the real name of the false 
Nebuchadnezzar, second son of Nabonidus. The first son, Belshazzar 
(Belsarusar] was probably viceroy in some other part of Chaldaea, during 
the reign of Cyrus, and in the same time as his father Nabonidus. He 
was superseded by the famous Darius the Mede, who was probably a 
satrap of the Persian king. Daniel says that " he was put to govern," 
which does not seem to indicate an independent royalty. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 93 

ranged on the river, named Tigris. 1 It occupied the 
banks of the Tigris, and was massed on ships. Then my 
army was divided into small groups. The one I put on 
camels, the other I made ride on horseback. 2 ORMAZD 
brought help to me, by the grace of ORMAZD we crossed 
the Tigris. There I killed the army of this NIDINTABEL. 
On the 26th day of the month Athriyadiya, then it was 
that we fought the battle, then I killed a great quantity 
of people. 

1 8 And DARIUS the King says : Then I went to Babylon. 
I had not yet arrived under (the walls) of Babylon, when, 
at the town named Zazana, on the bank of the Euphrates, 3 
NIDINTABEL who said : " I am NEBUCHADNEZZAR " went 
against me, with his army, in order to fight a battle. 
ORMAZD brought help to me, by the grace of ORMAZD I 
destroyed the army of this NIDINTABEL. It was on the 
second day of the month of Anamaka that we delivered 
thus the battle. I killed a great deal of the army of this 
NIDINTABEL, and I made them fly into the river ; in this 
river they were drowned. 

19 And DARIUS the King says : Then NIDINTABEL fled 
with a few horsemen and reached Babylon. Then I 

1 Remark the expression, the river named Tigris, which is neither in the 
Persian, nor in the Assyrian text, and which denotes that the spot where 
the language was spoken was far away from the stream. 

2 The Median text, as in many other instances, gives the real sense of 
the Persian original, which was misunderstood equally by the magnificent, 
but unprogressive, work of Kossowiz. The Persian has, aniyam usalarim 
akunavam, aniyakyd a$am patiyu>iayan, alium camelo-portatum feci, alii, 
equum adduxi. 

3 The name of the Tigris is Tigra, and that of the Euphrates Ufirato, 
the Persian Ufratu. The spot where Darius crossed the Tigris must be 
between Mossul and Bagdad, as he arrived from the North-east. He 
found on the Tigris the Babylonian troops, and it is very probable that he 
turned them, and crossed the river far from the positions of Nidintabel,whom 
he defeated on the Mesopotamian side. From thence he marched through 
Mesopotamia, and beat the enemies, six days afterwards, on the Euphrates. 

The battle of the Tigris took place, in anticipating the Gregorian 
calendar, iSth of December, 521 ; 9,480. The battle of Zazanna took 
place 24th of December, 521 ; 9,480. 



94 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

marched against Babylon. By the grace of ORMAZD, 
I took also Babylon, 1 as I made captive NIDINTABEL. I 
killed this NIDINTABEL in Babylon. 

1 The capture of Babylon took place only twenty months afterwards, 
which Darius does not state. But the authority of Herodotus is splendidly 
corroborated by the very dates of the Behistun inscription, which we shall 
presently prove. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 95 

COLUMN II. 

20 And DARIUS the King says : Whilst I was at Babylon, 
these provinces rebelled against me : Persia, and the 
Susians, and the Medes, and Assyria, and the Egyptians, 1 
and the Parthians, and the Margians, and Sattagydia, and 
the Saces. 

21 And DARIUS the King says : A man, named MARTI YA, 
son of IssAiNSAKRis, 3 dwelled in the town named Kugan- 
naka, in Persia. He arose among the Susians, and lied 
thus to the nations, saying : " I am IMMANNES, King of 
the Susians." And I was just friendly to the Susians, and 
the Susians feared me, seized this MARTIYA, who called 
himself their Chief, and killed him. 

22 And DARIUS the King says : A man named PHRA- 
ORTES, he arose among the Medes, lied to the people and 
said thus : " I am SATTARRITTA, S from the offspring of 
VAK-iSTARRA." 4 Then the Median people who dwelt in 
houses, rebelled against me, went over to him : he exer 
cised the kingly power over the Medians. The Persian 

1 The Median text states that the Egyptians revolted, the Persian and 
Babylonian texts are lost. The Behistun inscription in its first redaction 
does not mention this, neither the rebellion of the Sattagydes and the 
Saces. The Saces revolt only is treated in the supplementary Persian 
column. There are some Median tablets at Behistun which have never 
been copied. 

a Issainsakris is a real Susian name, which the Persians Aryanized to 
Cincikhri, which was perhaps a nick-name, and changed in order to 
ridicule it. It may mean, "seller of small things." The Susian true 
name may signify " son of value." Issan is to be found in the Susian text of 
Sutruknakhunte. 

3 The name of Sattarritta is the true Median one, and by no means an 
alteration of the Aryanization, Khsathrita, which would have been tran 
scribed in Median, Iksatrita, as Khsayarsa becomes Iksersa, Xerxes. This 
form of Sattarritta is very important, because it proves also the inde 
pendence of the Median names, and the true character of the dynasty of 
this land. 

4 Cyaxares, Assyrian Uvakistar, Persian Uvakhsalara. The Median 
words signify "lance-caster," "lance-bearer," Persian Arstilara, the 
Astibaras of Ctesias. 



96 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

and Median people, which was mine, was small. Then 
I sent an army to Media. The named HYDARNES, a 
Persian, my subject, I made him the Chief of these troops. 
I said so to them : "Go, slay the troops of the Medes, who 
do not call themselves my slaves." Then HYDARNES 
went to Media with the army. When he reached Media, 
there was a town, named Maru, in Media, there they 
fought the battle. The Chief of the Medians did not even 
resist a little, ORMAZD brought help to me, by the grace 
of ORMAZD my army slew a great number of the army of 
the rebels. It was the 271)1 day of the month of Ana- 
maka when they delivered thus the battle. Then my 
army did nothing else ; in the province named Kampanda, 
in Media, there it remained until I came to Media. 
23 DARIUS the King says : The named DADARSIS, an 
Armenian my subject, I sent him to Armenia. Thus I 
said to him : " Go, the troops of the rebels do not call 
themselves my subjects, slay them. Then DADARSIS 
inarched. When he reached Armenia, the rebels assem 
bled and marched against DADARSIS. They would deliver 
a battle. DADARSIS fought the battle with them. There 

1 Phraortes, or Sattarritta, was really king- of Media, and the Susian 
revolt took place, like all the others, while Darius " was at Babylon." 
Hydarnes defeats the army the 2yth of Anamaka, but that is evidently not 
25 days after the battle of Zazanna on the Euphrates, but only a year 
afterwards. For it would have been impossible to have the news cf the 
revolt of Media in the capital Rhages, at Babylon, in 25 days ; moreover, 
Phraortes ought to have established his royal power throughout all Media 
in this very short time. On the contrary, there was a certain interval 
during which Phraortes was uncontested king of Media. And this man 
was mighty enough, as to hold in breath three generals of Darius, because 
Hydarnes was really defeated in the battle of Kampanda. 

It would have been a very awkward victory, where the victors were 
obliged to retrograde, because Hydarnes, obliged to stay in Media, had his 
successor in Dadarsis, who had not to fight in Media, from whence the 
Persian had been expelled, but in Armenia where the Median had pro 
pelled their attack. Dadarsis after three battles fought in May and June, 
519, 9,482, was obliged to remain in Armenia. A third general of Darius, 
Omises, defeated in Assyria in December 519 B.C.; 9,482, and May 
518 B.C.; 9,483, and after these victories he was equally obliged to support 
the arrival of Darius in Media. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 97 

is a fortress, named Zuza, in Armenia, there ORMAZD 
brought help to me. By the grace of ORMAZD my army 
slew a great many of the troops of the rebels. It was the 
8th day of the month of Thuravahara, when they fought 
thus the battle. And for the second time, the rebels 
assembled and marched against DADARSIS, they would 
deliver a battle. There is a fort named Tigra, in 
Armenia, there they fought the battle. ORMAZD brought 
help to me, by the grace of ORMAZD my army slew a 
great number of the troops of the rebels ; it was the i8th 
day of the month of Thuravahara, that they fought thus 
the battle. And for the third time, the rebels assembled 
and marched against DADARSES ; they would deliver a 
battle. There is a fort, named Uhyama, in Armenia, 
there they delivered the battle. ORMAZD brought help to 
me, by the grace of ORMAZD my army slew a great num 
ber of the troops of the rebels. It was the Qth day of the 
month of Thaigarchis, when they fought the battle. And 
afterwards DADARSIS did nothing else, but waited on me, 
until I came to Media. 

24 And DARIUS the King says : The named OMISES, a 
Persian, my subject, I sent him to Armenia, and I said so 
to him : " Go, the troops of the rebels do not obey me, 
slay them." Then OMISES marched. When he reached 
Armenia, the rebels assembled and marched against 
OMISES. They would deliver a battle. There is a town, 
named Issidus in Assyria, 1 there they fought the battle. 
ORMAZD brought help to me, by the grace of ORMAZD my 
army slew a great number of the troops of the rebels. 
It was the 9th day of the month of Anamaka, when they 
fought the battle. And for the second time, the rebels 

1 I am not aware of the quotation in Assyrian monuments of Issidus. 
But why was the battle fought in Assyria ? Because, very likely, the royal 
troops, after a not-mentioned disaster in Armenia, had been pushed back 
wards to Assyria. 

VOL. VII. 8 



98 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

assembled and marched against OMISES, they would 
deliver a battle. Then in a locality, named Autiyarus, 
there they fought the battle. ORMAZD brought help to 
me, by the grace of ORMAZD my army slew a great num 
ber of the troops of the rebels. It was on the end of the 
month of Thuravahara, when they fought the battle. 
Afterwards OMISES remained in Armenia, until I went to 
Media. 

25 And DARIUS the King says : Then I left Babylon, 1 and 
went to Media. When I reached Media, there is a town, 
named Kundurrus, there arrived this PHRAORTES who 
said : " I exercise the kingly power over the Medians," in 
order to fight a battle. Then we fought the battle. 
ORMAZD brought help to me, by the grace of ORMAZD I 
slew a great number of the troops of this PHRAORTES. It 
was on the 25th day of the month of Adukanis, 2 that we 
fought the battle. Then this PHRAORTES fled with a few 
horsemen, and went to Rhagae : then I sent there my 
troops. Here he was seized and brought before me. I 
cut off his nose, his tongue and his ears, and I stung out 
his eyes. 3 He was held chained in my court. All the 
people saw him. And afterwards I put him on the cross 
at Ecbatana. And the men who had been his principal 

1 Darius left Babylon after the defeats of three of his generals. He 
put into pieces the army of Phraortes, in the month of Adukannas, 
probably the Tammuz or June-July, 518 B.C.; 9,483. He could therefore 
dispose about his person only two years and more after the battle of 
Zazanna : therefore Herodotus is quite exact in mentioning the long- siege of 
Babylon, and Darius, although he does not state this fact expressly, is un 
able to deny the consequences of his own record. 

2 Probably the Tammuz, or June-July. 

3 This atrocious treatment is only applied to two captives, both guilty 
to have revived the remembrance of the Median Dynasty, to which 
Cithrantakhma may have belonged. The translation, "I stung out his eyes," 
is proved by the Persian eakhsma, avazam, and the execution of the Median 
chiefs is related with more circumstances in the Median text. 

It is known that the name of Rhagae is accompanied in the other versions 
by the words "a country in Media," which is wanting in the Median text. 
This is one of the evidences for attributing the second system s language 
to the inhabitants of Media. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 99 

adherents, I cut off their heads in the citadel of Ecbatana, 
and I hung them up within. 

26 And DARIUS the King says : A man named CITHRA- 
TAKHMA, 1 a Sagartian, revolted against me, and spoke 
thus to the people, lying : " I exercise the kingly power, 
I descend from the race of VAK-ISTARRA." Then I dis 
patched my Persian and Median troops. A Mede, named 
TAKMASPADA, my subject, I appointed him Chief, and 
I spoke thus : " The troops of the rebels do not obey 
me, slay them utterly." Then TAKHMASPADA marched 
with the army, to fight a battle with this CITHRATAKHMA. 
ORMAZD brought help to me : by the grace of ORMAZD 
my army slew a great number of the troops of the 
rebels, and this CITHRATAKHMA was taken, and brought 
before me. I cut off his nose, and his ears, and stung 
out his eyes. He was held chained in my palace, all the 
people saw him. Afterwards I put him on the cross in 
the city named Arbela. 

27 And DARIUS the King said : This is what I did in 
Media. 

28 And DARIUS the King says : The Parthians and 
Hyrcanians revolted against me, and called themselves 
subjects of PHRAORTES. HYSTASPES my father was in 
Parthia, and the troops abandoned him and revolted. 
And then HYSTASPES went out with the army. There is 
a town, Hyspaozatis, in Parthia, there he fought a battle 
with the rebels. ORMAZD brought help to me, by the 
grace of ORMAZD the army of HYSTASPES slew a great 
number of the troops of the rebels. It was on the 22nd 
day of the month of Viyakhna, when they fought the 
battle. 

29 And DARIUS the King says : Then I sent my Persian 
army from Rhagae to HYSTASPES. When these troops 

1 Tritantaechmes. 



100 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

reached HYSTASPES, HYSTASPES went out accompanied 
by these troops. There is a town, named Patigrabbana 
in Parthia, there they fought the battle. ORMAZD brought 
help to me, by the grace of ORMAZD the army of HY 
STASPES slew a great number of the troops of the rebels. 
It was on the ist day of the month of Garnapada, 1 that 
they fought the battle. 

30 And DARIUS the King says : Afterward the province 
remained mine. This is what I did in Parthia. 

3 1 And DARIUS the King says : The province named 
Margiana, revolted against me. A man, named PHRAATES,* 
they took him for their King. Then I sent as messenger 
to a man, named DADARSES, a Persian, my subject, who 
had the satrapy of Bactria, and I said : " Go, the people 
of the rebels do not obey to me, slay them utterly." 
Then DADARSES went with the army. The Margians 
fought a battle against him. ORMAZD brought help to 
me, by the grace of ORMAZD . my army slew a great 
number of the troops of the rebels. It was on the 23rd 
day of Athriyadiya, when we fought the battle. 

3 2 And DARIUS the King says : Afterwards the land 
remained mine. This is what I did in Bactria. 

1 The Parthian revolt must have lasted more than one year. At the 
battle of Vispauatis Phraortes existed still, it was therefore not later than 
March, B.C. 518 ; 9,483. The battle of Patigrabbana took place only when 
Darius had taken Rhages, as he sent from this town auxiliaries to his father. 
Now this could not be before the 25th of Avakanas (July), when he gained 
the battle of Kundarus. The date of the battle of Patigrabbana is the ist 
Garnapada, six days after the former date; the Garnapada of the battle is 
consequently the end of July, B.C. 517; 9,484. Darius remained therefore 
a long time at Rhagae, in order to complete the submission of Media. 

* Frada, modern Ferhad. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. IOI 



COLUMN III. 

33 And DARIUS the King says : There was a man, named 
OEOSDATES,* who dwelt in the town named Tarava, in 
(the district) of lutia, in Persia. He arose for the 
second time in Persia, speaking to the people, and says : 
"I am SMERDIS, the son of CYRUS." Then the Persian 
people, who lived in houses, and who returned from the 
plains, made defection from me, went over to him ; he 
exercised the kingly power in Persia. 

34 And DARIUS the King says : And the people who were 
not dwelling in houses, had not revolted against me. 
These, and the Persians and Medians, many who were 
mine, I dispatched them. A Persian, named ARTA- 
BARDIYA, my subject, I appointed him to be their Chief. 
And another Persian army went to Media after me. Then 
ARTABARDIYA with his army, marched against Persia. 
When he arrived in Persia at a place, named Rakha in 
Persia, there this OEOSDATES who said : " I am SMERDIS," 
went against ARTABARDIYA, in order to fight a battle. 
And then they fought the battle. ORMAZD brought help 
to me, by the grace of ORMAZD my army slew a great 

1 The second Pseudo-Smerdis called himself Vahyazdata, " Created by 
Vahyaz," i.e. Ormazd : he has the same name as the tenth son of Haman, in 
the book of Esther, Vizata. He dwelt in Tarava, gen. Taravana, which is the 
Tarun of our days, in Kerman or Laristan. All the battles were fought in 
this country. Paraga is certainly the modern Forg. In this spot was also 
Pasargada, Paisiyauvada, whereto fled the vanquished rebel, some days 
from Forg, near Darabdjard. The impostor was killed in Uvadaicaya, as 
the Persian text has, the Audedj of our days. 

The Median word for house is Ummani,and that gives the signification 
of the Susian word, which occurs so very often in the Susian texts. The 
Persian inhabitants seem to have been with Darius. 

The 6th of Garnapada, date of the battle of Forg, can only be the 28th 
of July, 517 B.C.; 9,4^4- 



102 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

number of the troops of OEOSDATES. It was on the i2th 
day of the month of Thuravahara, when they fought the 
battle. And then OEOSDATES with a few horsemen fled 
to Pasargada. From thence he started, and marched 
another time against ARTABARDIYA, in order to fight a 
battle. There is a town (a mountain), 1 named Paraga, 
there they fought the battle. ORMAZD brought help to 
me, by the grace of ORMAZD my army slew a great num 
ber of the troops of this OEOSDATES. It was on the 6th 
day of the month of Garmapada when they delivered thus 
the battle, and they took this OEOSDATES, and the men 
who had been his principal followers, they took them 
also. 

35 And DARIUS the King says: Then I hanged this 
OEOSDATES and the men, who had been his principal 
followers, in the town named Uvadechaya. 3 

36 And DARIUS the King says : This is what I did in 
Persia. 

37 And DARIUS the King says : This OEOSDATES who had 
said : " I am SMERDIS," had dispatched troops to Ara- 
chosia, and he had appointed a man to be their Chief. A 
Persian, named VIVANA, my subject had the satrapy of 
Arachosia ; against him he sent troops speaking thus : 
"Go, defeat VIVANA, and the troops who obey the 
King DARIUS." Then this army of Arachosia, which 
OEOSDATES had dispatched, marched against VIVANA. 
There is a fortress named Kapissakanis, in Arachosia, 
there they fought the battle. ORMAZD brought help to 
me, by the grace of ORMAZD my army slew a great num 
ber of the troops of the rebels. It was on the i3th of the 
month of Anamaka, when they fought thus the battle. 

1 The Persian has mountain, the translations simply country. The name 
exists today, it is the city of Forg-. 

2 Badly written until now Uvadaidaya. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 103 

And for a second time, the rebels assembled to fight 
against VIVANA. There is a district called Gandumava, 1 
there they fought the battle. ORMAZD brought help to 
me, by the grace of ORMAZD my troops slew a great 
number of the troops of the rebels. It was on the yth 
day of Viyakhna, that they fought thus the battle. And 
then the man, whom OEOSDATES had appointed to be the 
Chief of the rebels, fled away with a few horsemen. There 
is a fortress named Arsada, in Arachosia, the satrapy 
irmali* of VIVANA, there he retired. There VIVANA 
marched on his pursuing towards him, and he took there 
the man who had been made the Chief of the troops, and 
the men who were his principal followers, and killed 
them. 

38 And DARIUS the King says : Afterwards the land 
remained mine own. This is what I did in Arachosia. 

39 And DARIUS the King says : While I was in Persia and 
Media, a second time the Babylonians revolted. A man, 
named ARAKHA, an Armenian, son of HALDITA, arose in 
the town, named Dubala, 3 in Babylonia. From thence 
coming, he lied in speaking thus to the people : "I am 
NEBUCHADNEZZAR, son of NABONIDUS." And now the 

1 The name is Gandumava, and not Gandutara : Sir Henry Rawlinson s 
assimilation to Gandum is corroborated by the Median text. 

The battle of Kapisakanis, probably " hunt of apes," is in December, 
517 B.C.; 9,484. The battle of Gandum therefore cannot be earlier than 
the month of March of 516 B.C.; 9,484: six years after the Marxian s revolt. 

2 The word irmali is not translated in the Persian text. 

3 The name of Haldita is ascertained in the Median, it shows the error 
of all former interpreters, amongst whom I am myself, that the old Persian 
had no /, what was difficult to be believed, as the same words who have 
an / in Sanscrit, have also conserved that letter in modern Persian. The 
Babylonian Dubala is still existing, it is called Dibleh. The Median texts 
complete the record of the second Babylonian revolt, mutilated in the 
Persian and Babylonian texts. With respect to the name of the month, 
the Persian is lost ; as the m and the v have only one expression in the 
Sumerian scripture, there would be some doubt if the word is y~arkazana, 
" killing of wolves," or Margazana, " breeding of birds." We accept the 
latter. As the Assyrian equivalent is lost, the place of this month is 
uncertain. 



104 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

people of Babylonia revolted against me, and went over 
to this ARAKHA. And he took possession of Babylon, 
and exercised the kingly power in Babylon. And then I 
sent my army against the Babylonians. A Mede, named 
INTAPHERNES, 1 1 made him Chief of the troops and I said 
so to them : " Go and defeat the Babylonian people 
which does not obey me." And INTAPHERNES marched 
with the army against Babylon. ORMAZD brought help to 
me, by the grace of ORMAZD the army of INTAPHERNES 
captured Babylon, and slew a great number of men. It 
was on the 22nd day of the month of Margazana, when 
this ARAKHA, who said : " I am NEBUCHADNEZZAR," was 
taken, and the men who were his principal followers, were 
taken also and chained. I ordered : "ARAKHA and the men 
who are his principal followers, shall be put on the cross." 

40 And DARIUS the King says : This is what I did in 
Babylon. 

41 And DARIUS the King says : This what I have done, I 
did it always by grace of ORMAZD. This I did : I fought 
nineteen battles by the grace of ORMAZD, I defeated the 
armies. I took nine kings : 

One, named GAUMATA the Magian, who lied and said : 
" I am SMERDIS, the son of CYRUS," he caused the revolt 
of Persia. 

And a Susian, named ASSINA, who caused the revolt of 
Susians, and said : " I exercise the kingly power over the 
Susians." 

And a Babylonian, named NIDINTABEL, lied and said : 
" I am NEBUCHADNEZZAR, son of NABONIDUS," he caused 
the revolt of the Babylonians. 

And a Persian, named MARTI YA, he lied and said : " I 
am IMMANNES, King of the Susians," he caused the revolt 
of the Susians. 

1 This Intaphernes is not the same person as the first of the conjurors. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 105 

And a Mede, named PHRAORTES, who lied and said : 
" I am SATTARRITTA, of the race of VAK-ISTARRA," he 
caused the revolt of the Medians. 

And a Sagartian, named CITHRANTAKHMA, who lied 
and said : " I exercise the kingly power, I am of the race 
of VAK-ISTARRA," he caused the revolt of the Sagartians. 

And a Margian, named FRADA, who lied and said : " I 
exercise the kingly power over the Margians," and he 
caused the revolt of the Margians. 

And a Persian, named OEOSDATES, who lied and said : 
" I am SMERDIS, son of CYRUS," and he caused the revolt 
of Persia. 

And a Babylonian, who lied and said : "I am NEBU 
CHADNEZZAR, son of NABONIDUS," who caused the revolt 
of the Babylonians. 

42 And DARIUS the King says : These are the nine 
kings whom I took in the battles. 

43 And DARIUS the King says : " These are the provinces 
which revolted. The demon of the lie excited them to 
rebellion, that these provinces revolted. And afterwards 
ORMAZD gave them unto my hand, and what was my will, 
was executed by them. 

44 And DARIUS the King says : Thou, O King, who wilt 
be in future, who is friend, protect him always : the man 
who lies, always punish him severely. If thou sayest : "So 
it may be," then my land will stand for ever. 

45 And DARIUS the King says : That which I have done, 
I have done it at every time by the grace of ORMAZD. And 
thou, who in future days shalt peruse this tablet, which I 

1 Nine kings. There are ten on the rock ; the image of the Sacian 
Iskunka has been made in the rock after the finish of the first translation. 

2 We can say, that the great part of the Persian texts, in all its details, 
has been made out only after the final interpretations of the Median trans 
lation, and all gaps have been filled up. There were a great number of 
passages which were badly read and entirely misunderstood. 



IO6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

made, believe that which is written in this tablet, and do 
not say : "They are lies." 

46 And DARIUS the King says : May I die as a Maz- 
daean, 1 as this is true. I never uttered a lie in all my 
life. 

47 And DARIUS the King says : 2 By the grace of ORMAZD, 
I have elsewhere made many things, which therefore are 
not written in this tablet. Therefore they are not written. 
He who will peruse in future days this tablet, let him not 
think that these things (which are related here) are ex 
aggerated, let him not be incredulous, let him not say : 
" That is falsehood." 

48 And DARIUS the King says : The Kings whoever pre 
ceded me, while they lived, have never done any thing 
like that, which I did by the grace of ORMAZD in all my 
life. 

49 And DARIUS the King says : And now, believe thou, 
what I have done. Say : " It is so," 3 and do not contest it. 
And if thou dost not contest this record, and if thou 
sayest it to the people, ORMAZD may be thy friend, and 
mayest thou have offspring, and mayest thou live for long 
time. And if thou contest this record, and shalt not tell 
it to the people, ORMAZD will kill thee, and also thou shalt 
not have any offspring. 

50 And DARIUS the King says : That which I have done I 

1 Highly important, the Median ankirine Oramazdara, proves that the 
only possible way to read the two Persian letters wanting", is Auramazda 
(ya a) tiyaiy, " may I die a Mazdean," and not " Ormazd be my witness," 
as others presumed. 

2 The clause 47 has been wrongly interpreted : Darius has not written 
all, because he made other monuments. As it is not written here, people may 
not think it be false. That is the very simple sense of the phrase. Here 
is the Persian clause 

Maty a hya aparam imam dipim patiparqatiy, avahya paruva thacayatiy, 
tya mana kartam naisam varnavatiy durukhtam maniyiitiy. 

" Ne ille qui postea istam tabulam leget, ei nimis videaur quod ego feci 
(ne) id ei incredile appareat, ne dicat ; mendacium." 

3 The Persian had : avathd maniya. " Ita sit " die. 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 107 

have done it in all my life by the grace of ORMAZD. 
ORMAZD, the god of the Arians, brought help to me, and 
the other gods who exist. 

5 1 And DARIUS the King says : Therefore ORMAZD, the 
god of the Arians, 1 brought help to me, as well as the 
other gods, because I was not a wicked man, nor a liar, 
nor a violent tyrant, neither I, nor my family. I reigned 
according to the Divine Law, and have committed no 
violence against the lawful man nor against the Judge. 
The man who worked for our house, I have cherished 
him, and the man who sinned, I utterly destroyed him 1 
have committed no violence against any gallant man. 

5 2 And DARIUS the King says : Thou who shalt reign in 
future times, never be friend to the man who lies, but also 
do not injustice to any body. 

53 And DARIUS the King says : Thou who in future wilt 
see this tablet, which I have written, as well as these 
images, do not destroy them. As long as thou canst 1 
preserve them as they are. And if thou wilt see these 
tablets, and these figures, and do not injure them, and pre 
serve them as they are, as long as thou canst, ORMAZD 
may be friend to thee, and mayest thou have an offspring, 
and mayest thou live a long life, and all that thou shalt 

1 The clause 51 is equally of a very great importance. The Persian 
affords us the true origin of the word Avesta. It is Abasta, the Divine Law ; 
it is explained by the^Assyrian kinat, the laws. The Persian has: apariy 
dl-astdm uparii/ayam, " subter legem regebam." Nan/ ukarim naiy 
druvaqtam zaura akunavam, " non in bonum non justum violentiam feci , 
in Median: inne Ihkakra, inne Istukra appantoikkimmas hutta. Moreover, 
the clause, "god of the Arians," is only to be read in the Median version, 
and in the Persian form Ariyanam, instead of the Median Hariyapiima. 
Darius addressed this epithet specially to the true Median of Turanian 
offspring, and therefore he insisted upon the Arian mythology. The 
antagonism of Arians and Medes is already mentioned by Herodotus 
vii,, 62, who states that the Medes were formerly called Arians. 



tu, tuvanisten. 



108 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

do, ORMAZD will increase it. And if thou destroy these 
tablets and those images, and dost not preserve them, 
ORMAZD may kill thee, and thou mayest not have any 
offspring, and whatever thou doest, ORMAZD will pro 
nounce his curses on it. 

54 And DARIUS the King says : 

INTAPHERNES by name, son of OEOSPARES, a Persian, 
and OTANES by name, son of SOCHRES, a Persian, 
and GOBRYAS, by name, son of MARDONIUS, a Persian, 
and HYDARNES, by name, son of MEGABIGNES, a Persian, 
and MEGABYZUS by name, son of DADYES, a Persian, 
and ARDUMANES, by name, son of OCHUS, a Persian, 2 
these men accompanied me, when I killed GOMATES the 
Magian, who said : " I am SMERDIS, son of CYRUS." 
And henceforth these men were my companions. Thou, 
who wilt be King in future times, protect always that sort 
of men. 

55 And DARIUS the King says : 3 I have made also else- 

1 The last paragraph, containing- the names of the six conspirators, is of 
a great historical value, and the Median text gives valuable hints to the 
restoration. It is known that the said Ardumanes is replaced in Herodotus, 
by Aspathines; but even this error confirms the veracity of the Father of 
History. He was led into the mistake by a Persian, who gave the name of 
another favourite of Darius, and whose portrait is figured on the sepulchral 
monument of Naksh-i-Rustam. But although he was in a great position 
at the court of the Persian monarch, he had not been present at the murder 
of the Magian. 

2 The names of the conspirators are, except one, the same as Herodotus 
has mentioned them. Intaphernes father is not given by the Father of 
History; Otanes father is named Pharnaspes, instead of Sochres, Thukhra, 
"the splendid " in Persian. Gobryas is also in the Greek writer, the son of 
Mardonius, who was the grandfather of the homonyn, vanquished of 
Plataea. The father of Megabyzus, Bagabukhsa, is in Herodotus Zopyrus, 
hardly a true Persian name; Darius calls him Daduhya, Dadyes, name of 
a Persian general in the Persians of Aeschylus. 

3 The last paragraph is entirely defaced in the Persian original, except 
the word " I have made." I believe it, therefore, to be certain that the 
detached text, styled L by Norris, is the translation of this wanting final 
clause, which once filled up three lines in the Persian original. The 
passage itself is of a first-rate importance, and has been put on the frontis 
piece of the bas-relief, just in opposition to the Median nationality and 
faith. The explanation which I gave is sure. There are four things made 



BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION. 109 

where a book in Aryan language, that formerly did not 
exist. And I have made the text of the Divine Law 
(Avesta), and a commentary of the Divine Law, and the 
prayer, and the translation. And it was written, and I 
sealed it. And then the ancient book was restored by me 
in all nations, and the nations followed it. 



DETACHED INSCRIPTIONS OF BEHISTUN OVER 
THE FIGURES OF THE CAPTIVES. 

A. 

This is GOMATES the Magian, who lied and said : " I 
am SMERDIS, the son of CYRUS, I exercise the kingly 
power." 

B. 

This is ASSINA, who lied and said : " I exercise the 
kingly power over the SUSIANS." 

C. 

This is NIDINTABEL, who lied and said : "I am NEBU 
CHADNEZZAR, son of NABONIDUS, I exercise the kingly 
power over the Babylonians." 

by Darius : Haduk ukku, Persian hadugam akastayii, the text of the law, 

ZU (monogram) ukku alastaya, the commentary of the law; the 

HI (monogram) Persian Zandi, the prayer; the eppi, Median word, perhaps 
translation. 

This ancient book, the Avesta, was restored by him in all regions. 

As the Arian language can only be the Persian, it is evident that the 
book made by the king, and which did not exist before, is a translation 
from the Bactrian text into old Persian. It can be regarded as quite con 
sistent that neither Avesta nor Zend are Zend words, but both occur in the 
Persian inscriptions, signifying "law" and "prayer" (comp. zandiyani 
"I pray"). 

The word " restore " is the same which, in the history of the Magian, 
explains the Persian patipadain akunavam, " I restored." 

We have therefore in the Median text of the Behistun the most ancient 
indication alluding to the history of the Zendavesta; and this is not the 
least important of the historical informations which we owe to this precious 
document. 



110 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

D. 

This is PHRAORTES, who lied and said : " I am SAT- 
TARITTA, of the offspring of VAK-ISTARRA, I exercise the 
kingly power over the Medes." 

E. 

This is MARTIYA, who lied and said : " I am INMANES, 
I exercise the kingly power over the Susians." 

F. 

This is CHITHRANTAKHMA, who lied and said : " I am 
of the race of VAK-ISTARRA, I exercise the kingly power 
over the Sagartians." 

G. 

This is OEOSDATES, who lied and said : " I am SMER- 
DIS, the son of CYRUS, I exercise the kingly power." 

I. 

This is ARAKHA, who lied and said : " I am NEBU 
CHADNEZZAR, son of NABONIDUS, I exercise the kingly 
power over the Babylonians." 

K. 

This is FRADA, who lied and said : " I exercise the 
kingly power over the Margians." 

M. 
This is ISKUNKA/ the Sacian. 

1 Persian Ckuhkha. 



Ill 



THREE ASSYRIAN DEEDS. 



TRANSLATED BY 

DR. JULIUS OPPERT. 



commercial and legal deeds belong to the 
most difficult class of inscriptions, and have necessarily 
required a great deal of study. Sir Henry Rawlinson 
first pointed out the importance of these tablets, and 
I translated some Babylonian commercial texts in my 
pamphlet Sur les Inscriptions Commercials, 1861. I 
also gave a translation of the first juridical text in the 
Revue A rcheologique, 1 864. 

I am not aware that the Assyrian deeds have ever 
been explained in a way that would satisfy a legist ; 
some scholars, among whom may be named Mr. Sayce, 
have turned their attention to them, several others 
examined them merely on account of the most 



112 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

curious dates and eponymic names that are to be found 
in them. But the real importance of these very 
numerous deeds consists in the light which they will 
hereafter throw upon the civilization of Assyria and 
Chaldea in general, and the, history of legislation in 
particular. A great quantity of these documents, 
partly unedited, will be soon given with the trans 
literated texts in a work now going through the 
press, and published conjointly with my friend, 
M. Menant. 



THREE ASSYRIAN DEEDS. 



I. 
DEED OF SALE OF A HOUSE, 

BELONGING TO PHENICIAN OWNERS, WITH EGYPTIAN 
WITNESSES. 

W. A. /, III., pi. 48, 3. 

NAIL-MARK of SAR-LUDARI, nail-mark of AKHASSURU, nail- 
mark of the woman AMAT-SU LA, wife of BEL-DUR, Captain 
in the army, owners of the sold house ; 
[Four nail-marks.] 

A house, well constructed, with its beams and its doors, 
situated in the city of Nineve, near the house of MANNU-KI- 
AKHE, near the house of EL-ITTIYA, near the markets. 

And has acquired it SiL-AssuR, the Chief, an Egyptian; 
for one mina of the King, of silver, 2 he has bought it from 
SAR-LUDARI, from AKHASSURU, from the woman AMAT-SU LA, 
wife of the (named) husband. 

The price has been definitively fixed, this house has been 
paid and bought, the retractation of the contract and the 
annulment is not admitted. 3 

Whosoever, in future, at anytime amongst these men (sellers) 
will claim before me an annulment of the contract, from SIL- 
ASSUR, shall give 10 mines of silver. 4 

1 The nailmarks are used instead of a seal. 2 9 sterling-. 

3 Or in ordinary legal phraseology " this contract shall not hereafter be 
retracted or annulled." 

4 90. 

VOL. VII. 9 



114 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

In the presence of SUSANQA, son-in-law of the King, of 
HARMAZA, Captain, of RASU, sailor, of NABU-DUR-USUR, spy 
of strangers, of HARMAZA, Chief of the sailors, of SIN-SAR- 
USUR, of ZIDQAIU/ 

In the month of Sivan, the 26th day, in the eponymy of 
ZAZAI, Governor of Arpad. 2 

Judged before SAMAS-YUKIN-AKH, before LITTURU, before 

NABU-SUM-USUR. 3 



II. 

DEED OF THE SALE OF ISRAELITES 

BY A PHENICIAN. 
W. A. /., Ill, pi. 49, I- 

On the obverse. Seal of DAGAN-MILKI, the owner of the 
sold slaves. 

[Seal.] 

IMANNU, 4 the woman U 5 MELCHIOR, in all three 

persons. 

And has acquired them BEL-MALIK-ILI, the mtigil of the 
propriety of the King; for 3 mines of silver, 6 each mina 
according to the use of the city of Karkamis, he has 
bought them from DAGAN-MILKI. 

The price has been definitively fixed, these persons have 
been paid and bought, the retractation of the contract and 
its annulment is not admitted. 

Whosoever, in future, at any time, will stand before me, 
and invoke me, either DAGAN-MILKI, or his brothers, or his 
brothers sons, or any body of his, or a mighty man, who 
would claim from before me the annulment of this contract, 
from BEL-MALIK-ILI, his sons, or his grandsons, shall give 
10 mines of silver, one mine of gold, 7 to the goddess ISTAR 

1 Sedkia. 2 B.C. 891. 3 See for this tablet, Vol. I., p. 139. 

4 Heiman. 5 Lacuna. 6 27. 7 140, with ^90 silver, 230. 



THREE ASSYRIAN DEEDS. 115 

of Arbela. He shall return, with the tenth, the price to the 
owners. Then he will get rid of his contract, he has not 
sold. 

In the presence of ADDAI, the Chief (mil) of AKHIRAME, 
ditto, of PAQAHA/ the head of ... . 2 , of NADBIYAHU 3 (the 
great kusu\ of BEL-SIMEANI, before BiN-DiKiRi, of TAB- 
SAR-ISTAR, of TABNI, the Chief, who is possessor of the sum. 

In the month of Ab, the 2oth day, of the eponymy of 

MANNU-KI-ASSUR-LIH. 4 



III. 

SALE OF A WOMAN, 

BY HER FATHER AND HER BROTHERS, TO AN EGYPTIAN LADY, 

NAMED NITOCRIS, 
IN ORDER TO MARRY HER TO HER SON SIHA. 

W. A. /., III., pi. 49, 3- 

It will be noticed that there is a special clause 
concerning her possible heirs, as the woman had a first 
husband. This is a very curious tablet. 



Seal of NABU-RIKHTI-USUR, son of AKHARDISE, the 
Hasean, who assists in his art ZIKAR-!STAR, in the town 
of ... . 2 , seal of TEBETAI, his son, seal of SILIM-ASSUR, his 
son, the owners of the sold woman. 
[Seals.] 

The girl TAVAT-HASINA, daughter of NABU-RIKHTI-USUR. 

And acquired her NIHTI-EQARRAU 5 for 16 drachmes of 
silver, 6 for the sake of SIHA, for to marry her, she bought 
her. She will be the wife of SIHA. 

The price was definitively fixed. 

1 The Jewish name Pekah. * Lacunae. 

3 Evidently a Jew; the name is found in the Bible. 

4 B.C. 709. 5 Nitocris. 6 2 8s. 7 Or, Tachos. 

8* 



Il6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Whosoever, in future, at any time, will stand before me 
(the Judge), and will invoke me, either NABU-RIKHTI- 
USUR, or his sons, or his grandsons, or his brothers, or his 
brothers sons, or his representative, or any body of his, who 
would claim before me the annulment of the contract from 
NIHTI-EQARRAU, her sons or her grandsons, shall give ten 
mines of silver. Then he shall be free from his contract, he 
has not sold. 

SAHPIMAYU, the sailor, BEL-SUM-IDIN, son of UDANANI, 
ARDU-TAVAT, son of ATE, the man ...., these are the 
three heirs of the woman, 2 on account of the fastening the 
hands and the tying of the knots 3 with KERMEONI, who 
was the heir. 

In the presence of AKHARDISE, of . . . NIPIKALANTAKAR, 

Of MUTHUMHEPU, of HASBA . . ., of , of , 

of , of ,* of V of ULALAI . . . 

In the month of Elul, the first day, of the eponymy of 

ASSUR-SADU-SAQIL. 

Judged before NUR-SAMAS, before MUTHUMPAITI, before 
ATE, before NABU-IDIN-AKHE, the chief. 

1 Lacunae. * Nitocris. 

3 Certainly the expression of a ceremony, perhaps the wedding" per 
formances. 

4 Five names lost. 



ANCIENT BABYLONIAN 
MORAL AND POLITICAL PRECEPTS. 



TRANSLATED BY 

REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 



tablet translated below is one of those found 
by the late Mr. George Smith in the debris of the North 
Palace at Kouyunjik. It is an Assyrian copy of an 
older Babylonian text which belonged to the period 
when Sippara, Nipur or Calneh, and Babylon were 
under one government, though Babylon, it would 
seem, so far from being the capital was only the third 
city of the kingdom. Certain indications in the lan 
guage of the document make it probable that it was 
based on an Accadian original, but in its present form 
it belongs to the Semitic period of Babylonian his 
tory. Its contents remind us of the advice tendered 
to rulers by Egyptian and Chinese sages, and while 



Tl8 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

they bear witness to a strong sense of justice and 
obedience to law they plainly assert the responsibility 
of the king or magistrate, and his amenability to 
divine punishment. 

Mr. Smith has given a rendering of the first twenty 
lines of the obverse in his Assyrian Discoveries, pp. 
410, 411 ; the cuneiform text will be found in the 
Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vol. IV., 
pi. 55- 



n 9 



ANCIENT BABYLONIAN 
MORAL AND POLITICAL PRECEPTS. 



OBVERSE. 

1 (If) the King avenges not according to law, the people 
perish, his country is enfeebled. 

2 (If) he avenges not according to the law of his country, 
the god HEA, the King of destinies, 

3 his destiny changes * and by another replaces him. 

4 (If) he avenges not according to (the wishes of) his 
princes, his days are long. 

5 (If) he avenges not according to the statutes, his country 
knows invasion. 

6 (If) he avenges according to the (law) book, the obedience 
of the land the King sees. 

7 (If) he avenges according to the writing of the god HEA, 
the great gods 

8 in stability and the praise of justice seat 3 him. 

9 (If) he smites the son of the city of Sippara and gives 
(him to) another, the Sun-god, who judges heaven and 
earth, 

10 another Judge in his country shall appoint, and a just 
Prince and a just Judge instead of unjust ones. 

1 The verb used here has the same root as the goel or "blood-avenger " 
of Job xix. 25. 

1 Or, "is hostile to." 

3 The Assyrian text has the singular instead of the plural here. 



120 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

IT (If) the sons of the city of Nipur for judgment have 
thrown themselves (before) him, and he takes gifts and 
smites them, 

1 2 the god BEL, the Lord of the world, a foreign enemy 

1 3 brings against him and destroys his army ; 

14 the Prince and his General in fetters in evil fashion are 
bound. 

15 (If) the sons of Babylon bring silver and give bribes, 1 

1 6 (if) the Judges of the Babylonians preside and to (their) 
entreaty turn, 

1 7 MERODACH, the Lord of heaven and earth, his enemies 
over him shall place, and 

1 8 (his) goods (and) his treasure to his enemy gives. 

19 (If) the son of Nipur, of Sippara, (or) of Babylon doeth 
this, 

20 into prison 5 he shall be caused to enter. 

2 1 (If) the sanctuary of a god a place of uncleanness he 
makes (or) the city into a citadel heaps up, 

22 into the prison he shall be made to enter, a foreign 
enemy (the country) enters. 

23 (If) Sippara, Nipur and Babylon (as) garrisons 3 thou 
proclaimest, 

24 their soldiers render obedience unto thee. 

25 (If) an extortionate tribute the officers appoint unto 
them, 

26 MERODACH, the Prince of the gods, overthrows* the 
mighty Prince, 

27 his country to his enemy he transfers, and 

1 Literally, " cause treasure to enter." 

2 Literally, " house of watching." 

3 The Assyrian is urbi, identical with the erev or " mercenaries " of 
Jeremiah xxv. 20, which is rendered "mingled people" by the A. V. 
According to Sennacherib, Hezekiah garrisoned Jerusalem with urbi. 

4 Or, "abhors." 



MORAL AND POLITICAL PRECEPTS. 121 

28 the soldiers of his country obedience to his enemy yield. 

29 Their soldiers ANU, BEL, (and) HEA, the great gods, 

30 who inhabit heaven and earth, in their assembly deserters 
from them make. 

31 (If) the son(s) of Sippara, of Nipur, and of Babylon, 

32 their children to war-horses offering, 

33 (let) war-horses upon their children feed, 

34 upon the watch the enemy descend, 

35 their soldiers are slain, (their) armies and men are 
slaughtered, 

36 the god of famine (devours) his soldiers for food, 

37 the face of his soldiers he dismays, and with him he 
goes. 

38 (Though) the yokes of the oxen they unloose, and 

39 the place (of their pasturage) they change, 

40 at the waters where they rest he desolates 

(them) ; 

41 the watch (unawares the enemy) seize. 

42 RIMMON, the minister of heaven and earth, 

43 the creeping things of his field for want of food causes to 
die, and 

44 those that are slain the Sun-god burns up. 

45 (If) army and General, the Chief Minister 2 of the King, 

46 (their) full fealty untruly present, 

47 by the command of HEA, King of the abyss, 

48 army and General with (a curse) are cursed, 

49 their fortress into the stream is tumbled ; 

50 afterwards when the wind overthrows (their) deeds, when 
to the deep it allots (them), 

5 1 their bonds they break, and this table (of precepts) 

52 again will cause them to go forth ; to (their) allegiance it 
will (restore) them. 

1 That is, the king s. 

3 Literally, " the appointment of the face of the king-." 



122 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

53 NEBO, the scribe of BIT-SAGGAL, the enclosure of the 
hosts of heaven and earth in the centre of all things, 

54 the founder of the sovereignty, the bonds of that country 
breaks, and fealty establishes. 

55 Whether (he be) Ruler or Priest or General, 

56 whoever in Sippara, Nipur and Babylon as Temple 
Guardian is appointed, 

57 reverence for the temples of the great gods he shall lay 
upon them. 

58 (If) the great gods are angry and the deities desert their 
sanctuaries, 

59 he shall not enter into their shrines. 

60 (Colophon. Tablet beginning): (If the King according 
to) law avenges not, he dies. 

6 1 Palace of ASSUR-BANI-PAL, the King of multitudes, the 
King of Assyria, 

62 to whom NEBO and TASMIT gave broad ears, 

63 (and his) seeing eyes regarded the engraved characters 
of the tablets ; 

64 this writing which none of the Kings that went before 
me regarded, 

65 the secrets of NEBO, the literature of the library as much 
as is suitable, 

66 on tablets I wrote, I engraved, I explained, and 

67 for the inspection of my subjects in the midst of my 
palace I placed. 



THE REVOLT IN HEAVEN. 



TRANSLATED BY 

H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 



T^HIS curious narrative is found on a cuneiform 
tablet in the British Museum. The original text 
is published in Plate 42 of Delitzsch s work, Assyrische 
Lesestitcke. 1 gave a translation of it in the Trans 
actions of the Society of Biblical ArcJuzology, Vol. IV., 
PP- 349-362. 

This tablet describes the revolt of the gods or 
angels against their Creator. It seems to have been 
preceded by an account of the perfect harmony which 
existed in heaven previously. And here I would call 



124 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

to mind a noble passage in Job, chap, xxxviii., which 
deserves particular attention, since it is not derived 
from the Mosaic narrative but from some independent 
source, namely, that when God laid the foundations 
of the world, " the morning stars sang together, and 
all the sons of God shouted for joy." By " the sons 
of God " in this passage are to be understood the 
angels. In the beginning, therefore, according to this 
sacred author, all was joy and harmony and loyalty 
to God. But this state of union and happiness was 
not to last. At some unknown time, but before the 
creation of man, some of the angels ceased to worship 
their Creator : thoughts of pride and ingratitude arose 
in their hearts, they revolted from God, and were by 
his just decree expelled from heaven. These were the 
angels of whom it is said in the Book of Jude that 
" they kept not their first estate, but left their own 
habitation." 1 The opinions of the Fathers and of 
other religious writers on this mysterous subject it 
were useless to examine, since they admit that nothing 
can be certainly known about it. The opinion that 
one third of the heavenly host revolted from their 

1 Jude 6. 



THE REVOLT IN HEAVEN. 125 

Creator is founded on Rev. xii. 3, where it is said : 
"And there appeared a dragon in heaven, having 

seven heads and his tail drew the third part 

of the stars of heaven and did cast them to the earth. 
And there was war in heaven. Michael and his angels 
fought against the dragon, and the dragon fought and 
his angels. And prevailed not : neither was their 
place found any more in heaven. And the great 
dragon was cast out he was cast out into the earth 
and his angels were cast out with him." 

The Revelation of St. John was written in the first 
century, but some of the imagery employed may have 
been far more ancient, and for that reason more im 
pressive to the religious mind of the age. 

The war between Michael and the dragon bears 
much resemblance to the combat of Bel and the 
dragon recounted on a Chaldean tablet. 1 And it is 
not unworthy of remark that the Chaldean dragon had 
seven heads, like that spoken of in the Revelation. 2 

At the creation harmony had prevailed in heaven. 
All the sons of God, says Job, shouted for joy. What 

1 See G. Smith, p. 100 of his Chaldean Genesis. 

a See 2 R 19, col. ii. 14, and my Assyrian Glossary, No. 108. 



126 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

caused the termination of this blissful state ? We are 
not informed, and it would be in vain to conjecture. 
But the Babylonians have preserved to us a remark 
able tradition, which is found in the tablet of p. 42, 
and has not, I believe, been hitherto understood. It 
is unlike anything in the Bible or in the sacred his 
tories of other countries. While the host of heaven 
were assembled and were all engaged in singing 
hymns of praise to the Creator, suddenly some evil 
spirit gave the signal of revolt. The hymns ceased 
in one part of the assembly, which burst forth into 
loud curses and imprecations on their Creator. In 
his wrath he sounded a loud blast of the trumpet and 
drove them from his presence never to return. 



127 



THE REVOLT IN HEAVEN. 



[The first four lines are broken. They related, no doubt, that 
a festival of praise and thanksgiving was being held in heaven, 
when this rebellion took place.] 

5 THE Divine Being spoke three times, the commence 
ment of a psalm. 

6 The god of holy songs, Lord of religion and worship 

7 seated a thousand singers and musicians : and established 
a choral band 

8 who to his hymn were to respond in multitudes 

9 With a loud cry of contempt they broke up his holy 
song 

10 spoiling, confusing, confounding, his hymn of praise. 

1 1 The god of the bright crown * with a wish to summon his 
adherents 

1 2 sounded a trumpet blast which would wake the dead, 

13 which to those rebel angels prohibited return, 

14 he stopped their service, and sent them to the gods who 
were his enemies. 2 

15 In their room he created mankind. 3 

1 The Assyrian scribe annotates in the margin that the same god is 
meant throughout, under all these different epithets. 

3 They were in future to serve the powers of evil. 

3 It will be observed that line 15 says that mankind were created to fill 
up the void in creation which the ungrateful rebellion of the angels had 
caused. A friend has supplied me with some striking evidence that the 
mediaeval church also held that opinion, though it was never elevated to 
the rank of an authorised doctrine. 



128 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

1 6 The first who received life, dwelt along with him. 

1 7 May he give them strength, never to neglect his word, 

1 8 following the serpent s voice, whom his hands had 
made. 

19 And may the god of divine speech 1 expel from his five 
thousand 2 that wicked thousand 

20 who in the midst of his heavenly song, had shouted evil 
blasphemies ! 

2 1 The god ASHUR, who had seen the malice of those gods 
who deserted their allegiance 

22 to raise a rebellion, refused to go forth with them. 

[The remainder of the tablet (9 or 10 lines more) is too much 
broken for translation.] 

4 See note i. This is another epithet. 

5 The total number of the gods is, I believe, elsewhere given as five 
thousand. 



129 



THE 



LEGEND OF THE TOWER OF BABEL. 



TRANSLATED BY 

W. ST. CHAD BOSCAWEN. 



legend is found on a tablet marked K 3657, 
in the British Museum. The story which the tablet 
contains appears to be the building of some great 
temple tower, apparently by command of a king. 
The gods are angry at the work, and so to put an 
end to it they confuse the speech of the builders. 
The tablet is in a very broken condition, only a few 
lines being in any way complete. 



VOL. VII. 



10 



130 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

The late Mr. George Smith has given a transla 
tion of the legend in his work on Chaldean Genesis, 
and I have published the text and translation in the 
fifth volume of Transactions of the Society of Biblical 
A rchceology. 



LEGEND OF THE TOWER OF BABEL. 



COLUMN I. 

i l them the father. 

2 (The thoughts) of his heart were evil 

3 the father of all the gods 3 he turned from. 

4 (The thoughts) of his heart were evil 3 

5 x Babylon corruptly to sin went and 

6 small and great mingled on the mound. 4 

7 x Babylon corruptly to sin went and 

8 small and great mingled on the mound. 

COLUMN II. 



1 The King of the holy mound 5 

2 In front and ANU lifted up 

3 to the good god his father 

4 Then his heart also x 

5 which carried a command 

6 At that time also 

7 he lifted it up 6 

8 Davkina. 

9 Their (work) all day they founded 

1 Lacunae. 2 A title of Anu. 

3 Refers to the king- who caused the people to sin. 

4 The verb used here is the same as in Gen. xi. 7, ^1. 

5 A title of Anu. 

6 All these broken lines relate to council of gods ? 

10* 



132 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

i o to their stronghold r in the night 

1 1 entirely an end he made. 

12 In his anger also the secret counsel he poured out 

13 to scatter (abroad) his face he set 

14 he gave a command to make strange their speech 2 

15 3 their progress he impeded 

1 6 3 the altar 

[Column III is so broken, only a few words remain, so I have 
omitted it] 

COLUMN IV. 4 

1 In (that day) 

2 he blew and 3 

3 For future time the mountain 3 

4 NU-NAM-NIR 5 went 3 . 

5 Like heaven and earth he spake 3 

6 His ways they went 3 

7 Violently they fronted against him 6 

8 He saw them and to the earth (descended) 

9 When a stop he did not make 
i o of the gods . . . . . 3 

1 1 Against the gods they revolted 

12 . . . . 3 violence 3 

13 Violently they wept for Babylon 7 

14 very much they wept. 

1 5 And in the midst 

[The rest is wanting.] 

1 The tower. 

3 Uttaccira-melic-su-nu, "make hostile their council." 

3 Lacunae. 4 Relates to the destruction of the tower by a storm. 

5 The god of " no rule " or lawlessness. 

6 The builders continued to build. 

7 Lamentations of the gods for the Babylonians. 



133 



THE ELEVENTH TABLET 

OF 

THE IZDUBAR LEGENDS. 

The Chaldean Account of the Deluge. 



BY GEORGE SMITH. 



"THE tablet describing the deluge is the eleventh in 
a series of twelve tablets describing the adventures 
of a hero whose name I provisionally call Izdubar, 
and whom I identify with the Nimrod of Genesis. 

These tablets describe the early life and hunting 
exploits of the hero ; his friendship with a faun or 
satyr named Heabani ; his conquest of Humbaba, a 
tyrant who ruled over the country ; the love of Ishtar 
or Venus for him ; his illness ; the death of Heabani ; 
and the wanderings to Izdubar, to find his translated 
ancestor, Hasisadra or Xisuthrus, who for his piety 
was said to have been taken into the company of 
the gods. 



134 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Izdubar is supposed to reach Hasisadra, and asks 
him how he became immortal, in answer to which, in 
this tablet, Xisuthrus tells him the story of the flood. 

The principal fragments of this story I found in 
the autumn of 1872, in the Museum collection of 
Cuneiform tablets. 

Since my paper on the Deluge Tablets, read 
before the Society 3rd December, 1872, I have found 
several new fragments in the Museum Collection ; 
ancl in my two journeys to the site of Nineveh I 
have procured about a dozen other fragments of 
these legends. This accession of new material 
enables me to supply many of the wanting portions 
of the legend, and to correct other portions where 
from the mutilation or obscurity of the text the 
translation was doubtful. This translation is ex 
tracted from the interlinear translation published in 
the Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 
Vol. III., p. 530. 

NOTE. The death of the learned author of this paper, at 
Aleppo, on the iQth of August, while these sheets were passing 
through the press, adds a melancholy interest to a text, the 
first of a series which he fondly hoped to have completed on 
his return. 



135 



TRANSLATION OF THE ELEVENTH TABLET 
OF THE IZDUBAR SERIES. 



COLUMN I. 

1 IZDUBAR to him also said to HASISADRA the remote : 

2 I am burdened with the matter HASISADRA 

3 why thou repeatest not to me from thee 

4 and thou repeatest not to me from thee 

5 thy ceasing, my heart to make war. 

6 presses, of thee, I come up after thee 

7 l how thou hast done and in the assembly of 

the gods alive thou art placed. 

8 HASISADRA to him also said to IZDUBAR : 

9 be revealed to thee IZDUBAR the concealed story 

10 and the judgment of the gods relate to thee 

1 1 the city Surippak the city where thou standest 
l placed 

12 that city is ancient . . . the gods within it 

13 1 their servant the great gods 

14 the god ANU 

15 the god ELU 

1 6 * the god NINIP 

17 and the god Lord of Hades 

1 8 their will he revealed in the midst : and 

19 (I) his will was hearing and he spake (to me) 

20 SURIPPAKITE SOn of UBARATUTU 

21 * make a ship after this 

22 "I destroy the sinner and life 

23 cause to ascend in the seed of life all of it, to the 
midst of the ship 

24 the ship which thou shalt make 

1 Lacunae. 



136 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

25 . . . . cubits shall be the measure of its length, and 

26 . . . . cubits the amount of its breadth and its height. 

27 Into the deep launch it. 

28 I perceived and said to HEA my Lord : 

29 HEA my Lord this that thou commandest me 

30 I will perform, it shall be done. 

31 (I shall be derided by) young men and old men. 

32 HEA opened his mouth and spake, and said to me his 
servant, 

33 * thou shalt say unto them, 

34 he has turned from me and 

35 . . . . fixed 

36 . . . . like caves l 

37 . . . . above and below . . . . 

38 . . . . close the ship . . . . 

39 . . . . the flood which I will send to you 

40 enter and the door of the ship turn 

41 into the midst of it thy grain thy furniture and thy goods 

42 thy wealth, thy women-servants, thy female slaves and 
the young men, 

43 the beasts of the field, the animals of the field, all I 
will gather and 

44 I will send to thee and they shall be enclosed in thy 
door. 

45 ADRAHASIS* his mouth opened and spake and . . . . 

46 said to HEA his Lord 

47 Any one the ship will not make . . . .* 

48 . . . on the earth fixed * 

49 . . . . I may see also the ship . . . . 

50 . . . / on the ground the ship . . . .* 

51 the ship making which thou commandest me 

52 which in 

1 Lacunae. a The transposition is of the text in this line. 



THE DELUGE TABLET. 137 

COLUMN II. 

1 strong 

2 on the fifth day it 

3 in its circuit fourteen measures . . . . its frame 

4 fourteen measures it measured T over it 

5 I placed its roof, it I enclosed it. 

6 I rode in it on the sixth time examined its exterior on 
the seventh time 

7 its interior I examined on the eighth time 

8 planks against the waters within it I placed 

9 I saw rents and the wanting parts I added 

10 three measures of bitumen I poured over the outside 

1 1 three measures of bitumen I poured over the inside 

12 three . . - 1 men carrying its baskets they constructed 
boxes 

13 I gave the boxes which they had sacrificed an offer 
ing 

1 4 two measures of boxes I had distributed to the boatmen 

15 to were sacrificed oxen 

1 6 "for every day 

17 in * wine in receptacles and wine 

r 8 (I collected) like the waters of a river, also 
[9 (food) like the dust of the earth, also 

20 (I collected in) boxes with my hand I placed 

21 x SHAMAS . . . . T material of the ship completed 

22 strong and 

23 the reed oars of the ship I caused to bring above and 
below. 

24 they went in two thirds of it 

25 all I possessed the strength of it, all I possessed the 
strength of it silver, 

1 Lacunae. 



138 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

26 all I possessed the strength of it gold, 

27 all I possessed the strength of it, the seed of life, the 
whole 

28 I caused to go up into the ship all my male servants 
and my female servants, 

29 the beast of the field, the animal of the field, the sons 
of the people all of them I caused to go up ; 

30 a flood SHAM AS made and 

31 he spake saying : In the night I will cause it to rain 
from heaven. 

32 Enter to the midst of the ship and shut thy door (?, . 
the ship). 

33 A flood he raised and 

34 he spake saying in the night : I will cause it to rain l 
from heaven heavily. 

35 In the day I celebrated his festival 

36 the day of \vatching fear I had. 

37 I entered to the midst of the ship and shut my door. 

38 To close the ship to BUZUR-SADIRABI the boatman 

39 the palace I gave with its goods. 

40 The raging of a storm in the morning 

41 arose, from the horizon of heaven extending and wide. 

42 VUL in the midst of it thundered, and 

43 NEBO and SARU went in front, 

44 the throne bearers went over mountains and plains, 

45 the destroyer NERGAL overturned, 

46 NINIP went in front and cast down, 

47 the spirits carried destruction, 

48 in their glory they swept the earth ; 

49 of VUL the flood reached to heaven. 

50 The bright earth to a waste was turned, 

1 Or "it will rain." 



THE DELUGE TABLET. 139 



COLUMN III. 

1 the surface of the earth like it swept, 

2 it destroyed all life from the face of the earth l 

3 the strong deluge over the people, reached to heaven. 

4 Brother saw not his brother, it did not spare the people. 
In heaven 

5 the gods feared the tempest and 

6 sought refuge ; they ascended to the heaven of ANU. 

7 The gods like dogs fixed in droves prostrate. 

8 Spake ISHTAR like a child, 

9 uttered the great goddess her speech : 

10 All to corruption are turned and 

1 1 then I in the presence of the gods prophesied evil. 

12 As I prophesied in the presence of the gods evil, 

13 to evil were devoted all my people and I prophesied 

14 I the mother have begotten my people and 

1 5 like the young of the fishes they fill the sea. 

1 6 The gods concerning the spirits were weeping with 
me (v. her, 

1 7 the gods in seats seated in lamentation, 

1 8 covered with their lips for the coming evil. 

19 Six days and nights 

20 passed, the wind, deluge, and storm, overwhelmed. 

21 On the seventh day in its course, was calmed the 
storm, and all the deluge 

22 which had destroyed like an earthquake, 

23 quieted. The sea he caused to dry, and the wind and 
deluge ended 

24 I perceived the sea making a tossing ; 

1 Lacunae. 



140 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

25 and the whole of mankind turned to corruption. 

26 like reeds the corpses floated. 

27 I opened the window, and the light broke over my face, 

28 it passed. I sat down and wept, 

29 over my face flowed my tears. 

30 I perceived the shore at the boundary of the sea, 

3 1 for twelve measures the land rose. 

32 To the country of Nizir went the ship ; 

33 the mountain of Nizir stopped the ship, and to pass 
over it it was not able. 

34 The first day, and the second day, the mountain of 
Nizir the same. 

35 The third day, and the fourth day, the mountain of 
Nizir the same. 

36 The fifth, and sixth, the mountain of Nizir the same. 

37 On the seventh day in the course of it 

38 I sent forth a dove and it left. The dove went and 
turned, and 

39 a resting-place it did not find, and it returned. 

40 I sent forth a swallow and it left. The swallow went 
and turned, and 

41 a resting-place it did not find, and it returned. 

42 I sent forth a raven and it left. 

43 The raven went, and the corpses on the water it saw, 
and 

44 it did eat, it swam, and wandered away, and did not 
return. 

45 I sent the animals forth to the four winds, I poured out 
a libation, 

46 I built an altar on the peak of the mountain, 

47 by seven jugs of wine I took 

48 at the bottom of them I placed reeds, pines, and spices. 

49 The gods collected at its burning, the gods collected at 
its good burning ; 



THE DELUGE TABLET. 141 

50 the gods like sumbe over the sacrifice gathered. 

5 1 From of old also the great god in his course 

52 the great brightness of ANU had created. When the 
glory 

53 of those gods the charm round my neck would not 
repel. 

1 Lacuna. 



142 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



REVERSE COLUMN IV. 

T in those days I desired that for ever I might not 
leave them. 

2 May the gods come to my altar, 

3 may BEL not come to my altar, 

4 for he did not consider and had made a deluge, 

5 and my people he had consigned to the deep. 

6 From of old also BEL in his course 

7 saw the ship, and went BEL with anger filled to the 
gods and spirits : 

8 Let not anyone come out alive, let not a man be 
saved from the deep. 

9 NINIP his mouth opened, and spake and said to the 
warrior BEL : 

10 Who then will be saved? HEA the words under 
stood 

11 and HEA knew all things l 

12 HEA opened his mouth and spake and said to the 
warrior BEL : 

13 Thou Prince of the gods warrior, 

14 when thou art angry a deluge thou makest ; 

15 the doer of sin did his sin, the doer of evil did his 
evil. 

1 6 May the exalted not be broken, may the captive not 
be delivered. 

17 Instead of thee making a deluge, may lions increase 
and men be reduced ; 

1 8 instead of thee making a deluge, may leopards increase 
and men be reduced ; 

1 Lacunae. 



THE DELUGE TABLET. 143 

19 instead of thee making a deluge, may famine happen 
and the country be destroyed ; 

20 instead of thee making a deluge, may pestilence 
increase and men be destroyed. 

21 I did not peer into the judgment of the gods. 

22 ADRAHASIS a dream they sent, and the judgment of 
the gods he heard. 

23 When his judgment was accomplished, BEL went up 
to the midst of the ship. 

24 He took my hand and raised me up, 

25 he caused to raise and to bring my wife to my side ; 

26 he purified the country, he established a covenant and 
took the people, 

27 in the presence of HASISADRA and the people. 

28 When HASISADRA and his wife, and the people, to be 
like the gods were carried away, 

29 then dwelt HASISADRA in a remote place at the mouth 
of the rivers. 

30 They took me and in a remote place at the mouth of 
the rivers they seated me. 

31 When to thee whom the gods have chosen also, 

32 for the health which thou seekest and askest, 

33 this do six days and seven nights, 

34 like in a seat also in bonds bind him, 

35 the way like a storm shall be laid upon him. 

36 HASISADRA after this manner also said to his wife, 

37 I announce that the chief who grasps at health 

38 the way like a storm shall be laid upon him. 

39 His wife after this manner also said to HASISADRA 
afar off, 

40 Purify him, and let the man be sent away ; 

41 the road that he came may he return in peace, 

42 the great gate open and may he return to his country, 

43 HASISADRA after this manner also said to his wife : 



144 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

44 The cry of a man alarms thee, 

45 this do his kurummat place on his head. 

46 And the day when he ascended the side of the ship, 

47 she did, his kurummat she placed on his head. 

48 And the day when he ascended the side of the ship, 

49 first the sabusat of his kurummat) 

50 second the mussukat, third the radbat, fourth she 
opened his zikaman, 

51 fifth the cloak she placed, sixth the bassat, 



THE DELUGE TABLET. 145 



COLUMN V. 

1 seventh in the opening she purified him and let the 
man go free. 

2 IZDUBAR after this manner also said to HASISADRA 
afar off : 

3 In this way thou was compassionate over me, 

4 joyfully thou hast made me, and thou hast restored 
me. 

5 HASISADRA after this manner also said to IZDUBAR, 

6 thy kurummat, 

7 separated thee, 

8 * thy kurummat, 

9 second the mussakat, third the radbat, 

10 fourth she opened the zikaman, 

1 1 fifth the cloak she placed, sixth the bassat, 

12 seventh in the opening I purified thee and let thee go 
free. 

13 IZDUBAR after this manner also said to HASISADRA 
afar off : 

14 l HASISADRA to thee may we not come 

15 collected 

1 6 r dwelling in death, 

17 his back(?) dies also. 

1 8 HASISADRA after this manner also said to URHAMSI the 
boatman : 

19 URHAMSI to thee we cross to preserve 

thee. 

20 Who is beside the of support ; 

1 Lacunae. 
VOL. VII. 11 



146 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

2 1 The man whom thou comest before, disease has filled 
his body ; 

22 illness has destroyed the strength of his limbs. 

23 Carry him URHAMSI, to cleanse take him, 

24 his disease in the water to beauty may it turn, 

25 may he cast off his illness, and the sea carry it away, 
may health cover his skin, 

26 may it restore the hair of his head, 

27 hanging to cover the cloak of his body. 

28 That he may go to his country, that he may take his 
road, 

29 the hanging cloak may he not cast off, but alone may 
he leave. 

30 URHAMSI carried him, to cleanse he took him, 

3 1 his disease in the water to beauty turned, 

32 he cast off his illness, and the sea carried it away, and 
health covered his skin. 

33 He restored the hair of his head, hanging down to 
cover the cloak of his body. 

34 That he might go to his country, that he might take 
his road, 

35 the hanging cloak he did not cast off, but alone he left. 

36 IZDUBAR and URHAMSI rode in the ship, 

37 where they placed them they rode. 

38 His wife after this manner also said to HASISADRA 
afar off : 

39 IZDUBAR goes away, he is satisfied, he performs 

40 that which thou hast given him, and returns to his 
country. 

41 And he carried away the breaches of IZDUBAR, 

42 and the ship touched the shore. 

43 HASISADRA after this manner also said to IZDUBAR : 

44 IZDUBAR thou goest away, thou art satisfied, thou 
performest 



THE DELUGE TABLET. 147 

45 that which I have given thee, and thou returnest to thy 
country. 

46 Be revealed to thee IZDUBAR the concealed story ; 

47 and the judgment of the gods be related to thee. 

48 This account like bitumen . . . .* 

49 its renown like the sight of . . . - 1 

50 when the account a hand shall take . . . . 

51 IZDUBAR, this in his hearing heard, and 

52 he collected great stones * 

1 Lacunae. 



148 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



COLUMN VI. 

1 They dragged it and to 

2 he carried the account 

3 piled up the great stones 

4 to his mule " 

5 IZDUBAR after this manner also said 

6 to URHAMSI : This account 

7 If a man in his heart take l 

8 may they bring them to Erech Suburi 

9 . . . .* speech * 

10 I will give an account and turn to l 

11 For ten kaspu 2 they journeyed the stage, for twenty 
kaspu 3 they journeyed the stage. 

12 and IZDUBAR saw the well * 

1 3 For thirteen kaspu 4 to the midst of Erech Suburi. 

14 noble of men T 

15 in his return T 

1 6 . . . .* IZDUBAR approached 

17 and over his face coursed his tears, and he said to 
URHAMSI : 

1 8 At my misfortune in my turning 

19 at my misfortune is my heart troubled. 

20 I have not done good to my own self; 

2 1 and the lion of the earth does good. 
2 2 Then for twenty kaspu B 

23 . . . . T then I opened . . . . the instrument 

24 raised not its wall for ... . r I appointed. 

1 Lacunae. 2 Seventy miles. 3 140 miles. 

4 Ninety-one miles. 5 140 miles. 



THE DELUGE TABLET. 149 

25 And they left the ship by the shore, twenty kaspu 1 
they journeyed the stage. 

26 For thirty kaspu 2 they made the ascent, they came 
to the midst of Erech Suburi. 

27 IZDUBAR after this manner also said to URHAMSI the 
boatman : 

28 Ascend URHAMSI over where the wall of Erech will 
go; 

29 the cylinders are scattered, the bricks of its casing are 
not made, 

30 and its foundation is not laid to thy height ; 

31 one measure the circuit of the city, one measure of 
plantations, one measure the boundary of the temple of 
NANTUR the house of ISHTAR, 

32 three measures together the divisions of Erech . . . . 3 

1 140 miles. 2 2 10 miles. 3 Lacunae. 



AN 

ACCADIAN PENITENTIAL PSALM. 



TRANSLATED BY 

REV. A. H. SAYCE. M.A. 



HTHE following Psalm for remission of sins is re 
markable alike for its deeply spiritual tone and for its 
antiquity. As it is written in Accadian, its composi 
tion must be referred to a date anterior to the i/th 
century B.C., when that language became extinct. An 
Assyrian interlinear translation is attached to most of 
the lines ; some, however, are left untranslated. The 
tablet is unfortunately broken in the middle, causing 
a lacuna in the text Similarities will be noticed 
between the language of the Psalm and that of the 
Psalms of the Old Testament, and one passage 
reminds us strongly of the words of Christ in St. 
Matthew xviii. 22. Seven, it must be remembered, was 
a sacred number among the Accadians. Accadian 



152 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

poetry was characterised by a parallelism of ideas and 
clauses ; and as this was imitated, both by the 
Assyrians and by the Jews, the striking resemblance 
between the form of Accadian and Hebrew poetry 
can be accounted for. 

Some of the lines in the middle of the Psalm have 
been previously translated by Mr. Fox Talbot, in the 
Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archceology, 
Vol. II., p. 60, and Prof. Schrader in his Hollenfahrt 
der I star, pp. 90-95. 

A copy of the text is given in the fourth volume of 
the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, pi. 10. 



AN ACCADIAN PENITENTIAL PSALM. 



OBVERSE. 

1 The heart of my Lord was wroth : to his place may he 
return. 

2 From the man that (sinned) unknowingly to his place 
may (my) god return. 

3 From him that (sinned) unknowingly to her place may 
(the) goddess return. 

4 May god who knoweth (that) he knew not to his place 
return. 

5 May the goddess 2 who knoweth (that) he knew not to 
her place return. 

6 May the heart of my god to his place return. 

7 May the heart of my goddess to his place return. 

8 May my god and my goddess (unto their place) return. 

9 May god (unto his place) return. 

10 May the goddess (unto her place return). 

1 1 The transgression (that I committed my god) knew it. 

12 The transgression (that I committed my goddess knew 
it). 

13 The holy name (of my god I profaned?). 

14 The holy name (of my goddess I profaned?). 

[The next three lines are obliterated.] 

1 8 The waters of the sea (the waters of my tears) do I 
drink. 

19 That which was forbidden by my god with my mouth I 
ate. 

1 Literally "of my lord his heart." 

2 The Accadian throughout has the word "mother" before "goddess." 



154 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

20 That which was forbidden by my goddess in my igno 
rance I trampled upon. 

21 O my Lord, my transgression (is) great, many (are) my 
sins. 

22 O my god, my transgression (is) great, my sins (are 
many). 

23 O my goddess, my transgression (is) great, my sins (are 
many). 

24 O my god that knowest (that) I knew not, my trans 
gression (is) great, my sins (are many). 

250 my goddess, that knowest (that) I knew not, my trans 
gression (is) great, my sins (are many). 

26 The transgression (that) I committed I knew not. 

27 The sin (that) I sinned I knew not. 

28 The forbidden thing did I eat. 

29 The forbidden thing did I trample upon. 

30 My Lord in the wrath of his heart has punished me. 

3 1 God in the strength of his heart has overpowered me. 

32 The goddess upon me has laid affliction and in pain has 
set me. 

33 God who knew, (though) I knew not, hath pierced me. 

34 The goddess who knew (though) I knew not hath caused 
darkness. 

35 I lay on the ground and no man seized me by the hand. 1 

36 I wept, 2 and my palms none took. 

REVERSE. 

1 I cried aloud ; there was none that would hear me. 

2 I am in darkness (and) trouble : 3 I lifted not myself up. 

3 To my god my (distress) I referred ; my prayer I ad 
dressed. 

1 Accadian "extended the hand." 

2 Accadian " in tears (water of the eye) I dissolved myself." 

3 Or more literally " hiding." The verb that follows means " to lift one 
self up so as to face another." 



ACCADIAN PENITENTIAL PSALM. 155 

4 The feet of my goddess I embraced. 

5 To (my) god, who knew (though) I knew not, (my prayer) 
I addressed. 

6 To (my) goddess, who knew (though I knew not, my 
prayer) I addressed. 

[The next four lines are lost.] 

1 1 How long O my god (shall I suffer ?). 

12 How long O my goddess (shall I suffer?). 

13 How long O my god, who knewest (though) I knew not, 
shall (thy) strength (oppress me ?) 

1 4 How long O my goddess, who knewest (though) I knew 
not, shall thy heart (be wroth ?) 

1 5 Of mankind thou writest the number and there is none 
that knoweth. 

1 6 Of mankind the name (that) is fully proclaimed how can I 
know? 

1 7 Whether it be afflicted or whether it be blessed there is 
none that knoweth. 

1 8 O Lord, thy servant thou dost not restore. 1 

1 9 In the waters of the raging flood seize his hand. 

20 The sin (that) he has sinned to blessedness bring back. 

21 The transgression he has committed let the wind carry 
away. 

22 My manifold affliction like a garment destroy. 

230 my god, seven times seven (are my) transgressions, my 

transgressions are before (me). 
24 (To be repeated) 10 times. 2 O my goddess, seven times 

seven (are my) transgressions. 
250 god who knowest (that) I knew not, seven times seven 

(are my) transgressions. 
26 O goddess who knowest (that) I knew not, seven times 

seven (are my) transgressions. 

1 In the Assyrian "quiet." 2 A rubrical direction. 



156 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

27 My transgressions are before (me): may thy judgment 
give (me) life. 

28 May thy heart like the heart of the mother of the setting 
day to its place return. 

29 (To be repeated) 5 times. 1 Like the mother of the setting 
day (and) the father of the setting day to its place (may it 
return). 



30 For the tearful supplication of my heart 65 times let the 
name be invoked of every god. 1 



31 Peace afterwards. 



32 (Colophon) Like its old (copy) engraved and written. 



33 Country of ASSUR-BANI-PAL King of multitudes, King of 
Assyria. 

1 A rubrical direction. 



157 



A BABYLONIAN SAINTS CALENDAR. 



TRANSLATED BY 

REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 



HP HE curious hemerology of the intercalary Elul 
which is translated below is interesting on many 
accounts. It not only proves the existence of a 
Chaldean ritual and rubric, but also shows that each 
day of the year had been assigned to its particular 
deity or patron-saint, in whose honour special cere 
monies and services had to be performed. But the 
chief interest attaching to it is due to the fact that it 
bears evidence to the existence of a seventh-day 
sabbath, on which certain works were forbidden to 
be done, among the Babylonians and Assyrians. It 
will be observed that several of the regulations laid 
down are closely analogous to the sabbatical injunc 
tions of the Levitical law and the practice of the 
Rabbinical Jews. What I have rendered "sabbath" 
is expressed by two Accadian words, which literally 
signify "dies nefastus," and a bilingual syllabary 
makes them equivalent to the Assyrian yum sulumi, 
or "day of completion (of labours)." The word 
sabbath itself was not unknown to the Assyrians, and 
occurs under the form of sabattu in W. A. /., II., 32, 
16, where it is explained as " a day of rest for the 



158 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

heart." Sabatu is also explained to mean " complete " 
in W. A. /., II., 25, 14. 

The calendar is written in Assyrian. The occur 
rence, however, of numerous Accadian expressions 
and technical terms shows that it was of Accadian, 
and therefore non-Semitic, origin, though borrowed 
by the Semites along with the rest of the old Tura 
nian theology and science. The original text must 
accordingly have been inscribed at some period 
anterior to the seventeenth century B.C., when the 
Accadian language seems to have become extinct. 
The intercalary Elul itself belonged to the Accadian 
period. The only intercalary month known to the 
later Assyrian calendar was the second Adar or 
Ve-Adar ; but besides this month the Accadians 
at an early date made use also of a second Elul 
and a second Nisan. It is a proof of the frequency 
with which the calendar must have got out of order. 
Curiously enough, a second Elul is mentioned in the 
Talmud. Elul corresponded roughly with our August. 

I have given a translation of the memorandum 
attached to the 7th day in the Academy, Nov., 1875, 
p. 554. The rest of the inscription has not been 
translated before. The original text is lithographed 
in the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vol. 
IV., pi. 32, 33. For the reason why the iQth day 
was a sabbath see my Paper on the " Astronomy and 
Astrology of the Babylonians " in the Transactions of 
the Society of Biblical Archceology, Vol. III. i, p. 207, 
as well as my account of the Assyrian calendar in 
Records of the Past, Vol. I., p. 166. 



159 



A BABYLONIAN SAINTS CALENDAR. 



OBVERSE. COLUMN I. 

1 The month of the second Elul. The first day. (The 
feast) of ANU and BEL. A festival. 1 

2 When during the month the moon is seen, the Prince of 
many nations 

3 (as) his offering 2 a gazelle without blemish to the MOON 

4 (shall offer) His offering 

5 to the SUN the Lady of the world (and) to the MOON the 
mighty god he makes. 

6 Sacrifices he offers. Raising his hand the high place of 
the god he worships. 

7 The 2nd day. (The feast) of the goddesses. 3 A festi 
val. The King his altar 

8 to the SUN, the Lady of the world (and) the MOON the 
mighty god makes. 

9 Sacrifices he offers. 

10 Raising his hand at the high place of the god he makes 
a present. 

1 1 The 3rd day. A feast 4 of MERODACH (and) ZIR-PANITU. 
A festival. 

1 2 In the night in the presence of MERODACH and ISTAR 

1 This is in Accadian. The words signify, literally, "blessed" or "for 
tunate day." 

2 This again is Accadian, and may be read simply " what is due to his 
goddess," i.e., " an offering." 

3 That is the two Istars (one presiding over the first fifteen days of the 
month and the other over the last fifteen days). 

4 The word probably means " the day proclaimed," like the Roman 
calends. In W. A, 1., II. 32, 13, it is explained as "a day of eating." 



l6o RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

1 3 the King his offering makes. 

14 Sacrifices he offers. 

1 5 Raising his hand the high place of the god he worships. 



1 6 The 4th day. A day of invocation to NEBO (and 
TASMIT). A festival. 

17 In the night in the presence of NEBO and TASMIT r 

1 8 the King his offering makes. 

19 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (in) the 
high place of the god he presents. 



20 The 5th day. (Dedicated) to BEL of the temple and 
BELTIS of the temple. A festival. 

2 1 In the night in the presence of ASSUR (and) BELTIS 
2 2 the King his offering makes. 

23 Sacrifices he offers. (With) the lifting up of his hand the 
high place of the god he worships. 



24 The 6th day. (Dedicated) to RIMMON (and) BELTIS. 
A festival. 

25 The King (his) business does not perform. 

26 In the night before the East wind to RIMMON the King 
his offering makes. 

27 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 



28 The 7th day. A feast of MERODACH (and) ZIR-PANITU. 
A festival. 

29 A sabbath. 2 The Prince 3 of many nations 

30 the flesh of birds (and) cooked fruit 4 eats not. 

1 Tasmit, " the hearer," was the wife of Nebo, " the prophet." 

2 The two Accadian words here used literally signify dies nefastus, " a 
day unlawful (to work upon)." 

3 The word used throughout for " prince " is literally " shepherd." 

4 Literally "the cooking of fruit." 



BABYLONIAN SAINTS CALENDAR. l6l 

3 1 The garments of his body he changes not. White robes 
he puts not on. 

32 Sacrifice he offers not. The King (in) his chariot rides 
not. 

33 In royal fashion he legislates not. A place of garrison 
the General (by word of) mouth appoints not. 

34 Medicine for his sickness of body he applies not. 

35 To make a sacred spot it is suitable. 

36 In the night in the presence of MERODACH and ISTAR 

37 the King his offering makes. Sacrifices he offers. 

38 Raising his hand the high place of the god he worships. 

39 The gth day. Day of invocation to NEBO. A festival. 

40 In the night the Prince of many nations 

41 his hand for the sacrifice of a sheep makes propitious. 

42 To NEBO and TASMIT the King his offering makes. 

43 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

44 The gth day. (Dedicated) to ADAR (and) GULA. A 
festival. 

45 In the night in the presence of ADAR (and) GULA the 
King his offering makes. 

46 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

47 The zoth day. (Dedicated) to BELTIS of the temple 
and DAY AN. A festival. 

48 In the night in the presence of the Milky-way and the 
star (called) the Son of the Moon 

49 the King his offering makes. 

50 Sacrifices he offers. 

5 1 (With) the lifting up of his hand the high place of the 
god he worships. 

1 This is called by its Accadian name of Mar-gidda or " Long Road. 5 
VOL. VII. 12 



162 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



COLUMN II. 

1 The nth day. The truce-day of TASMIT and ZIR- 
PANITU. A festival. 

2 When the moon shall lift up a halo of pale light 

3 (and) the moon shall fail, the King in the night his offer 
ing to the MOON makes. 

4 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

5 The 1 2th day. Day of gifts to BEL (and) BELTIS. A 
festival. 

6 The King his offering to BEL and BELTIS makes. 

7 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

8 The 1 3th day. (Dedicated) to the MOON, the mighty 
god. A festival. 

9 (When) the moon a crown of pale light towards the 
country lifts up, 

10 (on) that day firmly the King his offering 

1 1 to the SUN the Lady of the world (and) to the MOON the 
mighty god, makes. 

1 2 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

13 The 1 4th day. (Dedicated) to BELTIS (and) NERGAL. 
A festival. 

14 A sabbath. The Prince of great nations 

1 5 The flesh of birds (and) cooked fruit eats not. 

1 6 The garments of his body he changes not. White robes 
he wears not. 

1 7 A sacrifice he offers not. The King his chariot drives 
not. 



BABYLONIAN SAINTS CALENDAR. 163 

1 8 In royal fashion he does not legislate. A place of 
garrison the General (by word of) mouth appoints not. 

19 Medicine to the sickness of his body he applies not. 

20 To make a sacred spot it is suitable. In the night the 
King his offering to BELTIS 

21 (and) NERGAL makes. Sacrifices he offers. 

2 2 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 
he presents. 

23 The 1 5th day. (Dedicated) to the Lady of the temple 
of ANU. The anniversary of the MOON the mighty god. 

24 A festival. The King his offering to the SUN the 
Mistress of the world 

25 (and) to the MOON the mighty god makes. Sacrifices he 
offers. 

26 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 
he presents. 

27 The 1 6th day. The feast of MERODACH (and) ZIR- 
PANITU. A festival. 

28 The King his business does not perform. In the night in 
the presence of MERODACH 

29 (and) ISTAR the King his offering makes. 

30 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

31 The i yth day. A day of invocation to NEBO (and) 
T ASM IT. A festival. 

32 In the night in the presence of NEBO (and) TASMIT 

33 the King his offering makes. Sacrifices he offers. 

34 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 
he presents. 

35 The 1 8th day. The jubilee 1 of the MOON and the SUN. 
A festival. The King his offering 

1 Literally "the prescribed" or "proclaimed (day)." 

12* 



164 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

36 to the SUN the divine Mistress of the world (and) to the 
MOON the mighty god 

37 makes. Sacrifices he offers. 

38 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 
he presents. 

39 The 1 9th day. The white (day) 1 of GuLA. 2 A festival. 

40 A sabbath. The Prince of many nations 

41 a mess of flesh-meat eats not. 

42 The garments of his body he changes not. White robes 
he wears not. 

43 A sacrifice he does not offer. The King a chariot drives 
not. 

44 In royal fashion he does not legislate. A place of garri 
son the General 

45 (by word of) mouth does not appoint. Medicine for 
the sickness of his body he does not apply. 

46 To make a sacred spot it is suitable. The King his 
offering to ADAR and GULA 

47 makes. Sacrifices he offers. 

48 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 
he presents. 

49 The 2oth day. A day of light (and) gift-making to the 
MOON and SUN. A festival. 

50 The King to the SUN, the divine Mistress of the world 
(and) to the MOON 

5 1 the mighty god his offering makes. Sacrifices he offers. 
5 2 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 

he presents. 

1 That is "a holyday," like the Latin dies candidus. 

* Gula, "the great goddess," is also called Bahu or "chaos" (the Bohu 
of Genesis). She was the wife of Hea, and in her capacity as " Lady of 
the House of Death," was addressed as Nm-ci-gal, " Lady of the great 
Country," i.e., Hades. 



BABYLONIAN SAINTS CALENDAR. 165 



REVERSE. COLUMN III. 

1 The 2ist day. The anniversary of the MOON and SUN. 
A festival. 

2 A sabbath. The Prince of many nations 

3 the flesh of birds (and) cooked fruit eats not. 

4 The garments of his body he changes not. White robes 
he wears not. 

5 A sacrifice he offers not. The King a chariot drives 
not. 

6 In royal fashion he legislates not. A place of garrison 
the General (by word of) mouth appoints not. 

7 Medicine for the sickness of his body he applies not. 

8 To make a sacred spot it is suitable. At dawn the 
King his offering 

9 to the SUN the divine Mistress of the world (and) to the 
MOON the mighty god 

10 makes. A sacrifice he offers. 

1 1 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 
he presents. 

12 The 22nd day. The anniversary of (the MOON and) 
SUN. The jubilee of the Lady of the temple. A festival. 

13 The King his offering to the SUN the divine Mistress of 
the world (and to the MOON the mighty god) makes. 

14 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

15 The 23rd day. The jubilee of the SUN and of the Air- 
god. A festival. 

1 6 The King his offering to the SUN and RIMMON 2 makes. 

1 The Assyrian word is caccarrit, " a circling" period." 

2 Rimmon was the Assyrian Air-god, whose name has been otherwise 
read Bin, Vul, Iva and Ao. 



1 66 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

1 7 A sacrifice he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

1 8 The 24th day. The jubilee of the Lord of the temple 
and of the Lady of the temple. A festival. 

1 9 The King his offering to the Lord of the temple and the 
Lady of the temple 

20 makes. A sacrifice he offers. 

2 1 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 
he presents. 

22 The 25th day. The holiday of BEL (and) BELTIS of 
Babylon. A festival. 

23 In the night to BEL in the presence of the Star of the 
Foundation (and) to BELTIS of Babylon 

24 in the presence of the Milky-way the King his offering 
makes. 

25 A sacrifice he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

26 The 26th day. The thanksgiving-day of HEA, the mighty 
god. 

27 A festival. The King in the night his offering 

28 to HEA the mighty god makes. A sacrifice he offers. 

29 The lifting up of his hand (at) the high place of the god 
he presents. 

30 The 27th day. The day-of-action of NERGAL. The 
jubilee of Zicun. 1 A festival. 

31 The King his offering to NERGAL (and) ZICUM makes. 

32 A sacrifice he offers. (With) the lifting up of his hand 
the high place of the god he worships. 



1 Zicum or Zigu, the Sige of Greek writers, was the sky regarded as the 
primaeval " deep " out of which the universe proceeded. She is called 
" the mother of Anu and all the gods." 



BABYLONIAN SAINTS CALENDAR. 167 

33 The 28th day. (Dedicated) to HEA. The rest-day of 
NERGAL. A festival. 

34 A sabbath. The Prince of many nations 

35 the flesh of birds (and) cooked fruit, eats not. 

36 The garments of his body he does not change. 

37 White robes he does not wear. 

38 A sacrifice he does not offer. The King a chariot does 
not drive. 

39 In royal fashion he does not legislate. 

40 A place of garrison the General (by word of) mouth does 
not appoint. 

41 Medicine to the sickness of his body he does not apply. 

42 To make a sacred spot it is suitable, 

43 To HEA the mighty god (his offering the King) makes. 

44 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 

45 The 29th day. The rest-day of the MOON. 

46 The day (when) the spirits of heaven (and) the spirits of 
earth are invoked. 

47 A festival. The King his offering to the MOON the 
mighty god makes. 

48 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 



1 68 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



COLUMN IV. 

1 The 3oth day. (Dedicated) to ANU (and) BEL. A 
festival. 

2 The King his offering to ANU and BEL makes. 

3 Sacrifices he offers. The lifting up of his hand (at) the 
high place of the god he presents. 



4 The month of the second Elul from the isl day to the 
3oth day. 

5 The King, if (for) his god or his goddess 

6 or his gods the ruined rites he restores, that King has a 
divine colossus T (as) a god 

7 In the month of the second Elul the King of the country 
builds the edifice of a god s temple, 

8 if he makes an altar 

9 his heart is not good. 

10 In the month of the second Elul the King a fortress 
restores. 



11 The month Tisri (is dedicated) to the Sun-god, the 
warrior of the world 

12 Sacrifices are burnt to BEL on the first day (which is 
dedicated) to ANU and BEL. 

13 (Colophon.} The 8th tablet (beginning) "The MOON, 
the Lord of the month." 

14 Country of ASSUR-BANI-PAL, the King of multitudes, 
King of Assyria. 

1 These divine colossi were the composite figures placed at the entrance 
of houses to protect them from the attack of evil spirits. 



BABYLONIAN SAINTS CALENDAR. 169 



I add here a list of the months and their patron- 
deities, which has already been given by the late 
Mr. G. Smith in the Appendix of his History of 
Assur-bani-pal, pp. 325, 326. The cuneiform text 
will be found W. A. /., IV. 33. 



1 The month Nisan (dedicated) to ANU and BEL. 

2 The month lyyar (dedicated) to HEA the Lord of man 
kind. 

3 The month Sivan (dedicated) to the Moon-god, the 
eldest son of BEL. 

4 The month Tammuz (dedicated) to the warrior ADAR. 

5 The month Ab (dedicated) to (ALLAT) the Mistress of 
the wood of the right hand. 1 

6 The month Elul (dedicated) to I STAR, the Lady (of 
battle). 2 

7 The month Tisri (dedicated) to the Sun-god, the Warrior 
of the world. 

8 The month Marchesvan (dedicated) to the Lord, the 
Prince of the gods, MERODACH. 

9 The month Chisleu (dedicated) to the Mighty hero NER- 

GAL. 

1 That is, the bow. In Smith s Assur-lani-pal, p. 272, we read, "the 
month Ab, the month of the star of the bow (Sagittarius), the daughter of 
the Moon-god, the archer; (on) the 3rd day, the feast of the king of the 
gods Merodach." Allat was the queen of Hades, like the Greek Perse 
phone, though originally merely another form of Istar or Aphrodite. 

2 Elul is elsewhere called "the month of the king of the gods, Assur." 
The second Elul, however, may be referred to here. 



170 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

10 The month Tebet (dedicated) to PAP-SUCCAL, the Mes 
senger of ANU and ISTAR. 

1 1 The month Sebat (dedicated) to RIMMON the Minister 
of heaven and earth. 

12 The month Adar (dedicated) to the Seven Great Gods. 

13 The month Ve-Adar (dedicated) to ASSUR the Father of 
the gods. 1 

1 We may conclude from this that the intercalary Ve-Adar had no 
divine regent in Accadian times. 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS FOR TRANSLATION. 



ASSYRIAN. 

ARRANGED BY THE LATE 

GEORGE SMITH 



Works on History and Chronology. 

Eponym Canon (Cun. Ins., Vol. Ill, p. i). 
Historical Canon (Cun. Ins., Vol. II, p. 52). 

Historical. 

Legends of Izdubar (texts unpublished). (Deluge Tablets.) 
Creation Tablets (Cutha Series). 
Early Babylonian Dated Tablets (texts unpublished). 
Brick of Samsi-vul I, ruler of Assyria (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, p. 6). 
Brick of Kara-indas, king of Babylon (Trans. Soc. Bib. Ar., 

p. 68). 

Inscriptions of Pudil, king of Assyria (Revue Ar., Nov., 1869). 
Monolith of Maruduk-bal-idina I, king of Babylonia. 
Tablet of Vul-nirari I, king of Assyria (text unpublished). 
Small Inscriptions of Vul-nirari (various). 



172 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Inscriptions of Shalmaneser I, king of Assyria (various). 

Inscriptions of Tugulti-ninip, king of Assyria (various un 
published; one Cun. Ins., Vol. Ill, p. 4). 

Inscriptions of Assur-risilim, king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., 
Vol. Ill, p. 3). 

Brick and Cone Inscriptions of Vul-bal-idina, king of Babylon 
(various). 

Inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar I, king of Babylonia (un 
published). 

Other fragments of Tiglath-Pileser (various). 

Contracts dated in the reign of Maruduk-nadin-ahi, king of 
Babylon (various). 

Inscriptions of Assur-bel-kala, king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., 
Vol. I, p. 6). 

Inscriptions of Samsivul IV, king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., 
Vol. Ill, p. 3). 

Contract dated in the reign of Simma-sihu, king of Babylon 
(Layard s Ins., p. 53). 

Other Inscriptions of Assur-nazir-pal (various). 

Bull Inscription of Shalmaneser 1 1 (Layard s Ins., p. 12, etc.). 

Inscriptions of Vul-nirari III, king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., 
Vol. I. p. 35). 

Fragments of Annals of Tiglath-Pileser II, king of Assyria 
(various). 

Fragments of Inscriptions Shalmaneser IV, king of Assyria 
(various). 

Inscription of the Second Year of Sargon (unpublished). 

Nimrud Inscription of Sargon (Layard s Ins., p. 33). 

Cylinder (Barrel) of Sargon (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, p. 36). 

Prism of Sargon (unpublished). 

Other Inscriptions of Sargon (various). 

Tablet of Kalah Shergat. 

Nebbi Yunas Tablet (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, pp. 43, 44). 

Other Inscriptions of Sennacherib (various). 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS. 173 

Portions of Cylinders B, C, D, and E, of Assurbanipal 
(Smith s Assurbanipal). 

Various Historical Tablets of Assurbanipal (Smith s Assur 
banipal). 

Hunting Texts of Assurbanipal (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, p. 7). 

Inscriptions of Assur-ebel-ili, king of Assyria (Cun. Ins.,Vols. 
I and III). 

Cylinder of Bel-zakir-iskun, king of Assyria (Cun. Ins. Vol. I, 
p. 8). 

Inscription of Nabopalassar, king of Babylonia (unpublished). 

Borsippa Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, 

P- SO- 

Tower of Bel (text unpublished). 
Text of Elamite Kings. 
Various other texts of Nebuchadnezzar. 
Tablet dated in the reign of Evil Merodach, king of Babylon. 
Cylinder of Nergal-shar-ezer, king of Babylon (Cun. Ins., 

Vol. I, p. 67). 
Cylinders of Nabonidus, king of Babylon (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, 

pp. 68, 69). 

Other texts of Nabonidus (various). 
Brick of Cyrus, king of Babylon (Trans. Soc. Bib. Ar., Vol. II, 

pt. I). 

Inscription on Tomb of Cyrus. 
Dated Tablets in reign of Cambyses (various). 
Inscriptions of Darius. 
Inscriptions of Xerxes, king of Persia. 
Inscriptions of Artaxerxes, king of Persia. 
Later Inscriptions of Persian, Greek, and Parthian periods. 

Mythology and Religion (mostly unpublished). 

Hymn to the Moon God. 
Hymns to Ninip. 



174 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

The War of the Gods. 

Incantations for removing Curses. 

Prayers of Amil-urgal. 

Prayer against Eclipses. 

Various other Prayers. 

Various Mythological Stories and Invocations. 

Tablets against Witchcraft. 

The Lubara Legends (Chaldean Genesis). 

Fables (unpublished ). 
The Horse and the Ox. 
The Eagle (Chaldean Genesis). 

Government (mostly unpublished}. 
Tablet with Advice and Cautions to Kings. 
Various Reports and Despatches. 
Various Tablets with Laws and Reports of Law Cases. 

Private Life. 

Further Deeds of Sale and Barter. 
Further Loan Tablets. 
Private Letters. 
Lists of Property. 

Science, etc. (partly unpublished}. 
Geographical Lists. 

Lists of Animals and Birds (Delitzsch). 
Lists of Minerals and their uses. 
Lists of Wooden Objects. 
Grammatical Tablets (a selection from). 
Mathematical Tablets. 

Astrology and Astronomy. 

Further Selections from the great Chaldean Work on As 
trology. 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS. 175 

Further Selections from Astronomical and Astrological 

Reports. 1 
A Selection of Omens from Terrestrial Objects and Events. 

PHCENICIAN. 

Sarcophagus of Ashmunazer (Due de Luynes, M&moire, 

1856). 

Marseilles Inscription (Judas, 1857). 
The Moabite Stone (Ginsburg, 1871). 
Selected Mortuary Inscriptions. 

1 Selections of these only printed in Vol. I. 



i 7 6 

EGYPTIAN, 

(Tentative List only.) 



ARRANGED BY 

P. LE PAGE RENOUF, F.R.S.L. 



Historical Documents. 
Ancient Empire : 

Inscription of Tomb of Ameni (Benihassan I). 

Tomb of Nahre-si Chnum-hotep (Beni 

hassan II). 
of Sakaya. 

XVIIIth Dynasty : 

Inscription of Aahmes, formerly called Pensouvan 

(Louvre C, 49). 

Thothmes I, at Karnak (Denk. Ill, 18). 

Hat-a-su (Duemichen, Hist. Ins., 19, 20). 

Other Monuments of Thothmes III (Birch and De 

Rouge). 

Obelisk of Lateran. 
Inscriptions of Haremhebi. 
Inscriptions of Amenophis III (Denk. Ill, 65 and 

following). 

Monuments of the Disk Worshippers. 
XlXth Dynasty : 

Triumphal Inscription of Seti I at Karnak (Denk. Ill, 

126). 

Sarcophagus of Seti I (Bonomi). 

Dedicatory Inscription of Rameses II, at Abydos 
(Maspero). 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS. 177 

Triumphal Inscriptions (Denk. Ill, 165, etc.). 

Historical Inscription at Abusimbel (187). 

Great Tablet at Abusimbel (194). 

Inscription of Bek-en-Chonsu (Deveria). 
List of Kings : 

Turin Papyrus. 

Tablet of Abydos. 

Tablet of Sakkarah. 

Tablet of Karnak. 
XXth Dynasty : 

Inscription of Seti II (Duemichen, Hist. Ins., 1-5). 

Rameses III (Rosellini, Burton, Greene, 

and Duemichen, ubi supra 13-15). 
XXIst Dynasty : 

Tablet 4th year of Rameses IV. 
Ethiopic period : 

Dream Tablet (Mariette s Monuments). 
Persian and Ptolemaic : 

Statuette Naophore du Vatican. 

Tablet of Tafnecht at Naples. 

Inscription of Ptolemy son of Lagos. 

Inscription of Alexander Aegos (Zeitschrift). 

" Bauurkunde der Tempelanlagen von Edfu" (Due 
michen). 

Two Ptolemaic Tablets (Birch). 

Selection of Obelisk Inscriptions. 
Apis Tablets. 

Religious or Magical Texts. 

Ancient Forms of Sepulchral Offerings, etc. (Tablets of 

Ancient Empire.) 
The Ritual of the Dead. 
Spells in Lepsius (" Aelteste Texte"). 
Harris Magical Papyrus. 

VOL. VII. 13 



1 78 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

" Horus on Crocodiles" (various texts, Leydenand elsewhere). 

Spells in Tomb of Bek-en-ren-ef. 

" Metternich Tablet." 

"Sk& en sensenu;" the "Book of the Breaths of Life." 

Legend of Horns (Naville). 

The Rhind Papyri. 

Sarcophagus of Aroeri (Bonomi). 

Necht-en-heb. 

T at-hra (Louvre). 

British Museum, 32. 

Litanies of the Sun (Denk. Ill, 203). 
Apis Stelae (a very large number, nearly 360). 

Selection of Hymns, such as the following : 
To the Nile (Denk. Ill, 175). 
To Ammon (Denk. Ill, 237). 

Ap-heru-mes (Berlin, in Brugsch Monumens, pi. III). 
Meri ( pi. IV). 

To Osiris (Bibliotheque Nationale, Chabas). 
Fragments of the Hymns of the Disk Worshippers. 
Several in British Museum. 

Duemichen s publications. 

Great Psalm to Ammon (Leyden I, 350). 

Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky days (Sallier, Chabas). 
Calendars of Festivals from as Early Date as possible to 
Roman Period. 

Literature, Philosophy, Science, Economy. 

Proverbs, Prisse Papyrus (Chabas). 

" Rules of Life " (Papyrus at Boulaq, lately published by 

Mariette). 

Song of the Oxen (Denk. Ill, 10). 
The Praise of Literature. 
Three Amatory Songs (Goodwin). 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS. 179 

Medical Papyrus (Berlin). 

(British Museum). 

(Ebers Papyrus). 

Geometrical Papyrus (British Museum). 
Calendar of Astronomical Observations in Tombs of XXth 

Dynasty (Renouf). 
Letters on all varieties of subjects in the Sallier, Anastasi, 

Leyden, and Bologna Papyri. 

Letters of Amenemha (Maspero Genre Epistolaire). 
Registers, etc., (Rollin and other Papyri). 
Accounts (Louvre). 
Receipts for making Kyphi, etc. 
Catalogues of the Temple Library at Edfu. 

Law and Police. 

Abbott Papyrus (Spoliation of Tombs). 
"Pap. Judiciaire Amhurst" (Chabas). 
Report on Capture of Fugitive Slaves (Leyden I, 368, 

Chabas). 
Complaint against Paneba (British Museum Papyrus, Salt, 

Chabas). 

Petition to king Amenophis (Chabas). 
Complaint against Thefts committed by certain Workmen 

(Chabas). 

Selected Inscriptions from the Ostraca. 
Greco-Egyptian Official Complaints. 



{Original Circular?) 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 

9, CONDUIT STREET, W., 

6th May, 1873. 
SIR, 

I beg to inform you that it is intended shortly to 
publish a Series of TRANSLATIONS OF ALL THE IMPORTANT 
ASSYRIAN AND EGYPTIAN TEXTS, which exist in the various 
collections of England and the Continent, and thus place 
before the English Student the remains of undoubtedly THE 
OLDEST AND MOST AUTHENTIC LITERATURE IN THE WORLD, 
the foundation of all History, Archaeology, and Biblical 
exposition, the contemporaneous records of the nations and 
writers of the Bible. Nearly all the principal Translators 
have offered their services for this purpose, and while each 
Author will be alone responsible for his portion of the work, 
the general arrangement of the materials will rest with the 
President of this Society. The selection of the records 
will not be confined to those bearing directly on the text of 
the Bible, but embrace the entire range of Egyptian and 
Assyrian history and literature. Each translation will quote 
the authorities upon which it is based, or the monument 
from which it is taken, and all other notes will be as few and 
brief as possible, to avoid controversy and expense. 

The volumes will be issued by Messrs. Bagster and Sons, 
at a price to bring them within the reach of all who are 
interested in such subjects. 

I shall be happy to answer any communication addressed 
to me upon this subject, and trust that you will promote the 
best interests of Biblical Archaeology, by circulating this 
notice among your friends. 

I remain, Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

W. R. COOPER. 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 

9, CONDUIT STREET, LONDON, W. 



Instituted for the investigation of the Archaeology, 
History, Arts, and Chronology of Ancient and Modern 
Assyria, Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, and other Biblical 
Lands : the promotion of the study of the Antiquities of 
those countries, and the Record of Discoveries hereafter 
to be made in connexion therewith. Also for the forma 
tion of a Library of Geographical and Archaeological 
Works, under due regulation to be circulated among the 
Members. 

The Meetings are held on the first Tuesdays in the 
month from November to June at 8-30 p.m. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Ladies and Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members 
of the Society are requested to communicate by letter with 
the Secretary, Mr. W. R. COOPER, 9, Conduit Street, W., 
who will submit their names to the Council, bjtwhom all 
Candidates are nominated. The Subscription is one guinea 
per annum, payable in advance, which entitles the Member 
to receive all the Publications and attend all the meetings 
of the Society. 

There is no Entrance Fee. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

VOL. I. 



ASSYRIAN TEXTS. 



CONTENTS: 

INSCRIPTION OF RIMMON-NIRARI. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

INSCRIPTION OF K H A M M U R A B I. 

BY H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

MONOLITH INSCRIPTION OF S AM AS-RI MMO N. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

SELLING S CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB. 
BY H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

TAYLOR S CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB. 
BY H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

ANNALS OF ASSURBANIPAL (CYLINDER A). 
BY GEORGE SMITH. 

BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS. 
BY SIR H. RAWLINSON, K.C.B., D.C.L. 

BABYLONIAN EXORCISMS. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

PRIVATE WILL OF SENNACHERIB. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

ASSYRIAN PRIVATE CONTRACT TABLETS. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

LEGEND OF THE DESCENT OF ISHTAR. 
BY H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

ASSYRIAN ASTRONOMICAL TABLETS. 

BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 
t 

ASSYRIAN CALENDAR. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

TABLES OF ASSYRIAN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS, ASSYRIAN AND 

EGYPTIAN. 
SELECTED BY GEORGE SMITH. AND P. LE PAGE RENOUF. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

VOL. II. 



EGYPTIAN TEXTS. 



CONTENTS: 

INSCRIPTION OF UNA. 
BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 

INSTRUCTIONS OF AMENEMHAT 1. 
BY G. MASPERO. 

ANNALS OF THOTHMES III. 

STATISTICAL TABLET. TABLET OF THOTHMES III. BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 

INSCRIPTION OF AMEN-EM-HEB. 

BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 

THE WARS OF RAMESES II WITH THE KHITA. 
BY PROF. E. L. LUSHINGTON. 

INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 
BY REV. F. C. COOK, M.A., CANON OF EXETER. 

TABLET OF NEWER-HOTEP. 
BY PAUL PIERRET. 

TRAVELS OF AN EGYPTIAN. 
BY FRANCOIS CHABAS. 

THE LAMENTATIONS OF ISIS AND NEPHTHYS. 

BY P. J. DE HORRACK. 

HYMN TO AMEN-RA. 
BY C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 

THE TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS. . 
BY P. LE PAGE RENOUF. 

THE TALE OF THE DOOMED PRINCE. 
BY C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 

EGYPTIAN CALENDAR. TABLE OF DYNASTIES. 
EGYPTIAN MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. 

LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS, ASSYRIAN AND 

EGYPTIAN. 
SELECTED BY GEORGE SMITH AND P. LE PAGE RENOUF. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

VOL. III. 



ASSYRIAN TEXTS. 



CONTENTS: 

EARLY HISTORY OF BABYLONIA. 
BY GEORGE SMITH. 

TABLET OF ANCIENT ACCADIAN LAWS. 

SYNCHRONOUS HISTORY OF ASSYRIA AND 
BABYLONIA. 

BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

ANNALS OF ASSUR-NASIR-PAL. 
BY REV. J. M. RODWELL, M.A. 

KURKH INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON. 

SECOND INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON. 

BY H. F. TALBOT, F.R.S. 

AN ACCADIAN LITURGY. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

SACRED ASSYRIAN POETRY. 
BY H. F. TALBOT, .F.R.S. 

BABYLONIAN CHARMS. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

LIST OF FURTHER TEXTS. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

VOL. IV. 



EGYPTIAN TEXTS. 



CONTENTS: 

HISTORICAL TEXTS: 

ANNALS OF THOTHMES III.: 

INSCRIPTION .OF ANF.BNI. INSCRIPTION OF AAHMES. OUELISK OF THB 

LATERAN. 
BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 

OBELISK OF RAMESES II. 
BY FRANCOIS CHABAS. 

TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN RAMESES II. AND 

THE HITTITES. 
BY C. W. GOODWIN. M.A. 

TABLET OF 400 YEARS. 
INVASION OF EGYPT BY THE GREEKS IN 

THE REIGN OF MENEPHTAH. 
DIRGE OF MENEPHTAH. POSSESSED PRINCESS. 

BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 
TABLET OF AHMES. 

BY PAUL PIERRET. 

NEAPOLITAN STELE. 

BY C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 

ROSETTA STONE. 

BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 

ETHIOPIAN ANNALS: 

STELE OF THE DREAM. 

BY G. MASPERO. 
INSCRIPTION OF QUEEN MADSENEN. 

BY PAUL PIERRET. 
STELE OF THE EXCOMMUNICATION. 

BY G. MASPERO. 

MYTHOLOGICAL AND ROMANTIC TEXTS: 
HYMN TO OSIRIS. 
BY FRANCOIS CHABAS. 

HYMN TO THE NILE. 

BY REV. F. C. COOK. 
FESTAL DIRGE OF THE EGYPTIANS. 

BY C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 
BOOK OF RESPIRATIONS. 

BY P. J. DE HORRACK. 
TALE OF SETNAU. 

BY P. LE PAGE RENOUF. 
LIST OF FURTHER TEXTS. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 
VOL. v. 



A. SSYRIAN TEXTS. 



HISTORICAL TEXTS: 

LEGEND OF THE INFANCY OF SARGINA I. 
BY H. F. TALBOT, F.R.S. 

INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER I. 
BY SIR HENRY RAWLINSON, K.C.B., D.C.L., ETC. 

BLACK OBELISK INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER II. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

INSCRIPTION OF TIGLATH-PILESER II. 
BY REV. J. M. ROD WELL, M.A. 

EARLY HISTORY OF BABYLONIA, PART II. 
BY GEORGE SMITH. 

INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR. 

BY REV. J. M. RODWELL, M.A. 

INSCRIPTION OF NERIGLISSAR. 

BY REV. J. M. RODWELL, M.A. 

INSCRIPTION OF NABONIDUS. 
BY H. F. TALBOT, F.R.S. 

INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS AT N AKS H I-RUST AM. 
BY H. F. TALBOT, F.R.S. 

MYTHICAL TEXTS: 

ACCADIAN HYMN TO ISTAR. 

BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

WAR OF THE SEVEN EVIL SPIRITS AGAINST HEAVEN. 
BY H. F. TALEOT, F.R.S. 

TABLES OF OMENS. 
BY REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

LIST OF FURTHER TEXTS. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

VOL. VI. 



EGYPTIAN TEXTS. 



CONTENTS: 

SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTION OF AMEN I. 

BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 
INSCRIPTION OF AAHMES, SON OF ABANA. 

BY P. LE PAGE RENOUF. 
LETTER OF PANBESA. 

BY C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 

ANNALS OF RAMESES III.: 

THE CONQUESTS IN ASIA. 

BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 

GREAT HARRIS PAPYRUS, PART I. 

BY PROFESSOR EISENLOHR AND S. BIRCH, LL.D. 

STELE OF THE CORONATION. 

BY G. MASPERO. 
THE INSCRIPTION OF THE GOVERNOR NES-HOR. 

BY PAUL PIERRET. 
STELE OF KING HORSIATEF. 

BY G. MASPERO. 

HYMNS TO AMEN. 

BY C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 

INSCRIPTION OF THE DESTRUCTION OF MANKIND. 

BY EDOUARD NAVILLE. 
EGYPTIAN MAGICAL TEXT. 

BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 
THE SONG OF THE HARPER. 

BY LUDWIG STERN. 
THE STORY OF SANEHA. 

BY C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 

THE TALE OF THE GARDEN OF FLOWERS. 
BY FRANCOIS CHABAS. 

LIST OF FURTHER TEXTS. 



Succeeding Volumes in Preparation. 



ARCHAIC CLASSICS. 



ASSYRIAN GRAMMAR. 

An Elementary Grammar and Reading Book of the 
Assyrian Language, in the Cuneiform Character : containing 
the most complete Syllabary yet extant, and which will serve 
also as a Vocabulary of both Accadian and Assyrian. By 
Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A. Quarto, Cloth, js. 6d. 



EGYPTIAN GRAMMAR. 

An Elementary Manual of the Egyptian Language : with 
an interlineary Reading Book : in the Hieroglyphic Cha 
racter. In two Parts. Part I. Grammar. By P. Le 
Page Renouf, F.R.S.L. Quarto, Cloth, js. 6d. 

Part II. Reading Book. In the Press, 

EXERCISE SHEETS: 

Prepared to enable the Student the test his progres by 
translating a passage from some well-known Text. On 
Writing Paper. Price 2d. each. 



AN ARCHAIC DICTIONARY, 

Historical and Mythological, from the -Egyptian, Assyrian, 
and Etruscan Monuments and Papyri. By W. R. Cooper, 
F.R.A.S., M.R.A.S. Cloth extra, 15^. 



Multee terricolis linguae, ccelesUbus una. 

LONDON: 

SAMUEL BAGSTER AND SONS, 
15, PATERNOSTER ROW. 



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