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JACKSONVILLE 
ILLINOIS 





From the collection of the 



Prejinger 

v JJibrary 
P 



San Francisco, California 
2007 




fcUcMurrmy College Library 



Colorful Living 

Art, Sport, Recreation As a Substitute for War Q -V ( \^ 

r I 

"To serve in an active army, even when you are not under fire, is to live 
in more parts of your nature, in a greater variety of nerves, with a keener sensi- 
tiveness and a more vital energy than you suspected you had. The mere pos- 
sibility of danger, the fate that hangs over you, even if it does not fall, makes 
life inexpressibly colorful. The fiendish thing about war is this, that nothing 
in peace gives you so much sense of being alive. Until pacifism reckons with 
this fact, we shall have war, because that man who has been through a war 
and has not been hurt will usually try the next war in the hope of living again 
before he dies." John Erskine, in the Herald Tribune Magazine, June 26, 1932. 



SEVERAL TIMES recently the question has been put to recreation workers as to 
what can be done through the recreation centers, the athletic fields, and 
through the recreation leadership in the community to give a more adequate 
measure of adventure and of "living again" in the midst of a world that is often 
all too dull. 

At certain periods of life for certain individuals football, basketball, sailing 
in a heavy breeze, horseback riding, polo playing, give very much of this sense of 
complete living, requiring that the preson engaged shall feel alive, keep completely 
awake. In another field, playing certain difficult pieces of music on the violin 
seems to make much the same demand and give much the same satisfaction to cer- 
tain kinds of individuals. For other individuals the complete giving of themselves 
to parts in a play has much the same effect. Even girls of twelve to fourteen years 
of age sometimes come out of a religious play as if they were coming down from 
the mountain of transfiguration. 

It should not be forgotten that certain experiences in sport, in art, in the pro- 
cesses of beauty, give almost as much of satisfaction in memory as at the time. 

The completeness with which the individual is taken up, absorbed, gripped 
by his experience, the absolute dedication with which he gives himself to the activ- 
ity, seem to have power to make the experience one never to be forgotten. Enough 
such experiences give the individual a feeling that no matter what may happen in 
the future, one worth while life has been lived already. 

Surely humanity has power within itself to work out in enough variety these 
completely absorbing activities so that all men and women shall have an oppor- 
tunity to live without murdering one another in wars of state against state. 

HOWARD BRAUCHER. 



April, 1933 



Sit) 



Spring's Awakening 




Courtesy Nation's Schools Publishing Company 



In the general movement for thrift gardens which has 
developed in the past two or three years, the importance of 
children's gardens has fortunately not been overlooked. In 
a number of cities recreation departments and school boards 
are promoting such gardens. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa, is a "garden city," and for eight 
years children's gardens have been fostered there. Last year 
approximately 2400 children had their individual plots for 
vegetables and flowers at the fourteen community gardens 
maintained under the auspices of the Playground Commis- 
sion. At the same time adults took a more active interest 
than ever before in the gardening program. Over 1,000 
families were given tracts for subsistence gardens. 

The Recreation Division of the Park Department of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, with the approval of the School Com- 
mittee and the Cambridge League of Women Voters, held a 
backyard garden contest for school children. Awards for the 

2 



best vegetables and flowers were offered at the end of 
the season by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Where 
the children could not afford to buy seeds they were given 
them. 

Gardens for the unemployed have multiplied greatly. It is 
estimated that a total of 324 acres, or more than twice the 
number used last year, will be under cultivation in the sum- 
mer of 1933 for community garden projects of the Mayor's 
Committee in Cleveland, Ohio. This will provide 6,450 in- 
dividual plots as compared with approximately 3,000 last 
year. The number of home gardens, equipment for which 
will be provided free to the city's unemployed, will be 
increased. 

Gardening should be stressed as one of the activities 
which is helping most to maintain both mental and physical 
health. For there is, in the contact with nature gardening 
gives, a source of deep satisfaction and joy. 







. 



Courtesy of Ministry of Hygiene and Physical Education, Czechoslovakia 




'Children Are Like That" 



By 

JOSETTE FRANK 



NOT so LONG ago it was accepted that the 
child's training was his parent's business, 
his "learning" was the school's, but his play 
was his own. It was his own, not by any divine 
right but rather because it was the unimportant 
remnant of his activities, with which no respon- 
sible person was particularly concerned. With the 
coming of a new philosophy of education, how- 
ever, the child's play has taken on a new dignity 
as one of the chief instruments of education itself. 
From this change of viewpoint both parents and 
teachers have come to regard play as their busi- 
ness also, with the result that children seem to be 
losing their last remaining prerogative the right 
to their own way of playing. 

Is there not seme danger that in our new-found 
concern for the "educative value of play" we may 
fail to see the woods for the trees ? What, exactly, 
do we mean by play? We cannot safely circum- 
scribe it by definitions, for play surely means dif- 
ferent things to different people. But whatever 
may be its meaning, whatever its purpose and its 
values, is not the very essence of play to be spon- 
taneous and self-chosen? 

In a summer community, a number of parents 
organized a play group for 
their children, ranging from 
seven, to ten years. The pro- 
gram was carefully planned 
and carried out by a well liked 



Miss Frank's article first appeared in 
Child Study for December 1932, an 
issue entirely devoted to a consid- 
eration of Play and Play Materials. 



A plea for the child's right at 
times to choose his play wher- 
ever and however he mayfind it. 

teacher, and on the whole the children seemed to 
enjoy the activities. There could be no doubt that 
this group successfully met many of the child- 
ren's play interests. 

It was not unusual, however, to hear a mother 
admonishing her seven-year-old, "You'd better 
stop playing now and hurry, or you'll be late for 
your play group." Or sometimes, "No, you can't 
play at home today you have to go to your play 
group." 

No room for choice or solitary play here ! Play 
was where the group was. The seasonal change 
from school in town to vacation in the country 
had merely shifted the daily schedule from "com- 
pulsory education" to "compulsory play." 

Toward the end of the summer the program of 
approved constructive activities and good physi- 
cal education closed and the group ceased to func- 
tion ; but the children, as neighbors, continued to 
play together. Left to their own resources what 
did they do? To an adult interested in seeing 
what happened when "the lid was off" the out- 
standing phenomenon was that this group of chil- 
dren, most of whom had been brought up in the 
"modern manner," promptly divided itself into 
its male and female components the girls against 
the boys. And this in a group where boys and 
girls had played together suc- 
cessfully all summer under 
supervision ! The girls took to 
trading squares of kindergar- 
ten paper, spent hours assort- 



"CHILDREN ARE LIKE THAT" 



ing and arranging their stocks, which were never 
utilized as the cutout materials for which they 
were intended. Telling secrets heretical as 
may seem was another of the girls' chief pre- 
occupations, and next in choice came games of 
parchesi and casino. The boys occupied them- 
selves with swapping treasures, quarreling about 
prerogatives, comparing their assortments o 
match covers, and generally annoying the girls 
who they seemed to consider their natural enemies. 

Food for More Thought 

One cannot draw conclusions from these and 
similar isolated observations but one is set to won- 
dering: What do children find in these seemmgb 
"useless" ways of spending their free time ways 
which certainly seem not to fit into any adult 
picture of "educative play"? And has spontan- 
eous choice no values in itself? How far is the 
adult justified in directing all of children's play 
however subtly, into more "constructive" outlets 
In the nature of modern living a certain amoun 
of adult supervision of children's activities in- 
cluding play-is inevitable. So, also, is a certain 
amount of adult help in providing the "makings 
for children's' fun substitutes for the attic, 
hay loft and the cellar door of our grandmothers 
childhood setting. We cannot expect our children 
to play in a vacuum, such as most city dwellings 
and even many suburban ones suggest from the 
child's play viewpoint. We have to offer them not 
only some place to play in but something to play 
with (possibly, but not necessarily, ready-made 
playthings) ; and along with these at least a modi 
cum of freedom from adult sanctions. In the old- 
fashioned family with its busy household such 
freedom was a matter of course; it was a rare 
mother who had time to inquire at every hot 
what each of her nine chil- 
dren was playing at. Fur- 
thermore the large family, 
whatever its faults of ex- 
ploitation of the younger 
by the older of its members, 
offered almost unlimited 
choices in the way of play- 
mates. There was the group 
available when a group was 
wanted, and there was usu- 
ally a like-minded brother 
or sister or cousin for 
chosen kinds of quiet play. 
In our modern family of 



two or less, and with our urban isolation from 
neighbors, we have also to provide our children 
with access to playmates with some range 
choice, not limited to these we adults would 1 
to have them play with. 

Putting the Grown-Up in His Place 
But all of this does not mean that we must 
continuously busy ourselves with our children's 
play It is true that children like the company of 
adults for a variety of reasons but rarely for 
play reasons. It is fun for the children some- 
times to have parents make things for them ; it i: 
fun for them to make things with parents which 
they could not make without adult help. But n 
not necessary for children always to be "making 

things." 

Adults can contribute to children s play, I 
only rarely can they truly participate. Again, 
children may like to take part in adult games 
There is a certain thrill in seeing their parei 
sometimes abandon themselves to play. For when 
parents, usually so busy with serious affairs, actx 
ally take time for the childish fun of games- 
running or jumping, baseball as skating-some- 
how their participation seems to legitimatize play. 
Evidently these adults do not regard play as a 
"waste of time." But let us not deceive ourselves 
into believing we can be playmates to our ch 
dren; normally their play is with theii own kind. 

Parents, especially the more conscientu 
among them, are often disappointed when their 
best efforts to keep their children's play "educa- 
tional" seem to fail. The mother of a nursery age 
child, having provided her four-year-old with a 
the approved blocks in generous sizes reco! 
mended to suit his large muscle activities, was 
distressed to find him absorbed in the tiny wooden 
squares of his older bro- 
ther's anagrams, painstak- 
ingly building these into 
miniature skyscrapers and 
train tracks. In a playroom 
full of the most approved 
preschool materials, these 
were his preferred play- 
things. 



"What does a child enjoy? He enjoys seeing 
things happen as a result of his octiv.ty. 
The joy a baby gets from throwing a spoon 
repeatedly to the floor may be the noise 
that he has made. When a grown person gets 
a thrill from having accomplished something 
he is experiencing the same type of joy that 
the baby with the spoon enjoys. He is, in 
the best sense, playing. Play is not a side 
issue of life reserved for children. Life itself 
is a game, beginning with the simple acts of 
childhood and increasing in complexity, but 
suffused from beginning to end with the 
attitude of play the joy of doing th.ngs. 
-John B. Morgan, in ChildStudy, December 
1932. 



Again, children will want 
exactly what we least want 
them to want. In one house- 
hold of confirmed pacifists 
a small son, well supplied 



'CHILDREN ARE LIKE THAT" 



with tools for constructive play, spends his al- 
lowance on all the varieties of toy pistols. His 
one Christmas request is for a set of soldiers and 
"'a real gun that shoots." His games, when he is 
free to choose, are all of plunger and pillage and 
warfare. Is he simply rebelling against the rigid 
pacifism of the home attitude which bars out 
everything that suggests fighting, or is he express- 
ing some personal or perhaps racial need which 
can find no other expression in his so tame 
existence ? 



The reverse of the picture is the mother who, 
from the keenly remembered pleasures of her own 
childhood, eagerly seizes upon her little girl's first 
expression of interest to buy her expensive fit- 
tings for a doll's house, and is then greatly ag- 
grieved when the child's interest in these play- 
things fails to develop further. Many such par- 
ental disappointments arise from the fact that 
certain of the child's expressions of interest are 
hailed and singled out for encouragement, either 
because they tally with our own tastes and enjoy- 
ments, or because they seem to us to hold forth 
greater promise of "constructive play" than do 
others. In our haste to consolidate the gains, we 
rush forth to buy the accessories for this particu- 
larly play activity, only to find sometimes that it 
soon gives place to some other and, from our 
point of view, less desirable kind of play. Per- 
haps we have hopefully overestimated the inter- 
est, or perhaps we have simply forgotten to allow 
for the limitations of the child's attention span. 

Very often, too, we misinterpret the child's 
true interest in what he is doing. One little girl 
persuaded a companion to walk two miles to a 
neighboring farm where, for the price of a nickel, 
a little boy would give them each a ride on his 
pony. It was, of course, a trip "without leave," 
and the parents were worried by the children's 
absence. When they returned, however, and con- 
fessed the objective of their little jaunt, the 
mother of the principal culprit decided that since 
pony rides were so alluring, legitimate pony rides 
must be provided. To her surprise, her carefully 
planned visits to a friend whose pony might be 
freely ridden brought only an indifferent re- 
sponse. A nearby brook proved more attractive. 
Perhaps, after all, it has not been the pony but 
rather the adventure that had enticed these chil- 
dren two miles from home. Perhaps it had been 
the fascination of danger, perhaps the lure of do- 
ing what they wanted when they wanted. Or per- 



haps it had been only the urge to escape the 
eternal vigilance of adults. 

One might go on citing countless examples of 
this perverse insistence of children upon liking 
to do the wrong things, or, at least, the unap- 
proved. There are the "funnies" and the Merri- 
well books, for example, which even children well 
supplied with the best literature fare devour with 
all too evident relish. There are the collections of 
divers bit of perfectly useless trash, when obvi- 
ously collections of stamps or nature specimens 
are more worth while. 

As one five-year-old naively expressed it, "Isn't 
it too bad that all the things I like aren't good for 
me!" 

This is not to say that children do not also 
enjoy many of the play activities that are ap- 
proved. But at each of the various age periods 
certain expressions find their way to the surface 
and are duly frowned upon. These range all the 
way from dawdling at six to babbling at sixteen. 
Just what may be the significance of many of 
these expressions we do not always know. We 
do know, however, that they are almost universal. 
Is not this some indication that they have their 
roots in every real need of childhood ? 

It might be argued that left to their own choices 
children might elect a diet of ice cream and cake, 
but that we, knowing better, insist they should 
have cereal and vegetables too. Nor do we leave 
it to them to decide whether they will learn arith- 
metic. We make it our business to see that they 
do. But play that is, according to our pleasant 
notion of it is not, or should not be, quite like 
arithmetic or carrots. It is a thing of the spirit, 
and its end is the satisfaction of some heart's 
desire. Does it matter if we do not know what 
that desire may be? 

Where Wishes Come True 

Whether this be thinking or dreaming, a yearn- 
ing to be apart from the crowd for awhile or an 
ardent wish to be "one of the fellows," whether 
it be an aggressive expression of developing ego 
or a retreat from action to rumination and re- 
laxation it is the child's own, it is his play. We 
will do well, perhaps, to revise our definitions of 
play to include a kind of activity or absence 
thereof which is personal and private, and 
which carries with it some inner satisfaction de- 
fying adult sanctions. 

(Continued on page 41) 






A Broader 
Concept 

of 

Physical 
Education 




Courtesy Westchester County Recreation Commission 



A basis for a more vital con- 
ception of physical education. 



By CHARLES SCOTT BERRY, Ph. D. 

Director, Bureau of Special Education 
Ohio State University 



IN ANY AGE the prevailing conception of the re- 
lation ot the mind to the body determines 
in large measure the aims and character of the 
physical education of that period. 

The Athenian Greeks believed that mind and 
body were one and inseparable, that each influ- 
enced the development of the other. No other 
intellectual and beauty-loving people has ever 
given to physical education as high a place in 
their system of education as did the Athenian 
Greeks. 

In the Republic Plato says, "Neither are the 
two arts of music and gymnastics really, as is 
often supposed, the one for the training of the 

soul, the other for the training of the body 

The teachers of both have in view chiefly the 
improvement of the soul." It was hard for the 
Athenian Greek to think of a beautiful spirit ex- 
isting in any but a beautiful body. Homely 
Socrates was the anomaly of his age. Almost 
without exception the great men of Greece were 
men of magnificent physiques. Greece alone, 
during the period of the "Golden Age," produced 
more great men than the whole world combined 
has produced during any subsequent period of 
equal length. There can be little doubt that the 
greatness of the Greeks was due, in some mea- 
sure at least, to their conception of the relation 



of the mind to the body as it found expression in 
physical, aesthetic, and intellectual education. 

During the Middle Ages the view of the rela- 
tion of the mind to the body as held by the 
Church was in marked contrast to that of the 
Greeks. Influenced by the ascetic element in 
Christianity and by oriental thought the Church 
regarded the body as an evil, as something to be 
suppressed -in order that the spirit might be un- 
trammeled. Hence the practice of asceticism, the 
crucifixion of the flesh that the spirit might be 
free. The self-inflicted tortures of the body dur- 
ing that period are almost beyond belief. Need- 
less to say, physical education as such had no 
place in the system of education approved by the 
Church. 

The period of the Middle Ages has been well 
named the Dark Ages, the era when man was at 
war with himself. It is not surprising that for 
almost 800 years there was little or no progress. 

Although the Church's conception of the re- 
lation of the mind to the body was tempered by 
the Renaissance, physical education' as such held 
a lowly place until after the beginning of the 
modern scientific era. 

With the development of modern science the 
conception of the relation of the mind to the body 
changed in a marked degree. The old view that 



A BROADER CONCEPT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 



the mind was in large measure independent of the 
body and that the body was evil was supplanted 
by the view that the relation between the mind 
and body is most intimate, that for every mental 
state there is a corresponding brain state, and that 
in the words of William James, "our moods and 
resolutions are more determined by the condition 
of our circulation than by our logical grounds." 

Physiology has shown the marked influence of 
the ductless glands in both physical and mental 
development. Psychiatry has revealed the futility 
of attempting to submerge or destroy fundamen- 
tal urges. And behavioristic psychology has di- 
rected the attention away from the traditional 
dualism of mind and body to their essential unity 
as expressed in behavior. 

We now have a sound, scientific foundation 
for a broader and more vital conception of phy- 
sical education. If tnis conception is accepted, 
the chief aim of physical education becomes the 
development of the mind through the develop- 
ment of the body rather than merely the develop- 
ment of the body as an end in itself. Thus, in 
position of importance physical education be- 
comes coordinate with, and not subordinate to, 
so-called academic or intellectual education. 

Since feelings and ideas find expression only 
through muscular activity, obviously the proper 
development of the muscles of the body is of par- 
amount importance in the education of the indi- 
vidual. The growth -of the mind is contingent 
on muscular activity, the type of activity that 
makes possible the objectification and intensifica- 
tion of mental states. Physical education funda- 
mentally seeks to make possible the full and free 
expression of mental states through the develop- 
ment of the body. 

But in practice what is the meaning of this 
broader conception, that physical education is 
chiefly concerned with the development of the 
mind ? In the first place, it means that some of 
the by-products .of physical education now be- 
come major objectives. The acquisition of 
strength, endurance and 
skill ceases to be merely 
an end in itself but be- 
comes rather a means to 
the development of cer- 
tain mental traits. A good 
illustration of this is found 
in the changes which have 
taken place in intercolleg- 
iate sports during the past 



This conception of physical education which 
defines its chief objective as the development 
of the mind through the development of the 
body, rather than merely the development of 
the body as an end in itself, was presented by 
Dr. Berry before the annual convention of the 
Mid-West Physical Education Association at 
Columbus, Ohio. It is reprinted from the 
Journal if Health and Physical Education for 
September, 1932. 



two decades. In football, for example, the rules 
have been changed repeatedly to make victory 
depend more on the development of strategy, in- 
itiative, resourcefulness, team work, and con- 
formity to the rules ; and less on weight, brute 
strength, and evasion of the rules. A reputation 
for good sportsmanship is now more highly prized 
than victory attained by questionable methods. 

It is said of one "big ten" football coach that 
he has done more to develop desirable character 
traits in players on the football field than any 
professor has been able to accomplish in the class- 
room. In fact, we are just beginning to perceive 
the possibilities of games and sports as a means 
to the development of those mental traits which 
are of such vital importance in an age of coopera- 
tive effort. 

The possibilities of physical education as a 
means to emotional expression or interpretation 
are beautifully illustrated in the folk dance. The 
satisfaction that comes from full participation in 
this dance is due, not to gesture and rhythm as 
such, but to the participation in the emotional life 
of the race which is made possible by the gesture 
and rhythm. However, to realize the desired end 
one must know the racial significance, the emo- 
tional and ideational background of these dances. 
Just as history enables one to experience the 
ideational life of the past, so the folk dance en- 
ables him to experience the emotional life of the 
past. 

In games, sports and folk dancing, the teach- 
ers of physical education are now aiming more 
or less consciously at the development and ex- 
pression of mental states ; but in the physical 
drills and exercises of the classroom and gym- 
nasium the chief aim seems to be the maintenance 
or improvement of health. In fact, the term 
"health education" in many places is used instead 
of "physical education" to indicate that physical 
education as such is not an end in itself but rather 
a means to the improvement of health. 

Health, like happiness, can be found only in 
seeking something else. 
Health education does not 
touch the imagination of 
youth. The drills and ex- 
ercises which are under- 
taken solely for health are 
almost universally dislik- 
ed. There is no more 
pathetic figure than the 
normal individual labor- 



A BROADER CONCEPT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 




Courtesy San Francisco Recreation Commission 



iously working on the 
pulleys or taking a set- 
ting-up drill or running 
a half mile solely for the 

sake of his health (unless it is that brute for pun- 
ishment who conscientiously eats all the foods he 
dislikes because they are supposed to be good for 
his health). It is mental, not physical, health that 
is the major goal and this goal can be attained 
only by directing the attention of youth to ap- 
pealing objectives which lead to mental health. 

But the objectives must be positive, not nega- 
tive, if they are to appeal to normal youth. Good 
posture is most successfully attained by empha- 
sizing the desirable effects of good posture, not 
by stressing the bad effects of poor posture. In 
the case of the cadet who desires a fine military 
bearing, setting-up exercises and military drill 
quickly yield permanent results. But in the case 
of the unwilling recruit these same exercises yield 
results less quickly and the results are seldom 
permanent. 

Thus far our discussion has been confined in 
large measure to the development and function- 
ing of the fundamental or large muscles in their 
relation to mental development and to health. As 
yet the education of the accessory or small mus- 
cles has not been regarded as belonging to the 
field of physical education except in so far as 



Folk dancing affords an outstanding illustration 
of the possibilities of physical education as a 
means to emotional expression or interpretation. 



their development was 
involved in connection 
with that of the funda- 
mental muscles. The 

training of the accessory muscles as avenues of 
expression has either been neglected or left to the 
teachers of voice, piano, speech and vocational 
subjects. It would seem that the basic training 
of the accessory muscles as muscles of expres- 
sion belongs in the field of physical education and 
should take place in connection with the training 
of the fundamental muscles. 

A fine bearing, a pleasant and expressive coun- 
tenance, ease and grace in movement, muscular 
and emotional control, well modulated voice, 
graceful and expressive gestures these things 
which so largely condition happiness and success 
result from the proper training of the accessory 
muscles. 

But if this desired end is to be attained, some 
changes must be made in the modern gymnasium. 
Its apparatus parallel bars, mats, horse, hori- 
zontal bar, pllleys and dumbbells suggests stren- 
uous physical exercise as an end in itself. One 
perceives the odor of perspiring bodies but does 
not feel the breath of the spirit. 

If the chief aim of physical education is to be 
the improvement of the mind, let us bring into 
(Continued on page 41) 



Activities for Unemployed 
and Unoccupied 
Young People 



A demonstration in county-wide 
cooperation for the unemployed 



Last fall the Westchester County Children's Asso- 
ciation, aware of the dangers to boys and girls in 
enforced idleness, and realizing the aid existing 
community forces might give, drew up plans to help 
meet the emergency. From a conference of repre- 
sentatives of schools and social and civic agencies 
there developed the County Committee on Youth 
Emergency Activities with the following objectives: 
to report to all communities daytime activities suc- 
cessfully initiated in any center, and to focus com- 
munity-wide attention on the need and stimulate 
community support for local agencies attempting to 
meet the need. We are presenting here abstracts 
from the report dealing especially with program 
suggestions. 



ON EVERY HAND comes the suggestion that the 
public schools are in the most strategic 
position to render a service which will 
combat the present unfortunate conditions. With 
their trained staff, organized program and exten- 
sive facilities located in every community, the 
schools must be looked to for help in the present 
emergency. At the same time, one is aware of the 
insistent demand everywhere for reduction in 
public budgets including the budgets of the public 
schools. The problem, then, which now confronts 
us, is the need of increased use of school facilities 
at a time when there is a tremendous need to cut 
down expenses. 

Certainly the necessity of curtailing public ex- 
penditures should not deter us from a careful ex- 
amination of our own community needs and our 
obligation to our young people at this time. Are 
the taxpayers, who in many localities are now ex- 
erting pressure on boards of education to reduce 
budgets, aware of the small annual saving ef- 
fected by refusing the free use of the school 
buildings for after school and evening recreation 
activities, and of the crucial need at this moment 
that these activities be carried on? The added 
cost to the schools of rendering these essential 
services is inconsequential in relation to the whole 
of the school's budget. Before dismissing, because 
of possible financial implications, other sugges- 



tions of what the schools may do, each suggestion 
needs to be examined carefully in relation to its 
cost. 

During the war our public schools arose to the 
emergency then existing, rendering unprecedented 
services. These included the use of school facili- 
ties for various needed purposes. The staffs of 
teachers and school administrators, in view of the 
emergency, on every hand volunteered their extra 
time. Teachers, who are more conscious of the 
present emergency of youth than any others, will 
with other citizens in a similar way respond to 
the present need and volunteer their services 
wherever they may be helpful. There are many 
instances of additional burdens now being carried 
by teachers in the present emergency. 

The availability of unemployed who have the 
necessary background to perform satisfactory 
work as leaders of youth under the emergency 
work relief provided by the state, may offer an 
opportunity to schools and other community 
agencies to provide educational services which 
otherwise would be costly. Recently in New York 
City a program of continuation education was in- 
augurated which is handled entirely by men and 
women from specialized fields who were unem- 
ployed and who have been certified to work as 
teachers by the Emergency Work Bureau. They 
are compensated out of appropriations made by 



10 



ACTIVITIES FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE 



SSi "**? fl 



the state and municipality tor work relief. The 
extra cost to the schools of conducting this work 
is therefore very small. 

A faculty of 285 has been chosen. This group 
includes architects, engineers, artists, accountants, 
dieticians, nurses, business experts and agricul- 
tural and industrial technicians. A substantial 
proportion of the work offered is in retainer or 
refresher courses to persons who wish further 
training in line with their regular occupation. 
More than 5,000 individuals registered on the 
first day classes were opened. Commercial courses 
were most in demand, with general courses in 
literature, dramatics, sociology and the sciences 
second. Home-making, trade and art classes fol- 
lowed in that order. 

In cities and districts of Westchester County it 
is possible that a similar 
program may be inaugu- 
rated. Through an ex- 
isting arrangement be- 
tween the County Emer- 
gency Work Bureau and 
the County Recreation 
Commission, many capa- 
ble workers have been 
assigned to the various 
village recreation com- 
missions and public 
schools to assist with 
their programs and en- 
able them to inaugurate 
new work. It is possible 
to have this plan much more 
widely adopted, for such an 
assignment might be made 

similarly to any school principal who would un- 
dertake to sponsor such an informal piece of edu- 
cational work. It is hoped that in the several 
cities, each of which has its separate work bureau, 
this plan will be more widely used. 

Although we are here recommending the use of 
volunteer service of the employed teachers and 
the use of work releif service of the unemployed, 
we look upon that method of securing needed pro- 
grams as an unfortunate and temporary make- 
shift and urge public support which will enable 
school boards and other public departments to 
make necessary additions to staff in the regular 
way as quickly as possible. We should regret any 
action on the part of public departments which 
resulted in the transfer of legitimate public jobs 
to the relief status. 



Courtesy Extension Division, Milwaukee Public Schools 



Schools will vary greatly as to the kind of as- 
sistance they can offer these older boys and girls. 
This committee has therefore made a number of 
suggestions with full realization that no school 
will be able to follow all, but in the hope that in 
localities in which the problem is more or less 
acute, some additional work for this group may 
be undertaken by the schools. 

How the Schools May Help 
The following is a list of definite ways in which 
schools may assist in providing educational and 
recreational opportunities for boys and girls who 
are not now in the public schools and who are in 
need of assistance : 

i. Offer day courses to those over 16 years 
which will attract the unemployed back to school. 

In order to interest not 
only graduates but also 
those who left school in 
the lower grades, to re- 
turn for training, there 
is a need to supplement 
the traditional courses. 
These courses should be 
on an elective basis. No 
attempt should be made 
to force these students 
to go on with academic 
work. Enrollment should 
be permitted at any time 



'::l I I ! 



The lighted schoolhouse a need in every 
community, and never more essential than 
in the emergency all cities now confront. 



and discontinuance of at- 
tendance allowed at the 
pleasure of the student. 
Courses should have a large 
degree of recreational con- 
tent and should permit students to explore their 
interests and develop their abilities under guid- 
ance. The following activities, which have been 
conducted in various school systems, might be 
given as courses or offered as a club program 
similar to that carried on in a modern junior high 
school : 

Shops wood work In these classes pupils should be 

encouraged to work on orders they might secure, 

, broken furniture in need of repair, and otherwise 

given freedom in choice of job. 
Electrical shop. 
Machine shop. 

Automobile repair Material to start this work could 
undoubtedly be secured from local garages at practi- 
cally no expense. 

Printing Second-hand equipment in good condition may 
now be secured at a very low cost. 



ACTIVITIES FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE 



11 



Radio. 

Art Drawing and painting cartoon drawing. 
Commercial Art. 

Metal Crafts Pewter, wrought iron, brass and copper. 
Material and equipment sufficient for use of a class of 
ten may be secured for $25. 
Interior decoration. 
Photography 
Modeling and sculpture. 
Leather craft. 

Music Orchestra, band, chorus. 
Dramatics. 

Commercial Typing, stenography, bookkeeping. In sev- 
eral places typewriters have been made available for 
certain periods during the day to those who wish to 
keep in practice. Informal classes are held in which 
one pupil gives dictation to another. 
English usage. 
Sewing. 

Cooking Including catering. 
Dietetics. 

Home nursing It has been suggested that local hos- 
pitals might lend the unit needed to begin this work. 
Shoe repair. 
Astronomy. 
Botany. 
Biology. 
Debating. 
Aeronautics. 
Ship model making. 

Sales and exhibits might be held in connection 
with many of these classes, returns from which 
would help cover the cost of equipment and bring 
a small income to the pupils themselves. This has 
been accomplished very successfully for nearly a 
year in a woodworking class held at the West- 
chester Work Shop. 

It is highly desirable, of course, 
that these activities be held dur- 
ing the day time. In case the 
school is filled to capacity during 
the hours of regular session, it 
may be possible to conduct this 
work immediately following 
school dismissal in the afternoon. 
2. Make a follow-up of all 
drop-outs and recent graduates 
to find out what they are now do- 
ing and attract those who are 
idle back to school to a program 
which will interest them. In 
some cases cards are sent out by 
the school. In this way a con- 
tact is made and the young peo- 
ple are consulted in the forma- 
tion of new classes. It rpay be pos- 
sible to reach these former pupils 
by formation of alumni groups. 



Recently in two cities in the county postcards 
were sent out, in one instance signed by the school 
superintendent, to those whom inquiry through 
the schools indicated to be unemployed. It was 
stated that the board of education was anxious 
to know if there were any service the schools 
could render at this time. Individuals were asked 
to return an attached card if they wish to come 
to the school for an interview. They were also 
asked to check from a list given any course which 
interested them. Those listed included : 
Art Jewelry, hammered metal, weaving. 
Personal grooming- Hair dressing, manicuring. 
Sewing Including costume design. 
Home nursing. Printing. 

Dietetics. Machine shop. 

Dramatics. Electrical shop. 

Music. Auto repair. 

Commercial art. Commercial. 

Bookbinding 

Immediate replies indicate a demand for elec- 
trical work, auto repair, printing, proof reading, 
machine shop, typing and chorus work. 

3. Interview all prospective graduates to en- 
courage their return to school if they have no 
job's to go to and are not going to college. 

4. Offer recreational night school classes for 
those not enrolled in day school. These may 
include : 

Music appreciation. 
Art appreciation. 
Choral singing. 

In the Milwaukee school centers music is 
an activity the older boys are enjoying. 




12 



ACTIVITIES FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE 



Orchestra and band. 
Languages 
Physical training 

(through games) 
Crafts. 
Home-making. 

The conventional college 
preparatory objective of 
night schools should to a 
great extent yield place at 
this time to a vocational and 

recreational objective. There are several unfor- 
tunate instances in which what may surely be 
termed a short-sighted policy was adopted in 
cutting from the program all work which was not 
being taken for academic credit. 

5. Offer programs of free entertainment in the 
auditorium and gymnasium, open to all, taking 
care that those unemployed receive a special in- 
vitation. Every community possesses sufficient 
talent available without cost, if someone will take 
initiative and organize the occasions for its use. 
These may include : 

Concerts (school and outside musicians). 

Motion pictures (inexpensive educational pictures can 
'be obtained). 

Play Nights in the gym (volley ball, shuffle board, ping- 
pong, chess, checkers, folk dancing, etc.) 

Athletic contests without admission charge. 

Lectures. 

Drama. 

Community Singing. 

Public Forums. 

Dancing. 

6. Adopt a policy favorable to promotion of 
leisure time activities and organization of groups 
for the pursuit of common recreational interests 
through the schools, relating all departments of 
instruction to this task. This is surely a step in 
advance of the widely accepted policy of merely 
permitting the use of school facilities to com- 
munity groups on permit issued after some dif- 
ficulty and in many cases after a fee has been paid. 

7. Where financial limitations or public opin- 
ion do not permit so progressive a policy as stated 
above, it is recommended that more leniency be 
exercised to non-profit activity groups in grant- 
ing use of facilities and that the whole procedure 
of granting permission be facilitated and that such 
groups be not merely tolerated but extended a 
welcome. 

8. Where an official community recreation com- 
mission exists in any community, work out in 
joint conference a cooperative plan for serving 
the community in recreation. 



In Wisconsin the educational leaders are do- 
ing what they can to enroll jobless young 
men for postgraduate courses in high schools, 
for work in the University Extension Divi- 
sion correspondence courses. In some com- 
munities special work at the high school has 
been arranged for such students. In such 
times as these study and reading become 
a very important form of "recreation activity." 
The Survey. 



Recreational or Leisure 
Time Activities Conduct- 
ed by Agencies Other 
Than Schools 



The term " recreation," 
as applied to the activities 
of most character building 
agencies, at the present 
time definitely includes edu- 
cational and social objectives as well as those 
commonly thought of as recreational in a more 
limited sense. In most communities much of this 
work is conducted by agencies other than the 
school. Unfortunately not every community in 
the county has even one trained recreation leader. 
In those localities in which there are recreation 
directors and a recreation commission, the more 
alert groups have become very conscious that in 
a year of decreased budgets there is a larger 
crowd at their doors and that this group is not 
there alone in the evening but has the entire day 
on its hands. 

Recreation directors can scarcely be expected 
to handle this unusual demand without some ad- 
ditional aid from the community. This year, while 
we cannot readily get donations of money to 
start much needed new projects, we can, we are 
finding more and more, get donations of time and 
volunteer service from individuals of high stand- 
ing in business, professional and artistic circles 
who have time to give and want to help. 

Since communities in the county vary so in 
size, in the number of existing facilities, such as 
schools public and quasi-public recreational 
agencies and centers, libraries, in size of unem- 
ployment problem and in their awareness of this 
problem, it is evident that no one program, how- 
ever carefully worked out, could be adopted or 
found to be useful in all places. 

There are, however, two general aspects of this 
problem common to all communities on which 
local recreation directors and interested groups 
have stated that suggestions would be helpful : 

1. What is the best method of getting in touch 
with these young people who are not now partici- 
pating in any program? 

2. What additional activities can be offered by 
an existing recreation staff, other community 
agencies or by volunteer talent? 

MEANS OF MAKING CONTACY 

It is true that enlisting unemployed young 



ACTIVITIES FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE 



13 



people for daytime activities presents new prob- 
lems even for the seasoned recreation director. 
While some of the boys are to be found around 
pool halls, "speakeasies" and other loitering places, 
many simply remain at home or wander about the 
county hitching rides, and some, due to an already 
long period of idleness, have developed inertia. 
A great number of them are disturbed and rest- 
less, and some are bitter because of the pressing 
need of work and of making a financial contribu- 
tion to their homes. For these reasons, it is often 
with some difficulty that those most in need of 
profitable activity are reached. 

Experience has resulted in the following sug- 
gestions for procedure : 

It is well to secure by means of a canvass the 
number of boys and girls out of work in the com- 
munity, and their names. In several places house 
to house counts have been made, in some agencies 
have contributed names of those known to them, 
and in others children in school have been asked 
to give the names of their older brothers and sis- 
ters not employed. To avoid delay in starting, it 
may be well to set up a number of activities which 
have been found to be of interest to this age 
group and to invite participation by sending post- 
cards or telephoning to those whose names have 
been secured. Notices may be sent to the papers, 
to welfare agencies, police or other groups of in- 
dividuals having contact with these young peo- 
ple. Posters should be placed in public places and 
in loitering places. 

Personal contact, it has been found, will reach 
many who will not respond to other approaches. 
The most successful method of organizing new 
groups is by seeking out several natural leaders 
and interesting each in- 
dividually in getting a 
group together for some 
activity desired by them. 

One plan initiated by 
the committee as a means 
of enrolling numbers of 
these boys and girls in a 
daytime activity is the 
announcement of a series 
of county- wide tourna- 
ments to be held in the 
afternoon in ping-pong, 
shuffle board, deck ten- 
nis and checkers. The 
local tournaments, the 
first of which will be 



ping-pong, will be sponsored by local recreation 
commissions. Giving county-wide announcement 
to these activities, it is felt, will serve to give im- 
petus to the local programs and interest addi- 
tional young people to enroll who can later be 
directed to other activities. Two recreation di- 
rectors have reported an immediate response to 
newspaper items, posters and bulletin board and 
conversational announcements of the ping-pong 
tournament. 

As a guide to communities in determining the 
recreation interests of this group and as a basis 
in forming a program, an organization conduct- 
ing research in the county has worked out the 
following very helpful questionnaire which is now 
being used in several localities. 

Name Address 

Occupation 

Under 25 25-40 Over 40 

Would you be interested in any further training? 

Yes No If yes, what kind? 

What do you now do for amusement or recreation ? . . . . 

If nothing, what do you do with your spare time?.... 

What is the best time you have had in the past year ? . . . 

If there were a center in your neighborhood, would you 
be interested in : 

1. Place to read Yes No 

2. Free movies Yes No 

3. Free shows a. Taking part Yes No 

b. Attending Yes No 

Participation 



Westchester County provides recreation for mothers 
and children as well as older boys and girls. 




Courtesy Westchester County Recreation Commission 



14 



ACTIVITIES FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE 



4. 


Game rooms 








Checkers 


Yes. 


...No. 




Chess 


Yes. 


...No. 




Cards 


Yes. 


...No. 




Ping-Pong 


Yes. 


...No. 




Shuffle board 


Yes. 


...No. 




Pool 


Yes. 


...No. 



5. Boxing and wrestling and bas- 

ketball, etc.: 

a. Participation Yes . . No . . 

b. Attending Yes.. No.. 

6. Community singing: 

a. Participation Yes . . No . . 

b. Attending Yes . . No . . 

7. Orchestras: 

a. Participation Yes.. No.. 

b. Attending Yes.. No.. 



What Must Be Conserved in Times 
of Crisis ? 

Morale. By strengthening fellowship and 
neighborliness in many groups each week. 

Self-Respect. By aiding and stimulating 
every effort toward self-help. 

Courage. By giving opportunities for 
thought and action. 

Youth. By furnishing normal recreation- 
al and group activities, and keeping in 
school as many as possible. 

Childhood. By lifting some of the burden 
from childish shoulders and giving oppor- 
tunity for play and normal development. 



Instrument From Chicago Commons. 

8. Arts and crafts : 

Weaving Yes No 

Carpentry Yes. . . .No. . . . 

Sewing Yes. . . .No. . . . 

Reconstruction of toys Yes No 

Other activities 

In one community in which this questionnaire 
was filled out for some 28 unemployed, the an- 
swers to the question for what they did for 
amusement were as follows : 

(1) 9: reading (5) 5: visiting 

(2) 8: nothing (6) 3: walking 

(3) 8: athletic games (7) 2: movies 

(4) 5 : cards (8) 1 : dancing 

The following activities in the order of the 
times they were checked represent what this 
group would like to have if a recreational center 
were available: 



Free shows 28 

Take part 13 

Attend 15 

Free movies 25 

Place to read 22 

Community singing 22 

Basketball, wrestling, 

boxing 20 

Take part 13 

Attend 14 



Cards 18 

Orchestras 18 

Take part 2 

Attend 16 

Arts and crafts 14 

Pool 12 

Checkers 11 

Ping-pong 9 

Shuffle board 7 

Chess 3 



SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 

Certain games have been found to be of special 
interest to this age group. At the weekly Play 
Night at the County Center in White Plains, 
under the auspices of the Westchester County 
Recreation Commission and attended largely by 
young people under 21 years of age, game prefer- 
ences in order of their popularity were as follows : 
Boys 

1. Volley ball. 

2. Ping-pong. 

3. Shuffle board and checkers. 

4. Folk songs dancing (piano volunteer). 



5. Badminton and chess. 

6. Archery. 

Girls 

1. Ping-pong. 

2. Volley ball. 

3. Shuffle board. 

4. Folk dances. 

5. Checkers. 

6. Archery and Badminton. 

7. Chess. 

In many communities, 
there are a number of private 
and possibly public agencies 
approaching the use of lei- 
sure time from different an- 
gles. A well-rounded day- 
time program might be 
worked out if each were to 
contribute a special type of activity by plan. 

While active games form an important part of 
the schedule of any recreation agency, many cen- 
ters are offering or could offer in addition, the 
following: clubs and classes in radio, chorus, 
public speaking and dramatics, current events, 
orchestra, music appreciation, leaders' training, 
bowling, wrestling. There might also be forums, 
debates and discussion groups, talks on various 
topics for example, a vocational series con- 
ducted by volunteer speakers who are experts in 
their various lines, hikes and planned trips to 
museums. Volunteer service for transportation 
should be available. In some centers typewriters 
have been made available to secretarial workers 
who practice .regularly to retain their skill. 

There has never been a greater need for in- 
dividual counselling service for young people 
than at this time. The understanding leader with 
experience in dealing with boys and girls can con- 
tribute immeasurably to the present stability and 
future welfare of those with whom he can confer 
individually. So many are confused and at a loss 
to know what to choose, even among training 
possibilities. It is especially urgent now that such 
a service be provided in connection with such an 
educational program. 

Rooms belonging to fraternal and patriotic 
orders, volunteer fire companies, churches, are 
often not in use during the day. A present can- 
vass of such facilities would undoubtedly provide 
additional meeting places. 

What Some Communities Have Done 
IN ONE LOCALITY 

A Youth Emergency Committee was formed to 
consider the special problems of these unemployed 



ACTIVITIES FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE 



15 



young people. The committee was composed of 
representatives from the Recreation Commission, 
local branch of the Westchester County Chil- 
dren's Association, schools, police, Y. M. C. A., 
Y. W. C. A., Emergency Work Bureau and 
churches. Each member brought to the group the 
special information that his organization had of 
the situation. The planning of a program to take 
care of these unemployed boys and girls was then 
undertaken by this group. The following ac- 
complishments have been reported : 

At the request of this committee a census of 
unemployed young people was made under the 
direction of the local Citizens' Work Bureau. The 
names secured were checked by the committee 
and those not known to any recreation agency 
were sought out. 

Two basketball teams have been organized and 
are using during the day club rooms offered by 
three members of the committee. 

The Recreation Commission paid unemployed 
boys to insulate and paint the attic of a house be- 
ing used for their craft shop. The furnishings 
were donated and woodwork benches discarded 
by the school were given them. This is now being 
used as a club room by the Junior Achievement 
Wood Work Company. 

An apartment rented by an interested individual 
and donated for use is now the daytime head- 
quarters for girls' groups sponsored by the Rec- 
reation Commission. 

IN ANOTHER COMMUNITY 

The local Recreation Commission opened a 
building a year ago for daytime activities. Present 
enrollment, secured through friends of boys and 
girls participating in evening programs, is now 
reaching several hundred a day. The director is 
utilizing the services of several people secured 
through the County Emergency Work Bureau. 
One of these workers is conducting an art class 
in which 22 people are enrolled and painting from 
models. A second individual is conducting a toy 
repair shop. Another is giving instruction in 
weaving seven looms are busy three days a week 
and there is a waiting list of six. An adult 
archery group is forming a junior class and is 
offering free instruction. Community singing is 
being conducted under the direction of a volun- 
teer. There has been much demand for this. 

A junior boxing group is being formed under 
the direction of a volunteer who is an amateur. 

Activities which have been most popular there 



are basketball and other gymnasium activities; 
shuffle board; ping-pong; cards (pinochle, 
bridge) ; checkers (four-handed) ; darts. 

With many activities going full tilt throughout 
the day in what are now crowded quarters, one is 
impressed with the orderliness of the various 
groups, their courtesy toward each other and con- 
centration on the task in hand. 

The contribution which this communuity is 
making to the welfare of these young people is 
obviously considerable. 

Use of Volunteer Talent 

There has not been a time in recent years in 
which such a number of talented and capable 
people have some unemployed time and a real de- 
sire to be of help in their communities. We are 
learning that there are many such valuable com- 
munity assets which we have not begun to call on 
or possibly to ascertain. It has been the experi- 
ence of many that people who were often "too 
busy" when previously called on, now feel a real 
obligation to be of service. There are in every 
locality individuals with talent in music, dramatics 
and art who may be appealed to help with this 
special problem, so play equipment is being 
donated or loaned on request. There are un- 
doubtedly many young owners of small moving 
picture machines who might have unusual vaca- 
tion pictures they would be glad to show. 

In several instances adult clubs have under- 
taken to sponsor junior groups, supplying leader- 
ship and equipment. This has been done by choral 
clubs and an archery group. 

Can the Libraries Be of Further Help? 

A very stimulating program which might be 
initiated by local libraries was submitted by a 
librarian in the county. The report stated in part : 

"We have to offer 

"i. A place to read books and magazines. 

"2. A place to meet to hear lectures, speakers 
and see exhibits." 

Can the libraries not initiate talks by talented 
people in the community architects, artists, mu- 
sicians, writers, story tellers as well as talks by 
business men on vocations? These could be held 
in the library whenever there is an available room 
accompanied by book lists and displays on the 
subjects to be shown at the time of the lecture. 
In this way, potential users of the library could 
(Continued on page 42) 



How to Produce a Play 



By JACK STUART KNAPP 

National Recreation Association 



Poise, patience, perse- 
verence - the "three p's" 
of play production. 



In this issue of "Recreation" we present 
the first of a series of articles prepar- 
ed by Mr. Knapp on the arts and crafts 
of play production for the inexperienced 
director, forming in their entirety a pat- 
tern for the direction of a play. It is not 
to be assumed that these articles will 
tell of the only method of production 
possible. There are many ways of produc- 
ing a play. A great many successful 
directors, however, follow the pattern 
drawn by these articles, most of them 
unconsciously. Experience, plus trial and 
error, has shown them there are certain 
logical steps to take and certain rules 
to follow. 



THE ENTIRE production of a play lies in the 
hands of the director. He is all important 
and he must have certain qualifications to fill 
his position with honor. 

First, he must be a leader and have the power 
of getting other people to do what he wants them 
to do. Many people who know a great deal about 
the theatre could never direct a play because at 
the second rehearsal they would not have a cast. 
One essential of leadership for a play director is 
to know his business and know that he knows it, 
at the same time keeping human and humane, 
avoiding arrogance and self-satisfaction like the 
plague. 

The director must continually practise the 
"three P's" of play production poise, patience, 
and perseverance. At the conclusion of two pro- 
ductions he will have attained them, or else he 
will be seeking refuge in the nearest sanatorium ! 
The amateur actor acts only because he loves to 
act ; he isn't being paid. Scolding, nagging, shout- 
ing on the part of the director destroy the pleasure 
of the actor and defeat their own purpose. 

The successful director must love the theatre 
and its work so sincerely that it becomes contag- 
ious, filling the actors with a desire to do their 
utmost to make the production a great success. 

He need not be an actor, but he should have an 
appreciation of the art of acting and know the 
simpler technique upon which the actor builds 
his art. 

He must know the fundamentals of stagecraft, 
know something about make-up, lighting, scenery 

16 



and costuming. He need not be an expert on each 
one, but he should know the fundamentals of 
each in order to guide that phase of the 
production. 

Two Fundamental Principles 
There are two general principles followed by 
practically every successful director. The first one 
is very brief, very simple, but hard for some 
people to understand. It is simply this the 
director directs. 

The word "director" means the person who is 
directing. He is the "big boss," the final authority 
on all things. The director should make this clear 
to his actors, not at the first rehearsal but at the 
time of casting. Incidentally, he is the only one 
who directs. A play with too many directors is 
usually like the broth with too many cooks. He 
must keep a certain amount of discipline at re- 
hearsals. The good director is respected and liked 
by his actors sufficiently to do this without un- 
pleasantness. He should insist upon the follow- 
ing points : 

1. Actors must do as told during the rehearsal. 
If they have suggestions, they make them after 
rehearsal. If accepted by the director, they can 
be incorporated at the next rehearsal. 

2. Rehearsals 'must start on time. If only one 
actor is present the director can read lines op- 
posite him until others arrive. Do not penalize 
those who come on time for those who come late. 
This will soon cure tardiness. 

(Continued on page 42) 



Today's Nature Education 

and 

Tomorrow's Leisure 



By WILLIAM GOULD VINAL 

Western Reserve University 



We may all of us share in the "four-H" 
objectives of the new nature education- 
healthful, helpful, happy, homely lives. 



How SHALL the nature education of today 
with its lingering ambition for facts chained 
to the pickled and desiccated biology of the 
past be turned into service for the community 
needs of tomorrow? 

The present loafers are those unfortunate in- 
dividuals of yesterday who have not prepared for 
today's leisure time. Curbstone idling exists today 
because a vast army of the unemployed cannot 
turn toward nature recreation. They are hangers- 
to-the-curbstone because they are not conscious 
that there is anything interesting just beyond the 
curbstone. In contrast, there is a much smaller 
body of men trained and equipped for leisure who 
in their early youth were infected with nature 
longings, and are not ''killing time." 



If anyone had acted twenty years ago as though 
leisure, recreation or play could exist in biology, 
physics or chemistry, he would have been dealt 
with severely. The progressive nature study 
teachers of today will see to it that children are 
habituated in the enjoyment of parks, radios, 
museums, camps, forests, fields, gardens and 
streams in school days, that they may enjoy all 
these pleasures in post-school days. To many 
teachers of elementary science this movement will 
necessitate a drastic change in methods, talents 
and content. 



Joyful participation in activities out-of-doors 
is a highly desirable form of nature education. 




17 



18 



TODAY'S NATURE EDUCATION AND TOMORROWS LEISURE 



The depression is a change. 
We will always have change. 
To change is one of nature's 
laws. Naturalists more than 
any other people realize that 
any change in the environ- 
ment means a corresponding 
change in the organisms in 
that environment. If gravity 
should change three pounds 
it would become necessary to 
change our baseball fields, 
athletic records, stadiums, 
barometers, airplanes, blood 
pressure, muscles, nerve tis- 
sue, school methods and 
everything else. There are those who believe that 
the depression is of enough gravity to merit the 
thought of scientists as a whole, and of nature 
teachers in particular. Those teachers who can 
adapt themselves to the change will be the most 
successful. The mastodon did not meet the 
change. He is no more. Science teachers cannot 
afford to be mastodons ! 

The New Nature Education 

The new nature education is the training of 
individuals in present day nature activities. It is 
not participation in the whole gamut of nature 
knowledge although knowledge may be an im- 
portant by-product. Nature recreation, nature 
conservation and natural laws fundamental to 
health, are conspicuous activities in modern so- 
ciety. The classification of the 575,000 kinds of 
animals, the conjugation of algae, the malpighian 
tubules and tracheal systems fade rapidly in the 
absence of dictation. 

With the passing of the recitation there is 
emerging what may be termed the "four-H" ob- 
jectives which may be stated in one sentence as 
healthful, helpful, happy, homely lives. Helpful 
nature activities mean good citizenship in the 
back yards, in the parks and along the roadway. 
Happy objectives mean the full enjoyment of 
what nature has to offer in these places, and 
homely lives mean home hobbies with no aim 
beyond the sheer joy of doing. As graduates we 
earn the degree of HG, Health (or Handyman 
or what will you) in the Garden; KB, Keeper of 
Bees, or GF, Glad Faddist. And if these special 
science diversions do not function there are thou- 
sands of others with enough of adventure, mys- 



"Life is much as it was in the days when 
Keats 'Stood tiptoe upon a little hill/ 
and Whitman sang 'What is this you bring, 
my America?' The old sources of ecstasy 
still endure-nature, the achievements of 
men, and the satisfactions of friends and 
lovers. What have we done to our young 
people, that they cannot see and feel it 
for themselves? We have stifled their 
Imaginations. The source of the emotions 
lies In the Imagination, and we, in our 
mad pursuit of efficiency and science, are 
neglecting the old, unchanging world, the 
source of sustenance, the imagination." 
Frances Clarke Sayers in "The World That 
Does Not Change," Bulletin of the 
American Library Association. 



tery, danger, beauty or the 
practical to satisfy the most 
exacting. 

Responsibility for this kind 
of recreation rests on teach- 
ers. The teacher who is to 
produce enthusiasm for lei- 
sure time science must pos- 
sess enthusiasm for leisure 
time science. Many teachers 
are masters of scientific 
knowledge when it is in a 
book, but have no time for 
science when it is out-of- 
doors. The leisure time ad- 
vocate must be one who has 
had experience, satisfaction and enjoyment in the 
field. Joyful participation in activities in the open 
is the only way to promote desirable emotional 
tone. Nature recreation requires skilled leader- 
ship. Most people who go to the woods do not 
know what to see, what to hear, or what to think. 
That is why the government has ranger natural- 
ist service in our national parks. Through years 
of patient effort there have likewise been teachers 
who have stood for those types of nature activi- 
ties that satisfy diversified human wants. That 
kind of interpretation of the outdoors has be- 
come an increasingly important service. 

Whole-hearted promotion of nature recreation 
is going to upset the school time schedule. In 
life eight hour shifts for work, play and sleep are 
things of the past with leisure time ever on the 
long end. In school with eight hours to sleep and 
two to eat, the work day was five hours and 
the leisure day, nine. There was no thought of 
teaching Jack to play for that might make him a 
lazy boy. With Saturday, Sunday and holidays 
there was a generous allowance of leisure, making 
the school leisure week far in excess of the school 
work week. The school never grasped the idea 
that here was an opportunity for education. As 
a result we have been caught unprepared for the 
amount of leisure that has been thrust upon us. 
We find ourselves in the peculiar position of time 
off with no power to assimilate. 

If science is extinguishing work at one end of 
the day, it is equally capable of creating worth 
while leisure at the other end of the day. Science 
has not made good that which it has taken away. 
This does not mean necessarily that one-half of 
the biology period should be devoted to work and 
the other half to leisure time activity. It is not 



TODAY'S NATURE EDUCATION AND TOMORROWS LEISURE 



19 



necessarily a dual system. To some children the 
making of a bird house would be work and to 
others a great sport. Genuine interest is the goal 
which makes the work play. Edison is reported 
to have said: "I think that I have never done a 
day's work in my life." Science teachers are on 
the threshold of a new age. 

Furthermore, nature appreciation is not a chap- 
ter to be learned. It necessarily is a result of ex- 
periences with interesting things, outdoor pro- 
cedures, and distinctive attitudes in the presence 
of certain natural aspects and activities. The 
Scouts have worth while leisure time experiences 
in nature. The playground leaders have to teach 
nature play. Schools have been delinquent and 
that is why the scouting and playground organi- 
zations have had to come to the rescue. Schools 
will also have to provide experiences. Apprecia- 
tion will never come from listening to teacher 
talk. Science experiences for leisure have be- 
come the serious task of educators. "The law of 
nature is that a certain quantity of work is neces- 
sary to produce a certain quantity of good. If 
you want knowledge you must toil for it; if food, 
you must toil for it, and if pleasure, you must 
toil for it." What Ruskin could have said was 
that if we want leisure time science there must 
be a background for it. 

We can go one step further and say that nature 
recreation takes care of the unemployed psychi- 
cally as well as physically. There is a long road 
ahead but there are shade trees, song birds and 
clover fields if they can be brought within our 
perspective. When one gets out onto life's high- 
way how much is he going to think biologically 
and how much is he going to feel biologically ? A 
sunset, a lake, a mountain, a waterfall, will com- 
mand feelings, and perhaps in a larger percent 
than thinking. And then there are the sunsets of 
tomorrow and those of the fall that are different. 
The feelings that one experiences in nature are 
potent counter-irritants for hectic times. 

Nature Study As Recreation 

There is ample evidence that nature study can 
be employed for recreational purposes. This is 
so obvious that there is no need of any technique 
of research to qualify the statement. In any large 
city one can find a lawyer-naturalist, teacher- 
naturalist, an artist-naturalist, a doctor-naturalist, 
a shoemaker-naturalist, a bank clerk-naturalist, an 
insurance agent-naturalist, and so on. All of them 
are more than ordinary naturalists. Leisure yearn- 



ings in me may demand a bird hike, in you, time 
off to read Van Loon, and in Roosevelt, a trip to 
Africa. The report of any of these amateurs 
shows that nature recreation compared with other 
forms of recreation is less expensive; that it is 
more functional, in that it can be enjoyed in all 
seasons of the year; that it is more enduring, in 
that it can be continued throughout life ; that it is 
more satisfying in that it can be carried on with- 
out nerve strain, and that it is democratic, in that 
it builds good citizenship. 

If the census records could show hobbies it 
would undoubtedly be discovered that bird hobby- 
ists, camera fans, flower amblers, and all the 
members of other nature ilks are increasing more 
rapidly than population. This trend is a matter 
of opinion but there is ample testimony in the 
membership of nature clubs, in the attendance at 
nature lectures and trips, in the circulation of 
science books from the library, in newspaper fea- 
ture stories, and in daily conversations. 

Nor is leisure time science foreign to the daily 
life of any family, not even in the humblest home. 
The housekeeper who arranges daffodils with 
yellow candles to match; the father who studies 
about flowers for the border of the walk ; the girl 
who cuddles her puppy; the boy who is thrilled 
by the story of Lindbergh or Byrd, has as sin- 
cerely the appreciation of nature as the Agassiz, 
Whittier or Burroughs. People who enjoy their 
lawns, gardens and peonies are ample evidence of 
science leisure from youth to old age. Scientific 
procedure and adjustments are continuously being 
made at the table, in the living room, in the back 
yard, at the bird bath, when we go out to the 
grocery and when we sit in church. It would take 
a shrewd man to itemize and classify the ramifi- 
cations of human ejoyment to be found in nature. 

The teacher of leisure time science must be led 
to realize that the curriculum for his instruction is 
the sum total of the leisure time activities that 
already exist in the community. He must be con- 
scious of beautiful homes, the highest purpose of 
parks, and the thousands of human values that 
rank higher than knowledge values. By intro- 
ducing children to interests in nature literature, 
by developing appreciations of the landscape, by 
launching natural science clubs, teachers are 
adapting their course to the needs of the 
community. 

The greatest contribution of science to leisure 
time can be that of bringing us into contact with 
(Continued on page 43) 



B 



oys 



Week 



April 29 May 6 
1933 




A week when atten- 
tion is focussed on 
boyhood as a great 
world asset and the 
entire nation con- 
siders its boys. 



FROM APRIL 2QTH To MAY 6tH organizations 
throughout the world will celebrate Boys' 
Week 

In 1920 Boys' Week originated with the Rotary 
Club in New York City. The following year six 
large cities carried out the Boys' Week plan. In 
1923 the week was reported from 608 cities. Nine 
years later, in 1932, Boys' Week was observed 
generally throughout the world. 

The Boys' Week in our own country is held 
under the auspices of the National Boys' Week 
Committee for the United States. The commit- 
tee has issued a manual of suggestions for the 
1933 program which will be of interest to recre- 
ation workers. 

Suggestions for Organization 

The manual suggests a method of organizing 
for the week which involves an advisory council 
in each community of boys' workers and repre- 
sentatives of business men's organizations and 
similar groups. From this council or similar or- 
ganization a boys' week committee should be 
selected to be made up of one representative from 
different distinctive groups of boys' workers, both 
volunteers and professionals. A chairman and 
secretary should be chosen who will be the key 
men of Boys' Week. 

20 



The plan of organization also provides for the 
appointment of committees for the various "days," 
for a publicity committee and other committees 
which may be needed. 

The Program 

Boys' Loyalty Day. On the opening day, 
April 29th, will come the parade, the most ef- 
fective day's feature of the week which provides 
the greatest opportunity to demonstrate the boy 
power of the community. It marks the opening 
of the achievement exhibition or the hobby fairs 
and pet shows which have been so successfully 
promoted in connection with Boys' Weeks of 
previous years. 

Boys' Day in the Churches. On Sunday, 
April 3Oth, clergymen will preach special sermons 
and in many communities there will be a special 
evening service for the boys held in at least one 
church. Special broadcasts may be provided 
throughout the day and evening. 

Boys' Day in Industry. On Monday, May 
ist, groups of school boys will visit the various 
types of industries in the community. Talks will 
be given before high school students on essentials 
for success in business, and business men will act 
(Continued on page 44) 



The Girl 

in the 

Settlement Program 



By DELITE M. MOWER 

Director of Girls' Work 
Henry Street Settlement 



FOR MANY YEARS settlements have been looked 
upon as great centers for socializing diverg- 
ent groups and for the protection and train- 
ing of our young people of the neighborhood. 
This is especially true in the overcrowded sec- 
tions of our larger cities, which glow with the 
glamor and romance associated with racial cus- 
toms preserved from emigrant days. Many have 
found in the settlement expression, personal de- 
velopment and guidance, which are strengthened 
through association and comradeship with the 
people who come together with a mutual desire 
for personal expression and a greater purpose 
that of introducing the new interests and awak- 
ening possibilities that offer a means of achiev- 
ing courage and knowledge for a broader outlook 
on life. 

The Settlement Program 
And thus the settlement program is built 
broad and flexible to include a place for each 
member of the family and encourage human re- 
lationship development in the community from 
the tiny child to the grandparents ; none is over- 
looked. Each department is organized for the 
specialized needs of certain age limits, from the 
preschool and kindergarten child on through 
later years, by the wide avenues of the boys' and 
girls' departments, including a group of tots called 
Midgets, from six to nine years of age; Juniors 
from ten to fourteen years ; Upper Juniors from 
fourteen to sixteen years; Intermediates from 




Courtesy Ministry of Hygiene and Physical Education, Czechoslovakia 



The objective that girls may find happiness 
and opportunity for personality development. 



sixteen to eighteen years, and the Senior group 
from eighteen to twenty years, with the Young 
Adult groups from twenty years on. From this 
point on the approach is made to the Adult Clubs. 
The membership includes the parents and rela- 
tives of the children who are integrated into the 
divisions mentioned. 

The club, of course, is in many instances the 
main contact or the avenue of approach through 
which much of the training is given through ed- 
ucational and recreational programs. Whenever a 
child or adult is found to have special gifts along 
any line, he or she is encouraged by the leader to 
enter classes in arts and crafts, music and drama, 
where talents may be developed to the utmost. 
Later scholarships, some in universities, are 
awarded. 

While the Visiting Nurse Service ministers to 
the care of the sick and the general health of the 
neighborhood, there is in addition a psychiatrist 
who studies the children and tries to adjust them 
to the activities to which they are best suited. 
This service proves valuable not only to little 
children, but the results are far reaching as they 
influence character and personality adjustments 
with the more advanced groups. 

(Continued on page 45) 

21 




Squares 

d'Enfants 



Play areas for little children win 
well deserved popularity in Paris. 



SQUARES D'ENFANTS/' or children's squares, 
is the name which has been applied to the 
five play areas which have been opened in 
Paris largely through funds given by Mrs. Elise 
Stern of San Francisco. The name is said to have 
originated with Professor LeMee, an eminent 
Paris physician, after he had visited some squares 
reserved for children in Holland. An appeal for 
a similar provision of play space for the children 
of Paris brought a response from Mrs. Stern in 
the form of a gift of one million francs. 

The first of the Paris squares, opened on April 
5 1930, aroused much interest and attracted many 
notable visitors, among them the Queen of the 
Belgians. Since the first square became a reality, 
four others have been opened in different parts 
of the city on land made available by the city of 
Paris. A sixth is now under consideration. The 
popularity of these squares is indicated by the 
fact that during the month of August, 1932, from 
eight to nine thousand children attended each of 
the playgrounds. 

Boys and girls from two to six years of age 
are admitted to the squares each day from 8:00 

22 



A. M. to 7 130 P. M. Older children up to twelve 
years of age may also attend but only after school 
and on Tuesdays. Children may come only when 
accompanied by their parents and may leave only 
when their parents call for them. 

The children are under the care of leaders who 
have completed special studies and are graduate 
nurses. Their presence alone is a guarantee of 
safe and sanitary conditions on the grounds. They 
are well qualified to take care of the needs of chil- 
dren who are injured or who have minor illnesses. 
But they are there especially as a preventive meas- 
ure for it is one of their chief responsibilities to 
see that no child convalescing from a contagious 
disease enters the grounds. A relationship has 
been established between the schools and the 
playgrounds which is very helpful in the pre- 
vention of contagious diseases and which pro- 
vides an exchange of information, making it im- 
possible for children from families suffering from 
contagious diseases to come to the grounds. 

Other careful sanitary hygienic precautions are 
taken. The sand with which the children play is 
(Continued on page 46) 



Gardening as a Recreation 



THERE FACES us today one of 
the greatest of public needs 
the profitable utilization 
of leisure. 

Shall we offer as a solution a 
few amusements of passing in- 
terest and of no permanent value or personal sat- 
isfaction? America and her enforced leisure de- 
mand more than this. A new world of recreation 
must be opened to her one that offers rich re- 
turns, both spiritual and material 

For such a recreation we turn to nature and 
the garden, the oldest and richest of the world's 
unexplored realms. 

The idea of gardening as a recreation is new 
to those who have long thought of it as a form 
of labor. As a matter of fact, gardening is no 
more strenuous, perhaps not as much so, as the 
games that are commonly used on the play- 
grounds. The difficulty is that gardening has 
never been presented in its true light of fun, ad- 
venture, discovery, and keen competition with re- 
wards that are rich in every sense of the word. 
And so in April or May when playground activi- 
ties are offered to each school, the "game of gar- 
dening" should be intriguingly presented. 

The preparation for gardening as a playground 
activity is not so difficult. If your town has a 
thrift garden committee, as so many have, ask the 
committee to assist you in securing the use of 
empty lots in various neighborhoods to be used 
as attractive garden plots for those who desire 
them. This thrift garden committee, cooperating 
with garden clubs and other civic organizations, 
will undoubtedly assist in the enterprise by fur- 
nishing seeds and plants for those who desire 
them. If they must be purchased, the Children's 
Flower Mission at Cleveland, Ohio, or the Agri- 
cultural Department at 
Washington, D. C, will 
furnish them at minimum 
cost. 

Many nurseries will also 
be glad to cooperate by 
furnishing seeds in quantity 



By FAE HUTTENLOCHER 



Organizer 

Junior Garden Clubs of America 
Des Moines, Iowa. 



"Gardening should be a part of the educa- 
tion of every child. Indeed, if a child had 
no other part of an education save that 
which he needed to make a garden flourish 
he would be Veil educated," Angelo Patri, 
New York City. 



at low cost. Paid labor from 
the Welfare Bureau or Park 
Department might be secured to 
plow or spade the ground. Or 
appreciative parents may assist 
in this matter. Further prepa- 
ration of the soil as a seed bed should be made 
by each gardener. 

The Junior Garden Clubs Plan 
An adult garden club member, a teacher or 
representative of the Playground Department 
should present gardening as an alluring game at 
an assembly period of the entire school. This can 
be done through the Junior Garden Club illus- 
trated lecture, "Through the Gardens of Gnome- 
land with the Junior Garden Clubs of America," 
which is sent for postage charges only to any who 
desire to organize Junior Garden Clubs. 

Each child is given a card or multigraphed slip 
to take home for parents to sign. On this slip the 
Playground Department or other group in charge 
of the city's recreation program gives the location 
of the garden plot to be used in that neighborhood 
together with any requirements or instructions 
presented in connection with its maintenance and 
care. There is a place to designate a choice of 
vegetable and flower seeds with prices and direc- 
tions for securing. These cards should be re- 
turned signed by parents before the last of April 
in order that necessary garden preparations may 
be made and seeds ordered. 

To add further to the attractiveness of the idea, 
each plot will have its Junior Garden Club. Meet- 
ings will be held at the garden or park under the 
guidance of a playground leader or an adult gar- 
den club member of the civic committee. Officers 
will be elected as in a regular club. Such an or- 
ganization will greatly stim- 
ulate interest and pride in 
each garden. 

There may be a competi- 
tion between the various 
Junior Garden Clubs and 
(Continued on page 46) 

23 



Why Not Grow Your Own Vegetables? 



A plea for a more universal 
surrender for the attraction 
the brown earth has for man. 



By R. P MILLER 

Gardener for the Wyomissing Industries 
Reading, Pennsylvania 



IF NOT, as in the Eden story, the oldest of all oc- 
cupations, gardening is at least very old. Our 
northern ancestors had their kale, or cole, or 
cabbage. Naked natives in New Zealand cooked 
spinach with their meat. Egypt loved the spicy 
flavor of onions, leeks, and garlic. The Israelites 
missed them in their desert wanderings. In 
Mexico and South America a dark race conserved 
for us the best of their corn, beans, tomatoes and 
potatoes. We are the heirs of all the ages. A seed 
is a frail thing, but these survived all perils. We 
owe it to posterity to transmit at least as good as 
we receive. It may be by saving seed from extra 
good vegetables that you can even become a link 
in the chain of improvement. 

Practically all cool-season crops, except pota- 
toes, are a heritage from the lighter races, our 
fathers and others. These lettuce, radishes, 
onions, carrots, beets, parsnips, cabbage, peas, sal- 
sify, celery, chard and spinach we plant early. 
Warm-season crops, on the other hand, are a her- 
itage from the darker races, and many of them 
come from the Indians. These include corn, beans, 
tomatoes, peppers, egg plants, cucumbers, melons, 
pumpkins, squashes and sweet potatoes. Potatoes, 
also, though a cold-season crop, were given us by 
the dark races. 

A Kitchen Garden for Every Family 

Every family should have a small kitchen gar- 
den for a number of good reasons. It need not 
be wholly a vegetable garden, for no matter how 
small it will be large enough for both the eatable 
vegetables and the smellable flowers. What is im- 
portant is to have the whole family interested in 
the garden, and it is the vegetable department 
which usually helps to engage the sympathy of 
some members who might otherwise be lukewarm. 

24 



One problem in every home is to provide suf- 
ficient quantities of healthful, palatable and 
wholesome food for family use. The food value 
of vegetables in a diversified diet is now quite 
generally recognized as of fundamental impor- 
tance to health. Vegetables are rich in the min- 
erals and vitamins that doctors and dieticians 
have found to be essential in the growth and de- 
development of children and the maintenance of 
health in the adult. So, if the health of the family 
is to be maintained at its highest standard, vege- 
tables in abundance must be provided. 

Probably the most important reason for main- 
taining a vegetable garden is that of economy, a 
point which today cannot be overemphasized. It 




Courtesy The Yarn Carrier 



WHY NOT GROW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES? 



25 



will reduce the grocery bill materially by per- 
mitting a substitution of vegetables in some cases 
for the more expensive foods; it will supply the 
family with vegetables for canning, drying and 
for winter storage. An example of the dollars 
and cents value of a garden may be judged from 
the yield on one of the garden lots of Textile 
Machine Works last year. Starting very late and 
benefiting only by the second crops, on soil that 
was hitherto uncultivated, one gardener kept a 
record of the produce he raised, and when trans- 
lated into the lowest market price of the season 
the value of the vegetables taken from his 20 by 
40 lot was $25. These figures are net, all expenses 
deducted. 

The Recreational Value 

Another reason for keeping a garden is the 
pleasant outdoor recreation it offers. As a means 
of healthy exercise, it surpasses golf ; for excite- 
ment, it leads croquet; as a speculation, it beats 
poker. It develops mind, muscle and conscience. 
If it develops the appetite, it also supplies the 
wherewithall to satisfy it. 

Then, too, all vegetables are more tasty, as well 
as more valuable from a dietary standpoint when 
fresh. If you have ever eaten sweet corn which 
had been lying about for a while, you have noticed 
the contrast with the fresh product. As soon as 



A garden solves a number of problems by pro- 
viding both fresh vegetables and recreation! 




In many cities gardening is being pro- 
moted as a relief measure for the un- 
employed and as an economic necessity. 
Mr. Miller, in this practical article re- 
printed from the March issue of The 
Yarn Carrier, points out not only the 
economic advantages of gardening, but 
the recreational values as well. 

Manypeople are urging that recreation 
departments do more to promote 
gardening. Why not begin this year? 



corn is picked, its sugar begins at once to change 
to starch. No one knows the true flavor of corn 
who has not seen it come smoking hot to the table 
within half an hour from the time it was growing 
on the stalk. 

Besides our genuine interest in providing food 
for the table, there seems to be a certain attrac- 
tion that the brown earth has for man. The love 
of gardening is perhaps a heritage from our an- 
cestors. Even the planning of a garden provides 
a thrill. Of all the literature of the year there is 
nothing which compares with the fascination of 
the annual seed catalogue ! What a pleasure the 
gardener experiences with these books; he sees, 
somewhere between his own garden and his own 
imagination, those luscious red tomatoes without 
a single watery seed-cell, those heads of tender 
white lettuce the size of a derby hat and those 
delicate string beans. The bright anticipations of 
seed sowing are, in themselves, a greater happi- 
ness than one often purchases with many times 
the price. 

With the ample leisure which we find forced 
upon us, there is possibly no more practical or 
enjoyable hobby we can devote our time to. All 
the labor and cash investment we make in a gar- 
den will be repaid, for gardening, like every other 
virtue, is its own reward. 

Where to Make a Garden 
The city-lot gardener usually has little choice 
in the matter of location, and must use whatever 
space is available, while the rural gardener has 
more selection. But take the best site you can 
get ; do not be too particular. Pluck and perse- 
verance can make a garden wherever weeds will 
grow. Avoid shady places and ground in which 
tree roots have spread. Gardens should have at 



26 



WOT G/JOW YOUR OWN VEGETABLES? 



least five or six hours of sun daily. Do not select 
low, wet land unless you can drain it. 

The garden should be as near to your house as 
possible. Many an odd moment can be spent in 
working a nearby garden when there would be no 
time to go to a distant one. 

It is good to make a plan of your garden on 
paper. You have then a guide and a goal. You 
need to decide first, however, which way the rows 
shall run, what crops to grow, the part of the 
garden where each is to go and the distance 
between the rows. 

Decide first in what direction the rows shall 
run. It is advisable for the amateur gardener to 
have the rows run the short way ; that is, if your 
lot is 20 by 40, plan your rows for 20 feet long. 
They should also run north and south so that the 
plants will shade one another less and therefore 
grow more rapidly. Allow in your planning for 
vegetables with spreading tops. Knowing the size 
of your lot and the space required for each vege- 
.able, you can determine what seed to plant and 
the number of rows of each. With this informa- 
tion you can buy your seeds intelligently. Try to 
buy good seeds, even if they cost more remem- 

GARDEN PLAN FOR 



ber they are expensive because their production 
is costly. 

There are many things to think about in select- 
ing the crops that shall be grown, some of which 
are the size of the garden, your soil and your 
skill in gardening. 

The most important thing of all is to plant 
these crops which are most valuable as food. 
Gardens should not be planned by family tastes 
only, but the family should strive to modify its 
tastes to include all vegetables. We should have 
a continuous supply of the leaf crops, lettuce, 
spinach, cabbage, beet greens, and chard. These 
are especially rich in iron, which is one of the 
substances our bodies need, and in vitamins. Snap 
beans, although not a leaf vegetable, are similar in 
nutritive value. Gardens should also contain gen- 
erous amounts of carrots, beets, onions, and tur- 
nips, a few parsnips and salsify, and, if large 
enough, corn, peas, squashes and potatoes. Rad- 
ishes and cucumbers have very little food value 
and are eaten only for the pleasant taste. The 
most important vegetable in the garden is the 
tomato, which should be part of our diet the 
year round. 

FAMILY OF FIVE 



SUGGESTED BY THE BERKS COUNTY AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION ASSOCIATION 



I 



NO SUCCESSION OF CROPS 



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"Making 

the 

Wall" 



A new and popular 
activity in a boys' 
club in Milwaukee 




THE MILWAUKEE, Wisconsin, School Extension 
Department has a boys' club which has un- 
dertaken a project very popular with the 
members. This consists of making silhouettes for 

Carving out his nickname or the name of his 
club is an occupation any boy would enjoy! 

I 



HUM 




HHHH 




A silhouette on the wall is proof of regular 
attendance at this boys' club in Milwaukee 



the entire membership of the club, each member 
cutting his own. The shadow for the drawing is 
produced by the light from a stereopticon. The 
silhouettes are mounted on the wall of the club 
room, and to "make the wall," a boy must have a 
record of regular attend- 
ance. 

Another project is the 
making of club name and 
nickname boards. The 
letters are drawn by the 
leaders, but the rest of the 
work is done by the boys 
who take very great pride 
in making the boards and 
hanging them on the walls 
of the club room. 

The Milwaukee boys' 
clubs are having a remark- 
able effect on their mem- 
bers. A large part of the 
improvement in social con- 
sciousness and social be- 
havior in the whole school, 
according to the principal 
of one school where clubs 
are in operation, is attrib- 
uted to the club activities. 



27 



Recreations and Amusements 
of the 
Colonial Period 



By EDWARD D. GREENWOOD 

University of Colorado 



When recreation was forbidden be- 
cause it "invited the mind to sin" 
and interfered with making a living. 



THAT AMUSEMENT was scorned and forbidden 
in the Colonial period not only because it in- 
vited "the mind to sin'' but because it lessened 
the time and energy for making a living is evi- 
denced in the writings of the time. Not only was 
leisure not wanted but there was none. This lack 
of leisure became an important contributing fac- 
tor to retard the development of recreation and 
amusements in New England. Not until the late 
seventeenth and early eighteenth century were the 
inhabitants permitted to think of amusements and 
actually participate in recreative activity. "Cards 
and the theater were under all circumstances a 
waste of precious time, and therefore wholly 
banned. . . . William Clark, the Salem publican, 
was advised by the Quarter Court 'to forbear be- 
ing offensive in suffering a shuffling board in his 
house, occasioning misspending of time.' " 1 

Legislation prohibiting time-consuming and sin- 
ful amusements was accompanied by various 
forms of punishment. On the Sabbath recreation 
was forbidden even to children. 

"Among the first laws passed was one enacted in 
1631, prohibiting cards and dice, and a law was 
subsequently passed im- 
posing a fine for bringing 
them into the country or 
for being found in posses- 
sion of them. Dancing in 
houses of common enter- 
tainment was also pro- 
hibited, and indeed danc- 
ing in any place was not 
favored." 2 



The forms of recreation which the Colonial 
settlers enjoyed have always been a matter 
of interest. Edward T. Greenwood, in a thesis 
offered in partial fulfillment of the require- 
ments for the degree of Master of Arts in 
the School of Education, New York University, 
presents a study of the beginnings of physical 
and social activities in this country. Through 
Mr. Greenwood's courtesy we are enabled to 
publish a number of extracts from his thesis. 



One must not assume, however, that prohibi- 
tions were more effective in 1631 than they are 
three hundred years later. Nor must one form an 
erroneous concept of New England life. The 
habits of drinking and gambling were not un- 
known. There were shooting and hunting parties 
for exterminating wolves and bears. 3 Quilting 
parties were common means of amusement. The 
young people had apple bees and cornhusks. Dur- 
ing cornhusking time if a young man would find 
a red ear of corn, he had the privilege of kissing 
the girl of his choice. Kissing was not a rare 
form of entertainment at evening parties not only 
in New England but in all the colonies. 4 

Those amusements, such as quilting parties, 
cornhusks and apple bees, which had the dual pur- 
pose of accomplishing work and at the same time 
affording some diversion, were the most popular 
in the New England colonies. 

The Middle Colonies 

In the middle colonies, predominantly under the 
Dutch influence, the family was a solid unit. 
Many forms of recreation centered around the 
family. There was many 
family festivals. The Tav- 
erns were a universal 
meeting place for the older 



1. Morisen, S. E. Those Misun- 
derstood Puritans. Forum 
Magazine, March, 1931, p. 145. 

2. Howe, D. W. The Puritan 
Republic of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England, p. 111. 

3. Ibid, p. 110. 

4. Earle, A. M. Colonial Days- 
in Old New York, p. 216. 



28 



RECREATIONS OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD 



29 



men and a place where the younger people could 
come and dance. 5 

The indoor games of dice, cards, shuffle-board, 
tick-tacking, and trock table were the popular 
games of the period, while bowls was the out- 
standing outdoor game. 

"Shuffle-board or shovel board is an indoor 
game played by two or four persons with iron 
weights which are slid along a board sprinkled 
with fine sand. The board is 30 feet long, with 
slightly raised edges to keep the weights from 
sliding off sidewise." 6 

Tick-tack was a complicated form of backgam- 
mon. "The Compleat Gamester" tells us that 
tick-tack is so called from touch and take, for if 
you touch a man must play through even if you 
lose. "Tick-tacking" was prohibited during time 
of divine service in New Amsterdam in i6s6. 7 A 
trock table was much like a pool table, on which 
an ivory ball was struck under a wire wicket by a 
cue. Trock was also played in the grass. Mrs. 
Earle tells of a Dutch tapster who had a trock 
table, which Florio designates as "a kind of game 
vised in England with casting little bowles at a 
board with thirteen holes in it." 8 

Bowls, an outdoor game, was played on a bowl- 
ing green on which the turf was closely shaven 
and rolled, surrounded by a shallow trench. A 
small round white ball, called the Jack, is placed 
at one end, and the object of the players is to roll 



their bowls so that they shall stop as nearly as 
possible to this mark. 9 Nine pins were originally 
used in the game of bowls but as the game was 
conducive to excessive betting, it was outlawed. 
Legend has it that a tenth pin was added to evade 
the law. 10 Bowling Green at the lower end of 
New York received its name from this game. 

The Amusements of the Dutch 

The Dutch indulged in more festivals and holi- 
days than any of the other colonists. Vrouwen 
dagh or Women's day was celebrated by every 
young girl sallying forth in the morning armed 
with a heavy cord with a knotted end. She gave 
every young man whom she met several smart 
lashes with this knotted cord. ll Might these be 
love taps? This day is claimed to have its origin 
in St. Valentine's day. 12 

Shrove Tuesday was another day of celebra- 
tion. Men dressed in women's clothing and 

5. Wiley and Rines, The United States, Vol. 2, p. 167. 

6. The Young Folks Cyclopaedia of Games and Sports. 

J. D. Champlin, Jr. and A. E. Bostwick. H. Holt & Co., 
p. Ill 

7. Earle, A. M. Child Life in Colonial Days, p. 200. 

8. Ibid., p. 209. 

9. The Young Folks Cyclopaedia of Games and Sports, p. 111. 

10. Rice, E. A. A Brief History of Physical Education, pp. 
145-6. 

11. Earle, A. M. Colonial Days in Old New York, pp. 191-2. 

12. Ibid., p. 101. 



Quilting parties, so popular in the New England 
Colonies, find a modern counterpart: in Chicago. 




30 



RECREATIONS OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD 



paraded about with noisy toys. One of these toys 
was the Rommelyertiesn or little rumbling pots. 
Pulling the Goose and Cock-Fighting were two 
of the amusements indulged in on Shrove Tues- 
day. Pulling the Goose "was a cruel amusement. 
The thoroughly greased goose was hung between 
two poles, and the effort of the sport was to 
catch, snatch away, and hold fast the poor 
creature while passing at a great speed." 1S Dur- 
ing the eighteenth century Shrove Tuesday was 
devoted to cock-fighting, although this sport in 
general was more com- 
mon in the southern 
colonies. 

May Day was an- 
other day of jubilation. 
"Stuyvesant forbade 
'drunken drinking,' and 
firing of guns and 
planting of maypoles, 
as productive of bad 
practices." 14 However, 
the May Day festival 
continued and at the 
present time we have 
the parks opened to 
children of the city 
schools for the celebra- 
tion of this day by in- 
dulging in May Pole 
dances. 

New Year's Day was 
devoted to noise and re- 
joicing. In New York 
men used this day to 
gather in parties and 
travel down to "Beck- 
mann's Swamp to shoot tur- 
key." 15 Guy Fawkes Day was 
another day which was en- 
joyed by gun-firing and bon- 
fires. On Thanksgiving Day besides the feast, 
begging boys were part of the day's fun. 

It is interesting to note that Samuel Sewall in 
his Diary on the date of April 23, 1704, or Lord's 
Day, makes the following comment: "There is 
Great Firing at the Town, Ships, Castle upon 
account of its being Coronation Day, which gives 
offence to many. See the Lord's Day so 
prof an'd." " 

Pinkster's Day was a holiday on which the 
negroes had a jubilee. The singing of African 
airs would start the day, then this would be fol- 




The May Day festival survived the early 
ban of disapproval and is with us today. 



lowed by the dancing of the Sambos and Phillises, 
juvenile and antiquated, who did the double, 
shuffle heel and toe-break down. For musical ac- 
companiment they used a drum constructed out 
of a box with a sheepskin head. The drinking of 
rum, rioting, and general disorder would end the 
day. The aftermath of this holiday would be that 
many of the colored folk would be brought to 
court for disorderly conduct. 1T 

Besides these holidays there were days devoted 
to excursions which were organized by social 

clubs for the younger 
folk. These excursions 
would consist of either 
boat or wagon rides. 
John Fiske says : 

"In the olden times 
society in New York 
as elsewhere got up 
with the dawn, took its 
dinner at noon, and de- 
voted its evenings to 
recreation. Sleighing 
parties in winter and 
fishing picnics in sum- 
mer were common 
amusements, and there 
were private theatri- 
cals, as well as balls 
and concerts." 1S 

Tea Gardens and 
Marionette shows were 
also found in New 
York. Illustrated lec- 
tures became part of 
the recreation of the 
period. There were such 
things as curious animals, 
wax- works, and Philosophical 
Optical machines were also 
part of the entertainment. 19 
Turtle frolics and Waffle frolics were two other 
forms of amusement which were common. The 
turtle frolics were enjoyed in seaport communi- 
ties, such as New York, Newport, and Provi- 
dence. The turtle was prepared by a special cook- 
ing process. After the feast there would be 



13. Earlc, A. M. Colonial Days in Old New York, p. 189. 

14. Ibid., p. 188. 

15. Ibid., p. 186. 

16. Sewall, S. The Diary of Samuel Sewall, 1674-1729. 
Vol. 2, p. 101. 

17. Earle, A. M. Colonial Days in Old New York, p. 196. 

18. Fiske, J. The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America. 
Vol. 2, p. 283. 

19. Earle, A. 'M.. Colonial Days in Old New York, p. 212. 



RECREATIONS OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD 



31 






dancing which was followed by serenading as 
each one left for home. The Waffle frolic was 
similar in nature except that card playing and 
dancing girls were added. 

The English and French Influence 

As the English and French influence became 
greater in the middle colonies, the amusements 
and recreations increased, and along with such 
recreations as singing, theater, dancing, feasting, 
shooting, ice-skating, and sleighing, there were 
such sports as fishing, golf, tennis, cricket, cock- 
fighting, bull baiting, and horse-racing. 

Bull baiting was a very barbarous sport. "It 
consisted in causing a bull to be attacked by dogs, 
and to increase the fury, his nose was sometimes 
blown full of pepper. Another form of the sport 
was to fasten the bull to a stake by a long rope, 
and to set bull dogs at him, one at a time, which 
were trained to seize him by the nose. An art 
called pinning the bull." 20 

Horse-racing was very popular in New York. 
As early as 1666 Long Island had horse-racing. 
Even Puritan New England was interested in 
horse-racing. However, the New Englanders 
placed such severe penalties upon those who took 
part in horse-racing and betting that the sport 
never became very popular. 

Ice skating, ice boating, and sleighing were 
part of the winter program which the young boys 
and men enjoyed. The popular style of skating 
of the colonial days was figure skating. j 

Music Enters 

The singing of church music was the means by 
which music entered the colonies. The victory of 
the ardent advocates of the 
"singing by rules" also aided 

in establishing singing schools ^ lhe *nd of the eighteenth century 

dancrng was well established and many 
in New England. 21 Conrad 



buted to him. ^ Later old dance tunes such as 
Sweet Anna Page, Babbling Echo, Little Pickle, 
were set to sacred words. Music grew in popu- 
larity, and the first American musical organiza- 
tion was founded in Charleston, in 1762. The 
name of the organization was the St. Cecilia So- 
ciety. In New York the first record of a concert 
was as early as 1736. A Harmonic Society was 
in existence in 1774. 23 The ability to play or 
sing was considered a fashionable accomplish- 
ment which young ladies and men were supposed 
to possess. The popular instruments were the 
violin, flute, organ, clarinet, bassoon, spinet, 
harpsichord, and pianoforte. The harpsichord 
and spinet were very popular until the invention 
of the pianoforte. The pianoforte is "percussion 
instrument consisting of wire strings struck by 
felt covered hammers operated by keys arranged 
in a key board." 24 



Beissel of Phil- 
a d e 1 p h i a is 
claimed to be 
the first com- 
poser of music 
in America. 
About 1,000 of 
the hymns in 
the E p h r a t a 
edition printed 
by Benjamin 
Franklin in 
1730 are attri- 



varieties of dances were being taught. 



Interest in Dancing Grows 

Another form of amusement which is generally 
allied with music is dancing. Dancing was con- 
sidered dangerous and in 1684 Increase Mathew 
preached a sermon against what he termed: 
"Gynecandrical Dancing or that which is com- 
monly called Mixt or Promiscuous Dancing of 
men and women, be they elder or younger persons 
together." He called it the great sin of the 
Daughters of Zion, and he burst forth: "Who 
were the Inventors of Petulant Dancings? 
Learned men have well observed that the Devil 
was the First Inventor of the impleaded Dances, 
and the Gentiles who worshipped him the first 
practioners of this Art." 

However, this and other opposition did not stop 
the growth of interest in 
dancing and at the end of the 
eighteenth century schools of 
dancing were organized and 




20. The New Inter- 
national Ency- 
clopaedia. Sec- 
ond Edition, 
Vol. 4, p. 145. 

21. Earle, A. M. 
Sabbath in Puri- 
tan New Eng- 
land, p. 217. 

22. Downes, O. 
A Survey of Our 
American Music 
New York Times, 
May 10, 1931. 

23. The New Inter- 
national Ency- 
clopaedia, Vol. 
18, p. 595. 

24. Earle, A. M. 
Child Lift in 
Colonial Days, 

pp. 109-110. 



32 



RECREATIONS OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD 




in the colonies in 1716. The New Theatre was 
the first playhouse in New York. It was 
opened in 1732. Its principal play was "The 
Recruiting Officer." In 1749 at Philadelphia a 
play, "The Orphan," by Otways caused such a 
sensation that a law was passed forbidding 
plays in this colony. Nevertheless this opposi- 
tion was eliminated and the theatre soon be- 
came a profitable enterprise in Philadelphia. 28 
Probably the first light opera in the colonies 
was "The Beggar's Opera" by John Gay. An- 
napolis had the largest acting company in the 
colonies. They were the Hallam Henry's Dra- 
matic Company which contained well trained 
actors. They played in Maryland every season 
for more than twenty years in such plays as 
"The Busy Body," "The Lying Valet," "Rich- 
ard III, and "The Beggar's Opera." 29 



flourished. There was a large 
variety of dances taught. 
Rigadoons and paspies were 
taught in Philadelphia by a Signer Sodi. The 
Spanish fandango was taught by a John Walsh. 
Other modish dances were the De La Cours, 
Devonshire Jiggs, Allmand Vally's, and Minuets. 
Complicated contra dances were many in number 
and quaint in name ; Clinton's Retreat, Blue Bon- 
nets, Preist's House, The Orange Tree, The In- 
nocent Maid, and A Successful Campaign. 25 
These group dances might be considered the folk 
dances of this Country. 

"The Virginia Reel has been considered by 
many as the most representative American folk- 
dance, whereas it is nothing more nor less than 
the well-known popular English country-dance 
known as Sir de Coverly, and can hardly be 
classed among the more typically American coun- 
try dances which have either evolved or origi- 
nated here. 2G 

Another bit of evidence which might aid in 
verifying this statement is that the English Folk 
Dance Society organized by Cecil Sharp, per- 
forming at the 7th Regiment in New York on 
April 18, 1931, danced the Virginia Reels as one 
of the English Folk Dances. 2T Miss Peggy 
Champlin diplomatically selected the dance, "A 
Successful Campaign, to open the ball when she 
danced in Newport with Gen. Washington, to the 
piping of De Rochambeau and his fellow officers." 

The First Theatres 

Williamsburg, Virginia, had the first playhouse 



Virginia is said to have had the first 
playhouse to be opened in the Colonies. 



In the Southern Colonies 
In the southern colonies 
the class distinction, the es- 
tablishment of Negro slavery, and the plantation 
life were the outstanding factors which made 
southern colonial life different than the other 
colonies. One finds that a Hugh Jones writing in 
1724 makes the following comment about the 
social life of the time: "The common planters, 
leading easy lives, do not much admire labor, or 
any manly exercise, except horse-racing, nor di- 
version, except cock-fighting in which some 
greatly delight." 3 

The sport which was popular in the middle 
colonies, but more popular in the southern col- 
onies, was horse-racing. It was enjoyed by all 
classes. The upper class took great pride in breed- 
ing horses and racing them, while the lower class 
attended the horse-races as betters or onlookers. 81 

"Since the Virginians were excellent horsemen, 
it was natural that they should enjoy hunting." 32 
Fox-hunting was the most popular type of hunt- 
ing. George Washington was fond of fox-hunt- 
ing and indulged in this sport until he was sixty- 
three years old when he was thrown from a horse 
and slightly injured. 

Gambling was more prevalent in Virginia than 



25. Earle, A. M. Child Life in Colonial Days, p. 111. 

26. Burchenal, E.- American Country Dances, Vol. 1, p. 6. 

27. The Program of the English Folk Dance Society. 

28. Ibid., p. 317. 

29. Hughes, Glenn The Story of the Theatre. Chapter XVII, 
p. 318, S. French, 1928. 

30. Revolutionary Literature. Edited by Trent & Wells, p. 16. 

31. Fiske, J. Old Virginia and Her Neighbours, Vol. II, p. 237. 

32. Ibid., p. 239. 






RECREATIONS OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD 



33 



in the other colonies, and "Innkeepers who 
permitted any game of cards, or dice, except 
backgammon, were subject to a heavy fine." 33 
The favorite game of cards was "Put." 

Backgammon which recently came into favor 
again "is one most ancient and widespread dice 
games, of which three schools survive ; they are 
the Russians, Turkish, and English." It is some- 
times called "tric-trac," though this is properly a 
distinct variety of the game and it was known as 
"table" until the seventeenth century. 31 It was 
popular in middle and southern colonies. 

The popularity of nine pins or bowls spread 
throughout the three colonies. "As early as 1636 
William Ward, of Accomac County, is found 
participating in a game of this kind which took 
place at the house of John Dunn, and the diver- 
sion proved so absorbing that he is reported to 
have spent the whole day engaged in it." 35 In 
Sewall's Diary he mentions the following : "Went 
to a Garden at Mile End and drunk Currant and 
Raspberry Wine, then to the Dog and Partridge's 
and played Nine Pins." 36 

Duelling and fencing were sports which did 
not have a large following. "Before the Revolu- 
tion there had been a few duels fought with 
sword, notably one between Thomas Middleton 
and Colonel Grant. After the Revolution pistols 
were invariably used." 3T Duels increased until 
1800 and then the interest in them waned. 

Fisher in his book, Men, Women and Manners, 
has an interesting description of the Greased Pole. 
In the town of Norfolk fairs were constantly held 
in the market place, which are described as most 
uproarious, the people abandoning themselves to 
laughter, shouting, and fun beyond anything 
known in subsequent puritanic times. A giltlaced 
hat was placed on top of a pole, well greased and 
soaped, and as man after man climbed it only to 
slip down with a rush before he reached the prize, 
the crowd screamed with delight until some en- 
during one succeeded. 38 

The Virginia Gazette, a newspaper of the Co- 
lonial time, in its October issue of 1737 lists the 
various sports for the month. The following are 
excerpts from that paper: 

"It is proposed that 20 horses or mares do run 
around three miles course for a prize of five 
pounds." "That a hat of the value 205 be cod- 
gelled for" ; "A violin be played by 20 fiddlers, no 
person to have liberty of playing unless he brings 
fiddle with him"; "That 12 boys of 12 years of 
age do run 112 yards for a hat of the cost 12 



shillings"; "That a pair of silver buckles be 
wrestled for by a number of brisk young men." 89 
Other events which were not listed in the 
Gazette were : "the running of races of young 
men with young women ; pigs were turned loose 
and the whole crowd chased them among each 
other's legs to catch them by their greased tails. 
Some were sewn up in sack and ran races, tumbl- 
ing and rolling over each other. Others raced 
through sugar hogshead placed end to end with 
ends out, and as the great barrels got rolling to 
and fro the affair ends, it is said, in nothing but 
noise and confusion. Then a man would appear 
with a pot of hot mush, and eaters with distorted 
faces and tearful eyes gobbled at it to see which 
was the fastest." 40 

Fishing was one of the popular sports of the 
South. 

Outdoor Sports Popular 

In summing up the amusements and recreations 
one notices that most of the activities were of the 
outdoor type and that the Southerners had a 
larger variety of activities than the other colonists. 
This might be considered the results of their geo- 
graphical location and environmental conditions. 

"There are no more striking survivals of an- 
tiquity than the games and pastimes of children. 
Many of these games were original religious ob- 
servances ; but there are scores that in their pre- 
sent purpose of simple amusement date from 
medieval days." 41 Activities of children seem to 
have seasonal cycles. The child of today has su- 
pervised activity, which is carefully graded, and 
yet this writer wonders if we have taken into 
careful consideration these seasonal cycles. 

There were a large number of Tag games which 
the children enjoyed, such as Wood Tag, Stone 
Tag, and Tell Tag. Pickadill was a winter sport 
played in the snow. In the Young Folks Cyclo- 
paedia, Pickadill is mentioned as another name 
for Fox and Geese. Stone Poison was another 
tag game. Honey Pots "a game for very small 
children, any number of whom may represent 
honey pots, while older persons take the part of 
honey merchant and customers. The honey pots 
sit on the floor or grass in a row with hands 

33. Earle, A. M. Child Life in Colonial Days, p. 351. 

34. The New International Encyclopaedia. Second Edition, 
Vol. 2, p. 503. 

35. Accomac County Records, Vol. 1632-40, p. 59. 

36. Bewail, S. The Diary of Samuel Se-u'all, Vo. I, p. 255. 

37. Fisher, G. S. Men, Women and Manners, Vol. 2, p. 336. 

38. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 73. 

39. Ibid., p. 74. 

40. Ibid., p. 73. 

41. Earle, A. M. Child Life in Colonial Days, p. 342. 



34 



RECREATIONS OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD 



clasped under their bent knees. After a dialogue 
between the merchant and a customer, and any 
words they please, the latter selects a honey pot, 
and they proceed to weigh it. This is done by 
taking the child by the arms and swinging him 
backward and forward till he is compelled to un- 
clasp his hands and allow his feet to touch the 
ground or floor. The pot is supposed to weigh 
as many pounds as it has swings. Another cus- 
tomer may now appear, or the same one may 
make some objection and desire to try another 
pot." 

Hop Scotch or Scotch Hoppers or Pots was 
another popular game of the Colonial children. 
Cats Cradle is another old game which children 
enjoyed. 

Other outdoor games and activities which the 
children indulged in are: Leap frog; marbles; 
fives, knock out and span; tip cat; bird nesting; 
cricket ; fishing ; coasting ; hunting ; trapping ; hop, 
skip, and jump; stool ball; trap ball, and other 
games with a ball. The game of trap ball is played 
by "any number of persons with a trap, bat, and 
ball. The trap is made of wood, of the size and 
shape of a low shoe, having in it a spoon-shaped 
lever. The ball is like the small base ball, and the 
bat like a short cricket bat, to be used with one 
hand. The players divide into two parties, one 
of which takes position in the field, while those 
on the other, one by one, take turns at the bat. 
The batter places the ball in the trap, and by 
striking the free end of the lever with his bat 
sends the ball into the air. He then tries to hit 
it as far as he can. If he miss his stroke, or 
strike the ball beyond the side boundaries, or if a 
fielder catches the ball before it touches the 
ground, he is out, and the next player takes the 
bat. Otherwise, the fielder who stops the ball 
bowls it at the trap, and if he hits it, or the ball 
stops within a bat's length of it, the striker is out. 
If not, the striker estimates the distance of the 
ball from the trap in bat-lengths, and calls it out. 
If it be within the actual distance, he scores to- 
ward game the number of bat-lengths called ; but 
if it be less than the real distance, he is out. When 
a player is out, he takes no further part in the 
game till all his side are out, when the sides 
change places. Those who do not go out continue 
to strike and score, in order, till all are out. When 
each side has finished its turn at the bat, the game 
is at an end, and the side with largest score 
wins." * 3 It is possible this game may be one of 
those upon which baseball is founded. 



Indoor Games 

Among the indoor games we have blindman's 
buff, Kings and I, thread the needle, chuck- 
farthing, and shuttle cock. The last three games 
are uncommon and the writer believes that an 
explanation of them will be of interest. Thread 
the needle is a "game played by any number of 
persons, who join hands to form a line. The 
player at one end, whom we will call A, and the 
one at the other end, whom we will call B, begin 
the game by a dialogue in verse as follows : 

A. "How many miles to Babylon?" 

B. "Three score miles and ten." 

A. "Can I get there by candle-light?" 

B. "Oh yes, and back again." 

A. "Then open the gates as high as the sky, 

And let King George and his train pass by." 
B and the player next to him then lift their 
joined hands as high as possible, and A, with 
others behind him, pass under. This is then re- 
peated, B becoming the inquirer and threading 
the needle in his turn. ** 

Shuttlecock is a game similar to tennis. A 
racket is used but instead of a ball a shuttlecock 
is used. A shuttlecock is made of cork filled with 
lead, and one of the corks is covered with feath- 
ers. The object of the game is simply to prevent 
the Shuttlecock from falling to the ground by 
striking it from one player to the other with a 
racket. The racket is sometimes called a Battle- 
dore. 

The game of Chuck Farthing is described in 
rhyme. 

"As you value your Pence 
At the Hole take your aim. 
Chuck all safely in 
And you'll win the Game." 46 
Another game which is described in rhyme is 
the one of Pitch and Hussell. 

"Poise your hand fairly, 
Pitch plumb you slat. 
Then shake for all Heads, 
Turn down the Hat." 

The song plays of the Colonial children are in 
many cases similar to the song plays of the pre- 
sent day children. Here is a partial list of them : 
"Here comes three Lords out of Spain" ; "On 
the green carpet here we stand"; "I've come to 
see Miss Ginia Jones" ; "Little Sally Waters, sit- 
ting in the sun" ; "Green gravel, green gravel, the 
grass is so green" ; "Old Uncle John is very sick, 
what shall we send him ?"; "Oats, peas, beans, 



42. The Young Folks Cyclopaedia of Games and Sports, p. 412. 

43. Ibid., pp. 737-738. 

44. Ibid., pp. 723-724. 

45. Ibid., p. 74. 

46. Earle, A. M. Child Lift in Colonial Days, p. 347. 



(Continued on page 47) 



The Game Plan 

Children as town planners-an 
experiment in practical civics 
and a game well worth playing 



"The game plan is for the better planning 
of our towns through the eyes and spirit 
of the boys and girls. It will awaken in them 
a more patriotic and intelligent interest in 
their home towns. It will help them to ap- 
preciate the beauties, potential as well as 
developed, and to plan for their preserva- 
tion. The game plan was inspired by the 
thought of Washington and his standard of 
public duty and achievement, and of his re- 
markable foresight in planning for the fut- 
ure of our country." 



ON DECEMBER 17, 1932, in the High School 
building at Dedham, Massachusetts, there 
was held an exhibit which was "different." 
It was not the usual exhibit of handcraft or hob- 
bies as the term is ordinarily interpreted, but a 
display of the results of an experiment which had 
as its purpose the giving of school boys and girls 
the opportunity to study their home town and 
plan for its future. 

The experiment was carried on under the 
auspices of the Massachusetts George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Commission, of which Mrs. 
Charles Sumner Bird is chairman and Captain 
Percy R. Creed, secretary. The plan was most in- 
tensively developed in Norfolk County, a part 
of the charmed circle reaching around Boston 
from Plymouth to Marblehead an area offering 
an unusual opportunity to build for the future in 
a section of undeveloped land near a large center 
of population. 

The children taking part in the project were 
asked to do three things : 

1. To describe their town as they see it today. 

2. To describe the town of their imagination 
for the year 2032. 

3. To draw plans of their ideal town with its 
parks, homes, playgrounds, airports and streets 
for future traffic. "Play this game of imagina- 
tion which Washington played so well," the Com- 
mission urged, "and see how well one can rebuild 
the home town." 

In bringing the plan to a successful outcome, 
many school superintendents, Rotary clubs, Ki- 
wanis clubs and the town planning boards co- 
operated. The schools used the Game Plan Charts 
as lesson material, and many dynamic lessons in 



civics were taught. Service clubs offered awards 
for the best plan in each town and planning boards 
and town officials helped the children in finding 
their material. 

The Rules 

In judging the materials presented at the first 
Game Plan Exhibit at Dedham the judges based 
their decision on the following: 

1. The description of the town as it is today. 

a. Clearness and completeness of description. 

2. The description of the town as it is to be in 

2032. 

a. Originality of ideas. 

b. Merit of the plan. 

3. The map of the town as it is to be in 2032. 
(The map must correspond with the description 
in (2) and both will be judged together.) 

Contestants were classified as juniors, includ- 
ing all grades through the ninth, and seniors above 
the ninth grade and under nineteen years of age. 
Awards first, second and third were given 
within the classes of the best Game Plan, for the 
best poem on the Game Plan, and in addition, for 
collective exhibits by towns in Norfolk County 
and for the best exhibit outside the county. A 
certification of merit was given each boy and girl 
sending in a plan. The winner of the state com- 
petition received a personal letter of congratula- 
tion from the President of the United States and 
a bust of George Washington for the town where 
the winning Game Plan was made. This town 
also received a tree planted by the Governor of 
Massachusetts. 



(Continued on page 47) 



35 



World 



Play 




Courtesy The American City 



Lung Block Now a 
Playground 



WITH the comple- 
tion of a combined 
public park and school 

' playground adjoining 

the Samuel Coleridge Taylor School for Col- 
ored Children in Baltimore .according to the 
American City for February, 1933, the Public 
Improvement Commission of Baltimore has ac- 
complished what it believes to be one of its most 
constructive pieces of work. Ten years ago the 
area now occupied by the park, the playground, 
the school and its annex, consisted of squalid, 
dilapidated buildings which had been a blot on 
the city health map for many years. It was known 
as the "lung" block because of its high tubercu- 
losis rate. In 1923 the Commission decided to get 
this public property for the use of a school site. 
Buildings were razed and the school building was 
erected. Lack of funds made any further im- 
provements impossible at that time. Later on, an 
addition was built. Finally, through the cooper- 
ation of the Board of Estimates, the Park Board 
and the Public Improvement Commission, about 
two and a half acres of land were acquired for a 
playground. The total cost of the development 
was over $800,000. 



Developments in 
New Orleans 



THE Playground and 
Community Service 
Commission of New 

Orleans, Louisiana, 

has received an appropriation for 1933 of $29,300. 
This represents a cut over 1932 of only ten per 
cent. With the exception of the 1932 appropria- 
tion, it is the largest amount the department has 
ever received from the city. This year develop- 
ment will be started on Stallings Memorial Field 
which will cost about $15,000, and a new play- 

36 



Pasadena's Mountain 
Playground 



A civic achievement the conversion of a lung 
block into a public park and school playground. 

ground will be opened in the eighth ward. Funds 
for this development, about $5,000, will be raised 
in the ward. The first playground in New Orleans 
was opened in 1908. Since 1912 the playgrounds 
have grown from three to fifteen, with a splendid 
recreation center, the Behrman Memorial and five 
swimming pools, four for white and one for col- 
ored. The Commission believes that the city 
should have fifty playgrounds and ten swimming 
pools. 

CHARLTON Flats. 

Pasadena's new 1,100 
acre mountain play- 

ground in the Angeles 

National Forest, is being developed through the 
labor of itinerant unemployed men who for more 
than a year have been housed in one of the city's 
camps. The site is covered with magnificent 
pines, oaks and sycamores, some of the pines be- 
ing among the largest in the Angeles Forest. A 
water system has been installed, an electric power 
plant put in operation, a mess hall, recreation hall 
and administration building constructed, and 
courts laid out for volley ball, horseshoe pitching 
and basketball. Much grading and surfacing has 
been accomplished and miles of trails built. When 
completed the camp will serve thousands of Pasa- 
dena's citizens for picnicking, camping, horse- 
back riding and winter sports. 



Camp Fire Girls As 
Recreation Volunteers 



DURING the sum- 
mer of 1932, Donald 
Gordon, Superintend- 
ent of Parks in Okla- 
homa City, Oklahoma, called a meeting of boys' 
and girls' organizations and asked for their help 
in carrying on the recreation program of the city. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



37 



Funds were low and the problem which faced the 
department was to secure leaders. After a dis- 
cussion of ways and means, the Camp Fire Girls 
and Boy Scouts agreed to provide leadership in 
three parks. From June 3rd until August 2Oth 
was assigned to the local Camp Fire Girls group. 
The older girls were used for volunteer service 
in supervising games, telling stories, and direct- 
ing simple play. Thirty girls gave volunteer serv- 
ice, contributing 460 hours of leadership. In 
some of the parks they had little equipment to 
work with except a baseball and bat, croquet sets 
and an occasional volley ball. The total attend- 
ance during the summer period for the three 
parks was 15,252. 

Rhode Island's New Association Rhode 
Island has a new organization in the Rhode Isl- 
and Association of the Old Colony, a non-profit 
sharing corporation chartered in Rhode Island to 
combine accident prevention work and regional 
planning. William K. Vanderbilt was elected 
president of the group. The association will seek 
to prevent accidents, stimulate employment and 
improve public welfare. It will endeavor to re- 
strict objectionable billboards, to beautify high- 
ways, enlarge well traveled two lane roads into 
four lane hard surfaced roads, construct pedes- 
trian paths alongside of streets and country roads, 
and insure the proper lighting of all highways, 
parks and playgrounds. The increase of park 
areas and playgrounds, fire prevention, improve- 
ment of ocean frontage, and preservation of his- 
toric sites will also be among the objectives of 
the organization. 

An Indoor Sports Carnival A mammoth in- 
door sports carnival is to be conducted for the 
first time in the history of county sponsored 
sports in the huge amphitheatre of the West- 
chester County Center. The opening of the two 
weeks exhibitions of county skills and prowess 
in the field of the several sports has been tenta- 
tively set for March i6th, the events coming to a 
climax with boxing and wrestling bouts on April 
ist. This new plan, which makes White Plains 
the arena for the final combats in basketball, 
track, volley ball, Badminton, archery, ping-pong, 
boxing and wrestling, will also serve to focus the 
attention of the county at large on the extent and 
diversity of athletic activities sponsored by the 
Westchester County Recreation Commission. 



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after Year 



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You are entrusted with the safety of children 
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safety YEAR AFTER YEAR. 

Before you buy another piece of equipment in- 
vestigate Everwear and its ability to give year 
after year of safe performance. 




PLAYGROUND APPARATUS 



Safe, beneficial action is provided by the 
255 different types, sizes, and units of 
recreation apparatus found in the splendid 
EverWear line. 

An outfit for every play purpose. The 
design and details of construction insure 
safety and durability. Investigate them. 

Have you read the information found on 
the inside front and back cover pages of 
the EverWear catalog No. 23? If you 
do not have this splendid book, write for 
your copy. 

The EverWear Manufacturing Co. 
Springfield, Ohio 



38 



WORLD AT PLAY 



A 1933 Field Hockey and Sports Camp 
The 1933 Mills College, California, Field Hockey 
and Sports Camp will be held from June 24th to 
July 23rd on the Mills College campus, Oakland, 
California. Further information may be secured 
from Miss Rosalind Cassidy, Mills College, 
California. 

The Allegany School of Natural History 
July 5 to August 24, 1933 will mark the sixth 
session of "The School in the Forest" held in 
Allegany State Park, New York. The school is 
conducted by the Buffalo Society of Natural 
Sciences in cooperation with the New York State 
Museum and affiliated with the University of 
Buffalo. Registrations may be made through any 
of these institutions. 

Fairy-Tale Post Cards The Austrian Junior 
Red Cross, whose post cards made by pupils of 
the famous juvenile art class conducted by Pro- 
fessor Cizek in Vienna, as well as those done by 
Norbertine Bresslern-Roth, have become so wide- 
ly known, has recently published a new set of 
"fairy-tale" cards done in colors after original 
designs of the well known Australian fairy-tale 
illustrator, Hans Lang. A set of ten cards may be 
secured for $.27, including postage. Payments 
may be made by check. Orders should be ad- 
dressed to the Austrian Junior Red Cross, Marx- 
ergasse 2, Vienna III, Austria. 

Leisure Time and Regional Planning At 
the Conference on Regional Planning, Govern- 
ment and Administration in Metropolitan Areas, 
held at New York University, October i8th and 
igth, Clarence Stein, formerly Chairman, New 
York State Commission on Housing and Regional 
Planning, stated that even the modern apartment 
house in an expensive district is out of date pri- 
marily because of our steadily increasing leisure. 
This assumption is based on his belief that in- 
creasing leisure creates new housing requirements, 
particularly open space requirements. It was 
further pointed out by Professor Charles W. 
Tooke of New York University, that the steady 
increase in the amount of leisure is making 
it necessary in planning for water uses to give 
more consideration to the recreational needs of 
water and waterfronts. He specifically mentioned 
a need of water areas for bathing and for such 
recreation as fishing. In planning for the control 
of water, for example, he mentioned the fact that 
it must be kept sufficiently pure so that it will be 



safe to bathe in and so that fish can live in it. He 
felt it was significant that sanitary engineers in 
their work in connection with sewerage disposal 
problems in the New York harbor region con- 
sider water areas in this section as of two kinds 
recreational waters and non-recreational waters 
and base theiir sewerage disposal planning on 
such a distinction. 

Pasadena's Rose Tournament Pasadena's 
forty-fourth annual Tournament of Roses had as 
its theme Fairyland fairty-tales in flowers. It is 
estimated that almost a million people watched 
some part or all of the tournament parade which 
.this year seemed more elaborate and beautiful 
than ever, according to the Pasadena Star-News 
and Post which issued a special Tournament of 
Roses number. 

The Oklahoma City Zoo The annual report, 
of the Board of Park Commissioners of Okla- 
homa City, Oklahoma, is outstanding in its em- 
phasis on recreation facilities and activities. One 
interesting item has to do with the activities pro- 
vided through the zoo. 

The director of the zoo has added interest by 
arranging for the celebration of the birthdays of 
the various animals. A bridle path tended by the 
zoo keepers provides small children with rides on 
goats and donkeys in carts. The schools in many 
surrounding towns brought classes to the city for 
a day's outing. The director arranged an itinerary 
on this occasion which took the children through 
various factories and points of interest in the 
city, including the zoo. School children of Okla- 
homa City have spent time at the zoo under the 
guidance of the director who told them the life 
history of many of the animals as they visited the 
various displays. 

An "Uncle Leo Club" has been organized which 
meets every Saturday morning at one of the local 
theatres. At this time the director gives radio 
talks on animals for the benefit of the children. 
This has proved very interesting, especially to 
children's institutions throughout the state. 

An Assembly Hall for Belle Isle The will 
of the late William H. Flynn of Detroit, Michi- 
gan, provides for an assembly hall at Belle Isle 
to be used by those who attend open air symphony 
concerts and theatricals. The building, which will 
be of marble with Italian garden landscaping, will 
be known as the "Flynn Memorial Building." 
"Beauty will be sought," the will states, "but not 



WORLD AT PLAY 



39 



at the expense of utility. There shall be an in- 
terior auditorium, branch library, canoe and small 
boat shelter, day nursery, emergency hospital and 
refectory. The public should maintain the 
building." 

Timely Cooperation The University School 
of Cleveland, Ohio, a private school which has 
a three-acre athletic field with tennis courts, 
baseball diamonds and volley ball courts, re- 
cently turned these facilities over to the Recre- 
ation Department for twelve weeks without 
any charge whatever for their use. The athletic 
field is located in a district where play space 
is much needed, and the Department has pro- 
vided a caretaker and two playground direc- 
tors. To stimulate membership in the city's 
golf course four free golf lessons are offered 
to every new member. 

Yakima to Have a Swimming Pool Several 
years ago the Lions Club of Yakima, Washing- 
ton, purchased and improved a city block making 
it into one of the most attractive parks in the city. 
However, there was not enough money left over 
for a swimming pool. The club has been saving 
for this improvement and has $1,800 on hand. A 
plan has been worked out with the City Commis- 
sion to start the construction of a $9,000 pool 
which will cover an area of more than a city 
residence lot. The work of excavating will be 
done by local unemployed labor. It is estimated 
that this will cost about $4,500, leaving $4,500 
for materials. The city has offered to match the 
club dollar for dollar on this, and the club is 
going ahead with the project. 

An Interesting Piece of Engineering On 
the Webster Street Playground in Gloucester, 
Massachusetts, there is an interesting engineering 
feature which is making possible the flooding of 
the ground for skating. A living stream flows 
through a drain under the center of the play- 
ground. At the lower end, where a dam exists, a 
large valve has been installed which can be closed 
at will causing the entire play field to be flooded 
for skating. An escape drain has been installed 
which causes the water to run off when it has 
reached a certain level. When the skating season 
is over, the large valve is opened letting out all 
the water. The field itself is surrounded by banks 
making a natural bowl-like stadium. 




Bright 
Clean 



SUNSHINE 
FRESH AIR 



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with Solvay Calcium Chloride . . . 

PROTECTING children at play is the aim 
f of the modern playground. How im- 
portant to protect them from the dan- 
gers and dirt in dust! It's so easy and 
it costs next to nothing. 

An application of Solvay Flake Calcium 
Chloride on gravel or earth surfaces 
effectively ends the dust nuisance. And 
Solvay Calcium Chloride kills germs. 
The photomicrographs pictured here 
show you the results. 347 cultures in the 
untreated dust. Only 3 in the same dust 
treated with Solvay Calcium Chloride. 





Germs 

in Dust 

Before treatment After treatment 

Make this a dustless outdoor season 
on your playgrounds. Send today for 
full information and booklet No. 1159. 

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lured by The Solvay Process Company 
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FLAKE- 77^-80% 



40 



WORLD AT PLAY 



A Sports Center Dedicated Eleven years of 
effort were climaxed recently in the dedication at 
Paterson, New Jersey, of the Hinchcliffe Sta- 
dium, named in honor of Mayor John Hinchcliffe 
and of his uncle who was mayor from 1897 to 
1903. The new structure cost slightly over 
$200,000. 

A New Field House At a cost of $225 for 
material, through the use of relief labor, Melrose, 
Massachusetts, now has a new field house which 
is serving as a park office and recreation center. 
The building will house girls' club activities, skat- 
ing and warming rooms, storage space for tennis 
and hockey equipment, and a roomy park office. 

From Court to Playground The boys of 
Phoenixville, Pa. who are taken to court because 
of juvenile delinquency are paroled to the Super- 
tendent of Recreation in Phoenixville, who ar- 
ranges for their participation in certain activities. 

At the Child Study Conference At the two 
day conference conducted October iyth and i8th 
by the Child Study Association of America, a re- 
port was made of the project carried on last year 
by the parents of Lincoln School, New York 



Volley Ball 

Series of articles on 
Technique 

By ROBERT E. LAVEAGA, 

Director of Physical Education, Boston 
YMCA 

M. A. CLEVETT, 

Association College, Chicago 

May 1932 : April 1933 

COMPLETE SET, $1.00 

T 

Journal of 
Physical Education 

347 MADISON AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



City. Feeling they wanted more opportunity to 
plan and carry out their own projects, the parents 
with the assistance of a leader whose one task 
was to coordinate the work of the separate parent 
groups, set to work to accomplish two objectives : 
(i) To give parents the opportunity of meeting 
and becoming better acquainted with the parents 
and children with whom their own children went 
to school, and (2) To have a different type of 
meeting from that at which an expert lectured to 
them. Parents' recreation nights were organized 
at which fathers and mothers had the opportunity 
to swim, to take part in physical and creative ac- 
tivities, and to do the things which their children 
did during the day. 

In setting up the organization, one mother from 
each grade was asked to cooperate. It was found 
that best results were secured when parents en- 
tered freely into the discussion and studied and 
presented problems impersonally. Frequently the 
parents would realize the need of help from ex- 
perts and would invite them to take part in the 
meeting. The school learned much from this 
treatment of expression for all, and the executive 
committee is building plans on the suggestions 
offered by the parents. 

A New Art Exhibit Routine of business at 
the headquarters of Queensboro Hall, New York 
City, was interrupted in December by the opening 
of the first art exhibit held of work done by city 
employees. The exhibit comprised oil paintings, 
water colors, drawings, life sketches, posters and 
photographic studies, all the work of employees 
who in their spare time turned to art. They have 
formed what is known as the "Boro Hall Art 
Club." 

Dad's Clubs Help Alton, Illinois, has three 
Dads' Clubs which are supporting playground 
projects. One of them is fostering an arrange- 
ment between Shurtleff College and the city 
whereby a piece of property owned by the col- 
lege in a section where a playground is badly 
needed may be developed by unemployed 
labor. At the Kiwanis Tower Playground the 
Dads' Club raised funds and with labor do- 
nated, built a beautiful fountain and wading 
pool. 

A New Recreation Center for Trenton The 

site of the deaf institute in Trenton, New Jer- 
sey, from which the institute has moved, will 
be converted into a recreation area. This will 
be a splendid addition to the city's facilities. 



'CHILDREN ARE LIKE THAT" 



41 



A State Tournament in Playground Ball 
On September 5th the eighth annual play- 
ground ball tournament of Minnesota was 
completed at Stillwater. There were eighteen 
teams in the tournament, fourteen in Class 
"B," four in Class "A." "The play was keen 
and competition fair. Every team entered 
showed up on time for the meet ; the umpiring 
was excellent and the games went off on sched- 
ule," writes Ernest W. Johnson, Superinten- 
dent of Playgrounds in St. Paul, who was 
present as a representative of the Municipal 
Athletics Commission of Minnesota. The at- 
tendance grew from 1,000 the first day, Sep- 
tember 3rd, to about 5,000 on the final day, 
September 5th. 

Play Nights in Westchester County The 
Westchester County, New York, Recreation 
Commission has resumed this fall its weekly 
Play Nights in the County Center. Each Mon- 
day night from 7 :00 to 10 :30 there will be vol- 
ley ball, ping pong, Badminton, shufflle board 
and similar games in the main auditorium of 
the center, while in the little theater such ac- 
tivities will be conducted as old-fashioned 
square dancing, chess and checkers. 

Durham's Recreation Training Institute 

Just before the summer playground season 
opened, the Recreation Commission of Dur- 
ham, North Carolina, held a training institute. 
The graduates of the institute were given a 
certificate stating that each graduate had suc- 
cessfully completed the course of training and 
had demonstrated that he had a working 
knowledge of the material presented. Each 
night of the institute a different member of 
the Recreation Commission of the city pre- 
sided over the session. 



"Children Are Like That" 

(Continued from page 5) 

Nor is this plea for self-determination in play 
intended to deprecate the organization and super- 
vision of play groups. Certainly the organized 
group successfully meets many of the child's valid 
play needs and interests. But in our zeal to take 
care of these obvious interests, in our eagerness 
to capitalize each in the name of "education," we 
must be wary lest we submerge other claims less 
apparent but no less real. And if we do not 



Special Certificates and College Degrees 
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July 3 to August 11 

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always know how to interpret or evaluate these, 
we can at least accept them as having a valid place 
in the child's scheme of things. We can give them 
houseroom. 

In our organization of the child's play we can 
see to it that he has at least a modicum of that 
vital play accessory known as "free time" to 
"waste" if he so wishes, to play alone or with 
companions of his own selecting, to choose his 
play wherever and however he may find it. 



A Broader Concept of Physical 
Education 

(Continued from page 8) 

the gymnasium reproductions of the finest in 
Greek art, hang on the walls pictures represent- 
ing the human form at its best, pictures portray- 
ing in bodily attitude, gesture and facial expres- 
sion, the emotions of man, and pictures repre- 
sentative of types of character and temperament. 
These means, supplemented by the use of the 
motion picture and instruction by the teacher, 
acquaint the youth with the possibilities of the 
human body as a means of expressing and inter- 
preting mental life. 

Introduce into the gymnasium large mirrors 
that the youth may see for himself how he com- 
pares with the ideal. Urge him to participate in 
school dramatics that he may discover to what 
extent he is able by voice, posture, gesture and 
facial expression to express, intensify, and de- 
velop his own ideational and affective states. 

But to be successful in putting into practice 
this broader conception of physical education, the 
teacher himself must experience in thought, feel- 
ing, and action that which he would have youth 
experience through the process of physical edu- 



42 



ACTIVITIES FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE 



cation. Only thus can the goal be attained the 
freeing of the human spirit to reveal itself to the 
world through a beautiful, graceful, responsive 
body. From The Journal of Health and Physical 
Education, September, 1932. 



One Junior Achievement Company is now in 
formation in Westchester County and three other 
communities are planning to organize such groups. 



Activities for Unemployed and 
Unoccupied Young People 

(Continued from page 15) 

be led to see what it has to offer. Possibly there 
would be one person in the group who is dissat- 
isfied with the work he planned to go into prior 
to the depression. He might in this way be led to 
direct his interests to another line of work more 
suited to him. 

The libraries might also offer, through residents 
of the community who have had some library 
training, story telling courses for girls. Contests 
for reviews of recent books bought by the library 
could be announced, the review of the successful 
contestant being published in the paper. Exhibits 
of collections of individuals, such as dolls, paint- 
ings, rugs, are also possible. Posters should be 
placed in public places and loitering places an- 
nouncing these offerings. 

It is interesting to note that through publishers 
it is possible to secure authors' reports on their 
own books. 

Can These Young People Be Helped to 

Earn Money? 

In spite of the lack of regular work for large 
numbers of people, we must continue to look for 
means by which some money may be earned. It 
has been suggested that sales may be sponsored 
for the products of various craft groups and that 
dramatic and choral clubs may offer entertain- 
ments for which admission is charged. In one 
instance, several arts and crafts groups and in- 
dividual artists have formed a guild with exhibits 
and sales of products held monthly at the homes 
of the interested sponsors. 

The Junior Achievement Plan 
Through the Junior Achievement, Inc., clubs 
are incorporated as businesses in miniature with 
complete craft and business programs. The clubs 
may be formed by recreation directors, club lead- 
ers, or individuals who have contact with young 
people. Working capital is raised by means of 
miniature shares of stock having a par value of 
from 10 to 50 cents. 



How to Produce a Play 

(Continued from page 16) 

3. All actors in the scenes or acts being re- 
hearsed must be present. If an actor is absent 
he is injuring not only his own performance but 
that of every other actor in the scene. 

4. There must be absolute quiet among actors 
not on the stage during the rehearsal of a scene, 
and close attention to entrance cues. 

5. Difficult scenes or bits of business must be 
repeated over and over again until the result is 
satis factor}', although a special rehearsal may be 
called for them so as not to waste the time of the 
rest of the cast. If the actor shows signs of re- 
senting the repetition of scenes, tell him that he is 
being complimented by being dealt with as a 
professional. 

The second principle is often neglected by lazy 
or too egotistical directors. It is this The 
director does not act, he makes the actor act. In 
other words, the director does not get up on the 
stage and show the actor how to act. He tells the 
actor what he wants him to do, what effect he 
wants him to obtain ; he shows him all the possi- 
bilities in the part, intellectual, emotional and 
physical, but he does not show him how to act. 
If he does, the actor does not act at all. He imi- 
tates. It doesn't take any brains to imitate. A 
parrot is excellent at it. Acting is creation, not 
imitation. 

It is often easier to get imitation out of an 
actor than true acting, and lazy directors are apt 
to make animated parrots out of their actors. The 
too egotistical director does not have faith enough 
in his actors. He thinks that he is the only one 
who can do the part, so makes shadows of his 
actors who follow him around and "do as he 
does." 

Occasionally it will be necessary for the 
director, in order to make himself thoroughly 
understood, to get up on the stage and go through 
a speech or a bit of business to the best of his 
ability, but when he has finished he turns to the 
actor and says, "Now don't copy me but I want 
you to get that same effect in your own way." 
Most of the directing, however, should be done 
from the house, not from the stage. 



TODAY'S NATURE EDUCATION AND TOMORROWS LEISURE 



43 



If the director observes the three following 
principles he will have no trouble in securing 
plenty of actors, and more important, in keeping 
them. 

1. Never nag or scold, but inspire and enthuse. 

2. Start and stop rehearsals on time, and at the 
conclusion of each rehearsal play for a few mo- 
ments. Play games, dance, stand around a piano 
and sing, serve coffee and doughnuts, talk (all 
actors love to talk), have some bit of social recre- 
ation and relaxation at the conclusion of each 
rehearsal. 

3. Make every production a good production. 
"Flops" not only discourage the actors in the pro- 
duction, but keep every one in the audience away 
from the next "try-out." No one wants to be 
associated with a failure. 

And above all, poise, patience, and perse- 
verance! 

NOTF. : Subjects to be discussed in future issues of 
RECREATION include Selecting the Play ; Casting the 
Play ; Organizing the Production ; Rehearsing for Posi- 
tion ; Line, Business and Voice Rehearsals ; Rehearsing 
for Sincerity ; Theatre Make-Up ; Theatre Costume. 
Stage Lighting ; Stage Setting ; The Dress Rehearsal 
and the Performance. 



Today's Nature Education and 
Tomorrow's Leisure 

(Continued from page 19) 

the sun, the air and mother earth. Science can do 
much to unify the home. Every school should 
introduce its youth to leisure time science whether 
it be nature as a hobby, a sport, a game, reading, 
travel, song, painting, or experiment. Hobbies 
are stimulated by interest and are more far reach- 
ing than any assignment. The outpost of leisure 
time science should be better health, better society 
and better knowledge. We need to know more 
about the science of leisure and also about the 
leisure of science. 

Leisure Science Essential 
The world is demanding the fulness of science 
and not mere technocracy. All intellectual science 
and no leisure science make Jack an incomplete 
boy. When Jack was memorizing laws of invisi- 
ble radiation, wave motion, resonance, transmis- 
sion of heat, vaporization, calorimetry, induced 
currents, polarization, or learning that force (in 
absolute units) equals mass X acceleration, he 
might well have been taught that a wee bit of his 
energy could also be used to stalk birds, to get a 
"kick" out of fishing, or with equal profit he 





DIAMOND 

Pitching Horseshoes of special appeal to profes- 
sionals. Excellent for amateurs. Just what's 
needed on a playground. Will stand up under 
severest treatment. Diamond Officials made 
straight or curved toe calk, hard or soft (dead 
falling). Junior 
model for ladies and 
children. 

DIAMOND 

ACCKSSORIES 

Score pads, instruction 
booklets, rules, percent- 
age charts, carrying cases, 
steel stakes and stake holders, 
official courts ready to set up 
indoors or out. Built to con- 
form to official requirements. 

DIAMOND 

CALK HORSESHOE CO. 

4610 Grand Avenue Duluth, Minn. 




could have started a life interest in collecting 
rocks. Instead of labeling diagrams, classifying 
plants, outlining leaves, naming bones and chant- 
ing principles, he might have just as profitably 
hiked to a mountain top. Are we not still teach- 
ing tasks which do not awaken the science motives 
that are close to contemporary life? Can we not 
find place in our course to teach leisure time 
science? Has not the center of gravity in science 
teaching got to shift from overemphasis of mem- 
orizing and reciting to experiencing and enjoying? 

No tribal man could afford to be one-sided. He 
had to be alert to a host of signs in his environ- 
ment. He had to be sensitive to what other people 
were doing. He had to know the plants and ani- 
mals for medicine, shelter and food. That is not 
so today. A man can be an intellectual giant in 
science and be socially unresponsive. He can be 
a moron in science and yet survive. He can be an 
outdoor he-man and also a braggadocio in the 
matter of getting along without modern science. 
One scientist must be an expert on the growth 



44 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

(Recently Received Containing Articles \ 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker 



MAGAZINES 

New Jersey Municipalities, January, 1933. 

The Economy of Planned Recreation, by Charles H. 

Demarest. 

Parks and Recreation, by F. S. Mathewson. 
Scholastic Coach, January, 1933. 

Playing in the Water, by Floyd Eastwood. 
Minnesota Municipalities, January, 1933. 

Safe Winter Coasting Hills, by A. B. Horwitz. 
The Grade Teacher, February, 1933. 

What Can We Play in the Snow? by Berenice 

Muella Ball. 

The Journal of the National Education Association, 
January, 1933. 
The Junior College : A Community Center, by J. B. 

Griffing. 

The Child and Community Influences. 
The American City, January, 1933. 

How Red Wing Was Given 232 Acres of Parks. 
Hygeia, February, 1933. 

Athletics for the Atypical, by R. K. Atkinson. 
Training for Athletics and Health, by Alfred E. 

Parker. 
The Architectural Record, January, 1933. 

Need for Recreational Buildings Foreseen by Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects. 
Marine Park Proposed for Brooklyn, by Charles 

Downing Lay. 
Parks and Recreation, January, 1933. 

Economies in Park Work Without Impairing Serv- 
ice, by Ernest K. Thomas. 
Park Land Acquisitions in Connection with Real 

Estate Subdivisions, by S. Herbert Hare. 
Park Service Is It a Governmental or Proprietary 
Function of Municipal Government? by Arthur 
Williams. 
Outdoor Dining in Westchester County, by Stanley 

W. Abbott. 
Successful Airport Operation Under Park Board 

Supervision, by C. W. Short, Jr. 
Unemployment Relief Work on Park Projects in 

Portland, Maine, by William J. Dougherty. 
Horseshoes and Handball. 

Success of Municipal Golf in New Haven, by Har- 
old V. Doheny. 
Journal of Physical Education, February, 1933. 

Y. M. C. A. Program of Physical Education for 
Men Determined by Study of Expressed Prefer- 
ence of Both Members and Non-Members, by 
Roland Rooks. 

PAMPHLETS 

Nature Clubs for Teacher Training 
By William G. Vinal. Reprinted from School Science 
and Mathematics, November, 1932. 

Annual Report of the Commonwealth Fund, 1932. 
41 East 57th Street, New York City. 

Annual Report of the Recreation Commission, Plainfield. 
N. J., 1932. 

Third Annual Report of the Department of Public Rec- 
reation, Millburn, N. J., 1932. 

Annual Report of City Recreation Department, Austin, 
Texas, 1932. 

Annual Report of the Board of Park Commissioners, Ok- 
lahoma City, Okla., 1932. 



and repair of muscle tissue ; the hygienist realizes 
the necessity of exercise for muscle tone. And 
yet these same muscles may be just as important 
for mental exhilaration, the best social function- 
ing, and for complete sympathies and emotions. 
When these muscles are not used they atrophy 
and the individual is that much short of being a 
complete man. The scientist who is living but a 
fraction of his life is not the scientist who can 
bring us out of the present chaos; he must be a 
scientist of full stature. 



Boys' Week 

(Continued from page 20) 

as vocational guidance counsellors, discussing 
with the boys problems of choosing future 
careers. 

Boys' Day in Schools. Addresses before 
the students, receptions at which parents may 
meet their boys' teachers and similar activities 
will mark the observance of Boys' Day in Schools 
on Tuesday, May 2nd. 

Boys' Day in Entertainment and Athletics. 
On Wednesday, May 3rd, the boys will enjoy 
interschool field meets, evening programs of 
games and athletic events in which fathers are 
urged to take part, marble tournaments and talent 
exhibitions. It is suggested that luncheons be 
planned at which athletes of note will address the 
boys. On this day boys may be given an oppor- 
tunity to speak or sing on local radio programs. 

Boys' Health Day. On Thursday, May 
4th, the program will provide for talks in the 
schools by physicians and dentists, the showing 
of films on the care of the teeth and other health 
subjects, free clinic examinations, the initiation 
of a Junior Red Cross organization and similar 
activities. 

Boys' Evening at Home. Family recrea- 
tion and family relationships will be stressed on 
Thursday evening when fathers are urged to 
devote the evening to their boys, telling them of 
their own boyhood and experiences. It is suggested 
that on this evening parents take the opportunity 
to center attention on problems which their boys 
are facing. 

Boys' Day in Citizenship. On May 5th a 
caucus or primary may be arranged in which can- 
didates from the schools are named for the various 
elective offices of the community to be followed 
by an election. In some cities the officers elected 
serve for a day or part of a day in the offices to 



THE GIRL IN THE SETTLEMENT PROGRAM 



45 



which they have been elected. Speakers may be 
secured to address the schools on subjects of in- 
terest to the future citizens of the community. 

Boys' Day Out-of-Doors. The final day of 
the week may be given over to a series of hikes 
to be taken by different groups of boys over 
various routes but culminating at a central point 
where a treasure hunt, swimming party or similar 
activity may be enjoyed by the entire group. A 
city-wide tournament of open air sports may be 
arranged and such events as boat excursions, 
mountain climbing exhibitions, nature study hikes 
and paper chasers. 



The Girl in The Settlement Program 

(Continued from page 21) 

Backgrounds and Traditions 
Girls have many traits alike the world over, 
but due to varied racial and community back- 
grounds there is found a difference in individuals, 
both in ability and interests. Most families who 
live in the overcrowded tenements on the East 
Side of New York, still possess habits which 
portray a love for and adherence to old world 
customs in religious and traditional subjects. 
Many fine points of character and principles are 
credited to such ideals ; esthetic and artistic ten- 
dencies must not be treated lightly. Homes here 
are now overshadowed by unemployment; it is a 
joy to find such rare treasures of the arts as the 
old pictures, embroideries, tapestries and wood 
carvings treasured in these almost impossible 
homes. The girls in the younger generation are 
taught to appreciate the collections which many 
times warrant museum display and which inspire 
many of them to come to the settlement to learn 
the value not only of the old treasures, but of 
modern art and culture. 

It is around these desires and trends that pro- 
grams are built to meet the wide and varied 
interests of the girls today. 

The Girls' Work Program 

The girls' work program is organized with care 
and purpose, each club or group being provided 
with a skilled leader. The general business meet- 
ing is the same in all of the clubs and in the main 
objectives are similar, though at times plans are 
checked by house standards. The projects and 
discussions may vary depending on the demands 
of the girls during the various ages. There is also 
a distinct social side to the activities. Through 



i > 



"What Can We Do 

In Our Town? 

Do you live in a town or small city? 

Are you faced with the problem of pro- 
viding recreation facilties and activities at 
little or no expense? 

You will find many specific suggestions 
on how to do it and information on what 
a number of communities have done in the 
bulletin entitled, "What Can We Do in 
Our Town?" 



PRICE $.25 

NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 

315 FOURTH AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



the club as a medium girls are led into richer rec- 
reational and social opportunities. As the com- 
mittees work together making plans for programs, 
entertainments and refreshments for the numer- 
ous seasonal and special social affairs, ample edu- 
cation in social etiquette is given to assure each 
girl the arts of a gracious hostess in her home 
building in later years. 

A casual visitor who happened to walk into an 
intermediate club room the other evening, paused 
to listen as the girls considered outstanding facts 
in a round table discussion on housing. Pictures 
and plans, beginning with the old tenement houses 
on the lower East Side, single and double dwell- 
ings in the suburbs and modern apartments and 
Park Avenue residences were examined as well 
as the income necessary to cover the cost of the 
various homes discussed. 

The visitor was interested to learn of the other 
social-educational topics covered by various girl's 
groups such as labor and minimum wage, relief, 
unemployment, technocracy, regulations of the 
banking system, federal reserve banks, the Muscle 
Shoals situation and different kinds of insurance. 
Thus the girls are gaining from the settlement a 



46 



SQUARES D' EN F ANTS 



background and training rich with material, to 
help in surmounting the obstacles and solve the 
problems of present day thinking, and to bolster 
up their faith in the future. 



NOTE: This introductory article of Miss Mower will 
be followed in future issues with material on volunteer 
leadership, arts and crafts, and allied subjects. 



Squares d'Enfants 

(Continued from page 22) 

disinfected twice a month by the city of Paris 
and is replaced monthly. Nurses watch to see 
that the children are kept as clean as possible, and 
children are taught to wash their hands before 
eating. In brief, the rules which exist provide the 
greatest security for the parents. 

In the squares children play, sing, laugh, jump, 
run and dance, sometimes taking the nurse into 
the circle. In clear weather they play out-of- 
doors even in winter. There is, however, on each 
playground a well heated building where the chil- 
dren play during inclement weather. Dramatics, 
music phonographs have been supplied Japan- 
ese billiards and sewing are among the indoor ac- 
tivities. At Christmas the playground is ingen- 
iously decorated and festivals are held. Through 
the generosity of Mrs. Stern each square is pro- 
vided with a supply of playthings varied but not 
easily harmed by the children. These include 
jumping ropes, see-saws, rocking horses and 
wheelbarrows. 

The playgrounds are small but each is sur- 
rounded by an iron grill fence. Large sand boxes 
are a feature, and on one or more of the play- 
grounds there are artificial streams on which 
children sail their miniature boats. Pergolas have 
been erected for the sand courts which during 
extremely hot weather are covered with canvas. 

"In our grounds the role of the nurses is re- 
duced to that of guardians and mothers' counsel- 
ors. They interfere very little with the games of 
the children, who are left to themselves and who 
have complete liberty. The ground is a club where 
each has the same rights, advantages and obliga- 
tions." Children from various types of homes 
are brought to the ground in some cases they 
come when the mothers go to work, in others 
when they go shopping or when they have social 
engagements. It is pointed out that the contacts 
which the parents have made on the playgrounds 
promise to result in a better understanding among 
the women of different social groupings. 



According to a report of the General Secretary, 
the city of Paris furnishes free of charge all fa- 
cilities, sand and other materials. The expendi- 
tures for construction and operation are met to 
a large degree by the organization entitled 
"L'Oeuvre des Squares d'Enfants" of which Mrs. 
Stern is President. The expenses of the organi- 
zation in 1931 were: 

Building Expenses 261,221. francs 

Operating Expenses 440,243.30 

The total attendance reported on the five play- 
grounds for the year 1931 was 118,610. Only one 
of the grounds was open the entire year; two of 
them were opened late in May and two the latter 
part of July of the year. 



Gardening as a Recreation 

(Continued from page 23) 

their garden plots with judging done by adult 
garden club members. A flower and vegetable 
show in a downtown store building or at the 
library or town hall would serve as a fitting cli- 
max to the summer's activities. 

The summer's garden activities need not be 
confined entirely to the care of the garden plots. 
And playground leaders to be successful coun- 
selors need not be horticulturists or experienced 
gardeners. 

Gardening, if it is to be recreation in the truest 
sense of the word, will include tree and plant 
identification hikes, games, dramas, all based upon 
legends and true facts in gardening. Such corre- 
lating activities as Flower and Vegetable Knowl- 
edge, Sharing Garden Pleasures. Garden Handi- 
craft and Nature Essays, with attractive award 
badges and garden note books are furnished coun- 
selors by the Junior Garden Clubs of America 
for postage charges only. Adventures in planning 
the garden ; care of plants ; staging a garden battle 
with weeds ; in fact, every kind of garden activity 
presented in detail through the avenue of fun is 
furnished by the Junior Garden Clubs of America. 
Instructions for making miniature model gardens, 
flower show plans, and plans for garden parties 
are also available to Junior Garden Club 
counselors. 

There are now more than one-quarter of a 
million Junior Garden Clubs enrolled in the Jun- ' 
ior Garden Clubs of America. More than half of 



RECREATIONS OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD 



47 



these are entered by teachers who are using the 
Junior Garden Clubs of America plan of correlat- 
ing garden, flower and nature study in the regular 
school curriculum. Leaders of Girl Reserves, Girl 
Scouts, Boy Scouts, 4-H Girls and Camp Fire 
Girls, are also finding the Junior Garden Clubs 
of America plans of great value in their nature 
and home beautification activities. . 

At the end of the garden season playground 
leaders may feel that they have planted a seed 
which will grow into a delightful avocation for 
future business men who must earn their daily 
bread by toil of the brain rather than by sweat of 
the brow. And to the tired housewife they have 
given a recreation that at its best produces and 
conserves the beauty which is one of the greatest 
of the three ultimates of life. By promoting in- 
terest in the different phases of gardening and 
flower growing, they are fostering a very im- 
portant institution in the welfare of the human 
family, as well as a great addition to civic 
improvement. 



Recreations of The Colonial Period 

(Continued from page 34) 

and barley grows" ; "When I was a shoemaker" ; 
"Here I brown, Here I bake, Here I make my 
wedding cake" ; "The needle's eye that doth sup- 
ply" ; "Soldier Brown will marry me, marry me" ; 
"O dear Doctor don't you cry" ; "There's a rose 
in the garden for you young man" ; "Ring around 
a rosy" ; "Go round and round the valley" ; 
"Quaker, Quaker, How art thee"; "I put my 
right foot in" ; "My master sent me to you, sir" ; 
"London Bridge is falling down." This is inter- 
esting because it shows a large variety of activi- 
ties. It is surprising that so many of these song 
plays are still played. 



The Game Plan 

(Continued from page 35) 

The Values of the Plan 

Joseph Lee, President of the National Recre- 
ation Association, in writing Captain Creed, said : 

"I am very much interested in the game plan. 
It provides a sort of education for which every 
boy thirsts and just what every boy's crowd is 
continually looking for. It has an object which 
requires creation and ingenuity, and above all, is 
difficult three of the main desiderata in educa- 



Notable Swimming Pools and Guide 
To Equipment and Supplies 

A year-round reference book for 
swimming pools and other public 
bathing places. A bound volume. 
Contains, among other material, the 
Rules, Laws and Regulations of the 
various States and some cities. The 
Regulations were compiled by the 
Sanitary Engineering Department of 
the State of Illinois. 
In this volume every important 
phase of the swimming pool and 
beach is dealt with by outstanding 
engineers and municipal and State 
departments design, operation, con- 
struction, sanitation, maintenance, 
etc. 

Price $2.00 

ADDRESS 

NOTABLE SWIMMING POOLS and 
GUIDE to EQUIPMENT & SUPPLIES 

114 E. 32nd Street, New York, N. Y. 



tion. It also leads toward concrete knowledge of 
the community, of what its functions are and how 
they can best be fulfilled, and so to the develop- 
ment of public spirit a result that the boy will 
not be thinking about but which will be all the 
better obtained because not associated in his mind 
with being good. 

"The stroke of genius in the enterprise was the 
application of the sound pedagogic principle of 
let-alone. It is a great piece of wisdom, or of 
luck, that those who started the idea have not in- 
terfered. Grown people, it is true, should not be 
entirely excluded from participation. They can 
help a little on the side lines. A suggestion may 
be tolerated, even advice occasionally if asked 
for. But it is first-handedness that counts, the 
'up-against-it' that calls out the best in anybody." 

Though the plan originated in Norfolk County, 
Massachusetts, there is every reason why it 
should be extended to towns, cities, counties, and 
states everywhere. Anyone interested in securing 
further information may obtain the Game Plan 
and accompanying literature by sending 20 cents 
to Captain Percy R. Creed, Room 1019, 50 Con- 
gress Street, Boston. 



New Books on Recreation 



Junior Manual 

By O. Garfield Jones. Published by the author, 2701 
Rathbun Drive, Toledo, Ohio. $1.00 paper bound; 
$1.50 cloth bound. 

THE PURPOSE of this manual, containing lessons for 
' leadership within a group and parliamentary pro- 
cedure, is to facilitate the development of the art of 
group leadership in the schools, particularly in the 
groups from the sixth to tenth grades where the club 
interest is emerging. Some simplification, as Dr. Jones, 
who is Professor of Political Science of the University 
of Toledo points out, has been necessary, but in the pro- 
cess all the motions have been left that the ordinary club 
or society uses in its deliberations, with the result that 
seventh grade pupils can learn in a few lessons how to 
conduct their group meetings in accordance with this 
Junior Manual. 

The Junior Manual has been worked out in such a 
relation to the Senior Manual, which includes all the 
motions in Robert's Rules of Order, that pupils who 
have learned the procedure of the Junior Manual in a 
junior high school can when they reach the senior high 
school readily learn the more difficult motions included 
in the Senior Manual without having to unlearn any- 
thing. The author suggests that the Senior Manual be 
taught only as an elective in the senior high school for 
those students who are socially ambitious and intellectu- 
ally keen enough to profit by this more complete tech- 
nique for group leadership. The price of the Senior 
Manual, which may be secured from the author, is $1.00 
paper bound; $1.25 cloth bound. 

Free-Time Activities for Unemployed 
Young Men 

By E. C. Worman. Occasional Studies No. 12. Asso- 
ciation Press, 347 Madison Avenue, New York. $.75. 
THIS "SAMPLING of experience in the Young Men's 
' Christian Associations" tells the interesting story of 
a number of typical unemployment service projects, such 
as community clubs, programs of recreation in unused 
building space, vocational guidance conferences, a job 
finders' club, an unemployed wood-workers' exhibit, and 
similar projects. The booklet contains suggestions which 
will 'be helpful for recreation workers providing activi- 
ties for the unemployed. 

May Day Child Health Day 

American Child Health Association, 450 Seventh Avenue, 
New York. $.10. 

IN PREPARING for Child Health Day in 1933 (May 1st), 
' the American Child Health Association has issued a 
pamphlet giving briefly some of the results of Child 
Health Day in 1932 and offering some general sugges- 
tions for the observance of the day in 1933. 

48 



Rules for Girls' Activities 

Spalding's Athletic Library. $.25 each. 

THE AMERICAN Physical Education Association, 
' through its Women's Rules and Editorial Commit- 
tee, publishes seven booklets on Rules for Girls' Activi- 
ties with appropriate articles and suggestions for their 
more effective teaching. These include Women's Official 
Handbook, with Rules for Track and Field and a num- 
ber of athletic games ; Women's Basketball Guide 1932- 
1933 ; Women's Soccer- Guide (also Field Ball) ; Out- 
door Baseball for Women; Aquatics for Women and 
Girls with official swimming rules ; Women's Winter 
Activities, and Field Hockey Guide. These booklets 
which are available through athletic outfitters or from 
the American Sports Publishing Company, New York 
City, are exceedingly valuable for the recreation worker, 
representing as they do the result of painstaking experi- 
mentation and the best judgment of hundreds of women 
who work with girls in the field of physical education. 

What To Do In Westchester- 
How-When-What It Costs 

Published by C. J. Nuttall, Chappaqua, New York. $.35. 

A GUIDE TO THE recreational facilities of Westchester 
* County, New York, both publicly and privately main- 
tained, this attractive booklet offers a practical listing of 
activities of many kinds. Any community group wishing 
to issue a guide of this nature will find the Westchester 
publication exceedingly helpful. 

Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 
JOSEPH LEE, President 
JOHN H. FINLEY, First Vice-President 
JOHN G. WINANT, Second Vice-President 
ROBERT GARKETT. Third Vice-President 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, Treasurer 
HOWARD S. BRAUCHER, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

MRS. EDWARD W. BIDDLE, Carlisle, Pa. 
WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH, Moline. 111. 
CLARENCE M. CLARK, Philadelphia, Pa. 
HENRY L. CORBET^ Portland, Ore. 
MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER, Jacksonville, Fla. 
F. TRUBEE DAVISON, Locust Valley, L. I.. N. Y. 
MRS. THOMAS A. EDISON, West Orange, N. J. 
JOHN H. FiNLEY t New York, N. Y. 
HUGH FRAYNE, New York, N. Y. 
ROBERT GARRETT, Baltimore, Md. 
AUSTIN E. GRIFFITHS, Seattle, Wash. 
WILLIAM HALE HARKNESS, New York, N. Y. 
CHARLES HAYDEN, New York N. Y. 
MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX, Michigan City, Ind. 
MRS. FRANCIS DELACY HYDE, Plainfield, N. J. 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, New York, N. Y. 
H. McK. LANDON, Indianapolis, Ind. 
MRS. CHARLES D. LANIER, Greenwich, Conn. 
ROBERT LASSITER, Charlotte, N. C. 
JOSEPH LEE, Boston, Mass. 
EDWARD E. LOOMIS, New York, N. Y. 
J. H. McCuRDY, Springfield, Mass. 
OTTO T. MALLERY, Philadelphia, Pa. 
WALTER A. MAY, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
CARL E. MILLIKEN, Augusta, Me. 
MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS, Washington, D. C. 
FREDERICK S. TITSWORTH, New York, N. Y. 
MRS. JAMES W. WADSWORTH. JR.. Washington, D. C. 
J. C. WALSH, New York, N. Y. 
FREDERICK M. WARBURG, New York, N. Y. 
JOHN G. WINANT, Concord, N. H. 
MRS. WILLIAM H. WOODIN, J., Plainfield, N. J. 



More Leisure Hours Than Ever Before 

A by miracle local recreation work during the depression years of 
1930 and 1931 held and even made some slight gains. During 
1932 people have used the recreation facilities on the whole 
more than ever before, though trained workers have been fewer and 
the money spent less. 

Never before has the United States recorded such a total of 
leisure time hours. Never before have education-recreation-morale 
workers had such a challenge. From the President's Organization on 
Unemployment Relief, from state unemployment committees, from 
local relief committees, from local relief workers from public spirit- 
ed citizens everywhere have come the requests for leadership in 
making possible activities which would help keep men "alive." 

No one longer supposes that men or children can live on bread 
alone. It is taken for granted that the American standard includes 
"living" as well as keeping the body together. Volunteers have 
helped. The unemployed themselves, have met in classes to study 
leadership and have given recreation leadership to their fellow un- 
employed. 

And now whether by national law, by national decrees or other- 
wise, hours of work in industry are to be lessened. What next? 

Youth a million strong each year are coming from our high 
schools. At our peril we leave them idle. 

Even work camps for unemployed youth must have provision 
tor recreation. 

When the unemployed come together by themselves for barter 
one of the first actions is to make provision for recreation centers. 

Men of sanity and judgment and statesmanship and humanity 
no longer question the spending of tax funds for recreation. Ex- 
penditures for recreation must, of course, be in proportion to other 
parts of the city budget. 

Only three per cent of the community recreation expenditures 
of 1932 were from private funds. Even in a desperately hard year, 
taking the country as a whole, recreation has been continued as de- 
serving of tax support. 

As compared with the cost of public recreation, keeping men 
or boys idle has ever been found a costly and painful mistake. And 
the American people like, even in hard times, to see children and men 
and women keep on living. 

HOWARD BRAUCHER. 



May, 1933 



49 




Photo by Jack Thamm 



Courtesy "The Yarn Carrier," li'yomissing Industries 

A View from Mt. Perm, Reading, Pa. 

50 



The Service of the National Recreation Movement 

in 1932 



467 cities were given personal service through the visits of field 
workers. 

28 communities received personal help in securing more adequate 
provision of recreation opportunities for Negroes. 

7,999 requests for advice and material on amateur drama problems 
were submitted to the Drama Service. 

58 cities were given assistance on special park problems through the 
personal visits of the field worker on,Park Recreation. 

41 cities received service from the Katherine F. Barker Field Secre- 
tary on Recreation for Girls and Women. 

101 delegates from 25 foreign countries and 591 delegates from 146 
cities in 33 states in this country attended the First International Recre- 
ation Congress. 

227 institutions for children and the aged received help from the field 
secretary on Play in Institutions. 

20,500 boys and girls in 618 cities received badges or certificates for 
passing the Association's athletic badge tests for boys and girls. 

26 states were served through the Rural Recreation Service con- 
ducted in cooperation with the Extension Service of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 154 institutes were held, attended by 11,004 
people. 

25 states received visits from the representative of the National Phy- 
sical Education Service. In addition, service was given through corre- 
spondence, consultation, and monthly news letters. 

5,824 different communities received help and advice on recreation 
problems through the Correspondence and Consultation Bureau. 

62 cities in 20 states were served through social recreation institutes. 

28 cities received personal help in planning community drama pro- 
grams and in the training of volunteer leadership for drama activities. 

The Music Service conducted institutes, issued bulletins, gave corre- 
spondence and consultation services, and prepared a booklet, Community 
and Assembly Singing. 

The Publication and Bulletin Service prepared and issued bulletins 
and special publications on various recreation subjects. 

RECREATIOX, the magazine of the recreation movement, was published 
monthly. 



51 



A Summary of Community Recreation in 1932 



Cities reporting play leadership or supervised facilities. . 1,012 

New play areas opened in 1932 for the first time 554 

Total number of separate play areas reported 12,684 

Total number of play areas and special facilities reported : 

Outdoor playgrounds 6,990 

Recreation buildings 770 

Indoor recreation centers 2,052 

Athletic fields 1,629 

Baseball diamonds 4,161 

Playground baseball diamonds 4,759 

Bathing beaches 472 

Golf courses 374 

Ice skating areas 1,659 

Ski jumps 61 

Stadiums 108 

Summer camps 134 

Swimming pools 1,094 

Wading pools 885 

Tennis courts 9,267 

Handball courts 816 

Toboggan slides 271 

Total number of employed recreation leaders 23,037 

Total number of leaders employed full time the year round 2,270 

Total number of volunteer leaders 9,280 

Number of cities in which land was donated for 

recreation use 32 

Bonds voted for recreation purposes $ 1,167,497.26 

Total expenditures reported for public recreation $28,092,263.09 



52 







Community Recreation Leadership and Facilities 

in I A O 1 2 Cities 



THE YEAR BOOK of the National Recreation 
Association is a report of the public recrea- 
tion facilities, leadership, expenditures, and 
programs of American municipalities. It is pri- 
marily a statement of community recreation ac- 
tivities conducted under leadership and of facili- 
ties used primarily for active recreation. In order 
to be included in the Year Book, a city must re- 
port one or more playgrounds or indoor recrea- 
tion centers conducted under leadership, or a 
major recreation facility such as a golf course, 
swimming pool, or bathing beach, the operation 
of which requires regular supervision or leader- 
ship. 

The Year Book contains reports of such recrea- 
tion facilities and activities provided by many 
municipal and county park authorities, but does 
not include all types of park service. Recreation 
programs provided by industrial concerns and 
other private agencies for the benefit of the entire 
community and which are not restricted to special 
groups are also reported. Similarly, report's of 
many school playgrounds, recreation centers, and 
other recreation service provided by school au- 
thorities are published, but statements concerning 
school physical education programs, music, drama, 
and similar activities conducted as a part of the 
regular school curriculum are not included in the 
Year Book. 

A total of 1,012 communities are represented 
in the Year Book for 1932. Eight cities* sub- 
mitted reports arriving too late to be included. 
The total number also includes thirteen cities 
which failed to submit reports but which are 
known to be conducting recreation programs 
which would entitle them to be included in the 
Year Book. 

Although the total number of communities rep- 
resented is practically the same as reported in 



1931, there is, of course, some difference in the 
individual communities reporting. Of those in- 
cluded in 1931, 172 do not appear in the 1932 
Year Book. A minor portion of this number re- 
ported discontinuance of their playground and 
recreation programs for 1932, but the larger 
number simply failed to respond to requests for 
information concerning their recreation service. 
Balancing this number is practically the same 
number of communities sending reports not in- 
cluded last year, many of them being submitted 
for the first time. 

Taking into consideration the severe difficul- 
ties with which municipalities have been faced 
during the past year, it is only natural that recre- 
ation has received its share of curtailment. It is 
to be expected that the recreation Year Book 
would show some decrease in expenditures, num- 
ber of leaders employed, and similar facts during 
a time when municipal expenditures and services 
were being so seriously affected by economic con- 
ditions. On the whole, it is inspiring to consider 
the way in which cities have met the challenge of 
curtailed budgets, reduced staffs, and other ob- 
stacles in responding to the need for recreation 
service which has continued to grow by reason 
of almost universal unemployment. Mere facts 
and statistics can not reveal the many stories of 
courage and spirit with which this difficult chal- 
lenge has been met. 

The returns from 784 cities reporting paid lead- 
ership indicate a five and one-half percent de- 
crease in total number of leaders employed. At 
the same time it is interesting to note that 258 



* Reports from the following were received too late for 
publication : Proctor, Vermont ; Storm Lake, Iowa ; Ell- 
wood City, Pennsylvania; Perry, Iowa; Escanaba, Mich- 
igan; State College, Pennsylvania, and Hamburg, Penn- 
sylvania; Ashland, Oregon. 

S3 



cities reported full time year round workers both 
in 1931 and 1932. This fact indicates the con- 
tinued recognition of the need for full time year 
round leadership as essential for adequate recre- 
ation service even though the total number of 
such workers has been of necessity decreased. 

The increased demand for leadership, espe- 
cially in connection with indoor facilities, has led 
to the use of volunteers in approximately fifty 
more cities than reported such leadership in 1931. 

The total expenditures reported by 914 cities 
is $28,092,263.09 as compared with an expendi- 
ture of $36,078,585.37 by 917 cities in 1931. The 
greatest decrease in any one item of expenditure 
is that of land, buildings, and permanent equip- 
ment. The amount spent for upkeep, supplies, 
and incidentals is practically the same, while a 
decrease is seen in expenditure for leadership. 
Through the use of relief labor, many cities have 
found it possible to materially improve their rec- 
reation areas and permanent facilities. 

In considering any statements of expenditures 
given in the Year Book, attention should again be 
called to the limited types of recreation service 
herein reported. Various estimates of the cost of 
public recreation may be seen from time to time, 
such as the most recent data on government ex- 
penditures for recreation in cities over 30,000, 
which gives for this group alone an estimated ex- 
penditure of several times the amount reported in 
the Year Book. Such government reports cover 
all types of municipal recreation playgrounds, 
parks and trees, open spaces, museums, art galler- 
ies, swimming and bathing facilities, athletics, 
music, entertainments and celebrations, whereas 
the recreation Year Book limits its reports as 
previously explained. 

The total number of recreation buildings shows 
a decided increase over the number reported in 
1931. Doubtless this increase is due in large part 
to the efforts made by many cities to meet more 
adequately the recreation needs of the unem- 
ployed. Indoor recreation centers, bathing 
beaches, and swimming pools remain approxi- 
mately the same in number reported, while play- 
grounds and athletic fields show some decrease. 

A very marked increase in attendance at play- 
grounds, indoor centers, and various recreation 
areas is noted. The total playground attendance 
reported by 516 cities was 235,632,553 as com- 
pared with 222,619,926 reported by 565 cities in 
1931. Participation at indoor centers increased ma- 
terially as did the use of facilities providing water 



sports. Winter sport facilities as a whole recoro 
a decrease in participation probably due to wea- 
ther conditions which were unfavorable to winter 
sports during 1932 in many sections of the coun- 
try usually reporting heavy use of such facilities. 

It is hardly surprising that golf statistics show 
a decrease in participation when the reduced in- 
comes of patrons as a whole are considered. In 
general, it is impossible to make a true compari- 
son between participation figures from year to 
year. In many instances a figure is given which 
combines participation at playgrounds and indoor 
centers for instance, while in other cases cities 
record both participants and spectators. This data 
obviously cannot be compared with that repre- 
senting participants only. For this reason only 
general comparisons can be given. 

The table on special recreation activities indi- 
cates the wide range of recreational interests 
served by recreation departments and the extent 
to which opportunities for enjoyment of participa- 
tion in athletic, social, dramatic, musical, nature, 
and other activities are afforded to large numbers 
of people. Viewed over a period of years, it is 
interesting to note the growth in variety and num- 
ber of activities offered by recreation depart- 
ments. Although the list given in this publication 
is by no means an exhaustive catalogue of activi- 
ties, it does contain more than double the number 
of special activities reported by recreation depart- 
ments a decade ago. Fully as many more might 
be added to the present list if a complete picture 
were to be given. 

The tables on recreation administration show 
very little change from the 1931 report. What 
small variation occurs is apparently due to the 
variation in individual cities reporting from year 
to year. 

On all sides daily attention is being drawn to 
the increased importance of recreation in the life 
of the people. The report of President Hoover's 
Research Committee on Social Trends points to 
the movement by the American people toward 
more adequate recreation facilities as one of the 
significant trends of recent times. While the de- 
pression is temporarily curtailing some of these 
activities, there is no evidence of declining in- 
terest. It is believed that the report of accom- 
plishments in American communities in 1932 will 
provide data which will be helpful in maintaining 
local recreation service during 1933. It is hoped 
that it may also provide encouragement to carry 
on even more effectively another year. 



54 



Leadership 



Employed Workers 

Of the 1,012 cities represented in the 1932 Year 
Book, 784 cities report 23,037 workers employed 
to give leadership for community recreation ac- 
tivities. Of this total 12,308 were men and 
10,729 were women. Of this number 2,270 men 
and women were employed full time throughout 
the year for recreational service. 

While the total number of full time year round 



workers shows a decrease from 2,686 in 1931 
to 2,270 in 1932, it is of special interest to note 
that the number of cities reporting full time year 
round workers remains the same as in 1931. Even 
with a decreased number of workers, there is 
ample evidence that year round leadership is gen- 
erally considered essential to adequate community 
recreation service. 



Cities reporting employed recreation workers 

Men workers employed 

Women workers employed 

Total workers 

Cities reporting workers employed full time year round. 

Men workers employed full time year round 

Women workers employed full time, year round 

Total full time year round workers 



1930 

828 

12,151 

12.798 

24,949 

282 

1,368 

1,292 

2,660 



1931 

834 

13.053 

12,455 

25.508 

258 

i,359 

1.327 

2,686 



1932 

784 
12,308 
10,729 

23.037 

258 

1,218 

1,052 
2,270 



Volunteers 

In 323 cities 9,280 volunteers were enlisted in 
carrying on the recreation program in 1932. A 
general increase in the use of volunteers is noted 
even though the actual number reported is less 



than that reported in 1931. This may be explained 
by the fact that a few cities reporting large num- 
bers of volunteers in 1931 do not appear in this 
report. 



Play Areas and Centers 



A total of 12,684 play areas and centers under 
leadership is reported. Of this number 554 are 
reported open in 1932 for the first time. The total 
number of outdoor playgrounds shows a 9% de- 
crease from 1931 while the number of recreation 
buildings and indoor centers remains practically 
the same in proportion to the number of cities re- 
porting these facilities. Separate figures are re- 



ported in the case of these facilities for white 
people and for colored people, but no such dis- 
tinction is made in recording athletic fields bath- 
ing beaches, golf courses, summer camps, and 
play streets which are included in these figures. 
The following summary includes information sub- 
mitted concerning playgrounds, recreation build- 
ings, and indoor centers : 



Outdoor Playgrounds 

Total number of outdoor playgrounds (737 cities) 

Open year round ( 1 50 cities) 

Open during the summer months only (635 cities) 

Open during school year only (54 cities) 

Open during other seasons only (55 cities) 

Playgrounds unclassified according to season (15 cities) 

Average daily summer attendance of participants (498 cities) 

Average daily summer attendance of spectators (300 cities) 

Total number of outdoor playgrounds open in 1932 for the first time 

(125 cities) 



6,673 



1,224 

4,480 

368 

368 

233 



1,887,500* 
538.770* 

244 



* In addition to this number, 14 cities reported an average daily summer attendance of both participants and spectators 
on 194 playgrounds totaling 88,848. 

55 



In addition to the above, outdoor playgrounds for colored people are reported as follows : 

Total number of playgrounds for colored people (117 cities) 317 

Open year round (34 cities) 89 

Open summer months only (90 cities) 193 

Open school year only (8 cities) 17 

Open other seasons only (5 cities) 12 

Playgrounds unclassified according to season (2 cities) 6 

Average daily summer attendance of participants (66 cities) 95,399 

Average daily summer attendance of spectators (45 cities) I S,655 

Total number of playgrounds for colored people open in 1932 for the first 

time ( 14 cities) 17 

Total number of playgrounds for white and colored people (736 cities) . . 6,990 

Total average daily summer attendance of participants and spectators, 

white and colored (4,951 playgrounds) 2,626,172 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants and spectators at play- 
grounds for white and colored people (5,700 playgrounds in 516 cities) 235,632,553 

Recreation Buildings 

Recreation buildings are reported as follows : 

Total number of recreation buildings (226 cities) 716 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (286 buildings in 133 

cities) 17,671,143 

Total number of recreation buildings open in 1932 for first time (29 cities) 41 

In addition, recreation buildings for colored people are reported as follows : 

Total number of recreation buildings for colored people (39 cities) 54 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (24 buildings in 17 

cities) 668,030 

Total number of recreation buildings for colored people open in 1932 for 

the first time (4 cities) 9 

Total number of recreation buildings for white and colored people (237 

cities) 770 

Total yearly or seasonal participants at recreation buildings for white and 

colored people (310 buildings in 135 cities) 18,339,173 

Indoor Recreation Centers 

Total number of indoor recreation centers (245 cities) 1,932 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (1,249 centers in 154 

cities) 15,144,831 

Total number of indoor recreation centers open in 1932 for the first time 

(50 cities) 133 

Additional indoor recreation centers for colored people are reported as follows : 

Total number of indoor recreation centers for colored people (60 a*ies) . . 120 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (68 centers in 39 cities) 945,000 

Total number of indoor recreation centers for colored people open in 1932 

for the first time (12 cities) 16 

Total number of indoor recreation centers for white and colored people 

(269 cities) 2,052 

Total 1932 attendance of participants at indoor recreation centers for 

white and colored people ( 1,317 centers in 166 cities) 16,089,831 

Play Streets 

Forty-one cities report a total of 263 streets ber, these play streets serve large numbers of peo- 
closed for play under leadership. Only 8 of these pie as indicated by the fact that 21 cities report an 
streets in three cities were open in 1932 for the average daily attendance of 26,493 participants, 
first time. Although comparatively few in num- 

56 






Recreation Facilities 

The following list of several important recre- 
ation facilities indicates the extent to which they 
were provided and used during 1932. It is inter- 
esting to note that the greatest increase in partici- 
pation is in connection with facilities offering 
water sports. The greatest apparent decrease in 
comparison with 1931 was in the use of baseball 
diamonds. This decrease is in part accounted for 
by the fact that this year for the first time a re- 



Facilities Number 

Athletic Fields 1,629 (S3 2 ) 

Baseball Diamonds 4,i6i (681) 

Playground Baseball Diamonds .... 4,759 (494) 

Bathing Beaches 472 (257) 

Golf Courses (g-holes) 176 ( 138) 

Golf Courses (i8-holes) 198 (138) 

Handball Courts 816 (139) 

Ice Skating Areas 1,659 ( 28 3) 

Ski Jumps 61 (42) 

Stadiums 108 (89) 

Summer Camps 134 (83) 

Swimming Pools (indoor) 316 (127) 

Swimming Pools (outdoor) 778 (355) 

Wading Pools 885 (319) 

Tennis Courts 9,267 (639) 

Toboggan Slides 271 (94) 



port of playground baseball diamonds was re- 
quested and in many instances these facilities 
were found to have been reported as regulation 
baseball diamonds in previous reports. Through- 
out the following table the figures in parentheses 
indicate the number of cities reporting in each 
particular case and the figures in brackets indi- 
cate the number of facilities for which informa- 
tion is reported. 



Participants 
per season 

6,953,646 (152) 

[439] 
6,177,691 (206) 

[1,472] 
3,033,611 (171) 

[1,399] 

54,328,498 ( 7 8) 
[166] 

1,873,653 (57) 
[82] 

4,889,413 (69) 
[100] 

275,258 (49) 
[120] 
4,972,045 (82) 

[645] 
109,858 (8) 

[13] 
1,199,543 (18) 

[19] 
473,!o6 (34) 

[54] 
4,156,902 (58) 

[160] 
16,484,617 (152) 

[359] 
2,257,938 (92) 

[269] 

7,656,757 (200) 
[4,267] 

577,744 (24) 

[74] 



Number open in 
1932 for first time 

56 (24) 
127 (63) 
140 (44) 

13 (") 

8 (8) 

5 (5) 

37 (17) 
22 (9) 

3 (3) 

4 (3) 

16 (13) 

38 (24) 
234 (55) 

4 (4) 



Management 



The following tables indicate the number of 
public and private agencies of various types which 
conducted recreation facilities and programs listed 
in this report. Since two or more agencies sub- 



mitted reports in a number of cities, each of these 
cities has been recorded two or more times in the 
tables. Comparable figures are given for 1922 
and 1927. 



57 



Municipal 

The forms of municipal administration in the cities reporting are summarized as follows : 

Number of Agencies Reporting 

Managing Authority 1922 1927 1932 

Park Commissions, Boards, Departments, and Committees 59t 140! 218* 

Playground and Recreation Commissions, Boards, and Departments 88ft 2o6ft 201 

Boards of Education and other School Authorities 113 134 169 

Mayors, City Councils, City Managers, and Borough Authorities 15 26 93 

Park and Recreation Commissions, Boards, and Departments . . . . 38 

** Municipal Playground Committees, Associations, and Advisory 

Commissions . . . . 38 

Departments of Public Works 7 12 21 

Departments of Parks and Public Property or Buildings 7 17 14 

Departments of Public Welfare 2 3 6 

Chambers of Commerce . . . . 4 

Departments of Finance and Revenue . . . . 2 

Water Departments . . . . i 

Departments of Public Safety . . I i 

Swimming Pool Commissions . . . . 6 

Other Departments 8 7 2 

Golf Commissions . . . . 4 

In a number of cities municipal departments combined in the management of recreation facilities 
and programs as follows: 

Boards of Education and City Authorities 5 3 4 

Boards of Education and Park Boards 4 5 4 

Recreation Commissions and School Boards 4 5 5 

Recreation Commissions and Park Commissions . . I 5 

Park Commissions and Others . . . . 4 

School Boards and Others . . 2 3 

Recreation Commissions and Others . . . . I 

Other Combinations . . . . 4 

In a number of cities municipal and private authorities combined in the management of recreation 
activities and facilities as follows : 

City Councils and private groups i 7 

Boards of Education and private groups . . 4 9 

Park Departments and private groups . . 4 5 

Recreation Departments and private groups . . 5 9 

Others 3 i 

Private 

Private organizations maintaining playgrounds, recreation centers, or community recreation activi- 
ties are reported as follows : 
Playground and Recreation Associations, Committees, Councils and 

Leagues, Community Service Boards, Committees and Associations. .97 151 58 
Community House Organizations, Community and Social Center Boards, 

and Memorial Building Associations 18 16 35 



t Includes Park and Recreation Commissions, 
ft Includes many subordinate recreation divisions and bureaus. 
* Twelve of these park authorities are in New York City and Chicago. 

** These authorities administered recreation facilities and programs financed by municipal funds although in some of 
the cities it is probable that they were not municipally appointed. Many of these authorities function very much 
as Recreation Boards and Commissions. 

58 



Number of Agencies Reporting 

Managing Authority 1922 1927 1932 

Civic and Community Leagues, Neighborhood, and Improvement Ass'ns 22 23 8 

Women's Clubs and other organizations 17 12 12 

Y. M. C. A.'s and Y. W. C. A.'s 7 7 13 

Parent Teacher Associations 7 10 10 

Khvanis Clubs I 2 9 

Industrial Plants 25 1 1 6 

Churches 7 . . 5" 

Welfare Federations and Associations, Social Service Leagues, Settlements, 

and Child Welfare Organizations 10 . . 6 

American Legion . . 4 3 

Lions Clubs . . 2 7 

Park and Playground Trustees . . . . 2 

Rotary Clubs 3 5 2 

Universities and Colleges . . . . 2 

Chambers of Commerce and Commercial Clubs 2 7 6 

Athletic Associations, Outing Clubs, Winter Sports Clubs . . . . 2 

Community Clubs . . 3 3 

American Red Cross I 2 I 

Boys' Work Organizations I 2 4 

Miscellaneous . . 5 8 

Agencies Reporting Full Time Year Round Workers 

The following table is a summary of the types Number of 

of municipal and private agencies reporting one Managing Authority Agencies 

or more recreation workers employed on a full Municipal Playground Committees, Recrea- 

time year round basis in 1932. In a number of tion Associations, etc I 

cities two or more agencies report year round Departments of Public Welfare 5 

workers giving full time to recreation. It will be Departments of Parks and Public Property 4 

noted that in a large percentage of cities in which Departments of Public Works 4 

recreation is administered by a recreation board, Municipal Golf Commissions 3 

commission, or independent department, at least City Councils 4 

one worker is employed for full time recreation Combined municipal departments 6 

service throughout the year. Combined municipal and private agencies. . 12 

Miscellaneous 8 

Several of the private agencies reporting such 

workers control few facilities but serve primarily Private 

to promote and supplement the work of munici- Playground and Recreation Associations, 

Committees, Community Service Boards, 

and Community Associations 16 

Municipal Community Building Associations, Com- 

Number of munity House Boards, and Recreation 

Managing Authority Agencies Center Committees 21 

Playground and Recreation Commissions, Settlements and Neighborhood House As- 

Boards, and Departments 119 sociations, Welfare Federations, etc 2 

Park Commissions, Boards, Bureaus, and Industrial Plants 4 

Departments 39* Park and Playground Trustees 2 

Boards of Education and other School 

A .. . . Miscellaneous 7 

Authorities 24 

Park and Recreation Commissions and 

* Nine of these park authorities are m Chicago and New 

Departments 20 Y ork City. 

59 



Finances 

Total expenditures of $28,092,263.09 are reported by 914 cities for the year 1932. 
The item covering upkeep, supplies, and incidentals shows a slight increase over previous years 

while the greatest relative decrease is in expenditures for land, buildings, and permanent equipment. 

A smaller decrease from the amount reported in 1931 is shown in the amount expended for leadership. 
The figures in parentheses represent the number of cities reporting in each case. 

1930 1931 1932 
Land, Buildings, Permanent 

Equipment $12,610,862.06 $10,691,176.59 $6,104,051.33 

(352 cities) (383 cities) (273 cities) 

Upkeep, Supplies, and Incidentals ... $4,754,368.27 $5,482,844.16 $5,486,540.05 

(677 cities) (693 cities) (658 cities) 
Salaries and Wages 

For Leadership $8,135,656.20 $7,943,879.82 $6,950,512.85 

(736 cities) (729 cities) (641 cities) 

For Other Services $6,167,761.62 $5,383,811.97 $5,628,192.66 

(444 cities) (447 cities) (466 cities) 

lotal $15,658,418.80 $15,668,137.71 $14,092,568.98 

(795 cities) (793 cities) (723 cities) 

Total Expenditures $38,518,194.88 $36,078,585.37 $28,092,263.09 

(928 cities) (917 cities) (914 cities) 

Sources of Support 

The sources from which funds are secured for financing community recreation activities and fa- 
cilities are summarized in the following table. Receipts from fees and charges supplement the sources 
indicated in 255 cities : 

Source of Support Number of cities 

Municipal Funds 652 

Municipal and Private Funds 151 

Private Funds 127 

County 50 

Miscellaneous Public Funds 4 

Miscellaneous Public and Private Funds 7 

The amounts reported spent from various sources appear in the following table. Approximately 
88% of the total amount, the source of which was reported, was derived from taxation. Of the bal- 
ance approximately <)% was secured from fees and charges and 3% from private sources. 

Amount Number" of cities 

Municipal and County Funds $24,484,561.35 729 

Fees and Charges 2,395,622.13 255 

Private Funds 1,024,238.78 257 

Bond Issues 

Nine cities report bond issues passed during 1932 for recreation purposes totalling $1,167,497.26. 
Thirty cities report an expenditure of bond issues to the amount of $2,345,735.38. 

Amount of Amount of 

City and State Bond Issues Passed Bond Issues Expended 

Birmingham, Ala $ 35,000.00 

Tucson, Ariz 7^4-2 1 

Los Angeles, Cal 645,565.31 

Pacific Grove, Cal 40,000.00 

San Diego, Cal $265,000.00 181,500.00 

San Francisco, Cal 121,759.43 

60 



City and State 



Amount of 
Bond Issues Passed 



Chicago, 111 

Oak Park, 111 

Vinton, la 

Brockton, Mass 

Minneapolis, Minn. . . , 
Perth Amboy, N. J. 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y. 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Bismarck, N. D 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio 

Niles, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Providence, R. I 

Nashville, Tenn 

Beaumont, Texas 

Palestine, Texas 

Seattle, Wash 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Whitefish Bay, Wis. . . 
London, Ont., Canada. 



1,200.00 
10,500.00 



7,647.26 
700,000.00 



10,000.00 



20,000.00 
118,150.00 



35.000.00 



Amount of 

Bond Issues Expended 
32,070.00 
2O,2OO.OO 
I,2OO.OO 



70,173.00 

I7,OOO.OO 

3O,OOO.OO 

7,647.26 

500,000.00 

5,000.00 
64,487.85 

3,000.00 
10,000.00 

2,811.44 

2,750.00 
170,000.00 
23,250.93 
28,000.00 
24,876.78 
90,865.09 
25,000.00 



$1,167,497.26 



70,599.44 

83,989.64 

35,000.00 

3,275-00 

$2,345,735-38 



Donated Areas 

The following table includes thirty cities re- 
porting gifts of land and other bequests for rec- 
reational purposes during 1932. Two other cities 
reported the receipt of gifts, but gave no detailed 
information regarding them. The estimated valu- 
ation of twenty-four gifts totals $468,373.00. The 
total acreage of twenty-seven gifts of land is 
444-52. 

City and State Acreage Valuation 

Gadsden, Ala 6. 

Bisbee, Ariz 25. 

Alhambra, Cal 3. $ 15,000.00 

Branford, Conn 12. 

Middletown, Conn i. 500.00 

New London, Conn 27. 40,573.00 

Stratford, Conn 7. 110,000.00 

Alton, 111 i. 1,300.00 

Anderson, Ind 5.73 200.00 

Evansville, Ind 15. 

Kokomo, Ind 26. 65,000.00 



City and State Acreage 

Topeka, Kans 

Derby, Maine i. 

Rockland, Maine 50 

Sanford, Maine 5. 

Fitchburg, Mass 33- 2 3 

Methuen, Mass i. 

Stoneham, Mass 50 

Rochester, Minn 

Summit, N. J 22. 

Union County, N. J 24.51 

Erie County, N. Y 1 50. 

Manchester, N. Y 

Durham, N. C 28. 

High Point, N. C 16. 

Crestline, Ohio 8. 

Clearfield, Pa i. 

Yakima, Wash 3.95 

Wheeling, W. Va i i.io 

Oshkosh, Wis 10. 



444-5 2 



Valuation 

5O,OOO.OO 
I,OOO.OO 
2,500.00 

10,000.00 

16,500.00 
5,000.00 
I.OOO.OO 

60,000.00 

40,900.00 

II,5OO.OO 

2,000.00 

18,000.00 
1,600.00 
1,800.00 

7,500.00 

3,500.00 

3,000.00 

$468,373.00 

61 



Special Recreation Activities 



The following table gives an idea of the com- 
parative extent to which various activities are in- 
cluded in recreation programs and the number of 
individuals participating. The number of cities in 
which these activities are conducted is consider- 
ably greater than here 'indicated since many cities 
do not submit any information for use in this 
table. Complete information is lacking for a few 
of the activities listed since no reliable participa- 
tion records are available in some cases. 

The increased use of recreation buildings and 
indoor centers is reflected in increased participa- 
tion of indoor facilities as a whole. Basketball 
shows the largest relative increase from 122,235 
players in 1931 to 241,369 in practically the same 
number of cities in 1932. Folk dancing, hand- 
craft, social dancing, and drama activities also 
show material gain in number of participants. 
Winter sports show the smallest gain in propor- 
tion to cities reporting probably because of preva- 
lent weather conditions. 

The figures in parentheses indicate the number 
of cities reporting participation. 



Cities 
Activities Reporting 

Archery 134 

Art Activities 199 

Athletic Leagues 

Baseball 613 

Basketball 474 

Bowling 114 

Field Hockey 81 

Football 315 

Handball 165 

Horseshoes 553 

Ice Hockey 122 

Playground Baseball .... 606 

Soccer 198 

Tennis 547 

Volley Ball 492 



Number of 

Different 

Individuals 

Participating 



22,103 
83,273 

313,490 
241,369 

23,016 
8,489 

68,607 

47,695 
135,239 

27,831 
414,460 

76,168 
438,028 
180,162 



(70) 
(85) 

(294) 

(253) 

(59) 

(35) 

(146) 

(58) 
(257) 

(49) 
(292) 

(92) 
(245) 
(236) 



Cities 
Reporting 



Activities 

Badge Tests (NRA) 98 

Circuses 147 

First Aid Classes 210 

Folk Dancing 304 

Gardening 94 

Handcraft 434 

Hiking Clubs 219 

Holiday Celebrations 281 

Honor Point System 108 

Junior Police 93 

Literature 76 

Model Aircraft 140 

Model Boats 1 16 

Motion Pictures 136 

Nature Study 182 

Paddle Tennis 227 

Playground Newspaper ... 57 

Safety Activities 196 

Social Dancing 210 

Swimming Badge Tests 

(NRA) 117 

Water Sports 378 

Winter Sports 183 

Band Concerts 275 

Chorus 122 

Christmas Caroling 165 

Community Singing 190 

Glee Clubs 95 

Harmonica Bands 99 

Music Week Activities ... 90 

Orchestras 131 

Quartets 74 

Rhythmic Bands 89 

Singing Games 264 

Ukelele Clubs 43 

Drama Tournaments 94 

Pageants 181 

Plays 269 

Puppetry 89 



Number of 

Different 

Individuals 

Participating 



22,575 
48,077 



96,171 

8,632 

221,092 



' (45) 
(67) 
(87) 

(137) 
(39) 

(196) 



41,643 (100) 

46,682 (48) 

4,147 (40) 

14,010 (29) 

14,720 (70) 

4,990 (41) 



30,180 

38,453 
1,960 

55,846 
173,494 



(70) 
(87) 
(25) 
(62) 
(103) 



11,909 (42) 
541,175 (151) 
380,372 (60) 



53,766 (81) 



7,574 
6.698 

64,569 
5.i86 
1,040 

4,855 
117,986 

3,430 
14,448 
50,288 



21,837 



(40) 
(48) 
(42) 
(70) 
(34) 
(42) 
(102) 

(19) 

(48) 

(78) 

(128) 

(35) 



62 



Tables 

of 

Playground and Community 

Recreation Statistics 

for 

1932 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



X 

c 

3 
d 
S! 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 


a 

V 

o 
6 

z. 


No. of Women 


~5-& 

x - 

*0H 

Is 
Ij 

d 

z 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 
2 
1 

4 

5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
23 
24 
25 
2li 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 

33 

14 
M 

36 

37 
38 
3<J 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
5(i 
57 

88 

89 

60 

1 

62 

63 

64 
65 


Alabama 


259,678 
24,042 
6,221 
7,596 

8,023 
9,828 
4,932 
48,118 
32,506 
4,892 

7,394 

31,429 
81,679 
5,966 
2,995 

35,033 
29,472 
10,995 
5,216 
26,015 
82,109 

17,429 
16,662 
7,961 
2,116 
3,421 
3,500 
52,513 
62,736 
4,796 
19,480 
3,690 

142,032 

1,238,048 
2,208,492 

1.891 
7,066 
13,842 
10,890 
5,498 
6,437 
7,301 
284,063 
5,558 
13,652 

76,086 
9,333 
9,610 

20,804 
3,517 
14,177 
9,347 
20,093 
29,696 
93,750 
10,263 
37,481 
1,000 

147,995 
634,394 

57,651 
11,455 




15 
1 


48 
1 
2 


3 


'47 


35,000.00 


25,000.00 


11,000.00 
200.00 
90.00 

350.00 


32,000.00 


43,000.00 
200.00 
90.00 

350.00 

250.00 
488.32 


103,000.00 
200.00 
150.00 

500.00 

500.00 
708.30 
3,800.00 
3,200.00 
6,375.00 
8,832.77 
2,050.00 

300.00 
1,350.00 
4,050.00 
1,400.00 
500.00 

43.640.00 
35,000.00 
29,500.00 
6,830.42 
800.00 
1,583.38 

78,750.66 
21,506.59 
6,720.54 
15,000.00 
1,250.00 

'775.60 
33,570.77 
36,960.00 
=11,278.54 
1,375.60 
12,700.00 

170,440.64 
165,583.23 
1,386,673.62 
131,267.00 
145,521.87 

335,510.13 
2,710.21 
360.00 
9,500.00 
12,160.00 
9,850.00 
90.00 
1,645.00 
263,657.77 
43,251.07 
9,321.32 
33,104.17 
204,357.53 
4,309.37 
300.00 
25.00 


M 
P 
P 

P 

M 

M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 

P 
MAP 
M 
MAP 
P 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

C 
M 
C 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
SAC 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

C 




Dommissioner of Streets and Parks 
Mothers' Club 


Sheffield . ... 






40.00 


20.00 
150.00 

250.00 
219.98 




Talladega 


City Improvement Park and Recreation 
Board 


1 


1 








Arizona 

Bis bee 


/ School Board 




1 




250.00 
150.00 




1 City of Bisbee 


1 






1 




338.32 






1 










2,000.00 
510.00 
2,361.39 
650.00 






1,200.00 
5,865.00 
5,757.17 
1,400.00 

300.00 
1,000.00 
3,400.00 


^hoenix 


3 arks Department 


6 
21 
1 

1 
3 
11 


i? 
i 

i 

4 

17 


"i 


20 


Viiii 


2,965.00 
5,757.17 
900.00 

Jfe- 

V* 

150.00 
400.00 
3,400.00 


2,900.00 
500.00 

150.00 
600.00 


Yum: i 
Arkansas 




School Board and Parent Teacher Associ- 








"ort Smith 
iattleRock 










350.00 
650.00 






18 








15 






Trumann 
California 
Alameda 










15 




500.00 
14,586.00 










1 

1 


5 


6 
1 


1 


2,247.00 


8,424.00 


18,383.00 


26,807.00 








1 
2 

1 


9 
1 






25,000.00 


500.00 
1,252.41 
340.00 
94.28 

14.529.82 
5,815.14 
2,408.36 


4,000.00 
4.343.50 
400.00 
1,489.10 

34,913.67 
5,707.30 
400.00 


l,234.5i 
60.00 


4,000.00 
5,578.01 
460.00 
1,489.10 

48,509.47 
15,691.45 
1,260.72 
















1 




Jakersfield 
Berkeley 

Jeverly Hillu 




3 

32 

15 
2 


6 

22 
8 
1 








lecreation Department and Board of 


" 8 


40 


15,711.37 


13,595.80 
9,984.15 
860.72 








3,051.46 


Chico 


iidwell Park and Playground Commission 
























3ity Council 
School Board and City of Fontana 
Hayground and Recreation Commission . 
Advisory Recreation Board 


















525.66 
28,176.77 
17,960.00 

1,246.00 
4,200.00 

122,376.87 
156,701.13 
539,259.20 
126,000.00 
105,768.65 

235,454.51 




1 

15 
33 


1 

16 
29 








250.00 
5,394.00 
4,000.00 


525.00 
17,466.77 
11,580.00 


10,710.00 
6,380.00 




2 






ilendale 
iermosa Beach 


6 


15,000.00 




4 


s 








129.60 
8,500.00 

19,621.21 
8,799.60 
245,110.33 
5,267.00 
24,280.61 

72,608.39 


930.00 
1,800.00 

110,091.79 

330^838.57 
126,000.00 

7,283.32 


316.00 
2,400.00 

12,285.08 
208,420.63 


luntington Beach. . . 
l<ong Beach 














f Recreation Commission and Board of 


160 
56 
217 
168 

35 


165 

"97 
223 

5 


26 
18 
94 

15 


50 


28,442.56 
82.50 
602,304.09 

15,472.6i 
27,447.23 


1 City of Long Beach and Park Dept. . . . 
j Dept. of Playground and Recreation. . . 


Los Angeles County 4 

Manhattan Beach. . . 
Merced 


1 Board of Park Commissioners 
County Department of Recreation Camps 
and Playgrounds 


105,768.65 
228,171.19 


Rotary Club 


i 

4 


1 
4 
2 


















'layground and Parks Department 


6 




8,000.00 


500.00 


1,000.00 


1,500.00 




Montebello 


^atatorium Department 
2ity of Napa and American Red Cross. . 


4 

1 
1 
124 
2 
6 
22 
5 
2 


2 

'"2 
68 
1 
6 
36 
1 
3 
1 


1 




5,500.00 


780.00 


2,100.00 


1,470.00 


3,570.00 


Napa 
National City 


250.00 

' 42,535.06 
299.45 

' 61 , 582. i 7 


' 86,897.98 
40.16 
1,663.86 
3,549.12 

473.50 


475.00 
101,753.92 
448.35 
7,358.01 
25,236.02 

3,775.87 
300.00 


920.00 
75,005.87 
227.50 

4,319.03 


1,395.00 
176,759.79 
675.85 
7,358.01 
29,555.05 
142,775.36 
3,835.87 
300.00 






33 

" 6 
5 
2 


27 

475 






Palo Alto 


Community Center Commission 
1 Department of Recreation 
\ City of Pasadena and Park Department 


Pasadena 


60.00 


Pittsburg 


City of Pittsburg 






Pomona 




1 






9 




25.00 






















Red Bluff 
Redlands 
Redondo Beach 






1 








106.89 
3,396.50 
1,711.26 


472.00 
2,044.30 




472.00 
4,223.07 

5,401. 87 
7,900.00 


578.89 
7,619.57 
7,113.13 
9,900.00 
4,885.00 
102,400.00 


City of Redlands 


4 


? 








2,178.77 
5,401.87 
2,400.00 


Dity Council 
Recreation and Playground Department . . 












10 
4 


4 
1 








2,000.00 


5,500.00 










Sacramento 




11 
1 

2 


9 


7 


25 


6,000.00 


27,000.00 


14,000.00 


55,400.00 


69,400.00 




3an Bernardino 
San Clemente 

San Diego 


IMty Park and Playground Committee 


1 




12 






470.00 


85.03 


555.03 


555.03 
18,226.37 
147,159.00 
107,472.00 
535,442.25 
437,426.79 
18.100.00 
4,230.00 
4,318.40 
1,192.00 
6,627.09 
12,004.39 

64,022.33 










Playground and Recreation Dept 


10 


10 


17 


40 


82,425.00 
10000000 


10,313.00 


34,700.00 


19,721.00 


54,421.00 


San Francisco 
San Jose 




107 


82 


95 


16 


92,228.99 
273,099.39 


129,976.47 
164,327.40 


172,000.00 


141,236.79 


313,236.79 






18 
8 
2 
6 
15 
2 


4 

3 
2 
4 
2 
1 
















6 
2 


1,300.00 
755.00 


135.00 
620.40 
100.00 
390.33 
2,062.73 

4,255.29 


940.00 
2,825.00 
1,092.00 
6,236.76 


1,855.00 
118.00 


2,795.00 
2,943.00 
1.092.00 
6,236.76 
9,640.52 

15,929.98 








30,322 
33,613 
65,167 




Santa Barbara 
Santa Barbara Co. 8 . . 






100 


301.14 
43,837.06 




\ Board of Park Commissioners 
Santa Barbara County Board of 
Forestry . . . 










15,929.98 



64 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 






Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 




Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Z 

J 
Q 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 

Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools | 


Source of 
Information 


I 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


-= 

C 




_ 


Total Yearly or Seasona 
Attendance * 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Attendance " 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona] 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 

Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona i 
Participation 


i 

2 
3 

4 

5 

ii 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 

I 
17 
18 
111 

20 

21 

22 
23 
24 
2.1 
26 
27 
28 

31) 
31 
32 

33 
a 

34 
a 
b 

35 

37 

38 

41) 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
4ti 
a 
47 
48 
4'J 
a 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 

60 

a 
61 
1 
62 
63 
64 
a 

65 


19 


24 






43 


1,193,374 


5 


87,374 


3 


87,011 


1 
4 


34 

3 






1 












4 




86 


504,820 


15 


R. S. Marshall 






















Dr. George Vann 
Mrs. S. Long 




1 






1 










































1 

2 






1 
2 


8,500 
6,300 










2 


2 






















., 




Fudson Snead 
R E. Souers 






























1 


































1 


13,000 








Ralph L. Motz 


3 

i; 


1 

5 






1 


20,000 


1 


750 


1 


850 


2 


2 
1 






























1 


300 










1 

1 


12,000 


2 
2 
5 


300 
365 
22,378 


1 

4 




'5 




H 














4 












a. A. Matthews 
George Otis Hedger 




11 


97,892 






2 


2,272 


1 


4 


















1 

1 


14,405 
























1 






1 










































Mrs. Chas. M. Reinoehl. 
William H. Vaughn 
Jess W. Matthews 
Mrs. Belle H. Wall..., 


'i 

4 

'7 


li 


'6 




6 
15 


105,000 
115,367 


1 


3,500 






1 
3 
1 

1 

4 


1 

3 
1 
1 

5 






















11 
5 
1 


10,000 


5 


4 

1 


12,000 












1 


4,835 


1 


46,063 








1 












1 
4 


3,500 

567,857 


1 

1 


3,500 
1,600 


























1 

8 


100 

63,465 


1 


H. Lewis 




2 


36,055 














1 


36,055 


3eorge Sperbeck 
Earl Fry 






1 


75,000 








1 




R 




2 








1 


1 










> 








16 




j 




1 






1 
1 


17,100 






1 
1 


6,512 
















1 


31,798 


4 


6,255 


1 


L. E. Middleton 


























20 
2 


5 

'i 

2 


5 




5 

25 
3 
2 


15,210 

1,245,705 
146,766 
23,162 








































5 


24,032 


4 


23,026 


4 

1 


5 














2 


11,611 






1R 




1 
1 

2 


Charles W. Davis 
Bertha R. Tierney 
Mrs. Margaret Ax 














1 




R 












' 








































1 












9 






























1 


















1 




2 






B L McCue 
























1 


















1 










Thera Smith 
R.G.Mitchell 


2 






i 








1 






1 


















1 










1(1 


3 
9 


4 




13 

13 


1,233,239 
136,206 


5 
1 


13,479 
13,641 


a 


32,152 


10 

5 


11 

5 






















35 
19 


67,031 


6 
1 


Raymond L. Quigley 


















1 


17,379 


1 
















B. F. Brown 


5 








5 


52,985 








































Lionel De Silva 










1 






1 






















Charles R. Furr 


48 
04 

2 








69 


7,047,025 


15 




30 




13 
1 


17 


2 
1 
4 




1 




1 




1 




1 




'li 






Walter L Scott . . 








8,060,600 
>10I50,000 






1 


120,000 














i9 


A.H.Adams 
R. E. Hoyt 
C. L.Glenn 
J J Hassett 




108 




48 
212 


0,290,581 
3.750,093 


(i'J 








34 
42 


31 

28 
' 


i 




1 

5 




15 
1 




89 

ill 
























7 












?R 








2 


40,000 


1 


200,000 










7 
1 


10,000,000 
500,000 














1 


12,000 


2 
2 


1,800 
15,000 




Virgil Dahl... 
Merritt J. Crandall 
C.H.Wright 
William Falger 
F A Dupar . . . 






















1 

'i 


; 5 






1 
5 
1 


16,500 
25,600 
>30,000 


1 






























1 


500 


5 
1 


2 
1 


















2 


1,500 


4 

4 


3,000 


3 
1 












































81,000 








Vancil E. Row 
Charles Grady 
H. P. Requa 
R. W. Robertson 




































62 

5 
13 

'3 


i 

"4 
i 
i 


8 

1 

7 




1 
70 
4 

7 

21 


2,577,485 


2 

3 


6,900 
159,784 








1 






















2 




11 




8 
1 
2 
111 
1 
1 


13 
1 
4 

11 
6 










1 


78,481 








30,000 


47 
7 








i 








102,066 
! 726,712 


'5 
1 




1 






















17. iie 


7 

58 
16 


2,500 


2 


Charles R. Clifford 
Cecil F. Martin 
Gilbert L. Skutt 
Telura Swim 
George T. Oliver 
C. F. Cutler 
Charles B. Wall 
Enville C. Spaulding. . . . 
W T Ferguson 


' 15,666 


1 


6,852 
















2 






i 




1 








i 






3 
1 


40,118 






















ft 












1 


























1 




2 






2 


13,500 






1 




2 


2 


















i 


' 50.666 


4 

2 






























3 




i 


1 
3 


11,440 


j 






















































1 




11 




i 


























2 

1 


150,000 
























D L Bundy 


5 

'li 
3 


1 
3 

i 




'i 


6 

3 
7 


140,000 
130,000 


'3 
9 








2 


5 
I 














1 




1 






Ivan W Hill 


' 75,666 




















3 
1 


' 62,699 


3 
15 


46,320 


i 

3 


G. Albert Mills 
J. B. Maloney 
Vincent Maghetti 


21 


150,000 




11 






2 


80,000 


1 


20,000 






















1 








1 


































ii 
























1 




1 












1 




i 






William Holmes 
W \ Kearns . . . 




1 




12 


997,580 


7 




8 






5 


1 




















16 




1 












1 


20,000 














6 
M 

M 

R 


4,500 




A. S. Hill 
Veda B. Young 
B. P. Lamb 
Walter Bachrodt 
Hugh C. Coleman 
Judson C. Doke 
W W Wieman 


52 
1 
"2 

'5 






l 


53 


'4,870,898 


22 




6 


7,825 


1 
3 
4 


15 

17 
4 














2 
1 
1 


33,233 
70,244 




2 








3 


373,878 










1 
1 

5 

3 


3 
'2 
4 




4 








4 
















1 

5 
5 
12 


74,223 
68,857 
12,000 
174,159 






1 


5,479 


















1 


26,020 
















1 














2 


10,800 


2 


2,400 
































7 






5 
2 


2 
1 

4 




















HI 






W H Orion 


1 





























6 




2 


John H. Hartfeld 
Frank E. Dunne. . . 













































65 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 









Paid Workers 














Exclusive of 




Expenditures I .ant Fiscal Year 










Caretakers 






| 




















Salaries and Wages 




1 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 






ll 

o o 


M 
S 


Land, 
Buildings, 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 






1 

I 














a 


- 


>"" 


S 


Perma- 


and 








Total 


jg 








S 


^. 


ll 


1 


nent 
Equipment 


Inci- 
dentals 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 




s 






o 


o 




a 






















d 





o 


s 
^3 














2 












zP 




















' 

: 
4 
i 
( 

f 
9 

1( 
11 

12 
13 

14 
IS 
16 
17 
18 

lii 
21) 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 

27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 

:>,:> 
34 

35 

M 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
43 
43 
14 

1.- 
4li 
47 
48 

I" 
.-.(I 

51 
52 

53 

54 

u 

56 
(7 

n 

51 

M 


California Cont 

Santa Clara 


6,302 
14,395 

37,146 
13,730 

6,193 
47.963 
3,442 
14,476 
11,603 






















300.00 

2,709'.60 
145,835.00 

2,238.32 
225.00 
28,428.00 
1,109.13 
14,503.00 
3,703.00 
2,503.00 
1,975.31 

603.00 

10,318.65 
25,942.36 
10,000.00 
123,003.00 
1,500.00 
14,210.21 
7,000.00 




















( School Board 




i 








122.00 
127,183.00 

445.47 


2,441.00 

1,792.85 
225.00 
10,083.00 
897.00 


146.60 

8,002'.00 
72.00 


2,587.60 
18,650.00 

1,792.85 
225.00 
18,082.00 
969.00 


South Pasadena 

South San Francisco 
Stockton 
Taft 
Vallejo 




26 


1 


i 






Park Department and City Playgroum 














IMty Recreation Department 
School District 
School Department and Naval Y. M. C. A 


i; 

t 


1 


t 


1 




10,346.00 
140.13 








3,000.00 




700.00 
1,000.00 


700.00 
1,000.00 


Visalia . . 
Whittier 

Colorado 

3oulder 

Colorado Springs. . . . 

Denver 
?ort Morgan 
jrand Junction 

.< Mii'mnn' 
^ueblo 

Connecticut 

Jranford' 
Bridgeport 
Jristol 
)arien 
Derbv 


7,263 
14,822 

11,223 
33,237 

287,861 
4,423 
10,247 
6,029 
50,096 

7,000 
146,716 
28,451 
7,000 
10,788 
14,501 
6,000 

33,112 

22,000 
164,072 
38,481 
24,554 
13,000 
14,315 

68,128 
6,000 

162,655 

29,640 
36,019 
23,021 
2,703 
7,000 
10,113 
22,000 
46,346 
19.212 

26,040 
11,170 
99,902 
24,991 
25,808 
6,000 

7,883 
106,597 

486,869 

5,269 
2,835 
8,666 

9,082 
129,549 
18,554 
3,401 










6 


700.00 


830.00 






6 
1 


I 

2 
10 


















f City of Colorado Springs and Park 








507.45 
3,559.49 

65,000.00 

3,921.13 
7,000.00 


901.00 


8,910.20 
18,783.04 


9,811.20 
18,783.04 
10,000.00 
41,500.00 
1,500.00 
8,394.97 


Patty Stuart Jewett Memorial Field . . 


'35 


30 


" 1 


1 

'12 


3,599.83 
13,500.00 
U94.ii 


10,000.00 
20C.OO 




1,300.00 
8,394.97 


City of Fort Morgan 


g 


1 






















1 

88 
3 

i 

1 
33 
9 
32 
7 
8 

4 
10 
1 
6 
1 
15 


19 
4 
2 
2 

'20 
9 
11 
4 
5 

'll 
"4 
39 


1 
5 


















1,731.67 
7,850.00 


1,612.17 
14,286.00 
976.00 
120.00 
300.00 


168.52 
20,064.00 
598.52 


1,780.69 
34,350.00 
1,574.52 
120.00 
300.00 


3,512.36 
42,233.00 
1,574.52 
123.1.0 
430.00 
1,003.0,) 

2,650.00 
17,773.95 
5,063.00 
34,883.00 
15,700.00 
5,000.00 


















' 100.00 


'layground Association 
*ark Department 
ioard of Education and Williams Memo- 


'3 

' 8 

3 

"s 

1 


10 

'70 
16 

52 




'airfield 




jlastonbury 

jreenwich 
lamden 
Hartford 


'200.66 

uos'.oo 

500.00 


800.00 

1,000.00 
4,880.00 
3,165.00 
400.00 


250.00 
15,468.22 
3,860.00 
30,000.00 
2,400.00 
3,500.00 


1,600.00 
2,305.73 

8,230.00 
600.00 


1,850.00 
17,773.95 
3,860.00 
30,000.00 
10,630.00 
4,100.00 


lecreation Board 
lecreation Commission 
tecreation Division, Park Department. . . 
lecreation Commission 
'ark and Playground Department 
leereation Council 
ioard of Education and Community 


deriden 
diddletown. . . 
rtilford 
^augatuck 

<ew Britain 
sew Canaan 

New Haven 
New London 


50.00 
9,288.71 


1,160.00 
5.00 
2,443.61 

464.60 
490.00 
605.16 
1,500.00 

150.00 
300.00 
14,000.00 
4,531.44 

3,000.00 






2,861 00 
230.00 
21,096.53 

61323.38 
2,000.00 
2,654.53 
4.500.00 
2,592.97 
430.00 
700.00 
16.000.00 
18,689.75 

4,175.00 




Municipal Recreation Commission 
ichool Board 
[ Public Recreation Commission 


2,200.00 
200.00 
14,448.54 

6,320.3' 8 
2,000.00 
2,654.53 
4,200.00 
2,592.97 
400.00 
700.00 

' 1M22.75 
2,475.00 


660.00 
6^647.99 


4,023.00 
255.0J 
32,828.85 
'101,587.o2 
6,784.98 
2,493.00 
3.2J9.69 
6,000.00 
2.592.97 
983.00 
l,03i).00 
30,003.00 
23,483.19 

128,175.00 

3,976.00 
833.01 


Commission of Public Parks 
Board of Education 




^orwalk 
Norwich 
Salisbury 
Seymour 




7 
8 
2 
1 
2 
6 
27 

4 

3 
2 
17 
3 

1 


6 
17 

' i 

2 
6 
26 

2 
5 

31 
2 

1 


1 


3 


400.00 

259.00 
121,000.00 




lecreation Commission 
lecreation Committee 


300.00 
30.66 

' i&oob'.oo 

3,267.00 
1,700.00 


Shelton 
?outh Manchester. .. 
Stamford 
Stratford 


'layground Commission 
lecreation Center 
Board of Public Recreation 


3 
4 

2 
1 
3 


' 8 
50 

34 
3 


'own of Stratford and Sterling Park 
Truat?es 


Porrington 
^'allingford 
A'aterbury 
\Vest Hartford 
IVest Haven 
Wegtport 

Winsted 

Delaware 

Wilmington 

Dist. of Columbia 

Washington 






























1,386.00 


650.00 
97.00 

93.68 
21,354.34 

29,539.18 
18,047 21 


270.00 
180.00 

697.50 
100,743.67 


500.00 
723.00 

352.30 
63,307.04 


770.00 
903.00 

1,049.83 
15,777.11 

164,050.71 
70,884.57 


1,42100 
2,383.00 

2,175.00 
1,143.48 

37,131.45 

218,589.89 
88,931.78 
38,030.00 

4,574.17 
433.00 

12,824.00 

7,717.98 
8,403.00 
'=87,117.18 
17,189.75 
15.003.00 


>ark Commission 
Supervising Committee Park and Athletic 
Field. . . 






2 
22 

130 

97 


4 

36 

13 


45 


25,000.00 




22 

87 
46 


f Department of Playgrounds 
Community Center Department, Public 
Schools 
I Department of Public Buildings and 
Public Parks 


Florida 

Bartow 
Eustis 
Fort Lauderdale 

Fort Myers 












1 

1 
3 


' i 

2 


1 






1,158.17 
100.00 

3,000.00 

3,878.68 
3,000.00 
11,948.34 
11,939.75 
12.000.00 


760.00 
300.00 

824.00 

1,520.54 
1,800.00 
25,500.00 
2,700.00 
2.500.00 


2,656.00 

6,000.00 

2,318.76 
3,600.00 
24,748.40 
700.00 
500.00 


3,416.00 
300.00 

6,824.00 

3,839.30 
5,400.00 
50,248.40 
3,400.00 
3.000.00 








)epartment of Parks and Playgrounds 
and Harmon Playground Association. . . 

f Board of Public Recreation. . . 


1 
4 


25 

2 

'73 
16 


3,000.00 




'layground and Recreation Board 
Recreation Department 


18 
3 
2 


5 

1 


16 
2 

1 


' 24i'2b'.44 
1,850.00 


Lakeland . 
Lake Wales . . 


'ark Committee, Citv Council . . . 



66 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 
Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 

Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools 


Source of 
Information 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons Only 


3 

o 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona] 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


















1 


































Nadine Bellinger 


























1 


























S A Evans 


"3 

"l 


"s 

4 
1 
6 
1 


"2 




5 
8 

4 
1 

9 
1 


80,240 
1,600,000 

24,172 

10,400 
51,642 
8,612 






1 
1 


1,503 


1 


4 

1 

1 

1 
i 
1 
2 


1 




















. 






A. R. Veenker . . . 


2 

1 
1 

"2 
2 






1 




1 












II 






F. A.Helton 

Glenn W. Garwood 
Marian Cavagsa 


4,980 






"l 

2 
1 
2 

1 




















"l 


28,666 


"i 
















., 






4,226 
5,000 






37,142 










1 
1 
1 


31,000 
3,169 
1,000 


9 
4 
6 


50,000 
2,666 


2 


2,666 










Claude L. Walsh 
Sabin W. Rich 






1 


5,000 






1 


1,000 














1 






















1 


















9 




B J Pardee 




5 






i 












1 

1 
1 


1 

6 

1 


















I 




A 




Verne S. Landreth 
W. V. Casey 




1 
6 






i 


10,350 
40,170 












1 
































1 




1? 




1 

1 '- 


} Curtis Engle 
ffillard N. Greim 
A W Finley 












9 




1 


















37 






:{7 


623,202 


4 








a 
"i 

2 

i 


1 

'l 
4 
2 













78 










3 






9 




1 




t 




6* 






2 






.) 


























\ 




9 




1 




























1 

1 












\ 




4 






Bruce Brownson 
C. A. Gunning 






















1 














1 


































1 












9 








3 

10 






3 

10 

i 


2,182 
133,129 


1 


18,606 


"s 


11,670 


i 
i 

2 


1 

II 
7 


3 
1 
1 


' Vl'l,241 


i 




















Harry C. Brazeau 
R. A! Leckie 
A. C. Hitchcock 
Mrs. W. D. Macdonald. 
George W. Anger 






23,532 


1 


43,629 










20 


74,452 










2 
1 






2 

1 

11 
C 

26 
4 


1,133 
4,000 

175,267 
85,500 
1,562,409 
'"10,000 
























2 
















1 


























1 
2 

4 


1,368 


"7 
in 








1 


























Frederick A. Burr 
Francis S. Km A 


7,831 


1 


1? 




























'4 


6 
9 

ID 
4 




5 
"6 






















5 


10,111 


2 

i 
i 


David S. Switzer 
John H. Flanagan 
James H. Dillon 
Oscar L. Dosain 
P.M. Kidney 


1 
6 
2 
1 


2 
32 
3 
2 
























1 

2 
1 
1 








9 








9 




14 












i 


30,000 










1 




5 
4 


" 600 




B 






8 












2,400 




















































1 

8 
1 
9 






1 
8 
1 
9 


10,000 
140,000 

' 33,066 


1 
2 


40,000 






1 
1 
1 


5 
7 
1 






l 


500 






1 








5 
9 


4,000 


H. E. Chittenden 
John J. Smithwick 


14 








1 








i 




"25,3' 17 


4 


26,047 






















































E. L. Manning 


4 
1 


22 


3 


158,423 






1 


92,290 










25 


11,000 




Harold Doheny 
Henry J. Schnelle 


IS 




M 




SO 


13 177,003 






14 






























1 


2 


3 
























William A. Holt 
William M. Grimshaw . . 
Matthew J. Sheriden 
Wilbert R. Hemmerly. . . 
F. B. Towle 


"j 

1 


ii 
ID 

"2 
2 
3 
2 

2 
1 

II 






6 

10 


45,993 
76,000 




































3 


1,750 


2 
1 

1 


6 

1 






















4 
































2 
2 
3 
8 

1 

2 
3 

11 


30,000 

'125,600 
176,439 

15,000 
70,000 






















1 








"2 
1 

1 
1 

"i 


250,000 
9,306 


9 




























i 

4 


George W. Anger 
Frank C. Bus:h 
Edward J. Hunt 


37,603 


3 

7 

"3 

1 


4 
5 

4 

1 

2 
8 
1 


1 
2 

1 

1 

1 
1 












1 




1 




4 
8 






i 




















12,000 


















5 


3,600 


1 


Donald S. Sammis and 
Sterling H. Bunnell. . . 
Rose K. Eagan 


11,016 


5 
3 


5,100 
































1 




t 




William B. Hall 






i 


15,400 














18 




2 
1 

'l 
2 
7 

1 


[rving W. Harrison 
H. J. Salmonsen 
Walter N. Scranton 

Thomas H. Leonard .... 
Edith N. C. Wolf 

Edward R. Mack 

Maude N. Parker 
Mrs. Elizabeth K. Peeplee 
Col. U.S. Grant, 3rd... 

}. S. Jamee 
Mrs. M. M. Dibble 




1 
1 






1 

1 


23,000 
















1 




9 
6 

A 


6,187 










1 
t 


3 

1 

1 


2 






















1 
12 


1 
1 

20 
86 


34,780 

408,496 
4,432,342 












i 
















11 


I 
20 

4:1 




i 

i 






















J 








38,988 


1 
1 


48,834 

30,017 
443,709 


1 
g 

2 


18 

8 

2 
27 


















5 

a 


234,190 


21 

'17 


20,000 






























" 








6 

77 
1 


307,699 






















9 
1 


405,276 
7,111 










1 


84,269 




5 

1 


1 


i 


1 
5 
2 

ii 

5 


'10,000 
10,000 

565,963 
16,000 


i 

i 
'2 

2 






































1 










1 




1 
















j 




3 






J. K. Huey and Mrs. 

Frank Stranahan 
Mrs. Elizabeth W. Page. 
Terry Dolson 
loseph E. Byrnes 
vV. \V. Alderman 
Miss E. D. Q'jaintance . 


4,000 

' 29, ISO 
39,000 


























i 


5,623 


2 

21, 
Ii 
1 


5,000 

' 52,560 
29,000 


1 
1 














1 








11 
t 






7 


10,303 


1 

1 
1 


8 
1 
1 














2 


53,402 






1 
1 


1,500 






1 
1 


18,720 











67 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



>, 

c 

*o 
d 
X 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 

Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 


3 

~ 






s 

5 

o 
Z 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 

Services 


Total 


1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

U 

15 
16 

17 

IS 
111 

20 
21 
22 

23 
24 

25 
26 
27 
28 

29 
30 
31 
32 

33 
34 

35 
3(i 

37 

38 

39 
40 
41 
42 
43 

44 

45 
40 
47 
48 
49 

50 

51 

52 
53 
54 
55 

50 
57 
58 
59 

60 
1 
02 
M 


Florida Cont. 


110,637 

6,494 
1,613 
4,149 
27,330 
6,500 
5,624 
40,425 
10,100 


f Division of Recreation Department of 
] Public Welfare 


8 


1 


2 




5,000.00 


5,000.00 
10.399.82 
11,225.00 
400.00 
1.624.04 
2,896 04 


5,580.00 
2,160.00 
9,300.00 

437.50 
2,401 30 


1,200.00 
15,283.92 

M31.65 
1,965.80 


6,780.00 
17,443.92 
9,300.00 


16,780.00 
27.843.74 
20,525.00 
400.00 
3,493.19 
7,935.10 


M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

P 

!' 
M 

M 

M 
M 

P 
P 
M 
M 

M 
M 
P 

M 
M 
M 
M 

MiP 
M 
M 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M4P 
M 
P 
M 
M 
MiP 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 


1 

:i 
2 
3 
4 

5 
r. 

7 

s 

11 

10 

11 

12 
13 

14 

:t 

U 

10 

17 
U 

111 

20 
21 
22 
23 
:i 
24 

U 

M 
27 
28 

211 
30 
31 

32 
33 
34 
3.1 
31, 
37 
a 
1, 

e 

.1 

1 

IS 

-in 

40 
41 
42 
13 
14 
;i 
45 
41) 
47 
4S 

411 
Till 
S 

.-,1 

g 

'.4 

-,.1 
M 

i7 

iS 

n 

;o 
a 
61 
62 
63 


Miami Beach 






2 


2 


3 






Recreation Bureau, Chamber of Commerce 


1 




New Smyrna 
Orlando 


1 










1,869.15 
4,367.10 




1 

? 


15 


1 


20 


671.96 


Palatka 


City of Palatka 


River Junction 
St Petersburg 














226.00 
"fi9,191.00 


I4.000.ix) 


160.00 
16.191.00 


160.00 
30,191.00 


386.00 
99,382.00 




6 


5 


6 


40 












8,398 
101,161 
26,610 
7,130 

18,192 
270,366 
60,342 

43,131 
6,681 
4,650 

6,412 




1? 










4,815.00 
21,685.51 


1,620.00 

3,000.00 
800.00 

500.00 


2,600.00 

' 600.66 


4.220.00 
30,910.59 
3,600.00 
800.00 

524.00 
254.15 


9,035.00 
53,396.10 
"3,600.00 
800.00 

599.00 
274.15 
66,814.95 

5,000.00 

4,729.20 
217.04 

225.00 
255.00 
3,500.00 
10,940.00 
10,616.19 
9,700.00 
25.00 

250.00 
325.00 


Tampa 
West Palm Beach . . . 
Winter Haven 

Georgia 

Athens 




16 
2 

? 


12 
2 


18 
2 


10 


800.00 






4 








1 






| 




75.00 
20.00 


24.00 
254.15 










14 




Atlanta 






1 




<11 








Parks and Trees Department of City 




3 
5 


3 
1 






2,300.00 
525.89 


2,700.00 
2,021.66 




2,700.00 
2,021.66 




Department of Parks and Recreation .... 


1 




2,181.65 




Dublin 




Elberton . . . 


Recreation Committee, Chamber of Com- 


1 






12 






225.00 
175.00 




225.00 
190.00 




Y. M. C. A.. 


1 
4 


1 




50.00 


15.00 


15.00 




8,624 
53,829 

85,024 
4,922 

3,826 
1,300 
8,206 
3,634 

30,151 
46,589 
47,027 
30,930 

13,532 
12,298 
11,718 
12,583 

3,376,438 

22,321 
66,602 
1,341 
74,347 
6,235 
35,929 

63,338 
22,045 
28,830 
6,295 
16,374 
12,203 

17,747 

42,993 
20,620 
17,093 
6,554 

26,180 

25,829 
32,236 
63,982 
10,417 

104,969 
9 121 










Playground and Recreation Association . . 


1 
4 


12 
24 


10 
2 






1,700.00 
1,198.10 
2,500.00 
25.00 

250.00 
100.00 


7,880.00 
8,556.99 


1,360.00 
863.10 


9,240.00 
9.420.09 
7,200.00 


Savannah 












Thomaston 
Idaho 










>n 


























jlenns Ferry 




3 










225.00 




225.00 
















Wallace 




1 










131.57 

5.837.46 
14,062.00 
2,762.00 

50.00 
200.00 


200.00 

5,362.14 
3,755.00 
5,538.38 

350.00 


4,884.12 
1,800.00 
1,231.00 


200.00 

10,246.26 
5,555.00 
6,769.38 

350.00 


331.57 

18,562.20 
19,617.00 
11, 153.. 70 

400.00 
200.00 


Illinois 

Alton 


Playground and Recreation Commission. . 


11 


9 
16 
16 

1 


2 
1 
2 


5 
1 


2,478.48 






Playground ana Recreation Commission. . 
Fell Avenue Community Playground 


15 
1 


1,622.32 










2 
35 
2 
39 










3 




3 

'"i 

51 
59 
84 
130 












Park District . 


2 
16 
34 
47 
119 
75 
11 
2 


1 

20 
17 
25 
75 
90 
2 
2 


1,500.00 
' 35,070.66 


3,000.00 
1,083.99 
55,265.00 






4,000.00 
3,300.00 
291,126.00 


8,500.00 
4,383.99 
381,461.00 
486,000.00 

404,940.75 
664,016.00 
2,336.50 
9,682.22 




Recreation Department 
Bur. of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 


3,300.00 
217,979.00 


' 73] 147.00 




West Chicago Park Commissioners. . . . 
Bur. of Recreation, Board of Education 
Calumet Park District 






44,472.50 




'll7i326.66 


360,468.25 
420,530.00 
2,092.50 
7,936.86 




207,036.00 


36,450.00 
244.00 
1,745.36 


303,204.00 
2,092.50 
2,100.00 


Chicago Heights 
Cicero 


Old Portage Park District 


1 






5,836.86 


River Park District 






Park District 


1 










1,620.59 
32,000.00 


2,610.00 


3,074.82 


5,684.82 
29,000.00 
100.00 
8,500.00 


7,305.41 
61,000.00 
100.00 
113,500.00 
5,450.00 
7,000.00 
21,095.00 
1,000.00 
2,500.00 
6,126.45 
22,448.00 
7,000.00 

5,000.00 
15,385.00 
600.00 
30,775.00 




1 

1 


14 








Playground Committee 




1? 




100.00 
3,500.00 


5,600.00 


East St Louis 


Park District 


11 
1 

12 
31 
2 


13 
1 
2 

37 
3 


4 




100,000.00 


5,000.00 




Park & Playground Board & School Board 








300.00 


200.00 
1,660.00 


3,000.00 
16,410.95 


3,500.00 
3,024.05 


6.500.00 
19,435.00 


Evanston 




6 












Park Board 














350.00 
13,201.00 


Galesburg 














5,776.45 
9,247.00 




350.00 
13,201.00 


















1 












Highland Park 


East Park Board and Community Service, 


7 
7 
1 


4 

1 


















/ Park Board 


1 


4 


1,093.00 


5,467.00 
100.00 
475.00 


3,918.00 
500.00 
. 2,800.00 


4,907.00 


8,825.00 
500.0J) 
30,300.00 


Joliet 


t Y M.C A. 




1 




.1 


18 




27,500.00 


Kankakee 










Park District 


1 

2 

13 
3 

5 
6 

I 


4 
3 

6 
4 
8 
12 




1 

?5 


11,000.00 


1,500.00 
4,000.00 

2,800.00 
1,426.74 
500.00 
8,765.17 
230.00 
500.00 
7,500.00 


2,500.00 
3,000.00 

4,000.00 
2,951.96 
1,300.00 
14,509.05 
1.800.00 
5,500.00 
11,000.00 


Vi^ooo'.oo 

1,800.00 
13^409.50 


2,500.00 
14,000.00 

5,800.00 
2,951.96 
1,300.00 
27,918.55 
1,800.00 
5,500.00 
11,000.00 


15,000.00 
18,000.00 

9,400.00 
5,381.36 
3,200.00 
57,730.84 
2,000.00 
6,000.00 
18,500.00 
1,500.00 


Lake Forest 


Park Board 


La Salle, Peru and 
Oglesby 


La Salle-Peru Township High School 
Board 


1 
1 

'"8 


3 
4 


800.00 
1,002.66 
1,400.00 
21,047.12 










Oak Park 






Park District 






5 
6 

3 


33 
6 




1 






1 Pleasure Driveway and Park District . . 














39 241 






















River Forest. . . 


8,829 


Playground and Recreation Board 


5 


1 


1 






4,143.31 


6,734.48 




6,734.48 


10,877.79 



68 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 

Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 

Courses 
18-Hole 


Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools | 


Source of 
Information 


No. of City 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons Only 


I 


J 
| 

X 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


J 

S 
- 
/. 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


a 




Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


b 
t 

'^ 
'f. 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


J 

S 

3 

!Z 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


1 
1 

z 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


| 

3 

X 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


i 
S 

3 

z. 


Total Yearly 
cr Seasonal 
Participation 


2 
"j 


1 


3 


1 


7 


150,000 










2 


11) 






















18 


50,000 




D. E. Seller 
Villiam Sydow 
. B. Lemon 
Laura Neville 


1 

a 
2 
3 

4 
5 

6 
7 

8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

14 
a 
15 

16 
17 
18 

19 
21) 
21 
22 
23 
a 
24 

25 
20 
27 
28 

29 
31 

32 

33 
34 

35 
36 
37 
a 
b 
c 
d 
e 
f 
J8 

40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
a 
45 
46 
47 
48 

49 

50 
* 
51 
52 
53 
54 

55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
f)U 
a 
61 
62 
63 
















1 

1 


24,700 
35,671 



















4 


4,800 






1 
1 


1 

1 
1 
2 
1 


ii 

2 
1 
1 


426,782 














10 


17,346 


















































1 
















2 






A. L. Fuller . . 




1 






1 


6,000 


1 


3,088 








12,000 


















11 


14,397 




}. L. Varner 
Gerald D. Bogue 












1 








1 


























2 

4 
1 


"i 
















1 


2,500 


11 






'. C. Pope 


'l 
13 
5 

3 


4 






4 


40,453 


11 








196,000 










1 


19,871 


26,886 




'. V. Gahan 








1 




1 










ames Moughton 
'. E.Richards 
L. A. Cunningham 


4 

'i 

4 

1 
17 


1 




1 

17 
l.i 

4 
17 
3 
5 


12,000 
981,355 

' 20,000 

18,000 
8,125 
100,000 

256,533 
104,260 


3 

3 
6 

2 
1 
















1 


10,151 










6 

14 


3.000 


25,000 






1 
1 
2 

4 


(1 
3 
1 






1 














i 

2 












3 














f. 0. Minnis 


6,000 
700 


1 




25,000 
























). W. Sinclair 






















Mrs. C. A. Ver Nooy. . . 
Mrs. E. D. Byrd 
George I. Simons 

Dorothy Sullivan and 




























1 

M 
1? 


75 


4 






M 






4 


139,688 










6 


350,000 










1 

1 


4 

4 


1 
















1 


15,000 




















i 
i 


100 


Sdwina Wood 


























1 




M. A. Rogers 




3 
1 






3 

1 


14,720 
6,790 










1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


















1 


200 


2 
1 




1 
1 


Mrs. W. H. Paine. . . 
Mrs. E. A.Russell 










































1 




2 
7 




'4 


tfrs. Sidney Smith 
Mrs. Wilma E. Beggs... 

} H. S. Bounds 
A. J. Nitischke 

jeorge E. Denman 
Hilton D. Snodgrass. . . . 
F. Kuehn, Jr. 


10 
10 


2 
1 


's 




12 
15 


275,828 
454,067 












A 
























2 


17,900 




1 






















4 


















2 






















1 


7,644 












































1 
I 


700 


1 


1 

1 
























































1 








2 




B 


2 
A 






2 

S 
li 




















\ 






























1 


1 


















1 










2. A. Magnuson 
H. Ray Myers 


130,872 


1 




' 








1 


15,273 














8 
1 


4,343 


1 
2 




1 


1,000 


1 
1 


1 

1 
1 














5 




fean E. Mored 
Edward Sordelet 


"2 


9 
1 




1 


in 
1 


62,472 


2 




























275 








1 
















1 






F. R. Sack. .. 






















1 




A 






lev. C. R. Dunlap 
Edward Fedosky 
Frederic A. Perkins 








2 


90,000 


1 


30,000 


1 


21,000 


1 

2 
4 

11 
25 
16 
6 


1 
3 
'i 
Hi 
U 
13 
11 










1 


25,000 






'2 
1 


125,000 


r, 
4 


6,000 


1 

1 








i 

4 












35 

is 
u 


6 

24 
2 

'> 
4 






6 
35 

24 
20 
115 
2 
4 


36,862 
5,226,713 
'1743234 
"13650680 
7,964,947 
22,392 
55,300 


2 
4 

18 
18 


20,547 
7,550,265 






8,564 

o.ir>5,soo 

542,305 


















6 

4(1 
WO 
153 
4 


3,126 

329,325 
251,020 


1 
10 

21 
16 


idgar A. Drake 
Theodore A. Gross 
V. K. Brown 
Villiam J. H. Schultz... 
Herman J. Fischer 














3 
2 


902,025 
147,822 


15 
14 


1,013,682 
1,238,860 






1 
2 


63,370 
93,246 


2 


166,178 
































i 




3 






Villiam H. German 
Michael J. Marinelio. . . 
Dorothy E. Johnson 
Homer Abbott 






1 


79,650 


4 

5 
3 


3 

5 
1 


1 




>.[ 








1 




i 
i 


128,000 


18 

n 




1 
1 
2 

3 






















., 






n 




n 
































"3 

"2 


8 

5 
2 
2 
8 
5 


"2 




8 
1 
8 
4 
2 
10 


240,026 
24,000 
525,000 

42,000 
263,567 


4 

'2 
1 
3 


87,431 






















2 


209,086 


13 


16,272 


Edward J.Pacl 
Harry Wendt 
































2 
2 
2 

3 


9 
2 
2 
4 
3 


2 


208,750 










1 


7,100 






14 
5 

K 


52,100 
1,200 


3 
1 


^mmett P. Griffin 
Charles E. Gueltig 
Hilton A. Grow 
C. T. Byrnes 


16,000 
4,000 
132,612 


2 

'ii 


10,500 
7,2i6 














1 












1 




7 


760,030 


















14 




















1 






F. W. Nichols 
































1 




R 






A. F.Stanley 
























7 


1 








1 












fl 




2 


3. C. Bunker 


"j 




























1 


29,364 
















[. A. Williams 








f. 








> 




3 

5 

1 


3 
9 










1 




1 




1 




1 




| 






5 
8 


29,000 
50,000 


1 

3 


2,974 
25,000 






4 


11,000 


1 
1 
















7 
2 


1,200 
1,000 


1 

1 


George Scheuchenpflug. . 
T. W. Beadle 






20,000 










1 


20,000 


\ 






2 














A. D. Herman ... 


















5 


14,300 


1 


7 
2 
1 






1 




2 


18 60,000 






1 
1 


22,000 


21 


14,000 


1 


P. H. Slocum 


















1 












"8 
"5 


3 
3 

1 

5 




"2 


3 
3 

1 

15 
5 
5 


24,150 
50,000 

57,600 
93,507 
27,500 
820,940 














1 


30,666 










1 


60,000 




















4 


1 




1 








6 






R. H. Peters 






1 

5 


98,900 
17,122 


1 


1 














T 




1 


23,500 


3 

8 






Howard Fellows 
W. Claudius Collissi.... 
Frances E. Vance 
Josephine Blackstock . . . 
R. L. Baird 


























1 




















1 




r 




t 

"\ 


5 


410,375 






5 


1 
1 


















5 
1 


18,764 


9 

4 
































2 
5 






2 
5 


11,000 
7,200 






7 


43,000 






























Walter B. Martin 
E. L. Peterson 






4 


1 










<> 












17 




i 












1 


















1 










William Wagner 
Marvin W. Krieger. 






























1 












1 








1 




3 






j 


146,503 


1 








1 


3 






















t 






William C. Ladwig. . . . 

69 



































PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 


8 
5 
3 
d 
Z 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


Illinois Cont. 


85,864 
37,953 
2,388 


f Park District 


4 

"22 
5 

t 


5 
1 

I 
1 


.... 

] 


"is 

12 




5,605.77 
800.00 
1,464.31 
1,000.00 

4,730.83 


"l 00.66 
4,245.20 
3,000.00 

1,500.00 


200.00 
472.24 
3,000.00 

3,711.25 


3,549.68 
1,400.00 
4,717.44 
6,000.00 

5,211.25 


9.155.45 
2,000.00 
6.181.75 

7,000.00 

9,942.08 


M 

P 
M 

M&P 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 

C 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 

P 

M&P 
M 
M&P 
M&P 

MiP 

M 

M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
P 
P 
P 
P 
P 


\ Booker Washington Center" 
5 layground and Recreation Commission . . 
Park Board . 


lock Island 


St Charles 


5,377 

2,650 
71,864 
2,339 

4,021 

13,060 
33,499 
7,258 


[ Henry Rockwell Baker Memorial Com- 


X 




















1 

72 


2 
57 








125.00 


255.00 


120.00 


375.00 
18,375.00 

4i640'.66 
3,230.00 
3,700.00 
3,420.00 
2,600.00 
10,375.05 

4,108.20 

3,000.00 
2,192.95 


500.00 
24,500.00 
"500.00 
10,822.00 
6,200.00 
4,200.00 
3,979.00 
4,500.00 
13,647.54 

5,960.86 

20,572.00 
2,924.23 
6,500.00 
375.00 
1,230.63 
5,851.36 
10,494.00 
500.00 
30,100.00 
19,438.23 
6.800.0J 


Springfield 


"layground and Recreation Commission . . 


.4 








i 1307.66 


500.00 
4,875.00 
3,000.00 
500.00 
559.00 
1,900.00 
3,131.32 

475.86 

250.00 
449.07 


950.00 
2,600.00 
1,200.00 
360.00 


siwo'.oo 

600.00 
2.500.00 
3,060.00 
2,600.00 
132.65 

3,458.20 
290.75 


Sycamore 


/ Park Board 


3 
2 


1 


"*i 










8 
11 
i 


2 
5 
1 










'layground and Recreation Board 


















15,233 
117,373 

39,804 
13,208 
18,227 
8,744 
7,936 
9,935 
54,784 
32,949 
102,249 

114,946 
100,426 
364,161 
11,946 
5,439 
32,843 

15,755 
24,496 
26,735 
46,548 
25,819 
14,027 
1,538 
12,730 
5,290 

32,493 

7,508 
104,193 
600 

4,873 
62,810 
17,564 
8,840 
10,880 

3,985 
10,261 

7,362 

56,097 
1.768 
42,048 
8,615 
60,751 
3,905 
142,559 
41,679 
500 
4,940 

6,619 

4,949 
15,106 
4,348 
23,304 




6 

3 


I 


^ 


6 


141.17 
1,376.80 

17,322.00 
282.21 


10,242.40 
650.00 

3,000.00 
1,902.20 


Winnebago County 19 
Indiana 


Winnebago County Forest Preserve Dis- 
trict 


Recreation Department, Park Board 


3 
3 


9 
1 






Bedford 






Brayil 


Y. M. C. A. and City Recreation Board. . 
3 ark Department. . 


1 
1 

13 
46 
1 

42 
19 
4 


3 

"s 

28 
1 
21 
33 
3 




10 




75.00 
" M '16.07 


300.00 
957.70 
3,806.25 




300.00 
1,230.63 
4,166.25 


Clinton 


.... 

i 


" 6 


269'.04 


272.93 
360.00 




Department of Community Recreation . . 
Board of Public Works 
Municipal Recreation Department 
/ Board of Park Commissioners 


Slkhart 














2 






3,500.00 
2,768.08 
1,400.00 


15,100.00 
9,803.46 
4,100.00 


11,500.00 
4,530.04 
300.00 


26,600.00 
14,333.50 
4,400.00 


Fort Wayne 




2,336.65 
1,000.00 


3 








T di nannlis 




125 
3 
1 


85 

4 


35 






32,308.62 
300.00 


51,827.28 
1,100.00 


62,274.54 


114,101.82 
1,100.00 
2,250.00 


146,410.44 
l,460.0u 
2,550.00 


T >(T illp 






360.00 


Kendallville 










Park Board 
















La Porte 


f Board of Education. 


3 
J 


9 










2,250 00 




2,250.00 
7,891.17 


2,250.00 
13,280.49 




n 




5,389.32 


3,200.00 


4,691.17 




Park Board 


























50.00 
250.00 
1,657.73 








50.00 
8,250.00 
4,168.28 
180.00 






5 

8 


! 

J 






7,000.00 
325.80 


1,000.00 
2,184.75 
180.00 




1,000.00 
2,184.75 
183.00 














City of New Castle 


























Peru 


Y M C A and Park Board 


2 
1 


1 






1,500.00 


2,000.00 
500.00 
283.05 
1,462.40 
25.00 




5,000.00 
451.30 


5,000.00 
300.00 
1,996.00 
2,541.80 
200.00 


"8,500.00 
800.00 
2,276.05 
4.304.2J 
225.00 


Plymouth 




U96.00 
2,090.50 
200.00 


f Board of School Trustees 


8 
1 
1 


6 

J 














300.00 


Seymour 


/ School Board 


\ Park Board 












South Bend 




16 
1 


| 


















gpeed 


Recreation and Welfare Department 


! 


12 














Tell City 






50.00 
450.00 

uis.oo 

10,000.00 

2,500.00 
4600 


175.00 




175.00 
550.00 
328.74 
2,685.00 

21,500.00 

600.00 

700.00 
50.00 


225.03 
1,000.00 
328.74 
5,230.00 

31,500.00 

3,100.00 

746.00 
50.00 
7,000.00 
13,600.00 
8,800.00 
1,050.00 
7,804.58 
16,600.00 
2,600.00 
14,000.00 
24,656.58 
190.00 
20,000.00 
31,604.72 
10,300.00 






T 


I 






560.00 








328.74 




w \ 




I 








1,200.00 
8,800.00 


1,485.00 
12,700.00 




Community Service and Community Me- 


8 

1 

3 


i 

i 

1 





36 


Iowa 

Algona 


Park Department 
Playground Committee, Junior Chamber 








70000 
50.00 




Cedar Falls 




























Cedar Rapids 




36 


25 


J 


230 


2,000.00 
1,000.00 


3,100.00 
800.00 


7,300.00 


1,200.00 
7,000.00 


8,500.00 
7,000.00 


















Council Bluffs 




3 
3 
1 


26 

j 




13 


















6,000.00 
800.00 


3,900.00 
400.00 
3,845.00 
8,769.65 


1,200.00 
300.00 
5,065.00 


5,500.00 
1,100.00 
5,090.00 
12,111.60 
190.00 
3,820.00 


6,700.00 
1,400.00 
10,155.00 
12,111.60 
190.00 
20,000.00 




Davenport 




7 


10 










3,775.33 
















Des Monies 


/ Playground and Recreation Commission 


25 


35 


s 








16,180.00 












20 


12 


1 


1 

10 




3,000.00 


6,500.00 


800.00 


7,300.00 


V th 




Esthervilie 
Fairfield 




2 
















1,550.00 
1,000.00 
300.00 
600.00 
2,350.00 
3,000.00 
1,370.00 


/ Forum Club 






















1 












300.00 
300.00 
150.00 
2,271.50 
420.00 




300.00 
300.00 
150.00 
2,271.50 
1,020.00 


Grinnell 




I 








300.00 










I 




2,200.00 
728.50 
350.00 




Keokuk 


Friendly House Community Centre 
Marion Post 298, American Legion 
Y W C A 2 


a 

5 


] 
1 
J 


1 


9 

1 








600.00 


























1 







70 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



PI 

L 


aygrounds 
Under 
sadership 




Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Bathing 
fe Beaches 


Golf 

Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wadine Pools 


Source of 
Information 


'C 
t 

6 
Z 


No. of City 
Year Round 


School Year Only 
Other Seasons Only 

Tntol 


Total Yearly or Seasona 
Attendance * 


III 

2 ^11 

1 |<*J 

Z H 6< 


Number 

Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 

Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Nui 
Number 

Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 

Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 

Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


1 

J 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


\ 
X 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 






239,794 . 
























] 


H. E. Folgate 
Lola Robinson 
M.H.Hodge 


1 
a 
2 
3 

4 
s 
1 

6 
7 
8 
a 
9 
10 
11 
12 

13 

14 
15 
Hi 
17 
18 
9 
20 
21 
22 
23 
a 
24 
25 

ae 

27 
38 
29 
a 
(1 
1 
> 
t 
4 
5 
li 
7 
g 
a 
D 
a 


1 
2 

a 

4 
1 

6 

7 

8 
9 
a 

a 
1 
2 
a 
53 
4 
a 
1 
) 
a 
7 
g 
i 
X) 
a 
1 
a 
2 
i 

4 






























68,95 . 








' i " ' 1,450 '. 












1 




















15,000 


27 








1 77,094 . 










15,083 


Robert F.Munn. . . 
Bert Turner 
Edythe Parsons 
JohnE. MacWherter.. 
J E Martin 
























'.'.'. 2' 


"i \ '.'.'. 2 






















4 


21,200 




201,407 








2 43,260 


1 34,95 




% 




19,585 










10 '.'.'. I 
11 
12 ... 

13 


'.I'.'.'.'. 1( 


60,000 . 
100,666 . 










1 6,00 




V,s6o 




3,000 




100 




3. M . Henderson 
Carl H. Schmitt 
W. C Noel 


1 9,000 . 










12 2 "326,980 . 














273,000 . 


















1 






A. G. Grosche 
J. L. D. Langen 


















29,000 




500 
10,315 


30,400 . 




2 21,727 1 












10 7 
















14 ... 1 
15 ... 
16 
17 ... 
18 ... 
19 1 4 
30 ... 9 
21 
22 ... 12 
23 ... 14 

I::::- 


1( 

'. 12 
14 


235,000 . 
22,659 . 






1 16,769 








25,02 






tf arie West 
James J. Crossett 
>ed J. Prow 
I. A. Brunoehler. . . 
Belle Miller 






























15,000 . 






















500 
















31,657 
128,870 . 


1 31,000 . 


i ' 66,385 








2 


23,750 




' 42,500 


2 


12,66o 




}onald DuShane 
*. V. Merriman. . . 
M D Weldy 


i 1 45,000 


1 18,275 . 








247,900 . 
230,498 . 




1 8,100 1 


j 




18,000 




4,050 


4 


120,000 


1 
5 


55,000 


G. G. Eppley 
3arrie A. Snively 
SdgarJ. Unthank 
W. H. DeGan.. 
I. W. Middlesworth. . . 


1 32,100 . 






















9 1 














14 




!5 . . . 43 

!6 . . . 3 

n ... 

!g 


4; 


839,129 
73,500 . 


8 288,729 . 


1 3 












f 




7 











































j 


V. C. Anman 
Oliver Tobias 
.label Poor 
V. A. Goering 
)vid White 
^ranees Sebesta 
'lorence Manford 
)orothy M. Siegle 























10 




!9 ... 3 
a ... : 

... 


5 ... 1 


66,581 . . 
2,626 




















1 




3,600 .. 


























6 












22,000 




1 

2 ... 5 





























* 














Hi 


21,000 


i ... 6 


6 


69,409 





















^ ... ; 


( 


























i 










] 





















. H. Walker 


6 ... 1 
7 ... 1 

8 ... 7 
a ... 
9 ... 2 
a 
. . . 15 


1 
1 


22,000 . . 




1 1,500 1 
1 




1 700 .. 












* 


500 


} 




4 












L F Becknell 


7 
'.'. '.'.'. "2 


46,56! . 




2 






















t H Lybouit 


6,666 '. . 




1 12,00( .. 




















ulia Wrenn Partner 


1 .. 












1 














j 










1 




2 






. Van de Walle 


15 


375.00C 




< : i 





] 




1 








>s 




1 




1 1 .. 

2 ... 1 
3 ... 7 
4 ... 4 
5 


1 

1 




1 


. ... i 


i 










1 




1 






eseeG. Dorsey 
Mrs. Florence Ahlf 






4 




















7 
4 


49,569 






. 2 


1 34,821 


1 9,477 














28,533 . . 

















































ff C Mills 


6 ... 5 

7 ... 1 

8 ... 5 
9 ... 1 
a 
... 8 
a 
1 
2 
a ... 
3 .... 
4 ... 10 



5 

1 

5 
1 


41,000 


1 250,000 . . 


1 


6 






1 








in 






















1 










M. P. Weaver 


16,680 .. 


























?. S. Roberta 
^. L. Mahannah . . . 
W. K. Voorhees 


2,500 . . 
























2 
3 






1 


. 1 .. 


[ 












<> 




.. 6 14 


138,000 . 




2 


2 














12 
111 
? 


7,000 
4,000 








1 1 1,500 


1 1,500 . . 
1 












r d Stefan 
















1 




W Miles 


19 ... 19 






i 2 .. 




















ttoA. Wurl 
hillip E. Minner 
R Glathly 










1 30,000 . . 
1 2 




I 20,000 










> 






















4 




10 


174,263 . . 
















1 


46,000 


7 
6 

> 




2 
3 








1 .. 




! 45,897 






9,238 


l|. A t> u 


5 .. 
6 ... 22 
.. 
7 1 12 
8... 1 
9 
D 
(... 1 

i '.'.. "i 

2 ... 2 
3 
... 4 


. '.'.'. 22 

'2 'is 

. ... 1 

'. ... "i 

'. .'.'. i 

. ... 2 
'. '.'.'. '4 






1 





1 




1 






324,725 . . 
' 9i',266 '. '. 




> 2,360 ... 1 
! "23,366 '4 








2 


2,396 


1 
1 


39,943 


48 
47 
3 




'4 

l 


athryn E. Krieg 
elen Richter 
ylvester McCauley. . . . 



1 2 




! 86,344 


1 51,000 . . 
























1 
1 


' 3,666 






. V. Linke 
arley Carter 






















2 ' 









2,600 '. '. 



'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


5,000 ( 
' 12,666 .'.'. 


< ... ........ '.'. 






1 


5,000 










ohn C. Truesdale 

























abel V Sones 












1 


40,000 


i 


"79 




N. Lundy 
uth M. Starks and 
Theresa Holt 


5,476 . . 












1 


832 













71 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



> 

c 

3 
6 

Z 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


B 

.{ 
,fe 

c 

3 

;3 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Support f 


n 

31 

o 
6 
Z 


No. of Woman 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
1 


10 
11 

12 
13 

14 
IS 
IB 

17 
IS 

1!) 

21) 
21 
22 

21! 
24 

2S 

2ti 
27 

28 
29 

HI) 

11 

:<2 
3:1 

:!4 

:i."> 
36 
37 
38 

: 

411 
41 
42 
43 
44 
U 
4(i 



48 

49 

r.u 

51 

52 
B3 

-,\ 

s;, 

96 

57 


1 owa Cont. 


28,075 
79,183 

46,191 
7,024 

13,024 
16,198 
5,792 
10,311 
2,072 
14,067 
591 
1,800 


Y M C A 








51 




200.00 
4,686.10 


500.00 
10,004.50 


250.00 
1,593.83 


750.00 
11,598.33 


950.00 
16,284.43 

3^000.00 


P 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
P 
P 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
P 

M&P 
M 
M 

P 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
P 

P 
P 
P 
C 
P 
M&P 

M 
M 
P 
P 
M 
P 

P 
M 

M 
P 

MSiP 
M 
M 

P 
M 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 


Sioux City 


( School Board 


37 


31 


1 












Waterloo 
Webster City 

Kansas 

Atchison 




6 
8 


4 
4 


1 


100 




1,000.00 


1,000.00 


1,000.00 


2,000.00 


























j 




















Concordia 


School Board 


1 

2 


1 

1 
















100.00 
585.00 
700.00 
150.00 


El Dorado 
Ellsworth 










35.00 


550.00 




50.00 












Emporia 






1 










150.00 




150.00 












10 










Civic Clubs 








1 














Independence 
Kansas City 
Lawrence 


12,782 
121,857 
13,726 
17,466 
14,903 
18,145 
1,736 

64,120 
7,405 
111,110 

65,252 
45,736 
307,745 

29,744 
2,084 

23,025 
30,729 
3,788 

14,635 
26,028 
4,547 

458,762 

3,188 
3,612 
2,076 
500 
76,655 

17,198 
28,749 
325 
3,138 
70,810 
9,075 
7,233 

14,000 
15,454 
10,807 

804,874 
10,997 

9,969 
36,094 
10,677 

21,769 
21,748 
25,068 


City of Independence 










13,885.00 


4,000.00 
30,000.00 




8,000.00 
28,663.35 
15.00 


8,000.00 
37,663.35 
695.00 

1,800.66 
3,600.00 
1,000.00 
4,728.80 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 


"25,885.00 
67,663.35 
695.00 
2,000.00 
1,950.00 
4.000.00 
1,250.00 
5,228.80 
5,066.00 
1,500.00 
23,000.00 

4,500.00 
21,751.47 

13,341.55 

51,457.47 
1,736.25 
575.00 

10,960.00 




17 
1 


14 
1 






9,000.00 
680.00 






4 














Parsons 




3 
.... 


1 








150.00 
400.00 
250.00 
500.00 
500.00 


1,800.00 




Pittsburg 
Smith Centre 

Topeka 


Park Department 










300.00 
4,728.80 


700.00 

UOO.OO 
1,500.00 


/ Board of Education 
\ Dept of Parks and Public Property 


17 


23 




14 


3.m.00 


Wellington 


City of Wellington 












Wichita 




5 

5 
14 

3 
55 


3 

8 
12 

9 

40 
10 












Kentucky 

Covington 


Park Board 


'"2 
2 
17 


10 
21 


550.00 


300.00 


2,750.00 


900.00 


3,650.00 


[ Department of Parks and Playgrounds . 
\ Colored Department of Parks and Rec- 


3,500.00 


3,161.55 

13,211.17 
108.75 


3,800.00 

29,393.14 
1,627.50 


2,880.00 
8,853.16 


6,680.00 

38,246.30 
1,627.50 




Division of Recreation, Department of 
Public Welfare 


Newport 








Russell 




? 










Louisiana 

Alexandria 


f Playground Comrades International . . 
\ Peabody Cojored High School 1 ' 


1 

' i 


"i 


1 


45 




4,110.00 


3,100.00 


3,750.00 


6,850.00 


Baton Rouge 
Donalds ville 

Lafayette 








1 20000 






3,500.00 

320.00 
2,200.00 
1,800.00 


4,700.00 

320.00 
2,700.00 
1,800.00 
50.00 

33,329.87 

9,525.00 
23,468.94 
37,687.70 

-'300.44 
25.00 
50.00 
35.00 
25.00 
4,770.00 

775.00 
1,636.87 
230.00 
300.00 
14,194.32 
245.00 

189.14 
500.00 
2,500.00 
6,368.14 

181,611.97 
133,866.97 
6,000.00 

4,603.21 
3,602.25 
2,000.00 
"1,450.00 
4,490.00 
33.239.63 
,740.00 


Mohawk Tribe No. 33, Improved Order of 
Red Men 






6 








320.00 
2,200.00 
90.00 














500.00 




Monroe 
Natchitoches 

New Orleans 
Oakdale 


lecreation Board 
Playground Comrades International 




7 


1 






1,710.00 


6 




50.66 

6,896.70 

325.00 
4,335.11 


f Playground Community Service Corn- 


6 
3 


25 

2 


25 
1 


10 


1,000.00 
531.53 


26,433.17 
4,500.00 


3,600.00 
18,602.30 


26,433.17 

8,100.00 
18,602.30 


School Board and Public School Athletic 


\ City Park Commission 
Audubon Park Commission 




Kingsley House Social Settlement 
Sylvania F. Williams Community Cen- 
ter" 
"layground Comrades International 
'laypround Comrades International 
Folk School of Richland Parish 




















4 


5 


2 


100 
8 
2 

4 




300.44 
25.00 
50.00 
35.00 
25.00 
200.00 

500.00 
409.57 
50.00 
100.00 
6,661.69 
125.00 

49.28 
















Pineville 
Rayville 
















Selma 
Shreveport 

Maine 

Augusta 


D lavground Comrades International 








1 










r*ark and Recreation Board 
City of Augusta 


3 
1 


14 


3 


4 

3 




3,500.00 

275.00 
1,227.30 
180.00 
200.00 
7,532.63 
120.00 

125.00 
500.00 
285.00 
3,740.00 


1,070.00 


4,570.00 

275.00 
1,227.30 
180.00 
200.00 
7,532.63 
120.00 

125.00 
500.00 
370.00 
5,016.70 

129,10308 






7 


3 

1 




^ 




Derby 




Kennebunk 
Portland 
Kncklum 1 


iVebhannett Club 


1 














1 


22 
1 


1 










Women's Educational and Industrial 




2 






14.86 


Sanford 




1 

2 
3 

207 


1 

1 

215 


i 

70 


"i2 


s's'.oo 

1,276.70 


Waterville 
Wcstbrook 


Park Commission 




2,130.00 
1,351.44 

52,508.89 


Maryland 

Baltimore 


f Playground Athletic League 


Salisbury 




4 

2 
14 
6 
1 


2 

3 
6 

















Massachusetts 

Andover 




1 


32 




1,116.61 
448.11 


2,400.00 
3,154.14 
1,372.77 


1,086.60 


3,486.60 
3,154.14 
2,000.00 


Arlington 


School Board 




Athol 


Recreation Commission 








627.23 


f Recreation Commission 










Belmont 
Beverly 


\ Park Commission 
'layground Department 
Public Works Department 


1 
13 
8 


1 
9 
8 






20,259.74 


4,130.00 
4,534.64 
3,700.00 


360.00 
5,407.40 
2,040.00 


3,037.85 


360.00 
8,445.25 
2,040.00 



















72 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 

I 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 

Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 

Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools 


Source of 
Information 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons Only 


1 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 




1 






1 












1 




















1 


25,000 








J. E. Eigenmann 
John E. Gronseth 
James Barton 
J.W.Koch 


i 


18 

"s 






18 


"512,262 






' 


12,275 
































1 
4 


t 

, : 






1 


9,877 


1 


26,500 






5 


39,160 


21 
6 










9 


29,863 






1 


1,000 


2 


500 






6,000 














































1 






1 


1,200 










1 


11,500 


II 
A 


4,600 


1 

1 


A. W. Seng 




5 






g 








1 




2 












1 




A. I. Decker 
Mildred Huddleston. . . . 






1 




1 








1 




















I 














4 






4 


27,000 






1 




1 


3 






















e 




























j 




i 






John R Alden 




1 
1 






1 


10,800 












2 






















8 




1 


Margaret Jones 
Mrs. C. B. Johnson 
Mabel L. Flowers 
Ralph C. Mitchell 
F LeRoy Cooke 


































1 




































































1 
1 
1 


2 

7 
3 


















1 













1? 






I 9 




1 




1 




















5 


54,108 


49 




^ 




3 






3 


6,000 






6 


2,000 




















C E Birch 










1 


2,800 














1 




"i 

i 


John D. Becher 
Charles J. Mills 


















4 




1 


3 










1 








4 
























1 




1 


11,200 














9 


























1 
1 


1 












1 




1 




S C Stevens 




16 






16 


258,254 


































"5 


L. P. Dittemore 






t 






fi 


















4 




;:-, 
























1 












1 
















C. S. Haslet 




4 

B 

B 

i 

9 
1 

3 


i 




4 

5 
6 

5 

19 
9 
1 

3 
1 


212,500 

129,760 
"281,244 

253,529 

1,071,749 
33,390 
20,114 

43,800 


















1 


50,800 






& 


166,400 


12 


56,550 


9 
1 


Alfred MacDonald 
Anne Campbell 


3 


"26,3 13 
38,381 


"e 

2 
12 

"i 


39,544 
35,367 
1,000 


"2 
2 

3 
3 
1 


8 
2 

1 

34 

.S 
1 

4 


























1 








11 

ft 








M] 
















T. E Brown 














1 


33,929 


1 


8,000 


67 


116,771 




Dorothea Nelson 
Mrs. Edward C. Wendt. 


































4 




j 








1 


3,650 










! 


4,000 


6 
1 

7 

i 


1,000 
1,000 
7,000 




j W. E. Brown 










1 


1 






































1 


9,000 










1 

1 
1 


10,000 
3,900 


Powers Higginbotham . . 

H. F. Valliamy... 

F. V. Mouton 


1 








1 














1 






























1 


1 
1 






1 
















17 


B 

1 






5 
1 

17 


25,000 


































1 


1 


























W. E. Brown 


620,433 






i 

2 


52,364 
20,000 
















-, 

1 
1 

1 


1 196,932 

18,000 
36,850 


24 
... 


18,672 


7 

i 


L. di Benedetto 

Frank J. Beier 
jeorge E. Vinnedge. . . . 
J. A.Hayes 
Elizabeth Woods 

Mildred Towle... 
W. E. Brown 
W E Brown 






'i 
i 
















1 


20,000 


















S 

'] 






1 




1 


"38,375 










-"'1 
4 

1 
1 

14 

1 

2 
1 
























1 

1 


8 

i 
1 

i 
i 
14 

1 
2 
1 


23,986 
















1 


































2,000 
500 










i 
i 
i 

's 
i 


"i 

i 
i 
i, 

3 


1 


1,000 


















1 




























































2 






Mrs. Carey J.Ellis, Jr... 
W. E. Brown 
jrover C. Thames 

Samuel McCall 


1,560 
358,400 

40,500 
10,800 


i 








19,600 










1 


12,000 














21 


26,750 


5 

2 






























1 
' 


23,400 






P H Glover 










i 
i 


1 
1 
9 


















o 






W. J. Russell 




1 
1' 






1 
12 


5,000 




























? 
















1 




















9 




1 


jranville R. Lee 




1 






1 
































1 






1 




1 






































Agnes Cunningham 
Harry Stott 


I 


1 
1 
1 

81 






1 
1 
1 

84 


2,800 
18,900 
13,500 

728,113 


8 








i 


1 


















1 






























1 

1 


21,000 
15,000 


'e 






J. Frank Goodrich. . . 
PaulF. Fraser 




133 


20,500 
'902,676 


7 
3 

1 
1 
1 

1 


3 


















8,000 






















27 
4 

1 
6 
2 
1 

1 


1 
1 




3 




1 








li 




in 






J.V.Kelly 
ft. Milton Hearne 




1 






1 








1 






















t 








1 
li 
5 
1 






1 

6 
5 
1 


25,381 


1 


23,671 
































'2 




















R 






William T. McCarty. . . . 
A. Macmaster 
Walter M. Kendall 


"18,646 
























' 




3 




1 




























1 






1 






1 








































1 

7 




6 


7 
7 


281,007 
40,861 










6 

10 


6 
10 


















1 


62,069 


19 


9,144 




Lewis S. Harris 
James H. FiUgibbons. . . 










(i 


25,000 













































73 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



1 

5 

t 
c 
2 


STATE AND 
CITY 

1 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Support f 


o 
"3 
i 

'/. 

1 
a 

1. 

< 
2 
a 

3 

4 
5 
li 
7 
8 
U 
III 
11 
12 
13 

14 

:l 
IS 

10 
17 

18 
111 
21) 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
2t> 
27 
28 
211 

ra 

u 

32 

a 
b 

(3 
)4 

36 
37 
)S 
ill 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 


47 
8 
11 
a 

1 
2 
53 
4 
55 
li 
7 
S 

9 

60 

1 
2 
3 
64 

5 

7 
a 
8 
9 


V 

S 
o 
X 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipmenl 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 
i 

j 

11 
11 
11 
13 

14 

15 

li 
17 
18 
I 1 
20 
21 
2L 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
2S 
21 
to 
31 

32 

33 

34 
35 

m 

37 
38 

30 
4-1 
41 
42 
43 
44 

u 

40 
47 

48 
49 

50 
51 
r>2 
58 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 

511 
00 

01 
02 
03 
1)4 
Ijj 
M 

07 
OS 
Oil 


Mass. Cont. 
Boston 


781,188 

63,797 
47,490 

113,643 
45,816 
4,220 
12,957 
15,136 
11,323 
5,400 
48,424 
10,951 
40,692 

22,210 

19,399 
24,204 
15,500 
48,710 
56,537 
2,200 
85,068 
21,810 
9,467 


Department of the Extended Use of 
Public Schools 


4 1 ! 


95 








14,000.00 


30,000.00 
9,025.26 


21,000.00 
4,143.io 
10,903.89 


51,000.00 
13,168.36 

10,903.89 
4,034.00 


65,000.00 

o:!4.K:d.S5 
19,168.44 

106,775.33 
6,896.76 


M 
M 

P 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

MAP 
M 
P 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 

M 

P 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
MAP 
M 
P 
MAP 
M 
MAP 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 

M 

M 

MAP 
M 
P 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 




173 


I 


Ij 












6,000.08 

6,755.64 
2,862.76 


Brockton 
Brookline 


Boston Metropolitan Park District 










89,115.80 




30 


13 






4,034.00 


Parlc Cnmmifpjjnn , 










ymnasium and Bath Department and 
Playground Department 
Board of Park Commissioners.' 


10 

2 


18 
14 
14 


! 


is 




6,504.00 
2,800.56 


18,600.00 
26.078.98 
2.340.00 
4,000.72 


28,629.00 


47,229.00 
26,078.98 
3,066.98 
6,693.56 

2,861.40 
650.50 


53,733.00 
28,879.54 
3.066.98 
16,024.56 
4,000.00 
2.861.40 
1,100.00 

8,374.00 


Cambridge 
Chalsaa 






726.98 
2,692.84 


Dalton 


Community Recreation Association 




t 


l 


25 




9.331.00 


Danvers 




Dedham 
Easthampton 
East Milton 
Everett 
Fair haven 


Community Association, Inc 




i 
4 


1 


10 






1.928.69 
650.50 


932.71 




449.50 




1 

8 


1 














1,530.00 


1,200.00 


5,644.00 


6,844.00 


Park Commissioners 














1 


1 
I 






176.48 
1,000.00 


747.85 

800.00 
6,707.90 
2.207.31 


1,540.00 

1,000.00 
2,183.32 
1,812.60 


3,476.71 

2,200.00 
2,882.05 
2,388.19 


5,016.71 

3,200.00 
5,065.37 
4,200.79 


5,941.04 

5,000.00 
11,773.27 
6,408.10 
5,000.00 
3,366.72 
400.53 
25,149.63 
2,822.13 
9,089.77 
3,000.00 
4,694.00 
21,723.51 
5,500.00 
<lX.2ti7.SO 
4,678.80 
4,500.00 
17,650.00 
6,300.00 
2,048.00 
539.17 
500.00 
8,500.00 
1,100.00 
108,795.00 
13,500.00 
5,750.00 
4.945.00 
34,950.00 
1,000.00 
6.500.00 
9,000.00 

1M19.63 
27,000.00 


Framingham 
Gardner 






io 




5 


i 

5 


















Recreation and Playground Commission. . 


5 
1 


12 








526.67 
300.53 
4,213.85 
1,408.70 


1,233.54 
100.00 
9,078.61 
900.00 


1,606.51 


2,840.05 
100.00 
20,449.62 
1,342.07 


riaverhill 
rlolyoke 








Parks and Recreation Commission 
Nathaniel Thaycr Playground Association 
Department of Public Property and Parks 


18 
1 


41 


1 


13 


486.16 
71.36 


11,371.01 
442.07 


Lawrence 
Lieominster 






S 


5 
4 




















10 


500.00 
3,542.30 


3,000.00 
1,484.71 
1,350.00 
45,451.27 
969.94 
1,500.00 

225.00 
608.00 


1,194.00 
885.00 
2,350.00 
5,000.00 


15,811.50 
1,800.00 
47,816.53 


1,194.00 
16,696.50 
4,150.00 
52,816.53 
3,708.86 
3,000.00 
351.00 
6,075.00 
1,440.00 
539.17 
400.00 
6,650.00 


jowell 
judlow 


100,234 
8,876 
102,320 
59,714 
23,170 
21,069 
16,434 
8,081 

112,597 

15,084 

65,276 
24,381 
10,197 
15,049 
21,345 
49,677 
13,042 
71,983 






9 






1 


4 

'0 


1 


3 
4 






Medford 




16 
2 
1 
1 
1 


10 
7 
3 
3 












1 


"e 


' 'n',2WM 


700.00 
351.00 
830.00 
300.00 
539.17 
400.00 


2,300.00 

5,245.00 
1,140.00 


tfethuen 
tfilton 
Montague 31 

New Bedford 
Newburyport 










20 






1 
1 

3 
43 
11 

4 
8 
11 

10 
1 

211 


1 
1 

I! 

2 
53 
6 
2 
6 
11 
18 

"j 








Recreation Committee 
4 Municipal Bathing Beach Committee. . 




333 




100.00 
1,850.00 


6,650.60 












J layground Commission 
? r;ink N'ewhall Look Memorial Park 


'i 


1 

2 


400.00 
4,000.00 


49,045.00 
1,500.00 


27,000.00 
3,000.00 


32,350.00 
5,000.00 


59,350.00 
8,000.00 

2,800.00 
23,450.00 




'Jorth Attleboro 
Nor *ood 
J eabody 
'ittaSeld 






ibidoaoo 


2,145.00 
1,500.00 


2,500.00 
3,450.00 


300.00 
20,000.00 








15 
























15 

20 




8,000.00 


800.00 


200.00 

2io83.00 
2,222.32 


1,000.00 

8328.81 
21,844.33 




35,680 
43,353 
103,908 
14,264 
6,272 
149,900 

10,060 
37,355 
16,318 
7,273 
39,247 
34,913 
12,992 
11,439 
16,684 
8,000 
195,311 

26,944 
43,573 

47,355 
4,035 
9,539 
1,888 
6,735 
50,358 

,568,662 
5,550 
20,855 






ioard of Park Commissioners 


15 
27 


20 

27 


i 


25 
10 
14 


1,090.82 


2,000.00 
5,155.67 


6,245.81 
19,622.01 


SomemUe 


Board of Education 


Spencer 


Park Commissioners 


1 
















260.00 

146,926.05 
1,200.00 
5,600.00 
1,500.00 
940.00 
708.95 
18,400.00 


division of Recreation, Department of 
Public Parks 


82 
1 
U 


56 

7 


2 




10,260.40 


66,269.20 
300.00 
900.00 


29,738.50 
300.00 
900.00 


40,657.95 
600.00 
2,600.00 


70,396.45 
900.00 
3,500.00 


Stoneham 
^aunton 
iVakefield 










1,200.00 




1 
2 
1 
16 
3 


2 
5 
1 

26 
4 
















756.00 
340.00 
9,360.00 




756.00 
423.12 
12,350.00 










285.83 
3,875.00 


83.12 
2,990.00 


Valthara 








2,175.00 


Watertown 
Vebeter 
Wellesley 
Vest Springfield 
Vest Newton 








12 














School Department 


4 

5 
2 
29 

13 
17 


2 
7 
3 
46 

12 
12 
















1,200.00 
2,759.50 
3,620.97 
44,648.95 

20,665.00 

8,000.00 
225.00 
1,500.00 
10,604.20 












1,654.75 
2,265.00 


1,104.75 
272.00 


2,759.50 
2,537.00 
36,047.15 

11,215.00 
7,600.00 


Community Centre, Inc 
'arks and Recreation Commission 

loard of Education and Park Commission 
Civic Recreational Association and Board 


i 

2 


10 

20 

25 
15 


Yii'.oo 

8,500.00 

' 150.66 


7,890.86 

950.00 

400.00 
75.00 


Michigan 


3,915.00 
5,600.00 


7,300.00 
2,000.00 


Battle Creek 


Bay City 








1 


1 

1 

1 
1 
3 
76 














1 

2 


10 
13 
6 




5,095.55 


2,000.00 


3,508.65 


5,508.65 






1 
1 

20 
86 

s 


















2,000.00 
13,767.62 
499,419.97 
276,060.00 
560.00 
600.00 






1 

56 
3 






3,087.28 

7:1.622.01) 
59.550.00 


9,349.00 

222,897.37 
15,960.00 
560.00 
500.00 


1,331.34 
193,929.41 
200,550.00 

100.66 


10,680.34 
416,826.78 
216,510.00 
560.00 
600.00 


Detroit 




64 


2,970.33 








2 

1 


1 
1 




3 






Board of Education 




i 




















74 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 
the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 
Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 

Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools 


Source of 
Information 


I 
I 


C 

1 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons Only 


I 


J 
1 

Z 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Attendance ** 


J 


X 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Attendance ** 


J 

X 


Total Yearly 
or Seaaona 1 
Participation 


J 

Z 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Participation 


J 
j 

X 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Participation 


Z 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 
Participation 


J 

1 
Z 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


| 

X 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona i 
Participation 


















II 


500,000 


" 






























James T. Mulroy 
William P. Long 
W. Duncan Russell 

W. E. Whittakcr .. 
AbbieO. Delano 
H. M.Irwin 

Charles P. Cameron .... 
Stephen H. Mahoney. . . 




30 
S 




22 


52 

S 


1,223,400 


11 


224,400 


111) 


10 


5,226,314 






1 


64,578 


2 


62,440 






104 


20,165 




































j 
















2 
t 


11 

8 
5 

7 
3 
3 
1 






11 














9 


1 
















1 


































1 
















1 
2 


7 
5 


1 


17 
15 
7 
3 
4 
1 


96,781 


1 


44,598 


7 




13 
6 
1 
1 
4 


13 
7 

3 
2 
6 


"2 
1 
1 
2 
1 












1 




1 




15 






















R 




92,584 
45,327 
44,056 


2 
1 








10,500 
4,977 


"i 




















57,182 






1,432 






1 


6.928 






3 


1,986 


'i 
i 


W. J. Sandford, Jr 
Raymond Funchion 
Mrs. Ada A. Pillsbury. . 
Arnold Cleary 
W. L. Caldwell 
F. A. Hutchings 
Mrs. Mabel Dutton 
John J. Dillon and 
Ernestine Brewer 
Raymond J. Callahan. . . 
Franklin D. MacCormick 
Helen L. Murdock 






fl 




1 




1 


















1 




?, 




' 


3 






3 
1 
9 

I 


6,000 
'155,000 


'i 








1 
1 


1 
2 


2 


4,000 








































1 




1 




9 
4 
















































) 






















3 






9 
4 






9 
4 


120,619 
12,000 










1 
4 


9 
5 


1 
3 


20,000 














3 


15,000 


1 
t 


1,061 
























i 
































j 






4 












1 


1 






















a 


























1 
1 

1 


13,000 


i 






















Howard F. Corliss 
Raymond F. Spencer. . . 
F. James Caswell 
MinaF. Robb 
Raymond S. Mann 


8 

12 






g 








1 


100 


3 
1 


3 
4 

9 












1 




g 




"i 
































7 
5 

3 


7,364 




12 
1 


203,978 


j 




9 


91,250 












9 




3 


110,300 












































9 


















2 


130,000 


8 






William V.Crawford.... 
Walter I. Deacon, Jr. . . . 
John J. Garrity 
John W. Kernan 
F. J. Cummings 
John Morrissey 


5 

> 






5 












5 
2 
12 
2 
3 

"2 


5 
3 
U) 
3 
9 
7 
2 
4 
4 






















































1 




8 




i 


i 


1 
1 

12 

7 
7 
11 
2 


..' 


"i 


3 

2 
12 

7 
8 
li 
> 


39,100 
40,000 
151,860 

41,695 
154,400 










1 

1 


30,000 














2 


8,000 


33 
1 




i 

i 
i 












1 




1 




2,570 
3,360 


5 

'i 


4,606 




i 








1 








10 






2 
1 




















1 








54,376 


















1 


4,000 




George W. Rogers 






































4 






John L. Kelly 
Charles E. Bankwitz. . . . 






1 


40,000 






























I 






8 








1 


































Allen B. Keith 






s 














8 






















21 


30,000 




Frederick E. Kelley 
Miss L. Dupre 
D. F. Borah 






















1 

"4 


125,000 


















is 


2 






2 

27 
1 

2 

ii 

8 


22,000 
1,075,000 
33,480 
18,000 
50,000 










2 
3 
1 
3 
6 


4 

31 
3 
3 
6 
6 


























B 


3 


3,250 


6 

i 


4,650 
7,500 


95,000 


















41 

i 
1 

K 


85,000 
3,575 
200 


I 

t 

i 

"i 


Ernst Hermann 


1 

2 

li 

M 
















1 


27,000 


















Raymond A. Yates 
Josephine A. Cogan 
George E. Coyle 
A. R. Wellington 






2 
















1 






























4 


4,000 


"i 


7 

it 

ii 


1 




- 




































1 


3 
19 












3 

19 
7 
12 
5 
1 


1 
7 
7 
6 
7 
1 


4 

2 

1 
3 
1 


















































i 






Franklin B.Mitchell.... 






ii 
12 


102,500 


to 


























11 












13,504 


i 












1 


70,275 


2 


3,054 


i 


Daniel J. Phalen 










20 
> 


245,000 






4 


50,000 














> 


































Mrs. John I. Beck 


u 
"i 


11 

i 

S 
1 
3 


















1 


























William A. Thiabault... 






22 


988,191 


1 


10,585 


15 


89,224 


i 


16 


I 








? 












U 




3 


































5 
1 
3 


45,000 
100,000 
60,000 










5 


5 


















2 


300 


5 


5,500 


'i 


Harold H. Galligan 
Ralph Davol 
Eugene J. Sullivan 
Kathehne J. Higgins. . . . 






























3 


2 


1 
















1 




2 
























1 




1 




13 
5 
5 






13 

5 


">124,000 










4 
5 
2 
1 

3 


6 
6 

2 
2 

2 


2 
1 

1 




















ft 
























4 






Sally Biggane 


9 




5 

1 1 


20,800 


























































2 






S. Monroe Graves 
R. B. Pillsbury 
Gertrude MacCallum. . . 
Thomas E. Holland 

L H Hollway 


7 






7 


88,800 




































1 




3 


15,346 




























1 1 






1 1 








14 

1 

2 


20 

2 
12 


7 

1 
1 








1 








8 




in 






4 


1 

4 
1 


8 




12 

1 

) 


91,003 

65,000 
18000 


7 
2 


7,882 






21,955 
100,000 






1 


30,000 










13 
18 

in 


8,268 
4,000 


i 

2 






i 


8,000 


1 


20,000 


1 
1 


40,000 


A. R. Flannary 
H. W. Royal 
















1 


5,000 


'i 

1 

4 

'7 




1 




1 


1 




























C R Duds 


66,216 

90.000 
4,000 
































Mrs C. B Lewis 


1 

1 

'io 


'i 

8 
70 


"4 




1 
I 

8 
80 


10,000 
50,000 
80,000 
"IW7764C 


































Walter M. Berry 


113 




2 


1 
6 

40 






















2 

1,1 
'II 


500 




J. T. Symons 
Henry D. Schubert 
C E Brewer 


"i 












4 

13 








168,268 


i 


43,287 


4 


289,575 






1 


143,290 








Henry W Busch 




1 

2 


2 




3 
2 


61,743 

16,000 


1 








2 
2 


2 
2 






4 




1 


































R L Peel 





































75 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 



Footnotes follow 


( 

* 


STATE AND 
CITY 

: 
3 
1 

1 

', 


Popula 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Worken 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 




Eipenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 


^ 

3 
"^ 

r 
,^ 



3 

S 

1 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 

Tima Van- 1 .'.,, 1 


Volunteer Workers 


Land. 
Buildings 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipmen 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
t dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadershij 


Other 
) Services 


Total 


ii 
i 

i 
i, 

14 
15 

11 
17 
18 

19 

20 

21 
22 
23 

24 

25 
26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 
34 

35 
36 

37 
38 
38 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 

45 

46 
47 
4S 
49 
50 

51 

52 
H 

54 

55 
58 
57 

58 
59 

60 

61 

62 


Michigan Cont 
Flint 
Gladstone 


156.49 
5,17 
168,59 

25,00 
22,000 
58,26 

1,89 
52,95 
14,34 
55,18 

54,78 
1.71 
78,397 
8,898 
8,078 
2,575 
10,320 
8,038 

18,110 
13,497 
5,211 


f Department of Parks and Recreation . 


4 


1 




5 


33.700.0C 
500.0C 


10.825.0C 
830.0C 
50.0C 
15.000.0C 
235.0C 


13.150.0C 
6.140.0C 
200.0C 
5.050.0C 
6.480.0C 

1,800.00 
2,945.8 
1,000.00 

6,209.5 
1,360.00 
13,220.00 
1,070.00 


40.538.0C 
1,700.00 
150.00 
39,185.00 
5,150.00 

200.00 
1,800.00 


53.688.0C 
7.840.0C 
350.0C 
44.235.0C 
11.630.0C 

2.000.0C 
4,745.8 
l.OOO.OC 

14,950.8 
1.860.0C 
24,306.00 
1,070.00 


98,213.00 
9,170.00 
400.00 
67,235.00 
11,865.00 

2,000.00 
14,745.84 
10,000.00 

16,475.00 
2,860.00 
35,000.00 
1,200.00 
10,500.00 
12,595.00 
6,654.35 
50.00 
36,149.25 
1,500.00 


M 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 

M 

M 
MAP 
M 
P 
M 
P 
P 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 

M 
M 

M 
M&P 
M 

M 

MAP 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
P 

M 
M 
M 

P 
M 
M 

MAP 
M 

MAP 
M 
M 

M 

P 
P 
M 
M 
M 

M 

P 
MAP 

P 
M 


1 

a 

2 

:i 
a 

4 
5 



6 

7 
S 
V 
10 

11 


12 

13 
14 
15 
10 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
23 

24 
a 

25 
M 
27 

H 

a 

30 
31 

2 
n 
33 

4 
5 
6 

7 
x 
9 

(I 
1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

I, 
;i 
7 
K 

;i 


1 
a 
2 

i 

4 
5 

i 
\ 
7 

8 

j 
> 

1 
2 






f Park Department 


1 






8,000.00 


Grosse Pointe Town 
ship" 

Grosse Pointe Villag 


\ Board of Education 
School Board 


2 


I 








/ Neighborhood Club 






S.OOO'.OC 


10,000.0 
1,000.00 

1,524.1 
300.00 
10,694.00 
130.00 
10,500.00 
1,200.00 
1,983.3 


\ Park Department 


Recreation Department, Board of Educa 


s: 

i 


t 
1 


"i 




8,741.3 
500.00 
11,086.00 


Harbor Beach 


School Board 




700.00 


Highland Park 
Holland 
Jackson 




3 layground Commission 
Ella W. Sharp Park 


















2: 


i 








10,445.00 
2,647.1 


950.00 
823.90 
50.00 
16,120.00 


11,395.00 
3,471.04 
50.00 
30,125.00 
500.00 


Douglass Community Association .Inc. 1 
Lions Club and High School 




1,200.00 


Lake Linden 




)epartment of Public Recreation 


6 


3 




3 




6,024.2 
1,000.00 


14,005.00 
500.00 






ilanistee 
dason 
Menominee 


)ity Commission 
Child Study Club 
Board of Education 




















24.50 
940.00 

19,241.86 
1,800.00 
2,250.00 
500.00 
1,500.00 
6,700.00 

8,420.00 
13,253.00 
2,526.00 
480.00 
4,186.40 

20,000.00 
3,686.00 

1,109.62 
3,850.00 
1,590.00 
3,383.22 
2,000.00 
7,434.00 
44,525.43 
12,000.00 
39,250.00 
200.00 
500.00 
16,600.00 
18,39965 
400.00 
5,000.00 

15511 

377,068.60 
1,316.75 
43500 
500.00 
748.00 
4,335.29 

1,695.63 
14,809.72' 
1,817.681 

78,545.00 i 

170.00 
218.00 
971.74 
31,800.00 
2,700.00 

465.00 
1,610.36 

75.00 
7,700.00 




1 






940.00 

6,384.00 
1,600.00 
1,600.00 




940.0C 

10,766.0 
1,600.00 
1,700.00 


Midland 

Monroe 
rfount Clemens 
Mount Pleasant 


Community Center and Board of Educa- 


252.8 


8,223.00 
200.00 
450.00 


4,382.0 


School Board 












1 


3 






100.00 


100.00 


City Manager 


vliles 


11,326 
5.740 

64,928 

17,314 
22,904 
80,715 
3,677 

10,143 

10,169 
3,876 

8,308 
1,243 
6,321 
101,463 
6,156 
7,484 
5,521 
9,389 
2,722 
15,666 
5,036 
3,210 
775 

2,644 

464,356 
1,349 
2,555 
3,489 
9,628 

20,621 

21,000 
271,606 

10,009 
7,173 
11,963 
20,850 

10,043 
10,743 
48,282 

700 
22,943 














1,000.00 


500.00 




500.00 
5,500.00 

4,470.00 
8,310.00 
2,021.00 
480.00 
2,700.00 


'etoskey 
Pontiac 


ehool Board and Chamber of Commerce 
Recreation Division, Department o 
Public Welfare and Board of Educa- 


13 


















3,950.00 
4,943.00 
505.00 


2,450.00 
2,581.00 
985.00 
480.00 
2,700.00 


2,020.00 
5,729.00 
1,036.00 


















15 










Royal Oak 


chool Board 




g 








Lecreation Department 
)epartment of Public Affairs and Schoo 
District 


1 




1 


13 




1,486.40 




Wakefield 




Recreation Commission 


14 


6 








1,225.00 

258.2' 
1,600.00 

253.72 
600.00 
2,834.00 
7,338.80 

750.00 


2.461.00 

270.00 
750.00 
1,590.00 

UOO.OO 
854.00 
13,556.65 


581.35 
1,400.00 


2,461.00 

851.35 
2,150.00 
1,590.00 
3,129.50 
1,400.00 
2,790.00 
35,511.69 


Minnesota 

Albert Lea 


'ark Board and American Legion Park. . 
Indspsndent School District No. 40. ... 


13 








100.00 






City of Chisholm 












3,129.50 
200.00 
1,936.00 
21,955.04 


chool District 


2 


1 




16 






'ark Board 


2 


1 




6 
8 


1,810.00 
1,674.94 


Duluth 




151 
1 


51 
j 


( 
J 


Ely 
Eveleth. 


Community Service Center 
3ty of Eveleth 


30,000.00 




8,500.00 


8,500.00 

500.00 
1,200.00 
15,796.52 


Fairmount 


3ity Council .... 


1 








Fergus Falls 


.ecreation Board 


1 
1 


n 

t 








5,400.00 
2,603.13 


500.00 
1,200.00 
14,802.52 


filbert 


illage of Gilbert . . 


1 




10,000.00 


'994.00 






50 

1 


2f 


4 




nter national Falls... 
Lake City 


Ciwanis Club 


Aons Club . . 




20 




2,500.00 
27.38 




2,500.00 

149!857.6o 
336.25 

' 400.00 
951.00 

&84Y.53 
1,145.00 

25,510.00 


2,50000 
127.73 

18&692'.6d 
1,316.75 
360.00 
300.00 
700.00 
1,151.00 

1,562.00 
5,847.53 
1,635.00 

49,620.00 

90.00 
200.00 
798.00 
10,000.00 
2,375.00 

405.50 




jeonidas Parents and Teachers Associa- 


6 




















ifinneapolis 


Board of Park Commissioners 


46 

"2 
T 


47 
4 

1 


12 


39 
14 


70,173.00 


111,203.00 


45.835.00 
980.50 
360.00 
300.00 
300.00 
200.00 

1,562.00 


Board of Education 17 










75.00 
200.00 
48.00 
477.92 

133.63 
120.00 
182.68 

12,925.00 

80.00 
18.00 
173.74 
18,500.00 
325.00 

59.50 


Vaahwauk 












1 










Red Wing 




3 

4 


2 

3 






2,706.37 
8^842.19 


Rochester 
t. Cloud 


School Board and Parent Teacher Asso- 






Park Board 




8 
61 

1 
1 

7 


S 

35 

"i 

4 






490.00 
24,110.00 

90.00 
200.00 
798.00 


t Paul 


department of Parks, Playgrounds and 
Public Buildings 


7 


20 
2 


16,000.00 


outhSt. Paul 
tillwater 


arent Teacher Association and Kiwanis 
Club... 


ivic and Commerce Association 
Board of Education 








sis'oo'.oo 






ohn A. Latch Public Bath Board 












2,375.00 


Mississippi 

larksdale 


arent Teacher Association 


1 


2 








405.50 


olumbus 


. M.C. A 




1 










4 
1 




10 




1,000.00 


475.00 

75.00 
1,800.00 


135.36 


610.36 

75.00 
2,700.00 


iendenhall 


others' Club 








3 






4,000.00 


1,000.00 


900.00 







76 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 




Recreation 


Indoor 
Community 






Bathing 


Golf 
Courses 


Golf 

Courses 


Swimming 
Pools 


Swimming 
Pools 


Tennis 






Leadership 




Buildings 


Centers 




1 


Beaches 


9-Hole 


18-Hole 


Indoor 


Outdoor 


Courts 












fe 




1 










1 


i 




























tf 


Source of 






J. 


1 




o 










* 


1 


























'\ 


Information 


| 


s 

c 

c 


\ 


1 




1 1 




>> * 

! 




|1| 


'iZ 


5 




|l| 




||f 




!]i 




til 




111 




|.l 


^ 




I 


1 


ft 


J 




*! 


J 


: rt 

e"^ 


| 


J 1 - - 


u 

^ 


1 


J 


J'S 


1 




1 




1 




1 


>. S a 





ill 


1 




\ 


1 


5 

J3 


i 


S 


|J 


5 

3 


1*1 




I 




i 





'f 


i 


1*1 


| 


i^'f 


1 


I* 1 ! 


j 


l^'l 




IB! 






% 


W 


Cfi 


C 


H 




X. 


H o-<: 


Z 


H o? 


-< 


D 


Z 


H olS 


Z 


f- 0&. 


','. 


s2 fe 


Z 


H o 


X 


f2 g(2 


/. 


H cS 


55 





2 


8 






in 


278,873 


? 








1 


9 






> 


32,699 


1 


47,016 


1 




4 




W 




1 


C Dayton 




























































1 


i 


10,000 










1 


1 


1 


4,000 


















> 


2,500 


1 


. R. Watson 




18 






IS 




> 










in 






> 




f 


16 63,811 






7 


750,000 


'7 
























411 


38,000 




































1 






1 


49,750 










| 


i 






















1 9 








l 








I 




1 


155,136 








' 






















li 




1 




























l 
















i 




4 

















1 


143,896 






11 


89,904 


1 


i 














1 


20,281 






1 


4,861 




J Reid .... 




1 


1 




I 




1 


2,000 






1 


i 






















1 


400 




R H Brotherton 


ii 








1 


444,004 


1 




111 




3 


is 














7 








19 






P TT Fpwloaa 




7 






7 


110,400 






? 


5,000 




i 


1 




















1 




1 
























1 


i 










1 


50,000 










i 




1 


L W Arabs 




11 






11 


135,264 






11 


31,830 


1 


in 


1 


6,904 


9 


67000 






<> 


8749 






-, 


23 258 




L P Moser 














1 










































i 






i 












> 


-, 






















> 










17 






17 


209,445 






111 






I 






? 




" 


"55,000 






1 


31,523 


n 


105,000 


2 













> 












1 


i 


1 




















\ 






H E Waits 




! 






2 














7 


1 








1 












r 






B Klager 




1 






1 










































Mrs C H Hall 














1 


1,000 








































S 






? 


19,855 


1 


93,956 


I 


4,518 


4 


i 
























3,263 


1 




















4 




| 
















1 








7 






B M Hellenburg 




4 






4 


44,400 






1 


2,500 


4 


3 














1 


450 






1 


1 800 




Walter A Olsen 






















? 


S 


















1 










N K Willman . . 




1 


2 




', 








1 


5,000 


1 


1 






1 
















1 




1 


F W Crawford 


> 


1 


1 




4 




> 




1 






1 






















1 






W J McDonald 




S 






-> 








11 


10,000 







1 


5000 


v 
















\ 


20 000 




P C Allison 




1 






1 
















1 








1 






















?, 






3 


56,000 






i 






i 














1 








4 










7 






7 


38,675 






























































1 


is 


















1 


90666 








William P Light 




1 






1 


M.OOO 






? 


1,000 


1 


1 


1 


10,000 










1 


1 000 






1 


800 








a 






i 


91,384 






4 


40,000 




i 














1 














Villiam E Foy 




i 






1 


6,000 














1 


14,500 


















A 


100 




C C Ludwig 


























1 






























4 






4 


34,242 


1 








1 


1 


1 








































7! 










































a 


1 




f 


6.00C 






i 


S2C 


f 




3 


2,000 










2 


600 






V 


1 000 




H W Dutter .. . 


1 


i 






ft 


21,031 










1 




















1 


7 000 










1 


14 






15 


457,546 


1 




an 


144,001 


3 


t 






1 


14,737 


1 


27,847 


1 


9,077 






! 


15,900 




K M Harris 




' 




4 


f 




1 


90,000 






1 


i 


? 












1 














Ray Hoefler 


























1 




1 
















































1 






























S 






i 












1 


i 




























A T Van Dijk 






















1 


i 


1 




1 
















> 










13 






13 


85,081 






9 


40,491 






1 






























1 






1 


800 












i 


1 




















































1 


5.00C 


1 


300 




















H V Pick 




1 






1 


7,792 
































































i 


1 




? 






















WEE Greene 




S3 






33 


2,002,711 






16 


270,000 




M 


13 


3,680,000 






< 


153,496 










171 


750000 


| 






If 






H 


71,035 








































R C Tapp 


















I 


225 


1 


>> 














1 


450 












H Whitehead 




f 






2 


6,750 










1 


1 






















r, 


135 








1 






j 


15,0(K 










1 




1 


















6 000 












i 






j) 


15,50( 












1 


















, 


12089 


5 


2500 




j F Enz 




( 






( 


43,768 


































l 






Paul F Schmidt 
























i 










, 


15 000 






n 














< 






6 


61,394 










4 




1 




1 








. 








A 








S 


6 




17 


11 


2,916,046 


8 




_ 




e 


>- 


] 


133,506 








173 935 












43 683 
















8,000 




































300 








2 









8,00( 










1 






























G D Robbins 




j 









53,44< 










1 
















. 


10505 












L G Hurst 


























1 




1 






















A E Bickford 


























1 


12,334 




































3,500 






1 


1,200 












































6,850 














1 


























Earle L Whittington 




i 






, 


32,81! 












I 
































- 
















































J. J. Halbert 




J 








15,001 




6,00( 






( 






















3 000 




3 000 



























































77 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



No. of City 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 

Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers | 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 



s 

6 
Z 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
S 
9 

10 

11 

12 

ia 

14 
l.i 

16 
17 

18 
111 

20 

21 
22 
23 

24 
25 
2li 
27 

28 
29 
30 

31 
32 

33 

34 
35 

M 

37 
38 

39 
40 

41 

42 
43 
44 
45 
M 
47 
48 
49 
60 
1 

52 

53 

54 
55 

56 

57 

58 
59 

n 


Missouri 


6,435 
16,227 
14,967 
22,761 
33,454 
399,246 
8,290 
13 772 
























P 
M 

P 
MAP 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 

M 
M 

P 
P 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
MAP 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

P 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

P 

P 

MAP 

M 

P 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
MAP 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
C 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 
C 
M 
M 


3ape Girardeau 






















1,300.00 
508.69 
492.24 
16,660.00 
19,905.35 
925.00 
450.00 
13,15090 

"100,00000 
122,951.00 
9,622.40 
3,000.00 
14,000.00 
615.00 
li.l!2ii.57 
1.441 74 
21,984.40 

2,936.97 
1,933.62 
2,600.00 
1,900.00 
1,150.00 
1.500.70 
3,088.19 
1,775.00 




1 


7 
4 




2 

ft 


27.69 


222.50 


242.00 
422.00 

liUI1.95 
250.00 


16.50 
70.24 
1,400.00 
5,593.40 


258.50 
492.24 
1,400.00 
17,905.35 
250.00 
450.00 
8,000.00 




Playground and Recreation Association . . 




10 
57 


"48 
? 


1 


'"s 


14,000.00 
600.00 


1,200.00 
2,000.00 
75.00 




Board of Education 




Moberly 


Park Board . . . 










450.00 




80,935 
821,960 

20,806 
57,527 
25,809 

12,494 
6,855 

4,629 

28,822 
6,372 
6,391 
14,657 

3,068 
10,297 
2,791 
2,865 
8,575 
75,933 
1 649 














5,150.90 




St. Louis 


Recreation Section, Division of Parks 


97 
116 

1 


137 
222 
1 
10 
2 


39 

"2 
2 
2 




100,000.00 








5,639.00 


106,651.50 


10,660.50 


117,312.00 


Park and Playground Association" 




Sedalia 
















2 

1 


45 




4,000.00 
60.00 


5,100.00 
5UJOQ 


4,900.00 


10,000.00 
555.00 




















Public Park Board 


"ie 

i 
i 

3 

2 


10 
8 

1 
1 
1 






211.74 
4,908.62 




500.00 
2,778.21 

LOOO.OO 
1,200.00 
400.00 
500.00 
300.00 


730.00 
9,138.28 

801.00 
1,250.00 


1,230.00 
11,916.49 

1,316.67 
1,801.00 
1,450.00 
400.00 
500.00 
540.00 
1,506.59 
725.00 


University City 
Montana 






40 


5,159.29 

1,620.30 
132.62 
700.00 
1,500.00 
650.00 
960.70 
231.60 
450.00 








Glendive 


/ Park Board 


2 


450.00 








1 
1 


1 




60 










240.00 
1,506.59 










1,350.00 
600.00 




Board of Public Works 


3 


1 




6 


Nebraska 








Beatrice 
Blair 


Park Board 


6 
2 


1 






50,000.00 








L200.00 
150.00 
1,425.00 


58,500.00 
2,100.00 
150.00 
3,000.00 
28,000.00 
100.00 

69,999.65 
2,781.00 

1,225.00 
2,385.00 

3,826.40 

4,000.00 
6,054.28 

6,000.00 
4,030.45 
1,400.00 

5,330.00 

23,139.49 
4,500.00 
5,405.38 
3,834.74 
720.00 
170.00 
813.10 

15,782.69 
1.500.00 
4.994.94 
27,650.00 
396.60 
250.00 
6,030.00 
910.00 
48,937.38 
48,399.68 
2,150.00 
21,790.00 
54,238.55 
4,350.00 
529.70 
31,500.00 
27,800.00 

1 Oil 60.00 
450,000.00 


900.00 


150.00 
225.00 


1,200.00 


Crete 




1 
1 
4 
1 


1 
"l6 




2 










1,575.00 


1,200.00 










Neligh 


City of Neligh . 












Omaha 


214,006 
1,031 
18,529 

12,377 
25,228 

13,573 

12,471 
2,500 

7,073 
76,834 
31,463 
2,000 
10,209 
5,680 

573 
5,000 
26,974 
38,077 
15,699 
10,844 
118,700 
11,126 
68,020 
114,589 

17,805 
833,513 
7,365 
3,038 
15,601 
59,261 
690,730 
56,733 
316,715 


1 Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty 










900.00 


36,950.55 
1,035 00 






32,149.10 
1,746.00 

1,200.00 
1,385.00 

3,726.40 

3,500.00 
3,753.99 

1,100.00 


Department of Finance, Building and 


3 


1 
1 










St. Edward 
Nevada 


Recreation Committee, Council of Social 








25.00 
1,000.00 

100.00 

200.00 
1,428.29 

600.00 








2 


2 








885.00 

295.00 
3,028.26 

900.00 


500.00 
3,726.40 

3.205.00 
725.73 

200.00 








New Hampshire 






2 

9 

3 

? 






300.00 
872.00 

4,300.00 




Playground Committee of City Council . . 

f Park and Playground Commission 
; Neighborhood House Association, Inc.. 


10 
1 










40 










1? 














3 

1 
2 
8 
10 
1 


3 
2 

"9 
8 
1 






3,850.00 




820.00 


660.00 


1,480.00 


Lancaster . 


Spending Committee, Colonel F. L. Towne 
Home 
Center Community Building Association. 




Lebanon 


1 


3 


350.00 


1,000.00 
719.72 
783.03 
110.00 
10.00 
130.10 


2,400.00 
4,685.66 
2,361.87 
325.00 
160.00 
150.50 


750.66 


3,150.00 
4,685.66 
3,051.71 
585.00 
160.00 
683.00 














689.84 
260.00 


Pittsfield 
Rochester 
Somersworth 

New Jersey 

Allenhurst 








25.00 


School Board 


1 
2 








1 








532.50 










"3 
23 


2 
2 
12 
1 
















Belleville 




1 

2 


12 

2 


3^600.00 
69.81 


1,504.94 
4,800.00 
86.79 


2,725.00 
17,250.00 
240.00 
250.00 
5,420.00 
600.00 
13,314.40 
25,999.00 
1,800.00 
15,092.00 
12,513.20 
400.00 
200.00 
500.00 
20,500.00 


765.00 
2,000.00 


3,490.00 
19,250.00 
240.00 
250.00 
5,420.00 
600.00 
37,340.65 
31,456.09 
1,800.00 
17,024.00 
54,238.55 
750.00 
200.00 
5,700.00 
25,000.00 


Board of Recreation Commissioners 


Bridgeton 
Burlington 
Caraden 


Playground and Recreation Committee. . . 
Department of Parks and Public Property 


"is 


4 
20 
4 
12 
42 
1 
3 
32 




1 




610.00 
160.00 
11,596.73 
10,166.65 
350.00 
1,340.00 




"l 
2 


125 
126 


150.00 




East Orange 
Elizabeth 

Englewood 
Essex County 
Glen Ridge 
Hackettstown 


Board of Recreation Commissioners 


9 
44 
5 
8 
21 
2 


24,026.25 
5,457.09 

' ^932.6o 
41,725.35 
350.00 


6,776.94 


1 School Board 


1 Social Service Federation 
Essex County Park Commission 41 


4 


23 


3,426.00 




21 
1 


3,200.00 
324.59 
25,000.00 


400.00 
5.11 
800.00 
2,800.00 




1 






Board of Recreation Commissioners 
Department of Parks and Public Property 


6 

8 


3 
6 




5,200.00 
4,500.00 


Hoboken 
Hudson County 


14 


5 




Department of" Public Recreation 
Department of Parks and Public Property 


10 

26 


12 

20 


1 

18 


98 




1,800.00 
150,000.00 


8,360.00 
200,000.00 




8,360.00 
200,000.00 


Jersey City. . . 


100,000.66 





78 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


| 
2 

4 
s 

& 

1 

1 
t 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 

Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 

Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


I 

U 

C 

1 

3 

| 
iz 


Source of 
Information 


No. of City 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


>. 

-3 
O 

1 

JS 




| 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona] 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona] 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


| 
Z 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona I 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Participation 
























i 












1 

1 


1,000 
5,000 








0. F. Kelley. 


1 

2 
it 
4 
5 
6 
7 
S 
9 

lu 
a 
I, 
e 

a 
n 

a 
12 
U 

14 
15 
16 
a 

17 
18 
I'J 
2U 

21 

22 
2:i 
24 
25 
2b 
27 

2S 


b 

29 

:;(] 
:ti 

32 
.13 

;L 
b 

:i4 

W 

'.',(, 
87 

itK 
ii'J 
4(1 
41 

42 
4 it 
44 
U 
4t; 
47 
48 
4t 
50 
51 
52 

H 
5ij 

:,4 
55 

-Mi 
,i7 
SS 
o'.l 
lid 




































1 






Edward L. Drum . . 




5, 






i 


10 10 108 


































M. C. Kerth. . . 




7 
"i 


40 




7 


14,895 


i 








1 


1 

2 




























T. T. McKinney. . 








1 








1 


42,400 






5 


98,000 


5 






L. B. Cook 


40 

i 


251,708 






48 


238,593 








5 


530,908 




"i 


Alfred 0. Anderson 


















































1 


























A. C. White 






















1 

3 


1 
41 










1 
1 


4.364 






1 

2 


39,479 


8 

99 




2 


Viola Burt 










:t2 

n 


1,540,922 
354,062 


4 


718,011 


7 








1 




3 




R. W. Tapperson 
George R. Johnson 


1 


59 




























































A. H. Wyman 
Gertrude Knott 
















































1 






i 

i 


51,863 
6,000 


1 






































L. C. Gardner 








1 
2 


1 
1 
4 






















4 
? 


2,000 




Heber U. Hunt 
Percy Metcalf 
Elizabeth I. Cadle 
Paul F. Vander Lippe, Jr. 

D. H. Beary 
























1 




1 


ID 
7 

2 
"2 

1 
2 






10 

7 

o 
1 
-> 








1 




















4 




6 




1 


52,910 
6,000 












1 






1 
















16 








1 


300 


2 


5 








1 








1 




1 
























4 




\ 


G. 0. Arnold 




9 




1 




1 

1 

21 
2 
1 


1 


1 








1 








1 




1 






Ray G. Lowe 




29 


21 
2 


4,450 






1 


650 
























G. E. Kidder 
Thomas S. M. Lease. . . . 
E. Sandquist 


5 

i 












































1 


23,140 


5 
3 


"900 


'i 
i 


1 


2,500 














T.A.Ross 
W. H. Swearinger 

Park Superintendent 
E T Weekes 




























1 






:, 


















1 


1 






1 




1 








1 




1 






I, 




























i 




5 






































ReedO'Hanlon 
Donald G. Smith 
W. T. Souders 










































1 












1 
15 






1 

15 


110,000 
104,722 












1 






















8 


11,000 


i 










8 






1 


15,000 


2 


35,000 






i 

? 


56,000 






1 

3 


1 

17 












LeoC. Hewitt 




















' 




1 




1 








n 




M 






Maude E. Rodgers 














> 














































14 
































i 
i 


Mrs. Fred Rankin 
Harry P. Knudson 

H Dieterich 


2 


2 






2 


12,500 










1 


1 


















i 




? 


















i 




12 
g 




's 

2 






2 

',! 

2 


60,000 
120,000 

4,050 


3 
1 


9,000 
54,000 






4 
2 

i! 


2 

8 

3 


'i 
















R G Blanc 




1 
















HI 






John T. Prowse and 
Clarence I. Tebbetts. . 
Dorothy Williams 
Edith G. Brewster 
R L. Thornton and 
H.E. Kimball 
C E Rowe 






1 












i 














1 


7,877 


























'a 

7 

6 
5 


3 
1 

'? 
6 
1 
1 
1 

i 

4 

a 

i 

4 
19 
3 
8 
11 
5 

31 
6 
1 

4 
11 




2 


S 
1 
7 


25,000 


1 
2 

1 

1 
^ 


2,500 


































if 
2 


3 

2 


2 
















> 




4 














1 












i 












21,600 
































\VillisF. Hough 
Frank C. Livingston. . . . 
R. A. Pendleton 
L. B. Badger 






7 
3 


2 




1 
















4 




i 


(i 


(i 

1 
1 

1 
4 
12 
1 
4 
Hi 
3 
g 
>< 
5 

n 


41,562 


























i 
i 




6 

g 










1 

"i 


1 
1 
1 


















7,000 










1 




















? 
































9 






FredK. Wentworth. . . . 

Margaret D. Pyle 
Mrs. Joseph H. Gaskill.. 
Robert A. Nebrig 
C. A. Emmons, Jr 
Estelle T. French 
George C. McKann, Jr. . 
Phillips R. Brooks 
Mrs. Alma K. Breck. ... 
John M. Rowley 
Claude A. Allen 
vVinton J. White 
Anne F Smith 


50,812 
197,000 

' 12,960 
179,036 
15,932 
1,288,844 
1,062,700 


i 

2 

3 

i 
























i 








23,234 


3 
1 




























"2 
4 


7,445 


25,634 




4 






















i 
































1 
















































"? 




14 




4 

4 
1 








3 
3 
4 
3 

2 


10 

"7 
7 
5 








































117,123 


25 
6 


426,000 


22,000 
28,014 


'9 
5 


83,961 
' 10,417 


















.. S 














1 






















6 
1 

1 

2 


33 
1 
1 
2 

? 






1 


43,654 


1 


50,693 










in 


226,028 




David I. Kelly 
Clifford Brown 
V. C. Brugler 
H. George Hughes 
Julius Durstewitz 
Leo S. Sullivan 
Philip LeBoutillier 
Frank A. Deisler 




3 


n 
i 

3 

n 

4 

16 


5,880 
13,000 
806,785 

' 52,600 

(HS.OWI 


'i 
'i 




4 


1,800 










1 
















i 
































30,000 
1,224 


'8 




'16,100 


6 


23 
1 


















4 




n 


























IS 

H 


16,200 
40,000 


3 


1 


10 























79 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



X 

c 

"c 

6 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 


! 

s 

o 

K 



H 

3 
d 
Z 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 
(i 
7 
8 
!) 

10 
11 
12 
13 

14 
15 
hi 

17 
18 
I'.l 
2!) 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
2S 

21) 
31. 

:n 

!!2 
33 

34 
35 
36 

37 

38 
39 

41 

4 
49 

43 

4 

45 

4 
4 

4 
4 

5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

6 

6 

i; 
ij 

n 
ii 
6 
H 
1 


Hew Jersey Cont. 


40,716 
5,350 

18,399 

21,321 
8,500 
42,017 
7,000 
1,200 
442,337 

34,555 
9,760 
35,399 
62,959 
302,129 
138,513 
43,516 

19,255 
34,422 
1,400 
16,011 

11.1122 




15 
1 
1 


6 
1 


1 






2.093.11 
115.00 
200.00 

17.00 
350.00 
3,185.00 
165.71 
5,981.79 
75.00 

89,463.67 
1,000.00 
222.00 
5,000.00 
1,461.00 
26,715.76 
3,640.00 

7,000.00 


3,580.00 
485.00 
250.00 

199.00 
1,900.00 
5,065.00 
1,980.00 
4,899.38 
125.00 

177,564.00 
2,400.00 
828.00 
5,000.00 
9,800.00 

7,000.66 

9,000.00 
200.00 
8,880.00 
5,400.00 
300.00 
350.00 
450.00 
600.00 
280.00 
120.00 


6,226.50 


9,806.50 
485.00 
250.00 

205.50 
2,350.00 
5,065.00 
1,980.00 
9,426.30 
125.00 

191,564.00 
2,500.00 
828.00 
5,000.00 
10,027.00 
2,752.27 
14,380.00 

9,000.00 
200.00 
10,295.00 
5,400.00 
300.00 
350.00 
450.00 
600.00 
318.75 
126.00 

4,310.66 


11,899.61 
600.00 
450.00 

270.50 
2,700.00 
8,250.00 
2,145.71 
16,180.93 
200.00 

334,213.67 
3,500.00 
1,120.00 
10,000.00 
11,488.00 
37,358.95 
18,020.00 

17,000.00 
200.00 
12,500.00 
7,695.00 
460.18 
500.00 
950.00 
1,700.00 
318.75 
146.00 

9i3l'o'.66 


M 

M 
M&P 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 
P 

M 

M&P 
M 
M 
M 
C 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 
P 
P 
M 

M 
P 
M 
C 
M 
M 

M&P 
P 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 
M 

P 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
C 
M 
M 
M&P 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 


1 

2 
3 

a 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

9 


1 
2 
3 
4 

5 



7 
8 
9 
II 

a 

>2 
23 
24 
25 
M 
27 

28 
29 
30 
il 
32 
33 

34 

i.5 
36 

37 

iS 
a 

3 a 

40 


41 
42 
43 

44 

a 
4.5 
46 
47 
48 
4<J 
50 

51 
52 
a 
53 
54 
55 
50 
57 
58 
59 
60 
a 
61 
52 
1)3 

r.4 

(i.5 
66 
67 
68 
69 




Board of Education and Borough Council 


) 








1 






Broadway Pre-Schoo! {Parent Teacher 




) 




2 


48.00 


6.50 
450.00 


tlaplewood 




4 
9 
5 
4 


4 
5 
4 
3 
1 






1 

"3 


"6 

79 


772.84 


lontclair 
iloorestown 




'ij&i.m 








Recreation Department, Board of Educa- 


111 

7 
2 
19 
17 
3 
34 

56 
4 


55 
5 
2 
9 
15 

'28 
45 


59 


14 


53,186.00 


14,000.00 
100.00 


^ew Brunswick 
^orth Plainfield 


^ommigsioner of Parks and Playgrounds . . 






70.00 


department of Parks and Public Property 
jity Recreation Department 
'assaic County Park Commission 4 ' 






'227.66 


'assaic 
'assaic County 


2 

1 
2 

2 


20 




7,890.92 


7,380.00 


'erth Amboy 


)epartment of Playgrounds and Recrea- 




1,000.00 






Plainfield 




8 

4 


8 
3 
j 


3 

2 


10 

30 


430.00 


1,775.00 
2,295.00 
160.18 
150.00 
500.00 
1,100.00 


1,415.00 


ladburn 


Phe Radburn Association 


Eed Bank 


Y. M. C. A. 


1 

1 
1 
2 


2 
I 

2 
2 
? 




4 






UdgeBeld Park 


10,764 
2,483 
14,915 
8,047 
8,255 
13,630 




























38.75 
6.00 




'laygro'jnd Committee of Woman's Club 








20.00 




1 

3 

S 


1 
3 








South Orange 
School District of 
South Orange and 




1 






5,000.00 


















spring Lake 
Summit 


1,745 
14,556 
305,209 
24,327 
25,266 

26,570 
325 
2,000 
3.377 

127,412 
34,817 

36,652 

4,591 

76,622 
1,794 

573,076 

7,541 

2,424 
23,226 
2,909 
15,777 

15,043 
5,000 


Memorial Community House 
Soard of Recreation Commissioners 
Jnion County Park Commission" 
Department of Parks and Playgrounds. . . 


'"4 
41 
15 

1 


1 
3 
19 
12 
1 

'"i 


1 

'"2 
9 


6 
5 




4,000.00 
5,967.48 
58,738.65 
2,600.00 


2,000.00 
1,872.00 
26,528.79 


10460.52 
58.905.86 


2,000.00 
12,032.52 
85,434.65 
15,700.00 


6,000.00 
18,000.00 
194,431.43 
18,300.00 
5,000.00 

8,263.21 


' Soi258.i3 


Jnion County 


Woodbridge 

New Mexico 

Albuquerque 












3ity of Albuquerque 


"4 


'"i 


2,691.79 


2,997.29 






2,574.13 




Public Schools .... 


1 






300.00 




300.00 


300.00 
600.00 

20,605.00 
8,395.66 
13,690.53 
2,800.00 

2,856.75 
1,500.00 
64,394.00 
2,279.65 

314,613.31 
29,462.00 
144.50 


Deming 


City of Deming 
















New York 


f Board of Education 


50 
] 

29 
5 

t 


32 
1 
6 
6 

f 

i 
( 


5 
1 
1 

1 
1 


'"4 
18 
10 

10 


3,500.00 
2,000.00 
4,093.14 
700.00 


2.!(>69.86 
1,534.48 
900.00 

700.00 
250.00 
6,469.00 
828.15 

20,050.00 
2,500.00 


17,105.00 
1,125.00 
5,835.34 
940.00 

1,800.00 
850.00 
7,925.00 

80,200.00 
26.962.00 
144.50 




17,105.00 
4,325.80 
8,062.71 
1,200.00 

2,156.75 
950.00 
7,925.00 
1,451.50 

222,204.75 
26,962.00 
144.50 


Amsterdam 


\ Inter-Racial Council, Inc." 


3,200.80 
2,227.37 
260.00 

356.75 
100.00 




< Booker T. Washington Community Cen- 
ter" 


Ballston Spa 


woman's Club 


300.00 
50,000.00 




Department of Parks and Recreation .... 


24 


Briarcliff Manor 48 . . 
Buffalo 






1,451.50 

142,004.75 


f Department of Parks, Division of Rec- 


24 
51 
1 
1 


29 
44 
I 


40 




72,358.56 


Canandaigua 
Chatham 
















5 








Cohoes 




13 
1 


18 




t 




300.00 
2775.75 


3,549.00 
300.00 

'150.00 


144.00 
425.00 

2li.50 


3,693.00 
725.00 
5,000.00 
150.00 
211.50 


3,993.00 
1,225.00 
7,775.75 
200.00 
270.25 

'952'.03 
33,028.34 
1.493.0C 
450.0C 
10.954.7 
1.600.0C 
965.0C 
4.250.0C 
2.500.0C 
12,226.8 
10.334.5 
5,987.6 








1 


500.00 


Corning 
Cortland 






t 




1 










\ City of Cortland 










58.75 


Del mar. 




1 


' 










Dobbs Ferry" 
Dunkirk 
East Aurora 
Eastcheater 48 . . . 


5,74 
17,802 
4,815 
20,340 
47,39 
762,408 
10,016 
16,053 

18,53 
23,099 
4,010 
4,580 
1,600 
7,097 
10,446 
16,250 
12,337 
6,449 


f School Board . 






150.00 
30,492.08 


40.00 
73.75 
8D.OO 
75.00 
2,989.50 


750.00 
710.00 
1,413.00 
375.00 
7,830.73 
1,600.00 


12.03 

1,752.5 


762.03 
2.462.5 
1,413.00 
375.00 
7,965.2 
1,600.00 




1 
g 












1 
17 


n 












o 


T< 




134.53 


Elmira 
Erie County 50 




1 






107 






Floral Park 




J 










1,880.00 


350.00 
1,800.00 
2,509.0 
4,890.0 
2,145.0 


2,020.00 
700.00 
1,430.00 
1,759.70 
3,244.02 


2.370.00 
2,500.00 
3,939.0 
6,649.7 
5,389.1 
















Glens Falls 




9 


\ 


I 

512 




7,146.58 
873.95 


1,141.23 
2,810.92 
598.52 


\ Outing Club, Inc 















Great Neck 
















i 


' j 


















Hartadale" 


School Board of Trustees 




f 








50.00 
50.00 
377.57 
28.27 


240.0 
500.0 




240.00 
500.0 
917.5 
588.5 


290.0C 
550.0C 
1,295.0 
677.5 
1,200.0( 
639.8, 


Hastings-on-Hudson 4 
Hcrkimer 
Hornell 







, 














, 














q 






60.82 


540.00 


48.50 


Hudson 
Hudson Falls 




i 


j 






Playgrounds Commission 


1 










357.85 


282.0 




282.00 











80 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 




Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


1 
K 

4 

i 

s 

1 

1 
=; 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 

Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools 


Source of 
Information 


>, 

S 

- 

d 

Z 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


>. 




>. 
1 

| 

t 


j 


Total Yearly or Seasona 
Attendance * 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona] 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


111 


i 


=- 

*B 


1 


l|l 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


'%. 

E2sd2 


1 

z 


It! 


S 
p 
K 


Hfel 


2 


7 
1 
1 


'i 




q 




1 








2 


2 
1 






















1 




i 


T N Clark 


1 

2 
3 

a 
4 

6 
7 
8 

9 

1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

16 

7 
S 
9 
20 
21 
J2 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 

28 
29 
ill 
11 
12 
B 

H 
i5 
M 
37 

38 
a 
M 
40 

a 
41 
42 
43 

44 

a 
45 
4B 
47 
48 
4!l 
50 
a 
51 
52 

53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
.8 
59 
00 
a 
111 
62 
3 
154 
1)5 

tie 

67 
(18 
69 




2 
1 


6,280 






























1 






toy Nickerson 
)ominic Grandinetti. . , . 

Avida D. Thompson. . . 
H. W.Heilmann 
John F Fox 














> 


























"i 
"i 

M 

"i 


2 
4 

'a 
4 
1 

6 
5 

2 
5 
7 
1 
27 

11 
I 

ti 
2 
1 


'4 


s 

4 


2 
4 
1 
1 

7 

1 

:w 

5 

2 

7 
7 
1 
27 

15 
3 

10 
2 
1 


620 
16,000 
67,000 
62,574 
13,269 
1,000 


'2 




































500 








i 






















6 




'i 


4 




1 

1 
1 


i 

2 
2 


1 
















1 


14,000 


4 

4 

2 


2,000 
7,791 
3,000 
























"Yanklin G. Armstrong.. 


2 


57,302 


4 


4,820 














1 


12,000 


1 


8,884 














George W. Earl 




14 




































67,932 
49,560 
70,000 
510,015 
43,615 
500,000 

282,000 












5 






















R 




i 

i 

'2 
i 


lira. Walter T. Marvin, 
loward Krausche 
3arl F. Seibert 
leeve B. Harris 
"rederick W. Ixwde, Jr. 
Alfred P Cappio 












1 






















1 

10 


1,200 








2 
1 


2 
(i 














1 










4 


31,846 


'i 












1 


14,725 






u 

4 


22,944 










"1 
















7 


























1 


20,000 


4 


40,000 




;. 


i 




















in 




2 

'i 


Charles T. Kochek 
lohn F. O'Donnell 
R. 0. Schlenter 
R.B.Hudson 
Arthur L. Perry 
lichard T. Smith 
























184,717 
"13,026 






>, 












1 








i 








12 
4 

6 
1 


30,224 
2,500 


1 


3,740 


2 


15,046 


2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


2 


















2 


45,000 




















1 






1 
































1 

1 
2 
2 






1 
1 
2 

? 


10,125 
9,000 
6,092 










i 
















1 




ft 
































1 
































1 






Albert Illinger 
Margaret M. Griscom. . . 
jancelot Ely 
Joseph J. Farrell 


































"i 


1 






1 












1 




























'2 
'i 

6 


S 


1 

S 


95,000 










2 


5 


















1 




'0 








1 
















i 














1 




































Mrs. M. E. Simons 
Mrs. H. B. Twombly. . . 
?. S. Mathewson 
William J. Hulighan. . . . 


4 


4 

14 

1 






4 

14 
4 
1 


17,819 
743,561 
410,000 


1 








2 

'4 
1 

"i 


2 
IX 
3 
10 

1 


'< 




















4 
















"1 








2 


'287,055 


U 

9 


38,678 


4 
















































R 




? 










? 












i 


57,486 






















g 


C S Edgar 


1 








1 




1 




















































1 


















1 
1 

1 


6,000 
3,500 


3 

i 

17 




































1 


4,000 










500 


9 


George D. Robinson .... 
Frederick F. Futterer. .. 


5 


21 






26 


750,000 






9 
1 


33,957 


9 


40 






1 






























1 


6 


1 




f 


301,12! 








31,475 




( 


















j 


58,471 


1 

1 


1,742 
400 


'2 


Allen T. Edmunds 
Mrs. Carl R. Brister. . . . 

Mrs. J. M. Pollard 
Mrs. R. A. MacWilliams 






45,00( 






1 




i 


\ 


i 
































1 


10,820 


























1 


i 






1 
6 


10,000 
450,000 




20,000 


























A 


1,000 










\ 























ti.- 


27,340 


4 






























; 


19,293 
165,002 


Alfred H. Pearson 


j 


21 

;(( 


"4 




23 
30 

1 


4,120,225 
398,404 


5 




T> 




i 

'i 


44 


i 


281,700 


I 


91,939 


2 


124,814 


K 




145.221 


7 




.,., 


71,497 




Carl H. Burkhardt 
F E Fisk 




1 






















4 










1 






























William T. Holmes 
Helen G. Colloghan 




i 


"92,265 
20,000 










j 


< 






















i 




1 










i 





































j 























i 























































L T Wilcox 
















































Francis J. Moench 
Solon L. Butterfield 




. 






', 


5,400 
6,000 
"22,749 
53,191 










I 
























. 






































', 


1,000 


564 






























i 


3,380 


1 


Alexander Buncher 
Karl Hoeppner 
Mrs. A. E. Nield 
Vivian Wills 








j 



























































1 




! 




3 


1 
R 


55,979 




17,688 


7 


14,794 






























11 






















>l 




1 


Joseph F. Riley, Jr 
Arthur B. Weaver 






















4 


i 




































11,232 


































, 






! 


75,000 
114,253 













i 




2,00 




























19,113 






2 


: 


i 


31,199 






















1 


J Ruth Sherburne 
A.E.Severn 
J.C.Frank 
George U Hill 






























g 


19,923 










' 






















50,000 


j 

li 




















' 




i 






























1 


10,000 


1 
1 
1 
I 


















































Marvin C. Williams . . . 
John L. Hopkins 
Mrs. John Campbell. . . 
F. H. Robinson 
Duncan S. MacDonald. 
David S. Fisk 












4,250 






1 


1,000 








































































1 
1 




2 




































15,79 








































1 





















































81 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



>, 





6 
Z 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 


g 
5 
s 

o 

55 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 

I.C:l,l.Tsliip 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 
3 
4 

6 
6 

7 
8 
9 

111 
11 
12 
13 
14 
IS 
Hi 

17 

18 

11) 
211 
21 
22 
23 
24 
2S 
2(i 
27 
2* 
29 

3(1 
|] 

32 
33 
14 
35 

36 
37 
38 

39 

4H 
41 
4:' 

4:; 

41 
45 

46 

47 

4S 

4:i 
5(1 
51 
S2 
S:i 
SI 
55 
5li 
57 
;>x 
(t 
en 
iii 

62 
U 

64 


New York Cont. 

Ithaca 
famestown 
Johnson City 


20,708 
45,155 
13,567 
10,801 
16,482 
4,474 
11,993 
11,766 
800 
21,276 
423.881 
5,100 
5,127 
61,499 
31.275 
54,000 

6,930,446 

75,460 
7,417 
21,790 
10,558 
12,536 
15,241 
6,860 
17,125 
11.851 
4,540 
22,662 
10.243 

40,288 
400 

328,132 
13,718 
32,338 
9,690 

95,692 
3,456 
7,986 

209,326 
6,841 
72,763 
101.740 
32,205 
16,08^ 
3,466 

520,947 

35,830 
134,646 

50,193 
5,117 
82,675 
11,820 
52,037 
17,093 
"14,985 
5,070 
36,745 

3,404 
2.543 
75,274 

11,090 
5,451 
28,6191 




8 

2 
1 


9 
1 

"2 
4 
2 
1 

2 

2 


"l 
.... 


'"5 


1,510.04 

208.66 


86.83 
1,129.50 
246.13 
300.00 


5.518.13 
770.00 
1,690.00 
500.00 
1,500.00 
910.00 
500.00 


40.66 


5,518.13 
810.00 
1,693.00 
500.00 
3,768.93 
1,270.28 
550.00 


7,115.00 
1,939.50 
2,144.13 
"800.00 
3,768.93 
3,038.37 
750.00 
1,000.00 
1,970.42 
115.00 
1,788.15 


M 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

P 

P 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
P 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 

CAP 
C 
M 
M 

M 

p 

M 

P 
MAP 
M 
!MAP 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 

MAP 

MAC 
M 
M 


\ South Side Community Center 17 








2,268.93 
360.28 
50.00 


Senmore 
LeRoy . ... 






1,768.09 
200.00 




2 


jynbrook 
Mamaroneck 48 
vlarcaretville 
Middletown 
Monroe County 5 * . . . 
Montrose 48 
Mount Kisco 48 
Mount Vernon 48 
^ewbureh 
New Rochelle 48 

New York City 

Niagara Falls 

lorth Tarrytown 48 . . 
)lean 
)ncida 
Oneonta 
)ssining 48 


School Board 






6 
1 
5 
























105.00 
1,397.20 


10.00 

183.65 


115.00 
1,580.85 


Recreation Commission 
Monroe County Park Commission 


4 








207 30 










.... 

25 
14 
25 

54 

48 

99 
6 
i337 
3 

5 
26 
1 
3 
8 
3 
4 
11 


"e 

2 

15 

52 

60 

""i 

i 
.... 

i 

2 


"3 




300.00 
390.00 
9.970.00 
3,297.10 
353.10 

6,700.00 
7,500.00 

500.00 

6,000.00 
10,000.00 
65,197.00 

2,734.20 
441.01 








300.00 
1.015.00 
33,810.00 
81,540.10 
9,776.42 

58.215.00 
354,340.00 

155,240.00 

12,500.00 
110,000.00 
980.381.00 

6,747.08 
10,106.62 

S.I'I.I.M 

8,168.0(1 

3,000.00 
2.471.85 
3.500.00 
1.500.00 
"9,132.00 
2,021.15 
3,637.87 
2,500.00 

&086.25 

2,91)0.00 
7.442.04 
75.500.00 

4,520.00 
138,174.27 
1,320.25 
7,650.00 
s ; 2,000.00 
10,000.00 
3,000.00 


Recreation Commission 


1 

54 
11 
34 

11 
57 

68 
6 
993 

7 

9 
26 
1 
3 
2 
1 
6 
9 




625.00 
23.843.00 
9.921.00 
8,575.82 

io6,840'.66 
147,140.00 
6,503.00 




625.00 
23,840.00 
19,815.40 
9,423.32 

51,515.00 
346,840.00 

147,140.00 
6,500.00 








"24 
"28 

M 14C 

"60 
"26 


58,427.60 

7,600.00 
100^000.00 


9,894.40 
847.50 

24<M>do'.66 


Board of Education 
f Bureau of Recreation, Department of 
Parks, Bronx 


Recreation Bureau, Department of 
Parks, Manhattan 
Bureau of Recreation, Department of 
j Parks, Queens 




Department of Parks, Richmond 
Board of Education 
Parks and Playgrounds Committee, 




455,184.00 
2,494.38 

2,665.61 
5,640.83 


460,000.00 
1,518.50 


915,184.00 
4,012.88 

2,665.61 
5,640.80 
2,568.00 
2,300.00 
1,899.85 
1,700.00 
1,250.00 
5,514.00 
723.74 
3,290.34 




7,000.00 


Committee to Open Recreation Centers 
of Community Councils 
/ Recreation Commission 






600.00 
200.00 




1,98100 
2,39D.OO 
1,253.70 
903.00 
1.25D.OO 
4,230.50 


588.00 

' 646.15 
800.00 

1,313.50 




500.00 
572.00 
1,800.00 
250.00 
3,618.00 
1,297.41 




Commission of Parks and Playgrounds . . 














Recreation Commission 


1 


"5 






Peekskill 48 




7 
2 


6 
1 

? 








347.53 


3,293.34 




Pelham 48 
'leasantville 48 
3 ort Chester 48 
^ort Jervis 

PouRhkeepsie 






























24 

4 
2 


10 
20 


1 


25 




1,650.28 
200.00 
1,655.53 
3,500.00 

100.00 
20,587.18 
150.00 
950.00 


5.184.75 
2,200.00 
3,369.00 

1.800.00 
23.255.93 
1,170.25 
3,700.00 

ris'ob'.oo 


1,251.22 


6,435.97 
2,200.00 
5,055.00 


Board of Education 


500.00 
731.51 
72,000.00 

2,500.00 
500.00 


1,686.00 


\ Board of Public Works 
Morton Memorial Library and Commu- 
nity House 


Rhinecliff 


56 
3 
12 
4 
25 
3 
1 


2 
89 

'16 

7 
20 
3 


1 
10 




129.00 
94,331.16 


1,920.00 
117,587.09 
1,170.25 
6,200.00 




lockville Centre .... 
lome 
Scarsdale 48 

Schenectady 
Sea Cliff 




Department of Public Works 


2,500.00 






1 Department of Public Works 
] Department of Public Instruction 
Village of Sea Cliff 




400.00 


1,850.00 


250.00 


7,750.00 


















1 












200.00 
16,739.56 
2,910.00 
2,327.85 




200.00 
62,739.56 
3,031.00 
2.361.18 


200.00 
565,239.56 
4,531.00 
3,526.82 
46.229.00 
"12,820.16 
'11.4711.1X1 
1.750.00 
500.00 

183,788.00 
974,894.00 
4,000.00 
72.590.50 

45,000.00 
400.00 
"31,718.44 
250.00 
11.302.75 
7,500.00 
4,990.60 
375.00 
12.405.00 
1,575.00 
503.00 
50.00 

6,715.00 

27,489.27 
s l 2,000.00 
18,157.95 


Syracuse 


1 Department of Parks 


51 
3 
5 
15 
38 
13 
15 
1 

53 

"4 

6 '60 

35 
1 


23 
2 
3 
12 
35 
6 
26 

45 

" 6 
6! 84 

3 


2 
1 
1 
2 
1 


"'i 

7 


500,000.00 
300.00 

173.69 


2,500.00 
1.200.00 
1,165.64 


46,000.00 
121.00 
33.33 








Troy 
Jtica 
Vatertown 
Watervliet 
Westfield 




Department of Recreation 
Department of Public Works 
Bureau of Playgrounds 


2,463.47 


9.579.00 
3,023.00 
1,483.00 
250.00 

36,230.00 

2,000.00 
42,726.00 


604.00 


10,183.00 
3,020.00 
1,480.00 
250.00 

62,803.00 

2,500.00 
57,958.50 

1&300.34 
200.00 
8,562.75 


9 

ie 


"8 
19 

16 


270.00 


250.00 

120,985.00 
856,029.00 
500.00 
14,632.00 


Westchester County. 
Vhite Plains 48 


Westchester County Recreation Com- 
mission 60 
Westchester County Park Commission 61 
Board of Education 


118,865.00 
1,000.00 


26,573.00 

500.00 
15,232.50 


Community Service Commission 

Department of Public Works 
Champion Y. M. C. A . 


North Carolina 

Asheville 
Canton 
Charlotte 




? 








4 

'ii 


15 
2 
10 


i 


30 


8,017.65 


7,400.45 
50.00 
2,740.00 

U51.60 
75.00 
3,875.00 
150.00 

2,470.00 
17,471.52 

4. 344.90 


6,827.11 
200.00 
6,150.75 

&400.66 

' 283.00 
1,300.00 
150.00 

1,465.00 
3,600.00 
3,595.00 


9,473.23 
J2i4l'2.66 


Concord 
Durham 


Community Recreation Council 
City Recreation Department 


3 


42 






7,500.00 
120.00 
100.00 
1,250.00 
125.00 

50.00 
100.00 
4,294.75 


joldsboro 
lendersonville 
lii?h Point 
Montreal 
loanoke Rapids ..... 
Smithfield 
Winston-Salem 

North Dakota 

Jismarck 
Jevils Lake 


Wayne County Memorial Association. . . . 
School Board 


3 

i 

2 
2 

9 
5 
4 


" 1 
3 
3 

5 
1 

" 8 


1 
1 


'"i 

"25 
10 


1,219.00 

7,m.oo 

350.00 

2,680.10 
2,123.00 


3,619.00 
200.00 
7,280.00 
1,300.00 
500.00 

4,145.00 
5,723.00 


City of High Point 


Proeram Committee, Montreat Conference 
Public Schools 
Woman's Club 
Department of Physical Education and 
Recreation, School Board 

Board of Recreational Activities 
Park Board 
Park Board 


10,218.05 


13,813.05 


82 





RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 
Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


I 

u 

.- 

1 

t 

i 



z 


Source of 
Information 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


^, 
5 

L. 


f 


Other Seasons Only 


i 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 




s 

z 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
ur Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 




( 






12 
1 

( 


40,043 
800 






i 

1 


5,800 
800 


; 


; 






















E. E. Bredbenner 
Jessie B. Cooper 
H T Watson 


























i 


n 






















u 








K 








1 
1 


4,000 


I 




n 


* 




















20.0CO 


t 


18,000 




C Z Eccleston 


1 


i 
1 
1 






1 

1 
1 


16,000 
5,000 




' 






















































Walter Ducker 
Edward J. Reifsteck 



































t 










2 


. 






























t 

1 
4 






't 

1 
4 


47,929 
630 
34,818 










1 


2 


1 


23,466 


















a 


3,429 


























1 




Robert Marsh 
Frederic P. Singer 
H. W. Pierce 


































. 












1 




1 








I 


11,556 










4 






4 






4 








1 






^ 
















1 






Frank G. Lindsey 
Frederick C. Siggelkow.. 
R. Walter Cammack 
Douglas G. Miller 


' i 
t 

34 

:,1 
M 

1 


1 

'i 

19 

20 
9 

13 
10 

474 
6 

7 






1 




1 










j 






















1 




i 




i 


H 
3 
12 

29 
43 

64 
40 

174 
7 


158,910 






17 
1 

1" 


78,413 
1,000 




i 






















H 

































"73,232 






1 

'i. 
t 

i 

22 


41 
51 

31 
94 






















6 




5 

16 

3 
1 








t 
5 


150,000 
200,000 






J 

1 


286,220 
59,547 






1 




i-. r 
(78 

47 

42 

14 


74,663 
22,600 

100,000 


\ 

14 
1 


John J. McCormack. . . . 
John J. Downing 

James V. Mulholland. . . 

John F. Murray 
Frederick H. Gross 
Eugene C. Gibney 

Evelyn R. Meyers 
Frank P. Beal 


'12D07552 
15,725,211 

10,3 J5 494 


2,000 
30,000 


9 


703,685 


1 


6,000 






1 


28,367 



















? 


















H 






1 




1 


"100,000 


31 


' 443,140 


1 


96,000 


us 


4,435,933 














> 


1 
















7 






































12 

"i 

8 
5 
1 

6 






12 

'2 
8 
5 
5 
6 


150,000 

15,000 
100.134 
60,000 
15,000 
84,000 












S 










1 












14 




1 


Victor de Wysocki 






l 

7 


20,000 
























J. M. Pollard, Sr 
Earl Brooks 
William C. Greenawalt. . 
Harold E.Klue 
W. Edwin Long 
MaryM.Halpin 
John P. Losee 
P. R. Spencer 
J. C. Brown 




























i 

' i 


'2 
2 








1 

71 


3 

3 


















1 


27,584 


8 

5 

1 

5 


4,200 
2,000 
5,000 
11,300 


















5,000 
225,000 






1 
1 


1 
1 


















1 


15,000 






















1 






















:, 
1 
' 






5 
1 
? 


85,833 
8,250 






1 














1 


9,406 


















1 

? 


1 
3 


































1 










R W Bell 


:i 
'2 


4 
4 

1 

8 
1 
5 
3 

7 






7 
6 
6 


141,213 
52,000 






>. 
2 


14,363 
1,300 


"2 
2 


2 
3 






















4 

6 
6 

1 


4,075 
2.000 
15,000 


'i 


Doris E. Russell 






















1 


2,000 


A. H. Naylor 
Sam J. Kalloch I, 


































1 












i 


Thomas F. Lawlor 




24 
1 


1 

32 
2 
:, 
4 


1,524',237 


' 


10,000 
























'l45,921 


"2 


138,936 


'41 
1 


50,666 


3 


Harriet E. Woolley 
Gertrude M. Hartnett.. . , 
F. B. Watson 
Charles T. Lanigan 
Clinton L. Leonard 
J. Harold Wittmer 
John E. Burke 


:i 
: 




11 


27 
1 


2 


138,330 






3 


172,712 


1 






126,500 












"I 


















t 




11 


1,296 


1 








4 




























7 












6 
1 
1 


4 

11 
1 


2 
1 
1 
















a 




26 
40 




i 
i 






20 




"H 






















4 




1 
















































1 




















1 




3 


Anna L. Murtagh J 


11 
1 


21) 

.') 
>) 
13 
4 
4 
1 

12 

5 
16 

9 
1 
14 
2 
13 






20 

3 
9 
13 
4 
4 
1 

12 


967,882 
6,557 
75,042 
"158,438 
193,635 
45,216 
6,000 
10,000 

60,000 


15 

1 
1 


' 11,850 
6,000 


11 
4 
9 


35,340 
22,405 
13,905 

28,587 


2:1 

2 
1 

1 


21) 

'3 

!l 

:; 

4 






2 


19,430 










11 


420,699 


79 


86,027 














Golden B. Darby 




















25 
16 


45,606 


"2 
3 


Mildred L. Wheeler ' 
Paul J. Lynch t 
M. Esthyr Fitzgerald. .. ' 
William I. Graf ' 




1 


8,012 










1 


43,807 


1 














t 




10 






















'i 

> 


1,000 


Frank T. Mahar ' 






2 


56,000 


2 

:> 
1 

:i 
1 


1 
2 

12 
r. 
I) 

2 
1 
6 
1 






















S C Weir ' 






















r, 








4 








3 




6 




1 


Stanley W . Abbott 






5 

27 

9 

1 
14 
2 
14 


"21,262 
640,000 


'-, 


5,000 


21 


96,800 




2 
T 




Frank B. McGovern. . .. 4 
James F. McCrudden... 4 

Weldon Weir 4 
G. C. Suttles i 
Walter J. Cartier i 
S. G. Hawfield i 








604 






III 



54,000 


:: 

1 
1 








| 




52,500 
207,396 
"6,750 
117,965 


'2 

1 
1 




1 


40,000 




















1 
12 


1,112 

24,000 








1 


17,967 












5,280 
106,884 


;, 
i 


4,050 


3 
1 


5 
2 














1 


16,885 


2 


13,681 


11 

S 


3,583 


4 


C. R. Wood i 
tVilliam L. Balthis S 
R C Robinson S 






1 












































1 

'i 




S 




? 






2 


1 

li 






















2 






F M Waters ..9 








1 
2 

4 
1 

8 
3 


8,960 


:t 












1 


16,448 














W F Bailey . . S 


2 
3 

8 
1 


1 




300 






'2 


1 

2 


1 










| 




5 






S. L. Woodward S 
C W Davis . . . . S 
















1 








! 






3,500 

148,549 




























1 


20,000 


1 




:i 

2 


13 
S 














2 


15,680 


3 
1 


41,633 
31,000 


70 
2 

'8 


2,000 


1 

2 


Loyd B. Hathaway 6 

John W. Reel 
Noel Thoralson < 
F. G. Storrs. . . ... 6 
































li 






6 


36,069 












t, 










1 


18,747 


2 


14.869 



83 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exc usive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 

Mn nfCit.v 


1 

*0 

d 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


N. Dak. Cont. 


17,112 
1,650 
5,037 
5,268 

255,040 
7,252 

2,035 
6,688 
10,027 
104,906 
4 664 




1 

1 


1 








20.52 


400.00 




400.00 


420.52 
250.00 
3,444.95 


M 
M 
M 
M 

M&P 
M 

P 
M 
M 
P 
M 
P 
M&P 
M 
M&P 

M 

M 

P 

M 
M 

M 

P 

M&P 
M 

M 

P 
M 

P 
M&P 

M 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M&P 
M&P 
M 
M 
P 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 

M 

P 
M 
M 
P 
P 
M 
M 
P 
M 

M 
P 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 




Park District . 
























3,444.95 








Valley City 


City of Valley City 




















Ohio 

Akron 




8 


6 




?4 




1,200.00 


1,800.00 


2000.00 


3,800.00 


5,000.00 
"35,000.00 












^hysical Education Department, Ohio 


1 






TO 












Bluffton 




1 










10.00 
721.10 


50.00 


132.00 
240.00 


182.00 
240.00 


192.00 
961.10 


























2 








lecreation Board, City School District. . . 


35 
1 


2 


3 






2,559.71 


7,685.02 




7,685.02 


"10,244.73 
300.00 
700.00 
8 221,599.74 
'11,823.90 

440,883.00 

77,027.49 
3,510.00 










Chill icothe 


18,340 
451,160 

900,429 

1,250000 
50,945 

290,564 

9,691 
4,425 

19,797 
200,982 

8,818 
39,667 
23,329 
13,422 
70,509 

42,287 
44,512 
33,525 
14,285 
29,992 
30,596 
16,314 
2,648 
6,494 
16,009 
42,560 
5,632 
5,433 
10,622 
24,622 
17,783 
6,198 
4,399 
68,743 
35,42 

290,71 

7,04 
5,37 
4,51 
10,74 

170,00 
36,44 

5,03 
14,763 




1 
216 
1 


1 

87 








200.00 
32,227.54 


400.00 
75,367.96 


100.00 
39,075.26 


500.00 
114,443.22 


Cincinnati 




13 


305 


74,928.98 






Division of Recreation, Department of 
Parks and Public Properties 
Department of Community Centers and 
Playgrounds, Board of Education 


331 

171 
12 


80 

235 
4 


34 
1 


2 

3 

90 


216,074.00 


22,987.00 

12,753.64 
785.00 


56,822.00 

53,045.77 
2,725.00 


145,000.00 
11,228.08 


201,822.00 

64,273.85 
2,725.00 


Cleveland Metropoli- 
tan Park District 71 
Cleveland Heights. . . 












division of Public Recreation, School 


56 
94 


45 
21 


2 
4 


15 
32 




2,072.44 

47,005.92 
1,200.00 


17.742.15 
17,834.00 


2,199.25 
10,626.00 


19,941.40 
28,460.00 


22,013.84 

'116,164.92 
1,200.00 

790.00 
1,600.00 

111,312.42 
1,075.00 


Division of Public Recreation and Park 


40,699.00 








Chamber of Commerce and Women's 
Club . 


















Duyahoga Falls 












1,000.00 
10,703.72 


100.00 

21,319.02 
500.00 


19,532.41 
300.00 


500.00 

59,757.27 
275.00 


500.00 

79,289.68 
575.00 


Bureau of Recreation, Division of Parks, 
Department of Public Welfare 


3 
1 


2 

1 


5 


48 




Sast Cleveland 












1 
4 


1 

1 








25.00 
100.00 

1,832.40 
668.81 


200.00 
214.00 

16,105.53 
3,973.30 


25.00 


225.00 
214.00 

16,105.53 
4,487.98 


250.00 
314.00 

17,937.93 
5,291.79 

M28.55 
595.00 
12,216.00 
4,216.19 
2,804.33 
857.00 
240.00 
1,110.00 
6,000.00 
1,089.24 
250.00 
10,000.00 
171,180.00 
1,745.00 
1,500.00 
652.73 
1,532.45 
"21,324.33 

73,068.00 

11,578.07 
104.01 
M75.0C 
150.0C 
l.OOO.OC 
84,922-OC 
32,734.22 
5,856.15 
1.885.0C 

1.200.0C 
100.0C 
750.0C 
484,9 

1,000.0( 
850.0C 
450.0C 
1,500.0( 
19,600.0( 
87,198.7 














Department of Public Recreation, School 


8 


13 


j 






' 514.68 






28 


9 




13 


135.66 






Mansfield 


: J layuround and Recreation Department.. 
Y M C A 


8 
j 


9 
1 

1 








1,000.50 
225.00 
1,200.00 
544.21 
444.33 
742.00 


2,428.05 
370.00 
700.00 
1,489.77 
2,360.00 
115.00 




2,428.05 
370.00 
5,016.00 
3,671.98 
2,360.00 
115.00 












rtiddletown 
Newark . 






10 


6,000.00 


4,316.00 
2,182.21 






1 




Nilea 






8 
1 

] 


1 


30 

20 






Y M C A 










16 






3 iqua 
3 ortsmouth 
Rocky River 






"i 




170.00 
200.00 


940.00 
750.00 




940.00 
3,535.00 






1 






2,265.00 


2,785.00 












St. Marys . 










2 




250.00 
4,200.00 
180.00 














i 


( 


10 


1,000.00 
170,000.00 


3,600.00 
1,000.00 
1,745.00 


1,200.00 


4,800.00 
1,000.00 
1,745.00 






Shaker Heights 
Shelby 






i 








Park Board . - 




















Recreation Division, Municipal Council. . 








19 


131.09 
85.00 


71.43 
398.45 
5,371.26 

3,796.00 


960.00 
8,361.48 

20,000.00 




450.21 
1,049.00 
15,953.07 

60,422.00 




2 




89.00 
7,591.59 

40,422.00 






1 


K 


Q 


Toledo 


Division of Recreation, Department of 
Welfare 


62 


27 


2 


10 


8,850.00 


Frederick Douglas Community Asao- 






















104.00 
795.00 
150.00 
900.00 
26,589.00 
21,021.41 
4,800.66 
1,650.00 

1,200.00 
















680.00 


375.00 
100.00 
500.00 
6,297.00 
4,383.46 
4,800.66 
1,650.00 


420.00 
50.00 
400.00 
20,292.00 
16,637.95 


Willard. . . . 


Civic Club and Y. M. C. A 












Wooster 




g 


Q 




2 




100.00 
5,833.00 
11,712.81 
1,055.53 
235.00 


Youngstown 




10 








52,500.00 








J 






1 


10 


1 












Oklahoma 

Anadarko 
Bartlesville 














1,200.00 


Y. M.C. A 
















Blackweli 


9,52 
2,23 
14.09 
7,51 

9,30 
9,384 
4,80 

185,38! 















150.00 
188.03 


600.00 




600.00 
296,88 


Cherokee. 












Chickasha 
Clinton 


City Park Board 












Chamber of Commerce and City of Clin 
ton 










250.00 


750.00 
100.00 




















750.00 




750.00 


El Reno 






























750.00 
6,000.00 
1,000.00 


s,m.ix 

4,944.2 


750.0C 
2.600.0C 
6.000.0C 


750.00 
10,600.00 
10,944.2 


Oklahoma City 75 . . . 




3 
3 


2 






3,000.00 
75,254.5 






22 





84 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 
Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools | 


Source of 
Information 


-~, 

a 

t 

C 

/, 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


_> 
I 


I 


H 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


i 
| 

X 

1 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 












12,977 
6,000 










i 


<7 











1 


11,328 




46,000 


11 


15,000 


1 
1 


Max Kannowski 
C. G. Mead . 


1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

a 

6 

7 
g 
9 

in 
11 

12 

13 
14 

a 
b 

15 

n; 

17 
18 

HI 
2(1 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

2<> 
27 
2S 
2<J 
80 
81 
32 
33 
84 
3 
86 
37 
38 
M 
411 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

47 

a 
48 

4!) 
VI 
il 

a 



b 

n 

-.4 

-,:, 

M 

57 

IS 

M 

60 

(il 

a 

i3 
& 


1 










1 


1 




















1 
















? 






























.> 


























W. W. Craswell 
Milton H. Seitz 












">234 091 


























? 












3 


















i 


7' 


1 








1 








4 








G. H. Vickrey 






: 




: 


30,400 










1 






























Arthur H. Rhoads 
A. J. B. Longsdorf 
Mabel Young 
Edwin S. Lewis 








1 


1 






1 
















? 










































1 








"3 






















1 

^ 
i 





































. 


124 274 






15 


19,562 


















3 


96,773 


7 
4 


45,700 


C. W. Schnake 


















1 
















R. 0. Day 




31 

II 

:i( 




21 


3." 


19,500 
"1228144 










i 
i 


1 
:',-, 






















6 

56 


18,000 
176,986 


8 


John C. Wilkins, Jr 
r Tarn Deering 

Dan W. Duffy 


- 




27 


285,850 










1 


31,524 


s 


125,288 


HI 
















35 

5! 


1,647,723 

2,267,025 
220,231 


g 


1,709,818 








S 1 










2 


77,789 


' 
: 




5 




71 






29 
6 


190,652 
426,000 


1 












5,500 






7 




2 
1 

4 


G.I. Kern 
George P. Bauer 

W. A. Stinchcomb 
























10 

t 


35 

' 


2 




1 




1 








4 










22 




8 


j 
23 


51,879 
389,099 


4 


92,785 


14 

12 
1 


20,000 
41,235 












\ 




1 
1 


83,353 
7,773 


10 
36 




1 
16 


Earle D. Campbell 

Grace English 
R. H. Stone 










1 


19,321 










1 
































1 






1 


















1 










C. A. Stephan 










































1 










Mrs. Chester Cox. . . . 


2 


1 






l: 


' 12,000 


1 

2 




1 1 




2 


11 
1 


1 








1 




1 




? 




"57 






Paul F. Schenck 


2,000 




















1 








1 


Roy B. Cameron 
Harold L. Green 






3 




















1 




6 














3000 






































1 






t 

6 






i 

9 
6 


150,000 

601,727 
189,453 










8 

2 
1 


8 

8 

2 














1 








f, 




2 

3 
2 


R. B. Oldfather 

Sophie Fish back 
H. G. Danford . 




9 

? 


33,445 














1 


9,000 






11 


6,000 






1 
1 














































George Daniel 


i 






j 


78,510 
48,000 












3 






















1 






Philip Smith. . . 










2 


4 

5 




























R. T. Veal 


























2 




1 




? 


D. W. Jacot. . 




4 






4 


181 650 










1 




















1 




11 




1 
1 


LoydG. Millisor 
W.G.Llewellyn 
C.B.Williams 
H. M. Weible 




6 
o 






f 


62,470 






1 


456 


2 


e 














1 








4 
T 


2,000 






















1 






\ 






1 








1 








1 




















? 








8 
6 






8 

ft 


40,000 










1 


j 






1 
















5 




1 


R. S. Mote 










7 


1 






















11 






















1 


























Frank Mitchell 
C. C. McBroom 


> 


1 
3 
I 

6 

i 

8 
3 

Id 






1 

t 


12,000 
1S 302,000 
32 000 










2 


1 

4 
4 


? 




















9 






1 




i 






















2 


3,800 




Joe Kelly 












1 








J T Seaman 






6 


7,000 












f 






















H 






































1 




"2 
f) 






Herbert H. Knapp 
Mrs. Carl L. Seith 
Arthur W. Mansfield.... 
Homer Fish 

Merritt W. Green 
Calvin K. Stalnaker 






1 
1 

E 

19 












2 
2 


1 
in 

2 


















72,800 
181,168 

">334,206 


'i 

8 
1 


' 47,952 


























1 
1 


11,545 


2 


"102,900 






3 

s 

2 


310,098 


3 
34 










1 


24 


1 












3 

1 
1 

r 






3 

1 
1 

i; 


48,000 




































"i 


Edna Tarr 
Carl D. Fischer, Jr 
H. Daniel Carpenter. . . . 










1 
























2 


1,500 


6,000 












' 


















1 

:: 
f 


5,000 










2 


2 

7 


1 












1 




11 




i 
























1 

1 


11,305 
15,869 








in 






fi 






1 

6 


225,839 












1 






1 


16,056 










8 


26,345 




A. E Davies 




















John H. Chase 




5 






5 


37,000 










5 


3 
1 






















4 


15,000 


i 
1 


M M Shamp 








1 




















R. S. Boake 




3 






i 


7,000 










1 












l 
i 


2,000 


1 


2,000 


.i 


3,000 




C. C. Ouster 
Dwight Randall 
I. A. Hill 






















































i 




7 




i 


























1 
















i 




? 






R. T. Hurley 






















1 
1 
2 
1 
S 


2 


















1 




2 
1 
2 


'"ioo 


'i 

is 


Tim T. Warren 
I. E. Hickman 
H. E. Wrinkle 
H.T.Lawrence 
rlerschell Emery 
Donald Gordon 










8 
6 


1,100 
1,700 
















4 

1 

6 
8 


















'i 


5,000 


22 
24 




'" 


29 

24 








725,714 
455,771 




















A 




1-1 




2 


103,848 






1 




1 




'> 








? 




29 



























85 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



No. of City 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


-t 
1 

!3 


s 

E 

1 

M 

M&P 
P 
M 

P 
P 
M 

M 
M 
P 

M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

C 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M&P 
M&P 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M&P 
P 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M&P 
M&P 
M&P 
M&P 

M&P 
M&P 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

P 
M&P 

P 

M 

M 
P 
P 
P 
P 
M&P 
M&P 
M 

M&P 
M 
M 
M&P 


g 

s 

6 

K 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

g 
9 

10 
11 

13 
i:l 
14 

IS 

ii; 

17 
18 

It 

20 

21 
22 

a 

24 
25 
M 
27 
2S 
M 
30 
81 
83 
33 
34 
35 
36 

37 
38 
39 

40 
41 
42 

4:! 
44 

45 
46 

47 
48 
40 
60 

51 

B2 
63 
64 
55 
M 

57 

5H 
59 


Okla. Cont. 
Ponca City 


16,136 

1,490 

141,258 

5,325 
7,585 
18,901 
4,666 

11,007 
5,761 

6,619 
301,815 
26,266 
2,462 
5,883 

1,374,410 
92,563 

82.054 
10,575 
5,940 
17,147 

57,892 
5,296 
11.799 
23,568 
20,061 
12,596 
59,164 
15,291 
9,221 
10,815 
7,152 
7,004 
13,905 
4,979 
34,468 
1,037 

115,967 
16,508 
8,628 
80,339 
21,362 
5,490 
66,993 
59,949 

25,561 
9,668 

16,698 
5,647 
8,552 
8,675 

26,043 
48,674 
23,002 
6,027 
22,075 
7,678 

1,950,961 
12,029 
669,817 




9 

4 
1 

17 

I 
3 
7 
.... 

4 

3 

"20 
4 
1 


7 
3 
"8 


6 
1 


15 
1 


500.00 
1,500.00 


3,000.00 

500.00 
100.00 
1,000.00 






10,511.60 

8,400.00 
150.00 
9,000.00 


14,011.60 

10.400.00 
250.00 
10,000.00 

500.00 
850.00 
3,156.19 
4,729.55 
2,500.00 
9,800.00 

600.00 
506.24 
49.352.21 
10,900.00 
1,060.00 
900.00 
200.00 

15,700.00 
13,557.79 

8,234.50 
700.00 
3.960.94 
275.00 
1,560.02 
500.00 
1.304.48 
340.00 
2,500.00 
1,200.00 
1,478.84 
75.00 
7.133.81 
670.00 
5,080.00 

570.00 
275.00 


Wentz Oil Corporation, Continental Oil 
Company and City of Ponca City . . . 
Chamber of Commerce 
Park Board 


8,000.00 
150.00 
3,850.00 


400.00 
5,150.00 


Shattucjc 
Tulsa 


2 


15 
5 




Oregon 

Albany 


B P Elks 359 




Corvallis 




2 

5 






150.00 
1,282.00 


100.00 
250.00 
1,358.84 


750.00 
2,308.10 


448.09 
2,088.71 


750.00 
2,756.19 
2,088.71 


Eugene 
Grants Pass 


Playground Commission 






( School Board 


1 
2 

1 

2 

23 
4 
4 




"2 




Oregon City 


Park and Playeround Committee 
City Council and Parent Teacher Associa- 


2,000.00 


500.00 

340.00 
95.99 
10,117.21 


7,000.00 

260.00 
225.00 
22,150.89 


300.00 

185.25 
17,084.31 


7,300.00 

260.00 
410.25 
39,235.20 


Park Commission 
f Playirround Division, Bureau of Parka 
1 Public Schools 


" 8 


3 




Portland 




Salem 
Silverton 


-"laypround Board , 




1 




210.00 
600.00 


850.00 




850.00 
300.00 


The Dalles 














Pennsylvania 

Allegheny County 76 . 

Allentown 


Recreation Bureau, Allegheny County 


20 
34 
14 

i 


2 
26 

16 
1 


2 
1 


40 




4,100.00 
3,736.70 
1,365.00 


3,600.00 
7,216.64 
3,872.50 


8,000.00 
2,604.45 
2,047.00 


11,600.00 
9,821.09 
5,919.50 

2,097.73 
250.00 
1,380.00 

667.89 
340.00 
1.800.00 
1.200.00 
1,160.00 

4,121.00 
483.00 
3,484.00 

550.00 
225.00 


Recreation Commission and School Dis- 
trict 




department of Parks and Recreation ... 


950.00 


Arnold 




5 


Avalon 
Beaver Falls 




692.00 


1,171.20 
25.00 
180.02 

" 271.48 


250.00 
1,380.00 






3 

17 








Bethlehem 


f School District 


6 
1 

2 






Blairaville 
Bristol 


\ Boys* Club 


"8 
4 
6 
6 






365.11 


378.03 
280.00 
1,600.00 
1,00000 
200.00 


289.86 
60.00 
200.00 
200.00 
960.00 


Travel Club 






Butler 




4 
1 

6 

"2 
2 
3 








700.00 


Carbondale 


Community Service 
Borough of Carlisle and_ School Board 








Carlisle 
Chester 








318.84 
75.00 
301281 




ss 




3 airton 






C earfield 


Y M C A 


3 
2 

'2 

"j 
1 
10 








187.00 
1,596.00 

20.00 
50.00 


483.00 
3,324.00 




Jonshohocken 
Corry 




1 






160.00 




4 




2raf ton 




1 
1 
1 
3 

22 

8 
2 
6 
1 




550.00 
225.00 


Donora 










East Conemaugh .... 
Easton 






















Ebensburg 










2,126.78 


168.00 
7,288.00 


60.00 
4,574.00 


228.00 
11,862.00 

U68.75 
500.00 
4,302.00 
3,530.95 
200.00 
13,000.00 
7,225.00 
416.00 
288.13 
435.00 

2,650.00 
1,385.95 


228.00 
13,988.78 
15,708.00 
1,818.75 
1,100.00 
4,852.00 
4,948.30 
200.00 
19,000.00 
12.500.00 
525.23 
599.37 
829.57 

3,250.00 
2,544.98 

650.00 

285.00 
2,210.85 
781.61 
115.00 
1,863.20 


Erie 


f School District 
\ Dept. of Parks and Public Property... 








Ureensburg. 
jreenville 
Harrisburg 


7 
4 
4 
4 
2 
30 
32 
1 

'"i 

i 
i 
i 
i 

i 

10 
2 
1 
3 

3 

141 

187 
6 
15 
4 

3 
7 
107 








450.00 
200.00 
550.00 
1,417.35 


918.75 
500.00 
2,730.00 
3,530.95 
200.00 
5,000.00 
7,225.00 
416.00 
288.13 
435.00 

2,600.00 
646.50 


450.00 
U72.66 


Playground Association and Thiel College 


400.00 


"2 


19 


Haverford 






Honesdale 








&000.00 


Johnstown 


Municipal Recreation Commission 
Recreation and Playground Association . . 
f Progressive Playgrounds Association . . . 
1 Southeastern Plavground Association . . 


10 
30 
2 
1 


2 
2 

1 


36 

'2 
2 

100 




6,000.00 
5,275.00 
109.23 
81.24 
316.57 

600.00 
676.48 


Lancaster 




Lebanon 
Lock Haven 


230.00 
78.00 

482.55 




Meadville 


Keen 


3 
1 
1 

2 

1 
2 
2 


50.00 
739.45 


Vlechanicsburg 
Wilton 




School Board 


Recreation Commission 




25.00 

35.00 
592.68 
119.11 


625.00 

250.00 
1,618.17 
200.00 
100.00 
1,215.00 




625.00 

250.00 
1,618.17 
662.50 
115.00 
1,459.42 


Nanticoke 








Slew Castle 












Stew Kensington .... 
Oakmont 


School District 








462.50 
15.00 
244.42 








3il City 




2 
5 

133 
67 
10 
10 
3 
8 
5 
162 

47 
35 

1 






403.78 




Sociological Department, New Jersey Zinc 


4 

86 
3 
2 
19 


100 
25 
35 




Philadelphia 


f Bureau of Recreation, Department of 
Public Welfare 
Board of Public Education 


23,250.93 
515.51 


33,495.83 
2,120.46 
9,355.69 
12,100.95 
515.59 
3,667.23 
2,089.75 
44,758.25 


183,050.82 
39,874.90 
13,223.71 
37,666.72 
6,163.03 
4,741.75 
3,951.75 
102,917.85 


146,927.03 
5,227.18 
3,074.45 
9,481.47 
300.00 
4,958.25 
207.87 
78,069.90 


329,977.85 
45,102.08 
16,298.16 
47,148.19 
6,463.03 
9,700.00 
4,159.62 
180,987.75 


386,724.61 
47,738.05 
25,653.85 
59,249.14 
6,978.62 
13,367.23 
6.249.37 
319,961.69 
81,716.00 

36,955.33 
21,848.35 
6.700.00 
1,599.89 




?4 


Smith Memorial Playgrounds 










3 

1 
36 






Recreation Commission 
Div. of Recreation, Dept. of Public Wks. 
Bureau of Parks, Dept. of Public Works 
Playground and Vacation School Asso- 
ciation of Allegheny, Inc 




94!2'i5'.69 


Pittsburgh 


144 
17 


6 


70 




6,313,53 
350.00 






30,641.80 
21,498.35 






15,644.00 


5,854.35 


Bureau of Police, Dept. of Public Safety 
Soho Public Bat ha... 








3 


1 


2 




22.39 


1,577.50 




1,577.50 



86 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 

Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number | 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 
Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools 


Source of 
Information 


w 

~ 

1 


Summer Only 


>. 

c 

> 

1 


Other Seasons Only 


1 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance " 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


i 


2 

3 
1 
17 


3 
3 




in 








i 




2 


4 

3 






1 




? 








1 
1 


50,000 


8 

20 
1 


3,000 


2 

16 


P. J. Bellinghausen 

Roy W. Williams 
Don S. Fleming 
Roy U. Lane 






i 

IT 


40,000 
510,810 














1 
1 


1,000 




























' 


2,250 




,| 










1 


20,540 


2 


96,087 


1 




41 




















4 







4 
5 


"88,957 








































H. W. Adams 








B 


1 


1 
| 




















7 




1 


Frances E. Baker. . . 
C. R. Duer 




























7 




















t 
10 


1,800 
30,000 


4 

1 


4 
1 


1 




















4 






E. H. Hedrick . . 
F. W.Scheffel 

Roy W. Glass 


2 








2 




1 


3,000 




1 




1 




I 




1 




3 




1 




























2 
M 






L' 
21 


13,535 
827,486 


'4 








1 
2 


1 

i:i 






















7 




1 

15 

1 


Charles E. Burnett. . . 
Katharine E. Funk 
Robert Krohm. . . 
C. A. Kells . .. 
George W. Hubbs . 
Judd S. Fish 


145,353 










1 


22,504 


2 


187,877 






7 


495,726 


59 




3 


60,000 






2 
1 






2 

1 












2 


2 


1 


































1 
































| 








2 








2 
2 

o 






























6 










110,819 


1 




340,000 
134,382 


14 
8 
8 


53,000 
25,000 


2 

i 


WilliamS. Haddock.... 

Irene Welty and 
Ralph \Vetherbold 
Robert H. Wolfe 
John W. Hunger 




7? 






TO 








III 






7 

4 
1 


3 


127,000 


1 




11,520 




15 
1 






15 
1 


32,474 










4 

1 




















































1 

'i 


13,000 








Joseph N. Arthur 


3 

14 
1 
1 
7 






3 

If 
1 

1 
" 












1 


1 
















7 






James L. Wasson 
W. H. Weiss. . 
Edwin F. Van Billiard 
Robert E. Borland 
Jane W. Rogers 
John E. Mixer 
H. M. Bender 


29,928 
6,964 
25,000 


















1 
1 


5,700 












1 


130,789 


:t 






































14,000 








































4 

A 






4 

6 


93,372 
































S 












1 






























fi 






A 












2 
3 


5 
5 




















4 




"i 


George P. Seeright. . . . 
Thomas C. Cockill, Jr. 
John W. Miller 




1" 






1? 




























i 

"i 
















i 


99,883 








3 
2 
4 
1 
1 






i 

2 
4 

1 
1 


77,781 
32,236 
10,500 
20,000 






'"525 


1 
1 
1 
1 


4 
2 
3 
1 












1 




W. H. Kent 


1 


40,180 
















3 

H 
1 


4,800 
2,000 


i 
i 


Ian Forbes 
















i 


1,500 


C. M. Hengst 






















































i 


300 




1 
























F.B. Snowden 




4 
1 

III 






4 

1 
10 


20,000 
3,600 
112,819 








1 




























































Howard J. Baumcartel 
D. G. Evans 






17 


28,205 


3 


3 
4 




















17 














1 




j 












4 






Edward J. Allen. . . 
A. W. Leeking 
J. B. Stoeber 


"i 


7 
3 




111 


7 
3 

ID 
1 


42,170 
17.000 
65,658 
16,399 






'2 
7 

1 
7 




1 
































25,816 
22,545 


I 
4 

-' 
5 
L' 
I 


4 
3 
2 
2 
5 
1 
1 












1 








4 
























'I 






C. E. Zorger 






















J 






Anne L. Flanders 




1 
1 


















1 






J. J. Koehler 




25 
It 
1 
1 
4 

3 
1 
1 

3 

1 

8 
4 

1 


i 


1 


25 

l!i 
1 
1 
4 

4 
1 
2 
3 

1 
8 
4 
1 


175,000 
335,034 
35,000 
22,465 
32,700 

22,752 
34,000 
10,800 
16,000 

1,730 

110,000 
4,000 


























17 






George S. Fockler. . . 
G. D. Brandon 


::i 




5 


23,500 


















'i 




4 




















1 






E. F. Frank 




























2 

4 


875 




PaulE. Kuhlman... 
Mrs. W. T. Belts and 
Edna D. Rich. . . 
Mrs. E. A. Walton 








4 
























3 


30,000 


























7 










i 


2 
1 






















' 




1 


























L. K. DeHart 










i 


1 






















8 


1,500 


2 


Mrs. Carl E. Gibson and 
Mrs. Blair McMillan . 
A. P. Diffendafer 






































1 










\ 












2 




1 
1 


L. G. Genkinger 
Elizabeth Morgan 
Cora H. Mclaughlin. . . 
0. E.' Collins 










i 


1 
1 


















i 


1,500 




































4 






t 












i 
i 

34 


1 

6 
31 






















j 




it 

"4 
i 
i 

"e 


2 

2 
73 
3 


5 
5 


1 


2 

tli 

7* 


59,400 
-6,948,517 


i 

20 


105,000 


2 


116,000 


1 














i 




7 






M. Margaret Tennant. . 

Gertrude MacDougall. . . 
Grover W Mueller 
















39 


3,067,675 


22 


1,200 


13 




1 






















3 
4 


"66,979 


3 


' 8 375,li4 


1 
1 
1 


15,858 
14,856 
"58,071 
































Charles H. English 
} Mrs. P. H. Valentine . 
H M Shipe 






























i 








1 






































1 




1 

!i 


100,184 
1,305,752 


1 


























4 
62 




io 


4 

78 


36,830 
1,608,428 


1 

11 


1,670 


1 

55 
3 


2 
98 

111 














i 




Hi 




3 

,| 






RoyD. Holden 
W. C. Batchelor 










j 













''< 




a 


32 
8 






45 








II 




















4 










Mrs. John Cowley 
Harry B. Burns 
James M. Trainor 
Mrs. Chas. W. Houston. 






8 


28,567 










8 


8 














18 


215,513 


is 


' 518,ii2 


t 


























1 






1 


2,974 


























1 


12,299 






i 



87 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 




3 
d 
Z. 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


Penna. Cont. 
Pottstown 
Pottsville 


19,430 
24,300 
9,266 
111,171 

7,726 
7,433 
143,433 

25,908 
4,395 
3,857 
13,291 
5,961 

15,626 

10,428 
508 
14,863 
24,545 
12,325 
4,908 

250,000 

29,639 
45,729 
3,111 

55,254 

5,162 

25,898 
27,612 
5,000 

252,981 
10,997 
49,623 

62,265 
51,581 
14,774 
29,154 
8,776 
11,780 

2,270 
1,657 
10,942 
3,659 
10,214 

119,798 
4,588 
105,802 

253,143 
153,866 

43,132 
53,120 

57,732 

7,814 
27,741 
260,475 

102,421 
163,447 
52,938 

4,981 
8,960 

292,352 
2,354 


Public Schools and Civic Clubs 


I 

1 


3 




1 






250.00 
145.00 
171.00 

23,245.81 
150.00 
982.82 

18,733.42 


477.00 
5,316.60 


250.00 
145.00 
648.00 

28,562.41 
150.00 
982.82 

39,364.38 


250.00 
200.02 
1,390.42 

91,105.05 
220.00 
1,053.03 

58,520.24 


P 
P 
M 

M 
M 

P 

M 

P 
P 
P 
M&P 
M&P 

P 
P 
M 
P 
M 
M 
P 
M 

M&P 
M 
M 

M&P 
M 
P 

M 
M 

M&P 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 

M 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M&P 

M 
M 
M 
P 

M 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 

M&P 
M&P 
P 








55.02 
742.42 

9,014.09 
70.00 
70.21 

15,729.07 




3 

77 
I 

? 


2 

42 
1 










Department of Public Playgrounds and 


7 




53,528.55 




Public Schools 


St Marys 


Boys' Club 










Bureau of Recreation, Department of Pub- 


33 


22 


9 




3,426.79 


20,630.96 




Board of Trustees, Buhl Park 


Somerset 




1 

3 
6 
t 

4 
1 


1 
1 

2 
1 

3 
2 




35 


225.00 


175.00 
700.00 
248.11 
103.36 


400.00 


150.00 
320.00 


550.00 
320.00 
946.01 
403.25 

2,017.50 


950.00 
1,020.00 
1,194.12 
506.61 

"2,017.50 


Playground Association 
Parks and Playground Commission 


Steelton 








946.01 
403.25 

2,017.50 






6 






f Trustees of Oppenheimer Pleasure 




1 












6 
















40.00 








40.00 


Thompsontown 




1 
1 


2 
6 
16 




"> 


















255.54 


909.00 
1,600.00 
430.0(1 
360.50 

15,527.09 
2,100.00 
1,900.00 
1,176.13 
6,077.00 
2,090.00 

1,91540 
2,500.00 
4,344.05 

4,465.00 
28,662.15 
340.00 

4,729.00 

6,210.00 
1,704.05 


206.60 

472.00 
459.27 

1,750.00 
335.00 
325.00 
1,005.08 
75.00 
898.48 


909.00 
1,800.00 
902.00 
819.77 

17,277.09 
2,435.00 
2,225.00 
2,181.21 
6,152.00 
2,988.48 

1,915.40 
2,500.00 
6,186.86 

6,055.00 
28,662.15 
436.00 

6,829.00 

7,780.00 
8,299.06 


1,164.54 

2,400.00 
3,368.85 
7,264.71 

"27,379.00 
3,405.00 
4,175.00 
14,234.40 
8,430.10 
4,724.03 

2,410.41 
3,500.00 
14,168.00 

7,055.00 
44,052.50 
476.30 

7,829.00 

9,480.00 
9,701.11 
5,500.00 
972.57 
4,187.63 
3,355.18 
2,050.00 

1,600.00 
1,060.47 
7,350.00 
3,000.00 
2,370.36 

42,558.26 


Washington 
West Chester 








600.00 




3 
2 

26 
2 
3 
2 
15 
1 

"io 

5 

6 
50 
2 

6 

8 
1 


1 
1 

37 
11 
19 
1 
29 
1 

2 
7 
8 

7 
75 
1 

8 
12 




19 


2,466.85 
6,444.94 

10,101.91 
970.00 
1,550.00 
1.644.95 
2,278.10 
1,735.55 

495.01 










Wilkes Barre and 
Wyoming Valley 80 

Wilkinsburg 
WilHamsport 


Playground and Recreation Association of 


2 


104 




Playground and Park Association 
Department of Parks and Public Property 








400.00 
10,408.24 






York 


f Department of Recreation 
\ Crispus Attucks Community Center". . 

Maple Avenue Community House, Inc. . . 


1 

2 

2 


250 
9 

10 


Rhode Island 

Barrington 
Central Falls 






ii842.8i 
1,590.00 
96.66 
2,100.00 

1,570.00 
6,595.01 




1 

3 
18 


2 


2,176.47 


5,804.67 

1,000.00 
10,037.85 
40.30 

1,000.00 

1,700.00 
1,402.05 


Peace Dale" 


Advisory Committee, Recreation Neigh- 




5,352.50 


Westerly 
Woonsocket 

South Carolina 

Charleston 




Recreation Division, Department of Pub- 


1 

10 






f Board of Parks and Playgrounds 


18 












20 
1 


9 


40 
1 












408.59 
317.63 
736.18 
250.00 


336.50 
3,800.00 
2,499.00 
650.00 

1,425.00 
250.00 
2,050.00 
1,500.00 


227.48 
70.00 
120.00 
250.00 

175.00 

iooo.oo 

1,500.00 
1,910.40 

28,117.00 


563.98 
3,870.00 
2,619.00 
900.00 

1,600.00 
250.00 
4,050.00 
3,000.00 
1,910.40 

32,284.54 


Greenville 
Orangeburg 


Phillis Wheatley Association 17 


1 


3 
5 

? 


4 
1 


10 












1 


900.00 


South Dakota 




1 






Dell Rapids 
Mitchell 


Park Board 


1 








160.47 
600.00 


650.00 
2,700.00 


Park Board 


2 




1 












Park Board 












459.96 
10,273.72 


Tennessee 




1 


33 


1 






4,167.54 






3 




Knoxville 


Recreation Bureau, Department of Public 
Welfare 


) 










3,311.69 
10,456.22 
27,793.22 


3,453.00 
42,428.30 
19,499.08 


4,540.34 

8.912.19 
12,000.00 


7,993.34 
51,340.49 
31,499.08 


11,305.03 
61,796.71 
150,157.39 
1,200.00 

900.00 
2,700.00 
133,645.26 

32,350.00 
2,339.03 
1,418.24 


Recreation Department, Park Commission 
/ Board of Park Commissioners 
\ Bethlehem Center' ' 


24 
16 
3 

1 


27 

23 
5 


25 

12 




' 90^865.09 


Nashville 


Texas 

Amarillo 


/ Public Schools 










900.00 
300.00 
14,519.90 

350.00 
1,800.00 




900.00 
300.00 
16,069.90 

5,350.00 
1,800.00 
1,142.75 


1 Park Board 




t 














City Recreation Department 
f Department of Parks, Playgrounds and 
I Airports 


17 
3 


16 

1 

3 


7 

'"3 


22 

38 
14 
10 

1 


114,456.37 
25,000.00 
26.i5 


3,118.99 

2,000.00 
539.03 
249.34 


1,550.00 
5,000.00 








City Park Board 




1,142.75 


Corpus Christ! 
Dallas 














8 
2 
J 


34 

2 


12 
4 
\ 


35 
100 




4,555.06 
4,255.49 
6,600.00 
19,991.21 

497.15 
1,480.00 
606.76 
5,736.27 


10,607.95 
6,712.75 
1,400.00 
18,503.83 

3,105.00 
3,000.00 
847.10 
14,124.00 


4,536.00 
3,331.58 
5,200.00 
25,715.29 

5,533.74 
900.00 
1,823.16 
2,558.00 


15,143.95 
10,044.33 
6,600.00 
44,219.12 

8,638.74 
3,900.00 
2,670.02 
16,682.00 


19,699.01 
21,499.82 
13,200.00 
76,225.03 

11,873.20 
5,380.00 
3,277.02 
22,418.27 

30,000.00 
50.00 


El Paso 




7,200.00 




Fort Worth 




9 


25 

3 
1 


t 

t 
I 


300 

"so 


12,014.70 
2,737.31 




Department of Streets and Public Prop- 






a 

it 


Highland Park 
Houston 






39 


25 


8 


515 




\ Public Parks Department 




La Grange. . . 


Lions Club . . . 













50.00 









RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number | 


P>as3b:\".l Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 

Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools 


Source of 
Information 


No. of City 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons Only 


1 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 




















































W. 0. Cressman 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

II 
111 
11 
12 

13 
a 

14 
15 
16 
17 

18 
19 

20 
21 
22 

24 
a 

25 

26 
27 

28 
29 

HO 

31 

32 

a 
: 

:ir> 
:w 
37 

38 
39 

41) 
41 
42 

44 

45 

46 

47 

a 

48 

.1 
411 

5(1 
:t 
51 
52 
.W 
54 

55 

57 
58 
5(1 
a 
(ill 




1 

1 






1 

1 


8,614 










1 


:i 


















1 




2 






John F. Murray. . 
























1 
1 


11,960 


2 
18 


11,000 


11 


F.S.Jackson 

Thomas W. Lantz . . . 
D. M. Albright 


2 


26 
1 
2 

17 






26 
1 
2 

19 


568,951 
35,000 
20,760 

'"227,360 


1 
3 


21,900 


8 
1 


218,400 
3,900 


1 
1 


20 
1 






































































459,223 




1 

1 


24 
1 














1 


10,628 


1 


619.421 


4 

II) 




2 


Robert B. Dixon 










1 




1 










George Rettig 
A. J. Kerin 
Floyd G. Frederick 
H. R. Rupp 
A. F. Everitt 




1 






1 


31,734 
































1 








1 

1 
1 


1 
1 
2 


1 
















1 




' 






6 

1 

1 






ii 
1 

1 


20,065 




























' 




"i 

1 








1 




















2 


























1 


1,890 


H. AtwoodJReynolds . . . 
Mrs. R. Pluemacher. . . . 
John J. Ott 




2 






2 


10,500 




























































1 




1 






1 






1 












3 


1 


1 




















1 




1 


M . J. Haldeman 




4 






4 


































M. L. Dougherty 




8 






8 










































Elizabeth C. Day 
























2 


















1 

1 


53,734 
25,763 


'5 




'i 


C. E. Moffett . 




1 

32 
5 

14 
2 
9 






1 

32 
5 
14 
2 
9 


93,650 

771,297 
">33,750 
157,764 
10,800 
122,000 


'i 
1 
1 








1 

8 
2 


1 

17 


















8,000 


John H. Shaner 












1 


9,000 










Ruth E. Swezey 




























Mrs. Adah M. Merrifield 
P. A. McGowan 








6 

is 


1 


2,500 


1 


550 














3 






1,800 
1,000 
18,250 


ii 
i 




1 
2 










1 


4,000 


7 
16 


3,000 




Allen W. Rank 


9,217 














1 




Sylvia Weckesser 
Chester N. Hayes 




















1 

7 






1 

7 


3,600 




























Mrs. C. E. Blake . 


18,521 


'2 

"j 




1 

1 


1 

7 






















io 




's 


James E. Morgan 
Arthur Leland 

Emma H. Howe . 


2 
7 


7 

3 

15 




12 


7 

5 
34 


35,295 
4,237 


2 
1 


17,308 


3 
















2 
8 




















1,463 


2 

27 


1,500 




27 
2 

1 


27 
2 

2 

9 










1 




3 




Joseph J. McCaffrey 


































W. H. Bacon 


5 

8 


7 

2 

"s 

1 






7 
7 

is 

1 


188,382 

697,249 
857,237 


5 




2 


15,000 






















4 




3 

2 

"2 


Louise E. Hodder 

Corrinne V. Jones 
J. M. Whitsett 
























7 

"8 






















1 


15,000 














7 












Adele J. Minahan . . . 
B. S. Meeks 






l,37i 


























1 
1 


11,338 


3 
4 




2 
1 

1 


"4 


7 




9 
5 
4 


104,416 


1 

i 
i 






1 
5 


1 
5 




















Mrs. Hattie Duckctt .. 
Mrs. Charles S. Henerey 
Mrs. Julia Lester Dillon. 

A. N. Bragstad. . . 
F. M. Enright. . . 
W. E. Webb 


























4 






g 




















1 


5,000 


3 


2,900 


1 

3 




1 










1 
1 
1 


1 
1 

1 

1 


1 
2 








































5 

5 






8 






3 


"10,800 






fi 






1 


































1 










J. E. Hippie 


































1 












S 










32 
i 






32 


158,999 


i 


10,400 








12 










1 


22,703 


1 








17 






John P. Fort 






4 

2 
1 

8 


2 

7 
9 
15 


3 














4 




















i 

4 

12 

2 


60,000 












1 
1 


19,663 
58,081 
45,000 










5 




li 
1 


Fred F. Parkhurst 
Minnie M. Wagner. . 
E. M. Coetello 


'io 


4 
I. 




1! 
1 
1 


23 
17 
1 

3 


1,256,375 
'2,035,392 
8,800 


33 








2 


220,020 




2 
1' 




34 
1? 


132,385 












4,500 


















1 








Annie Mclver Rogers. . . 
W. A. Mclntosh 




3 




1 


































1 


1 
4 




5 


1 
9 


5,000 
299,476 


2 
3 








1 

I 


1 

7 










1 








1 




8 




i 
6 


T.M.Robinson 
James A. Garrison 

Frank L. Bertschler. . . . 
Mrs. Ollie B Richards 




2 








1 


10,550 










4 
3 


109,441 


12 
11' 










i 
I 








3 


'33,805 
12,600 


1 
2 


































j 




1 


1 


























1 


R. G. Williams 














1 




















1 




Theodore Koester 


"i 


24 






24 
1 


1,259,587 


6 
1 


409,550 
"100,000 


1 


86,841 


1 
1 


27 


1 


149,949 


1 


4,161 


3 


111,922 


'i 




2 
"4 


174,874 
' 108,227 


81 
1 

36 
ft 


114,955 
100,220 


27 

1 
1 
4 




J. R. Taylor 
W. E. Stockwell... 
R. D. Evans 

Nell Miller 
























1 


4,000 


1 
2 

1 


21,000 
101,500 


3 


10 

'l 




8 


18 
3 


685,600 


2 


167,000 


4 


15,000 




22 


1 














1 




1 








2 


2 


















1 




7 










































1 


40,000 


4 
'tl 


2,800 


Roderic B. Thomas 
Corinne Fonde 
C L Brock 




li 






16 


222,100 


3 


12,836 


7 


33,470 


3 


21 
3 


























1 


48,222 










1 






1 






1 


20,000 




































W. W. Few... 



89 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

footnotes follow 



>. 

8 

*3 

c 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer W r orkers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 


>, 
C 

s 

6 
z 



S 
"3 



X 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 

Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
!) 
HI 
11 

12 

13 

14 
15 
Hi 
17 

18 
I'.l 
211 
21 
22 

23 
24 

25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

3( 
31 

32 

33 
34 
35 
31 
37 
38 
81 
41 
41 
4- 
43 
44 

45 

41 
47 

48 

4! 
50 
5 
52 

53 

54 

5 
5 
5 
5 
I 
li 
li 
li 
li 

g 

65 


Texas Cont. 


32,618 
20,529 
5,970 
7,913 
8,834 
50,902 
6,208 
231,542 
10,848! 
27,366 
52.848 

3,248 

5,093 
9,979 
40,272 
14,766 
140,267 

11,307 
7,390 
2,000 
7,837 
800 

1,957 
17,315 

24.149 
6,839 

40,661 
34,417 
28,564 

182,929 
69,206 

21,723 
30,823 
960 
30,567 
12,766 
1 1 733 


Rotary Club 


1 






9 
4 
10 




940.00 


1,000.00 


500.00 


1,500.00 


2,440.00 
13,000.00 
5,000.00 
4,500.00 
1,650.00 
20,000.00 

' 65,026.64 
850.00 
715.00 
9,458.18 

230.00 
370.42 
6.000.00 
1,680.00 
520.00 
56,432.80 

4,000.00 
400.00 
97.00 
185.00 
2,597.00 
700.00 
700.01 
1,512.53 

3,030.00 
1,382.56 
1,000.00 

2:I4I>S.44 
2.300.00 
3,320.00 
29,000.00 
7,200.00 

6,000.00 
13,349.93 

850.00 
25.00 
490.00 


P 
M 
M&P 
P 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
P 
M 

P 
M&P 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 

M 
P 
P 
M 

P 
P 
P 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 

P 
M 

M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
MiP 
M 
M&C 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
P 

P 
M 
P 
M 
P 
M 
M 

CS.MXl 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 


1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 
15 
11 
17 

IS 
I'J 
20 
21 
22 
23 
a 
24 

25 
M 
a 

27 
2S 
2!l 
til 
a 

b 

11 

a 

::; 

!4 

IS 
)6 

i7 
IK 

I'.l 

411 
41 
42 
43 
44 

15 
4li 
47 

48 
:i 

1, 
4!l 
50 
51 
52 
53 
;i 
b 

54 

55 
5ti 
57 
58 
5! 
6(1 
61 
62 
B3 
B4 
65 


Lubbock 




































1 




1 


1,000.00 


500.00 
750.00 


3,000.00 




3,000.00 
900.00 












7 


900.00 








V, 










linger 
an Antonio 
























21 
1 


12 


17 
































4 

4 


12 
4 


'3 


20 

7 








3^468.18 


&978.18 

180.00 
280.00 








480.00 

50.00 
90.42 


5,510.00 

180.00 
280.00 


Utah 

iingham Canyon. . . . 


viwanis Club, Jordan School District and 






4 




1 






** 




2 
2 
1 

25 

3 
1 

i 


2 
4 

1 
35 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
















4 

3 




145.00 
200.00 
15,080.80 

1,500.00 


1,455.00 
270.00 
10,438.00 

500.00 
400.00 
72.00 
160.00 
700.00 


80.00 
50.00 
24,476.00 

1,000.00 
25.66 
U33.00 


1,535.00 
320.00 
35,184.00 

1,500.00 
400.00 
97.00 
160.00 
1,833.00 


Provo 
alt Lake City 

Vermont 


}ity of Provo 
Municipal Recreation Department 






50 


8,168.00 
1,000.00 


iennington 
rfiddlebury 
dontpelier 


.Velfare Association 
3 arent Teacher Association 
Chamber of Commerce 












6 




25.00 
764.00 








Randolph 


f Bethany Congregational Church 


2 
2 
3 

' i 

2 
15 
8 


2 
2 
1 

7 
2 
4 
19 
3 












34.08 


90.78 
456 31 

1.485.00 
602.56 


575.15 
1,056.22 

1,545.00 
522.00 




575.15 
1,056.22 

1,545.00 
780.00 


Rutland 










Virginia 

Alexandria 

Clifton Forge 
jynchburg 
Newport News 
'etersburg 

Richmond 


Department of Playgrounds 
1 Board of Parks and Recreation 
1 School Board 
















258.00 




? 






2 


12 


427.55 


5,097.39 


13.585.50 
1,800.00 

2i!ooo.6o 


1,358.00 
500.00 
180.00 


14.943.50 
2,300.00 
180.00 
21,000.00 








8 




3,140.00 
8.000.00 


[ Bureau of Parka and Recreation 
1 Community Recreation Association 82 . . 
1 Colored Playground and Recreation 
Association 17 


8 

4 

8 

1 


41 

2 

6 
12 

2 








2 

1 
1 

1 




















10 


3,070.00 


2,200.00 
250.00 


5,457.93 
600.00 


2,622.00 


8,079.93 
600.00 


Washington 

Aberdeen 


Park Board. . . 
Y M C A 


8 




















40.00 






450.00 




Par'k Board 


















Park Board 




1 








75.00 


120.00 




120.00 


195.00 
248.00 

L975.66 
750.00 
255,667.23 
52.590. 8S 
30,000.00 
2,103.28 

5,987.81 
200.00 
396.93 
110.00 
48.00 

60.00 
5,099.82 
8.430.00 
11,098.25 
1,150.00 
30,490.27 
20,438.49 
30,500.00 

14393.43 
1,505.50 
91.99 
530.00 
1,350.00 

21310.77 
1,700.00 
81,554.69 
13,504.56 
664.50 
1,280.00 




Y M C A 


1 






? 






P 


3,496 
1,569 
3,322 
365,583 
115,514 
106,817 
22,101 

60,408 
28,866 
75,572 

14,857 

16,186 
14,411 
29,623 
2,182 

61,659 


School District 
City Park Board 


2 


3 




















50 


100.00 


375.00 


500.00 


1,500.00 
250.00 


1,500.00 
750.00 
134,829.94 
27,498.95 
14,600.00 
1,212.61 

4,998.51 
200.00 
262.50 
60.00 
48.00 

60.00 
4,144.50 
980.00 
9,233.21 

300.CK 
21,788.61 




Kiwam's Club and Chamber of Commerce 


1 

36 
37 
26 
3 

10 


1 
33 
12 
11 
1 

13 






16 

1 


12 
"20 


99,823.15 
16,384.00 
8,050.00 
638.19 


21,014.14 
8,713.93 
7,350.00 
252.48 

989.30 




Park Board 










9,400.00 


5,200.00 




City Park Board 


West Virginia 

Charleston 


Recreation Board, Board of Education. . . 


4,736.43 


262.08 
200.00 

'18.00 












1 






1 




134.43 
50.00 


262.50 
60.00 
30.00 

60.00 
4,114.50 
480.00 
9,233.21 
300.00 
16,461.81 








1 
1 








High Street Parent Teacher League. . . . 
Winchester Avenue Parent Teacher 










Martinsburg 

VIorgantown 
Moundsville 




1 










Recreation Council, School District 


14 
4 


14 
1 


1 


1 
i 




955.32 
450.00 
1,865.04 
850.00 
5,935.10 


30.00 
500.00 


7,000.00 
2^766.56 


Board of Recreation 
Kiwanis Recreation Company, Inc 


19 
1 
21 


14 
1 
23 


! 




5326.80 


Wheeling 




Wisconsin 


23,611 
2,514 
1,386 
2,966 
26,449 
680 
37,415 
2,214 
21,628 
50,262 
2,256 
3,493 


Oglebay Institute" 


3 


5 
6 


t 


200 


632.37 


13,500.00 
4,074.86 


14,000.00 

3,687.28 
364.50 


3,000.00 

6,198.92 
1,141.00 


17,000.00 

9,886.20 
1,505.50 


City of Beloit 


Columbus 
Eagle River 
























91.99 
300.00 










"5 


50.00 


180.00 




180.00 


Fond du Lac 




16 


16 






















Green Bay 




n 


1 






125.00 


829.77 


1,356.00 




1,356.00 


Park Board . ... 












Janesville 


City of Janesville 


10 

76 


8 
15 




8 
15(1 


62,800.00 


5,252.2 
2,356.44 
225.35 
270.0C 


2,532.00 
9,423.16 
339.45 
180.00 


10,970.43 
1,724.96 


13,502.43 
11,148.12 
339.45 
510.00 


Kimberly 
Ladysmith 


Village "K" Playground Commission. . . 
Park Board 










99.70 
500.00 


330.00 



90 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


1 
| 

Z 

q? 

3 


amonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 
Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools 


Source of 
Information 

2 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


I 
J 


I 


Number 






>, 








>. B 




>> B 




>. B 




X B 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Total Year 
or Seasona 
Attendance 


Number 


Total Year 
or Seasona 
Attendance 


Athletic Fi 


- 


Number 


Total Year 
or Seasona 
Participati 


Number 


Total Year 
or Seasona 
Participati 


Number 


Total Year 
or Seasona 
Participati 


Number 


Total Year 
or Seasona 
Participati 


Number 


Total Year 
or Seasona 
Participati 


2 

a 

4 
1 








2 
fi 


4,500 






1 


503 


1 
























6 

'a 


103 


i 


Edward L. Robereon 
C. D. McGehee . . 
H. G. Stein 
























1 










4 




i 








2 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
2 
1 


1 




1 














"4 


, 


5 
> 


























1 


1,000 






i 
"i 


<ft. E. S. Dickerson... 
W. J. Klinger.... 
Mrs. L. B. Sheppard.... 
Wayne C. Hickey . . . 
V Schultz 








1 


















s 






? 


























1 
1 
7 


' 50,000 


i 

32 


10,000 
























14 
1 

4 


'i 












9 
"J 


5 
1 
6 
4 

1 
1 




"i 


14 
1 

8 

1 
1 


265,000 
10,000 
15,816 
71,603 

"10,575 


10 




1 




4 


10,000 


1 




1 
























J. C. Morris, Jr 












i 


Chamber of Commerce. . 
R C Oliver 










A 






















5 


7,053 








1 

1 
1 

2 


ii 




















Bailey J. Santistevan. . . 
Mrs. George L.Johnson. 
L. A. Petersen 
Edvenia Jeppson . . . 
E. Reid Collins 
Charlotte Stewart 




1 

2 
1 
2 

7 


1,760 
1,500 
1,500 
1,000 
100,000 
























i 

t 
































2 


1,500 






3 


500 


"2 


8 
li 
15 


'e 




s 
14 
15 


23,000 


1 


1,000 


5 
5 
18 

1 


'i 








1 




1 




















239,376 


6 

27 


250,000 










2 










g 
1 




1 






1 








i 


















1 
1 






1 
1 


90,000 


































Dean I. Martin 
Dorothy Cornwall 
































1 








1 






1 


2,700 






























1 

1 


11,588 






1 








1 


1 


















, 




Mrs. Esther J. Pratt... 
F.Wilson Day... 
Bertha R.Salisbury... . 
Richard F. Hayden 

Mrs. Virginia W. Ryder. 
M. Bolts Lewis 
H. Blankinship. . 
Mrs. R. P. Munday. . . 
Dr. G. Colbert Tyler .. 
R C Dav 




1 






1 
































1 








1 






1 


20,450 






























1 

1 


12,000 
19,500 


1 




i 






























6 
1 






6 
1 


40,000 










6 
1 
1 
4 


5 

1 
1 
4 










1 


500 






4 
\ 


1,000 


"i 
i 
i 






















I 




14 


1 

"7 






1 

It 
7 


5,000 
754,958 


'a 


51,373 


"a 

















































11 
























4 


























3 


i 
























^ 








20 


20 


778,794 






4 


7,200 


4 


22 


















1 


196,000 


20 


500,000 


t 


P N Binford 




























1 


3 

7 






3 




i 
































1 












7 
1 


237,142 






3 


3,370 




1, 






















16 




i 








1 

4 


1 

2 


i 




















1 




Mrs. Myra Murray 
Milton A. Orphan 


8 






8 


14,666 










5,000 


































1 








1 




1 




} 
























i 
























A. M. Plaxton 
Walter J. Anderson 




1 
4 






1 
4 


3,000 


















































4 
1 


4 
3 














1 




























2 






























C. L. Booth 


1 








1 


































l: 


1 






1 












1 


1 


'io 
















1 


5,000 


x- 




J. FredBohler 


7 






20 
g 


27 
8 
13 
5 

12 




7 






















is 

5 
12 




2,239,053 
316,034 
35,000 

173,286 


"e 
i 








1 


U 










1 








4 

i 


567,003 


U 

18 
6 


28,666 

3,433 


Benjamin A. Clark . 


14,131 
42,161 








( 




39,260 










2 


4,014 








4 




















1 














































3 200 










1 
1 
1 






1 
1 


13,490 








































W. B. Trosper 
I Mrs. E. Townsend.... 










































1 












































1 






1 












































14 
1 

7 






14 
1 

7 


83,593 
110,000 
105,914 






3 






1 
































g 


3,000 
15,025 


] 


4 




















' 7,500 


U 

1 


2,093 




L. D. Wiant 
D. D. Hicks. 
W. P. Kerwood, Jr.... 
S A Heatherly 
















i 

i 




21 
1 






21 
1 


437,757 






g 


22,816 


g 


1 














3 


11,117 








1 


31,140 






58,066 


i 


1,320 








1 

6 






1 
6 


3,000 
194,384 


























Betty Eckhardt 

Myrtle F. Sturtevant . . . 
H. C. Lange 
Walter Gander, Jr 
Roland A Klaus 












g 










1 




1 


4,000 






V. 


20,000 














1 






































i 








































1 




i 


1 






1 
















. 








i 






5 




i 








; 


g 






1 












i 










F G Kiesler 
























< 


















j 










Louis St. Angelo 
E.H.Wilson 
Chairman, Park Board. . 
Kenneth F. Bick . 
G. M. Phelan 




6 






6 


91,296 












A 


























- 














] 


























18 
8 
1 
1 






18 
8 
1 
1 


255,600 
190,585 
22,500 
54,000 












30 

I 

1 




55,630 


1 


24,000 






e 








ii 


125,000 
'600 








8 


79,335 






1 




i 




2 


550 












18,000 


















J. W. Carow. . . 



91 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



No. of City 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid Workers 
Exclusive of 
Caretakers 


Volunteer Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 


Source of Financial Supportt 


a 

V 

5 
d 

X 


No. of Women 


No. Employed Full 
Time Year Round 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Perma- 
nent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 
Supplies 
and 
Inci- 
dentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 
3 

4 

r, 

6 

7 

S 
9 
1(1 
11 

12 
13 
14 

u 

16 

17 

IS 
19 
20 

21 
22 

23 
24 

25 
26 

27 

28 

29 

30 
31 

32 
33 

34 

35 

36 
37 

38 
39 

40 
41 


Wise. Cont. 


57,899 

9,062 
5,595 

578,249 

725,263 
2,274 
9,151 

40,108 
700 
67,542 
39,251 

13,479 
10,706 
13,623 
10,083 
2,165 
10,613 

17,176 
5,768 
23,758 

21,194 
34,671 

5,362 
8,726 

20,000 
202,887 

85,000 
265,000 

215,768 

155,000 
3,000 

31,252 
67,000 
132,551 

760,000 

1,200,000 
140,000 
2,000 
25,500 

54,000 
42,234 


Department of Recreation, Board of Edu- 


41 
18 


8 
3 


1 




4,388.19 
600000 


4,049.51 


12,049.48 




12,049.48 


20,487.18 
17,000.00 
4,500.00 
455,574.00 
139,123.30 

"198,909.50 
552,261.98 
950.00 
2,000.00 
16,630.00 
4,300.00 


M 

M 
MAP 
M 
M 

M 

C 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
SAM 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

P 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

OU 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

P 
M 
M 

M 
M 

M 

MAP 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 

M 
M 








Vlenomonie 


City Park Board 
















Extension Department, Public Schools . 
Board of Park Commissioners 
Playground Division, Bureau of Bridges 
and Buildings, Department of Public 


552 


351 


15 




74,557.00 
60,811.37 

198,909.50 
294,442.45 


38,600.00 


248,721.00 


93,696.00 


342,417.00 


















Milwaukee County 86 
Mineral Point 












72,780.26 


47,116.06 


137,923.21 


185,039.27 
950.00 
1,700.00 
12,630.00 
3,500.00 


Park Board and School Board 


? 












8 

148 


2 
31 








300.00 
3,500.00 
200.00 


1,500.00 
12,630.00 


200.00 


Oshkosh 


f Board of Education 






500.00 
600.00 


Poynette 


Clyde Sheppard Post No. 271 


1 
34 
94 


1 
22 
18 












Department of Parks and Recreation. . . . 


1 

2 


"77 


51,000.00 


18,780.00 
2,507.00 
1,314.20 
5,693.38 
200.00 
1,000.00 


15,261.00 
8,628.50 


2i84'l'.g6 
1,554.38 
7,347.67 

400.00 
7,795.60 


15,261.00 
11,470.30 
1,554.38 
27,947.44 
1,130.00 
400.00 
15,161.16 


85,041.00 
13,977.30 
2,868.58 
33,640.82 
1,330.00 
1,400.00 
23,990.59 
40.00 

2,226.00 
1,200.00 
80.00 

4,175.00 
675.00 
3,000.00 

30,363.45 
600.00 
41,000.00 

1.100.00 
20,116.92 

"2,437.68 

19,570.00 
69,564.40 

18,922.00 
35,128.00 

31,500.00 
4,197.75 
24,986.92 
40,796.58 
184,117.00 
12,910.00 

29,630.72 
247,397.97 
2,754.87 
2,870.00 
10,054.43 

3,600.00 
9,936.54 










Shorewood 
South Milwaukee. . . . 
Stevens Point 
Two Rivers 


\ Board of Vocational Education 87 


29 
3 


30 
4 


2 






20,599.77 
1,130.00 




1 




City of Stevens Point 








Recreation Commission 


13 


6 


2 


'"3 


1,056.89 
20.00 


7,772.54 
20.00 


7,365.56 


Watertown 


Park Commission, City Council and Board 
















2 

1 


2 








300.00 


900.00 
80.00 

425.00 
500.00 


2,100.00 


900.00 
80.00 

2,525.00 
500.00 














Recreation Committee, City Park Depart- 


1 
1 


3 






400.00 


1,250.00 
175.00 


Wauwatosa 
West Allis 

Whitefish Bay 
Wisconsin Rapidfl . . . 

Hawaii 

Hilo 








\ Board of Park Commissioners 
Department of Recreation, Board of Edu- 








13 
4 


8 


1 




2,081.63 


21,781.82 


6,500.00 




6,500.00 


/ Village Board 




\ Department of Public Works 


3 

5 
17 

i 

14 
56 
25 


i 

4 
21 

10 

20 
9 
43 






35,000.00 


1,000.00 




5,000.00 


5,000.00 

800.00 
17,631.61 

1,647.76 

16,070.00 
34,576.10 

14,515.00 
30,128.00 




1 


5 
300 




300.00 
2,485.31 

405.93 

3,500.00 
34,988.30 

3,907.00 
500000 


800.00 
17,631.61 

1,540.00 

12,000.00 
10,199.65 
14,015.00 




Honolulu 
CANADA 

Alberta 

Calgary 

British Columbia 


Recreation Commission 

Parks and Recreation Department 
Playground and Recreation Department, 


383.99 




107.76 

4,070.00 
24,376.45 

500.00 
30,128.00 


2 




Manitoba 


Public Parks Board 




Ontario 

Hamilton 


f Playground and Recreation Commission 
1 Park Board . . . . 


10 


3 


500.00 




Spruce Falls Power and Paper Company, 
Ltd 


5 
16 

29 
19 
124 
64 

19 

118 
3 


1 

15 

21 
13 
136 
22 

24 
12 
3 


4 


4 














800.00 
13,054.24 
8,550.21 
51,465.00 
3,600.00 

9,460.19 
S4.HS9.22 
1,363.42 
500.00 
8,689.98 

1,100.00 
3,324.74 


3,222.75 
1,200.00 
8,138.20 
102,524.00 
9,310.00 

17,670.53 
52,769.85 
978.95 

L237.66 

2,300.00 
2,400.00 


175.00 
7,290.98 
22,645.98 
30,128.00 


3,397.75 
8,490.98 
30,784.18 
132,652.00 
9,310.00 

17,670.53 
162,708.75 
1,391.45 
1,370.00 
1,364.45 

2,500.00 
6,611.80 




Public Utilities Commission 


" 1 
15 




3,441.70 

1,462.19 


Ottawa 




1 Parks Department 


Quebec 

Montreal 


f Parks and Playgrounds Association .... 


4 
46 


38 


2,500.00 


109,938.90 
412.50 
1,370.00 
127.45 

200.00 
4,211.80 










Temiskaming 






29 
| 


1,000.00 




1 

10 
27 


1 

5 
2 




Saskatchewan 

Elegina 
Saskatoon 


Civic Playgrounds Association 
Playground Association 


'"i 


75 











KEY TO SYMBOLS 

f Under Sources of Financial Support M-Municipal Funds; P-Private Funds; S-State Funds and C-County 
Funds. 

* The playground attendance figures include both participants and spectators. 
** The attendance figures for buildings and indoor centers include participants only. 



92 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1932 

the table 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Total Yearly or Seasonal 
Attendance * 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Community 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing 
Beaches 


Golf 

Courses 
9-Hole 


Golf 
Courses 
18-Hole 


Swimming 
Pools 
Indoor 


Swimming 
Pools 
Outdoor 


Tennis 
Courts 


Number of Wading Pools 


Source of 
Information 

i 

' 


Year Round 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons Only 


1 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Attendance ** 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasona 1 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 


Number 


Total Yearly 
or Seasonal 
Participation 










13 
13 


317,048 
300,000 






9 




1 
2 


1 
U 

1 
9 
9 


1 

2 
3 




1 




















'i 


larry C. Thompson. . . . 




13 






2 






















1 




n 


































J. C. Wilcox 


i'j 


:w 






52 


5,111,703 






20 


2,363,431 


8 

2 




















30 




4 
2 




3 

2 
4 

1 
1 
2 








1 


80,622 






' 


71,600 


73 


394,848 


Charles Hauserman . 

Gilbert Clegg 
George Hansen 






















338,492 
431,571 






7 


785,983 






















6 
2 
1 
2 


7 
1 
1 
3 


i 




5 


299,762 


1 


53,807 


7 
i 


6,000 


1 










.> 








1 










0. M. Morgan 
Armin H. Gerhardt 
Raymond C. Miller 
A. G. Cone 




4 
4 






4 
4 


200,000 
34,231 


4 

1 


























in 




2 


14,127 


5 


11,046 


200,000 


















12 


8,000 


i 








































j 




















1 






W. E Emerson 




8 

g 






8 
8 


235,000 
152,385 


3 


23,240 


7 
3 


90,000 
23,120 


1 


5 
4 
1 


1 
2 
1 


200,000 
95,000 
9,000 


















13 

11 


60,000 


2 


8. A. Solbraa 
Ferdinand A. Bahr 
William D. Stockwell. . . 
H. M. Genskow 










1 


19,213 






























1 
2 


"i 




1 
3 


17,078 
62,200 






i 




































\ 






















4 
















1 
1 

2 

1 


2 
2 
2 

4 


1 
2 
1 

1 
1 


3,000 




























3 
3 


3 




6 

3 


106,835 
20,000 


1 


70,784 


3 


151,076 










1 








7 






Arthur P. Eckley 




















ft 




1 


A. P. Euler 
























i 




4 
Q 






Mrs. E. E. Fischer 
FredHofherr 
Mrs. G. J. Davison 




3 
1 

7 




4 


3 
1 

11 


116,500 
1,500 

150,000 






















































t*i 


















i 


41,000 


12 
6 






I. S. Horgen 
William T. Darling 










1 






















1 

2 






















1 

6 


5 
4 


















i 


60,000 


5 
16 


10,000 
4,000 


2 


8 






10 


350,000 






2 


34,000 


"3 












1 


15,000 


Paul F. Hagen 
























C. A. Wangerin 
























1 

2 

5 


3 




















., 






F F Buckley 


5 


1 

10 




2 


3 
H 








o 




1 
6 
















i 




1" 












































Ernest A. Lilley 






0>> 




. 


































\rthur K. Powlison 




11 

15 
17 






11 

15 

27 
17 


59,226 

600,000 
974,406 
445,641 






















1 


















William R. Reader 






5 


55,000 


] 




12 




i 




1 








4 

1 


13,000 
56,645 


110 
55 


100,000 
67,671 


14 
7 
5 


Ian Eisenhardt 












2 


66,831 








4 


14,386 


















John J. Syme 
F. Marshall 








., 










1 




1 


47,194 






22 






1 






1 




2 




1 




- 


1 


















3 

io 






Herbert J. Swetman. . . . 
H. Ballantyne 


"5 


7 
13 
15 

58 






7 
13 
15 


105,877 
217,080 
359,861 






7 


50,000 






















1 
2 


6,234 
10,000 




2 
3 






3 


i 


1 
4 


20,000 






1 








G.N.Goodman 
E. F. Morgan 


















i 








63 


2,020,000 
151,638 


5 


240,052 


58 


309,199 


2 


20 


e 




















mis 


50,719 


11 


S. H. Armstrong 
F. L. Bartlett 

William Bowie 












12 


86,800 






2 
40 

"j 


11 






13 

70 
3 
3 
6 

14 
14 


507,350 
10.036,238 

2-,,0(H) 
10,000 


1 

20 


30,000 


1 


674,383 




















30 




17 










| 




17 




- 




ii 






Lucien Asselin 
J. B. O'Regan 


3 
3 














i 


2,447 


"i 








1 


502 
















1 


3,000 




1 


500 










4 
18 


2,000 


1 

1 


A. K. Grimmer 






















P. E. Jarman 


14 
5 







115,070 
26,046 










14 






























William H. Turner 






























1 


65,768 






2 


Lloyd A. Kreutzwieser . . 

































FOOTNOTES 

1 This number represents 38 men and 9 women assigned to the Park and Recreation Board by the Red Cross 
as a part of the relief "made-work" program. 

2 In addition to this amount approximately $10,000.00 worth of labor was supplied by the county for devel- 
opment of recreation areas. 



93 



3 This figure includes attendance at swimming pools. 

4 The Los Angeles County Department of Recreation, Camps and Playgrounds maintained recreation facili- 
ties in the following municipalities in 1932: Redondo Beach, Manhattan Beach, Long Beach, Santa Monica, City 
Terrace, Eureka Villa, Dexter Canyon, Alondra Park, San Dimas, Michelinda, and Temple. 

5 This figure includes other park activities. , 

6 Salary paid by Board of Education not budgeted against recreation account. 

7 This figure includes attendance at the recreation buildings. 

8 The Santa Barbara County Board of Forestry operated bathing beaches at Carpenteria and Gaviota Beach. 

9 The Branford Community Council, Inc. operated a playground at Short Beach and Stony Creek. 

10 This figure represents participants only. 

11 $58,632.24 of this amount is paid by the Park Department towards the maintenance of playgrounds oper- 
ated by the Board of Education. 

12 This figure represents only the summer attendance. Attendance on school year playgrounds not given. 
12a In addition to this amount labor to the value of $7,453.60 was supplied to the department by the County 

Emergency Relief Council as part of their "made-work" program. 

13 This amount includes .some expense for equipment. 

14 The amount of upkeep paid by another department not included. 

15 This figure represents total attendance for all facilities. 

16 This figure includes participation at the 9-hole golf course. 

17. Maintained a program of community recreation activities for colored citizens. 

18 This amount does not include expenditure for life guards. 

19 Recreation facilities are maintained by the Winnebago County Forest Preserve District in Rockford, Rock- 
ton Township, Pecatornica, Shirland, Loves Park, and Cherry Valley. 

20 This amount does not include leadership furnished by Y. M. C. A. 

21 This figure includes $13,885.00 spent from unemployment funds for recreation purposes. 

22 These facilities are also used by the Board of Education. 

23 This figure includes attendance at indoor recreation centers. 

24 This is a 5-hole golf course. 

25 This figure includes attendance at wading pools. 

26 This playground is under leadership. Number of leaders not given. 

27 Salaries and wages not included in this amount. 

28 Other private funds not included in this amount. 

29 The Community Service program in this city is one of organized activities not centralized. A year round 
director with the aid of trained volunteers recruited from community groups and agencies aims to develop the 
recreational resources of the city through a varied program including training classes for volunteer leaders. 

30 This report represents facilities in Wteston and Canton. Expenditures refer only to Canton. 

31 This report includes Turners Falls and Millers Falls located in the town of Montague. 

32 Swimming instructors were furnished by the Red Cross. 

33 There are 5 villages in Grosse Pointe Township served by the Board of Education. 

34 The Neighborhood Guild serves villages of Wake field, Peace Dale, Kingston, West Kingston, Matnnuck, 
and Narragansett. 

35 This figure includes attendance at recreation buildings and indoor recreation centers. 

36 The Flint Community Music Association promotes and operates a community-wide music program in co- 
operation with public schools, churches, industries, and homes. 

37 The Board of Education granted free use of buildings and grounds to social agencies and also provided a 
playground supervisor. Eight social agencies provided instructors for 10 playgrounds for 8 weeks. 

38 This amount represents only capital expenditure, other expenditures not available. 

39 The aim of this Association is to develop the recreational resources of the city. Its program includes the 
promotion of special activities and the training of recreation leaders. 

40 The Dramatic League promotes a community- wide dramatic program. 

41 The Essex County Park Commission maintained recreation facilities in Newark, Bloomfield, East Orange, 
Irvington, Montclair, Nutley, Orange, Belleville, Caldwell, West Orange, Verona, Essex Fells, Millburn, and South 
Orange. 

42 The Hudson County Park Commission maintained recreation facilities in the following municipalities: 
Jersey City, Harrison, Kearny, North Berge.ii, Bayonne, Hoboken, and Union City. 

43 The Passaic County Park Commission maintained recreation facilities in Wayne Township, Paterson, West 
Paterson, Pompton 'Lakes, and Totowa. 

44 This is a 27-hole golf course.. 

45 Seven of these workers were supplied to Recreation Commission by Emergency Relief as part of "made- 
work" program. 

46 The Union County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in New Providence, Scotch Plains, 
Westfield, Kenilworth, Roselle, Railway, Linden, Union, Mountainside, Summit, Plainfield, Elizabeth, Cranford, 
Hillside, Roselle Park, and Garwood. 

47 This figure includes all partipation in swimming. 

48 This is one of the communities in Westchester County which is also served by the County Recreation and 
Park Commissions. 

94 



49 Eastchcster includes the incorporated villages of Bronxville and Tuckahoe. 

50 The Erie County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in East Hamburg, Aurora, Lancaster, 
and Tonawanda. 

51 One of these is also listed as a full time year round worker with the Recreation Commission. 

52 This amount does not include upkeep of facilities which are maintained by a private corporation. 

53 The Monroe County Park Commission maintains 5 county parks. 

54 These workers supplied as part of "made-work" program. 

55 Expenditure for upkeep not available. 

56 In addition to this amount, about $24,000.00 of unemployment relief funds were spent for improvement of 
recreation areas. 

57 This amount represents expense for summer work only. 

58 This amount does not include expenditures of other municipal departments which maintained and con- 
trolled many of the facilities used by the Department of Recreation. 

59 In addition to this, relief funds to the amount of $35,000.00 were spent for development of recreation 
facilities. 

60 The Westchester County Recreation Commission aids the cities, small towns and villages of the county in 
increasing recreation opportunities for their citizens. Among its activities are the organization of dramatic groups, 
recreation clubs, community choruses, county play days, and training classes for volunteer leaders. 

61 The Westchester County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in Yonkers, Ardsley, Tarrytown, 
Harmon, White Plains, Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, Rye, Cortlandt, and Yorktown. 

62 Fifty of these men and 78 of these women workers were used on the stagger system. 

63 In addition to this amount, approximately $60,000.00 from unemployment work funds were spent for de- 
velopment of recreation facilities. 

64 County population served 56,OOO. 

65 Th:s amount was spent for winter sports facilities and program. 

66 This amount represents golf course expenditure only. 

67 In addition to this amount, $10,000.00 were spent from unemployment funds for development of recreation 
facilities. 

68 In addition to this amount, $308,605.08 were spent by the Welfare Department through the Work Relief 
Bureau for development of recreation facilities. 

69 This figure includes attendance at the outdoor swimming pools and the wading pools. 

70 This amount was spent for a community-wide program of music and nature activities. 

71 The Cleveland Metropolitan Park Board operates recreation facilities in the following municipalities: Bay 
Village, Rocky River, Hiiichley, Brecksville, Bedford, Euclid, North Olmsted, Strongville, and Cleveland. 

72 An additional expenditure of approximately $10,OOO.OO was made from unemployment funds for develop- 
ment of recreation facilities. 

73 This figure represents total number of workers. 

74 In addition to this amount, $19,000.00 were spent from unemployment funds for improvement of recreation 
facilities. 

75 Joint program conducted by Recreation Council representative of recreational agencies of the city. 

76 The Allegheny County Bureau of Parks maintains recreation facilities in McCardles, Snowden, and 
Broughton. 

77 A special recreation committee was formed to carry on the program during emergency. 

78 This figure includes playground attendance also. 

79 This amount represents only expenditure for leadership. 

80 This report covers playground and recreation service in the following communities: Wilkes Barre, Forty 
Fort, Wyoming, Georgetown, J-.ee Park, Newtown, Sugar Notch, and Warrior Run. 

81 Other expenditure by Park Department for upkeep and maintanance of facilities not included in this 
amount. 

82 The Community Recreation Association serves as a clearing house for recreation in Richmond and is a 
promoting, demonstrating organization. 

83 Oglebay Institute in cooperation with the Wheeling Park Commission and West Virginia University con- 
ducts an experimental program of recreation activities at Oglebay Park and serves a tri-state area with a popula- 
tion of 200,000. 

84 This figure represents regular teachers who volunteer extra service. 

85 This amount expended only for development of permanent facilities for School and Park Boards. 

86 The Milwaukee County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in South Milwaukee, West Allis, 
Wauwatosa, Shorewood, Greenfield, North Milwaukee, and Brown Deer. 

87 Use buildings, swimming pool, playgrounds, and equipment of the Board of Education. 

88 This amount represents only playground expenditure. 



95 



National Recreation Association 

Incorporated 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
January I, 1932 thru December 31, 1932 



General Fund Balance December 31, 1931 $ 10,380.51 

INCOME 

Contributions $209,372.09 

Contributions for Specific Work 5,553-51 

Interest and Dividends on Endowment Funds 8,891.25 

Interest and Dividends on Frances Ross Poley Fund. . . . 310.00 

Bank Interest 129.71 

Recreation Sales, Subscriptions and Advertising 6,361.49 

Badge Sales 2,035.28 

Special Publication Sales 9,779.92 

Business Operations 2,420.93 

International Recreation Congress 7,706.48 252,560.66 

262,941.17 

EXPENDITURES 

Community Recreation Field Service $157,452.40 

Field Service to Colored Communities 13,970.84 

National Physical Education Service 12,628.08 

Correspondence and Consultation Bureau 26,893.59 

Physical Efficiency Tests Boys' and Girls' Badges 1,507.27 

Publications and Bulletin Service 15,244.45 

Recreation 16,310.25 

Recreation Congress 2,528.30 

Play in Institutions 2,12646 

International Recreation Congress 1932 11,354.68 

Recreation Service to Real Estate Developments 6,768.68 266,785.00 

Excess of Expenditures, December 31, 1932 3,843.83 

Loan from Emergency Reserve Fund 20.000.00 

16,156.17 
Commitments December 31, 1932 32,662.10 

KATHERINE F. BARKER MEMORIAL FIELD SECRETARY ON 
ATHLETICS AND RECREATION FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS 

Balance December 31, 1931 $ 2,756.03 

Receipts to December 31, 1932 6,500.00 

Expenditures to December 31, 1932 4,79i 44 $ 4.464.59 



96 



FRANCIS J. TORRANCE MEMORIAL FIELD SECRETARY 
FOR PLAY IN INSTITUTIONS 

Balance December 31, 1931 $ 1,063.11 

Receipts to December 31, 1932 1,632.00 



2,695.11 
Expenditures to December 31, 1932 2,695.1 1 



STABILIZATION FUND PROJECT 

Balance December 31, 1931 $ 6,429.89 

Expenditures to December 31, 1932 6,429.89 



MASSACHUSETTS PROJECT FOR CONSERVING STANDARDS 
OF CITIZENSHIP 

Receipts to December 31, 1932 $ 1,000.00 

Expenditures to December 31, 1932 595. 19 $ 404.81 



RECAPITULATION 

BALANCES December 31, 1931 

General Fund $ 10,380.51 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Field Secretary on Ath- 
letics and Recreation for Women and Girls 2,756.03 

Francis J. Torrance Memorial Field Secretary for Play 

in Institutions 1,063 1 1 

Stabilization Fund Project 6,429.89 $ 20.629.54 



INCOME to December 31, 1932 

General Fund $252,560.66 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Field Secretary on Ath- 261.692.66 

letics and Recreation for Women and Girls 6.500.00 

Francis J. Torrance Memorial Field Secretary for Play 

in Institutions 1,632.00 

Massachusetts Project for Conserving Standards of 

Citizenship 1 ,000.00 



Plus Loan from Emergency Reserve Fund to General $282,322.20 

Fund 20,000.00 



$302,322.20 

EXPENDITURES to December 31, 1932 

General Fund $266,785.00 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Field Secretary on Ath- 
letics and Recreation for Women and Girls 4,791.44 

Francis J. Torrance Memorial Field Secretary for Play 

in Institutions 2,695. 1 l 

Stabilization Fund Project 6,429.89 

Massachusetts Project for Conserving Standards of 

Citizenship 595-19 $281,296.63 

21,025.57 
97 



BALANCES December 31, 1932 

General Fund $ 16,156.17 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Field Secretary on Ath- 
letics and Recreation for Women and Girls 4,464.59 

Massachusetts Project for Conserving Standards of 

Citizenship 404.81 

COMMITMENTS December 31, 1932 

General Fund $ 32,662.00 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Field Secretary on Ath- 
letics and Recreation for Women and Girls 4,464.59 

Massachusetts Project for Conserving Standards of 

Citizenship 404.81 

ENDOWMENT AND RESERVE FUNDS 

Special Fund (Action of 1910) $ 25,000.00 

Lucy Tudor Hillyer Fund 5,000.00 

Emil C. Bondy Fund i,ooo.oc 

George L. Sands Fund 12,546.37 

''In Memory of J. I. Lamprecht" 3.000.00 

"In Memory of Barney May" 500.00 

"In Memory of Waldo E. Forbes" 1,403.02 

Frances Ross Poley Memorial Fund (x) 6,000.00 

Ellen Mills Borne Fund 3,000.00 

Other Gifts 175.00 

C. H. T. Endowment Fund 500.00 

Frances Alooney Fund i ,000.00 

Sarah Newlin Fund 500.00 

"In Memory of William Simes" 2,000.00 

"In Memory of J. R. Jr." 250.00 

Frances R. Morse Fund 2,000.00 

Emergency Reserve Fund $154,975.00 

Loaned to General Fund 20,000.00 134x575.00 

Loss and Gain on Sale of Securities 2,573.50 

Ella Van Peyma Fund 500.00 

Nettie G. Naumburg Fund 2,000.00 

"In Memory of William J. Matheson" 5,000.00 

Alice B. P. Hannahs Fund i ,400.00 

"In Memory of Daniel Guggenheim" 1,000.00 

"In Memory of Alfred W. Heinsheimer" 5,000.00 

Nellie L. Coleman Fund i oo.oo 

Received during 1932 : 

Elizabeth B. Kelsey Fund 



21.025.57 



37,531.40 



$216,422.89 



500.00 



$216.922.89 
(x) Restricted. 

I have audited the accounts of the National Recreation Association for the fiscal year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1932 and certify that in my opinion the above statement is a true and correct statement of the 
financial transactions of the General, Special Study, and Endowment Funds for the period 

(Signed) J F CALVERT, 

Certified Public Accountant 



98 



National Recreation Association 

Incorporated 

formerly named PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 
315 Fourth Avenue, New York City 



OFFICERS 



JOSEPH LEE, President 

JOHN H. FINLEY, First Vice-President 

JOHN G. WINANT, Second Vice-President 



ROBERT GARRETT, Third Vice-President 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, Treasurer 
H. S. BRAUCHER, Secretary 



DIRECTORS 



MRS. EDWARD W. BIDDLE 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania 

WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH 
Moline, Illinois 

CLARENCE M. CLARK 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

HENRY L. CORBETT 
Portland, Oregon 

MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER 
Jacksonville, Florida 

F. THUBEE DAVISON 

Locust Valley, New York 

MRS. THOMAS A. EDISON 
West Orange, New Jersey 

JOHN H. FINLEY 
New York, N. Y. 

HUGH FRAYNE 
New York, N. Y. 

ROBERT GARRETT 
Baltimore, Maryland 

AUSTIN E. GRIFFITHS 
Seattle, Washington 

WILLIAM HALE HARKNESS 
New York. N. Y. 

CHARLES HAYDEN 
New York, N. Y. 

MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX 
Michigan City, Indiana 

MRS. FRANCIS DELACY HYDE 
Plainfield, New Jersey 

GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY 
New York, N. Y. 



H. McK. LANDON 
Indianapolis, Indiana 

MRS. CHARLES D. LANIER 
Greenwich, Connecticut 

ROBERT LASSITER 

Charlotte, North Carolina 

JOSEPH LEE 

Boston, Massachusetts 

EDWARD E. LOOMIS 
New York, N. Y. 

J. H. McCURDY 

Springfield, Massachusetts 

OTTO T. MALLERY 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

WALTER A. MAY 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

CARL E. MILLIKEN 
Augusta, Maine 

MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS 
Washington. D. C. 

FREDERICK S. TITSWORTH 
New York, N. Y. 

MRS. JAMES W. WADSWORTH, JR. 
Washington, D. C. 

J. C. WALSH 

New York, N. Y. 

FREDERICK M. WARBURG 
New York. N. Y. 

JOHN G. WINANT 

Concord, New Hampshire 

MRS. WILLIAM H. WOODIN, JR. 
Plainfield, New Jersey 



99 



DR. STUART ADLER 

Rock Island, Illinois 
DAVID ALEXANDER 

Akron, Ohio 
RAY STANNARD BAKER 

Amherst, Massachusetts 
MRS. GEORGE D. BASRON 

Rye, New York 
A. T. BELL 

Atlantic City, New Jersey 
MRS. EDWARD C. BENCH 

Englewood, New Jersey 
NATHAN D. BILL 

Springfield, Massachusetts 
GEORGE F. BOOTH 

Worcester, Massachusetts 
ANNA H. BORDEN 

Fall River, Massachusetts 
JOHN R. BRINLEY 

Morristown, New Jersey 
RICHARD E. BYRD 

Boston, Massachusetts 
G. HERBERT CARTER 

Huntington, New York 
MRS. JULIAN C. CHASE 

Tarrytown, New York 
MRS. GEORGE EDWARDS CLEMENT 

Peterboro, New Hampshire 
CHARLES M. Cox 

Boston, Massachusetts 
WINTHROP M. CRANE, JR. 

Dalton, Massachusetts 
Z. MARSHALL CRANE 

Dalton, Massachusetts 
JULIAN W. CURTISS 

Greenwich, Connecticut 
HENRY L. DEFOREST 

Plainfield, New Jersey 
MRS. JOHN W. DONALDSON 

Irvington-on-Hudson, New York 
CLYDE DOYLE 

Long Beach, California 
MRS. S. S. DRURY 

Concord, New Hampshire 

MRS COLEMAN DU PONT 

Wilmington, Delaware 
MRS. A. FELIX DU PONT 

Wilmington, Delaware 
MRS. E. P. EARLE 

Montclair, New Jersey 
MRS D. E. F. EASTON 

San Francisco, California 
JOHN ERSKINE 

New York, New York 
MRS. IRVING FISHER 

New Haven, Connecticut 
MRS. PAUL FrrzSiMONs 

Newport, Rhode Island 
MRS RALPH E. FORBES 

Milton, Massachusetts 
ROBERT A. GARDNER 

Chicago, Illinois 
CHAP.LES C. GEORGE 

Omaha, Nebraska 
CHARLES W. GILKEY 

Chicago, Illinois 
THOMAS K. GLENN 

Atlanta, Georgia 
MRS. CHARLES C. GLOVER, JR. 

Washington, D. C. 
C. M. GOETHE 

Sacramento, California 
REX B. GOODCELL 

Los Angeles, California 
MRS. CHARLES A. GOODWIN 
Hartford, Connecticut 

100 



HONORARY MEMBERS 

CHARLES W. GORDON 

St. Paul, Minnesota 
WILLIAM GREEN 

Washington, D. C. 
FRANKLIN T. GRIFFITH 

Portland, Oregon 
MRS. NORMAN HARROWER 

Fitchburg, Massachusetts 
MRS. S. H. HARTSHORN 

Short Hills, New Jersey 
ELLEN R. HATHAWAY 

New Bedford, Massachusetts 
MRS. F. R. HAZARD 

Syracuse, New York 
DOROTHY HEROY 

Stamford, Connecticut 
MRS. WILLIAM G. HIBBARD 

Winnetka, Illinois 
MRS. FRANCIS L. HIGGINSON 

Boston, Massachusetts 
MRS. ALBERT W. HOLMES 

New Bedford, Massachusetts 
MRS. HOWARD R. IVES 

Portland, Maine 
H. H. JACOBS 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
MRS. ERNEST KANZLER 

Detroit, Michigan 
HELEN KELLER 

Forest Hills, New York 
JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG 

Battle Creek, Michigan 
MRS. WILLIAM KENT 

Kentfield, California 
WILLARD V. KING 

New York, N. Y. 
TULLY C. KNOLES 

Stockton, California 
A. H. LANCE 

Kenosha, Wisconsin 
WILLIAM LAWRENCE 

Boston, Massachusetts 
PHILIP LEBOUTILLIER 

New York, N. Y. 
ALICE LEE 

San Diego, California 

LUCIUS N. LlTTAUER 

New Rochelle, New York 
SETH Low 

New York, N. Y. 
MRS. Louis C. MADEIRA 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
HENRY L. MAYER 

San Francisco, California 
JOHN W. McCLURE 

Memphis, Tennessee 
MRS. F. O. MCCOLLOCH 

Los Angeles, California 
GEORGE A. McKiNNEY 

Alton, Illinois 
SUMNER T. MCKNIGHT 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 
CHARLES G. MIDDLETON 

Louisville, Kentucky 
CHARLES M. MILLER 

Mount Vernon, New York 
JOHN F. MOORS 

Boston, Massachusetts 
CHARLES NAGEL 

St. Louis, Missouri 
ROY B. NAYLOR 

Wheeling, West Virginia 
F. GORDON OSLER 

Toronto, Canada 
MARY PARSONS 

Lenox, Massachusetts 



CHARLES PEEBLES 

Hamilton, Canada 
DANIEL POLING 

New York, N. Y. 
ARTHUR POUND 

New Scotland, New York 
HERBERT L. PRATT 

New York, N. Y. 
WILLIAM COOPER PROCTER 

Cincinnati, Ohio 
FREDERICK H. RIKE 

Dayton, Ohio 
MRS. R. SANFORD RILEY 

Worcester, Massachusetts 
MRS. THEODORE DOUGLAS ROBINSON 

Mohawk, New York 

MRS. WlLLOUGHBY RODMAN 

Los Angeles, California 
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT 

Washington, D. C. 
THEODORE ROOSEVELT 

Oyster Bay, New York 
DAVID H. Ross 

Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 
MRS. HENRY H. SANGER 

Grosse Pointe, Michigan 
C. M. SCHENCK 

Denver, Colorado 
BENJAMIN J. SHOVE 

Syracuse, New York 
MRS ALBERT G. SIMMS 

Washington, D. C. 
MRS. JAMES R. SMART 

Evanston, Illinois 
JOHN D. SPENCER 

Salt Lake City, Utah 
M. LYLE SPENCER 

Seattle, Washington 
ALFRED J. SPORBORG 

Albany, New York 
A. A. SPRAGUE 

Chicago, Illinois 
ROBERT GORDON SPROUL 

Berkeley, California 
MRS. O. A. STALLINGS 

New Orleans, Louisiana 
FLORENCE M. STERLING 

Houston, Texas 
MRS. SIGMUND STERN 

San Francisco, California 
MRS. S. EMLEN STOKES 

Moorestown, New Jersey 
HAROLD H. SWIFT 

Chicago, Illinois 
LORADO TAFT 

Chicago, Illinois 
BENJAMIN THAW 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
MRS. FRANCIS J. TORRANCE 

Sewickley, Pennsylvania 
W. L. WARD 

Port Chester, New York 
WILLIAM B. WATSON 

Toronto, Canada 
RIDLEY WATTS 

Morristown, New Jersey 
C. S. WESTON 

Scranton, Pennsylvania 
DWIGHT C. WHEELER 

Bridgeport, Connecticut 
MRS. THOMAS G. WINTER 

Pasadena, California 
STEPHEN S. WISE 

New York, N. Y. 
HENRY YOUNG 

Newark, New Jersey 




There are facilities for both indoor 
and outdoor play at Alhambra's center. 



World at Play 



, ALHAMBRA, Cali- 

Alhambra s Community , . , 

forma, now boasts of 
Recreation Center , . , iU 

having one ot the 

finest community cen- 
ters in the West. Last year the city purchased 
the property from the Alhambra Athletic and 
Country Club for $25,000, in this way securing 
a center which could not be duplicated for several 
times this amount. The site covers more than 
five acres. Facilities include a community build- 
ing with auditorium, gymnasiums and club rooms, 
a battery of two concrete tennis courts, athletic 
and baseball fields, handball courts, and a child- 
ren's playground. Claude C. Downing, Super- 
visor of Recreation, is in charge of the activities 
of the building. 



A Social Recreation 
Institute in Columbus 



THE report of the 
Social Recreation 
Leadership Institute 
held in Columbus, 

Ohio, December, 1932-January, 1933, compiled 
by the director of the institute, G. de Sole Neal, 
is significant as indicating the growing interest 
in training of this type. One hundred and twenty- 
one organizations were represented of which 47 
were churches. The total attendance was 723; 
the average attendance at each of the six sessions, 
120.5. Of the enrollment 47.5 per cent were men, 
52.5 per cent women. Thirty-nine per cent of 
those attending did not miss a single night; 22 
per cent missed only one night. This is a parti- 



cularly good record in view of the fact that 
there was a heavy snowstorm on the night of the 
second session and that two of the meetings came 
during the Christmas and New Year holidays. 



Playgrounds 
in Phoenix 



AS a demonstration 
of the need for org- 
anized playgrounds, 
the Maricopa County 

Council of Parent-Teacher Associations with a 
supporting recreation council representing local 
groups, has established in Phoenix, Arizona, 19 
play centers. These centers are operated on Satur- 
day mornings between 9:00 and 12:00. Leader- 
ship is provided by 72 majors in physical educa- 
tion at Tempe College who receive credit for 
their field service, and 26 junior high school 
physical education majors who are also given 
credit for the work. In addition, 150 Parent- 
Teacher workers serve on a rotating basis in 
groups of 36 each Saturday as helpers at the 
various centers. All workers are volunteers. Four 
thousand children appeared the first Saturday 
the playgrounds were opened. 



Home Play Contests 
in Los Angeles 



THE development of 
back yards of Los 
.Angeles, California, 
into playgrounds 

where children and parents may enjoy playtime 
hours is the object of a city-wide back yard" 
playground contest held under the joint sponsor- 

101 



102 



WORLD AT PLAY 



"Recreation 
and Unemployment 11 

A publication of interest to all individuals 
and groups concerned with keeping up the 
morale of the unemployed. 

The booklet tells what a number of com- 
munity groups are doing to meet the 
problem, how buildings of all kinds are 
being used as recreation centers, and de- 
scribes the activities conducted. Plans for 
organization are suggested and information 
given regarding the made work program 
through which many cities are increasing 
their recreation facilities. 



PRICE $.25 

National Recreation Association 

315 FOURTH AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



ship of the tenth district Parent-Teacher Federa- 
tion and the Playground and Recreation Depart- 
ment. Parents throughout the city are being urged 
to develop their yards as recreation centers to 
provide safe play areas for their children and 
recreational facilities for all members of the 
family. To make it possible for everyone who 
has a back yard to enter the contest, rules of 
competition have divided the event into four 
classes. In the first class will be entered back 
yard playgrounds developed without any expense ; 
in the second, those costing less than $5 ; in the 
third those costing less than $15; and in the 
fourth, those created at a cost of more than $15. 

Recreation Leadership Training in Pitts- 
burgh A total of 350 people enrolled in a recent 
leadership training course held in Pittsburgh un- 
der the auspices of a number of local organiza- 
tions. Two hundred and thirty-five of these were 
interviewed for placement and by February 8th, 
221 had been placed. These volunteers have not 
been organized into a club but it is hoped to have 
meetings at intervals of four to six weeks to 
maintain the interest of the volunteers. 

Kiwanis Clubs and Recreation A letter has 



been sent from the Kiwanis Governor's head- 
quarters of Indiana to each of the seventy 
Kiwanis Clubs in the state urging them to pro- 
mote at least some of the following activities: 
playgrounds, athletic leagues, contests, picnics, 
community programs and club or inter-club ac- 
tivities, such as golf, picnics, ball games, horse- 
shoe tournaments, minstrels and quartets. An 
award has been offered to the club promoting 
the largest number of recreational projects. Mr. 
G. G. Eppley, City Recreation Director of Evans- 
ville, is in charge of this activity of the Kiwanis 
Clubs. 

A Music Festival for Colored Citizens On 
February 27th the colored citizens of Charlotte, 
North Carolina, brought to a climax a recreation 
institute and music festival in a musical perform- 
ance given in the Charlotte armory. So successful 
was the festival that it was necessary to repeat 
it on March 5th. A crowded house heard the 
singers. The result has been that the radio station 
has asked for a regular series of broadcasts at 
9:30 each Wednesday night. This program, 
sponsored by the Charlotte Park and Recreation 
Commission and known as the "Southland 
Singers," will feature Negro spirituals, folk songs 
and southern melodies. A chorus of from twenty 
to twenty-five voices will be used and some of the 
city's best Negro soloists will be introduced. 

A Twenty-fifth Anniversary This year Wil- 
liam G. Champlin, Chief of the Bureau of Recrea- 
tion of Philadelphia, is celebrating his twenty- 
fifth anniversary in the recreation movement. In 
1909 Mayor Reyburn appointed a Playground 
Commission to study the recreation needs of 
Philadelphia and Mr. Champlin was elected 
Secretary. As a result of the work which he did 
in gathering information, the City Councils ap- 
pointed a Playground Commission, Department 
of the Mayor. In January, 1911, through an act 
of the State Assembly, a Department of Recrea- 
tion under the Mayor was created, and Mr. 
Champlin was elected as Executive Secretary, a 
position which he held for nine years. In 1920 
a new charter was adopted placing the Depart- 
ment of Recreation under the Department of 
Public Welfare, known as the Bureau of Recre- 
ation. Mr. Champlin continued to retain his title 
of Executive Secretary and in February, 1931, 
was elected Chief of the Bureau. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



103 



Not only Philadelphia has benefited by Mr. 
Champlin's wide knowledge of construction 
problems and similar matters; he has always 
generously given his help to other cities seeking 
information. We extend our heartiest congratula- 
tions to Mr. Champlin on the completion of his 
twenty-five years of useful service. 

"Fishermen's Luck" The Department of 
Public Playgrounds and Recreation of Reading, 
Pennsylvania, has issued a bulletin giving inform- 
ation regarding brook trout, brown trout and bass 
streams in the vicinity of Reading. The bulletin 
suggests how these fishing grounds may be 
reached and gives the names of the wardens. 

In Fond du Lac Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, is 
to have a natural theatre and outdoor gymnasium 
for boys and girls constructed in the grove at the 
rear of the senior high school. The stage will be 
built near the river with a natural earth shell as 
background. Seats will be located on the op- 
posite bank of the river where the bank will be 
terraced down through the streams. The outdoor 
gymnasium will include three soft ball courts and 
three tennis courts, and excess earth to be ac- 
quired from dredging the river will be used for 
constructing a mound along the side of a football 
field which will be terraced as a grand stand. This 
project will give employment to 150 men taken 
from the relief list. The only actual cash outlay 
will be for the tools used. 

Vocational Classes in Toledo Vocational 
classes have been included in the program at the 
city recreation center at Toledo, Ohio. In response 
to newspaper announcements, 520 young men and 
women of an average age of twenty-three regis- 
tered without charge for classes in radio and auto- 
mobile mechanics, journalism, public speaking, 
woodworking, sewing and music. There are also 
two dramatic groups, one for children and one 
for adults. Volunteer leaders are in charge, in- 
cluding members of the public school staff and 
an editor of one of the newspapers. 

Boys' Clubs Boys' clubs in the United States 
increased their membership by 7 per cent in 1932, 
though their income was reduced by 12 per cent, 
according to statistics from the New York head- 
quarters of the affiliated Boys' Clubs of America. 



Enchanted Island" 

at Chicago's great Century 
of Progress will be equipped 
exclusively with 




LOUDEN 

PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT 

/COUNTLESS thousands of happy children will 
^^ thrill to the delights of the perfect play- 
ground with its endless variety of entertaining 
features. These same Louden devices sturdy, 
safe, popular and inviting are available for 
your own playgrounds AT THE LOWEST 
COST IN THE HISTORY OF PLAY- 
GROUND EQUIPMENT! It is good business 
to add new equipment or replace the old NOW. 

Countless thousands of Fair visitors also, 
young and old, will enjoy 
the excitement, thrills, fun 
and hilarious sport provided 
by Louden Water Equip- 
ment at the "Century of 
Progress" beach concessions 
the kind of equipment 
that draws enormous crowds 
and pays its own way with 
a handsome profit besides. 
It will do the same at your 
own waterside amusement 
places. 

Your own community de- 
serves equipment just as fine 
and sturdy and entertaining as that which the 
"Century of Progress" will afford to its guests. 

Write for complete information on Louden 
Playground. Beach and Pool Equipment 

J. E. PORTER CORPORATION 

118 Broadway .... Ottawa, Ills. 




104 



WORLD AT PLAY 



Be Sure to Get Details on 

NEW "Free Glide" Shuffleboard 

Free-Glide Shuffleboard equipment has in- 
creased the already popular appeal of Shuf- 
fleboard. Will not warp or break and is 
amazingly low in cost. Write today for 
complete information, instructions how to 
install and extremely low prices. 

The H. G. Cress Co. 

Box NR-33 Troy, Ohio. 



Recreation Center in Santa Barbara Con- 
tinues to Function Though the recreation cen- 
ter of Santa Barbara, California, will no longer 
receive financial support from the Community 
Chest, it will continue to operate on funds re- 
ceived through contributions. The report for 1932 
states that during the year an average of 500 
people a day made use of the recreation center 
buildings. Of this number three-fifths, or about 
300 per day, took part in the community house 
activities carried on by the recreation center under 
the leadership of its own staff of workers. These 
activities took place in the club rooms, a gym- 
nasium, on the tennis court, the outdoor play- 
ground, in the workshop, the sewing class, the 
dramatic and puppetry classes, the play school for 
little children and the emergency rooms for 
women. The remaining two-fifths of the people 
who came to the recreation center during the past 
year made use of the public rooms available to 
them at practically the cost of operation. 

Eighth Seminar in Mexico The Committee 
on Cultural Relations with Latin America, 112 
East igth Street, New York City, announces that 
the Eighth Seminar in Mexico held under its 
auspices will meet July 8th to July 28. There will 
be a three weeks' program of lectures, round 
tables and field trips planned to give a compre- 
hensive introduction to Mexico. Requests for 
further information should be addressed to 
Hubert C. Herring, Director. 



Educational Guide Books 

Handbooks for Parents and Teachers 
PRIVATE SCHOOLS .... 17th Edition. 1100 pagft 

SUMMER CAMPS 10th Edition. 800 pagJ 

PRIVATE SCHOOL TEACHERS . In Edition. 798 pagri 
ANY OF THE ABOVE $6.00 (prepaid) 

Circuital and sample pagn fret on rtqunt 

PORTER SARSENT 
1 1 BEACON STREET BOSTON. MASS. 



A Training Course for Camp Counselors 
A training course for camp counselors will be 
held under the auspices of the Children's Welfare 
Federation from June 22nd to 25th at North- 
over Camp, Bound Brook, New Jersey. Karl D. 
Hesley, Director of social activities, Henry 
Street Settlement, will be director of the course. 
Instruction and practice will be provided in nature 
study, music, story telling, athletics and games, 
aquatics, crafts and hobbies. A special feature 
this year will be a conference of camp directors 
to be held on one afternoon to discuss objectives 
and methods for training counselors while at 
camp. Further information may be secured from 
Dr. M. Alice Asserson, Children's Welfare 
Federation, 386 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

Securing Handcraft Supplies With practi- 
cally no funds available in the budget for buying 
materials for handcraft, the Park and Recreation 
Board of Birmingham, Alabama, has been obliged 
to turn to private sources. All the paint necessary 
for the handcraft program has been secured by 
appeals to wholesale paint dealers. Lumber and 
cloth have been obtained through the generosity of 
local wholesale dealers in these supplies. 

Last summer handcraft was particularly stress- 
ed on the playgrounds of Orangeburg, South Car- 
olina, and at the end of the season an exhibition 
was held. The articles were made at practically 
no cost to the department for materials. Wooden 
crates, bottles, jugs and old magazines were uti- 
lized, and the glass for the framed pictures was 
gleaned from the discarded pieces from one of 
the studios. Alany of the mills gave lumber scraps. 

At the New Bedford Playgrounds Under 
the leadership of many volunteers working under 
the direction of two paid experienced workers, 
the playgrounds of New Bedford, Massachusetts, 
last summer had a busy and successful season. 
Each day 2500 children nocked to the park and 
play centers. At first it seemed that six centers 
would meet the needs but it soon became necessary 
to open two more. Activities of all kinds filled 
the days. Horseshoes and quoits were popular. 
Fearing accidents to small boys through the use 
of metal quoits, Chief of Police McLeod made up 
sets of rope quoits. By splicing rope into rings, 
wrapping each piece of rope with twine and put- 
ting on a coat of shellac, a solid but non-bruising 
quoit was evolved. In addition to the three sets 



WORLD AT PLAY 



105 



of quoits presented each playground, Chief Mc- 
Leod made up standards and pegs to go with 
them, painting the base-board red and the goal 
pegs aluminum. Many merchants and individuals 
donated materials, but time and skill were the 
chief contribution, for under the supervision of 
the two paid leaders, a total of 185 young women 
and 148 young men gave some service on the 
playgrounds during the two summer months. 

Dramatics on the Austin Playgrounds 
There were dramatic clubs last summer on each 
of the playgrounds of Austin, Texas. Three di- 
visions of clubs were organized for girls, for 
boys and for adults. The first city-wide drama 
tournament was held in 1932 with the three divi- 
sions from each ground represented in age classi- 
fications. These divisions were ten to fifteen 
years, fifteen to eighteen years, and eighteen and 
over. On each playground as a part of the drama 
program the children worked with puppets. They 
would choose a story, model the heads of the pup- 
pets out of clay or make papier-mache heads, and 
then make the bodies, dress them and string them 
for use. Stage settings, properties and the design 
of the screen were worked out by the individual 
playgrounds, and each playground prepared a 
play for a special puppet tournament held July 
1 8th, i Qth and 2Oth. 

Puppetry has come, in a number of cities, to be 
one of the most fascinating of playground pro- 
jects, and it may be carried on at little cost. 

A Drama Festival Early in March adult 
drama clubs of eleven Los Angeles, California, 
city playgrounds held their first annual municipal 
drama festival under the auspices of the Play- 
ground and Recreation Department. Each of the 
eleven clubs entered one act plays in the tour- 
nament and district competion in four sections of 
the city was scheduled, the winner in each district 
competing in the tournament finals on April nth. 
Members of the advanced drama class of the Los 
Angeles Junior College served as judges. Arrange- 
ments were made whereby all the presentations 
might be witnessed by the public free of charge. 

Drama Clubs Compete For Honors Adult 
drama clubs of n Los Angeles city playgrounds 
held in April their first annual municipal drama 
festival under the auspices of the City Playground 
and Recreation Department. Each of the 1 1 clubs 
entered one act plays in the tournament, and dis- 
trict competition was scheduled in 4 sections of 



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106 



WORLD AT PLAY 



Special Certificates and College Degrees 
for Students and Teachers of 

Physical Education and Athletic Coaching 

PENN STATE SUMMER SESSION 

July 6 to August 15 

Graduate courses in Health and Physical Education leading 
to standard advanced degrees. Undergraduate courses leading 
to baccalaureate degree. Special courses in Athletic Coaching 
for men and women. Beautiful location in heart of Alle- 
gheny Mountains. 

Special Bulletin on Request 

Address Director of Summer Session 

The Pennsylvania State College 

STATE COLLEGE, PA. 



the city, with the winner in each district compet- 
ing in the tournament finals at Echo Community 
Center. Members of the advanced dramatic class 
of the Los Angeles junior club served as judges. 
All presentations were witnessed by the public 
free of charge. 

An Annual Demonstration Early in April 
the recreation center of Peoria, Illinois held its 
annual demonstration in the City Armory which 
was packed with about 5000 people. There was 
an elaborate exhibit of articles made by girls and 
women including sewing, quilt making, crocheting, 
plaque work, flower making, sketching, painting 
and cartoon making. In the woodwork exhibit 
prepared by the men there were lamp stands, 
piano stools, small book cases, book ends, and 
tables. 



PLAY LEADERS! 

Write for information about the GAME and 
HANDICRAFT GUILD a national movement 
sponsoring arts, crafts and games. . . . 

Your boys and girls will want to join. Membership -free to 
all; membership pins offered; awards to winners in a variety 
of contests open to individuals and groups. 

Get the new game Tell me .... SPEAR'S latest 
questions and answers. Full of thrills. Instructions easily 
mastered. Ideal for home, parties and clubs and recreation 
centers, and for old and young. 

Ask your dealer for it. If he does not have it, write the 
GAME and HANDICRAFT GUILD. 206 West 1 04th Street, 
New York City. 

Sponsored by 

J. W. SPEAR &> SONS, INC., New York City 

Price $.50 plus postage 



The recreation center oand and orchestra of 
eighty pieces played, and there were solo numbers. 
Over 700 girls and women, ranging in age from 
6 to 72 years, gave an exhibition of drills and 
exercises. One member of the class who has had 
a perfect attendance record recently celebrated 
her 72nd birthday. 

The Bloomfield Symphony Orchestra On 
April 2nd the Bloomfield Symphony Orchestra 
held its closing concert in the high school audito- 
rium. Between 800 and 900 people attended the 
concert, among them the Mayor, the City Council, 
and members of the Recreation Commission. The 
orchestra, which has grown to 72 pieces, has made 
remarkable progress since its first concert. 

New Tennis Court Regulations In order to 
regulate play at the Los Angeles, California, mu- 
nicipal tennis courts so that a large number of 
people may enjoy the facilities, the Department of 
Playground and Recreation has limited the use of 
courts to adults on Saturdays and holidays and 
other days before 8 :oo A. M. and after 5 :oo P. M. 
As an exception to the new ruling, it was decided 
that children would be permitted to use the courts 
at any time when playing tennis with their parents. 
Another new regulation provides that tennis 
courts be subdivided into three groups for the use 
of beginners, good players and experts, with play- 
ers in each classification being requested to play 
in the group which most closely fits their tennis 
ability. 

Social Centers Close in Passaic The winter 
program at the five social centers maintained by 
the City Recreation Department of Passaic, New 
Jersey, closed the last week in March. These 
centers had been staffed by over twenty unem- 
ployed. Two of them were open five nights a 
week, the others two and three nights a week. 
The average daily registration, including both 
young men and women, was 716. 

Camp Rates Reduced To make outdoor va- 
cations possible this summer for families of limit- 
ed means, a drastic cut in fees charged for the 
use of municipal mountain camps has been an- 
nounced by the Los Angeles, California, Play- 
ground and Recreation Department. At Camp 
Seeley the slash in rates ranges from 28 per cent 
for adults to 50 per cent for small children. At 
Camp Sierra the reduction is from 20 per cent for 
adults to 60 per cent for little children. Under the 



WORLD AT PLAY 



107 



If you need DANCE MATERIAL for use in 
FESTIVAL : PROGRAM : CLASS : CAMP 

you will be interested in the following: 
DANCE STUDIES ANALYZED A booklet of directions for 

fourteen group dances for use in class or program $1.00. 
SLEEPING BEAUTY Original and effective mnsic for a dance 

drama. Complete in nineteen pages $2.00. 
MOODS OF THE NATIONS Original music for a ierie of 
dances in folk spirit. Nine pages $1.00. 

This and other material at reasonable pricel. 

For further information address the Dance Drama 

Committee, Women's Building, Corvallis, Oregon 



new schedule of fees it will be possible for an 
adult to enjoy the use of all camp facilities at 
Seeley and receive meals and lodging for $1.45 
a day. 

Evansville's Community Meetings The 
monthly community meetings held in Evansville, 
Indiana, under the auspices of the Department of 
Municipal Recreation, have been continued with 
great success. The meetings are held in the coli- 
seum seating about 5,000 people and a program 
of local talent is presented. The admission charge 
of five cents for two people has made it possible 
to pay all expenses. A visitor attending one of the 
programs stated : "An hour and a half before the 
program started the doors were opened and people 
were coming in. When the program started the 
seats were all filled and over a thousand people 
were obliged to stand. I do not know that I have 
ever seen such splendid community spirit." 

Raising Funds For Leadership The Min- 
nesota Municipalities for April reports that the 
American Legion of Minneapolis, Minnesota, has 
undertaken the raising of funds to furnish one 
instructor for each of the thirty-three playgrounds 
to be opened this summer. Under this plan volun- 
teer assistants will be provided the paid workers. 

At Skid Road Recreation Center From 
October 19, 1932, when the center was established, 
to January 19, 1933, 200,000 homeless men, an 
average of approximately 2,800 a week, have re- 
gistered at the Skid Road Recreation Center main- 
tained for unemployed men by the Seattle, Wash- 
ington, Park Department. Here husky woodsmen 
and salt bronzed seamen read, play games, hold 
"gab fests" or just rest. Since the hall opened, 
Chief of Police L. L. Norton, announced, arrests 
for disorderly conduct a good fight or drunken- 
ness have been cut in half at Skid Road. Cheap 
burlesque shows, shooting galleries and pool 
rooms are bewailing their patronage loss since the 



For Camp Directors 

THE GIRLS' CAMP 

By ABBIE GRAHAM 
$1.50 

" 'THE GIRLS' CAMP' will prove of great in- 
terest, value and stimulation to all men and women 
active in camping, whether as Director, Adminis- 
trator or Counselor." Camping Magazine. 

"In this book MissGraham has done a stimulat- 
ing and needed thing She has fused the demand 
for technical skill in camping with the magic lure 
of outdoor life. As those who read her other books 
know, Miss Graham gives romance and color to 
anything which she writes. But she adds also a 
practical note and discusses the educational back- 
ground upon which all program planning must 
take place." International Journal of Religious 
Education. 

Everyone needing to be in any sense an artist 
in human relations should read this book. 

THE WOMANS PRESS 

600 LEXINGTON AVENUE . NEW YORK. N. Y. 



Journal of 
Physical Education 

Leading Articles on 
Important Topics 

relating to recreation 
and physical education 
including . . . 

PHILOSOPHY 

POLICIES 

PROGRAM FEATURES 

VOLLEY BALL 

SWIMMING 

SOFTBALL 

LEADERSHIP 



347 MADISON AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



Price $3.00 



nd Canada S3. 25 



Single copies, 35c. 



108 



WORLD AT PLAY 



WATER STUNTS 
CHART 




.16 



^. 

0Y SCULLING WITH HANDS Oft* 
HfAO AND SPatAO APART, PfKfOtfi 

A semes OF eAC*.w*/ro sone/UAum 

WITH BOOT IH iXVOt/r POSITION. 
/HHALC OtfiCKL* THffOUGH MOUTH 
WHtM FACf COMtS TO SUfffACf, KEEP 
WATCff FROM MOSC OY 3LOW 
EXHALATION BELOW 




. 

SCULL ON BACK, IMHALE; LifT one 
ifo no VERTICAL Ms/r/oM ret potnreo. 
SCULL HUMS ruanfe UP, KCCP MOVING 

fOAWAAO AHO SLOWLY SUff^tffQE. 

Paoenejs SfVEK/u. YAMS unvtrowmi 
MCfUP; THFN SCUU. fHLMS ffOWM 

p.i3e SLOWLY Lee FI*ST AS mam* 

OH SUIHARINC. . 



On heavy cardboard, coated 
with paraffin, ready to hang on 
wall in swimming pool, locker 
room, gymnasium, or out of 
doors. 



42 stunts diagrammed and de- 
scribed. See sample stunts 
above. Size of chart 16"xl2" 
6-ply yellow cardboard. 

Entertaining 

and 

Instructive 



Ready now; 50c. each; ten for 
two dollars. By mail, postpaid. 

SCHOLASTIC 
COACH BOOKSHOP 

155 EAST 44TH STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



center opened, and police records show there has 
been less drunkenness, fighting and general row- 
dyism in the neighborhood than at any similar 
period during the past three years and this in 
spite of the fact that at least three times as many 
men are wandering about Skid Road with nothing 
to do as there were three years ago. 

Pasadena's Annual Banquet On March 8th 
the Pasadena, California, Recreation Department 
held its tenth annual banquet. The reception and 
banquet were followed by a dance review. Then 
came the annual report presented by Cecil F. Mar- 
tin, director. Next the anniversary jamboree of 
rhythm, songs and "gags" was given. Kenyon J. 
Scudder, chief probation officer of Los Angeles 
County, gave an illustrated address, "The Juvenile 
Wanderer Arrives in Los Angeles." The evening 
closed with a grand march and dancing. 

An Experiment in School Forestry What 
will probably be the first school forest ever estab- 
lished in Rhode Island is to become a realty at the 
Hitty Corner Elementary School in the Town of 
West Greenwich, the smallest town in the state in 
population. The chairman of the school committee 
will give the town between four and five acres of 



Notable Swimming Pools and Guide 
To Equipment and Supplies 

A year-round reference book for 
swimming pools and other public 
bathing places. A bound volume. 
Contains, among other material, the 
Rules, Laws and Regulations of the 
various States and some cities. The 
Regulations were compiled by the 
Sanitary Engineering Department of 
the State of Illinois. 
In this volume every important 
phase of the swimming pool and 
beach is dealt with by outstanding 
engineers and municipal and State 
departments design, operation, con- 
struction, sanitation, maintenance, 



etc. 



Price $2.00 



ADDRESS 

NOTABLE SWIMMING POOLS and 
GUIDE to EQUIPMENT & SUPPLIES 

114 E. 32nd Street, New York, N. Y. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



109 



land adjacent to the school; the State Forestry 
Association will donate about 4,500 three year old 
trees, and the pupils of the school, under the di- 
rection of an expert forester, will plant and care 
for them. Title to the forest will rest in the town, 
but the school committee will be the official spon- 
sor of the project and the forest will be main- 
tained coming years by the succeeding groups of 
pupils who attend the little one room schoolhouse. 

Community Assemblies in the Philippine 
Islands One of the accomplishments of Theo- 
dore Roosevelt, an honorary member of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association, during his term of 
office as Governor General of the Philippine 
Islands was the organization of community as- 
semblies held once a month for adults. The first 
part of the program, as outlined in the report of 
the Governor General, consists of lectures, current 
events and an open forum. This is followed by 
folk dances, folk songs and musical numbers. 
The third part of the assembly may, if desired, be 
devoted to athletic games. 

Charlotte's Sunrise Service On Easter Sun- 
day the Charlotte Park and Recreation Commis- 
sion held its sixth annual sunrise service in the 
Open Air Theatre. A full Moravian service was 
held. The antiphonal playing of the band was 
most impressive. In spite of rain, 1200 people 
attended. 

The greater part of the community Good Fri- 
day service was broadcast this year. Walter Car- 
tier, Superintendent of the Commission, was in 
charge of the broadcast. 

A Serviceable Hockey Rink The Recreation 
Commission of South Orange, New Jersey, has 
installed a new concrete hockey rink with sloping 
sides which permit of its use as a wading pool. 
Last winter the children found a happy use for 
the rink when the area inside the boards was 
usurped by the smaller children as a roller skating 
rink, the section outside the boards by the older 
boys as a banked bicycle track. The Superintend- 
ent of Recreation, Mr. Joseph J. Farrell, planned 
a six day bicycle race for older children consisting 
of a one hour period each afternoon. The teams 
were made up of two boys alternating every ten 
minutes. This proved a very popular activity. 

Olympic Swimming Stadium Becomes a 
Recreation Center On May i3th the Los An- 
geles, California, swimming stadium was opened 




Brigfif 
Clean 



SUNSHINE 
FRESH AIR 



Keep playgrounds free from dust 
with Solvay Calcium Chloride . . . 

QROTECTING children at play is the aim 
r of the modern playground. How im- 
portant to protect them from the dan- 
gers and dirt in dust! It's so easy and 
it costs next to nothing. 

An application of Solvay Flake Calcium 
Chloride on gravel or earth surfaces 
effectively ends the dust nuisance. And 
Solvay Calcium Chloride kills germs. 
The photomicrographs pictured here 
show you the results. 347 cultures in the 
untreated dust. Only 3 in the same dust 
treated with Solvay Calcium Chloride. 





Germs 
in Dust 

Before treatment After treatment 

Make this a dustless outdoor season 
on your playgrounds. Send today for 
full information and booklet No. 1159. 

X^BX SOLVAY SALES CORPORATION 

L. wJ ] Alkalies and Chemical Products Manufac. 
VfcjjN^^J/ tured by The Solvay Process Company 
^^s 61 Broadway New York 

SOLVAY 

^_^ TRADE MARK REG U S. PAT OFF 

CALCIUM 
CHLORIDE 



FLAKE-77%-80% 



110 



WORLD AT PLAY 



In the Emperor's Garden 

A DELIGHTFUL PLAY for boys and girls of junior 
* * and senior high school age. 

Though peace propaganda is presented through fantasy, 
the application is clearly and beautifully made. Tab- 
leaux are used and if desired lighting effects may be ob- 
tained, although the play may be produced on the aver- 
age auditorium platform. It also lends itself to com- 
munity production. 

Price $.15 

NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 
315 Fourth Avenue New York City 



for public use as a municipal recreation center 
conducted by the Playground and Recreation De- 
partment. A gala swimming carnival and aquatic 
sports marked the opening. The stadium, first 
used for the Olympic Games, has since received 
additions and improvements to adapt it for recre- 
ational use. To provide for non-swimmers, a 
great semi-circular shallow pool has been built 
adjoining the deep water Olympic plunge. 

In spite of the many special features for swim- 
mers and divers, admission rates will be the same 
as at other municipal pools. Children under six- 
teen will be admitted for five cents, those from 



sixteen to twenty for ten cents and adults for 
twenty cents, with an extra charge of five cents in 
each case for the use of the city bathing suits. 

From Garage to Community Center A hun- 
dred jobless men in Pittsburgh have turned a 
dilapidated three-story garage into a community 
center. They have repaired the leaking roof, put 
in new flooring, electric wiring and plumbing, and 
have given the building a coat of paint to save its 
time worn walls. They have also built solid 
tables, benches and chairs, and converted the 
building into a comfortable gathering place for 
men who have previously found the streets their 
only center. Families of the men, too, have taken 
advantage of the center's opportunities. 

Through the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette the Pitts- 
burgh Community Council has issued an appeal 
for game supplies, puzzles and other equipment, 
and every city fire engine house is serving as a 
receiving station for the game supplies which are 
so greatly needed at the seventy-five community 
centers established during the past year by the 
Community Council's Recreation Committee. An 
average of 7,000 men and women each day are 
thronging these centers. 




Send for the bulletin de- 
scribing the events and 
rules for conducting them 
a copy may be secured 
free and secure a supply 
of the certification blanks 
available. 



Encourage Swimming 



Make the Swimming Badge 
Tests a special feature of 
your program this summer. 



The National Recreation Association, which appointed 
a committee to work out a series of tests at the request 
of recreation officials, issues an attractive emblem to 
award the individuals passing the tests. It is made of 
white felt three inches in diameter embroidered in red 
and may readily be sewed on the swimming suit. 



PRICE 25 CENTS 



National Recreation Association 

315 Fourth Avenue New York City 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



111 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

} Recently Received Containing Articles j 
\ of Interest to the Recreation Worker 



MAGAZINES 
The Girl Scout Leader, February, 1933. 

An International Handicraft Party, by Helen Perry 

Curtis. 
Camp Life, January, 1933. 

Is the Summer Camp a Safe and Healthful Place 

for Children? by Ben Solomon. 
Skate and Ski- Sailing, by W. Van B. Claussen. 
The American City, February, 1933. 

Berkeley's Unified and Varied Recreation Program. 
Park. Playground and Public School Replace Balti- 
more's "Lung Block." 
More Ashes and Cinders Help Transform City 

Dump Into Golf Course in Winter. 
American Childhood, March, 1933. 

Puppets Teach Health and Safety, by Rosamond 

Losh. 
The Epworth Highroad, April, 1933. 

A Crazy Carnival. 
The American City, March, 1933. 

Longmont Turns the County Fair Grounds into a 

Recreational Center, by S. R. De Boer. 
"Don't Skimp on Play !" 
Los Angeles' $335.000 Beach Playground. 
Everygirls, March, 1933. 

When Exercise Is Play, by Marie Antoinette Taylor. 
The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 
March, 1933. 
Education for the Enrichment of Life, by Howard 

S. Braucher. 

The Role of Physical Education in Character Edu- 
cation, by Jay B. Nash. 

Selections from Great Educators Throughout the 
Ages on the Importance of Health and Physical 
Education, by Frederick Rands Rogers 
Parks and Recreation, March, 1933. 

Ten Years of the Westchester County Park System, 

by Stanley W. Abott. 
Park Damage, by Harold A. Caparn. 
Marine Park in Brooklyn, by Charles Downing Lay. 
Tournaments That Run Themselves. 
The Parents Magazine, April. 1933. 

Play Equipment That Keeps Children Outdoors, by 

Virginia Wise Marx. 

Amusing the Convalescent, by Regina J. Woody. 
Child Welfare, April, 1933. 

Back Yards and Citizenship, by Xatt Noyes Dodge. 
The Camping Magazine, April, 1933. 

Concerning Arts and Crafts in Camp, by Laura J. 
Mattoon and A. Cooper Ballentine. 

PAMPHLETS 

Annual Report of the Director of the Recreation Commis- 
sion of Somerville, Mass., 1932. 

Twenty-first Annual Report of the Playground Com- 
munity Service Commission of New Orleans, La., 1932. 

Annual Report of the Department of Parks and Public 
Property, Division of Recreation, Cleveland, Ohio, 
1932. 

New York State Parks, 1932. 
State Council of Parks. 
State Office Building, Albany, N. Y. 

37th Annual Report of Pleasure Driveway and Park Dis- 
trict of Peoria, III., 1932. 

Pasadena Department of Recreation Report of Activities 
and Attendance for the Year Ending December, 1932. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Public Recreation Commission Annual 

1931. 

Report of the Recreation Commission, City of Portland, 
Maine, for the Year 1932. 




D I A/UC N D 

Pitching Horseshoes of special appeal to profes- 
sionals. Excellent for amateurs. Just what's 
needed on a playground. Will stand up under 
severest treatment. Diamond Officials made 
straight or curved toe calk, hard or soft (dead 
falling) . Junior 
model for ladies and 
children. 

DIAMOND 

ACCESSORIES 

Score pads, instruction 
booklets, rules, percent- 
age charts, carrying cases, 
steel stakes and stake holders, 
official courts ready to set up 
indoors or out. Built to con- 
form to official requirements. 

DIAMOND 

CALK HORSESHOE CO. 

4610 Grand Avenue Duluth, Minn. 




88 Successful Play 
Activities 

A complete revision of the booklet 
which has been proving so practical 
for a number of years. 

Many new activities have been 
added. Of special interest to the 
play leader are chapters on Side- 
walk Games and Home Equipment 
Games never before included. 

A section on Tournaments gives 
full directions for a number of 
contests. 

Other chapters deal with Music 
and Drama, Shows and Exhibits, 
Nature Play and Winter Sports. 

Price $ .60 

NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 
315 FOURTH AVENUE NEW YORK CITY 



New Books on Recreation 



The Work of the Little Theatres 

By Clarence Arthur Perry. Russell Sage Foundation, 
New York. $1.50. 

THERE HAS long been need of such a study of little 
' theatres as Mr. Perry has given us, and dramatic 
directors will welcome enthusiastically this careful 
enumeration of the groups included under little theatres, 
the plays they produce, their tournaments and the hand- 
books they use. The discriminating section on Dramatic 
Contests offers much practical information for groups 
planning play tournaments. Recreation directors, so many 
of whom are using play tournaments in their programs, 
will find this section particularly helpful. 

The Boy Builder 

By Edwin T. Hamilton. Harcourt, Brace & Company, 
New York. $2.00. 

AN UP-TO-DATE HANDBOOK for boys by the author of 
Handicraft for Girls, this book gives full directions 
and plans for making over a hundred articles out of 
wood. Everything suggested has a place in the life of a 
boy of today and represents something which he 'will 
enjoy making and using. The opening section of the book 
contains illustrations showing each tool and its proper 
use, and simple instructions on the handling of the tools 
are given. This section also contains instructions with 
plans and illustrations on all articles necessary to com- 
plete the workshop, together with step by step informa- 
tion on painting, staining and various types of finishing. 
A list of 200 plans for making other articles is included 
with information on the sources from which they may 
be obtained. 



The Girls' Camp 



By Abbie Graham. The Womans Press, New York. 

$1.50. 

THIS BOOK is written from the point of view of a camp 
director, states Miss Graham in her preface. "It 
seeks to show the relation of the whole to the parts and 
of the parts to the whole." While the book is not de- 
signed to teach a swimming counselor how to teach swim- 
ming or a drama counselor how to produce a play, it 
does show successfully how these techniques can be made 
to function most effectively in the camp program and 
suggests the process by which through the cooperation of 
all the goal may be reached toward which a camp is 
directed. The chapter headings show something of the 
comprehensive nature of this delightfully written book. 
Getting On with Human Nature; Endowed Leisure; 
Camp Leadership; Practical Considerations; The Indige- 
nous Program; People and Program; Creating Camp 
Celebrations; Athletics in the Camp Program; Boys As 
Guests in Camp; The Creative Arts; Sunday in Camp; 
Participation in the New Human Order. 



Volley Ball 



By Robert E. Laveaga, B.P.E. A. S. Barnes & Company. 
New York. $2.00. 

THERE ARE all too few suitable games, as Mr. Martin I. 
Foss points out in his introduction, for older men. 
In this book Mr. Laveaga has described a game "that 
can be played by the most ardent fighter and with certain 
modifications is also adapted to the man above thirty-five 
who seeks recreation and mild exercise, with equally bene- 
ficial results to both." In addition to describing rules and 

112 



techniques, Mr. Laveaga gives an interesting history of 
the game and discusses its place in the program of phy- 
sical education. 

The New Leisure, Its Significance 
and Use 

Bulletin No. 117. Russell Sage Foundation Library, 130 
East 22nd Street, New York. $.10. 

THIS PAMPHLET presents a selected bibliography listing 
some of the books and periodicals in which the new 
leisure is discussed. A section of the bibliography is de- 
voted to references to hobbies. 

Water Pageants 

By Olive McCormick. A. S. Barnes & Companv, New 

York. $2.00. 

IN THIS BOOK Miss McCormick has demonstrated the 
' possibility of uniting the two arts of swimming and 
the drama a union which was recognized in ancient 
times, since mention is made in early Roman history of 
great religious bathing festivals. The author has pre- 
sented her material in a step by step sequen-e which has 
been found to be the most successful method of pro- 
cedure in producing any type of water pageant. She has, 
accordingly, begun with the problem of production, the 
choice of a pageant and its organization. Next she de- 
scribes costuming and make-up, music, scenery and light- 
ing, the writing of a pageant, and swimming formations, 
stunts, games and canoe regattas. In the final section 
Miss McCormick outlines seven water pageants. 

Community Programs for Subsistence 
Gardens 

Joanna C. Colcord and Mary Johnston. Russell Sage 
Foundation, 130 East 22nd Street, New York. $.25. 

LESSENING the burden of relief for the communities and 
furnishing needed occupations for the unemployed, as 
well as supplying produce for summer consumption and 
fall canning, are some of the motives behind thousands 
of community subsistence gardens which have sprung 
into being since 1929. Information covering garden pro- 
grams of Illinois, Indiana, New York, Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania and West Virginia and garden experiments of 
cities scattered throughout seventeen other states are re- 
corded in this pamphlet. The txperience of the com- 
munities in securing suitable land for gardens, the prepa- 
ration of this land for cultivation, the provision of seeds, 
plants and tools, and all the problems connected with 
community projects of this nature are discussed. 

The Ragamuffin Marionettes. 

By Frances Lester Warner. Houghton, Mifflin Company, 
"Boston. $1.75. 

THIS BOOK with its delightful illustrations cannot fail 
to interest children. Though written in story form 
and therefore more interesting to the young reader, the 
instructions are none the less clear and concise. Sugges- 
tions are given for making puppets without strings and 
marionettes with strings, for constructing a stage, a win- 
dow box and a bedside theatre, and for putting the pup- 
pets "through their paces." Three marionette plays are 
offered. "A Chapter for Helpful Parents" completes the 
book. 



The Home and the Art of Living 

**"wHE HOME is passing." "The home is a thing of the past." For twenty years 
we have been hearing such statements. And yet today the home has more 
vitality than twenty years ago rather than less. 

Real estate operators build special play rooms in the basements. Houses rent 
better, sell better with a fireplace around which the family may gather. Never be- 
fore were there so many backyard playgrounds. Families with their automobiles 
picnic together in the county park thirty miles away. 

The whole family listens together over the radio to Eddie Cantor and Will 
Rogers and President Roosevelt. Together in easy chairs with children sprawling 
on the floor the family enjoys opera, football, the Kentucky Derby. In the not 
too distant future through television plays in the theatre will be widely enjoyed 
in the home. Before long we shall have phonographic records of whole books. As 
the family in Ireland listened on the winter evening to the Irish storyteller, so be- 
fore long the family without effort, comfortable in its own home, may hear the 
best stories recorded through voices such as those of Edith Wynne Matthison and 
other trained speakers. 

It is worth while for recreation workers, for leaders in the art of living, to 
pay attention to the home, to make the home fairly central in their thinking. And 
this municipal recreation systems increasingly are doing. Activities are developed 
which can be carried back into the home. Mothers are trained for recreation lead- 
ership in the home. Recognition is given in certain community centers to the best 
in home planning, the best in home playgrounds. Pet shows give standing to the 
boy's and girl's loving care of pets. Pets have a large place in developing loyalty 
to the home, in making the home a more attractive place to come back to from the 
excursions of adventure into the world at large. 

The recreation leader has definite responsibility for increasing reading in the 
home, making things in the home, developing live subjects of conversation about 
nature and many other subjects for the home. 

Live children with many interests and many skills help keep father and 
mother from growing dull and older than they have to be. Fathers and mothers 
are more eager to get back home when children and parents are sharing real living 
from day to day and night to night. 

Leisure, free time, takes on new meaning as the home is given new meaning as 
a center of living, as a center of music, drama, nature observation, skill in making 
things. 

Many parents find it hard to learn that after all they are only background 
to be there when needed, when wanted, and that there are long stretches when in 
well regulated homes all that the children want from the parents in their play 
hours is silence and not too much of that. 

The child with the right atmosphere in the home creates his own play world 
and he must have freedom to find, express, and create himself. 

HOWARD BRAUCHER. 



June, 1933 



113 



Play and the Home 




Westchester County, Neat York 



"With the Increasing demands upon existing pub- 
lic recreation facilities which have come as a 
result of increased leisure time, it is apparent 
that the home playground is destined to become 
a valuable supplementary means of taking care of 



the recreational needs of families in many cities. 
This fact is especially true when applied by fam- 
ilies in which there are small children of pre- 
school age who may not easily be sent to 
neighborhood play centers." Glen O. Grant 



114 



A City-Wide Contest for Better Back Yards 




By GLEN O. GRANT 

Assistant Superintendent 

Department of Playground and Recreation 
Los Angeles, California 



THE HORNING paper carries the tragic news, 
"Tiny Tot Killed by Truck While at Play." 
No other problem is so close to the hearts of 
parents as this : "Where can a small child play in 
safety ?" Anyone having a solution for this prob- 
lem will gain an interested and eager hearing 
anywhere. 

The modern city is unsafe for small children. 
Street cars, automobiles, and other means of rapid 
transit monopolize our streets. The estimate of 
the International Safety Council that 25,000 little 
lives have been crushed out in the busy traffic 
lanes of our cities during the past five years brings 
this fact forcibly to our minds. Our big cities 
create the chief problem. In 1790 only three per 
cent of the total population of the United States 
resided in the city areas. The recent census re- 
veals the fact that well above half of our popula- 
tion is to be found in our cities. The trend to- 
ward city life has cut down opportunities for 



Photo by "Dick" Whittington 

Winners of the "Pal Sweepstakes" awarded 
for the best example of family play life. 

play activity, and has likewise increased very 
markedly the danger to children at play. New 
York City reports recently forty-two children 
killed playing in the streets in one month, and in 
the same period of time serious injuries to 1124 
more. A recent issue of the Public School Journal 
states that last year ninety-nine small children 
were killed in the streets of Los Angeles. 

Investigation bears out the fact that these acci- 
dents, with very few exceptions, occur in un- 
guarded moments when children are at play, 
rather than in the normal process of crossing 
streets en route to school, the store, or other des- 
tinations. It is, then, while the child is at play 
that danger lurks. Meeting this situation is essen- 
tially a home problem. 

The Home's Responsibility 

The home was the first institution around 
which play and recreational activities were or- 
ganized. Even today it offers the best oppor- 
tunity for such expression. No modern play pro- 
gram for the home can equal or be likened to the 



115 



116 



A CITY-WIDE CONTEST FOR BETTER BACK YARDS 



home play of yesterday, but the benefits of such 
activities can be approximated by the wise parent 
of today by careful study and application to the 
problem. Luther Burbank says : "Every child 
should have mud pies, grasshoppers, water-bugs, 
tadpoles, frogs, mud-turtles, elderberries, wild 
strawberries, acorns, chestnuts, trees to climb, 
brooks to wade in, water-lilies, woodchucks, bats, 
bees, butterflies, various animals to pet, hay fields, 
pine cones, rocks to roll, sand, snakes, huckle- 
berries and hornets ; and any child who has been 
deprived of these has been deprived of the best 
part of his education." 

Few parents realize the possibility of back yards 
for playgrounds. Which is more important a 
space involving 100 square feet for the ash can, 
or a swing for little sister? A similar space 
monopolized by the incinerator, garbage can, trash 
heap or appropriated for a sand-box or wading 
pool? A few pieces of inexpensive home-made 
play apparatus can change a backyard desert into 
a play oasis which will supply health and fun for 
a whole family. Even a back yard is large enough 
for the play of not only one small child, but half 
a dozen. 

The lowly back yard, once the least important 
part of a home, today has assumed a permanent 
position in the home life of the average family as 
one of the chief forces in counteracting the mod- 
ern tendency toward the scattering of the family. 



Los Angeles Launches a Campaign 
This new status of the back yard has been 
achieved in Los Angeles through concerted efforts 
of the Tenth District Parent-Teachers Associa- 
tion of this city, and the Los Angeles Department 
of Playground and Recreation, through joint 
sponsorship of a city-wide back yard playground 
contest, which enlisted the enthusiastic interest of 
hundreds of local families. 

The contest was launched early in the year with 
the following as its principal purposes : 

(a) To stimulate parents' active interest in the 
worthy use of their children's leisure time. 

(b) To provide safe, adequate and desirable 
space and materials for home recreation. 

(c) To develop in the child a better apprecia- 
tion of his home and a desire to make it the cen- 
ter of his play life. 

(rf) To provide children with means for enter- 
taining their playmates. 

(e) To afford parents an opportunity for su- 
pervising the recreation activities of their children. 

(/) To bring about a closer cooperation and 
understanding between parents and children 
through the medium of play. 

(</) To provide fathers with the opportunity 
of making a definite contribution to the play life 

An outstanding example of what can be ac- 
complished with no expenditure of money. 




Photo by "Dick" Whittington 



A CITY-WIDE CONTEST FOR BETTER BACK YARDS 



117 



of the family by the con- 
struction of facilities. 

(h) To stimulate a de- 
sire for beautification and 
utilization of back yards. 

(i) To provide worthy 
utilization of excess and 
waste materials. 

Los Angeles parents 
were given until the end 
of April to complete play 
centers in their back yards. 
For the purpose of bring- 
ing the contest within the 
reach of many different 
families, regardless o f 
their financial condition, 
the event was divided into 
four sections, as follows : 

(a) The back yard playgrounds entered on the 
basis of no cost involved, used and cast-off ma- 
terials only being utilized. 

( b ) The backyard playgrounds entered on the 
basis of a total expenditure of five dollars being 
involved. 

(c) The backyard playgrounds entered on the 
basis of a total expenditure of fifteen dollars. 

(d) The back yard playgrounds entered on the 
basis of no limitation on expenditure. 

Working through the various Parent-Teacher 
groups throughout the city, the interest of the 
Father Councils was enlisted in the project, and 
numerous families were launched upon the plan 
of making attractive home playgrounds out of 
waste areas in their back yards. In order to pro- 
vide suggestions and offer advice to families 
which did not know exactly how to proceed with 
their plans, the Department of Playground and 
Recreation distributed a number of different bul- 
letins, both printed and mimeographed, which 
served to provide valuable hints for those who en- 
tered in the contest. A special bulletin, entitled 
"57 Varieties of Home Fun," was mimeographed 
and given wide-spread distribution. Printed fold- 
ers which contained working drawings and plans 
for the construction of simple apparatus which 
could be made at very little or no cost, were also 
given out to those who asked for aid. 

At the conclusion of the time allotted for com- 
pletion of back yard playgrounds, entries were 
judged on the following items, allowing a maxi- 
mum of twenty points each, or a total of one hun- 
dred points in all : 




This family received the award for the 
best playground mode at a cost of $5.OO 

(a) Suitability for use of all members of the 
family. 

(&) Construction and design as to workman- 
ship and aesthetic as well as practical appearance. 

(c) Safety; choice of apparatus; strength, 
placing of equipment to avoid accidents. 

(d) Cost. ( Those playgrounds equipped at the 
minimum cost to be awarded the higher grade.) 

(e) Originality as to ingenious use of waste 
materials, utilization of limited space and similar 
factors. 

The huge task of judging entries throughout 
the city was carried out through cooperation be- 
tween the municipal playgrounds, the school play- 
grounds, and the Parent-Teacher Associations. 
The best back yards in each of the four classifica- 
tions in each district were then submitted for 
grading in the city-wide contest. In the latter, 
awards of first, second and third places were 
made in each of the four divisions, the awards 
taking the form of certificates which were pre- 
sented with due ceremony at a city-wide Parent- 
Teacher Federation Convention. 

The Results 

Through general newspaper publicity, radio an- 
nouncements, bulletin announcements, and inten- 
sive promotion, and through the Parent-Teacher 
organization, wide-spread interest in the contest 
was aroused on the part of many parents. In the 
first class, many parents showed remarkable 



118 



A CITY-WIDE CONTEST FOR BETTER BACK YARDS 



ingenuity in transforming scraps of lumber, odds 
and ends, and discarded materials, into play equip- 
ment for their children and themselves. Mr. and 
Mrs. Eugene Falkenberg were adjudged the win- 
ners of this group. In the second division, in 
which parents were limited to an expenditure of 
five dollars, some fine results were achieved by a 
large number of entries, with Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward B. Flynn winning the city-wide award in 
this group. The first award in the third group 
for back yards constructed at a cost of no more 
than fifteen dollars, was given to Mr. and Mrs. 
E. L. Hallberg as the city-wide winners, while in 
the unlimited classification Mr. and Mrs. Joseph 
Sodorf were first place winners. 

Because of an unusually high type of family 
recreation life, as well as splendidly developed 
back yard playground exhibited by Mr. and Mrs. 
Dean B. Gregg and their children, a special award 
called the "Pal Sweepstakes" was made to this 
family. The Greggs had developed an ideal home 
and recreation life for themselves, which took the 
form of many different types of leisure time ac- 
tivity. Their back yard was a never ending source 
of interest to themselves and their friends, and 
was so arranged that it could be used to great ad- 
vantage for many different types of games, sports 
and hobbies. Even though pursuing some form 
of play individually, the mem- 
bers of this family made it a . 
point to do so in each other's The playground which won first pla 

company. 



in the "unlimited expenditure" class. 



As a result of the contest just concluded, many 
back yards in Los Angeles have been transformed 
from waste areas, or merely ornamental land- 
scapes, into play sections where all members of 
the family can enjoy their favorite sports and 
recreational activities together. The tremendous 
interest shown in the contest by Los Angeles par- 
ents has encouraged the Parent-Teacher Federa- 
tion and the Department of Playground and Rec- 
reation to decide to make the contest an annual 
spring event in this city. 

Meanwhile, though the contest is concluded 
many parents are continuing to send in requests 
for bulletin material and printed literature ad- 
vising them on the best methods of developing 
playgrounds in their backyards. The Los Angeles 
Recreation Department now visualizes the promo- 
tional program as a year-round affair and is 
making an effort to take care of all requests for 
aid as they are received. 

Play Equipment for the Small Child 

Without question the most practical piece of 
equipment for the small child is the sand box. 
This need not necessarily be large, and for the 
very small child should be located on the ground, 
so that the tiny tot can clamber in and out. A 
seat might well be placed all the way around the 
box by placing around the 
edges a six-inch strip of wood. 
Sand should be kept clean and 
slightly moist. A shovel and a 




Photo by "Dick" Wliittington 



A CITY-WIDE CONTEST FOR BETTER BACK YARDS 



119 



pail, toy animals, bridges, 
buildings and other small 
toys add to its possibili- 
ties. As the child grows, 
legs may well be placed 
upon the table, raising it 
off the ground. Many 
happy hours may be spent 
by the school aged child in 
sand modeling with the 



It cost $15 to equip this 
back yard playground. It 
was the best in its clasf. 



moist sand. One ingen- 
ious father managed to 
keep the sand clean for 

the tiny tot by providing a screen for one of the 
older children and hiding numerous small objects 
in the sand, thereby evolving a game of discovery 
in which the sand was carefully screened to find 
its contents. By the addition of a removable top 
the sand table becomes a valuable piece of equip- 
ment for family picnics in the backward. 

Probably the second most practical piece of 
equipment for the small child is the kindergarten 
swing which may later be replaced by an ordinary 
swing seat for the older child. Rings and a hor- 
izontal bar provide excellent equipment for the 
development of arms and shoulders, and a climb- 
ing tree made of an 8x8 timber set in cement 
with pieces of two-inch pipe cut in three-foot 
lengths inserted every twelve inches from top to 
bottom from alternate front and side will give 
outlet for the desire to climb. The teeter-totter 
or seesaw provides its thrills, and the slide so ar- 
ranged that the sand box is used for safe landing 
adds to the joy of the play haven. An alternate 
for the slide may be found in the inclined pale, 
which might well be made of a two-inch pipe in- 
stalled from the top of the climbing tree into the 
sand box. Then there is the wading pool, which 
may either be installed permanently of cement 
construction, or may be very easily made of can- 
vas with a collapsible pipe frame to lend its con- 
tribution to the fun on warm days. An ingenious 
father has designed a lawn sprinkler on a raised 
standard which provides a shower for his kiddies, 
while watering the lawn. The doll house with all 
its possibilities and such equipment as miniature 




Photo by "Dick" Wlrittington 

table and chairs for tea parties provide the fa- 
cilities for playing house, that activity being en- 
joyed by all small children. The bird house, bird 
bath, and bird cafeteria are sources of continuous 
delight to the small children. The large rubber 
ball opens up many possibilities. 

What Can We Do for the Older Children? 

For the older child of elementary school age 
the back yard gym composed of swing, trapeze, 
rings and horizontal bar, is to be recommended. 
In a space 2o'x4o', paddle tennis, volley ball, hand 
ball, basketball goal shooting, and many other 
similar activities may be conducted. The side of 
the garage will afford the back board for hand 
ball. One basketball goal installed there gives op- 
portunity for development of technique in bas- 
ket shooting. A fine piece of equipment for the 
elementary school child is a horizontal ladder in- 
stalled at a height of seven feet. To provide op- 
portunity for the expression of the running and 
jumping instinct, high jump standards and a 
broad jump pit may be provided at little expense. 
The fish pond, or the wading pool for smaller 
children, lends itself very readily to the floating 
of small boats, and here whole fleets may ply their 
way from port to port. A source of never ending 
delight for older children is the picnic fireplace, 
which may be constructed in connection with the 
householder incinerator. Here the joys of outdoor 
cooking may be indulged in with comparative 
(Continued on faye 153) 



The Flower Market Tot Lot Playground 




Not a very auspicious beginning, but you'll 
want to read the story for the happy ending! 



A report of four summers' consecutive 
service as supervisor of an unusual 
playground in a city's blighted area. 



By PAUL SHRIVER 

Supervisor 
Philadelphia Playgrounds Association 



EACH SUMMER the Philadelphia Playgrounds 
Association has employed costumed story- 
tellers to bring programs of play activities 
to neighborhoods so congested that even vacant lot 
playgrounds are out of the question. One day while 
scouting around Newmarket Street in the Dela- 
ware River slum district in search of a possible 
story telling station, Mr. Charles H. English, Ex- 
ecutive Secretary of the Association was amazed 
to see the upper branches of a tree, the lower part 
of which was hidden by a twelve foot fence. In- 
vestigation disclosed a vacant lot entirely sur- 
rounded by buildings. This discovery led to the 



decision to develop a vacant lot playground in- 
stead of a storytelling station. One of the factors 
in the decision was the report from the Housing 
Association that 504 children under the age of 
fourteen were living in the two blocks facing this 
short street. 

According to local legend, on the right side of 
the lot, William Penn had his first cartwright 
shop where wagons and wheels were produced. 
This shop looked down for its high embankment 
on the mud flats of the Delaware River. Later 
these mud flats were filled in to make a street and 
today it is the busy Delaware Avenue along which 



120 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



121 



trains and trucks move the traffic of goods from 
all parts of the world to and from the wharves 
and piers. 

Fifty or a hundred years later the left side of 
the lot became Philadelphia's first Flower Mart. 
Several years ago a renewal of the Flower Mart 
was inaugurated at Rittenhouse Square, where 
for one day flowers and other products were sold 
for the benefit of several welfare organizations. 
Funds from this source were used to establish 
and operate the "Flower Market Tot Lot Play- 
ground." 

Neighborhood Conditions 
The neighborhood known as "Bandboxville" is 
composed of brick houses lining the sides of nar- 
row courts. The entrances to most of the courts 
are along the sides of business houses or through 
small openings in a solid street front. These dark 
alleyways are the only entrances to the homes of 
the 500 children of the district. Legend tells us 
that the bricks in many of the houses were hand- 
made and brought over from England, as were 
the hand wrought hinges and certain woods in the 
decoration or frames. The houses consist of three 
rooms set one on top of another like post office 
boxes. There are no sewers and no plumbing. 
Some of the houses have an outdoor spigot in a 
small 3 by 5 feet yard. In other courts as many 
as sixteen families are supplied by a single spigot. 
The inside walls of most of the houses still have 
the original plaster. In others the laths or outside 
walls are visible. A very few are papered. 

Such were the homes of the children who were 
to attend our playground. 

The surroundings of the plot itself were equally 
deplorable. On the west side were the narrow ill 
lighted, foul smelling courts at the end of which 
was the fourteen foot board fence. Over this 
fence onto the plot had been dumped the garbage, 
refuse, boxes and papers which were not thrown 
out into the courts or streets. On the east side 
the back doors of the fruit commission houses 
looked out on the plot. Decayed fruit was thrown 
out on the plot or heaped beside the doors where 
any child chancing to come in could pick it up 
and throw it around, plastering the walls of 
buildings on all sides. On the north side stood an 
old abandoned brewery with its two 100 foot malt 
towers rising into the air like ancient Drop Shot 
towers used in making bullets. To balance the 
picture artistically, two gnarled trees on the south 
side of the plot arose in the shade of an aban- 



doned candle factory unused for over fifty years. 
Some of the old hand molds for hand poured 
candles were still fastened to several benches. 
"Speakeasies" were everywhere. 

The Residents 

The adults in this "bandbox" community were 
a mixture of Russian, Slavic, Irish and colored. 
The men were former workers at Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works or stevedores. A few worked in 
factories or shops but as a whole very few worked 
steadily at anything, even before the depression. 
They were paid $1.00 a day for ten hours' work 
except when a few banana boats came in. Steve- 
dores on piece or time work might make $2.00 or 
$3.00 a day. The desire to work did not burn 
high among most ! They preferred a few days 
work with the rest of the time spent in drink- 
ing, bootlegging, crap shooting, or "playing the 
numbers." 

The women were a low type of mentality. 
Many of them were scrub women ; a few did 
housework; some helped in the manufacture and 
sale of home brew. Taken as a whole, they were 
fighters and drinkers, but they were good workers. 
Their scale of living was very low. In some cases 
families ate out of a common bowl or a pot set 
on the table, and no forks or spoons were used. 
Children came or went as they pleased with no 
care. Some families, on the other hand, lived in 
good circumstances and made of their headquar- 
ters neat and comfortable homes. The men worked 
steadily and made real homes for their families. 
But these instances were few and far between. 

The young men had little work and less desire 
to hunt for any if they could exist on the bounty 
of parents or friends. Crap shooting on the cor- 
ners and up the courts where they could not be 
seen by the police was a popular pastime. The 
gangs of young men were clannish, and the small 
side streets adjoining the block in which the Tot 
Lot is the center each had its own gang known 
as the "New Street Rangers," "Cherry Street 
Gang, 1 ' "Laurence and Noble Street Rain Cats," 
and the "Gang from Across the Railroad Tracks." 
Brawls raging up and down the streets were 
more than likely to be carried down to the river 
front and into the freight yards where the par- 
ticipants were more secure against police inter- 
ference. 

The occupations of the young men were varied 
when they worked. Some were newspaper boys, 
telegraph boys or laborers, but most of them 



122 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



waited for the day or two of work as stevedores 
on banana boats or among the fruit commission 
houses. Stealing was considered an art and a law 
something to be broken. Several had criminal 
records for entering warehouses, safe cracking 
or petty larceny. 

The girls were forced to work wherever they 
could get it. Few were permitted to stay at home 
very long unless they brought in money in one 
way or another. There was little real pleasure in 
their lives for their parents demanded practi- 
cally all their earnings. The girls who lived 
among the lower strata, if they hoped for any- 
thing better, invariably ran away from home. 

The children were young animals and the "call 
of the pack" ruled them all. Might made right. 
Many of those over four years old were forced 
by their parents to get up as early as 4:30 and 
5 :oo o'clock during the summer to bring in a cer- 
tain amount of wood and food. The wood they 
secured from boxes set out by commission houses, 
crates from furniture stores and scrap pieces from 
factories or demolished buildings. The food was 
obtained from the gutters outside the fruit stores, 
from garbage pails and restaurants or was stolen. 

During the school season many of the boys 
were truants and many special orthogenic back- 
ward and orthogenic disciplinary children. They 
had many private means of income such as sell- 
ing boxes, barrels and rags, 
and stealing. The money 
they secured they used 
to buy food at corner "hot 
dog" stands or restau- 
rants, and for recreation 
at cheap movie houses or 
for gambling. 

Popular Recreation 

During our first sum- 
mer's study of the situa- 
tion we found eleven ma- 
jor sports indulged in by 
these boys. 

(1) Swimming in the 
oily Delaware and diving 
off the ends of the wharves 
or piers. 

(2) Hopping on the 
rear ends of wagons and 
trucks and stealing any- 
thing on it they could 
throw off. 



(3) Cutting ropes on farmers' trucks and 
wagons to steal fruit or produce or from sheer 
destructiveness. 

(4) Breaking into commission houses and 
warehouses during off periods when they were 
closed. 

(5) Creating disturbance at doors or en- 
trances or in some part of a store while one boy 
stole something to eat or worth pawning. 

(6) Wholesale robbery along the water front 
or commission houses (called ''going down 
fruities"). 

(7) Tormenting cops and watchmen. 

(8) Being chased by police bandit cars (Red 
Devils) and then escaping over back fences and 
up the poorly lighted courts. 

(9) Insulting passersby with their remarks. 

(10) Foul language. 

( 1 1 ) Crap shooting for pennies and card play- 
ing for money or anything useful which might be 
bartered or pawned and which most likely had 
been stolen. 

Dr. Stuckey, Professor of Sociology at Tem- 
ple University, conducted a summer class on a 
tour of investigation down through this section 

They were a little timid at the first about 
entering- it was all so strange to them. 



OPIRATPXBY Trtt 

AY&ROUNOS ASSQCWTK! 
OF PHILADELPHIA 

ACf LIMIT F0 30YS8'RLS 
6 Y* ARS 




THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



123 



in 1929. These eleven degraded forms of recre- 
ation listed are only a few they found. He made 
this statement: "I was able to find practically no 
children who knew how to play at all. All of 
their instincts seemed destructive. It seemed im- 
possible to find any constructive abilities either 
from observation or through questioning." 

The figures compiled by the Wickersham Com- 
mission on the crime records of youngsters in this 
district are as follows: 48.2 per cent stealing; 14 
per cent running away from home 511.7 per cent 
destruction of property; 8.5 per cent truancy; 
6 per cent incorrigibility ; 2.4 per cent sex of- 
fenses; 9.2 per cent miscellaneous. 

Such was the social, physical and economic 
background of the community in which we were 
to start our play center adventure. 

We Begin Activities 

For nearly a week previous to the opening of 
the playground several men were kept busy clear- 
ing away the refuse. Everything burnable was 
piled up and burned. Bricks, stones and other 
heavy articles were heaped on one side. Council- 
man Nickel loaned several trucks and these were 
kept busy hauling away the rest of the refuse. 

Finally came the notable opening day ! We had 
printed signs notifying the neighborhood of our 
plans and telling the operating hours. Several 
hours before we arrived, we were told, children 
had gotten up early to gather their quota of wood 
and food so that they could be at the playground 
on time. Something, however, had happened to 
frighten the children away, for when I. walked 
up the narrow court with two play leaders only a 
few timid, pale children were visible peeping out 
of side yard doors. An air of suspicion seemed to 
permeate the atmosphere. Finally we coaxed sev- 
eral into the lot and some of the bolder ones 
peeped in. 

I had brought only a dozen rubber balls with 
me for we wanted to build our program around 
the idea of using material to be found in the 
neighborhood, such as scraps of wood and dis- 
carded articles. This plan was used so that we 
could educate these children to be resourceful in 
their play life even under a discouraging situation. 

Balls began playing in the air. Boys soon came 
trooping in through holes in the fence and from 
strange entrances everywhere. They ran around 
the cleared space like mad tops loosened by a 
giant string! Girls began to skip happily back 
and forth on a strip of pavement uncovered after 



years of disuse. It was not long, however, before 
the crowd became restless and the habitual spirit 
of mob rule, the usual rough and tumble attitude, 
interfered with other activities. 

Fortunately for our first day's experience, a 
load of sand arrived for the improvised sand 
court. This was a new adventure for the children 
who all wanted to help bring in the sand. And 
their help was needed, for no truck could come 
through the court leading to our playground. The 
street was 100 yards away and the only entrance 
was the narrow court and a hole in the high 
board fence. The children used boxes, garbage 
pails, buckets and every kind of vehicle imagin- 
able express wagons, baby carriages, doll 
coaches, anything on wheels that could carry that 
sand into the playground! This was their first 
evidence of community spirit and the breaking 
down of that destructive gang spirit which was 
to be an important achievement of our efforts 
through four years of play leadership. 

But we were not yet ready for our play pro- 
gram although we had a sand pile and our plot 
was cleared, for glass from broken bottles, de- 
posited through many years, began working up 
through the soil. Everybody set to work with a 
will, for we were getting ready for our first 
Fourth of July celebration. Shovels, rakes, 
buckets, boxes and all the rest of the sand car- 
riers were again brought into play. Sturdy little 
backs were bent. Everywhere arose the cry, "Let 
me help !" This cry died away and was reborn 
many times, but it has finally become a martial 
cry of triumph and victory. 

Next we decided to paint the fence green to 
make up for the lack of grass or green foliage. 
We whitewashed the rest of the walls and nearly 
everything else in sight. Then we chlorinated the 
ground to get rid of the fumes from the rotted 
garbage. 

The First Year's Experience 
During the first year we found small children 
excellent helpers. They were interested in games 
or any activities we started but they played only 
while a leader was with them. They quarreled 
among themselves or were eventually scared away 
by the roughness and selfishness of the older boys. 
The older group stuck with us for a while but 
they soon lost interest because there was no ball 
field. They did not know how to play anything 
but baseball, or how to adapt their method of 
play to this small space. A few of the older group 



124 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



were interested in handcraft of various sorts but 
their span of inter- 
est was short. Tools 
brought into use on 
the work were 
stolen. Funds from 
the Playgrounds As- 
sociation were 
very limited. 
Lumber was 
scare as most of 
it was used for 
firewood. W e 
were forced to 
turn to other 
sources for our 
handcraft mate- 
rial. 

The situation 
became a chal- 
lenge to the re- 
sourcefulness of 
leaders as well as 
children. We 
managed 
to have a 
parade o f 
lanterns 
made chief- 
ly from 
portions of 
orange 
crates and 
tissue pa- 
per. Our miniature Mardi Gras had sever. il large 
floats but most were rather crude. The parades 
through the neighborhood did not have the edu- 
cational effect desired, though the project was 
not an absolute failure, because the boys who 
were not interested broke up the lanterns or floats 
after the parade had gone a short way or snatched 
them from younger children parading ! The spirit 
of sportsmanship was absolutely lacking and there 
was little desire for inter-playground competition. 
Children came and went. Every day there were 
new faces. None were regular attendants. 

Our pet show was the first blow struck at the 
existing spirit of cruelty. Arrangements were 
made with the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals to present ribbons to every 
person bringing a pet. The date was set through 
an interesting incident. One day a dog suddenly 
appeared through the hole in the fence, trotting 




It was marble golf which provided the first 
evidence of success in cooperative projects. 



along by his master's side, wagging his tail hap- 
pily. We were amazed to see a dog with no tin 
can tied to his tail. Now was our chance ! The 
date was set and a pet circus announced. The 
children had few pets of their own. Nevertheless 
we had forty entries. Dogs that had known the 
freedom of the city streets all their unnatural lives 
suddenly appeared walking sedately or led by an 
impromptu leash made from mother's clothes line. 
Cats that had climbed telegraph poles to elude 
their pursuers found themselves caged in ham- 
pers made of fruit boxes with mosquito netting 
for covering. Animals belonging to the farm- 
yard rather than city streets were suddenly 
brought forth by grinning owners. And no aris- 
tocrats of the animal kingdom were guarded with 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



125 



more zealous care than those stray pups, alley 
cats and mangey rabbits. And every one was a 
winner ! 

The second thing which helped teach the chil 
dren to do things for each other was the contri- 
bution of a large rocking boat with seats. This 
held about twenty children and could be rocked 
up and down like a see-saw by the concentrated 
efforts of children seated at either end. The 
donor of the rocking boat, who had read about 
our new venture in the playground field through 
newspaper articles, also gave us two small merry- 
go-rounds, each holding fifteen children. These 
were operated by hand but someone had to walk 
around and be the pusher part of the time. Here 
again we instituted the idea of helping one an- 
other. It became a dignified thing to be a pusher 
even among the older group of young people over 
fifteen who were admitted as visitors or helpers. 

At the conclusion of our first year's work we 
came to realize the need for a small children's 
playground. Too many very small children were 
playing in these courts or around the curb brav- 
ing the danger of the street rather than face phy- 
sical conflict with older children on the play- 
ground. 

A number of good results from the summer's 
program were evident. First, its beneficial influ- 
ence was felt by the business men. The previous 
summer twenty-five or more places had been 
broken into. This summer not a single store had 
been entered. The Northern Liberties Business 
Men's Association sent a representative to ex- 
press the gratitude of the association. 

Encouraging comment also come from Camp 
Happy, the municipal camp for underweight chil- 
dren. An official of the camp visiting the district 
said: "It surprises me that the children are not so 
anxious to go to camp this summer. I have 
noticed fewer underweight children than ever be- 
fore. The children look spick and span and happy. 
This is the first time I have missed a fight in this 
court. The playground is 
bringing people to their 
senses. They seem to be tak- 
ing a greater pride in the 
community and in their 
homes. I am glad to wel- 
come so useful a rival." 



The Second Year's Program 
The second year we limit- 
ed the age of the children to 



"Persons between the ages of 13 and 3O 
constitute SO per cent of the population 
of the United States. Yet according to 
Warden Lawes of Sing Sing they consti- 
tute 73 per cent of our criminals. Hence 
the country's problem is with its youth. 
And unless society can prove that it has 
done its full duty toward the young, it is 
not free from some share of the guilt for 
which these offenders are punished." 
Dr. S. Parses Cadman. 



twelve years and under and planned a program of 
activities for younger children. The few older 
who really wanted to help were organized into a 
helpers' squad and junior police. The rest of the 
children were sent to a playground six blocks 
away where there was more space for play. 

This year various parts of the ground were 
given names. The rocking boat became "Noah's 
Ark," the merry-go-rounds "Coney Island" and 
"Woodside Ferris Wheel," the sand pile "Atlan- 
tic City," and a new activity, a combination vege- 
table and flower garden in an out of the way 
corner became the "Garden of Eden." We con- 
centrated on the sand box for a while, and every 
day we saw a multitude of caves, houses, fish, and 
all sorts of castles and walks. The little tots of 
four or five learned how to cooperate, for there 
were so many of them that each had to stay in a 
small allotted space and build with what sand was 
in his territory. 

The first evidence of cooperative handcraft 
carried on by a large group of boys began with 
marble golf. Older boys who had been ignored 
except as helpers to clean up or supervise activi- 
ties, banded together with their friends to con- 
struct a most unique course. Rain spouts set up 
various angles, a discarded water pipe through 
the crotch of two trees, half an automobile tire, 
and wooden troughs contorted and placed around 
corners of the sand box, fence and trees, all 
served to provide unusual handicaps for our 
miniature golf course. The handicaps were nec- 
essarily light in structure and therefore easily de- 
stroyed. Thus came our chance to drive home the 
idea of care of property. Woe betide the boy who 
accidentally or unintentionally smashed one of the 
handicaps ! 

A peculiar distorted pride arose among regular 
patrons of the playground this season which 
seemed to be a mixture of jealousy and selfish- 
ness. Children from streets within two squares 
or more who had come in occasionally to visit 
were forbidden by the chil- 
dren of Newmarket Street 
from coming again. We tried 
to counteract this by inviting 
other children in whenever 
the opportunity offered, but 
we were not altogether suc- 
cessful in eliminating the 
street gang antagonism which 
was very deep rooted. We 
(Continued on page 154) 



Planning the Picnic Grounds 



The fun of picnicking is greatly increased when 
the physical facilities are adequately planned. 



IN MAKING provision for pic- 
nic grounds, two general 
types of ground should be 
considered : 



By L. H. WEIR 

National Recreation Association 



1 i ) The picnic ground designed for the use of 
large organized groups, such as the employees of 
a factory or large store, members of a church or 
Sunday School, lodges, schools, labor unions and 
similar groups. 

(2) Picnic grounds intended for the use of 
individual families or other small groups picnick- 
ing without any relation to each other. This type 
of ground may also be planned for the use of 
very large numbers in any one place or for a few 
people. Grounds designed for organized picnics 
may also be used by individual small groups at 
times when they are not in use by large organized 
groups. Consequently, no hard and fast distinc- 
tion can be made between the two types. Differ- 
ences between them will appear more clearly in 
the following detailed discussion of each type. 

Large Group Picnic Grounds 

Special care should be exercised in selecting 
grounds for the use of large organized groups. 
The area should be a reasonably level, well 
drained and partly shaded and partly open field. 
If the ground can be located on the bank of a 
stream or the shore of a lake, its desirability is 
greatly increased, although these desirable topo- 
graphical features are not absolutely essential to 
a successful picnic ground. 
There is no rule as to the 
proportion of wooded area to 
open ground, but in general 
the wooded area should be 
several times the size of the 
open space, since the primary 
reason for the open space is 
to provide opportunity for 
conducting a games and 



People in increasing numbers are going 
picnicking. There are a number of im- 
portant considerations involved in selec- 
ting and equipping the picnic site which 
have a decided bearing on the enjoyment 
of the picnickers. Mr. Weir points out 
some of these in this statement taken 
from a report which he made to the 
Mayor of Reading Pa., after a study of 
the resources of Mt. Penn Park. 



sports program which is usually 
not participated in except by a 
small percentage of the pic- 
nickers. 

It is a question whether special provision for 
parking should be made for this type of ground. 
The majority of people will prefer to drive into 
the grove itself and to park there, but on the 
whole it will probably be wise to have a special 
parking area in view when selecting an organized 
picnic ground. This is especially true if the 
wooded area itself is not of great extent. 

The equipment of an organized picnic ground 
may be held down to a minimum, or may be 
equipped in an elaborate manner after the pattern 
of commercial parks. 

Toilets. Adequate toilet facilities, along with 
adequate water supply, rank first in equipment. 
They should be adequate not only as to the num- 
ber of seats but also in standards of conformity 
to the best sanitary regulations. Where running 
water can be obtained, the best type of toilet to 
install is, of course the modern sanitary flush 
toilet. Modern sanitary toilets approved by the 
State Health Department or the local health au- 
thorities may be used where it is not possible to 
have flush toilets. As to the number of seats that 
should be provided for any given picnic ground, 
it is difficult to fix a standard such as has been 
definitely fixed for schools and organized camps. 
However, if one seat is provided for every two 
hundred to two hundred and 
fifty people in actual attend- 
ance, the installation will not 
be far from an adequate 
standard. They should be 
about equally divided be- 
tween the sexes. The toilets 
for the boys and men and 
for the girls and women 
should preferably be in 



126 



PLANNING THE PICNIC GROUNDS 



127 



different parts of the grounds 
and not combined in one 
structure. 

Water Supply. The most 
approved method of water 
supply is to pipe water to 
the picnic grounds from the 
mains of the city water sup- 
ply, if this is at all possible, 
and to install two or more 
sanitary drinking fountains 
and two or more faucets for 
drawing water and for use in 
sprinkling the ground. As a 
substitute for this method of 
water supply driven wells are 
best and safest. Springs in 
or within the vicinity of 
largely used park areas 
should be under suspicion at 
all times and should generally 
be closed unless they are so situated topographi- 
cally that people cannot come very near their 
drainage area. All springs which are used should 
be enclosed in concrete vaults and the area above 
them for a considerable distance should be closed 
to the public. All wells should be capped with a 
covering of concrete of not less than sixteen 
square feet in area, and the top immediately under 
the pump spout so constructed that all surplus 
water will be caught and directed into a drain to 
some point twenty or thirty feet away from the 
vicinity of the well. An iron force pump bolted 
on to the concrete cap completes the equipment. 
The common drinking cup should be absolutely 
prohibited. Frequent tests should be made of 
water from springs and wells by the health 
authorities. 

Tables and Benches. Every organized picnic 
ground should be equipped with a large number 
of tables and benches. The combination table and 
benches of a size capable of seating from eight to 
ten people comfortably is perhaps the best type to 
use. It is not so large as to be too heavy to handle 
easily and yet is large enough to accommodate a 
family or other small group. If larger groups 
wish to dine together it is very easy to place the 
tables and benches end to end. When the number 
of tables becomes very large, their storage in win- 
ter becomes a difficult problem because of the 
amount of space they require. In some reserva- 
tions, especially in the United States Forest Res- 




This type of oven is used in the picnic 
grounds of Winona County Park, Minnesota. 



ervations in the West and some of the county 
reservations in the same region, a type of knock- 
down table and bench is used which greatly fa- 
cilitates storage although it requires more effort 
and time to take them down and set them up again 
than it does to handle the ordinary type of 
benches. Benches and tables should be kept well 
painted and in constant repair. Neglect in these 
two important items of maintenance will result in 
a short life for the equipment. 

In organized picnic grounds it will probably be 
desirable to have a large number of benches sep- 
arate from the tables for the reason that often 
the program of such picnics includes speaking or 
a musical or a dramatic program. The benches 
may be used also for spectators in viewing sports 
and games. 

There is no standard governing the desirable 
number of combination tables and benches and 
of separate benches that should be provided at 
any given picnic ground. Experience alone will 
determine the need in any particular place. 

Ovens. Numerous small portable or perma- 
nent ovens or open grates should be providedd at 
the large picnic centers. The ovens in use in park 
systems of this country are many different types. 
In some ovens wood is burned; in others, 
charcoal. 



128 



PLANNING THE PICNIC GROUNDS 



At the large organized picnic grounds it may 
be found desirable to have at least one barbecue 
pit and one or more very large ovens capable of 
supplying heat and cooking space enough for the 
preparation of large quantities of food at one 
time. Some organized groups will want to prepare 
all the food for the feeding of the picnickers 
after the fashion of an army in the field. Such 
large ovens can be constructed so that one chim- 
ney or flue will serve for either two or three or 
four ovens. 

Fuel Supply. It is the common practice for 
park authorities to furnish wood to picnickers 
free. In the initial stages of cleaning up and 
opening up of large reservations this may be quite 
possible without great expense, but later it will 
become necessary to 
conserve fuel. It is 
doubtful whether in 
very large reserva- 
tions decayed trees 
and windfalls will 
provide sufficient 
source of supply 
where there is a 
large use of the areas 
for picnicking. When 
wood is furnished 
free, people use it 
extravagantly. It is 
suggested that a 
small charge for a 
given sized bundle would 
aid very much in conserv- 
ing the supply and would 

be a perfectly legitimate charge for the park 
and recreation authority to make. Ultimately 
charcoal will probably have to be used, and this 
could be kept on sale at the refreshment stands. 
A bag of charcoal costing 25 cents would be suf- 
ficient for all the necessary cooking for any small 
group and perhaps might be sufficient for two 
picnics for such a group. 

Shelters. A shelter of some kind is an essen- 
tial equipment of an organized picnic ground. 
While it is true that large numbers of picnickers 
may find shelter in the case of a sudden storm in 
their own conveyances, at grounds of this type 
there are likely to be many people present with- 
out conveyances of their own. Moreover, it may 
be necessary to dine or to conduct parts of the 
program under shelter in case of rain. The shel- 




Sturdy benches for the use of those watching 
events are desirable. This type, which is used 
in the Hartford parks, has a strong rear brace. 



ter may be of a very simple design consisting only 
of a roof resting on posts set in the ground or in 
concrete in the ground, or it may be an elaborate 
structure with concrete or wood floor, partially 
or wholly sided, equipped with large fireplace, 
toilets, refreshment counter, tables, benches or 
chairs, rest room for women, and similar facili- 
ties. Such a structure may also serve for a dance 
pavilion or an auditorium. There are no stand- 
ards as to size. It would be possible to pack as 
many as a thousand persons under a roofed 
structure covering a space 40 by 100 feet. This, 
of course, permits of standing room only. In 
forest reservations shelters of rustic design would 
be more in harmony with the natural environment 
than other possible designs. 

Refreshment Stands. 
While the refresh- 
ment stand may not 
be considered an ab- 
solutely essential fea- 
ture of the equip- 
ment of an organiz- 
ed picnic ground, it 
at least is a very de- 
sirable feature. These 
stands might well 
provide in addition 
to the usual confec- 
tions, coffee and 
other hot drinks, 
pies, cakes, and pos- 



sibly such staples as cof- 
fee, tea, sugar, butter, 
pepper, salt, rolls or bread, 

milk, and bags of charcoal. People often forget 
some of their needful picnic supplies, and expe- 
rience will soon show what things are most in 
demand. These stands might also keep certain 
kinds of picnic equipment for rent, such as cof- 
fee pots, skillets, drinking cups, and for sale such 
things as paper plates, napkins, table cloths and 
paper cups. In other words, it might prove a 
great convenience if one could secure all neces- 
sary food stuffs and equipment on the ground 
itself for a picnic. 

At Hartford, Connecticut, the Park and Recre- 
ation Department has developed organized picnic 
service to such a degree that the Refectory Serv- 
ice Department prepares and serves all food for a 
large organized picnic if the group so desires, 
charging, of course, a fixed price per plate for 






PLANNING THE PICNIC GROUNDS 



129 



the service. The operation of these refreshment 
stands and supply stands may either be under a 
concession plan or by the recreation department 
with its own employees. Where the volume of 
business is large enough to warrant the employ- 
ment of a first-class director or manager of re- 
fectories and refreshment stands, direct depart- 
mental handling of this service is preferable. 

Children's Play Area. Every picnic area of this 
kind should have an area especially set aside and 
equipped for the use of the children. It should 
be located in the grove somewhat outside of the 
space or spaces where the mass of the picnickers 
congregate. The equipment may comprise sand 
pile or piles, a few swings, teeters, merry-go-round 
and slides. The equipment of the children's play- 
ground may be, of course, the ordinary commer- 
cial manufactured equipment such as is used on 
municipal playgrounds, but in these picnic play- 
grounds there is opportunity for the exercise of 
some originality more in harmony with the en- 
vironment. For example, the sand may be placed 
in a huge pile or hillock instead of the usual sand 
box; the teeters may be constructed of logs with 
heavy planks of the proper .length placed across 
them; the swings may be of rustic design and oc- 
casionally a swing may be hung from the limb of 
a large tree or from a small tree bole suspended 
between two trees ; a combination balancing beam 
and teeter may be constructed of the bole of a 
large flexible tree mounted horizontally on stout 
horses with the upper or more flexible part of 
the tree swinging free. If there is no natural 
wading place a miniature lake may be created as 
a wading pool ; by the use of shrub plantations a 
veritable fairyland brought into being, peopled 
with images of gnomes, fairies and characters 
from Mother Goose rhymes and other books 
which children delight in. In short, by the use 
of a little ingenuity and imagination the chil- 
dren's play picnic area may be made a most un- 
usual, delightful and attractive feature of the 
organized picnic ground. 

Sports and Games Areas. This area should be 
large enough for a regulation baseball diamond 
and possibly several smaller diamonds. The mini- 
mum desirable area should range from three to 
five acres. Except where such a field is intended 
for general and more or less constant use as a 
part of the standard equipment of the park, it is 
hardly necessary to go to the expense of con- 
structing a first-class diamond. A reasonably 



level, well turfed area is all that is fundamentally 
necessary. It is probably true, however, that the 
picnickers from a large industrial plant, for ex- 
ample, will have two or more baseball teams, and 
a game or games between or among them will 
likely be a prominent feature of the program. In 
such instances the players will probably want a 
well constructed and equipped field. Horseshoe 
pitching or quoit pitching places may be located 
among the trees of the grove or in the open field. 
Running races can be staged in the open field. 
It is possible to play very amusing games with the 
soft baseball on a diamond laid out among the 
trees, the trees creating very unexpected hazards. 
If there is a body of water adjacent to the picnic 
ground some kinds of water sports might be con- 
ducted. Some picnic grounds might be equipped 
with a dancing platform and boxing stage. 

Musical, Dramatic or Speaking Programs. Very 
often the program of an organized picnic will in- 
clude a musical program, a dramatic performance 
or public speaking, or possibly all three types of 
activities. The simplest manner of meeting the 
requirements for these activities would be the in- 
stallation of a combination band stand and stage, 
but a more attractive way would be the construc- 
tion of an outdoor theatre entirely naturalistic in 
design. It has already been suggested that the 
shelter house may be so constructed as to meet 
the requirements for these activities. 

Small Group Picnic Grounds 
The picnic ground designed for families or 
other small groups having no organized relation 
to each other may vary in size from a space for 
the accommodation of one small group only to a 
space fitted to accommodate hundreds of groups 
at one time. The utmost latitude may be exer- 
cised in their location, consideration always be- 
ing given to safety from forest fires. Picnicking 
of this form may successfully be carried on in 
places having no equipment whatever, a small 
cleared place of reasonably level ground with 
some shade being all that is necessary. But as a 
rule even in the smallest places it is desirable to 
have combination table and benches, and possibly 
a small oven or open grate. 

In the larger places set aside for this type of 
picnicking there should be numerous tables with 
benches, ovens, toilet structures for both sexes, 
adequate water supply, and perhaps some type of 
a shelter. A very attractive feature found in some 
(Continued on paijc 156) 



A belf-oupporting Circus 



By HARRY H. STOOPS 

Director of Summer Activities 
Berkeley, California 

Are you making your plans for a 
playground circus this summer? 



What goes into the planning of the play- 
ground circus? A great deal, according to 
a director who has survived two such 
events which, in spite of the vost amount 
of detailed work involved, are rapidly 
growing in popularity with participants 
and spectators alike as the gala, crown- 
ing event of the playground season. 



ANY RECREATIONAL event incorporating fea- 
tures which will interest a large group of 
men, women and children over a long pe- 
riod of time and yet requires no expenditure of 
funds is bound to be of interest to recreation 
workers in these days of budget cutting. Such an 
event has been found most successful in Berke- 
ley, where the annual summer playground circus 
under the direction of Charles W. Davis, Super- 
intendent of Recreation and Parks, has supported 
itself for the past two years and has increased 
each year in number of participants, audience and 
properties. 

The circus had its beginning in 1931 when the 
need was felt for some event which would be 
sufficiently interesting to hold the attention of a 
large group during the summer months. In plan- 
ning the feature as many recreational activities as 
possible were incorporated in it. The scope of 
the day's activities was broad enough to embrace 



varied interests and require a large number of 
children to make certain its success. 

The Berkeley playground circus lasts two days. 
On the afternoon previous to circus day a parade 
is held, when approximately 250 gaily dressed 
children tour the city in trucks loaned by mer- 
chants advertising the supreme event of the mor- 
row. The route leads past all of the twenty-one 
playgrounds, as well as along the main streets of 
the city. 

The Day's Program 

Circus day begins at 6:00 A. M. and ends at 
6:00 P. M. All booths, rings, and other para- 
phernalia are set up from 6:00 to 10:00 A. M. by 
the children under the direction of the play lead- 
ers. Each of the twenty-one playgrounds has sev- 
eral definite units in the day's events. At 10:00 
A. M. the gates are opened and the side shows, 
concessions and food sales are ready for business ! 




Courtesy California Parent-Teacher 



130 



A SELF-SUPPORTING CIRCUS 



131 




Courtesy California Parent-Teacher 



At 1 130 these activities 
cease and everyone pre- 
pares for the big three 

ring performance which is preceded by a parade 
of performers around the rings. 

At the completion of the parade the show, con- 
sisting of two hours of diversified entertainment, 
begins with the usual ballyhoo of a leather-lunged 
ringmaster. Stunts follow in rapid fire succession, 
and at 4 :oo P. M. booths are once more open for 
business. Games of skill, composed for the most 
part of elements of sports, are operated at most 
of these booths. Side shows and food sales com- 
plete the features to be found in the "joy zone." 
At 5 :oo P. M. a siren is sounded and the day is 
ended. Down come the booths. Properties are 
salvaged, and by 6:00 P. M. only waste paper and 
debris remain to tell the story of another success- 
ful circus ! 

Balancing the Budget 

Costumes, animals, food, lumber, ropes and 
other supplies brought the expenses of the 1932 
circus to approximately $300. The financing of 
the event is made possible by the use of the car- 
nival idea. Proceeds from side shows, conces- 
sions, and the sale of food are sufficient to pay 
all expenses. Adults are charged a 10 cent ad- 
mission to the grounds. All children up to eigh- 
teen years of age are admitted free. Penny suck- 
ers are given as prizes. No effort is made to make 
money at the expense of the children, and at all 
times the patrons are given their money's worth 
whether it is in food or any of the penny skill 
games. 

No money is handled by children; only tickets 
are acceptable at the booths. Five cent and one 



A thrilling feature of the Emerson School 
P. T. A. circus at San Luis Obispo, Calif. 



cent tickets are sold at five 
conveniently located ticket 
stations, and the funds from 
the sale of the tickets are 
collected at frequent inter- 
vals, allowing no opportun- 
ity for a surplus to accumu- 
late. Responsibility for the 
money rests with a commit- 
tee of two play leaders and 
the director of the sum- 
mer's activities. All mate- 
rials are purchased on con- 
signment and only those 
used are paid for, all others 
being returnable. No funds 
are provided from the bud- 
get of the Recreation De- 
partment for this circus. All materials are pur- 
chased on credit established by the directors in 
charge, who are so confident of the success of the 
event that they are willing to underwrite all finan- 
cial obligations ! 

Organizing for the Circus 

No description of the features of the circus 
program will be given here. Programs vary and 
much has been written on the subject. 

In arranging for the printed program in Ber- 
keley, we find a merchant who is willing to pay 
for the cost of the printing and the program is 
set up in such a way as to make it easy for the 
spectator to follow on his program the events 
which are taking place on the field. 

Among the features which comprised the circus 
program for 1932 were: 



Pirate dance 

Balloon dance 

Ballet dancers 

Freaks 

Clown dance 

Chariot race 

Corp of monkeys shot 

from a cannon 
Clowns 
Animals 
Balloon boxing 
Cowboys, Indians 



Magician 

Polo game 

Spanish fiesta 

Horse riding 

Tumbling 

Boxing 

Wrestling 

Pyramid building 

Tight rope walker 

Flag drill 

Cock fight 

Clown football game 



Committee Organization 

The organization for the program begins about 
six weeks prior to the scheduled date. The lead- 
ers on the playgrounds are assigned to commit- 
tees, the chairmen of which meet from four to 



132 



A SELF-SUPPORTING CIRCUS 



five times before circus day. Lists of the stunts, 
side shows, concessions and food sales are pre- 
sented to the play leaders, and each playground 
decides what it is going to do at the circus. 

The committees are divided into the following 
groups : Arrangements and Finance ; Purchasing, 
Publicity, Parade and Ballyhoo, Grounds and 
Booths, Properties, Program, and Concessions 
and Side Shows. The directors are given a choice 
of the committees on which they wish to work. 

The Arrangements and Finance Committee ap- 
points a general chairman of the circus, has gen- 
eral supervision of plans, arranges for and plans 
committee meetings, secures the printing of the 
program, establishes credit, certifies all expendi- 
tures, fixes admission prices, arranges for the sale, 
distribution and collection of tickets and for gate- 
men. It is responsible for all complimentary 
tickets, the handling of all money, the payment of 
bills, and the preparation of the final report. 

The Purchasing Committee determines what 
has to be purchased, obtains the best possible 
prices for the articles, arranges for delivery and 
return of extra supplies, determines the contents 
and price of grab bags, procures the broadcast 
car, Calliope and truck, signs for the truck and 
arranges for the printing and purchasing of 
tickets. 

Publicity is the duty of another committee 
which gathers information for newspaper articles, 
arranges for photographs, organizes a poster con- 
test and sees that posters are dis- 
tributed throughout the city and 

to parents. The committee also "Regular" in every 
plans window displays, radio an- P. T. A. Circus! Of 
nouncements, theatre 
advertisements, and is 
responsible for the 
preparation of lists of 
participants. 

Taking charge of 
the parade, determin- 
ing entries, choosing 
the course, obtaining 
trucks, arranging for 
police cooperation, 
choosing the ringmas- 
ter and the ballyhoo 
artists, comprise the 
duties of the Parade 
and Ballyhoo Com- 
mittee. 

The workers Com- Courtesy Califorma Parent-Teacher 



prising the Grounds and Booths Committee are 
faced with no easy task. They must plan the lay- 
out of the concessions, side shows and main rings ; 
locate the booths; arrange for the construction, 
decoration and demobilization of the booths and 
rings; salvage all usable equipment; plan for the 
make-up room, and for information and lost and 
found booths; put up all signs and see that they 
are returned ; distribute ticket cans ; lock all gates 
other than entrances used ; arrange for a property 
room, and see that lavatories are open. 

The Properties Committee has as its task the 
location of all properties needed and the requisi- 
tion of all articles and materials which must be 
purchased. It must see that all properties are at 
the circus grounds the day before the perform- 
ance, be responsible for borrowed articles and 
see that they are returned to their owners, make 
all necessary signs, check on all equipment needed 
for construction and performance, follow up all 
requisitions prior to the day before the circus, 
and cooperate with the finance and purchasing 
committees in the matter of materials to be 
purchased. 

The Program Committee checks on all the 
phases of the program, arranges the order of 
events, makes out the program, plans for ring 
attendants, ringmaster and amplifiers, sees that 
the program has proper sequence, schedules re- 
hearsals and the seating of participants, and 
secures music. 

The Concessions 
and Side Show Com- 

respect was the Emerson m ittee assigns food 
course there was a band! sa]es to the p]ay . 




A SELF-SUPPORTING CIRCUS 



133 



grounds, determines the amount needed, ar- 
ranges for distribution, delivery and collection of 
extras, checks on salesmen, rehearsals and loca- 
tion of the shows, arrange for side shows and 
procures a list of all acts and performers. 

Cooperation between the members of all of 
these committees is essential in order to insure 
successful results. 

A method of checking up on arrangements is 
instituted two weeks before the big day to make 
sure that everything is being accomplished. All 
committees are included in this check up. Lists 
of specific duties are released and verified by the 
committee chairmen. On the Saturday previous 
to the circus day a final check up is made. Prop- 
erty lists are com- 
piled and a final set 
o f instructions i s 
drawn up for direc- 
tors. This final sheet 
contains information 
concerning the con- 
struction, m a i n t e- 
nance and final clos- 
ing of the booths and 
information concern- 
ing general items of 
interest and the pro- 
cedure before, dur- 
ing and after the 
program. 

Courtesy Yosemite Park and Curry Co. 




In the Joy Zone 

Among the side 
shows in the "joy zone" are 
a puppet show, fortune tell- 
ing booths, freaks, house of 

horrors, and a pony riding concession. Peanuts, 
grab bags, soda water, lemonade, cracker jack, 
gum, hot dogs, doughnuts, candy and ice cream 
are the items found on the circus menu. Any of 
these may be purchased for a 5 cent ticket, while 
the side shows and concessions cost but one cent 
each. 

The concessions include checking, information, 
and lost and found booths, baseball throw, nail 
driving, ten pins, darts, knock over, nut tree, foot- 
ball throw, hang it, sink the shot, ring the duck, 
fish pond, ball and pins, and basket shooting. All 
of these games of skill are tested for their dif- 
ficulty, keeping in mind the fact that children are 
the ones to be pleased. 



There were clowns, acrobats and animals ga- 
lore- And there were the Dancing Goops ! 



Properties and Equipment 

All materials, costumes, animals, signs, con- 
struction articles, crepe paper, tacks, hammers, 
ticket boxes, heavy paper laths in fact every- 
thing that is to be needed for the entire day are 
stored the clay before in the property room on the 
field. A property man is on hand to check in and 
out to the directors all of the required articles. A 
property list including all these articles and the 
name of the playground and booth makes the 
checking system more efficient. Each group of 
materials is set aside for the plaground director 
who is to call for it By the use of this method 
considerable time is saved during the rush period 
from 8:00 to 10:00 on the day of the circus. 

Food stuffs arrive 
at the field before 
10 :oo A. M. the day 
of the circus. Ice 
cream comes in a re- 
frigerator truck 
which stays on the 
grounds all day. 
Weenies, soda water, 
candy and other per- 
ishables are kept on 
ice until needed. One 
director has the re- 
sponsibility of pro- 
viding the food sales 
groups with addi- 
tional supplies a s 
they are needed. 
Since everything is 
purchased on consignment, 
great care is taken in issu- 
ing of additional supplies. 

Construction goes on from 6:00 A. M. to 10:00 
A. M. the day of the circus. Three main rings 
are marked off for the big shows and the booths 
needed for side shows, concessions and food sales 
are erected in the "joy zone." Each director is re- 
sponsible for his or her own booth. All of the 
materials are located in the property room and 
are checked out to the directors. 

The booths are constructed of frames 6 feet 
by 12 feet used as sides. One inch boards 12 
inches wide and 12 feet long are used as counters, 
while pieces of flooring are used as braces. The 
booths are decorated with signs, crepe paper, and 
wrapping and roofing paper. Booths are set in 
(Continued on page 157) 



How to Produce a Play 



By JACK STUART KNAPP 

National Recreation Association 



THE POOR selection of plays has killed as many 
producing groups as any other one reason. 
Poor plays produced professionally by skill- 
ed actors die quickly. How. futile, then, to hope 
the unskilled actors in a poor play may achieve 
success ! 

One act plays are usually written for amateurs 
as they are seldom used professionally. In se- 
lecting long plays, however, the group should be 
wary of plays "written forjpnateurs." It usually 
means the play is so poor fiiat professionals can- 
not put it across. What hope, then, for the ama- 
teur? Occasionally there is an exception and a 
play is too good (too much depth or too cultured) 
for Broadway. Remember, however, that the 
biggest part of a Broadway audience comes from 
Middletown and Cripple Creek. A play that is 
too good for Broadway is apt to be too good for 
any community, unless produced by a university, 
college or "arty" little theatre with a select 
audience. 

The professionally produced plays also must be 
culled carefully by the amateur group. Some of 
them are too "cheap," a few of them are too dif- 
ficult, and a great many of them are too "risque" 
or are downright "immoral." Plays which are 
smiled or laughed at on Broadway would be 
frowned on severely in Middletown and Cripple 
Creek. 

The average amateur group has difficulty in 
securing copies of plays to read from which to 
make a choice. They have no funds to purchase 
plays which may not be used. The average town 
and city library has very few plays suitable for 
production by a community group. Descriptions 
in play catalogues mean little, and plays which 
are personally recommended by some authority 
should be read before purchasing copies for the 
entire cast. 



This article deals with the important 
subject of selecting the play, and in it 
Mr. Knapp suggests some of the cri- 
teria for judging a play. In an article 
to appear in the July issue "Casting 
the Play" will be discussed. 



This difficulty is being recognized by some pub- 
lishers. Longmans Green & Company, New York 
City, for example, has a special offer whereby ten 
plays may be ordered from the catalogue, a re- 
mittance being sent to cover their prices. If one 
play is selected for production the others may be 
exchanged for copies of the play selected, pro- 
vided the books are returned in fresh and salable 
condition. 

Some state colleges and universities have a 
package library system from which groups may 
borrow by mail a limited number of plays for 
reading purposes. Copies for the production, 
however, must be secured from the publisher. 

And there's always the royalty question! Best 
plays have a royalty unless the play is so old that 
the copyright has expired, which means nearly 
sixty years. It is becoming possible to secure fairly 
good one act plays without a royalty, although 
the best ones have a royalty. It is practically im- 
possible to secure a good three act play without a 
royalty. 

The royalty is the rental for the use of the play. 
It should be paid to the publishers a week before 
the production of the play. Nothing will be said 
if it comes in a week after the production, but it 
is a good plan to have it arrive by that time be- 
cause the publishing houses have clipping bureaus 
which send all newspaper articles concerning the 
production of plays to them, no matter how small 
the article or the newspaper. Wilful violation of 
the copyright laws carries a maximum penalty of 
a year in prison, a thousand dollar fine or both. 
The moral side must also be considered. The 
group which produces a royalty play without pay- 
ing it is as dishonest as the man who moves out 
without paying the rent. 

One reason why groups must pay a royalty to 
secure good plays is that they themselves will not 



134 



HOW TO PRODUCE A PLAY 



135 



play fair. The usual playwright lives by writing 
plays ; it's his business. A play book usually sells 
from thirty to seventy-five cents a copy. The 
playwright gets ten per cent of the book sales, 
which means he makes from three to seven and a 
half cents a copy. A group will buy one copy of 
a play, copy all the parts, then distribute the parts 
to other groups to copy. Playwrights and pub- 
lishers have adopted the royalty plan in self- 
defense. 

Good plays are worth a reasonable royalty. 
They build up a following. Poor plays will 
quickly eliminate any following with which the 
group may start. Organizations which produce 
a play occasionally to "raise money" should give 
the audience its money's worth out of self-respect, 
and for the sake of good taste, if for no other 
reason. 

The director, or a small committee, should 
select the play. The director and two members 
of the group make a good committee. If a com- 
mittee is too large it spends too .much time 
arguing. 

Some Pertinent Questions 

After reading each play the committee mem- 
bers should ask themselves certain questions. 

1. Are the characters real people? 
Characters may be unusual but they should not 

be stuffed dummies, drawn by a caricaturist with 
bad taste. If the city men are "slickers"' and all 
the farmers are "rubes" it's pretty apt to be a 
bad play 

2. Does the play have action? 

A good play shows them ; it doesn't tell them. 

3. Does it tell a story? 

Results should follow causes logically enough 
so that the audience can imagine the story is hap- 
pening, has happened, or at the very least, might 
possibly happen. 

4. Will the producing group like it? 

If the producing group does not like the play 
it will be a poor production. A play should not 
be produced merely to be "high brow," to raise 
money, or to please some strong-minded person 
in the group, but because it is liked by the group 
as a whole. 

5. Will the audience like it? 

Certain audiences require certain types of plays. 
This is especially true of children's productions. 
The average community audience should be given 



credit for some intelligence. In spite of the opin- 
ion of some playwrights, they are not all Hiorons. 
They are usually disgusted with cheap, trashy 
plays, and show it by not attending the next pro- 
duction. Comedies are generally popular, but 
they should be varied by dramas, melodramas, 
and even an occasional tragedy or fantasy. 

6. Is this play possible for us? 

An inexperienced group should not attempt 
difficult productions. One act plays are excellent 
mediums with which to gain experience. 

Costume plays and high royalty ; plays are 
usually avoided by impecunious groups. 

Plays with very large casts should not be at- 
tempted by small groups or groups with a very 
small stage. 

Plays with difficult characterizations should 
not be attempted unless there are actors suitable 
for the parts. 

Help in the selection of plays may be had with- 
out charge from the drama consultant of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association. Play lists may also 
be secured for a very nominal fee. These lists are 
classified as follows : Plays for children ; tourna- 
ment plays ; little theatre plays ; plays for women ; 
plays for men ; non-royalty plays and others. 

Among the publishers glad to send their free 
catalogue of plays are : Walter H. Baker, 41 Win- 
ter Street, Boston, Massachusetts ; Samuel French, 
Inc., 25 West 45th Street, New York City ; Long- 
mans Green & Company, 55 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City ; Fitzgerald Publishing Corporation, 
14 East 38th Street, New York City, and Dra- 
matic Publishing Company, 542 South Dearborn 
Street, Chicago, Illinois. 



"The best argument for community playing is 
that it be useful both to workers and auditors. 
The community player's business is to supplement 
life, and contribute to it those things which can- 
not be had by other means. The rule is: Avoid 
hackneyed pieces ; avoid pieces whose production 
in your vicinity is in prospect, and above all avoid 
unworthy pieces. 

"Community drama is the most direct and nat- 
ural means of getting into touch with the arts. 
The love of creative work is its motive power, the 
zest of united effort is its binding force, and its 
end is the interpretation of life in terms of 
beauty." Roy Mitchell, in Shakespeare for Com- 
munity Players. 



Junior Leadership 



on 



the 



Playground 



Let us have your opinion on this 
increasingly important subject. 



IN discussing the effectiveness and place of 
junior organizations on playgrounds, it is 
necessary first to distinguish between junior 
organizations and junior leaders. By junior org- 
anizations I have in mind definite groups org- 
anized for a specific purpose with particular ob- 
jectives and responsibilities, and with some badge 
or insignia of identification. By junior leaders 
I mean boy and girl leaders who are not organized 
into a formal group. 

Junior leaders should, I believe, be used as 
fully as possible on playgrounds. First of all, 
because such service gives boys and girls the 
valuable experience of acting in positions of res- 
ponsibility where they have to make decisions 
and exercise judgment and control. Secondly, 
because the delegation of responsibilities to others 
represents the best leadership technique in work- 
ing with large groups. A playground leader in 
charge of a hundred or more children of various 
ages cannot possibly conduct a day's program of 
activities which will include all the children at 
the same time. Unless boy and girl leaders within 
the group are made responsible for certain activi- 
ties and for specific duties, the leader will be 
forced to take care of only a limited number and 
the rest will either be left to their own devices, 
which may or may not be satisfactory, or will 
be lost entirely to the playground because it offers 
nothing to attract them. 

The question to be asked, then, is: How can 
these junior leaders be discovered and used to 
the best advantage? 

One way is to set up definite organizations such 
as safety patrols, cleanup squads, junior police, 
136 



leaders' clubs and the like. Membership in such 
organizations requires a definite period of train- 
ing, however short, and perhaps a period of ap- 
prenticeship as well, also a pledge of willingness 
to perform certain specified duties. The scheme 
is used effectively in schools, especially in physical 
education classes and after-school play programs 
where boys and girls are elected squad leaders 
or captains for stated periods of time. At regular 
meetings for leaders they are acquainted with their 
particular duties. The frequent change in leaders 
makes it possible for most pupils who are inter- 
ested to serve. If the system is carried through 
the upper grades and the junior and senior high 
schools, the opportunities for serving in various 
capacities are many. 




Courtesy Board of Recreation Commissioners, Bloomfield, N. J. 



JUNIOR LEADERSHIP ON THE PLAYGROUND 



137 



Difficulties in Formal Organization of 
Junior Leaders 

This system has been carried over from the 
schools to playgrounds. Some leaders maintain 
that the system is effective; in my estimation it 
is not, for several reasons. 

First of all, because the needs, objectives and 
administrative set-up of summer playgrounds 
are entirely different from those of the school. 
Even though both are concerned with the child, 
the methods of dealing with him are entirely 
different. Unless the playground is a school play- 
ground and the leader is a teacher who has been 
responsible for the school play activities through- 
out the year, he is not familiar with the leader- 
ship ability of the children on the playground, 
especially at the beginning of the season, and is 
not capable of assigning boys and girls to safety 
squads and leadership corps with any real dis- 
crimination. The dominating spirits on the play- 
ground who make their presence felt and who are 
most likely to be chosen are not always the best 
leaders. 

In the second place, the most defensible 
argument on the 

valueof juniororgan- ^ bird's-eye view of some activities which 
izations in schools make Bloomfield's playgrounds happy places. 



Junior leadership organizations on the play- 
ground have certain definite drawbacks and 
liabilities, according to the playground 
worker who presents in this article the re- 
suit of her experience and thinking. You 
may not agree with her. If this is the case, 
let us have the benefit of your experience 
and opinion. This is an important subject 
which has became increasingly urgent as 
the whole problem of providing sufficient 
leadership on the playground ha s been ag- 
gravated by the present economic situation. 




does not apply to the same organizations on 
playgrounds. Junior organizations, such as the 
junior police, which put boys and girls in a posi- 
tion where they must make decisions regarding 
individual conduct and act in a way which directly 
affects other boys and girls, need the most subtle 
and careful adult supervision. In the school a 
teacher handles a much smaller number of child- 
ren at any one time and has at least eight or nine 
months in which to observe their 
leadership ability and their individ- 
ual differences. On a playground 
a leader who has only two months 
to know a hundred personalities, 
to introduce activities to appeal to each and every 
one of them, to administer a playground and all 
its physical equipment, is not in a position to 
give this careful supervision and to conduct even 
the simple training courses which formal group 
organizations require. Furthermore, he does not 
have time, and should not be expected to find the 
time, to attend to the clerical details which formal 
organizations entail. Even though no written re- 
cords are kept of individual achievement, the 
playground leader must make some honest check 
of each junior leader's performance to determine 
his fitness for continued service and for recogni- 
tion, or the whole system becomes only a super- 
ficial, administrative device. When this is so, as 
I believe it is in many instances, the children soon 
detect it and lose respect for the system, or take 
their responsibilities just as lightly as they think 
the leader is doing. 

At this point a reasonable question presents 
itself. If it is true that a leader cannot give his 



138 



JUNIOR LEADERSHIP ON THE PLAYGROUND 




Courtesy The Journal of the National Education Association 



attention to a spe- 
c i a 1 1 y organized 
group, how can he 
make use of junior 
leaders at all ? Isn't 
it true that without 
the safeguard of 
an organization a 
leader is more likely 
than ever to fall 
back on the boys 
and girls, .who., are 
most aggressive ? 
Probably so. In 
fact, with an im- 
mature leader this 
is more apt to be 
true than not. But 
as the leader comes 

to know the children on his playground better he 
can shift responsibility without having to disrupt 
an organization to do so. If an aggressive boy 
or girl who needs the experience of being led 
more than he needs the experience of leading is 
elected captain of a safety squad during the first 
week of the playground season, and performs his 
role badly, the leader cannot take the position 
away from him before his designated term ex- 
pires without resistance and antagonism on the 
child's part, and perhaps the complete alienation 
from the playground of him and all his followers. 
The argument may be advanced that the boys 
in a squad who elected him will learn by this ex- 
perience what it means to choose a poor leader. 
However, in a free playground situation where 
opportunities for mature guidance are so limited, 
the group, instead of remaining intact long enough 
to learn by the lesson, is more likely than not to 
break up entirely. If it does continue, it is apt 
to be in a disgruntled and unwholesome spirit 
which presents a difficult disciplinary problem 
to the leader. 

The choice of a wrong leader is by no means 
an uncommon occurrence. One of the reasons for 
this is that the playground population is almost 
never entirely the same as the school population. 
A child meets newcomers who are not met with 
in the school summer visitors, children who at- 
tend other schools, and children of the same play 
interests in different grades. Furthermore, the 
comparative freedom of the playground presents 
new situations which may demand an entirely 



different kind of 
leadership than is 
expected in the 
classroom or in the 
natural play group. 
Although it is true 
that playground 
teams also elect 
their own captains, 
sometimes the 
wrong ones, and 
the same argument 
is not advanced 
against them, it 
must be remem- 
bered that such 
groups consist of 
comparatively few 
members, are fairly 

homogeneous both in age and interest, and are 
usually self -selected. This makes it easier to deal 
with personality problems. Teen age boys and 
girls will form their own teams for games but 
they never organize a police system or a clean-up 
squad or the like. The fact that these organiza- 
tions are adult imposed does not necessarily make 
them valueless, but it does mean that those who 
impose them should be willing to subject them 
to the most careful scrutiny. 

The fact that playground organizations are 
not created through the children's own choice 
brings up the problem of arranging meetings 
satisfactorily. If both boys and girls are in the 
same organization it is difficult to get them to- 
gether before or after sessions. Home chores keep 
many of the girls away longer and take them 
away earlier than they do the boys. Xor can boys 
who carry papers, as many of the playground 
children do in larger cities, stay for a meeting late 
in the day. During the height of the morning or 
the afternoon when activities are at their peak, 
it is not feasible to call a meeting of leaders, firsf 
of all, because the leaders should be out assisting 
in conducting activities, and secondly, because 
those who are not responsible for some particular 
assignment may want to participate in one of the 
activities taking place. This may not be true in the 
far South where there are long hot periods during 
the day when quiet activities, including club meet- 
ings, are not only appropriate but almost a 
necessity. 



JUNIOR LEADERSHIP ON THE PLAYGROUND 



139 



The Problem of Insignia 

It is argued that children ought to feel respon- 
sible for the success of the playground, for its 
physical cleanliness, and for its order and opera- 
tion. Consequently, they should share in the work 
that has to be done. For the children who do not 
want to help clean up the playground, who are 
careless in the use of equipment and apparatus, 
some incentives must be provided. This is the 
justification for the use of insignia. Being in- 
trinsically of small value, they are a harmless 
device for getting children to do things in which 
they would not otherwise be interested. Some 
leaders insist that the insignia are incidental, that 
they serve only as a means of identification. 
Others admit that they are a form of award for 
service. In either case, they are a sign of recogni- 
tion. Whether they are detrimental or not 'depends 
on the pressure the leader exerts on the boys and 
girls who wear them. It also depends on whether 
or not the emphasis is placed on doing the assign- 
ment well or on receiving the badge. I disapprove 
most of all because of the feeling of distinction 
it creates between the children. If the badge is 
only a means of identification and not an award 
for service and a slow witted boy or a "bully" 
wants a badge, should the leader give it to him? 
If he does, the others in the squad will feel there 
is no particular merit in wearing a badge. If he 
does not, the child suffers through no fault of 
his own. 

Let us suppose a boy who is capable of assum- 
ing responsibility falls down on his assignment. 
Is the badge taken away from him? It should be 
if it is a sign of his willingness to perform as- 
signed duties. Yet to do so is to call the attention 
of the other children on the playground to his 
negligence. It also leaves the boy with a sense of 
loss which is unnecessary. If there were no org- 
anization and the boy had failed to do something 
he promised, the difficulty could be settled be- 
tween the leader and himself. Handling such 
individual problems is not difficult even on a play- 
ground where there are so many different person- 
alities. It usually requires an exchange of only a 
few words. If the leader is discreet and intelligent, 
the boy will be aware of his shortcoming but will 
not feel embarrassed or ashamed as he would 
be in the other case. Nor would he run the risk 
of being taunted for having had a badge taken 
away or withheld from him. 



How Can Junior Leaders Be Used 
More Effectively? 

If there are all these objections to junior play- 
ground organizations on summer playgrounds, 
how can junior leadefs be discovered and used 
more effectively? 

Instead of taking the time to organize and 
supervise these corps, squads and patrols, a play- 
ground leader should, I believe, use that same time 
to discover new interests, to enlarge his own 
repertoire of skills by experimenting with new 
activities, new games, new stories and new 
dramatic and music activities. Instead of taking 
time to perfect an organization which must neces- 
sarily reach only a limited number of children, 
he should give his attention to discovering new 
leaders, particularly among the shy boys and 
girls whose abilities are not so apparent. One of 
the best ways of doing this is by introducing a 
wide variety of activities which will give as many 
children as possible an opportunity to develop 
and to display their natural abilities and interests. 

As stated previously, a varied program can be 
offered only if boy and girl leaders are used, the 
older girls to play with the younger ones, to 
teach them singing games and folk dances and 
tell them stories ; the older boys to teach the 
younger ones crafts, coach them in games and 
sports, etc. In the beginning the leader will enlist 
those whose abilities are most apparent, being 
careful not to exploit them or to monopolize the 
time which they have for free play or playing 
with other children. This is a point which I 
believe is not stressed enough in discussing leader- 
ship technique. As a leader comes to know the 
leadership resources within the group, he can plan 
the program in a way which will take the best 
possible advantage of this existing leadership 
and which will leave him as free as possible to 
start new activities, uncover new leaders and step 
into the place of the leader who has fallen down. 
This might also be possible under the system of 
junior organizations were it not for the fact that 
the organization emphasizes the work to be done 
and not the individual doing it, and imposes stan- 
dards and rules which are exclusive rather than 
inclusive. 

As new boy and girl leaders are discovered, the 
adult leader can ask them to help, first in a small 
capacity and then in increasingly larger ones. 
This gives the child leader a chance to establish 



140 



JUNIOR LEADERSHIP ON THE PLAYGROUND 



confidence, to grow slowly before being singled 
out of the group. The exercise of her ability gives 
her this confidence. If she is a shy, sensitive child, 
a badge, by calling attention to her, might frighten 
her away and keep her forever from expressing 
herself. I remember one particular girl who 
would not participate in anything for a long time 
but who always hung around on the fringe of the 
group. She found herself when we introduced a 
particular type of needlecraft. At first she would 
not even show her work to anyone except the 
leader, but finally she was willing to teach the 
other children. She never developed the ability 
to organize a group herself as some other girls 
could. But once the craft class was started, the 
leader could withdraw with the assurance that it 
would hold together until she returned. If there 
were leadership corps on the playground, how 
would this girl be classified? 

And the slow witted boy who wants to help? 
As long as there is no standardized code of rules 
set up to govern a hundred personalities, he can 
be given responsibilities which he can perform 
with satisfaction. His achievement will be meas- 
ured by his own standard and not by the compara- 
tive standards of an unselected group. Perhaps 
his assignment is nothing more than getting water 
in which to soak reed for the handcraft class or 
perhaps carrying a baby swing to the storage 
house. Into which junior organization would he 
fit? I remember several younger boys who 
watched other children of the same age take the 
playground flag down every night for two weeks 
before they gave the least sign of wanting to do it 
themselves. They wanted to be sure they could do 
it, to be sure they knew how. I don't believe they 
would have tried had the other boys been wearing 
badges testifying to their superiority. They were 
afraid of failure, and I am sure the badges, the 
ceremony, the rules of an organization would 
have scared them off entirely. Freedom from 
domination is one of the most valuable contribu- 
tions of the playground. Why crush it with a 
stereotyped routine? 

A Summary 

To sum up. I believe the junior organizations 
are not necessarily detrimental in themselves. 
Mature, experienced leaders may be able to pre- 
serve the best intentions for which they are de- 



signed. However, in view of the fact that the time 
for training adult leaders is limited and their time 
for service also short, the problem of using that 
time to its best advantage is most important. 
Since there are so many conditions under which 
a junior organization may be unsatisfactory, if 
not genuinely harmful, because of the device for 
exerting pressure which it puts into the hands 
of a leader, I believe it would be better to empha- 
size the real leadership techniques instead of arti- 
ficial substitutes. We would, it seems to me, 
develop better playgrounds and better play- 
ground leaders if we stressed the natural tech- 
niques instead of artificial ones; if we considered 
the best way of discovering and utilizing incen- 
tives to be found in activities themselves instead of 
outside incentives; if we discussed the technique 
of group leadership, the value of recognition, the 
ways of handling different children and similar 
problems, instead of arbitrary systems of leader- 
ship. 

The most emphatic argument I can advance 
against the use of such organizations is that they 
are standardizing and unimaginative. Playgrounds 
are intended to free play impulses, to give as 
natural an opportunity for the expression of play 
interests as possible. Instead of concerning our- 
selves with the problem of finding new and better 
ways for extending this freedom, we try to find 
ways of standardizing leadership with no consid- 
eration of children's individual differences and 
capabilities. 



"It is most essential that children play with 
those who stimulate them on their own level of 
group consciousness. In no other way are un- 
social attitudes so likely to be built up as by forc- 
ing children into associations to which they do not 
wholeheartedly respond. The drive behind the 
child's behavior is to 'get by' with its members. 
If there is a chance of achievement along the lines 
of group interests, the individual child will learn 
how to play fair, to tell the truth, to act loyally, 
and will be awarded with group approval, and 
either with a secure place in the ranks or with 
some degree of leadership. But if he has no prac- 
ticable chance of achievement, he may find pleas- 
ure in the attention he gets by blocking or be- 
deviling the others." Leroy E. Bowman in "The 
Urge to Belong," Child Study, May, 1933. 



Planning the rlandcraft Program 

By JOHN C. KIEFFER 

Special Assistant to the Director 

Division of Physical and Health Education 

Board of Public Education, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



CONDITIONS of the past few years have forced 
us to examine more and more closely our 
play and recreation activities, our organiza- 
tion of them, and the principles and philosophy 
underlying them for the purpose of securing bet- 
ter and more lasting benefits. The tremendous in- 
crease in spare time brought about by industrial 
mechanization and its increasing unemployment, 
together with a decrease in available spending 
money, has brought us to a realization of how 
helpless we are in utilizing this time to the best 
advantage. 

When working and with money to spend, spare 
time was a source of joy, but once thrown upon 
our own resources fo r entertainment and life sat- 
isfactions, many of us have been found wanting. 
Lack of skill, together with lack of interest in 
satisfying activities, has caused almost as much 
misery as lack of food, clothing, and shelter. Who 
is to blame for all of this is not our problem now. 
Our main concern must be that such condition 
shall not continue. 

Enrichment of Life Through Handcraft 
Activities 

In handcraft we have an activity which can 
give much in the way of enriching life. It is only 
one of the many means, of 
course, and should not be 
over-emphasized at the ex- 
pense of other vital activities. 
Dr. L. P. Jacks reminds us 
that it is based on very fun- 
damental urges. Like other 
basic urges its growth and 
development depend upon 
careful nurturing. It is at 
once evident, then, that at- 
tention must be directed to 
the selection of suitable pro- 
jects to fit interest and ca- 



This summer handcraft bids fair to 
surpass even its previous popularity 
as a playground activity, if the num- 
ber of inquiries coming to the office 
of the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation may be considered an indi- 
cation ! We are therefore presenting 
the paper given by Mr. Kieffer 
before the district conference held 
at Philadelphia this spring. It out- 
lines in a practical way some of the 
principles involved, and presents 
projects appropriate for age groups. 



pacity of children, and to the careful organiza- 
tion and management of instruction rather than 
to the haphazard exposure of children to the mak- 
ing of some novel things. In other words, we are 
interested in building skills and attitudes in large 
numbers of children with a view to making them 
happy now and also to arousing interest and de- 
veloping abilities which will serve them as they 
grow older. In thus looking beyond the present 
or current values of these activities, we need not 
necessarily sacrifice any of the fun or joy involved 
at present. To look only at present values in 
terms of amusement or passing of time, or even in 
terms of "keeping them out of mischief," is a 
short-sighted policy. 

It is just at this point that the application of 
sound principles and good methods of organiza- 
tion and presentation are so essential. Too often 
in the past, perhaps, these factors have been em- 
phasized to the extent of defeating their very 
purpose. Here, of course, the teacher must never 
let the method of teaching, of organization or of 
management, become the end. They should 
always be a means of securing the desired results. 

Principles of Organization 

In presenting handcraft activities on the play- 
ground, teachers should first 
of all have a very clear un- 
derstanding of their purpose. 
They should, I believe, pro- 
vide a form of recreation 
which is interesting to chil- 
dren and which at the snme 
time affords opportunity for 
developing manual skills, for 
t:sing tools and materials, 
and for individual expression 
in constructive projects. 

The teacher should be guid- 
ed by the following principles : 



141 



142 



PLANNING THE HANDCRAFT PROGRAM 



in 



(1) Activities should be 
chosen which 

(a) Are interesting to the 

children. 

(b) Are within the limits 

of their ability. 

(c) Yield useful or at- 

tractive products. 

(d) Teach the use of 

tools. 

(e) Acquaint the children 

with the use of a 
variety of materials. 

(2) Standards of work- 
manship set by the teacher 
for the children should be 

high enough to be challenging and yet low enough 
to permit success. 

(3) It is advisable to group the children on the 
basis of interest, ability, and sex. Assignment to 
any group need not be fixed or permanent. 

(4) For reasons of economy it is advisable to 
encourage projects involving the use of inex- 
pensive materials. 

(5) The wise use of well trained, capable lead- 
ers can materially increase the fun of the activity 
for the children, the effectiveness of the teacher's 
instruction, and can extend the teacher's service 
to a greater number of children. 

Classification of Children 

If handcraft opportunities are to be presented 
effectively on an extensive scale, it is essential 
that the children be grouped into small units. 
Where the teacher is not acquainted with the in- 
dividual abilities of the children it is often ad- 
visable to classify them into several groups. One 
way of doing this is to place children in the first, 
second, and third grades in the beginners' group ; 
those in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades in the 
intermediate group, and those in the seventh, 
eighth, and ninth grades in the advanced group. 
In the advanced group it is often advisable to 
place the boys and the girls in separate groups. 
This classification is a tentative one, and as the 
child displays more or less ability he or she is 
shifted into a more suitable group. This shifting 
is always done in a diplomatic way and seldom 
should the teacher separate friends. Within each 
of these groups the teacher may, if necessary, set 
up subdivisions based on ability or interest. A 
child should always be permitted to shift tempo- 
rarily into other sections for projects which are 



"Recreation Includes all the beau- 
tiful skills, crafts and hobbies that 
human beings can practice, on and 
up to the finest of the fine arts. I 
call this the higher recreation. 
You may think of music as a typical 
foTm of it, though, of course, there 
are a hundred others. We need play- 
grounds for the body, but we need 
also playgrounds for the soul, and 
it is in them, I think, that the most 
enjoyable recreation, the most de- 
lightful and lasting of leisure occupa- 
tions are to be found." L. P. facias, 
Education through Recreation. 



particularly interesting to 
him and within his ability. 



Leaders 

Such a complicated or- 
ganization naturally requires 
a corps of well trained lead- 
ers and an elaborate pro- 
gram. By selecting the more 
capable boys and girls and 
giving them additional help 
before or after the play- 
ground session, capable as- 
sistance will be available. 
This additional help will usu- 
ally consist not only in teach- 
ing them how to make the various projects but 
also in showing others the method of making 
them. In addition, the teacher must point out 
some of the difficulties that the children will ex- 
perience and how these difficulties should be over- 
come. The preparation of the materials and the 
distribution of supplies and tools will also require 
discussion in these meetings of leaders. Much of 
the success of an extensive program for large 
numbers of children will depend upon the train- 
ing and ability of the leaders. 

Program Building 

Any attempt to present handcraft activities 
successfully will also require a well organized 
program of activities for each ability group. The 
teacher should set up a daily schedule of these 
activities for several weeks in advance. This 
permits : 

A logical progression in activities 
A more economical use of materials 
An accumulation of discarded materials brought 
by children from home for use at a later date. 

The provision by the teacher of a more inter- 
esting and varied selection of activities. 

This program, of course, will be subject to 
emergencies which arise from time to time and 
the teacher should not hesitate to change her pro- 
gram when conditions at any given time justify a 
change. In planning the program it is well to 
remember that for younger children with their 
short interest and attention span, projects must be 
selected which can be made in a relatively short 
period of time. It is also well to keep in mind the 
fact that in the case of certain skills it is advisable 
to provide a certain amount of repetition with 
enough variation to maintain interest. In the case 



PLANNING THE HANDCRAFT PROGRAM 



143 



of older children there may be projects which 
will require several days to complete. 

Activities 

Following are suggested lists of projects suit- 
able for children of beginning, intermediate, and 
advanced abilities : 

A. Beginners' Group 

(1) Tracing and coloring on paper (animals, birds, flow- 
ers, and other objects.) 

(2) Weaving paper mats. 

(3) Cutting paper. 

(a) From tracings flat, standing, movable objects. 

(b) Free cutting magazine and newspaper pictures 

(4) Cutting, folding, and pasting paper (construction) 

(a) Fans (paper) (g) Boats (paper) 

(b) Book markers (paper) (h) Airplanes (paper) 

(c) Pin packs (i) Envelopes 

(d) Lanterns (paper) (j) Cornucopias 

(e) Pinwheels (paper) (k) Baskets (paper) 

(f) Hats (paper) 

Soldier; Indian 
(3) Scrap-books (comic, picture books) 

(6) Paper boxes (pasting pictures or bits of colored 
paper on boxes) 

(7) Furniture (stiff paper or cardboard) 

(8) Top (cardboard circle with stick in center) 

(9) Garages, barns (stiff paper or cardboard) 

(10) Necklace beads (long triangles of colored paper 
rolled and pasted) 

(11) Jars (pasting pieces of paper on jars, bottles, etc.) 

(12) String or cord knotting (simple granny knots) 

(a) Necklace; (b) Bracelet; (c) Chain 

(13) Silhouettes (paper) Trees, flowers, animals, 
houses 

(14) Paper dolls 

(15) Doll clothes (paper) 

(16) Cutting and sewing (cloth) appliqueing 

(17) Toy wagons, carts (stiff paper, cardboard) 

(18) Picture puzzles (cardboard) 

(19) Simple plaiting and braiding (raffia) 

(a) Bracelets; (b) Chains; (c) Necklace 

(20) Belts (paper weaving) 

(21) Checker boards (cardboard) 

(22) Simple posters 

(23) Asbestos covered jars 

(24) Mats (raffia weaving) 

'(25) Picture and design sewing sewing cards 
(26) Simple reed and raffia weaving 

B. Intermediate Group 

(1) Movable animals (cardboard) 

(2) Dolls (cardboard) 

(3) Doll clothes (crepe paper and cloth) 

(4) Belts (paper and cellophane) 

(5) Paper covered jars and bottles (design work) 

(6) Asbestos (covering glass jars in designs or reliefs) 

(7) Mats (weaving on loom using raffia, wool, jute, 
string) 

(8) Rugs (weaving on loom) 



(9) Pocketbook (weaving on loom) 

(10) Muff (weaving on loom) 

(11) Hot dish mat (wrapping and sewing on loom) 

(12) Napkin rings (cardboard wrapped with raffia) 

(13) Needle books 

(14) Pen wiper (cloth) 

(15) Tarn O'Shanter (weaving on loom) 

(16) Hammocks (doll) 

(17) Pot holders (cloth) 

(18) Peanut bird, dolls, etc. 

(19) Raffia doll 

(20) Painted bottle 

(21) Kites (paper) 

(22) Picture frames (picture, spider webs in center) 

(23) Mats (wrap rings cut out of milk bottle tops, with 
raffia) 

(24) Lamp shade (stiff paper, crepe paper) 

(25) Reed mats (raffia centers) 

(26) Stocking doll 

(27) Pendant (small picture frame and plaited raffia or 
cord) 

(28) Comb and brush holder (cardboard covered with 
cloth) 

(29) Letter holder (cardboard covered with cloth) 

(30) Plaques (simple tracing of pictures on wood, col- 
oring and shellacking) 

(31) Indian baskets (raffia) 

(32) Doll house (cardboard) 

(33) Bird cages (soda straws) 

(34) Pocketbooks (sewing wool, raffia in scrim or 
burlap) 

(35) Dish rag bags (with designs) 

(36) String bags 

(37) Puzzles (cardboard) 

(38) Puzzles (wood) 

(39) Costumes (crepe paper) 

C. Advanced Group 

(1) Novelty dolls (cord, inner tube, raffia, rope, stock- 
ing, oilcloth, fruit, lollypbps, cork, rag, hairpin) 

(2) Book marker (leather) 

(3) Vases (paper covered jars and bottles design 
work) 

(4) Puzzles (wood) 

(5) Modeling asbestos 

(a) Forms (animal, faces, plaques) 

(b) Objects (ash trays, candlesticks, etc.) 

(c) Beads 

(6) Asbestos covering over wood or stone (paper 
weights, inkstands, picture frames) 

(7) Reed baskets 

(8) Posters 

(9) Decorated Indian basket (raffia) 

(10) Belts (cellophane) 

(11) Leather billfold 

(12) Rugs (woven, hooked) 

(13) Vase (painted) 

(14) Paper flowers 

(15) Plaques (advanced tracing on wood, coloring and 
shellacking) 

(16) Door stops (wood) 

(17) Reed basket 

(18) Splint baskets 



144 



PLANNING THE HANDCRAFT PROGRAM 



(19) Magazine rack (cardboard) 

(20) Soap carving 

(21) Costumes (crepe paper and cloth) 

(22) Door stop (covered milk bottles or cans) 

(23) Toys (wood) 

(24) Book ends (wood and asbestos) 

(25) Boats (wood) 

(26) Leather belts 

(27) Tie holders 

(28) Lamp shades (twisted crepe paper, raffia, wire, 
cardboard, picture) 



(29) Plant stands, tabouret (cardboard) 

(30) Rope quoits (splicing, grommet) 

(31) Advanced reed work 

(32) Stained glass (art glass) 

(33) Hammocks (string) 

(34) Chair caning 

A Suggested Program 

Following is a suggested program of handcraft 
activities suitable for each of three groups of 
children classified on the basis of ability : 



DATE 



BEGINNERS' GROUP 



INTERMEDIATE GROUP 



ADVANCED GROUP 
Boys Girls 



July 
Man 
(1st) 


Tracing with crayons on 
drawing paper, cutouts of 
animals and birds. 
(Patterns have been cut out 
by teacher or leaders be- 
forehand.) 


Making Jointed Animals using 
manila tag and paper fasten- 
ers. (Cutting, coloring and 
fastenings ) . 
(Ask children to bring large 
pieces of wallpaper or wallpa- 
per sample books next day.) 


Leather Book 
Marker 


Raffia Doll (Ask 
children to bring 
m a g a z i ne s and 
glass bottles or 
jars next day.) 


Tues. 
(2nd) 


Tracing, Cutting and Col- 
oring animals and birds 
(or choice of children.) 


Cutting and Pasting 
Cutting out pictures of house 
furnishings and pasting on 
wallpaper background t o 
make "furnished rooms." 
(Ask children to bring cello- 
phane next day.) 


Leather Billfold 
(Ask boys to bring 
pieces of thin wood 
from fruit crates 
next day.) 


I'ascs 
Covering glass bot- 
tles or jar with 
bits of colored 
paper. (Ask girls 
to bring pieces of 
inner tube next 
day.) 


Wed. 
(3rd) 


Cutting, Folding, Pasting 
Lanterns, pinwheels and 
chains (or choice of 
children.) 


For Boys Making hats from 
strips of folded paper using 
the design popularized in cel- 
lophane belts. 
For Girls Cellophane belts 
(Ask boys and girls to bring 
?lass bottles or jars from home 
next day.) 


Salving (with coping 
saw) picture puz- 
zles. 


Cutting and Sewing 
rubber dolls. 


Thurs. 
(4th) 


Cutting, Folding, Pasting, 
Indian hats, soldier hats 
(or choice of children.) 


Covering with Asbestos 
Covering glass bottles or jars 
and painting them for use as 
vases. 


Modeling Asbestos 
(For Boys and Girls) 
Making beads, ash trays, reliefs. 



(Ask children to bring string 
from home next day.) 



Fri. Cutting, Folding, Pasting, 

(5th) airplanes, envelopes, (or 

choice of children). 



Wrapping and Tying Hot dish 
mat using string brought from 
home. 



Raffia and Reed Baskets 

(For Boys and Girls) 

Making Indian baskets, wrapping raffia 
around reed. 



Sat. As Friday but making cor- 

(6th) nucopias and baskets (or 

choice of children). 



Napkin Rings Wrapping card- 
board rings (sections cut from 
cardboard roll inside roll of 
toilet paper) with raffia. 



Continue Friday's activity. 



Using the lists of activities suggested, the 
teacher can easily complete the programs outlined 
making them extend over one or two months or 
even longer, depending upon how often the 
groups engage in the activity. 

It will be noted in the programs suggested that 
arrangements are made by the teacher to have 
materials brought from home so that they will be 
available on the day they are to be used. Some 
attempt has also been made (in so far as this is 
possible within the short span of a week's pro- 
gram) to increase the difficulty of the activities 



as the week progresses. Because the administra- 
tion of the asbestos involves more difficulties than 
do many other materials, projects in this material 
are scheduled for both the intermediate and ad- 
vanced groups on the same day, thus saving time. 
The projects for each group are, however, dif- 
ferent, those for the intermediates being less diffi 
cult than those outlined for the advanced children 
Because boys and girls are equally interested in 
some projects, samples of these are included. 
( See those for advanced group on Thursday and 
(Continued on pa'je 157) 



A Community Council Goes Into Action 



WHEN THE Pittsburgh Com- 
munity Council was or- 
ganized in February, 1932, 
the proper use of leisure time 
was considered of such commun- 
ity value that each of the nine- 
teen local community councils appointed a stand- 
ing committee on recreation. The chairman of 
these local committees, under the leadership of 
Sidney A. Teller, formed a city-wide Recreation 
Committee. During the spring this committee 
secured forty- four recreation leaders through the 
work relief program of the Allegheny County 
Emergency Association. Under the guidance of 
some existing settlement or other group work 
agency, these leaders were engaged in the super- 
vision of extension work for unemployed adults. 
From February 8th to July 2, 1932, they pro- 
vided leadership in leisure time activities for over 
2,000 persons daily. 

In the fall it was decided to enlarge the work 
of the Recreation Committee. The first step was 
the creation of a Steering Committee to serve as 
an advisory body for the city-wide committee and 
for each of the local committees. The member- 
ship of this committee included W. C. Batchelor 
of the Municipal Bureau of Recreation, Ralph 
Munn of the Carnegie Library, A. Benson of the 
Boy Scouts, and other interested citizens of Pitts- 
burgh. Clarence E. Lott was appointed chairman 
of this steering committee and was also asked to 
serve as chairman for the city-wide committee. 

The Steering Committee was broken up into 
three sub-committees: the Locations Committee, 
Equipment Committee, and Personnel and Pro- 
gram Committee. 

The local committees were 
encouraged to become more 
active in their own districts 
and as a means to this end 
the field secretary of the 
Community Council assisted 
in their enlargement. In 
every neighborhood the com- 
mittee attempted to include 
in its membership two repre- 
sentatives from each church, 



By Lois E. MCGREGOR 

Field Secretary 
Pittsburgh Community Council 



two representatives from each 
fraternal organization, two from 
each civic body, and at least five 
members at large or interested 
citizens having no particular af- 
filiation. 



Much good is resulting from the efforts 
of Recreation Committees of Councils of 
Social Agencies, Community Councils and 
similar groups, to bring to bear on the 
problem of the need of the unemployed 
for something more than food and shelter, 
all the resources of the community. The 
account of the way in which the commun- 
ity Council of one city went to work, and 
the methods it used, will be of interest 
to other communities. 



And Then They Went to Work ! 

At the time of their reorganization these com- 
mittees discussed the recreational situation in 
their own neighborhoods. The first project of 
each group was to make a survey of the existing 
facilities for leisure time activities. As a result 
of this study, each committee knew which group 
or groups lacked adequate opportunities for rec- 
reation. All of the committees confined themsel- 
ves more or less to adults as it was felt that the 
unemployed were in much greater need of a mo- 
rale-building program than school children. Rec- 
reation for children was not deemed unimport- 
ant, but the committee believed that the young 
people were receiving at last a minimum of this 
work in connection with their school program. 
The older boys and girls who had finished school 
and who had never had an opportunity to work, 
the family man who was accustomed to regular 
work habits and who was now unemployed, and 
the housewife with all the cares and economic 
worries of her family, were the ones the com- 
mittees felt they should help. 

What sort of program would appeal to these 
groups? In most districts the committee found 
the answer to its problem in an informal clubroom 
or community center. One or more rooms were 
equipped with tables, chairs, games of all sorts, 
jig saw puzzles, magazines and books. To this 
club room the older boys and 
the men could come for com- 
panionship. Instead of stand- 
ing on street corners engaged 
in morbid conversation con- 
cerning the depression, they 
gathered in the club room to 
play checkers, pool, ping- 
pong or parchesi, to solve a 
jig saw puzzle, to read some 
current magazine or good 

145 



146 



A COMMUNITY COUNCIL GOES INTO ACTION 



book, or just to sit and chat. 
Men tired of staying at home, 
and wives weary of men folk 
underfoot, all benefited by this 
arrangement. 

From the small club room 
grew many things. Under the 
guidance of the volunteer 
leader, study groups were 
formed. One or two after- 
noons a week were given over 
to girls and women who form- 
ed their own clubs. Mush ball 
leagues were started. Vacant 
lots were secured for outdoor 
playgrounds. "Naborhood nites" or mass enter- 
tainments were planned and carried out. The ac- 
tivity initiated by the local committee was like a 
small snowball which the community council sec- 
retary set to rolling. The local committee got be- 
hind it and began to push, and as time went on the 
activities gained tremendously in momentum and 
size. Just as any snowball gathers some sticks and 
stones, so the programs of the committee were not 
alway perfect, but they were moving! Commit- 
tees learned by experience and when any one pro- 
ject failed, they turned to another. 

As the needs in each district differed, so the 
programs planned and executed were varied, of- 
fering a great variety of interests to people of all 
ages. Centers ranged in size from small base- 
ment rooms to large eight room buildings. Some 
were open each day from nine o'clock in the 
morning until ten o'clock at night; others were 
open only in the afternoon and evenings, and still 
others only one or two nights a week. Some had 
one or two leaders while others had a staff of as 
many as sixty volunteers. In some neighborhoods 
centers had very simple programs consisting only 
of informal games and free use of the library, 
while others had comprehensive and well-rounded 
programs. 

A Typical Program 

One center, the Beechview Community Center, 
was housed in an old school building and put its 
different rooms to the following uses : 
i. Library " 

(a) Free use of magazines and books. 

(b) Current events clubs. 

(c) Story hour for youngsters once a week with 

story acting. 

(d) Planned course of reading. 



"Play is active. All the connotations 
of the word suggest the idea of move- 
ment. The word 'amuse' might be anal- 
yzed etymologically as signifying "a- 
way from musing,' coming out of one's 
self. Even stronger In this sense is 
the word 'distract,' to draw away, or 
'divert,' to turn away. Play is an al- 
ternative for those lazy entertainments 
which find us idle and leave us passive, 
since it gives us something we can do 
or make to exercise our faculties and 
cause us to experience that glorious 
sense of achievement." Earnest Elmo 
Calkins in The Lost Art of Play pub- 
lished in the Atlantic Monthly, April. 



2. Game Rooms 

(a) Free use of ping-pong 

tables, pool tables, 
checker games. 

(b) Tournaments ping- 

pong, pool and others. 

3. Gymnasium Classes 

(a) Classes in basketball, 
volley ball, tap danc- 
ing, social dancing, 
boxing, exercises, cal- 
isthenics for girls, 
women, boys and 
men. 

4. Social Rooms 

(a) Informal use of meet- 
ing rooms. 

(b) Mixed dramatic clubs. 

(c) Mixed social clubs married couples' club, 

young peoples' club and others. 
5. Classrooms 

(a) Handcraft classes of all sorts hooked rug 

making, whittling, soap carving, woodwork. 

(b) Vocational classes shorthand, typewriting, 

public speaking, elementary electricity, 
salesmanship. 

The successful completion of any one district's 
program entailed a great deal of effort on the part 
of the committee. In large districts committees 
had as many as thirty members, and in small 
neighborhoods two or three persons might con- 
stitute a committee. In most cases the local com- 
mittee divided itself into sub-committees in the 
same manner as had the Steering Committee. 

Committee Activities 

The Locations Committee handled the problem 
of rooms. Space was borrowed for community 
centers in whatever buildings were available. 
Church basements, school buildings and vacant 
store rooms were used. Even old garages were 
transformed and equipped. If a building was in 
need of repairs and many of them were the 
unemployed men of the neighborhood fur- 
nished the labor necessary for reconditioning the 
buildings. 

Jig saw puzzles, magazines, books quiet games 
and all sorts of recreation materials were col- 
lected by the Equipment Committee. In April the 
Steering Committee conducted a city-wide cam- 
paign for recreation equipment. For three weeks 
there was publicity in the newspapers concern- 
ing the work of the community centers, includ- 
ing ah appear for any material which might be 
used in these centers. Many housewives in the 



A COMMUNITY COUNCIL GOES INTO ACTION 



147 



midst of their spring cleaning answered this ap- 
peal and as a result, the Community Council col- 
lected 50 victrolas, 2,000 records, 10 pianos, 4 
pool tables, 5 ping-pong tables, 500 jig saw puz- 
zles, 2,000 books, 15,000 magazines, 10 daven- 
ports, 50 chairs, 5 desks, 20 tables, and an odd 
and varied assortment of games such as check- 
ers, dominoes, lotto, flinch, crokinole and indoor 
golf. This material was distributed to the local 
committees which were unable to collect a suf- 
ficient quantity in their own neighborhood. 

The Personnel-Program Committees planned 
programs to be followed and secured volunteer 
leadership to supervise activities. To aid these 
committees a city-wide leadership course was 
held to give the volunteer leaders more of a back- 
ground and appreciation of the work which they 
were doing. For three evenings more than 300 
volunteers met in the downtown Y.M.C.A. under 
the auspices of the Group Work Division of the 
Federation of Social Agencies. Speakers of gen- 
eral interest were scheduled for each evening. 
The group was later divided into special interest 
groups ; all the volunteers interested in music met 
with one leader and all those interested in hand- 
craft met with another. Other groups were 
planned for leaders interested in reading rooms, 
game rooms, social games and dramatics. 

In remarkably few committees did the question 
of finance become a disconcerting one. Many of 
the committees had no expenses to meet. The 
rooms used were loaned, the equipment was 
donated, and the supervision and leadership were 
given by volunteers. In a few cases, however, 
the problem of light and heat had to be faced, as 
well as the matter of repairs to the buildings oc- 
cupied. To meet such expenses local committees 
conducted benefit shows, dances or card parties. 
These were exceptional rather than the rule and 
were resorted to only where absolutely necessary. 
The Steering Committee set up a small revolving 
fund from which local committees could borrow 
until they were able to meet their expenses. This 
was especially helpful in buying lumber and other 
materials to recondition a building for a new 
center. 

As an outgrowth of the daily program the 
various committees began to ask for neighbor- 
hood nights or mass entertainments. These enter- 
tainments were planned and carried through by 
the Local Committees. Programs consisted mostly 
of local talent plays by dramatic groups which 



had been meeting in the centers, concerts by glee 
clubs and solos by individual singers and dancers. 
Some districts held neighborhood nights once a 
week and others but once a month. Sometimes 
these meetings, in cooperation with the Health 
Committee of the Council, took a more serious 
turn and health programs were presented. Some 
committees had special programs for Hallowe'en, 
Christmas and other holidays. To assist with 
these "Naborhood Nite" programs, the Steering 
Committee developed an entertainment file which 
could be called upon for special acts magicians, 
orchestras and other worth while features. 

Pointing out that unemployed hours need not 
be empty hours and realizing that as a nation we 
will have more and more leisure time, the Pitts- 
burgh Community Council has adopted for its 
Recreation Committee the slogan, "Your Spare 
Time Is Yours Make It Show a Profit." By 
bringing together agencies and individuals inter- 
ested in leisure time activities, local committees 
have been able to coordinate and enlarge the pro- 
gram and use of existing facilities, and to estab- 
lish new centers where necessary. No one com- 
mittee has made a perfect thing of every project, 
but each has had enough successes to prove that 
leisure time can show a profit. As a result of 
their work 75 new centers now serve from 6,000 
to 10,000 persons weekly. Recreation, to these 
committees and to the groups which they serve, 
has come to mean not merely play for children, 
but a very real and worth while re-reation for 
adults. 



"As the poet says, we want to mold the world 
'nearer to the heart's desire.' But what is the 
heart's desire? There is not much good in mold- 
ing the world unless we have a clear idea of our 
goal, what we are really after, what is our heart's 
desire. Is it quantity? Is it a suffocating mass of 
commodities for the world to use? Or is it qual- 
ity ? Is it a nice balance of human affairs and en- 
joyments and satisfactions? Is it getting all we 
can today and not bothering about the happiness 
and stability of society tomorrow? Or is it a 
blissful tomorrow bought at a great price today? 
'Or is it a nice balance between them? Does it 
admit of moral and artistic and spiritual judg- 
ments, or is it just one mad rush for the comforts 
of today? We must know what the heart's desire 
is before we can even make a good approach shot 
to it." Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E., LL.D., D.Sc. 



Junior Recreation 
in the 

Yosemite National 
Park 



A plan with a sure guar- 
antee of vacation fun for 
both parents and children 




Courtesy Yosemite Park and Curry Company 



PARENTS visiting the Yosemite National Park 
with their children are finding the Junior 
Recreation Department a great boon in help- 
ing them enjoy a carefree vacation. For this de- 
partment is organising recreation activities for 
the children, keeping them busy and happy, and 
providing a special camp with a supervisor in 
charge to care for the younger children. 

The service, which is entirely free except for 
special trips involving expense, is given children 
between nine and thirteen years of age. A weekly 
program is posted on all bulletin boards with 
activities scheduled for every morning, afternoon 
and two evenings a week. The program is plan- 
ned in such a way that after a strenuous morning 
the children will have an afternoon of quiet games 
or handcraft. Here is a typical weekly program: 

Saturday, July 23rd Morning, 7 :30 A. M. Breakfast 

ride; Afternoon, 1:30 P. M. Handicraft class; 

Evening, 7 :30 P. M. Marshmallow roast. 
Sunday, July 24th Morning, 10 :00 A. M. Swimming 

at Camp Curry Pool ; Afternoon, 1 :30 P.M. Games. 
Monday, July 25th Morning, 9:00 A.M. Half day 

hike; Afternoon, 1:30 P. M. Handicraft. 
Tuesday, July 26th Morning, 7 :30 A. M. Breakfast 

hike; 11:30 A. M. Story hour; Afternoon, 2:00 

P. M. Monthly swimming meet. 

148 



By DOROTHY BOARDMAN 

Junior Recreational Director 
Yosemite Park and Curry Company 



Wednesday, July 27th Morning, 9 :00 A. M. All day 

burro picnic. 
Thursday, July 28th Morning, 9:00 A. M. Novelty 

track meet ; Afternoon, 5 :00 P. M. Supper hike. 
Friday, July 29th Morning, 9:00 A. M All day burro 

picnic or for those not fortunuate enough to go 

10:00 A. M. Nature study hike; Afternoon, 1:30 

P. M. Games. 

In 1931, when the program was initiated, the 
activities consisted of handcraft classes, half day 
hikes, all day hikes, games, treasure hunts, break- 
fast hikes and rides, story hours, marshmallow 
and weiner roasts, and swimming parties. The 
high light of the summer was a children's rodeo. 
In preparation for this the children practised 
games on horseback under the direction of a rid- 
ing instructor. There were also foot and novelty 
races as well. So successful was the rodeo that 
it was repeated in the summer of 1932 and will 
be a yearly event. 



JUNIOR RECREATION IN THE YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK 



149 



At the end of the season it was decided 
to try out an all day burro picnic. The 
children were so delighted with it that it 
was necessary to conduct another the fol- 
lowing day to take care of the overflow. 
These picnics continued three times a week 
during the summer of 1932. The children 
left the stables at 9 :oo A. M. with lunches 
and bathing suits in their saddle bags, a 
guide and the recreation director bringing 
up the rear. They rode for about an hour 
and a half to a spot on the Merced River 
where there is a good bathing beach, donned 
bathing suits for a swim before lunch, and 
afterward enjoyed games and stories. Then 
a two hour ride home, tired but happy. 

During the summer of 1931, 2,579 chil- 
dren participated in the various activities. In 
1932 some new and interesting ideas were worked 
out. \Ye organized the Grizzly Club the name 
"Grizzly" was taken from Yosemite meaning 
"Grizzly bear." A little long house served as our 
club house, and here we keep our box of hand- 
craft tools for use in the big open space in front 
of the club house, where handcraft classes are 
held and games played. The house is the meeting 
and starting place for all activities. Just above 
the building is an old ruin with an open fireplace 
where marshmallow 
and weiner roasts 
held twice 




Courtesy Yosemite Park and Curry Company 



A pop-alar part of the program of the 
games played in front of the club house. 



are 



week. Every child automatically becomes a mem- 
ber of the club after taking part in three activi- 
ties. There are no entrance fees and no dues. 

A point system has helped maintain the chil- 
dren's interest. On entering a club each child is 
given a little "Grizzly Club" booklet in which he 
keeps track of the activities in which he takes 
part and the points won for participating 

Nothing has a greater appeal for When a child ha^ accumulated 100 points he 
a the children than the daily ride. receives a pin ; for 250 points he is given a 

medal similar to the pin but 
larger and suspended on a 
green and gold ribbon, the 
club colors. 

Another innovation in the 
1932' system was the monthly 
birthday parties. Every child 
who had a birthday during the 
month was invited to a birth- 
day party where there were 
games, favors, and a birthday 
cake. It was a happy child 
whose birthday occurred in the 
summer. 

The handcraft articles made 
by the children from the nat- 
ural materials found in the 
Yosemite were displayed in a 
glass case. They included 
birds made of pine cones and 
acorns; pine needle baskets; 

Courtesy Yosemite Park and Curry Company (Continued On page 158) 







World 




THE JAMES 
A Playground T1 
TD 1 01 , BARRIEPLAV- 

Book-Plate . 

GROUND Of 

Oak Park, Il- 
linois, is the proud possessor of 
a book-plate especially designed 
for its library by Carl Junge of 
Oak Park, well known book- 
plate maker. In harmony with 
the brilliant Peter Pan murals 
that adorn the panels of the shel- 
ter's attractive meeting place, 
Mr. Junge, in collaboration with 
Mr. Meyers, chose the Kensing- 
ton Garden Peter Pan for his 
central figure. 

The book-plate was presented 
at a special ceremony held in the 
shelter house of the playground 
when Dudley C. Meyers, Com- 
missioner of Public Works, who 
is both a playground and book- 
plate enthusiast, told the children some interest- 
ing facts about book-plates. 

The James Barrie Playground is the second of 
Oak Park's play centers to become the possessor 
of such a plate, Eugene Field having the first, 
also made by Mr. Junge with Mr. Meyers as the 
donor. 



PLAYGROUND 



who brinq, sunshine, 
into the. lives of others can- 
not keep it from themselves. 

J. M. BARR.lt 




at Pi 



ay 



A Wading Pool 
At Low Cost 



TE MIS CAM- 
ING, a small 
community in 
Quebec, Can- 
ada, has a central organization 
known as the Temiscaming Ath- 
letic Association which is in 
charge of all sports. The efforts 
of the association during the past 
year have been directed at secur- 
ing a wading pool which is now 
an accomplished fact. It was con- 
structed from funds contributed 
by private individuals and sport- 
ing clubs in the community. Peo- 
ple out of employment contrib- 
uted their labor or accepted a 
nominal wage so that the entire 
cost of the pool did not exceed 
$700 in cash. The pool, built of 
concrete, is 50 feet in diameter 
with a maximum depth of 29 

inches at the center and 15 inches at the edge. It 

is beautifully located in a forest. 



An Anniversary 
Celebration 



An Aquatic 
Conference 



THE SECOND annual aquatic 
conference of Southern Cali- 

fcrnia was held under the 

auspices of the Recreation 
Commission of Long Beach and sponsored by the 
Public Beach Coordination Committee of South- 
ern California. At this conference, which was 
held on February 271)1, such subjects were dis- 
cussed as water safety, recreation in the water, 
recreation of the water, yachting and boating, 
promotion of school and college aquatic pro- 
grams, medical aspects of swimming, and new 
pool construction. 

150 



FROM MARCH I3th to i/th 
the Portola Recreation Center 
of San Francisco, California, 
operating under the auspices 
of the Recreation Commission, celebrated its sec- 
ond anniversary week. Portola Center was 
erected on the Portola Playground Field during 
the year of 1930 and was completed in January, 
1931. Since its dedication on March 14, 1931, the 
center has had a steady growth until today there 
are twenty-five organizations of men, women, 
boys and girls meeting in the building and making 
use of the facilities offered. The anniversary 
celebration included banquets and receptions 
given by the various clubs, music, dramatic fea- 
tures, dancing, exhibition basketball games and 
similar activities. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



151 



Detroit Women at Play In spite of the bank 
holiday and the depression, the eleventh annual 
demonstration of women's activities was con- 
ducted on March nth by the Detroit, Michigan, 
Department of Recreation. Seven hundred and 
fifty women, representing thirty-four centers, 
took part in a most successful event, while ap- 
proximately 9,000 people were present as spec- 
tators. The demonstration took the form of a 
pageant of which music and dancing were fea- 
tures, as well as mass games and drills. 

Play for Earthquake Sufferers Miss Frances 
Cramer of Long Beach, California, subscriber to 
RECREATION, writes : "Your letter of March loth 
(a renewal notification) found us living in our 
back yard and cooking over an open fire. Now 
that the earthquake is over and things are return- 
ing to normal, I will get my renewal to the REC- 
REATION Magazine on its way. 

"After the earthquake many of the families in 
Long Beach were temporarily or permanently 
homeless. These people were housed in tents in 
our parks. The workers from the Recreation De- 
partment organized programs of recreational ac- 
tivities for the children and adults at the various 
parks. Ten playgrounds have now been opened. 
These are supervised by volunteer workers. We 
cannot open more of the school grounds at pres- 
ent because of the dangerous condition of the 
school buildings. In many cases the playground 
equipment was buried in the debris The Los An- 
geles Playground Department has been very gen 
erous and has loaned the Long Beach Depart- 
ment equipment to carry on with during this time 
of emergency. The playgrounds are vitally essen- 
tial now of all times, for the school children are 
at a loss to know what to do with their unex- 
pected vacation." 

From the Los Angeles Playground and Recre- 
ation Department comes word that music, motion 
pictures and other entertainment were arranged 
for the earthquake sufferers. Gypsy story tellers 
put on story hours at the various camps. 

Training Schools in Nature Activities This 
year "The Aliens," beautifully located in the Hud- 
son River valley, New York State, will be the 
headquarters of two nature training schools to be 
held June I7th to 3Oth and July 2nd to i6th The 
Coordinating Council of Nature Activities will 
cooperate with Mr. and Mrs. Allen in this pro- 
ject. The instruction, which will consist of in- 



At last - SAFETY- 

in a Swing* Seat! 

Everwear Scores Again! 




No more serious dan- 
ger from a swing seat 
IF it is the new, Ever- 
Wear 

Spring - Rubber 

Safety Seat 

No. SR-205 

All exposed and con- 
tact surfaces of the 
seat are soft, springy, 
tubular, corrugated, 
fabric-reinforced rub- 
ber. The five tubular 
rubber section are in- 
teriorally reinforced 
by spring steel. 



The suspension 
clevises are re- 
versible, doubl- 
ing the life of 
the seat. 

The seat is venti- 
lated and all sur- 
faces are non-slip. 



R e - e q u i p all old 
swing outfits and 
specify this seat for 
all new swings. 




A complete line of approved Playground Apparatus, Beach 
and Pool Equipment. Write for new Catalog No. 24. 

The EverWear Manufacturing Co. 

SPRINGFIELD. OHIO 



152 



WORLD AT PLAY 



Be Sure to Get Details on 

NEW "Free Glide" Shuffleboard 

Free-Glide Shuffleboard equipment has in- 
creased the already popular appeal of Shnf- 
fleboard. Will not warp or break and is 
amazingly low in cost. Write today for 
complete information, instructions how to 
install and extremely low prices. 



Trie H. G. Cress Co. 



Box NR-53 



Troy, Ohio. 



formal field and discussion groups, is planned to 
meet the need of nature counsellors, science 
teachers and professional business men and 
women who enjoy an opportunity to enrich their 
understanding and appreciation of nature under 
the direction of recognized leaders. 

Cleaning Out the Attic A thorough house 
cleaning of the attic of the Worcester, Massachu- 
setts. Girls Club has resulted in the securing of a 
play room for younger girls. In the last few 
months more girls than ever before have been 
crowding to the club house and space was at a 
premium. Someone had the happy idea of turn- 
ing the attic into a play room. The Mayor's Re- 
lief Committee came to the rescue by putting un- 
employed men on the job of cleaning out and 
decorating the attic. A group of women gave a 
series of bridge parties the proceeds of which 



88 Successful Play 
Activities 

A complete revision of the booklet 
which has been proving so practical 
for a number of years. 

Many new activities have been 
added. Of special interest to the 
play leader are chapters on Side- 
walk Games and Home Equipment 
Games never before included. 

A section on Tournaments gives 
full directions for a number of 
contests. 

Other chapters deal with Music 
and Drama, Shows and Exhibits, 
Nature Play and Winter Sports. 

Price $ .60 

NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 
315 FOURTH AVENUE NEW YORK CITY 



were used to purchase tables, benches and games 
constructed at the boys' trade school. Other gifts 
began to arrive in the form of games, books and 
articles of various kinds. There is a window seat 
full of costumes for dressing up. A small por- 
tion of the relief funds was used to place leaders 
in the game room for two days a week. On 
Thursdays and Fridays the game room is used 
by the marionette and dramatic study clubs. On 
Saturdays it is open to any club member as part 
of the regular club program. The room is also 
used by employed girls of the senior club on 
Monday, Wednesday and Thursday evenings and 
the high school girls' club on Friday evenings. 

Volunteer Services in Omaha The volun- 
teers who are helping in the social recreation pro - 
gram in Omaha, Nebraska, are having a busy 
time. On December 2nd the report of the Recre- 
ation Committee was "23 centers, 33 parties and 
an attendance of almost 5,000 since October 
1 2th." Calls have been received for men's par- 
ties, fatherless boys, father and son nights, and a 
number of women's meetings of various kinds. 
Once a week a group of volunteers, consisting of 
six or seven women and five or six men, go to the 
Salvation Army shelter and conduct games for 
approximately 650 men, who greatly enjoy the 
programs. Twenty-eight handcraft classes of two 
hours each are being conducted by six volunteers 
at the Unemployed Married Men's Council. 

To Stamp Out Juvenile Delinquency 
Through a cooperative plan worked out by the 
Juvenile Research Council of Los Angeles, city 
and county police and juvenile correction officials 
have joined hands with the Los Angeles Depart- 
ment of Playground and Recreation, city schools, 
welfare agencies and similar organizations dealing 
with children, in an effort to stamp out delin- 
quency wherever possible by substituting con- 
structive play for harmful activities. As an illus- 
tration of the work being done, sixty boys of 
south Los Angeles who had proven particularly 
troublesome to the police, were gathered together 
in a junior baseball league by the Recreation De- 
partment. They are no longer a police problem. 
Similarly, a group of boys whose activities were 
leading them in the direction of the penitentiary 
have been introduced to municipal playgrounds 
and given activities to provide an outlet for their 
energy. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



153 



Puppet Clubs in Irvington Girls over eleven 
years of age may be members of the puppet clubs 
organized by the Department of Public Recrea- 
tion on the plagrounds of Irvington, New Jersey. 
The clubs elect a master craftsman (president) 
and scribe (secretary), draw up a constitution 
and select a play. The characters are listed and 
members volunteer to make various characters 
and puppet controls. They then practice the ma- 
niuplation of puppets and begin work on the play. 

Aid in the Handcraft Program Near the 
Public Library in Boston, a new organization has 
sprung into being to meet the needs of people en- 
gaged in craft work of every nature metal, 
wood, leather, and countless other materials. 

Fellowcrafters, Inc. helps playgrounds, schools, 
camps, groups, hospitals, all workers engaged in 
Occupational Therapy, shut-ins, professional 
craftsmen, and individuals who seek to create 
useful and beautiful objects. 

At the recent craft exhibit at New York Uni- 
versity, one hundred and fifty simple projects 
were displayed, the materials for many of them 
costing between two and fifteen cents each. Such 
projects fit into today's needs, especially with 
playgrounds, 4-H clubs, settlements, and hospitals. 
Anyone desiring further information might well 
write to Fellowcrafters, Inc., No. 739 Boylston 
Street, Boston, for their new list of money sav- 
ing vacation projects. 



A City-Wide Contest for 
Better Back Yards 

(Continued from page 119) 

safety. A pet house for the housing of rabbits 
squirrels, or other small animals gives contact 
with natural life, which all children desire. Kites 
and stilts and similar activities will always hold 
their charm for both boys and girls. 

A playhouse of larger dimensions than the doll 
house for the tiny tots opens up unlimited oppor- 
tunity for expression in those activities that train 
for household responsibilities later in life. One 
ingenious father built such equipment from the 
body of an old discarded sedan automobile. A 
very picturesque little cabin was built by sur- 
rounding the body placed upon the ground with 
cobblestones built up to the base of the window. 




IT'S GOOD BUSINESS TO BUY 
LOUDEN EQUIPMENT NOW 



NEVER BEFORE in the history of the play- 
ground equipment industry have prices 
been so low! And, never before has 
better equipment been built than that manu- 
factured by Louden! It is difficult to determine 
how much longer it will be possible to build 
playground equipment of such fine quality at 
prices so surprisinqly low. Isn't it good busi- 
ness, then to give serious consideration now to 
the immediate purchase of new equipment? 

The big variety of devices in the complete 
Louden line are well and widely known for the 
years of safe, carefree service they give . . . 
for the mental and physical fitness they bring 
to a well rounded educational program for 
children. Let Louden experts help you with 
your playground problems. 



AND AT THE 
"CENTURY OF 
PROGRESS" BEACH 

and "Enchanted Island," hosts 
of happy children will find 
thrills galore on a big variety 
of Louden beach, pool and playground equip- 
ment . . . the same sturdy, dependable equip- 
ment available for you now at such low cost. 



Write today for the new book 
giving complete information on 
Louden Playground, Beach and 
Pool Equipment. No obligation 



J. E. PORTER CORP. 

120 Broadway Ottawa, III. 




LOUDEN 

PLAYGROUND 
EQUIPMENT 



154 



A CITY-WIDE CONTEST FOR BETTER BACK YARDS 



HANDICRAFT 
PLAYGROUND PROGRAMS 

Projects 2c., 4c., 6c., 8c. and up 
Girls . . . Boys . . . Unemployed Groups 

Write or wire for information 

FELLOWCRAFTERS, INC. 

739 BOYLSTON ST., BOSTON, MASS. 

SUPPLIES, TOOLS, PROJECTS, INSTRUCTION 



A rustic roof was installed covered with shingles. 
An imitation chimney and a little porch covered 
with vines added to the attractiveness of the lit- 
tle house. The front seat was turned around to 
face the back, and the interior proved to be so 
comfortable that mother transported her bridge 
foursome to this location on many occasions. 

Where Do the Grown Folks Come In? 

The problem of recreation for adult members 
of the household might at first be thought a very 
difficult one, but it is not hard to solve. To begin 
with, all parents are intensely interested in the 
play life of their children and will find the making 



Notable Swimming Pools and Guide 
To Equipment and Supplies 

A year-round reference book for 
swimming pools and other public 
bathing places. A bound volume. 
Contains, among other material, the 
Rules, Laws and Regulations of the 
various States and some cities. The 
Regulations were compiled by the 
Sanitary Engineering Department of 
the State of Illinois. 
In this volume every important 
phase of the swimming pool and 
beach is dealt with by outstanding 
engineers and municipal and State 
departments design, operation, con- 
struction, sanitation, maintenance, 



etc. 



Price $2.00 



ADDRESS 

NOTABLE SWIMMING POOLS and 
GUIDE to EQUIPMENT & SUPPLIES 

114 E. 32nd Street, New York, N. Y. 



of equipment, and the direction of activities a 
great source of relaxation. In the space set aside 
for paddle tennis and volley ball, both activities 
in which adults may engage with great benefit, the 
much ridiculed game of croquet may easily be 
provided for. Equipment for this game may be 
readily made by father at his work bench, where 
innumerable pieces of play equipment for all 
members of the family may be constructed. Some- 
one asks, "Why not hang the volley ball net on 
the clothes line," and many ingenious parents 
have found this a very practical suggestion. And 
then, of course, father likes his game of golf, and 
he can find opportunity for improving his game 
by installing a driving net in the garage and a 
miniature nine-hole putting course installed in the 
nooks and crannies of the front and rear yards. 
Annually he brings out his fishing tacWe for an 
excursion into the mountains. Why net improve 
his technique in fly casting by occasional practice 
in the back yard? Other possibilities will be 
found in bowling down the driveway with pins 
set in the rear of the garage, or bowling upon the 
green. Squash, Doug, tether ball and similar ac- 
tivities are all feasible. The pergola, the arbor, 
the lawn swing, all of which may be constructed 
by the man of the house, will provide the setting 
for many enjoyable hours. 

Many Values Are Involved 

The suggestions offered are merely an indica- 
tion of the many different ways in which back 
yard playgrounds can be made into ideal recrea- 
tion centers in which the entire family may find 
enjoyment. In addition to the recreational value 
to be derived from the back yard playground, 
there is the social benefit arising from the fact 
that such a playground tends to keep the family 
together and to center their interests in the home. 
The slogan adopted for the Los Angeles back 
yard and playground contest was, "The Family 
That Plays Together, Stays Together," and as 
the contest developed and judges were brought 
into contact with many different types of entries, 
the truth of this" slogan became more firmly 
established. 



The Flower Market Tot Lot 
Playground 

(Continued from page 125) 

followed the plan of visiting the homes of the 
youthful pugilists and securing parental coopera- 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



155 



tion. Each day in coming to the playground I 
walked through a different street so that I could 
give safe escort to the playground to children 
from other streets. I took the children from the 
playground on foraging trips for scrap wood, 
pasteboard boxes and other handcraft material, 
and I made it a habit to stop and talk with strange 
children in an effort to break down group an- 
tagonism. 

The street shower attached to the fire plug on 
sizzling hot days helped the children to forget 
their differences and to unite in one common 
cause, that of keeping cool. The showers became 
street beaches with the street shut off tempo- 
rarily from traffic. Here was a wonderful op- 
portunity for every child to learn how to be a 
leader and a "boss." There was always a pell mell 
rush to see who could get the street barriers and 
spray fastened first. Then indeed we needed the 
wisdom of a Solomon to decide who should be the 
grand child of Jupiter Pluvius to preside over 
the gushing geyser! Naturally the best helper at 
all times was selected, but sometimes we reversed 
our decision and picked the greatest offenders in 
order to bring them in line. 

As the weeks went by more girls and boys be- 
gan to come to the ground and stay most of the 
day. They were very helpful in all the activities, 
especially in watching over smaller children or 
carrying projects to completion. Music at our 
assembly and singing games also built up a spirit 
of good-will toward the ground. The smaller 
children liked the games this year because they 
now had a fair basic knowledge of how to play. 

We had a particularly hard time getting one 
corner of our ground looking well because the 
wall was partly knocked down and plaster con- 
tinually oozed out on the ground in a heap. 
Finally we gathered enough scrap lumber from 
furniture and fish boxes to construct shelves, back 
them up, and place this bookcase in the hole on 
the side of the empty store. Old magazines, books 
or funny papers donated by visitors, leaders and 
children were plentifully used. And here was of- 
fered another opportunity to teach responsibility 
and property rights. Someone had to be in charge 
of the library ; someone brought out the books and 
kept them in order, and someone had to sign the 
literature in and out. 

Out of this library corner grew the famous 
"visitors' book." We have in it the names of 
recreation workers from many cities, a South 
American president and his wife, board members 




. . . Playgrounds 
cant afford dust 
this year 




Both economy and health 
urge this protection! 

PROTECTION of children against the dirt and 
dangers of dust! Protection of the playing 
surfaces against disintegration which is the cause of 
dust! Both kinds of protection are assured with the 
use of Solvay Calcium Chloride on gravel and earth 
surfaces. 

Playgrounds everywhere find Solvay treatment the 
ideal way to end the dust nuisance. Clean and white, 
it docs not track or stain. It is easy to apply and 
economical to use. And in addition to keeping down 
dust, it actually kills harmful germs that live and 
breed in dust. 

Let Solvay Calcium Chloride help you lower the cost 
of keeping surfaces in good condition. Write todav 
for booklet 1159 and full information. 

SOLVAY SALES CORPORATION 

Alkalies urnf Chemical Products Manufactured by 
The Solvay Process Company 



61 Broadway 



New York 




TRADE MARK BEG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 



Calcium Chloride 



Flake 77% -1 



156 



PLANNING THE PICNIC GROUNDS 



Volley Ball 

Series of articles on 
Technique 

By ROBERT E LAVEAGA, 

Director of Physical Education, Boston 
YMCA 

M. A. CLEVETT, 

George Williams College, Chicago 

May 1932 : April 1933 

COMPLETE SET, $1.00 

V 

Journal of 
Physical Education 

347 MADISON AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



and educational leaders. The children were 
always on the lookout to see that the visitors 
signed the register. We began to see the first in- 
dication of a breakdown in the suspicious attitude 
toward outsiders. The boys, however, still en- 
joyed gang play most and their desire to work 
with us was not yet sufficient strong, so we de- 
cided to place a further age limit, making it eight 
years and under for next year. On occasional 
visits to adjoining streets we still noticed many 
small children who never came to our playground 
and were not reached by our service. 

At the conclusion of the second year's work we 
decided to find some means of giving wider pub- 
licity to the playground as well as to discover 
some activity which would combat the destruc- 
tive instinct of the boys, while we gave special 
attention to the little ones. 



NOTE : The story of the Tot Lot Playground will be 
continued in the July issue of RECREATION. 



Planning the Picnic Playgrounds 

(Continued from page 129) 

picnic areas of this kind is a considerable number 
of shelters of the type of the Adirondack shelter 



of a size to shelter a family or other small group. 
On the open side of this type of shelter and 
directly in front is placed a small oven or open 
grate. This arrangement permits picnicking to be 
carried on even in the most inclement weather 
and from early spring until late in the fall or 
winter. 

Open spaces for organized games are not an 
essential requirement in connection with this type 
of picnic ground nor is it absolutely essential that 
special provisions be made for the play of the 
children, although at the large centers a few sim- 
ple pieces of apparatus scattered here and there 
would no doubt be greatly enjoyed by the children. 

These picnic places may be located at various 
places, on the banks of streams, shores of bodies 
of water, at clumps of trees in otherwise open 
fields, in small groves of trees along parkways or 
motor highways, on high points presenting good 
views, in the recesses of woodlands or in secluded 
valleys, although for the larger places the space 
requirements are practically the same as for the 
space designed for the large organized picnic, 
except, possibly, for the open field. 

General Comments 

All picnic places should have a name or num- 
ber, and there should be plan maps showing the 
location of each and the roadways or trails lead- 
ing to them. Organized picnic grounds should be 
handled through a permit system and as a rule on 
the principle, first come, first served. With re- 
spect to the small group type of ground, unless 
the demand for space requires it the permit sys- 
tem is hardly necessary. It is desirable that 
family and small group picnicking be hampered 
as little as possible by official red tape. 

In addition to the maps mentioned above, which 
are primarily for the guidance of the people, at- 
tractive signs at the entrance of the principal pic- 
nic grounds and directing signs along the road- 
ways would be very helpful. 

The policing of picnic grounds in the sense of 
clearing up rubbish and debris is always a trouble- 
some problem. Every picnic ground should be 
liberally supplied with waste cans and with signs 
posted requesting picnickers to deposit papers, 
pieces of food and other debris in the cans. They 
will usually pay little attention to either the signs 
or the cans, but they should have the opportunity 



A SELF-SUPPORTING CIRCUS 



157 



to be decent and neat in the use of the grounds. 
A few park authorities encourage neatness by re- 
quiring a deposit ranging from $1.00 to $5.00, 
depending on the size of the ground used and the 
number of picnickers. If the grounds are left as 
neat and orderly as they were when the picnickers 
came the deposit is returned; if not, the deposit 
is retained to pay for the cost of policing. 



A Self-Supporting Circus 

(Continued from page 133) 

groups of two with spaces of 6 feet between each 
group. The rings with sides 2 feet high are sur- 
rounded with red, white and blue bunting. One 
side is open to allow the performers to enter and 
leave. The property list for construction contains 
frames, crepe paper, tacks, thumb tacks, hammers, 
wrapping paper, heavy ropes, ticket boxes, laths, 
paper bags, wire, bunting, nails and signs. 

The End of a Perfect Day 

At 5 :oo P. M. the siren announces that the 
day's fun is ended. Immediately demobilization 
of the booths begins. Everything of value is sal- 
vaged and checked into the property room. Any- 
thing that could possibly be used for another cir- 
cus is saved. In an hour's time all that remains 
on the field is debris from the biggest day of the 
summer program. The field is cleaned the fol- 
lowing day by men from the welfare agency. The 
money is collected, counted, and the bills paid. 

Another circus comes to an end, and 50 play 
leaders, 300 performers, 150 "joy zone" workers, 
and an audience of 6,000 people have had one 
glorious day ! 



Planning the Handcraft Program 

(Continued from page 144) 

those for intermediate and for advanced groups 
on Friday.) It is expected, of course, that the 
first time the teacher makes and follows such a 
program she will experience difficulties. After 
some experience she will find some projects more 
difficult than others and some more interesting 
than others. Accordingly she will modify her 
program by shifting the activities to more suit- 
able times. Many times the availability of sup- 
plies or even the development of "crazes," such 
as the cellophane belts, will make it advisable to 




1 I A U < N D 

Pitching Horseshoes of special appeal to profes- 
sionals. Excellent for amateurs. Just what's 
needed on a playground. Will stand up under 
severest treatment. Diamond Officials made 
straight or curved toe calk, hard or soft (dead 
falling) . Junior 
model for ladies and 
children. 

DIAMOND 

ACCESSORIES 

Score pads, instruction 
booklets, rules, percent- 
age charts, carrying cases, 
steel stakes and stake holders, 
official courts ready to set up 
indoors or out. Built to con- 
form to official requirements. 

DIAMOND 

CALK HORSESHOE CO. 

4610 Grand Avenue Duluth, Minn. 




"Recreation and Unemployment" 

A publication of interest to all individuals 
and groups concerned with keeping up the 
morale of the unemployed. 

The booklet tells what a number of com- 
munity groups are doing to meet the 
problem, how buildings of all kinds are 
being used as recreation centers, and de- 
scribes the activities conducted. Plans for 
organization are suggested and information 
given regarding the made work program 
through which many cities are increasing 
their recreation facilities. 



PRICE $.25 



National Recreation Association 



315 FOURTH AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



158 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

Recently Received Containing Articles 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker 



MAGAZINES 

Parks and Recreation, April, 1933. 
The Game of Squash Racquets. 
Recreational and Park Features at Century of 

Progress. 

The Journal of Health and Physical Education, May, 1933. 
Training Courses for Camp Leadership, by Barbara 
Ellen Joy. 

Producing the Dance Pageant, by Lucile Marsh. 
Values in Physical Education, by William Burdick, 

M.D. 

Crew for Girls, by Lillian Schuette. 
The Education of the Whole Man, by Otto T. 

Mallery. 
Century of Progress Sports Program, by E. C. 

Delaporte. 

Social Welfare, June, 1933. 

Leisure, by Humphrey Baker, M.A. 

American Childhood, June, 1933. 

The Summer Camp in Child Training, by Dorothy 

Tyler. 
The American City, May, 1933. 

Buffalo Develops Its Waterfront. 

Janesville Makes Good Use of Leisure Time. 

Unemployment Relief Funds Build Grandstand. 

To Restore Land Values by Changing Slums into 

Parks. 

Child Study, May-June, 1933. 

The Summer Adventure, by J. W. Faust. 

PAMPHLETS 

Annual Report of the Junior Optimist Clubs of Milwaukee, 

April 1, 1932 to April 1, 1933. 

Activities Program, South Park System, Chicago, III., 

1933. 

29th Annual Report of the Metropolitan Park Commis- 
sion of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations. 

Westchester County's Summer Camps for Boys and Girls. 

1933. 

Report of Board of Park Commissioners of Wilmington, 
Del., 1928-1932. 

Annual Report of the Playground Board, Village of Oak 
Park, III., 1932. 

Health Work and Physical Education 

Bulletin, 1932. No. 17. United States Department of 
the Interior, Office of Education. 

The Cataloguing of Children's Books, by Elva S. Smith. 
American Library Association. Price $.25. 



adjust her program to include these. The teacher, 
if she is sincerely interested in making these ac- 
tivities beneficial as well as interesting to the 
children, will watch their reactions and progress 
very closely and adapt her methods as well as her 
program accordingly. 



Lincoln E. Rowley 

On May I3th Lincoln E. Rowley, City Clerk of 
East Orange, New Jersey, and for twenty-five 
years Secretary of the Board of Recreation Com- 
missioners, died after a three weeks' illness. Mr. 
Rowley had resigned on April ist as Secretary of 
the Board of Recreation Commissioners, because 
of ill health, and his son, John Rowley, was ap- 
pointed in his place. 

All recreation workers who had the privilege of 
knowing Mr. Rowley, and many will remember 
him as one of the most faithful attendants at 
Recreation Congresses, will recall his devotion to 
the recreation movement and the joy and satis- 
faction which his connection with the East 
Orange recreation program had given him over a 
long period of years. As Dr. Kingdon, who con- 
ducted the services held for Mr. Rowley, so well 
said : "The City of East Orange will never be able 
to repay the debt it owes Lincoln Rowley for the 
beauty and joy he created through the play- 
grounds and parks made possible through his ef- 
forts. We shall never hear the happy voices of 
children without thinking of him." 



Junior Recreation in the Yosemite 
National Park 

(Continued from page 149) 

picture frames from yellow pine bark ; pin cush- 
ions from incense cedar bark, and many inter- 
esting and unusual articles. 

At the end of the 1932 season, 4,594 children 
had participated almost twice as many as took 
part in the 1931 program. 

During the winter the Grizzly Club is being 
continued, and we are having winter sports for 
children snow modeling ; games and races on ice 
skates; fun with skiis and snowshoes; dog team 
races, and little red and blue cutters drawn by 
Shetland ponies. 

Next summer we shall introduce a children's 
nature trail to be built by the children under the 
leadership of a park naturalist, a cowboy chorus, 
outdoor pageants, and a six day high Sierra trip 
on the dependable burros which are such devoted 
friends of the children. 



New Books on Recreation 



Time to Live 

By Gove Hambidge. Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, New York. $1.50. 

DELIGHTFUL adventures in the use of leisure are de- 
scribed here by a man who has made the five hour 
day his own. He tells his own experience of what time 
to live really means, of the approach toward a wise use 
of leisure, of the myriad activities mentally and physical 
fortifying in which even those who work in offices can 
indulge. He writes intriguingly of the pleasures of gar- 
dening, of country living, of games and sports and hand- 
icrafts, and shows how the wise use of leisure can help 
bring us back to richer living, more generous friend- 
ships, and a happier existence generally. 

Drama Clubs 

By Charles F. Wells. Walter H. Baker Company, Bos- 
ton. $1.00. 

AiR. WELLS has performed a very practical service in 
' * * putting at the disposal of groups of amateurs these 
step by step suggestions for program materials useful for 
fun and experience. He tells first of all how to or- 
ganize drama clu'bs and then offers a program of dra- 
matic ice-breakers, informal dramatizations, pantomimes, 
stunts, charades and short, short plays. Prepared by 
the experience gained in these forms of informal drama, 
the group is now ready for one act plays. Mr. Wells 
offers some suggestions for selecting such plays and out- 
lines a number of full evening one act play programs 
which offer variety, balance and good drama. The long 
play is next discussed and a list of plays given. The 
book closes with a drama club program for the year, a 
number of suggestions for play production and a 
bibliography. 

The amateur director will find this book exceedingly 
helpful in view of the fact that Mr. Wells not only sug- 
gests source material but offers samples of all the var- 
ious forms of informal dramatization which he suggests. 

Two to Six 

By Rose H. Alschuler and the Pre-Primary Faculty of 
the Winnetka, Illinois, Public Schools. William Mor- 
row & Company, New York. $1.50. 
THE SUGGESTIONS to parents of young children offered 
in this practical book contain much that is valuable 
for the play leader. Particularly is this true of the 
chapters dealing with Books, Stories and Poetry, Music. 
A Suggested List of Excursions, and Play Materials 
the last an exceedingly practical chapter which lists play- 
things for each age, appropriate outdoor equipment, and 
gives suggestions for play. There is also a bibliography 
for parents. The book is concise and all suggestions, 
recommendations, lists and bibliographies are the result 
of thorough experiments by experienced workers in the 
field of child education. 



Creative Expression 

Edited for The Progressive Education Association by 
Gertrude Hartman and Ann Shumaker. The John Day 
Company, New York. $5.00. 

THIS FASCINATING book presents the development of 
children in art, music, literature and dramatics. 
Throughout emphasis is placed on the child's own modes 
of self expression through all the creative arts as op- 
posed to more adult standards of finish and perfection. 
More than sixty teachers and leaders in the progressive 
education movement and in the field of various arts have 
contributed their experiences to this unique book. There 
are many interesting and beautiful illustrations, many 
of them the work of the children themselves. Bibliog- 
raphies add to the value of the book. 



An Experiment in Recreation with 
the Mentally Retarded 

By Bertha Schlotter and Margaret Svendsen. Behavior 

Research Fund, Chicago. $.85 Postpaid. 
THIS INTERESTING document reports the findings of a 
joint project initiated over three years ago by a Lin- 
coln State School and Colony and the Illinois Institute 
for Juvenile Research under the direction of the State 
Department of Public Welfare. The monograph describes 
a practicable program in action which has revolutionized 
the training of the children in this school. In addition 
to the principles used in formulating the project, the 
monograph also contains a theoretical analysis of the 
structure of games and game lists based upon mental and 
chronological age. The authors point out that although 
the observations reported were made on mentally retarded 
children living in an institution, the knowledge gathered 
may 'be utilized in the play programs of the mentally 
retarded and in the public schools. The report is there- 
fore of interest to recreation workers as well as to edu- 
cators and workers in institutions. 

The game analysis and lists may be secured for 25 
cents postpaid. 

Fun in Bed 

Edited by Frank Scully. Simon & Schuster, New York. 
$2.00. 

THERE WILL BE no days of boredom for the convales- 
cent who includes this book among the tonics guar- 
anteed to bring back health ! A feature which will prove 
a special boon is the section entitled "Games and Gags." 
Here are games, brain ticklers, novelties and solitaire 
contests which cannot fail to amuse. There are cross- 
word puzzles, bridge puzzles, word games, mental tests, 
and other forms of harmless "whoopee" for those "inter- 
minable horizontal hours." 



159 



160 



NEW BOOKS ON RECREATION 



Americans At Play 

By Jesse F. Steiner. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 

New York. $2.50. 

Recent trends in recreation and leisure time activities 
are traced in this book, one of the series of monographs 
prepared under the direction of the President's Commit- 
tee on Social Trends in the United States. For the pur- 
poses of this study emphasis was placed primarily upon 
parks and playgrounds, competitive sports and games, 
commercial amusements, leisure time clubs and associa- 
tions, pleasure travel and the varied activities associated 
with outdoor vacation life. Consideration has not been 
given to the intellectual and cultural leisure time pursuits. 
In spite of limitations in scope, the author has been able 
to present a fairly adequate picture of the more import- 
ant recreational trends during recent years. 

A Handbook of Acting 

Based on the New Pantomime, by Madame Eva 
Alberti. Samuel French, New York City. $2.00. 

This new and valuable book on acting has an ad- 
vantage over many such publications in that it is so read- 
able that the layman can study it with understanding and 
pleasure. It does not make him feel that acting is a 
difficult, obscure art, of so highly technical a nature that 
it must be left to others more gifted than himself, but it 
explains the technique so simply and so invitingly that it 
stimulates interest and confidence while it instructs. Per- 
haps this is due to the particular viewpoint of the writer. 
Acting is such a many-sided business that practically 
every director looks at it from a different angle. One 
director may feel that in the voice alone lies the magic 
something that turns one into another creature ; another 
advocates complete understanding of the character, which 
brings it proper attitude of the body and of its own force 
puts the voice where it belongs. 

Madame Alberti, recognized as one of the foremost 
teachers of expression, has had years of experience in 
teaching the art of pantomime and so approaches acting 
from that side. Since skillful pantomime is probably the 
amateur's knottiest problem, this book by one of the 
foremost authorities in the field is of special interest. 

Often there is only a hair's breadth between the act- 
ing of the professional and the amateur. And almost in- 
variably that difference lies in the professional actor's 
ability to handle his body, to fuse the emotion with the 
gesture so accurately that the illusion of the character 
is perfect. Madame Alberti recognizes pantomime as the 
basis of acting and it is upon the new, free pantomime, 
not the old conventionalised gesturing, that she bases 
her book. An inexperienced actor or director could not 
fail to obtain much that is of real value by studying and 
applying the technique which the writer has used during 
the years of her eminently successful career as a teacher 
of acting. 

"Kit" 33 

Edited by Lynn and Katherine Rohrbough. Church 
Recreation Service, Delaware, Ohio. $.25. 
"Kit" 33 is a Game Number which recreation workers 
will want to secure. In addition to the games, there are 
a number of puzzles which will be welcomed by all who 
indulge in this form of "indoor sport." There are almost 
sixty games and puzzles in this compact little aid to social 
recreationalists. 

Rural Adult Education 

By Benson Y. Landis and John D. Willard. The 
Macmillan Company, New York. $1.75. 
This book is particularly significant in view of the fact 
that for the first time we are given a complete account 
of the important adult education programs which are 
affecting the 53,000,000 inhabitants of rural districts in 
the United States. The book gives the results of the 
findings of a national study on rural adult education car- 
ried on since 1928 by the American Association for Adult 
Education and describes in detail the many influences for 



adult education in rural districts. Recreation workers 
will be particularly interested in the chapter on cultural 
arts which tells of developments in amateur dramatics 
and music, art extension, landscape improvement and in 
the rural recreation program through which the National 
Recreation Association is giving special service to rural 
groups. A valuable bibliography is offered. 

Twice 55 Part Songs for Boys 

The Orange Book. Compiled and edited by Peter 
W. Dykema. C. C. Birchard & Company, Boston, 
Mass. '$.50. 

This collection seeks to meet the problem of finding 
music for the changing voices of adolescent boys. The 
fact that the collection represents a wide variety in range 
is due to the fact that a number of new songs have been 
written and new arrangements made for others which 
were selected for their adaptability to the necessary limi- 
tations of range, as well as for their merit and interest. 

Recreational Projects For Civic Clubs 

Department of Municipal Recreation. Board of Park 
Commissioners, Evansville, Indiana. $.50. 
A mimegraphed bulletin of thirty-one pages containing 
suggestions for conducting athletic leagues and tourna- 
ments of various kinds, for special day and holiday cele- 
brations and similar events, picnics and progressive game 
parties and other social gatherings. The use of school 
buildings, sportsmanship programs and many other sub- 
jects of interest to recreation workers are discussed. 

Full Steam Aheadl 

By Henry B. Lent. The Macmillan Company, New 

York. $2.00. 

Here are fascinating accounts of six days on an ocean 
liner for the would-be-young-traveler full of questions 
about what goes on in a big boat from bridge to engine 
room. Boys in particular will be intrigued by this glimpse 
of life aboard an ocean liner. 



Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 

JOSEPH LEE, Pres-'dent 
JOHN H. FINLEY, First Vice-President 
JOHN G. WINANT, Second Vice-President 
ROBERT GARRETT. Third Vice President 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, Treasurer 
HOWARD S. BRAUCHER, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

MRS. EDWARD W. BIDDLE, Carlisle, Pa. 
WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH, Moline, 111. 
CLARENCE M. CLARK, Philadelphia, Pa. 
HENRY L. CORBETT, Portland, Ore. 
MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER, Jacksonville, Fla. 
F. TRUBEE DAVISON, Locust Valley, L. I. N. Y. 
MRS. THOMAS A. EDISON, West Orange, N. J. 
JOHN H. FINLEY, New York, N. Y. 
HUGH FRAYNE, New York, N. Y. 
ROBERT GARRETT, Baltimore, Md. 
AUSTIN E. GRIFFITHS, Seattle, Wash. 
WILLIAM HALE HARKNESS, New York, N. Y. 
CHARLES HAYDEN, New York N. Y. 
MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX, Michigan City, Ind. 
MRS. FRANCIS DELACY HYDE, Plainfield, N. J. 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, New York, N. Y. 
H. McK. LANDON, Indianapolis, Ind. 
MRS. CHARLES D. LANIER, Greenwich, Conn. 
ROBERT LASSITER, Charlotte, N. C. 
JOSEPH LEE, Boston, Mass. 
EDWARD E. LOOMIS, New York, N. Y. 
J. H. McCuRDY, Springfield, Mass. 
OTTO T. MALLERY, Philadelphia, Pa. 
WALTER A. MAY, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
CARL E. MILLIKEN, Augusta, Me. 
MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS, Washington, D. C. 
FREDERICK S. TITSWORTH, New York, N. Y. 
MRS. JAMES W. WADSWORTH, JR., Washington, D. C. 
J. C. WALSH, New York, N. Y. 
FREDERICK M. WARBURG, New York, N. Y. 
JOHN G. WINANT, Concord, N. H. 
MBS. WILLIAM H. WOODIN, JR., Plainfield, N. J. 



T 



Activity Versus Possessions 

HE UNCERTAINTY as to material property values under present conditions has 
resulted in greater desire for activity, for craftsmanship, for fulfillment, for 
creativeness. 

No longer is it a disgrace to be poor. Just having property is no longer 
considered an excuse for being. 

* 

Are you a person? Can you do something? Have you some skill? Are 
you going somewhere? Are you alive? Do others have pleasure in your enjoy- 
ment of life? Do music, art, skill, have meaning for you? Is there light in your 
eyes? Is there healing in watching your strength because there is a swing, a whole- 
ness to your living, your being, your life? 

We have many, many words for possessions, for things, but we lack even 
words for referring to vital living, to being alive, wholeness of personality, grac- 
ious living there are no phrases that tell the story of abundant life, of satisfy- 
ing life. Art and sport and satisfying activity and fulfillment are perhaps as little 
objectionable as any words we have. 

Hunting, fishing, are good words not so much because of game and fish, 
but because of woods and nature and activity. Swimming, skating, sailing, are 
simple, clear, definite words and carry a picture of activity and aliveness. 

Play, recreation, leisure-craft, are poverty stricken words because as yet 
we have put so little meaning into them. 

Emerson, Theodore Roosevelt, Lindbergh, Byrd, Helen Wills Moody, 
Jane Addams, such names carry the picture of skillful, adventurous, creative liv- 
ing of a life. 

Education ultimately will imply more than it does today as to helping 
people to come alive. After all that is what recreation leaders care about. What 
do people want to do, want to be in order to live in this world here and now? 
What gives enduring satisfaction, the memory of having lived? 

The more sides a man has to his nature, the more he sees the art and skill 
required in all forms of human activity, the more inclined he is to say that noth- 
ing human is foreign to him. Theodore Roosevelt was no less a man when he 
was galloping on horseback, or swimming, or boxing, than when he was listening 
to the best music in the world, or when he was studying the birds in the forest. 
There are twenty-four hours in each day. There are many sides to men who live 
completely and fully, and much goes into the making of a life. 

The art of living is the art to which the recreation worker devotes him- 
self, though he must remember that he is not the only one who does so. It is his 
task to help men, women, and children to live now, fully, and to have present 
full living lead to more permanently satisfying living as the years come and go. 

HOWARD BRAUCHER. 
July, 1933 



161 



July Ushers in Vacation Days 




Courtesy California Parent-Teacher 



"Don't let them cut down on your education. 
Don't let them cut down on agencies deal- 
ing with children. The children mustn't 
suffer in this economic crisis. You can 



always build your bridges and your roads. 
If you neglect your children you can nev- 
er build them again." Lady Astor in the 
Boys' Club News Bulletin, January, 1933. 



162 



The Flower Market Tot Lot Playground 



In the June issue of Recreation Paul Shriver, Philadelphia Play- 
grounds Association, tells of the beginning of the Flower Market 
Tot Lot Playground. In this number he completes the story of the 
first four years of this interesting venture, still in its infancy. 



DURING THE third year of the existence of the 
Tot Lot Playground we enforced very 
strictly our age limit of eight years, and as 
a result there was room for more children from 
outside our immediate block. We therefore ini- 
tiated, with the help of an old Ford coupe which 
we bought, the Traveling Playground. 

The Traveling Playground Makes Its Rounds 

The number of small children who came to the 
playground were cared for by the leader during 
the afternoon while I made visits to adjoining 
courts, streets and communities within a radius 
of four blocks. In the back of the coupe we 
piled the street barriers, fire plug spray, two cases 
of milk and boxes of Graham crackers. The milk 
and crackers were contributed daily by a group 
of interested citizens and represented what was 
left from assembly period when we gave the 
younger children from 150 to 200 bottles of milk 
and three Graham carckers each. 

The older boys wanted to ride with me in the 
old rattletrap machine and to help turn on the 
spray and distribute the milk and crackers. Here 
was an opportunity to keep them busy even 
though they were not allowed on the playground 



except as helpers. In the course of our routine 
we visited every afternoon a different crowded 
corner. There we put on the fire plug shower, 
cooled off the children who came out of little side 
courts and hovels, and fed them milk and crack- 
ers, enforcing the age limit of eight years for 
feeding. After refreshments we played several 
games with the children or told them stories. 
Then we advertised our playground and person- 
ally conducted the smaller children in the crowd 
to the playground. Thus the small children were 
protected from traffic as well as from children 
from other streets who might harm them. The 
parents were interested and helped, for formerly 
many a mother had been afraid to let her child 
come because of the railroad tracks, and bridge 
or street traffic. The result was that she had kept 
the child at home, and a survey proved that these 
children under eight years had the highest num- 
ber of fatalities because when the mother was 
busy the little one wandered away and conse- 
quently was hurt. 

Our traveling playground was a great success 
and the results were far reaching. Many new 

It was one of the children who thought of making 
orange crates serve as chairs in the story hour 




163 



164 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 




children came every day. 
Activities were more eas- 
ily carried out; donations 

of scrap material were more readily obtained. We 
even received a piano which was a helpful asset 
to our assembly and moving picture programs. 
Occasional visits of the leader, board members 
and reporters of various papers at our stops 
helped to spread the spirit of good-will. 



Motion Pictures 
The time was now ripe to in- 
terest the older people. We were 
fortunate in securing the services 
of the Philadelphia Electric Mo- 
tion Picture Department which 
showed regular feature pictures 
interwoven with the industrial 
story and "Our Gang" comedies. 
Later we obtained excellent pic- 
tures, both silent and vitaphone 
films, from the Bell Telephone, 
the Philadelphia Gas Works and 
other industrial companies. 
Sometimes these companies sent 
operators ; on other occasions we 
secured the machine and films 
and ran the show ourselves. The 
electricity was furnished by var- 
ious nearby fruit commission 
houses. The machine was set up 
on a table in the rear of the play- 
ground and the pictures flashed 
on a large whitewashed space on 
one of the high brick walls of an 
abandoned store. The young 

The Playground Village proved one of the most men furnished us with 
fascinating projects undertaken at the grounds piano, banjo and guitar 

music which made an ex- 
cellent accompaniment not only to the pictures 
but to the community sings held during the inter- 
vals of twilight and darkness. Thus the play- 
ground made its first real start toward a com- 
munity affair with services furnished for all ages. 



To increase the spirit of pride in the ground 
and create an interest in regular attendance, we 
began the "Tot Lot Tattler." The editor, report- 
ers and all directors were children from the play- 
ground. Anyone was allowed to write articles re- 
porting events of interest. The newspaper was 
made of long strips of white wrapping paper, and 
there was only one copy. This we hung in strips 
on a place painted for it on the high board fence. 
From this project grew a pride in achievement 
and a spirit of good humor. 

Still another means which we used to raise 
general standards was the crowning of the King 
of Freckles and the Queen of the Mardi Gras. 
Real thrones were erected and decorated from 
scrap materials, burlap dyed in suitable colors, 
and old sheets for trains. 



The Playground Village Arouses Pride 

The Inter-State Dairy Council furnished us 
with several puppet shows, story-tellers and post- 
ers or plays for assembly with costumes to suit. 
This helped to promote interest in handcraft. 

The final climax of handcraft work for the 
season was an excellent playground village. The 
Leaders' Club grew considerably in numbers dur- 
ing the building of "Flowertown." Many inter- 
esting buildings came into being. There was, for 
example, a private estate, a spacious red brick 
house with bright purple awnings, vivid yellow 
paper curtains, and a green trellis covered with 
well made artificial sweet peas. Splashes of green 
paint on a cement walk represented grass and 
sticks with bits of green tissue from orange crates 
tied around their tops did well for trees. Small 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



165 



lamp posts, whitewashed streets, a livery stable, 
stores, a blackshmith shop and garages side by 
side with pasteboard wooden homes neatly 
painted, served to complete the picture. 

At the End of the Third Year 

Our conclusions at the end of the third year 
were nearly the same as those of the second. Even 
though there was an improvement in the morale 
of the community and in playground activity and 
influence, there were still many children who had 
not been reached. A selfish spirit still prevailed 
with not enough constructive activities in evi- 
dence. There was need for greater emphasis on 
certain activities to promote carry-overs of the 
activities which would serve as constructive rec- 
reation during the winter months. Funds were 
scarce, only about $50 having been spent in three 
years for such materials 
as crepe paper, nails and 
other supplies. All the 
rest of the materials 
used in the various ac- 
tivities were salvaged or 
begged from various 
sources. 



And Now the Fourth 
Year ! 

Now for the fourth 
year which early in the 
season bade fair to be 
the final year of work in 

this neighborhood unless the people took more in- 
terest and tried to help themselves. The prospect 
was discouraging. We sometimes wondered if 
we were not wasting our time and might not bet- 
ter go to another neighborhood. How glad we 
are that we didn't ! 

Several pre-season visits to the ground in April 
brought pleas from all ages : "Give us some- 
thing to do !" To meet this request we organized 
a civic committee among certain influential adults 
who helped us to assemble scrap wood to de- 
velop projects which could be given the children 
to work on weeks in advance of the summer 
playground season. At scheduled meetings a 
group of the older boys and girls would come 
with saws, hammers and any other tools they 
could find. We made flower boxes, small houses, 
toys and other handcraft patterns to serve as 
models for our handcraft program when the sea- 
son opened. The civic committee of adults helped 



"Play is an attitude. It is not so much what one 
does as how he feels about what he does that 
makes the difference between play and drudgery. 
It is a mistake to let a child acquire a sharp distinc- 
tion between play and work, to believe that play is 
pleasurable and useless while work is necessary 
and distasteful. Let him learn that all activity is fun, 
that life itself is a game, that a vocation can, and 
should, be just as pleasurable as an avocation, 
and you have started him on the pathway to a 
wholesome adult life. The greater the number of 
diverse activities the child is encouraged to enjoy, 
the greater his chances of keeping the zestful atti- 
tude of play toward all of life." John/. B.Morgan, 
in Child Study, December, 1932 



to get the dirt, fill the improvised flower boxes, 
plant the seeds and water and cultivate the flow- 
ers to be installed later at the playground when 
it had been officially opened. They also set to 
work to clear off the ground which this year had 
become covered with bricks and timbers from the 
old abandoned factory torn down by the children 
during the winter for fire-wood. In this way we 
secured more space for the playground. 

By the time July first had rolled around, all 
ages were willing to help and considerable inter- 
est had been created in the program of the com- 
ing summer. Much cleaning up still had to be 
done after we began our playground program, and 
as the first flush of high spirits wore off it be- 
came necessary to devise some idea to speed up 
the work. The Evening Ledger described the 
scheme we concocted as follows : 

" The supervisor of 
Tot Lot Playground had 
to have assistance in 
moving some bricks, but 
it was no 'go.' Then he 
found an old gasoline 
can and with a stick 
painted targets on the 
tin cans. Very casually 
he placed the cans in the 
center of the spot on the 
official dump where the 
bricks were to be car- 
ried. By the end of the 
!". afternoon all of the 
bricks had been thrown at the target and the 
ground was cleared." 

Next we decided to make each portion of the 
ground mean something in order to combat the 
destructive instincts and promote constructive ac- 
tivities for all ages and groups. This would, at 
the same time, protect the principal portion of the 
playground for kindergarten play work, and the 
small tots would not be frightened away again 
by physical conflict with the older ones. 

The older boys wanted to use the plug spray 
to clean up and cool off after their arduous ac- 
tivities, but this year the Water Bureau had not 
seen fit to give out any permits. Instead of sitting 
down and doing without, as they formerly would 
have done, this now awakened group set to work. 
In two days, with the help of a carpenter and 
some cement, broken up bricks and scrap lumber 
were converted into a small wading pool, 18 by 
18 feet and i l /z feet deep. When it was finished 



166 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



the groups were so happy over their achievement 
that they worked without ceasing the rest of the 
season! The signs, "Bathing Ocean" and "Ocean 
Boardwalk" were painted for the children by a 
sign painter. The boardwalk was made of scrap 
boards ; the beach of gravel and sand left over 
from the wading pool. 

This took care of one nook. In another corner 
the younger boys built benches and made a "clean 
up corner." There they all washed their hands 
before milk period and handcraft work. 

To a certain extent we had now cared for the 
small children, but the older boys began to beg us 
to let them stay and help so an activity had to be 
provided for them. A "Safety Club" proved the 
solution. At the suggestion of Airs. Elizabeth 
Hanley, our dramatic director, a "Careful Club" 
was organized for girls, a "Safety Club" for boys. 
The Safety and Careful Club members were used 
as supervisors of various activities, and every day 
at 2:00 P. M. and 7:00 P. M. they made trips 
under the watchful eye of an adult volunteer to 
every part of the neighborhood within four blocks 
on all sides of the playground. All children wish- 
ing safe conduct to the playground were sent in 
charge of these "safeties." 

An Open Air Theatre 

fn addition to the neighborhood safety work 
carried on by the safety squads, we conducted 
open air movies on safety in scattered streets near 
our playground. Let us give you a picture of one 
of our open air theatres conducted in the name 
of safety. 

Before the performance the children go around 
the neighborhood and everyone who wants to join 
the parade can do so. in fancy costume or other- 
wise ! Some hold signs and banners reading 
"Safety first," "Play in the playground," "Cross 
at Crossings." Others bang on lard cans, gasoline 
cans, oil cans anything to make a noise. The 
noise comes nearer and a horde of children come 
trooping in. 

And now for our stage. Our stereopticon ma- 
chine is placed on a table in a roped off space in 
front of a store whose friendly owner allows us 
to use his light socket. Across the street another 
space is roped off as a stage and a white curtain 
is hung on the sidewall of a house. In the street 
and all around the roped off spaces are rows and 
rows of chairs, and orange boxes supporting 
boards. All the children who can possibly get in 
are packed shoulder to shoulder. The others sit 



or kneel on the pavement and curb, hang from 
fences or out of second story windows or other 
vantage points. They are a merry crowd, and as 
they wait they whistle, applaud or sing in groups. 
Often we have a community sing until it is dark 
enough to show the pictures. 

The Country Store 

The Keystone Club Safety Department has 
provided us with posters, safety material and 
plays. One play containing a country store setup 
was put on by the children for a special assembly 
and official initiation of the Safety Club members. 
This store was the means of promoting many 
future activities. It gave the children a needed 
stimulus for their imagination and the store, with 
its empty cartons and tins, was constantly in use. 
Our "Tot Lot Tattler," most of whose announce- 
ments are written or told by the children, has the 
following to say about the store : 

"Ye Olde Flower Mart" 

"There positively will be no credit given at our 
store. Read the signs and you'll understand our 
policy. No credit no trust. We pay you 
trust." 

Business of all kinds was conducted in the 
store. Worn out cardboard shoe boxes, rags of 
dresses and merchandise of all kinds were han- 
dled. Paper money, stage money, coins from bot- 
tle tops and poker chips passed as the medium of 
exchange. The clerks at times were legion, and 
we were occasionally almost deafened by the bed- 
lam of the hawkers as they cried their wares and 
imitated a real life situation. 

Corners of All Kinds 

An "Oldsters' Corner" was established which 
kept the young men in a certain place without in- 
terfering with other activities. These boys were 
a real help in maintaining discipline and setting a 
good example for the youngsters. 

Other nooks and corners of the ground were 
made into athletic corners. One place was a 
jumping pit surrounded by nicely whitewashed 
bricks arranged in a neat design. In another we 
placed a discarded water pipe as a chinning bar 
In still another we had a baseball pitching frame. 
These were excellent places to work off excess 
energy that formerly had led to destructive 
activities. 

The flowers grown in the abandoned lumber 
yard were placed in the boxes on all sides, on tops 
of walls and every place where we could stick up 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



167 



a trellis for them to climb. Each child had his own 
garden with a cross stick sign denoting his own- 
ership stuck in the ground. The first thing the 
children did when we opened Tot Lot every day 
was to see what had happened in the new gar- 
den. At the end of the season we used the flowers 
to stage a Flower Mart as befitted the legendary 
history of the grounds. Jean Barrett, The Rec- 
ord's feature writer, describes it : 

"In the confines of their dirt covered corners 
at the end of a reeking court, the children built 
booths and decorated them with gay paper. 
Young sub-debs, thinner even than fashion de- 
mands, volunteered as 'salesladies.' There were 
refreshment booths with real lemonade and milk 
and a 'hot dog' stand as well. Of course, these 
delicacies had to be sold ! 

' There isn't any money at Tot Lot not a dime 
out they overcame that they made their own ! 
Ihey turned out volumes of it, even thousand 
dollar bills, and issued it from their own bank 
parked in the corner of the lot a tremendous 
fortune. They went up to the teller's window and 
ordered as much money as they wanted. But re- 
gardless of the size of their 'rolls' each child 
bought the same things something to eat, a glass 
of milk, a truly lovely nosegay of flowers or a 
potted plant to take back to the tenements they 
call home." 

Thus Philadelphia children were the first to in- 
augurate the barter system ! 

Another climax in the handcraft program for 
girls was the doll exhibit. From crown to toe the 
dolls present were the loving work of their mis- 
tresses. There weren't any dolls that cried "Ma- 
ma" or opened or 
closed their eyes. 
Of course, it 
was a verv 




Courtesy Loitisrille Recreation Division. 



exclusive affair. There were candy dolls, vege- 
table dolls, paper dolls, dolls of all kinds. On a 
bed of pink crepe paper roses Sleeping Beauty, 
resplendent in a robe of yellow crepe paper and 
hair of yellow silk embroidery floss, dreamed of 
the Prince, as a dainty white crepe paper bride 
bent inquiringly above her, and over in one cor- 
ner the Vegetable Queen, her fluffy green skirts 
the leaves of a head of lettuce, her bodice a slim 
carrot, her arms string beans attached by means 
of toothpicks and her head a marshmallow topped 
with a carrot plume, smiled democratically at the 
whole throng. 

As a result of the village, the exhibits and other 
handcraft work, combined with the motion pic- 
tures, a startling effect was shown in many a fam- 
ily's mode of living. Tenants prevailed on land- 
lords to equip some of the houses with gas and 
electricity. It was pressure of public opinion 
against degredation. 

Our staff this year still consisted of one teacher 
and myself, but it was supplemented by unem- 
ployed volunteer workers and the famous "Toe 
H" Fraternity which sent two young men every 
night to help. Barent Landstreet, their leader, 
with his enthusiasm also supplemented our staff, 
and with his spirit of service dignified the play- 
ground activities and kept the interest of the 
young men in the "Oldsters' Club" at a high pitch. 

As the climaxes were reached in various activi- 
ties, we began to notice carry-overs of games, 
songs and activities into the courts during week- 
ends and morning periods when the playground 
was not open. The children had begun to learn 
that most important factor in a child's life how 
to play. This carry-over cropped up also among 
the older crowd, for they didn't want the work- 
to stop. They wanted some place where they 

could congregate at the end of the season and 
some activity instead of the usual drink- 
ing, gambling, crap shooting and 
billiard parlor vices. 

Clubs Multiply 

From the bank which owned the 
delapiclated house at the end of our 
court we obtained permission to use 
the house rent free in return for 



One of the numerous activities 
which help to make a club pro- 
gram interesting to older boys 



168 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



remodeling it. The young men fixed holes in the 
floor, put bricks in the walls, window panes in the 
frames, hung curtains at the windows, papered 
the walls, brought furniture and otherwise adorn- 
ed their club house known as the "Castle Club." 
With each visit we made we found improvement. 
Regular parliamentary procedure was followed ; 
initiation rules were observed, and part of the 
funds raised was used for welfare purposes. 

For a time after the close of the playground 
the Castle Club used the open space for fall 
sports. Youngsters were there in almost as large 
numbers as during the summer season. The boys 
under sixteen decided they wanted a club and 
formed what is known as the "Palace Club," 
with headquarters in an abandoned house across 
the alley from the Castle Club. The girls, too, 
caught the fever and became a branch of the 
Needle Work Guild. In this surprising manner 
we witnessed the influence of the summer contin- 
uing on through the year ! 

One of the most remarkable activities of the 
Castle Club is the work of its welfare committee 
A survey was conducted in the neighborhood by 
the committee which resulted in the selection of 
six families, who, according to the findings, were 
not being assisted by welfare agencies and were 
greatly in need of help. The survey also brought 
to light the fact that certain families who were 
receiving food orders from the city unemploy- 
ment fund, according to the club's report, were 
"chiseling." The indignation of the members was 
not only genuine but showed how far they had 
advanced in new standards of justice, for "chisel- 
ing"' had been one of their own chief occupations 
in the past ! Out of their club dues of ten cents a 
week these members are paying the expenses of 
the club and providing food and fuel for six 
families. In January the club conducted its first 
dance a success in every way. One-half of the 
profits went to the welfare fund. 

When inclement weather caused the discontinu- 
ance of outdoor sports at the playground, the boys 
began to ask where they could find a sport center 
large enough to have basketball, boxing and other 
sports. They came to their old friend, the Play- 
grounds Association, and asked that the matter be 
considered. Mr. Landstreet undertook a study of 
the district. He found another club, "The Acorn," 
similar to the Castle Club at the other end of the 
seventh police district, who were as keen to have 
larger headquarters as were the Castle Club boys. 

With the aid of Captain McFarland a survey 



was made by the police of vacant property in the 
entire district. A three story building with a fine 
basement was discovered. Both The Acorn and 
the Castle Club agreed to enroll 150 or more mem- 
bers. Captain McFarland was most enthusiastic. 
"I do all I can," he said, "to prevent first offend- 
ers from being locked up in my station. Once a 
boy is locked up, no matter how trivial the charge, 
it is the beginning of his gang career and we 
know he will be back again with more serious 
charges. This club will be a wonderful thing for 
the seventh district. No longer will the boys be 
able to find an excuse for corner lounging or get- 
ting into trouble because there is no place of in- 
terest to go. I am making arrangements with the 
magistrate to issue a membership to the club for 
first offenders." 

Assured of the most cooperative and friendly 
attitude on the part of the police and impressed 
by the demands made by the boys themselves, the 
director of the Playgrounds Association decided 
to sponsor the club and in January the Center 
Club was a going concern. The preliminary or- 
ganization of activities of this club was not the 
only unique feature of the venture. The Play- 
grounds Association agreed to finance the first 
month's expenses while the boys conducted their 
membership drive. Dances, raffles and admission 
charges to special sports events were some of the 
means found to help cover operating expenses. 
From that time on the members agreed to make 
the club self-supporting. The director and assist- 
ant director were loaned from the staff of the 
Playgrounds Association. 

The executive committee was formed by ap- 
pointing the officers of the Castle and Acorn 
Clubs. It was not long before many on the police 
force in the seventh district became members of 
the club and made good use of its facilities when 
off duty. House matches between teams of 
police and the boys were played in basketball, 
volley ball, boxing, checkers and other games. 

Again the "Toe H" men volunteered and ap- 
peared every night to help. 

The club is open every afternoon except Sun- 
day and every evening including Sunday from 
7 :oo to 1 1 :oo P. M. Its spirit is notable. The 
free and friendly intercourse between the police 
and the young men is the result of a number of 
discoveries. The boys find the "cops" fine fellows 
and the "cops" find the boys equally "good kids." 
The barrier formerly existing is breaking down. 
(Continued on page 202) 



Pi 



dying in 



the Water 



By FLOYD EASTWOOD 

School of Education 
New York University 



In the series of lectures given 
last year by the Wingate Memor- 
ial Foundation, Mr. Eastwood 
presented some unusually inter- 
esting material on water games. 
A part of his lecture, as it ap- 
peared in Scholastic Coach, Jan- 
uary, 1933, is reprinted here for 
the benefit of readers of Recrea- 
tion. All of the 1931-32 lectures 
are incorporated in a book en- 
titled A ims and Methods in School 
Athletics, published by the Foun- 
dation, 57 East 56th Street, 
New York City. 



PLAY is a biological necessity. We must be 
active to live. Those individuals who are not 
active, we say in the vernacular, "pass out of 
the picture." They assume the horizontal. This 
is due to the biological drive or pull to activity. 

Play is a psychological need. Play is interest- 
ing and it gives the opportunity of learning a new 
skill in an interesting way. Therefore play has a 
psychological drive. 

Play is sociological. We play also for social ap- 
proval. We might say that this is the sociological 
drive. You say, "I am doing this because I get a 
'kick' out of it." You do things because you get 
a kick out of them, and you obtain that kick from 
someone's else reaction to you social approval, 
if you wish. 

Game situations give an individual an oppor- 
tunity to obtain social approval. You see indi- 
viduals commend each other in games when some- 
one makes a good play. What does this social ap- 
proval depend on ? It depends on success. So re- 
member, in all your games, to give every indi- 
vidual some chances of success. 

Learning to Play 

You will find that you have laws of learning to 
consider when teaching a new game. First you 
must have the individual want to play the game. 
Then that individual will want to continue to play- 
so as to become more proficient, because he an- 
ticipates the feeling of pleasure which accom- 
panies success. 

What has this to do with the problem of swim- 
ming fears, that we all know so much about, and 



so little how to correct ? In the game situation, we 
have the opportunity of overthrowing to a cer- 
tain extent the fear of loss of support which is 
often experienced in the water. 

We have considered that games are enjoyable 
and that we learn many skills by playing. Games, 
or some of them, may be used in reconditioning 
swimmers and removing swimming fear. I want 
to stress the need for a proper attitude on the part 
of the instructor. The attitude of the teacher may 
ruin the whole game. He may stand on the side- 
lines and let the game proceed and never enter 
into the spirit of it. 

In games, you should notice one item that may 
ruin the interest in play when swimming the 
coldness of the water. I will try to give you an 
example later on as to how you can use warming- 
up exercises in a play spirit to get warm. Some 
who are instructors in swimming pools know it is 
true that pupils get cold and can't listen to in- 
structions. The value of play is then ruined. 

Selecting the Games 

How should we select games that are the most 
joyous to the group? In answer I am going to 
mention several rules that should be remembered. 

1. The rules of the games should be few and 
simple. Involved rules will ruin a game. The 
ideal games are where you throw the ball in and 
have as few rules as possible. 

2. That there should be activity for most of the 
individuals most of the time. Let us not in our 
games develop "spectatoritis." 

169 



170 



PLAYING IN THE WATER 



3. Remember that we should not require a 
large amount of equipment. The pool is the nat- 
ural facility that you have. Have as few other 
things in addition as possible. 

Then, of course, all know the following: 

4. Adapt the games to the age of the child and 
to the sex. 

5. Adjust your selection to the immediate in- 
terest of the individual. I may change the name 
of the game just because of an event that has 
stood out in the newspaper, and swing my inter- 
est into that line because of some headline that 
has appeared in the paper. Be sure that the head- 
line is educative, though, and proper. Some of 
the newspaper headlines are not very educative. 

6. In high schools there is usually a corrective 
program. Remember, you have a wonderful op- 
portunity in water therapy to use the swimming 
pool for specific groups that is, corrective groups. 

7. Don't set up a game that is going to give the 
possibility for a poor swimmer to lose confidence 
and thereby develop an initial fear of the water. 

8. Finally, select games which in the main have 
the opportunity of being recorded and able to 
show individual progress ; call them achievement 
charts if you wish ; call them what you will, but 
something that gives a picture of individual im- 
provement. 

I want you to appreciate that I 
am not offering water games as a 
panacea for teaching swimming. 
Yet I do say that too 
much of our instruction 
is so formalized that it 
has no appeal. Every 
period should include at 
least five to eight min- 
utes of games and this 
part of the period should 
never be eliminated. 
Sometimes you and I 
learn to swim by playing 
games, many of us learn- 
ed in the swimming hole, 
while some of us have 
tried to be taught in 
swimming pools under 
formalized instruction 
for years and never been 
able to learn. 

The best instruction, I 
believe, is the squad sys- 
tem where you develop a 



system of helpers. The squad size should be any- 
where from four to twelve, but I would suggest 
keeping it around eight. 

Hints on Teaching 

When we have our classes and squads arrang- 
ed, how are we going to teach the game? I first 
want you to consider that natural activities are 
the hardest to teach. The reason generally is 
that we haven't thought through the difficulties 
that lie ahead. May I suggest these steps that 
perhaps will overcome some of them. First, name 
your games, and have that name short and catchy. 
Use a little ingenuity. Second, give a short ex- 
planation of the game. Make it short but explain 
the rules clearly. Third, give a short explanation 
of the formation the players are to take in the 
pool. Fourth, have them ask questions. Fifth, 
answer the questions, if there are any, on the for- 
mation, or the rules of the game before they go 
into the water. Sixth, tell them to take the de- 
scribed formations that you have given them. 
Seventh, ask if there are any more questions. 
With regard to question, may I also suggest to 
you that you say, "Hands, please," because every- 
one is at first unsociable in the game situation and 
in this way you make them conscious of the group. 
Games for Beginners 

May I suggest the 

Everyone should learn to swim not only as following games for 
a safety measure but for the joy it gives ! the beginners and give 




PLAYING IN THE WATER 



171 



reasons for their values. The 
first is the Turtle Float. Most 
teachers are familiar with 
this activity. The knees are 
brought to the chest, the chin 
on the chest, and the breath 
is held for a certain length of 
time. This is valuable in giv- 
ing the individual a sensation 
of being able to float in the 
water. The second is the 
Face-Submerged Float which 
can be used either for time 
or distance. Then we have the Steamboat which 
is the method of pushing off in a Face-Sub- 
merged Float position. The hands are in line with 
the ears, and the legs are kicked up and down 
with the flutter kick. We use the Log Rolling to 
give them a sensation of changing position in the 
water. I am sure that most individuals are con- 
scious of the fact that the beginner in the water 
cannot usually remain calm when he changes from 
one side to the other. A suggestion for this is the 
specific idea of rolling over and over, hands over 
the head, for two or three times. Competition in 
this comes between squads each one who does it 
twice scores a point for his team or squad. Of 
course, advanced swimmers can do a variation of 
log rolling using the arms, turning continually 
and progressing forward first with the crawl and 
then with the backstroke. 

Then there are the group activities such as 
Circle Bobbing; holding hands in a circle and 
ducking underneath the water. Poison as it is 
played in the gymnasium can be played in the 
swimming pool. The Centipede Race with indi- 
viduals lining up, one in front of the other, with 
the hands around the waist of the man in front, 
and using the lock-step across the pool. This gives 
a feeling of balance in the water. Most teachers 
are familiar with Cat Fight, but some call it 
Horse and Rider. One person sits on another's 
shoulders, the top man trying to force the other 
rider off. The Bobbing Relay is another game. 
Scramble is a game similar to water polo, but it is 
played in the shallow end of the pool. Then there 
is the Wheelbarrow.' Race which gives you an op- 
portunity of supporting an individual and as well 
to teach him several of the elementary strokes. 

Games for Fair Swimmers 
The second group of games is for fair or ad- 
vanced swimmers. One objective is to improve 



"The art of swimming is increasing very 
rapidly, and human beings are attaining 
a great mastery over the comparatively 
unfamiliar element of water. But for the 
great majority of those who need to swim 
more, let us not neglect to keep swimming 
a great game, full of fun and color and 
glamorous experience. Let us have pag- 
eants and plays with a purpose, If pos- 
sible, or maybe plays just to entertain, 
but let us have them and be In them or 
watch them, according to our Inclination." 
WilhertE. Longfellow, in Water Pageants, 
by Olive McCormick, A. S.Barnes and Co. 



form and water confidence 
A good individual activity is 
jumping into the water and 
doing a front somersault. Of 
course, you are familiar with 
the porpoise dive jack-knif- 
ing to the bottom and push- 
ing up to the surface and 
leveling off for another dive. 
Double or triple swimming 
is very good and can be used 
with the breast stroke, back 



stroke or the crawl. It is very 
helpful in developing swimming strokes, espe- 
cially the leg stroke. Follow the leader is another 
game which is interesting. First, dive in ; second, 
reverse crawl; third, the dog paddle; fourth, the 
dog paddle with the flutter kick ; and finally, sink- 
ing and leveling off. One team may compete 
against the other for speed or form, in a re- 
stricted area. 

Group Activities 

Start off in shallow water and tread water with 
hands on the next individual's shoulders the 
length of the pool. There should be four men in 
the group, with their hands on each other's 
shoulders and just a leg kick is used. We have 
also the game that is played with one individual 
in the middle of a circle and the other individuals 
holding hands in the form of a circle and trying 
to force one of their number to touch the swim- 
mer who is treading water in the middle. There is 
also the arch relay, which is swimming underneath 
each other's legs while the person standing must 
scull with the hands while keeping the legs wide 
apart. In shallow water, of course, they can stand 
on the bottom. Water Kick Ball as a team game 
is most interesting and can be used in schools very 
well. It is similar to baseball except that the ball 
is kicked instead of batted. 

The instructor's attitude in presenting a game, 
and his manner of voice and action during the 
game, are strong influences on the way the players 
will take to it. 



NOTE : From the National Recreation Association may 
be secured a bulletin entitled "Water Play Days," which 
contains directions for a number of games to be played 
in the water, some interesting relays and races, and a 
variety of amusing stunts and novelty features. A brief 
bibliography of water sports is given. 



Plays 
and 

Pageants 
for the 

Playground 

By HELEN BOARD 

Former Staff Member, 
Public Recreation Commission 

Cincinnati, Ohio 




WITH THE playground season "just around 
the corner," play leaders are planning their 
activities for this brief but intensive period. 
The majority of leaders will include in their 
program at least one play or pageant. Because of 
the brevity of the playground season, the limited 
facilities for play production and the irregular at- 
tendance upon the playground, the choice of a 
play must necessarily be carefully considered. 
Obviously it should be simple enough to eliminate 
the necessity for long rehearsals, expensive cos- 
tumes and elaborate stage settings, yet at the same 
time it must have sufficient merit to be worthy 
of production. 

In choosing a play for the playground several 
requisites have to be taken into account in addi- 
tion to the value of the play. Among these are 
the social and educational background of the 
children in the cast; the length of time allotted 
for preparation; the stage setting and properties 
available, and the audience for which the play is 
to be given. With these essential points in mind, 
the director is ready to give her attention to the 
vast treasury of materials from which the selec- 
tion may be made. And since the array is so great, 
she may be somewhat bewildered as to where and 
how to obtain the best material. It is the purpose 

172 



A grassy plot on the playground will supply 
a delightful setting for a children's play. 



of this article, therefore, to assist the play leader 
or director in overcoming this obstacle by pre- 
senting a selective list of plays which have been 
"weighed in the balance and not found wanting." 
Frequently the only "stage" available is the 
natural setting of the playground a grassy plot 
or a shady knoll with a background of trees or 
shrubbery. So let us consider first the plays best 
suited to this condition. 

A Few Proven Plays 

Marjories Garden, a delightful little flower 
play, may be found in Five Plays and Five Pan- 
tomimes by Sidney Baldwin, published by the 
Penn Publishing Company, Philadelphia. Most 
of the characters are flowers and the costumes 
made from colored crepe paper are lovely. In 
this same volume may be found The Enchanted 
Gate, a story of romance and intrigue which will 
delight boys as well as girls. 

Flowers in the Palace Garden, another flower 
play of beauty and charm, appears in Virginia 
Olcott's volume, Everyday Plays for Home, 
School and Settlement, published by Dodd, Mead 



PLAYS AND PAGEANTS FOR THE PLAYGROUND 



173 



& Company. This volume also contains The 
Ruler of the Forest, an exciting adventure of In- 
dian life and The Troll of the Mountains, which 
tells the story of a thrilling capture and rescue. 
The two last named have a special appeal for 
boys. 

Constance D'Arcy Mackay is the author of a 
charming garden play called The Enchanted Gar- 
den, published by Samuel French, New York, 
($.30), which can be highly recommended. In the 
cast are three boys, seven girls and extras. 

The Fairy Woods by Irene Jean Crandall, is a 
fanciful fairy play in a prologue and two acts 
which can be heartily endorsed. Replete with 
dances and bright costumes, it makes an ideal 
woodland entertainment or end of the season 
pageant. If this is too elaborate try The Kingdom 
of the Rose Queen by John Farrar, in which 
Queen Wild Rose makes a boy realize his past 
unkindness to the wild flowers. There is only one 
scene with a cast of thirty-five or forty children. 
(It may be found in libraries.) 

And before we leave the subject of flower 
plays, let us not fail to mention Prince Goldenrod 
in Little Robin Stay-Behind by Katherine Lee 
Bates, published by the Womans Press, 600 Lex- 
ington Avenue, New York. This humorous lit- 
tle piece calls for nine principal characters three 
girls and six boys with any number of singers, 
dancers and courtiers. The scene is laid in the 
throne room of Prince Goldenrod where an en- 
tertaining family quarrel eventually has a very 
amiable ending. 

For a large cast of older 
boys and girls nothing is more 
appropriate than The Treas- 
ure Chest by Josephine Thorp. 
Old Tower Publishing Com- 
pany, Lockport, Illinois. It re- 
quires only a woodland setting 
and the cast is flexible so that 
any number may participate. 
The thrilling conflict of a band 
of pirates makes the play lively 
and entertaining for boys, and 
g i r 1 s adore the rhythmic 
dances of the waves and sun- 
beams. 

The Dearest Wish, a story- 
telling festival by Pauline Oak, 
is also excellent for a large 
cast. It may be secured from 
the Drama Service, National 



Recreation Association. Practical as well as 
poetic are the brief plays found in Rose Fyle- 
man's volume, Eight Little Plays, published by 
Doubleday, Doran & Company, New York. The 
Fairy Riddle and The Fairy and the Doll are 
especially well adapted for playground use. 
Noughts and Crosses, which, by the way, is one 
of the most novel plays in the volume, calls for 
an indoor setting but can be adapted for outdoor 
presentation. 

When Pantomime Is Used 

If it so happens that a playground is located in 
the heart of the city where the noise of traffic 
makes line reading impossible, the pantomime will 
prove an excellent substitute for the spoken word. 
Nora Archibald Smith has included four delight- 
ful ones in her volume Plays, Pantomimes and 
Tableaux, published by Dodd, Mead & Company, 
New York Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Red 
Riding Hood, The Elves and the Shoemaker, and 
Snozv White and Rose Red. Complete directions 
for costuming and producing accompany the pan- 
tomimes. 

The Gnomes Workshop by M. A. Jagendorf, 
published by Brentano's, New York, is an ideal 
pantomime for children between the ages of eight 
and twelve. The scene is indoors, but can easily 

(Continued on page 202) 



"King Alfred and the Cakes" was the charming 
play given by the children of Salisbury, Conn. 




Canoeing 
and 

Tennis 
in a 

County Park 
System 




WHILE IT is definitely within the province of 
economists and financiers to evolve ways 
and means for curing the depression, it is 
just as definitely within the province of those en- 
gaged in recreation to evolve ways and means of 
providing healthful substitutes for those recrea- 
tions which many persons miss because of changed 
financial status. It was with this in mind that the 
Recreation Division of the Essex County, New 
Jersey, Park Commission determined to attempt 
to revive an interest in canoeing and to broaden 
an already wide interest in tennis as played on 
clay courts. 

Twenty years ago two of the parks under our 
control boasted of flourishing canoe clubs, each 
having its regatta and drawing large crowds ; but 
with the growing lure of the automobile the num- 
ber of canoeists was gradually reduced until in- 
stead of having one hundred and fifty canoes on 
each lake there were fewer than seventy-five at 
Weequahic and less than twenty-five at Branch 
Brook. 

Until three years ago the boating and refectory 
facilities at the lakes were not under the control 
of the Commission but were leased to concession- 
aires. However, with the taking over of these 
leases on their expiration, the facilities offered 
by the lakes became one of the phases of the work 
assigned to the Recreation Division for develop- 
ment. Meantime Verona Lake had been taken 
over and the entire tract re-landscaped, so that 
there were three park lakes instead of two where 
icanoes might be used. 



By ERNEST BENATRE 

Supervisor of Recreation 
Essex County Park Commission 



Canoeing Grows in Popularity 

Starting the campaign for more canoeing was 
not difficult. It involved inviting to an evening 
meeting in the offices of the Commission canoeists 
from each lake who came different nights. The 
result was that canoe clubs were formed at the 
meetings, temporary officers- one a girl in two 
of the three groups being elected and plans were 
discussed for regattas and carnivals. It was 
pointed out that permits for the events would be 
needed, that definite practice nights should be 
chosen, and that no one might compete or practice 
who could not satisfy the Police Department of 
his or her ability to swim. Setting a definite date 
for the swimming events, at which the Chief of 
the Park Police Department was present, gave the 
regattas such an impetus as perhaps nothing else 
would have done. 

Membership in the three clubs increased im- 
mediately when we suggested that no one might 
compete unless a member in good standing of the 
club. Other boats were brought to the lakes with 
the result that the popularity of canoeing was well 
on the way to a revival, if one might judge by the 
volume of inquiries regarding canoes for sale. 

In order to open competition in the regattas to 
as many as possible, two things were suggested to 



174 



CANOEING AND TENNIS IN A COUNTY PARK SYSTEM 



175 



the clubs that three events for row boats be in- 
cluded and that any novice resident in Essex 
County be permitted to compete. 

There was more work involved for the Recre- 
ation Division than appears, for no member of 
any of the clubs had had any experience with 
athletic or aquatic contests, with the result that 
all of the planning, the clerical work of handling 
entries, the laying out of the course, the setting 
of the buoys for starts and finish lines and the 
actual officiating had to be taken care of. Our 
own staff was able to handle the regattas, for the 
playground instruction corps boasted some college 
oarsmen and officials of experience; the engineer- 
ing staff laid out the course on each lake, and the 
carpenters and painters of the maintenance divi- 
sion saved considerable money by making buoys 
for the start and finish lines. 

The buoys marking the finish line consisted of 
two pieces of wood one inch thick and ten inches 
square with a piece of cork from an old life pre- 
server between. They were painted bright red 
and a hole was drilled in each for an American 
flag. Buoys six inches square and painted white 
with black numbers were used to mark the start- 
ing lines. To hold them in place we used a screw 
eye in the bottom of each from which was sus- 
pended a rope with a sash weight anchor borrow- 
ed from the fishing boats at each lake. \Ye also 
discovered that a light and very satisfactory tilt- 
ing pole could be made from a bamboo pole, a 
plumber's rubber plunger, a child's rubber gas 
ball, a little burlap and a piece of chamois. 

The Weequahic Canoe Club varied its regatta 
features with an exhibition of life saving by a 
team from the Orange Y. M. C. A., the dock at 
that lake lending itself admirably for such activity 
from the viewpoint of the spectators. The other 
two clubs held carnivals in addition to the regat- 
tas. Here a good deal of ingenuity was displayed 
in the decorating of the canoes. 

At Branch Book first place went to a young 
man who, with the aid of some cardboard and a 
few water colors, transformed his canoe into a 
very creditable likeness of a gondola and ar- 
rayed himself as a gondolier. At Verona the 
judges were somewhat put to it to decide be- 
tween three of the canoes but finally awarded first, 
second and third respectively to those represent- 
ing a side wheeler the covered wagon, and the 
"Fresh Air Taxicab." 

The boys at Branch Brook had such a good 
time that they asked if they might hold a trian- 



gular regatta, inviting the other two clubs to com- 
pete with them in September, and they requested 
the assistance of the Recreation Division. This 
competition was won by the Verona Club which 
now has the first leg on a silver loving cup pre- 
sented by the Commission. During the winter 
each club plans to enlist the interest of many 
prospective canoeists, and while we all hope that 
the depression will be well behind us by next sum- 
mer, we also hope that so healthful and inexpen- 
sive a sport as canoeing may continue to thrive. 

Developing Interest in Tennis 

Tennis tournaments received their impetus 
from two sources. The Secretary had delegated 
one of the members of the Recreation Division to 
represent the Commission, and incidentally Essex 
County, on the Public Parks Committee of the 
Eastern Lawn Tennis Association which was de- 
sirous of having a good representation from New 
Jersey in the Metropolitan Championships. Fur- 
thermore, after three years' experience our clay 
courts players were getting to the point where 
competition between parks would be desirable, and 
with the five day week forced on many residents 
of the county we felt that tennis offered a very 
inexpensive way of using free time, the charge 
for courts being only 10 cents per hour per player. 
Groups from each of the five parks where clay 
courts are maintained were invited separately to 
meet with a staff member of the Recreation Di- 
vision. The result was that tennis clubs were 
formed at each park and tournaments conducted 
by the members during July for the purpose of 
selecting a team of seven players two men's sin- 
gles, one women's singles, men's doubles and 
mixed doubles. It was planned that these teams 
would engage in match play during August. Be- 
fore the local tournaments were well under way, 
however, the Kresge Department Store of New- 
ark asked permission to sponsor the August 
matches to the extent of furnishing the balls and 
providing seven trophies for the winners. So en- 
thusiastic did the store officials become that they 
asked permission to hold a county-wide tourna- 
ment in September not limited to public parks 
players for which they furnished seven more 
trophies. As an added feature for the finals on 
September 24th they arranged for an exhibition 
match between Vincent Richards and Gregory 
Mangin. 

(Continued on page 202) 



Tin Can Craft 
on the 
Playground 



By CHARLES M. GRAVES 

Birmingham, Alabama 



THE HANDCRAFT program on the playground 
is often difficult because of the expense of 
securing suitable material. There was a time 
when wooden packing boxes were easily obtain- 
able, but today only a small part of the goods re- 
ceived in the neighborhood grocery comes in 
wooden containers, and they are hard to get. Tin 
cans are plentiful and cost nothing. They may be 
used for many useful articles for the home, play- 
ground and camp. There is a satisfaction to the 
craftsman in the fact that he is using material 
that is usually thrown away making something 
out of nothing. 

It is very important that fresh, clean cans be 
used. They should be washed soon after they are 
opened and put in such a position to drain that all 
the water will run out. Old, dirty, rusty cans 
should not be used. 

There should be a receptacle convenient for all 
scrap tin. This should not be left lying around. 
All jagged edges on any of the articles should be 
immediately removed by the use of a file. After 
one becomes accustomed to handling tin there will 
be few accidents, but any cuts should be treated 
immediately. 




The Tools 

Tools should include a 
pair of 8 inch duck bill tin 
snips. With these snips a 
reasonably good curve, 
either right or left, can be 
secured. This cannot be 
done with the ordinary tin 
snips which are used for 

176 



Mr. Graves first became interested in tin 
can craft two years ago when he served 
as a play leader on the playgrounds con- 
ducted by the Park and Recreation Board 
of Birmingham, Alabama. As a student at 
the National Recreation School last year 
he had the opportunity of developing the 
craft still further in connection with the 
work he did at the Flatbush Boys' Club 
in Brooklyn. 



Here, in illustration No. I, are to be seen some 
of the articles with which the novice may begin. 



cutting straight lines. A 12 inch pair of these 
should, however, be in the kit. Other tools neces- 
sary are a can opener which leaves a smooth top, 
a spool of rosin or core solder, or if desired, 
solder wire and soldering paste, a pair of pliers, 
a pair of dividers, a rule, a small ball pene ham- 
mer, a small wooden mallet, a small file, and a 
punch made from a nail. A block of hard wood, 
planed smooth about 1^2" by 2" by 12", is a 
necessity. It is also important to have an alcohol 
lamp which may be made from an ink bottle with 
a wick pulled through a hole in the cork. It is a 
good idea to use the barrel of a .32 cartridge to 
line the hole. 

A small variety of quick drying paints, such as 
four hour enamel, a brush or two, a little patience 
and the application of a few simple decorative 
designs, will work wonders with your finished 
articles. 

The Procedure 

A tin cup is one of the simplest projects. (See 
illustration No. i.) Select 
a can of the size desired. A 
small pineapple can makes 
a good size. The top edge 
must be smooth. Cut from 
another can a strip of tin 
sufficient for the handle. 
For a can the size men- 
tioned this would be about 
W by 5". To hem the 



TIN CAN CRAFT ON THE PLAYGROUND 



177 



edges of the handle, hold this strip on the block 
of hard wood so that 3/16 of an inch of one of 
the long edges extends over the edge of the block. 
With a mallet or hammer bend this 3/16 of an 
inch strip down so as to make a double smooth 
edge or hem. Repeat this operation on the other 
edge and you have a strip with smooth edges five 
inches long with which to make the handle. 

Using your fingers and the hammer handle, 
shape this strip into a handle. It will look some- 
thing like a question mark. The top and bottom 
ends of the handle should now be so shaped as to 
fit snugly against the outside of the cup over the 
seam. The handle can 
be temporarily held in 
place by a small wire 
or string around the 
handle and cup. 

If you have a solder- 
ing iron convenient and 
know how to use it, the 
rest is simple. But if 
not, the soldering oper- 
ation may be done in 
the following way, 
which is the simplest 
for the amateur. Cut 
two pieces of self-flux- 
ing solder about */ 2 inch 
long (rosin core or acid 
core solder). Flatten 
the pieces of solder 
with a hammer and 
place one between the top 
end of the handle and the 
can. Now apply heat from 
an alcohol lamp so that the 

flame does not touch the solder and as soon as 
the solder flows remove the heat. If the softest 
solder is used, a candle, or even a match, will give 
sufficient heat. If you do not succeed the first 
time, clean all contact surfaces and try again. 
Now remove the string or wire and you have a 
very acceptable tin cup. 

This method of soldering is used in the making 
of all the objects and is similar to the method 
used by silversmiths. 

Kitchen Utensils 

By using a larger can and making a lip on the 
edge opposite the handle, a utility kitchen cup can 
be made. This lip, when cut out, resembles a new 
moon. (See illustration No. i.) 




Illustration No. 2 is a happy demonstration 
of the attractlvness of the candle holders 
which can be evolved from useless tin cans. 



A very acceptable and useful scoop can be 
made by cutting away one side of the can. It is 
preferable to cut away the side which is seamed, 
soldering a handle on the bottom or low side. A 
scoop for sugar or flour is best made from a can 
with a smooth bottom, such as a milk can. 

A biscuit or cookie cutter can be made any de- 
sired shape by cutting a long strip of tin one inch 
wide and shaping it as desired, soldering the ends 
together and putting a handle across the top. A 
better cutter can be made by hemming the top 
edge. 

A toy bucket can be made by soldering half a 
gem clip, bent to re- 

semble a hat in profile, 

on the sides of a No. 
2J/2 can and shaping a 
handle to fit these loops. 
Make the handle of 
coat hanger wire. A 
shovel to go with this 
bucket can easily be 
made by shaping it 
from a piece of tin 
2y 2 " by 8". 

A toy saucepan can 
be made by shaping a 
straight handle, in the 
same way as the handle 
to the cup already de- 
scribed, and soldering 
it to the side of a potted 
ham can or other small 
can. A broiler can be made 
from two sardine cans with 
wire handles soldered on 
each end, so that the han- 
dles of the top fit inside the handles of the bot- 
tom can. 

A round table may be made by soldering a 2 
inch tape reel to the under side of a coffee can 
top. The chair is made of a flat piece in the same 
way as one is cut out of cardboard. 

To make a toy wash-board, cut a piece of tin 
4" wide by 12" long. Lay this flat on the table 
and hold the block of wood firmly across it 2 
inches from one end. Bend the tin up against 
it so that it makes a right angle to the balance of 
the piece. Turn the tin over and about */2 inch 
from this bend on the long part of the tin, make 
another in the opposite direction. Now turn the 
tin over again and with the block holding it down, 
about ^ of an inch, from the last bend make 



178 



TIN CAN CRAFT ON THE PLAYGROUND 



In illustration No. 3 
are shown some of the 
novel and useful art- 
icles so easily made. 

another and so on 
reversing the tin 
each time before 
making a bend. 
With a little care 
you will have a 
very acceptable 
corrugated base for 
a wash-board. Then 
round the top cor- 
ners. Now cut a 
strip of tin J4 inch 
wide and long 

enough to go along two sides and the top 
this to fit the sides of the board, tie this 
the board, wire or string, and solder in 
spots. 




Shape 
strip to 
several 



More Decorative Articles 
A candle holder can be made by cutting away 
one side of a can and soldering a handle on the 
back of the high side and a tin cylinder in the 
bottom to hold the candle. (See illustration No. 
2.) Another type of candlestick can be made 
from the top of a coffee can with a discarded 
Handy tape reel or made up cylinder of tin to 
hold the candle. (See illustration No. 3.) A 
kitchen or camp candle holder may be evolved 
from a cocoa can or other oblong can that will 
hang against the wall. 

An easel to hold photographs or pictures may 
be made by cutting in a single piece an isosceles 
triangle of 4^/2" sides with a rectangular base 
6y 2 " long and i" high. Bend this piece along 
the perpendicular of the triangle to an angle of 
about 60 degrees. The two pieces which project 
from each side of the base form the offsets which 
hold the picture. A miniature easel makes an at- 
tractive place card holder. 

An ash tray and match box holder can be made 
from the top of a 
coffee can as shown 
in illustration No. 
3. The memo card 
or calendar holder 
shown here is made 
to fit a 3" by 5" 




card and requires 
a piece of material 
7 l /2" by S%"- A 
little study of the 
picture will show 
how it is made. It 
should be made 
about y 2 inch deep 
with a hole at the 
top to hang it on 
the wall. It requires 
no soldering. 

The sunflower, 
the club and the 
spade shown in the 
final illustration 
may be used as 
place card holders 

and also as miniature candle holders. In the cen- 
ter of each is a small cylinder about J4 mcn high, 
just the right diameter to hold a small birthday 
candle. This is made from a strip of tin ?4 of an 
inch long by % of an inch wide rolled into a 
cylinder and soldered to the base. Many varia- 
tions may be worked out. 

A desk blotter may be made by cutting a piece 
of tin 3*4" by 5" for the top, and 2j/ & " by 5*4" 
for the bottom. The top piece should have its 
long edges folded back, as is done with the handle 
of the cup. The ends should have 3/16 of an 
inch bent to make an angle of about 60 degrees 
with the body of the top, and the top itself should 
be slightly arched. A blotter should be cut the 
same size as the bottom piece which should be 
shaped to an even curve and fitted under the ends 
of the top piece. 

Decorating Articles 

A very effective way of decorating a tin article 
such as a blotter pad or desk blotter corners is to 
cut from thin copper an initial, a monogram or 
other design, and solder this to the object. After 
the design has been satisfactorily cut out with 
snips or coping saw and file, sandpaper the side 
(Continued on page 203) 



Effective holders for 
place cards and minia- 
ture candle holders as 
well are possibilities. 



How to Produce a Play 



By JACK STUART KNAPP 

National Recreation Association 



The casting of a play is an 
art requiring great diplom- 
acy on the part of directors. 



EXPERTNESS in casting is an invaluable asset to 
the director. Some directors seem to have 
an instinct for casting, others always have 
difficulty. The amateur director must not only 
understand thoroughly the characterizations in the 
play and the talent on hand. He must be a diplo- 
mat as well. Mistakes in casting or, worse, unfair 
casting, will often arouse a storm of resentment 
and criticism. In some groups even absolutely fair 
casting will arouse criticism at first, but if the di- 
rector is always fair, this criticism quickly dies. 

Directors of some groups, childrens especially, 
have another problem. Should the audience see a 
good characterization by an actor equipped to 
handle the part, or are the benefits received by an 
actor in playing a part which he is not naturally 
equipped to play, but which will help him in the 
development of his own personality or character, 
of more importance ? Which is to be given more 
consideration, the audience or the actor? With 
children's groups, and specialized adult groups, it 
should often be the latter. 

The too quiet, timid, mouse-like little girl by 
being cast in a lively, laughing, jolly part, may 
develop a little of the vivaciousness she needs in 
every day life, and the boisterous, rough, unman- 
nerly little boy may acquire some of the graces 
and knowledge of courtesy he needs by playing 
the part of the gentle prince. In the usual adult 
production, however, the audience must be con- 
sidered, and parts are usually given to those who, 
in the opinion of the director or casting committee, 
are best fitted to play them. 

The casting is done by the director or by a small 
committee, of which the director is a member, and 
the determining factor in selecting the cast. 



In this article the important subject 
of casting a play is considered, and 
suggestions are offered regarding the 
qualifications which the prospective 
actor should have and the best meth- 
ods to use in giving the applicant a 
chance to show his ability. 

An article byMr. Knapp on Organizing 
the Production will follow next month. 



The "try out" method is the usual and perhaps 
the best method of casting. The try out conducted 
by some groups, however, means very little. Ap- 
plicants are handed a book they've never seen 
before and are told "stand there and read this." 
Now it is sad but true that about ninety-five 
people out of one hundred can not read out loud. 
Even for those who can read, it is extremely dif- 
ficult to put expression or characterization into 
something they have never read before. \Vhen 
the try out is finished, about all the director 
usually knows is that the people who have tried 
out want to be in the play, and that some people 
read better than others. This does not mean at 
all that they can act any better than the ones who 
read poorly. 

If a try out is to mean something, the appli- 
cants should be given a few speeches of the play 
to memorize a few days before the try out date. 
The selections to be memorized can be mimeo- 
graphed/ or printed in the local newspaper, if it 
has an obliging editor. Poor readers may be ex- 
cellent actors after they have memorized their 
lines. 

As'a precaution against mistakes,, the director 
should announce that the first casting of the play 
is merely temporary. Actors may be requested to 
exchange parts, or even to drop out of the cast, if 
they find that they are not equipped to handle the 
part with credit to themselves and the production. 
After one or two rehearsals the permanent cast 
should be announced. 

While each actor is trying out, the director, or 
casting committee, is considering certain qualities 
and qualifications. The first of these is not acting 
(Continued on page 203) 

179 




Courtesy U. S. Forest Service 



Photo by Leslie K. Corbet! 



National Forest Playgrounds 

of the 

Pacific Northwest 



A glimpse of the joys which 
await those fortunate enough 
to visit the great Northwest 



By MARIE F. HEISLEY 

Forest Service 
United States Department of Agriculture 



THE VAST forests of Douglas fir, spruce, hem- 
lock, pine, cedar, and other conifers that ex- 
tend almost unbroken over the mountain 
ranges of the Pacific Northwest offer outstanding 
opportunities for outdoor recreation. Fortunately, 
Uncle Sam has created in this region some of the 
very finest of his National Forests. 

The National Forests of the Pacific Northwest, 
like all others, were created for the conservation 

180 



and development of the forest values in tne puo- 
lic interest. Of vital concern, ot course, is tne 
growing of timber and the protection of water- 
sheds. This the forests do to a remarkable degree, 
for they contain some of the most magnificent 
stands of softwood timber in the world and their 
forest-covered mountains protect the headwaters 
of many streams vital to the welfare of the region. 
But recreational opportunity is also recognized as 
a forest resource of outstanding value, and recre- 
ation is given an important place in the adminis- 
trative program of the National Forests. 

The Pacific Northwest's National Forests are 
among the Nation's finest recreation grounds. 
They have a wealth of splendid scenery. Their 



NATIONAL FOREST PLAYGROUNDS 



181 



woods, rivers, lakes, alpine meadows, snow fields, 
and lofty peaks hold invitations to all lovers of 
the great outdoors. Fish in the streams and lakes 
and hig game in the back country lure the fisher- 
man and hunter. Snow-clad peaks and glaciers at 
the top of the divides challenge the hardiest 
mountain climber or winter sports enthusiast. The 
tourist, the camper, the hiker, and nature lover 
will find his heart's delight in these vacation 
lands. 

Recreation, therefore, forms one of the major 
uses of the nineteen National Forests of Wash- 
ington and Oregon. These Forests are visited by 
thousands of pleasure seekers every year. To the 
extent that available funds permit, the United 
States Forest Service each year improves recre- 
ational facilities. The mileage of roads and trails 
is increased, opening up new areas to the traveler. 
Improvements are made upon camp grounds and 
other recreation areas. 

The Forest Service has already established 876 
free public camp grounds on the National Forests 
of the Pacific Northwest. These camp grounds 
are gradually being provided with the facilities 
necessary to their proper management and also 
with conveniences for the camper or picnicker, 
such as stoves and fireplaces, toilets and garbage 
pits, and information booths. It is estimated that 
during the summer season these national forest 
public camp grounds are 
used daily by more than 
51,000 persons. Establish- 
ment of private camps, 
hotels, resorts and summer 
homes is also allowed in cer- 
tain designated areas within 
the National Forests, under 
special permit from the .For- 
est Service. 



Primitive Areas 
For the furtherance of 
public education and recrea- 
tion the Forest Service is 
establishing within National 
Forests a series of repre- 
sentative areas known as 
Primitive Areas. In these 
areas primitive conditions of 
environment, transportation, 
habitation and subsistence are 
as far as possible maintained. 
No occupancy under permit 




In Primitive Areas 
Forests old arts 



for summer home, resort, camp, or the like, is al- 
lowed, and no improvements other than those 
necessary to the adequate protection of the area 
from fire will be made. Thus is being preserved 
for the Nation representative areas of wild coun- 
try in the natural state, free from exploitation 
and unmodified by the works of man. True lovers 
of the wilderness can find in the Primitive Areas 
the opportunity to "rough it" in primitive fashion, 
and to enjoy nature unspoiled. The areas are 
open to recreationists, but only those who love 
living in the out-of-doors and have the hardihood 
to subsist under primitive conditions should at- 
tempt to explore them. Over fifty Primitive 
Areas have been established on National Forests, 
with seven in the Pacific Northwest. 

Recreation Areas 

Since most of the mountainous section of 
Washington and Oregon are included within Na- 
tional Forests, many of the outstanding recrea- 
tion areas of the region are publicly owned. The 
Forest Service, therefore, has designated a num- 
ber of recreation areas within the National For- 
ests, where recreation is the primary concern in 
administration. One of the most popular of these 
is the "Heather Meadows Recreation Area," in 
the Mt. Baker National Forest, Washington. 
Here, in a setting of unexcelled scenery in the 
shadow of snow-crowned Mt. 
P>aker and Mt. Shuksan, the 
famous Mt. Baker Lodge is 
maintained under a special 
use permit. A free public 
campground also is main- 
tained, and a forest ranger 
stationed at the area is ready 
to give information and ad- 
vice to recreationists. Dur- 
ing the summer season he 
delivers nightly illustrated 
lectures on the flora and 
fauna of the area. 

Another section of excep- 
tional interest from a recrea- 
tional standpoint is the Olym- 
pic Peninsula in northwest- 
ern Washington. This is a 
region of heavy precipitation 
and remarkable forest 
growth. The peninsula con- 
tains an extensive alpine area 
in the Olympic Mountain 



of the National 
are practised. 



182 



NATIONAL FOREST PLAYGROUNDS 



Range, a splendid mountain mass with impressive 
peaks rising to an elevation of 8,250 feet, deep 
gorges, extensive snow fields and numerous glac- 
iers, and other features characteristic of the best 
mountain scenery of the West. It is one of the 
last great wilderness areas in the United States. 
Practically all of the Olympic Mountain Range is 
included within the boundaries of the Olympic 
National Forest which covers almost one and a 
half million acres. From the heart of the Forest 
rises Mt. Olympus, the highest point of the 
Range. This peak and adjacent summits have 
been set aside as the Mt. Olympus National Mon- 
ument because they contain certain features of 
unusual scientific interest, and because the region 
has from time immemorial formed the breeding 
grounds and summer range of the rare Olympic, 
or Roosevelt, elk, a native species found nowhere 
else. The National Monument covers approxi- 
mately 330,000 acres and includes the highest and 
roughest snow-capped peaks, while an adjoining 
portion of the Forest has been set aside as a rec- 
reation area, for which public recreation is con- 
sidered the highest use. A Primitive Area also 
has been designated in this region. 

Oregon Caves, in the Siskiyou National Forest 
in Southern Oregon, have been set aside as a Na- 
tional Monument. The Caves are located in Cave 
Mountain, a peak of limestone foundation, 6,000 
feet high, with their main entrances at 4,000 feet. 
Many miles of galleries, rooms, and passageways, 
which lead in all directions, have already been ex- 
plored, and there are probably many more miles 
in the unexplored portions of the mountain. The 
Forest Service regulates the use and protection of 
the caves and has permitted the building of an 
attractive chalet at their entrance. A public camp- 
ground also is maintained. Improvements for the 
accommodation of visitors are being made each 
year. 

Many mountain peaks within the National For- 
ests of Washington and Oregon attract the recre- 
ationist. Best known, perhaps, is Mt. Hood. This 
snow-crowned king of .the Columbia River coun- 
try in Oregon is located on the National Forest 
to which it gives its name. The mountain and 
some 100,000 acres of surrounding territory in 
the Forest, including that portion adjacent to the 
Columbia River, have been designated by the For- 
est Service as a recreation area, for the "use and 
enjoyment of the general public for recreational 
purposes coordinately with the purpose for which 
the Mt. Hood National Forest was established." 



Although the region is the mecca for all classes 
of recreationists, it is especially popular with 
mountain climbers. Mt. Hood is climbed annu- 
ally by a great many people, mountain climbing 
clubs frequently making the ascent with parties 
numbering a hundred or more. The ascent from 
the north side of the mountain will appeal to 
most lovers of mountain climbing, for, while no 
exceptional difficulties will be met, the climb is 
not an easy one. The south side climb is more 
gradual. Inexperienced persons, however, should 
not attempt an ascent of either side of Mt. Hood 
without a guide. In winter the climb is extremely 
hazardous and should be tried only by experi- 
enced mountain climbers and then only with 
guides. The Mount Hood region is beginning to 
be used extensively for all kinds of winter sports. 
The National Forests of the Pacific Northwest 
are studded with numerous lakes, most of which 
are beautifully situated and attractive to recrea- 
tionists. One of the most popular is Lake Che- 
Ian, in the Chelan National Forest, Washington, 
one of the most beautiful mountain regions in the 
United States. The lake extends for 50 miles 
through the heart of the east slope of the Cascade 
Range and is fed by numerous streams which de- 
scend to it through deep canyons and fall in num- 
erous cascades. The Lake Chelan region is also 
joy to the mountain climber, including as it does 
many glaciers, rugged peaks that have seldom, if 
ever, been scaled, mountain meadows, gorges, 
cataracts, and small lakes nested among the peaks. 
It is also popular with other classes of pleasure 
seekers, for the fishing is excellent, there are ac- 
commodations for persons who do not wish to 
"camp out," and many sandy beaches. During 
the summer season numbers of small boats and 
yachts dot Lake Chelan. The whole Chelan For- 
est offers splendid opportunities for hunting, fish- 
ing, and camping, and other forms of outdoor 
recreation. 

Some Forestry Activities for 
Recreation Centers 

Uncle Sam's Forest Rangers. Why not have a 
"Jim and Jerry" party if you have a radio at your 
center? As you probably know, Forest Rangers 
Jim Robbins and Jerry Quick are the principal 
characters in the series of educational broadcasts 
entitled, "Uncle Sam's Forest Rangers," now be- 
ing heard weekly over NBC networks. The broad- 
casts are prepared by Charles E. Randall of the 
(Continued on page 204) 



Popularizing 
the 

Swimming 
Badge Tests 



Why not have some such 
demonstration as this 
in your summer program? 




THE SWIMMING BADGE TESTS developed for 
the National Recreation Association by a 
group of distinguished physical educators, 
swimming experts and recreation leaders, have 
been so well received it is clear that given ade- 
quate publicity they will be extremely useful in 
stimulating interest in swimming and other 
aquatic skills. 

As a means of drawing attention to the tests it 
has been suggested that early in the swimming 
season this year special events could be held at 
swimming pools or beaches for the purpose of 
having well known swimmers give a demonstra- 
tion of the tests. Probably such swimmers will 
prefer to demonstrate the third and most difficult 
test. In this case unusually qualified boy or girl 
swimmers could demonstrate the first and second 
tests. A feature of the event might well be the 
presentation of emblems and certificates by the 
mayor or some other public official. 

The Swimming Badge Test Committee does not 
permit emblems to be issued until the person con- 
ducting the tests has certified those who have 
qualified for badges. Wherever possible, however, 
the Committee will be glad to arrange for a rep- 
resentative to be present at special demonstrations 
of the tests, in order that the emblems may be 
awarded as a part of the program. Participation 
on such occasions should be limited to a few 
selected swimmers of exceptional ability. 

It is recommended that such a demonstration 
be held early in the season in order to reap the 



The swimming badge tests will prove a pop- 
ular addition to the summer camp program. 



full advantage of stimulating attendance at the 
swimming pools and progress in the sport. An 
expert swimmer could easily run through the 
third test in half an hour. Possibly the three tests 
could be run off simultaneously, alternating the 
events in the different tests. 

Scope of the Tests 

For the benefit of those unfamiliar with the 
tests, it may be said that they embrace swimming 
stated distances, recovering objects by surface 
dives, swimming for time, diving, floating, tread- 
ing and demonstrating strokes. There are no 
height, weight or age limits specified. The same 
tests are used for both boys and girls with the 
exception that girls are permitted a longer time in 
swimming events for speed. Any responsible per- 
son, familiar with swimming, may give the tests. 
The National Recreation Association furnishes 
certificates and emblems which may be sewed on 
the sweater or swimming suit on receipt of cer- 
tification by examiners that the tests have been 
successfully completed. Many thousands of men, 
women and children have now taken the tests. 

Tests Widely Used and Approved 

Captain Charles B. Scully, Director of the Life 

Saving Service for the American Red Cross in 

Greater New York, says of the tests : "I have 

(Continued on page 205) 

183 



Hidden Wealth Revealed by Bankers 



By AUGUSTUS D. ZANZIG 

National Recreation Association 



Some delightful revela- 
tions about bankers and 
"captains of industry!" 



"Every hour of the human life freed 
from enforced toil by the machine is 
a potential treasure for the race. To 
seize upon these new opportunities 
and convert them into the creative 
joys of the mind, body and spirit they 
might be what else can we learn that 
is half so vital to ourselves, to society!" 
'Dorothy Canfield Fisher in The Li- 
brary Journal, May 15, 1933 



WILL WONDKKS never cease? Here we are 
adjusting ourselves with amazing flexibil- 
ity to a rapid fire of wonders, of great new 
national projects and controls, when along come 
some remarkable and delightful revelations about 
certain very successful bankers. They are not the 
practical, hard-headed men we thought bankers 
were. They are really musicians ! Think of it ! 
The cynical might say, "No wonder we have 
or have had a depression!" But these bankers 
are among the most reputable and successful be- 
longing to the great tradition of American busi- 
ness. The revelation came principally through the 
National Broadcasting Company's series entitled 
"Music Is My Hobby," in which a number of 
these men, some manufacturers, a lawyer, an elec- 
trical engineer and men of other professions, each 
gave a musical performance some of them in 
groups which, though not up to Kreisler, Pacler- 
ewski or Tibbett, was miles ahead of the general 
run of commercially sponsored programs that the 
really hard-headed business men choose. 

Of course, many of us have for a long time 
known this about some bankers, lawyers and 
prominent people of other professions. It was a 
very successful young lawyer who said after an 
all-too-short three hours of string quartet playing, 
"It's a great pity we can't have more time for 
these really important things." But when the 
musical fervor and skill of these men are aired 
for a few minutes before the millions of listeners- 
in, we have a first-class revelation and one that 
should be a strong influence for interesting more 
people in making music a hobby. 

184 



This is not all. The Secretary of the Treasury, 
chief director over the destiny of our banks and 
great industries, is also a musician ! When a man 
in his position is given an honorary degree, one 
would expect it to be an LL.D., but no : Syracuse 
University, though praising him as a banker and 
a Secretary of the Treasury, gave him a Mus. D. 
instead. Mr. Woodin, long a lover and player of 
music, lately become a distinguished composer, is 
now a Doctor of Music. 

We are very much interested in what Dr. 
Woodin said on that occasion, as it was reported 
in the New York Herald Tribune. "Did you ever 
walk by a cemetery at night when a boy?" he 
asked. "You know you couldn't help whistling 
to assure yourself everything was all right. 
Whistling kept your spirits up. Just now music 
and music study are practical needs of every man. 
Precisely as the boy whistles instinctively to keep 
up his courage, so are we all crying for some- 
thing to bring about confidence and to displace the 
absurd hysteria of fear which in the last few 
years has made men and women avoid the great 
human responsibilities which these dynamic times 
demand. Vibrations of fine music put a myster- 
ious initiative, resolution and courage into the 
normal individual." 

President Roosevelt had something to say as 
to this also. "As I was leaving the President's 
room," reported Dr. Woodin, "he said : 'Will, 
you can tell them for me that when I get in 
trouble I always whistle a tune.' ''' 

When one remembers the millions of unem- 
ployed and their dependents, and the many other 



HIDDEN WEALTH REVEALED BY BANKERS 



185 



people who are painfully insecure, these state- 
ments are forcible enough. But it is not only be- 
cause it can inspire courage that music is a prac- 
tical need or a hobby. Dr. Woodin went straight 
up the recreation leader's alley when he said : "It 
has been my experience in business life that after 
a very strenuous day beautiful music. The effect 
can be described only as a kind of psychological 
bath. I feel cleansed mentally, and my mind is 
enormously rested." And he might have, and 
perhaps did, go on to say that above all, music 
well chosen and used for its own sweet sake, is as 
rich a means of happiness as exists in the world, 
and yet it can be and should be within the reach 
of everyone, no matter how poor he or she 
may be. 

What Recreation Executives Can Do 

These revelations of recreational musical in- 
terests should be very stimulating. With a few 
glowing exceptions the men and women in charge 
of public recreation in our communities have 
hardly commenced to realize the full human value 
of the musical resources of people. Many have 
neglected them entirely. This has usually been 
because of modesty due to lack of musical skill 
on the part of the recreation executive; and now 
the lack may be due also to what seem insufficient 
funds and staff workers amidst increased de- 
mands for service of other kinds. But not enough 
has been made of the executive's power of sug- 
gestion and organization. In many a community 
he could be more effective than any local musician 
could be in bringing together representative peo- 
ple who are interested in music and who are cap- 
able of planning and carrying out valuable musi- 
cal developments in the community. If this group, 
which could be known as the civic music com- 
mittee, continued to need and desire his vision 
and sustaining force he might act as its secretary 
or merely as one -of its members. And he could 
hardly devote to better advantage what little time 
he would have to give for 
the purpose. Singing and 
the provision of concerts 
can be among the least ex- 
pensive of all recreational 
activities, and yet they can 
enlist large numbers of peo- 
ple. Maintenance of an or- 
chestra, band or smaller in- 
strumental groups, can also 
be inexpensive if the play- 



ers own the instruments and there -is music to be 
loaned, as there is in some places. Recreation 
executives who are not especially trained in music 
in Irvington and Bloomfield, New Jersey, in 
Reading and York, Pennsylvania, in Lansing, 
Cleveland, Chicago and elsewhere, are proving 
the force of good recreational leadership even in 
a field in which they are not at all expert. Inci- 
dentally, no other sort of activity can win more 
sympathetic interest in the community's recrea- 
tion program as a whole. 

The truth is that in every city and town there 
are people who know that they find great pleasure 
in singing, playing or listening to music, and a 
great many others who have not yet realized how 
rich they are in this respect. For some of the peo- 
ple in these two groups music is, or could readily 
be, a hobby to be ridden into the happy hills of 
excellence ; and for many others it can be a fre- 
quent means of thorough-going recreation even 
on the plains, so to speak. 

We want to suggest one way of giving attrac- 
tive opportunity to both the hobby riders and the 
mere strollers in music. It has been tried re- 
cently in Buffalo, Scranton and Reading. In each 
of these three cities there have been free evenings 
of music that have been at least as inspiring 
as Dr. W'oodin would have music be for every- 
one these days. The evening is divided between 
brief performances by trained groups and gen- 
eral singing by the audience, all taking place in a 
school building, a church or some other center 
for the neighborhood or community. The special 
groups may be any of the following: 

A church choir or a combination of choirs. 

A secular chorus or small vocal group. 

Foreign language folk singers, players or danc- 
ers or all three sorts preferably in native 
costumes. 

A school singing, playing or dancing group. 

A community or neighborhood band, orchestra 
or chamber music group. 

A dramatic group. 



The organization, training and stimulation 
of local leadership In the fields of music, 
of dramatics, of forenslcs, of arts and crafts, 
are a matter of the profoundest spiritual 
and social concern to the commonwealth. 
More and more people are realizing that 
the real springs of human happiness are 
found not in material possessions gained, 
but in the social and spiritual values enjoy- 
ed." Arnold Bennett Hall in The Library 
Journal, May 15. 



Songs for General Singing 
The general singing 
should be mainly or en- 
tirely of good, lasting songs. 
The really music-loving 
and socially competent 
leader has no need to use 
any other sort. The fol- 
lowing list shows the great 



186 



HIDDEN WEALTH REVEALED BY BANKERS 



variety of feelings, ideas and musical styles exist- 
ing among such songs : 

Home on the Range. 
*Come to the Fair. 
*Water Boy 

Donkey Riding 

Away for Rio. 
*My Hero 

The Keel Row. 

Old Folks At Home. 

O Susanna. 

Other Stephen Foster Songs. 
*On the Road to Mandalay. 

Funiculi, Funicula (A Merry Life). 

Reuben and Rachel (sung as a round). 

Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes. 

Morning Comes Early. 

Billy Boy. 

Londonderry Air. 

Prayer of Thanksgiving. 

Alouette. 

O Sole Mio (My Sunshine). 
*The Bells of St. Mary's. 

The Keeper. 

Swing Low, Sweet Chariot. 

Annie Laurie. 

Alleluia. 

Little David, Play on Yo' Harp. 

On, Roll On, My Ball I Roll On. 

Juanita. 

Rosa. 

Carry Me Back to Old Virginny. 

Who Did? 

Believe Me, If All Those Endearing Young Charms. 
*Roamin' in the Gloamin'. 

Volga Boatmen's Song. 
*When Good Fellows Get Together. 

Dixie 

Were You There? 

Tiritomba. 

Loch Lomond. 

Jacob's Ladder. 

Dogie Song. 

Auld Lang Syne. 

Cape Cod Chantey. 

John Peel. 

O No, John 

All Through the Night. 

Santa Lucia. 

Tit-Willow (from "The Mikado"). 

Down in the Valley. 

Are You Sleeping? 

Three Blind Mice. 

Other Rounds. 

A-roving. 

Good-Night, Ladies. 

America, the Beautiful. 

It may be objected at once that many of these 
songs are not generally familiar. But each one 
has been proved successful and very easily learned 
by all sorts of groups. The learning of songs as 
simple and varied as these is itself very enjoyable, 
and it can keep a group coming again and again 
to sing. Without some such sort of progress in 
the singing, most people are soon weary of com- 
ing. There is not space here to say where and at 
what cost the music of each song can be obtained. 
The words of most of them are in the Commun- 
ity Songs leaflet issued by the National Recrea- 



* Published separately in sheet music. 



tion Association, and the sources of the music are 
indicated therein. Preparations are now being 
made to publish the music of the less familiar 
songs in a new, inexpensive book. 

The singing should appeal as much as possible 
to the really musical natures of people. The first 
requisite is wholeheartedness, the play spirit, the 
generous giving of the whole self to the singing ; 
the songs must therefore appeal to spontaneous 
interests in the people. There can be no forcing 
of attention. But every person with any feelings 
and brains at all has a wider range of interest 
than is commonly appealed to in community sing- 
ing. The above list includes songs of the sea, 
mountain, field and sky, of love, comradeship, 
reverence, humor, courage, of large-motioned 
work, hunting, hiking, paddling and dancing, of 
love of home and country, and all of them full of 
vitality and enthusiasm. Such is life as we like to 
live it! The best fun of all is when the singing 
is, even if only for a moment, beautiful ; when 
the group have together "struck twelve." In no 
other art or craft can the thrill of beauty be so 
easily and fully gained, even by unskilled people. 
The song leader should, of course, be very fa- 
miliar with each song, and be possessed of other 
good traits and abilities. An institute in leader 
training can do wonders. 

The special groups that are to perform without 
charge at these gatherings may be drawn not only 
from the churches, schools and the community at 
large, but also from industrial and commercial 
establishments, clubs, settlements, community 
centers, evening schools and even from homes. 
They may be already known to the person or per- 
sons charged with securing them, or they may be 
discovered through a general appeal or a simple 
kind of survey. A survey could be made primarily 
in order to publish to the community, through 
newspapers or bulletin boards, a list of the groups 
in which new members would be welcome, and 
information as to where and when each group re- 
hearses and what its entrance requirements are. 
In the process of this survey each group should 
be heard, even if only as a courtesy, by someone 
capable of judging, incidentally, as to whether it 
performs well enough to appear in one of the 
"evenings of music." 

While these groups are being generous in giv- 
ing their services, many of them will be much 
benefited by the incentive of having a good audi- 
ence. Some groups now only half-hearted might 
(Continued on page 205) 



A Progressive Contest Party 



Compiled by ROBERT K. MURRAY 

National Recreation Association 



When funds for game supplies are 
low, just look around the kitchen 
and in the family sewing basket! 



THIS PARTY is planned for sixty players. There 
are fifteen games so that four individuals 
will play together at one time. The equip- 
ment for the games is placed around the room 
or in adjoining rooms in such a way that players 
can progress in order without difficulty or con- 
fusion. Three minutes are allotted for each game, 
with a one-minute interval between games to al- 
low the players to add up their scores, proceed 
to the next activity and introduce themselves to 
the people with whom they are to play. In pro- 
gressing, two of the players in each group move 
forward to the game of the next higher number, 
the other half to the game of the next lower 
number. For -example, two of the people playing 
the fourth game move to the fifth, the other two 
. to the third. If the entire group should progress 
in the same direction, each person would play 
only with the three other people with whom he 
started. This would certainly not result in the 
desired sociability. In the system suggested here, 
each person will play with half the people present 
by the time all the games have been played. To 
facilitate the mechanics, of progression, score 
cards may be made of two colors, pink for those 
going to the games of the next higher number, 
blue for those who are to proceed always to the 
game of the next lower number. 

The Procedure 

As the players arrive, 
they are given their score 
cards containing the num- 
bers of the games to be 
played and a space for the 
score made in each game. 
The cards should also have 
a place for the name of the 
contestant and the number 
of the game at which he is 



At just this time when all of us are seeking 
the greatest amount of enjoyment with the 
least possible expenditure of money, the 
utilization of materials in our homes is a 
consideration. In the program offered here 
ideas are suggested for making a number 
of simple games from materials to be found 
about the home, and for incorporating them 
into a progressive contest party which will 
entertain a large group of people in ap- 
proximately any type of space. 



to start. The progression the player is to make, 
whether up or down, is indicated, of course, by 
the color. At a signal, each player goes to his 
first game. Typewritten instructions for each of 
the games are given on the piece of cardboard 
placed conspicuously with the equipment for each 
game. This eliminates the necessity for explain- 
ing all the games before the party starts or ex- 
plaining the games to each group before they be- 
gin. A second signal starts the play. The players 
try to make as many points as possible during the 
three minutes allotted each game. If necessary, 
the game is played over and over. At the end of 
this period, the signal is given and the players 
add up their scores and progress in the direction 
indicated on their card. This continues until each 
of the players present has played all of the games. 
At the close of the playing period scores are 
added and a prize awarded to the young man and 
the young women scoring the highest number of 
points. 

Suggested Activities 

The following games may be made from ma- 
terials found around the house : 

Games of Ring Toss 

(a) In the bottom of a cardboard carton stick 
four or five clothespins. From a distance of 10 
feet try to ring these 
clothespins with fruit jar 
rubbers. Twenty-five 
points are given for each 
ringer. 

(b) Coil a piece of old 
rubber hose about 14 inches 
long into a ring and tape 
the two ends securely. Turn 
a chair on its back with 
legs pointing toward the 

187 




A PROGRESSIVE CONTEST PARTY 





\ 50. / 




No, I 




No. 3 





players. From a distance of 15 feet the players 
toss the ring over the legs of the chair. Twenty- 
five points are given for each ringer. 

Disk Roll Games 

For this game use anything circular except a 
ball lids of pans, round hot pads used on the 
table for hot dishes, or caster cups in which the 
legs of tables are set. The object of the game is 
to roll these disks into a box which has been 
slotted to allow the passage of the rolling disks. 
If hot plate pads or pan covers are used, the roll- 
ing line should be 6 feet from the box. Caster 
cups being bevelled will not roll straight, and for 
this reason should be rolled from a distance of 
not more than 3^ or 4 feet. Players must roll, 
not throw the disks into the box. 

Ball Bouncing Games 

While most people can toss an article into a 
receptacle, to bounce it in is an entirely different 
matter. Several different types of balls and re- 
ceptacles may be used in this activity. 

(a) A child's rubber ball may be bounced from 
a distance of 4 feet into a waste basket placed on 
a chair. 

(6) Three small jack balls may be bounced 
from a distance of 3 feet into a muffin pan. The 
six cups in the pan should be numbered to indi- 
cate the scores 50, 25, 15, 10, 5, and I. 

(c) From a distance of 4 feet a jack ball may 
be bounced into an open upright umbrella. Twen- 
ty-five points will be scored each time the ball re- 
mains inside the umbrella. The ball will usually 
strike on the side of the umbrella and continue 
rolling out the other side. 

(d) A tennis ball may be bounced from a dis- 
tance of 5 feet into an umbrella stand. 

Games Involving Rolling or Tossing 

(a) From a distance of 12 to 15 feet roll three 
balls of different degrees of resiliency in such a 
way as to make them stop in a barrel hoop placed 



on the floor. Twenty-five points are scored for 
each successful attempt. 

(6) Roll either hard boiled eggs or wooden 
darning eggs across the table so that they will 
stop within a cardboard ring having a diameter of 
not less than 6 inches. 

(c) Using a calendar with relatively large 
numbers on it, toss three milk bottle tops from a 
distance of 8 feet so that they will rest on the 
numbers of the calendar. If the disk touches two 
of the numbers, the larger number may be taken 
in scoring. 

Ten Pins 

An excellent game of small ten pins may be 
played by substituting golf tees for the ten pins, 
setting them up in triangular form exactly as in 
a large game of ten pins. From a distance of 8 
inches four small buttons are snapped as in tid- 
dle-de-winks in an effort to knock down as many 
of the golf tees as possible. Twenty-five points 
are scored for each tee knocked down. 

Shuffle Board 

For a different game of shuffle board draw a 
diagram on the floor 5 feet long and 3 feet wide. 
(See diagram No. i). Equipment consists of a 
broom handle and four hot plates. From a dis- 
tance of 12 to 15 feet shove the hot plates with 
the broom handle one at a time into the scoring 
area. The largest number each plate touches is 
the one counted in scoring. 

A small game of shuffle board may be played 
by using checkers instead of hot plates. Draw on 
a bridge table a triangular diagram. (See diagram 
No. 2.) Snap the checkers with the thumb and 
first finger, sliding them across the table into the 
scoring area. 

Quoits 

A simple game of quoits may be played by us- 
ing rubber heels or flat rubber disks. Draw three 
concentric circles numbering them as in diagram 
(Continued on page 205) 



Nature 
Activities 
at a 
Boys' Camp 




A County camp seeks 
for its boys the val- 
ues which come from 
contact with Nature. 



ON A PENINSULA extending 
into the east side of the 
Hudson River, about 
thirty miles from New York 
City, is the Westchester County 
. Summer Camp. Looking east from camp across 
Croton Bay, one can see the City of Ossining 
nestled between the rugged hills of Westchester, 
while to the west is the Hudson hemmed in by the 
picturesque Palisades. This camp is unique in 
that it is conducted by Westchester County as a 
health camp for underprivileged children on the 
principle that it is more desirable to keep children 
healthy, both physically and mentally, than it is 
to repair damaged bodies or minds. 

In the summer of 1932 four nature specialists 
were assigned to the nature department of the 
camp. These counselors were selected because of 
special interests or training in some of the various 
phases of nature work. 

The first days at camp were spent in exploring 
the interests and aptitudes of both the children 
and counselors. By the end of the first week the 
work was divided into various projects, each 
nature man being responsible for his chosen sub- 
jects. With this division of labor the nature de- 
partment made rapid progress. At our daily con- 
ferences we exchanged ideas, with the result that 
each project although in charge of one worker, 
represented the ideas and planning of the entire 
department. 

Our aim was briefly stated by Miss Louise P. 
Blackham, camp director, as that of trying to de- 
velop the "seeing and understanding eye" in as 
many boys as possible. We tried to arouse or 
create interest and to develop habits of observ- 
ing things as well as hobbies rather than to teach 
the boys a way to recognize a definite number of 



By J. D. READ 

Nature Director 

Westchester County Recreation Camp 



snakes, trees or flowers. We 
believed that if we could create 
or intensify a desire to know 
the plants, animals or natural 
phenomena, the boys would 
continue to follow up this interest after leaving 
camp. If, on the other hand, in order to secure a 
badge the boys were required to memorize in a 
parrot-like way a set number of facts, their in- 
terest in nature would be over when their goal 
had been attained. 

We felt that the nature department to be ef- 
ficient must recognize the following objectives in 
building a program : 

1 i ) It must be interesting enough to draw and 
hold the boys. 

(2) It must be instructive, giving some useful, 
authentic information or explaining laws govern- 
ing life. 

(3) It must be social, developing habits of de- 
sirable conduct towards animal and plant life. 

(4) It must be practical enough to create hob- 
bies or interests which will carry over into the 
boy's life after camp closes. 

(5) It must be sufficiently inspirational to lift 
the boys into a world filled with living, moving, 
feeling animals and plants. 

(6) It must be esthetic enough to open the 
eyes of the boys to the beauties of nature. 

(7) It must be broad and varied enough to 
challenge the brightest boy and yet simple enough 
to reach the boy who knows little about nature. 

The Program 

In following the interests of the boys we de- 
voted most of our time to the following : Bird, 
tree and exploration trips, trips to the ponds for 
insects and turtles, insect hunts and flower games, 

189 



190 



NATURE ACTIVITIES AT A BOYS' CAMP 



and the construction of the nature trail, turtle 
pool, bird bath and sun dial, and the making of a 
relief map of the camp grounds. 

Our projects and daily programs were based 
upon the interests of the boys, the training and 
experience of the counselors, the natural environ- 
ments in which we lived, and the weather. 

Our tasks were specialized. C. R. DeSola had 
charge of our work shop which served as a 
changing museum and vivarium. All of the dis- 
coveries of the boys were labeled and placed 
where they could be seen and examined at leisure 
for a few days and were then released. By plac- 
ing close to the exhibits juvenile nature books 
dealing with the specimens, many boys caught the 
reading habit. Several turtle hunts were organ- 
ized by Mr. DeSola who was an authority on 
reptile, fish and amphibian life. At camp fire pro- 
grams his stories of strange animals never failed 
to hold the attention of the group. 

L. W. Turrell was a friend of all the birds. 
The first weeks in camp were spent in observing 
over forty-eight different species on the Point, as 
well as watching six different . 
broods rear their young. Sev- 
eral stone gathering expedi- 
tions were held and a chart of 



An exhibit of this type helps greatly 
in teaching boys facts about Geology. 



the most common birds on the nature trail was 
made under Mr. Turrell's direction. A group of 
older boys under his guidance made a large relief 
map of the camp and constructed a sun dial. 

Our "chief," F. D. Weston, was a master of 
Indian craft, and the boys spent many enjoyable 
afternoons listening to stories and folk lore of 
the Indians. Several cabins were decorated with 
tomahawks, bows and arrows, and clay pipes 
made under his direction. He was a great attrac- 
tion at our camp fires as he always dressed in his 
native clothes. Two busy days were spent in mak- 
ing a life size Indian village with teepees and 
fires for a glorious program of Indian life. 

My particular responsibility was the coordinat- 
ing of the program. \Ye went on many tree hikes 
observing the color, the general contour, the bark 
and leaves of thirty species. With the younger 
children flower games were very popular. Insects 
always aroused their curiosity, and many boys 
started to make collections of common field varie- 
ties for rainy day study. During nesting time the 
boys observed the family life of birds, and we 
tried in this way to arouse 
the protective instinct of all 
the boys. A few star gazing 
trips were made and several 



PROPORTION-ELEMENTS 
IN EARTH'S CRUST 




Courtesy Montclair, JV. ],. Board of Education 



NATURE ACTIVITIES AT A BOYS' CAMP 



191 



interesting exploration trips were conducted. 
Our nature trail was enlarged and improved 
by the boys who discovered a fern nook and con- 
structed a turtle pool out of native material. At 
camp fire stories about local animals were told. 
As every boy was free to select what he wanted 
to do, it was necessary for us to arrange our 
morning trips so that we would not duplicate the 
work that day. In the mornings we concentrated 
on exploring, heavy construction work, and other 
activities involving physical labor. In the after- 
noon we carried on sketching, told animal or 
plant stories, watched birds, took short hikes, and 
did light work on projects. One glorious evening 
we went on an evening stroll. About fifty boys 
enjoyed the night songs of birds and insects, and 
watched the sun sink- 
ing behind the Palisade 
hills. 

Our groups number- 
ed from sixteen to 
eighty. At times we 
would have three or 
four projects going at 
one time. We tried to 
keep the ratio of one 
counselor to every 
thirty boys on our 
trips. We also tried 
successfully the experi- 
ment of having the 
boys and girls meet on 
one trip to compare 
results. 

On rainy days we did 
block leaf printing, spatter 

prints, sketched and painted drawings of insects 
collected on field trips, and attempted some land- 
scape sketches. When it rained and was warm 
enough we went on rainy day hikes which were 
very popular. 

On the overnight hikes a nature specialist was 
always present. New plants and animals were 
observed along the way. Over the smoking em- 
bers of the evening fire many stories were told. 

A Few Special Activities 
Turtle Hunts. Boys are always interested in a 
hunt or chase. An announcement of a turtle hunt 
the day before would bring out about eighty boys. 
Some of the boys would wade into the swamps 
up to their knees and then swim after the turtles 
Some would catch larvae of insects in wire strain- 




Boys at camp can tell 
loid container is used 



ers at the edge of the pools, while others would 
watch for insects on the swamp flowers. In all 
our projects the boys' interest in whatever hap- 
pened to present itself was considered of para- 
mount importance. Sometimes a bit of show- 
manship added to the trip by roundabout ways 
through tall cat-tails where they imagine possible 
danger lurks. On trips such as this the boys must 
be counted and kept in one group. It is impor- 
tant, too, to guard against poison ivy. 

The Nature Trail. An ideal trail must be lo- 
cated close to camp where many can help make it 
and all may use it. After the beginning of the 
trail is determined the boys should be allowed to 
work out their own ideas as to where the trail 
should go and how it should be beautified. They 

can label the trees and 
plants with the leaders' 
assistance. It was ex- 
tremely interesting to 
see how diligently our 
boys worked on the 
trail and h o w they 
watched it every day 
to keep it in good 
shape. There were 
always plenty of guides 
to show visitors what 
had been accomplished. 

The Turtle Pool 

After the suggestion 

was given the boys 
planned the shape of 
the pool and the mate- 
rials to use and did most of 
the work. Over sixty boys 

helped complete this project. The bricks came 
from the beach and with their gathering came the 
story of brick making, as well as the early his- 
tory of the Point. In exploring the sharp sand 
for the mortar we brought in the story of the 
glaciers and the geology of the Point. While the 
boys were digging the pool a harvest fly nymph 
was unearthed. On this discovery was hung the 
life cycle of the harvest fly as well as the seven- 
teen year cicada. The boys learned how to mix 
and apply cement. Later they found two logs 
with which they made a rustic bench overlooking 
the pool and the river. The project was then 
beautified by planting ferns around one side of 
the pool. Many other useful and interesting ideas 
presented themselves to the boys as they rested in 
the cool shade or worked on the pool. It was the 



you that this cellu- 
to enclose insects. 



192 



NATURE ACTIVITIES AT A BOYS' CAMP 



incidental learning caught from building the pool 
rather than the pool itself which made this a 
valuable project. 

Council Fires. The nature department had 
charge of four council fire programs. Indian 
stories, tales of strange animals, as well as in- 
teresting stories of the animals about them, were 
told and the boys were led in singing. Judging by 
the perfect conduct of the group, the solemn 
singing of "taps" and the silent departure for 
camp, it was evident the boys had been greatly 
impressed. They heard night melodies, saw the 
beautiful sunsets, and felt that something great 
was all about them. They asked for many camp 
fires. 

Lessons From Camp Life 

During the season many remarks of the boys 
told us that our program was getting "inside" 
them and developing better habits and attitudes. 
During the building of the turtle pool I would 
hear the following : "Gee, when I get home I am 
going to build a pond for frogs and fish." "I can 
do that, too, for we have lots of old brick." "Me 
and Pete are going to make a trail in the woods 
back of our house." "Where can I get a net to 
catch insects?" "Say, Doc, what holds the stars 
up?" 

We also heard such remarks as these: "Doc, 
this is the first time I have had a chance to know 
real men." "Doc, please take us on another over- 
night hike. We never slept out before we came 
to camp." "I used to be afraid in the dark before 
I came here, but here nothing hurts you." "Gee, 
Doc, I know the fellow that threw trash on the 
nature trail. I made him pick it up." "Doc, we 
had to make Freddy take a bath. He was awfully 
dirty.'' "Say, Doc, when you were gone the 
counselor of the day said we had the quietest 
cabin on the grounds." 

One of the outstanding characteristics of camp 
last season was the close contact between the 
counselors and the boys, which gave many of the 
boys their first opportunity to catch the manly 
qualities which boys need so badly, for the most 
valuable lessons in life are "caught" rather than 
taught. Attitudes, emotional standards and habits 
of cleanliness and conduct are copied from their 
heroes more effectively than they are taught by 
parents, teachers or counselors. 

A valuable experience gained in camp was that 
of acquiring the art of living a group life away 
from their parents or guardians. Boys who were 



somewhat talkative and abusive the first days in 
camp soon learned by sad experience that it is not 
always wise to express themselves as they like 
Certain names cannot be called and certain cus- 
toms must be obeyed They also learned cooper- 
ation by doing their daily camp chores. They soon 
became group conscious, willing to look after the 
other fellow as well as themselves. Another valu- 
able experience that many boys enjoyed last sum- 
mer was that of finding themselves. For the first 
time many of them had the opportunity to choose 
what they wanted to do with their time in camp. 
This enabled them not only to discover what ac- 
tivities gave them the most pleasure but also to 
develop confidence in themselves and the ability 
to make more intelligent judgments concerning 
their own welfare. 

Through the camp program many boys learned 
the greatest lesson in life, that of living together 
happily. We do not believe in teaching nature, 
but we do believe that one of the best ways of 
teaching boys to appreciate themselves and society 
is to make them understand how law and order 
are established in nature where man is not 
present. This can be brought about only by the 
boys' close contact with something in nature that 
interests him. Thus we believe in the free choice 
and play way approach to nature for lasting 
results. 



The camper must : 

Be cheerful at all times. 

Be fair and square in all the work and play of 
camp; in his relationships with other campers 
and counselors. 

Be cooperative ; willing to show less experienced 
campers how to do things ; anxious to learn 
from more experienced campers ; cheerfully 
willing to do things beyond his regular duties. 

Be dependable ; when given responsibility be sure 
to carry it out to the best of his ability without 
being reminded by counselors or others. 

Strive to take advantage of the opportunities of- 
fered by this form of camp life for broadening 
his own life. 

Think up new ideas and work out plans for carry- 
ing them out. 

Be a friend whose companionship helps other 
campers become better men. 

Be one who shows by his actions that he has 
grown in the above things during his season in 
camp. 
From Camp Life, Summer issue, 1933. 



The Need for Recreation 



in 



Times of Depression 



THERE is NOT only a 
need for recreation 
in times of depres- 
sion, but recreation is a 

necessity to a wholesome mode of living in nor- 
mal times. We find ourselves at the present time 
in what is well known to be a depression. There 
is no doubt about there being maladjustments in 
our economic and social order. The effects of 
them have spread rapidly, wider and deeper, 
until almost every phase of society has been 
touched. It is not a local condition it is world 
wide. We are close to the point where the spirit 
of our people is in danger of being broken. This 
must not happen. Until conditions have righted 
themselves, there is much that can be done to 
keep up the spirit of the people. 

Play is an important factor in keeping our 
spirit aglow. For the many who have prospered 
temporarily, who have now lost their possessions 
and are out of work, the depression has a deep 
and significant meaning because they cannot sup- 
ply the needs of normal living. What is there 
for them to do? The need of play and recrea- 
tion is of paramount importance to them. Those 
who are in more fortunate circumstances (at 
least for the moment) must help to carry the 
burden. They too are not at ease. There is the 
uncertainty of their jobs and the thought of loss 



Our first obligation is to- 
ward OUT children who are 
in no way responsible for 
the depression. Their un- 
quenchable thirst for play 
is as dominant as ever. 



By LLOYD BURGESS SHARP, Ph. D. 

Chicago, Illinois 



of home and savings. 
While the economic ad- 
justments are being made, 
the daily routine of liv- 
ing continues. People have to be fed, clothed, and 
housed, and their wants and feelings adminis- 
tered to. How to provide for their leisure time 
becomes an increasingly important problem. We 
then realize the importance of the need for play 
and recreation in our society. We find many 
people who are now recreationally lost because 
they have become accustomed to a form of rec- 
reation too expensive to continue under present 
circumstances. They need help and guidance in 
adjusting their recreational life as much as they 
do for their economic life. This shift of play life 
from the expensive and somewhat artificial to 
the simple has infinitely richer values for all. 

Experience Has Taught Us 

During the period of the war we learned a 
great deal about the need for recreation. That 
was another period of depression. It was a period 
of anxiety, of grave concern for our very exis- 
tence. Our security was at stake and there were 
hardships and distressing situations at home and 
abroad. Every effort was made to get our coun- 
try to come to the full realization that its people 
had to stand together for their protection and 




193 



194 



THE NEED FOR RECREATION IN TIMES OF DEPRESSION 



security. In the main, cooperation in all indus- 
tries was easy. Production was greatly stimulated 
to supply the needs of our common objective. 
Money was easily raised to meet expenses. The 
country introduced economy measures in every 
way meat conservation, sugar conservation, and 
the conservation of clothing. All were driving 
toward the goal of victory. People willingly made 
individual sacrifices, went without their pleasures, 
and gave generously to their neighbors and to 
people whom they did not know for the sake of 
preserving the social order. Everyone recognized 
the need of keeping our service men in the very 
best of condition. It was the responsibility of the 
community to see that the proper recreational fa- 
cilities were provided for the men when off duty. 
Millions of dollars were raised to supply these 
recreational needs. The government maintained 
extensive recreational activities as a regular part 
of the life of the soldier. It was essential to keep 
the spirit of the service men at the highest point, 
and everyone recognized the importance of this 
and was willing to give generously to provide 
for it. 

It is interesting to note that in those exceed- 
ingly difficult and strenuous times there was no 
decrease in the recreational facilities for the com- 
munity at large, but a decided increase. It is true, 
however, as we look upon it now, that a great 
many of these increased recreational facilities 
were of a very expensive sort. Nevertheless the 
community did realize the need of recreation as 
never before. Much of it has lasted and expanded. 
Production in industry increased at a great 
rate. It was found under pressure that it was 
easy to do things on a large scale. People formed 
the habit of rush and speed and the pace of liv- 
ing became fast. It is taking considerable time to 
adjust to more normal conditions. We are now 
in the slowing up process. We are beginning to 
realize that it will be necessary to slow down. 
The depression is calling this to our attention 
very forcibly. The tension is being released from 
many strained situations, and in all it is a period 
of adjustment to a new order of living. We are 
seeing new values in life. We are seeing that the 
real values are not so much in material things as 
in our appreciation of the efforts of others, in 
serving others, and in living a happy and useful 
life as we go along. 

What Play Does 

We need to stop and play more. Friendships 



are enriched and understanding is more mean- 
ingful when people play together. Play of this 
sort is not expensive. We do not need to depend 
so much upon the commercial type of recreation. 
There is much that can be done without cost. We 
need to play just for the fun of it. There is a 
release of spiritual values through play, and it is 
almost needless to mention the untold health 
values. They come when play is made a regular 
part of our daily life in the out-of-doors, hiking 
and tramping, skating, running, and in a wide 
range of activities. 

Our first obligation, however, is toward our 
children. They are in no way responsible for a 
depression and do not understand the meaning 
of it. Their unquenchable thirst for play is as 
dominant as ever. Play is necessary for proper 
growth of the child. We have no more right to 
thwart or starve them of their play than we have 
to take food from them. We must see to it that 
our children have, in these times, as well as the 
proper food the proper recreational facilities and 
leadership. The play life is the educational life 
of the child and our future society depends upon 
our children of today. If the children form 
proper habits in play and make right use of their 
play time, many problems confronting our com- 
munity will be solved. The records of the crim- 
inal courts and juvenile delinquency organiza- 
tions give us many convincing facts to support 
these contentions. 

We need to increase the facilities of our recre- 
ation clubs for boys and girls and to expand the 
recreational opportunities in the settlement and 
neighborhood houses. We need to increase our 
whole program of leisure time activities for our 
young people as we have never increased it be- 
fore. It does not take a great deal of money to 
carry out a recreational program but it does take 
the time of people who see the importance of it 
and who can help in developing leaders and or- 
ganizing our facilities to provide recreation for 
all. It is almost equal to a war emergency and 
united effort and cooperation are needed to make 
the "no man's land" of the depression a play field 
where a change of attitude and spirit can be made 
even though jobs may not be at hand at the 
moment. Money is not as necessary as leadership 
and help in promoting recreational activities. 

We need to understand better the attitude of 
our young people if we are to be effective in pro- 
viding the right kind of play life for them. It 
isn't so much that the young people are different 



THE NEED FOR RECREATION IN TIMES OF DEPRESSION 



195 



and out of gear with life, but it is more that we 
adults are out of step and do not keep pace with 
them. We can not understand our children and 
young people unless we play with them. There 
is a common and sympathetic understanding 
when people enjoy play experiences together. We 
cannot be make-believe players. We must actu- 
ally have the spirit of play and share it with our 
children. 

Parents often play generously and lovingly 
with little tots. They can handle and fondle them 
like small pets. It is not difficult to amuse small 
children, but later on the problem becomes more 
complicated and adults seldom make the full ad- 
justment. The youngsters have become "play- 
wise" and unless the adult progresses in his forms 
of play along with the child, there is not a com- 
mon play spirit and the real values of play are 
lost. What I have in mind especially is the very 
great need for the revival of the play spirit in our 
homes the entire family playing together. When- 
ever a family plays together habitually rather than 
accidently, you can count on it that it is a strong 
unit of society and a happy group of people. 

Home Play Vital 

What is the play program for a home? Are 
there times when your family goes on a "bat" 
together? Do you play games at home? Do you 
have facilities in your backyard for family play? 
If you golf, do you golf together, or is the play 
life of the family divided ? 

At this particular season of the year our 
thoughts turn toward the program for the sum- 
mer, and what we might do even though times 
are difficult to make this summer as enjoyable as 
possible. Last summer I saw a family of six 
neatly tucked away in the beautiful Adirondack 
Mountains. Their car was equipped for camping 
purposes. With tent pitched, campfire burning 
coffee pot on the fire and every evidence that the 
father had prepared a good meal, this family, 
clad in bathing suits, was having a grand time. 
They had picked a beauty spot in this mountain 
region that had never been camped on before. 
There are millions of beauty spots in this country 
beckoning to families to come and camp on them 
this summer. It costs very little to live out in the 
open, and it is fun to do it. 

We need a revival of play spirit in the home 
and in our community and especially among 
adults. Right now is a good time to make a start. 



If a trip is impossible, there is much that can be 
done in your own backyard. Equip it with a fire- 
place and 'Cook your meals over the open fire ; 
provide recreational facilities suitable to that 
yard ; visit with friends and neighbors ; take time 
to sit and talk. The country side is full of in- 
teresting trails. Hiking is one of the most bene- 
ficial activities we have. If your shoes wear out, 
give the bare feet a chance to touch earth ; it will 
be good for them. Fix up your fishing pole 
and line. It does not need to be a fancy one. 
Some of the biggest fish have been caught on a 
willow stick and a hook with a screw for a 
sinker. Do you swim? This summer is an ex- 
cellent time to learn the exhilarating effect of 
swimming. The ability to swim is recognized now 
as almost a necessity, and above all it is a health- 
ful and enjoyable form of recreation. ' Golf is 
within the reach of most people now. It is a fine 
game and one that gives you a thrill when the 
feeling of control has been accomplished. 

In this time of unemployment and depression, 
recreation is an important brace to the lowered 
spirit of our communities. It can help change the 
point of view of people. It can change an indi- 
vidual and a group from gloom to joy. Let us 
make the play spirit of our home and our com- 
munity contagious and the effects will be felt 
throughout the country. 



"We cannot enjoy life until there is a common 
sense of well-being. The time is coming when 
the sort of leisure in which we are not con- 
strained but free to choose our operations will be 
the norm of social life. The most significant fact 
in civilization is to become that part of life in 
which a man is active according to his own choice. 
Up to now we have made a fetish of efficiency, 
and the sacred ideas of American civilization have 
been that we must work, do, accomplish things, 
and be paid in proportion. This situation has poi- 
soned our leisure. We have been too tired for 
creative pleasures. Life has been so filled with 
details of sacred duty of work that we have no 
time for leisure. ... I am perfectly certain that 
any measure of work by what is paid for it is 
vicious. The relationship between work and re- 
ward has degraded our conception of work and 
leisure alike. The only thing that has relieved us 
has been our hobbies." Vida D. Scudder, at the 
Alumnae Conference on Leisure, held at Welles- 
ley College, April, 1933. 



School 

ardens 
in 

Detroit 




The school gardens of 
Detroit have long been 
an important part of 
the recreation program 



By MARY H 

Supervisor 

Department 
Detroit, 



SINCE THE inauguration of 
the Department of Rec- 
reation in Detroit, garden- 
ing has been conducted as one 
of the activities supported by 
appropriation of the Common 
Council. The Department has always encouraged 
both the economic and esthetic phases of garden- 
ing, but during the World War and since the be- 
ginning of the depression greater emphasis has 
been placed upon growing and conserving food 
to help feed families. The original aim, however, 
remains unchanged to lay the foundation for 
better citizenship and to give the growing boy and 
girl an opportunity for many-sided development. 

The Department of Recreation enjoys the fine 
cooperation of the Board of Education and its 
Landscape Department, and of the superintend- 
ent, principals and science teachers of the public 
schools. It is through this cooperation that it has 
been possible to extend the work to the school 
children all over the city. 

The parent of the Garden Department, the 
Home and School Garden Committee of the 
Twentieth Century Club of Detroit, has for a 
period of twenty-eight years distributed flower 
and vegetable seeds to pupils of the public schools 
at one cent a package. The money accruing from 
these sales has been turned back into the work in 
the form of awards to the schools in the annual 
garden contest in August and the annual flower 
festival contest in September. The money was 
also used in making it possible for the Garden 
Division of the Department of Recreation to 
carry on the work during the past year. 

Cooperation is also given by Michigan's latest 
organization in the gardening field the Michigan 

196 



Horticultural Society which 
j ias included in its constitution 
of Gardens and by-laws a divsion for jun- 

of Recreation ior gar( ]ening. The Garden De- 

Mlcr '9 an partment is a member of the 

Federated Garden Clubs of 
Michigan and the School Garden Association of 
America, and is enrolled with the 4-H Clubs of 
the United States Department of Agriculture and 
the Wayne County Farm Bureau club work. 

Method of Work 

The school or community center serves as a 
unit of organization for the gardening program. 
By permission or invitation of the principal in 
charge, who very often assists in selecting the 
pupils who are to have gardens, an invitation is 
extended to all pupils of the fourth grade or up- 
ward through the eighth grade, or pupils of ten 
' years of age to eighteen years who are willing to 
fulfill the requirements. These requirements are 
to make and take care of a garden throughout 
the season; to keep a record of the garden (or 
canning) ; to make an exhibit, and to complete the 
project with a report and story of the garden. 

The boys and girls who agree to carry out these 
provisions and who have permission from their 
parents or guardians to join the club are eligible 
to membership. Members elect their officers 
president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer 
under the leadership of the garden director. 
Meetings of one-half hour periods of school time 
are held regularly once a week or once in two 
weeks as the principal decides. During the sea- 
son of planting the garden club is allowed a 
longer period, and during the summer vacation 
the club meets regularly in the school garden. All 



SCHOOL GARDENS IN DETROIT 



197 



meetings are conducted according to parliamen- 
tary procedure. The president occupies the chair, 
and at the close of the business meeting turns the 
program over to the director who has lesson or 
demonstration in charge. Both school and home 
gardens are conducted through the school vaca- 
tion, from July ist to September i5th. Canning 
classes are held every Thursday at the Elmwood 
Center. 

For the school gardens, of which all but four 
are on school property, the Department of Recre- 
ation furnishes all equipment, seeds and tools, and 
prepares the ground. 

Each boy or girl or class is given a plot. The 
children plant vegetables and flowers in the plots 
with the aid of the garden director, and take full 
care of the garden under leadership, cultivating, 
thinning, transplanting, watering, spraying and 
harvesting the crop. The children receive all the 
produce they raise to take home or do with as 
they wish. 

Each garden is scored weekly, "A" being the 
highest rating. All neglected gardens and those 
plots which are rated "E" twice are given to new 
applicants. Members of the clubs are awarded 
with honor points, picnic, field trips and achieve- 
ment pins. 

For home gardens the members provide their 
own equipment, seeds and tools, receiving assist- 
ance in the preparation of the soil and all heavy 
work. The entire care of the garden must be the 
responsibility of the member. The garden director 
visits the garden twice during the season, oftener 
if possible. 

Every garden club member is expected to con- 
serve all surplus vegetables for winter use by- 
canning. All who are interested in learning how 
to can vegetables and fruit by the One Period Hot 
Pack method, which is recommended by the 
United States Department of Agriculture, may 
become members of the canning clubs which in 
past years have met regularly once a week during 
July and August in the domestic science rooms of 
the public schools. The Board of Education fur- 
nished gas, water, gas ranges, and all equipment 
to be found in a kitchen. The Garden Depart- 
ment provided towels, cutlery, spoons, and the 
instructor. 

The boys and girls and adults who wish to at- 
tend bring their vegetables, fruits, jars, rubber 
rings and similar material. All produce provided 
and canned by the club members belongs to them. 



In 1932 it was necessary to reduce the number of 
clubs to one which met regularly from July ist to 
September i5th in the kitchen at Elmwood Cen- 
ter. Seventeen hundred and eighty-six quarts 
were canned under the leadership of the De- 
partment. 

The boys' and girls' clubs are federated and in 
the past have met regularly the last Saturday of 
each month except in December. This organiza- 
tion has had great influence in maintaining inter- 
est in gardening and canning and in stimulating 
club members to do their best. Unfortunately the 
depression has caused an indefinite postponement 
of the meetings. 

It is the duty of the garden director to or- 
ganize the garden and canning clubs, supervise 
all club meetings, teach the art of gardening to 
the club members in the school gardens, and fol- 
low up the work by visiting the club members' 
home gardens giving individual instruction there. 
The director also keeps a record of each club 
member's work and makes a weekly report of her 
own visits, work and attendance. She leads the 
club members on field trips, picnics and parties, 
attends the monthly meetings of the Detroit Fed- 
eration of Boys and Girls Clubs, and is one of 
the Advisory Committee. 

We have been able to see many good results 
from the gardening program. We have seen, for 
example, that the boy's and girl's interest in 
gardening and nature has helped them to decide 
upon seeking a higher training course of study 
and often to choose a vocation. At the present 
time we have two graduated foresters, both in 
government employ ; several members of the club 
have continued as florists; some have become 
truck gardeners, and many have gone to farming. 
Many are home makers who have back yard gar- 
dens of their own and who fill the fruit closet 
each season with canned vegetables and fruit. 

The greatest problem is to find teachers who 
are capable of assuming responsibility. A good 
garden or nature teacher should have personality 
and should be a lover of nature. She should pos- 
sess some knowledge gained by actual work in a 
garden. The ideal teacher has an exceptional op- 
portunity to lead children to a happy, successful 
life through the teaching of gardening science. 



The Council of Social Agencies of Reading, 
Pennsylvania, has issued the following garden 

(Continued on page 206) 



World 
at 



Play 




Courtesy Highway Engineer and Contracto 



Sacramento Boys 
Go Camping 



WHEN a special sur- 
vey disclosed the fact 
that many of the boys 
in Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia, families receiving aid from relief funds 
were in poor physical condition, it was decided 
to give about a hundred of the most needy chil- 
dren a week's outing amid the healthful surround- 
ings of the mountain country back of the city. 
The Boy Scouts offered the use of their camp, 
delightfully located and well equipped for the 
purpose, and the boys spent the week of July 3ist 
to August 6th at the camp under the auspices of 
the Municipal Recreation Department, with Ken- 
neth B. Fry, Director of Playgrounds, in charge. 
All boys were recommended by one of the relief 
agencies in the Community Chest. They were 
given a careful medical examination before and 
after attendance at camp. Exceptional care was 
given to diet, and the day's program provided a 
balance between activities and rest. No fees were 
charged but boys were asked to provide them- 
selves with blankets or quilts, toilet articles, swim- 
ming suits and some personal effects. The week 
in camp resulted in increased weight for the 81 
boys in attendance and greatly improved mental 
and physical condition. 



Beach Property 
Recovered 



THE City of Los An- 
geles, California, has 
won a suit instituted 
several years ago by 

the city on behalf of the Playground and Recre- 
ation Department to return to public ownership 
a strip of beach more than 100 feet in width and 
several blocks in length. A private residence was 
built on a portion of the land. "The decision of 

198 



the court was hailed by the Playground and Rec- 
reation Department officials not only as a victory 
for public ownership of beaches but also as a re- 
iteration of the principle that beach land built up 
by articficial secretion of sands due to piers or 
other structures jutting into the sea became public 
property when the tide lands from which the 
beach arose were also public property." 



A Library Serves 
the Unemployed 



THE sixty-first an- 
nual report of the 
public library of Law- 
rence, Massachusetts, 

shows a total circulation of 407,081 volumes in 
1932, an increase of more than 20 per cent over 
1931. It has been apparent from overcrowded 
reading and newspaper rooms that large numbers 
of people out of work are utilizing their spare 
time reading. "The library in these hard times," 
states the report, "has proved itself to be a solace 
to the unemployed, a release to the discouraged, 
and an encouragement to those still hopeful." 



Tennis In 
Detroit 



TENNIS players on 
courts maintained by 

the Recreation De- 
partment of Detroit, 

Michigan, are being asked to pay a fee after i :oo 
P. M. The players will have the privilege of mak- 
ing reservations twenty-four hours in advance 
upon payment of the fee of 20 cents per hour per 
court. The fee is the same regardless of the num- 
ber of persons using the court during the hour. 
In order to give the unemployed an opportunity to 
play free, no charge will be made for the use of 
the courts during the morning hours. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



199 



Wilkes Barre's Store Employees Association 

The Store Employees Association of Wilkes 
Barre, Pennsylvania, organized in 1923 by the 
Playground and Recreation Association of Wy- 
oming Valley, has issued its first monthly bulletin, 
"The Spot Light." It represents forty-eight teams 
in the seven leagues of bowlers and a number of 
basketball and volley ball leagues. In cooperation 
with the School Board, swimming classes have 
been scheduled. A fee of $.25 includes instruc- 
tion, towel and soap. In addition, a half hour dip 
may be had once a week in the Y. W. C. A. pool 
for a fee of $.10. Other activities include tap 
dancing, and for men a ground school course in 
aviation. 



In the Chicago Shelters In the infirmary of 
the Chicago shelters there are from 400 to 500 
men ranging in age from sixty to eighty. For 
their recreation stereopticon slides are shown. 
Singing is very popular with these men. 



Fitchburg Reports Developments On July 
4th a new swimming pool in Fitchburg, Massa- 
chusetts, was dedicated and turned over to the 
Park Commission making the city the proud pos- 
sessor of one of the largest outdoor pools in this 
section of the country. Through unemployment 
relief funds the city has received $50,000 worth 
of labor. Grading and surfacing have been done 
at all the grounds. The tennis courts, ball dia- 
monds and children's areas are in excellent con- 
dition. Two new areas have been developed and 
the Commission is now arranging to build a 
$3,000 shelter and storage house on each of the 
three grounds. For this organized labor has 
agreed to contribute all the work necessary. 
Bricks and lumber, too, are being provided mak- 
ing it necessary to spend only a few hundred dol- 
lars for roofing and nails. 

A Dramatic Festival The women of Lans- 
ing, Michigan, held a demonstration on March 
8th and Qth, when the recreation clubs conducted 
by the Department of Public Recreation presented 
a number of plays interspersed with music. The 
plays given were "Sauce for the Goslings." 
"Three Little Maids from School Are We," "The 
Making of Feathertop," "Mother's Day Off," 
"Thursday Evening," "Kidnapping Betty," 
"W 7 ho's the Boss?" and "Joint Owners in Spain." 



At last - SAFETY- 

in a Swing Seat! 

Everwear Scores Again! 




No more serious dan- 
ger from a swing seat 
IF it is the new, Ever- 
Wear 

Spring Rubber 

Safety Seat 

No. SR-205 

All exposed and con- 
tact surfaces of the 
seat are soft, springy, 
tubular, corrugated, 
fabric-reinforced rub- 
ber. The five tubular 
rubber section are in- 
teriorally reinforced 
by spring steel. 



The suspension 
clevises are re- 
versible, doubl- 
ing the life of 
the seat. 

The seat is venti- 
lated and all sur- 
faces are non-slip. 



Re-equip all old 
swing outfits and 
specify this seat for 
all new swings. 




A complete line of approved Playground Apparatus, Beach 
and Pool Equipment. Write for new Catalog No. 24. 

The EverWear Manufacturing Co. 

SPRINGFIELD. OHIO 



200 



WORLD AT PLAY 




D I AMI N I 

Official pitching horseshoes and accessories are 
a necessity on every playground. Here is a 
game everyone can play and enjoy. Easily in- 
stalled and maintained. The Diamond line in- 
cludes everything from booklets of explanation 
and rules to several models of official pitching 
shoes. Score pads, percentage charts, carrying 
cases, steel stakes and stake holders and official 
courts ready to set up indoors or out. 

Write for catalog 

DIAMOND CALK HORSESHOE CO. 

4610 GRAND AVENUE, DULUTH, MINN. 




Basketball in Its Early Stages The sugges- 
tion is under consideration that the prehistoric 
ancestor of basketball be featured with its arche- 
ological settings at the world's fair in Chicago. 
Describing the project, Major George O. Totten, 
Jr. of Washington, who designed a number of the 
embassy buildings in the national capital, says : 

"The ball court of ancient Yucatan, at Chichen 
Itza, would be of great interest to exposition 
visitors not only architecturally and archeologi- 
cally but it would have a purpose that would at- 
tract thousands. Here the great ball game of the 
ancient. Mayas could again be played. It was a 
splendid game, similar to our basketball except 
that the ball was struck by different parts of the 
body and not tossed by hand. The Siamese and 
many Pacific islanders still play ball in a similar 
manner. The game in Yucatan seems to have 
been brought there from the Valley of Mexico 
by the Nahaus about 1200 A. D." 

A Study of Delinquency Miss Katherine 
Krieg, Director of Recreation in Des Moines, 
Iowa, reports an interesting study of delinquency 
in her city. From the figures now available, a 60 



per cent increase in delinquency is shown for the 
entire city where there are no playgrounds and a 
22 per cent increase where playgrounds have been 
organized. This study which Miss Krieg is mak- 
ing covers a period of four years. 

Rural Recreation Councils Created As a re- 
sult of the recreation training institute for rural 
leaders conducted in California by the National 
Recreation Association, in cooperation with the 
cooperative extension work of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, recreation councils 
have been organized in practically all the counties 
where the institutes were held. Many of them 
are very active and are meeting regularly. In a 
number of other states similar groups are known 
as recreation leaders' committees or associations. 

In a Small Community Waterford, Wiscon- 
sin, a community of less than 1000 people, is to 
have an athletic field on ground purchased for the 
sewerage disposal plant. A board, representing 
the village, volunteer fire department, the Lions 
Club and the American Legion, has been ap- 
pointed to take charge of the development of the 
field, and a schedule of work to be done has been 
laid out. 

For the Physically Handicapped The Union 
County, New Jersey, Park Commission in cooper- 
ation with a special committee of the Elizabeth 
Rotary Club, last year performed a constructive 
piece of work in connection with a group of phy- 
sically handicapped children. Six picnics were 
arranged for the children in three of the parks. 
The physical condition of the children varied from 
minor handicaps to others which prevented them 
from taking part in very active games. The di- 
rectors encouraged the children in every way to 
take part in all of the different activities planned. 
It was observed that with each succeeding picnic 
the children entered the games with greater in- 
terest, confidence and enjoyment. Different types 
of games were experimented with from quiet table 
games to baseball and other active sports. Aluch 
improvement was noted in several of the boys and 
girls. One or two who were sure they could not 
run very soon forgot themselves and played freely 
with the other children, their handicaps completely 
forgotten. 

No Funds But On They Go! The Depart- 
ment of Recreation and Playgrounds of Lynch- 
burg, Virginia, reports that with a reduction in 



WORLD AT PLAY 



201 



budget for equipment no funds are available for 
the purchase of ropes, jacks, volley balls, croquet 
and other equipment used in the spring tourna- 
ments. Supplies are therefore being secured from 
other sources. A traction company is providing 
the department with trolley rope which is being 
used for jumping ropes, and petitions are being 
circulated for nets and lime so that the tennis 
courts may be reconditioned. 

Jig Saw Puzzles in the Play Program A jig 
saw puzzle contest has been one of the events in 
the program of the Recreation Board of Wil- 
mette, Illinois, which is sponsored by the Board 
of Education. The contest, which was held on the 
afternoon and evening of April I2th, was con- 
ducted in one of the schools. The winner of the 
contest for school children finished a one hundred 
piece puzzle in exactly twenty-four minutes. The 
senior tournament contestants were given two 
hundred piece puzzles to solve. It took the win- 
ner in this classification an hour and twelve and a 
half minutes to put her puzzle together. 

The jig saw craze, it is predicted by George W. 
Braden, district representative of the N. R. A., 
will outlast the fad for miniature golf and will 
lead eventually to an increased use of table games, 
such as dominoes, checkers, chess and cards. Jig 
saw puzzles have been a popular amusement "off 
and on" for a quarter of a century, according to 
Mr. Braden. Thousands of puzzles were used 
during and after the war to entertain wounded 
soldiers in Italy. 

Admission Fees Reduced Last summer the 
Union County Park Commission reduced admis- 
sion fees to the swimming pools and beaches at 
Rahway and Linden, New Jersey. Children were 
admitted each week day morning, including Sat- 
urdays, without charge. In the afternoon they paid 
10 cents instead of 15 cents. Adults paid 20 cents 
instead of 25 cents, while on Sunday and holidays 
rates were 40 cents instead of 50 cents for adults, 
and 20 cents instead of 25 cents for children. The 
cost of renting bathing suits was also reduced. 
On July nth the Commission reported that the 
number of visitors to the parks had increased, 
and in spite of several week-ends of bad weather 
in June the increase in attendance over June, 1931 
was 20 per cent. Baseball, soft ball, fishing, hand- 
ball and nationality programs showed the greatest 
gains. At one of the parks a fly casting platform 
has been erected and a contest held. Instruction 



"Recreation and Unemployment" 

A publication of interest to all individuals 
and groups concerned with keeping up the 
morale of the unemployed. 

The booklet tells what a number of com- 
munity groups are doing to meet the 
problem, how buildings of all kinds are 
being used as recreation centers, and de- 
scribes the activities conducted. Plans for 
organization are suggested and information 
given regarding the made work program 
through which many cities are increasing 
their recreation facilities. 



PRICE $.25 

National Recreation Association 

315 FOURTH AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



in casting was provided one day a week for any 
interested. 

Safety Posters The Education Division of 
the National Safety Council, I Park Avenue, New 
York City, has issued three attractive colored 
posters which may be of interest to recreation 
workers. While the emphasis is on safety, the 
posters show play activities and are attractively 
designed and executed. The price is 35 cents for 
a single set, 30 cents for 50 or more, and 25 cents 
in quantities of 100 and over. 

Bird Houses Galore ! It was a gala day when 
the boys of the public playgrounds in Detroit, 
Michigan, presented to Park Commissioner Henry 
W. Busch more than 500 bird houses which they 
had made during the winter. These houses will 
be set up for the use of the birds who make their 
home on Belle Isle. 

A Water-Works Plant Becomes An Athletic 
Field The Borough of Fair Lawn, New Jersey, 
in which Radburn is located, is grading, top sur- 
facing and planting the ten acre water-works 
property for an athletic field and playground. The 
Borough voted $3,000 from the unemployment 
fund for the work. The development will even- 
tually include football, baseball and soccer fields, 



202 



THE FLOWER MARKET TOT LOT PLAYGROUND 



Be Sure to Get Details on 

NEW "Free Glide" Shuffleboard 

Free-Glide Shuffleboard equipment has in- 
creased the already popular appeal of Shuf- 
fleboard. Will not warp or break and is 
amazingly low in cost. Write today for 
complete information, instructions how to 
install and extremely low prices. 

Trie H. G. Cress Co. 

Box NR-53 Troy, Ohio. 



playground baseball diamonds, eight tennis courts 
and facilities for handball, basketball and volley 
ball. There will also be included a secluded child- 
ren's playground and a quarter mile track with 
running pits. 



The Flower Market Tot Lot Playground 

(Continued from page 168) 

First offenders are given a membership in the 
club either by the captain of police or the magis- 
trate. He is told to use the club and is expected 
to be found there. 

These young men have learned to respect prop- 
erty rights. Let no one make the mistake of 



Read This Letter 

"When I moved in as Director of 
Crystal Pool, Glen Echo Park, Mary- 
land, right under my arm I carried 
your complete Reference Book 
Notable Swimming Pools and Guide 
to Equipment and Supplies. 

"This Guide has served me dozens 
of times already. It is, indeed, the 
Pool Bible. 

"(Signed) 

"CAPT. EDW. H. McCRAHON." 

NOTE: Before becoming Director of Glen Echo, 
Capt. McCrahon was for seven years manager of 
Spa Municipal Pool and Beach, St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Send for a Copy To-day 

THIS $2.00 VOLUME WILL BE SENT FOR 
54 CENTS IN STAMPS. IF THE SUPPLY HAS 
BEEN EXHAUSTED UPON RECEIPT OF 
YOUR STAMPS, SAME WILL BE RETURNED 

Hoffman-Harris, Inc. 

114 E. 32nd STREET :: :: NEW YORK CITY 



breaking in or destroying the furniture of their 
club ! When a member has not been able to re- 
strain himself from using liquor either to forget 
his troubles or to put life into his dull existence, 
and comes to the club, he always leaves a sober 
member. There are always on hand any number 
of members who voluntarily undertake the task 
of making him sober! Often three or four rounds 
in the boxing ring are sufficient. 

The complete story of this venture cannot now 
be written, but its opening chapters seem to offer 
the method for the organization of similar clubs 
in neighborhoods where the problem to be met is 
as acute as in this district. 



Plays and Pageants for the Playground 

(Continued from page 1~3) 

be adapted for the out-of-doors. There is a roy- 
alty of $5.00 for each performance but it is well 
worth this nominal sum. 

Special occasions, such as Health Week, Fourth 
of July, Safety Week and similar occasions, may 
be culminated with an appropriate play or pag- 
eant embodying the principles which were 
stressed during the particular event. For Health 
Week, do by all means try The Little Vegetable 
Men by Eleanor Glendower Griffith, or The 
Magic Oatfidd by the same author. Both are con- 
tained in Dramatizing Child Health by Grace T. 
Hallock, published by the American Child Health 
Association, 450 Seventh Avenue, New York. If 
these do not suit your purpose, address the Na- 
tional Tuberculosis Association in New York City 
for their booklet, entitled Plays and Pageantry. 
This is a descriptive list of health plays recom- 
mended by the National Health Council from 
which you will be sure to find material adaptable 
to almost any cast. 

Excellent for the Fourth of July is The 
Cracker Conspiracy by Alice Townsend, and 
Bruin's Inn by the same author can be strongly 
recommended for a Safety Week celebration. 
These are published by Education Division, Na- 
tional Safety Council, i Park Avenue, New York. 



Canoeing and Tennis in a 
County Park System 

(Continued from page 175) 

The interest developed by tennis was so keen 
that requests for permission to conduct ladder 



CANOEING AND TENNIS IN A COUNTY PARK SYSTEM 



203 



tournaments were received. They were so ar- 
ranged as not to interfere with normal use of the 
courts by those not interested in tournament play. 
The method followed was relatively simple. On 
the bulletin board of the club house was placed a 
chart ranking the players somewhat arbitrarily, it 
is true, though pretty much in line with the results 
of the elimination tournaments held in July. Any 
one feeling he was out of place might challenge a 
player not more than three rounds up the ladder 
from his own position, the one challenged being 
under obligation to accept or lose his rank by de- 
fault. Matches were for two out of three sets, 
the results being handed in to the starter at the 
courts on a memorandum slip signed by the 
players. 

These tournaments were participated in almost 
entirely by adults. Freeholder Zenas Crane, feel- 
ing that juniors should be encouraged, offered 
trophies for the winners of a tournament to be 
conducted the latter part of September and the 
early part of October, play in which should be 
confined to novices residing in Essex County. 



Tin Can Craft on the Playground 

(Continued from page 178) 



which goes against the tin. 
small flattened pieces of self 
the design, bind it to the 
string using a small block or 
the design to hold it securely 
wedge should be very small 
design. Now apply heat to 
the tin object and as soon 
remove the heat. 



After placing some 
-fluxing solder under 
object with wire or 
wedge of wood over 
in place. The wooden 
so as not to hide the 
the opposite side of 
as the solder flows, 



There are many other articles that can be made 
from tin, such as flower holders, tea trays, coast- 
ers and desk sets, Christmas tree ornaments and 
toys of all kinds. The drama enthusiast can use 
tin in many ways for imitation jewelry, coats of 
mail, head-dresses and reflectors for footlights. 



How to Produce a Play 

(Continued from page 1~9) 

ability, not personality or characterization, but 
something often rare but always necessary called 
"dependability ! " The genius who does not come 
to rehearsals, or who will not learn his lines before 
the dress rehearsal, is not an asset ; he's a distinct 




Clean 



SUNSHINE 
FRESH AIR 



Keep playgrounds free from dust 
with Solvay Calcium Chloride . . . 

PROTECTING children at play is the aim 
of the modern playground. How im- 
portant to protect them from the dan- 
gers and dirt in dust! It's so easy and 
it costs next to nothing. 

An application of Solvay Flake Calcium 
Chloride on gravel or earth surfaces 
effectively ends the dust nuisance. And 
Solvay Calcium Chloride kills germs. 
The photomicrographs pictured here 
show you the results. 347 cultures in the 
untreated dust. Only 3 in the same dust 
treated with Solvay Calcium Chloride. 





Germs 
in Dust 

Before treatment After treatment 

Make this a dustless outdoor season 
on your playgrounds. Send today for 
full information and booklet No. 1159. 

SOLVAY SALES CORPORATION 

Alkalies and Chemical Products Manufac- 
tured by The Solvay Process Company 
61 Broadway New York 





^^A TRADE MARK REG U S. PAT OFF 

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FLAKE-77%-80% 



204 



HOW TO PRODUCE A PLAY 



liability. Of course the actor must be given a 
chance. Determining dependability is a matter of 
"trial and error," but if Mary is cast into a part, 
and she comes around to two rehearsals out of 
seven, the next time the director is casting he will 
know exactly where to cast Mary ! 

The voice of the applicant should be considered 
carefully. Does it carry well enough to be heard 
in the last row? Is it clear enough to be under- 
stood in all rows? Is it in character for the part? 
Perhaps the director is searching for some one to 
play an old man of seventy. If a young man can 
make his voice sound seventy, he can be made to 
look seventy. 

Appearance is also important. Can this actor 
be "made up" for the part? Make-up has great 
possibilities, but there are limits to its effective- 
ness. Size and bodily stature must be considered. 
A six foot heroine playing opposite a five foot 
hero is apt to be most embarrassing in the love 
scenes. 

The applicant's manner of walking, his move- 
ments, and his carriage should be noted. 

The imagination of the applicant will show in 
his interpretation of the lines, his idea of the cha- 
racterization, and any little bits of business that 
he may use in giving the try out lines. 

Some of the lines used in the try out should be 
of an emotional nature, so that the sincerity and 
emotional sensitiveness of the applicant can be 
tested. 

The applicant's acting experience should be 
considered. Acting, like most other good things, 
improves with age. The director should beware of 
always casting his actors in the same type of role. 
In some groups it is dangerous to be too good an 
actor. If a young man makes a success of an old 
man's part, he may be doomed to play old men 
for the rest of his life. Actors should be given a 
chance to show their ability in different types of 
roles. 

An occasional "work shop" production is re- 
commended to little theatres and dramatic clubs 
for the purpose of discovering new talent and of 
helping the newer members of the group to secure 
experience. These should always be advertised as 
"work shop" productions, and the admission fee 
should be small. 

It should always be made clear to the applicants 
who are not given a part that no reflection is being 
cast upon their acting ability. Some one else fits 
the part in this play better than they do. In the 



next production they may be better suited to a 
role than any one else. They should be urged to 
try out for the next play. 



National Forest Playgrounds 
of the Pacific Northwest 

(Continued from page 182) 

U. S. Forest Service in cooperation with the Na- 
tional Broadcasting Company, and are usually 
based on actual happenings in the life and work 
of the forest rangers. They tell the story of 
Ranger Jim and his young assistant, Jerry, and 
the activities and adventures connected with their 
work on one of Uncle Sam's National Forests. 

The program is broadcast on Thursdays at 
I :oo p. m. eastern standard time, from forty-nine 
NBC stations east of the Rockies. In the western 
States they are presented by NBC stations on 
Mondays at 12:45 P- m - Pacific time. A party, 
with or without lunch, at your center to listen-in 
each week to Jim and Jerry might be a good at- 
traction, especially in these days of unemploy- 
ment and enforced leisure. The series is instruc- 
tive as well as entertaining, and, if for no other 
reason, you will love Ranger Jim and his assist- 
ant because they are so human. 

Puppet Shows. If you are interested in mak- 
ing puppet shows, you might very well adapt 
some of the ranger playlets to the purpose. The 
scenery would be simple to make and the figures 
no more difficult than the average puppets. Flan- 
nel shirt, khaki breeches, puttees, and stetson hat 
would be the desirable uniform of the rangers. 
The various other characters could be dressed as 
the imagination suggests. The shows could be 
very entertaining, for Rangers Jim and Jerry 
could be put through any number of thrilling 
adventures. 

Paul Bunyan, that mythical super-human lum- 
berjack of the North Woods would also make an 
excellent subject for the puppet show, especially 
if he is accompanied by "Babe" his "Big Blue 
Ox." Paul, who was supposed to be of gigantic 
proportions, would tower over any other charac- 
ter that entered the shows. By following some of 
the plots of the numerous stories about him, Paul 
could be taken through any number of amusing 
and fearsome exploits. Your local library can 
furnish books containing stories of Paul Bunyan 
and his big blue ox. 



POPULARIZING THE SWIMMING BADGE TESTS 



205 



Arbor Day. Spring is the time for Arbor Day 
celebrations and tree plantings. Perhaps this year 
you want a different kind of celebration. Why not 
have a forestry play or pageant this spring? It 
is, of course, more interesting for a recreation 
group to write its own playlet, but if you do not 
wish to do this there are a number of plays you 
could use. One of the new ones, "All Aboard the 
Forestry Special," by Mrs. Francis H. Doud, is 
simple and makes an effective outdoor production. 
Information regarding this playlet as well as sug- 
gestions for an Arbor Day program may be ob- 
tained from the Forest Service, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



Popularizing the Swimming Badge Tests 

(Continued from page 183) 

been going over your tests with my staff and we 
feel that they are very comprehensive and of 
great value in the progress of swimming." Nathan 
L. Mallison, Superintendent of Recreation of 
Jacksonville, Florida, states: "The tests are 
mighty popular with our swimmers." L. G. Bur- 
sey of the Cooperstown Playground, Coopers- 
town, New York, writes : "These tests are very 
popular in our classes and we expect to devote one 
week to give other new members an opportunity 
to take them." "I have only used the first tests 
as yet but I find they are very good and the boys 
and girls enjoy them," writes J. H. Juel, Director 
of Swimming, Ashland Foundation, Ashland, 
Wisconsin. "They give the boys and girls a chal- 
lenge and the pupils work hard to pass them. I 
believe the swimming for speed is also very good 
because it usually means the pupil must improve 
on his swimming form to be able to swim a cer- 
tain distance in a certain time." 

Interest in the tests is widespread as indicated 
by the various types of organizations which have 
used them. Universities, colleges and normal 
schools, Y.M.C.A.'s, Y.W.C.A.'s, recreation de- 
partments, high schools, junior high schools, Boy 
Scouts, camps and similar groups are represented 
on the list. 

Further information may be secured from the 
Correspondence and Consultation Bureau of the 
National Recreation Association. 



Hidden Wealth Revealed by Bankers 

(Continued from page 186) 

be very much enlivened. The satisfaction of con- 
tributing so directly to an admirable community 



88 Successful Play 
Activities 

A complete revision of the booklet 
which has been proving so practical 
for a number of years. 

Many new activities have been 
added. Of special interest to the 
play leader are chapters on Side- 
walk Games and Home Equipment 
Games never before included. 

A section on Tournaments gives 
full directions for a number of 
contests. 

Other chapters deal with Music 
and Drama, Shows and Exhibits, 
Nature Play and Winter Sports. 

Price $ .60 

NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 
315 FOURTH AVENUE NEW YORK CITY 



project should also be inspiring. New groups 
might come into being as a result of the oppor- 
tunity or need for them. Furthermore, the gath- 
ering of people for music might be a perfect oc- 
casion for introducing other recreational activi- 
ties to them. For example, after a concert and 
"sing" lasting until 9:30 the audience might be 
invited to an hour's "social recreation," or to an 
opportunity to learn folk dances that they have 
just been watching. In a center where hand- 
crafts, dramatics or other such activities are pro- 
vided, the musical evenings might win many peo- 
ple to them also. 

The "evenings of music" might thus serve well 
not only all the hopes aroused by Dr. Woodin's 
address, but also some other good hopes of the 
recreation leader. 



A Progressive Contest Party 

(Continued from page 188) 

No. 3. From a distance of 10 feet toss the heels 
or rubber disks so they will rest within the scor- 
ing area. 

Other Games 

Several good games may be played by sliding 
small disks into a scoring area, such as that il- 



206 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

Recently Received Containing Articles i 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker ' 



MAGAZINES 

Beach and Pool, May 1933. 

Water Basket Polo, by E. Gordon Bowman. 

The Parents' Magazine, June 1933. 

What Is Worth While Recreation? by Joshua 

Lieberman. 
Enchanted Island, by Rose G. King. 

New Jersey Municipalities, May 1933. 

Play and Playgrounds, by Allen G. Ireland, M.D. 

American Forests, June 1933. 

Forest Theatres, by Emerson Knight. 

Junior League Magazine, May 1933. 

More Than Meat, by Weaver Pangburn. 
Independent Woman, May 1933. 

Leisure Time in Modern Life, by Howard Braucher. 

The American City, June 1933. 

Unemployed Build Two Roadways in New Orleans 

City Park Extension. 

A Parking Charge to Finance Beach Protection, Sa- 
vannah Beach, Ga. 
A Gift of Fine Magnolia Trees As a Memorial. 

The Journal of Health and Physical Education, June 1933. 

The Extra-Curricular Program and Leisure-Time 
Training, by Gertrude Moulton, M.D. 

Activities for the Playground and Recreation Pro- 
gram, by Norman F. Kunde. 

Leisure-Time Panel Discussion, by Frederick Rand 
Rogers, Ph.D. 

PAMPHLETS 
Eleventh Annual Report, Recreation Department of Pas- 

saic, N. J., 1932. 
Annual Report of the Park Department for the Year 

Ending December 31, 19)2, Salem, Mass. 
The Visual Fatigue of Motion Pictures 

Amusement Age Publishing Co., New York City. 

Price $1.00. 
Annual Report of the Boy Scouts of America, 1932. 



lustrated in diagram No. 4. A good disk to use 
is a metal washer with a three-quarter inch cen- 
ter. From a distance of 10 feet slide three metal 
washers into the scoring area. In scoring use the 
highest number each washer touches. 

On a piece of cardboard draw a diagram, shown 
in No. 5, making sure that the diagram is not 
more than 8 inches in diameter. From a distance 
of 6 inches from the edge of the diagram spin 1 a 
milk bottle top by holding the disk on top by the 
index finger of the left hand and snapping it with 
the thumb and index finger of the right hand so 
that it will stop within the diagram. In scoring 
count the largest number touched. 

Using the same type diagram as in No. 5, from 
a distance of 6 inches snap four small buttons 



into the scoring area in the same manner as tid- 
dle-de-winks are snapped. In scoring the largest 
number touched is counted. 

A game in which a simple spinner is used may 
be made by setting a small handled pan within a 
sauce pan. The two pans are placed on a num- 
bered cardboard so that the handle of the small 
pan may be used as an indicator to point to the 
different numbers when it stops spinning. Each 
player chooses a different color button, spins the 
handle of the pan and moves his color button on 
a score sheet numbered from i to 100, the number 
of the space being indicated by the handle of the 
pan. At the end of the time allotted, each player 
multiplies by five the number upon which his 
button rests. 

\Yhen these games are played by adult groups 
it is well to place as many as possible on tables. 



School Gardens in Detroit 

(Continued from page 197) 

score sheet on the basis of which flags are 
awarded. A blue flag designates excellent gar- 
den, a red flag, good garden, and a white, average 
garden. 

1. Arrangement and use of ground. . . .30 points 

Are the rows long or are there short 
rows and beds? Is there succession of 
crops to keep all parts of the garden work- 
ing all of the time? Is the space wasted, 
walks are not needed? 

2. Cultivation and freedom from weeds. 30 points 

Is the surface soil kept fine and loose to 
serve as a mulch to hold moisture and to 
permit air to circulate through it? The 
rows should not be hilled. The surface 
should be kept fairly level. There will be 
less surface exposed for evaporation of 
moisture. Keep all weeds out at all times. 

3. Control of diseases and insects 20 points 

Have sprays been applied early so as to 
prevent rather than cure? Supplement 
spraying by gathering insects and insect 
eggs as they appear. 

4. Crop condition 20 points 

Has water been supplied in dry weather 
to keep the crop growing? Soak the ground 
around the plant once or twice weekly 
rather than a light sprinkling each day. 
Do not hoe crops when they are wet. Have 
the plants been succored, such as tomatoes? 



Total 100 points 



New Books on Recreation 



Summer Camps -A Guide For Parents 

Edited by Beulah Clark Van Wagenen. Child Develop- 
ment Institute, Teachers College, Columbia University, 
New York. $.25. 

THIS VALUABLE pamphlet has been prepared in an at- 
' tempt to present as far as possible a complete picture 
of the kinds of provisions which a camp should make 
for the adequate care and guidance of children. It takes 
up the educational features, discusses creative ideas in 
children's camps, outlines some essentials of a creative 
handcraft program, and offers some suggestions as to 
how nature lore and games may be made creative chan- 
nels. Other subjects discussed are Guidance in the Sum- 
mer Camp, the Relationship of Home and Camp, the 
Essence of Good Leadership, and Provision for Physical 
Welfare. A bibliography and sources of information on 
camping are given. 

The Carpenter's Tool Chest 

By Thomas Hibben. J. B. Lippincott Company, Phila- 
delphia. $2.00. 

A N ORDINARY tool chest may seem a prosaic thing. But 
* the historical setting which the author, a distin- 
guished architect, has given each tool makes this book 
a delightful study. Under Mr. Hibben's clever handling 
the story of the humble carpenter's tools becomes the 
story of the human race. Aztec, Egyptian, Greek, 
Roman, American -the entire pageant of man passes 
through these pages. "It is an account," one commen- 
tator has said, "of how the woodworkers since earliest 
time have shaped the world we live in." The numerous 
illustrations offered aid greatly to the fascination of the 
story. 

Selected Recreational Sports 

(For Girls and Women) 
By Julia H. Post and Mabel J. Shirley. A. S. Barnes & 

Company, New York. $2.00. 

I N THIS BOOK an attempt has been made to present ma- 
' terial which may prove helpful in teaching some of 
the recreational types of activities which are occupying 
an increasingly important place in the school program. 
Games have been selected which require small space, a 
small number of participants and no specific costume and 
from which a player may derive enjoyment even though 
he has little skill. Eight sports have been chosen deck 
tennis, horsehoe pitching, Badminton, table tennis, shuf- 
fle board, clock golf, paddle tennis, and tether ball. 
Diagrams for the layout of courts are given, equipment 
is listed and there are suggestions for its care. 

Girl Scout Day Camps 

Prepared by. Program Division, Girl Scouts, Inc., 570 

Lexington Avenue, New York. $.20. 
I N VIEW OF THE increasing popularity of the day camp, 

this booklet which discusses administration, minimum 
standards and waterfront safety, will be of special in- 
terest. While it has been written primarily to meet the 



needs of Girl Scout groups, practically all of the sug- 
gestions offered may be readily adapted to the needs of 
groups of all kinds. The booklet contains much valuable 
information for the recreation worker. 

The Right Book For The Right Child 

Compiled under the auspices of the American Library 
Association. The John Day Company, New York. $2.50. 
THE BOOKS in this graded list of children's books have 
' been selected and annotated by a subcommittee of 
the Committee on Library Work with Children of the 
American Library Association under the chairmanship 
of Mary S. Wilkinson. They have been graded by the 
Research Department of the Winnetka Public Schools. 
Here is to be found a composite buying list of books for 
children, including a pre-school list of picture books and 
books to read aloud to children between two and five 
years of age, and books for children to read to them- 
selves from the time they enter school until they are 
ready for high school. Brief information is given re- 
garding the content of each book. Publisher and price 
are included. It would be difficult to find a more care- 
fully chosen or comprehensive list of books for children 
than this volume offers. 

American Red Cross First Aid 
Text-Book 

P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., 1012 Walnut Street, 

Philadelphia. $.60. 

THE AMERICAN RED CROSS has issued a new First Aid 
Text-Book. This is not a revision of the old Text- 
Book familiar to so many recreation workers but an 
entirely new book with a new set of illustrations which 
have been increased in number. Recreation workers will 
want to add this book to their kits. 

Social Work Year Book 1933 

Edited by Fred S. Hall. Russell Sage Foundation, 130 

East 22nd Street, New York. $4.00. 
THE SECOND ISSUE of the Social Work Year Book- 
represents a decided expansion over the first edition 
which appeared in 1929. Thirty new topical articles are 
included and the Directories of Agencies which com- 
prise Part Two are supplemented by an entirely new 
list of public agencies, departments and bureaus which 
are related to social work. The volume, of almost 700 
pages, gives a bird's-eye view of the many types of 
social and civic services which are being performed by 
private and public agencies in the field of health, de- 
linquency, mental hygiene, progressive education and 
many other types of endeavor. An article on recreation 
tells of developments in the entire leisure time field 
through the efforts of public and private agencies. 

The Social Work Year Book is an invaluable source 
of information not only for the social work, editor and 
librarian, but for the layman wishing data on current 
social trends and forces. 

207 



208 



NEW BOOKS ON RECREATION 



Same: and Field Day Programs. 

Compiled and edited by Eleanor Clarke Slagle. Pub- 
lished by Department of Mental Hygiene, State of 
New York, State Office Building, Albany. $.75. 

This syllabus is designed to be of assistance to work- 
ers in the division of physical training activities and to 
other interested persons employed in the hospitals, the 
schools and the epileptic colony of the State Department 
of Mental Hygiene. Over 250 games and activities are 
described in which adaptations have been made to fit 
them for the use of the patients. A number of special 
day programs are included. All the activities have been 
tried out with patients and known to be well adapted to 
definite groups. The book has much to offer workers in 
all branches of recreation. 

How To Help. 

Edited by Mabel B. Ellis. Published by National 
Women's Committee, Welfare and Relief Mobiliza- 
tion, 570 Lexington Avenue, New York. Free. 

This handbook represents a joint effort to interpret 
social work in all its aspects, but particularly as it con- 
tributes to the protection of human values during a 
period when all such values are threatened by widespread 
economic disturbances. Part One presents something 
of the background, interprets the various forms of social 
work and tells how the different services fit together in 
community planning. Part Two suggests ways of getting 
and using the facts, and offers a reading list. Part Three 
is a listing of the agencies participating in the Welfare 
and Relief Mobilization of 1932. 

Miss Ellis has brought together in this handbook in 
concise, clear form a vast amount of information about 
the social problems to be found in any community and 
the essential social services needed to meet them. It is 
a timely and much needed contribution to the literature 
of social forces. 

Notable Swimming Pools and Guide to 
Equipment and Supplies. 

Hoffman-Harris, Inc., 114 East 32nd Street, New 

York. $2.00. 

A complete reference book on swimming pools is this 
comprehensive volume which offers a vast amount of in- 
formation to groups contemplating the construction of 
pools. The first section deals with notable swimming 
pools and contains illustrations and descriptions of pools 
representative of the highest standards in the field, both 
architecturally and from the viewpoint of sanitation. The 
second section is a compendium of laws, rules and regu- 
lations and presents committee reports on details of con- 
struction such as runways and sidewalks, filtration, re- 
circulating systems, disinfection and other features. This 
section is followed by a number of articles on various 
subjects by outstanding authorities. The final section 
contains the guide to equipment and supplies. 

Recreation workers may receive this valuable book at 
a greatly reduced rate. 

Camps and Public Schools. 

By Marie M. Ready. Circular No. 74. Office of 
Education, U. S. Department of the Interior, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

A mimeographed statement giving information regard- 
ing camps maintained or directed by boards of education 
in city public schools and camps operated by various 
public and private agencies for school children. "In gen- 
eral," states the report, "the camping movement in its 
relationship to public schools is as yet in its infancy. 
Its possibilities of development are unlimited. Within 
the next decade many week-end and day camping excur- 
sions will no doubt be included as a part of the regular 
school work carried on in public schools and many sum- 
mer sessions will be held entirely out-of-doors or in 
camps." 



Track and Field. 

By Charles W. Paddock. A. S. Barnes & Company, 

New York. $2.50. 

In this book the author, an Olympic champion and 
world's record holder, has set down clearly the funda- 
mentals of track and field events. A complete summary 
of all records is given, together with descriptions of out- 
standing achievements. In the back of the book are to 
be found ruled pages for school or college records and 
pages for listing new world's records as they occur. 

Sweeping the Cobwebs. 

By Lillien J. Martin and Clare de Gruchy. The Mac- 

millan Company, New York, $1.50. 
Dr. Martin, still a successful consulting psychologist at 
the age of eighty, and her collaborator, Miss de Gruchy, 
in this book tell in concrete detail how they have helped 
people who dread advancing age to overcome their han- 
dicaps, both real and imaginary, and how people can help 
themselves. Of recreation and amusement the authors 
say : "Real recreation and amusement act as wings to 
lift us out of the humdrum of our lives and give us 
inspirational stimulation to carry on daily living on an 
ascending plane. . . . Too many avocations or hobbies 
are only time passers, but those that are real and spon- 
taneous to the individual are those that will furnish him 
the conditions of unique pleasure in their pursuit and 
give to his life a mental stimulation that will carry him 
forward with renewed vigor, courage and hope." 

The Adolescent Boy. 

By Winifred" V. Richmond, Ph.D. Farrar & Rine- 
hart, Inc., New York. $2.50. 

This book, presenting as it does, the problems of nor- 
mal and abnormal youth and tracing the history of ado- 
lescence through the ages, will help recreation workers 
to understand better the young people with whom they 
are dealing. Personal experience and case histories add 
to its interest for the layman for whom the book is 
intended. 

Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 

JOSEPH LEE, President 
JOHN H. FINLEY, First Vice-President 
JOHN G. WINANT, Second Vice-President 
ROBERT GARRETT, Third Vice-President 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, Treasurer 
HOWARD S. BRAUCHER, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

MRS. EDWARD W. BIDDLE, Carlisle, Pa. 
WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH, Moline, 111. 
CLARENCE M. CLARK, Philadelphia, Pa. 
HENRY L. CORBETT, Portland, Ore. 
MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER, Jacksonville, Fla. 
F. TRUBEE DAVISON, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 
MRS. THOMAS A. EDISON, West Orange, N. J. 
JOHN H. FINLEY New York, N. Y. 
HUGH FRAYNE, New York, N. Y. 
ROBERT GARRETT, Baltimore, Md. 
AUSTIN E. GRIFFITHS, Seattle, Wash. 
WILLIAM HALE HARKNESS, New York, N. Y. 
CHARLES HAYDEN, New York N. Y. 
MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX, Michigan City, Ind. 
MRS. FRANCIS DELACY HYDE, Plainfield, N. J. 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, New York, N. Y. 
H. McK. LANDON, Indianapolis, Ind. 
MRS. CHARLES D. LAMER, Greenwich, Conn. 
ROBERT LASSITER, Charlotte, N. C. 
JOSEPH LEE, Boston, Mass. 
EDWARD E. LOOMIS, New York, N. Y. 
J. H. McCuRDY, Springfield, Mass. 
OTTO T. MALLERY, Philadelphia, Pa. 
WALTER A. MAY, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
CARL E. MILLIKEN, Augusta, Me. 
MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS, Washington, D. C. 
FREDERICK S. TITSWORTH, New York, N. Y. 
MRS. JAMES W. WADSWORTH. JR., Washington, D. C. 
J. C. WALSH, New York, N. Y. 
FREDERICK M. WARBURG, New York, N. Y. 
JOHN G. WINANT, Concord, N. H. 
MRS. WILLIAM H. WOODIN, JR., Plainfield, N. J. 



On Getting One's Hands in the Earth 

FIRST IN the sand. Then in the mud. Good old mud pies, hung 
up on the gate to bake in the sun. And don't forget the good 
old sqush sqush of one's feet in the mud after a rain storm. 
The only drawback was the cleaning up afterwards. Parents have 
such queer notions as to soap and water. 

In these early childhood days there was no particular joy in 
"working" in the garden. Return was too long delayed. The rows 
of beans and peas were too long, too straight. There was no inner 
urge for the continuous pulling of weeds a few weeds pulled gave 
the sensation. "What a powerful boy am I" but why continue? 
The sun was too hot. After all in childhood days gardening was apt 
to be not self-initiated, but from outer urge of parents. Yet who 
would want to give up children's gardens? 

With mature years, for many the coming of the spring means 
an inner urge to get one's hands in the earth. For many there is a 
healing in the feeling of the soil that nothing else can give. Year 
after year there is the miracle of seed time and harvest time. There 
is the joy of watching for the first green shoot in the flower garden, 
the first bud, the first flower. 

Nurture of the plant creates something inside. Caring for the 
plant and shrub not only makes more plant and shrub, but more 
boy. Something is there that was not before. 

'The good earth" is not a careless phrase. It is good that all of 
us be exposed to the good earth and those of us who find it truly 
good should forever and ever not get too far away from the soil we 
love. Yet many of us would not willingly part with our childhood 
memories of mud pies or adult memories of our gardens. 

HOWARD BRAUCHER. 



August, 1933 



209 



The Best of Midsummer Sports! 




"The more young people we can teach to swim, 
the more individuals we will add to society who 
have learned something for other than economic 
reasons. Education for enjoyment and education 
for fine living are not in need of defense. One has 
only to observe the mistaken zeal of those who 



think of life in terms of financial rewards, trusting 
somehow that later on, when success comes, 
happiness maybe bought." Jesse Feiring Williams 
in Swimming Simplified, by Lyba and Nita 
Sheffield. Published by A. S. Barnes and Company, 
New York. 



310. 



Land and Water in the Recreation Program 



By LEBERT H. WEIR 

National Recreation Association 



WE WHO are engaged, along with many other 
agencies in America today, in attempting to 
preserve some of the fine gifts of Nature 
for the use of the people through their leisure time 
realize that two of the most fundamental natural 
elements in this campaign are first, land, and 
second, water. 

For several years this question has been a very 
live one with several national and local agencies. 
Too much credit cannot be given to the work of 
our Federal Government in the preservation of 
streams, lakes and ocean fronts through national 
parks, fish and game preserves, national forests 
and river and harbor improvements of many 
kinds; to the work that has been done in recent 
years by the National Conference on State Parks 
and by the several states in preserving streams, 
lakes and in some instances, ocean fronts; to the 
efforts of various counties in conserving water 
fronts in county parks, and to the activities of 
numerous municipalities throughout the nation in 
providing water front parks along rivers, lakes 
and ocean. Even in small municipalities some 
notable achievements are to be recorded in this 
respect. The small city of Geneva, New York, 
has acquired about 2.2 miles of the north shore of 
beautiful Lake Seneca and is rapidly developing 
it as one of the chief outdoor recreation centers 
of that region. During this year the Fairfield 
County Planning Association has made a detailed 
study of the entire shore line of this county front- 
ing on Long Island Sound. Definite plans have 
been formulated for the acquisition of additional 
areas of shore line and for the further develop- 
ment of existing and to be acquired shore lines. 

There are hundreds of such examples 
throughout the United States today 
which might be mentioned through the 
work of all these several national and 
local agencies. 

During these years of depression the 



importance of water fronts on stream, lake and 
ocean has become more evident than ever before 
and the use of them by the people during this 
present year, for example, will amount to a total 
far in excess of the use that has been made of 
them in any one year that has passed. 

Certain great social and economic changes have 
taken place in American life that emphasize the 
importance of preserving many of our natural 
resources for the recreation of the people. 

The Urbanization of Population 

Up to the close of the nineteenth century we as 
a people were primarily an open country dwelling 
people. The progress of the urbanization of our 
population has, however, been going on through 
the whole of this century, slowly during the first 
half of the century and developing with increasing 
rapidity toward the close of the century. But as 
late as 1880 only about 22.7 per cent of the total 
population of the nation dwelt and worked in 
cities of 8,000 population and over. By 1920 the 
urban population outnumbered the rural popula- 
tion (51.4 per cent) and in 1930 the urban pop- 
ulation had risen still higher, or between 54 and 
56 per cent. These percentages do not tell the 
entire story of what had happened. There were 
only about 25 per cent of the entire population left 
on the farms while about 75 per cent of the entire 
population either lived and worked directly in 
urban communities or depended on urban activi- 
ties for their livelihood. 

Many personal and social evils have followed 
this sudden transformation of the living and 
working environment and habits of life of the 



The economic and social changes in American life which 
have greatly increased the necessity for the preservation 
of natural resources for recreation, were stressed by 
Mr. Weir in an address presented before a meeting of 
the American Shore and Beach Preservation Association. 



211 



212 



LAND AND WATER IN THE RECREATION PROGRAM 



people. The annual crime bill of the United 
States is estimated to be between $10,000,000 and 
$13,000,000 a year. According to competent med- 
ical authorities the strain of modern life in cities 
is causing an 'increase in diseases of the heart, 
nervous system and digestive system. The chances 
of men of before and at middle life living to a ripe 
old age have decreased. Insanity is increasing at an 
alarming rate, as are suicides. The amount of 
housing space per family has decreased. The Child 
Health and Protective Conference reports that 45,- 
000,000 children under eighteen years of age spend 
outside the school and home a startlingly large per- 
centage of their time. There are insufficient play- 
grounds and playfields and parks in all our cities. 
There are insufficient opportunities for the people 
crowded into our cities to renew contact with the 
soil and water and growing things. 

One might continue to 
enumerate the evils and 
half evils which have 
sprung from what we 
have done during the 
past half century and 
especially during the past 
twenty-five years, but 
let us now turn to some 
of the factors that have 
brought about an unpa- 
ralleled change in the 
living and working ha- 
bits of the people. 



New Knowledge 
Brings Changes 
The root of this change 
may be found in the vast 
increase in our know- 
ledge of the forces and 
laws of nature, in our 
knowledge of the com- 
position of matter and 
how to transform it into 
new forms and the ap- 
lication of the whole of 
this new knowledge to 
doing the work of our 
world. Few in America 
realize the remarkable 
growth of this know- 
ledge and how it has 
been used in providing 
machines and new pro- 




One of the most important recreational ser- 
vices a state or municipal government can 
offer is provision of safe swimming places. 



cesses for the making of things. It is this that is 
at the bottom of our remarkable revolution where- 
by we turned an entire nation within practically 
two generations into a nation primarily industrial 
and commercial as contrasted to a previous history 
of about 250 years as an agricultural people. 

In 1908 a noted German scholar compiled and 
published a large book containing a list of scien- 
tific discoveries and inventions which he was able 
to record by dates during the past several centu- 
ries. His findings summarized were : 

For the century ending 1400. ... 33 

For the century ending 1500. ... 50 

For the century ending 1600. ... 127 
For the century ending 1700. ... 218 
For the century ending 1800. . . . 680 
For the century ending 1900. . . . 2,880 
In contrast to this in the United States alone in 
1930 there were 45,000 
patents applied for and 
granted at the United 
States Patent Office. It 
is further stated that the 
total number of scientific 
discoveries and inven- 
tions not presented for 
patent was probably 
greater than the number 
patented. A very large 
percentage of these dis- 
coveries and inventions 
had as their object the 
displacement of man- 
power by machine- 
power. 

The following are a 
few examples of the 
progress of science and 
invention in producing 
labor-saving devices in 
industry and commerce 
in America within com- 
paratively recent years. 

i. In the brick mak- 
ing industry one brick 
making machine can turn 
out from 30,000 to 40,- 
ooo bricks an hour, 
whereas it formerly took 
one man eight hours to 
make 500 bricks by the 
old method of hand 
work. 



LAND AND W ATE R IN THE RECREATION PROGRAM 



213 



2. In the steel industry the new automatic 
pudcller can, with a force of 150 men, turn out 
500 tons more iron in a given space of time than 
400 men could formerly do by the old methods. 

A new device for loading pig iron enables three 
men in a given space of time to load as much as 
formerly 128 men could load. 

In the operation of furnaces seven or eight men 
can now do what formerly required 60. 

In a Midwest steel rolling mill a new machine 
2,100 feet long has been installed. It operates 
from a central control board and requires only 
12 men who have little to do except push buttons. 

3. In the automobile industry 30 men now 
do with the aid of new machines the work that 
formerly required 100 men. 

In a certain factory manufacturing automobile 
frames and employing 200 men it is possible to 
turn out from 8,000 to 10,000 frames a day. In 
Central Europe there is a well known factory 
turning out automobile frames of the same type 
as the American factory and employing the same 
number of men, but the European factory has a 
daily output of about 35 frames. 

4. In the razor blade industry a single worker 
now turns out with the aid of new machines 32,- 
ooo blades a day, while in 1913 he was able to 
turn out but about 500. 

5. In the manufacture of cigarettes an expert 
worker could formerly make by hand about 2,200 
cigarettes a day. One machine with three unskilled 
workers can turn out now 160,000 cigarettes a 
day. 

In the days of hand rolled cigars one skilful 
worker could make about 2,000 cigars a week. 
Today four girls operating one cigar making- 
machine can turn out about 4,000 cigars in nine 
hours or 24,000 cigars in a week of six days. 

6. In transportation on railroads the introduc- 
tion of mechanical firing apparatus by some of the 
western and southwestern railroads resulted in 
the discharge of 17,000 firemen. Since 1920 it is 
reported that the railroads have reduced their 
working force by about 235,000 men. 

7. It is reported that about 70 per cent of the 
output of the baking industry may be classed as 
machine product. 

The telegraph printing machines that can be 
operated by cheap labor are responsible for thous- 
ands of telegraphers losing their jobs. 



9. The ticket taking turnstiles in subways, 
elevated trains, amusement parks and public parks ; 
have thrown many thousand ticket takers out of 
jobs. 

10. Automatic car doors have relieved many 
thousand brakemen of their work. 

n. Card sorting machines to analyze statistics, 
tickets and reports, now do this kind of work with 
a speed and accuracy that no human bookkeeper 
or statistician can equal. Likewise calculating 
machines perform the most abstruse mathematical 
calculations and computations in a fraction of the 
time needed for the same task by a human mathe- 
matician. 

12. Glass blowing machines have made such 
inroads on the glass blowers that very few of the 
old school of glass blowers are left and their once 
powerful unions have been dissolved. An electric 
lamp machine recently installed has a reported 
production of 531,000 lamp globes a day, an in- 
crease per man of 9,000 times the method previ- 
ously employed. 

13. The coal industry, which has always been 
far overmanned under the old methods, has been 
plunged into further difficulties by the introduc- 
tion of electric drills, electric loading devices and 
other types of labor-saving machines. 

14. The talking moving pictures and the radio 
have put many actors and musicians on the bread 
line. 

15. A factory for the production of rayon 
yarn has been constructed in New Jersey. Its 
operation is entirely mechanical and production 
can be carried on twenty-four hours a day with- 
out a single worker in the plant. 

These few examples serve to show the tremend- 
ous progress that, has been made and is being made 
now in the development of labor-saving devices. 
This movement has not only invaded all phases of 
industry strictly defined but also fields of activity 
in commerce, the professions, the farms and the 
homes of the people. Along with the wider and 
wider use of machines in human industrial, com- 
mercial agricultural, professional and domestic 
activities, have come new methods of scientific 
management that seek to get the maximum output 
from each individual worker in the shortest pos- 
sible time at the lowest possible cost. Every merg- 
er, every consolidation in different lines of indust- 
ry and financial institutions, has resulted in the 
loss of positions by many workers. 



214 



LAND AND WATER IN THE RECREATION PROGRAM 



To summarize these advances in technology, it 
is reported that the present horsepower of our 
machines is about i ,000,000,000, equivalent to the 
energy output of about 10,000,000,000 working 
men. It is further said that only about 9,000,000 
men are required to direct this enormous energy. 
It is estimated that it would be possible to do most 
of the needed industrial, commercial and agricul- 
tural work of the nation by the use of the labor 
of only about 15,000,000 workers. 

Social and Economic Changes. 

The advances of this new technology have al- 
ready brought social and economic changes of 
tremendous import to the American people, as 
shown in the remarkable changes enumerated in 
the living and working habits and environment of 
the people. There is every reason to believe that 
the work of our scientists and inventors will con- 
tinue and that the volume of knowledge of nat- 
ural laws and forces and of how to apply them to 
doing our work will increase more rapidly in the 
future than it has in the past. This may result in 
the gradual formation of a new social and econo- 
mic philosophy and in the establishment of a new 
order of society. Our primary concern, however, 
is with the possibilities of the new technology in 
freeing men from long hours of toil in order to 
gain the means of living. Already the hours of 
labor have been substantially shortened. It has 
not been so long ago when men in many industrial 
and commercial fields of activity worked from 
ten to fourteen hours per day. The average day 
is now eight hours. A few of the leading indust- 
ries have established a six hour day and a five day 
week, and there is a growing demand for the uni- 
versal establishment of such a schedule of work. 

The past century and a quarter of our national 
history was marked by an extraordinary expan- 
sion territorially and by a tremendous exploitation 
of the natural resources of this great territory. 
In this conquest of our material frontier or series 
of frontiers the manual and acquisitive powers of 
the people were developed to a remarkable degree. 
We were looked on by the older countries of the 
world as wonderfully efficient and successful in 
producing and handling things but lacking in cul- 
ture. By that they meant in part that we did not 
love learning or knowledge for its own sake, that 
we had no great art in music, the drama, painting, 
sculpture, architecture, literature, that was the 
common possession of all the people, that our 



manners were often insufferable, that our use of 
language was crude and moreover that we were 
not a happy people. And there was much of truth 
and still is in what they felt and often said about 
us. 

Now our great material frontiers are gone for- 
ever. A new age is being ushered in the Age of 
Leisure. Leisure is the handmaid of all the arts, 
of all learning, of culture in its broadest sense. 
We are now entering into a period of our history 
when there will be opportunity to explore and ex- 
ploit a new kind of frontier, the frontier of the 
possibilities of the development in our people of 
something more than the manual and acquisitive 
powers and qualities. There seems to be no reason 
why we should not in the remaining decades of 
this century go a long way in developing a civiliza- 
tion that is representative of the possibilities of 
the whole man in good health and fine physique, 
in breadth of mentality, in a finer and higher ap- 
preciation of all the great arts, in capacities for 
neighborliness and friendliness, and in the attain- 
ment of a more universal degree of harmonious 
adjustment of the people to themselves and their 
environment in general that will yield the maxi- 
mum of satisfaction or happiness in living. 

The problem of our day is to develop in the 
minds of the people a concept of a new set ot 
values of what is worth while in life and to con- 
struct an environment whereby this great gift of 
the machine leisure may be used to the attain- 
ment of the above mentioned worthy ends. 

In this gigantic task the preserving of the na- 
tural resources represented by those places where 
the waters and the lands of the world meet is one 
of the necessary steps. The seas and lakes and 
their shores have always been a source of strength, 
refreshment and inspiration to mankind. They 
will be even more necessary for such purposes 
in the new age. 



"The world is chock full of things to enjoy 
fascinating, beautiful things to thrill over, new 
sciences to pursue, row books and plays to un- 
derstand and appreciate, new theories of govern- 
ment and social organization, new sports, strange 
countries and peoples to explore through books, 
old arts and new ones to comprehend and prac- 
tice with all of these nobody need get stale, even 
if he has a hundred years of leisure." Albert E. 
Bailey, Dean, Butler University, Indianapolis, 
Indiana. 




A Recreation Department Meets an Emergency 



SELF PRESERVATION has long 
been recognized as the first 
law of nature. When the 
earthquake occurred at 5 156 
P. M. on the evening of March 
IO > T 933> the recreation employees of Long Beach, 
California, like all other individuals, looked first 
of all to the immediate safety of their families 
and loved ones and of themselves. 

Saturday morning, March nth, when our play- 
ground directors reported at their areas they 
found a large influx of citizens who had taken 
refuge in the various city parks, since many 
homes were considered unsafe while some were 
more or less demolished. Because many of the 
stores were closed and business was temporarily 
paralyzed, many of these refugees were in im- 
mediate need of food and shelter. In one of our 
city parks, which was typical of all, several of 
the play directors and other members of the Rec- 
reation Commission's employed staff took up a 
collection among themselves and purchased a 
large quantity of coffee which they served from 
the Park Coffee House to those in need. It was 
temporarily impossible to requisition these sup- 
plies through the regular channels since the 
emergency called for immediate action. 



By WALTER L. SCOTT 

Coordinating Director 
Municipal and School Recreation 

Long Beach, California 



By noon of the first day fol- 
lowing the quake, hundreds of 
people were pouring into all the 
city parks, feeling more secure 
in the wide open green spaces 
underneath the friendly trees than they did near 
tall buildings, brick apartments and homes whose 
stability had not been checked. 

A meeting of the employed recreation staff was 
called almost immediately in order to review the 
situation which had been so abruptly thrust upon 
them. Dr. Frank Harnett, Assisitant Director of 
Municipal Recreation, presided at this meeting 
and outlined city wide plans for the ensuing days. 
The need was apparent for a complete reorgani- 
zation of our recreation staff to handle the emer- 
gency. Most of our part time employees were im- 
mediately requested to report for full time duty 
and a call was made for volunteer workers. Ap- 
proximately one hundred full time and part time 
employees started work at once and about the 
same number of volunteers reported for assign- 
ment. The duties of our recreation staff for the 
first two or three days consisted of anything but 
recreation work ! 

Our municipal supervisor of aquatics, Mr. 
Frank Davenport, was placed in charge of the 

215 



216 



A RECREATION DEPARTMENT MEETS AN EMERGENCY 



large refugee camp at Houghton Park and all 
activities in this area were centered under his 
direction. 

Entertainment Program Developed 
People were not interested in active recreation 
for several days following the disaster. Enthusi- 
astic play directors attempted to organize base- 
ball games for boys, but soon discovered that 
these young Americans were much more inter- 
ested in viewing the damage done those structures 
in which they had peculiar interest. All efforts 
to promote highly organized activities of any de- 
scription seemed futile. The recreation staff, 
therefore, decided temporarily to promote an en- 
tertainment program. A typical evening program 
in Recreation Park was somewhat as follows : 

1. Thirty minutes of community singing con- 
ducted by a well trained song leader. 

2. Talk by a local minister, designed to build 
courage and good cheer in the minds of the 
listeners. 

3. Twenty minutes of songs, dialogues or musi- 
cal selections presented by radio artists, ama- 
teur entertainers, or occasionally school 
children. 

4. Stirring band concerts such as those played by 
the famous Long Beach Municipal Band under 
the direction of Herbert L. Clark. 

5. Dance programs organized for students and 
others which usually concluded the evening's 
program. 

Mr. Clyde Doyle, President of the Long Beach 
Recreation Commission, who worked tirelessly 
during the entire emergency, while visiting some 
of these programs at Recreation Park, suggested 
that this type of pro- 
gram be promoted in 
all the parks of the 
city for the refugees. 
Miss Helen Huston, 
Supervisor of Social 
Recreation for the 
Long Beach Recrea- 
tion Commission, was 
placed in charge of 
the organization and 
promotion of such 
entertainment pro- 
grams on a city- 
wide basis. All ama- 
teur and professional 
entertainers were re- 



quested through newspaper columns and radio 
announcements to report to Miss Huston for as- 
signment. Soon her temporary office at Recrea- 
tion Park was flooded with individuals who had 
responded to the emergency request. Musicians, 
vocalists, both amateur and professional radio en- 
tertainers, choruses, church choirs, orchestras, 
and bands were assigned in rapid succession. 
Members of the Ministerial Association volun- 
teered their services for talks and religious serv- 
ices as needed. With this array of talent, Miss 
Huston was qualified immediately to put on two 
programs daily in all city parks. 

The attendance at these programs was very 
gratifying to members of the employed staff and 
the Recreation Commission members who were 
all working hard for the success of these events. 
During the two weeks' period following the earth- 
quake, eighty-five such community programs were 
offered in the city parks alone and were attended 
by approximately 200,000. These programs were 
of sufficient interest to draw people of all ages. 
The temporary influx of those desiring entertain- 
ment was especially noted for the moving picture 
shows, the band concerts and the evening dance 
programs. 

Some of the organizations that volunteered 
their services for these programs came from a 
considerable distance. Chaffee Junior College, 
Ontario, furnished a band and choir. Los Angeles 
and the Los Angeles Playground and Recreation 
Department furnished numerous groups of enter- 
(Coiitinufd on page 250) 

After the first shock of the disaster more 
active forms of recreation became popular. 



ACTIVITIES 
RECREATION 

COMMISSION 





The Milwaukee Players in "A Winter's Tale" 



IT WAS AN ambitious and difficult undertaking, 
that of the Milwaukee Players in the produc- 
tion of Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale. But 
it was highly successful from every point of view ! 

The play was presented on three consecutive 
evenings on the spelndidly equipped stage of the 
new Girls Trade and Technical High School. The 
workshop unit of the Players made the sets and 
properties, building the throne, benches and other 
furniture required. The wall hanging of beauti- 
ful silk painted with Russian Kraftrite colors was 
also "home-made." 

Each member of the Players represented one 
of the social centers maintained by the Extension 
Department of the Milwaukee Public Schools, 
and the cast of players was composed of the out- 
standing players from the one act play contest 
held the preceding year. This plan is followed 
each year and results in adding about twenty 
players every season to the group. The procedure 
created keen interest among the drama groups in 
the centers all of whom work very hard for the 
honor of being represented by players. 

A Cooperative Undertaking 
A Winter's Tale was a cooperative undertak- 
ing to which many departments of the social cen- 
ters contributed. The dressmaking department of 



each center made the costumes worn by its play- 
ers and took great pride in making them as beau- 
tiful as possible. The leading characters were 
dressed in velvets, the ladies in brocaded silk, the 
gentlemen of the court in duvetyn. The embroid- 
ered bands of Perdita's white gown were hand 
painted in gay peasant embroidery effect. The 
music was presented by the different social center 
orchestras each night. 

The cast was a veritable League of Nations! 
There were two Greeks, several Italians, a num- 
ber of Poles, a German and a Russian. The list 
of occupations is even more interesting. The 
supervisor of the court bottles beer in the Pabst 
brewery. King Polixenes is a hosiery knitter, 
Camillo, a truck driver. One of the lords is a 
plumber and the old shepherd a molder. King 
Leontes holds a clerical position in an insurance 
office. Only one of the boys of the cast has gone 
beyond high school. Two of the women in the 
group are attending State Teachers College. One 
member of the cast is a stenographer, one a hair- 
dresser, one a clerk; the rest are at present un- 
employed. 

The drama activities promoted by the Exten- 
sion Department each year are becoming a more 
important part of the city's social center program. 

217 



Recreation in Westchester County 

An experiment in county recreation organization 
in successful operation for more than ten years 



//px ID YOU have a good time?" 
\J This question, with its 
answers of varying en- 
thusiasm, recurs innumerable times on the lips of 
all of us in friendly intercourse, especially during 
the current vacation months. 

Questions which never occur to us are : "Are 
you capable of having a good time? Have you 
realized your potentialities of happiness? Has 
this advanced society placed at your disposal the 
means of satisfying your innate love of play? 
And, given the means, has your up-bringing been 
so conditioned as to make response possible?" 

The answer for most of us is probably, and 
alas, "No" ! Some years ago the reply in the 
negative would have met with indifference. Noth- 
ing could be less disturbing than the suggestion 
that we had "nothing worthwhile to do" in our 
spare hours. After all, gaining a livelihood or 
keeping house or striving to out-do someone else 
in a chosen profession provided more than suf- 
ficient activities with which to fill the day. 

But recognition of the inevitable increase in 
modern man's idle hours, and of the harmful and 
costly character of many of today's leisure time 
pursuits, calls for a restatement of the "good 
time" formula. The public seems on the whole 
to be unaware of this ne- 
cessity, but here and there 
the idea is constantly 
creeping up. We find, for 
instance, in a recent issue 
of one of the country's 
most highly respected lit- 
erary periodicals, a dis- 
cussion of what "an entire 
nation which has never 
learned to play" is going 
to do with the "great gift 
of leisure," the wise use 
of which constitutes "the 
most important influence 
on the future course of 



By E. DANA CAULKINS 



Mr. Caulkins has been prominent in recreation 
for the past twenty years. Formerly associated 
with the National Recreation Association, he 
is now assistant as vice-president to Gustavus 
T. Kirby, President, Public Schools Athletic 
League, New York City. He also serves as 
head of the Division of Recreation of the Ad- 
justment Service of the American Association 
for Adult Education, and is organizer of, and 
lecturer for, the Wingate Athletic Lectures. 
In his home community he acts as Chairman 
of the Youth Emergency Activities Committee 
of the Children's Association. Mr. Caulkins' 
endorsement of the Westchester County Rec- 
reation Commission is founded on disinteres- 
ted observation as a resident of the county 
and on occasional contacts as friendy advisor. 



our civilization." ("The Lost Art 
of Play," Ernest Elmo Calkins, 
Atlantic Monthly, April. 1933.) 
Again at about the same time, there was re- 
printed from Teachers College Record a paper 
"Training for Leisure," by George A. Lundberg 
of the Department of Sociology of Columbia 
University, in which the question : "What will 
people do with this constantly increasing leisure 
time?'' is discussed on the basis of being "at least 
as challenging as any (question) now occupying 
the attention of social scientists." 

\\hether the wise use of leisure is termed the 
"art of play," the first writer's designation, or is 
characterized as a legitimate object of scientific 
study, Dr. Lundberg's contention, matters little 
Play or science, the fact remains that leisure is 
becoming ever more important in the scheme of 
things. 

Today, awareness of its growing importance is 
a matter of more or less general recognition. Ten 
years ago only those with unusual acumen could 
foresee the coming necessity for community action 
on the subject. Towns and cities here and there 
awoke to the increasing need for recreational op- 
portunities offered at the public expense. Stand- 
ing out as a conspicuous pioneer was one large 
group of communities in 
the East, comprising cit- 
ies, towns, villages and 
farm districts where a 
far-flung and ever-active 
public recreation program 
was put in motion. West- 
chester County, lying 
north of New York City 
between Long Island 
Sound and the Hudson 
River with a total popula- 
tion of 521,000, instituted 
such a program in 1922. 

The progress of the 
Westchester County 



218 



RECREATION IN WESTCHESTER COUNTY 



219 



The County Center 
which houses the 
Workshop and many 
of the activities of 
the County Recrea- 
tion Commission. 







Recreation Com- 
mission has been 
watched with 
some eagerness 
by those who ap- 
preciate its sig- 
nificant contri- 
bution to com- 
munity life. Serving as a model not only for local 
recreation boards within the county boundaries, 
but for communities wherever thought is given 
to organized recreation, the Westchester Recrea- 
tion Commission fulfills an important function. 
The statistics alone are noteworthy, revealing that 
approximately 26,700 men, women and children 
engaged regularly in the leisure time activities 
sponsored by the Commission in the year ending 
last December. 

Recreational Arts 

The outstanding accomplishment of this group, 
however, is its successful experiment with the 
cultural aspects of recreation. Among the county's 
residents, from childhood to old age, the Commis- 
sion uncovered an unsuspected urge to participate 
in the various forms of creative expression : art, 
sculpture and the crafts, music, the dance, drama 
and writing. Here, indeed, were hobbies worthy 
of wide development. Judged by Dr. Lundberg's 
criterion, they seem to fulfill the four main re- 
quirements of a desirable leisure pursuit, which 
are, to quote again from his paper on "Training 
for Leisure," as follows : 

"(1) It must have the capacity for being relatively 
permanetly interesting; (2) It must be as different as 
possible from the activities which our station in life 
forces upon us; (3) It should as far as possible have 
both its origin and its fulfillment in the individual him- 
self rather than in invidious coercions of the social or 
the economic order; (4) It should be at least compatible 
with, if not conducive to, physical and mental health and 
personality development." 



A sympathetic study of the individuals who 
partake in the Westchester-sponsored programs 
of art, music and the theater, reveals to what ex- 
tent these occupations are (i) interesting, (2) 
different, (3) spontaneous and (4) wholesome. 
Oblivion to all but the canvas and the model, the 
sheet of music, the half-finished piece of pottery, 
or the play-script, marks the faces of followers 
of these pastimes. Their spontaneous interest is 
undeniable. As for the second requirement, dif- 
ference from routine activities, a survey of the 
personnel of art classes, choral and other groups, 
discloses the presence of men and women from 
every profession and trade. The housewife, the 
lawyer, the stenographer, the mechanic, find new 
fields opened to them through the facilities placed 
at their disposal by the county-wide organization. 
Perhaps talents that were tentatively encouraged 
in school days have remained latent throughout a 
maturity which would have been enriched by 
their development. 

For many it has been proved that the most 
satisfying relaxation from socially obligatory ac- 
tivities is to be found in practise of the arts. 
Again, a glance at the participants is revealing. 
The refreshing influence of the hobby is convinc- 
ingly expressed on the faces of those departing 
from rehearsals or periods of study. They ap- 
pear to come away from the workshop with a 
new lease on life; hence, the fourth rule for a 
desirable leisure pursuit, health and personality 
development, is observed. 



220 



RECREATION IN WESTCHESTER COUNTY 




Services to Communities 



Long before this four-fold defini- 
tion had been formulated, the West- 
chester County Recreation Commission was en- 
gaged in providing people with opportunities for 
just such "desirable leisure pursuits." Its essen- 
tial functions, however, were and are to promote 
recognition of the necessity for worthwhile forms 
of leisure time activities among the citizens of 
every community withjn the county's borders and 
to organize the county's resources toward pro- 
vision for this necessity. Thus, in 1932, the 
county organization set the pace for thirty-four 
local recreation groups, active in as many wide- 
spread Westchester communities. Invaluable as- 
sistance other than that of an advisory nature 
was given many of the local bodies. The training 
of playground directors; the preparation of bud- 
gets; the selecting of 
recreation executives; 
the instigation of cam- 
paigns resulting in ap- 
propriations of necessary funds ; 
the calling of meetings of inter- 
ested citizens, village trustees or 
education boards; the formulating 
of programs these are a few of 
the services rendered community 
recreation agencies by the county 
commission. The county program 
gave support to and set standards 
for the local programs; the local 
programs largely made possible 
the county program, establishing 
an ideal system of interdependence. 

In addition to specific services 



to each city and village there are a num- 
ber of general services to all communi- 
ties rendered by the Commission which 
should be mentioned. For five years, for 
instance, when numerous communities 
were starting local summer playgrounds, 
which last year reached the number of 
103, the County Recreation Commission 
conducted a ten-weeks course for the 
training of playground leaders. Mount 
Yernon/Yonkers, Port Chester and East- 
chester subsequently started similar 
courses for their own workers when the 
number of workers became sufficiently 
numerous to justify the offering of a 
local training course. In each of these 

courses several members of 
Classes in sculpture ore arranged the county staff were used 

as instructors. In June of 
this year, at the invitation 
of the Mount Vernon Recreation Commission, 



at the Workshop for all interested. 



all local recreation commissions offered a training 
institute for summer playground workers. The 
program for this institute was set up by the staff 
of the County Commission and all-year-round 
executives of local places collaborated in the 
instruction. 

During the summer months specialists on the 
county staff visit local playgrounds and assist 
local directors in their work. This assistance is 
particularly effective and needful in the smaller 
communities where the funds allowed for recre- 
ation are so small that well trained and experi- 
enced employees cannot be secured. Last summer 
there became available certain funds for the em- 
ployment of white-collared workers on 

Sketching groups often go out-of- emergency work relief. The County 
doors in search of their subjects. Commission opened twelve playgrounds 




RECREATION IN WESTCHESTER COUNTY 



221 



in districts where no 
playgrounds had been 
conducted before which 
were supervised by 
such emergency work- 
ers. 

In addition to the 
communities in which 
organized recreation 
has been made possible 
through the constant 
as si stance of the 
County Commission, 
there are many smaller 
communities in which 
public recreation pro- 
jects are attempted 
from time to time. The 
County Commission is 
depended upon a great 
deal in connection with 
such special projects. 
Many of these are un- 
dertaken by the public 
schools. From time to 
time in nearly all of the 
communities crises occur 
when the service of an ex- 




For several years a circus wagon travelled 
about among the various towns of the county- 



perienced outside agency is much needed. For 
example, when an executive leaves his position or 
is discontinued, the staff of the County Commis- 
sion is depended upon to render local assistance 
in the interim between such time and the selection 
of a new executive. 

The services of the county agency are ex- 
tremely valuable to local districts from the point 
of view of economy. Recently it came to the at- 
tention of the County Commission that one village 
had spent $3,000 for a summer playground pro- 
gram which could have been effectively carried 
out at an expenditure of no more than $1,200. 
A program involving this sum was outlined there 
for this summer. 

Only a centralized, efficient and experienced 
organization such as the Westchester County Rec- 
reation Commission could undertake the task of 
competently advising and helping in the local 
programs, conducting at the same time a year- 
round project of its own. The work of the Com- 
mission, supported by appropriations of the Board 
of Supervisors, is entrusted to a staff of experts 
in their respective fields, with George Hjelte, 
Superintendent of Recreation, in charge of the 



program. The Commis- 
sion itself is made up 
of five prominent West- 
Chester women : Mrs. 
Eugene Meyer, Chair- 
man; Miss Ruth Tay- 
lor, who is also the 
county's Commissioner 
of Public Welfare, Sec- 
retary ; Mrs. Paul Re- 
vere Reynolds, Mrs 
Thomas Blain and Mrs. 
John Tyssowski. With 
a singular oneness of 
purpose, commission 
and staff members have 
worked "to the end that 
an ever increasing num- 
ber of people may find 
growth, happiness and 
enrichment of life 
through participation in 
worthwhile activities." 
In music, art and ath- 
letics, the culminating 
events take place in the 
County Center, the huge 
building in White Plains 

containing an auditorium seating 5000, a Little 
Theater seating 500, art studios and galleries and 
exposition rooms. 

The Story in Figures 

Told in figures, the Commission's accomplish- 
ments for last year are impressive. Seventeen in- 
door and outdoor sports drew out over 9500 as 
contestants in county-sponsored events, attract- 
ing a total attendance of 70,000 spectators. 

Music as recreation provided the next largest 
number of Westchesterites with a worthwhile 
leisure time pursuit. About 6500 amateur musi- 
cians took part in weekly rehearsals for local con- 
certs and Spring festivals at the County Center. 
Of these 1600 were adults belonging to twenty- 
seven different choral societies affiliated with the 
Westchester Choral Society, which presents the 
Music Festival annually; 3600 were school chil- 
dren of the county organized in eighty-two dis- 
tricts to take part in chorus, orchestra or band of 
the Junior Music Festival ; 900 were Negroes 
whose weekly meetings to sing spirituals and 
oratorios culminated in the yearly Song Jubilee; 



222 



RECREATION IN WESTCHESTER COUNTY 



200 were amateur members of symphony orches- 
tras; and 100 belonged to the Chamber Music 
Society, a laboratory for amateur instrumentalists 
of Westchester. 

The Westchester Workshop conducted thirty- 
one courses at the Center for 1300 individuals 
under the direction of Mrs. Chester Geppert 
Marsh, the first head of the Recreation Commis- 
sion prior to Mr. Hjelte's appointment. Classes 
included all the graphic arts, sculpture, commer- 
cial art, every craft, creative writing, art appre- 
ciation, motion pictures photography, stage-craft, 
interior decorating, marionette making, furniture 
making and other forms of inventive design. Ac- 
cording to figures on attendance, the following 
proved most popular : pottery, sculpture, mixed 
crafts, creative writing, loom weaving, leather 
work, jewelry making and painting. To encour- 
age art activities, the Workshop cooperated with 
the Westchester Arts and Crafts Guild in spon- 
soring art exhibitions by well known county resi- 
dents ; over 7000 individuals visited the Center 
gallery during the course of the season. 

That the theater and dancing were also proved 
indispensable in a community's recreation pro- 
gram was revealed in the Commission's 1932 re- 
port. Twenty-seven Little Theater groups were 
affiliated with the Westchester Drama Associa- 
tion, sponsored by the Commission, with a total 
membership .of about 1350 men and women. In 
dancing, twelve local studios 
participated in the Commis- 
sion's county-wide Dance Fes- 
tival inaugurated a year ago, 
and one hundred young women 
and children were enrolled in 
the Commission - sponsored, 
weekly classes at the County 
Center. 

In addition to organized 
sports, outdoor activities in- 
cluded the organization of one 
hundred and sixty walking en- 
thusiasts into the Westchester 
Trails Association which con- 
ducted hikes and outings dur- 



Music as a popular form of lei- 
sure time activity ranks second 
only to outdoor sports, drawing 
large numbers of participants. 



ing the season. Almost 800 boys and girls were 
enrolled in the camps conducted for the benefit 
of county residents by the Commission, while 
6000 children participated in playground pro- 
grams under Commission direction. 

When this statistical summary of the West- 
Chester Commission's activities during 1932 was 
submitted to the County Board of Supervisors 
this Spring, there was presented with it an intro- 
ductory note by Mr. Hjelte, without which the 
record of accomplishment is incomplete. In part, 
he wrote : 

"In keeping before the public the appeal of, as well as 
the opportunities for, participation in music, drama, art 
and outdoor recreations the Westchester County Recre- 
ation Commission is rendering a service much more vast 
than is indicated by the year's statistical record of actual 
participation in or attendance at organized activities. 
Witness for example the cumulative effect of the or- 
ganization of a Chamber Music Society, an activity in- 
troduced into the program of the Commission during 
1932. Although this society may hold only a few meet- 
ings the word-of-mouth publicity and the wide-spread 
newspaper mention of its activities has an immeasurable 
effect resulting in greater attention to home music and 
more and more incentive to musical education 

"The increasing dependence of the American people 
upon inexpensive recreation, as a result of the economic 
depression, and the vastly increased leisure which our 
people now possess, present both a challenge and an op- 
portunity to the public recreation agencies. Unqestion- 
ably the public will demand of its government, local and 
(Continufd on page 251) 




Self-Supporting Craft Projects 



A few suggestions for reducing 
the cost of your handcraft pro- 
gram to an absolute minimum. 



By CLARENCE R. BUCK 

Supervisor of Maintenance and Handcraft 

Department of Public Playgrounds and Recreation 
Reading, Pennsylvania 



THE MEANING of self-supporting is "to main- 
tain itself or be independent of outside help." 
As applied to playground projects this defini- 
tion is seldom fulfilled in its strict sense for the 
reason that all materials entering into a project 
have some monetary value, and finished projects 
are rarely sold. This is not because they are un- 
salable through lack of merit, but because of sen- 
timent a child is reluctant to part with his work. 
I am therefore offering you an alternative. In 
many projects, if materials at hand are assembled 
by the director they can be furnished at so low a 
cost as to bring to the sponsor the same results as 
would a self-supporting craft, with the added ad- 
vantage that the child may keep the result of his 
handiwork. 

Near me as I write this is a good looking vase, 
an adaptation of those cut paper horrors called 
mosaics. Its purpose was to contain olives or 
pickles. On the 
playground it was 
painted with as- 
phaltum varnish, 
sprinkled with 
sand sifted 
through an old fly 
screen and embel- 
lished with a red 
rose cut from a 
wall paper sample 
book. The varn- 
ish cost eight cents 
a quart enough 
for forty jars. 
Next to the vase 
is a burlap carry- 
ing bag.. Before itS Courtesy Extension Detriment, Milwai, 



introduction to the playground it graced the top 
of a potato barrel. The bag is ten inches square 
in size and dyed a deep blue. It has a white oil- 
cloth Scotty appliqued on one side and is a use- 
ful and attractive project. Coffee bags of very 
fine burlap, large enough to supply material for 
ten bags of this size can be purchased for five 
cents. Dupont sells dye at five cents an ounce, 
and one ounce of blue will dye fifty bags. This 
bag, made by a well known commercial company, 
costs 1 6 cents. 

There is at the present time a vogue for toy 
furniture. All the magazines are full of it. A 
bedroom suite may be made of clothespins and 
cigar box wood. The four poster bed is made by 
joining four whole pins together with four sticks 
forced into the slot of the pins. Table legs are 
made by sawing off the prongs of the pin at the 
end of the slot. The front legs of the chairs are 




kee Public Schools 



223 



224 



SELF-SUPPORTING CRAFT PROJECTS 



made in the same manner, while the back legs 
have one prong cut away leaving the other to 
form the back of the chair. The dressing table 
legs are made in the same way as the chair legs. 
The oblong mirror from a handbag may be fas- 
tened with adhesive to the back legs, and a credi- 
table dresser results. Clothespins are selling at 
ten cents a gross. 

A five gallon oil can, found in every home 
garage, would yield four attractive colonial can- 
dle sconces. In all of the handcraft classes con- 
ducted by the Department of Public Playgrounds 
and Recreation tin is used as the medium in 
metalcraft. This is one of the most appealing of 
crafts and requires very simple tools. A hammer, 
twenty-penny nail, a quoit the hole in it is ideal 
for drawing shallow dishes and a block of wood 
comprise the list of tools. 

One of the materials for handcraft purposes is 
sisal the bristly straw-colored rope used to tie 
rough packages. This makes excellent rugs, car- 
rying bags, belts and moccasins. If purchased 
commercially it costs 35 cents a pound, plus car- 
rying costs for the colored materials. Sisal in the 
natural color at your home town wholesaler costs 
ten cents a pound in 50 pound reels. We made a 
reel by driving two large nails into a stick of 
wood one foot apart. We wound twenty-five 
turns on this reel, stirred the half pound hank in 
a bucket of Dupont dye, and threw it out on the 
floor to dry. By this process, for ten cents or less, 
a fine pair of moccasins may be made. (We use 
the three basic cold water dyes in the projects 
described.) 

In one instance, we conducted a class which 
was entirely self-supporting a leathercraft class 
for Scouts. This class confined itself to one pro- 
ject a small coin purse and the boys literally 
made a barrel full of them, and sold them at ten 
cents a piece, to pay their way to camp. 

Handcraft for the Unemployed 
Two years ago, when it became necessary to 
make provision for the unemployed who were 
walking the streets, the Department of Recrea- 
tion opened a number of recreation centers, some 
of them rooms 20' x 40'. During the first week 
or two activities were limited almost exclusively 
to card playing and the rooms were jammed. 
Then we tried handcraft. A work table 3' x 10' 
sufificed for a start. The Police Department con- 
tributed some confiscated stills, and with a few 
simple tools the first ash trays were hammered 



out. I made the first dozen. It took nearly two 
days as much time was spent answering questions 
and arousing interest. We sold the trays to a 
bridge club at 30 cents apiece. The actual passing 
of money in that transaction showed the possibili- 
ties of this new activity more quickly and more 
surely than all of our talking had done, and dur- 
ing the next week ten men were busily engaged 
at work. 

The men were given the entire proceeds of 
their sales without any deduction for materials. 
In a month we had exhausted both the material 
supply and the market for ash trays, and we set- 
tled down to a real business basis. First we ex- 
panded our line to include really ambitious 
sconces, and next we hit on a miniature mine in 
the shape of city and state seals one foot in di- 
ameter. For this we were obliged to buy copper 
which we charged against sales. The worker was 
able to earn around two dollars a day. 

During the winter of 1932-33 we expanded our 
activities by creating a craft shop. With $100 
borrowed from a local philanthropist, we bought 
some of the fine home shop machinery now on the 
market, and put ten men to work making toys for 
Christmas. A business set-up was organized 
which any commercial 'firm would be proud of, 
with a sales manager and assistants, a shop fore- 
man and a general manager. The product was so 
finely finished that it sold on its merit alone, and 
the demand was so great that it kept twenty 
workmen busy every day until the night before 
Christmas. 

Immediately after Christmas Easter novelties 
were gotten under way. It was an easy transition 
from Christmas to Easter novelties. Then came 
the jig-saw puzzle craze and an order for 100,- 
ooo puzzles swamped the shop. Die-cut puzzles 
are becoming too competitive and the shop fore- 
man, seeing the beginning of the end, is preparing 
to market a new paddle game. Wishing to protect 
the game, we made application for copyright and 
discovered that the game was fifty years old. And 
that is just another reason why it is so difficult to 
discuss Mm- craft work ! But it is not important 
that it shall be new, when a revival or adaptation 
of an old friend will give the desired result ! 



NOTE: Readers of RECREATION interested in the mini- 
ature furniture Mr. Buck describes will want to secure 
"Cigar Box Furniture," published by the Association 
which contains patterns for making seven pieces. 
Price $.20. 



How to Produce a Play 



By JACK STUART KNAPP 

National Recreation Association 



Organizing a production 
is not a "one man job"! 



A PRODUCTION in which the director tries to do 
all the work will never be a success. Noth- 
ing is more pitiful than a flustered director 
attending to all the minor details of a perform- 
ance and at the same time trying to put up scen- 
ery, lighting equipment, secure properties, make 
up actors, and pin costumes on nervous Thespians. 

It is impossible for one person to do all of the 
work connected with a production. A successful 
production requires careful organization. This 
organization is often called the producing staff. 
A simple organization plan for the producing 
staff is illustrated below : 

THE DIRECTOR 



Stage Manager 



Scenic Artist 
Lighting Artist 
Costume Artist 
Property Man 



Prompter 
Music Director 
Make Up Director 



Business Manager 



Publicity 

Director 



Stage Hands 



Ushers 

Ticket Sellers 
Ticket Takers 
Janitors 



It is quite possible, and some times desirable, 
that the same person fill three or four of these 
positions. For instance, the same man or woman 
might be business manager, publicity director, 
and music director, or costume artist, make-up 
director, and lighting artist. Some of the actors 
with small parts may fill the less arduous posi- 
tions. The director, however, should see that 
some one person occupies each position, and that 
every one works. Otherwise on the night of the 
performance the scenery, the furniture, or the 
audience will be missing, depending upon which 



If a play is to be successful many de- 
tails must be arranged with the great- 
est care and the help of many people 
enlisted. Mr. Knapp offers here sug- 
gestions for organizing a production 
and outlines the responsibilities of 
the various members of the producing 
staff. In the September issue of the 
magazine he will discuss the subject 
"Rehearsing for Stage Position." 



responsibility the director has forgotten or 
neglected. 

Each member of the producing staff has cer- 
tain definite duties. 

The stage manager works in close cooperation 
with the director. He supervises and coordinates 
the work of the scenic, lighting and costume 
artists and the property man. He recruits and re- 
hearses the stage hands who set the stage, shift 
the scenery, move the furniture, and pull the cur- 
tain at his direction. He manages the stage the 
night of the performance, seeing that each mem 
her of the staff is on the job, that the actors make 
their entrances on time and that all details are 
carried out. 

The business manager makes out a budget for 
the production and authorizes expenditures, pays 
all bills, royalties, secures the hall for the night 
of the play, has charge of the ticket sales and 
ticket sellers, takers, ushers and janitors. He co- 
operates closely with the publicity director. 

The publicity director secures publicity for the 
production by means of posters, newspapers, an- 
nouncements at meetings and publicity stunts. He 
has two jobs first, to make the community aware 
of the production ; second, to make them want to 
see it. 

The scenic artist designs and secures the scen- 
ery for the production. He may have to build it, 
paint it, rent it, borrow it or steal it, but he is 
responsible for having it at the theatre for the 
dress rehearsals and the production. (The stage 
manager with his stage hands puts it up.) 
(Continued on page 251) 

225 



Facilities 

for 

Good Times 




BUILDINGS and other facilities 
which are to be found in 
parks and .playgrounds pro- 
vide a setting for the activities 
carried on and help materially in creating a spirit 
of friendliness which should characterize the cen- 
ter. It is therefore important that buildings and 
facilities shall be suitable in construction for the 
purposes for which they are to be used. The more 
successful they are in securing the natural effect 
which "smacks" of the out-of-doors, the more 
popular they are likely to prove. 

The Evolution of a Shelter House 

When park construction started in 1904 in 
Watertown, New York, a horse corral was built 
near the summit which was used extensively dur- 
ing the days of the horse drawn vehicles. This 
corral, 165 feet long, 104 feet wide, with circular 
ends at a radius of 50 feet, was enclosed by a 
rustic stone wall laid in Portland cement mortar 
5 feet in height and 2 feet wide. When the need 
for a shelter for picnic parties became imperative, 
the city manager decided the time had come to 
convert the corral into a shelter house. 

Piers were built on the inside parallel to and 
were built on top of the old wall in such a way 
as to make them conform with the rustic stone 
architecture of thirty years ago which was in ex- 
cellent condition. Stone arches were placed at 
the main entrances and at the rear entrance lead- 
ing by way of stone stairs to the wading pool at 
the summit of the park. The area between the 
two sets of piers at the tops is framed with heavy 
timbers and roofed with wood shingles. Wide 
cornices with medium flat roof were designed and 
built to fit the surrounding beauty of other build- 
ings of the general landscape scheme. In order to 
conform with the stone structure in places, it was 

226 



Buildings are not absolute- 
ly essential to good times 
but often they are assets. 



necessary to go about three miles 
from the park and draw the stone 
from an old fence which had pre- 
viously been built from stone 
taken out of the gravel pit. These stones were 
flat and of unique thickness with round smooth 
edges. 

The work was done entirely by relief labor ex- 
cept for three regular park employees, handy men 
who were readily taught by the park superintend- 
ent the necessary procedure for laying stone walls 
of rustic type. In this process it was necessary 
to use warm mortar and all of the stones were 
preheated before laying. The carpentry work was 
carried on under the supervision of one paid fore- 
man who utilized the labor of several fairly ex- 
perienced carpenters selected from the general 
welfare list. 

A Cabin for Year-Round Use 

School clubs, church classes, Boy Scout troops, 
women's clubs, hiking clubs and unorganized 
groups of people getting together for parties have 
found in Beras Den Cabin at Mill Creek Park, 
Youngstown, Ohio, a building which is suitable 
for both winter parties and summer picnics. 
About fifty people may be accommodated in it at 
one time. A. E. Davies, Recreation Director, 
described the building. 

Constructed of special 2" by 8" ship lap siding 
and rounded on the outside, the building which is 
30' long by 20' wide, resembles a log cabin. It 
has been covered with creosote rather than paint 
in order to give it a weathered appearance. Three 
of the side walls are entirely removable, having 
been built in sections held in place with lag 
screws. This permits the cabin to be thrown open 
during the summer months. No furniture is pro- 
vided other than picnic tables and benches. 



FACILITIES FOR GOOD TIMES 



227 



A large fireplace has been built in the solid end 
of the cabin and a grate for cooking is provided 
which can be swung out of the fireplace when not 
in use. An iron coal stove placed in the cabin 
during the winter months helps to heat it. At 
present kerosene lanterns are used for lighting, 
but as this is not a wholly satisfactory method 
other lights will probably be installed. 

No charge is made for the use of the cabin, 
but a deposit of $5.00 is required when keys and 
a permit are obtained. No caretaker is employed 
and each group is expected to leave the cabin 
clean and in order for the next group. The dup- 
licates of all permits are posted for the benefit of 
park guards who make at least one trip to the 
cabin whenever a party is in progress. These 
guards collect the permits, take attendance and 
make an inspection after every party. A report 
of the condition of the cabin is made to the park 
office before the deposit is returned. Any ex- 
penditure made necessary by a group's careless- 
ness is deducted from its deposit. Thus far it 
has been necessary only once to retain part of 
the deposit, and in that case the damage was slight 
and purely accidental. 

Advance reservations for the use of the cabin 
may be made by telephone, but whoever makes 
this reservation must come in person to the park 
office to post the deposit and obtain the keys. 
A copy of the rules governing the use of the 
cabin is given out with each permit. The cabin 
may be used any day between the hours of 6 :oo 
A. M. and n :oo P. M. 

The original plan of removing the side walls 
of the cabin and throwing it open during the 
summer has been modified because of the large 
number of private parties wishing to reserve it 
during the summer months. Instead of remov- 
ing all of the side walls, merely the middle sec- 
tions of each side are taken out and replaced with 
sections of screen. The cabin is then operated 
in the same manner as during the winter months. 

Attendance records show that the cabin was 
used during 1932 by 279 different groups a 
total of 9,087 people. 

The Camp Fire Circle 

Youngstown has another splendid aid to good 
times in its camp fire circle which is bringing 
many people out-of-doors to enjoy an evening 
of fun. 



In July, 1931, Volney Rogers Playground held 
its first camp fire program in a corner of the 
ground. The program was purely extemporane- 
ous and consisted of the telling of stories by the 
playground leader and the singing of a few songs 
by the group around the fire. So popular did 
the innovation prove, however, that another camp 
fire was planned for the following week. From 
that time on a weekly camp fire was a regular 
part of the playground program, and by the end 
of the 1931 season between 150 and 200 chil- 
dren were attending. 

With the increased attendance it became im- 
possible for all of the children to see and hear 
the program, so before the beginning of the 
1932 season there was built in a small ravine at 
one end of the playground a camp fire circle 
consisting of bleacher seats arranged in a small 
semi-circle. The ground in front of the circle 
was well drained and leveled to provide a place 
for the fire and to serve as a stage. 

With the first program in the new circle, it 
became evident that the circle had been made too 
small. About 500 children attended ; often the 
fathers and mothers of the children, as well as 
their old brothers and sisters, became interested 
and began to attend. Gradually the camp fire 
program evolved into a weekly neighborhood 
night. The final camp fire of 1932 attracted about 
1,200 people, about 50 per cent of them adults. 

After the first camp fire program the pro- 
grams were always planned in advance. Stories, 
simple plays, stunts, pyramids, tumbling, Indian 
club drills, group singing, solos, individual dance 
numbers and occasional instrument music by 
amateurs from the neighborhood, made up the 
program. The playground children themselves 
did most of the entertaining, and those who had 
a part each week spent much time practising. 
The camp fire lasted about one and a half hours, 
starting at 7 130 P. M. and continuing until 9 :oo. 



"We reap what we sow. Today we are in- 
clined to neglect matters spiritual, and character 
building efforts, and to emphasize relief only. 
Cutting budgets dealing with this service is short- 
sighted and socially criminal. One dollar cut to- 
day will cost one thousand dollars twenty years 
hence."- Judge Jonah J. Goldstein, in Better 
Times, May 15, 1933. 



Parks Which Serve the People 



By PERK WHITMAN 

Assistant Supervisor of Recreation 
Oklahoma City, Oaklahoma 



A Park Department makes recreation 
for the people its chief objective. 



DURING RECENT YEARS of economic depres- 
sion cities have looked to their parks as 
one of their chief recreational agencies and 
extension programs have been in operation. 

Oklahoma City's parks, of which Donald Gor- 
don is Superintendent, recorded more than a 
half million visits during the twelve weeks they 
were open last summer under leadership. The 
cost of the recreation provided for the summer 



was 1.3 cents per individual. Many forms of 
recreation were introduced, and it was found 
that thousands who took little or no part in the 
daily routine of sports found relaxation and en- 
joyment in the weekly or semi- weekly community 
programs presented in the evenings, which con- 

A Massachusetts city gives its playground 
a setting of rare beauty in a local park. 




228 



PARKS WHICH SERVE THE PEOPLE 



229 



sisted for the most part of local playground 
talent. Some of the programs included dance 
recitals by schools of dancing, band concerts and 
other professional or semi-professional enter- 
tainments. Few of the programs, however, were 
received with more enthusiasm than the dramatic 
presentations planned by the playground super- 
visors for the boys and girls of their immediate 
communities who took part in them. 

So successfully did the Park Department con- 
duct its program last summer that the entire city 
has become "park conscious." The Chamber of 
Commerce has seen in the parks one of the city's 
greatest assets and is standing back of the work. 
Organizations of various kinds are reserving 
dates for open air entertainments, tournaments 
and play festivals, and the general public is sup- 
porting the program. 

The Park Department is making every effort 
to justify this confidence. The number 'of park 
playgrounds has been increased from twelve to 
twenty-two, the number of supervisors more 
than doubled, and a full time recreation director 
secured to organize activities. Many parks have 
been improved, redesigned and rebeautified dur- 
ing the past year and more flowers, shrubs and 
trees planted about the parks to balance the areas 
used exclusively for play. One of the greatest 
improvements made by the Park Department 
was the construction of a beautiful Shakespear- 
ian garden at one end of Memorial Park. In this 
garden stands a bust of William Shakespeare 
donated by the Shakespeare Club of the city. In 
connection with the garden is a huge amphithea- 
ter where the club plans to present several pro- 
ductions during the summer. 

When the new superintendent of recreation, 
G. W. Danielson, assumed charge early last 
April, he opened ten of the parks for play after 
school hours and on Saturdays and Sundays 
with play leaders in charge. More than 57,500 
visits were recorded in these ten parks during 
the first four weeks, and in that period a city 
wide marble tournament was held. A city and state 
wide play day conducted to celebrate the opening 
of all the city parks on May 27th provided an 
unusually extensive demonstration of recreational 
activity. The Chamber of Commerce invited 
every city in the state to take part in the wide 
variety of activities offered at the opening, and 
thousands of people poured into the city by rail 
and airplane. Golf tournaments, motor and sail 



boat races, horseshoe tournaments and the pre- 
sentation of a number of outdoor dramatic and 
musical programs supplemented the regular 
schedule of individual park activities. 

In preparing for the opening of the summer 
playgrounds, more than 120 playground directors 
attended a two day training institute at which 
programs for the entire summer were outlined. 
It was decided that each park will have a com- 
munity program every week to balance the 
sports programs. Fourteen of the twenty-six 
park playgrounds are equipped with wading or 
swimming pools and unique natural rock shel- 
ter houses, dressing rooms and handcraft shops. 
Numerous water carnivals are planned and sev- 
eral city wide contests in which handcraft will 
play a major part. Some of the events in pros- 
pect are soap carving contests, a lantern parade 
and contest, and bird house building contest. The 
making of model sail boats will be taught in 
handcraft shops and the boats will be used in in- 
dividual park water carnivals. The sports sched- 
ule for all the parks will include city wide com- 
petition in croquet, volley ball, horseshoe pitch- 
ing, soft ball, baseball, bowling on the green, ten- 
nis and soccer. 

The Park Department's program will be con- 
ducted during the entire year and in the winter 
checkers, dominoes, bowling, skating and bas- 
ketball tournaments will be introduced. Early in 
December there will be a city wide toy making 
contest resulting in the assembling of thousands 
of toys to be distributed through the welfare 
organizations. 



"Happily there has come into being a great 
diversity of recreative activities. Only a few 
years ago when we talked of recreation a very 
limited conception was held regarding that which 
constituted recreational activities. We thought 
particularly of athletic sports, team games and 
such. Today we find to our delight that a much 
broader viewpoint is held. Recreation means 
many forms of expression such as camping, hik- 
ing, swimming, archery, nature study, folk danc- 
ing, dramatics, pageantry, music, participation in 
arts arid crafts. . . . Thus there is a prevasiveness 
of content and in participation that is most whole- 
some and propituous, as it makes room for thou- 
sands where the more restricted activities have 
limited participation." George J. Fisher in The 
New Leisure, "Scout Executive," April. 



Where 

Volunteers 
Are Helping 



By 

EDWARD J. RONSHEIM 

Recreational Director 
Park Department 
Anderson, Indiana 



IN 1932, ANDERSON, Indi- 
ana, had ten recreation 
leaders employed on a 
full time basis. The city 
had year-round caretakers 
at all the parks and a train- 
ed force at the municipal 
pool and golf course. There 
were extra men who moved 
from park to park doing 
the repair work, and still 
others were in charge of 
Athletic Park. Thirty-six 
hundred different children 
were in attendance during 
the summer, there was a 

total attendance of 250,000, and 10,000 enjoyed 
the weekly swimming. Our program was satis- 
factory and our plan worked well. 

The Problem 

But 1933 is another year! New tax laws, ter- 
rific cuts forced by a group of taxpayers, losses 
in revenue at both municipal plants, brought the 
park budget down to 18 per cent of its previous 
total. The same taxpayers had forced reduction 
in library hours and had decreased the school 
year to eight months. There was no money to 
spend. And on top of that came a flood which 
did heavy damage to half our parks. 

What was to be done? Were 7,500 children to 
be dumped on the streets from May I2th to Sep- 
tember 1 2th? 

230 




Courtesy New Jersey Municipalities 



Park officials in a number of communities 
are turning to volunteer leaders for help. 

One recreation director was appointed early in 
April. There were five weeks to go and nothing 
to spend except an amount less than $100 which 
must cbver all expenses for the rest of the season ! 

What to Do About It! 

Years of experience in the Y. M. C. A., in 
scouting as camp director and in finance cam- 
paigns were reviewed. From it all come one prac- 
tical suggestion a volunteer program alone could 
help. We went about it. 

A careful new survey was made of annual re- 
ports from other cities. Costs, workers, play- 
grounds, types of work, all were considered be- 
fore the first effort at program building was 



WHERE VOLUNTEERS ARE HELPING 



231 



made. Then we listed those things which must 
be included two baseball leagues, tennis, horse- 
shoes, the weekly free swim periods for boys 
and girls, overnight trips, playground ball, hand- 
craft, storytelling, athletic meets, special program 
for adults, apparatus play, mass games, enough 
special activities to keep us out of a rut, rope 
jumping, hopscotch, jacks, music, exhibits, and 
all the other activities so familiar to recreation 
workers. A skeleton program was prepared, and 
with it was listed the necessary leadership. 

Both newspapers were interviewed they had 
always given the finest cooperation. In the emer- 
gency they carried article after article, first page 
copy, which detailed our plight without any ef- 
fort at "fooling the public." We were "broke" 
and admitted it ! We knew what to do but could 
not do it without help, and said so. There were 
7,500 children with 10,000,000 play hours. How 
would they use them? 

The ball was set rolling. 

Securing Volunteers 

The Central Council of Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciations approved our plan for volunteers. The 
city has fifteefi schools. Six are so located that 
they cannot be of much help to our parks which 
are at the edge of the city. We appeared before 
various groups representing the nine other schools 
and told our story. Each named a chairman to 
whom we related our needs and the way in which 
we hoped to meet them. Nine energetic women 
started lining up workers who must pass two 
tests ability and loyalty. 

By that time two weeks had passed and vaca- 
tion was only two weeks away. We needed men. 
The boys themselves were given the responsibility 
of finding managers for baseball teams. In thir- 
teen cases they made good. A local organization 
furnished two veterans of the game to act as 
umpires at our baseball games not an easy as- 
signment in our leagues, but it is now being done 
by volunteers. The Scouts volunteered to help 
in handcraft and hiking, and the Y. M. C. A. 
joined us at track meets, swimming and play- 
ground ball. Other groups accepted responsi- 
bility for storytelling. 

Another week had gone and we still had to 
meet our workers, complete our program and 
secure equipment and small articles for awards 
where they were to be used. Publicity continued 
every day. Our radio station, WHBU, not only 
gave publicity but accepted the task of putting 



three city-wide contests on the air as an award 
for winners at the various parks. A theater gave 
us a thousand tickets. One factory helped with 
baseballs, while another found 400 excellent sub- 
stitutes for Indian clubs to be used in games. A 
third plant discovered additional supplies for our 
use. 

As the days passed night work made possible 
the shaping of the program until every day of the 
entire summer was scheduled on paper. The plan 
for using workers was never charted in black and 
white but was allowed to develop without the 
strain of being translated from an office dream to 
a park reality ! And while other details were 
being worked out a continual check up was made 
on the corps of workers and the chairmen were 
not allowed to forget their responsibility. 

Soon the time arrived for the first test. The 
volunteers were called together to meet the rec- 
reation director. During the preceding ten days 
one of the papers had been running two or three 
games each day "A Game Each Day for Park 
Play" was their caption. And so when we met 
with the volunteers they were prepared. A typi- 
cal afternoon program was outlined, games were 
demonstrated and our hopes for the summer were 
presented. Then questions and suggestions were 
in order. The chairmen furnished us with a list 
of workers and the schedules under which they 
would work. 

At Edgewater, one of our most important 
parks, a teacher trained in park work took charge, 
having volunteered full time service for the sum- 
mer. At Riley, another important center, three 
teachers of real ability shared a full time pro- 
gram. At Stanton, the third of our large parks, 
its was planned that our women volunteers would 
take a week at a time, the first four and most dif- 
ficult being assigned to leaders formerly in the 
paid service of the park department. Other cen- 
ters used two women each day, with each pair re- 
peating every other week. Each worker was to 
give her time as best she could. A supervisor of 
girls' activities offered her services for the 
summer. 

Activities Begin 

And now school is over and the program goes 
into operation. The volunteers have not yet been 
called on. We have given them two weeks to 
become acquainted with working tools, to drop 
in to see what goes on, to meet the children and 

(Continued on page 252) 



Mobilizing 

the 

Choral Forces 

of the 

Community 




IN EVERY town and city there is a reservoir of 
vocal music in existing choral organizations, 
and in the numerous individuals who have had 
training and musical experience in schools and 
colleges. The fact that in the great majority of 
instances it is largely or wholly neglected is a 
distinct challenge to everyone concerned with 
music education. Music is one of the great com- 
mon denominators in civic life, and those respon- 
sible for its furtherance should see to it that the 
latent forces and untapped sources of musical 
talent are utilized; that singing groups and indi- 
viduals, old and young, who have in various fields 
developed an interest in singing, are mobilized 
and organized to sing some of the great master- 
pieces of choral literature. 

Three highly desirable objects are attained by 
such a procedure. First, those who participate 
never fail to continue to appreciate more keenly 
the finest of music, and find keen satisfaction and 
an emotional outlet in the making of music. Sec- 
ond, the production of a master piece by a great 
chorus of trained singers always produces a thrill 
in the lives of those in the audience, who in turn 
become more appreciative of music because it is 
produced by persons of their acquaintance. Third, 
continued working in rehearsal on these master 
compositions simply for the joy of singing with 
others and producing great music, without 
thought of compensation, creates an atmosphere 
in the community that is of inestimable value. 

Desirable as these ends are, it must be ad- 
mitted that their attainment is difficult. Several 

232 



things are needed to accomplish them. First of 
all, is the right motivation which must spring 
from a broad vision of a true community project. 
Here is indicated one of the primary requirements 
a factor without which no community enter- 
prise of a musical nature can possibly be success- 
ful that is, the inspiration and guidance of some 
one with proven musical ability, with musical 
vision that reaches beyond the borders of sect and 
creed, with a devotion to musical ideals that is 
utterly selfless, and with a zeal for work in the 
accomplishment of the goal desired that is little 
short of fanatical. This man or woman must be 
the motivating force, but he or she must never 
appear as such to the public. He or she must 
recognize the universality of music and must be 
willing to sink all individual aggrandizement in 
the bottomless pit of the good of the whole. For 
this type of musical leadership the community 
may well look to the music staff of the schools 
or colleges. 



Kalamazoo's Plan 

But more than a leader is needed. 
There must be a definite, sound plan and 
the means for carying it out. Perhaps a 
review of a recently perfected organi- 
zation, and a view of the machinery 
used in its erection, in Kalamazoo, will 
be helpful to others striving to make 
vocal music a community enterprise. 
First, conferences were held with all 
directors of regularly organized choral 



The author < 
published in 
the Music Suf 
ber of the si 
Qazelte which 
ant part in tl 
described th 
Ration's refe 
Through Cha 
ness Manage 
underwritten 
community ac 
paper enterpr 



MOBILIZING THE CHORAL FORCES OF THE COM 



M&fffry 



233 




'he first presentation of the Choral Club, composed of 
hurch choirs and similar groups, was "The Messiah." 



groups to obtain their reaction to the proposition 
of a community presentation of The Messiah. 
When that was found favorable, the next vital 
step was taken that of securing a sponsor. In a 
community enterprise such as this the sponsor 
must be absolutely non-partisan, in the larger 
sense of the word. In Kalamazoo it was felt that 
the newspaper would be the best sponsor possible. 
No individual, no choir, no club can assume that 
role successfully. Personal or group gain or ad- 
vancement must be divorced absolutely from the 
enterprise. The responsibility was assumed by 
The Kalamazoo Gazette, which assured the en- 
terprise neutral and effective sponsorship. 

The sponsor assured, the next step was that of 
enlisting the support of civic leaders who were 
interested in the general promotion of large musi- 
cal activities. This support is necesary in work- 
ing out the multifarious details that always at- 
tend a large community project. Then 
the call went out, from the sponsor, of 
course, to a small group of leaders, in- 
cluding the directors of the choral 
groups, representing the various inter- 
ests, to select a general executive. This 
executive must be imbued with the same 
ideal of selfless service in the interest of 
musical advancement as animates the 
originator of the project. In Kalamazoo 
a happy combination of executive and 
musician was found in one of our banks. 



cle, originally 
iber issue of 
nul, is a mem- 
5 Kalamazoo 
more import- 
fcy enterprise 
:ated in Mr. 
sponsorship. 
;enway, busi- 
i project was 
ier, but as a 
than a news- 



The essentials- broad vision, 
a leader, a sound plan and 
the means of carrying it out, 
and a non-partisan sponsor. 



By RALPH A. PATTON 

Kalamazoo, Michigan 



Choral groups represented by the various 
directors furnished the nucleus of the chorus. 
Then the sponsor issued a call for all individuals 
who had sung The Messiah, or who felt them- 
selves qualified to sing it, to register with sponsor 
as prospective members of the civic chorus. A 
coupon was printed in The Gazette for the ap- 
plicant to fill out. It was emphasized that the en- 
terprise was absolutely non-sectarian and non- 
creedal, that connections or politics made no dif- 
ference. The sole purpose was to present The 
Messiah, using every available bit of vocal talent 
the city possessed. 

The cards that were obtained were handed to 
a registration committee all committees were 
formed from the musical directors for allotment 
to some one of the organized choral groups for 
preliminary rehearsals. Directors gave a certain 
portion of their weekly rehearsal time to practice 
on Messiah choruses, after a libretto committee 
had decided on the cuts to be made and the inter- 
pretation to be used. When the preliminary re- 
hearsals had accomplished their purpose of famil- 
iarizing the singers with the choruses, a massed 
rehearsal was held. At this the various directors 
were assigned to listen to certain portions of the 
chorus in order to detect weak points not dis- 
cernible to the director. These were passed on to 
the other directors, who ironed them out in subse- 
quent group rehearsals. Later massed rehearsals 
coordinated the whole. 

Meanwhile the matter of a conductor was being 
discussed. The committee on conductor and solo- 
ists considered the matter from all angles. It 



234 



MOBILIZING THE CHORAL FORCES OF THE COMMUNITY 



viewed the organization as a permanent one in 
which the presentation of The Messiah and future 
projects as well should be considered in establish- 
ing a precedent. It emphasized the point that the 
club must retain its identity as a civic institution, 
representing equally and impartially all musical 
organizations, schools and churches of the city. 
It laid down the principle that the director should 
be a person of outstanding ability and unques- 
tioned competence. The desirability of retaining 
a guest conductor of high reputation was con- 
sidered both from the standpoint of inspiration 
to the singers and of the publicity obtained. Of 
equal importance, the committee felt, was the 
recognition due local musicians who possessed the 
necessary qualifications for directing a work as 
exacting as The Messiah, and who would be will- 
ing to serve. 

The committee recommended as an established 
policy and this was adopted that the director- 
ship should be vested in a guest conductor and a 
local associate conductor, the two to make mutu- 
ally agreeable arrangements for collaboration in 
rehearsals and performances. It also advised that 
a wholly new committee be chosen each year to 
name the guest and associate conductors, the lat- 
ter to be chosen from among resident directors 
possessing the necessary qualifications. It urged 
that an accompanist representing some other or- 
ganization than that with which the associate 
conductor is affiliated should be chosen. 

These recommendations, carefully followed in 
the light of an absolutely disinterested attitude on 
the part of every director on the board, resulted 
in the development of a chorus that was drawn 
from every section of the city, every creed and 
every race. 

Members of the chorus were required to be 
present at mass rehearsals, and their admittance 
was gained and their presence assured by use of a 
card with detachable coupon, punched at each re- 
hearsal. Failure to appear without excuse resulted 
in forfeiture of the seat. More than 400 singers 
were faithful throughout the project, and at the 
end voted unanimously to make the organization 
a permanent one. 

It was decided to make the project self-sup- 
porting, and an admission charge of 35 cents was 
made. A small block of seats was reserved for 
those willing to pay a premium for the privilege. 
Two performances were given, with the house 
sold out both evenings. 



The problem of accompaniment was solved n 
Kalamazoo by the presence of our local symphony 
orchestra from which a group was drawn to give 
the proper instrumental background. While there 
were some soloists capable of handling the score, 
it was thought best to bring in soloists from out- 
side. This was for two purposes to assure a 
finished and authoritative interpretation of all the 
matchless solo numbers, and to avoid any sem- 
blance of partisanship or favoritism in selecting 
local talent. 

It cannot be emphasized too strongly that in all 
dealings the most rigid attitude of impartiality 
must be observed. That plane of operation, once 
established and made to permeate the entire 
economy of the project, is one of the best guar- 
antors of success. Coupled with that, as was in- 
dicated earlier, must be a wholly unselfish devo- 
tion to the ideal of giving everyone involved the 
opportunity to express in music the beauty that 
lies in his own soul, with no thought of any ad- 
vancement save which comes through the blessing 
of song in the enrichment of the life of the singer. 

That way lies success and a broader, deeper, 
richer, more spiritual community life. 



"Art never meant as much to me as it does to- 
day. It has proven to me, as it has to numbers of 
others but particularly to me because I am an 
artist that the main thing in life is one's art or 
one's profession. That is one thing that cannot 
be taken away from you. If you are faithful to 
it, it will sustain you in all trouble. It requires 
only that the artist or the man be sincere and 
faithful and enthusiastic. 

"The true artist will show himself now. So 
many of them become discouraged by things that 
are exterior to their art, not connected with it. 
When they see the response is less, that there are 
fewer persons listening to them, the house before 
them half empty, they falter. These are the ma- 
terial things, and such a sad effect on the artist 
shows that he is not a true artist. The real artist 
cannot be discouraged. 

"It is a joy to me always to give happiness to 
people by playing for them the music of great 
masters. No matter in what part of the world I 
play, it is always a joy. But here at home the 
joy is greater." Mischa Elman, in the New 
York Sun, January 2Oth, 1933. 



Youth 

Turns 

N at u reward 



By 
WILLIAM G. VINAL 

Western Reserve University 
Cleveland, Ohio 




Courtesy California Parent-Teacher Association 



THE YOUTH movement in Germany is to the 
open road and castles. In America it is to 
the trail and cabins. The forestry Army 
is more than a means of escaping the maelstrom 
into which this old world has plunged itself. It 
is a move toward freedom. It is getting out into 
the open country for inspiration and a new point 
of view. It is a revolt against the conventionalities 
of life. It is a search for the realities of life, for 
actual experience with the laws of nature, for in- 
formation first hand, and for dependable facts. 
The youth movement is "a philosophy of natural 
life." 

It is not surprising that the youth of America 
are turning their faces toward our nationally- 
owned wonderlands. The utilization of our na- 
tional forests and parks as retreats from heat and 
dust has long been in vogue, and the using of 
them to escape college textbooks and the academic 
is gaining favor in universities. Now along come 
the nature dilettanti declaring that instead of go- 
ing to the nation's capitol this year that they are 
going to explore a national park of the west. 
Whatever their future they will forever recall the 
wonderful views seen during the alpine days in 
the Rockies or how they went up the zigzag trail 
singing the Alma Mater. 

The kind of teaching required on a trail trip is 
of the easiest kind. The mountain goat, the flower 



gardens above timber line, and the lofty spires of 
the Englemann Spruce or the Douglas Fir hold 
interest against all comers. Some day teaching 
the wilderness habit will be required. Teachers 
will then wonder how they taught indoors so long. 
To assist these teachers in their adventure Uncle 
Sam has a corps of ranger naturalists who are 
amply qualified to take full charge as soon as the 
party enters the park. 

As you roll into the Glacier Park land for ex- 
ample, you pass quickly from the "no tree" land 
of the prairies to one of the grandest forest areas 
of the world. If you leave the Empire Builder at 
the Glacier Park Station as you probably will 
you will land at a fir-log station. The Blackfeet 
Indians will be there to welcome you and if you 
have made arrangements a genial ranger-natur- 
alist will step up and great you with a "Howdy." 

You will rapidly pass to the Glacier Park Hotel 
with its architecture of giant firs. Your eyes will 
sweep from the forty five foot fir columns to 
woodsy lamp stands and drinking fountains. If 
time permits you can play a game of seeing who 
can list the greatest number of rustic furnishings 
made from trees. All this is but a fore-runner of 
trees to come. 

You leave the Glacier Park Hotel at the eastern 
gateway of the park and are whisked by bus past 

235 



236 



YOUTH TURNS NATU REWARD 



mountain crags, dashing waters, and clear lakes, 
to the land of eternal snow. You leave the low- 
lands and the depression for a new world. Nestled 
in the valleys will be groves of quaking aspen 
quivering in the brilliant sunshine. In the Two 
Medicine country you will see the charred re- 
mains of a forest fire a mute testimony to care- 
lessness. Late that afternoon you will get a whiff 
of the evergreen scented forests of the Rockies 
forests as they were when the whole continent was 
wild. The soil was plowed for the forests by the 
glaciers, the relics of which you will spy nestled 
in the ampitheatres high up toward the peaks. 
You will rejoice that you have at last seen a pure 
wilderness which has escaped both fire and ax. 

Walking Through Primeval Forests 
And perhaps one of the most encouraging 
things will be the simple truth-although not a 
widely advertised fact that you will need to 
know only a dozen conifers to walk through this 
primeval forest with as much bravado as the more- 
than-average naturalist ! What's more these will 
be the very evergreens that you have heard about 
all your life. You didn't suspect it was that easy, 
did you ? You could easily learn the list between 
stations enroute. In fact, I believe that the Park 
Naturalist would send you samples to feel of, to 
smell of, and to gaze at to your heart's content 
while traveling parkward. 

Here's the list for all Wandervogel, Natur- 
freunde (Nature friends), or whatever name you 
have chosen for your party. 

Simple Key for Indentifying the Conifers of 
Glacier National Park 

Leaves needles, 1.5 inches or more in length, in clusters. 
Needles in 5's, 4 inches or less long, white pines. 

Cones 6-8 inches, western slope to 6000 ft. . . Mountain 

Pine. 

Cones 2-3 inches, eastern slope to 7,000 ft... Limber 
Pine. 

Cones 1.5-3 inches, near timber line White Bark 

Pine. 
Needles in 3's, cones and needles 4-10 inches, Lake 

McDonald, Western Yellow Pine. 
Needles in 2's, cones 1.5 in- 
ches, east slope to 6000 ft. 
Lodgepole Pine. 
Needles in clusters of 12-40, 
cones 1.5 inches, western 
slope, Western Larch. 
Leaves needles, 1.5 inches or 
less in length, not in clus- 
ters. 

Needles stalked, appear op- 
posite, cones .75-1.25 in- 
ches, . .Western Hemlock. 



"A day well spent in the mountains Is like 
some great symphony. Andante, andantissimo 
sometimes, is the first movement the grim, 
sickening plod up the moraine. But how for- 
gotten when the blue light of dawn flickers 
over the hard, clean snow. The new motif is 
ushered in, as it were, very gently on the 
lesser wind instruments, hautboys and flutes, 
remote but melodious and infinitely hopeful, 
caught by the violins in the growing light." 



Needles not stalked, cones pedulous, trident scales, 

2-4.5 in Douglas Fir. 

Needles blunt, up-turning, cones upright, 2-2.5 inches, 

Alpine Fir. 
Needles 4-angled, sharp pointed, twigs smooth, cones 

2-3.5 inches. .White Spruce. 
Needles 4-angled, sharp pointed, twigs rough, cones 

1-3 inches. .Englemann Spruce. 
Needles awl-shaped, appear whorled, cone blue "berry," 

.25 inches. .Juniper. 
Needles soft, shady ravines, cone a red "berry," .5 

inches. .Yew. 
Leaves scale, % inches long, fern-like. 

Scales make a flat spray, fluted trunks, moist land, 

cones .5 in... Arbor Vitae. 
Scales make a flat spray, prostrate shrub, open spaces, 

Creeping Cedar. 

It won't be long before you will arrive at a 
Swiss Chalet Village, replicas of log cabins which 
have stood in the Alps for years. These hostleries 
are tucked away high up some mountain valley. 
You may chose to stay at Two Medicine, or Many 
Glacier, or if you like a boat ride it may be Going- 
to-the-Sun. Wherever you are there will be a 
clear deep mountain lake to mirror the peaks, and 
as the darkness comes out of the evergreens you 
will seek reveries about the camp fire and plan 
for a timber-line hike for the next morning with 
the Ranger-naturalist. This guide service is free 
as Uncle Sam is most anxious for you to benefit 
from his outdoor school room. 

A Day's Hike 

Can you visualize a day's hike which will be 
like walking from Mexico to Alaska? What a 
tree trip it will be! You will leave the cotton- 
woods in Mexico pardon me, I mean on the 
plains you will say good-bye to the Mountain 
Maple and Mountain Ash and the alders as the 
trail dives into the pine-scented forest. You may 
be surprised to see the self-same snowberry that 
grows in your backyard and no doubt but you will 
quizz the guide about the service berry, the Can- 
ada Buffalo berry, and the red berried elder as 
the pangs of hunger begin to send messages. 
What a thrill it will be to greet the Englemann 
Spruce and Alpine Fir by 
name! And you will re- 
cognize the Lodgepole 
Pine which was so im- 
portant to the migrating 
Indian. 

When you pass from 
the Canadian to the Hud- 
sonian zone you will wish 
that you had been more 



YOUTH TURNS NATU REWARD 



237 



saving of your films as the open areas, with their 
rock slides and snow banks with frames of 
dwarfed wind-beaten trees, will present the most 
glorious views that have been the privilege of any 
man to behold. You will even forget that it is a 
hunger march as you scramble over one more 
grassy meadow that you may look down on the 
wooded slopes that reach far below to the lake 
or which extend in the distance to the Kootenai 
or to Red Eagle or to Logan Pass. 

What a thrill goes up and down your spine 
when you reach timber line. You throw yourself 
on a rock pile to gaze at peaks, glacial snow fields 
and barren cliffs. Perhaps you sit on a mat of 
dwarf willows to eat your well-earned lunch. The 
guide assures you that the spring water is safe 
and you drink again and again. You feel like a 
graduated Coureur de Bois as you hobnob with 
the hardy guide. Perhaps in your mind's eye you 
.can see Champlain or David Thompson, a fur 
trader of the Northwest Company. The Indians 
called Thompson the "Man-Who-Looks-at-the- 
Stars," and perhaps you, too, would not resent 
being dubbed the One-Who-Appreciates-a-Good 
View. You are in a mood to enjoy a story about 
the Indian girl, Sacajawea, who over a hundred 
years ago showed Lewis and Clark the way 
through this same wilderness. You will un- 
doubtedly plea for one more story as the leader 
announces that you have just an hour to explore 
the Arctic before you dive into the darkening' 
evergreens to get back to the chalet. 

We will not take time to inspect the rock gar- 
dens for that will be our objective on the next 
trip. We will examine this dwarfed white-barked 
pine. It does not grow toward the sky, as it did 
in the 6000 foot zone, but here it is a tree lawn 
and whenever it dares to put forth an upright 
branch the wind cuts it off like a lawn mower. 
And perhaps the erect cones on the fir will catch 
your eye and you hasten over to feel the purple- 
like candles that glisten in the sun. And you will 
not want to miss the bearberry or kinikinic of the 
Blackfeet. And you discover all kinds of fantastic 
trees hiding behind rocks and ledges and perhaps 
you steal the last five minutes to basque in the 
fading rays of the sun which has already set in 
some parts of the mountains. 

The afternoon tints which flush the red sand- 
stone are turning gray at last. A chill hastens 
you below timber line. Your trip has been to a 
place of real beauty and substance. You try to 
tie this alpine experience to some place you have 



read about but your thoughts are interrupted by 
the ranger pointing out a Douglas fir. He tells 
you that it stands second in size, only being sur- 
passed by the redwoods. It is neither fir, pine, 
nor hemlock. It is a tree all by itself and was 
named after David Douglas, a Scotch botanist. 
Your trip down is much quicker and you find 
yourself "passing in review." This is an Engle- 
mann spruce. This is the Alpine fir. And you 
murmur the tree friends until you meet the aspens 
coming up the valleys to meet you and to remind 
you of the chalets and the hot meal that waits 
to satisfy your wild hunger. 

Following the meal you sit before the fire and 
revel in philosophy. The mountain air does that 
to one. Perhaps you hark back to days of ex- 
ploring. Instead of trading fur and exchanging 
presents you swap yarns with a horse guide or 
you listen to a forester tell about the old days. 
You may write a letter home keeping it in diary 
form that you may again relive the experiences 
of a mountaineer. When the embers have burned 
low the ranger naturalist may invite you to a 
lantern talk where he shows you colored pictures 
of the trees of Glacier National Park. 

In any case, from this time on your imagina- 
tion will often be employed about the mountains 
and the forests that you have seen. You will find 
yourself trying to realize the wonderful things 
that you have learned about the oldest living in- 
habitants of the continent and you will constantly 
recall the picture of America as she was. You will 
use the day's experience when your thoughts are 
the highest and in the twilight hours when 
haunted by ideals. Whenever you get philosophi- 
cal your mind will turn back to the mountains. 
And this is as it should be, for you have taken 
time to endow your being, to fire your imagina- 
tion with the spirit of the mountains and the 
trees. 

Now if going to a national park is just plain 
conjecture you still have your own metropolitan 
parks and village wild spots. You have your home 
town trees, pageantry of flowers, and wild animals. 
You have a vista that is less distant than a good- 
sized hike. You know old-timers who will gladly 
help you to see and hear. They will reminisce 
with you at a camp fire. And you will not be 
building air castles. You will be laying bricks of 
experiences for travel days to come. And you 
can be certain of this if you cannot enjoy the 
nature offerings of your own bailiwick you will 
(Continued on page 252) 




Ping Pong Tables 
of Concrete 



CONCRETE ping pong tables are proving ex- 
ceedingly popular and satisfactory on the 
playgrounds of Los Angeles, California. 
Set up out-of-doors and made to suffer all the 
abuse that can be heaped upon them by enthusi- 
astic ping pong "fans," they are proving them- 
selves equal to the test and are standing up re- 
markably well. 

The tables are made in the shop of the De- 
partment of Playground and Recreation in the 
spare time of the cement finisher who, when he 
has a free day, spends it making up one of these 
tables. The Department has a very substantial set 
of forms which is used over and over again. The 
cement finisher and a laborer spend a morning 
casting the table, and the afternoon is devoted by 
the cement worker to finishing and applying the 
topping and getting the steel in readiness for the 
next table. 

238 



Los Angeles has found the way to build outdoor 
ping pong tables which will "stand punishment." 



By DAVID BERNIKER 

Supervisor of Construction and Maintenance 
Los Angeles Department of Playground and Recreation 

When the table is ready for installing it is 
loaded into a truck at the shop and a day's time 
is required by the cement finisher and the laborer 
to set it up. The legs are set in the ground ap- 
proximately to grade. The two men can readily 
lift the slabs from the truck and set them on the 
legs. 

To date twenty-five of these tables have been 
installed, with thirty more planned for the future. 
The cost of a table, completely installed, is esti- 
mated at $25. Play on these concrete tables is so 
fast that during a recent state- wide ping pong 
tournament several boys who had played on the 
tables made a remarkable showing. 



NOTE: The Department of Playground and Recrea- 
tion has supplied the National Recreation Association 
with a detailed drawing of the table which the Associa- 
tion will be glad to loan to anyone desiring it. 



The Tradition of Puritanical New England 



IN HIS INTERESTING article 
Professor Greenwood 
speaks of amusements as 
scorned and forbidden in the 
Colonial period and of the de- 
velopment of recreation and 
amusements in New England 
being retarded until the late 
seventeenth and early eigh- 
teenth centuries, though he 
considerably mitigates h i 3 
statement by pointing out that 
drinking and gambling were not unknown, that 
there were shooting and hunting parties for ex- 
terminating wolves and bears, ice skating and ice 
boating and sleighing, quilting parties and husk- 
ing bees with kissing accompaniment all of them 
in New England. 

There will always be some difference of opin- 
ion in these matters, and the tradition of puri- 
tanical New England has got so firm a footing 
that the reality has been pretty much forgotten 
and will, I suppose, never be generally believed. 
The following citations may throw some light 
upon the matter. 

A Few Citations 

In the "Wonderworking Providence in New 
England," published in 1654, it is stated that "the 
hideous thickets of this place (Boston) were such 
that wolfes and beares nursed up their young 
from the eyes of all beholders in those very places 
where the streets are full of girles and boys 
sporting up and downe with a continuous con- 
course of people" - the Puritans thus fulfilling 
the happy prophecy of Zachariah that "the streets 
of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing 
in the streets thereof." There are now more au- 
tomobiles in Boston than there were in Jerusalem 
in Zachariah's time, but Boston's streets are still 
the playgrounds for many thousands of her 
children. 

Special provision for play was, however, not 
neglected. Boston, in 1634, bought William 
Blackstone's cow pasture for thirty shillings, and 
although it was not called a playground and was 



In the April issue of Recreation there 
appeared an article by Edward D. 
Greenwood entitled "Recreations and 
Amusements of the Colonial Period" 
in which mention was made of the re- 
creations of New England in its early 
years. Joseph Lee, President of the 
National Recreation Association, has 
asked permission to comment on this 
article, and in doing so has given some 
additional information which will in- 
terest our readers. 



bought, partly at least, as a 
training ground for the militia, 
the successful plea of the Bos- 
ton boys to General Gage that 
his soldiers should not keep 
them from playing football 
there (doubtless that they, the 
soldiers, might monopolize it 
for soccer) indicates some- 
thing of its use. And the Bos- 
ton boys have so used it ever 
since. Personally I have 
skated and coasted and played football there and 
fallen in while running tittledies on the Frog 
Pond. My children have played there, and my 
grandchildren, if they live in Boston, will doubt- 
less do the same, like the other descendants of the 
Puritans from the beginning. 

Indeed every town founded by the Puritans of 
the Bay Colony seems to have had its Common, a 
continuation of the old Village Green of England 
with its tradition of games and sports, just as 
many of them still have their bandstand and their 
trotting course. 

William Wells Newell, in his "Games and 
Songs of American Children," published by Har- 
per & Brothers, 1883, says: 

"A curious inquirer who should set about form- 
ing a collection of these rhymes, would naturally 
look for differences in the tradition of different 
parts of the Union, would desire to contrast the 
characteristic amusements of children in the 
North and in the South, descendants of Puritan 
and Quaker. In this he would find his expecta- 
tions disappointed This lore belongs, in the 

main, to the day before such distinctions came 
into existence ; it has been maintained with equal 
pertinacity, and with small variations, from Can- 
ada to the Gulf. Even in districts distinguished 
by severity of moral doctrines, it does not appear 
that any attempt was made to interfere with the 
liberty of youth. Nowhere have the old sports 
(often, it is true, in crude rustic forms) been 
more generally maintained than in localities 
(Continued on page 253) 

239 




The annual bicycle race held in the early spring 
is one of the most colorful events of the season. 



Outdoor Recreation the Year Round 



IN 1923, Tucson, Arizona, had no By RUTH 
public playgrounds or provision Tucson, 

for community recreation for 
either its children or adults. At the close of 1931, 
the records showed that the total attendance for 
all the activities for the first year of supervised 
operation was 103,926. The fact that the records 
for the first four months of this year report an 
attendance of 81,656 seems definite proof of the 
need for the recreation program that has been 
adopted. 

Realizing the need of community playgrounds, 
the Community Service Committee of the Wo- 
man's Club attempted in 1923 to open the first 
playground on a plot of ground which presumably 
had been set aside by the city for that purpose. 
Owing to a technical point in the legality of the 
use of the plot as a playground, the matter was 
dropped temporarily. But these interested citi- 
zens and others, especially Parent-Teacher mem- 
bers, retained their plans and hopes and never lost 
an opportunity to further their ideals. 

The Foundation Is Laid 
In 1927, the local Council of Parents and 
Teachers conducted a playground "booster" meet- 

240 



A. BONDY m g a t which several interested citi- 
Arizona zens were asked to present their 

ideas on a playground development. 
The meeting resulted in the adoption of resolu- 
tions to present to the City Council asking that 
tennis courts be opened in a park across from the 
high school. Action was taken and three public 
tennis courts, the first in the city, were opened. 
One step forward had been taken in Tucson's 
recreation program. 

At the same time the Mayor appointed five 
representative citizens as members of a body to 
be known as the Playground Commission and to 
function as a sub-committee of the Park Board 
of the City Council. Immediately petitions were 
drawn asking for a bond issue of $100,000 to 
provide funds for developing the recreation pro- 
ject. With the coming of the next city election, 
the bonds were favorably voted upon. By previ- 
ous agreement $40,000 was given to the Park 
Board for park beautification and $60,000 to the 
Playground Commission for playground devel- 
opment. Part of the playground appropriation 
was spent on installing two more tennis courts, 
in providing the original three courts with lights 
for night playing, in constructing three wading 



OUTDOOR RECREATION THE YEAR ROUND 



241 



pools and a modern swimming pool, and in in- 
stalling swings, several Jungle Gyms and carry- 
alls. 

Coincident with the bond issue a new city 
charter made provision for the Playground Com- 
mission to function as a separate board with full 
authority to manage its own affairs, entirely sep- 
arate from the Park Board. Another forward 
step came when the City Council and the Public 
School Board agreed to sponsor a cooperative 
recreation program. A budget of $5,000 a year 
was decided upon to cover the expenses of the 
newly planned recreation department, the ex- 
penses to be met jointly by the city and the 
schools. The Playground Commission was to 
have the responsibility for handling the budget. 

Activities Begin 

With this step, the actual program of activities 
was opened in December, 1930, with Mr. George 
O. Hedger as recreation 
director. In addition to 
the facilities already sup- 
plied, a night baseball 
field was installed adja- 
cent to the high school, 
an additional pool was 
built, basketball courts 
were provided and what- 
ever athletic goods neces- 
sary to the promotion cf 
the work were purchased. 

A factor in Tucson which must be considered 
is the large percentage of Mexican population, 
many of whom live in quarters unusually con- 
gested. It has been deemed wise to plan a pro- 
gram along the line of serving the largest num- 
ber of people during their leisure hours. This 
has been accomplished by spreading the budget 
out as thinly as possible so as to provide recrea- 
tion areas in every needed district, rather than to 
concentrate with perhaps more elaborate equip- 
ment in only one or two places. Activities are 
carried on in two community centers, one public 
playground, two parks and two athletic fields, 
as well as in all the school playgrounds. Fifteen 
assistants aid the recreation director in the super- 
vision of the playgrounds and community centers. 

The largest of the projects is carried on in 
a community center in one of the older parts of 
the city. It is here that the new municipal swim- 
ming pool has been built. The pool, which 



The development of a program of year-round 
recreation in a city which has never before had 
such a program Is always a matter of Interest. 
Tucson, Arizona, one of the newest cities to be 
added to the roster of communities conduct- 
ing work the entire year, tells how the work 
started, of difficulties overcome and successes 
attained. There are many suggestions in this 
story of step-by-step progression for cities 
which have not yet developed this vital mu- 
nicipal service. 



measures 40' by 120', is graduated from six 
inches to nine feet in depth, and is equipped with 
the latest designed filtering system. The dressing 
rooms, showers and sanitary checking system 
are all planned in the most modern manner. 

The pool was first opened on May 2, 1931, and 
last summer had a registered attendance of 13,492. 
Life-guards were in constant attendance and op- 
portunities were provided for swimming lessons. 
This center also has baseball diamonds, a basket- 
ball court and two tennis courts, a Jungle Gym, 
a carry-all and an exceptionally large wading 
pool. Last summer all the wading pools were 
open five hours a day under leadership and pro- 
vided activity for children nine years of age and 
under. Last year there was an attendance of 
11,796 registered in the four wading pools 
throughout the city. 

Another section known as Oury Park is in one 
of the congested Mexican districts. More base- 
ball diamonds, basketball 
courts, two of the wading 
pools and several pieces 
of playground equipment 
make this a much needed 
community center which 
is patronized daily 
throughout the entire year 
by practically everyone in 
the neighborhood. In ad- 
dition, the city recently 
turned over the small 

building, located in the park to the local Y.W.C.A. 
for the purpose of sponsoring a community 
house. Here the Mexican mothers are being 
taught English, sewing and cooking; storytelling 
hours are being conducted for the children, and 
a library service has been established which is 
doing much constructive good and filling a long 
felt want. 

In another Mexican district the Carillo Play- 
ground has been developed around a most inter- 
esting history. The grounds are surrounded by 
a grove of large stately trees, a scarcity in this 
desert country, and in the days of the saloon 
harbored one of the city's principal beer gardens. 
Today, as a playground, it has a weekly attend- 
ance of from 800 to 1,100 children in regis- 
tered classes in hand work, wood carving and 
sewing which are conducted winter and summer, 
as well as in baseball, basketball and volley 
ball games. 



242 



OUTDOOR RECREATION THE YEAR ROUND 



An outdoor recreation 
long an advocate of 



scene in Minneapolis, 
year-round recreation 



In a. less congested part ot the city one of the 
wading pools and some of the playground equip- 
ment have been placed in a beautiful park square. 
Here the children may play in the picturesque 
enclosure formed by the many old and large 
oleander trees which blossom forth in the spring 
with a profusion of red, white and pink flowers. 
The ever green pepper trees and stately palms 
afford an equally fine shelter during the other 
months. 

A Varied Program 

The three tennis courts equipped with lights 
across from the high school are a center of con- 
tinuous activity, summer and winter, day and 
night. A mid-summer, city-wide tennis tourna- 
ment was conducted 
last year for both 
adults and juniors, 
in which 187 players 
took part. The tour- 
nament this year 
was started on Feb- 
ruary 1 4th. It was 
divided into six sec- 
tions, a division for 
girls, one for junior 
women and one for 
senior women and 
three similar divi- 
sions for boys and 
men. One hundred 
and thirteen players 
have participated in 
this second tourna- 
ment. Silver loving 
cups and gold, silver 
and bronze medals 
were awarded the 
winners of the vari- 
ous divisions in both 
contests. 

Another feature 
of last summer's 
program was a daily 
supervised vacation 
school held in an 
"open air" school 
building in one of 
the better residential 
districts. Arrange- 
ments Were made tO Courtesy Minneapolis Board of Park Commissioners 



bring children there from the other districts. 
Here a program of handicraft and play was con- 
ducted. An attendance of almost 2,000 boys and 
girls was registered during this vacation period. 
The supervisors for this project were paid out of 
the regular fund while the necessary equipment 
was purchased through the Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciation in that district. During the school year, 
part-time playground directors are also provided 
on the school playgrounds where a program of 
games, contests and athletic events for both boys 
and girls is carried on. 

The annual bicycle tournament for boys is y. 
colorful event held in the early spring. A parade 
through the downtown section of gaily decorated 
bicycles is held. Short speed events and a six- 
mile marathon race 




complete the pro- 
gram. Prizes are 
awarded for the best 
decorated bicycles 
and for the winners 
in the races. 

The huge arc lights 
on the athletic field 
adjacent to the high 
school have increas- 
ed night baseball. 
Teams of young men 
and older men rep- 
resenting various 
business houses and 
industrial concerns 
have been organized. 
At the present time 
35 different teams 
are in the league 
and games are play- 
ed five nights a 
week, summer and 
winter. These night 
games have proven 
very popular and are 
witnessed by thou- 
sands of spectators 
throughout the year. 
They are open to the 
public without any 
charge. In addition, 
n city baseball league 
has been organized 
(Continued on page 253) 



Volunteer Leadership 



THE PRESENT DAY needs of 
program building require 
not only the professional 
worker but the volunteer leader 
who is ever in demand, especially 
in settlement administration. 

Attendance records show that because of un- 
employment and the resulting increase in the num- 
ber of people coming together for recreational 
and cultural activities, there is a growing demand 
for the expansion of programs. This means more 
leadership. With reduced budgets and curtail- 
ment in staff, it is impossible to meet the demand 
except through the- service of a greater number 
of volunteers. Never before has the challenge to 
the recreation movement been so great. 

The settlements constantly require additional 
workers to meet the need of the new era. New 
classes and clubs are being continually added to 
the program, each with definite interests and 
worth to enhance the personality development of 
the members. Many leaders feel that 95 per cent 
of the success of the group depends upon the lead- 
ership. The selection of volunteer leadership, 
therefore, is of the utmost importance and should 
be made with great care. 

The avenue through which volunteer workers 
are secured should receive careful attention in 
order that people will be reached whose back- 
ground, training and interests attract them to 
work with settlement groups. Definite analysis of 
club and group needs should be made before the 
contact is begun. The staff director should have 
definite plans and goals before asking for help. 
Problems of standards and technical content of 
the program fall within the 
province of the staff mem- 
bers who have the under- 
standing of neighborhood 
needs and the philosophy of 
the movement. The volun- 
teer has much to offer in 
suggestions for programs and 
in material for crafts and 
social-education projects. Be- 
fore making a definite assign- 
ment of a volunteer leader it 



By DELITE M. MOWER 

Director of Girls' Work 
Henry Street Settlement 



With the coming of summer, the problem 
of leadership for the playgrounds and 
other play centers confronts the super- 
intendent of recreation and his govern- 
ing body. Volunteers must be found and 
trained to supplement the staff of em- 
ployed workers. 



is a good plan to arrange a meet- 
ing of the volunteer and the 
group and to get the reaction of 
both. In this way each has an 
opportunity to form an opinion. 
Each club member is an in- 
tegral part of the group and joins for the express 
purpose of finding happiness and comradeship. It 
is, therefore, necessary first of all for the leader 
to establish friendly relationships with each mem- 
ber of the group. To do this she visits the homes 
to win the friendship of the parents and learn 
their racial background and customs. 

Recruiting and Training the Volunteer 

The problem of successful group work is pri- 
marily one of recruiting, training and holding 
competent leaders who understand both individual 
and group psychology. The ideals and standards 
of the group must be measured and all aims 
achieved. 

Club leaders may be recruited from the fol- 
lowing classes : 

(1) Friends of professional workers. 

(2) Students and graduates of recreation and 
social service schools. 

(3) Individuals who are genuinely interested 
in being of service to organizations because of 
their love for people and their desire to help their 
fellow men. 

The Application Blank 

As a help in handling, classifying and analyzing 
the fitness of leaders, an application blank is gen- 
erally used giving the name, business and home 
address and telephone number of the applicant, 
his educational qualifications, 
his preferences in age group 
interests, and his reasons for 
such preferences. 

The following activities 
may be offered for checking 
first and second choices : 



Miss Mower's suggestions, offered here, 
are based upon settlement experience, 
but many of them may be adapted to the 
needs of play centers. 



art 

drawing 

music 

singing 

operettas 



athletics 
swimming 
sketching 
painting 
special hobbies 

243 



244 



VOLUNTEER LEADERSHIP 




Courtesy Yosemitc Park and Curry Co 



nature study 

economics 

politics 

poster making 

handcraft 

sewing 

first aid 

golf 

paddle tennis 

politics 

story telling 

short story writing 

dramatics 

tennis 

indoor circus 
An application 

blank of this type 

gives an idea of the 

interests and abilities 

of each applicant for 

club or class assign- 
ment. 

Time requirements must be taken into account. 
Not only should a leader meet her group once or 
twice a week, but in order to understand each 

group better extra periods must be given to home 
visits, hikes, trips, field excursions and personal 
conferences with the members. 

After three references personal, professional 
and educational have been investigated, the lead- 
ers, if accepted and assigned to groups, agree to 
stay for a year. They are then asked to attend a 
leaders' training course and have monthly con- 
ferences with the professional workers in charge. 
Supervision Important 

Definite supervision must be given these new 
volunteers. Reports of progress should be sys- 
tematically kept with records of assignments, ac- 
complishments, length and days of service, and 
opinions of work given by all department heads 
with whom the volunteer works. This data is 
helpful not only for the use of the organization, 
but later if references are desired. In the present 
economic situation many college graduates who 
have been unsuccessful in securing positions have 
preferred to do volunteer work rather than re- 
main idle. The organizations served should feel a 
sense of responsibility toward these workers. 

In preparing a report of a group's progress 
under a volunteer the following factors should 
be evaluated : 

(1) Age and purpose of group or club. 

(2) Length of time in existence. 

(3) Program. 



A group which is typical of many for whom ade- 
quate leadership must be provided this summer. 



(4) Degree of ac- 
complishment. 

(5) Special inter- 
ests. 

(6) Advancement 

Volunteer Club 
Leaders' Training 
Course 

As soon as the vol- 
unteer staff has been 
selected, the club 
leaders' training 
course should begin. 
To this reserve vol- 
unteers not yet as- 
signed may also be 
invited. 

The program in- 
cludes four or six 
sessions dealing with 

subjects related to the work required of the vol- 
unteers. It is well for staff members to be pre- 
sent at the training course, as well as important 
board and committee members. The program 
should be carefully planned covering training in 
policy, principle and technique which a volunteer 
must understand before leading a group. Subject 
matter and purpose should be carefully studied 
and house standards thoroughly stressed. It is 
desirable for the head worker to open the course, 
stressing the possibilities and achievements of 
clubs, classes and social activities in the settlement 
program. This should include neighborhood and 
community work and the part of each worker in 
the movement as a whole. The picture should be 
vividly painted to stress the importance of the 
volunteer leader and his close affiliation with the 
professional worker as adviser and helper. It is 
well to have on the program two or three well 
known national leaders in the field to give inspir- 
ation, point out the larger sphere of service and 
show the value of the unit club or class in the 
field of community work. Subjects such as the 
following are of general interest in the training 
course : 

(1) Social activities in the club program. 

(2) House standards. 

(3) Organization and control of business meet- 
ings and council activities. 

(4) Open meetings, club parties and seasonal 
celebrations, festivals. 

(Continued on page 254) 



World at Play 




AT the grade, school 
The Sprinkle wade . .... T ... 

. * , ,_ at Lhillicothe, Illinois, 

A Novel Device 

a substitute for the 

children's wading 

pool and bathing beach, known as the "Sprinkle- 
wade," has been successfully installed. The ap- 
paratus is 40 feet long, 8j^ feet high, with a 
i l / 2 inch iron pipe fastened on the two posts with 
flanges and braced with a small cable. The water 
pipe is fastened to the iron pipe and has four 
sprinklers which can be attached or detached, as 
desired, or placed permanently. The surface of 
the ground for about 12 feet by 40 feet is heavily 
covered with sand. It may be well, Mr. George 
Milne suggests, to dig out a foot or so of soil, 
cover the bottom with woven wire and then fill 
in with plenty of sand. At the right of the ap- 
paratus is a sand box for play and modeling pur- 
poses. A pipe is fastened over the sand box where 
a hose may be attached when necessary to keep 
the sand usable. 



THE Milwaukee, 
Milwaukee Tours of .... 

TT , ,. Wisconsin, Race Re- 

Understanding . ., , 

lations Council has in- 
stituted a series of 

tours of understanding designed "for all who de- 
sire to understand." Trips are taken to various 
foreign sections of the city, and those interested 
are given the opportunity to become acquainted 
with the institutions and customs of the foreign 
born. On May 2Oth an opportunity was given to 
see something of Italian life in Milwaukee. Those 
going on the trip met at one of the schools where 
they were grouped into small units and taken 
about in cars under the leadership of guides. 

The trip was designed to give the visitor an 
idea of housing conditions, civic organization and 
business interests. After dinner at one of the 
Italian restaurants, the group adjourned to the 
Andrew Jackson Social Center where a program 
was presented. This consisted of talks by the 
distinguished citizens of Italian descent and en- 

245 



246 



WORLD AT PLAY 



No Recreation Congress in 1933! 

IT IS WITH great reluctance that the 
National Recreation Association has 
reached the conclusion there ought not to 
be a Recreation Congress in October, 1933, 
as was originally planned. The replies re- 
ceived from recreation executives, officials 
and others who have attended the meetings 
held in the past, indicate that very many 
of those who have formerly attended in 
past years will find it impossible to come 
in 1933. Financial considerations also 
enter in. 

The Association believes, however, it is 
essential that there shall be a Recreation 
Congress in the fall of 1934 and urges that 
all begin planning for such a Congress. 



tertainment numbers by various clubs of the cen- 
ter the members of which were first, second and 
third generation Italian Americans. A glimpse 
was given of social center activities through 
stereopticon slides, and the evening closed by the 
singing of Italian folk songs by all with informal 
visiting, neighbor with neighbor. 

To the Aid of Artists V. K. Brown of the 
South Park Commissioners, Chicago, Illinois, 
writes that several exhibits have been held of 
products of community craftsmen. The exhibit 



"Recreation and Unemployment" 

A publication of interest to all individuals 
and groups concerned with keeping up the 
morale of the unemployed. 

The booklet tells what a number of com- 
munity groups are doing to meet the 
problem, how buildings of all kinds are 
being used as recreation centers, and de- 
scribes the activities conducted. Plans for 
organization are suggested and information 
given regarding the made work program 
through which many cities are increasing 
their recreation facilities. 



PRICE $.25 



National Recreation Association 



315 FOURTH AVENUE 
NEW YORK CITY 



was first staged in the park buildings where no 
sales are permissible, but subsequently it moved 
into a vacant store where people wishing to pur- 
chase articles or give orders for articles to be 
made up specially were able to do so. At the art 
exhibits 'downtown on the Boulevard the artists 
actually sold their paintings and took orders on 
park property. 

Some Playground Circuses of 1932 A circus 
which attracted more than 12,000 people to Oak 
Park culminated the summer's playground sea- 
son of the Department of Recreation of Lansing, 
Michigan. Opening with a grand processional led 
by the iggth field artillery band, the circus moved 
swiftly along to its final act, a thrilling chariot 
race. A novel feature of the program was the 
presentation of a tableau in honor of George 
Washington. Most of the settings and costumes 
for the circus were made by the children of the 
various playgrounds. 

Among the most popular events on the Los 
Angeles playgrounds last summer were the cir- 
cuses, twenty-two of which were held. Three 
thousand and eighty children appeared as per- 
formers before audiences totaling 66,200 The 
Lynchburg, Virginia, circus was a benefit per- 
formance. The admission fees 10 cents for chil- 
dren, 20 cents adults were given to the chil- 
dren's milk fund of the city. A dress rehearsal 
of the feature acts of the circus was given at the 
Children's Hospital. 

The second annual playground circus to be held 
under the auspices of the Recreation Board of 
Monroe, Louisiana, was presented at one of the 
public parks under three large tents. There were 
twelve side shows, and over three hundred chil- 
dren participated in the parade which took place 
in the center of town. 

Good News From Evansville This year the 
playgrounds maintained by the Department of 
Municipal Recreation of Evansville, Indiana, will 
be open thirteen weeks instead of nine as they 
were last year, while the municipal swimming 
pool season has been lengthened from nine to 
twelve weeks. Four new tennis courts are being 
built on one of the playgrounds. 

And the Wheels ' Go 'Round ! "There is 
energy in the American people, in the bodies and 
spirits of old people," states an editorial in the 
Detroit Free Press. "The younger ones find an 



WORLD AT PLAY 



247 



outlet for it in returning to skate and bicycle 
wheels. Their elders bend it toward the revival 
of industry." The editorial states that in Detroit 
boys and girls and many of their not too aged 
elders are roller skating, whole blocks of city 
streets having been roped off to provide special 
public rinks. Roller skating is popular in Ann 
Arbor as well, an all city roller skating carnival 
having been held to raise money for the Student 
Good-Will Fund. Bicycle wheels are also going 
round. In Detroit streets beyond the center of the 
town "shining spokes of revolving wheels flash in 
the spring sunshine." 

A Drama Contest in Philadelphia As a cul- 
mination of the season's intensive drama training 
given under the leadership of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hanley of the Philadelphia Playground Associa- 
tion, eighteen of the community centers main- 
tained by the Bureau of Recreation of Philadel- 
phia have held a one act play tournament directed 
by Mrs. Hanley and Charles J. Geiger, supervisor 
of Vare Center. Forty-eight plays were given over 
a period of three weeks to determine the center 
with the best Thespians, divided into three groups 
children, junior and senior. The winner of the 
children's group (eight to fourteen years of age) 
was Kingsessing Center which gave "The Birth- 
day of the Infanta." Kensington Center took a 
prize for the junior group (fourteen to seventeen 
years) with "The Shutting of the Door." The 
winner of the seniors (seventeen to sixty years 
of age) was Waterview Center which presented 
"The Bishop's Candlesticks." 

It is estimated that 838 individuals have par- 
ticipated in the season's dramatic activities con- 
ducted under the Bureau's auspices. Directors 
trained in the institute are working in many local 
institutions as well as in settlements and com- 
munity centers. 

Old Customs in Mallorca Many old time 
customs still exist in the Island of Mallorca, one 
of the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean be- 
longing to Spain. "The biggest celebration of the 
festive season," writes Hattiemae Austin, a recre- 
ation worker now traveling in Europe, "is on Jan- 
uary the sixth, the feast of the Epiphany, which 
in the minds of the Spanish children is the real 
Christmas. Three kings go riding about the 
streets of Mallorca on their way to the holy man- 
ger at Bethlehem and fill the shoes of children 
left on window sills with gifts that have been 



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248 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

(Recently Received Containing Articles \ 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker V 



MAGAZINES 
The Parents' Magazine, July, 1933. 

Everyone Needs to Play, an editorial by Howard S. 

Braucher. 
A Vacation Schedule of Play and Rest, by Ethel 

Shreffler Heebink. 

New Facts About Movies and Children, by James 
Rorty. 

New Jersey Municipalities, June, 1933. 

Playtime in Trenton, by George W. Page. 

Parks and Playgrounds, edited by F. S. Mathewson. 

The Survey, June Midmonthly, 1933. 

An Emergency Message to Community Leaders, by 
Arnold Bennett Hall and Harold S. Buttenheim. 

The Farmer's Wife, July, 1933. 

Rural Youth "Uprises," by Carroll P. Streeter. 

Hygeia, July, 1933. 

Safe Swims for Campers, by Phyllis Jackson. 

Training for Athletics and Health, by Alfred E. 

Parker. 
Swimming Pool World, June, 1933. 

The Swimming Badge Tests. 

The Need for Municipal Pools. 

Parks and Recreation, June, 1933. 

A Memorial Park Giving Recreation Service, by 

Perk Whitman. 
Indoor Games. 

PAMPHLETS 

Twenty-third Annual Report of the Boy Scouts of 
America, 1932. 

Committee on Health of the New York Principals Asso- 
ciation. 

Follow-up of the White House Conference on Child 
Health and Protection. 

A National Plan for American Forestry. 

Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Annual Report Westchester County, New York, Recre- 
ation Commission, 1932. 

Annual Report of the Recreation Commission of Long 
Beach, California, 1932. 

Charlotte, N. C. Report of Park and Recreation Com- 
mission for March, April and May, 1933. 

Annual Report of the Board of Park Commissioners, Fort 

Wayne, Ind., 1932. 
National Playing Fields Association Annual Report, 

1932-33. 

suggested in letters placed in special municipal 
post boxes. On New Year's eve everyone at- 
tending a party holds twelve grapes in his hand. 
As the new year is chimed in by much bell ring- 
ing, one grape is eaten at each stroke. Each 
grape is a promise of luck, prosperity and happi- 
ness throughout the coining twelve months. 
"Palma, the capital of Mallorca, with a popula- 



tion of 90,000, is still a city of ancient times. 
Fishermen mend their nets along the streets of 
the main waterfront and women wash at the vil- 
lage tank. Occasionally one finds a group of boys 
wearing the native gingham pinafores playing 
marbles or hopscotch on the streets. An Ameri- 
can recently was immortalized when he gave a 
football to a group of working boys. After the 
day's work the boys hurry to their humble homes 
for their meager supper and then enjoy a play 
hour in a patio near the hotel. Their loud shouts 
of delight prove the universality of the play 
instinct." 

Activities For the Unemployed in Hamilton, 
Canada On April 27th the unemployed artists 
of Hamilton, Canada, gave a variety show before 
a large audience. Much splendid talent was 
brought to light in presenting the show. There 
were selections by an orchestra, a "mirthful, 
magical musical" by Stan Hall and his Hawaiians, 
a presentation of tricks and magic, a show by Alex 
and his minstrels, and a number of other features. 
The proceeds of the show were given to the Com- 
mittee on Recreation for the Unemployed and the 
Amity Clubs Association, sponsored by the Family 
Welfare Bureau. 

Tourists' Sports Clubs Tourists' sports clubs 
in St. Petersburg, Florida, pay their own way 
almost entirely and receive little from the city. 
Where additional facilities are necessary a club 
increases its membership fees or raises enough 
from its fees to reimburse the city for such facil- 
ities. Costs of game equipment, care-taking, light- 
ing, etc., are borne by the club itself. Each club 
elects its own officers, collects its membership 
dues and fees, and is made responsible for activi- 
ties. The Recreation Department is the contacting 
agency with these groups. A Sports Council, 
made up of the presidents and secretaries of the 
various clubs, has been formed with the Superin- 
tendent of Recreation as chairman. This council 
meets once a month during the tourist season. 
Then problems are discussed, and each club is 
familiar with the activities of the others. At the 
beginning of the year the Sports Council visits 
around the different clubs and meets the officers 
and groups. 

How One City Handles Its Basketball 
Teams The Park Department of Wilmington, 
Delaware, has an interesting way of handling its 



WORLD AT PLAY 



249 



basketball teams. There are 62 teams playing 
almost every night of the week with about 1,000 
boys a night taking part. At the opening of the 
season and at intervals during it, Miss Jennie 
Weaver, Supervisor of Playgrounds, holds a mass 
meeting of team members to discuss rules and 
debatable questions coming up and methods of 
handling the problems. In January alone there 
were three such meetings. Each team appoints 
two nonmembers to take charge of the lockers 
and the general conduct of the game. Miss Wea- 
ver reports the plan works out excellently because 
it gives the boys a sense of responsibility and an 
appreciation of the facilities made available for 
them. Most of the teams have vounteer leaders ; 
26 playground teams have 18 senior men leaders 
and 12 junior teams have 9 leaders. On Saturday 
afternoon at Madison House, the city owned 
house in the park, the graduates of the youth 
group come together to the number of 125 men 
who have virtually grown up on Wilmington 
playgrounds and take part in basketball and other 
games. From this group Miss Weaver secures 
her best volunteer leaders. 

Awards Last summer it was decided in 
Augusta, Georgia, not to offer trophies or medals 
in connection with the playground program but 
to see what effect this would have on participa- 
tion and interest in the activities. Participation 
has never been more widespread than it was dur- 
ing this period, and there was a noticeable in- 
crease in the number of adults taking part. 

Developments in Charlotte, North Carolina 
Charlotte, North Carolina, has a symphony 
orchestra composed of about 100 pieces and a 
civic chorus of several hundred voices. Both 
these organizations are being fostered by the Park 
and Recreation Commission. Recently the chorus 
presented a light opera. One of the outstanding 
developments of the year has been the outdoor 
theater which seats about 4,000 people. During 
the summer union services were conducted at the 
theater by six local churches, the Superintendent 
of Recreation leading the singing. The use of this 
facility has made a strong impression upon the 
community. 

Once a week there is an article in the local 
paper telling the story of one of the playgrounds 
or community centers, the facilities available and 
how they are used. This has proved very helpful 
publicity. 




Playgrounds 
earit afford dust 
this year 




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urge this protection! 

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dangers of dust! Protection of the playing 
surfaces against disintegration which is the cause of 
dust ! Both kinds of protection are assured with the 
use of Solvay Calcium Chloride on gravel and earth 
surfaces. 

Playgrounds everywhere find Solvay treatment the 
ideal way to end the dust nuisance. Clean and white, 
it does not track or stain. It is easy to apply and 
economical to use. And in addition to keeping down 
dust, it actually kills harmful germs that live and 
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Let Solvay Calcium Chloride help you lower the cost 
of keeping surfaces in good condition. Write today 
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250 



A RECREATION DEPARTMENT MEETS AN EMERGENCY 



Designs for Tooled Leather -Book I 

A book of 12 plates containing 41 full- 
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designs may be easily adapted to other 
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Order from the author 
MRS. LOUISE C. HOEFER 

317 E. Lomita Street . . Glendale, California 



A Recreation Department Meets 
An Emergency 

(Continued from page 216) 

tainers and the Los Angeles County Recreation 
Department offered considerable assistance along 
this line. Mr. Raymond Hoyt, Superintendent of 
Municipal Recreation in Los Angeles ; Mr. James 
Reid, Superintendent of Recreation for Los An- 
geles County, and Mr. C. C. Martin, Director of 
Schools and Municipal Recreation in Pasadena, 
all visited our Recreation Headquarters and of- 
fered unlimited assistance to our Recreation Com- 
mission in meeting f he emergency problems. Mr. 
Virgil Dahl of the Los Angeles County Recrea- 



Read This Letter 

"When I moved in as Director of 
Crystal Pool, Glen Echo Park, Mary- 
land, right under my arm I carried 
your complete Reference Book 
Notable Swimming Pools and Guide 
to Equipment and Supplies. 

"This Guide has served me dozens 
of times already. It is, indeed, the 
Pool Bible. 

"(Signed) 

"CAPT. EDW. H. McCRAHON." 

NOTE: Before becoming Director of Glen Echo, 
Capt. McCrahon was for seven years manager of 
Spa Municipal Pool and Beach, St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Send for a Copy To-day 

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tion Department and Mrs. Florence Scott of the 
same Department gave recreation programs 
throughout the devastated areas outside of Long 
Beach and were very helpful in assisting the Long 
Beach staff in many problems during the two 
weeks. 

Active Recreation Follows 

Organized games and recreation activities be- 
came more in demand as the period of hysteria 
wore off. This made it possible for our staff 
gradually to supplant the entertainment features 
of our recreation programs with the more highly 
organized recreation and athletic games. These 
more active games were under the general super- 
vision of Mr. A. Milton Fish, Supervisor of Ath- 
letics for the Long Beach Recreation Commis- 
sion. Many of the following activities were or- 
ganized for people of all ages: Baseball, volley 
ball, tennis, croquet, group games, chess, jig-saw 
puzzles. Mrs. Fern L. Kruse, Supervisor of 
Pageantry and Dramatics for the Recreation 
Commission, did much of this type of work with 
the small children at Bixby Park in addition to 
promoting and managing plays and pageants 
almost daily. 

Since the earthquake made it necessary to sus- 
pend all school work temporarily, a request for 
volunteer play directors was issued to the city 
teachers for the purpose of supervising play on 
ten school playgrounds. These playgrounds were 
operated exclusively on a volunteer basis for a 
period of two weeks with a total attendance of 
14.000. They gave the children a wholesome out- 
let for their pent up youthful energy and the serv- 
ice was deeply appreciated by the parents who 
felt the strain of caring for these children who 
were unable to attend school. 

Disaster tests the ingenuity and resourcefulness 
of people. We were particularly impressed during 
the emergency by the generous and fine attitude 
displayed by everyone. More people volunteered 
their services than could be employed. The gen- 
erosity and response of our Recreation Commis- 
sion staff was tested and found to be one hundred 
percent loyal. Many of these individuals worked 
without regard to hours, rest or sleep. Many 
worked nights and days more or less regularly 
during the first two weeks. It seeme