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Full text of "Recreation"



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While Rome Burns ' 



AT A TIME when Hitler re-arms, and Mussolini marches toward Abyssinia; when a radio battle 
^ rages with General Johnson. Senator Long and Father Cougblin before the microphone; with 
farm land withdrawn from cultivation, with factories running part time, with men out of 
work — with the relief problem pressing — is this a time for music, drama, crafts — for enjoying 
nature; for working on problems related to abundant living? Are recreation workers fiddling while 
Rome burns? 

There never has been a time when work on "abundant living" was more fundamental 
than now, for now is a time when sanity of nations and individuals is important. This is not a 
good time to be riding fast in every direction. A sense of direction, a sense of values is doubly im- 
portant now. There is no gain just now in hysterically running fifty yards with the ball — in the 
wrong direction! 

Empires have risen and fallen. Dynasties and dictators have come and gone. But people — 
ordinary people — have gone on living; there have been values such in literature, in music, in art, in 
athletics, in comradeship, in the arts of human intercourse, that the world has not completely com- 
mitted suicide. There has seemed to be enough of value in the world to justify going on living. 

Security in itself would be an empty victory in a barren, dull, heavy, ugly, colorless world. 
It is victory in real living, in real wages of life itself that counts, — a chance to "live" for the farmer, 
for the worker in the mine, in the factory. Two chickens in every pot and three automobiles in 
every garage do not make a Promised Land. There is dynamic explosive power in making life itself 
rich and fruitful, in abolishing poverty of life. Sharing of real living is important. 

In a world where we have so much cotton and corn that we plough it under, in an age of 
abundance where we kill our pigs, close our factories because they produce more than laborers can 
buy — we dare not say that we are too poor to provide opportunities for swimming, skating, singing, 
reading and all that men gladly do to stretch their souls and their bodies. In a world where college- 
trained men beg for a chance to work we cannot say that our country as a whole cannot afford to 
set aside 80,000 additional education — recreation — leisure time workers to give all communities the 
opportunities for recreation, for living that the best communities have already provided for themselves. 

Even tribes of American Indians whom we designated as savages in an age of scarcity set aside 
men to serve as "Delight Makers." In an age of plenty such that we stop our production, it would be 
ridiculous to say that we have not the wealth for music, drama, beauty. Once let the world have 
adequate beauty of action, motion, sound, drama, nature, literature, and all other problems will be- 
come easier because frustration, disillusionment, disappointment, disgust, will be removed from the 
center and will be replaced by a sense of fulness, richness, color, power, joy — -so that the world no 
longer seems to hang stagnant. 

We have been so blinded by men's cry for bread that we have not seen that the real cry is for 
something far more vital — a cry for beauty of life. 

Men growing up knowing what hunger is — when they speak their deepest thought — tell you 
thai great as was the need for food — food alone was not enough. Man is not the kind of animal 
whose hunger is satisfied by bread. Romance, adventure, beauty, comradeship, share in living must 
there be — as well as bread — to satisfy the hunger of the human spirit, to give enduring security. 

Howard Braucher. 



APRI L I 935 



On the Grandstand 



By 

Charles J. Storey 

New York City 



Watching, instead of doing, is not 
a recreative sin, but it sometimes 
leads to a badly balanced diet! 
Why take all your fun vicariously? 



IN A SMALL boy's vocabulary there is no such 
word as "spectator." He has generally to be 
chained down if you want him to watch any 
sort of active game. His whole being is against 
looking at an activity in which he is not allowed 
to take part. I suppose a child does not know any- 
thing about vicarious participation in any activity. 
The spectator attitude is essentially that of the 
adult, who from either innate laziness or some 
other reason is capable of watching the most active 
and interesting sports without any desire to be in 
the midst of them. A child who sees other chil- 
dren playing nearby will fidget and resist paternal 
restraint in order to be among them. His entire 
body moves in excitable rhythm in accord with 
the actions he beholds. The young animal thinks 
with his muscles and he will not be content until 
he is exercising them in a game. 

Watching other people in activity is apparently 
an adult entertainment. It is enjoyable and recrea- 
tive. Look at a group of men in easy attitudes 
watching the laborers digging up the street. The 
scene is certainly familiar to them. They have 
watched it many times before, but it still has the 
power to give a reposeful ease and a sort of con- 
tentment. Early Americans used to gather in a 
ring to watch a dog fight in front of the general 
store. Their descendants fill a stadium and watch 
a prize fight. Seventy thousand thunder at a foot- 
ball game. Thousands fill the grandstands and 
bleachers at professional baseball. They go for 
the fun of it, yet there is much discussion about 
the relative value of watching instead of partici- 
pating in recreation. 

Witnessing Spectacles An Old Custom 

Going in crowds to witness spectacles and 
sports is no modern recreation. The ancient Greeks 
and Romans did it. A glance at the noble remains 
of the Colosseum at Rome shows what provision 



they made for the forty or fifty thousand people 
who once filled that amphitheatre. Baiting Chris- 
tians in the arena was only a small portion of the 
Roman outdoor sports program, for the Roman 
politicians understood thoroughly how to further 
their own ends by using the natural craving for 
recreation in their people. And their oflferings 
were unusually cruel. There is a difference not 
only in the kinds of sport offered today but also 
in the fact that an infinitely greater proportion of 
of the populace regularly attend indoor and out- 
door theatrical and sport entertainment. 

Without boring the reader with statistics of the 
number of theaters, movies and stadiums in the 
country, you may take my word for it that there 
are quite a lot of them. They range in size from 
the intimate theatre and movie house of less than 
three hundred seats to athletic bowls of seventy 
to one hundred thousand capacity. No doubt the 
growth of a city dwelling age with its millions of 
people in sedentary occupations is responsible in 
part for the increase of opportunities to watch 
something rather than to do something in recrea- 
tive hours. 

The greatest number of spectators are gathered 
at the four major spectacles — the theatre, the 
movies, professional baseball and college football. 
Professional ice hockey, boxing, wrestling and 
even professional tennis draw huge crowds. Col- 
lege football is included in these commercial rec- 
reations because as far as the spectator is con- 
cerned it has all the earmarks of commercialism. 
The visitor pays a good price for admission, re- 
ceiving no extra benefits, while what are usually 
considered the principal aims of athletics — the 
enjoyment of playing the game and the physical 
development of the players — are lost sight of 
under the tremendous gate receipts and the pro- 
fessionalized teams. 



ON THE GRANDSTAND 



Why do so many people go to see things rather 
than do things? And do they receive the same 
recreative benefits in watching as in doing? 

Of course we know that sitting on the grand- 
stand watching twenty-two active college men 
play football is a stimulating and engrossing oc- 
cupation. There is nothing quite like the thrill of 
a well-played baseball game between professional 
teams who play with exactitude and rhythm. And 
aside from the cultural aspects of some theatrical 
performances, these spectacles, as well as the omni- 
present movies, furnish a release from the ten- 
sions of work or care which their very popularity 
attests. 

Sitting on the grandstand — that is, watching 
instead of doing — is not a recreative sin. It is do- 
ing that and nothing more which comes in for 
adverse criticism. Students of recreation deplore 
both the tendency of many people to get all their 
active recreation vicariously on the grandstand or 
in the theatre and the all-too-shrewd commercial 
interests which capitalize this human indolence by 
inventing and continually presenting new specta- 
cles for the inert looker-on. 

The confirmed baseball fan, if he never plays 
ball, is undoubtedly a dissipator in recreation. He 
is getting his recreation in one form only with- 
out any of the accompanying pleasures of per- 
sonal performance. His recreative meal is all 
vegetables and no meat. 



Not Prohibition But Temperance! 

It is the inert spectator who we may surmise 
is not getting one hundred per cent recuperation. 
His inertness may come from being continuously 
and only a spectator in his leisure moments. We 
don't need prohibition of "spectatoritis" but rather 
temperance. Continual reliance on being enter- 
tained and amused, whether it be in the grand- 
stand or in the seats of a theatre, is intemperate 
and recreative excess. We must have an audifence 
for our theatre whether its players are profes- 
sional or amateur. And we should have spectators 
at our ball games and athletic events. But we do 
not want the same audience, the same spectators, 
all the time. I once heard a conductor on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad say that his run ended 
every afternoon about two o'clock and he could 
go to a ball game, which he did. Well, he was 
just drinking too much "spectatoritis." He found 
some recuperation, of course, in thus enjoying his 
favorite and apparently only diversion. But he 
had an unbalanced diet. 

People often choose their recreations in the 
same fashion that careless housewives buy food 
for the family. They purchase the products near- 
est at hand or widely advertised. 

What Americans may need is a little more sales 
resistance. It has been said that when the news- 
papers discovered that sports were news, the glori- 
(Continued on page 41) 




The Japanese National Game: Go 



By J. P. Bowles 



WITH rules 
simpler than 
checkers, 
but with possibili- 
ties greater than 
chess, the Japan- 
ese game of Go is 
a sort of eighth 
wonder of the 
world. A child can 
probably be taught 
quicker to begin 
playing Go than 
checkers. Dr. 
Emanuel Lasker, 
for many years 
world's chess champion, 
concedes the superiority 
of Go to chess. 




I 



The Equipment and 
Object 

All that is required, 
besides two players, is a 
"checkerboard" with 
nineteen lines each way, 
a bowlful of white and 
one of black "checkers" 
or stones, as they are 

called. Lacking these, Go can be played with pen- 
cil and ruled paper. 

All there is to the play is the capture of terri- 
tory by placing stones in unbroken lines around 
it — incidentally capturing opponent's stones by a 
similar process of surrounding them. When 
neither player sees advantage in continuing, prison- 
ers are exchanged and placed in home territory, 
thereby reducing the area captured. The player 
whose stones surround the most vacant inter- 
sections wins. There is only one arbitrary rule, 
applying to a situation called ko and necessary 
to forestall a sort of stalemate and a drawn 
game. 



Honinbo Shusai and two professional wonnen So 
players of Japan in conventional opening play. 
The nanne Honinbo is conferred upon the cham- 
pion. He does not receive a numbered degree 
but is called Meijin, the Master. When a new 
Honinbo is chosen, he is adopted as the son of 
the old Honinbo; thus the name is perpetuated. 
Honinbo Shusai, the twenty-first Honinbo, has 
never been defeated since receiving the title. 
It is believed that Go Sei Gen, the young 
Chinese Go revolutionary, will become the next 
Honinbo. Go Sei Gen has upset the .Go tradi- 
tions of centuries with his opening play. Honinbo 
beat him by only two points; but he is an old man 
and Go Sei Gen has not reached his majority. 



The standard 
Japanese Go board 
is about nineteen 
by twenty inches 
and about six in- 
ches thick. ( Boards 
for use in the 
United States are 
likely to be only 
about one inch 
thick.) It is usu- 
ally made of a 
medium-hard, re- 
sonant, yellow 
wood, such as 
yew, cedar or 
white pine. To increase 
resonance the under side 
is sometimes hollowed 
out, so that the Go board, 
tradition slyly suggests, 
may also serve to hold 
the dismembered head of 
a kibitzer 1 

Centered on the upper 
surface is the "checker- 
board." Nineteen lines 
each way, about seven- 



eighths of an inch apart, 
form 361 intersections. As the squares are not 
used — only the intersections — they are not dis- 
tinguished from the board proper by any other 
marking. The nine intersections of every fourth, 
tenth and sixteenth lines are pointed up with tiny 
dots, which serve as handicap points. 

The stones are discs, convex on both sides, 
about seven-eighths of an inch in diameter and 
nearly one-quarter inch thick in the center. As 
made in Japan, the white stones are of pearl shell, 
pleasant to touch ; the black stones of slate, turn- 
ing a luminous jet after continued use. The 
meticulous Go stone maker provides 180 white 
and 181 black stones, one for each of the 361 in- 



THE JAPANESE NATIONAL GAME: GO 



tersections, but seldom does a game require more 
than 1 50 of each. White and black stones are kept 
separate in each of two wooden bowls about six 
inches in diameter and four inches high, of which 
the covers, removed and inverted, serve during 
play to hold prisoners. 

Rules for Play 
Play begins with the board clear and the stones 
in their respective bowls. Starting with black, 




DIAGRAM A 
Diagram A illustrates prime positions. 

players take turn placing one stone at a time on 
any intersection not occupied by a stone, except 
on a certain intersection on a certain play in a 
situation called ko. Once a stone is played, it is 
never moved to another intersection. 

A typical mannerism is to fork out a stone from 
the bowl between index finger fingernail and third 
finger, not in affectation but because this is the 
easiest way to handle it; then to slap it down on 
the resounding board (whereby, it has been 
hinted, the slow player may awaken his oppon- 
ent) ; then to slide it delicately to the chosen in- 
tersection. 



Regarding the board as an island, with outer 
lines as waterfront boundary and corner areas as 
peninsulas, obviously the corner areas are easiest 
to capture by surrounding, since few stones are 
required to complete the partitioning off of terri- 
tory already partly surrounded or partitioned oflf 
on two sides by the waterfront boundaries. Hence 
early play usually takes place in corner areas, and 
the first stone is usually placed on an intersection 
three or four lines from each of two boundary 
lines (including boundary lines in 
the counting), as in a in the ac- 
companying Diagram A. The op- 
ponent usually places the second 
stone similarly in another comer 
area, and so on with third and 
fourth plays. 

Since the sides are next easiest 
to capture, the following play is 
sometimes on other intersections 
three or four lines from an outer 
or boundary line. But Go is a 
fighting game and most players 
seem to favor challenging an op- 
ponent for possession of a corner 
or a share thereof. This precipi- 
tates a fight. 

The accompanying Diagrams, 
B, C and D, record and illustrate 
a game between Karl Davis Ro- 
binson and Fritz Kastilan. It is 
a naive experiment in the open- 
ing play strategy of the young 
Chinese genius Go Sei Gen. 

Diagram D shows the fin- 
ished game. White has captured 
the following black stones : seven 
around f-i6; they are conceded 
captured. 

Black has captured the follow- 
ing white stones: k-14, I-14, q-15 and q-i6. Other 
captured stones are shown on Diagrams B and C. 
When these stones and others previously taken 
prisoner are returned to their own home territory, 
it is found that White wins by sixteen points. The 
beginner will do well to replay this game slowly, 
trying to understand the reasons for every play. 

A territory is definitely captured when the 
stones surrounding it cannot be captured by the 
opponent, as in Diagram A : positions b, c, d and 
e. To understand this it is necessary to know how 
the opponent's stones can be captured and the con- 
ditions under which they cannot be captured. 



THE JAPANESE NATIONAL GAME: GO 



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Stones I to 100. No. I, at r-17, is an un- 
conventional opening play, except to the 
followers of Go Sei Gen. No. 14, at g-16, 
is necessary, for otherwise Black has this 
side of the board entire. No. 53, at c-3, 
an unforunate error. A play at e-4 would 
have preserved Black's threat of a large 
territory, necessarily contested by White. 



obcdefgbj klmnopqrst 

DIAGRAM B 

A stone is captured when all adjacent intersec- 
tions are occupied by opponent's stones, as in f, 
g and h. A group of stones is captured when all 
intersections adjacent to the stones of the group 
are occupied by opponent's stones, as in q. 

As soon as a stone or group of stones is 
actually so surrounded and thus captured, 
it is taken off the board by the capturing 
player and kept in his custody until the 
end of the game. Therefore it is obvious 
that the last stone played in cj was a white 
stone, for Black would not have played a 
stone in such a way as to complete the 
capture of his own group. 

The last white stone having been play- 
ed in q, White takes off the board all the 
black stones in q before Black plays in 
his the next turn. 

Another example of capture is k. 
Which is captured : the group of black 



Stones 101 to 200. The black stones around 
f-16 are virtually conceded as lost, as Black 
cannot form a wall around two separate com- 
partments before White closes in and captures. 



stones or the white stone at t-i2? The 
answer depends on whether the last stone 
played was a black stone or the white 
stone at t-i2. If the last stone played was 
a black stone, then the white stone at t-i2 
has just been captured and is to be taken 
off the board by Black before White may 
play. If the last stone played was the 
white stone at t-i2, then all the black 
stones have just been captured and are 
to be taken off the board by White before 
Black may play. Neither of these plays 
is a suicide play, because the removal of 
the stones captured as the completion of 
the play saves the last stone played from being 
automatically captured and subject to removal by 
the opponent prior to his, the next play. If, how- 
ever, any of the white stones other than that at 

DIAGRAM C 




8 



THE JAPANESE NATIONAL GAME: GO 



t-i2 had been missing, the last stone played could 
not have been White's at t-12. 

Although a player must completely surround 
and capture the stones of an opponent before he 
may take them ofif the board during the game, at 
the end of the game he is entitled to take of? the 
board all of opponent's stones which cannot be 
saved in territory captured by himself. For ex- 
ample, in position c Black need not play at k-19 
in order eventually 
to capture the white 
stone at I-19. The 
white stone at I- 19 
is regarded as dead 
and, at the end of 
the game. Black 
may take it off the 
board as prisoner. 

It now becomes 
apparent why black 
stones in b, c, d and 
e cannot be captur- 
ed. Using e as an 
example, White, in 
order to capture, 
would have to place 
stones on r-19 and 
t-19. But White 
may not play at both 
intersections at 
once, and to play on 
either is suicide. 

Accordingly it 
follows that a group 
of stones is safe when it 
surrounds territory which 
the opponent cannot in- 
vade without being cap- 
tured. This is so when the 
group definitely surrounds 
two separate territories 
and tentatively so when 

the group's player cannot be prevented by plays 
of his opponent from dividing the territory sur- 
rounded into two separate definitely surrounded 
territories. 

There is a certain condition, called seki, under 
which invaders of a surrounded territory cannot 
capture or be captured, as in s. If White plays on 
either a-7 or a- 1 1 , r)lack jjlays on the other inter- 
section and captures that white stone and those at 
a-8, a-9 and a- 10 and is safe. If Black plays on 
either a-7 or a-ii, White plays on the other in- 




DIAGRAM D 

Stones 201 to 234. Finished game. Black has 
surrounded 66 intersections and five prisoners. 
White has surrounded 78 intersections and 
ten prisoners. White wins by seventeen points, 
enough to warrant giving Black a one-stone 
handicap after two such victories. 



tersection and captures all the black stones. Such 
a situation, called seki, is left as is and neither 
player gets credit for the two points of territory 
at a-7 and a-ii. 

Now for the one arbitrary rule of play, called 
the rule of ko, as in m, n and p. Given the situa- 
tion in m, it is Black's play. Should Black place a 
stone on m-14, he would thereby capture and re- 
move the white stone at I-14. In the absence of 

rule of ko, White 
might then on his 
the next play place 
another stone at I-14 
and capture the 
black stone just 
placed at m-14, and 
so on indefinitely. 
Similarly with the 
ko situations at n 
and p. 

The rule of ko 
provides that a stone 
which has just com- 
pleted the capture 
of an opponent's 
stone may not be 
captured on the fol- 
lowing play unless 
other stones can 
also be captured 
with the same play. 
Thus, if Black plays 
at m-T4, White may 
not play at I-14 on 
his the following play. 
This gives Black an op- 
portunity to make his the 
following play at I-14 and 
so "close" the ko and 
"win" the ko. If the win- 
xning of the ko is, however, 
sufficiently important to 
White, White will make his interim play else- 
where so threatening to .Black that Black may 
chose to answer it instead of closing the ko. Then, 
and only then. White may play at I-14. Similarly, 
Black may contest the ko, and so on until all po- 
tential plays sufficiently threatening are exhausted. 
So much for the one arbitrary rule of play. 
There are several rules of courtesy, not all of 
which, however, are likely to be observed in the 
United States. But it is ever obligatory, as a rule 
of courtesy, to give warning when one makes a 



THE JAPANESE NATIONAL' GAME: GO 



9 



play such that on his follow- 
ing play he can completely sur- 
round, capture and take off the 
board one or more of oppon- 
ent's stones. It is customary to 
give this warning by saying 
the Japanese word "atari," 
similar to the "check" or 
"guardez" in chess. 

Handicapping is provided 
for by allowing Black a given 
number of plays before White 
begins. These plays must be 
made, however, in prescribed order on prescribed 
intersections, nine of which are d-4, d-io, d-i6; 
k-4, k-io, k-i6; q-4, q-io, q-i6. Altogether, at 
least seventeen degrees of handicap are provided 
for. In practice, nine are the limit. 

With not more than nine stones of handicap, a 
master and a passing fair player can play together 
with equal chance of success. It is one of the 
beauties of Go that such handicapping does not, as 
in chess, spoil the game for either player. Games 
rarely end in a draw. And it is significant that, 
through handicapping, degrees of ability are mea- 
surable to a fraction of a degree of handicap. 

The History of Go 

Of the origin of Go we know not which, if any, 
of the hoary legends be true. It is casually re- 
ferred to in a Chinese writing of about 1000 B.C. 
Certain Chinese classics date it prior to 2300 
B.C. It is said to have been invented by a Chinese 
emperor or an aide to strengthen the weak mind 
of the emperor's son. It is believed to have been 
introduced into Japan between 700 and 800 A.D. 
Whereas China is the mother, Go properly belongs 
to Japan by adoption. While the rules have been 
altered little, the present marvelous development 
of tactics and strategy is exclusively Japanese. 

When Shakespeare was hitch-hiking to London, 
Japanese players with a reputation — even monks, 
farmers, trades people, regardless of social status 
— were being summoned before the royal presence 
to "do their stuff," either to give the imperial play- 
boys a stiff workout or to demonstrate their skill 
against one another. 

Then Honinbo Sansha, spiritual ancestor of a 
line of masterful Honinbo, opened a private Go 
school. Hideyoski, a famous general, founded the 
first Go college. His successor, lyeyasu, super- 
ceded it in 1603 with a sort of national Go college, 
subsidized, which lasted until 1865. Honinbo 



"It is written in the Wu Ts'ah Tsu that 
among the playthings of modern and 
ancient times, there is nothing more 
remote than Go. Next to wine and 
women it leads men astray. If they 
think it difficult even village boys and 
common people can play it very skill- 
fully, but if it be thought very easy 
even the wisest and most intelligent, 
though they investigate it thoroughly 
through generations, may not acquire 
it correctly." — From The Game of 
Go, by Arthur Smith. 



Sansha was the first Dean, 
with a princely retainer of 
land and rice. Many of the 
ranking players were salaried 
professors. The alumni went 
forth as strolling players, set- 
tling down where they fancied 
as teachers, in security and 
honor. 

At the fall of the Shogunate 
in 1868, the national Go col- 
lege closed its doors. And for 
a decade the fascination of 
Occidental innovations seems to have lured some 
attention from Go. Around 1880, however, there 
seems to have been a reaction against foreign in- 
terests and Go returned to popular favor. 

For centuries Go has been the national game of 
Japan — of the public, including children. Yet it 
enjoys the reputation of being the game of 
Princes, scholars and war lords. While Japanese 
children play Go as ours play marbles, Go is the 
darling of officialdom and of high society. It is 
quite the thing- — sort of "horsey," let us say. And 
to play Go well is a far more essential part of be- 
ing a gentleman than to play bridge well in this 
country. But, whereas the public plays both Go 
and Shoghi (Japanese chess), aristocrats play 
only Go. 

Go has been played by Americans in the United 
States for a generation. Among the pioneers are 
Karl Davis Robinson, proprietor of The Photo- 
graphic Research Laboratory, Lee Foster Hart- 
man, editor of Harper's Magazine; W. D. Witt 
of Philadelphia, a bibliophile, and Edward Lasker, 
chess expert. Mr. Hartman and Mr. Robinson 
have had translated and have edited Japanese Go 
classics. Mr. Lasker has just published an intro- 
ductory history and manual of the game. Mr. 
Robinson, as the foremost American authority, is 
preparing a comprehensive treatise, based largely 
on his twenty-year collection of Go literature and 
correspondence with the Japanese masters, to 
which the author of this article expresses in- 
debtedness. 

Various groups in New York, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Princeton have developed consid- 
erable skill. Since the formation of the American 
Go Association by Mr. Robinson, isolated players 
are being discovered all over the United States, 
clamoring for information as to where to find 
fellow-players. The number of new players is 
(Continued on page 42) 



Heigh-ho for a Merry Spring! 



HARDLY ANY Other delight 
is so deep and so in need 
of expression as that we 
feel on a fresh May morning when the fields 
and trees are growing into full, radiant life 
again. Then, if ever, is a time for a festival. But 
that word of happy erstwhile simple mean- 
ing has come to mean big choruses, a sym- 
phony orchestra, soloists, much expense, or 
other things difficult to achieve. Without be- 
littling these great things or the possibility of 
achieving even these, we could have in every 
community a Spring festival, and others to fol- 
low it, that would be easy and inexpensive to 
produce, enlist many people, and be as delight- 
ful and possibly as stimulating toward the best 
kinds of musical, dance, dramatic and other 
artistic activities as anything could be. 

Such a festival was held during the recent 
New York State Farm and Home Week at 
Ithaca, and it was so successful and so readily 
adaptable to any community or neighborhood, 
rural or urban, that many a recreation leader 
may wish to know what it was and how it 
was done. 

Though there might have been a blizzard 
outside the auditorium on the day it was done, 
it was a Spring festival with all the color, sing- 
ing, dancing and other gayety that we associate 



By Augustus D. Zanzig 

National Recreation Association 



with that time of bright new 
life. This was done in order 
that many of the several 
thousand men and women gathered for the 
Week from all parts of the State might see how 
they could have such a celebration of the Spring 
in their own communities. It was all prepared 
in less than three days. On Tuesday morning 
no one who was to take part in it knew what 
he or she was to do in it, but on Thursday 
afternoon eleven groups of people — 135 persons 
in all — were active on the stage, a new unison 
chorus of 80 sat amidst the audience near the 
piano to lead in the singing. An audience of 
about 2,000 held printed programs containing 
the words of the songs which all were invited 
to sing and most of which had been learned 
and sung by many of them during an informal 
singing period held on each of the first three 
days of the week. 

The Program 

Each page of the program which was given 
the audience was of a dififerent color — orange, 
yellow, green and blue. We are presenting here 
the main events as they were listed on the pro- 
gram. Unfortunately space does not permit of 
our printing the words of the songs used and 
it is possible to give only their titles. After 




10 



HEIGH-HO FOR A MERRY SPRING ! 



11 



reproducing as much as possible of the pro- 
gram, we will comment on each item in it and 
tell how it was planned, organized and pro- 
duced. 

SPRING FESTIVAL 
Farm and Home Week, Cornell University 
February 14, 1935 
Introduction 

This Spring Festival, all of which has been planned 
and prepared in three days of this week, is for immediate 
pleasure, but all those connected with it are hopeful that 
it will serve also as an inspiration for the production of 
such a simple festival in many other communities in New 
York State in the spring, at harvest time and at other 
times. A large group of county representatives from all 
parts of the state have taken steps this week, in daily 
conferences, toward preparing to plan and direct such 
festivals in their respective communities. 

For this festival there is really no audience, for every- 
one present is invited to take full part in it, through the 
singing if not through any other merry-making. 

Behold the ancient customs ' 

By which the folk made gay 
Within the pleasant greenwood 
Upon the first of May. 



The Merrymakers Sing and Dance 

I. "Mayers" bringing in the green while everybody 
sings the "Cornish May Song."* 
II. "Mayers" decorate the festival-place while every- 
body sings. 

Song : "Morning Comes Early"** 

III. Bringing in the Maypole : bearer, chimney-sweeps, 
hobby horse and more Mayers. 

Song : "Come, Lasses and Lads" 

IV. Maypole Dance: "Sellenger's Round," an old 
English Country Dance. 

V. Another group comes to dance and sing. 
Song: "Rosa"* 
Song: "Come, Let Us Be Joyful" 
VI. Ploughboys and Milkmaids. 

Song: "The Jolly Ploughboy" 
Bean-setting, an old English dance grown out of 
springtime dibbing and sowing. 
The Merry, Merry Milkmaids— another old 
English dance. 
VII. Birds and other children from Bethel Grove 
Rural School. 

Song: "All the Birds" 
"Song: "A Windmill"* 
A singing game : "Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow" 
VIII. Song characters come alive. 

Song : "The Lark in the Morn"** 
Song: "The Old Woman and the Peddler"** 
IX. Neighbors from the Hungarian Social Club of 
Ithaca, in three folk dances. 

Szalon Polka Csardas 

X. Boy and girl hikers from Boynton Junior High 
School, Ithaca, in some spring games. 
Song: "Tiritomba"** 
XI. Folk dancers from the Campus, in three Scandi- 
navian dances. 
Dal Dance Schottische Josseharad Polka 

XII. A group of American "Square Dancers" in a 
Virginia Reel or whatever else you wish. 
But Where's the fiddler? 

Song: "The Generous Fiddler"* 
XIII. A last good dance around the Maypole, and off 
they go ! 



* To be found in "Songs for Informal Singing," published by 
the National Recreation Association. 10 cents a copy; $7.50 per 
100 for 50 or more copies. 

** In "Folk Songs and Ballads," Set I., E. C. Schirmer Music 
Company, Boston, Mass. 12 cents a copy. 



Explaining the Program 
The "Mayers" were eight couples of college 
freshmen (high school, 4-H club or other 
young men and women could do equally well) 
who came dancing down the outside aisles, 
four couples in each, from the rear of the hall 
to the stage while the Cornish May Song was 
being sung. The girls were in simple English 
country dresses and carried paper bonnets of 
Spring colors, while the boys were in dark 
trousers, white shirts, simple sleeveless jackets 
made of bright, solid-colored cambric, and 
girdles or scarves of the same material and 
color about their waists. The boys carried small 
branches of green leaves with which to finish 
decorating the stage, the entire back of which 
was covered with handsome hemlocks. In the 
Spring they would, of course, be carrying 
sprigs of flowers, too, in their upraised hands, 
and the stage would also be decorated accord- 
ingly. The directions for this processional 
dance, as well as the melody and words of the 
song, are in "Songs for Informal Singing," 
published by the National Recreation Associa- 
tion. Both the song and the dance have been 
used for generations in an annual May celebra- 
tion in the village of Helston in Cornwall, 
England. There on every eighth of May a 
group of young people, having gone out be- 
fore the dawn to gather greenery and flowers, 
come singing and dancing as they bring these 
into the village. Then other village folk joining 
them and preceded by a band and usually led 
by the mayor, dance through the streets and 
in and out of houses, bringing tHe benign in- 
fluence to every household. 

Directly after "Morning Comes Early" was 
sung, a gay shout was heard as the Maypole 
was brought in by two men in old English 
costume accompanied by two clownish chim- 
ney sweeps, a very spirited hobby-horse and 
four more "Mayers." The Maypole, fifteen feet 
high and 4j/^" in diameter, was all wound 
round with fresh laurel with calendulas 
fastened at short intervals between the laurel 
stem and the pole, a wonderful sight for eyes 
weary of winter's bareness. From a small disc 
two inches thick fastened to the top of the pole 
hung gay-colored ribbons of cambric which, 
not to be used in any dance, were only ten 
feet long. The base or stand for the pole was 
5 feet, 4 inches square, made of boards about 



12 



HEIGH-HO FOR A MERRY SPRING ! 




9 inches wide and 
Ij4 inches thick, 
with four wooden 
braces which were 
held together at 
the top by a disc 
about a foot wide, • 
in the center of 
which was a hole 
into which the 
pole fit snugly. 
This base was, of 
course, placed in 
position on the 
stage before the 
festival started, 
and it was hidden 
under branches of 

green. courtesy English Folk Dance Society 

The song, 
"Come, Lasses and Lads," can be obtained for 
ten cents from the H. W. Gray Company, 159 
East 48th Street, New York. The music and 
full directions for dancing "Sellenger's Round," 
"Merry, Merry Milkmaids" and four other old 
English dances are in Volume III of the 
English Country Dance Graded Series, obtain- 
able from the same company at $1.50. 

After "Sellenger's Round" was danced 
around the Maypole by the same young people 
who danced in to the Cornish May Song, some 
women appearing at the left wing of the stage 
and seeing the merry-making, sang as if to one 
another the song, "Rosa, Let Us Be Dancing" 
and skipped to the middle of the stage, all 
twelve of them, falling into a circle around the 
Maypole. At the end of the first stanza the two 
girls who happened then to be nearest a group 
of six young men who had also appeared at the 
left wing, dropped their hands, and the men 
skipped inside the women's circle singing, 
"Rosa, will you be mine, now?" The women 
continued skipping around while the men did 
likewise but in the other direction. At the close 
of the second stanza, each man turned to take 
a certain two girls for his partners in "Come, 
Let Us Be Joyful," a charming and easy sing- 
ing-dance to be found in "Twice 55 Games with 
Music," published by C. C. Birchard and Com- 
pany, 221 Columbus Avenue, Boston, at 25 
cents a copy. This singing-dance had been 



learned in about 
twenty minutes on 
the preceding af- 
ternoon. 

Eight milkmaids 
and six "plough- 
boys" in overalls, 
each of the latter 
bearing a rake, 
hoe or other light 
farm implement, 
strolled in with 
free swinging step 
to the song, "The 
Jolly Ploughboy," 
one step to a 
measure. This 
song, costing ten 
cents, and the 
music for the 
dance. Bean-setting, can be obtained through 
the H. W. Gray Company mentioned above. 
The dance music is published in Set I of Morris 
Dance Tunes, along with seven other such 
tunes, which costs $1.50. 

Bean-setting, done by the men, is partly, at 

least, an idealization of garden planting in 

which a stick or dib was used to make a hole 

for the seeds. It is done in sets of three coujjles, 

each set in column formation, partners about 

four feet apart : ' 

5 6 

3 4 

I 2 

Audience 
Each dancer holds in his right hand a round 
stick about 18 inches long and about }i of an 
inch in diameter, and for each measure of the 
music except those 'for the dibbing and strik- 
ing of sticks there are four low hopping steps 
— left, left, right, right — with the free foot 
slung slightly forward. 

Introduction. During the playing of the 
first 8 measures the dancers stand as in the 
above diagram, the sticks crossed between 
partners ready to strike them together on the 
third beat of the last measure. 

Part I. A Ring 

A. With dancers i, 3 and 5 turned "right 
about face," all proceed in an elliptical ring 
with the step described above. No. 5 following 



HEIGH-HO FOR A MERRY SPRING! 



13 



No. 6, and No. 2 following No. i, until Nos. 
5, 3 and I are facing forward in the positions 
of 2, 4 and 6, and vice versa. Then the two 
files close in slightly, continuing the stepping, 
and on the third beat of the fourth measure 
partners strike their sticks together. 

B. All continue around to the original posi- 
tion and strike sticks on the third beat of the 
eighth measure. 

Part II. Dibbing, in which with partners 
facing one another each one stoops forward 
with stick in right hand to thump the lower 
end on the ground. 
Meas. I. All dib twice 
Meas. 2. Remain stooped, strike partner's 

stick on first beat and hold it there 
Meas. 3. All dib twice 
Meas. 4, 1st beat. Strike partner's stick 
Meas. 4, 2nd beat. No. 2 strikes stick of No. 4 
Meas. 5, 1st beat. No. 4 strikes stick of No. 6 
Meas. 5, 2nd beat. No. 6 strikes stick of No. 5 
Meas. 6, ist beat. No. 5 strikes stick of No. 3 
Meas. 6, 2nd beat. No. 3 strikes stick of No. i 
Meas. 6, 3rd beat. All partners strike across 
together. 

Repeat all of Part II. 

Part III. Crossing over and back with step 
of Part I. 

A. Partners face each other, cross passing 



right shoulder to right shoulder and turn right 
into opposite places as they strike their sticks 
together on the 3rd beat of fourth measure. 

B. Partners return again, passing right 
shoulders, and turn right into original place as 
they strike sticks together on 3rd beat of eighth 
measure. 

Part IV. Repeat Part II. 

Part V. Back-to-Back. 

A. Partners cross as in Part III, but return 
at once moving backward into original place in 
time to strike sticks on the 3rd beat of fourth 
measure. As they return backward they pass 
left shoulders. 

B. Partners cross passing left shoulders and 
return backward passing right shoulders in 
time to strike sticks on 3rd beat of eighth 
measure. 

Part VI. Repeat Part II and on the last beat 
of the dance jump into the original column for- 
mation, facing forward, as the sticks are struck 
and held crossed between partners. 

The children in the one-room rural school 
were asked what they would like to contribute 
to the happiness of the festival. The seven 
little children, dressed in capes and caps of 
different colors, who thus resembled birds, 
needed no rehearsal to flit about while the song 
"All the Birds" was sung twice: 



German Folk Song 



ja^ 



AU ike f^\.rdLs 



uL^i' : J. i- J 1 1 f. Q J I . ^^ 



AU iive \>irls h^Mte CMr\t a- 3o-«-»^ , Came t\jUXjo^ 



Ou-S. 



^ 



iLJUu: \ f r-i ^m 



Slu^U^. Ko^ C^ ^biu.e bx^if- ^tu-jLArJ. J OLij 



i^ J J-.rj-kr^^J I I vl^J' r 



Si,yiMikeJirmerr\t f^tuvde ~ ^-*-^ - N>1 ^c bw^tU fuLoe 



\i^ f L^ 



i I J. i^J-j- 1 ^^ 



CftvTve «\- ta-*^ , CW»*e U'^JX g'o^ou^ ^Cvv^i/w^ 



14 



HEIGH-HO FOR A MERRY SPRING! 



The children imitated the motions suggested 
by each stanza of "A Windmill" as they sang it. 

"The Lark in the Morn" and "The Old 
Woman and the Peddler" were acted out. 

The delight and other values to be found 
in such dances as the Hungarian and Scand- 
inavian ones, especially when they are done 
as real folk-expressions by persons whose 
natrve heritage they are, should lead any 
festival-maker to seek for such and for songs 
and other appropriate folk-expressions among 
the people of his region. Many a festival or 
other such occasion has led people of foreign 
extraction to recapture for their own happiness 
and to present to the community traditional 
music, dancing and other arts and crafts that 
are superb recreational activities which they 
had given up because of the contrary interests 
and pressures of our everyday life. 

The Junior High School boys merely played 
two typical outdoor games, each taking two or 
three minutes, after they had hiked on to the 
stage. "Tiritomba" is a fine song to be sung 
for such an entrance. 

Two sets of eight for an American square 
dance were formed at the moment, of people 
who responded to an invitation given to "any- 
one in the audience" to come and take part. 
Only a caller and a fiddler had been chosen 
beforehand and they had chosen "Darling 
Nelly Gray" as the dance. The fiddler had been 
asked to delay his appearance in order to give 
excuse for singing the beloved song, "The 
Generous Fiddler." He also acted out his part 
in the second stanza of the song. Music and 
directions for "Darling Nelly Gray" can be 
obtained for 25 cents from the Church Recrea- 
tion Service, Delaware, Ohio. 

Throughout the festival as each group 
finished its part it gathered, standing, at the 
rear of the stage. Thus a constantly growing 
company of jolly and interested spectators was 
on the stage, making the latter more and more 
handsome and animated with their costume 
colors and sincere appreciation and applause of 
each succeeding group of performers. The 
children seated themselves at the side ends of 
the stage near the front. After the square dance 
the Maypole, which had been set back to make 
room for that dance, was brought to the middle 
of the stage again, the Mayers did Sellenger's 
Round again around it, and then they skipped 



off the stage, half going down one aisle and 
half going down another aisle to the rear of the 
hall followed by all the rest of the merry- 
makers, each group of whom had been told 
down which aisle to go. Had there been time 
before the festival for each of them to learn 
"Sellenger's Round," it would have been 
splendid to have three circles at once doing 
that dance around the tree in a "grand finale." 
If there was any tendency toward having 
this festival appear to be, unfortunately, an 
exhibition rather than, or as well as, a spon- 
taneous, self-forgetful though often beautiful 
merrymaking, that tendency was completely 
defeated by the chimney sweeps, Maypole 
bearers and the hobby-horse. Their unrehearsed 
imitations or other pranks coming at the close 
of a dance or immediately after it brought 
gales of laughter and made plain to anyone 
who might otherwise doubt it that the per- 
formers were not taking themselves too seriously. 
But perfect care was taken to avoid having this 
clowning detract attention from any dance or 
other performance until the latter had had its 
full effect. 

Organization and Preparation 

A tentative program for the festival was 
presented to a group of people chosen before- 
hand as representing together knowledge and 
executive force as to available resources for 
costuming, stage decoration, lighting, folk 
dancing, singing, dramatics and, most import- 
ant, for enlisting people to take part in the 
festival, to be ushers, or to help in other ways. 
After a three-hour, leisurely discussion the 
program to be striven toward, and all its 
needs, adapted to the actual possibilities as 
estimated by those present, was well in mind, 
including arrangements for enlisting groups to 
perform. In the process of getting groups and 
preparing them, some slight changes in the 
program were made. No group rehearsed more 
than four times, most of them fewer times, and 
there was no joint or full rehearsal at all ; yet 
each group appeared without delay, in proper 
costume, and performed well, and everything 
else worked out well. This was mainly due to 
the clarity of the plans for the festival, and 
full knowledge for each group as to what it 
was to do. A chart of the stage and the audi- 
(Contmued on page 42) 



The Florentine Musical May 



Bu Marinobel Smith 



FLORENCE^ Italy, will lead 
the other art and music 
centers of Europe with 
the first music festival of the 
season April 24th to June 4th. 
The six-weeks affair' is known 
as Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, 
or Florentine Musical May, 
and was inaugurated in 1933 
at the instigation of Premier 
Mussolini. Her Royal High- 
ness, Princess Maria of Piedmont, sponsors the 
festival this Spring. 

One hundred and fifty thousand visitors were 
estimated to have attended the first Maggio Musi- 
cale. Among these were many Americans, and 
again for the coming fete, throngs of tourists, 
students and others are expected to flood the city 
during the month of May. 

If these travelers abroad are familiar with the 
older, more picturesque festivals having their 
roots in medieval times, they will make sure to 
arrive in Florence at least a week before the 
music festival starts. For it is in the ancient 
square in front of Florence's Duomo, or Ca- 
thedral, that one of the country's most colorful 
Easter-time rituals takes place. On Holy Satur- 
day a great three-tiered chariot, blazing with fire- 
works set off by a mechanical dove (La Colom- 
bina), draws out the entire Florentine citizenry 
from the farthest parts of the city and the hills of 
Fiesole nearby. "Lo Scoppio del Carro" — the 
Burning of the Chariot — originated in the sacred 
rite of kindling the holy fire on Holy Saturday, 
and dates back to 1305 when a member of the 
local Pazzi family returned victorious from the 
Crusades. 

Other traditional fetes, revived by the Fascist- 
sponsored "National Leisure Hours Institution," 
attest to the still unrivaled spirit of carnival in 
Italy. The culmination of the various seasonal 
and religious festivals takes a less nationalistic 
form in the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino. In its 



It is indeed a far cry from the 
simple Spring festival in rural 
New York described by Mr. 
Zanzig in the preceding article, 
to the ambitious music festival 
planned for Florence, Italy; but 
we invite you to cross the ocean 
with us and enjoy a festival to 
which six nations will contribute. 



inception it was predominantly 
Italian, music from i8th cen- 
tury Italy comprising the 
greater part of the 1933 pro- 
gram. For the second Maggio 
Musicale, however, contribu- 
tors from Germany, France, 
Austria, England and the 
United States, as well as Ital- 
ians, are featured in the pro- 
gram of opera, symphony and 
chamber music concerts, drama in the out-of- 
doors, the modern dance and lectures. 

France offers the Paris Opera Company in 
Rameau's "Castor et Pollux," and members of the 
National Dancing Academy in a program of 
dances. Austria is represented by the Mozart 
opera "II Ratto al Serraglio" in its complete form, 
conducted by Bruno Walter and performed by 
Viennese artists. The Philharmonic Orchestra 
and Kittel Chorus from Berlin will give perform- 
ances of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and the 
Verdi Requiem. 

The combined Florentine Choruses and Or- 
chestras will appear in Haydn's "The Season," 
under the baton of Vittorio Gui ; in Mozart's 
"Requiem" under Mr. Walter; and in the com- 
plete series of Bach's "Brandenburg Concerti" 
under Adolph Busch. 

The most important contribution from Italy 
herself is a new opera, "Orseolo" by Ildebrande 
Pizzetti, to be given its first public performances 
May 4th, 9th and 15th. Rossini's "Moses," Verdi's 
"Ballo in Maschera" and Bellini's "Norma" are 
other Italian productions for which leading per- 
formers and conductors have been engaged. 

Rino Alessi's drama "Savonarola" will be 
staged by Jacques Copeau in the historic Piazza 
della Signoria where the martyr was executed 
more than four hundred years ago. An orchestra 
conducted by Previtali and a huge chorus under 
the direction of Morosini will supplement the out- 
of-door spectacle with music written especially 

15 



16 



THE FLORENTINE MUSICAL MAY 



for the occasion by Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. 

The United States will send the distinguished 
Dr. Herbert Graf, stage director of the Phila- 
delphia Opera, to direct Gluck's "Alceste." This 
country may claim, too, a number of festival 
stars : Mme. Elizabeth Rethberg, and Messrs. 
Lauri-Volpi, Pinza and Borgioli of the Metro- 
politan Opera Association, and Marion Clark, 
American operatic soprano. Charles Kullman, 
American singer who has appeared here with the 
Chautauqua Opera Association at Chautauqua, 
N. Y., and has enjoyed considerable success in 
the opera houses of Berlin and Vienna, will also 
take a leading part in the Florence festival per- 
formances. 

The Palazzo Vecchio, whose tower is visible 
for miles up in the hills surrounding the city, will 
house the second International Music Congress, a 
part of the Maggio Musicale. The Piazza della 
Signoria where "Savonarola" is to be given is 
under the shadow of the \'ecchio, but the other 
scenes of festival productions are scattered in dif- 
ferent parts of the city. Operas will be presented 
in the Teatro Comunale, formerly the Politeama 
Fiorentino, with a seating capacity of 5.000 and a 
modernized stage said to rank with the La Scalla. 
The Teatro Pergola, not far from the Duomo, 
will house several of the concert attractions. 

One must cross over to the left bank of the 
River Arno, preferably by the Ponte Vecchio, to 
reach the Pitti Palace where the "Serenades" of 
Mozart will be played in the courtyard and the 
"Brandenburg" Concerti in 
the Sala Bianca. The "Alceste" 
of Gluck brings the festival to 
a close in the regal and ancient 
Boboli Gardens nearby, fitting 
surroundings for the culmina- 
tion of the Maggio Musicale. 

To the festival program it- 
self, and the art treasures of 
Florence which have attracted 
generations of travelers, are 
added other events of varied 



The announcement of a festi- 
val is always the signal for 
Italian peasantry to gather 
from the countryside to take 
part in the festivities. 



appeal. The Florence International Horse Show, 
for example, is scheduled to take place this year 
between the 14th and 19th of May. Italy's fifth 
annual Arts and Crafts Exhibition, presented in 
a different city each year, will also be conducted 
in Florence. Opening on May 5th and continu- 
ing until the 26th, the exhibit will have on display 
the finest specimens of modern handiwork done 
in this Tuscan region and other parts of Italy. 
Laces, wood carvings, metal work, pottery, glass- 
ware and other crafts, in which the natives con- 
tinue to excel with the encouragement of the Na- 
tional Leisure Hours Institution, will be dis- 
played. 

Supplementing the music festival will ' be a 
series of International Conferences in which 
lectures on contemporary problems in the arts will 
be given by H. E. Luigi Pirandello ; Lajos Zilahy, 
the Hungarian writer ; Henri Bordeaux of France; 
Herman de Keiserling of Germany, and G. K. 
Chesterton of Great Britain, among others. 



Another Spring festival which will arouse much 
interest is the second National Folk Festival to be 
held May 14th to i8th in Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
in the heart of one of the richest seed beds of 
folk material in America. Folk music, folk dances, 
plays and exhibits of folk arts and crafts will be 
features of the festival. Further information may 
be secured from Miss Sarah Gertrude Knott, 
National Director, Chamber of Commerce Build- 
ing, Chattanooga. 




special Activities in Glens Falls, New York 



THE PROGRAM conducted with 
the rehef funds allocated to 
Glens Falls by the State De- 
partment of Education, has depended upon the 
available teachers eligible for relief. We have 
been fortunate, however, in having the services 
of a number of men and women who not only 
needed the financial help but who could contribute 
richly to the community. Certain phases of the 
program have been more or less obvious. We 
have had athletics directors ; one teacher has 
taught French and German, another Spanish ; we 
have been astonished at the number enrolled in a 
public speaking class another girl has been able to 
hold together; Parent Education, Shorthand, 
Jewelry Making, Social and Economic History of 
the United States, Psychology and Cooking have 
been among the varied classes we have conducted 
during the last thirteen months. However, we 
have had several other rather unique activities, 
due to the fact that we have found highly trained 
teachers for these subjects who were eligible for 
employment through these State funds. 

The Fellowship of the Blind 

One of the first people we located was an ex- 
perienced teacher for the blind and deaf. She be- 
gan her work by calling upon the fifteen blind 
persons here in the city and inviting them to a 
meeting to discuss the formation of a club of their 
own. The idea was received with great enthusi- 
asm and the Fellowship of the Blind was duly 
organized for social and rec- 
reational purposes. .Officers 
were elected and a program 
of activities planned. While 
one or two members of the 
club are in fairly comfort- 
able circumstances, the ma- 
jority are very poor, yet 
every member has insisted 
upon paying a few cents 
dues each week. The Out- 
ing Club has quietly made 
up deficits. 

Every week for over a 
year now this group has met 



By Ruth Sherburne 

Superintendent of Recreation 



In New York State the TERA has aiiocated 
■funds to the State Department of Educa- 
tion to employ teachers and leaders in need 
of financial assistance to work on adult edu- 
cation and leisure time programs. Com- 
munities presenting acceptable programs 
in turn receive funds from the State De- 
partment for their projects. The work is in 
charge of the boards of education of the 
various cities, but in Glens Falls, because 
of the already highly organized set-up for 
adult education and recreation under the 
Recreation Commission and the supple- 
mentary Outing Club, the local school au- 
thorities have delegated the responsibility 
to the recreation executive. 



every Tuesday afternoon at two 
o'clock at the home of a member 
for a meeting and social time. 
The business meetings have been given over to 
lively discussions of a variety of matters of special 
interest to the group. Last winter several bills 
were introduced in the Legislature and one im- 
portant one in Congress that related to the care 
of the blind. The club members took pains to 
study them carefully and to write their Represen- 
tatives and Congressmen. 

After the meeting members who read Braille 
play Contract with cards marked in Braille, . of 
course. Incidentally, one of the best bridge teach- 
ers in town has given them a number of lessons. 
Those who cannot read Braille play dominoes and 
similar games. The gathering always ends with 
afternoon tea. On Thanksgiving, Christmas, Val- 
entine's day and similar festive occasions there 
have been more elaborate parties, sometimes even 
dinners. During the summer months there were 
several picnics at Lake George which these blind 
men and women enjoyed as thoroughly as chil- 
dren would. 

Last fall the club became interested in the pur- 
chase of a "Talking Book," a combination radio 
and victrola for which there is a circulating 
library of book records. The cost of the machine 
was considerably more than the Fellowship could 
shoulder itself, but the entire amount was raised 
in a very short time through a very generous con- 
tribution made by the churches at their Union 
Thanksgiving service and by 
parties given by several in- 
terested people. The book 
has proved a great comfort 
to a number of our blind 
who, losing their sight late 
in life, have had difificulty 
in mastering Braille and 
hence are cut off from books 
unless someone reads to 
them. The club has not only 
been a source of happiness 
for the blind ; it has de- 
veloped a really fine fellow- 
ship and a spirit of cooper- 

17 



18 



SPECIAL ACTIVITIES IN GLENS FALLS, NEW YORK 



ation that has proved greatly to the advantage of 
the members. For one thing, they have been able 
to agree at last upon a standard price for their 
chair caning, weaving and other handcraft; and 
furthermore, a blind rug weaver now encourages 
his customers to buy food from the blind food 
sellers, who in turn suggest that their patrons buy 
newspapers and cigarettes from the blind news- 
dealer. 

The teacher's major work lies in assisting the 
members of the club with their industrial work, 
teaching them new patterns, helping to set up their 
looms for weaving, sorting colors, starting bas- 
kets and finishing work to be sent to the New 
York Commission for the Blind. The blind have 
not only made articles for their own profit but 
have donated a large number of toys and useful 
articles to the children at Westmount Tubercu- 
losis Sanitorium. Furthermore, the leader is 
teaching Braille and Square Hand, reading aloud, 
reading and writing personal mail and assisting 
the club members in other personal matters. She 
has arranged for medical attention for five semi- 
sighted persons and for two important operations. 

In addition to this work with the blind, the 
same teacher is working with several deaf persons 
who want to learn lip reading. One of them is a 
college graduate who has rather recently almost 
completely lost her hearing. Another is a clergy- 
man who has had to give up parochial work be- 
cause of his affliction, and has actually been on 
the relief rolls because of his inability to find other 
work to support a large family. 

Americanization Classes 

We have had an Americanization teacher under 
our auspices for over a year who has worked ex- 
clusively in a district without night schools, where 
most of the non-English speaking Syrians and 
Italians live. She has classes two nights a week in 
the school building and works with four other 
groups of women who meet afternoons in private 
homes. Most of the women are mothers of large 
families who find it impossible to get out even- 
ings but who can give an hour or two, three times 
a week, while their older children are in school. 
Three men and women in her group expect to get 
their naturalization papers in May while several 
others are applying for their first papers. 

At Christmas time we had a party for all the 
students, and although it was a bitterly cold night 
and several were unable to get there, all who did 
brave the zero weather had a jolly time playing 



games, singing English and Italian songs and 
dancing their own beautiful Tarantella. 

Home-Bound Children 

We also have a teacher for home-bound chil- 
dren who visits the homes of children' of school 
age who, either because of infantile paralysis, seri- 
ous heart condition or other serious defects are 
unable to attend regular school classes. The cases 
were located through the records of the school 
authorities and through the cooperation of phy- 
sicians. At the present time the teacher visits eight 
children regularly and drops in to see several 
others semi-occasionally. As far as possible she 
is trying to give them regular school work. One 
little eight year old boy, a paralysis victim, had 
never been able to have any school work whatever 
up to the time she took him in January 1934. He 
is an exceptionally bright youngster, however, and 
during the year the teacher has been with him he 
has fully covered required work for the first two 
grades. Many of the children of course are un- 
able to do much school work. However for those 
who can use their hands the teacher has various 
kinds of suitable handicraft. In the case of a few 
seriously afflicted children, she merely goes to play 
with them a bit, to tell them stories and to leave 
some suggestions and material for the mother to 
use until her next visit. 

We have felt that great tragedy for most of 
these children was their lack of social contacts, so 
using the utmost care in transporting them we 
have on several occasions taken all who were 
capable of going to a picnic or party. Twice last 
summer they went to our bathing beach where 
they rolled in the sand like puppies, and at Christ- 
mas we had a wonderful party at the teacher's 
home. There were stockings full of presents, 
moving pictures, a tea table with delightful favors 
and loads of good things to eat. But the great 
thrill of the afternoon came when one of our 
leading dentists, who is an amateur magician of 
real skill, came to entertain them and produced a 
live, white bunny from a crumpled paper and 
gave it to one wide eyed youngster "for keeps." 

The Hobby Club for Unemployed Men 

]>ack in 1932 when the depression really hit us, 
we saw crowds of hopeless looking men standing 
in the corridors of the City Hall or milling about 
on certain street corners days when the sun was 
a bit warmer. We decided that a decent, warm 
place where these men could read and play games 



SPECIAL ACTIVITIES IN GLENS FALLS, NEW YORK 



19 



while waiting for work to turn up would be of 
real social value. Accordingly we rented a store 
room that winter, equipped it with the tables and 
benches used on the summer playgrounds, and 
for three months, under the supervision of a sec- 
retary, an average of ninety men a day made use 
of the place. It was not open evenings regularly, 
but on occasion, smokers were held at which a 
speaker talked on a subject of interest. 

The next year, 1933, the club branched out and 
was named the Hobby Club. The second floor of 
a large building formerly used as a dress factory 
was secured, and in addition to the games and 
reading room a work shop was set up with fine 
wood working machinery, hand tools, and a pot- 
ter's wheel. Here those who cared to were able 
to make or repair articles either for profit or to 
be taken home. 

Last year the club did not open until February 
first as our factory had been 
rented and it was difficult to 
secure suitable quarters with- 
in the limit of our funds. We 
discovered that the Transient 
Division of the TERA was 
also looking for headquart- 
ers, and arrangements were 
made with this Federal group 
for the use of the entire floor 
jf an unused school building 
they were renting. In return 
the Outing Club repaired and cleaned up the 
premises for both organizations. 

The place was well adapted to our purposes. 
One room was used as the reading and games 
room ; another as the shop ; a third, set aside for 
boxing, wrestling and physical education, was 
equipped with a regulation ring. In the fourth 
room rehearsals for the weekly entertainment 
were held and scenery and props built and painted. 
A very wide hall was converted into a theatre by 
putting in a movable stage and seats each Friday 
for the minstrel shows and entertainments put on 
by the men themselves. On these occasions men 
might bring their wives. 

The personnel of the club consisted of one gen- 
eral supervisor especially in charge of the enter- 
tainments who served in the Red Cross during 
the war and has been on the stage for many years ; 
two manual training teachers for the shop ; three 
secretaries, working in shifts, who kept the read- 
ing room open seven days a week from 9 in the 
morning until 10 at night, and an athletics director, 



One of the outstanding activities 
of the Outing Club of Glens Falls, 
which for years has conducted a 
broad recreational program, is the 
Hobby Club for Unemployed Men 
operated for the past four years. 
The story of the development of 
this club is an interesting one. 



working on part time. All men participating in 
the regular Saturday night boxing bouts and 
wrestling matches were given a rigid physical ex- 
amination by one of the local physicians who very 
kindly donated his services. 

In addition to these activities there were a num- 
ber of interesting speakers, among them. Father 
Daniel R. Burns, Chaplain of Great Meadow 
Prison and George H. Cless, Jr., Secretary of the 
Glens Falls Chamber of Commerce. Instruction 
in first aid and artificial respiration was given by 
Major George F. Heustis and A. P. Newkirk, 
Boy Scout Executive, assisted by a group of 
Scouts. 

During the four months and a half the club 
was open last winter, the shop alone was used by 
1089 men who turned out the following articles: 
mahogany library tables, office tables, card tables, 
soft wood kitchen tables. Queen Anne stands, 
smoking stands, davenport 
stands, bed side stands, wash 
stands, magazine racks, hall 
trees, children's chairs, cup- 
boards, floor and table lamps, 
candlesticks, medicine cabi- 
nets, cigarette cabinets, book 
ends, clothes racks, ironing 
boards, shipping crates, bird 
cages, bird houses, a row 
boat and various toys and 
puzzles. These articles were 
made in the main from old wood — the head boards 
of old black walnut beds, discarded oak dining 
room tables, rough lumber from packing boxes 
and three ply wood carefully saved from big 
cases. 

Approximately two hundred new articles were 
made and finished by the men for profit or for 
their homes but in addition there was a wide 
variety of articles brought in for repairs such as 
chairs, clocks, radios and musical instruments. A 
few did sign painting. Moreover, the men were 
very glad to give their time making and repairing 
equipment for the Recreation Department. Scen- 
ery and props were made for the Outing Club's 
Little Theatre group. All the toboggans were re- 
paired and refinished. Twenty sets of paddle ten- 
nis were turned out. LaCrosse goals were built 
and regulation bases for all of our hard and soft 
ball diamonds were made at a cost not greatly ex- 
ceeding the cost of two high priced sets we might 
purchase from sporting goods houses. To stitch 
(Continued on page 43) 



The Successful Nature-Garden Club 



IN CONSIDERING factofs that lead 
to club success the counselor 
or club leader may well turn the spotlight of 
critical examination upon himself. If you are 
a nature-garden club counselor, what are the 
qualities which you should have in order to be 
a successful club leader? Imagination, initia- 
tive, and enthusiasm are some of them. More- 
over, as counselor and leader you must be able 
to kindle those qualities in the members of your 
club also. The nature-garden club leader must 
be able to see life through the eyes of boys and 
girls. He must be able to guide without push- 
ing, to sugar-coat learning with the spirit of 
play. He must have a rich store of garden and 
nature lore and must, at a moment's notice, be 
able to find answers to countless questions. If 
you are looking for something easy to sponsor, 
it is suggested that you do not become coun- 
selor of a nature-garden club ! 

Planning Ahead 

Another factor is the one of goals. Has your 
club definite aims in planning its activities? 
Many clubs run along from week to week in a 
hit-or-miss manner and the counselor wonders 
why they are not successful. Think about this 
— does each meeting, each program, bring 
some definite end nearer to realization? In 
planning club activities many interests should 
be cared for and programs must be varied. 
Plan to avoid monotony, plan with the inter- 
ests of everyone in mind — but keep on looking 
ahead. 

At the beginning of 
each year a considerable 
amount of time should be 
spent in general thought 
and discussion. The plans 
for the coming season 
should be considered care- 
fully. It may be possible 
that the club has under 
way a project which ex- 
tends over a period of 
years — if so, what shall 



By Karl H. Blanch 



be done this year toward bring- 
ing the project nearer to com- 
pletion? A certain school has seen a school park 
evolve during a period of five years. Where 
once was a tract of wasteland, brush has been 
cut out and trees, shrubbery, and flowers plan- 
ted instead. Paths, lined with stones, have 
been made, leading around thickets in which 
birds build their nests. A stone amphitheatre 
has been built among the trees. This project is 
the result of planning — of planning with vision. 
In addition to major projects like this one 
there are many smaller and less elaborate ones 
which caji be completed in a single season ; 
your local situation will suggest many possi- 
bilities. In considering, however, the selection 
of a project several things must be thought of. 
Has the project any real value? Does it con- 
tribute anything of worth to the pupil's per- 
sonal welfare or to the welfare of the school 
or community? At the club's present stage of 
development is it possible that the contem- 
plated project may be too ambitious a one? 
Can it be financed adequately? Here is one 
place where a need for thoughtful planning 
can be seen. Supplementing group projects a 
number may be worked out by individuals; 
gardens are a good example of these. Plan to 
do many things — interest is aroused and main- 
tained only through activity — but whatever 
your club does, see to it that it has been well 
planned first. 



In a bulletin, "The Successful Nature-Garden 
Club" issued by the School Garden Asso- 
ciation of America, Mr. Blanch, who is 
chairman of the Committee on Nature-Gar- 
den Clubs of the Association, outlines the 
organization of clubs for the upper grades 
and high schools, the elementary school and 
the rural school. We are presenting here 
material from the suggestions for clubs in 
the upper grades and high schools. Anyone 
wishing to communicate with Mr. Blanch 
may address him at the High School, East 
Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania. 



Meetings 

Well-planned projects 
make the traditional type 
of club meeting a very 
subordinate activity. Re- 
gular meetings, however, 
should not be neglected. 
They serve to emphasize 
the "organization" idea ; 
boys and girls like to feel 
that they belong to some- 
thing that holds meetings 
just like grown-up groups. 



20 



THE SUCCESSFUL NATURE-GARDEN CLUB 



21 



Now fha+ Spri 
ready to begin 



But just what is to be done 
during these meetings is a 
problem. 

Every well-organize(i 
chib has a program com- 
mittee. The important duty 
of this committee is to plan 
the program for club meet- 
ings. As counselor, be care- 
ful that you do not dom- 
inate the work of this 
committee — stand aside 
and give guidance and help 
onl}' when necessary. Start- 
ing with the idea that all 
programs should contribute, 
directly or indirectly, to the 
progress of the club toward 
one or more of its major 
goals the committee should 
attempt to discover the 
interests and abilities of 
every member so that all 
may share in the year's 
programs. The committee 
should not permit a few 
members to do all the work ; 
it is so easy to let the outstanding pupils 
monopolize programs ! Keep looking for hidden 
ability and talent ; school clubs are the incuba- 
tors for the development of these. 

As a usual thing the business portion of the 
meeting should be brief. It likewise should be 
kept strictly formal. The play-way has no 
place in Parliamentary procedure. The in- 
formal part of the program should follow the 
business session. Have you been wondering 
why the boys and girls in your clu-b don't seem 
to be interested in meetings? Check up a little. 
Have most of the programs been made up of 
badly-read papers dealing with miscellaneous 
subjects, the material for which has been 
.copied, word-for-word, from an encyclopedia 
or other reference book? This is common club- 
meeting procedure. Put yourself in the place 
of the pupil who has to hsten to this type of 
program-then stop wondering about the lack 
of interest ! Enliven the programs, making of 
them something vital and living instead of 
something that is dead and static. If the meet- 
ing has not been planned so that most of the 
time will be spent in working on either group 
or individual projects, chose one topic and plan 




ng has arrived he's 
work on his garden! 



TCIT^HB the program around it. 
^ I ^^^ Have members give short 
talks based, if possible, 
upon their own experiences. 
Include a few musical num- 
bers on the program. Save 
some time for general dis- 
cussion of the topic for the 
day. Always have a novelty 
of some kind to end the 
meeting — a contest, a game 
or something of similar na- 
ture. Make frequent use of 
motion pictures, lantern 
slides, exhibits of collec- 
tions, and guest speakers. 

Have you ever really 
considered the potential 
program possibilities in 
your community? Perhaps 
the mailman may be an 
enthusiastic amateur taxi- 
dermist; why doesn't the 
chairman of the program 
committee invite him to 
talk to the club about 
animals? That man in the 
next block who has that fine vegetable garden, 
the woman whose home across the street is 
always filled with beautiful plants during the 
winter months — how about them? A local 
florist, the man who keeps the pet shop, the 
manager of a fish hatchery, the district forester 
— all these are sources of interesting program 
material. Have you ever exchanged pupil- 
speakers with another similar club in your own 
school or in a school in a neighboring town? 
Has your club ever invited another group to 
exchange entire programs? Here there is an 
excellent opportunity to do something both 
worth while and interesting. 

When should club meetings be held? The 
best time of all is during a period set aside for 
activities of this kind during the regular school 
day. This period should, preferably, be the last 
one of the day so that clubs may, if desired, 
meet for longer than one period. This is espe- 
cially desirable in the case of nature-garden 
clubs which are often working on out-door 
projects at a distance from the school. If no 
regular time for meetings is provided during 
the school day, the next best time is after 
school. As a rule, evening meetings should not 



22 



THE SUCCESSFUL NATURE-GARDEN CLUB 



be held except in cases where there are very 
real reasons for meetings at this time. If several 
clubs working with diflferent activities are to 
meet together, if guest speakers are unable to 
be present during the daytime, if motion pic- 
tures can be shown only after dark — these are 
good reasons for evening meetings. Once in a 
while an open meeting should be planned and 
the public invited. Plan this meeting to show 
in some striking way something of the work 
of the club. Don't hold meetings too often — 
once every two weeks is often enough — even 
one a month if a sufficient number of "get to- 
gether" meetings of activity groups are held 
and members, as individuals or groups, work 
on projects as they can find time. 

Evening hikes are popular with nature- 
garden clubs but they have little real worth 
and are difficult to supervise properly. Far bet- 
ter is the early morning hike. Have a com- 
mittee plan where to go and why, then arrange 
for the club to meet at a definite place and time. 
Leave promptly. An hour or two of brisk walk- 
ing through the woods in spring or autumn, 
breakfast cooked over an open fire after the 
destination has been reached, return to school 
with just time enough for a shower before 
classes begin — this is one way to make the rest 
of the school envious of the nature-garden 
club! 

Activity Groups 
It is a good plan to divide a large club into 
several smaller groups, each of which is inter- 
ested in some particular activity. There is no 
objection to a member's belonging to several 
of these groups. This is a much better plan 
than that of having several nature-garden clubs 
in the same school. Each activity group should 
be under the informal direction of a pupil 
leader, chosen from among those members who 
show outstanding qualities 
of leadership and interest. 
Activity groups do not 
bother with regular meet- 
ings unless they are neces- 
sary to make plans, to dis- 
cuss projects, or to study 
some special phase of their 
work. Each group should 
take the lead in planning 
one or more of the regular 
meetings of the entire club, 



"The desire to work among plants In any 
manner is always to be encouraged. It 
fosters a love of the beautiful, an ap- 
preciation of growing things, gentleness 
and kindness, responsibility and faithful- 
ness to duty. And besides developing 
these desirable attributes, it occupies 
spare hours satisfactorily and trains 
bodies In a . healthful, wholesome way. 
So give children a garden though It's 
only the size of a pocket handkerchief!" 
— From Home Education. 



working with the club program committee. 
Often a teacher will be found who is interested 
in a special nature-garden activity and who will 
be glad to work with this group as a co-coun- 
selor. It has just been said that one of these 
groups may wish to spend some time in study. 
An excellent plan — pupils plan to study be- 
cause they themselves see the need for ac- 
quiring more information concerning their 
work ! But don't attempt to make a class of this 
study hour — here, if ever, the spirit of purpose- 
ful play should prevail and the study hour 
should be informal in nature. 

Club Libraries 

Has your club a library? If your members 
have access to a public or school library, if 
your school is progressive and large enough 
to have a special general club library — fine! 
But have a nature-garden club library anyway. 
A closet, or a cupboard in the corner of a class- 
room will provide sufficient space. Choose a' 
librarian and an assistant from the club's mem- 
bership and put them in charge of all books, 
magazines, pictures, clippings, etc., belonging 
to the club. If there are several clubs with a 
nature study interest in your school, or if 
there are a number of activity groups within 
the one club the library should be a joint pro- 
ject. Providing material for the library should 
be a continuous club activity — it will be sur- 
prising to note how the collection of pictures 
and clippings grows and how many magazines 
are being donated. It might well be said here 
that provision should be made in the budget 
of every nature-garden club for subscriptions 
to several magazines dealing with nature study 
and gardening activities. In the nature study 
field money spent for magazines is a far better 
investment than is a similar sum spent for 
books. Leading magazine articles should be 
listed on file cards and the 
cards indexed according to 
the chief activities of the 
club. Clippings and pictures 
should be kept in large 
envelopes and the envelopes 
filed alphabetically. A spe- 
cial list of books an'3 maga- 
zines available in the school 
library should be prepared 
and posted. Librarians 
should be on duty for a 



THE SUCCESSFUL NATURE-GARDEN CLUB 



23 



few moments before and after school each day ; 
club members and counselors should be per- 
mitted to take out material in accordance with 
some established regulations. 

Service 

How may your club be of service? Within 
the school it should cooperate with other clubs 
in the general activity program. Again, it may 
be possible that a unit of the work of a biology 
or general science class may be devoted to 
either study or projects relating to nature. Here 
club members should act as leaders, both in 
discussion and in the working-out of projects. 
In the community the constant aim of the 
club should be to spread the desire to be inter- 
ested in nature study and gardening activities. 
Much can be done to make a community 
"nature conscious" through exhibits. These ex- 
hibits should be seasonable. An exhibit of 
garden posters, seed collections, clippings, and 
folders dealing with flower and vegetable cul- 
ture would be very appropriate for the early 
spring months and would help to create a com- 
munity interest in gardening; a mid-winter 
flower and potted plant show would help to 
encourage window-gardening in the com- 
munity. A shade tree census might lead to a 
community program of street and roadside 
beautification. Cooperate with the local news- 
papers and the local public library and they 
will cooperate with you. 

National Organizations 

Is your club a member of the national or- 
ganizations in the nature study field? If not, 
much that is worthwhile is being missed. 
These groups specialize in giving help to clubs 
and club counselors. The National Association 
of Audubon Societies, in the field of bird study 
and animal conservation ; the Wild Flower 
Preservation Society, in the field of wild flower 
conservation ; and the Junior Garden Clubs of 
America, in the field of gardens for juniors — 
all these are outstanding national organizations 
which will welcome a local chapter in your 
school. The School Garden Association of 
America is interested in a broad program of 
nature study and gardening activities in boys' 
and girls' clubs; all nature and garden clubs, 
no matter what their special interest may be, 
should register with this association. The fee 



for affiliation with any or all of these national 
groups is nominal and brings back big returns 
in the form of help and service. 

Club Finances 
Last of all to be considered, but important 
nevertheless, is the manner in which your club 
finances its activities. There is no doubt but 
that some money is necessary with which to 
work; just how much and where it is to come 
from is the real problem. To begin with, a 
budget should be made up at the time the 
year's activities are being planned. The amount 
of money necessary for carrying out the year's 
work should be estimated and possible 
sources of funds considered. The usual way of 
securing money for club activities is through 
dues paid by members. There is some value in 
having dues — they at least serve to keep out 
the "drifters" — those pupils who have no real 
interest but who are always on hand when 
something extra-special is being planned. Have 
dues, but keep them low. Better have low dues 
that can be collected than high ones that can't! 
There are other — and better — ways to raise 
money. Borrow the school movie machine and 
run a show, charge a small admission fee to an 
exhibit, put on a nature play or operetta, or 
plant bulbs during the winter months and sell 
flowers in the spring. 



The School Garden Association of America 
whose address is 121 East Fifty-first Street, New 
York City, has issued a second bulletin prepared 
by Mr. Blanch entitled "Home Room Gardeners 
— a Garden Club for Indoors." In it Mr. Blanch 
outlines a program of activities in which the lower 
grades, in particular, naay participate through 
"doing" groups of Gardeners. He makes practical 
suggestions regarding the best plants to choose 
for an indoor garden, their location, planting and 
care. "Home Room Gardeners," he says, "in ad- 
dition to the more or less routine work outlined, 
may carry out other activities and projects. In a 
large school a room should be set aside for nature- 
garden club use. Here the Gardeners may store 
supplies, pot bulbs, start seedlings, and carry on 
similar work. Extra plants for emergencies can 
be grown here. A flowering plant, school grown, 
sent to a pupil or teacher absent from school be- 
cause of prolonged illness is a very welcome gift 
indeed." 



April Showers 



THE INVITATIONS to this party may be written 
on brightly colored paper, or pale blue paper 
may be used with a rainbow painted or pasted 
on it and a boy and a girl in slickers under an 
umbrella. 

On a sheet of cardboard draw a large open 
umbrella and underneath it write "Come in out 
of the rain and enjoy our April Showers." 

Use a variety of colors for the decorations. 
Form a big rainbow out of crepe paper or cheese 
cloth at one end of the hall and over this draw a 
bit of white gauze to blend the colors. String 
crepe paper garlands in rainbow colors about the 
room. Festoons hanging from doors and curtains 
make an effective background. Colored balloons 
suspended from the ceiling will add to the beauty 
and atmosphere. Gaily colored paper hats may 
be provided for the guests, or rainbow paper head- 
bands for the girls and belts or sashes for the 
boys. Or each guest may be asked to bring 
umbrellas and wear slickers or raincoats. 

Program 
Slicker Wise-CrackIng Contest 

Give each guest as he arrives three yards of 
plain wrapping paper, scissors, crayons, and pins. 
Allow fifteen minutes to see who can create the 
cleverest slicker. Have a slicker parade with 
judges to vote on merits of the decorative efforts. 

Colored Clothing Contest 

On the invitation the guests may be asked to 
wear as many different colors as possible, such as 
a green sock and a blue sock ; a purple shirt and a 
red necktie. Award a prize to the person wearing 
the. most colors. 



down and back again without allowing her feet to 
touch the floor as the boys try to keep a news- 
paper in front of her all of the time. First couple 
to finish first wins. If one of the girls steps on 
the floor instead of the newspapers, she and her 
partner must either drop out of the race or begin 
again. 

A Rainy Day Race 

Several couples are needed for this race. They 
stand in line with a closed satchel and an umbrella 
in front of each couple. In each satchel are a 
pair of rubbers, a pair of gloves and a raincoat or 
cloak. At the signal to start each young man grabs 
his satchel, and hand in hand he and his partner 
rush to the opposite goal where he opens the 
satchel, hands his partner her rubbers, which she 
puts on, holds her coat for her while she gets into 
it, closes the satchel, raises the umbrella, and, 
holding the umbrella over her with one hand and 
carrying the satchel with the other, runs with her 
back to the starting point. He then closes up the 
umbrella, opens the satchel, helps his partner out 
of her coat, takes the gloves and rubbers as she 
drops them, and puts them all in the satchel, clos- 
ing it up. The couple to finish first wins. 

Stepping Stones 

Select six or eight persons to compete in this 
race. Each contestant is supplied with two little 
squares of wood or cardboard just big enough for 
one foot to go on. These squares are pushed 
along, one at a time, the player standing balanced 
on one foot while he thrusts the stone (the wood 
or cardboard) forward with the other. Anyone 
touching the floor with either foot must go back 
to the starting point and begin again. 



Sir Walter's Cloak 

Select a half dozen couples. 
The boys will be Sir Walter 
Raleigh and the girls Queen 
Elizabeth. Give to each boy two 
newspapers for a cloak and lay 
out a course from one end of the 
room down and back again. Line 
up the couples and give the start- 
ing signal. Each girl tries to go 

24 



This party is one of a series of 
broadcasts on the subject of 
social recreation by the Down 
Town Branch of the Y.M.C.A. 
of Pittsburgh over station 
KDKA. The material for these 
broadcasts is prepared by W. T. 
Rowe and T. R. Alexander, and 
is issued under the caption 
"Recreo Bulletins." 



In the Pond, On the Bank 

Draw a chalk line down the 
middle of the room or stretch a 
tape along the floor. Designate 
the space on one side of this line 
as "the pond" ; on the other side 
"the bank." Line the players up 
on the bank and then start giving 
orders. When the leaders says : 
(Continued on page 43) 



On the 

Wild Flower 

Trail 




Courtesy Ft. Worth, Texas, Park Detartment 



WITH THE I'lRST l)reath of spring there is an 
incentive to be out in the open. A recrea- 
tional activity that may be engaged in 
almost as soon as the snow has gone, and which 
lasts until late fall, is the collecting of wild flow- 
ers, and their artistic arrangement in an her- 
barium. This collection may be assembled in a 
single summer, or it may be added to from one 
season to the next as long as the interest holds. 
And interest is likely to last for there is a genu- 
ine thrill in arriving unexpectedly upon a patch 
of cardinal flowers in all their brilliance, in mak- 
ing the acquaintance not only of the common way- 
side plants, but also of those hidden in the depths 
of the woods, of the delicate flowers growing by 
the rim of the lake and of the more hardy varie- 
ties trailing over the mountainside. 

A part of the delight of flower collecting is that 
it holds so many surprises for its followers. What 
appears to be an insignificant bloom turns out to 
be a plant of interest, as in the case of the sun- 
dew. The sundew, a bog plant growing from four 
to nine inches high, actually catches insects and 
devours them. The sundew's hairy leaves are 
coated with a fluid which attracts the insect. The 
tiny red filaments of the leaves curl about the in- 
sect thus captured and gradually the plant absorbs 
its prey. 

You will need an inexpensive flower guide to 
identify the specimens. When you have found a 
number of different flowers the pleasure of dis- 
covery will be two-fold if the next step is con- 
sulting the guide and learning the common Ameri- 
can names for the newly-found specimens. 



By Sara H. Carleton 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 



The Herbarium 

For the herbarium use a large book of manilla 
paper with a heavy cover. A loose leaf book is 
preferable. Decorating the cover will add to the 
attractiveness of the collection. The flowers 
should be pressed between newspapers. The 
newspapers are laid between large sheets of blot- 
ting paper which are covered with a wooden lat- 
ticework made of strips of wood about three- 
quarters of an inch thick and an inch wide. 
Weights are placed on top. For the majority of 
smaller flowers satisfactory work can be done 
with the newspapers and weights alone. The blot- 
ting paper is used as a drier and is sometimes 
changed from day to day. 

After an interval, when the flowers have been 
pressed, they are ready for mounting. Arrange 
them on a page of the herbarium and attach by 
means of very narrow strips of court plaster, one 
or two strips across the stem, and others across 
the leaves, as many as the specimens seem to re- 
quire. A more expert mounting is achieved by 
gluing the specimens with a tin paste, the kind 
that is employed in factories for pasting labels on 
tin cans, in addition to using strips of court plas- 
ter. A very large flower will cover an entire page, 
but four or five specimens of smaller plants may 
be grouped on a single page in whatever arrange- 
ment satisfies the collector. There is an artistic 
value in the grouping of flowers, an ability that 

25 



26 



ON THE WILD FLOWER TRAIL 



grows as the herbarium maker becomes skilled in 
this practice. 

The sweet-scented arbutus makes an attractive 
specimen with its fan-like spread and its dainty 
pink blossoms which preserve their natural color 
especially well. Some of the least pretentious 
plants make very beautiful specimens in the her- 
barium. The rough bedstraw when mounted 
makes a pattern of delicate tracery with its whorls 
of leaves and many tiny blossoms in clusters that 
add to the intricacies of the design. The hogweed, 
scorned habitant of back yards, is an admirable 
specimen for a collection with its fern-like leaves. 
Some plants have; leaves of a dark green that are 
a silver white on the backs. A pleasing efifect is 
accomplished by turning some of these leaves on 
their wrong sides when arranging the mount, thus 
bringing out the contrasting shades of silver white 
and deep green. There are many tricks of the trade 
that the flower collector will pick up as he adds 
to his herbarium. The amateur is likely to over- 
look the importance of roots. Many of the trail- 
ing and vine-like plants have roots that not only 
add to the grace of the mount, but are equally in- 
teresting from the botanical point of view. 

The collector will want to print beside each 
flower the common name, the date on which it 
was found and the place where he found it. So 
much data will give a personal note to his collec- 
tion. If he wishes he may include also the name 
of the flower family which he will find in the 
guide. 

In general the mounted specimens will preserve 
their natural colors for a considerable number of 
years. Some colors will endure longer than others. 
The waxy white Indian pipes, after a passage of 
time, turn a solid black until they are silhouettes 
of their former glory. In one collection a speci- 
men of blue vetch, which was added to the her- 
barium in 19 1 3, is nearly as colorful today as at 
the time of its mounting. 

A woman living in Maine collected over four 
hundred different wild flowers in a single sum- 
mer. She reports that her two most exciting 
flower "finds" were a species of greenish white 
trillium or wake robin known to be rare, and the 
discovery of a field of purple loosestrife, a flower 
not supposed to flourish in Maine although it is 
prevalent in Massachusetts. While driving over 
an out-of-the-way country road, the brilliance of 
the loosestrife growing in a field where there was 
a windmill close by a farmhouse lured the flower 
collector from her car. Massachusetts friends had 



sent her specimens of the purple loosestrife so 
she was well acquainted with the plant, although 
scarcely able to believe that she was seeing before 
her a sea of flowers that were foreign to that part 
of New England. 

The earliest spring flower is the skunk cabbage 
that makes its debut when March gales are still 
blowing. In April anemones and trailing arbutus 
are found in the woods. By May there are many 
newcomers — pussytoes, columbine, Jack-in-the- 
pulpits, violets and others. The collector is able 
to have work on his herbarium well under way by 
the middle of summer, June, July and August are 
the months of greatest activity for the collector, 
but even in September there are flowers waiting 
for the place in the herbarium. Among the late 
flowers are the lilies, foxgloves, goldenrod and 
asters. 

Don't Overlook the Back Yard! 
Automobiles have paved the way for getting 
into the country, but cars are not essential to city 
residents who are lovers of wild flowers. There 
are parks and reservations where there are flow- 
ers. Even in suburban back yards there are plants 
worthy of attention. The commonest plants are 
often overlooked. They are little known by the 
average man, who, if he considers them at all, does 
not recognize them as more than passing acquain- 
tances. Yet no herbarium that aims at a general 
survey of all sorts of flowers is complete without 
them. The sorrel, the cinquefoil, the stitchwort, 
the ground ivy, the diminutive speedwell and the 
shepherd's purse are a few of these plants. The 
amateur who has been familiar with only the red 
clover of the field and back yard species, will soon 
discover that the red field clover has a number of 
cousins worthy of his acquaintance, ranging all 
the way from the cinnamon colored rabbit-foot 
clover to the sweet white clover common to the 
grassy roadsides. 

The collector who is t)f an aesthetic rather than 
a scientific turn of mind may choose to include in 
his collection only those flowers that appear to 
him as the most attractive because of their color 
or graceful outline. From time to time he may 
run across quotations describing the various flow- 
ers in his collection which may be copied beside 
his specimens on their appropriate pages. Wil- 
liam Cullen Bryant wrote: 
" — Within the woods 

Whose young and half transparent leaves scarce cast 

A shade, gay circles of anenomes 

Danced on their stalks." 

(Continued on page 44) 



Planning for Recreation 



IT WOULD be difficult to add 
materially to the already 
long list of recreational possibilities and lei- 
sure-time activities. A recent pamphlet* typical 
of its kind, suggests as many as five thousand 
things to be done, to be made, to be required, 
or to be learned. Courses, lectures, booklets, 
discussions and debates are growing day by 
day. 

Since recreation is an old human problem, 
changing only relatively with the times, it is 
worth while to discover its characteristics. 

Recreation may stand for restoration, rehab- 
ilitation, reconstruction, rejuvenation, regen- 
eration, relaxation, reeducation, growth and 
many other such processes expressing the 
potentiality of man to regain strength after 
fatigue, courage after distress, play after work 
and similar functions. Recreation must be 
taken as a part of human life. Let us under- 
stand it as a normal need just as is food or 
water, sunshine or sleep. Recreation is a uni- 
versal phenomenon found in animal, plant and 
man as recovery and restoration as well as an 
expression of the will to live. 

When planning ways and means of recrea- 
tion, distinction must be made as to the inter- 
ests and inclination of adults and children, as 
well as to their needs. 

Recreation for the Adult 

From a study of nearly a thousand adults 
three psychological and sociological factors 
seem to me most vital : 

(i) Every human being 
wishes at times to be alone, 
to relax in order to recover. 
This means finding oneself, 
one's own meaning and im- 
portance in life. 

(2) If this wish is grati- 
fied, a normal desire drives 
the individual to seek com- 
pany, to exchange ideas, to 
play and work with others, 



By Isaac M. Altaraz, Ph.D. 



Dr. Al+araz, who has had long experience 
as an educator, in 1927 founded the Al- 
taraz School for Character Training at 
Monterey, Massachusetts. Since that 
date he has served as resident director 
and psychologist at the school which has 
as its purpose the solving of personality 
problems and the discovery of practical 
methods for reeducation and guidance. 
During 1934, as visiting lecturer in the 
Division of General Education at New 
York University, Dr. Altaraz gave a 
:ourse of lectures on Creative Life. 



to get approval, to express 
feelings ■ — in short, to 
satisfy the element of social contact. 

(3) As a third factor we have the desire 
of the human being to come in contact with 
nature. 

Since we are all different and each of us has 
a different rhythm of living, recreation will be 
individual and varied. Some people are condi- 
tioned to air, others to sun, still others to 
music. We may then speak of helio-tropic, 
aero-tropic, amoro-tropic, money-tropic, jazzo- 
tropic, movie-tropic, radio-tropic people. The 
recreative means, accordingly, will be different. 
Recognizing, then, these three sources of 
recreational life, how is it possible, practically, 
to meet the needs which arise? 

Recreation in Solitude. To become acquainted 
with oneself is "easier said than done." In one- 
self are the many desires, dreams, wishes, 
aspirations, hopes, worries, tragedies and 
comedies that make man. Standing at Times 
Square when the Babylonian mob moves north 
and south, one may well say, "Who am I?" 
But sitting in an easy chair in a cozy room, re- 
laxed and surrourrded with familiar posses- 
sions, one will feel "so big." 

Work As Recreation. Some individuals find 
recreation by a change in activity, going 
smoothly from one interest to another and 
never tiring. Recent studies of fatigue have 
proven that the old state of being tired at the 
end of the day is more of an habitual emotional 
one; that every one of us 
gets another "break" when 
we have finished with our 
work, so that we can start 
to create again and do 
something just when we 
begin to say to ourselves 
that we have done our 
share. 

Social Contact. Man's 
social contacts, either in 



' Care and Ferdiiig of Hobby Hortis. 
E. E. Calkins. 



27 



28 



PLANNING FOR RECREATION 



work or play, need planning and cultivation if 
they are to be sources of vital and humanized 
recreation. In this field great progress has re- 
cently been made in the cities through courses, 
lectures, forums and gatherings for intelligent 
recreation ; through work shops in the arts and 
crafts for artistic and creative recreation, and 
through inspirational centers for spiritual 
recreation. 

The Place of Work and the Place You Live In. 

Work should be our greatest blessing. Do you 
love the work you are doing and are you en- 
gaged in the pursuit of some activity that 
utilizes all your energies? Is the house you 
live in a tower full of 
strangers who are trying 
to avoid one another by 
locking themselves in 
boxes called rooms and 
apartments? If you feel 
this is true, you will 
derive no recreation or 
happiness from your 
dwelling. 

How entire cities can 
be humanized is a tre- 
mendous problem. The 
TVA movement may be 
one way. Benton Mac- 
Kaye in his phenomenal 
work, The New Explora- 
tion has written a book 
of revelation which is a 
source of wisdom. As an 
engineer he has shown 

a remarkable way to transform the "wilderness 
of civilization" into an "indigenous environ- 
ment," mechanized life into cultural growth, 
existence into real living, and a gigantic met- 
ropolis into a regional city. 

Nature. Mother Nature will always remain 
the greatest source of human recreation. For 
genuine recreation city folks should join clubs 
and organizations whose purpose it is to hike, 
to explore, and to encourage simple ways of 
spending time in the open. For families and 
small children, parks and playgrounds in the 
cities supply some opportunitites to spend every 
possible moment among trees and plants, giv- 
ing the children their opportunity to saturate 
themselves with life-giving natural forces. Mu- 
seums are sponsoring garden clubs, the care 



of flowers and animals, the planting of trees 
and other projects. The movement known as 
the small garden projects offers city dwellers 
an excellent opportunity to return to nature. 

The whole problem of planning recreation 
for adults is a difficult one because formerly 
education was not concerned with the develop- 
ment of individual interests and hobbies. 

Recreation for the Child 

The new education encourages free play and 
utilizes surplus energies in constructive ways. 
In the school I conduct the basic idea is to 
start the building of character from the play- 




Courtcsy Chicago South Park Commissioners 



A boy's desire to make things nnay be a de- 
ternnining factor in his choice of vocation 



ful tendence of each individual child, from his 
inner likes, dormant gifts and genuine and 
natural aptitudes. 

A boy of fourteen who would at every oc- 
casion sneak away and disturb the peace even 
of the early hours by his hammering was found 
building a house on top of a tree in the near- 
by woods just to satisfy his longing for build- 
ing. This hobby of his was encouraged. Extra 
time was given him for shop work, and now 
at twenty he is a fine craftsman and self-sup- 
porting. Another young pupil who loves and 
really understands animals — and they know it, 
too — spent his free time in the barn with cows 
(Continued on page 44) 



A Successful Bird Club 



LAST September the Brooks Bird 
^ Club with headquarters at 
Oglebay Park, Wheeling, 
West Virginia, celebrated its sec- 
ond birthday, a healthy and sturdy young child ! 

The bird club is only one of the nature activi- 
ties of Oglebay Park Institute which since iq28 
has included in its program a rather extensive 
nature study schedule. Public field trips have been 
held in the park since July 1928, and somewhat to 
the surprise of those who have engineered the In- 
stitute program since its inception these field trips 
have had a weekly attendance average since their 
beginning of 115 people who meet every Sunday 
in the spring, summer and fall at seven o'clock. 
Under the leadership of A. B. Brooks, park nat- 
uralist, they then hike over approximately two 
miles of the park's trail system which is about ten 
miles in length. Mr. Brooks is a keen observer 
and student of bird life, and in addition to his 
public hike schedule has served as a leader of the 
annual nature training school affording intensive 
work for three weeks or longer early each summer. 

It is not surprising that with such opportuni- 
ties for cultivating outdoor hobbies at their very 
doorsteps, a number of Wheeling district people 
should have displayed more than ordinary inter- 
est in various phases of nature study, including 
the study of wild birds which abound in the 750- 
acre natural park where the walks are held and 
which is headquarters for 
the annual Nature Train- 
ing School. 

In September of 1932 a 
dozen individuals especial- 
ly interested in birds de- 
cided to organize a bird 
club — the club to be part 
of the West Virginia Na- 
ture Association, Inc., the 
official sponsor of all 
nature study activities of 
Oglebay Institute. For a 
month or two the organi- 
zation floundered about. 



By J. W. Handlan 

Oglebay Institute 
Wheeling, West Virginia 



RECIPE FOR A SUCCESSFUL BIRD CLUB 

"Secure a competent naturalist who will 
conduct public nature study trips until a num- 
ber of those regularly attending them acquire 
the desire to know more about birds. 

"Stir in a copy or two of Dr. F. M. Chap- 
man's Handbook, or the Handbook by 
Florence M. Bailey, if the dish is prepared 
West of the Mississippi River. 

"Add a program of regular meetings in 
which members take part rather than visiting 
experts. Include a regular schedule of field 
trips limited to members. 

"Simmer, permit interest to crystallize — and 
there's your Bird Club!" 



Then it hit upon the simple ex- 
pedient of planning its activities a 
year in advance. 

An executive committee decided 
upon subjects to be studied at each meeting. It 
listed the names of club members alphabetically 
and assigned three people to each meeting to re- 
port upon assigned subjects. The committee — all 
amateurs — were fortunate enough to have had 
two to four years of study in connection with the 
Park hikes or the Nature Training Schools. In 
other words they had become humbly aware that 
they knew little or nothing about ornithology! 

But books were available and the entire first 
year's program of the club — the presentation of 
three ten-minute papers at each meeting by mem- 
bers of the organization — consisted virtually in 
reviewing the literature locally available upon each 
subject assigned. 

In the second year the program was slightly 
varied. One major paper was assigned for each 
meeting. Two shorter papers were assigned with 
the subjects optional with those who were to pre- 
sent them. 

This summer all club members are working 
upon self-assigned "projects" in local bird study, 
and beginning in September, most of the papers 
to be presented at the monthly meetings of the 
club will be original in nature. 

Throughout the duration of the club's life "club 
field trips" have been held. 
Each Sunday morning in 
April and May, for ex- 
ample, the group meets at 
5 A. M. at Oglebay Park. 
\1 ore experienced mem- 
bers serve as leaders for 
two to three less experi- 
enced bird students. A two 
hour field trip is the 
schedule of each of these 
small parties and, as a re- 
sult, bird identification in 
the field is no longer a 
(Continued on page 45) 



29 



A State Experiment in Rural Recreation 



A BEAUTIFULLY clcar summer's day in the midst 
of the White Mountains. Onto the lawn in 
front of a big hotel there come early Ameri- 
can Indians with their colorful headdresses and 
regalia, while nearby an orchestra plays strains 
from MacDowell's Indian music. Tracing the 
progress of light as represented in education and 
culture these groups from Hillsboro and Cheshire 
counties show to the audience of three hundred 
gathered to watch them what the development has 
been through church, school and home. Square 
dancing to the tune of a melodeon and fiddles 
played an important part in the early days of the 
state, and the present day was demonstrated in a 
tableau of arts and sciences which included agri- 
culture and home-making as well as literature, 
music and painting. 

This pageant was the result of the leadership 
of the recreation advisors in Hillsboro and 
Cheshire counties. 

Another day — equally fair — and the same ma- 
jestic setting. In the foreground tiny children 
dressed in pure white costumes dance gracefully 
to piano and violin music, while in the back- 
ground wood-choppers bring in the trees used for 
various kinds of wood-carving. Two other groups 
of girls, costumed like English peasants, advance 
to the green to one of the old English procession- 
als, and then go into a circle dance which has been 
handed down from the Druids and represents 
their worship of the trees. There follows a puppet 
show which gives an idea of the modern adapta- 
tion of wood-carving — all of 
the puppets being made from 
wood. 

The recreation advisors in 
Belknap and Grafton coun- 
ties were responsible for this. 

A third day — the same set- 
ting. As the rock tapper 
breaks open the rock, girls 
dressed as jewels dance 
forth onto the green. As 
they hold their poses, a beau- 
tiful rendition of the Faust 
Jewel Song is given by a 
young worrian representing 

30 



New Hampshire has an interesting and 
unique set-up for its E.R.A. leisure time 
program in that although funds are for 
the most part provided by the State 
E.R.A., the workers are associated with 
the Extension Service of the State. Uni- 
versity. Miss Ethel Worth, in charge of 
the program, is Recreation Specialist in 
the State Extension Service. The county 
recreation workers, known as recreation 
advisors, bear the same relationship to 
the Extension Service as do the 4-H Club 
leaders and other county workers. At 
the request of the Governor the National 
Recreation Association helped in organ- 
izing the program, initiated in April 1 934 



Marguerite. There follows a most dramatic 
picture of the iron kettle story in which a young 
girl dashes from the block house on horseback to 
secure forces against an unexpected Indian at- 
tack. So well was this depicted that the entire 
audience was held spellbound. 

Here the leaders were the recreation advisors 
from Merrimack and Sullivan counties. 

Again — sheep grazing peacefully in the back- 
ground. A small group of women in old-fashioned 
costume spin the wool and prepare the flax while 
another cards. In the foreground the dyeing takes 
place — first the goldenrod or other flowers used, 
then the dipping in huge caldrons, then the fin- 
ished skeins hung on the racks. Ofif to the other 
side a group approaches the loom, singing the 
Weaving Song as they come, while from a distance 
girls dressed in the colors mentioned in the song, 
dance the English Weavers' Dance. The grand 
finale is the march of handwoven coverlets — fifty 
of them carried by girls in old-fashioned cos- 
tumes. With these as a colorful background the 
picture is complete. 

The Carroll County advisor organized this. 
And yet another — the development of pottery 
from prehistoric times to the more advanced In- 
dian, then early Colonial times. Civil War period 
and finally our own modern pottery. Two huge 
replicas — one of the Willow plate, and one of a 
Wedgewood \^ase — served as background for 
separate groups of dances. 

Recreation advisors in Rockingham and Straf- 
ford counties engineered this. 
Results : Several groups 
are repeating the whole pag- 
eant or scenes from it for 
Old Home Day celebrations 
or for some special event. 

For many it was a real 
holiday — they picnicked or 
camped along the way up and 
back. Some had never seen 
that part of New Hampshire 
Ijefore and did not realize its 
beauty. All had real fun tak- 
ing part, and many gained 
valuable experience in pag- 



A STATE EXPERIMENT IN RURAL RECREATION 



31 



eantry, music and dancing, 
which will help in their own 
communities. 

Another scene — this time 
in Durham — shows i lo 
young leaders between 15 
and 25 years of age playing 
new and different games on 
the playfield, under the di- 
rection of a corps of ten 
leaders trained tinder the 
state recreation advisor in a 
four day course. Following 
this training these leaders 
conducted the play meet for 
the Camp Carlisle boys and 
girls each afternoon during 
their camp. To see three 
hundred and fifty girls on 
the play field moving from 
one game to another with- 
out confusion, thus giving 
each of these girls an op- 
portunity to play eleven dif- 
ferent games, was worth 
watching ; the boys did like- 
wise, two hundred and fifty 
strong. 

An added feature of the in- 
stitute was the formal party held for and by these 
young people to make them acquainted with the 
etiquette of such an aflfair, including invitation, 
receiving line, social dancing, and seeing the girl 
home ! Much was learned through this experience. 

The scene changes once more to a crowded 
lecture hall with the audience a bit drowsy from 
listening to many speeches. A ten minute relief 
period between periods give opportunity for rec- 
reation advisors to lead the group in singing, mo- 
tion songs, and coordination stunts. 

The curtain has just gone down on the last of 
three nights of plays and while the audience waits 
for the decision of the judges a jimior symphony 
orchestra from a nearby town plays for their 
amusement. Everyone is pleased when Sullivan 
County with its play "Cloudburst" comes in first, 
Rockingham with "Not Quite Such a Goose" sec- 
ond, and Carroll with "The Bishop's Candle- 
sticks" third. Most of the audience and all of the 
casts retire to another room to hear the criticism 
given by the judges. A great interest is manifest. 
In many cases the county would not have entered 
had it not been for the leadership of the recrea- 




^■fili 



Walter King, eighty-four year old 
singing master, who led the sing- 
ing school group and sang two solos 



tion advisor there. Still an- 
other change of scene, and 
groups are showing how our 
grandparents and great 
grandparents had their rec- 
reation — an old-fashioned 
singing school, led by an 84 
year old man, a quilting 
party with square dancing 
as part of the fun, and 
finally an old-fashioned 
wedding, with couples who 
had been married fifty years 
as special guests. The finale 
a choir festival of 75 voices, 
demonstrated what good 
music can be sung with the 
right amount of eflfort and 
leadership. 

These last few events 
were the result of the com- 
bined efforts of the state 
and county advisors. 

A type of community 
gathering which was tried 
out with much success at 
Wilton in the Spring proved 
equally successful in the fall 
in the form of Foliage and 
Harvest Festivals. The Monadnock Region As- 
sociation called on the Recreation Service to help 
in the staging of a dancing and singing pageant in 
honor of the fall colors in and around Jaffrey. At 
Deerfield a Harvest Festival brought together 
school children for folk dancing, choral groups of 
adults for songs, and a combination of partici- 
pants and audience in community singing. A 
number of other towns have conducted similar 
festivals. 

The communities of New Hamp.shire have re- 
sponded with enthusiasm to the suggestion of 
community nights. The programs, planned and 
conducted by a committee from the community 
under the guidance of the county recreation ad- 
visor, is participated in by the entire community, 
young and old. The activities include community 
singing, folk dancing, and group games both 
active and passive. 

A practical demonstration of community serv- 
ice was made in connection with the fairs at 
Rochester and Lancaster. Part of the fair grounds 
was fenced off and play equipment and leaders 
were provided in this space so that mothers could 



32 



A STATE EXPERIMENT IN RURAL RECREATION 



leave their children to be taken care of while they 
attended the fair. In one instance over two hun- 
dred children were thus cared for. A second rec- 
reational feature of the fair was an exhibit at 
Rochester which showed indoor and outdoor play 
equipment, and a miniature playground with out- 
door fireplaces, swings, tennis and baseball courts 
and other facilities. A similar idea was carried out 
at the Sullivan County 4-H Fair where not only 
a miniature play center was exhibited but also a 
splendid hobby exhibit conducted. At Tufton- 
boro the entire program was turned over to the 
County Advisor who arranged a Mother Goose 
Pageant, a program of individual competitive 
sports, and a picture demonstration by the Home 
Management Specialist. 

A five-part program in recreation has been 
planned for the 4-H Clubs of the state which in- 
cludes games that are adaptable for club meet- 
ings, games for the home, music, folk dancing, 
and tramping and trailing. Interest is running 
especially high for tramping and trailing. This 
program suggests various kinds of hikes which 
can be taken by the club — Hobo, Point to Point, 
etc. ; new ideas for outdoor meals cooked over an 
open fire; snowshoe tramping, nature trails, skat- 
ing parties and the like. One county held a win- 
ter carnival planned by and for the 4-H Club 
members, with ski races, snowshoe dashes, speed 
skating and the like. At an informal carnival con- 
ducted by a local 4-H Club leader, several rural 
schools combined and produced some snow model- 
ing worthy of mention. Cooking their noonday 
meals over an open fire in one corner of the school 
yard was a feature they 
enjoyed almost as thor- 
oughly as the game period 
and trail through the 
woods in the afternoon. 

Constant use is being 
made of the three-act play 
loan service established 
this winter. One hundred 
and forty plays donated 
by several publishing com- 
panies compose a library. 
Anyone in the state may 
borrow three of these 
plays at a time to be kept 
for one week. Thus a bet- 
ter opportunity is given to 
choose the most suitable 
play for production. A 



play exchange in which each of several towns 
produce a play in their own and all of the other 
towns in the exchange is being conducted in a 
number of the counties. 

In order to make this temporary program of 
permanent value, community recreation councils 
or committees are being formed. The members of 
these committees not only represent various lead- 
ing organizations, but also have a special recrea- 
tional interest in dramatics or music or outdoor 
sports or social recreation. These leaders are 
urged to attend institutes, to keep in close touch 
with the county and state recreation leaders, and 
to be informed on any recreational activity of in- 
terest to their community. Young people especially 
are being included in these committees. Only in 
this way can a sound recreation program for rural 
communities be established. 



A FEW ACCOMPLISHMENTS 
A Spring training course for county workers 
Ten county institutes attended by 748 vol- 
unteers from 125 organizations 
A Spring festival 

A number of county summer camps for 
women, girls, boys and entire families 
An extensive life saving program 
A four-day camp training course for State 
Junior Leaders 

A series of five different pageants on arts 
and crafts 

A state festival — "Good Times in the Old 
Times" 

Fall training courses in ten counties 
A state-wide Winter Sports Club program 
An indoor community center program 
throughout the state. 



One special study made in the Washtenaw 
County, Michigan, Rural Recreation Survey, cov- 
ered one school and one school district in each of 
the twenty county townships. It was found that 
the average area of the school grounds was a little 
less than a quarter of an acre; that not more than 
twenty-five per cent have sufficient space for a 
thirty-five foot softball diamond, the only organ- 
ized game generally played. There were no facili- 
ties for tennis in the country districts and only 
very limited facilities for baseball. Less than 
15% of the children knew how to swim. Many 
communities were without facilities for pic- 
nicking. 

"What seems to be the great social and recrea- 
tional need," says Dr. 
Henry S. Curtis, director 
of the study, "is some cen- 
tral meeting place indoors, 
with an auditorium for 
movies, lectures and per- 
haps preaching on Sunday ; 
a gymnasium for dances 
and parties; a social room 
for neighborhood meetings, 
and a swimming pool. Out- 
of-doors there should be a 
place for tennis and base- 
ball, with a garden and 
nursery, and at the back, 
if possible, a picnic grove. 
They are quite as essential 
to the rural community as 
they are to the school." 



Seeing the Northern Rockies on Foot 



By Carroll Lane Fenton 



TiiiC West — pinnacles of red and brown rock 
rising from sage-tufted plains. The West — 
snowy mountains and deep valleys dug by 
vanished glacial ice and now lined with rich for- 
ests of cedars, firs and lodgepole pines. The West : 
a world of beauty and primitive romance; of pasts 
that stretch back through ages to days when the 
earth itself was young. 

This world, once inaccessible, was brought to 
our reach by railways. For forty years they suf- 
ficed, with tallyhos, saddle horses and pack out- 
fits to take visitors among peaks and lakes. 

Then came the automobile. More flexible than 
the railway, it followed the tallyho and crossed 
passes once remote. As roads improved, cars im- 
proved also, until they promised to invade any 
mountain range or valley. They served well — 
much too well ! Trains took us and put us down, 
to do and explore for ourselves. The automobile 
takes us and then sits waiting, ready to hasten us 
away. It begs us to glance and hurry on ; to "do" 
this range in an afternoon, drive a hundred miles 
on for dinner, and skim through another scenic 
region tomorrow. Increasing thousands motor 
westward — and a few hundreds see the West. 

To know the real West, you must travel many 
miles of high, narrow trails, where eagle, bighorn 
and mountain goat pause to watch you pass. You 
must climb ancient ladders cut in rock and look 
down into precipitous canyons from the doors of 
stone-age huts. You must walk beside glacial 
lakes in valleys where moose and caribou pasture. 
You must skirt snowfields on the Great Divide, 
and at evening come to a cabin of red rocks 
perched among twisted pines. There a mountain 
woman will give welcome and a cook will pre- 
pare you a meal of such size that you never would 
dare eat it at home. But you will eat it, and a 
large breakfast, too, without a 
thought of the knicknacks that are 
served to tempt you in hotels. 

But where, in the vast distances 
of the West, is there country to be 
traversed on foot? Where are vil- 



lages like those of Switzerland and France, where 
Monsieur I'Aubergiste awaits tourists even among 
the mountains? 

There aren't any, and that is one beauty of the 
region. You may walk for a month in the Rockies, 
yet never pass through a town. But trails, inns, 
food are other matters. For what are national 
parks equipped, if not to care for those who walk 
as well as the others who ride? 

Not all parks, of course, are equally good for 
the traveler who wants to hike. No one would see 
the Yellowstone on foot unless endowed with 
superabundant time and one or two burros to 
carry baggage. The Grand Canyon has awe-in- 
spiring trails ; but he who would "do" the Canyon 
on foot must burden himself with pack mules and 
a guide, or must carry a painfully heavy load over 
dusty trails where the sun beats down with sub- 
tropical heat even in April. The Yosemite is beau- 
tiful and cool — but its holiday crowds often sug- 
gest those on beaches near New York . 

Four Regions Supreme 
I doubtless am prejudiced; but four regions 
seem to stand supreme among hiking districts of 
the West. One is Glacier National Park, with its 
neighbor, Waterton Lakes, in Alberta. Another 
is Jasper Park, where the hiker must be sup- 
ported by horses to do a really thorough job. Next 
come the mountains and valleys stretching west- 
ward from Banff, a perfect pleasure ground for 
those who want to hike from camp to camp with- 
out the burden of food and duffle and with relaxa- 
tion at fine hotels. Last is Canada's Glacier Park 
among the magnificent Selkirks. It has neither 
cabin, camp nor hotel — the hiker must bring his 
own bedding and tent, be his own guide, camp- 
tender, cook. In reward he has wild life, glaciers 



Are you going to the Rockies this summer? Let 
an experienced traveler tell you how best to 
see this world of beauty and primitive romance. 

33 



34 



SEEING THE NORTHtKN ROCKIES ON FOOT 




Courtesy Carroll Lane Fenton 



Let the horses carry the 
tents and supplies while 
you have the [oy of fol- 
lowing the longer trails 
through the mountains 



and high peaks, with good 
trails, yet with that soH- 
tude peculiar to a moun- 
tainous region untouched 
by motor roads. 

In American parks the 
hiker may find himself 
looked down upon. Rang- 
ers lead trail parties, it 
is true, but tradition says 

that a bus or a horse is the proper means of get- 
ting about. Canadians are more informal : their 
peaks were visited by hikers and climbers long 
before good trails were built. No signs warn that 
hob-nailed boots are forbidden in dining rooms, 
and railroads schedule hiking trips to the more 
spectacular valleys. They even sponsor a hiking 
club, "Trail Hikers of the Canadian Rockies," 
operating from Banff and Lake Louise, but send- 
ing information from the Windsor Station in 
Montreal. The club plans four or five day hikes, 
transfers baggage during trips, engages glacier 
guides and packers, and even supplies alpenstocks. 
Costs for this service, food and shelter are a little 
more than $6.00 per day. Measure that by an in- 
dependent trip, on which you will pay $7.50 for 
the glacier guide alone ! 

The guide's service is required, of course, only 
when you plan to cross ice. For the rest, take the 
trails alone or in parties of family and friends. 
Routes are marked and thoroughly safe; with a 
topographic map and some caution you even may 
strike out through country where the only trails 
are those of game. If you photograph, have a 
camera ready : deer, moose, bighorn and moun- 
tain goat often pose obligingly. 

As you may vary sights and routes, so you may 
choose accommodations. You may stop at the best 
hotels any national park on this continent offers — 
their rates, by the way, are by no means so high 
as boastful rumor reports. You may leave them 
for simple log cabins in valleys, where moose 
waken you in the morning as they clatter down 
gravel paths. Go on to more remote tea houses, 
hanging between precipices and valleys dug by 




^»>***^^**^.-««^ 




glacial ice. Then return to your neglected car, 
visiting the motor camps that line the road through 
Kootenany Park. Or put tents, bedding and food 
on horses and, leaving them in care of a guide, 
lead forth on longer trails through the mountains. 

Expenses? They vary also. If you stay strictly 
by motor camps they run astonishingly low, for 
good food in Canadian towns is cheaper than in 
our own Northwest. A more liberal plan yields 
greater returns, for many worth-while things lie 
beyond reach of daily hikes from the camps. Al- 
low stops at cabins, tea houses and hotels, com- 
pensating by periods spent in your own home tent. 
Following this plan we have spent four summers 
in the northern Rockies on budgets only slightly 
greater than those of home. I shall not bore you 
with figures, for three of those trips were made in 
times when fares, cabin rates and food were far 
higher than they are today. 

Whether you come by motor or train, start hik- 
ing on the trails about Banff. There are good and 
easy trails along valleys cut among sharp gray 
mountains of tilted and twisted gray rocks. There 
is also the "million dollar view," which is all the 
guide books say and more, since it tells a story 
of vanished glaciers and rivers pushed out of 
their paths. As for beauty, every photograph 
shows it, but even those in natural color fail to 
give its quality. 

Lake Louise deserves four days to a' week. Its 
trails, though well graded and wide, lead to spec- 
tacular peaks or the edge of grinding glacial ice. 
Ptarmigan lead their chicks among heather ; a pica 
spreads his hay out to dry on red rocks near the 
head of the lake. Mantled ground squirrels come 



SEEING THE NORTHERN ROCKIES ON FOOT 



35 



to beg, and pack rats make collections of bright 
things dropped by campers and hikers. They 
don't always wait for things to drop, and often 
cut shiny buttons from carelessly handled coats. 

Take road or trail to Moraine Lake, which 
hides below ten red-and-buff peaks each more than 
ten thousand feet high. Then back to Lake Louise, 
and across the Continental Divide. Cars may be 
left at Wapta Camp while the party hikes to Lake 
O'Hara, the one rival of Louise. There are few 
trails leading from it, but they offer views of 
great beauty and chances to study mountain plants. 
Open slopes allow for hikes at will, without even 
a map fotj guide. 

From Yoho Camp, reached by road or trail, 
there are routes leading to high basins, lakes and 
the grim foot of Yoho Glacier. Moose feed in 
Duchesney Lake, and at least one handsome bull 
has learned not to fear human beings. But use a 
telescopic lens, for he is not really neighborly. 

An easy route leads on to the chalet on the 
shore of Emerald Lake. Harder, but more beau- 
tiful, is that which climbs toward Burgess Pass, 
reaches a fire-protected camp ground and then 
drops suddenly to the valley. Tent, bedding and 
food can be sent up for three dollars; stay until 
the suj^plies are eaten and pack your remaining 
duffle downhill. But don't let that word "down- 
hill' deceive you ; unless you are thoroughly hard- 
ened to loads, thirty-five pounds will seem like 
three hundred by the time you reach the foot of 
that trail ! 

There is another reason for taking the trail fol- 
lowed by that steep descent. Like most of the 
northern Rockies, those about Banff, Lake Louise 
and Field are formed of rocks laid down long ago 
under shallow, shifting seas. Those seas con- 
tained varied life: seaweeds, sponges, shellfish, 
bristled worms and queer, flat creatures with 
jointed bodies whose only name is trilobites. On 
sands they died and disappeared, but in limes and 
muds their remains were preserved as fosil ani- 
mals and plants. 

Corals and shells of the early Coal Age lie in 
the tilted cliffs above Banff. More ancient beds 
outcrop at Ross Lake, not far from the Conti- 
nental Divide. Near Burgess Pass is a dark gray 
ledge whose fossils^ rarely abundant and perfect, 
have made it famous throughout the world. Even 
if you have no collection it is worth while to visit 
that quarry, search the scattered slabs for re- 
mains, and contrast these records of ancient seas 
with modern lakes, glaciers and mountains. But if 



you expect to take fossils away, first get appro- 
priate permission from the National Parks office 
in Ottawa! 

From Emerald Lake an excellent road leads to 
the railway town of Field. You may motor west- 
ward to Golden, but must take train to the Sel- 
kirks — there is no other way to go. Leave it at 
the village of Glacier and get the one Ford in the 
place to take your duffle to the camp ground 
where the famous Glacier House once stood. 
There you'll find wood, shade, water and a place 
to put your food beyond reach of ground squirrels 
and bears. A porcupine will be your neighbor, 
but since quill-throwing is a myth this is no cause 
for alarm. 

The Selkirks once were a mecca for moun- 
taineers of America and Europe. Today they are 
almost deserted — which means you may enjoy 
good trails and still have solitude. For glacier 
work get a guide from Lake Louise ; without one, 
take trails upon Mount Sir Donald, to the tip of 
Mount Abbott and across Baloo Pass. In the 
meadows near Nakimu Caves there are grizzlies; 
the caves themselves are strange tunnels worn by 
water from glacial ice. Reserve at least one even- 
ing for the sunset, which stains with rose, ver- 
milion and purple the snowy peaks north of Rogers 
Pass. It's a perfect ending for your visit in this 
land of high peaks and ice. 

Expenses? I promised not to give figures — but 
here there are no rates to change. On our last 
four days in the Selkirks we spent $5.92 above 
railway tickets and observation car fares. Of 
these, fifty cents went for hauling duffle and the 
rest for milk, oranges, lettuce and more substan- 
tial items of food. Less than $1.35 per day for 
two, permitting some fliers in luxury at Emerald 
Lake and Louise .... 

Can you afford not to see the West when bud- 
gets are reduced like that? 



"But spring will come. The ice will break 
up and melt away ; elms and maples will 
venture into leaves; hemlocks and firs 
will arouse themselves to a fresher green. 
Grasses will cover the hills and the 
meadowlands. And there will be bird 
songs in the air. Then will come the time 
for the good sport of hiking over the 
countryside." — Harry A. Overstreet in 
A Guide to Civilised Loafing. 



Adventures Over the Radio 



THK Jacksonville Depart- 
ment of Public Recrea- 
tion is sponsoring a novel 
club known as the Junior Road 
to Adventure Club, which each week broadcasts a 
serial under the title, "Peter and Peggy in Story- 
Book Land." Competitive auditions are held for 
the variovis parts and all the individuals con- 
nected with the production are volunteers. 

The Recreation Department is especially 
fortunate in having, in Mr. Martin Fabian, a 
volunteer worker whose hobby is the presen- 
tation of radio plays. Mr. Fabian, a civil en- 
gineer by profession, first became interested in 
radio drama through the technical problems in- 
volved in producing sound effects. As a result, 
he spends much of his leisure in building de- 
vices for the accurate reproduction of sounds 
over the radio. His generosity, both in the ex- 
penditure of time and money, has made it pos- 
sible for the Department of Public Recreation 



By Nathan L. Mallison 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Jacksonville, Florida 



to present unusually inter- 
esting and worth while pro- 
grams which are arousing" 
much favorable comment. 
ATost of the good scripts for radio presenta- 
tions are cop\-righted and sold by syndicates. 
Mr. Fabian believes that good sound effects 
must ha\e good plays, so he has purchased a 
series of scripts with most happy results. While 
children's fairy tales are the theme of the broad- 
casts, the fan mail indicates that more adults 
listen to the program than children. 

Many so-called children's hours, especially 
those which have been commercialized by com- 
panies dealing in articles of merchandise for 
children, are insipid affairs which even the 
children will not tolerate. When time and ef- 
fort are expended on a program to insure an 
artistic production, even adults will listen, the 
experience of the Jacksonville Recreation De- 
partment attests. 



Presenting, from 
left to right, the 
operator of the 
sound effects; the 
announcer, Smoke- 
wreath; the narra- 
tor; Peter and 
Peggy, who are 
woven into every 
production; the di- 
rector of the pro- 
duction; Prince 
Charming; Cinder- 
ella; the FairyGod- 
mother and the 
two sisters. 




36 



World at Play 



^ . To make possible the 

If You are Going r u ^ ■ ^■ 

" fullest appreciation 

to the Theatre c ., j -.• c 

of the dramatic ot- 



ferings of the Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, 1934-35 theatre season, the 
Extension Department of the Public Schools 
each Tuesday evening at one of the social 
centers holds drama and music previews. At 
these previews the coming week's events on 
the theatre board are discussed. If there are 
no special attractions on the program of the 
following week, the evening is devoted to the 
reading and discussion of some outstanding 
modern play, some topic of the theatre or 
musical demonstration studies. 



Travel Talks 
Popular 



An interesting ac- 
tivity fostered by the 
Recreation Commis- 
sion of Phoenixville, 
Pennsylvania, is a series of travel talks running 
through the winter which are given by resi- 
dents of the city who during the past year 
ha\e taken interesting trips. For example, one 
speaker motored across the country spending 
considerable time in Arizona, New Mexico and 
the Grand Canyon. Another, a florist, spent the 
summer in Holland among the bulb growers. 
Reading, Pennsylvania, has also adopted this 
plan, which is working out very successfully 
in both cities. 



Making Washington 
Safe for Play 



Accidents on muni- 
c i p a 1 playgrounds 
are few, the ratio of 
all mishaps being 2.8 
to each 100,000 visits to the playground, accord- 
ing to the 1934 report of the Department of 
Playgrounds of the District of Columbia. 
Nevertheless, a determined effort is being 
made to reduce this ratio, and with the co- 
operation of the Women's City Club, the 
American Automobile Association, and the 
Metropolitan Police Department, an interplay- 
ground campaign for safety and for playground 
beautification was conducted from April i 
through September 30, 1933. Several patrols 
were organized on each playground. The Wo- 
men's City Club offered an attractively de- 
signed certificate to each playground which 
showed improvement in the appearance of the 
grounds and in its safety-record. The AAA 
presented three handsome banners, first, sec- 
ond, and third place to the grounds having the 
highest record each month. Keen interest in 
many communities in the beautification of the 
grounds brought generous gifts of shrubbery, 
Tose-trees, furniture, curtains, and enlisted the 
assistance of many adults who painted furni- 
ture, made curtains and helped in garden 
iictivities. 



„, ^ . The community 

The Community , t^ „ 

,^ x^ ,. house at Dedham, 

House at Dedham ,. , 

Massachusetts, is an 

historic mansion 
built in 1799. The house was in a sadly neglec- 
ted condition when it was turned over to the 
Dedham Community Association in May 1922, 
and it has been gradually restored to its present 
state. It is open to the people of Dedham and 
to others for all kinds of leisure-time activities 
— social, educational and recreational. In it and 
on the grounds about it is conducted a con- 
tinuous all the year round program of gather- 
ings and activities for young and old alike. 
Frances M. Baker Park, including within its 
limits the landing place of the original settlers 
of Dedham in 1636, was a gift to the associa- 
tion in 1927. It adjoins the grounds extending 
to the Charles River and provides space for 
tennis courts, other outdoor games and a swim- 
ming beach. 



Subdivision 
Development 



In Subdivision De- 
velopment circular 
Number 5, issued by 
the Federal Housing 
Administration, minimum requirements are set 
forth for the physical characteristics of sub- 
divisions and of the properties within them. 
Among the requirements on which special 

37 



38 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



TENNIS for TEACHERS 

By HELEN I. DRIVER 

Instructor in Charge of Women's Tennis 
University oi Wisconsin 

• A manual for the recreation leader, and teacher of 
Physical Education. Contents include analysis of seven 
strokes, common errors and teaching progressions for 
each; practice organization for beginning and advanced 
groups; tactics, tests, and tournaments; organization of 

tennis programs. Price $2. Detailed description 
sent upon request. 

Orders, accompanied b\j full payment thoutd bt directed to 

H. I. DRIVER, Lalhrop HaU 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Vfia. 



emphasis is laid is the following : "Appropriate, 
adequate and conveniently accessible schools, 
parks, playgrounds, and shopping centers shall 
exist or they shall be definitely in prospect. 
Dedication or reservation at a reasonable cost 
of sites for schools, parks, and playgrounds 
shall be considered bona fide evidence of intent 
to provide these three types of facilities and 
preliminary arrangements shall have been ef- 
fected for making them available." 



ike C( 



bine 



.aaazine 

If you ate interested in 

The leadership of youth. 

The swiftly changing methods in organized 
camping. 

The statements of leading thinkers on educa- 
tion through camping. 

Leadership training — Counsellor's Education. 

Camp Programming — Administration. 

Outdoor Sports and Activities. 

New Games, Land and Water. 

Swimming — Canoeing — Sailing. 

Riding — Archery — Riflery. 

Woodcraft — Indian Lore — Nature, 

Artscraft — Dancing — Stunts. 

Council Fires — Story Telling, 

Then read the Camping Magazine regulatty 
Send for a sample copy $2.00 a year. 

Lane Hall, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Dcpt. R 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

) Recently Received Containing Articles j 
^ of Interest to the Recreation Worker '- 



MAGAZINES 
The National Parent-Teacher Magazine, March 1935 
Hobbies for Girls, by Ruth Nichols 

Leisure, March 1935 

Coaches for a Miniature Napoleon, by Ellen Hill 
Dramas Without Dialogue, by Will Anderson 
Whit-Tennis, by Milton Connelly 
Make It a Kitchen Party, by Frank L. Havey 
Ted Tinker — Tinkerer 

Safety Education, March 1935 

The Ancient Kite in the Modern Sky, by Marion 
Holbrook 

Parks and Recreation, February 1935 

Emergency Conservation Work in the National 

Parks, by John D. Coffman 
Recreation and Reconstruction, by L. H. Weir 
Curling, An International Sport, by Irwin R. Dunnell 

The Parents' Magazine, March 1935 

The Busy Child Gets Well Fast, by Marie Willcox 

Abbott 

Educational Method, March 1935 

Grand Rapids Schools Develop Children's Hobbies, 
by Helen K. Mackintosh 

How the Museum Contributes to Leisure-Time In- 
terests, by Jane A. White 

Elementary Industrial Arts and Leisure-Time Inter- 
ests, by A. Adele Rudolph 

Is Your School Educating for Leisure? by Eugene 
T. Lies 

Education for Leisure: Recent References, by Edith 
A. Wright 

Recreation and Juvenile Delinquency, by Katharine 
F. Lenroot 

The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 

March 1935 
Dramatic Activities of the Berkeley, California, Rec- 
reation Department, by Charles W. Davis 
The Use of Basketball Skill Tests for Girls and 
Women, by Helen A. Moser 

PAMPHLETS 
Charlton Community Center Leisure Time Program, 
Board of Education, Newark, N. J. 

A Study of Rural Community Development in Water- 
ville, N. Y. » 

Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Ithaca, New York 

Report of the Monroe County Regional Planning Board 
for 1934 

Thirteenth Annual Rport of the Park Department, Rec- 
reation Bureau of the City of Passaic, N. J., 1934 

First Annual Report of the Board of Recreation Com- 
missioners, Summit, N. J., 1934 

'^£/ .^P"n? and Summer Outings of the Westchester 
Trails Association 
Westchester County Recreation Commission, White 
Plains, New York 

Adult Education and Recreation Report of the Board of 
Education — Elmira, N. Y., 1934 



WORLD AT PLAY 



39 



New HEYDAY HOUSE Hits: 




The new best-seller in entertainment 
books is Gerald Lynton Kaufman's 
delightful "IT'S ABOUT TIME" — a 
treasure-chest of clock and watch puz- 
zles, problems, tricks, games, curiosi- 
ties and philosophy that will test your 
wits, arouse your imagination and offer 
a thousand rich and thrilling hours of 
fun — appeals to everyone. 



Just out — the exciting new de- 
tective game for competitive 
playing — baffling picture-clue 
mysteries that require eyes, 
wits, speed, and are grand 
fun to solve! 

BRINGING 




$1.00 



IT'S ABOUT 
$1.50 TIME 

by GERALD LYNTON KAUFMAN 




DOUBLEDAY. DORAN & CO 'INC 



SHERLOCK HOME 



by LAWRENCE TREAT 

Coming! NAMING QUINTUPLETS, by J. 
Bryan, III, and MAY I LEAVE THE ROOM? 
by G, Lawson Kendall — $1.00 each. Ask for 
these Heyday House Hits at your bookstore. 



E. R. A. Concerts in Boston. — On January 
24th, the first of a series of free public E. R. A. 
concerts was held at the Boston Opera House, 
presented by a selected group of 88 profes- 
sional musicians representing the best per- 
formers of the E. R. A. Symphony Concert 
Orchestra and the F. E. R. A. Symphony 
Orchestra. Free tickets were distributed 
through the sectional committees of the City- 
wide Emergency Committee on Health and 
Recreation. Two outstanding soloists volun- 
teered their services for special numbers. In 
spite of the blizzard and zero weather, 600 
people were present. 

Annual Meeting of the American Associa- 
tion for Adult Education. — The Tenth Annual 
Meeting of the American Association for Adult 
Education will be held at the Hotel Schroeder, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 20, 21, and 22. 
There will be sessions on public schools as 
adult education centers ; adult education in 
rural communities ; adult education under 
public auspices ; vocational education and ad- 
justment for adults ; rural library service ; a 
vocational interest of adults ; training com- 
munity leaders ; readability, and mechanical 
aids to learning. Further information may be 
secured from the American Association for 
Adult Education, 60 E. 42d Street, New York. 

A Hobby Round-Up. — From May i to 11, 
1935, the Leisure League of America, Inc. will 
sponsor in New York City "a national exposi- 
tion of hobbies, sports, games, arts, handicrafts 
and other diversions organized to display and 
demonstrate in an animated, colorful and 



dramatic way the activities and accomplish- 
ments of the many organizations and indivi- 
duals engaged in furthering wholesome leisure- 
time activities." The exhibit, which will be held 
in Commerce Hall, Port Authority Building, 
will be under the executive management of 
Robert Everett Associates, Inc., 232 Madison 
Avenue, New York City. 

A Hobby League. — The Playground and 
Recreation Association of Philadelphia has 
established a hobby league which is arousing 
much interest. Hundreds of ideas on hobbies 
have been assembled. A consulting group has 
been organized who are experts on various 
phases of leisure-time activities and who will 
answer questions. Hobby clubs and groups will 
be formed. Four workers are giving full time to 
the project. 

A Children's International Fete in Japan. — 
In November the Tokyo Y. W. C. A. held a 
Children's International Fete, introducing the 
festivals of four seasons in many lands. Among 
the countries represented were: Afghanistan, 
America, Canada, China, Denmark, England, 
France, Holland, India, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, 
Philippine, Poland, Russia, Siam, Sweden, 
Scotland and Turkey. 

The Dog as a Playfellow. — Dr. Henry S. 
Curtis, Director of the FERA Recreational 
Survey in Washtenaw County, Michigan, writ- 
ing about the dog as a playfellow says, "He is 
probably the most valuable piece of apparatus 
available as he leads to much activity and has 
a strong emotional appeal. This is coming out 



40 



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Strongly in the study we are now making of 
summer activities. For the only child in the 
country the dog offers the only opportunity 
for vigorous play, and for many others he is 
more important then any other kind of play 
equipment. He is an excellent playfellow and 
leads to much running and romping out-of- 
doors. The pet in general, and the dog in 
particular, has a large place in child direction, 
and the boy or girl who has grown up without 
one will probably be socially poorer for all the 
rest of his life." 

May Day— Child Health Day.— The stamp- 
ing out of diphtheria has been chosen as the 
special project for this year's May Day — Child 
Health Day, according to an announcement 
issued by the American Child Health Associa- 
tion. Further information may be secured from 
the association at 50 West 50th Street, New 
York City. 

Activities of the Opera Nazionale Dopola- 
voro. — The Italian government has issued a 
beautifully illustrated volume entitled "De- 
velopments and Realizations of the Opera 
Nazionale Dopolavoro" which gives the his- 
torical development and accomplishments of 
the Leisure Time Organization established for 
the benefit of workers. Accomplishments are 
classified under four headings : Physical Cul- 
ture (Sports and popular games — Italian Fe- 
deration for Excursions) ; Artistic Education ; 
Popular Culture and Professional Education, 
and Assistance (hygienic, sanitary, social dis- 
counts, facilities, social assistance.) An exceed- 
ingly broad program of activities is embraced 
in this program which is the coordinating body 
for thousands of small societies. 

Recreation in Institutions — C. M. Goethe of 
Sacramento, California, who for many years 
has been devoted to promoting the recreation 
movement and who was one of the first to work 
for the international play movement writes 
that he is supplying to certain of the residents 
of an institution for the insane packets of post- 
age stamps. Officials of the institution have 
found that stamp collecting has not only re- 
creational value but in some instances curative 
value. Another resident of Sacramento is per- 
forming the same service for tubercular patients 
in a local institution. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



41 



Tenth Annual Seminar in Mexico. — The 

Committee on Cultural Relations with Latin 
America announces the tenth annual seminar 
in Mexico to be held in Cuernavaca and Mexico 
City from July 3rd to July 23rd. The seminar 
will consist of three weeks of lectures, round 
table discussions and field trips which will 
supply a general introduction to Mexican his- 
tory, economics, art, international relations and 
archaeology, under the leadership of outstand- 
ing Mexican and American authorities in many 
fields. Further information may be secured 
from Hubert C. Herring, executive director of 
the committee, 287 Fourth Avenue, New York 
City. 

The South- Wide Leisure Time Conterence. 

— The second annual South-Wide Leisure 
Time Conference will be held May 3rd to 8th 
at Nashville, Tennessee. Sessions will be held 
at Scarrit College for Christian Workers and 
the Y. M. C. A. Graduate School. Further in- 
formation may be secured from Dr. Walter L. 
Stone, secretary of the conference, 500-2 1st 
Avenue South, Nashville. 

The N. E. A. Convention. — It is suggested 
by officials of the National Education Associa- 
tion that delegates attending the 1935 conven- 
tion to be held for a week during July come 
prepared for an all summer vacation. For the 
convention is to be held at Denver, and with 
the National Parks, Mountain Parks and the 
inexhaustable outdoor facilities of Colorado, a 
delightful vacation period will be assured. 
Information regarding tfie convention may be 
secured from A. L. Threlkeld, Superintendent 
of Schools, 414 Fourteenth Street, Denver, 
Colorado. 

Tennis Tournaments in Detroit. — Last sum- 
mer the Detroit Department of Recreation, 
assisted by the Detroit News, staged a novice 
tennis tournament open to the residents of 
Detroit and any city, village or town within 
forty miles of Detroit. A novice was construed 
to mean any player who had not won a city or 
district championship. Approximately 2,000 
people registered for the tournament. The plan 
of operation was to have any town or com- 
munity entering conduct a tournament of from 
32 to 64 players, including both men and wo- 
men. The winners and runners-up of these 
community tournaments competed in Detroit 
for the metropolitan championship. 




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On the Grandstand 

(Continued from page 4) 

fication of such diversions began. Before this 
grand publicity, sport had its players but not its 
fans. It is difficult to resist the lure of pages upon 
pages of professional baseball, college football 
and prize fights w hen we have them before our 
eyes every morning and evening. The enormous 
crowds at certain prize fights, for example, were 
brought together only because the public interest 
had been jazzed up by a clever publicity of the 
training details until the final contest gradually 
came to appear as an event of primary import- 
ance. This advertising of sport now parallels the 
advertising of merchandise. One wonders how 
the average man or woman can keep enough of 
the family income to pay for bread and butter. 
We are lured to buy by high pressure sales cam- 
paigns and yet we somehow survive. Many spec- 
tators are those who come not from any innate 
interest but because they cannot resist the sports 
ballyhoo. 

"Is your boy interested in athletics?" queried 
one mother of another. 



42 



NAT M. WASHER 



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"I should say he is," replied the other. "He 
stays in bed every Sunday morning and reads all 
the sport pages in the newspapers!" 

This boy's attitude is surely one of bovine qui- 
escence unless he has some other outlet for his in- 
terest in athletics than mere vicarious spectator- 
ship. And many people only read and look upon 
action, either mental or physical and never have 
any desire to be more than a spectator. The con- 
firmed theatregoer, the movie fan, is living vi- 
carously as is the bookworm or the man who is 
always found in the grandstand. Pleasures taken 
vicariously are recreation and a recuperative pro- 
cess, but like too much sameness in a diet, they 
produce a badly balanced life. 

It is not the impressive millions spent by Amer- 
icans for grandstand, theatre and movie seats or 
attendance at commercialized sports that can be 
criticized. These all represent legitimate avenues 
of release from fatigue, of recuperation and 
pleasure. It is the entire surrender to their lure 
because it is the easiest way, which is deplorable. 
Recreation is an activity of body and mind no less 
than work and we should seize upon the most de- 
veloping, the most releasing kinds. Dissipation 



Nat M. Washer 

Nat "M. Washer of San Antonio, Texas, whc^ 
died early in February 1935, was Chairman of the 
War Camp Community Service Committee at San 
Antonio during the World War and for many 
years had been a warm supporter of the National 
Recreation Association. He assisted in raising 
money for the organization and put his influence 
behind the movement. In recent years he had 
served as President of the Texas State Board of 
Education and for many years he was a leader in 
the civic, educational, business and fraternal life 
of San Antonio, and was largely responsible for 
the establishment of the San Antonio Public 
Library. At the time of his death, the flags at 
Austin, the state capital, were lowered to half 
mast, and at the hour of his funeral service 
classes in all the San Antonio public schools and 
colleges were suspended, as was also the operation 
of the San Antonio public library system. 



and idleness and monotony of play require fur- 
ther recreation to offset fatigue. A mixed diet in 
recreation is what we all need for the well- 
rounded life. 



The Japanese National Game: Go 

(Continued from page 9) 

multiplying rapidly. And inquiries are streaming 
in from inquisitive and partly informed persons 
as to where and how they can learn to play. 

Go, like music, can be learned from a relatively 
few simple written instructions. But it is as im- 
portant for Go students to witness good Go played 
as for music students to hear good music played. 
But to a Go student personal instruction is even 
more important than to a music student. The rea- 
son is this : Go students, unlike music students, 
cannot easily detect their own mistakes. 



Helgh-ho for a Merry Spring! 

(Continufd fruiii page 14) 
torium was made, on which the plans for the 
entrance, place of action, place of standing, 
and the exit of each group were carefully 
worked out and a place in the front rows of 
the auditorium assigned to it for seating be- 
fore the beginning of the festival. Full direc- 
tions for each group, based on these plans, 
were typed and given to the representative of 
that group who had been chosen as "liaison 



THIRTY-FOUR YEARS OF SERVICE 



43 



Thirty-four Years of Service 

Mrs. Mary J. Cowlev has just resigned from 
the North Side Playground Association of Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, after thirty-four years of 
continuous service. Mrs. Cowley is still a mem- 
ber of the Pittsburgh Board of Education, a posi- 
tion which she has held for twenty-three years. 

Recently a reception was held in Mrs. Cowley's 
honor in Pittsburgh with nearly 400 educators, 
playground supervisors and friends attending. 
The City Council of Pittsburgh adopted a special 
resolution of appreciation for the service of Mrs. 
Cowley and all that had come through her efforts. 

officer" between it and the festival director. 
These liaison officers should meet with the 
director shortly before the festival to go over 
their instructions with him, to be sure to have 
correct understanding. 

About a hundred people who met each day 
for a session in musical leadership learned all 
the songs and sat in the auditorium as near as 
possible to the piano as they sang them. A 
public community singing period held each day 
gave opportunity for many people who later 
came to see the festival to learn several of the 
songs. Under ordinary circumstances this 
learning of the songs by the audience might 
be done in connection with regular meetings of 
clubs and other associations attended by people 
likely to be at the festival; and even a half- 
hour or so of song-learning by the audience 
just before the festival begins might not be 
amiss. 

Such simple festivals seem a most promising 
means of bringing all sorts and ages of people 
into growing participation and lasting interest 
in ways of expression whose social and other 
human values we all place at the top of the 
scale, and whose delights are always as fresh 
as a bright May morning. 



Special Activities in Glens Falls, 
New York 

(Continued from page 19) 
the bases, we bought a cobbler's sewing machine. 
We reopened the club again this winter the first 
of February in the factory building used two 
years ago, which is really better adapted to our 
purposes as the one great room makes supervision 
simpler and cuts down the cost of personnel. Our 
program is practically the same as last year, ex- 




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cept that we are not opening until one o'clock and 
are running only week days. The attendance is 
somewhat smaller this season, a happy sign that 
there is less unemployment. But the club is never- 
theless well patronized and our Board of Gov- 
ernors feels that we are doing no work that is of 
greater value or that has accomplished more real 
good. We are reaching a large group of men who 
are by no means down-and-outers, but rather, in 
the main, self respecting workmen, who through 
force of circumstances are either entirely out of 
work or else employed only part time on relief 
projects. A warm, bright, cheerful club of their 
own, where they can putter around with tools as 
they choose, has done much to keep up morale 
and to give men courage to face these bitter days 
of dire financial stress. 



April Showers 

(Continued from page 24) 
"In the pond," the players must all jump to the 
side of the line designated as the pond. On the 



44 



APRIL SHOWERS 



SUMMER 
SESSIONS 




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words, "On the bank," the players must jump to 
the side designated as the bank. Try to make the 
players jump at the wrong time or fail to jump 
when they ought to. Anyone who blunders must 
leave the game. The last person to remain in the 
game wins. 

Noah's Ark 

Divide the group into couples and give each the 
name of some animal, bird or insect. A straight 
row of chairs is placed across one end of the room 
and a man takes his place behind each. The girls 
are all taken out of the room and blindfolded. 
When the girls are brought in again they are taken 
to the end of the room farthest from the chairs, 
and from here each tries to find her partner and 
occupy his seat. The only guidance the girls have 
is the noise made at the other end of the room 
when the men imitate the sound of the animal 
assigned to them. After all have found their seats, 
partners change and the men try their skill at 
locating their partners. 

Rainbow Sfab 

Using the large rainbow that you have for 



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Articles by writers of 
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decorations, number the colors from i to 7. Play- 
ers are formed into teams of seven each and then 
are blindfolded, provided with a pin stuck through 
a strip of white cloth, and sent up to stick this on 
the rainbow. Each team is credited with the num- 
ber of points represented by the color stabbed. 
Team scoring the most points wins some rainbow 
colored candy. 
Bow Contest 

Give each guest a pencil and paper with the fol- 
lowing questions on it to be answered by words 
beginning or ending in "bo," "bow" or "beau" : 



Questions 




Answers 


A Hallowe'en bow? 




Bogy 


An unconventional bow? 




Bohemian 


A South American bow? 




Bolivia 


A sausage bow? 




Bologna 


A bow without fraud or deceit ? 


Bona fide 


A rich yielding bow? 




Bonanza 


A military bow? 




Bonaparte 


A bow that's always acceptable? 


Bonus 


A poorly fed bow? 




Bony 


An acid bow? 




Boric 


An animal bow? 




Bovine 


A ne'er-do-well bow? 




Hobo 


A dandy bow? 




Beau Brummel 


A bow that is a dangerous 


weapon ? 


Bowie knife. 



On the Wild Flower Trail 

(Continued from fayc 26) 

This unique type of herbarium with its poetical 
interpretation gives word pictures that increase 
the pleasure of examining the flowers. There are 
often several quotations accompanying a single 
flower. 

Whether the collector makes a scientific ap- 
proach to his work or whether his treasures are 
arranged for beauty's sake alone, to follow the 
wild flower trail is to reap a pleasurable reward. 



Planning for Recreation 

(Continued from page 28) 

and horses. Some months ago we bought him 
a pair of rabbits. Today he showed me a plan 
he has made for an underground dweUing he 
is going to build for them as they have grown 
considerable in number. And so a rabbit farm 
has been added to our husbandry and the boy's 
hobby or perhaps vocation has been established. 

Hobby and Vocation. In the same way pho- 
tography, stamp collecting, arts and crafts, 
music, dancing, acting, the making of puppets, 
soap carving, basket weaving, chair caning, 
gardening, poultry raising and farming are the 
natural hobbies of boys and girls at our school. 
These are all interests which do not allow time 



PLANNING FOR RECREATION 



45 



for loafing and the spread of "gangish" spirit. 
Hobbies supply needed entertainment and rec- 
reation. They satisfy normally the desire to 
show oflf, to get approval and to attract atten- 
tion. The greatest importance, however, is the 
fact that a hobby can become a source of a life 
adventure and a vocation. 

The Social Value of Hobbies. As the result of 
the constant contact of our pupils with nature, 
the desire arose to serve less fortunate broth- 
ers in cities and towns who never had the 
privilege of tramping through fields and woods. 
Appreciating the inexhaustible treasures of 
nature in every bush and brook and tree, these 
boys and girls wanted to find a way to share 
some of this wealth with the children who 
could never search for the first spring flowers, 
or go berrying, or scoop polliwogs from a pond. 
And they did find a way, for they began to pre- 
pare some collections which they mailed to 
public schools, settlement houses, children's 
clubs, hospitals, homes and similar organizations. 

These young nature lovers try to make each 
package which they call "nature's parcels" in- 
teresting. Each package is different, accord- 
ing to the season and the adventures of the 
amateur scientist. Things are being packed to- 
gether that belong together — the broken egg 
shell in the right bird's nest ; the fungus with 
the moss from which it grew. 

For each parcel the children prepare a cata- 
logue, and here is where the "study" part of 
the program becomes acute. Each item must, 
of course, be given its proper name and a brief 
description, and since the catalogue is to be 
sent abroad in the name of the school, a sense 
of purpose and responsibility make the students 
very earnest in their researches. The pupils 
who are more artistic than scientific in tem- 
perament write poems or imaginative stories 
about their discoveries, and all help to deco- 
rate the catalogue and make it attractive in ap- 
pearance as well as content. 

And so we have established friendships with 
many people and have brought happiness to 
many children — an accomplishment which we 
think is in harmony with nature's plan. 




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Write for new catalog P. S. 1. 

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A Successful Bird Club 

(Continued jrom page 29) 
puzzle to members of the club, all of whom have 
an elementary knowledge of bird life. 



The rugged West Virginia hills shelter no lakes 
and the region is more or less barren of water- 
fowl. The Bird Qub to some degree makes up 
for this deficiency by staging an annual expedi- 
tion to the lake regions of Youngstown and Niles, 
Ohio, for the observation of waterbirds. 

In the course of the club's field work a number 
of state and regional records of the occurrence of 
birds have been established. The 1934 field pro- 
jects selected by club members range from a nest- 
ing census of Oglebay Park to the study of the 
behavior of individual birds. A reward of a bird 
book to be selected by the writer of the best paper 
describing his field work of 1934 has stimulated 
activity in this direction for the season and some 
interesting papers are anticipated in the 1934-35 
season. 

The club is sponsor for the first time this year 
of a regular exhibit in the Oglebay Park Nature 
Museum, opening with an exhibit which not only 
contains the club's compiled Spring migration list 
but includes an effort to dramatize the marvels of 
bird migration. This exhibit is to be changed from 



46 



A SUCCESSFUL BIRD CLUB 



rings you QO PAGES 




crammed with hundreds of 
illustrations of things to 
make. listing blue prints of 
them all, telling where to 
secure materials, containing 
valuable suggestions on shop 
operation, etc. Over 3 75 
things to make for pleasure, 
usefulness, profit. 



Send 12c, today, 

opular Mechanics 
Magazine 

Dept. E 

200 East 
Ontario St. 
Chicago, III. 



time to time to keep progress witli tlie seasons' 
interests. 

Started as a small study group of a dozen mem- 
bers, the club membership now has passed three 
dozen and additional membership applicants are 
present at virtually each of the monthly meetings. 
Three honorary members have been designated 
and have accepted this recognition. 

The club publishes through the efforts of its 



members a monthly mimeographed journal, The 
Redstart, which publishes ornithological activities 
of its members. In addition it tells of activities of 
the three clubs which the Brooks Bird Club has 
organized among beginners in the general area 
and which are affiliated with the senior group. 
These include the Roney's Point Nature Club, of 
Triadelphia, W. Va. (an organization of twenty- 
five rural people) the Triadelphia High School 
Bird Club, with a membership of thirty-eight, and 
the Niles, Ohio, Bird Club with a membership of 
twenty-eight. The club recently voted to add a 
class of corresponding members open to bird 
students anywhere and primarily intended to give 
a state-wide flavor to the club's monthly journal. 
All in all, the Brooks Bird Club has opened to a 
number of individuals fascinating new fields for 
spare time activities. A merchant and his wife, a 
truck driver, an industrial office executive, ste- 
nographers, clerks, skilled mechanics and repre- 
sentatives of other widely divergent industries and 
professions are included within the comparatively 
small membership. Nominal dues are assessed to 
pay for the publication of the paper and other 
club purposes. 



The 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION 
HEALTH and RECREATION 

DIGEST 

CHARLES D. GIAUQUE, Editor 
Professor of Health and Physical Education, Boston University 

offers you the gist of the leading articles of the month from a 

hundred publications. 

An easy way to keep up with your reading in recreation 
and the allied fields of health and physical education. 

"An article a day; a dollar a year." 

Send us a dollar (or ask us to bill you) for a year's subscription 

The DIGEST 

, 29 Exeter St. 

Boston, Mass. 



New Publications in the Leisure Time Field 



Tennis for Teachers 

By Helen I. Driver, Lathrop Hall, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison, Wisconsin. $2.00. 
THIS is a text book for the teacher of tennis. It is 
planned for both individual and group instruction, so 
that the recreation leader, tennis professional, and teacher 
of physical education in school or college may use it in 
planning their tennis programs. The contents include 
analysis of seven tennis strokes with common errors and 
teaching progressions for each. Various types of group 
organization for backboard and court practice, with sug- 
gested lesson plans for beginning and advanced students, 
are emphasized. Tennis tactics, tests and tournament 
organization are included in the twenty-one sections of 
the book. References at the end of each section list ad- 
ditional reading material from the well known tennis 
books. The book is in mimeograph form, containing 105 
closely typed pages, illustrated by fifty diagrams and 
sketches. It is bound in a flexible cardboard cover. 

I consider this book one of the most practical texts on 
tennis which has been put out up to date. The material 
is unusually well organized and teachers should find it 
most helpful. — Blanche M. Trilling. 

It's About Time 

By Gerald Lynton Kaufman, heyday house. Garden City, 

New York. $1.50. 
"W/e are indebted to Mr. Kaufman and the newly or- 
" ganized "heyday house" for this clever and ingenious 
treatment of Time as a Pastime. There are ten unusual 
picture puzzles to be numbered and rearranged in their 
correct time sequence ; twelve absurdly mixed up sen- 
tences to be straightened out, and a number of unique 
time tricks and games which will provide entertainment 
for many a party. Heyday house, under the direction of 
Jerome S. Meyer, oflfers us insurance against boredom in 
its forthcoming publications and games. We advise our 
readers to be on the lookout for these publications as 
they appear. They are bound to be novel and entertaining 
if the sample ofTered is any criterion ! 

Popular Crafts for Boys 

By Edwin T. Hamilton. Dodd, Mead and Company, New 

York. $3.00. 
THIS book, the latest of the splendid "Hamilton on 
' Handicraft" series, contains fourteen crafts selected 
because of their popularity with boys. It includes car- 
pentry, mask making, block printing, book-binding, 
leathercraft, pottery, tin-can-craft, miniature modeling, 
■trick photography, soap sculpture, paper mosaic, plastic 
wood modeling, art metal craft and wood carving. Step 
by step instructions with accompanying line sketches have 
Tjeen given for making at least one article of each kind. 
Photographs show the finished article. A carefully selec- 
ted list of dealers, an up-to-date bibliography and an 
index complete the contents. 



"Do not forget," urges the author, "that this is a fun 
book and not a work book. If the making of any article 
is not fun, do not pursue it. Keep looking until you find 
the one just for you." 

Easter and the Spring 

By Nina B. Lamkin, Samuel French, New York. $.50. 
This is one of the interesting "All Through the Year 
Series" which brings to the teacher, club, church or 
community leader, varied and attractive material for 
boys' and girls' groups which may be easily adapted to 
the various ages. The material is so planned that it can 
become a part of the regular work of the groups by 
distributing it as follows : The songs and the appreciation 
of the instrumental music in the music hours; the games, 
dances and rhythmic drills in the physical education and 
recreation hours ; the costume, decorations and properties 
in the industrial arts hours, etc. The booklet provides 
ready to use programs and references for every occasion 
at Easter time and in the spring. 

Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia 

F. W. Compton and Company, Compton Building, 1000 

North Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois. 
11 ERE are fifteen volumes of information so attractively 
presented and with articles so interestingly and 
vividly written that learning is made a real adventure and 
joy. That this beautifully illustrated Encyclopedia has 
value in the development of leisure time interests is 
evident to anyone who gives it even a cursory examina- 
tion. Plays and games, athletics, nature activities, holidays 
and festivities and other subjects in the leisure time field 
are presented in articles which represent a wealth of 
fascinating material. The Encyclopedia is outstanding for 
the ease with which it can be used. Every letter is com- 
plete in a light-weight, handy, easy-to-use volume. 
Scientifically constructed Reference-Outlines for organ- 
ized study follow each major subject. Every outline gives 
page numbers for cross-reference. The Compton Fact- 
Index containing more than 100,000 entries and located 
at the back of each volume in its natural place — enables 
the student to turn to the exact page for every fact and 
every picture in the fifteen volumes. 

Swimming 

Compiled by Frederic J. Haskin. The Haskin Informa- 
tion Service, 21st and C Streets, N. W., Washington, 
D. C. $.10. 
^OMpiLED in cooperation with the American Red Cross, 
^^ the purpose of this booklet is not primarily to in- 
struct beginners how to swim. It does, however, carry 
a great deal of practical information about what to do 
with the ability to swim once it is acquired. There are 
many illustrations in the booklet, which has a brief 
section on swimming pools. 

47 



48 



NEM^ PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



Masks and Costumes. 

By F. W. Bosserman. Recreation Division, South Park 

Commissioners, Chicago, Illinois. $.35. 

The latest pamphlet in the Leisure Hobby Series issued 
by the Recreation Division of the Chicago South Park 
Commissioners is entitled Masks aiid Costumes. It starts 
with simple cut-out paper masks and leads the craftsman 
through flour sack and cotton stocking masks into the 
more difficult papier-mache mask where methods are 
presented for making particular types of masks such as 
helmets, character masks, Hallcwe'en and grotesque 
masks, and masks portraying animals, Indians and similar 
types. In the same way costumes start with simple burlap 
bags and from that point describe costumes to be used 
for well known characters and various types of per- 
formers. Recreation workers will find this unique com- 
pilation exceedingly valuable. The pamphlet may be 
ordered either from the National Recreation Association 
or from the Recreation Division of the Chicago South 
Park Commissioners. 

Nature Education: A Selected Bibliography. 

By William Gould Vinal. School of Education, Western 
Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. $.75 plus postage. 
Professor Vinal has performed a real service in com- 
piling this carefully selected bibliography for the use of 
nature leaders and nature students who wish a list of 
books that is accurate and at the same time interesting. 
It is a bibliography of popular books for the lay reader 
as contrasted with the technical books for specialists. 
The book has been arranged in seven groups — Humanized 
Biology; Animals; Birds; Gardening; Insects; Physical 
Nature Study, and the Plant World. 

The bibliography, which is in the form of 82 mime- 
ographed pages, is offered at cost price with the hope 
that it will be immediately useful not only to teachers, 
to parents, to recreation leaders and to camp directors, 
but to libraries and educators in general. 

Social Studies — An Orientation Handbook 
for Hiqh School Pupils. 

Prepared under the Guidance of William McAndrew. 

Little, Brown and Company. Boston, Mass. $1.60. 

"What is this high school all about?" In this hand- 
book, written for the pupils themselves, a number of 
sympathetic authorities have attempted to answer this 
question asked by hundreds of bewildered boys and girls. 
The articles have been grouped under three main head- 
ings : Vou and Your High School; You, the Itidiindual; 
You and Your Community. The chapter on You and 
Your Leisure was prepared by Eugene T. Lies of the 
National Recreation Association. Written in popular 
style in language which boys and girls can understand, 
this book is practical, interesting and stimulating. 

Branch Library Book News. 

December 1934. New York Public Library, 2^ 

This issue of the News, a supplement to the bulletin 
of the New York Public Library, contains an interesting 
article on Little Theatres in the Branch Library, showing 
how through the use of relief funds for painting, repair- 
ing and remodeling unused rooms and libraries may be 
converted into attractive little theatres. In the Same num- 
ber will be found a list of children's books published in 
1934, with a brief digest of each. 



Our Public Schools. 

Published by The National Congress of Parents and 
Teachers, 1201 Sixteenth Street Northwest, Wash- 
ington, D. C. $.25. 

The past few years, with their clouded issues and 
emergencies which have resulted in confusion regarding 
the proper evaluation of the best things in life, have 
brought about a need for stimulating and vital informa- 
tion concerning our public schools and a "rededication 
throughout the United States to those American ideals 
of education which it must be our indomitable will to 
preserve." The National Congress of Parents and Teach- 
ers has sought to meet this need by publishing this booklet 
in which a number of noted educators and leaders in 
American life have described the educational plans and 
policies of America in the light of their historic back- 
grounds. Throughout the compilation of articles emphasis 
is laid on cultural values and on the responsibility of the 
school in training for the use of leisure. 

The American School Board Journal, January 1935. 
Bruce Publishing Company, 524-544 North Milwaukee, 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin. $.35. 

This issue is devoted to school construction and will 
be of special interest to all concerned with school plan- 
ning. All phases are considered from gymnasium con- 
struction in the modern school to air conditioning. Re- 
creational planning in relation to school plant planning 
is also discussed. A large number of photographs and 
plans make this issue exceedingly valuable. 

Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 
JcsEPH Lee, President 
John H. Finley. First Vice-President 
John G. Winant, Second V'ice-President 
Robert Gasrett, Third Vice-President 
GusTAVUS T. KiRBY, Treasurer 
Howard S. Braucher, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

Mrs. Edward W. Biddle, Carlisle, Pa. 

WiLiAM BuTTERWORTH, Moline. 111. 

Clarence M. Clark, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Henry L. Corbett, Portland, Ore. 

Mrs. Arthur G. Cummer, Jacksonville, Fla. 

F. Trubee Davison, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 

Mrs. Thomas A. Edison, West Orange, N. J. 

John H. Finley, New York, N. Y. 

Robert Garrett, Baltimore, Md. 

Austin E. Griffiths^ Seattle, Wash. 

Charles Hayden, New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. Charles V. Hickox, Michigan City, Ind. 

Mrs. Fbancis deLacy Hyde, Plainfield, N. J. 

Gustavus T. Kirby, New York, N. Y. 

H. McK. Landon, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mrs. Charles D. Lanier, Greenwich, Conn. 

Robert Lassiter, Charlotte, N. C. 

Joseph Lee, Boston, Mass. 

Edward E. Loomis, New York, N. Y. 

J. H. McCurdy, Springfield, Mass. 

Otto T. Mallery, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Walter A. May, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Carl E. Millikev, Augusta, Me. 

Mrs. Ogden L. Mills, Woodbury, N. Y. 

Mrs. James W. Wadsworth, Jr., Washington, D. C 

J. C. Walsh, New York, N. Y. 

Frederick M. Warburg, New York, N. Y. 

John G. Winant, Concord, N. H. 

Mrs. William H. Woodin, Jb., Tucson, Arii. 



The Recreation Movement 
in a Time of Stress 



MAY 1935 



THE CHILDREN are not forgotten. The needs of 
young people are not ignored. Difficult as the last 
year has been citizens, associations, local govern- 
ments, state governments and the national government 
have cooperated to keep the United States a country in 
which children could grow up without other scars than 
those natural to childhood. On ten thousand and more 
outdoor playgrounds has the laughter of little children 
been heard. In more than a thousand swimming pools 
have boys and girls forgotten their troubles. More 
than fifty thousand men and women have helped on 
the playgrounds and in the recreation centers. There 
is no note of defeat when a country places its children 
and their happiness first. 

Surely we can be proud that children and young 
people and their future have had a large place in all 
thinking in this emergency period. 

Howard Braucher. 



49 



With May Comes the Call of Open Spaces 




A Summary of Community Recreation in 1934 

Regular and Emergency Service 



Number of cities with play leadership or supervised facilities. . . 2,190 

Total number of separate play areas reported 20,641 ^ 

New play areas opened in 1934 for the first time 2,043 ^ 

Total number of play areas and special facilities reported : 

Outdoor playgrounds 1 0,394 

Recreation buildings 1,034 

Indoor recreation centers 5,752 

Play streets 396 

Athletic fields 1,965 

Baseball diamonds 4,394 

Bathing beaches 611 

Golf courses 353 

Handball courts 1,188 

Ice skating areas 2,156 

Ski jumps 95 

Softball diamonds 5,964 

Stadiums 140 

Summer camps 136 

Swimming pools 1,089 

Tennis courts 10,047 

Toboggan slides 243 

Wading pools 1,189 

Total number of employed recreation leaders 43,419 

Total number of leaders employed full time the year round 2,325 

Total number of volunteer leaders 1 1,126 

Total expenditures for public recreation $41,864,630.22 

(1) This figure includes outdoor playgrounds, recreation buildings, indoor recreation centers, 
play streets, athletic fields, bathing beaches, golf courses and summer camps. 

(2) Recreation buildings and indoor centers open for the first time are not included. 



51 



Community Recreation Leadership, Facilities 
and Activities in 1934 



NINETEEN Hundred Thirty-Four stands out 
as a year of unparalleled growth in the 
community recreation movement. For a long 
period of years there has been a steady and fairly 
constant increase in the number of cities reporting 
recreation leadership and facilities. For example, 
during the decade preceding 1934 the number of 
cities in the Year Book has risen from 71 1 in 1924 
to 1,036 in 1933. In one year, however, the num- 
ber has more than doubled and the present report 
contains information concerning recreation facili- 
ties and service in 2,190 communities. 

This phenomenal increase can be attributed 
largely to the allocation of emergency relief 
funds to recreational leadership projects. Of 
the 2,190* towns and cities in this report, 1,025 
are included only because of service made pos- 
sible through emergency relief funds or work- 
ers. A large number of these communities are 
towns and villages in which recreation pro- 
grams were provided in 1934 for the first time. 
Others are cities where, due to financial condi- 
tions, regular appropriations for recreation 
services had been eliminated. 

Whereas emergency funds made possible the 
extension of recreation service to many towns 
and cities, they made their greatest contribu- 
tion in cities where some facilities and pro- 
gra»ms wer'e also (provided through regular 
channels. Nearly 90 per cent of the emergency 
funds reported spent for recreation in 1934 
were used in cities providing some regular rec- 
reation services, and more than 75 per cent of 
the workers paid from these funds also served 
in such cities. In fact, a most encouraging 
feature of this Year Book is the evidence that 
in so many cities the emergency workers and 
funds that were made available to recreation 
agencies were used to supplement regular 
workers and services rather than to replace 
them. 

Reports indicate not only an increasing num- 
ber of communities with recreation facilities 



and projects last year, but an unusual growth 
in leadership personnel, facilities and expendi- 
tures. The largest number of leaders previ- 
ously reported was in 1931 when 25,508 work- 
ers were employed. In 1934, 43,419 men and 
women were reported as leaders, 23,174 of 
them paid from emergency funds. 

This additional personnel goes far in ex- 
plaining the 40 per cent increase in the num- 
ber of outdoor playgrounds as compared with 
1933. the 55 per cent increase in the number 
of indoor recreation centers and the 33 per cent 
increase in recreation buildings. Never before 
have so many indoor and outdoor centers un- 
der leadership been conducted for the benefit 
of the people and the attendance at these cen- 
ters fully justifies the expenditure for their 
operation. The reported seasonal attendance 
at outdoor playgrounds was 300,000,000 as 
compared with less than 234,000,000 the pre- 
vious year. Indoor centers attracted 75,000,000 
or 15,000,000 more than in 1933. 

Reports indicate that more money was spent 
in 1934 for community recreation facilities and 
services than in any previous year. The total 
amount reported was $41,864,630.22 or three 
and one-third million dollars more than in 
1930, the record year. The amounts secured 
from regular sources and from emergency 
funds are almost equal. A large percentage 
of the emergency funds was spent for land, 
buildings and permanent improvements where- 
as the regular funds* were used largely for cur- 
rent operating expenses. 



* Reports from the following were received too late to be 
listed in the statistical tables although the Information 
which thev' contained has been included in the summary 
figures : Hope, Ark. ; Naug-atuck, Conn. ; Cicero, 111. 
(Hawthorne Park District) ; South Bend, Ind. ; Augusta, 
Maine ; Stoneham, Mass. ; Iron County and Traverse 
City, Mich. ; Bates County, Mo. : Eveleth, Minn. ; Au- 
burn (Recreation Commission), New York (Board of 
Education) and Syracuse (Dunbar Community Center), 
N. Y. ; Belmont County, Chester Hill, Pennsville and 
Westland, Ohio ; Ponca City, Okla. ; McMinnville, Ore- 
gon ; Morrisville, Vt. ; Mineral County, St. Marys and 
Upshur County, W. Va. 



52 



Reports of special recreation facilities show 
an increase in practically all the types record- 
ed, especially the ball diamonds, ice skating 
areas, wading pools and bathing beaches. Many 
of these facilities which were open in 1934 for 
the first time were constructed with the emer- 
gency funds previously referred to. The rela- 
tive frequency and popularity of the special 
recreation activities differ but slightly from 
those indicated in previous reports but special 
emphasis was given to swimming, crafts, 
drama, music and forum-discussion activities 
in many communities through the provision of 
additional emergency leaders. 

As pointed out in the Year Book for 1933, 
experience has indicated that the most effec- 
tive use of emergency leaders has been in cities 
where they have served under the guidance 
of a trained supervisory staff. The contribu- 
tion which these leaders are making is illus- 
trated by a statement from the Recreation De- 
partment in a large city where many CWA and 
SERA workers were placed at its disposal. 

"By assigning these assistants to various 
duties under the direction of the regular rec- 
reation department staff, it was found possible 
to provide supervision and leadership for an 
increased attendance of more than two and 
one-half millions during the past year, and to 
organize more than 800 new activity groups 
at playgrounds and recreation centers. Projects 
on which the relief workers were placed in- 
cluded the development of recreation activities 
on the municipal beaches, the enlargement of 
the city's plaveround program for the preven- 
tion of juvenile delinnuency, the oreanization 
of arts, crafts, and hobbies groups, the conduct 
of a general survey of all public and semi-pub- 
lic institutions providing recreation for youth 
in the city." 

In many states little was done toward the 
utilization of relief funds for recreation lead- 



ership projects until late in 1934. In other 
states, projects carried on early in the year 
with CWA funds were discontinued when 
these funds were no longer available. It was 
not possible to secure information concerning 
emergency projects in many of these states, 
and in several, others reports are very inade- 
quate. It is recognized therefore that a great 
deal more was accomplished in the community 
recreation field through the Use of relief funds 
than the reports in this Year Book indicate. 

The picture of the service rendered both 
through regular and emergency channels, how- 
ever, is one which proves beyond question that 
the local recreation agencies throughout the 
country are making a tremendous contribution 
to the happiness and well being of a large sec- 
tion of the population in this trying period. 
The loyal support which local recreation pro- 
grams have received and the unselfish service 
which thousands of local leaders have rendered 
give promise of an even greater development 
of the community recreation work in the years 
ahead. 

The statistical tables and summaries of in- 
formation submitted on the local Year Book 
reports are published in two sections. The 
first includes all cities which reported expendi- 
tures for leadership or for the operation of rec- 
reation facilities from regular funds, either pub- 
lic or private. Many of these cities also bene- 
fited from the use of emergency funds. In 
all cases, however, they would have qualified 
for places in the Year Book even if they had 
not reported emergency funds. The second sec- 
tion of this report covers service in communi- 
ties where no regular funds were expended for 
recreation leadership or for the operation of 
recreation facilities, but where emergency 
funds or workers made such service possible 
last year. Except for such emergency funds, 
these communities would not have qualified 
for places in the Year Book. 



Regular Recreation Service 



The summaries and statistical tables which 
follow record the work in cities which main- 
tained some regular service last year. This 
section of the report therefore should be used 
as a basis of comparison with Year Book re- 



ports which have been issued in previous years 
in so far as it records the services which, in 
part at least, were provided without the help 
of emergency relief funds. It is a record of the 
continuing service which cities carried on in 



53 



1934 ^nd can be used in studying the normal 
development of the recreation movement dur- 
ing this year. 

Regular recreation service was reported in 
1934 in a total of 1,165 cities, which is a much 
larger number than in any previous year. It 
is encouraging to note that in spite of the fact 
that large numbers of emergency leaders were 
made available in many of the cities conduct- 
ing regular service, there is only a very slight 
decrease in the number of leaders paid from 
regular funds in 1934 as compared with I933- 
Likewise the number of workers employed on 
a full time year round basis is almost equal 
that of the previous year. The level of expendi- 
tures for recreation leadership was also main- 
tained during the year 1934. 

Due primarily to the emergency leaders who 
were available to supplement the regular 
workers, there is a very large increase in the 
number of playgrounds conducted under lead- 
ership as compared with previous years. The 
number of indoor centers rose from 3,702 to 
4,246 and the total attendance at the centers 
shows an even greater proportionate increase. 

Relatively few changes of importance are 
noted in the number or types of special recrea- 



tion facilities which were operated last year 
or in the activities which were reported in the 
various cities. Few changes of special signifi- 
cance are noted in the tables relating to the 
types of management, especially with refer- 
ence to the agencies reporting one or more full 
time year round workers. The expenditures 
from non-emergency funds, which total nearly 
$20,772,000, were only $300,000 less than in 
1933, and the amounts spent under the various 
headings do not vary greatly as compared with 
1933. A larger percentage of the total came 
from tax sources, however. 

The following are summaries relating to the 
regular recreation service provided in the 1,165 
cities reporting and the statistical tables re- 
cording the service reported in each of them.* 



* Reports of additional emergency service in 29 of these 
cities will be found in the later section relating to such 
service only. The cities are : Montgomery, Ala. ; New 
London, Stratford, Torrington, Conn. ; Palatka, Fla. ; 
Bloomington, Cook County, 111. ; Bedford, Ind. ; Holyoke, 
New Bedford, Mass. ; Bridgeton, Collingswood, Eliza- 
beth, Harrison, Jersey City, N. J. ; Hastings-on-Hudson, 
Huntington, Ilion, Lackawanna, New York City, Rome, 
N. Y. ; Bethlehem, Pa.; Watertown, S. D.; Barre, Bar- 
ton, Vt. ; Lynchburg, Petersburg, Va. ; Spokane, Yakima, 
Wash. 



Leadership 

A total of 20,245 recreation workers paid supplemented rather than replaced regular 

from regular funds were employed by 773 cities staff workers. It is encouraging to find that 

in 1934. Of this number 2,325 served on a full more cities employed full time year round 

time year round basis. In the case of both workers than in any year since 1930. 

the seasonal and full time workers, the number ^ , ;■ , , , 

, , ^ t ., ^, 1 Because a large percentage of the leaders 

of men was somewhat larger than the number • , , r , 

, paid from emergency funds served agencies 

of women. "^ j a 

In spite of the fact that large numbers of "^^'^^ employed workers paid from regular 

emergency leaders were made available to rec- ^""^^' ^he following table includes a state- 

reation authorities in 1934, there was only a "^^nt concerning these emergency leaders. It 

slight decrease in the number of workers paid will be noted that their number almost equals 

from regular funds as compared with 1933. that of the regular workers. Fewer women 

This indicates that the emergency leadership served as emergency leaders. 

Recreation Workers Paid from Regular Funds 

Cities reporting employed recreation workers 773 

Men workers employed 10.953 

Women workers employed 9.292 

Total workers employed 20,245 

Cities reporting workers employed full time year round 268 

Men workers employed full time year round 1,251 

Women workers employed full time year round 1,074 

Total workers employed full time year round 2,325 



54 



Supplementary Workers Paid from Emergency Funds in Cities 
Providing Regular Service 

Cities reporting such workers 39^ 

Men workers employed 10,733 

Women workers employed 7>288 

Total workers employed 18,021 

Cities reporting workers employed full time 9^ 

Men employed full time 9^5 

Women employed lull time 5^6 

Total employed full time •. ^A9^ 



Volunteers 

Fewer persons were enlisted as volunteer 
workers in 1934 than in the previous year 
when volunteers contributed so greatly to the 
leadership of community recreation activities. 
A total of 9,529 persons were reported as vol- 



unteeers in 257 cities. Of this group, 4,018 were 
men and 3,709 were women, several cities re- 
porting only the total number of leaders. It is 
possible that much of the service rendered in 

1933 by volunteer leaders was performed in 

1934 by workers paid from emergency funds. 



Playgrounds and Indoor Centers 



Outdoor Playgrounds 



The total number of outdoor playgrounds 
under leadership in 1934 in the cities reporting 
"regular" work is 8,384, as compared with 7,434 
reported by all cities in 1933. This increase is 
doubtless due to the fact that the many relief 
leaders who were assigned for service with rec- 
reation agencies enabled them to open a larger 
number of playgrounds. The increase was es- 
pecially marked in the case of the playgrounds 
for colored people, the number of which rose 
from 352 in 1933 to 465 in 1934, or a gain of 
33 per cent. 

The influence of supplementary emergency 
leadership is also reflected in the periods dur- 
ing which playgrounds were open under lead- 
ership in 1934. Year round playgrounds were 
conducted in many more cities than before and 
the number open during the "summer and 
other seasons" was nearly double that in 1933. 



On the other hand, there were fewer play- 
grounds reported open during the "summer 
only." These figures seem to indicate that the 
emergency leaders made it possible for recrea- 
tion agencies to keep the playgrounds open for 
a longer season. 

In spite of the gain in the number of play- 
grounds, the total number of cities conducting 
them is less than in 1933. This may be ex- 
plained in part by the fact that the 1933 figures 
include playgrounds in a number of cities 
where emergency leaders only were used 
whereas such playgrounds are separately re- 
ported in 1934. On the other hand, several cit- 
ies which employed "regular" playground 
leaders in 1933 used only emergency leaders 
on their playgrounds in 1934. It is of interest 
that the number of cities reporting playgrounds 
for colored people is larger by 22 than in 1933. 



Number of outdoor playgrounds for white and mixed groups (704 cities) 7.919 

Open year round ( 163 cities) 1,561 

Open during the summer months only (570 cities) 4,138 

Open during school year only (67 cities) 473 

Open during summer and other seasons (164 cities) i,747 

Average daily summer attendance of participants (6,115 playgrounds in 507 cities) .... 1,491,835* 

Average daily summer attendance of spectators (331 cities) 338,768* 

Number of outdoor playgrounds open in 1934 for the first time (204 cities) 813 



55 



In addition to the foregoing, outdoor playgrounds for colored people are reported as follows : 

Number of playgrounds for colored people (134 cities) 465 

Open year round (43 cities) 127 

Open summer months only (91 cities) 230 

Open school year only (17 cities) 42 

Open summer and other seasons (25 cities) 66 

Average daily summer attendance of participants (198 playgrounds in yy cities) 42,186 

Average daily summer attendance of spectators (58 cities) I5,935 

Number of playgrounds for colored people open in 1934 for the first time (30 cities) . . 60 

Total number of playgrounds for white and colored people (707 cities) 8,384 

Total average daily summer attendance of participants and spectators, white and col- 
ored (6,615 playgrounds) 2,010,581 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants and spectators at playgrounds for 

white and colored people (7,542 playgrounds in 571 cities) 277,035,949 

Total number of playgrounds for white and colored people open in 1934 for the first time 873 

* In addition to this number, 14 cities report an average daily summer attendance of both participants and spectators at 
302 playgrounds totaling 56,388. 

Recreation Buildings 

One hundred and fifty-eight more recreation were not carried on in 1933, and still others 

buildings were reported open under leadership are vacant store, school or other buildings 

in 1934 than the previous year and in 22 more which were equipped and used for recreation 

cities. Some of these additional buildings are in 1934. The total number of attendances at 

special recreation buildings open in 1934 for 571 recreation buildings by persons taking part 

the first time, others are existing recreation in activities was almost forty million, 
buildings in which programs under leadership 

Number of recreation buildings for white and mixed groups (2400 cities) 872 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (510 buildings in 174 cities) .. .37,648,107 

In addition, recreation buildings for colored people are reported as follows : 

Number of recreation buildings for colored people (53 cities) 63 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (50 buildings in 42 cities).... 2,161,745 

Total number of recreation buildings for white and colored people (253 cities).... 935 

Total yearly or seasonal participants at recreation buildings for white and colored 

people (571 buildings in 187 cities) 39,809,852 



Indoor Recreation Centers 

Under this heading are reported schools, 
churches, city halls, social centers and other 
buildings which are not used exclusively for 
recreation but in which a recreation program 
is regularly carried on under leadership. Like 
the outdoor playgrounds, the indoor centers 
show a marked gain both in number and in 
attendance. The influence of the emergency 
leadership available for service is indicated by 
the fact that the greatest gain was in the num- 
ber of centers open three or more sessions 
weekly. In 1934, 2,593 such centers were con- 
ducted by the agency reporting, or an increase 
of 42 per cent over the previous year. The 
centers open less than three sessions weekly 



showed a considerable though smaller gain. 

For the second consecutive year an effort 
was made to secure iiiformation as to the cen- 
ters provided by the agency reporting but in 
which leadership is furnished directly by the 
groups using them. Only 362 centers of this 
type were reported out of a total of 4,246 in- 
door recreation centers, as compared with 977 
such centers reported in 1933. The reason for 
this marked drop is not clear although it sug- 
gests the possibility that groups which formerly 
provided either paid or volunteer leadership for 
their indoor activities are now taking advantage 
of activities provided by the recreation agencies 
under either regular or emergency leaders. 



56 



Centers Operated Under Leadership of Agency Reporting 

Number of centers open 3 or more sessions weekly (268 cities) 2,593 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance (2,240 centers in 206 cities) 27,931,224 

Number of centers open less than 3 sessions weekly (160 cities) 1,291 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance (709 centers in 120 cities) 2,734,009 

Centers Operated Under Neighborhood or Other Leadership 

Number of centersi open 3 or more sessions weekly (36 cities) 118 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance (81 centers in 26 cities) 243,227 

Number of centers open less than 3 sessions weekly (42 cities) 244 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance (204 centers in 32 cities) 254,604 

Total number of indoor recreation centers (356 cities) 4,246 

Total attendance (3,234 centers in 272 cities) 31,163,064 



Play Streets 

Thirty-eight cities report a total of 299 
streets closed for play under leadership. Only 
39 of these streets in 8 cities were open in 1934 
for the first time. Although comparatively 



few in number, these play streets serve large 
numbers of people as indicated by the fact 
that 20 cities report an average daily attend- 
ance of 11,894 participants at 126 centers. 



Recreation Facilities 



The following list of several important rec- 
reation facilities indicates the extent to which 
they were provided and used during 1934. Few 
striking differences from reports of the years 
immediately preceding are noted, either in the 
number of facilities or participants. There 
is a marked decrease in the number of persons 
using ski jumps and toboggan slides and a 
lesser decrease in the participation at golf 
courses and indoor swimming pools. Since 
charges are frequently made for the use of 
these facilities, these decreases may reflect the 
reduced income of many families in 1934. The 
water shortage last summer was reported to 



Facilities Number 

Athletic Fields 1,61 1 (518) 

Baseball Diamonds 3,838 (652) 

Bathing Beaches 496 (235) 

Golf Courses (9-holes) 149 (115) 

Golf Courses (i8-holes) 194 (125) 

Handball Courts 1,032 ( 158) 



have prevented the use of pools and beaches in 
several cities and this accounts in part for the 
fact that fewer of these facilities were reported 
than in 1933. Much of the money spent from 
emergency funds in 1934 for the development 
of recreation areas and facilities resulted in the 
opening of new recreation facilities, especially 
athletic fields, ball diamonds and tennis courts. 
Throughout the following table the figures 
in parentheses indicate the number of cities 
reporting in each particular case and the fig- 
ures in brackets indicate the number of facili- 
ties for which information relative to partici- 
pation is given. 



Participants 
per season 
7,432,581 (169) 
[476] 
15,577,048 (224) 

[1,652] 
34,641,201 (92) 
[228] 
2,078,61 1 (64) 

[88] 
4,283,813 (79) 
[133] 



Number open in 

1934 for first time 

100 (61) 

145 (67) 

17 (15) 

8 (7) 

8 (8) 

87 (23) 



57 



Facilities Number 

Ice Skating Areas 1,787 (292) 

Ski Jumps 86 (44) 

Softball Diamonds 5.313 (554) 

Stadiums 124 ( loi ) 

Summer Camps 125 (66) 

Swimming Pools (indoor) 300 ( 1 18) 

Swimming Pools (outdoor) 716 (330) 

Tennis Courts 9,420 (625) 

Toboggan Slides 213 (81 ) 

Wading Pools 1,117 (356) 



Participants 


Number open m 


per season 


1934 for first time 


9,098,507 (122) 


86 (28) 


[702] 




35,920 (13) 


6 (6) 


[21] 




5.633,377 (231) 


356 (104) 


[2,090] 




1,658,395 (28) 


4 (4) 


[34] 




675,309 (33) 


9 (9) 


[68] 




2,424,123 (59) 




[119] 




19,843,158 (171) 


40 (37) 


[426] 




8,506,462 (247) 


500 (106) 


[4,915] 




172,563 (21) 


13 (6) 


[49] 






77 (37) 



Management 



The following tables indicate the number of 
public and private agencies of various types 
which conducted the recreation facilities and 
programs appearing in this report. It should 
be kept in mind that some of the individual 
agencies serve a number of communities and 
that in the case of several cities two or more 
different agencies conducted activities and are 
therefore included. 

In the tables there are listed separately (i) 
the number of agencies reporting regular ser- 
vice in 1934 and (2) the number of agencies 
which reported emergency service only. Emer- 
gency relief organizations cooperated with the 
managing authorities in a large number of the 
cities which reported regular service. How- 
ever, they are listed in the first column relat- 
ing to regular service only where it seemed 
evident that at least a part of the local recreation 
service was directly administered by the relief 
authorities. In the second column 218 emer- 
gency relief administrations are listed as hav- 
ing been in charge of the program in cities 



where emergency service only was reported. 
It is probable that in some of these cities the 
responsibility for administering the program 
was turned over to some other local authority, 
although on the report submitted no such 
agency was listed. 

The following table indicates that recreation 
service was carried on by a greater number of 
boards of education and other school authori- 
ties in 1934 than by any other type of agency, 
either public or private. When the regular 
service only is considered, the playground and 
recreation commissions, boards and depart- 
ments take first place. The table indicates that 
a large number of school authorities undertook 
some form of community recreation service 
when emergency funds were made available 
especially in states where the emergency rec- 
reation program was administered by the state 
education department. It also suggests that 
of the private agencies, the parent teacher 
association took the lead in sponsoring recrea- 
tion programs financed by emergency funds. 



Municipal 

The forms of municipal administration in the cities reporting recreation service in 1934 are 
summarized as follows : 



5g 



Emergency 
Regular Service 

Managing Authority Service Only Total 

Playground and Recreation Commissions, Boards, and Departments .... 210 17 227 

Park Commissions, Boards, Departments, and Committees 209 9 218 

Boards of Education and other School Authorities 190 157 347 

Mayors, City Councils, City Managers, and Borough Authorities 103 16 119 

* Municipal Playground Committees, Associations, and Advisory 

Commissions 34 4 38 

Park and Recreation Commissions, Boards, and Departments 31 2 33 

Departments of Public Works 20 i 21 

Departments of Parks and Public Property or Buildings 14 . . 14 

Departments of Public Welfare 10 13 23 

Swimming Pool and Bath Commissions 5 . . 5 

Golf Commissions 4 .. 4 

Departments of Public Service 3 . . 3 

Forest Preserve Districts 3 . . 3 

Other Departments 18 4 22 

Emergency Relief Administrations 22 218 240 

* These authorities administer recreation facilities and programs financed by municipal funds aUhough in some of the 

cities it is probable that they are not municipally appointed. Many of these authorities function very much as 
Recreation Boards and Commissions. 

Private 

Private organizations maintaining playgrounds, recreation centers, or community recreation 
activities in 1934 are reported as follows : 



Regular 

Managing Authority Service 

Playground and Recreation Associations, Committees, Councils, and 

Leagues, Community Service Boards, Committees and Associations. ... 52 
Community House Organizations, Community and Social Center Boards, 

and Memorial Building Associations 33 

Parent Teacher Associations 14 

Y. M. C. A.'s and Y. W. C. A.'s 12 

Civic, Neighborhood and Community Leagues, Qubs and Improvement 

Associations 11 

Welfare Federations and Associations, Social Service Leagues, Settle- 
ments, and Child Welfare Organizations 10 

Kiwanis Clubs 9 

Women's Clubs and other women's organizations 8 

Park and Playground Trustees 8 

Industrial Plants 8 

American Legion 6 

Lions Clubs 5 

Chambers of Commerce and Commercial Clubs 5 

American Red Cross 5 

Rotary Qubs 3 

Men's Clubs and Lodges 3 

Athletic Clubs 3 

Churches 3 

Boys' Work Organizations 2 

Colleges and Universities 2 

Miscellaneous 10 



Emergency 

Service 

Only 


Total 


13 


65 


3 
16 


36 
30 


, , 


12 



12 

10 
10 

II 

8 
8 

13 
6 
6 

5 
4 
3 
4 
4 
2 

4 
II 



59 



Agencies Reporting Full Time Year Round Workers 



In the following table are summarized the 
types of municipal and private agencies report- 
ing one or more recreation workers employed 
on a full time year round basis during 1934. 
Since two or more agencies in a number of 
cities report such workers, it should be kept 
in mind that the figures indicate agencies 
rather than cities. Only agencies reporting 



regular service in 1934 are included. 

No striking changes are observed in this 
table as compared with recent years. A large 
percentage of recreation boards, commissions 
and departments continue to employ full time 
year round recreation leadership, whereas rel- 
atively few of the other types of agencies 
employ recreation workers on this basis. 



Municipal 

Number of 
Managing Authority Agencies 

Playground and Recreation Commissions, Boards, and Departments 122 

Park Commissions, Boards, Bureaus, and Departments 45 

Boards of Education and oth^r School Authorities 23 

Park and Recreation Commissions aild Departments 12 

Municipal Playground Committees, Recreation Associations, etc 6 

Departments of Public Welfare 6 

City Councils 6 

Departments of Parks and Public Property 3 

Departments of Public Works 3 

Swimming Pool and Bath House Commissions 3 

' Combined municipal departments 7 

Miscellaneous 7 

Private 

Number of 
Managing Authority Agencies 

Playground and Recreation Associations, Committees, Councils, and Community Ser- 
vice Boards 22 

Community Building Associations, Community House Boards, and Recreation Center 

Committees 24 

Settlements and Neighborhood House Associations, Welfare Federations, etc 7 

Industrial Plants 6 

Park and Playground Trustees 2 

Churches 2 

Miscellaneous 3 



Finances 



Expenditures totaling $20,668,459.37 sup- 
plied from regular sources, either public or pri- 
vate, were reported by 809 cities for the year 
1934. In addition, $103,349.81 were reported 
spent from regular funds, largely for facilities, 
supplies or incidental service, in 191 cities con- 
ducting emergency work only. The total ex- 
penditures reported from regular funds are 
only $302,741.53 less than the amount spent 
from similar sources in 1933, although they 
are far below the expenditures a few years pre- 
vious. It is encouraging that during a year 



when large emergency funds were made avail- 
able for both the development of recreation 
areas and for recreation leadership, there was 
practically no decrease in appropriations, con- 
tributions and other regular sources of income 
for community recreation service. (The ex- 
penditures reported from emergency funds in 
all cities carrying on either regular or emer- 
gency service total $21,092,821.04, an amount 
greater than was reported spent from regular 
funds.) 

An analysis of the expenditures from regular 



60 



funds indicates that they have been spent equipment are only slightly higher. Upkeep, 

largely for the operation and maintenance of supplies and incidentals account for a smaller 

recreation facilities and programs rather than expenditure than in 1933. 

for the purchase and improvement of recrea- -p^e following table show^s the amounts 

tion areas. Total salaries for leadership show spent from regular funds for various purposes 

no decrease as compared with 1933 and expen- in 1934. The figures in parentheses indicate 

ditures for land, buildings and permanent the number of cities reporting. 



In Cities Reporting In Cities Reporting In All Cities 

Regular Service Emergency Service Only Reporting 
Land, Buildings, Permanent 

Equipment $2,314,294.68(312) $64,596.42 (47) $2,378,891.10 (359") 

Upkeep, SuppUes and Incidentals... 3,189,155.99 (605) 35,813.28(150) 3,224,969.27 (755) 

Salaries and Wages for Leadership. 6,406,896.30 (657) 6,406,896.30 (657) 

For Other Services 5,020,987.96(375) 1,901.80 (12) 5,022,889.76 (387) 

Total Salaries and Wages 12,219,528.08 (704) 1,901.80 (12) 12,221,429.88 (716) 

Total Expenditures for Recreation 

in 1934 •. 20,668,459.37 (809) ib3,349.8i (191) 20,771,809.18 (1000) 

In addition to the amounts spent from regular funds, the following expenditures were 
reported from emergency funds in cities carrying on some regular recreation service in 1934. In 
contrast with the regular funds, a large proportion of this money was spent for the development 
of facilities and areas. 

Land, Buildings, Permanent Equipment $13,348,331.52 (195 cities) 

Salaries and Wages for Leadership 3,029,149.56 (334 cities) 

Total Expenditures 18,894,717.65 (465 cities) 

Sources of Support 

The sources from which regular funds were secured for financing community recreation pro- 
grams and facilities are summarized in the following table. Receipts from fees and charges sup- 
plement the sources in 247 cities. 

Source of Support Number of Cities 

Municipal Funds 656 

Municipal and Private Funds 191 

Private Funds 142 

County Funds 169 

Miscellaneous Public Funds 2 

Miscellaneous Public and Private Funds 5 

The amounts reported spent from various sources appear in the following table. Nearly 
86 per cent of the total amount, the source of which was reported, was derived from taxation as 
compared with 81 per cent from public funds in 1933. Of the balance less than eleven per cent 
was secured from fees and charges and approximately 4 per cent from private sources. 

Amount Number of Cities 

Municipal and County Funds $18,147,831.13 658 

Fees and Charges 2,235,707.88 247 

Private Funds 761,291.79 257 

61 



special Recreation Activities 



The following table shows the comparative 
extent to which various activities are included 
in recreation programs and also the number of 
individuals participating. The number of cit- 
ies in which these activities are carried on is 
considerably greater than is indicated in this 
table because many cities failed to submit this 
information. 

It is difficult to compare the following table 
with similar tables published in previous Year 
Books because of the variation in the cities 
reporting the desired facts, the variation in the 
number of cities reporting each item and the 
various methods of recording participants in 



activities in different cities. However, the increase 
over 1933 in the number of individuals taking 
part in art and craft activities, so pronounced as to 
indicate a growing interest in these activities, is 
all the more significant because a similar increase 
was noted the previous year. Other activities in 
which a marked growth in the number of indi- 
viduals participating was reported are drama, hik- 
ing, swimming and ice skating. Swimming is far 
in the lead in respect to the number of different 
individuals participating, with Softball second. 

In the table which follows, the figures in 
parentheses indicate the number of cities re- 
porting the participants. 



Activities • Cities 

Reporting 
Arts and Crafts 

Art activities for children 305 

Art activities for adults "136 

Handcraft for children 464 

Handcraft for adults 200 

Athletic Activities 

Archery 125 

Badge Tests (NRA) 81 

Baseball 652 

Basketball 521 

Bowling 119 

Handball 215 

Horseshoes 586 

Soccer 252 

Softball 625 

Tennis 609 

Volley Ball 518 

Dancing 

Folk Dancing 324 

Social Dancing 246 

Drama 

Drama Tournaments 116 

Festivals 146 

Pageants 208 

Plays 350 

Puppetry 128 



Number of Different 
Individuals Participating 



68,941 (138) 
17,200 (66) 

275,435 (223) 
38,826 (no) 



12,824 


(62) 


20,400 


(41) 


319,181 


(301) 


245,035 


(281) 


29,766 


(55) 


65.865 


(74) 


164,184 (288) 


50,325 


(104) 


405,636 (295) 


307,173 


(265) 


124,125 


(238) 



206,039 (151) 
186,776 (116) 



8,155 (50) 

116,357 (67) 

71,706 (88) 

52,168 (183) 

33,203 (59) 



62 



Music 

Vocal 274 

Instrumental 263 

Nature Activities 

Hiking , 324 

Gardening 95 

Nature Lore 152 

Water Sports 

Swimming 564 

Swimming Badge Tests (NRA) 83 

Winter Sports 

Ice Hockey 140 

Skating 279 

Skiing 86 

Tobogganing 89 

Miscellaneous Activities 

Circuses 1 38 

First Aid 224 

Forums, Discussion Groups, etc 97 

Playground Newspaper 66 

Safety Activities 225 



227,578 (147) 

20,488 (t47) 



135,998 (168) 
16,659 (52) 
21,523 (67) 



3,143.707 (224) 
12,113 (45) 



18,059 (58) 

340,850 (102) 

11,792 (29) 

48,024 (25) 



25,144 {72) 

23,284 (106) 

36,079 (44) 

3,557 (27) 

110,450 (85) 



Recreation Service of Park, Recreation and 
School Departments in 1934 



The table of authorities responsible for the 
management of recreation facilities and programs 
indicated that approximately one-half of the 1600 
agencies reporting in 1934 were school, park or 
recreation departme,nts. In the reports from 
many cities, the work of these departments was 
combined with that of other agencies. However, 
there were 633 reports which covered only the 
recreation service in 1934 of one of these three 
departments. These 633 agencies, although com- 
prising only 40 per cent of the total agencies of 
all types reporting, employed 65 per cent of all 



recreation leaders, 67 per cent of the workers 
employed on a full time year round basis and 
were responsible for 70 per cent of the total ex- 
penditures reported. They also conducted more 
than one-half of all of the playgrounds and indoor 
centers carried on under leadership in 1934. 

Because these three departments play such an 
important part in the total community recreation 
service of the country, the following analysis has 
been made to determine the expenditures, per- 
sonnel and service rendered by each last year. It 
is based on the reports covering only the service 
of one of these three departments. 



63 



Park 
Departments 



Recreation 
Departments 



School 
Departments 



5.728 

7.389 

13,118 

(197 cities) 

47% 



803 
(102 cities) 

51% 
2,515 



5,034 
2,450 

7.484 
(259 cities) 

27% 



235 
(20 cities) 

15% 



1.505 



38 


259 


2,553 


1.764 


(190 cities) 


(197 cities) 


45% 


31% 



1,620 



736 



Recreation leaders 

Number paid from regular funds 2,510 

Number paid from emergency funds 4,845 

Total number 7,355 

(137 cities) 

Percentage of total 26% 

Number of recreation leaders employed full 
time the year round and paid from regular 

funds 530 

(43 cities) 

Percentage 34% 

Outdoor playgrounds under leadership 

Number in cities reporting regular service. . . . 1,358 
Number in cities reporting emergency service 

only ' 35 

Total outdoor playgrounds ' i,393 

(108 cities) 

Percentage of total 24% 

Recreation buildings and indoor recreation centers 
operated under leadership 

Number in cities reporting regular service. ... 834 
Number in cities reporting emergency service 

only 2 

Total indoor centers 836 

Percentage of total 24% 

Expenditures for recreation service 

From regular funds $7,174,570.67 

From emergency funds 8,260,348.68 

Total expenditures I5,434,9i9.35 

(172 cities) 

Percentage of total 53% 

The above figures indicate that approximately Nearly one-half of the recreation buildings and 

one-half of the workers employed by all three indoor centers reported were carried on under 

departments, including total workers and those the leadership of recreation departments. Of the 

employed on a full time year round basis, served remaining centers, school departments reported a 

with recreation departments alone. Park and gijghtly larger number than park departments. 

school departments each employed approximately ^^^^^ ^^^^ one-fifth of the' centers under school 

the same number of recreation leaders but more .^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^j^.^^ reporting emergency ser- 

than twice as many were employed on a full time . , 

vice only, 

year round basis by park departments as were * 

employed by the schools. In fact, only 15 per tvt .u 1 if ^ ..1. ^ j 

. , , r „ • , , More than half of the money reported spent 

cent of the total full time year round workers , . • , , , , 

, .^, , , , ^ \ for recreation service by the three departments 

served with school departments. , , , ^ , 

Forty-five per cent of the outdoor playgrounds ^^« ^P^"* by park departments Only 10 per cent 
reported by the three agencies were administered ^^^ ^^^"""^^^ ^P^"* ^^ ^^^°°1 authorities. The 
by recreation departments. School departments amounts reported spent from emergency funds 
conducted approximately two-thirds as many play- were slightly larger than those spent from regular 
grounds as recreation departments. School de- sources by park and recreation departments. On 
partments alone reported a considerable number the other hand, emergency funds accounted for 
of playgrounds financed entirely through emer- only about 27 per cent of the total amount re- 
gency funds. ported spent by school departments. 



102 


191 


1,722 


927 


49% 


27% 


$5,096,030.33 


$2,122,261.93 


5,665,037.96 


801,639.58 


10,761,068.29 


2,923;90i.5i 


(198 cities) 


(246 cities) 


37% 


10% 



64 



Tables 

of 

Playground and Community 

Recreation Statistics 

for 

1934 
In Cities Conducting Regular Service 



65 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popular 

tion 


Managing 
Authority 


(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


4- 
1 

"S 






Paid 
Workers 


Volun- 1 
teer 
Woikers | 




>. 


1 

d 


1 
•o 
6 
Z. 


d.a 


g 

a 

o 
d 


i 

•s 

d 

2; 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


^ 


■s 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


-> 
1 




Alabama 

Birmingham 

)irmingham, 
(Environs of)'. . 


259,678 

400,000 

5,800 

38,000 

66,079 

9,000 
10,000 
48,118 

5,517 

1,706 
35,000 

7,000 

7,273 
2,811 
8,000 

35,000 

100,000 

4,750 

22,000 
2,995 

40,000 

32,000 

10,997 

90,000 

17,429 
10,000 

3,118 

2,250 

40,000 

53,000 
13,000 
62,736 
4,000 
21,000 
142,000 

1,293,329 
2,307,104 


Park and Recreation Board 

Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad 


2 
1 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


3 

1 








17,808.43 


6,500.00 


30,988.35 


37,488.35 


55,296.78 


M 

P 

M 

M 

M*P 
M 

M 

M4P 

M 

M 

MAP 
P 

M 
M 

P 
MAP 
MAP 

P 

M 

P 

P 

P 

M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

MAP 
M 

M 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

C 
C 
M 
M 
M 

P 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 

MAP 

M 

M 
M 


1 


1 


'43 
5 








i 




10 






1,500.00 

71.00 

500.00 

2,814.00 

360.75 
1,000.00 


758.00 


2,258.00 

71.00 

600.00 

9,263.95 

360.75 
1,000.00 


2,258.00 

86.00 

600.00 

11,274.31 

600.82 
2,500.00 


?. 


t 


Emergency Relief Administration 


3 




15.00 

100.00 

2,010.36 

240.07 


3 


(t 


Qadsden 












4 


"i 


Montgomery 

Arizona 

iisbee 




2 

1 
1 


2 








6,449.95 


5 




1 City of Bisbee 


2 






A 


« 


1 School Board and Y. M. C. A 










7 






2 

17 


2 
19 








7 




Department of Parks, Playgrounds and 


14 

1 

22 
1 


7 


4 


1,509.05 

26,064.97 
1,750.00 

8,200.00 


8,416.23 


8,658.28 
150.00 


10,796.21 


19,454.49 
150.00 


29,379.77 

26,214.97 
51 750.00 

14,699.68 
1,320.00 

167.60 
286.00 
625.00 

1,400.00 
750.00 

4,160.00 
500.00 

5,000.00 

7,900.00 
22,000.00 

14,783.86 

12,363.44 

56,295.35 
20,400.00 








R 


9 


City and Yavapi County Board of Pub- 
lic Welfare 




Safford 


9 


10 
11 


American Legion and E. R. A 

City of Tucson and Recreation Corn- 


8 

1 

1 

.... 

4 


5 


14 


23 






in 
















11 


12 

13 
14 
15 






900.00 

120.00 
255.00 
150.00 
900.00 
750.00 
300.00 


420.00 


1,320.00 

120.00 
255.00 
150.00 
900.00 
750.00 
1,400.00 


12 


Arkansas 








47.60 
30.00 


13 




School Board 


2 
1 
3 

1 
1 




5 








14 


Fayetteville 

Fort Smith 

Little Roclc 

Morrilton 

Pine Bluff 

Trumann 

California 


Harmon Playfield Association 

Department of Public Propwty 




375.00 




1.1 








500.00 




If 


17 
18 
19 
20 

?1 












17 












2,500.00 


250.00 


1,100.00 


IF 


Park Board 










19 










6 


1 












2f 


[ Social Service and Recreation Board 
I and Park Department 




7 

7 

3 

20 
4 


5 

1 

2 






5,400.00 




5,400.00 


21 




Alhambra 




1 

7 

7 

31 
19 












» 


22 


Department of Playground and Recrea- 








. 3,039.13 

1,216.07 

10,649.63 
5,000.00 


8,418.73 
4,411.82 
34,775.70 


3,326.00 
1,875.00 
9,834.36 


11,744.73 

6,286.82 

44,610.06 
15,400.00 


22 


23 


Park Department and Citizens' R«crea- 






4,860.55 
. 1,035.66 








2! 




City Recreation Dept. and Health Edu- 
cation Dept., Board of Education. . . 


2 
5 


16 


26 




'■i 


Beverly Hills 

Chico . . . 


24 
25 


'>6 


Bidwell Park and Playground Comnus- 
















Chino 


2( 


**? 


Recreation Association 


1 


1 










151.25 


300.00 


200.00 


600.00 


651.25 
2,000.00 

3,024.70 
38,968.00 

414.00 
16,406.00 
11,000.00 

812.00 

'107,189.60 

593,908.87 
129,832.00 
76,609.94 

241,712.16 

180.00 

27,934.30 

6,185.00 

262,010.44 

1,200.00 
515.00 


2; 


■•N 














2! 


29 


Compton 

Fresno 


Dept. of Rayground and Recreation, 
Union Secondary School District* . . . 


6 

15 

1 

12 


"ie 

3 
8 


'2 
2 








766.30 

5,446.00 

75.00 

2,900.00 

4,500.00 

312.00 


2,094.40 

15,677.00 

314.00 

7,545.00 


164.00 
10,920.00 


2,258.40 
26,597.00 

314.00 
8,505.00 
6,500.00 

500.00 

79,673.51 

425,238.67 
121,900.00 
62,032.50 

172,015.94 

180.00 

732.00 

3,035.00 

180,397.35 

700.00 
425.00 


29 


?fl 






6,925.00 

25.00 

5,000.00 


3( 


11 


Fullerton 

Glendale 








31 


?'' 


City and School Board 




20 


15 


960.00 
6,500.00 


3i 


Tl 


Huntington Beach 

Inglewood 

Long Beach 

Lc« Angeles 

Los Angeles Co.' 
Merced 


City of Huntington Beach 


3! 


M 


Board of Education 


2 

85 

163 
132 












500.00 


3^ 


35 


Recreation Commission, Board of Edu- 


82 

111 
141 


16 
81 










31! 




[ Playgr9und and Recreation Commis- 






6,784.39 


161,885.81 
7,932.00 
16,339.44 

61,531.12 


245,266.27 
121,900.00 

26.676.00 
180.00 
732,00 


179,972.40 


36 


31 


Board of Education 

Board of Park Commissioners ...... 






a 










8,238.00 
8,165.10 


52,032.50 
145,339.94 


b 


37 


County Department of Recreation 


61 


3 
1 
4 
2 
83 

1 
6 
1 

6 

29 
I 
4 
1 


14 


46 


15 


37 


31^ 


8,500 
13,847 


■ otary Club 


31 


V 


Modesto 


















3( 


41 


Montebello 

Oakland 


5,498 

284,063 

13,583 

9,OD0 
6,000 
15,000 

80,000 

9,975 
11,000 
23,000 

3,517 
14,177 
20,000 

30,000 
93,685 


Natatorium Department 


6 
114 

1 

7 
3 

7 

24 

5 


1 
30 






1,200.00 


1,950.00 
81,613.09 

500.00 
90.00 




4( 


4 




165 

'8 


44 


108,489.91 

500.00 
425.00 


71,907.44 
200.00 


41 


4' 




Chaffey Union High School and Junior 
College 








Orange 


411 


41 








4! 


44 


Pacific Grove 

Palo Alto 

Pasadena 

Piedmont 

Pittsburg 


Committee on Parks and Playgrounds. . 

Community Center Commission 

Department of Recreation, Schoo 
\ District'^ 












44 


4f 


5 

7 
5 
2 


18 
76 


27 
756 




4,122.09 

2,076.00 

34,428.47 

500.00 


12,390.44 
21,567.50 


2,796.00 
4,168.50 


15,186.44 

25,736.00 

66,711.29 

5,126.00 

500.00 

600.00 

390.00 


19,308.53 

27,812.00 

103.306.30 

7,326.00 

500.00 

1,680.00 

506.40 

3,152.73 

34,088 41 

"2,660.00 

22,815.85 
111,220.23 


46 


if 




46 




City and Park Department . . . 


2,166.54 
1,700.00 


a 


4- 


City Council 


1 




5,006.00 
500.00 
600.00 
390.00 


120.00 


47 


4f 


City of Pittsburg 




4li 


4^ 


Park and Playground Commission 

City of Red Bluff 


1 










1,180.00 
116.40 




4( 


sr 


Red Bluff 

Redlands 

Richmond 

Riverside 

Sacramento 


1 












6(] 


i; 


Park Department. 














5 


85 


.Advisory Park and Playground Com- 
mission, City Manager and Schoo! 
Board 


16 

1 

1 
24 


4 
1 

1 

18 


5 

2 

1 
14 


7 


2 


6,034.21 


9,279.07 

500.00 

7,931.00 
30,607.85 


5,932.00 

2,160.00 

2,070.00 
30,114.40 


13,843.13 


19,775.13 

2,160.00 

14,884.85 
74,111.67 


52 




Recreation Commission and County 

E. R. A.» 

Park Board 


53 


lU 








12,814.85 
43,997.27 


f 


V 


I Recreation Department .... 


37 


17 


fi-.s'on'yi 


i' 






V 


m 



66 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 



Playgrounds 

Under 
Leadership 









r 










^ 










!^> 


















c 


t~- 






•^ 


O 


M 
















B 
O 


$ 


o 




S 


s 


1 


m 


■s 




a^ 


m 


t- 



Recreation 
Buildings 



3lj 



Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 



Emergency Service 





Paid 




Leadership 






Em- 






ployed 




s 


Full 


a 


a 


Time 


s 


cs 




a 














>S 


o 










^ 




o 


o 




3 


o 


o 


"Z, 


z 


!5 


^ 



Expenditurea 



Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 



Leader- 
ship 



Total 



Source of 
Information 



31 



62 



39 



2,306,612 



M2,159 
12,900 



15,600 



895,910 



30,000 



<4,400 
13,100 
15,000 
75,000 



5,000 
' 63,876 



•730,770 



272,313 

34,560 

1,556,378 



'79, 
993 



221, 

' ' ''31', 

6,021, 

13,599, 
4,026, 



7,688,102 



'•2,587, 
12, 



611,294 



76, 

'4, 

200, 

5, 



lU.OOO 
'^91,259 



143,070 



8,160 



7,300 



38,000 



2,000 



600 



75,000 



36,432 
31,000 
20,288 



13,800 
23,205 



1,152,135 



223,627 



125,000 



1,500 
15,022 



80,000 



68,661 

5,040 

30,240 
16,755 



2,100 



4,860 



12,900 



5,400 



11,000 



18,453 

600 

15,034 



320 



4,424 
52,354 



610,214 



6,616,078 



11,500 



900 

6,496 

' 9,420 



12,000 



40,000 



109 



40 



16 



170 



2297 



46 



97 



30 



1022 



62 



40 



10 



80,000.00 



75,000.00 



15,000.00 



38,614.69 



93,990.22 
28,188.00 



1,500.00 



8,000.00 
60,000.00 



3,430.80 
10,560.29 



17,729.77 



16,303.80 



16,866.73 



35,932.00 



3,684.95 

150.00 

8,000.00 



2,840.00 



1,008.00 



8,100.00 



513.60 



5,000.00 
300.00 



1,980.00 

971.50 

2,048.75 



241.66 



7,298.00 



4,168.60 
94,700.00 



96,496.24 
15,848.40 



193,287.00 



27,802.50 
300.00 



42,685.30 



1,982.25 
'8,'4'00'.00 



15,791.63 



115,932.00 



3,784.96 

450.00 

8,000.00 

75,000.00 



40,000.00 
5,240.00 



85,049.48 



93,990.22 
28,188.00 



i,600.00 



1,500.00 



5,000.00 

8,300.00 

60,000.00 



1,980.00 
4,402.30 
75,915.97 



400.00 



7,298.00 
18,811.5 



4,168.50 
94,700.00 



248,361.04 
15,848.40 



193,287.00 



187,157.60 
300.00 



50,218.00 

176,336.90 

1,982.25 



8,400.00 



15,791.63 



16,866.73 



F. G. Swaim. .. 
A. S. Hotchkiss . 



Mrs. Virginia Green . . 

WiUa G. Strain 

Mrs. H. Tyler Watts. 
W. A. Gunter, Jr 



Ralph L. Motz. . 
R. E. Souers . . . 
J. E. Carlson, Jr. 



Laura E. Herron . 



Grace M. Sparkes. 
Howard Smith .... 



Harold A. Patten. 
Ike Lepoeky 



Mrs. J. Bruce Street. 

Paul B.Kays 

Mrs. Charles M. Reinoehl 

(V. H. Vaughn 

J. W. Matthews 

Carl C. Buchanan. . . 

R. J. Rhinehart 

H. Lewis 



Mrs. Phyllis McCoekey,. 
Earl Fry 



Mrs. Helen G. Wentworth 
Rudolph Boysen .... 



Charles W. Davis . 
H. D. McCary... 



George P. Morse . 
Levi H. Dickey . . 
B. L. McCue... 



Kenneth W. Mason. . . 
Raymond L. Quigley . 

Arthur L. Johnson 

William A. Burr 

Charles R. Furr 

Lionel De Silva 



Walter L.Scott. 



George Hjelte.. 
C.L.Glenn... 
J. J. Hassett. , . 



James K. Reid . . . 
Charles Wright... 

H. E. Gragg 

VancilE. Row... 
R. W. Robertson. 



FredH. Clapp 

Mrs. L. L. Williams. . 
C. W. Easterbrook . . . 
Phillip A Brotherton. . 



Cecil F. Martin 

Gilbert L, Skutt 

Mrs. Telura Swim. . . 

H. L. Denham 

C. Kenneth Smith. . . 
EnviUe C. Spaulding. , 
W. T. Ferguson 



I.W.Hill 

H. E. Wilson and 
G. W. Braden.. 

J. C. Cooper 

J. B. Maloney . . . . 



52 



67 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



STATE AND 
CITY 



Poptila^ 
tion 



Managing 
Authority 



Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 



Paid 

Workera 



O I- 

B 



Volun- 
teer 

Woi kera 



Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 



Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 



Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 



Salaries and Wages 



For 
Leadership 



Other 
Ser\'ice8 



Total 



Total 



64 



55 



56 



Calif— Cont. 

San Bernardino. . 
San Clemente 

San Diego 

San Francisco. . . 

San Jose 

San Mateo 

Santa Barbara . . . 
Santa Barbara Co.' 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Monica . . . 

Stockton 

Vallejo 

Ventura 

Ventura County*' 

Whittier 

Wilmar 

Colorado 

Boulder 

Colorado Springs. 
Denver 

Fort Collins 

Fort Morgan. . . . 

Longmont 

Loveland 

Palisade 

Connecticut 

Ansonia 

Branford 

Bridgeport 

Bristol 

Danbury 

Greenwich 

Guilford 

Hartford 

Manchester 

Meriden 

Middletown 

Milford 

New Britain 

New Haven. . . . . 
New London .... 

Norwalk 

Norwich 

Salisbury 

Seymour 

Shelton 

Southington 

Stamford 

Stratford 

Torrington 

West Hartford... 

West Haven 

West port 

Willimantic 

Winsted 

Delaware 

Wilmington 

Dist.of Col. 



Washington . 



Florida 

Bartow 



60 
68 



Clearwater 

Coril Gables . . . . 
Escambia Co." . . 
Fort Lauderdale . 



43,000 
1,000 

150,000 

695,930 
60,000 
15,000 
41,058 
65,167 
14,395 
37,146 

50,000 
25,000 
11,603 

55,000 
15,000 
15,000 



12,000 
35,000 

300,000 

11,800 

5,000 

6,029 

6,000 

893 



19,898 
7,000 

146,716 
28,000 
25,000 
37,000 
3,100 

164,072 
23,000 
40,000 
23,000 
12,600 

68,000 



162,665 
29,000 

36,019 

32,438 
2,700 
7,000 

10, 

10,000 

60,000 
22,000 
27,000 
26,000 
25,808 
6,000 
11,000 
10,000 



106,597 



486,869 



6,000 

8,000 

6,000 

22,312 

8,666 



E. R. A. and School Board . . . 


1 






4 


2 


3,027.00 


2,426.00 
2,178.61 

8,366.14 

4,185.55 

131,763.59 

36,386.00 

2,916.44 


300.00 


150.00 
2,543.68 

17,600.00 
16,157.14 
17,442.56 


450.00 
2,543.68 

46,190.16 

16,357.14 

290,937.30 

135,905.00 

8,685.44 

1,725.00 

7,000.00 

8,824.84 


5,903.00 
4,722.19 

65,492.35 
25.542.69 
601,811.47 
171,291.00 
13,256.02 
27,404.84 








Playground and Recreation Depart- 


18 
2 
118 
2 
46 
1 
8 


12 

iio 

■"8 
3 


12 

2 

109 

2 


30 


35 
2i 


936.05 
5,000.00 
79,110.58 


28,690.16 

1,200.00 

273,494.75 






Board of Park Commissioners 


6 




1,754.14 
1,027.00 


8,585.44 
1,726.00 
7,000.00 














1,120.0a 
3,872.41 




8,120.00' 










200.05 


8,824.84 


12,697 JO 


City of Santa Cruj 
















City and Recreation and Playground 


9 

14 
5 

1 

8 
3 

1 

4 

2 


"9 
3 

2 

1 


9 
4 
2 
















70,000.00 
22,227.72 
27,400.00 
9,597.00 




6 


10 




7,376.72 
5,000.00 


6,795.00 
7,400.00 


8,056.00 


.14,851.00 
7,400.00 




15,000.00 


City and School Board 


'18 
6 




























500.00 


260.00 


750.00 


760.00 
'200.00 

1.250.00 

39,260.71 

18,799.47 

8,694.12 

93,000.00 

770.00 

2,000.00 

2,000.00 

9.551.40 

1,650.00 

100.00 

'1,000.00 
3,344.45 

21,400.00 

1,029.48 

800.00 

18,276.56 


School Board 










200.00 


Department of Public Welfare 


2 
10 




'20 






1,250.00 
877.40 




1,250.00 
29,450.88 
13,328.84 

8,160.12 

31,500.00 

600.00 




2,021.03 
2,421.20 


7.788'.80 

3,049.43 

644.00 

60,000.00 

170.00 


28,673.48 
13,328.84 


1 Memorial Golf Club Commission. . . . 










23 
10 

1 


24 






3 


8,150.12 

1,500.00 

600.00 








1,600.00 


30,000.00 








4 


8 








Department of Public Works 


2 
3 
3 






3 
12 


















2,100.00 




1.600.00 

1,200.00 

100.00 




1,500.00 

1,350.00 

100.00 








200.00 


150.00 




2 






2 












1,000.00 








1 
67 
3 

49 

1 
67 

5 
11 

8 

1 
9 

10 
34 

10 
6 

10 
1 
3 
2 


1 
4 
4 


1 
4 






1,777.03 

2,750.00 

245.48 

500.00 

6,646.36 


1,667.42 

10,000.00 

784.00 

300.00 

11,616.94 




1,667.42 

18,650.00 

784.00 

300.00 

12,630.20 










8,650.00 










Lions Club 














19 


3 


3 


4 




1,113.26 


School Board 




Recreation Di\iBion, Park Department. 
Recreation Center Committee 


21 
3 
4 
6 

1 
8 

2 
63 


7 
2 










32.000.00 
5,050.00 
2,263.00 
2,000.00 

300.00 
1,745.00 




32,000.00 
5,060.00 
2,263.00 
2,500.00 

300.00 
2,125.00 


'32,000.00 
19,936.00 
15,933.72 
5,500.00 

300.00 
2,760.00 

12,751.22 
8,456.15 

1,100.00 
1,994.72 
5,500.00 
2,160.00 
666.00- 








14,886.00 








325.00 
1,500.00 




Department of Parks and Playgrounds . 
Recreation Commission and Board of 








1,600.00 


600.00 








Municipal Recreation Commission .... 
/ Park Commission 










635.00 


380.00 


6 


30 


10 


1,086.22 


\ Board of Education 


413.81 

100.00 

147.42 

2,900.00 

40.00 


6,666.32 

1,000.00 
1,847.30 
2,600.00 
2,120.00 
440.00 
300.00 


1,376.02 


8,042.34 

1,000.00 
1,847.30 
2,600.00 
2,120.00 
440.00 
300.00 


Department of Public Works, School 












5 
15 

i 

2 




4 
















Recreation Committee 


1 


S 








Playground Association, Inc 












'43 




100.00 
800.00 


100.00 




500.001 
l,200.0n 
14,186.89 
6,306.00 
7,155.00 
2.822.00 
4,209.00 
2,170.00 
2,874.90 
302.72 
440.66 

20,971.06 

62,614.32 

"33,765.63 
170,068.00 

8,079.22 

2,450.00 

24,118.07 

622.00 

13,937.98 








21 

1 

1 
7 
1 
2 

1 


13 

1 
2 
3 
3 

1 


4 
2 
1 
1 


3 


2 


3.121.80 
1,444.00 
2,640.00 

702.00 
2,800.00 

100.00 

1,475.00 

72.72 

138.36 


9,208.29 

2,668.00 

2,326.0(1 

2,120.00 

1,409.00 

360.00 

»J 699.96 

144.40 

302.30 

6,613.03 


1,855.80 

394.00 

1,870.00 


11,064.09 
3,062.00 
4,195.00 
2,120.00 
1,409.00 
1,520.00 
1,399.96 
159.40 
302.30 

6,613.03 
52,214.24 


\ Italian Center 


1,800.00 
320.00 


Sterling Park Trustees 










21 


Town Plan and Cemetery Commission . 












550.00 


1,160.00 

700.00 

15.00 


Park and Athletic Field Committee . . 

Civics Committee, Woman's Club 

Playground Association 








1 
2 

19 
119 








70.60 








Board of Park Commissioners 

Community Center Department, 
Public Schools 


22 
110 












14 


»52 






10,400.08 




National Capital Parks, Interior 
Department 










Department of Playgrounds 


108 

1 

1 
3 

2 


127 

.... 


36 

1 

1 
3 

1 


»50 

8 






16,150.00 

1,210.81 

600.00 
6,324.43 


134,660.00 

720.00 

1,800.00 

3,800.00 

522.00 

1,337.09 


19,268.00 

2,648.41 

150.00 
11,493.64 


163,918.00 

3,368.41 

1,950.00 

16,293.64 

522.00 

7,197.09 


City of Bartow 


4 


3,500.00 






2,500.00 


E. K. A. County Council 






Department of Parks and Playgrounds 






i,865.4i 


4,876.48 


5,860.66 



M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
C 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

C 
M 
M 



M 

P 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

P 
MAP 

M 

P 

M 

P 

P 
M4P 

M 

M 
M4P 

P 

P 



RPXREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 
the table 









Playgrounds 


Recreation 




Indoor 


1 

a 
z 

1 

E 
5 


1 

D 

Z 

4 

a 
o 

i5 

1 


z 

1 

ca 
m 


J 
a 

1 

s 
e 




s 

a 
Z 

w 





1 
s 

3 

z 

1 

1 

.1 


J 
a 

z 

3 

<s 

M 

c 

'a 
s 

CO 


a 

3 

z 




.a 

1 


1 
z 

1 

c 

1 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


Buildings 


Centers 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 






1 


1 

a 


a 
O 

1 
t 


c 

i 
% 

o 

•3 


■3 

■s 


It 

11 




ill 


a 


III 


a 

s 
•3 

I 

z 


a 

a 



(S 

•0 

J 

z 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
i^quipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 




6 
•s 

d 


1 

•B 
d 
Z 


d 
Z 


■s 

d 
z; 




10 


3 


2 




15 


49,049 


4 


32,559 


10 




4 


6 


i 

6 


2 

1 

i 


1 




. • 


6 
2 

29 
6 
56 
70 
13 
3 
10 




53 


13 


4 






32,465.83 


39,109.71 


Glen H. Van Noy 

William Holmes 

W. A. Kearns 


1 


? 






2 




17 


1 


1 


4 


23 


1,146,032 


5 




7 






7 


i 


1 


"2 

1 

2 


2 

"i 










19,700.00 




19,700.00 

687,365.56 

102,073.00 

14,995.00 


3 










'i75 


'245 








A. S. Hill 


a 




56 








56 


"5,870,085 


25 




36 


191,291 


1 
5 


15 

17 
4 
2 
4 


2 
2 


Veda Y. Conning 

B. P. Lamb 


4 














3 


"i 






102,073.00 




a 


^i 


12 
2 
6 








12 
2 
13 


220,975 






8 


62,846 


95 


30 






12,500.00 


Hugh C. Coleman 

E. P. Wilsey 


5 














"2 
4 

1 

1 
1 

i 




1 








6 




2 


6 




183,575 


1 


91,198 


4 


19,998 


11 


2 


17 


3 










'6,985.94 


C. C. Christiansen 

Frank E. Dunne 

S. A. Evans 


7 


s 










S 


() 


















































9 




15 

1 
2 
3 

4 








15 
9 
4 

•6 

12 
7 
4 

4 

7 


1,150,743 
235,971 

25,000 
15,000 


4 

1 


5,000 
21,170 


15 


500,000 


1 
2 
3 
3 


"6 

1 
2 


"i 

1 
1 


1 




1 
I 


10 
9 
8 
6 


'3 


145 
5 


78 
4 


15 


2 






50,000.00 


Frank P. Holborow 


in 


n 


4 
2 

2 

6 

7 

4 

7 


2 

i 

4 


2 
2 






It 


]9 


2 


300 






25,030.00 




30,000.00 


Sabin W. Rich 


1? 




2 


20,000 






1 














H. A. Johnson and 

G. W. Braden 

(V.K.Cobb 

Verne S. Landreth 

John C. Holt 












15 

20 
4 

7 


1 
12 












13 
14 


\^ 


32,500 
80,000 










1 
4 


1 












10 










3,500.00 
1,800.00 

614.00 


3,500.00 
l,8D0.O0 

614.00 


n 


1fi 


























16 








4 
















3 
15 
2 

30 
67 


i 


2 








Rudolph Johnson 

1 Humphrey Saunders . . 

vVillard N. Greim 

A. W. Finley 


17 


18 












1 










I 

3 
4 








18 




















1 


i 
1 


















10 




36 






•36 


570,417 


4 
10 








20 


16 
26 






12 
3 


18 


3 








1,051.60 


1,051.60 
30,003.00 


19 










3 


2 


2 










h 
















4 


11,700 
















Bernard M. Joy 

vVorks Department 

B. J. Siebel 


h 


■>(! 










... .......... 






2 
2 

1 


1 


1 










6 
.2 
6 












2,O0D.OD 




9,48J.O0 


20 


91 




1 






1 


















1 
1 


1 












'1 


■)■> 








1 
2 


50,000 
20,000 


2 




1 




"i 














18,000.00 
1,500.00 


C. A.Flanders 

L. C. Osborn 


?9 


0^ 
































V, 


''4 




1 






1 


n,ooo 


































Mrs. Fillmare Duncan. . 

Andrew F. Nolan 

H. C. Brazeau 


24 


•'I 










2 
I 

1 


2 










3 


6 
















4,500.00 


?i 


'R 


"i 


3 
9 
5 

12 


1 


i 


!.3 

9 
5 

1 
15 


3,8S4 

n22,518 

•18,000 

40,000 

286,258 


1 


19,371 




























?« 


?7 


11 


1,719 


18 


3 
1 


1 


1 






24 




86 


44 












R. A. Leckie 

A. C. Hitchcock 

Charles T. Musson 

James S. Stevens 

Leslie L Dudley 

James H. Dillon 

Frank C. Busch 

Oscar L. Dossin 

P.M. Kidney 


?7 


VS 
















28 


?9 












14 












1 
















2") 


30 


3 


46,890 


26 
1 
13 


39,577 


"i 












9 


14 


4 








522.31 


1,082.21 


30 


11 


















11 


?? 


4 


10 
3 
4 

8 

1 
9 




8 


22 
3 
4 
8 

1 
9 


''1,459,366 
187,500 
50,000 
45,000 

3,500 
'110,000 


5 
2 






28 
4 
2 
2 

1 
6 

25 


1 
1 
2 
1 




2 
i 


... 


2 

1 


34 
4 
1 
4 


2 


53 


26 






88,000.00 




88,000.00 


1? 


11 


375,000 




3 
3 

1 

1 




11 


14 
















78,000.00 




78,000.00 


14 


15 


2 


2,000 


1 
2 


5,000 
2,000 




1 




1 






15 


16 


















16 


17 




















10 


















18 










4 

1 

2 


3 




1 




2 


25 










12,820.64 


150.00 
1,622.30 


12,970.64 
1,738.59 

5,000.00 
300.00 


MaryE. CampbeU.... 

Harold V. Doheny 

Henry J. Schnelle 

George E. Watters 

Joseph F. Andrews 

Matthew J. Sheridan . . . 

W. R. Hemmerly 

F. B. Towle 


37 
1R 






18 

4 
10 
U 

3 

1 
2 


26 
7 


6 


50 

11 
10 
11 
3 

1 
2 


164,785 






10 


65,532 




33 

7 
2 


15 








11 






3 


3 










1 










19 


4n 


57,343 
75,000 
<9,000 
20,000 
12,375 






2 


6,500 










3 








300.00 


40 


41 






1 
1 


4 

1 
1 












4 










41 


4? 






4 

1 


6,030 
3,500 




























42 


4,1 














1 




1 


"3 










150.00 


■ 360.00 


43 


44 














George W Anger 

B T Noble 


44 


4.'i 










1 


1 
5 


1 






















45 


46 


4 


3 






7 


149,454 


1 
1 
1 


10,422 

24,000 

2,350 

10,000 


10 


30,635 










8 


5 
















Edward J. Hunt 


46 














3 
2 


1 
1 








286.60 


286.60 




47 


1 








1 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

21 




2 

7 


















1 


"i 








S H Bunnell 


47 


48 


2 

1 
1 

1 
I 
1 

20 




1 


33,000 


8,400 


1 


1 


1 




















Rose K. Eagan 

H. J. Salmonsen 

,Valter N. Seranton 

Thomas H. Leonard .... 

Mrs. A. C. Persons 

Edith N. C. Wolf 

Edward R. Mack 

Mrs.EliiabethK.Peeplea 

C. Marshall Finnan. . . . 
Sibyl Baker. 


48 


4f) 








1 


9 
6 
6 
















49 


sn 


<4,500 
16,530 
<4,107 
7,060 

524,307 










1 
1 


4 

1 


i 
























50 


51 


































51 


5? 




































5? 


M 


1 


6,435 
66,805 






1 

1 

3 

2 
6 

1 

2 


1 
14 

3 

29 

8 

1 
I 










1 
5 

4 
4 

1 


23 

e 

88 
33 

4 

e 
1 


1 

5 

2 
11 
















51 


54 


5 

55 


140,525 
844,187 










2 

6 


3 

28 








594.00 


594.00 


54 


5S 








2 








55 






















10 
















h 


33 


42 




10 


85 


3,495,273 


1 


16,000 


' 


30,000 


42 


51 








17,225.00 


161,785.00 

54,150.0( 

45,000.0( 

H.OOO.W 

928.0( 


h 


5(1 






1 








54,1S0.0C 

45,000.0( 
14,000.0C 


George J. McNemee and 
W. A. Dougherty. . . . 
) Ralph B. Van Fleet.... 

) E. M. Williams 

) N. E. Branson 




57 








3 


3 

1 

14 


lO.OOC 


1 


5,000 


1 


20,000 














56 

57 
58 


5fl 


1 








1 






1 














58 




14 




18,18C 


6 


4,600 


8 


9,800 










... 


e 






928.0( 


59 


6C 




1 


1 








1 


! 




.. 






Alwen Neuharth 


60 



69 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Mana^ng 
Authority 


Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


•t- 

1 

1 
S 

•s 






Paid 

Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Woikers 




>> 


c 

s 

o 
d 


•s 

d 


3T3 

d.i 


a 

s 


d 


i 

•0 

d 

z; 


Land, 
'Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


>• 




For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


■s 

1 


1 


Florida— Cont. 

Green Cove Springs 

Jacksonville 

lAlteland 

Lake Wales 

Miami 


1,719 

146,300 

24,400 

3,401 

110,637 

7,500 

1,600 

33,000 

7,000 
32,000 

48,000 

10,000 

8,380 

105,000 

26,000 

3,646 

25,631 
270,366 
60,342 
41,331 
72,000 
85,000 

9,400 
8,206 
3,800 

31,154 
50,000 
52,315 
35,000 

12,298 

12,000 

1,461 

12,600 

3,376,438 

22,320 
66,000 
4.000,000 
67,500 
10,090 
37,000 
64,000 

23,000 

30,000 

6,500 

25,130 
12,000 
12,000 
18,000 
70,000 
12,000 
8,000 

27,100 
6,500 
. 12,800 
28,000 
33,000 
5,118 
63,000 
15,840 
10,000 

108,900 
. 9,000 














9,623.27 
5,715.59 
2,625.00 










59,623.27 
66,579.33 
20,153.50 
3,600.00 
24,170.00 
20,887.56 
21,000.00 
700.00 

22,851.96 


M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

P 
M 

M 

MAP 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

P 
M 
C 
M&P 
M 
P 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

P 
MAP 
P 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 

M 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 




2 


Playground and Recreation Board 


18 
3 
1 

U 
1 
3 


7 
1 
1 
3 

"7 


19 
3 
1 
7 
1 
3 


12 
S 


■ 4 
S 


12,686.32 
7,670.50 


24,507.50 
3,600.00 


23,670.00 
6,258.00 


48,177.50 
9,858.00 


2 


4 


Park Committee, City Council 

f Department of Recreation 


4 




4,000.00 
1,430.93 
4,000.00 


9,000.00 
6,311.38 
6,500.00 






11,170.00 
13,145.25 
10,500.00 


If 




\ Department of Public Service 

Department of Public Recreation 

Park Cnmmifwinn 






2,160.00 
7,000.00 


10,985.25 
3,500.00 




6 
7 
8 


Miami Beacli 

Mount Dora 






g 


3 


2 


7 


Recreation Department and Athletic 


7 


1 


2 


14,064.97 


4,319.61 


3,839.50 


627.88 


4,467.38 




Palatka 


§ 


9 
10 


City of Palatka 






g 


Pensacota 

St. Petersburg 

Sanford 


City Manager and Municipal Goll 


2 
6 


1 
5 


1 
3 






1,141.02 


1,701.66 
1,280.00 


3,390.00 
6,320.00 


4,658.80 


8,048.80 
6,320.00 


10,891.48 
7,600.00 


10 


11 

12 
13 
14 
15 


Recreation Bureau 


'50 




1) 


City of Sanford 








!•> 






1 
8 

1 


"6 
2 


1 
8 

3 








3,074.25 
10,017.42 


1,650.00 
13,415.52 

2,520.00 


5,200.00 
7,127.44 


6.850.00 
20,542.96 

2,520.00 


9.924.25 
35,560.38 

27,520.00 

4,701.20 




Tampa 




10 


10 


5,000.00 
25,000.00 


14 


West Palm Beach. 
Winter Park 

Georgia 


Recreation Department, F, E. R. A. 

and Recreation Commission 

Park and Recreation Board, City and 

E. R. A 


H 


16 










16 


17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 

23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 










2 


1 












17 


Atlanta 


Park Department 


5 


"4 

7 

13 

20 


5 

4 

1 

11 

1 


8,004.03 


/ 4,734.51 

2,914.99 

1.539.03 

1,800.00 

650.94 






55,456.32 
19,012.10 
2.287.62 
8,244.00 
5,917.35 


68,194.86 
17,927.09 

3,826.65 
10,044.00 

6,568.29 

2,500.00 


18 






3,555.83 
2,287.62 
8,244.00 
5,197.35 


11,456.27 


19 


Columbus 












'O 


Playground and Recreation Association 


1 
3 










'I 


Savannah 

Idalio 


12 


10 




720.00 


09 






n 




Park Board 


1 
3 

11 

1 
7 




















'4 


Preston 


City Council 


4 

8 
17 
3 

1 
1 

1 


2 

1 
2 

.... 


12 
3 


20 


2,000.00 


800.00 

7,089.05 
1,425.00 


1,200.00 

8,163.56 
4,587.36 
3,633.90 

200.00 


600.00 

4,085.06 
1,237.50 


1,800.00 

12,248.62 
5,824.86 
3,633.90 

200.00 


4,600.00 

19,337.67 
21,515.94 
15,439.00 

300.00 


?•) 


Illinois 

Alton 


Playground and Recreation Commission 


?s 


Aurora . . 




14,266.08 


97 


Berwyn ■. . . 


Recreation Commission 


1 

1 
10 




'R 


Bloomington 

Calumet City 

Canton . . 


Fell Avenue Community Playground 
Committee 










?9 


30 
31 
32 
33 




13 
2 


5 








30 


Township Park District 












13,193.50 

300.00 

4,265.00 

182,939.30 
435,000.00 
210,235.00 

604,927.00 

1,600.00 

40,986.65 


11 


Carpentersville . . . 
Cedtralia 

Chicago^ 

Chicago Heights . . 
Cicero 




















3? 


Department of Recreation 


7 

34 
119 
31 

61 

1 

34 


6 

18 
46 
37 

«0 


1 

52 
65 
62 

121 

1 
2 








1,100.00 

23,000.00 
25,490.00 
11,390.00 

31,500.00 

500.00 

23,206.65 


2,965.00 

95,739.30 
150,560.00 
104,980.00 

256,347.18 
1,000.00 


200.66 

64,200.00 
258,950.00 
93,865.00 

149,924.82 


3,165.00 

159,939.30 
409,510.00 
198,845.00 

406,272.00 

1,000.00 

17,780.00 


33 


Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Avi- 
ation, Department of Public Works 








34 


34 










West Chicago Park District 

Bureau of Recreation, Board of Edu- 


51 


57 




h 




167,155.00 




35 
36 








iff, 


Clyde Park District Commission 

Forest Preserve District of Cook County 

Pines Community Association 

Park District 


22 








36 


Cook County". . . . 
Decatur 










37 


38 
39 
40 
41 


12 


10 


1 








300.00 


4,300.00 


200.00 


4,500.00 


4,800.00 


18 










39 


Elgin 


Summer Playground Association 

Park and Playground Committee, City 


9 

36 
.5 


4 

19 
2 


4 


40 

15 

IS 


25 

9 
5 




79.73 
1,980.00 


300.00 
9,130.00 




300.00 
10,580.00 


379.73 

13,085.00 
7,500.00 
7,500.00 

14,800.00 
6,300.00 

2,000.00 

1,050.00 

3,400.00 

17,000.00 


40 


Evanston 

Freeport 


525.00 
4,000.00 


1,450.00 


41 


\o 


Park Board 


4? 


/[I 


Galesburg 


Parks Board 










43 




Municipal Playground Committee 

[ Park District 


1 
1 

.... 

4 

5 




1 








5,227.00 
3,000.00 


1,920.00 
300.00 


7,653.66 
, 1,500.00 


9.573.00 
1,800.00 


44 




Granite City 

Harrisburg 

Highland Park.... 
Jacksonville 






1,500.00 


45 


45 


[ General Steel Castings Corporation . . 
School Board, District No. 43 


I 


1 








i\t\ 








300.00 


750.00 
2,500.00 




750.00 
2,500.00 


46 




1 
2 












47 


47 


1 East Park District 



















Park Board 


















48 


49 
50 


Bureau of Recreation and Park Board. . 
Civic Club 


1 
3 

16 
1 
1 
2 
2 
5 
6 
6 
1 
7 

12 
2 


"4 
3 

6 


1 


4 




8,100.00 


200.00 

85.00 

9,500.00 

3,178.00 
230.00 
32.60 

2,590.69 
306.33 


2,400.06 

415.00 

2,500.00 

4.899.00 
200.00 
120.00 

3,830.00 
933.35 




2,400.00 

415.00 

10,500.00 

6,026.00 
200.00 
120.00 

4,615.00 
933.35 


'10,700.00 

500.00 

20,000.00 

9,204.00 
450.00 
152.60 
7,205.59 
4,742.68 
3,300.00 

32,460.83 
1,200.50 
7,000.00 
5,400.00 

47,998.36 
1,430.17 


49 


La Grange 

Lake Forest 

La Saile, Peru and 

Oglesby 

Lawrenceville 

Lincoln 

Vlaywood 




50 


Cil 


Park Board 










8,000.00 
1,127.00 


51 


52 


La Salle-Peru Township Social Center. . 

IJity Council and Civic Groups 

Board of Education 




4 


10 




5? 


*!? 




53 


'^1 






»5 
'6 








54 


ll 


Playground and Recreation Board 

Park Board 


6 
7 
6 
15 


1 






785.00 


55 


"is 




3,503.00 


56 


*j7 


Sf aperviUe 

Oak Park 

Ottawa 

Park Ridge 


City Council and Y. M. C. A 

Playground Board 










57 


'iS 


6 








11,482.60 

75.00 

2,000.00 

400.00 

8,926.06 

272.67 


8,852.25 
1,125.50 


12,126.00 


20,978.25 
1,125.50 
4,003.00 
5,000.00 

26,496.31 
1,142.50 


58 












59 


60 


Park District 










1,000.00 




60 


/ Recreation Commission 


28 
2 








5,000.00 
6,819.33 
1,132.50 




61 


61 Peoria 


Pleasure Driveway and Park District 
Playground and Recreation Board 








12,575.99 
15.00 


19,676.98 
10.00 




62 River Forest 


1 






fi' 











70 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 
the table 









Playgrounds 


Recreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


a 

3 

z 

1 

5 


M 
a 

3 
Z 

1 

o 

a 
3 

1 

1 


1 

3 

2 

m 

1 


M 
a 

3 

z 

4 

X 
A 

S 

E 

"o 
O 


i 
1 

cS 

O 


z 
1 

f 
.a 


£ 
a 
3 
z 

1 

.2 

1 

B 

■§ 

a 


1 



.a 

a 

1 


1 

a 
3 
z 

1 

bc 

C 

1 


Emergency Service 


* 

Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


Buildings 


Paid 
Leadership 


Eipenditures 




>. 

G 

•B 

d 


c 

3 
O 

2 


a 
O 

E 


1 

1 
1 


1 

g 
o 




i 

il 


1 

a 


Ill 
H o5 


a 

3 


l|j 


a 
1 

■s 

£ 

z 


g 

•3 

J 

z 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 

il 

6 d 

z z 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


>> 

■3 

d 
Z 


1 


4 
13 
5 




2 




6 
13 

15 




2 
2 
2 
3 
4 




1 

8 
1 
















1 

2 


2 

19 
8 
4 

31 


"i 


4 
4 
10 


4 
4 
5 


4 
1 
1 


4 

1 


19,910.74 


669.15 

1,710.00 

373.90 


30,239.51 

16,990.00 

3,803.66 

43,000.00 


Franliye Bufltin 

Joseph E. Byrnes 

W.W. Alderman 

Miss E. D. Quaintance. . 
E. E. SeUer 


I 


? 


659,391 
45,500 


26,563 
39,000 


17,110 
576 


2 


8 

1 
"h 










? 


3 
4 


2 


8 




"i 




1 




3,429.76 
43,000.00 


3 
4 




4 






3 


7 


171,991 


72,000 
























I 












1 
1 


























a 


3 

5 








3 
5 


335,363 
9,000 












1 
1 

2 
2 
3 

2 

1 
2 
9 

6 


1 

2 

1 

2 
1 

1 




i 




16 
4 

17 

S 

11 
3 
8 

14 

10 

1 




1 








8,500.00 


800.00 


11,300.00 


J. B. Lemon 

Shirley Shonenberger — 

C. L. Varner and J. L. 


fi 


7 












1 


10,000 










7 


fl 








1 




1 


2 

1 








117,300.00 




117,300.00 
























"i 


1 
1 

"i 

1 


1 


1 


1 








f) 





G. D. Bogue 


9 


10 














2 
11 




1 
4 


5,760 
112,680 














Julian OlBen and 

J. E. Frenkel 

P. V. Gahan 




]] 




3 


11 




14 


101,385 


349,829 




14 


12 








6,500.00 


7,500.00 


10 
11 


1' 








James Noughton 

J. E. Richards 


I? 


n 














1 
7 

2 


9,000 
25,000 

2,400 








"36 
16 
4 

1 


■'28 
24 








'9,921.77 

3,549.60 

150.00 


'9,92Y.77 

24,279.21 

160.00 


n 




12 

8 


12 






24 
8 
3 

3 


627,034 
300,300 


23 
2 


60,400 
13,000 


Cordelia B. Hunt 

G L Ash 


14 


|(i 












20,729.71 


!«> 


16 


1 


3 


2 


1 








J. Lee Hame, Jr 

Mrs. E. D. Byrd 

George I. Simons 

Annie Mae O'Connell. . . 


16 


17 








4 


4,028 








1 








17 


18 










14 
5 

"6 
3 


"i 


4 






6 


77 
13 
12 
16 
4 














18 


in 


4 

io 

12 








4 
9 
11 
13 


<4 65,686 
'106,528 
273,744 
416,202 












4 

"5 

1 
1 

1 
2 
3 
















11 


?n 


5 

1 


"i 




1 


4,100 


6 


9,146 


1 


1 










2 






35,516.40 
3,962.06 


192.00 


36,708.40 
3,952.05 
1,840.45 

2,000.00 


"f) 


'1 








Mrs. WilmaE. BeggB... 
H. S. Bounds 


'I 


99 






3 


20,160 














2 


6 


2 


6 


1,497.25 


99 


'I 






1 










2,000.00 


W. P. Hughes 

John G. Bernard 

L. E. Hansen 


9f 


'■t 
































1 
1 


2 












'4 


?5 








4 


4 

8 
6 
3 

1 
2 












5 
1 


2 
4 


1 








2 
8 


4 






4,000.00 


800.00 
913.00 


5,400.00 
4,721.40 


'5 


'ft 


8 






301,247 


2 
1 


8,532 


6 

1 
1 


10,980 
300 


1 






Russell J. Foval 


■"fi 


?7 


6 
3 




1 






4 


2 
4 










?7 


?8 


<13,927 






5 
























Annette M.Terdina.... 
F. R. Sack 


■"R 


?(1 


2 

1 


















1 
6 


io 


"e 


"4 








9() 


SO 




1 






40,000 






2 

1 


2 
3 

1 
2 

16 
85 
13 

11 






I 




2 
1 

1 


6 
10 
2 
4 

40 
360 
108 

4 

2 
12 

5 
14 

2 


1 
1 


Edward Fedosliy 

L H Gillet. . 


10 


11 














?1 


3? 






























G. R. Adams 


3? 


'i3 








7 


7 

36 
62 
16 

104 
1 

7 


119,661 

•5,684,432 
'1,655,000 
10,297,038 

8,666,705 

40,000 

552,000 


3 


34,974 


2 


21,340 


2 

11 
25 
16 

6 


1 

3 
3 








1 

10 
21 
12 


22 


10 








2,400.00 


2,560.00 

176,726.43 
53,000.00 
600,000.00 

6.126.00 
6,240.00 
1,945.99 


Edgar A. Drake 

Theodore A. Gross 

V. K. Brown 


3? 


14 


35 

ie 

61 






"i 

2 


"2 


3 

"2 


is 

13 






167,405.49 


11 




62 






19 
16 


7,557,880 
10,297,038 






250 
20 


100 
20 

43 
12 






50,000.00 




h 










600,000.00 


William J. H. Schultz. . . 
Herman J. Fischer 


h 




43 










5,856.00 
6,240.00 




3'i 


2 
3 


45,000 
78,248 
















1 
3 
1 
2 


14 








'^'i 


36 




7 




















2 
3 






1,945.99 


Edward J. Pad 

John B. Morrill 

Freda S. Combe 

Esther M. Barton 

Champ J. Stoakes 

Charles T. Byrnes 

Norman C. Sleezer 

D. C. Bunker 

J. A. WUliams 

R. E. Frohardt and 
H. D. Karadjeff 


16 


37 








30 
13 

2i 

3 
2 
3 






4 














17 


38 




9 






9 


'180,000 


1 


3,000 


5 


7,000 


i 


4 


5 








1,200.00 


1,300.00 


18 


39 


















19 


4n 


3 


10 

11 
3 






10 

14 
3 


'15,486 

244,650 
94,200 


































40 


41 


1 


32,000 


17 


239,193 














14 
14 
8 

'4 




' 27 


33 








24,563.21 


24,563.21 
30,000.00 


41 


4? 








1 

"i 






30,000.00 


4' 


43 














1 
1 




2 












41 


44 






































44 


45 
























2 








B 




4 






1 
4 




1 




















1 

4 










160.00 
1,600.00 


160.00 
1,500.00 


45 


46 












3 












2 




4 








Roscoe Pulliam 

George Scheuchenpf lug 

Ernest C. Savage 

P. H. Slocum 

0. C. Stcnger 


46 


47 




1 


12,000 


, 2 


2,300 




















47 


H 




4 






4 


25,000 




1 
I 
8 
2 
1 

1 






1 
"2 




"i 

1 


2 

2i 
4 
5 

4 
2 
2 
8 
10 


1 
1 
1 


















48 










1 
1 
1 
2 

1 
















48 


4<t 


















5 


16,200 










74,500.66 




74,600.00 


40 


SO 


"6 


4 
3 

1 
1 
3 
5 
6 
2 


8 




4 

3 

3 
15 
6 
2 
5 
5 


20,000 
50,000 

66,361 
50,000 
















50 


SI 














1 


1 


1 



















R. H. Peters 

Howard Fellows 

D. V. Peacock 


51 


s? 






1 
1 


155,591 
250 


i 

i 
4 


4 
3 
2 


1 
1 
2 








600.00 
268.80 
783.96 


600.00 
268.80 
783.96 


5' 


53 


















51 


.'i4 






1 




















D. F. Nichols 


54 


S5 


112,961 
31,405 






4 


6,426 


2 


















VV. C. CoUisi 

Alice L. Samuelson 

Oliver W. Strubler 

Josephine Blackstock . . . 

0. J. Christmann 

R L Baird. 


55 


56 
















2 


6 






19,784.00 


1.490.30 


21,496.28 


5A 


57 
























57 


58 


713,413 
15,000 


5 


72,117 






5 


1 










9 


5 


8 




8 






2,442.00 


9,612.49 


58 


5(t 


5 
























■ifl 


50 












2 

"7 
2 










1 


4 


1 
















fn 


51 




2 
6 

1 






2 
6 
1 


12,000 
'65,000 
50,000 






7 


47,900 




"3 


















Walter B. Martin 

E. L. Peterson 


61 


n 








2 


23 
6 


3 


16 


16 








3,302.40 


3,802.40 




6? 


1 


7,500 


1 


4,500 


1 








Wmiam C. Ladwig 


t? 

































71 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 





STATE AND 
CITY 


• 

Popular 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


1 
1 

•s 






Paid 
Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Woikcrs 






c 

v 

s 

•s 

6 
!5 


1 
d 


1! 

as 


g 
S 
o 
d 


a 
1 

"S 
d 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


^ 


"S 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


■3 

i 




111.— Cont. 

Rockford 

^ock Island 


85,864 

37,953 
1,150 

5,377 

71,824 

4,200 

. 13,000 

40,000 

7,500 

17,000 

117,373 

12,500 

40,000 
10,000 

9,000 
10,000 

5,156 

55,000 
103,000 
115,000 

15,000 
400,000 

12,000 
6,400 

15,755 

700 

28,630 

1,638 

14,000 

5,500 

30,000 

600 

8,990 
20,000 

1,200 

4,000 
7,362 

56,000 
26,726 
42,048 

60,751 
3,905 

146,000 

4,960 

1,021 

5,000 

15,342 

15,000 

4,000 

23,000 

11,560 

28,800 

79,183 
46,000 

12,756 
16,198 
5.500 
121,857 
15,000 
15,000 
1,800 


f Park District 


7 


8 

1 
4 
1 

1 












2,337.50 

1,200.00 

3,623.82 

150.00 

1,600.00 




2,337.50 

2,500.00 

4,114.15 

160.00 

4,619.98 


22,828.07 

2,500.00 

4.8.59.41 

810.00 

6,603.09 


M 

P 
M 
M 

P 
M 
M 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
C 
P 
M 

M 

M&P 

M 
M&P 

M 

M 
M 
M 

P 

M 

M 

M 
M&P 

M 

M 
M&P 

M 

M 

M&P 
M 
M 

P 

P 
MAP 

P 
M&P 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M&P 
M 
M 

M&P 

M 
M 

M 
M 
P 
P 
P 
P 
P 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 

M4P 
M&P 

M 

M 

P 


I 


1 


I Booker T. Washington Community 
I Center" . . 


1 
1 


6 
3 


7 
3 






1,300.00 
490.33 







Playground and Recreation Commission 


18 
1 

3 




745.26 
50.00 

1,983.11 


? 


S 


610.00 


3 


4 


St. Charles 

Springfield 

Sycamore 

Urbana 


Henry Rockwell Baker Memorial 

Community Center Board 

Park Board 


1 


3 


8 


3,119.98 


4 






a 


5 


Playground and Recreation Commission 
[ Memorial Community Center Asso- 


47 

2 

1 


66 

1 


5 


i 


1 




5,471.80 

3,092.44 
2,547.27 


18,028.20 

1,042.14 
200.00 




18,028.20 

2,007.66 
3,356.61 


23,500.00 

5,100.10 
11,927.98 


5 


ft 




965.52 
3,156.61 


ft 




1 Park Board 


6,024.10 


a 


7 








7 


R 


Waukegan 

WhpAton 




13 
3 

12 
4 
5 


8 
1 
4 










800.00 
1,700.00 
1,436.11 

325.00 
7,459.00 
4,781.06 


2,700.00 




2,700.00 
2,600.00 
7,694.66 
2,398.00 
11,760.00 
17,690.01 


3,500.00 
4,300.00 
9,130.69 
7,446.80 
22,209.00 
22,471.07 

36,573.03 
3,381.77 
3,838.20 
6,097.14 

1,375.00 

53,300.00 

27,223.00 

13,260.20 

7,700.00 

6,000.00 

63,556.73 

1,685.00 

3,800.00 

2,300.00 

11,810.00 

100.00 

1,486.00 

3,806.99 

'4,500.00 
1.100.00 
1,500.00 
3,400.00 


f 


9 


Park District 












9 


10 


Wilmette 

Winnebago Co.^ . . 

Winnetka 

Indiana 

Anderson 

Bedford 


Playground and Recreation Board 

County Forest Preserve District 

/ Community House, Inc., Board 

1 Park District 


4 








7,402.75 


201.80 


If 


1] 






4,723.80 
3,000.00 


11 


12 


2 


3 


!350 




7,450.00 


4,300.00 


12 

a 


13 


Board of Park Commissioners 


6 

7 

1 
7 

1 

1 

43 

21 

4 

2 

27 
3 
3 
4 
1 


13 
3 
1 
4 

1 

23 

32 

4 

3 

28 
3 
4 
6 




6 


6 








13 


14 


900.00 
"3,500.00 


1,348.69 

128.20 

1,679.23 

1,000.00 

500.00 
2,159.0-3 


810.03 

210.00 

4,417.91 

375.00 

2,800.00 
10,638.00 
6,934.06 
4,480.00 


323.05 


1,133.08 

210.00 

4,417.91 

375.00 

2,800.00 
18,064.00 
6,934.06 
4,900.00 


U 


15 






.... 


1 
4 


... 


11 


16 


Columbus 

Decatur . . 




. 


1( 


17 


Woman's Club and Parent Teacher 










East Chicago 

Evansville 

Fort Wayne 

Huntington 

Indianapolis 

Jefferson vilie 

Kendallville 

La Porte 


1; 


18 


Recreation Division, Department of 
Public Parka 


1 
2 










18 




Recreation Department, Park Board. . 

j Board of Park Commissioners 

\ The Wheatley Social Center" 

Board of Works and School Board .... 






7,000.00 


7,426.00 


II 








20 


20 


4 






800.00 


2,000.00 


420.00 


a 


?1 






21 


?3 


4 






1,431.63 


18,083.14 

641.00 

2,000.00 


23,389.63 
864.00 


20,662.33 
180.00 


44,041.96 
1,044.00 
1,800.00 
2,300.00 
6,660.00 


22 


23 








2i 


?4 


City of Kendallville 










2^ 






.... 


2 

"2 


2 
2 




2,300.00 
2,560.00 




25 


25 


1 Civic Auditorium Advisory Board . . . 




5,150.00 


4,100.00 




?6 






26 


?7 


Mishawaka 

Pendleton 

Peru 




9 


9 








172.00 
1,669.30 

1,660.00 
600.00 
150.00 


1,224.00 


90.00 
2,137.69 


1,314.00 
2,137.69 

2,840.00 

600.00 

1,360.00 

1,800.00 


27 


'S 


Park Board 










21 


29 


y. M. C. A. and School and Park 


3 
1 
7 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 

1 


2 
1 
4 

2 
2 










2,840.00 

200.00 

1.350.00 

1,800.00 






Plymouth 

Richmond 

Speed 

Wabash 


2i 


30 


Park Board 










300.00 


3( 




i School Board 










31 


81 


\ Townsend Community Center" 

Louisville Cement Corporation 


1 
2 


11 


W 






a 


S? 








32 


33 






524.50 


986.40 
12,000.00 


721.00 
8,000.00 


856.00 
11,000.00 


1,577.00 
19,000.00 


3,087.90 

31.000.00 

1,850.90 

1,500.00 
6.000.00 
8,954.00 
4,154.00 
6,722.10 


3; 


34 


Whiting 




2 


3 




12 


34 


35 


Zionsville 

Iowa 






35 


36 












1,200.00 




300.00 




300.00 


36 


37 


Cedar Falls 

Cedar Rapids 

Clinton 
















37 






17 


12 


4 


2 


8 


397.00 

384.00 

3,675.00 


961.82 

456.30 

1,265.92 


6,369.35 


1,225.83 
3,313.70 
1,781.18 


7,596.18 
3.313.70 
1,781.18 


38 


38 




1 


39 


Park Board 














31 


40 


Council Bluffs ... . 
Davenport 


Parent Teacher Association, Chamber 
of Commerce and School District . . . 


1 
5 


3 
& 










40 














2,000.00 




2,000.00 
22,418.55 


10,000.00 
29,467.07 


41 


41 










1,722.16 


5.326.36 


22,418.56 


a 


4? 


American Legion and Fire Department 
[ Playground and Recreation Commis- 


1 

22 












42 


43 


Des Moines 

Estherville 

Fonda . . 


22 


3 










13,017.00 


1,620.00 
I 23,842.86 


14,537.00 
23,842.86 


14,537.00 

60,700.49 

1,430.00 

660.00 

300.00 

2,240.00 

2,500.00 

1,200.00 

700.00 

480.00 

29,875.00 

10,764.65 


43 




[ Park Board 






19,864.28 
590.00 
500.00 


16,993.35 


a 


44 




2 
1 
1 

1 
2 
3 
2 
1 
1 
37 


1 










44 


45 












160.00 
150.00 
865.00 
2,000.00 
800.00 




160.00 

260.00 

940.00 

2,000.00 

1,200.00 


45 


46 














50.00 
600.00 
500.00 


100.00 
76.00 


4(1 


47 


Iowa City 

Keokuk 


Recreation Board . . 


1 
1 
2 

1 


"l 


10 
2 
4 

16 


25 
6 
2 

16 


700.00 


4V 


48 


Friendly House Community Center. . . 

American Legion Post No. 298 

Y. M.C. A.andY. W.C. A 


48 


49 


Marion .... 




400.00 


4ti 


50 


Mason City 






5( 


51 






480.00 
1,000.00 
6,686.50 




480.00 
1,376.00 
8,895.89 


51 


S' 


Ottumwa 

Sioux City 

W'aterloo. . . 


Y. M C A and Park Board 










25,000.00 


3,500.00 
1,868.76 


375.00 
3,309.39 


a 




/ School Board 


31 


1 






53 


(IS 


1 Park Board 








a 


54 




5 

1 
1 
2 


5 








5,000.00 


1,200.00 
200.'00 


1,550.00 


250.00 


1,800.00 
400.00 


8,000.00 
"600.00 


54 




Kansas 

.Arkansas aty 

Coffey vilie 

Concordia 

Kansas City 

Lawrence 

Parsons , 

Smith Centre 






5 




,5.1 


K 


lY.M.C. A..._ 


2 












s 


56 






125.00 


440.00 

25.00 

1,756.00 

1,900.00 

1,900.00 


75.00 


516.00 

25.00 

1,756.00 

1,900.00 

1,900.00 

300.00 


640.00 

>25.00 

3,607.66 

2,100.00 

1,900.00 

400.00 


51 


S7 




1 
3 
4 










5' 


1^8 




3 
2 
1 








386,85 


1,464.81 
200.00 




.51 


59 












.51 


ftO 


School Board 




8 
1 


6 
1 






6( 


61 


Board of Park Trustees 








100.00 


300.00 


6 



















72 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 









Playgrounds 


Recreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


B 
3 

•3 
.s 


J 

a 

D 
■§" 

a 

.a 

a 

1 
1 


a 
3 

i 

B 

m 


a 

3 

<S 
•0 

w 


'0 




i 

a 
z 



B 

2 

i 

"o 




s 
3 
z 

1 

(S 

tc 

3 

'a 
a 
'E 


1 
Z 

8 

-a 

1 

1 

■§ 

a 


J 
Z 




c 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


Buildings 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 




>. 

2 

o 
o 


a 
§ 

1 


1 

1 
1 


I. 
g 

1 
eg 


o 
•a 
fc 
a 

B 

3 
CO 




1 
El 

II 




m 

III 


a 
z 


111 

l!l 


a 

s 


g 
Z 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 

J 1 

"s ■s 

d 6 

z z 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


>> 



*o 
6 
7, 


1 




7 

1 
4 

1 






7 

1 
4 
1 


209,482 










1 


16 




1 


2 




2 


45 


10 




















\ 


1 
1 


9,600 








2 
6 




2 




900.00 
1,179.59 


900.00 
2,619.59 






1 


'72,834 
2,750 


5 




1 


1 
1 












10 

1 


3 


2 




Melville H. Hodge 

William Redd 

Robert F. Munn 




S 






















1 


/| 


1 


71,404 














1 




















4 
























1 








2 
»36 




















1 




23 




1 


24 


245,608 


1 
1 


5,675 


8 


48,675 


8 


9 


!»2 


"1 


1 


38] 


»4 


36 


12 


36 


12 




6,800.00 


6,800.00 


John E. MacWherter . . . 

Mrs. J. S. Halsted 

S. M. Henderson 

W. C. Noel 


<t 


fi 




ft 
























1 






1 




2 


1 










6,000.00 




6,000.00 




7 


































7 


8 




9 






9 


61,320 










3 


9 

1 

1 

10 


2 








12 
5 
2 


1 

"i 


3 

'25 
3 


2 

"io 








800.00 

' '2,900.00 
1,200.00 


900.00 

'4,464.52 
8,128.13 


Al. G. Groeche 


8 



























J. L. D. Langan 

Daniel M. Davis 

T. G. Lindquist 

George C. Getgood 

H. L. Woolhiser 


Q 


in 




2 






2 


34,325 






2 


50,403 


2 










10 


n 






5 




1 






6,928.13 




1' 














1 


s'o'ooo 






















17 




















1 

1 
1 


1 

5 

1 

3 

1 

6 
3 


2 




1 

1 




1 
1 


3 

7 
4 
4 
4 

1 

24 

20 

48 

1 

4 

74 

2 

3 

12 




















n 




11 

4 
2 

4 






11 
4 
2 
4 












5 
1 
1 

1 

1 

4 

1 
2 
2 
















n 


14 


67,167 
26,000 
33,270 






1 


2,500 










3,800.00 
5,000.00 




3,800.00 
5,000.00 


James J. Crossett 

E. A. Brunochler 

Walter M.Hall 

Arthur R. Holthouse 

F. V. Merriman 




IS 
























IS 


16 


1 


39,818 






2 

1 

2 
3 








1 


1 
1 
1 

5 
2 


1 


2 








16 


17 


























17 


18 








10 
"2 


10 
12 
15 
1 
4 

36 
3 


210,660 

230,000 

197,142 

15,154 


1 
1 


37,785 
10,000 


15 

21 


290,210 
18,000 


1 


1 


i 

1 


2 


31 

40 

2 

2 


42 

45 

1 

2 








13,352.00 

15,000.00 

394.00 

300.00 


13,352.00 

22,000.00 

394.00 

300.00 


18 


19 




12 
15 
1 
3 
36 
3 
4 
2 
1 
1 
7 


3 


10 


5 




19 


'n 




Carrie .\. Sniveiy 

Edgar J. Unthank 

Zach T. Dungan 

H. W.Middlesworth.... 
S. Harlan Vogt 


90 


n 


1 

1 

8 


35,871 

5,000 

274,644 


1 


2,753 












?1 




21 


1 
2 


"2 


"4 




1 
5 








?I 


m 


'647,612 
147,000 




















97 


n 
















800.00 




800.00 
2,050.00 


?3 


?4 












■ 1 




















?4 


?.■) 


'54,034 
12,500 


























?S 


n 




100,000 






























W. A. Goering 


fi 


S6 




800 














1 




















Hardy R. Songer 

J. I. Fetters 


?ft 


27 


117,729 














6 


















?7 


28 




















1 
















J. H. Walker 


?8 


M 




3 

1 
6 


1 






15,000 
10,000 
48,283 






3 








1 






2 

4 




2 














C. Y. Andrews 


?fl 


in 


























Arthur F. Becknell 

L. H. Lyboult 


30 


31 






































31 


n 


1 
1 
1 

1 


25,000 






































Mrs. Julia W. Partner... 

Jesse G. Dorsey 

W C Mills 




3? 
























1 






1 


1 


















3? 


33 










11,000 
300,000 






















13 


34 




S 

1 








81,400 
12,000 
















1 




10 

1 

3 
6 




1 


12 














14 


3S 
























IS 


Ifl 










1 
1 










1 


















M P Weaver 


16 


37 






















2 
3 

2 


1 


1 






















W. K. Voorheea 

Mrs. Clare Nichola 

Ed Stpfan 


17 


38 




7 






7 


125,000 






12 


12,840 








3 
3 

1 


22 


15 




9 




3,199.50 


7,320.60 
17,673.00 
19,727.30 


IS 


fl 






1 


1 








10 
12 






31 






































18,477.30 




L. P. Hannaher 

Otto A Wur! 


10 


4n 




6 
3 


... 




6 
3 


'9,000 
130,428 






6 


1,450 






















40 


41 




















7 
6 
2 

'47 
4 


2 
3 
















0. E. Johnson 

C. 0. E. Boehm 


41 














2 
1 

is 






2 




















42 






















1 
















4? 


43 




22 






22 


'285,200 






12 


8,814 


1 
1 




■'2 


2 


'3 


4 


2 








1,300.00 


1,300.00 
133,233.40 

" " '600.00 


Kathryn E. Krieg 


41 












133,233.40 




44 


































P V T.inkp 


44 


45 




































4S 


4«< 


















1 
2 




4 


1 








1 


8 
















John C. Truesdale 


16 


47 




1 
2 




3 


4 
2 
















9 


8 








425i00 


625.00 


47 


48 


3,000 


1 


12,000 






2 






















Mabel V.Sones 

Z N Lundv 


48 


4f) 




































49 


sn 




10 






10 


85,600 






2 














1 


E. M.Karges 


SO 


SI 














1 






2 


















P A Handke 


51 


52 




1 

17 






1 
17 








1 
9 




1 
1 


2 

2 










E. J. Eigenmann 

John E. Gronseth 

H.C.Kingsbury 

Gordon R. Speers 

Jamee F. Clough 

OrviUe E. Steffens 

ThelmaC. Mifflin 

E. B. AMbaugh 


S' 


53 


361,984 






19,750 
















15 








3,150.00 


3,150.00 


SI 










1 
»1 

1 






5 

1 


24 
11 

4 














54 




7 






7 


106,420 










5 


3 


1 


2 

2 


"6 










1,080.00 


1,500.00 
2,100.00 


S4 


55 
















2,100.00 


ss 






2 

1 






2 

1 


'1,200 
9,600 












2 
















5« 










1 








1 
1 

1 




4 


















S6 


57 


































S7 


58 




15 
4 






15 
4 


128,000 
10,000 










4 
2 
1 

1 


8 
2 
2 
1 








5 


32 
10 

"i 


4 

"i 
1 


52 


48 








17,280.00 


30,680.31 
' ■ ■ ■ '2'4'o.o6 




S8 


5(1 






















E. A. Wood . 


S9 


(in 






4 










1 




C J Mills 


60 


fli 




















1 


















3. C Stevens 


61 



















































73 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 









— 1 






















Footnotes follow 




STATE AND 
CITY 

t - 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
{Not Including Emergency Funds) 


02 

1 

•s 






Paid 
Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 




•E 


o 


"S 
d 
Z 


¥ 

is 

o.e 


g 
S 

•s 


a 
B 

o 

•s 

d 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


^ 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


•3 

i 




Kansas— Cont. 

Topeka 


65,000 

7,405 
100,000 

1,827 
45,736 

320,000 

30,000 

5,000 
3,000 

23,025 

31,465 

1,054 

4,000 

14,000 
26,028 

458,762 

3,450 
80,000 

325 

70,000 

7,000 

12,000 
16,000 
10,807 

841,264 
14,434 

10,000 
37,500 
10,000 

22,000 
21,748 
25,086 

781,188 

18,000 
62,160 
50,000 

125,000 
48,000 

4,224 
12,957 
15,000 
12,000 

6,400 
47,000 
10,700 
40,692 

22,743 
19,399 
15,500 
55,690 


f Board of Education 


16 


15 




8 


10 




751.00 


3,600.00 


310.00 


3,910.00 


4,661.00 
'9,948.00 


M 

M 
M 
M 

P 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M&P 
P 
P 

P 
M 
P 

P 
P 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
P 
P 
M 

P 
M 

P 
M 
M 

P 

SCMP 

M 
M&P 

M&P 

M 
M&P 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

P 

M 

M&P 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M&P 
M&P 

P 

M 

P 

M 

M 

M 

M 

P 

M 

M 

M 


t 


1 


] Department of Public Parka and 
[ Property 


9.948.00 






Wellington 

Wichita 


n 


? 


Park Board 




















? 


3 


Board of Park Commissioners 


6 

1 
20 

3 
65 


4 


















14,000.00 

120.89 

34,500.33 

62.444.06 

60,200.00 
41,024.60 

2,933.12 
575.00 
500 00 

3,000.00 

7.000.00 

375.00 

450.00 

900.00 

1,800.00 

29,497.80 

5,500.00 

66,582.56 

29,322.59 

914.56 

250.00 

12,000.00 

220.00 
13,000.00 

208.16 

1,000.00 

18,376.02 

4.602.51 

126.427.14 

694,723.70 

565.00 

5,650.00 
6,208.45 
5,120.00 

520.00 
25,293.00 
3,750.00 

60,600.00 

81,080.55 


3 


4 


Kentucky 

Berea 




2 
5 

2 


2 
15 
5 


6.00 
18,656.32 
45,000.00 


12.94 

1,546.65 

944.05 

13,200.00 


101.95 

4,997.36 

4,800.00 

37,000.00 




101.95 

14,297.36 

6,500.00 

37,000.00 


4 




Lexington 

Louisville 


Playground and Recreation Depart- 


7 

8 

43 


1 

2 
29 


9,300.00 
1,700.00 


5 


i) 


Colored Department of Playground 




A 


Division of Recreation, Department 
of Welfare 


A 














Ik 


7 


Playground Committee, Community 


1 
1 
1 

1 
2 


10 












1,824.00 

76.00 

384.00 

900.00 
2,500.00 




1,824.00 
125.00 
384.00 

1,500.00 
5,500.00 






Princeton 

RuaaeU 


7 


8 










100.00 


350.00 
116.00 

1,600.00 
1,600.00 


60.00 


R 


q 


Community Work Committee 

Playground Comrades International. . . 


1 
14 








9 


in 


Louisiana 

Alexandria 

Baton Rouge 

Delhi 










600.00 
3,000.00 


10 


11 










11 


^?. 


Municipal Golf Club 










12 


13 


DonaldsonviUe 

Lafayette 


Mohawk Tribe No. 33 Improved Order 














250.00 
100.00 
100.00 

5,279.94 

1,000.00 

12,915.62 

6,882.49 

205.39 




200.00 


200.00 

800.00 

1,700.00 

24,217.86 

1,500.00 

40,609.28 

22,440.10 

709.17 

250.00 

6,000.00 

210.00 
6,751.61 

208.16 
1,000.00 

500.00 
2,737.92 

86.932.42 

436,566.94 

480.00 


13 


14 




1 


1 
1 

22 

2 










800.00 
1,700.00 

24,217.86 

1,200.00 


r* 


15 




1 
23 










\!i 




New Orleans 

PinevUle 


Playground Community Service Corn- 


8 
3 










Ifl 


16 


Orleans Parish Schools and Public 






3,000.00 
13,157.66 


300.00 


a 












h 




















c 




Council of Social Agencies" 

Playground Comrades International . . . 


3 
1 

4 

6 


1 
4 
6 




38 


68 




709.17 

150.00 

6,000.00 

180.00 
4,751.53 

125.00 

500.00 

308.00 

2,599.92 




d 


17 




100.00 


17 


IS 


Shreveport 

Maine 

Derby 


3 








6,000.00 

10.00 
6,548.49 


18 


19 




2 


3 




30.00 
1,999.98 

83.16 
500.00 
192.00 
138.00 


19 


?n 


Portland 




19 

2 

1 


1 




20 


?1 




Women's Educational and Industrial 




10 










21 


?' 


Park and Playground Commission .... 


1 
2 
2 

139 










22 


?3 


Waterville 

Westbrook 

Maryland 

Baltimore 

Frederick 

Massachusetts 

Andover 








17,875.02 




23 


?4 




179 


1 
44 


4 


2 


1,864.69 

39,494.72 

242,764.63 

85.00 


24 




f Playground Athletic League 




26 


25 






15,412.13 




436,556.94 


a 


?fi 




3 

4 
6 

1 

1 

21 

8 

76 

10 
18 

2 


4 

3 
6 








480.00 


26 


V7 




1 


10 


17 






27 


'8 


Arlington 

Athol 






2,335.60 


1,633.72 


2,239.13 


3,872.85 


28 


?« 


E. R. A., Y. M. C. A and Red Cross. . 








3,000.00 


29 


'10 


Attleboro 

Belmont 


1 

16 
8 

150 

701 
12 

2 








240.00 
4,255.00 
2,350.00 

12,000.00 

7,824.92 


280.00 
8,848.00 
1,400.00 

28,500.00 

56,506.^ 




280.00 
11,798.00 
1,400.00 

48,600.00 

73,255.63 


30 


11 










9,240.00 


2,950.00 


31 


■^0 


Beverly 










32 




Boston 


Department of Extended Use, School 


1 
30 

3 


10 


15 


, 


20,100.00 
16,748.91 


33 




Physical Education Dept., School 




a 


33 


Board of Park Commissioners 








b 




Braintree 

Brockton 

Brookline 

Cambridge 

Chelsea 








19,463.38 


8,692.00 


2,916.00 


11.608.00 


31,071.38 

444,375.00 

2,500.00 

11,411.37 

39,335.00 
37,594.65 
1,946.55 
12,406.34 
6,050.00 
5,242.38 
1,600.00 













303,400.00 
400.00 


d 


14 


Board of Park Commissioners 


1 
13 

10 
29 
6 
1 
4 
6 
5 
3 
2 
2 
7 
7 
1 
5 


3 
11 

15 
17 
6 
1 
3 
4 
5 
1 
7 
2 
3 
8 








600.00 
7,444.66 

6,463.00 
1,336.01 


500.00 
3,844.21 

16,475.00 
24,758.64 
1,872.00 
3,500.00 
2,000.00 
3,531.00 
1,192,00 


1,000.00 
122.50 

16,397.00 


1,500.00 
3,966.71 

32,872.00 
24,758.64 
1,872.00 
6,634.75 
2.000.00 
3,531.00 
1,192.00 


34 


'I'i 








35 


36 


Gymnasium and Bath Department, 

and Playground Department 

3oard of Park Commissioners 

E'ark Department and E. R. A. . 

Community Recreation Association. . . 


8 
6 








36 


17 






11,500.00 
74.55 


37 


IB 








iS 


3g 


Dalton 


1 


15 


21 


6,771.59 

1,000.00 

1,711.38 

408.00 


2,134.75 


J9 


4n 




2,050.00 


10 


41 






1 








11 


4' 


Easthampton 

East Milton 

Everett 












12 


41 


Trustees of Cunningham Foundation. . 
Playground Commission 


2 










13 


44 








1,435.00 


1,200.00 


4,678.00 


5.778.00 


7,213.00 
3,039.46 
5,928.47 

13,700.00 
8,341.52 
3,982.18 
2,500.00 

17,944.05 


:4 


45 


[i'airhaven 

Fitchburg 

F'ramingham 


Park Board 










15 


46 






n 




212.56 
9,000.00 


936.54 
1,200.00 
4,427.88 

743.68 


1,278.87 

1,000.00 

1,941.65 

891.00 


3.500,50 
2,500.00 
1,971.99 
2,347.50 


4,779.37 
3,500.00 
3,913.64 
3,238.50 


lA 






7 


4V 






6 


6 




48 


^ark and Playground Department 

'layground and Recreation Commission 
i^arks and Recreation Commission .... 


4 






18 


49 
50 


Greenfield 

Holyoke 


4 11 
20 33 










C) 










3,210.56 


7,571.28 


7,162.21 


14,733.49 


iO 

















74 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 
the table 









Playgrounds 




lecreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


E 

3 


B 
p 

1 
1 

s 
1 


e 

3 

"ea 


a 

i 

s" 

E 




1 

•3 

a 

1 

"o 




5 

a 
z. 

i 

C 

a 

s 

CO 


1 

a 

a 
1 J 

■s a 

1 1 

•^ 1 

CO E- 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


Buildings 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 




> 

c 

•c 
c 


o 


S 
1 


s 

1 

■g 

1 


S 

6 
•a 

11 


S 

IS 

"i 

e2| 


a 


Ill 


a 




1 

=3 

1 s 


•3 
1 

3 
2: 


Em- 
ployed 
Full 
Time , , 

J- Land, 

g Buildings, 
■u 1 Permanent 
S -^ Equipment 

•s -s 

d 6 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


•s 

6 

z; 


1 




14 




. ■ 14 


241,719 












f 
1 

} 

e 
1 
3 
























L. P. Dittemore 


I 






















3 28 

... 1 

5 12 


5 .. 












George P. Kug, 




V 


























I 
I 
















C. L. Haslet 


? 


1 


4 


4 

1 
5 
5 




.. 4 

1 

. 5 

. 6 

19 23 


317,200 

<2,600 
347,953 
285,914 
686,159 












Alfred Mac Donald.... 
Forest Wyatt 


1 


4 






1 
1 


IOC 
8,200 
















4 


s 


1 

2 
5 


24,720 
47,382 
125,660 


2 


2 
1 










... 8 


1 












Anna S. Pherigo 

T. E. Brown. 


S 






1 






... 6 


1 ... 














n 


15 


121,309 








... 21 


10 










}w.R.II. Sherman.... 

Mrs. E. C. Wendt 

Everett Howton 

W. W. Tenney 


A 




2 


35 




1 


2 


1 


1 74 


14 .... 












7 


"2 


9 

1 
1 

5 
1 




. 9 
1 
1 

. 5 
. 3 


62,720 

4,500 

32,903 

127,500 
116,800 






















7 


S 










1 
1 

1 














1 2 
1 ... 


2 






133.20 


133.20 


8 


n 


1 


6,055 


1 


1,655 


1 

1 










... 4 






q 


in 




Ml 
1 
1 






ai 9 
1 8 


1 . 












W.E.Brown 

Powers Higginbotham.. . 
C. C. Cutler 


10 


11 






















11 


1? 




























1? 


n 






























1 ... 

1 2 

... 6 


i .'.'. 












H. F. Vulliamy. 


1? 


14 


15 
50 


2 
5 




. 2 
. 6 

15 


*9,600 
15,000 

935,741 






1 


303 


3 


1 
2 










George H. Gardiner 


14 


15 


























15 


in 


1 
3 


58,066 
40,193 
















5 ... 

1 ... 
1 24 
1 23 


7 












L. di Benedetto, Sr 


16 




10 


10 . 


. 70 


2 


18,000 












1 


... 90 
1 ... 


65 






5,020.00 


5,020.00 




h 






8 
4 




1 


1 






M. G. Montreuil 

J. A. Hayes 


h 






































H 


6 


20 

1 

17 

1 
11 

1 

1 
1 

40 


12: 

3 3 


. 20 

1 

. 29 

1 
. 11 

1 
1 
1 
1 

8 87 


99,000 
22,000 
































Wilmer Rhinlrfs, 


d 


17 




































W.E.Brown 


17 


18 


1 








2 


3 

1 
9 


1 
1 


1 






... 22 


6 3 
1 .... 


21 


3 


!1 65,000.00 


9,168.00 


74,168.00 


GroverC. Thames 

W. J. Russell 


IS 


19 


<3,600 
'216,000 

2,010 

5,000 

39,200 

16,500 

'524,606 












1 2 
... 11 


19 


?n 


















1 .... 












Granville R. Lee 

Ruth S.Murray 

Harry Stott 


20 


?i 
































21 


?? 










1 
1 


1 
1 

1 










1 ... 
1 ... 
1 6 


1 .... 












?:?. 


n 


















4 


4 




. 28,875.53 


1,680.00 


30,555.53 


J. Frank Goodrich 

Paul F. Fraser 


n 


?4 






1 
219 


19,140 
1,163,166 










24 


?s 


3 


149,862 










17 


24 


14 


2 


19,799.98 


'. 20,697.85 
435,259.86 


Dr. William Burdick.... 
John V. Kelly 


25 




6 
4 

1 

1 
2 

1 

a 
1 


26 

1 

1 
1 
2 

1 
6 
8 


1 


2 


2 




7 106 
1 2 


2 .... 


. 435,259.86 




?fi 




4 

1 

7 




. 4 

1 

1 8 

2 2 

1 

7 7 

. 7 












3 .... 










Helma L. Hann 

Margaret Davis 

Clarence H. Dempsey. . . 

Alexander P. Johnstone 

and Edna iV. Gorton. 


26 


?7 


22,680 
40,161 


1 


17,082 


























?,7 


n 


1 

1 


185 
39,000 










... 5 












600.00 
38,544.26 


28 


•>q 






1 






1 


1 6 

1 4 
1 19 


2 


2 




. 37,914.26 


630.00 




10 




1 




25,200 
257,348 
42,022 






29 


TI 






























Lewis S. Harris 

Public Works Dept 

James T. Mulroy 

Julia A. Murphy 

William P. Long and 

F. Lloyd Eno 

M. Olive Crowley 

William E. Whittaker. . . 

3arry Vinton, Jr 

AbbieO. Delano 

Charles P. Cameron .... 
Stephen H. Mahoney. . . 

Timothy F. Kane 

W. J. Sandford, Jr 

laymond Funchion 

Mrs. Ada H. Pillsbury. . 


31 


T> 




7 












5 




















12 


IS 






14 


515,000 






















13 


a 


'60 


15 


...15 


8 173 
. 60 

. 25' 


3,600,000 
































A 


h 


11 


235,000 






4 


108 


9 




2 


2 


1 100 


1 100 
. .. 31 


60 
55 






94,146.00 
8,415.35 


•94,146.00 

"310,257.92 

9,625.00 

30,000.00 

7,993.78 






25 




61,830 


5 


68,405 




. 234,650.81 
9,625.00 


b 


H 








12 
5 
11 

13 

7 
5 
2 
6 

"i 

2 


18 
2 




2 




1 12 
9 




d 


■(4 


1 
5 


1 
11 

10 
8 


12 ., 


1 
. 11 

. 23 
6 18 
5 5 
. 3 
2 5 
. 2 
. 4 
1 
. 9 
. 4 
9 9 
. 5 












1 
1 

13 
6 
5 
2 
4 
1 
1 
2 










u 


•15 


•135,000 

92,121 
'600,000 
341,250 

44,682 
















4 1 
1 


2 . .. 






7,993.78 




1,5 


16 


3 
3 


245,024 












1 










16 


17 


3 
2 




2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 


1 

i 




5 


2 12 
.. 12 

1 1 

2 .... 


6 
10 


S " 


. 20,000.00 


2,316.00 
15,616.00 


22,563.69 
15,616.00 


17 


IS 








1 
1 


.. 5 
.. 4 
2 8 
1 2 


18 


iq 


i 


3 
3 
2 
4 




1 


55,297 








19 


40 


2 














to 


41 


'13,705 
52,000 


1 
























(1 


4? 














1 4 


6 






864.00 


864.00 


1? 


43 


1 


150,000 












1 S 
.. 2 






W.L. Caldwell 

■•red A. Hutchings 

Mrs. Mabel 0. Dutton. . 

ohnC. O'Malley ' 

laymond J. Callahan. . . ^ 
F. D. Mac Cormick 


11 


44 


9 
4 
















7 


5 




36,318.34 


7,581.32 


43,899.66 


14 


4'i 


56,600 
200,000 
36,000 










5 
'4 


2 
9 
5 


2 

1 
4 








3 


5 


U 






7 


6,500 








3 2 
4 


11 
3 


3 
3 
3 




75,682.61 
42,347.06 


4,148.40 
700.00 
50.00 


87,501.16 

43,047.06 

50.00 

6,347.65 

8,764.30 


A 


47 




5 




1 
1 


4,000 








7 


















48 




4 
8 
14 




. 4 
. 8 
. 14 


'36,990 

'18,870 

'154,689 








1 
2 

1 


5 
2 
9 










.. 6 






6,347.65 
8,764.30 


8 


in 


















4 








jeonard Thompson ^ 

Mina F. Robb 


^ 


•in 
















1 


3 6 


2 .... 












































75 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



STATE AND 
CITY 



Popula- 
tion 



Managing 
Authority 



Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 



Paid 

Workers 



-=-a 
o >- 



Volun- 
teer 
Woi kere 



Expenditures Laat Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 



Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 



Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 



Salaries and Wages 



For 
Leadership 



Other 
Services 



Total 



Total 



Norwood 

Salem 

Somerville. . . 

Spencer 

Springfield . . . 

Taunton 

Turners Falls . 



Wakefield . 
Walpole . . . 
Waltham . . 



West Newton . . . . 
West Springfield.. 
Worcester 



Michigan 

Adrian 

Ann Arbor 



Mass. — Cont. 
Lawrence 



Lexington . 
Lowell . . . . 
Ludlow . . . 

Lynn 

Medford . . 



Melrose 

Methuen 

Milton 

Needham .... 
New Bedford . 



Newton 

Northampton . . , 
North Attleboro . 



Battle Creek . . . 

Bay City 

Bergland Township 
Big Rapids^^. . . 



Caspian . . . 
Coldwater. 
Dearborn. . 



Detroit 

Dowagiac . . . . 
East Lansing. 
East Tawas . . 
Ferndale 



Flint 

Gladstone 

Grand Haven . . 
Grand Rapids . . 

Grayling 

Grosse Pointe. . 
Grosse Pointe Park 

Gwinn . 

Hamtramck . . . 



Hancock 

Harbor Beach . . 

Hastings 

Highland Park. 

Holland 

Houghton 

Ironwood 

Jackson 



Kalamazoo . 
Lansing .... 
Ludington. . 
Midland . . . 



Milan 

Monroe 

Mount Clemens. 
Mount Pleasant. 

Petosky 

Pontiac . .' 



85,068 

10,000 

101,820 

8,876 

105,000 

61,135 

23,566 
21,068 
17,500 

10,800 
110,000 

65,295 
25,000 
12,000 

15,049 
43,353 
104,000 
6,572 
150,000 
38,000 
8,000 

16,700 

7,449 

39.875 

10,006 
17,000 
197,000 



Park Department 

Playground Commission 

Park Department 

iNew Century Club and Village Club 
Beach Committee, Board of Trade . . 
ark Department 



Playground Commission 

Look Memorial Park Commission 

Parent Teacher Association and Play- 
ground Association 

Board of Selectmen 

Board of Park Commissioners 

Recreation Commission 

.Selectmen and Park Commissioners . . . 
Recreation Division, Park Department 

Park Commission 

Playground Commission 

) Recreation Commission 

\ Bath House Committee 

Town of Walpole 

Board of Recreation '. 

Community Centre, Inc 

, Stearns School Centre Association . . . 

Playground Commission 

Park and Recreation Commission 



13,408 
26,944 

43,573 

47,000 

800 

5,000 

1,888 

6,723 

60,000 

,568,662 

5,500 

5,000 

1,455 

20,855 

156,000 

5,100 

10,000 

168,592 

1,973 
22,000 
13,000 

2,518 
56,268 

6.000 
2,000 
5,227 
52,959 
17,000 
4,000 
14,299 

60,000 

55,000 

86,000 

8,898 

8,700 

1,947 
18,110 
14,000 
5,211 
5,740 
65,000 



Department of Parks and Publiq Prop- 
erty 

Park Department . . . . ^ 

Board of Park Commissioners 

Athletic and Recreation Association . . . 

Board of Park Commissioners 

Board of Park Commissioners 



Park Board and E. R. A 

Board of Education and Park Commis- 
sion 

Civic Recreational Association 

Recreation Committee 

School District 

Parent Teacher Association asd County 

Schools 

Community Center 

School Board 

Recreation Department 

Department of Recreation 

Department of Parks and Boulevards 

School Board 

.School Board and City Council 

Board of Education 

Board of Education 

Department of Parks and Recreation 

, Community Music Association'^ 

^hool Board 

Recreational Association 

Department of Recreation, Board of 

Education 

Board of Education 

( School Board 

\ Neighborhood Club 

V illage Commission 

City and Board of Education 

Department of Recreation, Board of 

Education 

City Council 

Board of Education 

Board of Education 

Recreation Commission 

Recreation Commission 

Board of Education 

Board of Education 

Board of Education 

Ella W. Sharp Park Board 

Department of Recreation 

, Douglass Community Assn., Inc.'^ 

Recreation Department 

School Board 

School Board and Comanunity Center 

Committee 

Recreation Commission 

School Board 

Recreation Department 

Board of Education 

Board of Education 

Recreation Department 



»1S 



8,667.41 



24,100.00 



629.04 



420.00 
5.179.00 



1,822.00 
6,500.00 



4,000.00 
90,000.00 



15,428.32 
SOO.OO 



1,839.25 
4,028.00 



400.00 



150.00 
229.32 



8,635.24 



200.00 



3,500.00 



390.00 



1,247.37 



2,480.16 



2,368.00 
6.000.00 
1,742.06 
2,855.76 
2,700.00 
714.88 

104.50 



1,366.16 
676.75 



26,318.73 
5,000.00 



75.00 
11,552.00 



1,944.95 



8,361.71 

1,350.00 

550.00 

218.51 

214.00 

1,191.75 

6,220.00 

991.02 



218.44 
4,360.37 



936.17 

736.00 
300.00 
200.00 



100.00 
1,010.96 



1,091.66 
37,606.25 
33,000.00 



50.00 



504.76 
36,071.48 

625.00 
50.00 
60.00 



150.00 
104.87 



1.250.00 
250.00 
250.00 
200.00 
122.69 



1,640.00 

1,567.03 

750.00 

30.00 

3,781.69 

145.00 

200.00 

300.00 

27.28 



666.08 



3,800.00 

1,448.00 

196.64 



4,500.00 
1,827.00 

4,171.96 



603.00 
575.90 
236.26 



26,000.00 
3,000.00 

425.00 
2,632.00 
7,378.03 
11,000.00 



2,400.00 
500.00 
625.00 

1,084.00 



1,150.00 
1,550.00 
1,950.00 
486.80 
6,344.48 



1,108.40 



4,558.00 
4,000.00 



200.00 



1,000.00 
2,000.00 



5,035.84 

166,185.70 

15,860.00 

500.00 

360.00 



254.00 

16,256.00 

4,875.00 

150.00 

78.00 



336.00 
1,050.00 
2,750.00 



8,782.60 
350.00 
500.00 
250.00 

8,572.00 
450.00 

1,150.00 

1,000.00 
524.90 



6,400.00 

2,538.25 

4,050.00 

400.00 

2,297.32 

165.00 

1,600.00 

1,850.00 

190.00 



10,076.26 



4,602.36 
Mil .51 



2,930.84 



30.817.56 
6,000.00 



3,600.00 



1.550.00 
1,050.00 



4,808.17 

2,730.00 

570.53 

150.00 



18,700.10 



2,697.85 



8,225.00 
645.00 



500.00 
1,153.72 



959.73 
100,696.10 
135,800.00 



50.00 



47,467.22 
1,500.00 



1.450.00 
3,310.00 



4,496.00 



44.35 
'4,035.66 



4,100.00 



6,138.00 
30.00 



8,402.36 
1,448.00 
8,608.15 



4,500.00 
1,827.00 



.1,633.84 
675.90 
236.25 



56,817.56 
9,000.00 

425.00 
2.632.00 
7,378.03 
14,600.00 



62.568.46 
3.950.00 
1,550.00 
625.00 
1,084.00 
4,808.17 
3,880.00 
2,120.53 
2,100.00 
486.80 

25.044.68 



3,806.25 



12,783.00 
4,645.00 



200.00 



1,500.00 
3,153.72 



5,995.57 

266,881.80 

151,660.00 

500.00 

400.00 



254.00 

63,722.22 

6,375.00 

150.00 

78.00 



336.00 
1,050.00 
4,200.00 
3,310.00 



8.782.00 

350.00 

500.00 

250.00 

13,068.00 

450.00 

1,150.00 

1,000.00 

569.25 



10,435.00 

2,538.25 

8,150.00 

400.00 

8,435.32 

195.00 

1,600.00 

2,050.00 

190.00 



10,076.26 



10,770.36 


M 


16.115.41 


M 


10.350.21 


M 


13,252.72 


P 


'31,300.00 


M 


2,541.88 


M 


4,905.60 


M 


2,082.15 


M 


4,80100 


M 


575.90 


P 


1,333 00 


f 



14,879.001 M 



84,958.29 
20,500.00 

500.001 

18,184.001 

112,916.52 

16,544.95 

15,428.321 

70.9.30.17 

6.100.00i 

2,100.00 

843.51 

1.298.00 

5,999.92 

10.100.00 

3.285.26 

2.900.00 

705.24 

29,404.96 



6,581.6; 

17,547.00 

4,945.00 

600.00 

200.00 

1,750.00 

4,394.00 

4,100.00 

7,087.13 

304.487.05 

184.660.00 

500.00 

460.00 



768.76 

108,328.94 

7,000.00 

200.00 

138.00 



336.00 
1.200.00 
4,304.87 
3,310.00 



9,616.00 

350.00 

700.00 

250.00 

17,818.00 

700.00 

1,400.00 

1,200.00 

691.94 



12,46500 

4,105.28 

8,900.00 

430.bO 

13,464.38 

340.00 

1,800.00 

2,350.00 

217.28 

300.00 

13,122.50 



M 

P 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M4P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
P 
M 
M 



M&P 

M 
M 
M 

M 

C&P 

P 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
MAP 

M 
MAP 

M 

P 

M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 

MAP 
MAP 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 



76 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 
the table 









Playgrounds 


Recreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


1 

2 

1 

3 


B 

1 

3 
1 


1 
B 

3 

n 
.S 

1 


i 

z 

4 

K 




a 
3 
z 

■3 
a 



3 




1 

s 

3 

z 
8 

-a 

c 

1 

be 
e 

a 
J 


1 

a 

3 

z 
1 

3 

£. 

1 

a 
E 


,1 

a 
z 

5" 
g 

.sa 


a 

3 

C 

1 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leaderabip 


Buildings 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 






1 


"3 


B 

a 


1 

1 
l 
1 


i 

•B 

s 

§ 


1 


a 

II 


B 


ill 

e2 fe< 


1 


ill 


a 

s 

■0 

1 

Z 


g 

1 

•s 

1 

z 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 




o 
■5 

d 

is 


a 

.0 
6 
Z 


a 

ii 

•s 

d 
Z 


■3 
d 

Z 


1 






















1 
2 
3 

1 
8 


10 
2 

16 
1 

13 
7 

3 
2 
3 










2 

1 
3 


33 


1 
1 
1 
















William V.Crawford.... 

John J. Garrity 

John W. Kernan 


1 


1 




3 




ii 


3 

14 

1 
16 
7 

7 
3 
2 
2 


•26,000 
156,000 
60,000 


























20,115.19 
51,099.07 




20,115.19 
57,670.67 


1 


1 










1 








41 


41 






6,471.60 


3 


li 








1 












1 


4 


■; 


10 

7 

7 
1 
2 
2 




6 
2 




7 




1 
1 

1 




1 




10 
3 

9 


4 


42 


32 






56,864.64 
128,564.78 

11,930.90 
7,567.60 
8,047.06 


12,596.00 


69,460.64 
128,564.78 

12,482.70 
7,567.60 
8,047.06 


John Morrissey 

Edward P. Adanw and 

John P. Leavitt 

George W. Rogers 

James Cookson 

John L. Kelly. 


>) 


A 


52,159 

•71,377 
32,400 
•11,250 










7 


1 


4,780 


1 
















2 
3 


I 
7 






551.80 


6 


fil 














S 












2 












4 






9 


10 
































K. H. Godfrey 


10 


















1 
1 

4 














6 
19 


4 

19 








2,685.00 
4,712.00 


3,575.00 
19,679.25 

288,350.00 
55,000.00 


Robert H. Burrage 

Jeremiah Coholan and 

Louise Dupre 

Ernst Hermann 

M. Fobs Narum 

R. A. Yates 




11 






















1 

2 
1 

2 
6 
8 
4 
1 

■5 

1 
4 


7 

13 
2 

2 
6 
8 
7 
1 
8 
5 
1 
3 










20 

39 
6 

1 
2 
4 


2 
2 






14,867.25 

250,000.00 
66,000.00 




l' 


5 


17 

1 

2 
9 
U 
4 


1 


i4 


23 

1 

2 
9 


"1,500,000 
13,000 

25,000 


5 


35,000 


4 


22,000 










11 

12 


IS 








1 


3 


2 








13 


14 




















14 


1'i 










2 
3 

1 
3 








2 
2 


















VV. C. Kendrick 

Daniel J. Phalen 

Francis J. Mahoney, . . . 
William A. Thibault .... 

Arthur E. Gardner 

Louis 0. Godfrey 

C. E. Bankwitz 

I'^ugene J. Sullivan 

Arthur G. Abbott 

Frederick F. Libby 


IS 


1R 


•107,432 
250,000 
















1 
1 










195,000.00 




195,000.00 

22,500.00 

20,043.21 

561,784.96 

1,465.20 

7,000.00 

325.00 


16 


17 






5 




35 


37 


15 


17 


20,000.00 


17 


IS 


















20,043.21 
525,689.76 


18 


It 


9 
i 


41 

7 






50 


2,506,000 
100,000 
44,600 
24,500 







9 


90,000 




2 




"1 


43 
4 
2 
2 


2 
2 

1 


175 
10 


100 
10 






36,095.20 
1,465.29 


19 


'>n 






?0 


'>i 






















7,000.00 


?1 


■>? 


3 
























2 


2 






325.00 


22 












1 


















•n 














































6.451.39 
284,998.61 




5,451.39 
289,128.61 


23 


'I 


5 


9 














1 

1 
1 


1,500 
11,262 
11,035 


1 


5 


2 








8 


" 


16 


28 






2,330.00 


?4 


?,'i 
















Gertrude MacCallum . . . 

Helen I. Sandstrom 

R. B. Pillsbury. 


25 






































1 










234.00 


234.00 


a 


?fi 


2 


4 

9 

5 

4 
6 
8 


e 


"2 

i 

1 

36 


9 

5 

12 
6 
8 
2 

S 

1 

9 

10 

84 


28,455 
•67,500 

150,000 

102,088 
•76,882 
54,000 






1 
14 

1 

1 
2 
4 

1 


1 
20 

1 

2 
10 
2 

1 




















26 


?7 


2 








7 




1 






30 

6 

14 

9 

8 


8 










13,425.61 
6,976.65 




13,425.61 

7,171.65 

35,899.99 

6,799.60 

8,660.00 

705.52 

1,768.00 


John J. Nugent 

Hervey C. King 

L. H. HoUway 


27 


'R 








15 

15 
15 

9 
8 

16 


9 

12 
19 
7 
6 

2 






195.00 

2,239.00 

2,299.50 

1,660.00 

683.60 

1,419.00 


28 


?fl 






7 
6 


7,450 
45,111 


1 
1 




1 


■'2 


"2 


20 


sn 










3,600.00 
7,000.00 




30 


11 






H. W. Royal. . 


31 


1? 




















A. D. Lohr 


32 


33 




5 










2 


4,000 
























33 


34 


27,204 


1 

2 


60,015 
15,000 


























Mrs. W. M. Berry 

John T. Symons 

Henry D. Schubert 

C. E. Brewer 


34 


Ti 




2 
10 

49 


2 


4 

8 

173 


15,000 

40,000 

2,997,549 


2 


1 

6 

42 










2 




















35 


16 










4 
4 


16 
143 




5 
91 










500.00 
18,601.50 


6,500.00 
627,210.87 


36 


37 


5,197,075 


7 


736,846 








75 






57,274.88 


37 




1 




4 


Henry W.Busch 

J.M.Lewis 


a 


3S 




■'2 


2 


1 

"i 


3 
2 
1 

8 
12 








1 




1 
1 
1 
1 
2 


1 
1 
1 
1 
9 


4 
2 


















38 


39 




11,000 
































Donald O'Hara 

Hugo T. Swanson 

Richard R. Rowley 

E. C. Dayton 


39 


40 






1 
8 

4 
















1 
20 
31 










100.00 
4,918.64 
5,730.00 


100.00 
4,918.64 
7,181.66 


40 


41 


'2 


8 
10 




53,800 
445,752 






42,800 
















19 
34 








41 


4? 


4 


195,550 




2 


1 


1 


4 


20 








1,451.66 


42 






William W. Norton 

A. R. Watson 


a 


43 




1 
3 

17 

1 
3 

1 




i 


1 
5 

17 
1 
3 

1 


6,000 
6,600 

112,453 










1 
2 

17 














2 
4 

M23 

1^ 
6 
4 
1 

1 


2 


4 

6 

46 










200.00 
384.00 

10,246.10 
551.00 


300.00 
384.00 

10,246.10 
661.00 


43 


44 I 










1 
9 












3 

18 
2 








Edward J. Huttenga. . . . 

A. W. Thompson 

Gerald L. Cass 


44 


45 








99 


134,295 




»2 


M2 




«8 








45 


46 












46 


47 


32,500 
18,000 










1 
1 


2 
2 




















47 




1 


135,373 
















1 














6,000.00 


George Elworthy 

William G. Stamman . . . 
Supt. of Schools 

C. J. Reid 


a 


4S 






1 






















48 


49 














1 








' 


1 
2 










10 










71.50 
1,291.80 


71.50 

1,291.80 

21,295.16 

492.00 

366.00 

4,900.00 

1,472.00 

36.00 

240.00 

1,530.00 

3,200.00 

5,561.00 

340.00 

457 00 

199.29 

96.00 
1,050.55 


49 


SO 








2 


2 


131,951 




10 


167,363 








1 




2 








M 


Rl 












1 
1 










21,295.16 
300.00 


Norman D. Starrett .... 

R. S. Brotherton 

D. A. Van Buskirk 

T. H. Fewlass 


51 


5? 




1 


1 


1 


3 


4,000 


1 


3,000 






2 


1 










1 




1 
3 
3 
15 
2 
3 
8 


1 
2 
6 

7 






192.00 

366.00 

3,600.00 

1,472.00 

35.00 

240.00 

1,530.00 


52 


S3 














.53 


S4 










13 
5 

1 


571,383 
60,520 


2 


«123,130 


9 
3 

1 
5 




3 

"i 

1 


6 
6 








7 




16 


i 

"i 








,">4 


S5 


5 




i 


34,000 














Leon N. Moody 

Ley Norrix 


,55 


S6 
















6 
2 
6 
8 
5 








56 


57 
















3 








1 
2 




1 
6 








Arthur E. Ericksoa 

G. L. Greenawalt 


57 


SS 




4 






4 


28,439 




















68 












1 


3 
10 


i 


"2 


1 






3,200.00 
1,600.00 




SI 




15 




2 


17 


•176,062 






12 


16,566 


22 
2 
3 
2 

"io 


15 

1 
6 






3,961.66 
340.00 
457.00 
188.00 

96.00 
992.00 


Lawrence P. Mofler 

E. N. Powell 


59 


n 


1 










a 


60 




11 

1 

3 




i 

"4 


11 
1 

3 
1 

2 
8 

1 


198,032 




6 


5,500 


i 


6 
1 

2 

1 
1 
2 


"i 


M2 


Ml 




i<l 


2827 

1 

5 
4 
2 
5 


2 
1 








Mrs. H. R. Harvey 

H. H. Hawley 


60 


61 












61 


«? 


51,091 
16,000 
15,907 
136,000 


1 


61,261 














2 

1 








Charlotte Conley 

Glenn H. Brainard 

B. M. Hellenberg 

W. A. Olsen 


62 


63 


1 
4 

1 


2,400 


■'2 
4 


















63 


64 




2 
4 

1 














1 

1 










64 


65 






5,000 








65 


65 














1 

2 
25 


3 

1 

36 








324.00 

295.00 

7,324.30 


350.84 

295.00 

60,980.88 


G. E. Ganiard 


66 


67 








1 

13 


1,200 


1 


4 
3 






















H.C. Spitler 


57 


68 




12 






12 


109,464 






1 










6 








43,666.58 


A. E. Genter 


68 

























PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 
Footnotes follow 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popular 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Eraergencv Workers) 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


I 

1 

•s 






Paid 
Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Woikers 




>> 

6 
■s 

i 


g 
S 

•s 

d 


o 
d 
Z 


= 1= 

O 1- 

I- 

d.a 


g 
S 

d 


a 

§ 



d 

Z 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Sal 


aries and Vt'ages 


Total 


i 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


u 

d 
Z 




Mich.— Cont. 

Port Huron 

Portland 


31,000 
1,900 

18,000 
4,804 
2,600 
2,246 
3,677 

5,000 
30,000 
12,000 

4,000 
14,000 
2,590 
7,500 

2,264 

1,350 

22,000 

8,520 

1,243 

6,315 

101,417 

6,154 
10,000 

2,722 
23,000 

5,073 

30,645 
3,210 

464,356 

3,709 

2,500 

9,628 

20,600 

21,000 
50,000 

271,606 
10,000 

7,000 
26,170 
12,177 

1,184 
20,850 

18,601 
22,943 

23,400 
21,596 
30,000 

400,000 

13,967 
81,400 

821,960 

25,809 

14,000 

7,000 

4,629 

28,822 

16,531 

6,669 
3,000 
9,000 




1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 

3 












150.00 
60.00 
300.00 
150.00 
200.00 


150.00 
200.00 
225.00 
360.00 
830.00 
150.00 


240.00 
440.00 


390.00 
640.00 
225.00 
360.00 
830.00 
150.00 


540.00 
1,700.00 

525.00 

510.00 
1.030.00 

150.00 


M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M&P 

M 
M 

M 

M 

M&P 

M 

M4P 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M&P 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

MiP 
M 

C 
M 

M 
P 
C 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

M&P 
P 
M 

M 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 

M&P 

M 

M 
M&P 

M 

M 
M 

M 




1 












1,000.00 




?. 

















River Rouge 

South Haven 

Stambaugh 

Vuloan 




1 
1 
1 












1 


'i 


Board of Education 














4 


Board of Education 












4 


S 


Board of Education and City 




3 


5 








s 


ft 










500.00 
1,500.00 


1,800.00 
2,200.00 




1,800.00 
2,200.00 


2,300.00 
3,900.00 


ft 


7 


Wakefield 

Wayne 


Department of Public Affairs and Board 
of Education 










200.00 




7 


S 


Public Schools 






1 

10 
5 

10 


1 
2 
4 

12 




8 


q 


Wyandotte 


Recreation Commission 


5 
16 

2 
1 


3 

8 














"2,750.00 
1,700.00 

2,745.44 
3,243.13 


9 


Ifl 


School Board 




200.00 


1,500.00 




1,500.00 

1,785.00 
1,656.50 


10 


11 


Minnesota 

Alexandria 


Park Board and S.E.R. A 

Gymnasium Committee, Library Board 
Town of Bayport 


960.44 
250.00 




11 


I' 


1,336.63 


644.00 


1,012.50 


P 


n 












11 


H 


Bemidji** 


State Recreation and Leisure Time De- 
partment and Park Board 


2 
2 

1 

5 

19 

4 

2 

33 

2 

2 

1 

«1 

11 

1 

7 
1 
54 
1 
2 
3 
7 

4 

6 

1 
3 

3 
1 






3 
1 

3 

7 


1 
3 

7 






800.00 
660.00 
150.00 

3,500.00 

3,047.50 

1,000.00 

508.68 

11,111.31 




800.00 
760.00 
150.00 

3,700.00 
3,304.50 
1,500.00 
2,430.84 
35,370.67 


3,800.00 

1,010.00 

810.00 

6,700.00 

3,304.50 

>1,500.00 

5,146.75 

65,348.87 

12,000.00 

880.00 

1,315.25 

1,800.00 

9,407.75 

1,245.00 

1,0.50.00 
1,750.00 
162,360.00 
190.00 
1,668.00 
1,250.00 
3,565.00 

1,625.00 
1,200.00 

5,400.00 
43,441.52 

500.00 
110.00 
lOfl.OO 
1,748.27 
5,075.84 
415.38 

2,943.02 
2,630.00 

392.44 
3,323.56 
9,900.00 

24,120.77 

5,316.00 

600.00 

18,361.94 

'187,074.32 

87,290.08 

700.00 

34,999.46 

5900.00 
1,187.21 
1,400.00 
450.00 
2,300.00 

25,100.00 
3,800.00 
3,800.00 






Breckenridge 

Cannon Falla 

Carlton Coanty*'... 

IJhisholm 

Coleraine*2 

>ookBton 

Duluth 


14 


I') 


District E. R. A. and American Legion. . 
Park Board 


250.00 
560.00 

2,000.00 




100.00 


15 


1ft 


100.00 
1,000.00 


16 


17 
IS 


Leisure Time Activities Department, 

State E. R. A 

Independent School District No. 40. . . . 
School Board and Village Authorities . . 

Park Board 

Recreation Department 


3 
3 
1 
1 

30 
3 

12 
2 




200.00 

257.00 

500.00 

1,922.16 

24,259.30 


17 
IS 


m 












19 


20 
'I 


"4 

3 


"4 


3 

1 
4 


357.30 
200.00 


2,358.61 
29,778.20 


30 
'1 




Ely 


?2 


22 








880.00 
200.00 




880.00 
257.50 




**? 


Fergus Falls 

Gilbert 






2 


7 


808.36 


249.39 


57.50 


97 


^-t 


Village of Gilbert 


H 


Vi 


Hibbing" 

International Falls. 
Jackson and Cot- 
tonwood Counties** 
Lake City 

Minneapolis 

Mountain Iron 

Naahwauk 

Red Wing 

Rochester 

St. Cloud 

St. Louis County". 


Village of Hibbing and School Board. . . 
Recreation Committee, E.R.A 


10 


3 








1,200.21 


8,207.54 




8,207.54 


25 


?(i 










26 


27 


2 

1 

26 




2 




50.00 




1,000.00 




1,000.00 

750.00 

104,750.00 

160.00 


27 


?S 




1,000.00 

52,377.00 

30.00 




28 


29 


f Board of Park Commissioners 

\ Board of Education 


12 


15 


25 


5,233.00 


21,940.00 
160.00 


82,810.00 


29 
a 


in 




1 












30 


11 










750.00 
2,165.00 


200.00 


300.00 
1,000.00 

1,300.00 
900.00 

2,400.00 
0,599.06 

400.00 
60.00 




300.00 
1,400.00 

1,300.00 
900.00 

5,400.00 
26,249.27 

400.00 
60.00 


31 


?** 


Board of Public Works 


3 

4 
4 








400.00 


17 


33 


Parent Teacher Association Council and 
Board of Education 








325.00 
300.00 


33 


11 














34 


35 


Extension Department, County Board 




450 
30 


150 
20 

2 




3,000.00 
16,650.21 


15 


36 
37 




2 


5 




17,192.25 

100.00 
50.00 

100.00 
79.52 


3fi 


South St. Paul .... 

StUlwater 

Todd County".... 


Parks and Playground Committee, City 




37 


IS 


Junior Chamber of Commerce 

County Recreation Association 












38 


1*1 






5 


1 






39 






14 


12 






1,668.75 




1,668.75 
260.00 
415.38 

1,646.09 
2,630.00 

332,00 
1,230.69 


40 














4,815.84 


260.00 


41 


i** 






6 


5 

4 

1 

3 










415.38 

527.00 
1,930.00 

332.00 


42 


43 


Mississippi 

Hattiesburg 

Vicksburg 

Missouri 

Hannibal 

Jefferson City 


Trustees for Hawkins and Kamper Play- 










1,296.93 


1,119.09 
700.00 


43 


'I'l 




1 
1 










44 




Playground and Recreation Association . 










60.44 
1,849.27 


45 


16 




7 




243.60 




4ft 


17 


Department of Parks 








M 




47 


4S 


Kansas City 

Moberlv 


Department of Health, Physical Edu- 
cation and Recreation, Board of 


75 
16 


38 
18 


1 


4 


4 




2,200.00 
650.00 


16,957.89 
3,850.00 


4,962.88 
816.00 


21,920.77 
4,666.00 


48 










10 


Park Board 










49 


50 


St. Joseph 


Board of Park Conmiissioners 

f Department of Parks and Recreation . 
\ Board of Education 


1 
143 
87 










3,500.00 










50 


125 

194 

2 

9 

1 
1 
1 

1 


101 


15 


5 


32,030.67 


155,043.65 

69,545.35 

500.00 

5,372.20 




155,043.65 

87,290.08 

500.00 

23,677.52 


■il 


^1 




17,744.73 


a 




University City . . . 

Montana 

Anaconda 








10 
1 




200.66 
11,321.94 

300.00 
394.49 


b 


5? 




19 

1 
2 


1 






18,305.32 


52 


63 
ni 






53 






1 


3 




300.00 


492.72 


792.72 
900.00 
400.00 


54 


5'^ 




Park Board 


500i)0 


55 


66 
67 

68 
69 


Great Falls 


Playground Association and Park Board 




20 


101 


50.00 


400.00 




5fi 






57 


Nebraslta 


Park Board ■. . . . 


1 










23,500.00 
300.00 








1,600.00 
1,000.00 
3,300.00 


58 


Blair 












2,500.00 
500.00 




1,000.00 
3,000.00 


59 








1 








300.00 


(0 





















78 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 









Playgrounds 


Recreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


B 

3 

1 

E 
.2 

3 


a 

3 
g 

a 

I 

i 


B 
3 

J 

1 
a 


a 
3 

a 

en 

6 



£ 
S 

3 
»■ 

w 
s 

E 

3 

=3 



M 
a 

3 

•a 

a 

Ph 
bO 

c 


1 

1 

1 
be 
a 

1 
B 
'£ 


1 
z 

.s 

i 


M 

g 

1 

E 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


BuUdin(!3 


Paid 

Leadership 


Expenditures 






a 

1 


1 

a 
e 


O 

1 
1 


1 
f 

1 
O 

■a 

E 


2 


g 

a 

a 

-i 
ll 


M 
a 


>> 

111 
ill 


1 


>> 

III 


S 
1 

3 

2; 



J 


Km- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 




>> 

c 

d 


a 

i 

6 


c 


d 

a; 


•s 

d 


1 




2 






17,000 






6 


7,950 




















7 


2 








401.25 


401.25 

3,080.00 

480.00 


C. V. Fowler 


I 








2 










6 
1 
4 








3,080.00 


R. T. Edwards 


a 











1 


1 
3 








1 
















3 


2 






480.00 


Fred J. Williams 

E. J. Buckholz . . 


?. 


^ 




3 




20,800 


























3 








1 
2 










1 








1 
1 












Frank Weeber 


ft 


4 


































1 
1 
1 








192.00 
50.00 
75.75 


192.00 
50.00 
127.75 


L. C. Mohr 


4 


n 




I 






1 


































C. I.Clark 


,■> 










1 

2 
1 
1 
5 

3 


2,000 
6,000 






1 

2 














1 








M. E. Dunn 


n 


7 








4 


4 


50,000 










1 




1 










C. A. Rydeski . . 


7 


H 












D. T. Yape 


8 






5 
3 

1 




3 


5 
3 

»^4 












3 
3 












2 


















James E. Ostrum 

William E.Foy 

E.E.Gahlon&M.FelBtul 

William C. Pribble 

F. B. Slaughter 


9 


10 


154,000 
7,000 














1 




6 
2 


6 
3 








1,050.00 
1,849.12 


1,050.00 
2,511.29 


in 


11 






7,800 




1 








1 




2 


1 




11 


l' 
















12 


1? 






















1 
■'2 


1 

1 


1 
1 








2 


















13 


1't 


5 
18 


3 

10 
6 




7 
1 

■'2 
1 


13 
4 

1 

28 
6 
2 
3 

20 
1 
5 

10 


20,000 






1 
2 


2,000 












6 
2 


1 
4 


4 






3,000.00 
390.00 


7,300.00 
640.00 


C.L. Stapleton 

Myrtie Glasser 

Dr. R. R. Polak 

F.W.Trumbull 

C. G. Giffei 


14 


l") 












4 




1 


250.00 


15 




17,325 

160,000 
47,267 
















1 


m 


17 






16 


11,000 


















22 
4 
3 
2 
132 
1 
1 
1 


13 
3 

1 

3.3 


4 


2 


1,300.00 


2,200.00 
478.40 
600.00 


4,700.00 
478.40 
700.00 


17 


1R 






2 
2 
3 


1 
5 
2 

9 

1 

"2 


'3 


1 




2 

1 


"i 


5 
10 
3 
9 


"i 


18 


ID 






6 


5,000 








H. W. Dutter. 


19 


'>n 


i 

1 


2 

19 




10,000 
263,983 












Uoyd Ostrander 

K. M. Harris 


an 


■>! 




252,110 


30 
2 


275,410 


'2 
i 




»2 








30,857.51 


11,381.10 


42,958.61 


21 


?' 




22 








"s 


22,000 
34,500 












i 


4 

9 


i 


3 












E. Buckley 




n 






1 










.1,200.00 


1,200.00 


D. E. Misfeldt 


23 


''I 














P. R. Cosgrove. . 


24 


■"i 


5 




10 




4 
1 

15 


30,124 






9 


28,117 




2 
1 
















35 
2 

4 


25 
2 

2 








2,778.20 
945.00 

1,024.00 


2,778.20 
945.00 

1,424.00 


Jesse T. Porteous 

George Johnston 

B.E.Gilbert 

H. V. Fick 


2.5 


''6 






1 


















2fi 


?7 


28,800 






12 

24 
56 
4 


2,625 

1,200 

36,530 

82,457 

1,200 










2 


4 




1 




350.00 


27 


■>« 






d 


1 
13 








28 


?9 


26 






"7 


34 

7 
4 

2 

1 

7 
5 


"3,300,912 

'48,731 

M 1,200 

7,250 

'4,000 

49,523 
65,000 


26 




1 


4 


2 


1 


175 


16 


448 

3 

.... 

1 


162 
2 

1 
1 


5 


8 


10,000.00 


80,964.45 


90,964.45 
100.00 
60.00 


K.B.Raymond 

Ralph C. Tapp. 


29 






a 


an 








4 
1 
1 












2 
2 
6 


"1 








60.00 


0. H. Whitehead 

JuddF. Gregor 

J. F. Enj 


,30 


31 


















31 


3? 


















1 








600.00 


600.00 


33 


31 


























PauIF. Schmidt 

L. C. Grose. 


33 


34 












1 


2 










1 


1 
















34 


35 




, 


38 

17 












17 
106 


28 
55 








3,500.00 
53,224.90 


33,460.17 
175,443.73 


B G Leiffhton 


3.5 


36 

37 


14 


9 
3 




14 


32 

4 

3 


2,451,722 

44,000 
<15,000 
22,000 
73,699 


14 


291,596 


194,397 




40 


1 




3 






112 

2 
2 


1 
1 


4 


4 


110,000.00 


Ernest W. Johnson 

James E. Hunt 

G. D. Robbins 


38 

37 


38 












1 
3 

1 
1 












1 
2 


3 
4 








600.00 
3,203.00 


600.00 
3,203.00 

'2,799.21 


38 


39 






27 


51,700 




















39 


40 












2 






i 






"2,799.21 


L. G. Hurst 


40 


41 










1 






Martin 0. Akre 

C D Tearse 


41 


4? 




5 
2 




■3 


5 

2 
3 

5 


37,755 

<7,200 
45,000 

22,305 


















1 














42 


43 


2 








1 
2 

1 


1 
2 

1 










5 

4 


2 
3 
















W. F. S. Tatum 

J C Hamilton 


43 


44 
















1 
















44 


4,'i 




5 


































T. T. McKinney 

C. 0. Hanes 


4,5 


46 


















1 
5 




















4« 


47 






















4 


3 






1 


5 


5 


















Kit C. Vickrey 


47 


4S 






49 


'i? 


49 
17 


247,823 
246,615 






56 


346,209 




13 


22 








4,000.00 


4,000.00 


j Alfred 0. Anderson... 
Allen C White 


48 






















4 








a 


49 




















1 










4 

8 
97 
















49 


sn 






















3 


41 


"i 


1 

1 


"6 


2 
2 


3 

28 
12 










75,000.00 




75,000.00 


W. L.Skoglund 

Frank D.Sullivan 

RodoweH. Abeken 

Sarah G.Knott 

James K. Monteith 

D. H. Beary 


50 


SI 


4 


47 


2 


24 


30 
47 


1,277,558 
1,539,780 


5 


1,352,550 
















51 


a 


23 


19,500 


















a 


h 




































h 


.W 


2 


7 
4 




6 
1 


7 

12 

1 


»34,320 
25,000 












2 
5 




1 






1 
1 


16 

4 
4 


"i 
















52 


53 






3 


9,000 


2 


14 


2 












53 


M 


1 


7,000 












54 


SS 


























1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


Tom Henderson 

T S M Lease 


55 


S6 




8 




10 


18 














8 










2 


1 
2 

1 














600.00 


55 


S? 


































W. H. Swearingen 

Earl D. Mallery 

ReedO'Hanlon 

W. T. Soudera 


57 


SS 






















I 
1 

1 




















12,000.00 
500.00 




12,000.00 
500.00 


58 


St 










































59 


fin 




1 






1 


20,000 










1 










8 


1 












fin 









































79 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



STATE AND 
CITY 



Popula- 
tion 



Managing 
Authority 



Nebr.— Cent. 

Lincoln 

MoCook. .A 

Omaha 

Nevada 

Reno 

White Pine Co. «.. 

N. Hampshire 

Claremont 

Concord 

Dover 

Lebanon 

Manchester 

Nashua 

Pittsfield 

Portsmouth 

Rochester 

New Jersey 

Allenhurst 

Beae%'iile 

Bloomfield 

Bogota 

Bridgeton 

Brookside 

Burlington 

Cedar Grove 

Chatham 

CliffsidePark 

Collingswood 

Dover^' 

East Orange 

Edgewater 

Elizabeth 

Englewood 

EJssex County". . . . 
Fair Lawn 

Freehold 

Garfield 

Glen Ridge 

Hackensack 

Hackettatown 

Harrison 

Hoboken 

Irvington 

Jereey City 

Kearny 

Leonia 

Linden 

Lyndhurst 

Maplewood 

Millburn 

Montclair 

Moore3town 

Morristown^ 

Mount Tabor 

Newark 

New Brunswick". . 
North Arlington.. . 
North Plainfield. . . 
Ocean City 

Orange 

Palisades Park . . . . 

Park Ridge 



79.000 



214.006 



18,529 
11.771 



12.377 
25.228 

15.000 

7.073 

76,834 

32,000 
2,000 
14,495 

10.209 



573 

28.000 

40,000 
7,341 

14.499 
1,000 

12.000 
2,500 

4,000 
18,000 

13,000 
10.000 
70,000 
4.167 

114.585 

18.000 

840,000 

7,000 

6,894 
29.769 

7.365 
28,461 

3,038 
18.000 
59,261 

61,000 
364,000 

40,800 

5.350 
21,206 
20,000 

22,000 
11,000 

45.000 

7,200 

15,197 

1.500 

500.000 

34,555 

8,356 

10,000 

5«10,000 

37,000 
8,000 



Recreation Board 

Kiwanis Club and Parent Teacher Aaso- 

ciatioo 

Board of Recreation. Park Department 

Recreation Committee, Council of 

Social Agencies** 



Park Department 

Women's Work Division, F. E. R. 



A... 



Playground Commission 

Playground and Bath Committee, City 

Council 

f Park and Playground Commission.. . 
\ Neighborhood House Association, Inc, 
Carter Community Building Association 
Park, Common and Playground Com' 

mission 

Recreation Conrniission ' 

School Board 

Board of Street Commissioners and City 

Council 

School Board 



Board of Commissioners 

Recreation Commission 

I Recreation Commission 

\ World War Memorial Association** 
.American Legion and E. R. A. . . . . . . 

Johnson Reeves Playground Association 
Community Club 

Board of Education 

, Sponsoring Committee, E. R. A. . 
Board of Commissioners and Board of 

Education 

Park Committee 

Building and Grounds Committee, City 

Council and E. R. A 

School Board 

Recreation Commission 

Board of Recreation Commissioners. 
Board of Education and E. R. A.. . . 



Recreation Commission 

Social Service Federation and E. R. A. 

County Park Commission 

Recreation Commission and E. R. A. . . 



Recreation Association 

Forstman Woolen Company and E. R. A. 

Playground Committee 

Board of Education and E. R. A 



Board of Education and E. R. A . . . 

Board of Recreation Commissioners. 

Department of Parks and PuHic Prop- 
erty and E. R. A 

Department of Public Recreation. . . 

Department of Parks and Public 
Property 

Recreation Commission and E. R. A. 



Playground Committee. 

Board of Education 

Department of Parks and Public 
Property 

Park Committee, City Council 

Shade Tree Commission 

( Board of Education 

] Department of Parks and Public 
[ Property 

Township Recreation Commission 

Park Board Committee 

Camp Meeting Association 

Recreation Department, Board of Edu- 
cation 

Playground Committee — 

Board of Education and E. R. A 

Recreation Commission 

Department of Publicity and Board of 
Education 

Playground Department 

Board of Education 



2,232 Commumty Committee and E. R. A. . . 1 



Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 



Paid 

Workere 



"S. '^ 

6 a 



Volun- 

Uier 
Woi kere 



' Expenditures Laat Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 



Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 



Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 



Salaries and Wages 



For 
LeadeTsbip 



Other 
Services 



Total 



Total 



52 



35 



40 



72 



2.00 
12,354.47 



1,498.22 
400.00 



700.00 
3,500.00 



13,250.00 



600.00 
4,400.00 



• 91.06 
500.00 



2,400.00 



175.00 



1,849.74 



4,200.00 



75,000.00 



2,000.00 



219.25 
5,600.00 



120.00 



2,000.00 
2.50 



205.00 



660.00 



1,441.02 
100.00 



1,500.00 



1,582.28 
142.16 



4.00 



810.34 

3,400.00 

1,000.00 

20.00 

63.18 

200.00 

60.00 



50.00 



540.13 
2,229.00 



5,998.35 
2,085.00 



875.00 
61.67 



537.74 



2,500.00 
1,694.00 



1,040.00 



200.00 

130.25 

315.00 

2,400.00 

115.47 



5,626.25 
262.87 



21,572.00 

653.16 

55.00 

246.67 



50.00 
40.00 



2,580.00 
150.00 



200.00 



200.00 



2,706.06 
757.30 



2,300.00 

1,396.10 

3,157.22 

325.00 



160.00 



2,150.00 

10,000.00 

3,100.00 

60.00 

240.00 



3,620.00 



1,640.00 



1,575.75 
2,607.18 



240.00 



2,039.66 
580.00 



200.00 



270.00 
250.00 

250.00 
216.00 

120.00 
250.00 
2.50.00 
7,419.17 
400.00 

26,018.03 

8,04.1.00 

6.177.14 

645.00 

2.'>0.0fl 
300.00 



1,680.00 



24,900.00 
3,100.00 



2,000.00 

360.00 
1,200.00 

712.00 
1,. 500.00 
5,500.00 

780.00 



3,917.99 
650.00 
100.00 

125,028.00 
840.00 
180.00 
644.00 



225.00 
135.00 



690.00 
13,276.80 



4,996.23 

970.00 

27,704.94 

480.00 



1,201.10 



4,180.00 
68.90 



6,000.00 
1,429.00 



4,196.00 
435.00 



19,371.00 
" 44.96 



75.00 



6,200.00 
150.00 



200.00 



1,840.00 



4,281.81 
3,364.48 



2,300.00 

1,396.10 

3,157.22 

565.00 



160.00 



4,189.66 

10,680.00 

3,100.00 

60.00 

240.00 

200.00 

270.00 

250.00 

250.00 
216.00 

120.00 
250.00 
940.00 
20,695.97 
400.00 

31,014.26 
9,015.00 

33,882.08 
1,125.00 

250.00 
300.00 



1,680.00 



24,900.00 
4,301.10 



6,180.00 

428.90 
1,200.00 

712.00 

1,500.00 

11,500.00 

2,209.00 



8,113.99 

1.085.00 

100.00 

144,399.00 
840.00 
180.00 
688.96 



225.00 
210.00 



8,200.00 

154.50 
26,841.12 



405.00 



2,500.00 

7,221.05 
3,864.48 
3,000.00 
4,500.00 

19,500.00 

4,739.50 

707.16 

18,250.00 
164.00 



16,000.00 

5,000.00 

14.580.00 

8,500.00 

80.00 

394.24 

900.00 

320.00 

250.00 

300.00 
216.00 

2,520.00 
2.50.00 

1,6.55.13 

22,924.97 

400.00 

38,862.35 

11.100.00 

33,882.08 

2,000.00 

301 .67 

300.00 

4,715.00 

2,217.74 



6,025.00 

27,400.00 
5,995.10 

300.000.00 
7.220.00 

428.90 
1,400.00 

842.25 

1,815.00 

15,900.00 

2,324,47 

3,000.00 

13.959.49 

6,947.87 

100.00 

165,971.00 

1,493.16 

355.00 

935.63 

7,000.00 

16,000.00 

275.00 

250.00 



80 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table ' 







Playgrouods 


Recreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


£ 

B 
Is 

.2 

.2 

% 

< 


a 

1 

i 
.2 
Q 

1 


i 

.a 

.s 

n 


1 
si 

■1 

K 
=!> 

1 

"o 




S 

3 

•A 

■3 

W 

1 



"o 

a 


5 

s 

•a 

a 
t— ( 

1 

c 

1 
a 

1 


a 

3 

1 

B 

'a 
a 
'S 

m 


s. 

a 
3 

f 
u 

'S 
d 


a 

3 

1 

c 

1 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


" 




Leadership 


Buildings 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 




> 

c 

o 
o 


a 
1 

1 


Vi 
1 1 


a 

1 
1 

•a 

fc 

S -3 
1 ^ 


SI 

11 


B 


III 




its. 


a 

s 
•s 

M 


a 

a 

i 

"0 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 

1 i 

•^ is 

-s 

d 6 
Z Z 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


•3 
1 


1 




27 ... 

3 ... 
12... 


•••27 

■•• 3 
... 12 


244,595 

'3,200 
<253,500 


2 


27,634 


2 


52,202 


1 


8 

1 
10 












2 




55 


52 


25 


27 




31,000.00 


31,800.00 


James C. I.«wis 

Florence Taylor 

Charles W. McCandless. 

Mrs. Fred Rankin 

H Dieterieh 


1 

2 
3 


2 














3 
a 


9 


425,382 


153 


209,960 


1 


2 






5 


16 




207 


159 


2 


2 


9,604.80 


76,348.02 


85,952.82 


4 




















2 
5 

2 

5 
2 










1 


15 
5 

9 
6 


2 
















4 
5 

6 

7 
8 


5 






i" 5 

... 2 

... g 

... 2 


10,000 










5 
4 












3 








89.00 


139.00 


Edith Hinckley 

R G Blanc 


6 


... 
10 

« 

5 

3 

1 

31 

2 
I 


2 ... 

9 ... 

2 ... 

8 ... 

5 ... 
1 

3 .. 
1 .. 

9 ... 

2 !!! 
1 ... 

"i '.'.'. 

6 ... 

1 . . 

2 ... 

1 ... 
1 ... 

2 !!! 

17 ... 
5 ... 
29 ... 

4 ... 

4 ... 
1 .. 
8 ... 

1 . 

3 '.'.'. 

"6 .'.'. 

\ ... 

7 . . 

2 ... 
6... 

i ':: 
2 ... 

8 ... 

"i ..'. 

h ..'. 
2 

3 ... 

4 2 

5 . 
1 .. 

1 ... 


1 


15,000 






















7 


53,600 
5,000 














1 


















John T. ProwBC 

Dorothy W. Greenaway. 

Edith G. Brewster 

Willie F. Hough 

Frank C. Livingston 

R. A. Pendleton 

Lester B. Badger 

Peter J. Hickey 

Arthur S. RollinB 

Margret P. Ekstromer . . 
Edward J. Lister 

1 C. A. Emmons, Jr. . . . 
Mrs. Annetta Humphries 

Estelle T. French 

Robert Scherzer 

V H Smith 


8 






1 


.500 
11,000 












1 
















a 


i 

3 


33,000 
















3 












9 
































9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 

15 
16 
17 
a 
18 
19 
20 

9] 


10 


... g 

■ 5 

■ I 

... 3 

■ 1 










7 
3 

1 

2 


2 








1 
1 


4 
6 
3 

4 

2 


1 










275,000.00 
30,000.00 




275,000.00 
30,000.00 


11 


'47,584 
4,250 


























12 












1 
1 

1 

1 




















13 


1 














1 












28,750.00 




26,750.00 


14 


5,100 




























15 




















1 

1 


















16 


2 ^ 
■^ 12 

... 2 

i 1 

1 

... , 

■•■ 6 

... , 

■■ 2 

... J 

i| 

■ 2 

■ 27 
■ 'i 29 


27,150 
160,491 

"'24,440 
15,720 
S.pno 
2iii8 


3 


65,000 
















2 




7 
4 


2 
2 


6 






4,548.30 
1,635.00 


4,548.30 
1,635.00 


W 


2 




3 


4 














a 




75,000 














4 










18 


6 


4,849 


















1 


3 




1 




333.00 


333.00 


19 


























iO 




5,150 


2 


2,800 


1 
1 


1 
1 
1 












1 




1 










216.00 


216.00 


il 




















a 


14,550 

1,760 
13,592 

'12,647 

2.000 

30,104 

964,101 

4,109 

986,669 
43,304 






2 

1 
2 

3 


660 

360 
4,632 

2,646 












1 




2 


1 








366.00 


366.00 


Ethel Burr Dudley 

Robert R. Blunt 

James P. Callahan 

Arthur J. Rooney and 
Mrs. Annetta Humphries 
H. T Ir\'ine 




22 
























U 






2 

i 

4 
2 

1 


2 

1 
1 

"7 
2 

7 














1 
1 


1 
3 


1 
2 


1 






465.00 
347.00 


465.00 
347.00 


9*^ 


34 






















9,1 


a 
























95 


m 






3 
1 

5 

6 
5 


3,207 
3.500 
2,437 

33,138 
9,000 


2 














4 
3 
2 

1 

S 

"12 

3 

"6 
"3 

1 


2 
5 
5 

1 
2 


1 


1 

1 




2,116.76 

2,000.00 

755.90 


6,490.55 

2,000.00 

755.90 


Robert Van Orden 

John M . Rowley 

Mrs. Annetta Humphries 
and William J. Conway. 
Claude A. Allen 


9fi 


a 




30,000 










26 


2 




27 


i» 












29 


















4 








28 

9<) 





40,000 










1 






2,017.50 


2,017.50 




;i 


6 
4 

1 
2 
1 
1 

1 
2 

3 


33 

1 

3 
3 

1 
4 

1 
2 

1 
1 

13 
3 


i 
I 


1 


1 


i 




193 
3 

"2 
1 
3 

2 


i 

'3 






David L Kelly 


?! 


12 


* 1 

■■• 4 

■ 4 
1 

■ 8 

■• 6 
••■ 4 

" 16 

• 6 
... J 

... J 

1 3 
■ ■ 6 
10 ^\ 

■■■ 2 

■« ? 
... 1 

8 39 

... 5 

... 2 

3 

... 8 
... 6 
... 1 

... 1 


44,876 

9,500 
'57.829 
16,000 
54,944 

13 293 








1,691 


2 

'3 

1 
3 








609.00 

'i,802.00 
180.00 
397.50 

117.00 


609.00 

' 1, '802.00 
180.00 


Dr. Maurice Kne and 
Mrs. Annetta Humphries 

L.E.Cobb 

Mrs. Annetta Humphries 
Clifford W. Brown 




3 












32 
33 


)4 








3,806 


34 


6 


















35 


i6 






375 








1 










397.50 RuBsel 0. Summers and 




7 






1 






207.00 


Mrs. Annetta Humphries 

Nicholas Varhall 

H. George Hughes 

Julius Durstewitz and 

John McGann 

Philip LeBoutillier 

Frank A. Deisler 

James P. Craig and 

John McGann 

George D. Butler 

Mary S. Welles 

James k Breslin 

H. W. Heilmann 

John F. FoT 


36 

37 


8 


13,000 

507,688 
'65,548 

72.'i.OOO 
93,000 


























38 


9 




28,000 
16,200 




18.680 
11,746 












13 

25 
5 

1 


'3 


2 
6 


6 
7 


2 
2 


5 
2 




1,680.00 
4,089.68 


1,680.00 
4,089.68 

15,000.00 
3,500.00 

312.00 
420.00 

572.00 


39 


n 
















1 














41 


2 


2,328 
















2 


3 

"1 
3 










1,600.00 

Sil2,00 
420.00 

572.00 




3 
















I 
2 








42 


4 


93,485 

107.677 
18..50fl 
86.000 

'98,819 

27,400 

6,204 

284,289 










3 
6 
1 
1 

2 
2 
6 




















44 


6 






















3 
6 
4 
4 

8 
2 
4 










\S 


« 


2 
2 








6 
1 
2 

2 
3 
2 




















46 


7 


5,000 


5 
5 


40,000 
19,770 


1 










1 

1 
2 


3 

3 


2 
5 


2 






2.340.00 
3,754.00 


6,340.00 
3,803.01 


47 


8 










Franklin G. Armstrong. . 

Ralph L. Huttenioch. . . . 

Robert L. King 

Gerald R. Griffin 

George W. Earl 

RrnPSt H ftpihprt 


48 


a 
























9 


2 


69,150 




1,600 




1 




2 
8 


2 
5 












49 
50 











5 


2 


33,630.48 


4,335.50 


37,965.98 


1 
















51 


2 


'2,922,796 
83,706 
15,588 
50,510 

'51,000 

424,388 

12,000 

4,353 




34 


153,536 


4 










1 




8 


2 


24 
3 
3 


24 
3 

6 


11 






28,451.75 
810.00 
367.50 


28,451.75 


5*> 


3 






3 
3 

1 

1 
2 
2 

1 










810.00 Willinm V.rfV 




4 








947 


3 
1 

2 
2 

1 

1 


















367.50 


Mrs. .A.nnetta Humphries 
Charles E. Reed 

Luther R. Hoffman 

Anthony L. Brown 

Louis Katz and 

Mrs. Annetta Humphries 

Mrs. .\nnf;tta Hamphriea 




S 
















3 

18 
10 










55 


5 










4 






1 
1 




















7 






1 


4 
2 

1 










1,121.50 
570.00 

172.00 


1,121.60 
570.00 

172.00 


57 


8 






1 


7,200 
56 








1 










9 
















2 


1 








5S 
5» 



81 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 
__^ Footnotes follow 



STATE AND 
CITY 



Popula 
tion 



Managing 
Authority 



Recreation Leadership 


(Not Including 


Emergency Workers) 




Volun- 


Paid 


teer 


Workers 


Woikera 
















^ = 








o 
1 


1! 




c 

1 


•s 


•s 


o 


*o 


r! 


O 


riW 


o 


d 


Z 


^; 


z;h 


^ 


« 



Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 



Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 



Uplceep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 



Salaries and Wages 



For 
Leadership 



Other 
Services 



Total 



Total 



N. J.— Continued 

Passaic 

Passaic County". . 

PaterBon 

Perth Amboy 

Philtipsburg 



27 



33 



South Orange . . 

School District of 
So. Orange and 
Maplewood. . 

Summit ....... 

Teanecic 



Tenafiy. 
Trenton . 



Union County**. 

Ventnor 

Washington .... 
West Orange. . . 



New Mexico 

Chimayo 



Dawson. 
Deming. 

Raton . . . 



New York 

.ybany 



Amsterdam . 
Auburn 



PlainBeld. 
Radburn . . 
Rahway. . 



Ridgefield 

RidgefieldPark. 
Rutherford 



Beacon 

Binghamton 

Boonville 

Briarcliff Manor*' 



Buffalo. 



Chautauqua Co." 

Corning 

Dansville 

Delmar 

Dobbs Ferry" . . . 

Dunkirk 

East Aurora 

Eastchester*' .... 

Elmira 

Erie County" . . . 

Floral Park 

Geneva 

Glens Falls 

GioveraviUe 

Goshen 

Harrison"' 

Hartsdale" 

Hastings-on- 

Hudson" 

Hempstead 

Herkimer 

Hornell 

Hudson 

Hudson Falls 

Huntington 

Uion 



63,000 
301,351 
138,000 
43,000 
19,250 



37,000 

1,500 

17,000 



11,239 
14,915 



13,500 



35,084 
15,000 
16,483 

6,000 
123,356 



305,030 

6,674 

4,409 

25,000 



1,000 

2,000 
3,377 
6,090 



135,030 

34,815 
38,030 

12,033 

80,030 

2,0SS 

1,798 



573,076 



63,539 

17,244 
5,030 
3,003 
5,633 

17,033 
4,968 

23,340 

47,397 

762,408 

10,030 

16,000 

20,030 
23,099 

5,000 
10.030 

2,300 



7,097 
22,000 
12,000 
16,250 
12,337 

6,700 
26,539| 
10,000 



Recreation Bureau, Park Department. . 
County Park Conmiission 


31 
3 
21 
24 

6 

2 
5 

1 
1 
2 
3 

2 
2 
1 

1 

9 

40 
.... 

9 

1 
2 


30 


2 








706.00 


7,935.00 

459.39 

4,400.00 

4,250.00 

1,336.28 

5,729.22 
4,360.00 

360.00 

9C.0O 

250.00 

405.00 


1,050.00 


8,985.00 

459.39 

8,531.00 

7,750.00 

1,336.28 

6,729.22 
4,360.00 

360.00 

90.00 

250.00 

437.00 
7,.500.0O 


9,690.00 
24.462.67 
10,771.00 
12,750.00 

1,536.28 

9,000.00 
7,125.00 

510.00 

160.00 

750.00 

718.46 

9,703.00 


11 


1 




Board of Recreation 


20 
22 


1 

2 




2,240.00 
4,000.00 

200.00 

2,270.78 
2,765.00 

150.00 

70.00 

50C.00 

81.46 

2,200.00 


4,131.00 
3,500.00 


Municipal Recreation Department. . . . 
Department of Parks and Public Build- 
ings and Citizens' Recreation Com- 


19 


12 


1,000.00 


Recreation Commission 


1 
4 

1 


3 

2 




1,000.00 




n2 






Board of Education and Recreation 
Committee, E. R. A 

Parent Teacher Association and E. R. A. 

Department of Public Works 


















1 
1 
3 

1 
2 
1 












Council of Parent Teacher Associations 
andE.R..A 

Recreation Commission 








200.00 


32.00 


1 


















Board of Recreation Commissioners . . . 
Board of Education and E. R. A 

School Board 


2 








3,330.77 
71.26 

200.00 

2,198.55 

22,642.71 

125.00 

60.00 

2,850.00 


3,597.00 
320.00 


7,28.5.00 
11.00 


10,882.00 
331.00 


14,212.77 
442.26 

'200.00 

11,609.05 

100,648.36 

165.00 

1,040.00 

12,737.00 






40.00 








Playground Division, Department of 
Parks and Public Property 










9,310.50 

23,267.20 
40.03 
80.00 




9,310.50 

78,005.65 

40.00 

980.00 

9,887.00 




13 

1 


2 








57,738.45 


Parent Teacher Association and E. R. A. 
Board of Recreation 
















90D.00 


Department of Parks and Playgrounds. 

National Mission Board of Presbyterian 
Church 


8 
3 


5 


















Public Schools 


















350.00 






















City of Raton 














50.00 

3,174.20 
1,587.00 

348.00 

500.00 

2,465.00 








550.00 

'19,141.20 
14,995.01 

2,100.00 
3,000.00 
12,665.00 
'2,272.00 
3,200.00 

235,532.68 

11,728.00 

1,650.00 

4,895.44 

325.00 


Board of Education, Bureau of Parks 

and Department of Public Works . . . 

Recreation Commission 


50 
39 


33 
5 

1 


5 

1 

1 








15,967.00 
5,348.00 

1,620.00 
500.00 




15,967.00 
8,711.00 

1,752.00 

600.00 

10,200.00 


24 
2 


4 
4 


4,697.01 


3,363.00 
132.00 


Booker T. Washington Community 
Center" 


School Board 


46 
"4 
24 

29 


2,000.00 


Department of Parks and Recreation. . 
Oneida County E. R. A 


10 
















2,272.00 






1,632.00 
30,093.63 

2,000.00 

500.00 

1,895.44 

25.00 


350.00 
75,660.12 

8,728.00 

300.00 

1,072.83 

300.00 


1,218.00 
126,608.93 


1,568.00 
202,169.05 

8,728.00 

300.00 

3,000.00 

300.00 


Division of Recreation, Department 


20 

13 

4 
2 


40 






3,270.00 

1,000.00 
850.00 


Eitension Department, Board of 
Education 












Board of Public Works 


3 
2 
1 

1 
6 

1 

9 
1 








1,927.17 


Board of Education 










School Board 


1 

1 
4 

1 

6 






















1,220.62 


500.00 

1,200.34 

280.00 

3,970.00 
1,500.00 


400.00 
484.42 


900.00 

1,684.76 

280.00 

3,970.00 
1,555.00 


2,120.62 

1,684.76 

340.00 

5,263.19 

1,805.00 

5,311.08 

4,210.00 

2,200.00 

4,196.10 

11,225.69 

5,949.45 

308.68 

300.00 

276.78 

475.00 
1,621.09 
2,633.67 

476.40 
1,692.27 

500.00 
5,188.06 
2,471.95 












Mothers' Club 

Division of Recreation, Department of 
Public Welfare" 










60.00 

1,293.19 
250.00 


1 


10 
25 


69 
10 






School Board 




56.00 








496.88 




1 
3 
10 
1 
3 
1 

1 

1 
4 
8 

1 
2 

1 


1 

6 
8 
5 
2 








1,740.00 


600.00 
1,400.00 
2,028.16 
5,057.50 
2,525.65 
300.00 
250.00 

150.00 

400.00 
975.00 
1,160.00 
234.00 
645.00 
282.00 


1,870.00 

800.00 

780.00 

1,236.45 

2,603.00 


2,470.00 
2,200.00 
2,808.16 
6,263.95 
5,128.65 
300.00 
250.00 

240.00 

400.00 
975.00 

1,160.00 
234.00 
756.71 
282.00 

4,623.75 
182.50 


Park Board 












«1 
2 


1 
3 




270.99 


1,116.95 

4,961.74 

820.80 

8.68 

50.00 

35.78 

75.00 

146.09 

1,473.67 

112.56 

29.78 
218.00 
564.31 










Rotary Club 










School Board and T. E. R. A 

.School District No. 7, Town of Green- 


1 
1 

1 

2 
6 




















90.00 












School Board 




!2 




500.00 




Recreation Commission 












129.84 
805.78 






5 

1 








111.71 


Playground Board 


















4,623.75 




2 










471.93 


182.50 

















82 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 









Playgrounds 


Ilecreatio:i 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


a 

J 
E 


a 

3 

1 

S 

pa 


1 

a 

D 

S 

s 
n 


a 
z 

•0 
w 

i 

"o 




i 
■1 

i 

"o 




J 
a 
tj 
z 

S 

c 

1 

be 
c 

'a 
a 


S 

2 

a 
1 

bC 

c 

1 
a 
s 

CQ 


1 

3 

1 


.s 

a 
a 

H 


a 

D 

c: 

i 


Emergeocy Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


Buildings 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 






T2 

a 
« 
g 


1 

a 


c 


1 
1 
1 


c 

1 

•a 






55 


^■3 8 


a 


111 
ill 


g 
S 
•s 

1 


1 



1 

3 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 


Land, 

BuildingB. 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 




s 
•s 


g 

■0 
d 

S5 


1 


d 

•z 


5 


d 
Z 


1 




4 

2 




3 

26 

8 
2 


7 
2 

26 
11 

6 

12 
3 

3 

1 
5 
1 

2 
5 

1 

1 
8 

12 

1 
1 
4 

1 


511,366 

«34,980 

850,000 

72,480 

116,769 

'210,400 
'34,000 

30,835 

2,433 

10,109 

'18,000 

90,000 


2 


45,741 


4 


43,200 


1 


4 


1 

1 




"i 


1 




15 
4 


2 

1 


5 
3 
15 
2 

7 
5 


3 
2 
12 
2 

3 
5 


5 

1 

"2 

1 
5 


3 




5,000.00 

812.50 

6,083.40 

1,560.00 

2,851.86 
6,240.00 


5,000.00 

812.50 

88,610.52 

1,560.00 

2,851.86 
6,240.00 


Reeve B. Harris 

Fredericlt W. Loede, Jr.. 

Alfred P. Cappio 

Charles T. Kochek 

Nicholas Varhall and 
William H. Fisher.... 

R. 0. Schlenter 

Robert B. Hudson 

Raymond E. Drake and 
Mary S. Welles 

Mrs. Annetta Humphries 
and Carl Mortenson . . 

E. S. Ferris 


1 

2 
3 

4 


2 




3 


1 
1 

1 


5,000 
14,000 

11,598 


4 
12 

9 

6 
2 


15,000 
18,868 

9,600 

26,751 
40,000 


4 

1 

2 

1 


7 
4 

6 

4 

1 

1 




75,638.02 


4 


"i 
1 

3 


11 

6 
4 

'3 

1 
1 
5 




1 
1 










10 

19 
4 

4 


2 
2 


.1 








2 
"2 


1 
3 




6 


1 








5 

6 


7 


1 
1 


4,000 
12,875 




8 












5 


1 
2 
2 
2 


1 






1,136.00 
135.00 
197.50 
765.00 
132.00 


1,136.00 
135.00 
197.50 
765.00 
132.00 




9 




















8 


10 










1 

1 
2 


1 
3 
5 












6 

9 

20 

4 
3 

6 


1 

1 


2 

1 
1 








9 
10 


n 






4 


660 


















R. E. Rahmes and Mrs. 

Annetta Humphries. . , 

Joseph J. Farrell 

H. Marjoric Wilson 

H. S Kennedy 


12 














1 








11 

12 

13 
14 


18 


1 

"i 
1 

8 




1 
2 

12 






12 

7 
2 

2 

1 










1 










14 


78,398 
'10,197 

2,000 




1,544 


4,740 
200 

1,000 


2 

1 

1 
6 

1 


2 
2 

1 

6 

18 








1 


8 


3 

4 


5 






4,092.00 
273.00 


4,092.00 
273.00 


15 
















Mrs. Annetta Humphries 

and Salvatore Salerno. 

E.L.Williams 

Alma R. Duch and 

MaryG. GiU 

F. S. Mathewson 

Pauline Weatcott 

George W. Miller 

William J. Hulighan 

Zoe Ellsworth 


16 






















15 
16 


17 






2 








1 
2 


35 
16 


2 
4 


5 

4 

1 
1 


4 

9 

1 
1 
1 










748.80 

1,881.00 
184.00 
300.00 
125.00 


748.80 

1,881.00 
184.00 
980.00 
125.00 


IS 


'483,612 

4,653 

16,950 

440,000 











i»i 










17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 

28 
29 
30 
31 
32 

33 


19 


4 

1 


1 
1 


















M) 










1 
4 


1 
3 










1 


2 
9 

1 

2 

i 

63 

1 

1 

1 

10 


1 






680.00 


21 


4 
















22 










1 
























23 
















1 










1 
1 

1 
3 




















24 


























1 




1 
















Charles Schoepf 

Mrs. Ada Atwater 

Frederick F. Futterer . . . 
Allen T. Edmunds 

Mrs. J. M. Pollard 


25 






































42,000.00 




42,000.00 


26 


5 

1 


21 
2 

1 




2 
2 

' i 


28 
5 

1 
1 
9 


525,000 
141,736 






14 
4 

2 


50,000 
23,295 

400 


6 
2 


20 
2 

1 
1 
8 








6 


9 
"5 












27 












21 

2 

1 

30 


4 
2 


14 

1 


2 

1 


47,778.29 


4,026.25 

1,250.00 

200.00 

6,148.00 


51,804.54 

1,250.00 
16,200.00 
28,775.82 
10,627.00 


28 


1 


10,360 










29 














16,000.00 
22,627.82 
10,627.00 


in 


1 


8 




449,122 










3 










1 


6 




F. J. Pierson 

Benjamin L. Williams. . . 
Alfred H. Pearson 

Joseph F. Suttner and 
F. J. Downing 

Carl H. Burkhardt 

S. C. Weir 


V 
















1 

1 

3 


■\?. 


3 


1 
21 




37 

2 

4 
2 


1 
24 

37 

16 

1 
2 

1 

5 
1 

7 
8 












2 

16 

1 
1 
3 

1 


1 
50 

4 

16 
2 

1 
1 
1 
4 

1 










3 
65 


1 
7 












33 
a 


4,963,219 

480,372 
154,485 


5 


270,330 


83 
26 


745,815 
94,440 


1 


2 


2 


10 


7 

56 
22 


1 

46 
4 






649,271.79 


6,240.00 

25,614.00 
3,300.00 


656,511.79 

45,626.50 
5,850.00 


14 




16 
1 
2 

1 
1 
3 

1 

3 
6 








11 








21 
2 
4 
5 
2 
7 


1 






2,550.00 


34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 


15 
















1 


W.O.Drake 

W.J. Braman 

S. L. Butterfield 

Peter J. Carpenter 

Karl Hoeppner. 

Mrs. A. E. Nield 

Vivian 0. Wills 

Joseph F. Riley, Jr 

Arthur B. Weaver 

James H. Glenn 

W A Gracey 


1ft 


'3,000 

5,000 

31,848 

67,213 


































17 




















"i 
i 

















IS 




















19 






3 


5,256 


1 










8 










2,046.00 


2,046.00 


40 






















41 


'58,457 






11 
2 


8,173 
34,400 














3 

7 


2 

1 












42 




17,400 


1 
4 


6 
5 
2 
1 
3 












6 
5 

6 
1 
4 


"2 


3 


1 


275.00 


5,984.00 


6,866.00 


43 




2 








1 


44 


i 
1 

1 


1 
6 
6 

"2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
3 
4 
3 
4 




3 

1 

"i 


1 
6 
7 
4 
3 
1 
1 

1 

2 
3 
4 
3 
4 


16,944 
64,000 

230,479 
85,981 

'35,000 
3,800 






























45 










4 

1 


1 


























46 


2 




1 

6 














1 
7 


"\2 


1 
1 




13,367.91 




27,659.76 
10,405.25 
9,900.75 


1 Ruth Sherburne 

A. E. Severn 

L. McDonald 


a 














8,669.60 


47 






2 
1 


2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 










1 


6 

1 
2 

1 

4 






9,900.75 


47 
48 
49 

50 

51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 


48 






























49 






















1 


1 


1 






450.00 


450.00 


Kate A. Wasserscheid. . . 

Marvin O.Williams.... 

John L. Hopkins 

F. W. Loeb. 


50 


'1,806 

15,501 
7,350 










1 
















51 




































5? 










3 




























53 




















4 

9 
5 
2 


















Mrs. John Campbell 

T. H. Robinson 

D. S. Mac Donald 

David S. Fisk. 


54 


14,554 
25,782 










1 
2 
1 










2 




2 


3 






9,461.87 


1,109.00 


10,570.87 


55 


















56 










1 
2 


























57 










































A. L. Page 


5S 






















1 


1 








1 














169.33 




169.33 



















































83 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 





■ STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


1 

s 

s 
•s 






Paid 
Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Woikera 




•8 


1 

■s 

d 

2; 


o 
d 
S5 


If 


a 

s 
•s 

d 


1 

i 


Und, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


.§ 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


(J 




N. Y.— Cont. 


20,70& 

45,155 

13,900 

11,000 

16,482 

26,000 

5,000 

12,000 

948 

6,100 

4,471 

5,300 

63,000 

31,275 

54,000 
7,000,000 

75,460 

7,500 
19,019 
6,392 

10,668 

12,636 
16,000 
12,500 
4.500 
23,000 
717 

43,000 
500 

11,000 
400 

328,132 

16,000 

34,000 

13,600 

11,000 

1.411 

3,500 

8,000 

3,948 

209,275 

6,841 

75,000 

104,000 
33,000 
16,083 

520,947 

36,836 
136,000 

62,000 
2,339 
5,500 
82,675 
52,037 
17,094 

17,600 

61,000 
6,070 

40,000 
6,532 
1,600 

21,412 

75,288 

6,200 




7 


6 

1 








«46,950.00 
600.00 


382.60 
200.00 


3,600.80 
600.00 


66.60 
176.00 


3,567.40 
776.00 


50,900.00 
1,676.00 


M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M4P 
M 

P 

P 

M 

P 
M 

P 

P 

M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 

P 

M 

M 

M 

M 

P 

M 

M 

M 
M&P 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
CAP 

C 

M 

M 

M 

M 

P 
M 

P 
M 
M 

M 

M&P 

M 

M 
1 M 

P 

P 

M 
M4P 

M 


I 


1 




1 


1 


2 




9 


Tamestown 

fohnson City 

Tohnstown 


School Board 


1 

2 
2 

30 
1 
3 
1 


7 


3 


Public Schools 


2 
2 
4 










100.00 
948.57 
114.64 
600.00 
314.00 


450.00 
1,592.16 
2,832.38 
1,100.00 

657.00 




450.00 
4,487.62 
2,832.38 
1,100.00 

678.C0 


550.00 
5,436.19 
2,947.02 
1,600.00 

992.00 
1,622.75 


3 


4 




1 








2,896.47 


4 


5 










,i 


6 


Lackawanna 

Le Roy 














6 


7 




1 
1 










21.00 


7 


8 


Vlamaroneck*' .... 

Vliddleburgh 

VIontrose*'' 












8 


9 




















9 


10 




2 


2 










75.00 

263.02 

300.00 

2,796.13 

3,488.34 

300.00 
12,000.00 

1,052.35 


150.00 


26.00 

274.30 

100.00 

2,641.13 

8,168.80 


175.00 

274.30 

500.00 

23,398.80 

16.960.16 

606.88 
661.934.50 

3.619.58 


250.00 

627.32 

1,000.00 

28,464.91 

25,462.36 

906.88 
'573,934.60 

4,571.93 

18,200.00 

36,336.89 
2,932.60 
3,100.00 
3,600.00 

448.00 

1,830.00 
550.00 

7.500.00 

1.475.00 
10.626.00 

6.200.00 
5897.73 

7,615.64 
26,600.00 

8,500.00 

2,063.68 

2,400.00 

99,054.34 

1.000.00 

6.086.48 

2.244.60 

1.000.00 

6.469.45 

770.00 

200.00 

165.00 

38.489.28 

2.476.00 

29.400.00 

34.175.50 


in 


11 












11 


I' 


VIount Kisco" 

Vlount Vernon*' . . 
^ewburgh 

New Rochelle" . . . 
New York City. . . 

Niagara Falls 

North Tarrytown" 
North Tonawanda 
Nyaek 






3 
18 
17 


"6 
2 


5 


36 


200.00 
2,269.98 
6,013.86 


400.00 
20,757.67 
8,801.36 

606.88 
301,934.50 

2,190.83 


p 


n 




35 
16 

2 
90 

6 

6 

1 

2 
1 

1 


n 


14 




14 


I'i 








15 






106 
3 
2 

"2 

1 

1 

7 

2 

12 

1 


136 
1 

2 

1 
2 

1 








"260,000.00 
1,328.76 


in 


16 


Brooklyn Parks and Playgrounds 








n 




Community Councils of the City of 


10 


6 




h 


17 


Recreation Commission, Bureau of 
Parks 




7,986.62 






28..351.27 


17 




Community Center Association" 


8 


12 










18 


200.00 


800.00 


2,100.00 
3,600.00 

25.00 

670.00 

300.00 

5,026.11 

1,400.00 




2,100.00 
3,600.00 

26.00 

1.030.00 
350.00 
6.201.11 
1,400.00 
1.325.00 
4.200.00 


IK 


19 


Beard of Education 

Recreation Committee, Women's Civic 








19 


m 






170.00 
26C.00 


253.00 

560.00 
200.00 
836.01 










?n 


?i 


Park and Playground Commission and 
Emergency Recreation Committee. . 


1 
4 
10 
2 
3 
4 








360.00 

60.00 

1,175.00 








?1 


i!2 








2? 


m 


Ossining" 

Pelham" 




2 






'462.88 

75.00 

8.000.00 


23 


?4 








?4 


?6 


Pleasantville"* .... 

Port Chester*' 

Port Leyden 

Poughkeejisie 

Purchase"' 

Rensselaer ,.:.... 
Rhinecliff 

Rochester 

Rockville Center. . 
Rome 










1,300.00 
1,000.00 




H5 


26 




6 


1 


50 


75 


3,072.00 


1.128.00 


26 


'7 




897.73 
1.756.96 
19.500.CO 


?7 






6 

4 

1 

12 


22 
2 
1 

12 

1 
7 








1,426.68 
3,600.00 


4,082.00 
500.00 


3.50.00 
3.000.00 


4.432.00 
3.500.00 


28 


28 


1 RonrH of Piihlir Works 








R 


?q 


The Purchase Community, Inc 


1 






29 


30 








68.23 


1,985.46 
1,800.00 
14,942.91 




1.985.45 
2.400.00 
79,750.32 


,30 


31 


Morton Memorial Library and. Com- 


1 
12 








600.00 
64.807.41 


31 


32 


Eiviaion of Playgrounds and Recrea- 


7 
2 

23 
1 
3 








19,304.02 


3? 


33 










33 


34 


Board of Public Works 


12 








500.00 


500.00 
1.000.00 


3.686.48 

282.00 

1.000.00 


1.600.00 
962.50 


5,086,48 

1,244.50 

1,000.00 

2,191.67 

470.00 

200.00 

60.00 

32.322.23 

1.725.00 

23.165.00 

9.660.00 


34 


36 


Saratoga Springs . . 

Scarsdale*' 

Schuylerville 

Sea Cliff 










35 


36 


Woman's Club and School Board 


4 










3(i 


37 








1,541.18 
300.00 


1.736.60 
100.00 


2.191.67 
50.00 


37 


38 


Villaffp of Sea ClifF 


1 
2 
2 

46 
1 

15 
24 










420.00 

200.00 

60.00 

16,920.62 

1.725.00 

8.350.00 

9.660.00 


38 


39 












3q 


40 


Spring Valley 




1 
19 

12 
20 








30.00 


76.00 

6.167.05 

750.00 

6.235.00 

2.175.00 




4(1 


41 




e 
1 
2 
2 






15.401.71 


41 


4? 


Tarryto»n" 

Troy 




1 


3 




4? 


43 






14,815.00 


43 




Utioa 

Watertown 

Watervliet 

Westchester Co. . , 
White Plains".... 








22,340.50 


44 




1 Pirk Board 








fi 


45 




IS 
21 
44 


7 
56 
42 




4 








5.960.00 

1.370.00 

35.126.50 




5,960.00 

1,370.00 

57,917.30 


8.960.00 

1.720.00 

117.847.25 

649.916.61 

27.389.50 

2,850.00 

63.000.45 


4.1 


46 






200.00 


150.00 
59.929.95 




4« 




/ County Recreation Commission™ . . , 


IS 


20 


27 


22.790.80 


47 










I Recreation Park Commission 


4 

i 
67 


'"7 
70 


2 
















*f 


48 






600.00 


360.00 
10.591.96 


2.000.00 
22,518.00 




2,000.00 
62,408.50 




49;Yonkcrs"' 




14 






29.890.60 


411 




North Carolina 

Asheville 

Brevard 










60 


50 


1 Negro Welfare CounciPS 


1 






4 


4 






1,500.00 




1,500.00 


1.500.00 




51 














61 


52 


Y.M.C. A 

Park and Recreation Commission 


1 
4 

2e 
1 

1 

10 






18 


12 




1.280.00 
6.092.32 
4.576.00 

124.57 

1.487.42 
5.097.03 


732.00 
3,710.00 
6,612.25 

283.33 

2,400.00 
4,968.67 




732.00 
9,655.64 
8,439.25 

1,478.80 

3,566.48 
4,968.67 


2.012.00 
14.977.15 
18.890.45 

1.603.37 

10.565.90 
20.486.42 


69 


.53 


Charlotte 

Durham 

Gastonia 

Goldsboro ........ 

Greensboro 

Hendersonville. . . . 
High Point 


■ 14 


1 
3 


229.19 
5,875.20 


5.945.64 
1.827.00 

1.195.4" 

1.166.48 


53 


54 


=18 


.... 


54 


55 


Parks and Playgrounds Committee 


,5.1 


66 


Wayne County Memorial Community 


1 
10 


2 
"5 


"is 


"is 


5.512.00 
10,420.72 


5f 


57 




67 


.V 


Golf and Country Club 




5f 


.59 


Parks and Juvenile Commission 


2 


1 
2 


1 






5,000.00 
28.00 


6,900.00 
16.80 
66.00 


3,000.00 
100.00 
800.00 




3,000.00 
120.00 
800.00 


14.900.00 

164.80 

866.00 

4.271.00 

11.941.84 

6.500.00 


m 


60 






20.00 


60 


61 


Montreal 

Rocky Mount .... 
Winston-Salem . . . 

North Dakota 

Devils I^ke 


Mountain Retreat Association 


J 








61 


fi? 












69 


63 


Public Recreation Commission 

Board of Park Commissioners 


10 

1 


10 


2 






17.78 


3,627.94 


6,403.84 


1.892.31 


8,296.16 


61 


64 






64 

























M 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 









Playgrounds 


Recreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


1 

-s" 

1 
< 


1 

•S" 
g 

1 

n 


1 

i 
1 

_D 
'2 

ca 


M 

s 

6 




1 

4 

a 




1 

1 

U2 


1 

I 

1 
.a 

i 
1 
1 


1 

a 
■2 

a 

■3 

a 


S 

(4 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


BuildingB 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 






T3 

1 


1 




1 

1 


1 

1 

•n 

B 
i 


*rt 


g 

C 


1 


III 


B 


>> 

■3^8 


a 

•s 




Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 


Land. 
Buildings. 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 




6 

o 
d 


g 
S 

■s 

d 


•s 

1 


•s 

d 


1 




2 

i 

8 




10 


12 

1 

g 
2 
3 

8 


<34,050 
1,500 
47,136 
<7,500 
18,000 

<40,267 






6 
2 
4 


15,701 
1,700 


1 


2 


2 










4 




7 


'5 


7 




145.376.00 


6.400.00 
704.00 


151.775.00 
704.00 


E. E. Bredljenner 

Jessie B. Cooper 

Harry 0. Watson 

H. B. Eccleston 

Ruth A. Hine. 


1 


^ 




7,500 












? 




3 
3 

1 
1 
4 
1 
2 












19 
4 

7 
6 




20 











3 




2,500 
1,200 












1 














^ 


4 














1 
















\ 


1 


1 


7,039 








1 


















Henry G. Nadin 

Michael McGuire 

Edward J. Reifsteck . . . . 
R. J. Whitney 


s 


fi 




























6 


7 




1 
1 






2 


'5,000 






2 


15,000 












1 


4 

7 


















7 


8 






1 
1 
























ff 


q 




































James P. Daniels 

Frank G. Lindsey 

Percy R. Haskins 

Walter E. Huelle 

R. W. Cammack 

Douglas G. Miller and 
W. J. Blake 


q 


in 




2 






2 


6,000 












3 










. 2 
















300.00 
822.90 


10 


ir 












1 


























I' 




2 




ie 
2 

3 


2 

16 
5 

10 
198 

6 

13 

12 


27,000 
'269,300 
974,567 

'71,737 
'»38,963,858 

150,000 






3 
15 


17,500 
75,607 




2 
6 
6 

6 
154 

1 










1 

6 
8 

4 
325 


50 


5 

20 
40 

22 
383 












p 


n 




38,701 
200,165 












7 
12 

18 
134 


4 




18.000.00 
36.215.92 


16.767.20 
17.268.00 

4.620.25 
294.469.56 


43.150.79 
68.175.66 

4.620.25 
294.469.56 


n 


14 


i69 
4 


2 

10 
26 

5 

5 

12 


... 
4 










1 










42 










H 


IS 


Edward k. Wilson 

J. V. MulhoUand and 

Louise Edwards 

Evelyn R. Meyers 

Frank Peer Heal 

Victor de Wysocki 

J. M. Pollard. Sr 

Earl Brooks 


15 


16 


68 


"642,775 






3 


1 


8 




3 


293 


113 














16 


h 






14 

7 
16 
2 
5 

4 
2 


31,500 

26,608 
17,750 
10,410 
69,611 








1 


1 


3 
19 


1 

1 


100 

42 
2 
3 
8 

1 

16 
2 
5 


100 

27 
2 
2 
1 

1 
2 

1 








60.000.00 

20.673.50 
308.00 


60.000.00 

34.335.64 
308.00 


h 


17 


'69,305 








3 




1 


1 


7 


1 




17 






45,426 






18 








3 

4 
3 


3 
13 

6 
3 
6 
3 


36,100 
60,000 

6,000 

39,762 

15,000 

165,000 


























18 


iq 


1 

i 


8 

1 

3 
5 


5 






8 


12 

1 

3 
2 
2 

1 








1 




11 




8 


1 




10.244.00 

440.00 

5.304.40 

200.00 

3,438.00 


16.244.00 

440.00 

5.776.50 

2DO.O0 

3,408.00 


W. L. Ramsay 


10 


•^n 
















'O 


?i 






3,750 
3,000 


2 

1 
1 

1 












7 
6 
7 




4 








'l 


?? 




















W. E. Long 


?? 


M 




205,400 












6 


1 




Mary M. Halpin 

F. M. Smith 


V, 


?A 


1 
















?4 


?„■) 
























1 




















Charles E. Canfield 

Doris E. Russell 

Leon H. Smith. 


?5 


?fi 


3 






3 


6 


206,034 






3 


12,888 


3 


3 














7 


2 


7 


2 




8,214.23 


8.214.23 
1.652.28 


?6 


i!7 














1 


1 
6 
4 
2 
2 

1 

46 
3 

11 
9 
4 




1,652.28 


V 


H8 


2 


4 






6 


92,777 










2 


3 
2 

1 










1 












SamJ. Kalloch 

Thomas F. Lawlor 

Marion D. Coday 

William J. Adams 

Harriett E. Woolley 

Gertrude M. Hartnett . . 

Floyd B. Brower 

Charles W. Havens 

Patrick B. Kearney 

Clinton S. Leonard 

Percy R. Haskins 

John H. Dickson 

Anna L. Murtagh 

C. Eberhard 

VV. A. Barry 


'8 














1 






1 










20,603.90 




20.603.90 




99 




































9q 


sn 


25 

"i 


6 

1 

9 
4 

7 






6 

34 
4 

7 
1 
3 


29,560 

9,000 

'•3,235,331 




































30 


31 


32 


16.000 




































31 


3? 






11 
2 


20 
2 
8 
2 
3 


2 




3 


1 


2 


3 


86 


33 


33 


24 


665,780.98 


28.997.83 


663,380.06 


39 


33 




3 


800 


33 


34 


260,000 


2 


11,030 










2 


1 


14 


7 






10,870.90 


1.800.03 


12,670.90 


34 


3S 






1 
3 










35 


IB 


3 






8,750 




































36 


37 


















1 
















14,234.96 


37 


38 






















1 




























38 


3P 


















1 






























39 


4n 


ie 


1 

14 
3 
9 




is 


1 

30 

3 

9 

16 


'3,826 

3,068,390 

79,964 

'142,897 

507,645 




































180.00 

57.146.57 

2.645.00 


180.00 

1.400.280.95 

2.545.00 


40 


41 




262,000 
6.430 


83 

7 


1,000,000 
11,988 


3 
2 


17 




2 






10 


84 
2 
25 
18 
24 
14 
2 


'3 
3 

1 
1 


158 
,6 


89 
2 


65 


29 


1,265,511.18 


41 


4? 


Mildred M. Wheeler. . . . 


4? 


43 




1 






1 




43 


44 






10 




I 
1 
2 
4 


24 


25 


1 






23.267.13 


23.267.13 
58.087.55 
28.648.24 


M. Esthyr Fitzgerald. . . 

A'. J. Gray 

William I. Graf 

John J. Hackett 

E. Dana Caulkins 

Hermann W. Merkel. . . . 

Frank T. Hanlon 

Frank B. Mc Govern . . . 
James F. Mc Crudden . . 

Weldon Weir 


44 
























"2 




8,087.55 
28,648.24 




45 




4 
4 






4 

4 


66,317 
88,030 




















4S 


4f) 




























46 


47 




232,698 


















34 


11 




1 




16.730.74 


22.138.58 


47 




















6 
2 
5 

1 

3 


10 
6 

6 
6 

3 


6 




4 




3 


8 

7 


1 
1 






48 








6 

"9 


6 

6 

28 


281.520 

47,887 

861,269 






5 


38.125 


16 


4 


12 


4 


1,839.08 


19.382.00 


21.221.08 


48 


n 


"2 


6 
17 
















4fl 






24 


103.623 








2 


3 


19 


2 
3 


7 


12 


7 


12 




18,148.00 


18,148.00 


49 


sn 










1 




W 


H 




4 


4 




8 


53,021 












9 






'i9,'l'35.86 




'i9.i35'.86 


L. G. BlackuB 

Noah Hallowell 

a. C. Suttles 

Lacy Ranson 

C7 R.Wood 

W. L. BalthU 

R. C. Robinson 

Daniel R. Neal 

Noah Hallowell 

W. F. Bailey 


H 


,')l 






















1 
"3 








SI 


.■i? 


is 
3 

'2 


1 






15 

14 

16 

3 
10 


36,812 

205,030 

81,550 

167,992 

10,500 
'69,609 






1 
1 
2 


105,382 
10,000 
16,732 


"3 


1 
7 
5 

2 








1 
1 

1 


14 
12 

2 














52 


S3 










1 


1 
4 


8 
12 

17 


39 

1 

17 

3 
29 






96.486.44 
19.840.00 


12.262.60 
760.00 

6.217.60 

246.00 
3.250.00 


109,617.44 
21,100.00 

6.829.15 

11.383.50 

36.740.45 

"35.328.28 

285.000.00 

529.75 


.53 


S4 


9 
16 

3 

6 


"2 


2 


22,344 


54 


SS 




1 




55 


Sfi 




104,717 
1,500 


1 
4 


350 
16,795 








11.137.50 
28.400.00 
36.328.28 
75.000.00 


56 


57 
SS 




7 




i 




\' ■ 




20 


5 


9 


57 
58 


Sfl 


12 








12 
3 

I 


201.000 

6,000 

650 






11 






8 










4 




13 
3 


16 
13 


13 


16 


10.000.00 
499.30 


59 


«n 


3 
1 




















Mary A. Honey 

Albert R. Bauman 

L. B. Aycock 

Loyd B. Hathaway 

Noel Tharalson 


60 


61 




500 






2 


1 










1 
1 
3 


5 
4 

69 

6 


10 
1 








61 


H? 












.... 


1 








169.20 


169.20 


62 


63 




5 




6 


11 


312,025 






6 


18,779 


16 
2 








2 


63 


61 


















64 





















































85 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 
Footnotes follow 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


4- 
1 

s 

c 
a 

■s 






Paid 
Workers 


Volun- 

teer 
Wotkera 




>> 


s 

o 
d 
Z 


a 

•s 

d 

Z 


11 


a 

s 
•s 

d 

Z 


a 
•s 


Land. 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkeep. 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 




Total 


^ 


•s 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 



•3 
d 

z 


1 




N. Dakota— Cont. 

Grand Forks 

Lisbon 

Valley City 

Ohio 


17.000 
1,650 
6,268 

250,040 

7,000 
2,035 
6,688 

104,906 
4,500 

460.000 

900,429 

1,250,000 
53,000 

290,564 

4,500 

200,982 

9,000 

39,000 

500 

52,000 

589,356 

75,000 
42,000 
44,000 
33,000 

1,400 

5,518 
30,000 
32,000 
16.000 

2,648 
17,000 
42,560 

5,632 
10,622 

6.800 
70.000 
35.418 

290,718 

8,500 
5,500 
10,800 

170,000 

36,440 

20,000 
9.621 
2.236 

10.000 
200.000 

141.258 

5.000 
8,848 
18,901 
5,000 

8,000 
2,500 
6,626 

301,815 

26,266 

1,500 
1,374,410 


Board of Park CommissionerB 


1 
1 


2 




7 




527.44 
300.00 


2,016.26 
700.00 


1,782.75 
500.00 


1,367.93 


3,150.78 
500.00 


5.694.38 
1.600.00 


M 
M 
M 

M&P 
MAP 
M4P 
MAP 

M 

M 

P 

M 

M 

M 

MAP 

C 

M 
M 
P 

M 

P 
M 
M 
M 

C 

M 

M 

P 

M 

P 

M 

M 

M 
MAP 

1- 

P 
MAP 

M 

P 

M 

P 

M 

M 

P 
P 
M 
P 
M 
M 
P 
M 

P 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

P 
P 

M 
M 

MAP 

P 

C 


f 


1 










3 


4 


Board of Education 


34 

32 


10 






25 
10 
4 


13,000.00 


5,956.48 


7.448.49 
4.410.00 


2.700.00 


10,148.49 
4,410.00 


29.104.97 
'*26,010.00 


4 




\ Municipal Recreation Commission. . 


1 


90 
14 




^ 








fi 


ft 


BlufFton 




1 

2 

81 

1 

285 

72 

117 

7 

S 

66 
108 






3,000.00 




75.00 
601.90 

15.357.86 
375.00 

61.725.19 

142,653.13 

28,773.40 

2,424.75 


100.00 


176.00 
601.90 

17.292.36 
460.00 

89,433.06 

175,642.74 

28,773.40 

2,424.75 


3,175.00 

2,220.92 

23,937.44 

650.0n 

302,049.94 

215,927.58 

33,239.65 

3,893.42 

"19,399.19 

25,364.03 

62.031.67 

177.29 

100.564.24 
1.050.00 
9,678.03 


6 


7 


Bowling Green 

Canton .... 












1,619.02 

4.559.62 

150.00 

38.786.74 

40.284.84 
4.466.25 
1,468.67 


7 


8 


Recreation Board, City .School District. 

Recreation Commission 

Public Recreation Commission 

[ Department of Parks and Public 


20 


5 


20 


6 


2.085.46 

50.00 

173,830.15 


1.934.50 

76.00 

27,707.86 

32,989.61 


8 


^ 




9 




Cincinnati" 

Cleveland 

Cleveland Metro- 
politan Pk. Dist. 
Cleveland Heights. 

Columbus 


99 

81 
148 
16 

44 
25 


16 

32 
1 






in 


11 






11 
























b 


12 




1 

2 
5 








1? 


J3 


Division of Public Recreation, Board of 


10 


8 




5.680.80 

11,684.01 

37.29 

24,358.28 
500.00 


12.429.68 
19.557.91 


7,253.55 

4,189.75 

140.00 

52,943.43 
250.00 


19.683.23 

23.747.66 

140.00 

68.986.92 
550.00 


13 


14 




26,600.00 


14 


1>i 


Kelly Park Board 






15 


16 


Dayton 


Bureau of Recreation, Division of Parks, 

Department of Public Welfare 

Men's East Defiance Booster Club. . . . 


14 
1 
5 

1 
8 

1 
55 
27 


2 

1 
3 


7 






7,209.04 


16,043.49 
300.00 








16 




20 




17 


18 


East Cleveland 






18 


19 




















19 


90 


Hamilton 

Hamilton County. . 

Lakewood 


Department of Parks and Recreation . . 
Division of Recreation, Department of 


1 

23 


2 


8 

35 

8 


5 

2 
12 












12,039.30 

2,720.00 

18,585.29 

5,134.07 

50.00 

2,748.02 

4,000.00 

600.00 

6,600.00 

3,851.62 

13,859.88 

1,886.00 

1,150.00 

5,416.53 

814.60 

6,700.00 

1,212.15 

1,200.00 

19.256.70 

20,171.91 

3.920.00 

1.390.00 

1.200.00 

212.00 

93.026.00 

39.751.52 

4.600.00 

1.040.00 

600.00 

750.00 

1.440.60 

550.00 

71.270.31 

11,640.00 

1,550.00 

400.00 
681.61 
327.13 

309.86 
105.00 

420.00 
83,285.06 

3,694.73 

250.00 
16,120.00 


?0 


21 




440.00 

4,109.11 

1,239.91 

50.00 

890.96 


2,280.00 
14,476.18 
3,241.36 




2.280.00 
14.476.18 
3.614.16 


21 


■>■) 








22 


9^ 




380.00 


272.80 


23 


'>1 










6 


4 


24 


'>'; 


Mansfield 

Mariemont 

Miamisburg 

Middletown 




8 


7 






1,867.06 




1,857.06 


26 


?6 






»20 








26 


'7 




1 
2 
3 
10 
1 
6 
5 












600.00 


100.00 


600.00 


27 


'S 
















28 


'q 




1 
2 
1 
9 

1 










200.00 
337.09 


1,101.76 

2,248.79 

166.00 


2,549.87 
119.00 


3.6S1.62 

2,367.79 

156.00 


29 


30 


Niles . 


Recreation Service and Park Board . . . 

Y.M.C. A 

School Board 


1 


30 




11,156.00 


30 


31 


North Canton 

Piqua 


31 


3' 




20 
23 


15 








32 


33 


Portsmouth 

Rocky River 




460.00 


927.73 


625.00 


3,403.80 


4,028.80 


33 


34 




.34 


•^', 


Memorial Building Association 


3 
2 

1 
19 

7 

1 

1 
1 
1 

29 
9 

13 
3 

3 

1 
5 

1 

33 
11 


.... 

2 
11 

15 

1 


1 


2 




1,000.00 
600.00 


3.060.00 
204.16 


2,040.00 
408.00 


600.00 


2,640.00 
408.00 


.35 


36 


South Euclid 

Springfield 

Steubenville 


36 


37 












37 


38 
39 


Department of Parks and Recreation . . 
Division of Recreation, Department 
of Public Works 


3 

1 


»1 




1,536.86 

889.53 

300.00 
40.00 


5,728.76 

1,306.86 

2.000.00 

150.00 

405.00 

92.00 

15.000.00 

7,358.55 

600.00 

120.00 


8,126.22 


3,864.86 


11,991.08 

17.975.52 

1,620.00 

1.200.00 

796.00 

120.00 

76.000.00 

24.982.34 

4.000.00 

920.00 

500.00 
760.00 
916.70 
300.00 

62.727.17 

8.640.00 

720.00 
300.00 
550.32 


38 
39 


Van Wert 

Wapakoneta 

Wooeter 


Frederick Douglass Community Asso- 


6 
220 

I 


4 


1,620.00 

1.200.00 

375.00 

120.00 

16.585.00 

4.920.34 

4.000.00 

920.00 

500.00 
750.00 
700.00 
300.00 

17.011.04 

5,940.00 

120.00 
300.00 
527.70 




a 


40 


Y. M. C. A ' 

School Board 




40 


41 


I 
1 
16 
1 
5 
6 




420.00 


41 


4' 


Kiwanis Club and F. E. R. A 






42 




Youngstown 

Zanesville 

Oklahoma 

Bartelflville 

Blackwell 

Cherokee 

Guthrie . 


1 
1 






3,026.00 
7,410.63 


58.415.00 
20,062.00 


43 


43 


] Mill Creek Park Commission 










1 


2 


b 


44 








44 


45 


Y.M.C. A... 












45 


46 


3 
2 














46 


47 












523.90 
250.00 

6.326.91 

3.000.00 

30.00 
100.00 
131.29 


'^ 21 6.70 


47 


48 


City of Guthrie 










48 


«9 


Oklahoma City . . 
Tulsa 


Park Recreation Department and 
School Board 


38 
2 


1 
■4 


40 

21 


60 
2 


2.216.23 


45.716.13 
2.700.00 

600.00 


49 


10 


Board of Park Commissioners 

Park Board 


50 


M 


Oregon 

.Ashland 


80C.00 


51 


5? 


Bend 


School Board 


1 
3 








5? 


.W 


Eugene 








1 




22.62 


53 


S4 


Grants Pass 

La Grande 












M 


55 


Playground and Recreation Association 


2 


2 
34 

2 




1 
9 


5 
5 




19.86 


290.00 
75.00 

320.00 
21.371.40 

1,915.00 

200.00 
9.300.00 




290.00 
106.00 

320.00 
21.371.40 

2,047.00 

200.00 
12.460.00 


5S 


56 




30.00 


56 


57 


Pendleton 

Portland 


Playground Committee, Parks Com- 






100.00 


17 


58 


Playground Division, Bureau of Parks. . 


31 
3 

18 


9 




40 






IS 


59 


Salem 


1,172.91 


474.82 

50.00 
1.200.00 


132.00 


59 


60 


Pennsylvania 

Alden 

Allegheny Co.™.. . 


Playground Association 






18 


60 


61 


Recreation Bureau, Department of 
Parks 


3 


1 




2.460.00 


3,160.00 


61 



86 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 



Playgrounds 

Under 
leadership 









n 










y 










? 










rr' 








□ 










O 


r 






c 
O 


1 


O 




e 

S 
i^ 


B 

a 

eg 


1 


1 


"e3 

■s 



■21 
Ha 



Recreation 
Buildings 



"-30 
S = c 

ill 



Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 






Emergency Service 





Paid 


1 


Leadership 






Em- 






ployed 




s 


Full 




H 


Time 








s 


is 










5 





















^ 


a 


"o 


'0 










z 


z 


:a 


z 



Expenditures 



Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 



Leader- 
ship 



Total 



Source of 
Information 



58 



49 



58 



10,396 
10,500 



<70O,547 



49,960 
12,000 



5.50,000 

38,700 

"1,519,197 

<1,094,008 

1,841,800 

282,216 



703,551 



1,096,132 
12,000 



'1,250 



327,373 

269,237 

18,000 

184,938 



28,000 



141,025 
<69,192 



60,000 
154,500 



164.900 



'45,068 
138,377 

'732,883 



15,700 
10,000 
20,150 



209,652 
27,255 



"9,000 



5,600 
18,750 



«3,0I9,570 
382,000 



11,000 
26,000 
'42,750 



15,000 



'13,163 
'938,040 



143,392 



'2,500 



55,311 



172,254 
102,433 



56,642 
25,000 



71,759 
76,640 
78,673 



14,400 



204,278 



22 



32 



500 



22,500 
160,000 



19,000 
' 708,712 



299,728 



38,713 



518,125 
11,736 



5,200 



7,176 
4,500 



3,500 
4,056 



1,950 



750 
2,600 



8,000 



9,000 



78 



2 4 



60 



33 



108 



10 



95 



35 



57 



23 



60 



35 



11,875.45 



105,159.62 



1,119,716.81 



142,058.00 



3,000.00 
5,661.03 



15,000.00 



100,000.00 



2,000.00 



1,569.00 
57,000.00 



920.00 



35,000.00 
4,500.00 



65.00 
' 10,120.80 
'41,003.03 



12,516.00 



20,162.00 



695.00 

14,976.00 
4,950.00 
9,373.42 



2,042.42 



1,980.15 
1,025.20 



200.00 



750.00 



931.00 
1,440.00 

32,000.00 

625.00 



621.60 
1,200.66 



7,092.00 
6,955.20 

280.00 



67.50 
519.00 



281.00 
10,948.63 



11,875.45 



Frances B. Kannowski. 

C. G, Mead 

D.W.Clark 



35,000.00 
10,426.00 



65.00 



115,280.42 
,168424.21 



Milton H. Saitz... 
Rowan R. White .. . 
.Arthur H. Rhoads. . 
Robert Schaeublin.. 

Mabel Young 

C. W. Schnake 

Walter A. McElroy. . 
Tarn Derring 



A. S. Kubu 

G.I. Kern 

George P. Bauer . 



174,603.00 



40,162.00 



695.00 

16,472.40 
7,950.00 
15,520.45 



15,000.00 



1,993.44 
104,025.20 



200.00 
2,000.00 



750.00 



2,500.00 
62,040.00 



32,000.00 



2,800.00 
621.60 



1,200.00 



7,092.00 
6,955.20 

280.00 

" 1,562.3: 
67.50 

519.00 
75.00 

281.00 
10.948.63 

6,984.96 



930.00 



W. A. Stinchcomb. . 

Earle D, Campbell . 

Grace English 

Mrs. A. A. Remy.. . 



Paul F. Schenck. . 
R. B. Cameron. . . 

H. L. Green 

E. C. Derbyshire. 
L.J.Smith 



G. S. DeSolc Neal 

Sophie T. Fishback 

H. G. Danford 

J. P. Seitters 

Philip Smith 

Warren W. Parks 

Leo Wall 

D. W. .lacot 

L. G. Millisor 

W. G. Llewellyn 

Charles B. Williams .... 
R. S. Mote 

E. V. Leach 

Frank Mitchell 

J.M.Kelly 

Mrs. Carl L. Seith 

Anna M. Tennant 

Homer Fish 



Gordon Jeffery 



Clarence L. Thomas . 

S. A. Miller 

Carl D. Fischer, Jr.. . 

B. C. Bresson 

Lionel Evans 

A. E. Davies 

John H. Chase 

J.T.Walker 



C. C. Custer. . . . 
Dwight Randall.. 

Ira A. HUl 

E. C. Hafer 



G. W. Danielson and 

Herachel Emery. . . . 
Roy U. Lane 



Eleanor Coombe . . . 
R. E. McCormack. 
Frances E. Baker . . 
C. R. Ihier and 

E. B. Thompson . 
Elmo Stevenson . . . 
rt'.W. Silver 



Mrs. A. C. Mclntyre. . . 
Katharine E. Funk and 

F.I. Roth 

Lestle J. Sparks 



Arch Turner 

William S. Haddock 



87 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tioa 


Managing 
Authority 


Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 




Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 




1 
1 

£ 






Paid 

Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Woikera 


(Not Including Emergency l-unds) 




& 


S 
S 
o 
d 

2; 


i 
•s 

i 


^ E 

1! 


a 

s 
■s 

d 


a 

■s 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


^ 


•s 


For 
Leadership 


Other 

Services 


Total 


i 



Penna. — Cont. 
Ailentown 



Altoona 

Aspinwall 

Avalon 

Beaver Falls . . . 
Bethlehem .... 

Bradford 

Carlisle 

Chambersburg . 
Coateeville .... 



Dormont 

Easton 

East Stroudsburg 
Erie 



15 Greensburg . 

16 Harrisburg. . 



30 



32 



Hazleton . . 
Johnstown . 
Lancaster. . 
Lebanon . , . 



Lock Haven . . . 
Lower Merion. 



Meadville 

Mechanicsburg . . 
Mount Penn . . . . 

New Castle 

New Kensington . 

OUCity 

Palmerton 



Philaddphia. 



Pho^niwiUe. 



Pittsburgh . 



Potts town 

Punxsutawney . 
Reading 



Rochester . 
St. Marys , 
Scranton . . 



Somerset 

Souderton 

Spring Grove . . 
Stroudsburg. . , 

Sunbury 

Warren 

Waahington. . . 
Westchester.. 
West Reading . 



Wilkes Barre and 

Wyo. Valley^'. . 

Wilkes Barre. . . . 

WiUiamsport. . . . 



Wyomiasing . 
York 



98,000 



82,054 
4,2.36 
6,000 
17,14' 
60,000 
10,306 
12,596 
13,.')00 
1.5,000 

13,500 

38,000 

6,000 

116,000 

16,508 

80,339 

36,765 
67,000 
60,000 
26,000 

9,668 
36,000 

18,000 
5,64 
3,500 
48,000 
25,OD0 
22,000 
7,600 



1,950,961 



Recreation Commission and School 
Board 



669,817 



19,030 

10,030 

111,171 

7,726 

7,500 

140,003 

4,395 
4,030 
1,500 
5,700 
17,.500 
14.863 
24,545 
12,334 
5,000 



250,000 
86,626 
54,936 

4,111 
57,000 



Recreation Commission 

Recreation Commission 

Boroueh Council 

School Board 

Boys' Club 

Playground Commission 

Borough and School Board 

Borough Council 

Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty 

Park and Pool Committee, Borough 

Council and School Board 

Department of Parks and Playgrounds 

and School Board 

Playground Association 

' Department of Parks and Public 

Property 

, Commissioners of Water Works 

Playground Association 

[ Department of Physical Education, 

j School District 

I Bureau of Parks 

Y. M.C. A 

Municipal Recreation Commission .... 
Recreation and Playground .Association 
Progressive Playgrounds Association 
, Southeastern Playground Association 
Playground .Association and Civic Club 
Pla.vground Committee, Board of Town- 
ship Commissionera 

Recreation Commission 

Board of Park Commissionera ..... 

Board of Recreation ... 

Park Commission 

School Board 

Playground .\asociation 

Neighborhood House, New Jersey Zinc 

Company 

' Bureau of Recreation, Department of 

Public Welfare 

Board of Public Education 

Playground and Recreation Associa- 
tion 

Commissioners of Fairmont Park. . . . 

Smith Memorial Playgrounds 

Children's Playhouse 

Recreation Commission 

' Bureau of Recreation, Department of 

Public Works 

Playground and Vacation School 

Association of Allegheny, Inc 

Department of Extension Education, 

Board of Public Education 

Departmeut of Hygiene, Board of 

Public Education 

Department of Public Safety 

^. Soho Public Baths 

School Board and Community Chest. . 

Board of Edication 

Department of Public Playgrounds and 

Recreation 

Public Sehools 

Boys' Club of St. Marys, Inc 

Bureau of Recreation, Department of 

Public Works 

Lions Club 

Playground Association 

School Board 

Kiwanis Club 

Kiwanis Club 

Park Commission 

Recreation Board 

Civic Association Recreation Council 
Board of Recreation 



26 



Playground and Recreation Association 

City of Wilkes Barre 

Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty 

Playground Association 

i Recreation Commission 

\ Crispus Attucks Community Center" 



25 



38 



29 



23 



2,050.00 
1,000.00 



1,000.00 
800.00 



2,702.97 



1,893.35 



36 



'14 



364 



50 



4.5 



18 



'150 



50 



200.00 
491.64 

3,671,58 
125.00 
408.29 
428.00 



828.81 
450.00 



1,482.80 



360.00 
868.15 
500.00 

500.00 



4,122.3: 



1,050.00 
452.00 



100.00 
550.00 



3,287.21 
496.00 



2,347.65 

425.21 

1,900.00 



10,546.00 



1,468.50 



138.69 



965.74 
1,572.75 



18,087.78 

725.00 

• 600.00 



1,000.00 



400.00 



258.92 
278.47 
139.28 

5,083.61 
250.00 
444.02 
124.87 

1,420.59 
25.00 
103.18 



35,958.56 
2,695.03 



4.035.51 



10,985.38 

3,307.56 

471.24 

38,771.27 

4,200 



900.00 
1,044.00 
1,000.00 

1,440.00 



600.00 
330.00 



2,780.56 
1,020.00 



2,950.00 



300.00 
4,590.00 
6,300.00 
392.60 
285.00 
464.75 

3,889.10 
825.00 
453.75 
350.00 



270.00 



200.00 



300.00 



10,895.46 
160.00 



125.00 
870.00 



155,584.35 
34,401.67 



10,528.05 



35,216.48 
4,012.75 
1,972.00 

108,292.41 



450.00 



8.00 

25.00 

447.63 

7,169.02 



69.65 

9,866.89 

275.00 

400.00 

75.00 

245.93 

155.08 

26.47 

166.89 

1,065.75 

5,757.50 



6,398.52 



2,118.36 
2,000.00 
1,589.22 



7,610.28 
13,848.00 



1,446.00 
400.00 
396.90 

23,124.51 

200.00 

1,237.82 

12,863.06 
320.00 



125.00 
350.00 
208.00 
675.00 
1,280.00 
255.00 
821.25 



12,331.56 



2,400 00 
1,519.87 
6,100.00 
1,200.00 



760.00 
1,650.00 



648.80 



4,122.31 

1,050.00 

452.00 

1,979.17 



1,170.00 
1,044.00 
1,000.00 

1,640.00 



to.oo 

330.00 



44.20 



130,822.19 
4,912.25 



2,229.00 



8,264.55 

4,520.00 

266.11 

62,344.32 



5,905.60 



28.50 

' 233.55 

» 4,105.45 



13,064.82 
150.00 



251.20 
645.43 
854.75 



962.47 
182.07 
537.69, 



13,676.02 
1,180.00 

2,950.00 

11,103.12 

300.00 

5,350.00 

7,950.00 

392.60 

285.00 

464.75 

3,889.10 
825.00 

1,102.55 
350.00 

9,187.75 
125.00 
914.20 



7,001.12 

2,500.00 

2,122.28 

3,461.97 

10.00 



1,530.00 
1,912.15 
2,500.00 

2,940.00 



1,000.00 
880.00 

8,.531.51 

19,666.20 

1,676.00 

2,950.00 

15,344.12 

725.21 

7,250.00 

7,95C.OO 

651.52 

763.47 



1,095.67 M4P 



286,406.54 
39,313.92 

12,757.05 



43,481.03 
8,532.75 
2,238.11 

170,636.73 

30,200.00 

7,610.28 

19,753.60 



1,474.50 
400.00 
630.45 

27,229.96 

200.00 

1,207.82 

25,927.88 
370.00 
800.00 
125.00 
350.00 
208.00 
675.00 

1,549.60 
900.43 

1,676.00 



12.644.29 

1,200.00 

1,954.86 

902.87 

10,608.34 

150.00 

11,560.38 



322,365.10 
42,008.95 

18,261.06 



54,466.41 
11.840.31 
2,709.35 

209,408.00 

34,400.00 

7,610.28 

20,203.60 

6,258.25 

1,621.19 

425.00 

2,043.82 

8'35,971.73 

200.00 

1,277.47 

53,882.55 

1,470.00 

1,800.00 

200.00 

595.93 

776.25 

701.47 

1,698.09 

1,966.18 

7,901.38 



12,331.56 






2,400.00 
2,482.34 
6,282,07 
1,737.1 



18,730.08 
4,000.00 



M 

M 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M4P 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M4P 

M 
M 

M&P 

M 
M 

P 

M 
M*P 

M 
M4P 



M 
M 
M 

M4P 

M 

M 
M4P 



M 
M 

P 
M 
P 
P 
M 



M 

M 

M 
M 

M4P 
P 
M 

M4P 
M 
P 

M4P 
M4P 
M4P 

P 
M4P 

P 

M 

M 

P 

M 



M4P 
M 



8,487.00 M 

4,600.70 M 

8,682.07 M 

3,326.91 P 



32 



88 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 









Playgrounds 


Recreation 
Buildings 




Indoor 




1 

1 

o 
E 

g 
\ 


£ 

E 

3 

1 


1 

3 
«>■ 

•o 

w 

"c 
O 


£ 

3 

a) 

i 

i 

o 

O 


1 
S 

3 

a 

1 

e 
1 
B 

CO 


M 
a 

3 

S5 
1 

s 

1 

a 
1 

a 
■g 


f 

.s 

a 
a 


J 

a 
3 

1 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


Centers 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 






1 

i 
>< 


O 

1 
E 


c 
O 

1 
1 

M 


a 

O 
•a 

s •? 
1 t 


\ 11 




1 

a 


111 
1-1 


E 

3 

<: 


s 
s 
■s 

■z. 


z 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanen 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 




> 

c 

■s 

o 


d 

s 

6 
Z 


1 

IS 

•0 
6 
Z 


C 
•3 
d 
Z 


1 




18 
IS 


"\ 


.,.18 

...15 
... 1 


'641,201 . 
30,000 . 




5 


28,500 


1 


4 

10 
1 


1 






. 


3 
2 


7 
8 


1 


9 


9 






195,990.14 


6,512.0(1 


202,552.14 


Irene Welty and 

Elmer H. Roedel 

R. H. Wolfe 




? 




J 

? 


3 








1 










1 
















F. D. Keboch 


3 


4 


















1 




Joseph N. Arthur 

James L. Waason 

Edwin F. Van Billiard.. 
Fred Paige 


4 


S 




2 
1 
4 

5 

5 

1 

3 

1 




... 2 
... 1 
. . 4 
6 6 
... 5 

... 5 

... 1 

... 3 

... 1 


< 13,500 . 
17,500 . 








1 


1 




























S 


6 




4 


1,265 
















1 














R 




51,250 


1 


1 
1 
1 

3 

2 


2 
5 
5 

6 

1 

1 
1 

3 

1 












8 

1 

10 

12 

7 
















7 


S 


































George P. Searight 

J. N Rines 


8 


q 






1 




1 





























in 


127,332 . 












1 
1 

2 


1 


















10 


11 






3 
























H. L Cloud 


II 


n 


<20,000 . 
































1' 


13 


20,525 . 








1 


1 
"l 








2 
16 


1 














480.00 




1'i 


14 










1 


1 




i 














Edward J. Allen 

James S. Dunwoody .... 
A. W. Leeking 


14 








































15 




6 




... 6 

10 10 
...18 
... 5 

1 25 
...13 
... 1 

1 1 
... 4 

... 5 

... 4 
... 1 
... 1 


40,000 


































15 


16 


20,022 . 




6 


18,212 


4 
2 


4 
1 
3 
5 
1 
1 












8 
21 

1 
11 

36 
1 
2 
4 

8 
4 
4 


"3 


8 


2 








1,650.00 


2,025.00 


C. E. Zorger 


16 




1 


17 
5 
24 
13 

1 








1 


1 














Russell T. Tuckey 

W. H. Kent 




17 


<79,049 . 




1 






1 


' i 


9 


6 








1,950.00 


1,950.00 


17 


IS 


'265,000 
250,000 
15,000 
24,655 . 


2 8,000 
1 13,000 
1 . . 




5 
2 














Georue S. Fockler 

G. D. Brandon 

E. F Frank 


IS 


1« 


6 


13,280 










3 


5 


1 








1,360.00 


1,385.00 
400.00 


10 


?n 


















'ft 




































Paul K. Kuhlman 

Mrs. VV. T. Betta 

R. A. Lockard 

E. L. Barnhart 

D. R. Jacobeon 

Mrs. Howard U. Miller. 

J. D. Alexander 

Elizabeth Morgan 

Oscar E. Collins 

Margaret Tennant 

Gertrude MacDougall. . 
Grover W. Mueller 

C. H. English 




21 




4 

5 
4 
1 

1 




4,622 










2 

2 
2 
2 












1 










1,173.45 




1,173.45 


?l 


w 
































99 


ra 


'21,000 . 




2 


5,000 


"2 




























■n, 


M 


32,223 . 














1 
1 










6,000.00 




6,000.00 


?4 


W 


42,000 




























''5 


?fi 


















1 
















277,698.92 




277,698.92 


'6 


77 


40 


2 
4 

2 

65 
7 




... 2 
... 4 

... 2 

1 41 
...65 

... 7 


5,000 








1 










1 


"4 

2 

36 
6 


1 












''7 


?N 


'5,000 


























98,583.03 




98,583.03 


'S 


ZO 


50,360 

"6,955,921 1 
'408,252 . 


1 10fl,0C0 

8 ... . 


2 


12.500 


35 
5 


1 

38 
5 

38 










1 

38 














?<) 


w 


1 








13 


65 


75 








117,001.20 


271,683.12 


3ft 


n 




1 
4 


43,000 
















h 


'58,012 


1 












2 


18 


15 












h 


r 






2 


4 


1 


2 






160 
















H 


4 

1 

6 
13 






4 




3 "314,464 
1 90,548 


1 


94,314 




11 


15 


4 


4 




12,166.57 


12,166.57 


Mrs. P. H.Valentine. . . 
H. M. Shipe 


d 


p 






... 1 




1 
1 

1 
















1 
5 






U 


4 
91 
33 




... 4 
...97 
...46 


28,677 . . 


6 
109 
12 


6,151 


2 
61 












3 
4 


84 


1 
167 








300.00 
67,090.00 


305.00 
188,570.00 


Roy D. Holden 

W. C. Batchelor 

Mrs. John Cowley 

C. R Hoechst 


31 


i' 


1,939,868 


9 1,723,844 








1 


16 
3 






121,480.00 


V? 














h 


















SI26 
18 




















h 






14 




...14 


303,329 . . 








14 


10 










5 


















Dr. Harry B. Burns 

W. C. Batchelor 

Mrs. Charles W. Houston 

W. 0. Cressman 

F. S. Jackson 




d 










13 






















d 






3 

26 

I 
1 

16 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
8 




''' 3 
... 1 

...26 
... 1 
... 1 

...16 
... 1 
... 1 
... 1 
... 1 
... 1 
... 4 
... 8 


'5,470 . . 
















1 






1 


















1 


'8,650 
































33 


4 


17,000 . . 








1 

4 

1 


2 

20 

1 










1 

1 


2 
18 


1 
11 










3,164.33 
12,000.00 




7,722.58 
20,640.00 


34 


■i 


531,494 


2 59,885 


14 

1 


616,127 








2 


22 


4 






8,640.00 


Thomas W. Lantz 

Robert P. Earner 

Henry J. Brock 

Robert B. Dixon 


IS 


fi 








36 


7 


10,409 .. 


































37 


R 


'185,988 
45,000 . . 


3 






3 

1 
1 

1 
1 


23 








1 


3 


8 

1 
2 


3 

1 


8 


13 






97,368.76 


3,600.00 


106,959.47 


18 


9 














39 


n 


11,000 . 




1 




1 
1 
1 
1 










1 
















Floyd G. Frederick 

Magdalene Eyster 

\. F. Everitt 


1ft 


1 


12,580 . . 














1 
1 

1 
















41 


?. 


25,644 . . 








I 








1 


1 


1 








26,000.00 




26,000.00 


1? 


3 


10,000 . . 




1 


7,500 
















R.C.Worrell 

M . L. Dougherty 

Dorothy Wise 

Clinton E. Moffett 

fohn H. Shaner and 
D. C. Wagner 

^^RuthE. Swezey 

P. A. McGowan 

Allen W. Rank 

Sylvia Weckesser 

Chester N. Hayes 


43 


4 
































14 


5 


58,050 


9 


3 


14,175 




1 
1 

1 

25 






























15 


n 












1 

1 




















16 


7 




1 

55 


1 


... 2 
... 55 


85,580 . . 








2 
8 


1 








5 
26 


1 


















s 


632,080 . . 




27 


88,424 








133 


80 








23,776.00 


23,776.00 


47 
18 


q 








1 
1 
















n 




14 




...14 

2 2 

...10 


172,000 . . 








1 

2 

1 


3 

1 
15 


1 








3 

7 
16 


















50 


1 


'45,000 
'137,000 


1 2,000 

2 12,736 
1 28,000 


3 


3,700 
2,023 






1 


















<>| 


s 




10 














1 


3 
1 








728.00 
118.40 


728.00 
118.40 


S' 



































































89 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 



STATE AND 
CITY 



Popula 
tion 



ManagiDK 
Authority 



Recreation Leadership 


(Not Including 


Emergency Workers) 




Volun- 


Paid 


teer 


Worlters 


Woi Iters 






•q-n 










t*. c 






g 
S 


a 


1! 
1-^ 


a 


a 
8 




















d 


o 




o 


6 


Z 


'/^ 


ZH 


^ 


2 



Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 



Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 



Upkeep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 



Salaries and Wages 



For 
Leadership 



Other 
Services 



Total 



Total 



Rhode Island 

Barrington 

Central Falls 

East Providence . 

Newport 

Pawtucket 

Providence 

South Kingston*^. 
Westerly 

South Carolina 

Charleston 

Greenville 

Orangeburg 

Sumter 

Union 

South Dakota 

Aberdeen 

Canton 

Mitchell 

Wanblee 

Watertown 

Tennegssee 

Chattanooga 

Harriman 

Memphis 

Nashville 

Paris 

Texas 

Austin 

Beaumont 

Bryan 

Dallas 

El Paso 

Fort Worth 

Highland Park.... 
Houston 

Longview ........ 

Luling 

Marlin 

Pampa 

Panhandle 

Plainview 

San Angelo 

San .\ntonio 

Waco 

Wichita Falls 



Utah 

American Fork . . . 
Bingham Canyon. 
Ogden 



Provo 

Richfield 

Salt Lake City. . 

Vermont 

Barre 

Bart-on 

Brattleboro .... 

Putney 

Randolph 



Rutland . . . 
Woodstock. 



Virginia. 

Charlottesville. . 
Fredericksburg. . 

Lynchburg 

Newport News. . 

Petersburg 



6,000 

26,000 
32,000 
30,000 
80,000 
252,981 

9,000 
10,997 



62,000 
29,154 

8,500 
11,780 

8,000 



18,000 

2,270 

11,000 

325 

10,214 



Maple Avenue Community House, 
Inc 

Town of Barrington 

Recreation Board 

Board of Recreation 

Recreation Commission 

Department of Recreation 

f Board of Recreation 

\ Park Department** 

Neighborhood Guild 

School Department 



119,798 



7,000 
253,143 



153,000 
10,000 



53,000 

59,000 

9,000 

260,475 

110,000 

163,447 

9,300 

300,000 

18,000 
6,984 
5,338 

10,470 
2,038 
8,839 

27,000 
231,542 

60,000 

48,000 



3,047 

2,000 

45,000 

15,000 

3,067 

140,267 



12,000 
1,600 

10,000 

800 

2,000 

17,316 

2,500 



16,000 

7,500 

40,000 

34,417 

32,000 



Department of Public Utilities, Grounds 
and Buildings 

School Board and Rotary Club. ... 

Recreation Department, Park Commis- 
sion 

Board of Park Commissioners 

Community Service Club 



Board of Parks and Playgrounds . 
Phillis Wheat ley Association". . . 

Playground Commission 

Trees and Parks Department .... 
Mayor and City Council 



Park Board 

Chamber of Commerce and Red Cross 

Park Board 

Washabaugh County School Board and 

Rainbow Club 

Park Board 



Recreation Department 

Graham Congregational Church" 

Park Board 

Park Department 

' Park Department and School Board 

Community Center 

Federation of Colored Women's 

Clube" 

Public Recreation Board 

Park Department 

/ Recreation Department 

\ Public Parks Department 

Park and Cemetery Department 

Park Department 

City and School Board 

Board of City Development 

Parent Teacher Association 

Playground Association 

Recreation Association 

Park Department 

Recreation Commission 

Recreation Department 

Park Department 



Recreation Committee 

Kiwanis Club and Board of Education . 
Department of Parks and Public I m- 

provements 

Park Commission 

City of Richfield ■. 

Recreation Department 



Recreation Bureau 

Village Trustees 

Brattleboro Bathing Beach, Inc. . 

Putney Community Center 

American Red Cross 



Department of Parks and Playgrounds 

and School Board 

Village Trustees and V. E. R. A 



Department of Recreation 

School Board 

Playground and Recreation Department 
Playgrounds Division, Department of 

Public Works 

City Council 



38 



26 



216 



65 



124 



109.75 



300.00 



1,284.65 



150.00 



15.00 



20,000.00 
11,311.40 



23,303.26 



i,638.63 



5,000.00 

'7,499.68 



28.00 
■ 875.60 



1,816.40 



250.00 



10,679.79 



8,387.63 

200.00 
200.66 



200.00 
1,400.00 



692.00 



404.96 
1,000.00 



1,087.44 
8,496.90 
5,371.34 
3,479.27 
47.62 



1,700.00 
673.85 



360.00 



217.68 

'2,060.60 

490.00 



12,522.57 



9,119.68 
12,659.85 



20,851.31 
360.00 



4,000.00 

225.00 

22,440.81 

1,829.03 



500.00 
1,800.00 



3.25 
500.00 
275.00 
1,131.00 
2,718.43 
400.00 
447.00 



300.00 



314.68 
200.00 
277.45 



100.00 



30.00 



234.68 



607.73 
210.00 



60.00 



300.00 



1,418.39 



2,229.02 
1,500.00 
6,231.35 
8,664.10 
21,497.39 
10,302.12 
4,720.00 
340.00 



8,357.00 

2,664.00 

1,698.26 

600.00 



93.00 



2,700.00 
270.00 



3,976.00 



42,622.38 
14,629.63 



17,060.25 
1,428.00 
2,250.00 

15,197.65 



4,000.00 



16,460.26 

741.16 

19,193.14 



1,200.00 



1,965.00 
2,760.00 
5,418.00 
2,100.00 



400.00 
150.00 

1,645.61 
300.00 
787,50 



500.00 



215.00 



340.00 



500.00 
65.00 



600.00 

300.00 

5,161.70 

500.00 



260.00 



39,040.34 
' 72.60 



576.00 



450.00 



1,200.00 



20,743.64 



8,771.70 
16,579.33 



13,388.24 



2,000.00 



14,579.77 

1,230J0 

16,762.99 



1,700.00 



7.60 



25.00 

5,760.00 

617.61 



5,417.25 



500.00 



600,00 



500.00 



372.32 



1,678.39 



2,229.02 

1,500.00 

6,231.35 

8,664.10 

21,497.39 

49,342.46 

4,720.00 

412.00 



8,357.00 

3,239.00 

1,698.25 

950.00 



93.00 

3,900.66 

270.00 



24,718.64 



51,394.08 
31,208.96 



30,448.49 
1,428.00 
2,250.00 

15,197.65 



6,000.00 



31,040.02 

1,971.46 

35,956.13 



1,200.00 
1,700.00 



7.60 



1,990.00 
8,520.00 
5,935.61 
2,100.00 
5,417.25 



900.00 
150.00 

1,645.61 
800.00 
787.50 



1,000.00 
150.00 
215.00 



340.00 



872.32 
66.00 



600.00 

300.00 

6,161.70 

600.00 



2,370.39 P 
109.75 M&P 

2,633.98 

2,800.00 
12,627.00 

9,751.54 
31,278.94 
54.713.80 

8,199.27 
459.62 



10,057.00 
3,912.85 
2,444.76 
1,300.00 
750.00 



325.68 

300.00 

5,900.00 

760.00 



37,241.21 



80,513.76 
56,180.21 



74,603.05 
1,778.00 
6,807.03 

73,208.80 



16,000.00 

225.00 

60,980.51 

3,800.49 

35,956.13 

99,947.00 

1,700.00 

3,600.00 

3,500.00 



38.75 
600.00 
3,140.00 
'9,651.00 
8,654.04 
2,500.00 
7,680.65 



1,450.00 
150.00 

'12,639.98 

'1,000.00 

1,064.95 

98,058.63 



1,300.00 
150.00 
445.00 



574.68 



1,480.05 
476.00 



2,900.00 

360.00 

8,375.00 

800.00 
400.00 



90 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 









Playgrounc 


a 


Recreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


1 

a 
z. 

■3 

■3 
S 

1 

■< 


M 
1 

z 

■i 
3 

1 

pa 


1 

1 

S 

(0 
u 

.H 

pq 


a 

3 

1 




J 




a 

1 

J 
& 


1 

a 
z 

i 
■3 

§ 

1 

.s 

1 


a 
3 
z 

•§" 

3 

6 

.a 

a 
a 


J 

B 

1 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leaderehip 


Buildiaf^ 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 






1 


B 

s 
a 

eg 


s 

s 

1 
1 


g 

1 

•8 




5 

1 


a 

2 




a 


ill 


g 

s 
•0 

Z 


•3 
z 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 




o 

•o 
6 


B 

s 
•s 

d 
Z 


j 

•s 

d 

Z 


3 

3 
d 

S 


1 








1 


1 




1 








































Mrs. C. E. Blake 

Viall Stanley 


1 


D 




















3 






















3,355.45 
11,393.14 




3,355.45 
11,693.14 

6,400.00 
75,000.00 




H 


3 

7 


7 
7 
7 
9 






7 
7 
7 
12 
34 


80,000 
47,874 










1 
3 
1 
4 
14 
2 
1 


1 
3 
5 
2 
IS 














4 
6 










fames E. Morgan 

Otho F. Smith 


•> 


3 










1 
3 










1 

11 
2 




8 






1,400.00 


3 


4 




3 










3 










75,000.00 




4 


S 


327,741 








8 
11 












John V. Brady 


>) 


<i 




27 


17 

1 
1 




2 




























Joseph J. McCaffrey. . . . 


6 






60,000 
17,717 








1 






38 
2 
4 

8 
4 


















7 


1 

8 
2 

7 
1 
3 


4 
4 

2 


"7 




5 
4 

10 
9 
7 
1 
3 

3 


<6,043 
'23,960 

600,000 
32,334 






1 
3 

7 


1 




















Emma H. Howe 

Dr. Willard H. Bacon , . 

Corrinne Jones 

Mrs. HatticDuckett... 


7 


S 














3 


6 

6 

"4 


3 

4 
2 
6 












^ 


9 


1 
1 




1 
5 


18,000 
17,361 














6 


4 




4,160.00 

288.00 

1,700.00 


4,160.00 

288.00 

1,900.00 

1,500.00 


1) 


in 


89,571 










1 




10 


11 










4 


6 


200.00 




1? 








4,452 










5 

1 

"i 

1 

1 












3 

1 

2 


1 


Mrs Julia L Dillon 12 


13 
















"i 
1 










1 
















14 


3 






<28,698 






3 


6,850 


1 
1 
1 








2 


15 


15 








3,222.90 


3,222.90 




11 


l» 




















A. N. Bragstad 

W. E. Webb 




in 


1 


5 




2 


5 
3 




1 
1 


12,000 
6,000 


2 
2 


3,500 
3,000 


1 








5 


3 


22 


10 








4,500.00 


5,900.00 
3,000.00 


ifj 


17 


9,000 












3,000.00 




n 


IS 






1 
1 




1 


3 

17 
2 

39 

37 

8 

11 

1 

■91 
25 

1 
















}f 


(1 


"4 
'io 

2 

i 

4 

"3 

1 


31 
1 

i 

6 


"i 
21 
"5 


"i 

12 


31 
6 

25 
17 

7 

12 
1 
4 

42 

31 

1 


I 
121,090 


1 








4 

1 

2 

8 
2 


12 
2 

11 

13 
5 

6 


"2 


"i 

2 
2 


















B M Weaver 


][ 


1^ 
























John R Davis 


**( 


21 
22 
23 

24 

25 
26 
27 
28 


1,576,204 


4 
12 
4 

2 


228,130 


34 


"55,250 


1 
1 




2 
12 


20 
1 
3 

7 


23 
10 


14 
38 






149,664.68 


6,200.00 


171,664.68 


Minnie M. Wagner 

J. Glenn Skinner 

Mary Will Dortch 

James A. Garrison 

Lillian Johnson 

R. G. Williams 

Ruth Garver 


2 

•> 


17,000 
947,127 




9 

6 
I 
4 
1 
3 


3,000 

17,125 

70,830 

6,000 

50,000 

230,800 












0' 


88,104 










6 


20 


49 












1 





























20,000 
607,594 
305,000 






1 
1 
g 

1 


1 
36 


"i 
3 


1 
"i 


■3 
2 


"3 
1 


1 
1 
3 


1 

27 
4 
















9 


25 
12 


17 
16 




6 
7 
1 

1 

2 


640,210 
55,000 
120,000 


28 


45 






13,123.56 


7,478.75 


20,602.31 


9 




•> 
















J. R. Taylor 




b 
































800.00 




800.00 
44,049.61 


Mrs. M. C. Donnell 

R. D. Evans 


( 




17 


16 


6 


39 


800,000 


132,000 


5 


42,000 




22 
1 

11 
10 

1 
1 






2 




4 
1 


36 
4 
6 

31 
2 
2 
6 


3 
1 

"3 

1 


20 


74 




9 


13,322.26 


■) 


30 

31 




Roderic B. Thomas 


V 




13 




10 


23 


989,317 


6 


124,813 


31 


188,138 


1 










105 


60 








25,177.56 


30,351.56 


^ 






1 




2 
1 








C.S. Brock 




32 
33 
34 
35 


1 








1 


1 










1 
1 
3 














1,000 00 
'2,000.66 


B. N. Taylor 


V 




















1 






■"2 


"i 










H. G. Stein 


V 




2 




2 


4 


40,000 














1 

1 


George S. Buchanan 

George W. Briggs 

Mrs. A. C. DowUng .... 
W. J. Klinger 


11 










1 


















V 


"3 

19 
6 
3 


1 
1 
5 

•3 


'4 


'67 
2 

1 


1 
5 
8 

86 
11 
4 


850 






















1 














112.00 


3f 








1 




2 




























V 


?9 


31,674 
587,367 
146,007 
120,000 


4 

8 


4,468 
19,089 


































George W. Roesler 

Mary Wilson Young 

Ralph H. Schulze 

Blanche Connor 

Frank Collier 


V 


?9 






8 
2 
3 

1 

1 
1 

2 

"i 


13 
4 
1 

11 

1 

1 

5 
3 

1 
4 

1 
1 


1 


1 


1 




7 

1 


35 
12 
10 
3 

2 


2 

1 
1 
1 


138 
6 
6 


262 

1 
2 


20 
6 
5 


30 

1 
2 




37,933.36 
1,188.00 
1,815.60 


37,933.36 
1,476.00 
1,815.60 


V 










ir 




3 


75,000 
















11 












1 




1 










2 
1 

5 






2 

1 

6 








5 


1,300 
















William S. Storrs 

Bailey J. Santistevan. . . 

Edvenia Jeppson 

E. Reed Collins 

Ellis V. Christensen 


4' 




10,660 
30,000 
































41 


44 


2 


500 


6 
3 

1 
7 


30,300 
14,400 


1 
1 
1 
1 


"i 
1 

2 


1 




1 

■ i 

8 

1 


14 

18 

2 

31 

3 


2 


4 


3 






47,394.01 
12,000.00 


600.00 


47,894.01 

12,200.00 

500.00 

83,206.00 

300.00 
" " '3'84'.66 


41 

1" 


16 


"i 


1 
13 

1 






1 
14 

1 


15,000 






"2 


1 
7 


1 
4 








If 


47 


2 










82,406.00 
200.00 


800.00 


4" 


18 








1 


L. R. Hutchinson 

E. P. Davenport 

Robert G. Smith 

Mrs. Esther J. Pratt.... 
Mrs. Robert Ford and 


If 


10 






























If 


50 
























•if 


*>! 














1 
2 








1 


1 
1 








1 
1 

1 


1 
1 

3 

2 

12 
2 
12 

8 
5 


2 

1 

"i 
1 


1 
1 

2 

1 

5 


1 










11 


'i'' 


4 

ii 


1 

2 

1 

"i 




"i 
1 


1 

2 
2 

5 

1 

14 

6 


16,000 

•9,761 
7,100 

30,331 

5,250 

624,889 


2,500 


















150.00 

622.80 
600.00 

1,537.36 


150.00 

622 80 
615.00 

1,537.36 




















1 

1 

9 








V 


•il 


Richard F. Hayden 

Loyd W. BrowncU 

Mrs. R. L. Currier 


V 


11 






2 
3 


300 


1 

2 

1 


1 

2 
2 
3 

2 
4 


2 








1 






■i^ 


"15 


2 


50,136 














5 


'i6 




















V 


57 


3 
















3 


2 














5,000.00 


Lloyd L. Howard 

Dr. S. Colbert Tyler.... 
R. C.Day 


fi 


'<A 


t 


































«i 


59 












1 


1 










4 
















6 



91 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 

Footnotes follow 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


(Not Including 
Emergency Workers) 


1 

Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 








Paid 

Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Wotkers 




>, 


s 
•s 

d 


1 

•s 

d 


3t3 


g 
2 
■s 

d 
55 


i 




Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Uplieep, 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


>. 


■3 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


B 

d 
z; 




Virginia— Cont. 

Richmond 


185,000 
70,000 

21,753 
40,316 

970 

2,600 

35,000 

12,766 

1,800 

1,700 

3,000 

360,000 

125,000 

107,000 

23,000 

60,000 
25,000 
5,240 
75,572 
39,831 

18,000 
16,186 

15,000 
29,623 
5,376 

61,000 
11,000 

23,011 

600 

600 

2,514 

3,763 

1,500 

26,000 

26,500 

39,000 
23,000 

50,262 

2,350 
40,000 
60,000 

9,780 
599,100 

725,263 
5,015 
9,196 
1,425 
2,000 

40,108 
4,200 
67,500 

39,251 

14,0OC 

10,76C 

14,00C 

83 


Bureau of Parks and Pecreation, De- 
partment of Public Worlds 

Community Recreation Aflsociation*' 
, Colored Recreation Asaociation" .... 


10 

5 


53 
2 
2 

9 

3 
3 


I 
2 
1 
1 


'438 
26 




3,000.00 


5,000.00 


19,000.00 




19,000.00 


27,000.00 
6,150.00 
7.767.20 

10,341.80 

225.00 

600.00 
175.00 
800.00 


M 

P 
P 
M 

M4P 

P 
M 
M 

M4P 
M 

M*P 

M.tP 
M4P 

M 
M 

M 

? 
P 
P 

C 
P 
P 

P 
M 

SF4P 

P 

M 
M 
M 
M 

S 

M4P 

M 

M 
M 
M 

• 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

C 
M&P 
MAP 

M 

P 
M 
M 

M&P 
M 
M 

M 

MAS 
M 
M 
M 
M 


1 


1 








17 




3.838.20 
1.912.19 


2,669.00 
4,746.52 

225.00 

390.00 
100.00 


1,260.00 
3,687.09 


3,929.00 
8,432.61 

225.00 

390.00 
100.00 


h 






? 




Washington 

Aberdeen 

Clark County** . . . 

Davenport 

Dayton 

Everett 

Hoquiam 

Pomeroy 

ProBser 










3 


4 


Vancouver Playgrounda Aasociation and 
W. E. R. A 


) 

1 




9 


6 




110.00 
75.00 




4 


f^ 






6 


















fi 


7 


Piayground Association, Park Board 

and P. T. A 

Park Board 


1 
1 






1 
















Q 


1 

1 








200.00 

350.00 

300.00 

50.00 

29,239.42 

14,430.00 

2.148.00 


160.00 


300.00 


450.00 
800.00 
900.00 
500.00 
161,082.21 
23.878.00 

16.800.00 




650.00 

4,000.00 

2,500.00 

550.00 

268,780.28 

96,308.00 

24,600.00 


8 












2,850.00 
1,300.00 


P 










3 


5 




900.00 

50.00 

33.247.57 

18.867.00 

12.700.00 


1(1 




Kiwanis Club 

Board of Park Commissioners 

Park Board 


1 
34 
21 

7 


1 

33 

8 

1 




460.00 

127,834.64 

5,011.00 

4,100.00 


11 


12 

n 


Seattle 

Spokane 

Tacoma 

Yakima 

West Virginia 

Charleston 

Fairmont 


17 
1 

2 


'12 




78,458.65 
57,000.00 

5,552.00 


12 
13 


14 


Recreation Division, Metropolitan Park 






14 


I'i 








1,1 


16 


Kanawha County Board of Education® 


1 
6 
3 
1 
4 








1 






330.00 
662.00 




330.00 

692.00 

1,150.58 

206.25 


330.00 

626.C1 

3,330.55 

251.44 


If 


17 


4 

3 

1 
1 
1 
1 

2 








33.91 

1,279.97 

45.19 


30.00 


f 




Park Commission 




2 


2 


900.00 


If 


19: Huntington 


206.26 




It 














2( 




Martinsburg 

Morgantown^' .... 

Moundaville 

Parkeraburg 

Welch 












40.00 


25X)0 




25.00 


65.00 
50.00 

3,200.00 
2,840.00 
3,483.76 

2.778.08 
12,500.CO 

34.000.00 

500.00 

4,086.11 


2 


21 


\ High Street Parent Teachers League . 
County School Board and Recreation 














f 


22 


2 


'25 






980.00 
900.00 
696.86 

1,388.08 
1,638.00 


2,220.00 

390.00 

2,708.00 

1,390.00 
6,000.00 

15,000.00 

225.00 

1,313.60 




2,220.00 

740.00 

.2,786.89 

1,390.00 
10.40C.00 

15,000.00 

226.00 

2.830.14 


2i 






1 
13 

'2i 
4 
1 

8 
2 




1,200.00 


360.00 
78.89 


K 


''I 




7 

"27 
6 


I 

"2 
4 






24 


?5 


Community Service Center and 
F. E. R. A 


'250 




462 60 






WTieeling 

Williamson 

Wisconsin 

Beloit 

Birnamw( od 

Bloomington 

Columbus 


2. 




4,400.00 


2f 


26 


Park Commission and Oglebay Insti- 
tute 

Kiwanis Club and B. P. 0. Elks 


li 






200.00 
776.13 


75.00 
480.84 




?r 


OR 


6 








1.616.64 


2f 


9f) 










2< 










3 


1 


500.00 


300.00 








800.00 
5,500.00 


3- 


















3 


■^9 


F. E. R. A 


1 

1 

10 
8 
14 

78 


1 


















3: 


?? 


Eagle River 

Eau Claire 

Fond du Lac 

Green Bay 

Janesville 




'3 
21 

33 
















3: 




School Board and F. E. R. A 

Recreation Committee, Board of Edu- 






8 
33 


55.44 


200.42 

800.00 

390.19 

6,700.00 

2,542.14 


350.00 

3.400.00 
1.036.26 
1,806.00 

8,174.86 




350.00 

5,200.00 

1,313.82 

12,028.16 

9,311.84 


605.86 

6,000.00 

1,704.01 

28,328.16 

11,863.98 

818,760.42 

521.03 

1,264.55 

20,915.16 

11,000.00 

363,420.00 

80,670.66 

"27,819.00 

192,441.83 

14,513.62 

950.00 

735.00 

2,376.00 
12,930.00 
29,250.00 
10,100.00 
36,341.00 

9,579.63 

17,086.75 

32,118.10 

1,962.64 

336.41 

1,000.00 

1,100.00 


3' 


35 


12 

7 
8 

48 




1,800.00 

277.56 

10,222.16 

1,136.98 


3. 


'!6 


Board of Park Commissioners 




3 


?7 


1 


5 
100 


5 
30 


9,600.00 


3 




Department of Public Recreation, 


3 


'<h 


Department of Parks and City Plan- 

[ ning 


18,750.42 






Kimberly 

La Crosse 

Madison 

Menasha 

Milwaukee 

Milwaukee Co.^s . . 
Monroe 


i 


?9 




1 
7 

17 

7 
578 


1 
5 

10 

2 

308 








141.03 
261.69 

2,750.00 

879.00 

46,075.00 

11,030.18 


380.00 
992.96 

10,276.25 

2,200.00 

2,33,006.00 




380.00 
992.96 

14,665.16 

3,308.00 

317,345.00 

69,640.48 

9,019.00 

124,678.29 

697.40 


•i 


10 


School Board 












4 


41 


Department of Recreation, Board of 


1 






3,500.00 
6,813.00 


» 4,388.91 

1,108.00 

84,339.00 

69,640.48 

9.019.00 


4 


•C 








4 




Extension Dept., Public Schools .... 
Board of Park Commissioners 


15 






4, 










1 


43 


Playground Division, Bureau of 












18,800.00 
28,044.74 
13,100.80 




I 


41 


County Park Commiseion . . 












39,718.80 
716.42 




4 




Park Board 


1 

6 


1 
2 








371.00 


326.40 


4. 


If 


City of Neenah and Red Croea 








4 




New Holstein 


















4 


41^ 


Board of Recreation, Kimberly-Clark 
Corporation 


2 
104 


"n 


1 
2 


3 


3 


200.00 
500.00 


36.00 
3,600.00 


2,000.00 
8,930.00 


140.00 


2,140.00 
8,930,00 






Oshkosh 


4! 
4( 


4f 






f 


5C 

51 


Platteville 


Citizens' Committee, City and C. W. A 
Department of Parks and Recreation . . 

f Board of Education 

Park Department, Board of Public 
Works 


2 
33 
60 


2 
19 
8 








8,800.00 
15,000.00 
1,500.00 

8,564.79 


800.00 

11,435.00 

1,509.94 

615.79 
7,609.04 
928.81 
50.41 
200.00 


600.00 
9,906.00 
5,398.01 




500.00 
9.906.00 
6,669.69 

7,906.17 

24,609.06 

977.32 

286.00 

800.00 


5 


2 
2 


"72 


"38 




5 


55 


Sheboygan 

Shorewood 

South Milwaultee. 

Tigerton 


1,171.68 

7,906.17 

4,866.16 

977.32 


6 

! 




Board of Vocational Education 

\ Village of Shorewood 


18 


10 


2 






19,642,90 


,5, 


fil 






56.51 


f 


54 




1 
2 


I 








286.00 
800.00 


5 














.5, 


5f 


Village Board 










800.00 




5 



92 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 
the table 









Playgrounds 


Recreation 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


a 

3 

IS 

1 

E 

3 
< 


J 

a 

■f 
1 

5 
i 


M 
a 

3 

z 

1 

1 

a 
3 
"3 
n 


a 
3 
s^ 

w 
J. 

i 
1 




1 
a 

3 

!z; 



1 

a 
3 

1 

2 
g= 

'a 
a 

1 


£ 

e 

z 
8 

a 

1 

a 
a 
'£ 


1 

a 

3 

■§ 

.s 

a 
a 


1 

a 

3 

(£ 
s 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 






Leadership 


Buildini^ 


Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 






a 


•3 
O 

a 
a 
& 


O 

g 

1 
1 


c 

EC 

O 
fc 

a 
& 




g 

a 

ii 

Ii 

f-co 


a 


o . i^ 


1 


111 


g 

s 
•3 

M 


is 


i 
S5 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 




B 

d 


a 


d 


d 


I 

■s 

d 
z 


] 








20 
2 
1 

1 


20 
2 
2 
8 

3 
9 


627,000 










4 


14 










1 


20 


2 


6 
9 


'43 
10 

7 








"i3,'590.66 
4,837.50 
2,726.00 


"i3,'590.6o 
4,837.50 
11,866.00 


P. N. Binford 


1 














IS 


35,512 










Claire McCarthy 

Alice H. Harris 

K. Mark Cowen 

Mrs. Irene dumb 

S. T. Hipelcind 




h 




1 

8 

3 
8 




36,906 
<125,481 


1 


81,227 
















1 
18 

2 

2 

1 

6 


2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

7 
11 

8 
2 








h 


■> 


5 


6,620 


3 


3 

2 
2 
















9,140.00 


•) 


1 














1 


1 


4 


'27,500 


2 




19 












10 


17 








3,502.64 


3,557.64 


4 


1 
















1 
1 








Mabel B. Paige 

Harold Rainwater 

Elinor Small 


5 


f> 
















































ff 


7 






















1 




1 






















7 


R 




1 






1 


'12,000 
































W. J. Anderson 

F. Bunch 


8 


9 










1 

1 

1 

21 

17 


1 

2 

1 

21 

10 

5 




1 






1 












1,200.00 
1,000.00 




4,200.00 
2,200.00 


9 


10 




2 

1 




27 
10 


2 

1 

27 

10 

14 






















\V. C. Sommers 

J. Fred Bohler 


10 


11 


7,125 
2,172,868 
'175,873 


















1 

'4 


87 
45 

18 

6 












11 


1? 


7 


464,259 






10 

4 


..' 


2 
1 




106 
12 

8 


73 
4 






719,274.80 
20,800.00 


31,205.13 
• 800.00 


821,719.44 
21,600.00 


B. Evans 


1? 


n 












S.G. Witter 


n 


14 




14 








26,478 


Norah M. Nilson 

George W. Clark 

Thomas E. Garnar 

Patrick A. Tork 

Charles H. Manion 

W. B. Trosper 


14 


i^ 












2 








II) 


16 




16 
14 






16 
14 


172,412 
94,713 










1 
4 

1 


"4 


6 








14 

48 


17 
29 








3,240.00 
2,635.20 


3,540.00 
2,906.70 
4,798.35 


16 


17 


1 
















2 
5 










17 


IS 
















1 






4,798.35 


IK 


1Q 




1 
5 
1 
3 

21 

1 
3 


4 
1 


3 


1 
5 

3 

25 

7 






















19 


?n 






























6 


6 








1,620.00 


1,710.00 


Louis R. Potts 


'O 


?i 


8,100 


































1 Mrs.ElizabethTownsend 

Frances J. White 

L. D. Wiant 


21 












































">•) 


142,800 
48,000 
68,269 






9 


10,416 














1 
3 


4 




27 


41 








6,673.00 


12,592.00 


'}'> 


?3 
























'1 


'I 






5 


30,411 


















6 

4 
5 


6 

10 

5 








939.00 

9,674.34 
1,320.00 


1,135.73 

9,674.34 
6,563.00 




94 


?■) 


1 




























Mrs. LoisH. Hurt 


'5 


?6 




18 






18 


498,818 




9 

1 


9,664 
2,409 




8 








3 
1 


1 
1 


6 
4 

17 
1 
1 
2 


8 








?6 










2 










H. P. Corcoran and 

Betty Eckhardt 

E. G. Bias 




■'7 




2 
6 






2 
6 


11,560 
165,528 






2 


1 

2 
1 

1 

2 
1 

1 

3 
5 

30 






8 










300.00 


300.00 


a 

97 


'8 
























Myrtle F.Sturtevant... 


'R 


'9 
































760.00 
10,000.00 




750.00 
10,300.00 


99 


an 








2 


2 








1 




1 










1 
1 














F. B. Porter 


10 


'ii 




































N. H. Webster 


31 


3? 




1 
1 
5 

3 

7 
19 

7 


9 


5 


1 
1 
5 

17 
7 
19 

7 








1 




2 












1 




1 










Raymond J. Morrisey. . 

Walter Gander, Jr 

A. M. Olson and 
A. L. Conrow , 

F G Kiealer 


I' 


33 










1 

2 










3 














11 


?4 


'20,900 

110,111 
102,551 
300,000 

254,301 


































753.90 
7,103.00 




15 






3 


19,776 


4 








1 


6 
14 

12 

1 


1 
2 


3 


8 








528.00 


34 
15 


Ifi 




















L. Earl Fogelsong 

Kenneth F. Bick 

G. M. Phelan 


16 


37 










1 


1 


1 








8 








4,382.40 


117.60 
1,013.10 


4,500.00 

1,013.10 

125,572.19 


17 


38 






17 


118,857 




1 




2 






18 










3 

1 


2 


1 








125,572.19 


Floyd A. Carlson 




39 




1 
S 




14 

2 


1 

5 

14 
18 
SS 


19.500 






1 


13,500 








1 


1 












10 


40 












1 
















G. M. Wiley 


40 


41 


276,536 






8 


17,402 


2 
3 
8 
2 


4 
2 
9 
10 


6 
3 


1 






33 

3 

30 

82 


- 










7,080.73 
7,000.00 


1,577.50 


32,237.89 
22 000 00 


H. C. Thompson 

V^ernon Gniper 

Dorothy Enderis 

Charles Hauserman .... 

Gilbert Clegg 


41 


4"' 


13 
15 


1 
40 


2 


3 
4 


230,000 
1,243,000 






1 


3 
5 
3 










4? 


43 


'6,411,214 


20 


933,183 








19 


18 






5,808.00 


21,346.00 


41 




3 


1 


1 




1 










h 






























211,980.00 

249,123.36 

16,556.15 




•2211,980.00 

249,123.36 

16,556.15 


h 


44 






















6 


6 


4 




5 




1 
1 


11 

i4 
2 

2 


3 












George Hansen 

H. T. Summeril 

Armin H. Gerhardt 

J. H. Murphy 


44 


45 
































45 


4f) 




4 

1 

2 




33 


4 

1 

2 
33 


128,000 










1 
1 

1 
2 
2 


1 

1 

1 


1 


















46 


47 


1 

1 
1 




1 




























47 


48 


15,000 
146,850 


10,000 
62,113 




1 








1 


1 
















Folke C. Johansson 

Raymond C. Miller. . . . 
\ L Cone 


48 


49 


6 


84,642 






















49 


n 








6 


3 




1 




.' 


8 


2 










98,350.00 
18,000.00 
20,000.00 
3,225.00 

11,028.43 




98,350.00 

18,000.00 

20,000.00 

6,000.00 

93,656.50 




fiO 




1 
8 
4 






1 
8 
4 






















W N Smith 


50 


51 


201,000 
49,511 


3 


42,300 


5 
12 


40,000 
23,761 


1 

3 

1 


5 
5 

4 


2 


2 


1 


1 


13 


2 


8 










B A Solbraa 


51 


5? 










Ferdinand A. Bahr 

C C Buencr 


5? 


n 


2 








11 

6 


2 














53 




1 




4 


5 


' 120,000 






6 


53,000 






1 














H. M. Genskow 

William D. Stockwell... 

Marie KiUingstad 

P. M. Vincent 

R. C. Heins 


51 










1 


















780.00 
117.50 




54 




1 






1 


'26,195 






1 






1 










4 




7 










117.50 


54 


55 










1 


















55 


56 
























1 








1 














3,800.00 




3,800.00 


56 



93 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 
Footnotes follon 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing 
Authority 


Recreation Leadership 

(Not Including 
Emergency Worlters) 




Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 




-f- 

1 

1 
•s 






Paid 
Worlcera 


Volun- 
teer 
Woikers 


(i\ot inciuamg timergency runos; 




>. 


g 
S 

•z 


o 
d 


J*" 


s 

s 

■o 

d 


1 

o 
d 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Upkwp. 

Supplies 

and 

Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


^ 


b 
•s 

i 


For 
Leadership 


Other 
Services 


Total 


o 
•s 
d 
z 



Wise— Cont. 

Two Rivers 

Waukesha 

Wausau 



Wauwatoea . 
WestAUis... 



Whitefish Bay . 



Wisconsin Rapids 

Wyoming 

Cheyenne'5 



Riverton . 



Hawaii 

Hilo 

Honolulu 

Lanai City 

Wailuku, Maui. 

CANADA 

Alberta 

Calgary 



Brit. Columbia 

Vancouver 



Victoria. 



Manitoba 

Winnipeg 



Ontario 

Cornwall 



Hamilton . . . . 
Kapuskasing . 



Kitchener .... 

Ix)ndon 

Ottawa 

Peterborough . 
Port Arthur. . 

Sudbury 

Toronto 

Windsor 



Quebec 

Montreal 

Quebec 

Temiscaming. 
Westmount . . . 



Saslcatciiewan 

Regina 

Saskatoon 



10,264 
17,800 
23,756 

25,000 
36,000 



6,300 



17,361 
1,500 



18,000 

142,460 

3,000 

48,000 



83,000 



265,000 
39,082 



223,017 



25,000 

155,000 

3,200 

32,000 
75,000 

137,911 
23,044 
19,819 
20,079 

623,562 
62,000 



Board of Recreation 

City Playground Committee 

Recreation Department and Park Com- 
mission 

School Board 

, Board of Park Commissioners 

Board of Education and Board of Park 
Commissioners 



Recreation Committee and E. R. A. . . . 

School Board and Recreation Com- 
mittee 



Department of Public W'orks and School 
Board 



Board of Education 

Park and Pool Commission . 



Recreation Committee 

Recreation Commission 

Hawaiian Pineapple Company, Ltd. . 
Alexander House Settlement 



Parks and Recreation Department . 

Board of Park Commissioners 

Parks Department 



Public Park Board . 



Recreation Association 

( Recreation Commission 

\ Board of Park Management 

Community Club, Spruce Falls Power 

and Paper Co., Ltd 

Playgrounds Committee T 

Public Utilities Commission 

Playground Department . 

Committee of City Council 

Board of Park Management 

Parks Commission 

Parks Department 

Board of Park Management 



( Recreation Department 

,1dZ,o^U \ Parks and Playgrounds Association. 



140,000 

2,000 

26,000 



Playgrounds Committee . 
Town of Temiscaming . . . 
Parks Department 



54,000 Civic Playground Association . 
43,291 Playgrounds Association 



33 



127 



20 



27 



27 



23 



35 



1,050.69 



500.00 



70.00 



780.00 



500.00 



10,000.00 



1,000.00 
1,378.00 



2,864.38 
1,816.29 



6,519.00 



2,500.00 
82.76 



7,693.35 
318.14 

1,150.00 
150.00 



4,302.02 



78.00 



987.50 
4,200.00 
1,500.00 



1,000.00 
2,900.00 
5,000.00 



600.00 

11,088.26 

17,521.41 

1,484.17 



24,175.00 
5,864.52 
1,164.63 



1,130.00 



6,437.05 
855.00 



405.00 
1,050.00 



3,750.00 
260.00 



1,200.00 



140.00 



300.00 



1,812.50 
15,114.00 
1,600.00 
7,000.00 



948.32 
4,000.00 



2,000.00 

10,535.00 

1,300.00 



2,200.00 
4,372.39 
15,628.21 



67,460.00 

16,299.09 

777.58 



1,300.00 



1,173.00 
2,160.00 



7,254.13 
1,900.00 



23,532.88 



300.00 



460.00 
18,700.00 



100.00 

6,134.00 

23,592.14 

2,262.74 



83,243.00 
900.00 
176.80 



225.00 
3,469.97 



13,691.18 
855.00 



2,305.00 
1,050.00 



27,282.88 



260.00 



1,200.00 
140.00 
300.00 



1,812.50 

15,114.00 

1,900.00 

7,000.00 



948.32 
4,000.00 



2,000.00 
10,995.00 
20,000.00 



2,300.00 
10,506.39 
39,220JS 

2,262.74 



150,703.00 

17,199.09 

954.38 



1,300.00 



1,398.00 
5,629.9 



22,435.22 M 
1,173.14 M 

3,955.00 
1,200.00 
2,429.78 

31,584.90 



2,460.00 



2,500.00 
218.00 
370.00 



3,580.00 
19,314.00 

3,900.00 
13,000.00 



5,951.55 

32,584.94 
12,327.00 

84,206.44 



4,000.00 
15,273.00 
25,000.00 

25,133.44 

2,900.00 

24,459.03 

68,558.05 

3,746.91 



3,000.00 

259,917.00 

18,612.96 



174,878.00 

25,563.61 

2,201.77 



10,066.17 



2,528.00 
5,629.97 



-Private Funds; S — State Funds and 



FOOTNOTES 
t Under Sources of Financial Support M — Municipal Funds; P- 
C — County Funds. 

1. This report covers recreation service in Ishkooda, Wenonah, Muscoda, Delonah, Westfield, Edge- 
water, Docena, Hamilton, Bessemer, Fairfield and Birmingham. 

2. This figure represents the total number of volunteers reported. 

3. This report covers service in Leeds, Kimberly, Powderly and Bessemer. 

4. This figure represents participants only. 

5. Expenditures data incomplete. 

6. This report covers service in Compton, Clearwater, Enterprise, Lynwood and Willowbrook. 

7. These workers were employed on a full time year round basis September, 1934. 

8. This amount represents expenditures of Recreation Commission and School Board only. 



94 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1934 

the table 








































Playgrounds 

Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
BuildioKB 


Indoor 

Recreation 

Centers 


£ 
a 

3 

f 

.2 
< 


Ji 
B 

3 
Z 

1 

o 
B 

5 
1 


L. 

1 

SB 

;^ 

CQ 

1 


a 

3 

4 

w 

en 
S 

E 

"o 
O 


's 

1 

o 
o 


B 

3 

(£ 

bo 
c 

■§ 

B 


1 

S 

3 

1 

S 

'i 
s 


J 
E 

Z 

§ 


a 
1 


1 

i 

c 


EmergeDcy Service 


Source of 
Information 






Paid 
Leadership 


Expenditures 




d 


"0 

c 

1 
1 


a 


O 

S 

1 
1 


1 

o 
"2 

s 

B 


1 


S 
a g 


M 

B 


gli 


a 


>> 

■g-ss 

S C3 C 

^fe5 


3 
S 

•s 

1 

z 


3 

is 

■3 

J 

S 
3 

z 


Em- 
ployed 

Full 
Time 

c 

g a 

i ^ 

"o 
d d 
Z Z 


Land, 
Buildings. 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


>> 



•s 

d 
Z 


1 


3 








3 
3 

1 
4 


63,223 
66,000 


1 


74,498 


2 


12,500 


"2 


1 

2 

2 

1 

7 

2 
1 


1 

2 






1 


1 


7 
8 

12 


3 
2 


2 














Arthur P. Eckley 

Fred G. Hofherr 

I. S, Horeen 


1 


?, 


3 

1 
4 


















2 


3 
























2,600.00 




2,600.00 


? 


4 


'21,000 










2 

1 

5 

1 

2 
1 






















William T. Darling 


4 




















1 


8 
17 

2 

8 
6 


1 
2 

1 


















S 


3 

1 


8 

2 
2 






11 

2 
4 


253,816 


1 


20,000 


5 

4 

1 


85,000 
2,342 








I 










17,655.03 




17,655.00 


Fred W. Zirkel and 
E. C. Pynn 






2 






12 










5 


fi 


Ralph H. Cahill and 

C. A. Wangerin 

J. A. Torresani 

P. A. Pratt 




7 






















'2,000.06 




2,000.00 

2,250.0D 

1,847.20 

1,003.20 
10,161.00 


6 

7 


n 










1 




1 




1 


a 


S 


4 
31 


6 
1 
11 


11 

1 




16 

2 

15 
31 








18 
1 
3 


7,160 

200 

3,900 




4 

2 

6 
16 


7 






2,250.00 

.50.00 

1,003.20 
10,161.00 


A. S. Jessup and 
Ellen Anderson 

John 0. Goodman 

Ernest A. Lilley 

Theodore Nobriga 

Frank Katterman 

E. L. Damkroger 

William R. Reader 

Ian Eisenhardt and 

Eileen English 

W.H.Warren 




Q 








1 

5 
10 

1 
17 

16 

42 

2 

1 
2 












1 


4 


1 






1,797.20 


8 
q 


in 


'17,240 
898,759 


5 




1 

4 

1 

17 

18 

26 
2 

3 

4 


2 








1 
12 


3 




10 


It 


40,462 
50,000 
40,500 














11 


12 








2 

1 


2,700 
5,153 


2 


1 






1 

3 
3 


4 

13 

111 
12 

55 

3 










12 


T3 








77 


77 

8 
14 




3 

10 
2 

7 

1 
5 


2 


1 


2 


1 








13 


14 




8 
14 




'57,752 
'385,000 


9 

7 


1 
2 


1 

2 


247.64 




247.64 


14 


15 






6 
















16 






















15 

in 


17 


1 


15 
1 




22 


37 

2 
17 


852,309 

50,000 
370,661 












2 


2 


1 

1 
















G. Champion 


17 


IS 


3 


50,000 




















Joe St. Denis 


18 


19 


5 


15,972 




















l'20'.66 


John J. Syme 


19 


a 












1 

1 


34 

1 
1 
5 








1 




23 

3 
3 
14 

2 

"3 

313 

2 

60 














F.Marshall 




20 




1 
6 
7 
15 






1 
6 
7 
15 


5,020 

81,261 

'148,335 

661,381 


2 


117,380 






















Herbert J. Swetman 

Harold Ballantyne 

A. Green and John Innes 

E. F.Morgan 

S. R. Armstrong 

T. J. McAuUffe 

H. P. MoKeown 

C.E.Chambers 

Anthony L. Moor 


20 


21 


6 












1 
3 

"i 


2 
3 
















21 


22 








1 

1 


2 

6 

1 


1 


"i 


"2 
















22 


Zi 






1 


3,200 
















23 


24 






■ i 

is 

7 
















24 


25 
























1 

1 
20 
2 

14 


25 


26 






















I 
4 
7 

17 










' '24,792.06 




24,792.66 


'6 


27 


5 


16 




39 


60 


2,075,913 


5 


531,620 


53 


537,578 










27 


2S 




















28 


29 


37 


io 

4 




66 


10! 
11 
4 


»12,468,957 

'339,300 

98,000 


22 


1,738,947 






1 




18 


7 
















29 


a 


2 


51,004 


















William Bowie 

J. B. O'Regan 


n 


3n 






































30 


31 










1 
1 

13 
2 


1 




1 








4 
18 


















A. K. Grimmer 


31 


32 


6 








6 

13 

4 


















32 


33 


13 
4 






'89,747 
'27,787 




































W. H Turner 


33 


34 










4 










1 




2 


















34 







































9. The Los Angeles County Department of Recreation, Camps and Playgrounds maintains recreation 
facilities in Arcadia, Artesia, Azusa, Baldwin Park, Bell, Bellflower, Belvedere, Bloomfleld, Burbank, Centi- 
nella, Claremont, Clearwater, Compton, Covina, Culver City, Duarte, Downey, El Nido, El Monte, Gardena, 
Glendale, Garvey, Glendora, Graham, Hawthorne, Hermosa Beach, Huntington Park, Inglewood, La Cres- 
centa, La Verne, Lancaster, Lawndale, Lennox, Long Beach, Lynwood. Los Angeles, Manhattan Beach, May- 
wood, Monrovia, Monterey Park, Newhall, Norwalk, Pasadena, Palmdale, Pomona, Puente, Rosemead. Re- 
dondo Beach, San Dimas, Saugus, Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Sierra Madre, South Pasadena, South Gate, 
Temple City, Van Nuys, Torrance, 'Whittier, Willowbrook, Wilmington, Gloria Gardens, Castaic, San Fern- 
ando, Los Nietos, North Ranchito, Palos Verdes and Wilmar. 

10. This figure includes attendance at indoor recreation centers. 

11. This figure represents attendance at 3 buildings only. 

12. The Pasadena City School District includes the cities of Altadena and Pasadena. 

13. This report covers service in Riverside, Hemet, San Jacinto, Elsinore, Corona, Perris, Banning and 
Beaumont. 



95 



14. Expenditures cover only a six-months' period. 

15. This figure includes attendance at 14 indoor centers. 

16. This figure includes attendance at recreation buildings. 

17. The Santa Barbara County Board of Forestry operated bathing beaches at Carpenteria, Gaviota, 
Surf and Goleta. 

18. This report covers service in Ventura, Ojai, Conejo, Santa Rosa, Camarillo, Somis, Moorpark, Santa 
Paula and Fillmore. 

19. Twenty-six of these playgrounds are on park property and maintained by the Park Department. 

20. The Leisure Time Council conducts some activities but is primarily a consulting agency. 

21. Two of the playgrounds operated by the Branford Commmunty Council are at Short Beach and 
Stony Creek. 

22. This figure includes attendance at 4 year round recreation centers. 
22a. This amount was paid by the Y. M. C. A. 

23. This amount does not include cost of operating golf courses, pools and other facilities not operated 
directly by the National Capital Parks. 

24. This report covers service in Barrineau Park, Cottage Hill, Gonzales, McDavid and Gull Point. 

25. Maintained a program of community recreation activities for colored citizens. 

26. During 1934 the facilities and services of the park districts of Chicago were merged under a single 
Park District. Because of this fact reports of most of these park authorities are not available this year. 

27. The Cook County Forest Preserve District maintains recreation facilities in Des Plaines, Glencoe, 
Glenview, Glenwood, Lemont, Lyons, Morton Grove, Northbrook, Palatine, River Forest, River Grove, South 
Chicago Heights, Thornton, Western Springs, Wheeling, Wilmette and several additional communities. 

28. These facilities are operated by the Park Board and the cost is not included in this report. 

29. The Winnebago County Forest Preserve District maintains recreation facilities in Rockford, Rock- 
ton Township, Pecatornica, Shirland, Loves Park and Cherry Valley. 

30. This amount was spent on the stadium which was financed by city bonds through a specially created 
corporation. 

31. This figure represents the total number of emergency workers reported. 

32. This figure does not include cost of golf course which is operated by a Golf Association. 

33. Community Service was not responsible for spending most of this amount. It was largely spent on 
municipal areas for projects and services initiated by this organization. 

34. The Metropolitan District Commission maintains recreation facilities in Boston, Cambridge, Chelsea, 
Everett, Lynn, Maiden, Medford, Melrose, Newton, Qu:ncy, Revere, Waltham, Belmont, Braintree, Canton, 
Dedham, Hull, Milton, Nahant, Needham, Stoneham, Swampscott, Wakefield, Watertown, Wellesley, Weston, 
Winthrop and Winchester. 

35. This figure includes attendance at recreation buildings, beaches and ice skating areas. 

36. Some of the leaders reported served in other towns in Mecosta County. 

37. The Flint Community Music Association promotes and operates a community wide music program 
in cooperation with public schools, churches, industries and homes. 

38. This figure includes attendance at indoor recreation centers. 

39. This figure includes $2200.00 spent by the Engineering Department for maintaining skating rinks. 
39a. Two of the playgrounds are in Evansville and Osakis. 

40. This report covers regular service in four communities and occasional service in many others. 

41. This report covers service in Cloquet, Carlton and other communities in the county. 

42. This report relates to Independent School District No. 2 which in addition to Coleraine includes five 
villages. 

43. This man is employed as sports leader for three months in the winter. 

44. This report covers service in Kitzville, Carson Lake, Kelly Lake, Mahoning, Stevenson, Kerr and 
Silica. 

45. This report covers service in Lakefield, Windom, Bingham Lake, Storden, Heron Lake, Alpha, 
Jackson, Mt. Lake, Westbrook, Jeffers, Okahena and Wilder. 

46. This report covers service in Cook, Orr, Brookston, Meadowlands, Floodwood and approximately 50 
other rural communities. 

47. This report covers service in Clotho, Clarissa, Browerville, Long Prairie, Burtrum, Round Prairie, 
Little Sauk, Bertha, Eagle Bend, Hewitt, Staples, Philbrook, Germania, Moran, Fawn Lake, lona, Leslie, Bruce 
and Gordon. 

48. This report relates to the service of American Legion Recreation Teams which conducted activities 
in 254 different centers. 

49. This report covers service in Ely, Ruth, McGill and Kimberly. 

50. Some of the workers reported under the Recreation Commission also serve the World War Memor- 
ial Association. 

51. This report covers service in Mt. Hope, Hibernia, Danville and Wharton. 

52. The Essex County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in Newark, Bloomfleld, East 
Orange, Irvington, Montclair, Nutley, Orange, Belleville, Caldwell, West Orange, Verona, Essex Fells, Mill- 
burn and South Orange. 

53. In addition, 20 emergency leaders served the Department in 1934. These workers and their salaries 
are included in the special report of Emergency Service in Jersey City. 

54. This report also includes service in Morris Plains. 

96 



55. The relief service reported nere was also extended to Highland Park. 

56. Summer population 100,000. 

57. The Passaic County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in Wayne Township, Paterson, 
West Paterson, Pompton Lakes and Totowa. 

58. This is a 27-hole golf course. 

59. Funds are received from "Taxation by Contract" on all restricted property. 

60. The Union County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in New Providence, Scotch 
Plains, Westfield, Kenilworth, Roselle, Rahway, Linden, Union, Mountainside, Summit, Plainfield, Elizabeth, 
Cranford, Hillside, Roselle Park and Garwood. 

61. This is one of the communities in Westchester County which is also served by the County Recrea- 
tion Commission. 

62. This report covers service in Ripley, Sherman, Clymer, Panama, Cassadaga, Sinclairville, Cherry 
Creek, Forestville, Mayville, Westfield, Lakewood, Celoron, Silver Creek, Fredonia and Falconer. 

63. Eastchester includes the incorporated villages of Bronxville and Tuckahoe. 

64. The Erie County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in East Hamburg, Aurora, Lan- 
caster and Tonawanda. 

65. This person is also reported as a full time year round worker with the Outing Club, Inc. 

66. This amount represents expenditures on municipal, not school, recreation areas. 

67. This amount was spent in one borough. 

68. This figure represents attendance at 168 playgrounds only. It includes the attendance at 29 rec- 
reation buildings. 

69. This figure represents attendance at 16 recreation buildings only. 

70. The Westchester County Recreation Commission aids the cities, small towns and villages of the 
county in increasing recreation opportunities for their citizens. 

71. The Westchester County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in Yonkers, Ardsley, Tar- 
rytown, Harmon, White Plains, Mount Vernon, New Rachelle, Rye, Cortlandt and Yorktown. 

72. Four of these were employed on a full time basis during 1934. 

73. This amount includes expenditures on 8 school grounds. 

74. Fifteen thousand dollars of the amount reported under expenditures was for the operation of the 
18-ho!e golf course which is operated by a special commission appointed by the Mayor. 

75. This report covers service in Addyston, Blue Ash, Cleves, Delhi Township, Elmwood Place, Fair- 
fax, G'endale. Lockland. Loveland, Madeira, Mariemont, Newtown, North Bend, North College Hill, Nor- 
wood, Saint Bernard and Silverton. 

76. This figure includes attendance at swimming pools and wading pools. 

77. The Metropolitan Park Board maintains recreation facilities in Hinckley Township, Willoughby 
Township, Euclid, Bedford, Brecksville and Olmsted. 

78. This amount represents the cost of maintaining golf courses and of lifeguards at bathing beaches. 

79. The Allegheny County Bureau of Parks maintains recreation facilities in McCardles, Snowden and 
Broughton. 

80. This figure includes playground attendance also. 

81. Eighteen of these pools are also included in the report of the Department of Hygiene. 

82. In addition to this amount, approximately $56,500.00 were expended by the Park Department, Water 
Bureau and School District for maintenance of the recreation facilities reported. 

83. This report covers service in Swoyersville, Sugar Notch, Wyoming, Georgetown, Midvale, Ashley, 
Plymouth. Freeland, Pittston, Hazelton, West Pittston, West Hazelton, Duryea, Avoca, Dupont, Exeter, 
Warrior Run, West Wyoming and Lafflin. 

84. A number of the facilities listed are on Park Department property. 

85. The Neighborhood Guild serves the villages of Peace Dale, Wakefield, Kingston, West Kingston 
and Mantanuck. 

86. This figure represents attendance at 4 centers only. 

87. This report covers service in Glen Allen, Highland Springs, Elko and Hardy. 

88. This report covers service in Vancouver, Washougal, Camas, Amboy, Yacolt and Ridgefield. 

89. Some of the playgrounds reported are in Dunbar, Clendinen and Eastbank. 

90. This report covers service in Cameron, Moundsville, McMechen, Benwood and Glendale. 

91. This report covers service in Wana, Blacksville, Continental, Cassville, Osage, Everettsville, West- 
over, Star City, Sabraton, Pursglove and Jerome Park. 

92. This amount represents expenditures for purchase and improvement of recreation areas to be admin- 
istered by the School Board. 

93. The Milwaukee County Park Commission maintains recreation facilities in South Milwaukee, West 
Allis, Wauwatosa, Shorewood, Greenfield, North Milwaukee and Brown Deer. 

94. This pool on a city playground is owned by a private corporation but will later be turned over to 
the city. 

95. This report covers service in Hillsdale, Carpenter, Pine Bluffs and Little Bear. 

96. This figure includes attendance at skating rinks. 



97 



Emergency Recreation Service in 1934 



Reports reaching the Association indicate that 
in 1,025 communities recreation services were pro- 
vided in, 1934 because emergency recreation lead- 
ers and funds were made available. This num- 
ber does not include any of the cities listed 
in the earlier section of the Year Book in 
which some regular local recreation service 
was supplemented through the help of emer- 
gency funds. Because these 1,025 communities 
would not have appeared in the Year Book had 
it not been for the special funds made avail- 
able, the recreation service in these communi- 
ties is reported in a special set of tables. These 
tables also contain reports of some activities 
carried on in 45 additional cities which also 
conducted some regular service and which 
therefore were included in the main section of 
the Year Book. Emergency service in these 
cities is reported in this second section, how- 
ever, either because this particular service was 
financed entirely from emergency funds or in 
some cases because the city was included in a 
county report of emergency service. 

A large percentage of the communities re- 
porting emergency service only in 1934 are 
appearing in the Year Book for the first time. 
It will be noted that many of the reports cover 
county-wide service which includes the con- 
ducting of playgrounds and centers in a 
considerable number of towns and villages 
throughout these counties. The people in many 
of these smaller communities have never be- 
fore had an opportunity to take part in a rec- 
reation program under leadership. 

Even though the communities reporting 
emergency service only number 1,025, this fig- 
ure does not begin to indicate the extent of 
emergency recreation service in 1934. Not only 
is the information which was submitted con- 
cerning service in many of these communities 
incomplete as compared with the reports re- 
ceived from the regular cities, but no record 
was received from large numbers of communi- 
ties in which it is known that recreation pro- 
jects were carried on last year. As in the case 
of regular reports, only information from 
county and local agencies has been incorpor- 



ated. The emergency relief administration in 
a southern state reported that 462 emergency 
leaders operated 292 playgrounds in that state 
in 1934 whereas Year Book reports received 
from localities in this state cover only one 
playground conducted by two emergency lead- 
ers. Likewise in a northern state, 73 emer- 
gency leaders were reported although not a 
single report was received from a locality 
within this state indicating emergency leader- 
ership. On the other hand, emergency recrea- 
tion service in a number of states, such as New 
Jersey, New York, Alabama and Michigan, 
was reported by a large number of agencies in 
these particular states. 

Among the reasons why information con- 
cerning emergency service is less complete and 
perhaps less accurate than reports from cities 
reporting regular programs, is the fact that in- 
many states emergency recreation programs 
were not set up until late in 1934. In many 
cases leaders were inexperienced. A large per- 
centage of them were submitting Year Book 
reports for the first time and in many cases, 
especially those relating to county-wide ser- 
vice, detailed records were not available. In 
spite of these difficulties, much valuable infor- 
mation was secured, and the hearty coopera- 
tion received from a large number of state, 
county and local emergency reHef authorities 
is gratefully acknowledged. 

The following summaries and statistical 
tables indicate the 'scope and nature of the fa- 
cilities and activities carried on in the cities 
reporting emergency service. The extent to 
which recreation programs have contributed 
to better living in theSe communities may be 
judged in part by the extent to which they 
themselves assume responsibility for continu- 
ing these programs after tTie emergency has 
passed. It will be interesting to note how 
many of these communities appear in the reg- 
ular table in 1935, indicating that they have at 
least shared in the responsibility for financing 
the work. 

In most of the summary tables which follow, 
the number of cities reporting the various 



98 



items is indicated. It should be kept in mind 
that many of the figures representing cities 
reporting actually represent county reports 



and that therefore the number of individual 
communities involved is much larger than the 
figure indicates. 



Leadership 



A total of 5,153 men and women were paid 
from emergency funds for service as recrea- 
tion leaders with agencies or in towns, cities 
and villages where no other leadership was 
provided in 1934. Reports of such workers 
were received from 467 cities but they indicate 
that these workers served in nearly 1,000 com- 
munities. Approximately 60 per cent of these 
leaders were men. 

Because many recreation projects extended 
for a limited period and others were not estab- 
lished until late in 1934, relatively few recrea- 
tion leaders paid from emergency funds served 
throughout the year. Furthermore the dillFer- 
ent local regulations governing relief work 
programs resulted in a wide divergence in the 
number of hours per week which these leaders 
served. Therefore no figures are available as to 



the number of persons who served on a full time 
year round basis, such as were secured in the 
case of workers paid from regular funds. One 
hundred and eight cities, however, using emer- 
gency leaders only, indicated that 871 leaders 
were serving on a full time basis, and 1,491 addi- 
tional leaders were reported serving on this basis 
in cities carrying on regular service. There is 
reason to believe that a much greater number of 
persons were serving full time at the close of 
1934. Even so, the number reported, 2,362, is 
larger than the number of full time year round 
leaders paid from regular funds. 

The following table summarizes the emer- 
gency service in all the cities reporting such 
leadership in 1934. In each instance the figures 
in parentheses represent the number of cities 
reporting the particular item. 



In Cities M ith 

Emerqency In Cities With In All Cities 

Service Only Reqular Sennce Reportinp 

Men Workers 2,940 (377) 10,733 (375) 13,673 (752) 

Women Workers 2,213 (401) 7,288 (339) 9,501 (740^ 

Total Workers 5,153 (467) 18,021 (391) 23,174 (858) 

Men Workers Employed Full Time 537 (83) 965 (81) 1,502 (164"^ 

Women Workers Employed Full Time 334 (81) 526 (63) 860 (144) 

Total Workers Employed Full Time 871 (108) 1,491 (91) 2,362 (199) 



Volunteers 

Fifteen hundred and ninety-seven men and 
women were enlisted as volunteers in 155 cit- 
ies employing only emergency workers. In 
contrast with the situation in cities conducting 
regular work, more women than men served 



as volunteers, the numbers being 864 and 666, 
respectively. In comparison with the total 
number of paid leaders there are more volun- 
teers in the cities having emergency service 
only than in cities reporting regular service. 



Playgrounds and Indoor Centers 



Outdoor Playgrounds 

More than two thousand outdoor play- 
grounds were open under leadership of emer- 
gency workers in 1934 in communities which 
otherwise would have had no outdoor play- 
ground program. This number is in addition 
to the many play centers which v>^ere opened 
in other cities because emergency leadership 



supplemented the regular playground staff. 
Many of these 2,010 playgrounds were in com- 
munities which had never before had a play- 
ground program. The marked extension of 
play opportunities through the use of emer- 
gency workers is further illustrated by the fact 
that 43 per cent of these playgrounds were 
open under leadership in 1934 for the first time. 



99 



Number of outdoor playgrounds for white and mixed groups (353 cities) 1,890 

Open year round (35 cities) 125 

Open during the summer months only (241 cities) 1,164 

Open during school year only (55 cities) 223 

Open during summer and other seasons (741) 378 

Average daily summer attendance of participants (1,113 playgrounds in 278 cities) 99,9S6 

Average daily summer attendance of spectators (178 cities) 33,477 

Number of outdoor playgrounds open in 1934 for the first time (228 cities) 788 

In addition to the foregoing, outdoor playgrounds for colored people are reported as follows : 

Number of playgrounds for colored people (56 cities) 120 

Open year round (12 cities) 22 

Open summer months only (25 cities) 59 

. Open school year only (13 cities) 21 

Open summer and other seasons (6 cities) 18 

Average daily summer attendance of participants (371 playgrounds in 71 cities) 9,254 

Average daily summer attendance of spectators (20 cities) 1,856 

Number of playgrounds for colored people open in 1934 for the first time (43 cities)... 74 

Total number of playgrounds for white and colored people (360 cities) 2,010 

Total average daily summer attendance of participants and spectators at playgrounds for 

white and colored people (1,184 playgrounds) 144,543 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants and spectators at playgrounds for 

white and colored people (1,490 playgrounds in 230 cities) 22,285,114 

Total number of playgrounds for white and colored people open in 1934 for the first time 862 

Recreation Buildings 

Emergency leadership made possible the use of 99 recreation buildings for recreation pro- 
grams in 1934. In view of the fact that many of them are located in small communities, the total 
attendance of 678,709 which was recorded at 70 of them shows a very considerable use. 

Number of recreation buildings for white and mixed groups (52 cities) 88 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (62 buildings in 36 cities) 582,221 

In addition, recreation buildings for colored people are reported as follows: 
Number of recreation buildings for colored people (10 cities) 11 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (8 buildings in 7 cities) 96,488 

Total number of recreation buildings for white and colored people 99 

Total yearly or seasonal participants at recreation buildings for white and colored people 

(70 buildings in 39 cities) 678,709 

Indoor Recreation Centers 

The extent to which emergency leadership • service, the centers were probably located in 
was used to conduct indoor activities in schools more than 500 towns, cities and villages. In 
and other buildings not used primarily for rec- many cases the centers aflforded the only rec- 
reation is evident from the fact that 1,506 such reation opportunity in the community and a 
centers were reported in 1934. The number of large number of them were open under leader- 
communities reporting them was 255, but since ship in 1934 for the first time. The attendance 
many of the reports related to county-wide at 1,153 of the centers totaled 3,711,040. 

Number of centers open 3 or more sessions weekly (166 cities) 830 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance (553 centers in 128 cities) 3,273,209 



100 



Number of centers open less than 3 sessions weekly (127 cities) 676 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance (600 centers in 105 cities) 437,831 

Total number of indoor recreation centers (255 cities) 1,506 

Total attendance (1,153 centers) 3,711,040 

Play Streets 

Nine cities reported a total of 97 play streets open under leadership, 11 of them open in 
1934 for the first time. 

Recreation Facilities 



Large numbers of people had an opportunity 
to engage in a variety of sports and other out- 
door activities in the cities where emergency 
leaders only were reported. Although the 
number of units of service at a majority of the 
facilities listed in the following table were not 
reported, the figures submitted show a total 
in excess of 2,400,000 participation. Like the 
similar table relating to facilities in cities re- 
porting regular service, ball diamonds, tennis 
courts, athletic fields and ice skating areas are 

Facilities Number 

Athletic Fields 354 (159) 

Baseball Diamonds 556 (205) 

Bathing Beaches 115 (69) 

Golf Courses (9-holes) 9 (8) 

Golf Courses ( i8-holes) i ( i ) 

Handball Courts 156 (55) 

Ice Skating Areas 369 (54) 

Ski Jumps 9 (6) 

Softball Diamonds 651 ( 183) 

Stadiums 16 ( 14) 

Summer Camps 11 (9) 

Swimming Pools (indoor) 12 (10) 

Swimming Pools (outdoor) 61 (51) 

Tennis Courts 627 C142) 

Toboggan Slides 30 (17) 

Wading Pools 72 (49) 



most numerous. Golf courses, swimming pools 
and special facilities for winter sports are rela- 
tively few. A much larger proportion of the 
various facilities listed were open in 1934 for 
the first time than was true of the facilities in 
cities reporting regular service. 

Throughout the following table the figures 
in parentheses indicate the number of cities re- 
porting in each particular case and the figures in 
brackets indicate the number of facilities for 
which information relative to participation is given. 



Participants 


Number open in 


per season 


1924 for first time 


303,114 


(55) 


90 (53) 


[118] 






351,478 (67) 


114 (57) 


[210] 






566,230 


(24) 


19 (14) 


[37] 






6,800 


(3) 


3 (2) 


[3] 






750 


(0 




[I] 




42 (21) 


300,946 (21) 


77 (23) 


[83I 






600 


(I) 


6 (4) 


[2] 






425,880 


(80) 


214 (83) 


[349I 






30,575 


(4) 


2 (2) 


[4] 






, I-I75 


(3) 


4 (4) 


[3] 






69,209 


(7) . 


3 (I) 


[7] 






74,931 


(17) 


19 (15) 


[21] 






151,151 


(60) 


129 (51) 


[291] 






11,430 


(9) 


18 (10) 


[20] 




19 (12) 



101 



Management 



A summary of the number of agencies of 
various types which were responsible for emer- 
gency programs appears in the section devoted 
to summaries preceding the statistical tables 
relating to regular service. The 441 public 
and 52 private agencies listed as managing 



authorities on the "emergency only" reports 
included a wide variety of agencies. Heading 
the list were emergency relief administrations 
which were listed as the managing authorities 
in 218 cities and school officials which were 
listed in 157 cities. 



Finances 



Nearly $2,200,000 were spent for recreation 
in 462 of the cities reporting emergency ser- 
vice only, and approximately 75 per cent of 
this amount was spent for leaders' salaries and 
wages. (Tn the cities reporting regular ser- 
vice approximately 75 per cent of the emer- 
gency funds were spent for land, buildings and 
permanent equipment.) In addition, $110,938.65 
from non-emergency funds were spent in these 



cities but none of this money was in payment for 
leadership. As previously pointed out, expendi- . 
tures data concerning emergency funds are com- 
paratively incomplete but the following summary 
relating to all cities reporting such funds shows a 
total expenditure of $21,092,821.04 which exceeds 
the total amount reported spent in 1934 from reg- 
ular funds. In each instance the figures in paren- 
theses represent the number of cities reporting. 



In Cities With In Cities In All 

Emergency Service With Reqular Cities 

Only Seyvice 
Land, Buildings, Permanent 

Equipment $360,632.99 (51) $13,348,331.52 (195) $13,708,964.51 

Salaries and Wages for Leadership. . 1,642,713.93 (449) 3,029,149.56 (334) 4,671,863.49 

Total Expenditures 2,198,103.39 (462) 18,894,717.65 (465) 21,092,821.04 

In addition, funds from non-emergency sources supplemented the emergency expenditures as 
follows : 

Land, Buildings, Permanent Equipment $64,596.42 (47) 

Upkeep, Supplies and Incidentals 35,813.28 (150) 

For Other Services 1,901.80 (12) 

Total 103,349.81 (191) 

No attempt was made to summarize the sources of emergency funds most of which came 
from tax sources. The following table summarizing the sources of the non-emergency funds 
reveals the fact that in many communities emergency service was supplemented by contributions 
from private sources. 

Source of Support Amount Number of Cities 

Tax Funds $60,784.76 80 

Fees and Charges 5,817.39 14 

Private Funds 44,336.50 109 



Special Recreation Activities 



Art and craft activities, athletics, folk dancing, 
play production, music, hiking and swimming were 
the activities most frequently listed by the cities 
in which programs were carried on exclusively 
under emergency workers. Forums, discussion 
groups and related activities played an important 
part in these programs, as evidenced by the fact 
that nearly three times as many different partici- 



pants are reported as in the cities with regular 
service. Baseball is first in the number of cities 
reporting but Softball leads in the number of dif- 
ferent individuals participating. The table which 
follows records in part the recreational oppor- 
tunities made possible by emergency leaders in 
many communities and the number of individuals 
who took advantage of them. 



102 



Activities Cities 

Reporting 
Arts and Crafts 

Art activities for children 123 

Art activities for adults yy 

Handcraft for children 236 

Handcraft for adults 155 

Athletic Activities 

Archery 18 

Badge Tests (NRA) 17 

Baseball 277 

Basketball 241 

Bowling 27 

Handball 1 1 1 

Horseshoes 233 

Soccer 72 

Softball 250 

Tennis 182 

Volley Ball 238 

Dancing 

Folk Dancing 160 

Social Dancing 131 

Drama 

Drama Tournaments 50 

Festivals 62 

Pageants 84 

Plays 193 

Puppetry 28 

Music 

Vocal 192 

Instrumental 155 

Nature Activities 

Hiking 172 

Gardening 38 

Nature Lore 80 

Water Sports 

Swimming 186 

Swimming Badge Tests (NRA) 13 

Winter Sports 

Ice Hockey 32 

Skating 67 

Skiing 25 

Tobogganing 22 

Miscellaneous Activities 

Circuses 30 

First Aid 74 

Forums, Discussion Groups, etc 70 

Playground Newspaper 12 

Safety Activities 81 



Number of Different 


tdividuals Participating 


10,649 


(69) 


4,292 


(50) 


46,431 


(156) 


23,054 


(112) 


786 


(14) 


6.276 


(14) 


^0,557 


(171) 


125,236 (156) 


50,640 


(18) 


12,447 


(61) 


68,214 


(151) 


10,517 


(42) 


209,891 


(159) 


87,140 


(119) 


72,792 


(161) 


25,736 


(99) 


77,878 


(84) 


4,353 


(32) 


8,925 


(31) 


10,243 


(48) 


26,522 


(129") 


830 


(12) 


74,462 (122) 


12,548 (107) 


15,611 


(119) 


6,790 


(23) 


4,869 


(47) 


64,555 


(III) 


440 


(5) 


2,882 


(23^ 


21,345 


(39) 


1,680 


(15^ 


1,840 


(14) 


3.047 


(12) 


7,817 


(38) 


. 99,402 


(46^ 


291 


(7) 


20,338 


(41) 



103 



EMERGENCY RECREATION SERVICE IN 1934 

Footnotes folloiv tl'e table 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing Authority 


Emergency 
R3Creation Leadership 


Expenditures for Emergency 
Service Last Fiscal Year 


Playgrounds 


Indoor 
Centers 






Paid Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


From Relief Funds 


From 
Other 
Than 
Relief 
Funds 


S 


1 


a 

Z 


Ii 




>, 


a 

O 

1 


i 


Mo. Em- 
ployed 
Full 
Time 


g 
S 

•s 

6 


is 
■s 

d 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leadership 


Total 


>> 


6 
■s 


g 
S 


i 


5 

•s 


1 


Alabama 

Aliceville, Gordo, 


2,000 

3,000 
20,513 

1,836 
26,016 
17,768 
32,556 
25,429 

1,500 
15,633 
40,104 

16,688 

3,000 
12,000 

5,000 
26,265 
22,820 
31,000 

2,600 
18,001 
22,878 
36,427 
25,967 
70,001) 
66,072 

1,600 

32,240 

660 

2,300 
800 

3,000 

2,300 

20,000 

' 6,621 

26,929 
7,600 

64,163 
4,633 
6,206 

69,445 
3,500 

7,157 

500 
276 

3,600 
500 
500 

1,060 
488 
150 

5,400 
35,000 
, 600 

3,000 

20,831 

9,347 

146,180 

56,000 

6,000 

4,600 

30,000 

22,000 

26,000 

4,000 
12,091 
20,094 


Alabama Relief Administration , 




27 

56 
28 












284.00 
225.00 
227.00 
101.21 
176.46 
180.00 
190.00 
217.00 
200.00 
208.69 

195.00 

160.00 

240.00 

1,799.79 

144.00 

532.60 

90.00 

1,235.16 

135.00 

70.00 

83.60 

2,230.20 

46.00 

16,000.00 

3,474.40 

136.00 

93.42 

147.50 

546.00 

135.00 

270.00 

260.00 

90.00 

774.00 
257.92 
120.00 
237.50 
983.00 
213.32 
854.20 
260.00 


284.00 
225.00 
292.00 
101.21 
176.46 
180.00 
190.00 
217.00 
200.00 
208.59 

195.00 

160.00 

240.00 

1,799.79 

144.00 

532.60 

4,589.60 

1,235.16 

I3S.OO 

97.00 

83.60 

8,330.88 

45.00 

27,800.00 

3,474.40 

135.00 

93.42 

147.50 

545.00 

135.00 

270.00 

250.00 

186.36 

904.00 
267.92 
132.00 
237.50 
1.986.00 
297.32 
854.20 
260.00 

252.00 

210.70 
613.40 
429.60 
144.00 
139.20 
74.00 


10.00 


3 
2 
12 
2 
5 


"5,660 


3 

3 
13 

2 
11 

5 


1,308 
2,500 
1,341 

360 

4,134 




•> 


Auburn 

Choctaw County^ . . 

Clanton 

Clarke County'.... 

Clay County' 

Coffee County' 

Conecuh County^ . . 

Dadeville 

Decatur 

DeKalb County. . . . 

Dothan 

Florala 


A. R. A 

A. R. A 

Chilton County Child Welfare Board. . . 

A. R. A 

County Welfare Board 


.... 












2 


1 


7 


13 

1 
2 






3 


i 






4 


f) 












5 


f^ 






6 


7 














2 


4,002 


7 


^ 


County Emergency Relief Committee . . . 
Tallapoosa County Child Welfare Board 

A. R. A 

County Child Welfare Board and School 
Board 












16 

1 
2 


1,170 
720 
990 


8 










6 










ft 


10 










7.00 
15.00 


4 

1 
4 
5 
4 


2,260 


10 


11 












11 


p 


Houston County Child Welfare Board . . 
Covington County Recreation Center . . , 
Lauderdale County Child Welfare Board 
A R A 


'"2 












3.366 
24,663 


4 

5 

1 


1,309 

5,487 

30,000 


12 


13 


1 
2 


1 
1 
5 
4 




3.60 
20.75 


13 


14 




14 


11 


Greenville 

Hale County* 

Henry County'. . . . 

Huntsville 

LaFayette 

Lamar County* .... 
Lowndes County^ . . 
Marengo County"* . 
Marion County". . . 

Mobile 

Montgomery 

Oneonta 

Pike County 

Pine Apple 

Prattville 

Robertadale 

Russellville 

Scottsboro 








15 


16 


F, E. R. A 


"2 






6 
6 
6 
6 
1 
2 
10 


1,672 
11,664 
6,000 

i20 

5,000 


9 
6 
10 

13 
3 
5 
4 

1 
7 
2 
2 
2 
8 
4 
4 
6 
1 

2 
5 
1 
6 
8 
I 
8 


3,700 

1,580 

13,116 

120 

666 

240 

4,000 

350 

25,000 

6,527 
435 

974 

12.988 
534 

800 

11,800 
549 

2,554 
9,746 
1,057 
8,817 


IB 


17 


2 






4,499.60 




17 


IS 


A. R. A 

Chambers County E. R. A 

A.R. A , 

F. E. R. A 

County Child Welfare Board 




8 


23 




18 


11 






19 


'n 










20 


'>i 














21 


?? 






3 
4 

1 
2 


6 
10 


6,070.68 


709.07 


22 


■>? 


A. R. A 

F. E. R. A 

A.R. A 


"4 
6 


23 


'>A 




3,600.00 
106.00 


39 
9 
2 


198,000 
643 


24 


?') 










25 


'S 


2 




26 


''7 


Countv R A 








27 


''R 


F. E. R. A 

F. E. R. A 

A.R. A 

A. R. A 












1 
3 
4 
4 
1 
3 

1 
2 


974 

4,902 

312 

800 

4.694 

2,250 


28 


'O 


4 

1 


7 
7 
4 






29 


30 




3,34 


30 


31 








31 


3? 


A.R. A 

Dallas County Relief Association 

Muscle Shoals Division, Alabama Tran. 


1 
5 

1 












32 


33 


14 


I 
1 




4 


2 






33 


34 


Sheffield 


100.00 








Sumter" 

Tarrant City 

Tuscaloosa County'" 

Tuecumbia"-^ 

Union Springs 

Walker County".. . 


34 


35 










400.00 
10.00 


35 


36 


School Board and Recreation Committee 


1 


1 










36 


37 


2 


1 
S 


5 
12 
14 








37 


38 

39 


F. E. R. A 

E.R. A 

A.R. A 

A.R. A 

Gila County Board of Public Welfare 
E. R. A. 


7 

i? 


20.00 


75.00 


4 

1 
13 


7,860 
8,814 


38 

39 


40 








150.00 


40 


41 












41 


4? 


Arizona 

Globe'5 






















Arkansas 


42 


43 


School Board and E. R. A 




2 

1 
3 
2 
2 












89.50 
97.40 
429.60 
144.00 
139.20 
63.20 




1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
6 

1 

1 

10 
28 

8 

3 








43 


44 












516.00 


65.10 








44 


45 


Clarksville 




3 
2 
2 
















45 


46 






















46 


47 
























47 


48 




E.R. A 




















48 


49 


Locust Bayou 

Mt. Pleasant 

Russellville 

Texarkana 




















49 


50 


Izard County E. R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

School Board and Parent Teacher Asso- 


1 

"5 

I 

2 

S 

20 

153 

20 

1 
2 
7 
5 

1 

1 

1 
I 












50.00 


50.00 
1,200.00 
1,284.40 

504.00 






.. 1 




.50 


51 


U 

1( 

20 

9 

1 

"2 
8 

3 

6 

1 














61 


5'' 






M2S 






984.40 
504.00 


16,901 


5 

1 


15.801 


52 


,53 






50.00 






California 

Barnes City 

Norwalk, Bellflower, 


53 


54 














.54 


55 


S. E. R. A., School Board and Coordi- 


3 


3 








1,000.00 
9,000.00 

64,405.73 

14,259.00 

209.20 

600.0 

1,004.40 


1,000.00 
9,000.00 

54,405.73 

21,469.00 

209.20 

700.00 

1,024.40 


200.00 


10,000 
12,000 

936,474 

69,700 

2,000 










Redondo Beach 

San Bernardino 
County'" 

Colorado 

Pueblo 


,55 


56 










3 
28 

7 

4 
3 
4 

1 


4,600 
413,275 

60.750 

4.800 
200 


56 


57 


S. E. R. A 


10 
5 


2 


11 

1 






4,973.00 
1,250.00 


57 


58 






58 


59 


Connecticut 

Farmington 

Jewett City 

New London 








69 


60 




2 








loo.on 
20.00 


69.00 


60 




Educational and Training Center 

F. E. R. A 












61 


6' 












4 


"15,039 


62 


63 
64 


Torrington 

Florida 

Apalachicola 

Bay Coun(y>' 

Broward County". . 


Srhonl Board 


1 

1 

1 
1 










240.00 

517.56 

468.60 
552.50 


240.00 

628.63 

2,302.60 
552.£0 




63 


Florida Emergency Relief Administra- 


1 
.... 










6 

28 
12 


2,400 

3,700 
123,650 


5 

1 
12 


18,000 

8,000 
25,000 


64 


6S 


Recrea+ion Department, F. E. R. A., 


6 




1,834.00 


101.00 


65 


66 


Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 


66 



104 



EMERGENCY RECREATION SERVICE IN 1934 

Footnotes follow the table 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing Authority 


Emergency 
RDcreation Leadership 


Expenditures for Emergency 
Service Last Fiscal Year 


Playgrounds 


Indoor 
Centers 






Paid Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


From Relief Funds 


From 
Other 
Than 
Relief 
Funds 


1 
a 
Z 


J 


i 






>l 


s 

d 


d 

"s 

d 


No. Em- 
ployed 
Full 
Time 


s 

"3 

i 


•s 

i 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leadership 


Total 


>. 


e 

■3 
d 


s 


1 



■3 

i 


1 


Florida— Cout. 

Calhoun County". . 
Collier County-' . . . 

Dade County-' 

Daytona Beach .... 

DeLand 

District No. 3, 

F. E. R. A.-'.... 
District No. 6, 

F. E. R. A.-''.... 

Fort Pierce 

Gadsden County". . 

Gainesville 

Gulf County* 

Hamilton County-^. 
Holmes County'-^ . . 
Jackson County-' . . 
Jeflferson County** . 
Key West 


7,298 

2,883 

142,955 

20,000 

5,246 

'6,200 
29,890 
12,000 
3,182 
9,454 
12,924 
31,969 
13,404 
12,831 
3,162 
4,694 
23,476 
4,067 
15,614 
9,879 
7,000 
12,111 
14,083 
2,912 
2,304 
15,731 
13,136 
3,229 
5,468 
14,576 
12,180 

318,587 

4,000 
7,837 

30,000 

16,000 
13,532 

3,000 

3,982.123 

21,085 

36,765 

7,000 

888 

43,983 

1,000 

1,658 

995 

10,203 

8,570 

9,100 

35,278 

7,100 

13,000 

8,000 

16,129 

2,300 

950 

1,850 

16,286 

2,130 

360 

250 

12,000 

422,666 

4,800 

12,264 
1,321 




2 

1 

16 

47 

22 
2 
3 
3 

1 
2 
3 
6 
2 
7 
1 
1 
3 

'2 
6 


1 

2 
12 
6 
9 

36 

37 
4 
2 
3 
2 
1 
2 
5 
3 
5 


.... 

5 


1 
2 
9 


5 


6 




430.80 
308.00 


430.80 

308.00 

11,660.50 

48,386.42 

2,750.00 

16,236.58 

13,545.63 
14,156.37 
14,646.36 




7 
4 
8 
4 
3 

39 

61 
3 
5 

7 

2 
10 
16 
7 
3 
1 
2 
9 
4 
7 
4 
4 
3 
6 
5 
1 
6 
3 
2 
10 


1,364 

91,000 

2,499,000 

13,576 

18,000 

1,022,180 

' 10,666 
4,600 

3,060 
34,600 

' '6,202 

'6,424 
17,000 

5,371 
29,177 

5,000 

6,600 
7,000 
5,500 
7,731 
3,600 
9,500 
27,335 


9 
4 

23 
3 

1 

34 

30 

1 
5 
7 
3 
2 
10 
21 
7 
1 
1 
2 
4 
5 
7 
4 
2 
2 
3 
4 


6,776 
13,611 
21,300 

4,500 
20,000 

194,979 
17,500 
16,400 
2,260 

600 

32,500 

15,685 

8,800 

2,000 

6,000 

800 

2,000 

1,400 

12,25D 

11,450 

6,750 


1 





Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

F. E. R. A 






9 












3 


i\ 




1 


47,266.42 


1,120.00 
1,750.00 

9,560.80 




4 


s 








2,752.00 
9,298.04 


•i 


6 


Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Council and F. E, R. A 

F. E. R. A 

Recreation Der»-tment. F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

F E R A 


9 


4 
1 






1,697.93 


6 


7 


51 


55 


7 


^ 


12,913.55 
13,645.36 


1,242.82 
1.000.00 


3,321.85 
6,929.38 


s 


q 










9 


10 






15 


20 


in 


11 














11 


I? 










140.00 


219.16 
681.55 
700.00 
691.20 

1,596.12 
180.00 
125.52 
665.40 
490.68 
964.00 

2,700.00 


359.16 

868.45 

1,420.00 

7,817.16 

9,679.16 

234.00 

125.52 

7,158.93 

5,055.52 

1,979.85 

20,380.50 

>*19,123.87 

65,610.75 

900.00 

2,522.51 

1,790.00 

1,147.60 

2,649.50 

1,586.27 

5,618.00 

6,378.67 

787.57 

32,064.00 

136.00 
1,943.70 


291.20 


1? 


13 


1 
6 


'5 


5 


3 


13 


14 






14 


11 


Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

F. E. H. A. 






7,225.96 


911.90 


15 


16 


7 








16 


17 


Kissimmee 

Lafayette County'''^ 

Leon County" 

Liberty County*-. . . 
Madison County". . 
Oklaloosa County". 

Palatka 

St. AuRustine 

Santa Rosa Co.»... 

Sebring 

Stuart 

Suwannee County*' 
Taylor County*" . . . 

Vero Beach 

Wakulla County".. 
Walton County"... 
Washington Co.*' . . 

Georgia 

Fulton County" . . . 

Idaho 

Burley 




6 

1 


4 

1 




450.00 

40.00 

1,079.20 

430.95 

178.58 


17 


18 


Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R, A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

County Recreation Council 

F E R A and City Manager 


4 
3 
6 
5 








IS 


1ft 






6,493.53 
4,564.84 
1,026.86 
17,622.87 
19.123.87 
53,253.87 


19 


••fl 










90 


■"l 










■>! 


99 


5 




6 
3 


4 

1 


9? 


91 


1,750.00 
11,000.00 


93 


'>^ 


F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department. F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department. F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, F. E. R. A 

Recreation Department, County Relief 


5 
6 
7 
3 
1 
1 
2 
2 
4 
3 

72 


'2 
4 
5 
3 
3 
3 
4 

6 

32 
2 


1 

6 




703.52 

900.00 

2,522.51 

1,540.00 

511.60 

627.00 

428.27 

618.00 

2,028.00 

787.67 

31,164.00 
135.00 


94 


?,') 


2 


9 
4 


9 
3 


K 


•'6 






96 


v 










'7 


■>s 










636.00 
2,022.50 
1,158.00 
6,000.00 
3,360.67 


742.55 

306.48 

568.75 

1,360.00 


5 


4,000 


9R 


?<) 










99 


30 














30 


31 










10 
2 
14 

10 


4,000 
7,000 
2,030 

13,518 


31 


3' 


2 




16 
3 


6 
3 


3? 


33 




12 

22 

1 


"209,000 


33 


34 


2 


2 


700.00 


1,535.00 


34 


35 


School District No. 1 






35 


36 


Montpclier 

Illinois 

Bloomington 

Blue Island 


City of Montpelier 




















36 


f 
37 


Illinois E. R. Commission and School 
Board 


10 
12 

16 

3 

526 

2 

13 
1 
1 
1 


7 
3 

4 
2 
388 
2 
15 


10 


7 


6 


6 






750.00 
600.00 


8 
5 


16,000 
27,000 


1 




37 


38 


Playground and Recreation Conmiisaion 
Alexander County Recreation Commis- 




3,841.45 

3,430.24 

432.00 

444,167.34 

420.00 

7,738.01 

443.52 

166.00 

2,184.00 

87.50 

42.00 

600.00 

203.22 

60.00 
800.00 
826.74 
304.41 
910.00 
605.50 
140.00 

60.00 
443.52 

50.00 

60.00 


3,841.46 

3,430.24 

477.00 

444,167.34 

420.00 

7,738.01 

443.52 

156.00 

2,184.00 

87.50 

42.00 

600.00 

203.22 

60.00 
800.00 
826.74 
304.41 
910.00 
505.50 
140.00 

60.00 
443.52 

50.00 

60.00 


38 


39 


4 


4 




2 




6 


16,856 






CartervUle 

Cook County" .... 
Crawford County". 
Danville 


39 


40 


School Board 






1 

"381 

3 

7 


12,000 
U,030,420 


40 


41 


Illinois E. R. C 

County E. R. C 

Recreational Advisory Committee 

I. E. R. C« 














173 




41 


4? 












4' 


43 


5 

1 


5 










92,000 


4 

1 
1 
9 


136,165 


43 


44 










35.00 
12.00 


44 


45 












1 


780 


45 


46 


Fulton County". . . 
Grafton 


E. R. A 

Recreation Commission 


2 

1 


1 


2 








46 


47 










1 


775 


47 


48 


Henry 


City of Henry 


1 

1 
2 

3 
4 
1 
2 
4 
4 


















48 


49 


I.E. R. C 

County E. R. C 

Physical Education Department, West- 
ern 111. State Teachers College 

High School Board 


1 














3 

1 

3 

7 


2,700 


1 


1,800 


49 


an 


Johnson County . . . 














50 


51 


1 
9 
2 














2,600 












51 


5? 






2 






25.00 


1 




,5? 


.t3 


Montgomery Co.** . 

Mount Carmel 

Mount Vernon 

Normal 


E.R.C 










,53 


54 












25.00 
60.00 
58.65 


i 
3 
2 

1 


12,900 
"9,525 






,54 


55 


City Park Board 


6 
2 
2 
















55 


56 


City Council and American Legion 

Park District 
















56 


.■i? 


Pekin 


















57 


58 


Sesser 




1 
1 




















58 


59 




LE.R.C 

School Board 


1 
1 


1 


1 








34.00 




1 




59 


60 


Washington 

Washington Co." . . 
Waterloo 








1 

6 




60 


61 




1 

1 

22 
29 






4 








4,100 


; 
: 

1 

67 


4,800 

78,000 
100,000 


61 


6? 


I. E.R.C 

I. E.R.C 

I. E.R.C 

F. E. R. A 

Marion County Recreation Bureau 

Playground Committee 


1 
1 

1 

4 
18 
2 

5 

1 


"1 


1 

1 
1 








6? 


6.- 


Willisville 


2 






443.52 
443.52 

7,000.00 

15,500.00 

200.00 

825.00 
180.00 


443.62 
443.52 

7,500.00 

15,600.00 

200.00 

826.00 
180.00 


22.00 
30.00 






63 


64 


Winkle 










64 


66 


Indiana 

Bedford 


2 






65 


flfi 


Marion County**. . . 
Tell City 
















66 


«7 








2 






1 

5 
1 


"3,000 


67 


fiS 


Iowa 

.\udubon County*' . 


County Schools and E. R. A 

Public School 


















68 


69 



















































105 



EM,ERGENCY RECREATION SERVICE IN 

Footnotes follow the table 



1934 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing Authority 


Emergency 
Ricreation Leadership 


Expenditures for Emergency 
Service Ljist Fiscal Year 


Playgrounds 


Indoor 
Centers 






Paid Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


From Relief Funds 


From 
Other 
Than 
Relief 
Funds 


M 
e 

z 


^ s 

e2J 


e 

3 

z 


1 




>> 


g 
d 


p 

•0 
6 


No. Em- 
ployed 

Time 


s 
s 
■s 

6 

z 


is 

•s 

6 
Z 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leadership 


Total 




6 
•s 

i 





a 
B 




•3 
d 


1 


Kentucky 


29,074 

29,000 

54,440 

1,604 

65,882 

115,000 
49,282 
56,537 
60,000 
15,800 

111,000 

5,365 

10,000 

49,677 

12,992 

7,226 

4,989 
3,941 
6,734 
4,140 
5,571 
81,066 
4,000 
3,922 
400 
837 
1,104 
2,247 
4,923 
1,548 
1,600 
1,400 


Park Board 


6 


6 
17 

2 

1 












170.40 

1,342.40 

220.00 
110.00 
454.30 

2,316.00 

8,816.98 

9,000.00 

3,084.80 

1.800.00 

5,832.00 

175.00 

408.00 

5,880.83 

1,447.20 

104.61 


170.40 

1,342.40 

220.00 
110.00 
471.82 

3,577.08 

17,693.94 

10,714.70 

3,084.80 

1,800.00 

5,832.00 

175.00 

408.00 

5,880.83 

1,447.20 

104.61 

72.00 

30.00 

300.00 

48.00 

608.00 

1,616.00 

500.00 

103.20 

13.60 

15.00 

69.60 

149.20 

96.00 

411.60 

450.00 

3,030.00 

288.00 

1,336.94 

59.00 

43.20 

481.00 

48.00 

56.50 

1,257.60 

112.00 

103.20 

96.00 

240.00 

644.50 

225.00 

96.00 

12.80 

288.00 

30.00 

571.00 

4,901.00 

249.75 

801.25 

96.00 

85.00 

1,477.70 

90.00 

768.00 

91.00 

71.00 

869.10 

72.00 

93.20 

1,200.00 

300.00 

194.70 

478.48 

90.00 


18.00 
251.41 


1 

4 


3,500 
32,000 






I 


? 


Maine 


















■> 


^ 


Maryland 

Frederick County" 
Rnnw Hill 




2 












5 
1 
5 


350 
960 


3 


4 




















4 


«> 


Washington Co.>'. . . 
Massachusetts 

"Pall Rivpr 




3 

10 
34 
59 
14 
9 
23 














4 

9 
9 
12 
9 
4 
9 
1 
4 
9 
5 


190,000 
28,193 
97.275 

225,000 
"9,000 

135,000 
3,600 

"113,660 
50,350 


5 


f) 




10 
24 
34 
13 

5 
19 

3 

4 
26 

6 












118.76 
8,499.60 


fi 


7 














6,336.20 






7 


fi 




E.R. A...... 










5 


16.264 


R 


9 














400.00 
250.00 
800.00 


9 


1(1 




Parks and Playground CommisBion 
















10 


11 


New Bedford 
















11 


1? 














1 
1 




1? 


n 






2 
19 
6 

1 

3 
1 
4 
2 
4 
23 
1 

1 
1 














n 


14 


Pittsfield 


Citizens' Playground Conunittee 

School Board 












250.00 


14 


i") 


















15 


Ifi 


Whitman 
















1 

2 
2 
6 


1,677 

666 

6,000 


16 


17 


Michigan 

Alcona County^* . . . 






















17 


18 




1 
4 












30.00 
263.00 

48.00 

608.00 

1,616.00 








18 


1f> 






















19 


?0 


Belding 




















?n 


''I 




5 
17 

"1 












100.00 








3,000 


21 


99 


Berrien County^^^ _ _ 
Bessemer 


















n 


?'^ 
















2 

1 






1,000 

m 


n 


9^ 












103.20 

13.60 

15.00 

69.60 

149.20 

96.00 

411.60 

450.00 

30.00 

288.00 

1,110.00 

59.00 

43.20 

481.00 

48.00 

56.50 

1,257.60 

112.00 

103.20 

96.00 

240.00 

644.50 

225.00 

96.00 

12.80 

288.00 

30.00 

571.00 

4,651.00 

249.75 

801.25 

96.00 

85.00 

1,248.00 

90.00 

768.00 

91.00 

66.00 

869.10 

20.00 

93.20 

1,200.00 

228.00 

192.00 

468.00 

90.00 




?4 




















25 


'>6 
























?« 


97 


Cedar Springs 

Charlevoix 

Cheboygan City. . . . 




1 




















1,000 
3,000 


?7 


9R 




3 

1 
4 
3 
1 
2 
5 


















?S 


29 






















7fl 




1 
5 














1 
1 
1 


4,000 
"2,400 




'2,460 

800 


30 


















31 
















3,000.00 


125.00 


3? 


?? 






1 
5 
1 
1 
4 










33 


71 




900 

400 

3,572 

4,730 

1,429 

775 

6,562 

4,665 

861 

1,000 

159 

1,164 

17,409 

44,076 

5,019 

900 

4,053 

6,992 

41,390 

84,630 

15.584 

B,552 

11,326 

4,016 

a,.595 

5,554 

11,330 
















1 








34 


35 

36 


Garden Township . . 
Grand Ledge 






















3,5 






















36 




1 

i 














3 








X! 


38 
39 
40 


Harbor Springs 

Holton 






















38 




2 
10 
2 














1 








39 






9 
5 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 

43 
4 
5 


















2,402 


40 
















100.00 


3 


"6,000 


41 




Kalltaeka 














i 
2 


■2.666 


42 


43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
69 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 

77 
78 


















50.00 






43 


Lake Leelanau 




1 
5 
















44 
















2 




45 


Manistee County". . 
Marquette County*' 
Marshall 






















46 


















1 




1 


800 


47 




2 
2 














48 




Board of Education 












80.00 










41 


Melvindale 

Missoukee County'* 

Muskegon 

Muskegon County" 
Muskegon Heights. . 














2 
2 
8 
3 
4 
1 


4,666 


2 
6 


1,200 
3,900 
7,000 


50 




4 
12 
5 
4 
1 
4 
4 
2 
3 












51 
















5? 
















53 


City School District 












46.97 








54 














"2,880 






55 


Niles 






















56 




Board of Education 


11 














4 








57 


Ogemaw County". , 
Otsego County""... . 
PresquelsleCo."... 
Ralph 


















33 


3,600 


5S 




5 
2 








6 
1 






6 
3 
3 
4 
1 




5q 










4.20 


"1,327 
"360 






60 




I 
3 












500 


61 




630 
1,422 

500 

20,000 

1,604 

606 

800 
2,000 

562 
6,950 


Consolidated School Board 


S 
1 

1 

7 
3 
1 

3 












500.00 


62 
















63 


Roscommon Co." . . 

Royal Oak 

Sagola*^^ 




1 
5 
1 
1 
2 
1 


















64 


School Board 














6 


70,050 


65 


Board of Education 


















66 




Board of Education 


















1,692 


67 




School District 










68 
























766 


69 


Springport 




1 

t 

1 
1 

i 


















70 


Board of Education 


3 
1 
2 

1 












1,115.00 
45.00 
183.00 
190.00 
16.00 
370.00 


1,115.00 

45.00 

183.00 

220.24 

16.00 

383.26 


50.00 






"I 






















7? 


Three Oaks 

Union City 


1,800 

1,104 

1,200 

600 

15,009 
10,169 














15.00 
30.00 
200.00 








418 


73 










74 


















35 


I.OOO 
2,000 

120,000 


75 




School District 


2 

3 












50 

4 


2,000 

276,900 
10,300 


76 


Minnesota 

Aitkin County".... 
Albert Lea 


Recreation Deparment, State E. R. A. . 
Park Department 


5 


1 


6 








77 


1 








1,512.00 


1,512.00 




78 



106 



EMERGENCY RECREATION SERVICE IN 

Footnotes follow the table 



1934 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing Authority 


Emergency 
Recreation Leadorship 


Expenditures for Emergency 
Service Last Fiscal Year 


Playgrounds 


Indoor 

Centers 






Paid W'orkers 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


From Relief Funds 


From 
Other 
Than 
Relief 
Funds 


a 

Z 


J 

a 

-i 


1 
Z 






>< 


s 
s 
•s 

i 


a 

§ 


•s 

d 

Z 


No. Em- 
ployed 
Full 
Time 


s 
s 
•0 

6 

Z 


1 

■s 


Land. 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leadership 


Total 


>» 


c 
•s 


a 

s 


C3 


3 


d 
Z 


1 


Minn — Cont. 

Becker County** . 

Big .Stone and Tra- 
verse Counties*'. 

Brown and Waton- 
wan Counties**. . . 

Clearwater and 
Mahnomen Cos.*^ 

Grant and Stevens 
Counties'* 

Houston, Fillmore 
and Winona Cos.'' 

Kittson and Roseau 
Counties^ 

Koochiching Co.^. . 

Lake of the Woods 
County** 


22,503 

17,776 

36,230 

15,700 

20,000 

59,892 

22,309 
14,078 

6,000 
885 

5,000 
400 

51,069 

47,553 

32,415 

20,586 

24,753 

7,000 

919 

19,923 

9,142 

20,962 

10,254 
59,000 

895 
1,672 

3,000 

1,728 
2,374 
5,734 

65,000 
1,136 

92,131 
8,810 
1,955 
3,336 
1,416 
7,000 
7,372 

16,000 

8,000 

119,000 

2,637 

1,444 

1,430 

2,000 
1,474 
2,800 

46,875 
2,502 

15,000 
5,734 
1,615 
5,148 
3,478 

3,024 

114,589 

1,616 

560 

600 

4,176 

4,372 

13,796 


S. E. R. A 

S. E. R. A 

S. E. R. A 

S. E. R. A 

S. E. R.A 

S. E.R. A 

S. E. R. A 

S. E. R. A 

S. E. R. A 

S. E. R. A 


4 
■ 6 

4 

6 
22 

6 

4 
5 

2 
1 

1 
1 

19 

13 

3 

4 

8 
6 


5 
3 

4 

6 

8 

4 

4 
3 

3 


2 
6 
4 


3 
3 
4 


35 

1 


37 




1,844.00 

"658.00 

5,600.00 

2,852.00 

10,000.00 

3,000,00 

1,000,00 
4,826.00 

1,426.00 
264.00 
120.00 
440.00 

3,279.50 

2,050.00 

2,345.00 

2,620.00 
4,000.00 
2,353.00 

144.00 

220.00 


3,094.00 

'=658.00 

5,600.00 

3,002.00 

20,000.00 

5,482.40 

1,630.00 
7,201.25 

1,426.00 
264.00 
120.00 
440.00 

3,638.50 

2,425.00 

'«12,745.00 

7,974.73 
4,250.00 
8,353.00 

194.00 

220.00 








29 


33,900 


1 


2 




2 

8 

1 

19 

4 

6 
2 




7 


3 














1 


4 


16 
10 


20 
10 






50,000 
10,000 

30,242 


5 

28 

10 

34 
4 


6,800 

22,500 

7,500 

13,000 
5,040 


4 


5 


4 

5 

1 

1 

2 


2 
4 




1,500.00 
100.00 


5 


6 




6 


7 


10 


10 




7 






540.00 

35.00 

10.00 

90.00 

105.00 


S 


9 


3 








9 


10 








1 
4 
3 

14 


''2,000 






10 


11 


Little Falls 

Littlefork 

Morrison and Crow 
W ing Counties". . 

Olmsted and Dodge 
Counties'* 

Sibley and Nicollet 
Counties" 

Wadena and Hub- 
bard Counties'^ . . 

Washington Co.". , . 






4 

2 

11 
3 

31 
14 


8 

31 
3 
5 

20 








11 


f 


S. E. R. A 

S. E. R. A 

S.E.R. A 

S.E.R. A 

S.E.R. A 

S.E.R. A 

S.E.R. A 


1 

7 

2 

2 

1 
4 
3 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 
4 

2 


1 

13 

1 

4 
5 
4 


1 

2 

1 
2 
1 




114,500 


1 
23 

7 

33 

8 
12 
3 


1,340 
53,500 
11,680 
40,000 
3,400 
V,524 


1' 


13 




13 


14 


375.00 
10,400.00 




14 


15 




23 

3 
4 
5 

1 


53,200 
2,500 


15 


16 


4,811.97 


16 


17 




17 


18 


10 




6,000.00 


465.00 


18 


19 


Mississippi 

Mendenhall. 

Missouri 

Calloway County**.. 
Camden County.. . . 
Cass County*' 

Clark County*^ 

Springfield 


10 


■"O 


C. W. A 
















4 




'ft 


'I 


C. W. A 




















'1 


22 


Missouri Relief and Reconstruction Com- 














252.00 

240.00 

3,240.00 

126.00 
96.00 

369.00 

28.50 

32.00 

180.00 

6,550.00 

216.00 

1,920.00 

110.80 

350.00 

285.00 

67..50 

256.00 

560.00 

1,364.00 

250.00 

3,619.00 

24.00 

168.00 

136.00 

80.00 
860.00 
300.00 
1,283.77 
297.00 
420.00 
195.00 

24.00 
120.00 
750.00 

936.00 
7,384.00 
184.80 
75.00 
115.20 
750.00 
657.00 
351.00 


252.00 

240.00 

3,540.00 

126.00 
96.00 

360.00 

28.50 
32.00 
180.00 

6,550.00 
216.00 

1,920.00 
110.80 
350.00 
285.00 
117.50 
256.00 
560.00 

1,364.00 
250.00 

3,619.00 
24.00 

168.00 

136.00 

80.00 
860.00 
300.00 
1,283.77 
297.00 
420.00 
195.00 

24.00 
120.00 
750.00 

936.00 
9,064.00 
184.80 
75.00 
115.20 
750.00 
657.00 
351.00 








3 




?? 


23 


F. E. R. A 

School Board 


"2 

1 

1 

1 


















n 


'4 


















6 


6,000 


'■I 


25 


Nebrasl<a 

Bruning and Chester 


E.R. A 

Leo Brinda Poet No. 90, American Legion 














2 


"5,400 


?") 


''6 






3 
"12 






450.00 
20.00 


2 

2 

2 
3 


150 

400 

615 
982 


'B 


27 


New IHampshlre 

Peterborough 

New Jersey** 

.\llendale 


1 

2 

1 

1 

19 

1 
5 










2 




'T 


'S 












"Xf 


29 


Alpha 










2 






25.00 

50.00 

350.00 






9q 


30 


Amon Heights 

Atlantic City 

Beach Haven*^ 

Bayonne 


Parent Teacher Association 


1 
14 

"7 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
13 

1 

2 

3 
4 

1 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 






2 
2 

7 

7 




11 


"2,227 
30,000 


3ft 


31 


Leisure Time Division, E. R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 


5 


6 


2 




12 
5 
2 
1 


17,000 

4,560 

4,780 

480 


31 


•^9 




?•> 


33 


4 


3 


11 






6 


127,000 


3? 


34 


Bergenfield 

Berlin 






34 


35 


Camden County Park Commission 

E.R. A 

I^itizens' Recreation Committee 

Leisure Time Advisory Council 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

Rpfrpqt.inn CnrriTTiit-ijip , , 


1 

1 








2 
3 




«*50.00 
56.00 


1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
6 
1 
16 


"24,627 

"9,438 

1,524 

21,504 

"40,733 

40,000 

5,000 

161,423 


35 


36 


Bernardsville ...... 

Blairstown 

Boonton 






3 








36 


37 












37 


38 


1 
. 4 
3 
1 
10 
1 

1 

1 












246.00 

90.00 

500.00 


1 


14,080 


?S 


39 


Bound Brook 






3 
5 

1 
5 


5 
3 




39 


40 








9 
2 
1 
2 

6 

5 

5 
1 


10,800 
27,750 


4ft 


41 


Cildwell 

Camden 




41 


42 


City Comrs. and Board of Education.. . 
E.R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 






5 




450.00 


4?- 


43 








43 


44 


Cape May County, 
Lower Township. . 

Cape May County, 
Middle Township. 

Cape May Court 
House 


















44 


45 


















45 


46 


E.R. A 

Recreation Committee 


















46 


47 


Clark Township. . . . 

Clayton 

Clifton 


4 
1 
3 

1 
1 
1 












100.00 






47 


48 


Community Committee 
















48 


49 






1 








2,300.00 

10.00 

250.00 

75.00 


3 

1 
1 
1 


53,044 

1,314 

"18,520 

"2,244 


5 
, 1 


8,116 
1,120 


19 


50 


Closter 


;^ommunity Recreation Committee 










51 


Collingswood 

Delair 








2 
2 

1 
1 




51 


52 


Parent Teacher Association 














5? 


.53 


Dennis Township. . . 


E.R. A 

E.R. A 

Parent Teacher Aasociation** 










2 




53 


,54 








1 




100.00 
25.00 

50.00 
645.25 
110.00 
25.00 
20.00 


1 

1 

3 
4 
2 
1 


18,720 
9,960 

7,500 
96,022 
10,040 
"1,915 

2,520 


54 


S.'i 


Kgg Harbor City... 
Egg Harbor Town- 
ship 

Elizabeth 


1 
5 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
"8 






2 

4 
6 
2 
1 


8,325 

500 

110,345 

264 

210 


55 


56 




1 
2 








56 


57 




10 

1 
1 








57 


58 


Ewing Township . . . 
Far Hills 


E.R. A 

5. _R. A 

Neighborhood Club 








58 


59 






1 


1 
20 






60 


Forked River 

Franklin Township** 

Glen Rock 

Gloucester 








6ft 


61 


Community Committee 






1 


1 








61 


62 




3 

1 








1 


"3,321 
"24,627 


4 


1,584 


6? 


63 


Camden County Park CommlBsion 








2 




''SO.OO 


63 



107 



EMERGENCY RECREATION SERVICE IN 1934 

. Footnotes follow the table 



STATE AND 
CITY 



Popula- 
tioQ 



Managing Authority 



Emergency 
Racreation Leadership 



Paid Workers 



No. Em- 
ployed 
Full 
Time 



Volun- 
teer 
Workers 



Expenditures for Emergency 
Service Lost Fiscal Year 



From Relief Funds 



Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 



Leadership 



Total 



From 
Other 
Than 
Relief 
Funds 



Playgrounds 



3\ 



Indoor 
Centers 



N. J.— Cent. 

Haddonfield 

Hainesville, Mason- 

ville, Whiteabog. . 
Hamilton Township. 

Harrison 

Hight^town 

Hillsdale 

Hopewell 

lona 

Jackson Township. . 

Jersey City 

Kenilworth 

Lakehurst 

Lakewood 

Lawrence Township. 

Lincoln Park 

Livingston 

Lodi 

Maple Shade 

Margate 

Matawan 

Mays Landing 

Metuchen 

Merchantville 

Middlesex Borough. 

Milltown 

Millville 

Montville*^ 

Mountainside. ..... 

Mount Holly 

Neptune 

New Market 

New Providence. . . . 
New Providence 

Township 

North Bergen 

North Caldwell 

Nutley 

Palmyra 

Paulsboro 

Peapack -Gladstone . 

Pennington 

Pensauken 

Pleaaantville 

Point Pleasant 

Pompton Lakes .... 
Pompton Plains. . , . 

Princeton 

Prospect Park 

Raritan 

Raritan Township. . 

Red Bank 

Ridgewood 

Riverside 

Scotch Plains 

Seaside Heights .... 
Shell Pile, PortNorris 

Somerville 

South .\mboy 

South Plainfield.... 
South Toms River. . 

Springfield 

Thorofare 

Union 

V'erona. . .-. 

Wallington 

Wenonah 

Westfield 

West New York.. . . 

Wildwood 

Williamstown 

Woodbine 

Woodbridge 

Township 

Woodbury 

WVckofF 



New Mexico 

Las Cruces 



New York 

Batavia 

Cortland 

Delaware County*" , 

Elmsford*' 

Fort Edward 

Fredonia 



8,857 

541 
27,121 
16,166 
3,012 
2,964 
1,467 

200 

1,719 

328,027 

2,224 

947 
7,869 
6,293 
1,831 
3,400 
11,555 
6,000 
2,913 
2.264 
3,300 
5,740 
3,592 
3,504 
2,994 
15,000 

500 

965 
7,000 
10,625 

526 
1,918 

1,899 

40,714 

1,500 

22,000 

4,976 

7,000 

1,273 

1,335 

16,915 

11,580 

2,058 

3,104 

2,500 

6,992 

5,909 

4,790 

10,500 

11,622 

12,185 

7,000 

4,186 

399 

500 

8,255 

8,476 

5,047 

811 

3,725 

600 

16,472 

8,000 

9,076 

2,000 

15,801 

37,107 

8,000 

2,000 

2,164 

26,000 
10,000 
2,995 



7,000 



17,000 
15,043 
41,163 
5,000 
3,880 
6,000 



Camden County Park Commission . 

E. R. A 

E. R. A 

Hudson County Park Commission. . 

E. R. A 

E. R. A 

E. R. A 

E. R. A.. 
E. R. A.. 
E. R. A.. 



Parent Teacher Association. . 
E. R. A.. 
E. R. A.. 
E. R. A.. 



School Board 

Recreatien Committee . 
Board of Education . . . 

E. R. A 

E.R. A 

E. R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. A.. 



Parent Teacher Association. 

Planning Commission 

E.R. A 

E.R. A.. 



Board of Education 

Parent Teacher Association.. 
Parent Teacher Association . 

E.R. A 

E. R. A 

Parent Teacher Association. . 



Recreation Committee. 

E.R. A 

E.R. A.. 



Recreational Committee. 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

E. R. A.. 
E.R. A.. 



Parent Teacher Association.. 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. A. 



leisure Time Advisory Council . 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. 



Board of Education . 

E.R. A 

Board of Education . 

E.R. A 

E.R. A.. 



Recreation Association. 
City of South Amboy. . 
E.R. A.. 



Colored Church*. . 

E.R. A 

E.R. A. 



Parent Teacher Associations . 

E.R. A 

Board of Education 

E.R. A. 



Recreation Committee 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

Community Center Council. . 

E.R. A 

E.R. A 

Board of Education 



Rotary Club and Other Civic Groups . 



Welfare Department 

Temporary E. R. A 

County 4-H Club 

Recreation Commission 

.School Board and Recreation Commission 
Recreation Committee 



18 



"8 



2S0.00 



351.00 

246.00 
873.60 
1,500.00 
453.20 
133.86 
154.00 
120.00 
504.00 
8,970.00 
1,350.00 
200.00 
276.00 
772.80 
112.00 
300.00 
669.00 
300.00 
150.00 
495.00 
150.00 
673.00 
180.00 
120.00 
150.00 
210.00 
252.00 
15.00 
120.00 
600.00 
120.00 
165.00 

15.00 

1,440.00 

225.00 

2,666.40 

300.00 

362.50 

168.00 

2S9.20 

180.00 

1,316.00 

480.00 

311.26 

46.00 

361.60 

1,196.00 

216.00 

1,833.27 

1,405.00 

150.00 

300.00 

10.00 

32.00 

750.00 

477.60 

105.00 

108.00 

115.20 

75.00 

150.00 

345.00 

640.00 

880.10 

300.00 

2,310.00 

1,200.00 

182.40 

150.00 

405.00 

4,456.00 
460.00 
101.50 



234.00 



473.00 

482.04 

1,411.00 

lOO.OO 

1,475.00 

1.776.00 



361.00 

246.00 
873.60 
3,600.00 
463 20 
133.86 
154.00 
120.00 
604.00 
8,970.00 
1,. 350.00 
200.00 
276.00 
772.80 
112.00 
300.00 
669.00 
300.00 
150.00 
496.00 
150.00 
573.00 
180.00 
12C.00 
160.00 
210.00 
252.00 
16.00 
120.00 
600.00 
120.00 
166.00 

16.00 

1,440.00 

226.00 

2,666.40 

300.00 

362.60 

168.00 

272.70 

180.00 

1.316.00 

480.00 

311.25 

46.00 

361.60 

1,196.00 

216.00 

2,083.27 

1,405.00 

160.00 

300.00 

10.00 

32.00 

775.00 

477.60 

105.00 

108.00 

115 20 

75.00 

,150.00 

^46.00 

640.00 

880.10 

300.00 

2,310.00 

1,200.00 

182.40 

160.00 

405.00 

4,455.00 
460.00 
101.50 



488.00 

482.04 

1,411.00 

100.00 

1,476.00 

1,776.00 



"60.00 



1,237.58 



240.00 

15.00 

120.00 



60.00 
25.00 



400.00 
184.00 



80.00 

50.00 
300.00 

25.00 
250.00 
100.00 

50.00 
100.00 



100.00 



50.00 
200.00 

50.00 
100.00 



150.00 
110.00 
26.00 



50.00 
26.00 
25.00 
60.00 



450.00 

260.00 

25.00 



500.00 



60.00 
60.00 
160.00 



25.00 
.60.00 
426.00 



56.00 
800.00 
300.00 



50.00 



750.00 
150.00 



150.00 

210.00 

64.00 



"24,627 



36,200 

1,000 

11,360 



8.480 



16,360 



4.192 

"6,300 

15,000 

11,840 

15,680 

4,200 

14,937 

5.450 

6.250 

3,500 

8.400 

62.200 

"3.671 

27.660 

29.700 

2,850 



6.350 
12,600 
19,560 
"8,640 



12,000 
2.310 
"33,050 
4,7.50 
7,900 

"4,889 
6,040 

"1,879 

12,860 
1,440 
5,390 



31,760 
28,760 
"7,290 
66,960 
6,500 



23.860 



2,500 

"16,868 

29,250 



"2.400 

"659 

1.400 

"18,700 

9,000 

21,813 

2,000 

"20.246 

127,360 



1,010 



'224,812 
6,050 



15,000 



11,000 
9,000 
5,750 





1,980 








134 




6,728 
2,600 




840 

360 

31,390 


11 


■ 4,566 
950 




400 
2,480 
4,200 








450 




661 



108 



EMERGENCY RECREATION SERVICE IN 

Footnotes follow the table 



1934 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion 


Managing Authority 


Emergency 
Rocreation Leadership 


E.xpenditures for Emergency 
Service Last Fiscal Year 


Raygrounds 


Indoor 
Centers 






Paid Workers 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


From Relief Funds 


From 
Other 
Than 
Relief 
Funds 


1 


1 

it 




e2| 




>. 


g 
S 


■s 

1 


No. Em- 

ploj'ed 

Full 

Time 


g 
S 

•s 

6 


■0 

i 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Equipment 


Leadership 


Total 


>. 


o 

i 


g 
2 






6 
Z 


1 


New York— Cont. 


12,462 

7,500 
64,006 
25,539 

9,500 
24,771 
11,056 
23,000 
15,000 
22.000 
303,053 

2,500 
7,000,000 


Recreation Commission and Fulton Ath- 
letic Club 


20 
4 

30 
6 

1 
14 

6 
25 


14 

i9 
6 


"4 
5 




<"25 


"s 


39,418.44 


7,000.00 
1,690.00 
6,864.45 
3,507.60 
937.00 
16,200.00 


46,668.44 
1,690.00 
5,864.46 
3,957.60 
3,342.99 

23,100.00 




6 


73,654 


2 
3 
8 
3 
1 
8 
1 
2 


28,548 

14,000 

464,147 

13,340 

1,245 

3,240 

690 








1 






325.00 





1 


Herkimer County" . 
Huntington 


T, E. R. A 

Board of Education 


4 






9 
6 


79,073 
16,808 


1 


4 


1 


3 




125.00 


4 


■i 


School Board 








5 


6 


Lackawanna 

Little Falls 

Lockport 




2 
1 

19 
2 

3 

19 

1 

73 

105 
2 
4 

11 
2 
3 
1 

11 














9 
5 
5 
2 
3 

43 

1 


'35,660 
48,790 
'•4,250 
18,505 

812,206 


6 


7 








2 

1 








7 


H 


School Board 


13 


10 






13,688.12 
360.00 
665.50 

48,982.00 
1,488.00 

121,683.19 

375,636.55 

1,960.00 

1,671.58 

12,046.00 

1,200.00 

1,379.63 

420.00 

16,000.00 

180.00 

370.00 

151.20 
151.20 

386.40 

1,000.00 
400.00 
290.00 

1,320.00 


13,988.12 

360.00 

8,143.26 

48,982.00 
1,488.00 

121,683.19 

375,636.55 

1,960.00 

1,671.58 

12,046.00 

1,200.00 

1,379.63 

420.00 

18,000.00 

180.00 

706.00 

151.20 
151.20 
386.40 

1,000.00 
400.00 
290.00 

1,392.00 




y 


9 








25.00 




10 


Middletown 

Nassau County^' . . . 

NewCa-stle" 

New York City.... 
North Castle" 




11 

78 
3 

203 

173 
2 
6 

19 
7 

11 
1 

26 
1 
1 

.... 

3 

1 
1 
6 
3 
1 

11 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
7 

3 










7,191.35 








11 


County T. E. R. A. and State Board of 


58 
3 


12 








4 
1 


57,200 
5,000 


1^ 


P 


Recreation Commission'^ 








300.00 


T) 




[ Works Division, Department of Public 
J Welfare^s 










n 


13 


j Department of Public Welfare and 
\ Board of Education** 


173 
2 


105 

2 




















14 


Board of Education'^ 










1 
6 
10 

4 


' '30,628 


1 
1 




14 


15 


Ogdensburg 

Oneida County'* . , . 
PeekskiU" 


17,000 

198,763 

17,000 

33,000 

4,700 

100,000 

250 

620 

2,000 
2,500 
11,000 

10,000 

8,000 

800 

22,524 

18,000 
8,000 

30,000 
1,754 

699 
13,583 

271 
13,876 
50,320 

8,000 




2 


3 








16 












16 


17 


Board of Education and T. E. R. A 


















17 


18 


Rome 
















6 




IQ 


in 
















600.00 


1 
13 


28,000 
"120,000 




20 


Schenectady 

Sharon Springs 

Valhalla" 


T. E. R. A. and Board of Education. . . . 
Central School 


4 


1 








4 

1 


96,000 
650 


'O 


?1 








25.00 


0| 


Of 














336.00 


1 

1 
1 
1 

6 
3 
1 

7 
1 
1 
4 
1 

3 

2 

2 
8 
5 

1 
1 
1 




oo 


23 


North Carolina 

Ayden 


Pitt County E. R. A 

Pitt County E.R. A 

Pitt County E. R. A 

School Board 


3 
3 
5 

3 
2 
2 
6 
3 
2 
12 














1 




91 


n 












f 


0\ 


'S 


Greenville 












"35,000 

1,366 
11,250 
22,950 

' "52,660 
800 


1 

1 
5 




91^ 


?6 


Ohio 


3 


3 








300.00 
75.00 


Ofi 


27 












17 


?R 


HflinHpn 


F.E.R.A 

County Emergency Schools Council 












?8 


?9 


Henry County" 














2 


638 




30 












?n 


31 
















350.00 

3,125.00 

96.00 

26.00 
40.00 

40.50 

192.00 

1,100.00 

404.75 
48.00 
76.00 


350.00 

3,200.00 

96.00 

26.00 
40.00 

40.50 

206.00 

1,100.00 

404.75 
48.00 
76.00 


50.00 


1 


2,000 


n 


12 




State E.R. A 

Ohio Emergency School Administration. 

E.R. A 












?*' 


33 


McConnelsville 

Montville and Ring- 
gold 






1 












?? 


34 


















14 


35 


Morgan County**.. , 
Neelysville and 

Reinersville 

Pike Count.v" 

Wood County"*. . . . 

Oregon 

Baker 






















31 


36 


State Emergency Schools 
















300 






16 


37 


E.R. A 

E. R. A 




















17 


38 


3 

2 
1 






' 


2 




200.00 


40,000 
"1,080 






38 


39 


American Legion and Alpha Club 












19 


40 




















40 


41 




3,000 
1,348 
3,000 
16,093 
5.000 
1,767 
5,761 
740 
1,360 
2,550 

60,000 

26,000 

460 

7,800 

30,000 

10,251 
6,500 

6,243 

4,173 
4,316 

'5,660 


City School District 


1 
2 

1 

'6 




















41 


4'' 


Gladstone'"' .• 

Hillsboro 


City, School Board and C. W. S 


1 
2 
2 




















I' 


43 












257.00 
188.25 
929.90 


257.00 
188.25 
929.90 


352.00 


2 




4 


3,542 




44 


Klamath Falls 

Marshfield 

Milwaukie'"' 

Oregon City"' 

Parkrose 


Recreation Department S. E. R. A 

Coos Bav Post No. 17, American Leffion 
School Board and C. W. S. 








2 




44 


45 






1 




94.00 


1 








45 


46 


2 
2 

1 
















46 


47 


City. School Board and C. W. S 


2 

1 
4 
6 

3 


























47 


48 






1 
1 
3 

6 






165.00 
128.00 
589.80 

3,600.00 


165.00 
128 00 
589.80 

3,600.00 




1 

1 
3 








W 


4.9 














20.00 
75.00 


"1,600 








an 


Tillamook 

Pennsylvania 

Bethlehem 




4 

2 






1 
5 




6 
6 


23,155 


50 


51 


Recreation Commission 


3 


2 




51 


5? 




School Board and C. W. A 






1 
1 

1 

9 

4 
8 


"4,500 


';•> 


.W 


Thompsoiftown .... 
Rhode Island 




1 
2 

10 

7 


1 

1 
4 

19 

1 






















53 


,"i4 


Work Relief Bureau 










868.10 




12,694.20 

1.360.00 

2,343.75 
11,792.25 

1,100.00 

8,989.17 
507.00 

4,356.68 
304.00 


320.00 


15,000 
30,252 






H 


.W 


South Carolina 

Spartanburg 

South Daliota 

Watertown 

Yankton'"' 

Texas 

New BraunfeU'w. . . 

Utah 

East Juab County'" 
Park City 


Recreation Committee, Woman's Club. . 

Advisory Recreation Committee 

Kiwanis Club 








6 


1,360.00 

2,343.75 
275.10 


1 


3,950 




56 










132.94 


56 


57 










11,517.15 






17 


58 


City of New Braunfels 










860.00 

250.00 
125.00 








'iR 


,19 


F.E.R.A 

School Board and Recreation Board 

F.E.R.A 

F.E.R.A 


2 
2 
11 

1 
• 


I 

1 

13 

1 






6 




8,689.17 


300.00 


6 








59 


60 








5 
17 
4 


' 'iiim 


60 


61 


Salt Lake Region"*. 
Tooele 


.... 






10 
3 




3,738.16 
304.00 






61 


6? 








6' 























109 



EMERGENCY RECREATION SERVICE IN 
Footnotes follow the table 



1934 





STATE AND 
CITY 


Popiila- 
tioD 


Managing Authority 


Emergency 
Recreation Leadership 


Expenditures for Emergency 
Service Last Fiscal Year 


Playgrounds 


Indoor 
Centers 






Paid V/orkers 


Volun- 
teer 
Work»r8 


From Relief Funds 


From 
Other 
Than 
Relief 
Funds 


a 


4 

Hc2 


1 


i 

d 

n 

M 




K> 


o 

1 


G 

■s 

d 


No. Em- 

ploj-ed 

Full 

Time 


s 

d 




Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanen 
Equipmen 


Leadership 


Total 


>> 


c 

•c 


g 


^ 




d 
Z 


1 


Vermont 

Barre 


15,000 

2,000 

10,000 

2,500 

600 

207 
3,000 
7,482 

800 
1,257 
3,600 
1,000 
8,000 

670 
3,500 

2,625 

400 
15,457 
13,315 
15,263 
22,247 
21,071 
40,661 
129,710 
28,564 
10,271 

3,496 

125,000 

28,441 

22,000 

600 

28,030 
90,786 
13,125 
10,641 
28,511 
16,124 
61,323 
58,534 

38,319 
2,600 
9,660 
16,737 
19,478 
12,785 
22,334 

4,500 
800 

2,906 
670 

1,819 

1,917 
31,080 

9,695 ( 
2,095. 


F. E. R. A 


1 




























I 


■? 


Barton"' 


School Board 


1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
I 












420.00 
270.0C 
270.00 
90.00 
1,200.00 
246.00 
250.00 
120.00 
330.00 
362.80 
150.00 
150.00 
240.00 
150.00 

300.00 

72.00 
392.50 

20.00 

84.00 
1,426.40 

16.00 
480.70 

133.00 

206.00 


420.00 
270.00 

8,343.00 
90.00 

1,200.0c 
246.00 
265.00 
120.00 
330.00 
560.00 
150.00 
150.00 
240.00 
150.00 

300.00 

1,770.77 

1,469.40 
274.85 
388.80 

1,426.40 
16.00 

2,252.23 
51,519.14 

7,316.92 
636.60 


15.00 

8.00 

373.00 

14.00 
400.00 

22.34 










9. 


3 


Bennington 

Fair Haven 

Guilford 




1 
1 












1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 


7,650 
5,670 






3 


4 


School Board 










7,700.00 






4 


5 


Vermont E. R. A. 






2 


2 






5 


6 


Marslifield'M 

Middlebury 

Montpetier 




2 




1,750 
5,500 
1,200 
4,600 
18,650 


3 

1 




n 


7 


School Board 


1 
1 








7 


S 


School Board 












8 


q 


School Board 












6.00 
35.00 






q 


10 


Orieans 


Adult Education Council 


1 

3 






5 






1 
2 
4 




in 


11 


Poultney 


School Board 


2 

1 
1 
1 










11 


1'' 










3 


3 
2 
4 






1' 


13 


St. Jolinsbury 

Saxtons River 

Swanton 


State Department of Education 

E. R. A. and Parent Teacher Associatioo 
V. E. R. A and School Board 


1 
1 

1 

.... 
3 

"s 

"2 
2 

1 
3 
5 
3 
1 

3 
21 








20.00 

160.00 

5.00 

15.00 


I 
1 

1 

1 
1 


"3,600 
1,760 
2,500 

"11,700 


13 


14 














14 


15 














15 


16 


White River Junc- 


V. E. R. A 

Work Division, V. E. R. A 

V.E.R. A 

V. E. R. A 

County Commissioners and V. E. R. A. . 


1 

1 
8 
1 
1 
9 
2 
3 






2 


5 


_ 






16 


17 


Virginia 

Amelia Court House 
Botetourt County'". 
Buckingham County 
Caroline County"^. 






1,698.77 

1,076.90 

254.85 

304.80 






17 


IS 


















18 


in 












1 
5 








19 


fO 


















?n 


21 










75.00 




5 




21 


22 


Fouquier County"'. 

Lynchburg 

Norfolk''^ 


V.E.R. A 

V.E.R. A 

V.E.R, A 

V.E.R. A 

V. E. R. A 

School Board 












2 

7 




n 


2;* 










1,771.53 

■■■7,183'.92 
331.50 










23 


fA 


















74 


25 


Petersburg 

Suffolk 




4 
3 

1 








?5 


26 


3 

1 
4 
13 


















?6 


27 


Washington 

Paaco 














2 

1 
1 
1 


10,500 
15,000 


27 


28 










10 
8 






825.00 


i,'366.6o 

2,000.00 

410.00 

54.00 

678.00 
9,892.16 

322.50 

486.00 
1,420.26 

241.37 
1,230.86 

15,613.67 
583.20 
260.00 
400.95 
942.50 
942.50 
631.80 
847.50 

4,097.25 
468.00 


600.00 


?S 


29 


Wallft Walla Co.'" . 

Ywirimn 








17 




8 


"70,200 


29 


30 










360.00 
40.00 

630.00 
8,210.90 

307.50 

460.00 
1,316.26 

216.61 
1,048.43 

900.00 
540.00 
260.00 
371.25 
877.50 
877.50 
585.00 
787.50 

94.00 
273.00 




10 


31 


Yelm 


Washington E. R. A 

E. R. A 

E.R. A 


1 

4 
24 
6 
2 
6 
3 
7 

3 
2 


















31 


3? 


West Virginia 

Berkeley County'" . 
Cabell County"5. .. 

Clay County!" 

GUmer County'" . . 
Hancock County'". 
Jackson County'". . 
Vlercer County'^ . . 
Logan County'^'. . . 

Mingo County'-'. . . 














7 
23 


"5,920 
103,850 






1? 


33 


11 


11 




23 


1,056.52 




10 
4 


223,600 


33 


S4 




14 


36 




2 
3 

1 
8 

6 
4 
2 
2 
3 
1 
1 
3 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
4 
6 

2 

1 






3 


2 




150.00 


17 
8 
4 

14 

18 
6 
1 
3 
6 
8 
3 
7 

1 
I 


8,000 
4,780 


36 


36 














36 


37 




















37 


■3S 






















3S 


39 


E. R. A. and Agricultural Extension 






16 


21 


14,613.67 










19 


40 










9,360 






40 


41 


State R. A. 












45.00 






41 


4? 


Pendleton County'" 
Putnam County'-* . 
iioane County"^. . . 
Tyler County'". . . . 
Wetzel County'" . 

Wisconsin 

Berlin 




1 
3 
1 
3 
4 

1 


















42 


43 






















41 


44 






















44 


-46 








1 


1 












45 


46 


















46 


47 


F. E.R.A 

F. E. R. A 










4,003.25 


201.50 
60.00 


3,600 
6,000 






•7 


48 


East Troy 














48 


4(| 


Edgerton .... 


1 
1 












1 
2 


'2,466 


19 


60 


*Iattoon 








2 


4 


606.00 


120.00 

540.00 

768.90 

4,600.65 

374.00 
40.00 


726.00 

640.00 

768.90 

19,503.52 

374.00 
40.00 


200.50 






W 


61 


ron County Relief Department 






2 
2 
5 




?1 


62 


3conto Falls 

ftalworth County"* 

Wyoming 

'latte County"s . . . 
rhermopolis 














476.00 
6,397.00 


14,400 
18,980 






S2 


.53 


rt^. E. R. A 


4 

3 










14,648.37 


3 
2 


4,935 


i3 


54 










;4 


66 ' 




















)5 
























• 







FOOTNOTES (EMERGENCY SERVICE) 

1. This report covers service in Butler and Lisman. 

2. This report covers service in Fulton, Whatley and Grove Hill. 

3. This report covers service in Ashland, Lineville and Millerville. 

4. This report covers service in Enterprise and Elba. 

5. This report covers service in Burnt Corn, Flat Rock, Nymph and Holly Grove. 

6. This report covers service in Cypress, Greensboro and Newbern. 

7. This report covers service in Newville, Headland, Capps and Abbeville. 

8. This report covers service in Millport, Detroit and Vernon. 

9. This report covers service in Letohatchee, Fort Deposit, Braggs, Sandy Ridge, Mount Willing and 



Hayneville. 

110 



I 



10. This report covers service in Demopolis, Linden, Thomaston, Sweetwater and Nanafalia. 

11. This report covers service in Hamilton, Haclileburg, Guin, Winfield and Brilliant. 

12. This report covers service in Cuba, York, Livingston and Shelbyville. 

13. This report covers service in Tuscaloosa, Elrod and Peterson. 
13a. This report also covers service in Sheffield. 

14. This report covers service in Cordova, Dora, America, Carbon Hill, Jasper, Goodsprings, Oakman 
and Nauvoo. 

15. An outdoor swimming pool was operated in the summer of 1934. 

16. This report covers service in Chino, Uplands, Redlands, Victorville, Yucaipa, Barstow, Needles, 
Cres'tline, Arrow Head, Big Bear, Colton, Rialto, Fontana and Cucomonga. (Additional service in the City of 
San Bernardino is included in the report for that city.) 

17. This figure represents participants only. 

18. This report covers service in Southport, Youngstown and Fountain. 

19. This report covers service in Fort Lauderdale, Hollywood, Hallandale, Dania, Davey and Pompano. 

20. This report covers service in Blountstown, Altha, Frink, Kinard, Carr, Marysville and Clarksville. 

21. This report covers service in Naples, Imokalee, Everglades City and Collier City. 

22. This report covers service in Miami, Miami Baach, Coral Gables, Opa Locka, Perrine, Homestead, 
Florida City, Ojus, South Miami, North Miami and Hialeah. 

23. This report covers service in Newberry, Evinston, Micanopy, Island Grove, High Springs, Waldo, 
Archer, Hawthorne, Starke, Lawtey, Brooker, Crystal River, Dunnellon, Floral City, Inverness, Homosassa, 
Lake City, Mason City, Watertown, Fort White, Lake Butler, Raiford, Providence, Worthington Springs, Cross 
City, Bell, Brooksville, Springs Lake. Bronson, Williston, Chiefland, Otter Creek, Cedar Keys, Anthony, Citra, 
Fort McCoy, Reddick, Summerfield, Weirsdale, Trilby, San Antonio, Dade City, Bushnell, Wildwood, Oxford, 
Centejr Hill, Webster and Coleman. 

24. This report covers service in Tamna, Plant City, St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Largo, Passagrille, 
Bradenton, Sarasota, Punta Gorda and Fort Myers. 

25. This report covers service in Quincy, Chattahoochee, Havana and Greensboro. 

26. This report covers service in Wewahitchka and Port St. Joe. 

27. This report covers service in Jasper, Jennings, White Springs and Belmont. 

28. This report covers service in Poplar Springs, Bethlehem, Noma, Esto, Ponce de Leon, Westville, 
Leonia and Bonifay. 

29. This report covers service in Graceville. Campbellton, Cypress, Alford. Bascom, Greenwood, Kynes- 
ville. Compass Lake, Cottondale, Cave Springs, Malone, Dellwood, Inwood, Round Lake and Marianna. 

30. This report covers service in Monticello, Aucilla, Lamont, Lloyd, Wacissa and Waukeenah. 
30a. This report covers service in Mayo and Day. 

31. This report covers service in Tallahassee, Chaires and Woodville. 

32. This report covers service in Bristol, Hosford, Rock Bluff, Telogia and Sumatra. 

33. This report covers service in Madison, Greenville, Lee, Lovett and Pinetta. 

34. This report covers service in Holt. Wright, Fort Walton, Baker, Dorcas, Red Oak, Beach Branch, 
Silver Springs, Crestview, Milligan, Laurel Hill and Niceville. ^ 

35. Complete information not available. 

36. This report covers service in Pace, Jay, Juniper, Calvary, Springhill, Milton, Fidellis, Wallace and 
Allentown. 

37. This report covers service in Live Oak, Branford, Dowling Park, McAlpin and Wellborn. 

38. This report covers service in Perry, Boyd, Scanlon and Shady Grove. 

39. This report covers service in Wakulla, Arran, Crawfordsville, Panacea, St. Marks, Sanborn and 
Sopchoppy. 

40. This report covers service in Freeport, Glendale and Liberty. 

41. This report covers service in Caryville, Shiloh and Wausau. 

42. This report covers service in Atlanta, College Park, East Point and Hapeville. 

43. This report covers service in Chicago, Berwyn, Blue Island, Calumet City, Chicago Heights, Evan- 
ston, Glencoe, Harvey, Oak Park, Park Ridge, La Grange Park, Wilmette, Niles Center and Western Springs. 
(Additional leadership and expenditures from the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission are included in the 
reports from several of these cities.) 

44. Some of these were indoor centers and play streets. 

45. This report covers service in Robinson, Palestine and Oblong. 

46. Maintained a program of community recreation activities for colored citizens. 

47. This report covers service in Farmington, Norris. St. David, Middle Grove, Ipana, Vermont, Sum- 
ner, Ellisville, Lewistown, Cuba, Canton, Marietta, Smithfield. Bryant, Brereton, Fiatt and Banner. 

48. This report covers service in Panama, Nokomis, Witt, Taylor Springs and Schram City. 

49. This report covers service in Hoyleton, Irvington, Oakdale, Okawville, Nashville and New Minden. 

50. This report covers service in Southport, Beech Grove, Ben Davis and Indianapolis. 

51. This report covers service in Audubon, Exira, Kimballton, Gray and Viola. 

52. This report covers service in Frederick, Brunswick, Emmittsburg, Middletown and Myersville. 

53. This report covers service in Keedysville, Hagerstown, Boonsboro, Sharpsburg, Williamsport and 
Hancock. 

54. This report covers service in Harrisville ani Lincoln. 

55. The names of the communities served were not reported. 

Ill 



56. This report covers service in Filer City, Stronach and Manistee. 

."57. This report covers service in Forsyth Township and in Gwinn. , 

58. This report covers service in McBain, Falmouth, Merritt and Moorestown. 

59. This report covers service in Holton, Montague and Whitehall. 

60. This report covers service in West Branch, Rose City, Lupton, Prescott and 19 rural communities. 

61. This report covers service in Gaylord, Vanderbilt and Johannesburg. 

62. This report covers service in Onaway. 

63. This report covers service in Roscommon, Houghton Lake and Markey. 

64. This report also includes service in Chaming. 

65. This report covers service in Aitkin, McGregor, Hill City, Jacobson, Rabey, Shovel Lake, Swatara, 
Tamarack, McGrath, Lawler, Malmo, Cutler, Palisade, Kimberly, Arthyde and Rossburg. 

66. This report covers service in Detroit Lakes, Lake Park, Ponsford, White Earth, Frazee, Shipman, 
Arago, Audubon, Ogema and Tamarack Lake. 

67. This report covers service in Odessa, Wheaton, Johnson and several other communities. 

68. This report covers service in St. James, Lewisville, Butterfield, Madelia, Hanska, New Ulm, Sleepy 
Eye, Cobden, Springfield and Comfrey. 

69. This report covers service in Alida, Bagley, Clearbrook, Gonvick, Leonard, and Berner. 

70. This report covers service in Morris, Herman, Elbow Lake, Barrett, Chokio, Alberta, Hancock, Nor- 
cross, Wendell, Donnelly, Erdahl and Ashby. 

71. This report covers service in Spring Grove, Caledonia, St. Charles, Lanesboro, Preston, Peterson, 
Chatfield, Lewiston and Winona. 

72. This report covers service in Karlstad, Donaldson, Bronson, Greenbush, Hauge, Badger and Hallock. 

73. This report covers service in International Falls, Ranier. Holler, Littlefork, Big Falls and Mizpah. 

74. This report covers service in Baudette, Williams, Pitt, Graceton, Carp, Clementson, Hiwood, Faunce 
and Spooner. 

75. This report covers service in Brainerd, Crosby, Ironton, Deerwood, Cuyuna, Pequot, Nisswa, Roy- 
alton, Pierz, Swanville, Motley, Randall and Bwckman. 

76. This report covers service in Rochester, Eyota. Oronoco, Stewartville, Dover, Chatfield, School Dis- 
tricts No. 81, No. 34 and No. 16, Kasson and Dodge Center. 

77. This report covers service in St. Peter, North Mankato, Nicollet, Lafayette. Klossner, Traverse, 
Norseland, New Sweden, Belgrade Township, St. George, Gibbon, Winthrop, Gaylord, Arlington, Hender- 
son, Green Isle and New Auburn. 

78. This report covers service in Akeley, Verndale, Sebeka and Park Rapids. 

79. This report covers service in Stillwater, Marme, Lakeland, Afton, St. Paul Park, Big Lake, Valley 
Creek, Newport and Mahtomedi. 

80. This report covers service in Fulton, McCredie, Auxvasse, Stephens and Hatton. 

81. This report covers service in Cleveland, East Lynne and Creighton. 

82. This report covers service in Kahoka, Medill, Ashton, Luray, Wyaconda, Alexandria, Saint Francis- 
ville, Gregory Landing and Wayland. 

83. This figure represents the total number of volunteers reported. 

84. Emergency recreation programs in New Jersey communities were either carried on directly by, or 
in cooperation with, the Leisure Time Division of the State Emergency Relief Administration. Unless other- 
wise indicated the program was under the direction of a local sponsoring committee. In addition to the 
leaders reported by the local communities, there were twenty men and women who gave full time service as 
county leisure time supervisors. 

85. This report includes service in Barnegat an! Ship Bottom Beach-Arlington. 

86. This report covers service in Janvier and Plainville. 

87. This report also covers service in Bowlbyville. 

88. This report covers service in Andes. Margaretville, Bovina Center, Hobart, Stamford, Downsville, 
Treadwell, Walton, Delhi, Hancock and East Branch. 

89. This community is also served by the Westchester County Recreation Commission. 

90. This report covers service in Dolgeville, Frankfort, Herkimer, Ilion and Mohawk. 

91. This report covers service in Lynbrook, Rockville Centre, Baldwin, Freeport, Merrick, Massapequa, 
Hicksville, Westbury, Hewlett, Mineola, Oceanside, Great Neck, Port Washingtoi}, Glen Cove, Locust Valley, 
Oyster Bay and in several State Parks. 

92. This report also covers service in Chappaqua and Millwood. 

93. This report relates to 77 play streets sponsored by the Crime Prevention Bureau. In addition, the 
Department provided the emergency leaders reported by the Park Department and Board of Education. 

94. This report covers service rendered the Department of Health Education in conducting play activities 
in the schools. 

95. This report covers service in Armonk and North White Plains. 

96. This report covers service in Whitesboro, New York Mills, New Hartford, Boonville, Woodgate, 
Prospect, Camden and Holland Patent. 

97. This report covers service in Napoleon, Ridgeville Corners, Liberty Center, Malinta, Holgate and 
Deshler. 

98. This report covers service in Deavertown and Roseform. 

99. This report covers service in Waverly, Piketon, Beaver, Stockdale, Wakefield, Jasper, Latham and 
Given. 

112 



100. This report covers service in Bowling Green, North Baltimore, Rossford, Perrysburg, Ross Town- 
ship, Woodside, Stony Ridge, Bradner, Wayne and Pemberville. 

101. This report covers the operation of a bathing beach. 

102. This report covers the operation of a swimming pool. 

103. One of the playgrounds reported was at Utica. 

104. This report covers the operation of two bathing beaches. 

105. This report covers service in Nephi, Mona and Levan. 

106. This report covers service in Vernal, Brigham City. Garfield, Magna, Murray, HoUaday, Bingham, 
Richfield, Eureka, Price, Wellington, Scofield and Standardville. 

107. This report also covers service in Glover, Brownington and Irasburg. 

108. This report covers service in five towns. 

109. This report covers service in Buchanan, Glen Wilton, Eagle Rock and Fincastle. 

110. This report covers service in Bowling Green and four other towns. 

111. This report covers service in Warrenton and The Plains. 

112. This report covers the construction and operation of an outdoor swimming pool. 

113. This report covers service in Walla Walla, College Place and in unincorporated districts. 

114. This report covers service in Hedgesville an! Inwood. 

115. This report covers service in Camp Creek, Longbranch, Bo wen. Roach, Salt Rock, Milton, Fetly and 
Central. 

116. This report covers service in Ivydale, Bickm9re, Clay and Swandale. 

117. This report covers service in Ellis, Gilmer. Stouts Mills, Sand Fork, Baldwin, Troy, Newbern, Cox's 
Mills, Tanner, Glenville, Normantown, Hardman, Cedarville, Perkins and Conings. 

118. This report covers service in Glendale and Grandview. 

119. This report covers service in Ravens wood, Ripley, Cottageville, Sandy ville, Gay and Liverpool. 

120. This report covers service in Bluefield, Priceton, Athens, McComas, Giatto, Matoaka and Thorn. 

121. This report covers service in Lake, Chapmanville, Henlawson, Man, Big Creek, Clothier, Sharpies, 
McConnell, Stollings, Peach Creek and Isom. 

122. This report covers service in Williamson, Delbarton, Bias, Matewan, Chattaroy and Kermit. 

123. This report covers service in Reeds Creek, Circleville and Brandy wine. 

124. This report covers service in Buffalo, Red House, Hurricane, Scott Depot, Hodges and Bancroft. 

125. This report covers service in Rudy, Speed, Stringtown, Hofftown, Looney ville, Newton and Hunt. 

126. This report covers service in Sisterville and Middlebourne. 

127. This report covers service in New Martinsville, Brooklyn, Reader, Pine Grove, Smithfield, Burton 
and Paden City. 

128. This report covers service in Walworth, Whitewater, Delavan, Elkhorn and Lake Geneva. (An addi- 
tional worker is included in the report for Delavan.) 

129. This report covers service in Wheatland, Sunrise and Esterbrook. 



It is not too early to make plans NOW 

to come to the 

livent\j'-^ksi Tiailonai Kec^eaticn Gcna^,e^s 

to be held 

September 30 - October 4, 1935 

In Chicago, Illinois 



Write for information to T. E. Rivers 

NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 

315 FOURTH AVENUE NEW YORK CITY 



113 



Ttie Service of the National Recreation Movement 

in 1934 



386 cities in 43 states were given personal service through the visits 
of field workers. 

116 cities were helped in conducting their recreation activities for 
Negroes, 47 through field visits of the Bureau of Colored Work. 

4,757 requests for advice and material on amateur drama problems 
were submitted to the Drama Service. 

84 cities in 21 states received service from the Katherine F. Barker 
Field Secretary on Recreation for Girls and Women. 

93 institutions for children and the aged in 55 cities were visited per- 
sonally by the field secretary on Play in Institutions. Additional service 
was given to more than 300 institutions. 

21,944 boys and girls in 387 cities received badges, emblems or cer- 
tificates for passing the Association's athletic and swimming badge tests. 

24 states were served through the Rural Recreation Service con- 
ducted in cooperation with the Extension Service of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture. 6,658 people attended the 117 institutes which 
were held. 

20 states received visits from the representative of the National Phy- 
sical Education Service. In addition, service was given to 42 states through 
correspondence, consultation and monthly News Letters. 

5,922 different communities received help and advice on recreation 
problems through the Correspondence and Consultation Bureau. 

142 social recreation and other institutes and training courses for 
local leaders were carried on with the help of Association workers. 

The Music Service issued bulletins, gave correspondence and consul- 
tation service, and through personal visits helped a number of cities plan 
programs and train volunteers for community music activities. 

Through the Publications and Bulletin Service publications were is- 
sued on various recreation subjects and regular bulletin services were 
maintained. 

Recreation, the monthly magazine of the movement, was received 
by 1,257 cities and towns. 

Recreation leaders from 230 cities in 34 states exchanged experiences 
and discussed vital problems at the Twentieth Recreation Congress. 



114 



National Recreation Association 

Incorporated 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

January 1, 1934 thru December 31, 1934 

General Fund Balance December 31, 1933 $ 20,697.70 

Less amount borrowed from Emergency Reserve 

Fund repaid 20,000.00 



Income 

Contributions $170,712.72 

Contributions for Specific Work 7.947-37 

Interest and Dividends on Endowment Funds 9.394-57 

Recreation Sales, Subscription and Advertising 6,366.39 

Badge Sales i,533-65 

Special Publication Sales 11,407.13 

Business Operations 2,244.99 

Interest and Dividends — Frances Ross Foley Me- 
morial Fund 255.00 



Expenditures to December 31, 1934 
Katherine F. Barker Memorial Field 
Secretary on Athletics and Recrea- 
tion for Women and Girls $ 5,989.79 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial District 

Field Work 3,500.00 

Play in Institutions 500.00 



$ 11,491-14 



$ 9.989-79 



$ 697.70 



209,861.82 

Expenditures $210,559.52 

Community RecTeation Field Service $128,664.19 

Field Service to Colored Communities 8,011.20 

National Physical Education Service 9,685.24 

Correspondence and Consultation Bureau 25,951.03 

Publications and Bulletin Service 10,921.50 

Recreation 13,913.61 

Play in Institutions 2,541.91 

Recreation Congress 4,288.09 

203,976.77 



General Fund Balance December 31, 1934 ■ $ 6,582.75 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial 

Balance December 31, 1933 $ 5,481.04 

Receipts to December 31, 1934 

Contribution $ 5,000.00 

Contribution for Specific Work 696.15 

Book Sales 3^3-95 

6,010.10 



$ 1,501.35 
115 



Massachusetts Project for Conserving 
Standards of Citizenship 

Balance December 31, 1933 $ 558.80 

Receipts to December 31, 1934. 1,800.00 

2,358-80 

Expenditures to December 31, 1934 I,y2().i2, ^ 62067 

Play in Institutions 

Receipts to December 31, 1934 

Contribution $ 5,800.00 

Play in Institutions Bulletin 29.50 

— $ 5,829.50 

Expenditures to December 31, 1934 i, 525-27 a. ^^. „^ 

!p 4.304-23 

Endowment and Reserve Funds . 

Special Fund (Action of 1910) $ 25,000.00 

Lucy Tudor Hillyer Fund 5,000.00 

Emil C. Bondy Fund 1,000.00 

George L. Sands Fund at December 31, 

1933 $ 12,219.98 

Received through Liquidation, in 1934 243.24 

12,463.22 

"In Memory of J. R. Lamprecht" 3,000.00 

"In Memory of Barney May" 500.00 

"In Memory of Waldo E. Forbes" i,403-02 

Frances Ross Foley Memorial Fund (x) 6,000.00 

Ellen Mills Borne Fund 3,000.00 

Other Gifts 17500 

C. H. T. Endowment Fund 500.00 • 

Frances Mooney Fund 1,000.00 

Sarah Newlin Fund 500.00 

"In Memory of William Simes" 2,000.00 

"In Memory of J. R. Jr." 250.00 

Frances R. Morse Fund " 2,000.00 

Emergency Reserve Fund $134,975.00 

Amount borrowed repaid from General 

Fund 20,000.00 

154,975.00 

Loss and Gain on Sale of Securities 3.775-94 

Ella Van Peyma Fund 500.00 

Nettie G. Naumburg Fund 2,000.00 

"In Memory of William J. Matheson". 5,000.00 

Alice B. P. Hannahs Fund 1,400.00 

"In Memory of Daniel Guggenheim" 1,000.00 

"In Memory of Alfred W. Heinsheimer" 5,000.00 

Nellie L. Coleman Fund 100.00 

Elizabeth B. Kelsey Fund 500.00. 

Sarah Fuller Smith Fund 3,000.00 

Annie L. Sears Fund 2,000.00 

John Markle Fund 50,000.00 

$293,042.18 

(x) Restricted 

I have audited the accounts of the National Recreation Association for the fiscal year ending December 31, 1934 
and certify that in my opinion the above statement is a true and correct statement of the financial transactions of the 
General, Special Study and Endowment Funds for the period. 

(Signed) J. F. CALVERT, Certified Public Accountant. 

116 



National Recreation Association 

Incorporated 

formerly named Playground and Recreation Association of America 
315 Fourth Avenue, New York City 



OFFICERS 



Joseph Lke, President 

John H. Finley, First Vice-President 

John G. Winant, Second Vice-President 



Robert Garrett, Third Vice-President 
GusTAvus T. KiRBY^ Treasurer 
H. S. Braucher, Secretary 



DIRECTORS 



Mrs. Edward W. Biddle 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania 

William Butterworth 
Moline, Illinois 

Clarence M. Clark 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Henry L. Corbett 
Portland, Oregon 

Mrs. Arthur G. Cummer 
Jacksonville, Florida 

F. Trubee Davison 

Locust Valley, New York 

Mrs. Thomas A. Edison 
West Orange, New Jersey 

John H. Finley 
New York, N. Y. 

Robert Garrett 
Baltimore, Maryland 

Austin E. Griffiths 
Seattle, Washington 

Charles Hayden 
New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. Charles V. Hickox 
Michigan City, Indiana 

Mrs. Francis deLacy Hyde 
Plainfield, New Jersey 

Gustavus T. Kirby 
New York, N. Y. 

Hugh McK. Landon 
Indianapolis, Indiana 



Mrs. Charles D. Lanier 
Greenwich, Connecticut 

Robert Lassiter 

Charlotte, North Carolina 

Joseph Lee 

Boston, Massachusetts 

Edward E. Loom is 
New York, N. Y. 

J. H. McCurdy 

Springfield, Massachusetts 

Otto T. Mallery 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Walter A. May 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Carl E. Milliken 
Augusta, Maine 

Mrs. Ogden L. Mills 
Woodbury, N. Y. 

Mrs. James W. Wadsworth, Jr. 
Washington, D. C. 

J. C. Walsh 

New York, N. Y. 

Frederick M. Warburg 
New York, N. Y. 

John G. Winant 

Concord, New Hampshire 

Mrs. William H. Woodin, Jr. 
Tucson, Arizona 



117 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Dr. Stuart W. Adler 

Rock Island, Illinois 
David Alexander 

Akron, Ohio 
Ray Stannard Baker 

Amherst, Massachusetts 
Mrs. George D. Barron 

Rye, New York 
A. T. Bell 

Atlantic City, New Jersey 
Mrs. Edward C. Bench 

Englewood, New Jersey 
Nathan D. Bill 

Springfield, Massachusetts 
George F. Booth 

Worcester, Massachusetts 
Anna H. Borden 

Fall River, Massachusetts 
John R. Brinley 

Morristown, New Jersey 
Richard E. Byrd 

Boston, Massachusetts 
G. Herbert Carter 

Huntington, New York 
Mrs. George Edwards Clement 

Peterboro, New Hampshire 
Mrs. Walter S. Comly 

Port Chester, New York 
Charles M. Cox 

Boston, Massachusetts 
WiNTHROP M. Crane, Jr. 

Dalton, Massachusetts 
Z. Marshall Crane 

Dalton, Massachusetts 
Julian W. Curtiss 

Greenwich, Connecticut 
Henry L. deForest 

Plainfield, New Jersey 
Mrs. John W. Donaldson 

Irvington-on-Hudson, New York 
Clyde Doyle 

Long Beach, California 
Mrs. S. S. Drury 

Concord, New Hampshire 
Mrs. a. Felix du Pont 

Wilmington, Delaware 
Mrs. Coleman du Pont 

Wilmington, Delaware 
Mrs. D. E. F. Easton 

San Francisco, California 
John Erskine 

New York, New York 
Mrs. Irving Fisher 

New Haven, Connecticut 
Mrs. Paul FitzSimons 

Newport, Rhode Island 
Mrs. Ralph E. Forbes 

Milton, Massachusetts 
Robert A. Gardner 

Chicago, Illinois 
Charles C. George 

Omaha, Nebraska 
Charles W. Gilkey 

Chicago, Illinois 
Thomas K. Glenn 

Atlanta, Georgia 
Mrs. Charles C. Glover, Jr. 

Washington, D. C. 
C. M. Goethe 

Sacramento, California 

118 



Rex B. Goodcell 

Los Angeles, California 
Mrs. Charles A. Goodwin 

Hartford, Connecticut 
Charles W. Gordon 

St. Paul, Minnesota 
William Green 

Washington, D. C. 
Franklin T. Griffith 

Portland, Oregon 
Mrs. Norman Harrower 

Fitchburg, Massachusetts 
Mrs. S. H. Hartshorn 

Short Hills, New Jersey 
Ellen R. Hathaway 

New Bedford, Massachusetts 
Mrs. F. R. Hazard 

Syracuse, New York 
Dorothy Heroy 

Stamford, Connecticut 
Mrs. William G. Hibbard 

Winnetka, Illinois 
Mrs. Francis L. Higginson 

Boston, Massachusetts 
Mrs. Albert W. Holmes 

New Bedford, Massachusetts 
Mrs. Howard R. Ives 

Portland, Maine 
H. H. Jacobs 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
Mrs. Ernest Kanzler 

Detroit, Michigan 
Helen Keller 

Forest Hills, New York 
John Harvey Kellogg 

Battle Creek, Michigan 
Mrs. William Kent 

Kentfield, California 
WiLLARD V. King 

New York, N. Y. 
TuLLY C. Knoles 

Stockton, California 
A. H. Lance 

Kenosha, Wisconsin 
William Lawrence 

Boston, Massachusetts 
Philip LeBoutillier 

New York, N. Y. 
Alice Lee 

San Diego, California 
Lucius N. Littauer 

New Rochelle, New York 
Seth Low 

New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. Louis C. Madeira 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Henry L. Mayer 

San Francisco, California 
John W. McClure 

Washington, D. C. 
Mrs. F. O. McColloch 

Los Angeles, California 
George A. McKinney 

Alton, Illinois 
Sumner T. McKnight 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 
Charles G. Middleton 

Louisville, Kentucky 
John F. Moors 

Boston, Massachusetts 



Charles Nagel 

St. Louis, Missouri 
Roy B. Naylor 

Wheeling, West Virginia 
Charles Peebles 

Hamilton, Canada 
Daniel A. Poling 

New York, N. Y. 
Arthur Pound 

New Scotland, New York 
Herbert L. Pratt 

New York, N. Y. 
Frederick H. Rike 

Dayton, Ohio 
Mrs. R. Sanford Riley 

Worcester, Massachusetts 
Mrs. Theodore Douglas Robinson 

Mohawk, New York 
Mrs. Willoughby Rodman 

Los Angeles, California 
Franklin D. Roosevelt 

Washington, D. C. 
Theodore Roosevelt 

Oyster Bay, New York 
Mrs. Henry H. Sanger 

Groose Pointe, Michigan 
Mrs. Algar Shelden 

Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan 
Mrs. Albert G. Simms 

Washington, D. C. 
Mrs. James R. Smart 

Evanston, Illinois 
John D. Spencer 

Salt Lake City, Utah 
M. Lyle Spencer 

Seattle, Washington 
A. A. Sprague 

Chicago, Illinois 
Robert Gordon Sproul 

Berkeley, California 
Mrs. O. a. Stallings 

New Orleans, Louisiana 
Florence M. Sterling 

Houston, Texas 
Mrs. Sigmund Stern 

San Francisco, California 
Mrs. S. Emlen Stokes 

Moorestown, New Jersey 
Harold H. Swift 

Chicago, Illinois 
LoRADq Taft 

Chicago, Illinois 
Mrs. Francis J. Torrance 

Sewickley, Pennsylvania 
William G. Watson 

Toronto, Canada 
Ridley Watts 

Morristown, New Jersey 
C. S. Weston 

Scranton, Pennsylvania 
Dwight C. Wheeler 

Bridgeport, Connecticut 
Harold P. Winchester 

Albany, New York 
Stephen S. Wise 

New York, New York 
Henry Young 

Newark, New Jersey 



World 

AT 

Play 




Courtesy Sun Francisco Recreation Con 



A Jail Becomes A 
Social Center 



San Francisco's sev- 
enty-five year old 
Ingelside Prison, 
which withstood the 
shock of the 1906 earthquake without the dis- 
placement of a single brick, has fallen before 
the needs of the city's recreation commission, 
and the thirteen acre site on which the jail is 
located will be used for a new recreation center. 
Prior to their removal to new quarters the 
prisoners had a hand in remodeling the old 
prison, working with zest to remove window 
bars and cell blocks. The grounds have been 
graded and landscaped, the reservoir will be 
turned into a swimming pool and there will be 
courts and diamonds for games of all kinds. 
The floor of the jail, formerly used as a chapel, 
will become a little theatre. \ French count 
who spent some time in the prison made some 
paintings for the walls which will be retained. 
On the next floor there will be handball and 
volley ball courts, a gymnasium and club 
rooms. The first floor will have the kitchen and 
dining room. 

Thus San Francisco is demonstrating the 
proof of the old saying, "playgrounds are sub- 
stitutes for jails." 



Marine Study 
As A Hobby 



The study of the 
fauna and flora of 
Southern California's 
coast has been devel- 
oped into an interesting hobby as the result of 
organized groups formed by the Playground 
and Recreation Department of Los Angeles. 
Two natural history hobby groups are now 
functioning at municipal beaches with a grow- 
ing number of participants joining in the col- 
lection, identification, and preservation of many 
forms of marine and shore life. Shells and 
crustaceans, seaweed, fish, birds, octopi and squid, 
insects, and other specimens found along the sea- 
shore are being secured by members of the groups 
and placed on display in growing museums, 
located at various beaches. 



Why Not A Travel 
Directory? 



Dr. Henry S. Cur- 
tis, director of the 

FERA recreational 

survey being made 
in Washtenaw County, Michigan, suggests 
that a directory which would be a sort of public, 
Baedecker and would point out to the curious 
travelers the parts of real travel interest in 
every state and county would be a great asset 



119 



120 



WORLD AT PLAY 



MAKE IT YOURSELF 

Shepherds Pipes Pan Pipes 

Transverse Flutes 

Raw Material, Tools, Specifications 

Catalog on tequeit 
Educational Department 

WALBERG & AUGE Worcester, Mass. 



to our educational system and would also be 
well worth while commercially. "Probably 
the people of America travel more by auto 
than all the rest of the world put together, but 
there is no directory to show us what is worth 
seeing on the social, industrial or historical 
side. It would look like a good project for the 
FERA to get out such a travel guide at this 
time for each state and the nation." 

A Nature Guide School on Wheels.^A novel 
project has been announced by Western Re- 
serve University, Summer Session, in its pro- 
posed three week New York to New England 
educational tour to be conducted in August, 
^935- Dr. William Gould Vinal will be in charge 



of the 2,600 mile trip, which will be taken in a 
comfortable thirty passenger bus. This means 
of transportation will make it possible to stop 
at important points for instructions without 
loss of time or effort. The route will zigzag to 
interesting nooks and corners known to' native 
born New Englanders. It will include a na- 
tional park, the thrill of going up more than a 
mile into the air to sleep on the top of Mount 
Washington, a motor tour to the scenic Atlantic 
coast with its quaint towns of colonial fame, 
the spectacular beauty of a region whose na- 
ture education is full of romance unexcelled in 
all America, and a variety of interesting na- 
tural history projects. In order to make the 
excursion most worth while, it will be limited 
to twenty-five students, preferably those major- 
ing in the field of teaching elementary science. 
Further information may be secured from Dr. 
Vinal at School of Education, Western Reserve 
University, 2060 Stearns Road, Cleveland, Ohio. 

"Ladies, Let Us Sing!" — Thus the Extension 
Department of the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Public 
Schools invites women and girls to meet once a 



A Recreational Leadership Curriculum 

at 

Westbrook Junior College 

• A two-year curriculum that is ideal for the active girl who is 
interested in outdoor life, hobbies, playground work, and girls' 
organizations. 

"I think we will have more need for people trained in culture 
and recreation .... We need people trained to cater to culture, edu- 
cation and play." 

HONORABLE HENRY A. WALLACE 
Secretary of Agriculture 



For Catalogue address 

WESTBROOK JUNIOR COLLEGE for GIRLS 

Portland, Maine 



Benjamin 

FLOODLIGHTING 

Equipment 

for Sport and Other 
Outdoor Recreational Areas 




BENJAMIN 

" PLAY-AREA" 

FLOODLIGHT 

Specially designed for the floodlight- 
ing of outdoor recreational areas. 
Combines a large porcelain enameled 
steel reflector with an inner reflec- 
tor of oxidized aluminum. May be 
equipped with Benjamin "Saflox" 
lowering attachment for safe and easy 
cleaning and relamping. 




WE DO OUR PAKT 



Benjamin Floodlights and other lighting 
fixtures are being used in every part of 
the country for the effective and eco- 
nomical lighting of Softball Fields, Ath- 
letic Fields, Playgrounds, Football Fields, 
Baseball Fields, Tennis Courts and Swim- 
ming Pools, increasing attendance and 
promoting faster and more satisfactory 
night time playing. 

Rugged and durable. Porcelain enam- 
eled reflecting surfaces are easily cleaned, 
will not tarnish, peel or require repaint- 
ing or refinishing. All other parts are 
weather resisting. 



Send for this Book 

"A Guide to the Effective 
Night Lighting of Sports." 
A 24 page bulletin outlining 
the most effective means of 
night lighting of sports fields. 



BENJAMIN ELECTRIC MFG. CO. 

DES PLAINES, ILLINOIS 




NEW YORK 



CHICAGO 



SAN FRANCISCO 



121 



122 



WORLV AT PLAY 



ITCHELf 



Playground Apparatus, 
Schools — Homes — Parks 





Mitchell Whirl 

The Mitchell Whirl, shown above, is 
just one number in the "Betterbilt'* 
line. Send for free illustrated catalog 
and name of your state distributor. 

MITCHELL MFG. CO. 

1540 Forest Home Ave. Milwaukee, Wis. 



» Local, State, and National 
Leaders in Public and Private 
Community Recreation Agen- 
cies will meet in . . . 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

at the 

Twenty-first 
NATIONAL RECREATION 

CONGRESS 
September 30 - October 4, 1935 

Headquarters - Sherman Hotel 

• 

PLAN NOW TO ATTEND 



For further information write to Mr. T. E. 

Rivers, National Recreation Association, 

315 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 



week for "an evening of joy at singing" at one of 
the social centers. Women and girls beyond high 
school age are invited to join the group. The 
only requirement for membership is a love of 
singing. 

A First Aid Kit for Hikers. — According to 
the "Minnehiker," the publication of the Min- 
neapolis Municipal Hiking Club, a member of 
the club has devised a first aid kit which can be 
packed in a typewriter ribbon box. It contains* 
iodine, i8 inches of i inch adhesive tape, 4 
aspirin tablets, 36 inches 1^/2 inch sterilized 
gauze, a piece of cotton the sige of the box and 
yi of an inch thick, two compresses. The iodine 
is packed in a small glass vial, the pills in a 
small rouge box. 

A Child Development and Parent Education 
Conference. — On June 17th, i8th and 19th, the 
ninth annual Iowa Conference on Child Devel- 
opment and Parent Education will be held in 
Iowa City, Iowa. The health of the young child 
will be the main consideration of the lectures 
and round table discussions. All sessions will 
be open to anyone interested in child develop- 
ment. The conference, which will be under the 
direction of the Iowa Child Welfare Research 
Station and the Extension Division of the State 
University of Iowa, will be held in conjunction 
with the eighth Health Education Conference 
of the American Child Health Association to 
be held June igth-June 22nd. 

Summer Sessions for Men and Women at 
Mills College, California. — Mills College, Cali- 
fornia, has announced its summer sessions for 
June 24 to August 3, 1935. They will include 
art, child development, dance and sports with 
Hanya Holm, Director of the New York Wig- 
man School as visiting instructor in modern 
dance, drama, French,' courses in the theory, 
appreciation and technique of music, and crea- 
tive writing. 

The Chicago Recreation Commission. — Mr. 

Edward L. Burchard has been appointed Ex- 
ecutive Secretary of the Chicago Recreation 
Commission whose headquarters are at 1634 
Burnham Building, Chicago. For the past six 
years Mr. Burchard has been secretary of the 
Superintendent of Schools Educational Council 
and Community Advisor of the Adult Educa- 
tional Emergency Program. For many years 



WORLD AT PLAY 



123 




The above illustration is the new TOEBE DOUBLE LINK 

CALK SKIN BELT— so designed that even a child can 

easily assemble them. 

To appreciate the value of this set 

for recreation center handicraft 

activities, send 35c. for sample 

set and further particulars. 

CALF SETS .... 35c. Each .... $3.75 Per Doi. 

Black, Brown, and White 
Liberal Discount on 3 Doz. 

Catalogue Sent Free Upon Request 

CHAS. A. TOEBE LEATHER CO. 

Leather Craft Supplies 
149 NORTH 3rd ST. — Founded 1872 — PHILA. PA. 



he was secretary-treasurer of the National 
Community Center Association. At the present 
time the Commission is functioning through 
special committees. Dr. Arthur J. Todd of 
Northwestern University is chairman of the 
Chicago Recreation Survey. Dr. Ernest W. 
Burgess of the University of Chicago is serving 
as chairman of the committee on the Police 
Institute, while Henry P. Chandler, former 
President of the Union League Club, is in 
charge of the committee on Immediate Pro- 
jeois. Dr. Philip L. Seman is chairman of the 
Commission. 

Drama for Children in Berkeley. — The Re- 
creation Commission of Berkeley, California, 
is producing in cooperation with the local lead- 
ing theatre Saturday morning plays for chil- 
dren with adult actors. This experiment in 
Berkeley is similar to that being conducted so 
successfully in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, under 
the auspices of the Extension Department of 
the Public Schools. 




FREE! 



Rules and Court Layouts 
for PADDLE TENNIS 

• Everything the recreation director wants 
to know — a new, illustrated folder on the fastest 
growing, low-cost game for playground, school 
or club — Paddle Tennis! 

• Actual diagrams of playground courts 
for all playing surfaces — dirt, clay, grass, cement 
or wood — indoors and out. Also official layout 
for the popular new wooden platform court for 
all year 'round use. 

• This folder contains large size illustra- 
tions of official Paddle Tennis paddles and sets. 
Complete prices on all equipment — paddles, 
balls, nets, tapes, posts and bases. Send for your 
copy of this new folder and then give your com- 
munity the chance to enjoy all the sport and 
speed of tennis in a space one-fourth as large 
as the ordinary court. 

THE PADDLE TENNIS CO. inc. 

285 Madison Avenue * New York, N. Y. 

Sole Makers of Official Paddle Tennis Equipment 



124 



WORLD AT PLAY 



PORTABLE BLEACHERS 



UNIVERSAL BLEACHERS can be moved 
about easily and stored away out oi 
the weather during off seasons. They can 
be rearranged quickly to accommodate 
crowds for Softball, football, soccer, boxing 
and other sports. Universal bleachers and 
grandstands are made of a higher grade 
of material than can ordinarily be obtained 
locally, making for complete safety and 
many years of continuous service. Both 
steel and wood parts are well painted. All 
sizes 2 to 33 tiers high. 




UNIVERSAL BLEACHER CO. 



606 So. Neil Street 



Champaign, Illinois 



Leisure Time Activities, Inc. — Leisure Time 
Activities, Inc. of Providence, Rhode Island, 
operating on a fund of about $3,500 raised by- 
private subscription has carried on its program 
using approximately 60 ERA workers and 
from 55 to 60 volunteers. The community cen- 
ters are operated one night a week in each of 
two junior high schools. A ten room building 
has been secured rent free in a congested 
district which will be furnished by contribu- 
tions of furniture, books, magazines, etc., quiet 
game rooms will be established here. Social 
dances and social evenings have been popular 
and art is an outstanding activity. Hobby clubs 
have attracted many enthusiasts. Provision 
was made for 200 home and allotment gardens. 

A Five Year Anniversary. — On February 
15th the Westchester County, New York, Re- 
creation Commission celebrated the fifth an- 
niversary of the opening of the County Center 



You Will Enjoy 

THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY 

A Journal of Community Religion 

RICHARD E. SHIELDS, Editor 



BUILDS COMMUNITY GOODWaL 

Contributing Editors: Frederick B. Fisher, Burris 
Jenkins, Orvis F. Jordan, W. J. Lhamon, N. A. McCune, 
Toseph Myers,, E. Tallmadge Root, John R. Scotford, R. 
Carl Stoll, Alva W. Taylor, Carl S. Weist. 

How to Unite Churches . . . The Communty Church 

Movement . . . Vital News . . . Religious Digest 

ILLUSTRATED 

One Year $1.00 Three Years S2.50 



Published by 

1HE COMMUNITY CHURCH WORKERS.U.S.A. 

77 West Washington Street, Chicago 



with a concert featuring Ruth Slenczynski, ten 
year old pianist. Over a million people, accord- 
ing to the report made public by Mrs. Eugene 
Meyer, Chairman of the Commission, have at- 
tended a total of more than 1,500 events in the 
building. Attendance at musical evehts has 
been the largest, 268,690 people having heard 
218 concerts, operas or festival performances 
in the five year period. Approximately 64,000 
people actually participated in the events of 
the center, 23,000 in junior or adult music 
festivals, 32,000 in sports events and 9,000 in 
the study of arts and crafts under the auspices 
of the Westchester Workshop. 

A National Commission on Summer Camps 
for Children. — The organization in Cuba of the 
National Commission on Summer Camps for 
Children is the subject of a Presidental decree 
of March 18, 1934. The Commission, which will 
be a part of the National Department of Edu- 
cation, is to establish and direct summer camps 
for destitute children in the six provinces of 
the country. The Commission is to consist of 
a chairman, a secretary, and a treasurer and 
twelve assisting members. There will also be 
a technical advisory committee which will in- 
clude school teachers, physicians, and a nurse. 

Boys' Clubs in Somerville, Massachusetts. — 

Within the past eight months, according to the 
February 13th issue of the Boston Globe eight 
boys' clubs sponsored by the Recreation Com- 
mission of Somerville have been organized. Re- 
cently they were united in a federation of clubs 
which is supported and assisted by several local 
civic and patriotic organizations. Boys in the 
clubs vary in ages from fourteen to nineteen 



WORLD AT PLAY 



125 



years. Indoor and outdoor activities are provided 
— athletics, dramatics, handcraft, hiking, outings, 
harmonica band, art activities, social recreation, 
practice in parliamentary procedure. Frequently 
lectures and discussions of an educational nature 
are held. 

A Toy Library. — A toy library is one of the 
newest SERA projects on the Los Angeles, 
California, playgrounds. On Tuesdays and 
Saturdays from 1 1 :oo to 5 :oo the toy loan, as it 
is known, is open to members who at that time 
do their borrowing and returning of toys. The 
only requirement for membership is the sig- 
nature of one parent indicating his or her 
willingness to cooperate in getting ordinary 
care for the toy borrowed and for promptness 
in returning it. Thus far games, dolls, scooters 
and skates have proved the most popular of 
the supplies. 

America's First National Jamboree. — Boy 

Scouts by the thousands will journey to Wash- 
ington this summer to attend the first national 
jamboree to be held August 21st to 30th. The 
national capital is making available a camp site 
for 30,000 boys, and preparations are under 
way to make this a notable occasion. At the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of Scouting celebrated 
last month. President Roosevelt, Honorary 
President of Boy Scouts of America, speaking 
over the radio, extended an invitation to Scouts 
everywhere to attend the jamboree. 

At the Oklahoma City Zoo.— The Board of 
Park Commissioners of Oklahoma City, Okla- 
homa, is carrying on an educational program 
in connection with its zoo. During the year 
1934. eighteen classes in the various schools 
were visited, and the classes from the high 
schools and university were conducted through 
the zoo. Lectures have been given on the lives 
and habits of the animals. Programs and pic- 
nics have been arranged for special groups of 
children in connection with the zoo program. 
A number of small cages have been constructed 
for the exhibit of small animals. In this way 
the animals are taken to the other parks, 
particularly to the districts were underprivi- 
leged children gather, and they are given an 
opportunity to see and hear about the wild 
animals. 




RES-Q-TUBE 



THE NEW AND 
MORE EFFICIENT 

LIFE SAVER 



Designed for professional 
use. This new and more ef- 
ficient equipment has been 
tried and proved on the 
World's Busiest Beach. 

It is light in weight, easy to throw, 

offers small resistance in the water, 

fastens to victim and frees guard to 

better engineer rescue; victim floats 

freeing guard for additional rescues; 

easy and quick of adjustment — and 

fully guaranteed for TWO YEARS. 

It is of durable, streamline construction, 

adjustable to size, and equipped with red 

brass, non-corrosive snaps and rings and 

with quarter inch white cotton line and one 

inch herringbone webbing shoulder strap. 

RES-Q-TUBE Safety Is Inexpensive . . . Less 
Effort . . . More Speed . . . Safer . . . Surer . . . 

Folder and Price List Upon Application to 
Ray L. Burket ... 1008 Eighth St Santa Monica, Calif. 



A\ W ^ TRADEMARK " M 11 K // 

\\\ ■ ^ PATENT PENDING ^^ ^■/T/ 

VA ENDORSED AS STANDARD // 

VA LIFE SAVING EQUIPMENT /// 

f PUBLICBEACH \ 
COORDINATION COMMITTEE 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 



RAY L BURKET 



SANTA MONICA 



126 



WORLD AT PLAY 



TENNIS NETS 

— also — 

Backstop Nets 
Soccer Nets 
Golf Practice Nets 
in fact 

All Sport Nets 

This house has long 
been headquarters 
for all the above. 



W. A. AUGUR 

35 Fulton Street New York 



A Popular Handcraft Activity. — One of the 

activities of the Camden County, New Jersey, 
Leisure Time Activities Department of the 
ERA is a whittlers' or jack-knife club organ- 
ized at Poynte Community Center. Projects 
include the making of early American imple- 
ments such as spoons, forks, trencher cups and 
other pioneer utensils which are made from 
wood and cut only by a jack-knife. 

School Centers in Pontiac. — In October, 
1929, the Board of Education of Pontiac, 
Michigan, decided to allow the Department of 
Recreation to use all gymnasiums without 
charge. During the season 54 organizations 
held 212 meetings, with a total attendance of 
16,340. The winter season of 1930-31 showed 
a 100 per cent increase over the previous year. 
Sixty-nine organizations used the building 317 
times, with a total attendance of 42,465. During 
the present season the Recreation Department 
will use II different school buildings more 
than 1,600 times, with an attendance of more 
than 135,000 people. 

At the present time Pontiac has 84 SERA 



Is Reading Your Hobby? 

Books by Abbie Graham 

LADIES IN REVOLT 

• A vivid account of the charming but disturbing people 
who played leading parts in the drama of woman's 
changing position in the nineteenth century. 

$1.75 

Other Favorites 

Ceremonials of Common Days $1.00 

High Occasions 1.00 

Grace Dodge: Merchant of Dreams 1.50 



THE WOMANS PRESS ♦ 600 Lexington Avenue, New York, N.Y. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



127 



PSYCHOLOGICALLY SPEAKING — 

• Why does a youngster work his head off for a prize 
emblem? For that matter, why do adults swear by 
their national flags? It is the denotation of the emblem 
or flag — badge or button — banner or pennant — that 
makes you want to use these goods in your work. 
Write us to give you some personal study and quota- 
tions. We are actual manufacturers of these goods 

LOU-WALT, INC. 
821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 



> h 



i^k^i 



^jlA 



recreation classes with 22 people employed as 
leaders who would otherwise be unemployed. 
On February 9th, 6,048 people were enrolled 
in the program. 

In addition to the SERA program, the City 
Recreation Department has organized a num- 
ber of evening classes in which the group pays 
for its own leadership and equipment. Classes 
and activities paying their own way include 
swimming for men and women, basketball 
leagues, indoor baseball, volley ball leagues, 
and gymnasium classes. 

Dearborn Day. — Dearborn Day, the eighth 
annual civic festival held on July i8th at Dear- 
born, Michigan, attracted 20,000 people. The 
celebration began at 9 130 in the morning with 
ball games and horseshoe pitching contests. 
All day long there were relays, races and 
events of all kinds arranged under the direc- 
tion of Henry D. Schubert, Superintendent of 
Recreation. 

A Hobby Today, A Job Tomorrow !— Wil- 
liam N. Aleshin, director of the arts and crafts 
shop located in the Bronx Union Y. M. C. A., 
New York City, reports that 20 per cent of the 
men who have been coming to the shop have 
secured new jobs in line with their chosen 
hobby. These include such positions as that of 
arts and crafts counsellors at boys' camps, 
cabinet maker, repair man in a furniture con- 
cern, and free lance model maker of boats, auto- 
mobiles and airplanes. Most of these men had 
formerly held clerical positions and were un- 
employed at the time they were registered at 
the arts and crafts center. Since the center was 
opened over 75 adults have come to the center 
and have acquired new interests. 

Leisure Activities in Brattleboro. — The Lei- 
sure Time Division of the Adult Education 
Council is conducting in the city of Brattle- 
boro, Vermont, thirty-three different activities 
with an enrollment of 855 people. There are six 






"JUNGLEGYM" NOW IN SIX SIZES 
FOR CHILDREN OF ALL AGES 

THE original Louden "Junglegym," made exclu- 
sively by J. E. Porter Corp., is now available 
in six sizes for children of all ages. Whether 
your requirements call for the smallest Junglegym 
accommodating 15 children from 3 to 5 years old; 
or, the largest all-metal device accommodating 
from 75 to 100 enthusiastic youngsters up to 12 or 
15 years of age; Louden makes a size to meet your 
playground and budget requirements. 

Investigate now, the many superior advantages of 
this tremendously popular piece of equipment. 
Write for new free book 
just off the press, illustrat- 
ing and describing all 
sizes, together with the 
full line of Louden Beach, 
Pool, Gym and Playground 
Equipment. No obligation. 



LOUDEN 

PLAYGROUND 
EQUIPMENT 



J.E.PORTER CORPORATION 



120 BROADWAY 



OTTAWA, ILLINOIS 



workers supplied by the Vermont ERA who 
are assisted by a large corps of volunteers. 
Leadership of the program is in the hands of 
a committee, and the activities are sponsored 
by subcommittees of citizens. At the present 
time there are sixteen committees with a total 
membership of 157 individuals. There are com- 
mittees on arts and crafts, athletics and recrea- 
tion for boys and for girls and for men and 
women, music, contract bridge, cooking and 
home-making, sewing and similar activities. 
The arts exhibit committee has arranged two 
unusually fine exhibits in the public library 
gallery. The first was that of the Camera Club 
which over 1,500 people visited. The second 
was an exhibit of 42 Vermont landscapes by 
Arthur Gibbes Burton. Volunteer hostesses 
were in attendance each day at the exhibits. 
Organ recitals were given on three Sunday 
afternoons at the Estey Erecting Hall. Two 
community sings were also held. "The notable 
feature of the leisure-time program," accord- 
ing to the local press, "is the fact that it is the 
cooperative effort of the entire community. 



128 



SERVICE HELPS 




PUT 

DIAMONDS 

ON YOUR 
PLAYGROUND 

Equip your playground with Dia- 
mond Pitching Horseshoes and 
accessories. The line is popular 
with amateurs and professionals 
alike. Damond products need little 
replacing. Shoes are drop forged 
steel — will neither chip nor break. 
Write for new catalog P. S. 1. 

DIAMOND CALK HORSESHOE CO. 

4610 Grand Avenue, Duluth, Minn. 



Great numbers of citizens have given freely of 
their time and have worked enthusiastically to 
make the program a success." 

Youth and Crime. — Nineteen is the danger- 
ous age in crime, according to the recent study 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the 
Department of Justice. The cards from which 
the study was made came from 7,220 police 
departments ; police officers and law enforce- 
ment agencies. The majority of the crimes re- 
ported were credited to persons under thirty 
years of age. Youths under twenty were 
charged with 15.1 per cent. — From New York 
Sun, February 19, I935- 

Salt Lake City's Boys' Club.— The Salt Lake 
City Rotary Club has undertaken as one of its 
major projects the organization of a boys' club 
which now reports a membership of 175. 
Activities include hand-ball, ping pong, table 
games, wrestling, boxing, tumbling, handcraft, 
harmonica and drum instruction, photography, 
and leadership clubs. 



Service Helps 

The Wave Stride was developed by the American 
Playground Device Company to meet the need for a 
device which will give maximum exercise and still main- 
tain the highest degree of safety. It is propelled by the 
children grasping the outside ring and kicking their feet 
against the earth. Many officials have voiced their ap- 
proval of the safety features, capacity, long wearing 
qualities and the low first cost. In more than 25 years 
the company has studied the design of play equipment 
and has concentrated on the development of strong, 
durable and safe outdoor play apparatus for playgrounds 
and swimming pools. It is now located in its new and 
modern factory at Anderson, Indiana. 

W. A. Augur, Ittc., 35 Fulton Street, New York City, 
has made high grade tennis nets since it gained its 
reputation long ago in the days when old sailors made 
every net by hand. This concern, whose principal business 
is making fishermen's nets, knows just what to do to 
make nets tough and long lasting. 

The Benjamin Electric Mfg. Company of Des Plaines, 
Illinois, has printed material and bulletins which will be 
of interest to recreation workers, park officials and all 
who have responsibility for the development and main- 
tenance of outdoor recreation areas. 

Catalogue 26, consisting of almost 300 pages of com- 
plete listings, hundreds of illustrations, descriptive 
material and helpful engineering data on reflectors, 
lighting equipment, floodlights, fittings, and sockets and 
signals, may be secured on request. This particular 
catalogue will be most useful for engineers, contractors, 
architects and users of such equipment for industrial 
plants, schools, sports and other outdoor recreational 
areas. A 24 page bulletin is also available which gives 
information on the effective lighting of athletic fields. 
Many illustrations show the resuhs of night lighting, in 
addition to which there is much helpful design and 
equipment data showing the actual layout of lighting 
systems for soft ball fields, tennis courts, swimming 
pools, football and athletic fields and other outdoor 
recreational areas. 

The Benjamin Electric Mfg. Company has developed 
the "Saflox" floodlight lowering attachment which saves 
time and expense and avoids danger in servicing flood- 
lights by making it possible quickly and easily to lower 
them to the ground where they can be handled safely. 
The use of this attachment makes it possible to clean 
reflectors as frequently as required, thus maintaining 
original high lighting efficiency. Lamps may be changed 
at any time. There are no "dead" units, no delay and no 
special service charges to pay. Automatic polarization 
and perfect alignment of reflector hood and canopy are 
assured by the tongue and groove construction. The 
features of particular advantage to floodlight users are: 
Safer servicing, no climbing, no ladders, no danger ; 
absolutely safe, simple, positive and fool proof operation; 
no switches, no shocks, with circuit automatically made 



SERVICE HELPS 



129 











MAM-TMU 

FAST DRYING TENNIS COURTS 


Tennis Courts 

Improve your clay or dirt courts with HAR-CLAY 
DE LUXE Top Dressing. 

Two attractive colors — deep green or dark red. 

Dustless — eliminates glare — improves footing and 
general playing qualities of any clay court. 

The cost is low. Literature and complete informa- 
tion furnished upon request. 




^ — ■"^ -i 


Part of s battery of 6 courts at Write for circulars G and H 
U.S. Ntvil Academy ' 

The HAR-TRU Fast Drying Tennis Court is the quality court for institu- 
tions and individuals. It is resilient — dries within 30 minutes after heaviest rains 
— very economical to maintain and requires no more daily care than a clay court. 

A few representative installations: 
West Side Tennis Club, Forest Hills, L. I. • Philadelphia Country Club 
Country Club of Detroit • Northmoor Country Club, Ravinia, 111. 

HAR-TRU CORPORATION Recreational construction Engineers 

17 East 45th Street New York, N. Y. 



and broken when the lights are raised or lowered ; no 
flickering or jarring loose from vibration; raising or 
lowering does not affect setting for light coverage. 

C. C. Bircliard & Company, 221 Columbus Avenue, 
Boston, Massachusetts, publishers of Twice 5S Games 
with Music — Red Rook, advertised in this issue, will be 
glad to supply music catalogues on request. 

Like many an old song that is revived as something 
new and sweeps the country on a wave of popularity, the 
game of horseshoe pitching is again filling a niche in the 
lives of Americans. The game first developed to a high 
pitch of popularity when Old Dobbin's cast off shoes 
were tossed at sawed off broom handles in farm yards 
and at fairs. Today modern factories turn out accurately 
balanced "horseshoes" made to specifications issued by 
the National Horseshoe Pitching Association. Tourists 
count pitching horseshoe sets among their traveling duffel 
as of prime imixsrtance for pleasure and relaxation at 
the end of the muscle-stiffening drive. Playgrounds and 
parks find the game ideal for beginners, youngsters or 
oldsters and also a grand attraction for fans interested 
in seeing experts ring the stake at every toss. 

The shoe used would cause Ye Village Smithie anxiety 
and graying hair were he asked to nail it in place on a 
horse's foot. It is made in many styles and models, ac- 
cording to the Diamond Calk Hor'seshoe Company of 
Duluth, Minnesota, one of the oldest manufacturers of 



a long line of pitching shoes and accessories in the 
country. Some are made to lie flat and still instead of 
bounding into a nearby court. Others have hooked ends 
to catch the stake and remain the ringer they were ex- 
pected to be when thrown. Some have curved toe calks, 
others have straight. Special shoes are made for women 
and children to pitch and not get tired by pitching. 
Accessories, the manufacturers say, include such items 
as leather bags to carry the shoes, official courts, stakes, 
score pads, charts and rule books. 

Stakes can be set up indoors in boxes filled with clay 
for fans who do not care to allow weather to interfere 
with their game. 

Perhaps the reasons for "the growing popularity of 
this old time game are twofold. America has taken to 
the open road, welcoming a game that is not too stren- 
uous yet stretches weary muscles as a much needed 
diversion from driving. Also, what with new short hour 
working conditions et al. leisure time has developed into 
a major problem that calls for interesting things to do. 



From Samuel French, 25 West 45th Street, New York, 
and 811 West 7th Street, Los Angeles, there is now 
available a complete catalogue revised and up-to-the- 
minute which classifies and fully describes French's plays 
of distinction for every need. A new system of classifica- 
tion makes it possible to find just the play desired with 
the least possible effort. Send for a copy at once. 



130 



SERVICE HELPS 



cl. 



YLYWiinjClYlCf 



Talens Crafts Instruction Book 
and Catalog of Materials 

• Offering everything for the craft worker 
and giving complete information concern- 
ing materials and instructions for their use. 



Featuring . . . 

Leatherwork 
Metalwork 
Pottery 
Block Printing 



Beadwork 
Basketry 
Book Binding 
Loom Weaving 



• This 32-page booklet will be sent free 
to institutions and heads of schools and 
camps. Price to individuals fifteen cents. 

Talens School Products Inc. 

Chicago New York 

San Francisco 



Ulaaazine 

If you are interested in 

The leadership of youth. 

The swiftly changing methods in organized 
camping. 

The statements of leading thinkers on educa- 
tion through camping. 

Leadership training — Counsellor's Education. 

Camp Programming — Administration. 

Outdoor Sports and Activities. 

New Games, Land and Water. 

Swimming — Canoeing — Sailing. 

Riding — Archery — Riflery. 

Woodcraft — Indian Lore — Nature. 

Artscraft — Dancing — Stunts. 

Council Fires — Story Telling. 

Then read the Camping Magazine regularly 
Send for a sample copy $2.00 a year. 

Lane Hall, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Dcpt. R 



In Hobbies for Everybody edited by Ruth Lampknd 
and published by Harper & Brothers, 49 East 33rd Street, 
New York City ($3.00), fifty popular hobbies are dis- 
cussed by nationally known authorities. Says The Survey 
of this book: "The scope of the hobbies selected is wide 
enough to include a congenial avocation for everyone. 
This ibook should fill a wide need." 

The Har-Tru Corporation, 17 East 4Sth Street, New 
York City, is the builder of the famous Har-Tru Fast 
Drying Tennis Court. This court has a cinder base which 
permits it to dry within a few minutes after it rains — 
an advantage which adds greatly to its popularity and 
usefulness. On top of the cinders is placed Har-Tru 
patented green or red granular surfacing material. The 
Har-Clay De Luxe Top Dressing for clay courts is 
another desirable product. Spread lightly on the clay or 
dirt, this dressing greatly improves the courts at small 
cost. 

Many important tennis matches are played on Har-Tru 
courts, including the U. S. Davis cup matches and Army- 
Navy championships. This year the National Intercol- 
legiate Singles tennis matches will be played on the 
Har-Clay De Luxe Top Dressed courts at Northwestern 
University, Evanston, Illinois. 

Are you looking for adult entertainment? It's About 
Time, by Gerald Lynton Kaufman. Clock and watch 
puzzles, problems and games. $1.50; Bringing Sherlock 
Home, by Lawrence Treat. Seven mystery cases to be 
solved competitively. $1.00; Naming Quintuplets, by J. 
Bryan III. Fascinating question book, for one person 
or a group. $1.00; May I Leaz'e the Room? by G. Lawson 
Kendall. Party fun with original stunts and tricks. $1.00. 
These Heyday House hits (244 Madison Avenue, New 
York City) on sale at all bookstores. 

Among the featured members of the 1935 line of 
"Indera" swim suits offered by the Indera Mills Company 
of Winslon-Salem, North Carolina, is Style No. 304 — 
a button-on model of the halter neck, novelty brassiere 
type for women. There are several special features. The 
suit has a ruffle top halter neck. The upper part is in 
effect an adjustable brassiere buttoning on to eyelets in 
the upper part of the tropic trunks. This upper part 
brassiere effect has a double knit featured stitch which 
gives double thickness where needed and is dart-cut 
from sides to center for perfect fitting. The tropic 
trunks have a high waist-line effect held in place by form 
fitting cut of top and belt loops placed properly with 
adjustable belt. The trunks have double reinforced 
crotch, with legs slashed in upward cut from the center 
of the crotch, giving a perfect figure-fit. A special 
feature of this model is the fact that two or more colors 
can be obtained in the brassiere part, giving variations 
in color tone. 

The Indera "Figurefit" line includes 29 models in 
eight solid colors and many color combinations. There is 
also a complete line of tropic trunks and "Adjustit" 
separate shirts for men and boys. 

Send for the 1935 catalog illustrating every model. 

The Mitchell Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, manufacturers of steel products for a period 



SERVICE HELPS 



131 



TENNIS for TEACHERS 

By HELEN I. DRIVER 

Instructor in Charge of Women's Tennis 
University of Wisconsin 

• A manual for the recreation leader, and teacher of 
Physical Education. Contents include analysis of seven 
strokes, common errors and teaching progressions for 
each; practice organization for beginning and advanced 
groups; tactics, tests, and tournaments; organization of 
tennis programs. Price $2. Detailed description 
sent upon request. 

Otdett, accompanied by full payment tbould be directed to 

H. I. DRIVER, Lathrop Hall 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 



of almost forty years, offers a new catalogue (No. 21) 
giving complete information on Mitchell "Betterbilt" 
Playground Apparatus. Several new and interesting play 
devices have been added to the "Betterbilt" Line. 

The Paddle Tennis Company, 285 Madison Avenue, 
New York City, sole makers of Official Paddle Tennis 
equipment, has just issued a new illustrated folder on this 
fast-growing playground sport. The new folder contains 
complete rules and instructions for playing the game, as 
well as diagrams which show how easy it is to lay out 
four Paddle Tennis courts in the space of one tennis 
court. A court layout for the popular new wooden plat- 
form court, for all-year use outdoors, is also included. 
Prices on individual items and complete sets are given. 
This pamphlet is free on request to playground directors. 

It is extremely difficult to determine from surface 
observations the quality and life of a diving board, so it 
is interesting to know the precautions taken by some 
manufacturers to insure their customers receving more 
than just a plank dressed up to look like a fine diving 
board, the more so because many diving boards available 
run the gauntlet from clear fir plank down to almost 
any kind of overripe and decayed fir lumber. 

The J. E. Porter Corporation of Ottawa, Illinois, 
manufacturers of Louden Recreation Equipment for more 
than sixty-seven years are introducing a new diving board 
developed after several years of intensive and careful re- 
search. They feel it is truly the finest one piece, old 
growth, yellow Douglas fir official diving board ever 
marketed. In their efforts to achieve this result, they 
not only consulted with one of the largest Coast mills, 
but also received the benefit of recommendations from 
the U. S. Forest Laboratory Engineers at Madison, Wis- 
consin. 

The board, especially selected, comes cleated with brass 
bolts, oiled and tested. As an added safeguard to cus- 
tomers, all boards are subjected to this special, severe 
test in order to determine that the fibres of the lumber 
are sufficiently strong to withstand the abuses and uses 
to which it is subjected by all classes of divers during 
the swimming season. A 2S0-pound weight is dropped 
three times in quick succession from a 9-foot height. 




Bright 



a 



ean 



SUNSHINE 
FRESH AIR 



Keep playgrounds free from dust 
with Solvay Calcium Cliioride . . . 

PROTECTING children at play is the aim 
of the modern playground. How im- 
portant to protect them from the dan- 
gers and dirt in dust! It's so easy and 
it costs next to nothing. 

An application of Solvay Flake Calcium 
Chloride on gravel or earth surfaces 
effectively ends the dust nuisance. And 
Solvay Calcium Chloride kills germs. 
The photomicrographs pictured here 
show you the results. 347cultures in the 
untreated dust. Only 3 in the same dust 
treated with Solvay Calcium Chloride. 





Germs 
in Dust 

Before treatment After treatment 

Make this a dustless outdoor season 
on your playgrounds. Send today for 
full information and booklet No. 1159. 
^j^fe. Solvay Sales Corporation 

Ui. %C -;^ Alkalies and Chemical Products Manufac. 
yfe^*^yy tured by The Solvay Process Company 
^-^^ 40 Rector Street New Yoric 

Solvay 

^^—^ TRADE MARK REG U S. PAT OFF 

Cal.€iuj%i 
Chloride 



FLAKE-77^-80^ 



132 



SERVICE HELPS 



PLAYS 

for the 

COMMUNITY 
THEATER 

Recommended by 

JACK STUART KNAPP 

Drama Director 

National Recreation Association 

New York City 

The "Community Theater" is not a build- 
ing or an organization, it is composed of 
the drama clubs, little theaters, churches, 
schools, service clubs, granges, farm 
bureaus, and all the other organizations 
in the community which constantly or oc- 
casionally produce plays. It is the present 
"American" theater. 



Send foe this free booklet today 



SAMUEL FRENCH 

25 West 45th Street, New York, N. Y. 
8 1 I West 7th Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 



"Pastimes Here, and Pleasant Games" 

TWICE 55 GAMES WITH MUSIC 
The Red Book 

pROM childhood to old age the normal person likes to 
play — an activity that means spontaneous recreation, 
with study as a very negligible factor. Singing Games 
offer a simple and practical means of genuine recreational 
amusement. Send 25c. in coin for THE RED BOOK 
containing all directions for games and dances. Separate 
piano edition, 75c, 

C. C. BIRCHARD & CO. 

221 Columbus Avenue BOSTON. MASS. 



Boards that pass this test are accepted as good diving 
boards that will give long life and satisfactory service. 
The Porter Corporation feel they have developed a diving 
board which will give the ultimate in service and be the 
last word in perfection. They state that their boards 
under test over a period of several years have stood up 
remarkably and the breakage when compared to other 
diving boards is negligible. 

Send for Louden's complete catalogue describing their 
playground, gymnasium, beach and pool equipment (free 
on request). 

Res-Q-Tube has many advantages. Here are a few. 

It is easy to throw and offers less resistance in the 
surf. It cannot hurt the victim or guard if he is acci- 
dentally struck by it. It fastens to the victim and the 



PLAY SAFE LYo/7 
^•t^PLAYGROUND 




A SPECIAL SAFETY PACKET FOR 
PLAYGROUND DIRECTORS 

A collection of materials to help the playground director 
promote safety is now availahle. It includes: 

Ten attractive safety posters 

A short play 

Crayon lessons for small children 

A program of activities for supervised playgrounds 

Price $1.00 

Safety Education Magazine, the only publication de- 
voted entirely to child safety problems, brings you each 
month posters, graded lesson outlines, informational 
articles, stories, and plays. 



$1.00 a year 



With the Safety Packet, $1.75 



NATIONAL 



SAFETY 



.COUNCIL 



SAFETY EDUCATION MAGAZINE 
One Park Avenue, New York 

Enclosed find for which please send SAFETY EDUCATION MAGAZINE beginning 

with the issue. 

Enclosed find $1.75 for SAFETY EDUCATION MaGXZINE and the Special Playground Packet. 

Name 

Address 

City and State 



SERVICE HELPS 



133 




PENN STATE I^Ss 

Inter-Session, June 11 to June 28 
Main Session, July 1 to Aug. 9 
Post Session, Aug. 12 to Aug. 30 

College degrees for student! and teachers of 
Health, Physical Education and athletic coachiiig 
Seekers of degrees in Health and Physical Edu- 
cation find Penn State's popular summer session 
ideal. Combines thorough study with real vaca- 
tion fun in the heart of the Alleghenies. Unusual 
recreational opportunities. Modern gymnasium. 
Tuition, room and board surprisingly low. 

Graduate courses leading to advanced degrees. 

Undergraduate courses leading to baccalaureate 

degree. Special courses in athletic coaching for 

men and women. Nationally-known coaching staff. 

For catalog address 

Director of Summer Sessions 

The PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE 
state College, Pa. 



guard is free to engineer the rescue. It is light of weight 
(three Res-Q-Tubes may be towed as easily as one piece 
of the older type equipment.) It is buoyant; the victim 
floats, making it possible for the life guard to make addi- 
tional rescues. It is adjustable to size and may be 
snapped on the victim in the roughest of waters. Simple 
and quick of adjustment, it gives a sense of security and 
confidence. 

Res-Q-Tube is fully covered by a two-year guarantee. 
Write Ray L. Burke t, 1008 Eighth Street, Santa Monica, 
California. 

Everything for the crafts worker may be secured from 
Talens School Products Inc., Chicago, New York and 
San Francisco. Special features include leatherwork, 
beadwork, metalwork, pottery, book binding, basketry, 
loom weaving and block printing. 

Leathercraft is fascinating, interesting, educaional, and 
easy to do. Many useful things can be made from leather 
at a cost so low as to meet the most modest pocketbooks. 
Write for the Special Leathercraft Projects Plan which 
was especially conceived for recreation activities. Address 
Chas. A. Toebe Leather Co., Leathercraft Dept., 149 N. 
3rd St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

A great advantage of Universal portable bleachers, 
manufactured by the Universal Bleacher Company, 606 
South Neil Street, Champaign, Illinois, is the fact that 
they can 'be erected or dismantled quickly and easily by 
inexperienced men. Their low initial cost with practi- 
cally no maintenance expense, furnishes an ideal type of 
seating for groups of people. The parts are made from 
steel gauges and are thus interchangeable, making for 
speedy erection. Only the best of materials are used 
in construction — high quality of wood, superior paint and 
extra heavy hardware. 

With the growing enthusiasm over music in the play- 
ground program, recreation workers will be interested 
in the opportunity offered by Walberg & Auge, 86 
Mechanic Street, Worcester, Massachusetts, whose ad- 
vertisement appears in this issue. Write for descriptive 
material. 



Be Among the First to 

INTRODUCE 

These New Craft Projects 

• 

FASCINATING • CREATIVE • EDUCATIONAL 

THESE splendid Craft Projects lend themselves ideally 
' to Playgrounds . . . Beaded Bags, Necklaces, Brace- 
lets, Collar and Cuff sets, Pictures, Pillows for the girls 
to make . . . Watch Fobs, Wampum Belts, Hatbands 
for the boys — and any number of useful and decora- 
tive novelties for themselves, for gifts, or to sell. And 
there is plenty of opportunity for ingenuity. 

WOOD-BEAD CRAFT INDIAN BEAD CRAFT 

TILE-BEAD CRAFT JEWEL CRAFT 

FELT CRAFT 

• Send today for our ne.w FREE Folder No. 121 de- 
scribing and illustrating the varied number of attractive 
and practical things to be made with materials and de- 
signs — and you'll find them surprisingly economical too! 

WALCO 

BEAD COMPANY 

37 WEST 37lh STREET 
NEW YORK CITY, N. Y. 



A variety of values are found in the Five Walco Han- 
dicrafts—Indian Bead Craft, Wood Bead Craft, Tile 
Bead Craft, Jewel Craft, and Felt Craft. Projects are 
supplied by Walco for each of these crafts. Original 
designs are very easy to make and afford unlimited play- 
ground opportunities. The five handicrafts are described 
in a new illustrated folder No. 121A. Write to Walco 
Bead Company, 37 West 37th Street, New York City, for 
free copy. 

There are in this country today more than SCO junior 
colleges serving- more than 100,000. This is a new unit 
of education making an appeal to thousands who would 
not go to college at all and to hundreds who would go 
to the four-year institutions probably with less benefit. 
The Westbrook Junior College in Portland, Maine, is 
typical of this new type of education. Its two-year 
recreational leadership curriculum presented in this 
issue, is designed for the active girl interested in outdoor 
life, in camping, playground work or in the program of 
the Camp Fire Girls, Girl Reserves and Girl Scouts. 

Lou-Walt, Inc., 821 Broadway, New York City, are 
the actual manufacturers of most of the products they 
sell and make an intensive study from the buyer's view- 
point to determine how their products will fit into the 
individual purchaser's recreation program. 



134 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 




YOU NEED 

THE MAGAZINE- OF A TJIOUXAND DIVEOilONJ 

for Inspiration and Ideas in Planning Your 
Leisure-Time Programs 

CAMP, playground, and recreation directors re- 
sponsible for the well-being of young people dur- 
ing the coming months of outdoor play will find 
LEISURE full of helpful suggestions and practical 
projects. 

LEISURE is the only magazine catering to the leisure 
tastes of every member of the American family. It is 
educational without being scientific. You find new in- 
troductions to Games . . . Sports. 

Hobbies . . . Collections. 
Books. Photography . . . 
Creative Arts, Puiiles, 
Dramatics, Travel, Music, 
Hand Crafts, Nature 
Study. 




INSTRUCTIVE 
ENTERTAINING 
STIMULATING 



Recreations Directors, Edu- 
cators, and Civic Leaders are unreserved in their 
praise of LEISURE 

"After looking over the sample copy of LEISURE recently lent 
this office, I wish to place our order for two annual subscrip- 
tions to the magazine. I believe it will be a 'gold mine' of 
program material for use with our groups." R. W. Robertson, 
Recreation Dept., Oakland, Calif. 

"LEISURE is a distinct contribution to the still pioneer Ameri- 
can which has come to a new frontier of life — Leisure Time." 
Howard L. White, Director of Recreation, Heckscher Foundation 
for Children. 

"A magazine like yours can do much to save our young people 
from finding unwholesome outlets for their surplus energies by 
putting before them in attractive and authoritative form the 
many fields of activities which will satisfy their cravings for ad- 
venture, for creation, for co-operation, and for leadership/' Ernest 
Hermann, Dean, Sargent School of Physical Education. 

"We have enjoyed the magazine very much and feel that it is 
of value in programs such as ours." Louise Goodyear, Girl Scout 
Peace House, Buffalo, N. Y. 

"Your magazine has been recommended to me by the State De- 
partment of Education." F. A. Bell, Supt., Amador County 
Schools, Cal. 

"A copy of LEISURE in every home would be a Godsend to 
folks who have never before had the time for recreation, nor the 
education for its use." R. A. Hoyer, Director, Dept. of Boy 
Guidance, Graduate School, Notre Dame University. 

Special Offer to Readers of Recreation 

15 months only - $I.OO 

FILL IN YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS, SEND BILL, 
CHECK, STAMPS OR M. O. (Canadian or Fortign Po« — 50c. 
extra). R 

LEISURE, 683 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. ^pK'^^ 

Please send yoor special 15 months offer — $1.00 enclosed. 



Address _.. 

ciTV State 



Magazines and Pamphlets 



i 



Recently Received Containing Articles 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker 



I 



MAGAZINES 

The American City, April 1935 

Three New Pools (or Rochester, N. Y. 

A City That Knows the Meaning of Recreation 

The Journal of the National Education Association, 
April 1935 
The School Camp, by Henry S. Curtis 

The National Parent-Teacher Magazine, April 1935 

Planning the School Child's Summer, by Garry 

Cleveland Myers 
The Robinson Family — Leisure Time Activities, by 
S. J. Crumbine, M.D. 

New Jersey Municipalities, April 1935 

Trenton's Park System, by Commissioner Herbert 
W. Bradley 

The Epworth Highroad, May 1935 

From Folk Song to Fellowship, by Lucile Lippit 
The Play Leader Column, conducted by E. O. Harbin 

The Municipality (League of Wisconsin Municipalities), 
March 1935 
Recreation As Crime Insurance, by G. M. Phelan 

Leisure, April 1935 

The Puzzle Party, by Natalia Belting 

Ship Models from a Wharfside Workshop, by Ellen 

Hill 
Matheniagical Pastimes, by Royal V. Heath 

Junior-Senior High School Clearing House, April 1935 
The Youth Program in Germany, by Christopher 

Wuest, Jr. 
The First Junior High to Construct a Golf Course, 

by C. A. Bowes 
Community Forums on Liternational Relations, by 

Arthur Charles Watkins 

PAMPHLETS 

Annual Report of the Board of Park Commissioners, City 
of Providence, R. I., 1934 

Report of the Board of Park Commissioners and Superin- 
tendent of Parks for the Year 1934, Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma 

Annual Report of the Superintendent of Playgrounds of 
the City of Ottawa, Canada, 1934 

The Use of the Radio in Leisure Time, by Lyman Bryson 
Radio Institute of the Audible Art, New York City 

Seventy-Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Park 
Commissioners of the City of Hartford, Conn., 1933-34 

Recreational Opportunities Available to Washington 

National Park Service, U. S. Department of the In- 
terior, Washington, D. C. 

28 th Annual Report of the Board of Recreation Commis- 
sioners of the City of East Orange, N. J., 1934 

Tenth Annual Report of the Playground and Recreation 
Commission, Alton, III. March 1, 1934 — March 'I, 
1935 

Eighth Annual Report of the Monroe County, N. Y., 
Park Commission 



AMONG OUR FOLKS 



135 



Among Our Folks 

RAYMOND E. HoYT, formerly Superintendent of 
Recreation in Los Angeles, California, and 
more recently the Director of Transient Training 
and Recreation in the California Emergency Re- 
lief Administration, has been made State Director 
of Emergency Relief Recreation in California. 

James Springer has been employed as Recrea- 
tion Director in Decatur, Illinois, where a recently 
organized Recreation Association has started 
work. 

Gene Whit ford, formerly Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Recreation at Plainfield, New Jersey, 
has been appointed Assistant Superintendent of 
Recreation for the Union County, New Jersey, 
Park Department. 

Homer Fish has resigned as Superintendent of 
Recreation and Parks in Steubenville, Ohio, to 
become associated with Oglebay Park and the 
Wheeling, West Virginia, City Plan Commission. 
Ralph B. McClintock, Director of Recreation, 
Sunnyside Park, Long Island City, New York, 
has been appointed as Mr. Fish's successor in 
Steubenville. 

W. C. Ray has become Superintendent of Rec- 
reation at San Angelo, Texas, to take the place of 
George Roesler. 

Under a grant from the Oberlaender Trust, 
Thomas W. Lantz, Superintendent of Reifreation 
in Reading, Pennsylvania, will spend three months 
in Europe, on leave of absence, studying the rec- 
reational and cultural opportunities of young peo- 
ple in Germany and Austria, particularly the 
group from sixteen to twenty-four years of age. 
Mr. Lantz sailed for Germany on April 26th. 



PUBLISHER'S STATEMENT OF CIRCULATION 

This is to certify that the average circulation 
per issue of RkcrEation for the six months' 
period July 1st to and including December 31st, 
1934, was as follows: 

Copies sold 3,238 

Copies distributed free 399 

Total 3,637 

(Signed) Nation at. Rkcreation Association, 
By H. S. BRAUCHER, 

Secretary, 

Subscribed to and sworn before me on this 
i8th day of April, 1935. 

Miriam Dochtermann, 
Notary Public, Nassau County 
Nassau County Clerk's No. 2065 

Certificate Filed in New York County Clerk's No. 664 
Register's No. 6 D 410 
Commission expires March 30, 1936. 




Ever Wear Offers the Safest 
Merry- Wave -St ride 

Fully covered by patents which in- 
clude the many exclusive safety fea- 
tures, this Merry-Wave-Stride insures 
complete safety to the children in your 
parks and recreation grounds. Ever- 
Wear Merry-Wave-Stride gives more 
action and exercise than any piece of 
equipment ever made. 

Before you make the selection of any 
new equipment, you owe it to your 
children to install the safest equip- 
ment . . . your choice can he no other 
than EverWear's Patented Stride. Ask 
us for complete details. 

Use Spring Rubber Safety 
Seats For Your Swings 

An ingenious ar- 
rangement of rub- 
ber and steel, pat- 
ented by EverWear. 
which eliminates 
all the hazards of 
former type swing 
scats. This EverWear scat is soft, springy, 
resilient, has remarkable safety features, 
strength and durability. Priced low enough 
to meet your budgets. Write us for details. 

Our complete new catalog is 

available without obligation. 

Ask for it. 

The EverWear Mfg. Co. 

Springfield, Ohio, U. S. A. 

The World's oldest and largest exclusive maker 
of playground, beach and pool apparatus; a 
complete line of the SAFEST and most DURA- 
BLE recreation apparatus made. 




New Publications in the Leisure Time Field 



A Handbook of Fist Puppets 

By Bessie Alexander Ficklen. Frederick A. Stokes Com- 
pany, New York. $2.00. 
T"HE simplest of all puppets — the Punch and Judy type 
' — ^has long been loved by children, and they are the 
easiest to make and manipulate. This handbook is a 
comprehensive introduction for children and beginners 
in the art of fist puppet making and acting. It gives full 
directions with many pictures and diagrams for making 
the puppets, costumes and stage settings. It contains a 
number of short acts and three complete plays including 
the famous "Punch and Judy." There is also a chapter 
on Money-Making with Fist Puppets and another on 
Children and Fist Puppets as a means of developing con- 
fidence, self-expression and the play spirit. 

Softball Rules 1935 

Spalding's Athletic Library. No. 12-R. $.25. 
Q OFTBALL RULES, the latest addition to Spalding's 
"^ Athletic Library, were formulated by a committee 
known originally as the Playground Baseball Committee 
of the National Recreation Association. This committee 
was appointed by Joseph Lee, President of the Associa- 
tion, in 1927. In 1933 it was enlarged to include represen- 
tatives of the Y. M. C. A., the National Collegiate 
Athletic Association and the American Physical Educa- 
tion Association. The name of the committee was then 
changed to Joint Rules Committee on Softball. In 
October 1934 it was decided to invite other national 
organizations to become members, and a number have 
accepted this invitation. One of the most important for- 
ward steps taken last year was the decision by various 
groups interested in softball to secure the publication of 
one set of rules. The booklet contains not only the official 
rules but a number of articles on the subject of softball. 

l-landbook for Camp Counselors 

Edited by Rosalind Cassidy and Homer Bemiss. Obtain- 
able from Mr. Bemiss, P. O. Box 796, Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, $1.00. 
"T"His recent contribution to camping has been made by 
' the Pacific Camp Directors Association, and thirty 
people have shared in its preparation, pooling their ex- 
periences for the benefit of all interested in camping. 
Such practical subjects are discussed as : The Child of 
Camp Age; Camp Health and Safety; The Camp Pro- 
gram — How It Is Built ; Camp Program Activities ; 
Camp and Camper Morale ; The Camp Director and 
Administration; The Qualifications of Camp Counselors; 
Successful Methods in Camp Leadership, and Crafts- 
man's Guide. 



Outline of Town and City Planning 

By Thomas Adams. Russell Sage Foundation, New York. 

$3.00. 
«'|N THIS BOOK," says Franklin D. Roosevelt in his fore- 
word, "Mr. Thomas Adams defines the scope and 
purpose of city planning and of the preliminary surveys 
which must precede the making of intelligent plans. He 
has assembled information regarding the application and 
growth of city planning both as a science and as an art. 
He gives an outline of city planning efforts in different 
periods, discusses the influences that have affected urban 
growth in these periods, and finally describes the evolu- 
tion of the city and regional planning movement in the 
United States." Not the least interesting section of Mr. 
Adams' book is that devoted to early efforts in town and 
city planning in which he progresses from ancient city 
planning through the Middle Ages in Europe and city 
planning during and after the Renaissance period, to earlj' 
planning in America. It is a far journey from Babylon 
in 450 B. C. to the modern cities of today with their 
airplane landing fields, but Mr. Adams spans the distance 
with great skill and gives us not only a rich historical 
background, but an appreciation of today's problems and 
a wealth of information on what is being done to apply 
science and art to city planning. There are 126 illustra- 
tions covering plans of cities, old and new, and examples 
of civic architecture. 

Clubs in Action 

Greater Boston Federation of Neighborhood Houses, 

Boston, Massachusetts. $.80. 
In the winter of 1928-29 the Federation of Neighborhood 

Houses of Boston called a meeting of staff workers 
to discuss training for group work. As a result of the 
conference the workers decided to write a narrative re- 
port of one of their groups. To provide a background 
for discussion the study group evolved an outline to be 
used by those making the record. The outline covered 
such points as organization, program evolution, set-up 
of the group, group motives and goals, leadership, group 
moods, effect of group.^ on individual, attitudes and 
changes in attitudes. As a result of this study has come 
the pamphlet, "Clubs in Action" which relates specifically 
to the small group clubs. The pamphlet will be of interest 
to group leaders in all forms of activities. 



Dance Steps 1935 



Bv Agnes and Lucile Marsh. J. Fischer and Brother, 

New York. $1.00. 
Tach year a supplement to the Text Book of Social 
^ Dancing is published giving directions for the newest 
steps. The 1935 supplement has appeared containing 
directions for nine new dances. 



136 



Jane Addams 



J 



ANE Addams belonged not to any one generation, any one city, any single country, though 
few citizens identified themselves more with their country, their city, their ward, their 
neighborhood, with the times in which they lived. She possessed the quality that is eternal 
that belongs to mankind everywhere. 



As one sat with her one felt that she saw all the weakness and the frailty of human 
nature. She possessed the quality of understanding. Yet she had abiding faith in humanity 
through the ages. Mankind is going somewhere. It is worth while to try. Temporary defeats 
there will always be, setbacks, detours. Though there be much fog there is a way to Olympus 
and very much of the time this way can be seen. 

It was not accidental that a woman such as Jane Addams should share in building up 
the recreation movement — the movement for more abundant life. This movement itself came in 
part out of the settlement movement, had part of its roots there. Jane Addams herself was 
ever concerned over poverty of life. 

With simplicity, directness, clearness, vision, Jane Addams saw the life needs of men, 
women and children and helped make these needs clear to others. She saw the contributions 
which even neglected individuals and groups could make to the common neighborhood and 
community life. Housing, health, labor relations were important to her, but she was not one of 
those who got lost in the things that are more outside of man himself. She knew well that 
bread, clothing and houses and health are not enough, that man cannot live by these alone; that 
music and romance and adventure and beauty are also a part of what men live by. 

Though Jane Addams in the early days of the national play and recreation movement 
actively identified herself with the Association, giving of her time and strength to its problems, 
serving as a member of the Board of Directors of the Association, one always felt that she saw 
clearly that the world was not going to be saved by institutions or by organization, important 
as both are, but rather that progress would depend upon the spirit, the atmosphere, the climate 
maintained, and that all institutions and constitutions were but means to this end. Above all a 
certain spirit was to be maintained if mankind were to keep the forward march. 

Jane Addams' great contribution to the recreation movement for more abundant living 
was not in the books she wrote, great as was the contribution of "The Spirit of Youth and the 
City Streets"; not in what she did, much as that helped. Rather it was in the spirit that she 
carried, in what she herself was. 

She is one of a small group that established high traditions. Her patience, her long- 
time faith, her giving no thought to herself, the revelation in her own life of the possibilities 
of height and depth in living, helped to establish in the national recreation movement tradi- 
tions of a non-mechanical, non-institutional, non-self-seeking service. 

Howard Braucher. 



JUNE 1935 



137 




138 



Character Training for Youth 



By John Dewey, Ph.D., LL.D. 



THERE is a good deal of alarm just now at what 
seems to be a deterioration of character 
among the young. There is a growing in- 
crease of juvenile criminality. Revelations of 
breach of trust and shady practices among men 
the community had looked up to as leaders have 
led to questioning of the value of the education 
they received when they were young. The prev- 
alence of racketeering has added to the force of 
the question. In consequence, many persons are 
blaming the school for inattention to the im- 
portance of moral education. There are many who 
demand that systematic moral and religious in- 
struction be introduced into the schools. 

How far are the charges against the schools 
justified? 

What is the place of the schools in the moral 
education of the young? 

Anyone interested in these questions should be 
clear about at least two things. In the first place, 
the roots of character go deep and its branches 
extend far. Character means all the desires, pur- 
poses, and habits that influence conduct. The mind 
of an individual, his ideas and beliefs, are a part 
of character, for thought enters into the forma- 
tion of desires and aims. Mind includes imagina- 
tion, for there is nothing more important than the 
nature of the situations that fill imagination when 
a person is idle or at work. If we could look into 
a person's mind and see which mental pictures are 
habitually entertained we should have an unsur- 
passed key to his character. Habits are the fibre 
of character, but there are habits of desire and 
imagination as well as of outer action. 

The second point follows from the first. Just 
because character is such an inclusive thing, the 
influences that shape it are equally extensive. If 
we bear this fact in mind when we ask what the 
schools are doing and can do in forming charac- 
ter, we shall not expect too much from them. We 
shall realize that at best the schools can be but one 
agency among the very many that are active in 
forming character. Compared with other influ- 



Has modern education broken down? 
Is the school altogether to blame 
for increased juvenile delinquen- 
cy? What changes in school organ- 
ization might remedy the situation? 
Where does the community come in? 



ences that shape desire and purpose, the influence 
of the school is neither constant nor intense. Moral 
education of our children is in fact going on all 
the time, every waking hour of the day and three 
hundred and sixty-five days a year. Every influ- 
ence that modifies the disposition and habits, the 
desires and thoughts of a child is a part of the 
development of his character. 

In contrast with their power, the school has the 
children under its influence five hours a day, for 
not more than two hundred days a year (on the 
average much less), and its main business is teach- 
ing subject-matter and promoting the acquisition 
of certain skills, reading, writing, figuring, that 
from the childrens' standpoint have little to do 
with their main interests. The information given 
is largely from books, is remote from daily life, 
and is mainly committed to memory for reproduc- 
tion in recitations rather than for direct manifes- 
tation in action outside the school. Industry, 
promptness, and neatness are indeed insisted upon, 
but even the good habits formed in these matters 
are so specialized that their transfer over into out- 
of-school matters is largely a matter of accident. 
Because the material is remote, the effect on 
character is also remote. 

In short, formation of character is going on all 
the time : it cannot be confined to special occasions. 
Every experience a child has, especially if his 
emotions are enlisted, leaves an impress upon 
character. The friends and associates of the 
growing boy and girl, what goes on upon the play- 
ground and in the street, the newspapers, maga- 
zines, and books they read, the parties and movies 
they attend, the presence or absence of regular re- 
sponsibilities in the home, the attitude of parents 

139 



140 



CHARACTER TRAINING FOR YOUTH 



to each other, the general atmosphere of the 
household — all of these things are operating pretty 
constantly. And their effect is all the greater be- 
cause they work unconsciously when the young 
are not thinking of morals at all. Even the best 
conscious instruction is effective in the degree in 
which it harmonizes with the cumulative result of 
all these unconscious forces. 

Character, in short, is something that is formed 
rather than something that can be taught as geo- 
graphy and arithmetic are taught. Special things 
about character can be taught, and such teaching 
is important. It is usually given, both at home 
and in school, when something is done that is ir- 
regular and is disapproved. The child is disobedi- 
ent, quarrelsome, has shirked doing some assigned 
task, has told a lie, etc. Then his attention is called 
to some specific moral matter. Even so, a great 
deal depends upon the way this moral instruction 
is managed. Reproof may be given in such a way 
that dislike of all authority is inculcated. Or' a 
child develops skill in evasion and in covering up 
things that he knows are disapproved of. 

Negativism, fear, undue self-consciousness often 
result. Consequently the net effect of even direct 
moral instruction cannot be foretold, and its ef- 
ficacy depends upon its fitting into the mass of 
conditions which play unconsciously upon the 
young. 

A few of the indirect forces may be noted by 
way of illustration. Recent investigations, con- 
ducted with scientific care, have shown that many 
boys and girls have been stimulated in unwhole- 
some ways by the movies. Parents in good homes 
are likely to underestimate the influences of the 
movies upon children coming from other kinds of 
homes. The influence of movies upon children is 
fixed by the general tone and level of the child's 
surroundings. 

A boy or girl from a cramped environment that 
provides few outlets reacts very differently from 
one in which the movie is not the main vent for 
romance, and for acquaintance with conditions 
very different from those that habitually surround 
him. The luxury of scenes de- 
picted on the screen, the dis- 
play of adventure and easy sex 
relations, inoculate a boy or 
girl living in narrow surround- 
ings with all sorts of new ideas 
and desires. Their ambitions 
are directed into channels that 
contrast vividly with actual 



We hear and read much these days 
about character training and the re- 
sponsibility of the school toward the 
moral education of boys and girls. 
Through the courtesy of The Ro- 
tatian, in which the article originally 
appeared, we are presenting the point 
of view of one of America's out- 
standing educators and philosophers. 



conditions of life. The things that a boy or girl 
from a well-to-do and cultivated home would dis- 
count or take simply as part of a show are for 
other children ideals to be realized — and with- 
out especial regard for the means of their attain- 
ment. The little moral at the close has no power 
compared with the force of desires that are 
excited. 

A child who is one of a family of from four to 
six or seven children living in two rooms in a 
congested tenement district lives also on a con- 
gested street. The father is away most of the day 
and comes home tired from monotonous work. 
The mother, needless to say, has no servant. The 
children are under foot save when at school. They 
are "naughty" and scolded in the degree in which 
they get in her way or make added work. The 
street is their natural outlet and the mother gets 
relief in the degree they are out of the two rooms 
of the home. The effect of such conditions in cre- 
ating a type of life in which the discipline and ex- 
ample of the gang count much more than that of 
family instruction cannot be exaggerated. 

The homes of many of the well-to-do suffer 
from opposite conditions. There is excess of 
luxury and deficit of responsibility, since the rou- 
tine of the household is cared for by servants. 

To "pass the buck" and to find "alibis" is 
natural to all of us. When the public is faced by 
the sum total of the bad results of the conditions 
— of which only one or two have been selected as 
illustrations — a cry goes up that the schools are 
not doing their duty. I am not trying to set forth 
an alibi in turn for the schools, and I do not mean 
to assert that they have done and are doing all 
that can be done in shaping character. But take a 
look in imagination at the schoolroom. There are 
forty children there, perhaps fifty since the de- 
pression. The children are there five or five and a 
half hours a day. TKe teacher takes care of the 
"order" of the room, hears lessons in six or seven 
subjects, corrects papers, and has more or less 
semi-janitorial work to do. In the average school- 
room even today most of the time of the children 
is spent, when not reciting, in 
conning their textbooks, doing 
"sums" and other written work. 
They are active beings and yet 
have little outlet for their 
active impulses. How many 
parents would undertake to do 
much training of character, 
save of a negative and repres- 



CHARACTER TRAINING FOR YOUTH 



141 



sive sort, under such con- 
ditions? 

The answer that is 
often given is to add one 
more study. Give direct 
instruction in morals, or 
in religion combined with 
morals. Xow I cannot go 
into the merits and de- 
merits of direct instruc- 
tion of this sort. But it 
is a matter of common 
experience in other sub- 
jects that formal instruc- 
tion often leaves no great 
impress. It is one thing 
to learn words and sen- 
tences by heart and an- 
other thing to take them 
to heart so that they in- 
fluence action. At the 
best, this method has no 
great force in compari- 
son with the indirect ef- 
fect of conditions that 
are operating all the time 

in school and out. It is an old and true saying 
that example is more powerful than precept, and 
example is but one of the forces that act con- 
stantly on the young. 

Those, who are inclined to think that more of 
direct moral instruction would be almost a pana- 
cea for present evils usually look back to earlier 
times when such instruction was customary in 
home and school. They forget that it was effec- 
tive because it was part of the general conditions 
and atmosphere. It was reinforced by many other 
things that are now lacking. It is a fallacy to sup- 
pose that the social trend and context can be radi- 
cally changed and special methods be as effective 
as they were under other conditions. 

It would be absurd to omit the effect upon the 
plastic and forming character of the young of the 
economic conditions that prevailed about them. 
Till recently, youth has grown up in a social at- 
mosphere in which emphasis upon material suc- 
cess was enormous, both consciously and uncons- • 
ciously. The fact that multitudes of persons were 
engaged in steady and honest industry was not 
sensational. Save where the young were faced 
with that fact in their own home and neighbor- 
hood, it did not have the effect that conspicuous 




And as for parents. "I would put parental 
education second among the factors demanded 
in the improvement of character education." 



cases of great financial careers exerted. And 
many children were faced by the fact that in 
their own homes, • industry and honesty brought 
no great material reward. They came to feel that 
possession of money was the key to the things 
they most desired. 

There is na great amount of tangible evidence 
that can be cited on this point. But the very fact 
that so many persons have come to think that the 
great thing is to "get by," and that if a person at- 
tains material success no great attention will be 
paid by society to the means by which he "got 
away" with it, should be evidence enough. If 
material success is glorified by current public 
opinion, the effect of that glorification upon the 
young cannot be offset by occasional moralizing 
from pulpit, press, teacher and parent. 

In pointing out that the concrete state of social 
relations and activities is the most powerful factor 
in shaping character, I do not wish it inferred that 
I think schools have no responsibility and no op- 
portunity. The conclusion to be drawn is that the 
schools are only one among many factors, and 



142 



CHARACTER TRAINING FOR YOUTH 



that their shaping influence will be most helpful 
when it falls in line with social forces operating 
outside the schools. 

I think the depression has had one healthy ef- 
fect. It has led to a more general questioning of 
the primacy of material values. Events have dis- 
closed the demoralizing effect of making success 
in business the chief aim of life. But I think that 
still greater economic reconstruction must take 
place before material attainment and the acquisi- 
tive motive will be reduced to their place. It is 
difficult to produce a cooperative type of character 
in an economic system that lays chief stress upon 
competition, and wherein the most successful com- 
petitor is the one who is the most richly rewarded 
and who becomes almost the social hero and 
model. So I should put general economic change 
as the first and most important factor in produc- 
ing a better kind of education for formation of 
character. 

As long as society does 
not guarantee security of 
useful work, security for 
old age, and security of a 
decent home and of oppor- 
tunity for education of all 
children by other means 
than acquisition of money, 
that long the very affection 
of parents for their chil- 
dren, their desire that chil- 
dren may have a better op- 
portunity than their parents had, will compel par- 
ents to put great emphasis upon getting ahead in 
material ways, and their example will be a domi- 
nant factor in educating children. 

As I have already intimated, better education 
of parents would be a large element in bringing 
about better moral education of children and 
youth. Psychology is still in its infancy. But the 
increase of knowledge of human nature, and of 
how it develops and is modified, has grown 
enormously in the last generation. It has grown 
especially with respect to how relations between 
persons — between parents with respect to each 
other and with respect to their offspring — affect 
character. The important movement for parental 
education has developed out of this increase of 
knowledge. But there are still multitudes of par- 
ents who have not had the most rudimentary con- 
tact with the new knowledge and who are totally 
unaware of the influences that are most power- 
fully affecting the moral fibre of their children. 



"The two dominant impulses of youth 
are toward activity and toward some 
kind of collective association. Our 
failure to provide for these two Im- 
pulses, under the changed conditions 
of rural as well as city life, is at least 
a partial measure of why we are 
getting unsatisfactory results in char- 
acter development." 



I would put parental education second among 
the factors demanded in the improvement of 
character education. 

In recent years there has been great advance in 
provision of recreation for the young, and yet 
hardly more than a beginning in comparison with 
what remains to be done. There are regions in 
New York City where "cellar clubs" flourish and 
are attended by school boys and girls. There are 
large regions in which, in spite of the efforts of 
social settlements, public playgrounds, and school 
fields, the great mass of growing youth resort to 
the streets for an outlet in the day time, and to 
dance halls, movies, and the like, in the evening. 

The two dominant impulses of youth are toward 
activity and toward some kind of collective asso- 
ciation. Our failure to provide for these two im- 
pulses, under the changed conditions of rural as 
well as city life, is at least a partial measure of 
why we are getting unsatis- 
factory results in character 
development. 

If I put the school fourth 
and last it is not because I 
regard it as the least im- 
portant of factors in moral 
training but because its suc- 
cess is so much bound up 
with the operation of the 
three others. I shall men- 
tion only two changes that 
would help. Few schools 
are organized on a social basis. Moral instruction 
through conference and discussion would be much 
more effective if it grew out of concrete situations 
present in the experience of the young instead of 
centering about general discussions of virtues and 
vices in the abstract. The more the school is or- 
ganized as a community in which pupils share, the 
more opportunity there is for this kind of discus- 
sion and the more surely it will lead to the prob- 
lems of larger social groupings outside the school. 
Moreover, such organization would give practice 
in the give and take of social life, practice in meth- 
ods of cooperation, and would require assumption 
of definite responsibilities on the part of the young 
people — adapted of course to their age and 
maturity. 

The other change is provision of greater op- 
portunity for positive action, with corresponding 
reduction of the amount of passivity and mere 
absorption that are still current. The latter style 
(Continued on page 175) 



Philadelphia's Adventure 



in 



Conducting a Day Camp 



ONF, OF THE outstanding activities in Phila- 
delphia last summer was the day camp 
which, in a sense, was the highhght of all 
the summer's projects promoted by the Play- 
ground and Recreation Association. For it had 
never been done before, as had the street and 
vacant lot playgrounds, and consequently it opened 
up entirely new experiences for most of those 
who were transported to the camp. This was done 
by means of buses generously loaned by the Board 
of Education. While this means of transporta- 
tion was intended for children up to fourteen 
years of age, an occasional father, aunt, grand- 
mother or older sister or brother contrived to go 
along "to take care of kids too little to go on their 
own." 

The Camp Site 

The site of the camp was a particularly wild, 
almost primeval spot in Pennypack Park, about 
fifteen miles from the city, at a point where 
Pennypack Creek widens out into an ideal swim- 
ming pool. The surrounding woods are in an 
absolutely natural state, with trees, rocks and 
twisting paths probably just as they were in In- 
dian days, only older and more worn and weather 
beaten. There were no modern facilities of any 
sort, but one of the assistant directors lived in an 
old stone house near by and this was used for as- 
sembly, dressing rooms and other c6nveniences. 

It would be impossible to imagine an atmos- 
phere as far removed from that of the congested 
district from which the members came, and after 
the .season was over it was sought again and again 
by many who had first come under its soothing 
spell at the day camp. 

The period of time for the camp was six weeks, 
and the personnel consisted of a director and two 



Each summer an Increasing number 
of cities conduct day camps and 
find them satisfying experiences 



By Elizabeth Hines Hanley 

Playground and Recreation Association 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



assistants. The campers were drawn from twen- 
ty-seven locations — the streets, vacant lots and 
playgrounds used as clearing centers, and selec- 
tions were made by the directors of these centers. 
Each group was given two trips, and great care 
had to be taken that there were no repeaters. 

Some Experiences 

In the many incidents and stories of experi- 
ences with the campers, the director reveals the 
eagerness with which every one looked forward 
to the day at camp, and their disappointment 
when they could not be taken there because of an 
overload, or of the fact that they had already had 
their "two turns." Some of the mothers were so 
keen about going that they became overwrought 
in feeling and language when they had to be 
denied. 

"Repeats" slipped in now and then in spite of 
every precaution, and some even wanted a third 
or fourth trip! The rnothers were always in this 
class, and were eager to have others enjoy the ex- 
perience. "One mother," said our director, "had 
been on the first trip and was talking with a 
waiting mother on the sidewalk. 'My, but you 
will enjoy it,' she said. 'We surely had a restful 
time, and I wish I could go again.' (Then, softly, 
a's with a secret wonder) 'You know, they take 
the children away and you are all by yourself 
most of the time !' " 

This release was possible because the leaders 
organized games, hikes, story hours and stunts, 
not to mention the swims in the creek. Even when 
it rained the program was carried on. The as- 
sistant director who lived near by very hospitably 
took the group into his house, and the active 

143 



144 



PHILADELPHIA'S ADVENTURE IN CONDUCTING A DAY CAMP 



fedmes were changed to quiet ones, with singing, 
stories and dancing making the time pass as pleas- 
antly as out of doors. 

"Once," the director relates, "Mr. Kuhlen, hos- 
pitable as ever, produced a victrola and records, 
and, though they weren't the very latest hits, the 
children enjoyed them. Then we remembered the 
checkers and jacks. They proved to be very enter- 
taining, the children playing with them out on the 
porch. Mr. Kuhlen turned over the dining room 
for handwork, and we were permitted to use a 
famous antique dining table. We cut out paper 
circus animals, clowns, etc., and colored them. 
The older girls traced and colored leaves of trees 
we had seen on the nature walk for a poster. One 
of the mothers helped us. Mr. Nissman organized 
games for the rest of the children in the assembly 
room. Mr. Kuhlen took some of the mothers and 
played cards with them. The rest of the mothers 
sat on the porch and talked, knitted, or played 
with their children. At swimming time, Mr. 
Nissman took the swimmers to the creek. Even 
a mother went, and when they returned they re- 
ported the water was fine! And all the time it 
rained and rained! But nobody minded it. One 
mother said: 'Well, it would be raining if we 
were at home, anyway, and we will make the best 
of it. It's nice to be out here for a change.' " 

From the director's note book we quote an in- 
cident she labels as "spontaneous." 

"One day we had an almost exclusively Italian 
group. From the time they arrived until they went 
home it was a 'free day.' They just thrilled to 
everything, ran all over the place, and were 
especially interested in the fishing, as Wednesday 
is fishing day at Pennypack Park. Well, fishing 
proved our undoing! I could not keep them away 
from the creek. After lunch I tried to have a 
nature walk as usual. Finally I succeeded in get- 
ting them together around the beeches for the 
talk, but most of the boys were not listening or 
paying the slightest attention. One of the younger 
girls, about ten, noticing my predicament and 
really interested herself, naively remarked : 
'Teacher, if I were you, I wouldn't try to talk 
about the trees. I would just walk, as long as the 
boys won't behave.' I tried to get 
over to them the idea of not cut- 
ting the bark, and let it go at 
that, and we proceeded to walk. 
The first thing I knew, a few of 
the boys were missing, hiding be- 
hind trees in the rear. One of 



In this article Mrs. Hanley has 
emphasized not so much the 
technique and procedure of day 
camp organization and adminis- 
tration, as the contribution it 
makes in terms of human values. 



them was an older boy by the name of Dominic, 
and his mother scolded him roundly in her native 
tongue until reluctantly he came out from behind 
the shrubs along the creek, and then I went back 
and spoke to him. I asked him why he didn't want 
to come along with the rest of the groups, and he 
said : 'Teacher, I want to fish.' I said to him, 'Son, 
don't you realize that if I let you stop and fish 
many of the other boys will want to do it, too? 
You see, you are older, and they will want to fol- 
low your example. Now, won't you come along 
and be a good sport?' With a little more per- 
suasion, he came. 

"As we walked along, some were more or less 
interested, so we gave a little nature instruction 
en route. Suddenly, an open space along the bank 
of the creek came into view, and about half of the 
group, both boys and girls, rushed down to the 
edge of the creek. Two boys were fishing on the 
other side of the creek. 'So much for the hike !' 
sighed I. Then suddenly, there flashed through 
my mind something I had learned not so long ago 
about trying to follow the interest of the group 
rather than insisting on your own cut and dried 
plan. Why not watch the fishing, then? So, we 
all stopped walking. I joined the group at the 
water's edge. What a time we had ! There were 
so many small rocks and it was so difificult to keep 
a footing, and the water around them at least a 
foot deep! After a while they tired of watching 
the fishing, and attention centered on the tadpoles 
and fishes swimming by. Suddenly, a shriek, 
right behind me — a little brother had fallen into 
the creek ! No harm done, but quite wet. Teacher, 
in her excitement, turned around too fast, and 
her foot slipped into the creek, too, filling her 
shoe with water. She laughed, so, little brother 
stopped crying. We had just settled down again 
when from a little further up the creek, where 
some of the group had ventured to explore, came 
shrieks, and cries of 'Teacher, some kind of bugs 
are coming out of the water and stinging us!' A 
hasty exodus from the banks of the creek to the 
teacher, and the showing of many stings amid 
tears among the girls. From Dominic: 'Say, 
Teacher, have you any medicine for stings?' I 
answered in the affirmative, and 
immediately all the stung ones 
were my pals. 

"It was quite easy to get back 
to the house now. On the way 
the boys discovered a snake, of 
the water variety, I believe, coiled 



PHILADELPHIA'S ADVENTURE IN CONDUCTING A DAY CAMP 



145 



up right close to the path so all could see it. 
Apparently, it had been injured by the hoof of a 
horse while crossing the path as it appeared to 
have sort of a bruise on its side. It seemed to be 
dead. Dominic's mother stood bewildered, and 
turned to me and said: 'Why are you not afraid 
of the snake? Is it dead?' That was too much 
for the snake. It cautiously moved its head, stuck 
out its tongue, very slowly uncoiled, and crawled 
away, to the fascination of the group. I had to 
explain to the children that snakes are the friends 
of man, eating field mice, and I thought this was 
the kind that ate mosquito larvae from the creek. 
The crowd moved on to the house as their minds 
"went back to the stings. I was still wondering 
what sort of bug in the creek would suddenly fly 
out and sting them, but I was soon enlightened. 
One of the stung little girls confidentially in- 
formed me that one of the boys had poked a stick 
into a hornets nest! Now it was all so clear and 
simple. Suddenly I noticed two of the older boys 
engaged in conversation, and showing evidences 
of going back after the snake. They were de- 
termined to kill it. The idea of letting the snake 
live, even after what I had said in the snake's 
favor, was just too ridiculous for words. They 
glanced back at me to see if I were watching, and 
when they found I was, they reluctantly gave up 
the idea, and the snake is still alive — at least, as 
far as that group is concerned. 

"When we arrived at the house, the stung ones 
were given 'first aid,' and the stings were allevi- 
ated. The group, or many of 
of them, prepared to go 
swimming. Some of the non- 
swimmers started 
to fish minnows out 
of the creek and 
prepared to take 
them home in tin 
cans, but I explain- 
ed that this was not 
allowed, and asked 
them to put the fish 
back into the creek, 
telling them they 
had been put there 
by the Isaack Wal- 
ton Club that they 
might grow up to 
be big enough for 
fishermen to catch. 

Finally we were Courtesy Ft. Worth, Texas, Park Department 



One of the delights experienced by the 
day camper is the nature walk with all 
of the unfamiliar beauty it discloses. 



eating our last lunch before going home, when 
Dominic turned to me with a smile and said: 
'Teacher, we had a swell time today, didn't we?' 
I was amazed, as I had certainly gotten after him 
many times during the day. He was a nice boy, 
and I was glad that I had not insisted on our 
usual routine. They had learned a good deal about 
nature in their own way, and they had certainly 
had a swell time !" 

The nature walks were enjoyed by all kinds and 
ages. The director says : 

"On one trip several mothers with babies in 
arms walked the entire distance and loved it, their 
little three- and four-year olds toddling along and 
not getting a bit tired. One of the older mothers 
said : 'No, indeed, I am not tired. We don't get a 
chance to take a walk in the country very often, 
so, we are going to take advantage of it.' And 
maybe that little English mother, sixty-one years 
old, didn't hike, too, the entire distance of two 
miles! Many of the children had never been on 
hikes before. It was all so new, as part of the 
walk was through a farm, and they saw chickens, 
cows, horses, farmers and farm implements; 
wagons, crops, barns and horse troughs, corn cribs 
and beautiful flowers, and they really loved it. 
One little girl said : 'You know, I never did any- 
thing so interesting as this nature walk. The more 
you walk along, the more interesting it becomes.' 

"Three older boys were so interested in the 
nature walks that they went on for the two-mile 
distance while the rest went in swimming, and 
this cut down their swim- 
ming time about thirty min- 
utes — they liked swimming, 
too. An Italian 




mother said: 'This 
is a beautiful place, 
such trees, and it is 
quiet. It reminds 
me of my country.' 
An Irish mother 
said wistfully to 
me: 'This is surely 
a beautiful place 
and makes me think 
of home.' 'Where is 
your home?' I ask- 
ed. 'Ireland,' she 
said, 'and it's very 
beautiful there. I 
have been thinking 
today of all the 



146 



PHILADELPHIA'S ADVENTURE IN CONDUCTING A DAY CAMP 



things I used to do when 1 was a girl. We had a 
creek Hke this, and I used to take off my shoes 
and stockings and go wading.' There is a hill on 
the hike, and one little chap remarked: 'Say, 
Teacher, you have to go up this hill in second, 
don't you ?' 

"We had so many delightful experiences it is 
hard to single out any one as the best, but those 
we had on the walks brought probably the most 
instruction. We broke up the two-mile distance 
into about half-mile stretches. At the end of the 
first, we took a look at the tadpoles ; at the end 
of the second, we paused at the farm house to 
get a drink of real spring water; at the end of 
the third, we stopped in front of the 'oldest 
Baptist Church in this part of the country, found- 
ed in 1688.' The church yard was enclosed by a 
nice stone wall, in front of which was a long 
grassy bank shaded with maples. We rested either 
on the wall or on the bank, and held impromptu 
shows. We discovered much talent among the 
children in the way of singing and dancing. Some- 
times a mother was gifted and sang for us. We 
enjoyed it all very much. The mothers particu- 
larly like the hikes. On one trip several mothers 
were carrying their babies, and I offered to do 
my daily kindness by carrying a sleeping baby for 
a half-mile. Believe me, I was never so glad of 
anything in my life than to give the baby back to 
its mother when we had returned to the grove. 
She was very kind and said it was because I 
wasn't used to it ! Perhaps that was the reason, 
but my arms certainly were tired !" 

A fine by-product of the day camp project was 
the training of older boys and girls to act as lead- 
ers for the others in games, swimming, and keep- 
ing them together on the hikes. They developed 
into most efficient assistants, and were always 
glad to "go along and help with the kids." 

In the groups taken to the camps there were 
representatives from Italy, Ireland, England, Pol- 
and, Syria, Greece, Scotland, Germany, France 
and Bohemia. Many were foreign-born ; others 
were children of these parents. There were two 
buses from the Jewish section of the city. The 
greatest number were Irish, or of Irish descent, 
then Italian, Jewish and Polish. The adults ranged 
in age from twenty to seventy, and in type from 
the ultra-modern mother to the dear old Mauve 
Decade grandmother; even our "hardest cases," 
really enjoyed themselves. 

An instance is given of "what a real father is 
like," according to the director. She says : 



"This father worked at night. His wife had 
been ill in bed with rheumatism for three months, 
and there were five children, the youngest two 
years old. At first, the plan had been for the oldest 
son, about twelve, to take care of the others at the 
camp. Well, father arrived from work while we 
were gathering the clans to go. He just couldn't 
let those kiddies go without him, so, without any 
sleep, he came along. At the park he insisted on 
helping us in every way possible ; took excellent 
care of the five youngsters, and when we got back 
home, he said what a lovely time he had had, and 
hoped that none of the group had caused us 
trouble that day. He was just splendid, and we 
all appreciated his spirit and helpfulness." 

When the time for ending the season came, 
there were many expressions of regret, but also 
of appreciation of the pleasures of the camp. The 
director has recorded some of these in brief sen- 
tences : "Frequently the children said as they left 
the bus, 'Good.-by, Teacher. See you next year.' 
'Don't forget our street next year. We surely 
enjoyed ourselves.' A mother said : 'This is the 
first time that I ever remember anything like this 
being done for the mothers. It's fine, and we 
surely appreciated it.' " 

A Cooperative Venture 

A much-asked question by parents was : "W^ho 
does this, anyway?" The answer brought out the 
real strength of the project, and the reason for its 
unique success. "The Philadelphia Playground 
and Recreation Association furnished the equip- 
ment, rooms, milk, director and assistant, program 
and administration ; the Board of Education pro- 
vided the buses and drivers; L.W.D. supplied Mr. 
Nissman, and the Park Department gave the use 
of the park and the life guard." 

That is, indeed, the ultimate in cooperation, and 
may well be commended as an unfailing formula 
for success with any kind of project, recreational 
or not. 



If your city should conduct a day camp during 
the summer of 1935, will you not send us at the 
end of the season an account of the program and 
the results secured? The National Recreation 
Association is anxious to have as complete as pos- 
sible a record of such experiments throughout the 
country. The information which is secured will 
be made available for the use of all who may be 
interested. 



On the Summer Playgrounds of 1934 



ONE OF THK popular 
activities on the 
Salt Lake City play- 
grounds last summer was 
the city-wide contest in 
sand modeling, accom- 
panied by sand table ex- 
hibits. 

At the institute for rec- 
reation workers held in the 
beginning of the summer 
the suggestion was made 
that a theme be selected 
each day for the entire kin- 
dergarten program, which 
could be carried out in all 
activities. If, for example, 
the topic for the day was 

Holland, in the construction period tulips, wind- 
mills and Dutch characters were cut out and col- 
ored ; the dancing period which followed was de- 
voted to Dutch folk dances, impersonating wind- 
mills and the like; during the singing hour, "I 
Wish I Had a Windmill" was taught which readily 
became the theme song for the day; the story of 
the boy who saved the dike was told, and the 
children went to the sand box where a Dutch 
scene was constructed. 

The creation of sand tables, rather than ordi- 
nary sand boxes, was brought about by the elabo- 
ration of scenes which were desired to be kept 
intact. For from daily themes weekly ones de- 
veloped in order that more details might be in- 
corporated, and wooden trees, houses, fences, 
barns and boats replaced the flimsy paper articles. 
Clothespins, with paint, paper, paste and the ex- 
ercise of a little ingenuity, made 
delightful figurines. It was not 
long until the interest of the 
older children was aroused and 
they too wanted to model. The 
sand tables were made by nail- 
ing a 3 inch board around the 
edge of a regular playground 
table. 

The climax was reached in a 




In the preceding article the Play- 
ground and Recreation Associa- 
tion of Philadelphia has reported 
the day camp as Its outstanding 
activity. In some cities music, 
handcraft, drama and various other 
Interests were predominant. We 
present here a few of these high 
lights In the hope that they may 
have suggestions for other cities. 



city-wide sand table con- 
test. Each playground was 
allowed to select its own 
theme. One constructed a 
model city, with backyard 
playgrounds, streets ar- 
ranged with the safety of 
children considered, a well- 
equipped school yard, and 
a center park with a golf 
course, swimming pool, 
tennis courts, baseball 
fields, and a children's 
playground. 

Among the most popu- 
lar tales were Rapunzel, 
Tin Soldier, The Little 
Lambkin, the Pied Piper, 
(with dozens of clay rats ^2" long). The Farmer 
in the Dell, the Three Bears, Little Red Riding 
Hood. Even the inside of grandmother's house 
was finished in the greatest detail and the Three 
Little Pigs made clever themes. The entire story 
could be traced by the figures in the sand. 

Scenes depicting various countries were also 
constructed — grass houses, very blue water (paper 
under glass) with dozens of bathers on its shores, 
surf-board riders, dolls in grass skirts pictured 
"Hawaii"; castles, kilts, mountains and lakes pre- 
sented colorful Scotland. Three judges went from 
playground to playground and selected the win- 
ners whose award was the honor of winning and 
points toward the playground banner. 

With the Indians in Louisville ! 

The fascination which any American Indian 
subject holds for most of us 
added impetus to the summer 
handcraft program in Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. The annual 
playground play contest was 
based on Indian themes, so it 
was with little urging that the 
children and the grown-ups 
started to make the many prop- 
erties required. Tepees were 

147 



148 



ON THE SUMMER PLAYGROUNDS OF 1934 



fashioned from burlap bags sewn together, brown 
wrapping paper and old sheets painted in approv- 
ed Indian style and color. Macaroni, painted and 
broken into short lengths and then strung, made 
necklaces. Melon seeds colored with crepe paper 
dye, and bits of colored magazine advertisements 
rolled into cylinders also made effective beads, 
while polished tin provided material for jewelry 
making. War bonnets and other headdresses were 
made from crepe paper, feathers and painted tag 
board. Twisted strands of black crepe paper and 
old stockings became long, realistic braids of hair 
for the Indian maidens. Moccasins were created 
from old tennis slippers and sneakers painted with 
appropriate designs. Tin cans filled with pebbles 
served for rattles. 

The "boom-boom" of the Indian drums came 
from wooden cheese boxes and large lard cans 
covered with stretched canvas and decorated with 
mystic symbols. A local pottery furnished slightly 
chipped jars and bowls at give-away prices, and 
four-hour enamel was used to give them a per- 
manent decoration. Snowshoes were woven from 
willows gathered near the Ohio river which also 
furnished shells for other projects. Burlap bags, 
expertly cut and decorated, supplied the basis for 
most of the costumes, and so well done was the 
work that these costumes belied their humble 
origin. One playground made a beautiful canoe 
of light wooden strips of paper mounted on a 
coaster wagon which supplied the necessary power 
for the canoe to glide majestically on its way. 

Getting away from the Indian theme, a very 
popular project was the making of Kentucky 
picture maps. These were made on a sheet of 
tagboard, 18x24 inches. A large outline of the 
state was drawn inside a decorative border and 
the state space was filled with small figures repre- 
senting geographical and historical places and in- 
cidents such as the Kentucky Derby, My Old Ken- 
tucky Home, Mammoth Cave, etc. Daniel Boone, 
colored mammies, southern colonels, and race 
horses were used to fill odd spaces between the 
state outline and the border. These were all traced 
from multigraphed patterns in pencil, retraced 
with black ink, colored with water colors or cray- 
ons, and then given two coats of clear shellac. As 
a decorative wall panel these interesting maps 
were extremely attractive, and the fact that hun- 
dreds of them were made attests to their appeal. 
Some of the playgrounds made maps of their 
play center showing the wading pool, ball dia- 



monds, shelter house, trees, shrubbery, and count- 
less other points of interest on playground. 

The Ever-Popular Handcraft Program 
All three of the playgrounds which have been 
conducted for a number of years by the Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of Philadel- 
phia had splendid exhibits of the children's hand- 
work such as : posters, doll furniture and houses ; 
costumes for fashion shows; villages of several 
sorts ; a circus ; lanterns, baskets, and all sorts of 
articles made from paper and cardboard. Tot Lot, 
however, carried off highest honors in the arts 
and crafts, and a special project was conducted 
there by the older boys in cooperation with the art 
teacher. This was the making and painting of the 
set for the closing dramatic presentation, "The 
Selfish Giant," and was especially interesting be- 
cause it was done on heavy wrapping paper. Most 
of the properties for the play were also made at 
Tot Lot, and the scene was set up by the boys 
who made it. Each playground had an episode, 
made their own costumes, directed their special 
features, and took charge of the presentation in 
the final production. 

Handcraft was also popular on the playgrounds 
conducted by the Philadelphia Bureau of Recrea- 
tion, and the exhibit held in the Mayor's recep- 
tion room was a successful demonstration of the 
use to which discarded and scrap material may be 
put. Old felt hats had been utilized to make gym- 
nasium and dancing sandals; cigar boxes painted 
and decorated and with a few partitions added 
had been turned into attractive stocking boxes; a 
first-class locomotive had been made from two tin 
cans, skate wheels, two jar tops, a piano hinge 
and paint. Old silk stockings had been trans- 
formed into scatter rugs, and odds and ends of 
wool into beautiful afghans. 

Drama 

Last summer twenty-three playgrounds con- 
ducted by the Springfield, Illinois, Recreation De- 
partment, enjoyed a drama program. All groups 
entered the drama festival competition, fifteen 
plays being given in a single afternoon before a 
large audience. The Department conducted five 
drama clubs for children at the community center. 
The club plays are given before the center audi- 
ence and then taken on invitation to various insti- 
tutions and club meetings. The children also 
broadcast over the local station during the recre- 
ation leadership periods. 



ON THE SUMMER PLAYGROUNDS OF 1934 



149 



Shuffleboard in Oklahoma City 

Shuffleboard, according to George W. Daniel- 
son, Superintendent of Recreation, Oklahoma 
City Park Department, proved one of the most 
successful games used last summer on the play- 
grounds of that city. It was enjoyed by people of 
all ages from six year old boys to grandmothers. 
No small part of the popularity was due to the 
inexpensiveness of the game. Sidewalks and ends 
of concrete tennis courts served for the courts. 
The court lines, being narrow, required little paint 
and the cues and disks were made at very small 
cost. The Recreation Department secured the 
services of a carpenter and a sign painter from 
the F.E.R.A. The carpenter made the cues and 
disks from scrap material and the painter deco- 
rated them so that they had the appearance of 
manufactured equipment. 
The painter also lined the 
courts. 

In response to popular 
demand, a city-wide tourna- 
ment was held. Entrants 
included not only those who 
had been playing on the 
park courts but a number 
of vacationists who brought 
their own manufactured 
equipment which the chil- 
dren carefully looked over 
and then duplicated in the 
handcraft shop. 




A view of one of the camps conducted 
by the Oakland Recreation Departnnent 



Camping 

Thousands of children enjoyed camping in the 
summer of 1934, and a number of new camps 
were established. Among these were the vacation 
camps which the Arizona ERA and the Tucson 
Department of Playgrounds and Recreation con- 
ducted. Two camps were established, one for 
girls at Mount Lemmon, 71 miles from the city. 
Here the Boy Scouts' camp site was used and the 
girls enjoyed a two weeks stay. The other camp, 
for boys, was at Pinery Canyon, 131 miles from 
Tucson, where the Y.M.C.A. buildings were used. 
All camp expenses were paid from ERA funds ; 
the Recreation Department organized the pro- 
gram and inspected the camps each week. The 
Department was also responsible for the selection 
of directors and other workers. An advisory com- 
mittee of citizens aided the project. 



A number of cities experimented with day 
camps, among them Minneapolis where, according 
to a statement received from William Kelty, stay- 
at-home camping proved very successful. 

An organization operating under the local com- 
munity fund sponsored the undertaking and, for 
a very small sum, the children received the bene- 
ficial routine of camp life during the day, re- 
turning to their homes each evening. Both girls 
and boys of ages ranging from six to fifteen years 
were included in the six weeks camping period. 
The majority remained for two weeks, although 
a longer or shorter period was permissible. 

After the children had been segregated into 
three groups according to age, activities began. 
Each morning the campers met at a designated 
place with specially selected counsellors for the 
day's program. This includ- 
ed athletics and games, for 
which a public school play- 
ground was utilized, and 
swimming and aquatic 
sports, specially chartered 
buses conveying the chil- 
dren to neighboring bathing 
beaches. Overnight trips 
play a part, but story-tell- 
ing, hobby work, and the 
publication of a camp paper 
were more important ac- 
tivities. 

One innovation was 
greatly enjoyed. The campers were taken in buses 
— or sometimes they walked — to some of the 
city's many points of interest from an artistic or 
historic standpoint or from the point of view of 
industrial and commercial progress. 

Each noon a luncheon was served, a wholesome 
meal being insured through the careful super- 
vision of trained dietitians. 

Citizenship Week 

The greatest and most thrilling week of School 
Number 19 Play Area in Rochester, New York, 
occurred the week when the election of officers 
for the play area's model government was to be 
held. The would-be chiefs of police and the 
mayors requested volunteers to campaign for 
them. The candidates-to-be hired publicity agents 
to play up their names before the people and show 
the great value that they could have for the model 
government. 



150 



ON THE SUMMER PLAYGROUNDS OF 1934 



The publicity agents paint- 
ed signs on cardboards and 
colored papers of the differ- 
ent candidates. The card- 
board signs were distributed 
around the school and the 
paper signs were nailed on 
the trees in the neighboring 
streets around the play area. 
In the days to follow the 
children and even the parents 
were in a frenzy wondering 
who would win the elections. 

Positions open for nomination were : Mayor, 
the judges (adult and juvenile), police commis- 
sioner and district attorney, and also two assist- 
ant district attorneys, and park commissioner. 

The candidates on the day of the election were 
seated in big high chairs on the stage. The hall 
was filled with the pretentious audience. As the 
candidates were offered for nomination the people 
of the audience would hesitate for a few moments 
as in doubt for whom he should vote when he 
had perhaps with all probability voiced the names 
of his candidates for nomination the day before. 
After the course of perhaps an hour to an hour 
and a half the officials of the model government 
were chosen. 

The days of Monday, Wednesday and Friday 
were agreed upon to be the days for the trying of 
all misdemeanors. 

The prisoner had the choice of pleading guilty 
or not guilty to the charge placed against him. If 
he pleaded not guilty, he could ask one of the two 
lawyers of the play area to defend him. The 
lawyer then could ask for an adjournment of the 
case to a later date. If he knew enough of the 
prisoner's case, he could defend his claimant the 
same day. In case the prisoner pleaded guilty or 
was found guilty, sentences were imposed on the 
offenders by the judge. A few of the sentences 
were — "Sweep out the court room and take care 
of the chairs after court" or "Bring in the bags 
off the ball diamond every night for a week," or 
sentences too trivial to mention. But to the prison- 
ers they seemed mammoth ! 

The benefit derived from this system of gov- 
ernment has shown the children the desirability 
of cooperating to make the play area a success. It 
has been pointed out to the children that it is their 
play area and whatever happens on it reflects on 
thein. 



Under the auspices of the Community 
Council on Summer Activities of Roches- 
ter, New York, have been created what 
are known as Rochester Play Areas. 
Citizenship Week was one of the out- 
standing activities of the program. The 
information presented here was written 
by Charles Clark, one of the boys on 
Number 19 School Play Area. It was 
sent us by Beatrice Parmenter, Super- 
visor of the New Era Classes. Play lead- 
ers who are developing junior leaders 
among older boys and girls will find this 
of interest. 



Several other activities were 
taught and demonstrated at 
classes during the week. One 
of the instructors taught first 
aid showing how to bandage 
some part of the body and 
telling the class in the most 
interesting manner why a 
tourniquet should be applied 
above a cut, how to put on a 
bandage, the kind of band- 
age, and the medicine to be 



used on the wound. 
Leadership training was one of the most im- 
portant classes stressed. At classes held once a 
week the importance of leadership of older boys 
was pointed out. When the instructor felt that a 
person in his class was capable of taking care of 
some sport or entertainment he placed him in full 
charge. 

Junior Leadership 

The question of the use of older boys and girls 
on the playgrounds as junior leaders is one which 
is constantly coming to the front. Writing on this 
subject Beatrice Keating of the Houston, Texas, 
Recreation Department pointed out that junior 
playground organizations need not be definite 
groups organized for a special purpose with par- 
ticular objectives and responsibilities. It may, she 
points out, be a natural group developed pri- 
marily for the convenience of massed action or 
cooperation and with ideals instead of rules. It 
may be formed not solely with the idea of benefit- 
ing the program but for the purpose of reaping 
the full benefit of the program. With such an 
organization aggressive boys and girls need not be 
made leaders but must be made to realize that they 
are leaders and brought to feel the responsibility 
they have as such. 

This is the organization in force in the Root 
Square leaders' club of Houston whose members 
are all girls from twelve to eighteen years of age 
who want to belong and whose aims are to have 
the best possible time and to give a maximum 
amount of help to the playground. There is no 
badge and the girls do not consider it their ambi- 
tion in life to lead games and do police duty. They 
are very conscious that they are leaders and that 
the playground is judged by their conduct, spirit 
and achievements. They know that they enjoy 
many activities which would be impossible if 
(Continued on page 176) 



Playground Planning and Layout 



Mr. Clegg gives us in these obser- 
vations a leaf from his experience 
as Playround Engineer in the City 
of Milwaukee, where he has planned 
many playgrounds and field houses. 



By 
Gilbert Clegg 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 



I LIVE IN a rented house and dream of a home 
of my own. For years my wife and I have 
collected house plans and have a box full of 
them clipped from innumerable sources, but we 
have never found exactly the right one. Every 
plan in our collection must be changed just a lit- 
tle to meet our special requirements or to satisfy 
our taste. 

A parallel situation exists in playground de- 
sign. There is no ideal plan. No two conditions 
are identical. The size of the site; the existing 
trees or structures upon it ; the available money 
for improvements; the type and extent of super- 
vision or play leadership; the racial heritage and 
the economic status of the people who will use it 
— all vary. 

Under such variable conditions, it is not sur- 
prising that the standard of facilities offered and 
the physical arrangement of playgrounds differ 
widely. And that is as it should be. When the 
playground plan is standardized and no longer 
expresses the individuality of the site, the neigh- 
borhood, or the city, in some measure it falls 
short of its greatest possibilities. Blind copying 
of one successful plan or the unstudied acceptance 
of what has been done in the past is not planning 
any more than clipping house plans from a news- 
paper in good architecture. Every playground 
should be individually planned and, if possible, 
the plan should be prepared by one who is more 
than a good play leader, who knows the play 
leader's aims and problems but who is also keenly 
conscious of the community's interest in the cost 
and appearance of the playground. 

Such a playground designer approaches his 
problem from many angles. He aims (i) to get 
the maximum use from the land available; (2) to 
produce an attractive playground viewed from 



within or without; (3) to simplify the problems 
of supervision and play leadership ; (4) to pre- 
vent accidents by careful segregation of activi- 
ties; (5) to keep operating costs low, and (6) to 
keep original construction costs low. 

There is nothing mysterious or bafflingly intri- 
cate about playground planning, but it does con- 
sist of more than fencing a piece of land, erecting 
apparatus and saying, "There it is, boys. Have a 
good time." 

Planning Involved 

Under ideal conditions the planning will start 
before there is a playground. The playground 
planner will collaborate with the body which 
selects school sites and with the city planner to 
assist in determining the exact location and size 
of the playground. After the land is acquired 
the planning may be divided into two operations 
— (i) the analysis of the problem, and (2) draw- 
ing the plan. Of the two operations the analysis 
is the more important. Unless it is clearly under- 
stood how the playground is going to be operated 
and by whom it will be used one might just as 
well copy stock plans. 

The type of supervision is one of the most im- 
portant factors affecting the layout. If there is 
to be a custodian whose only concern is preserv- 
ing the peace and preventing destruction of pro- 
perty, the plan will be far different than if there 
is to be a play leader or several leaders working 
with different age and sex groups. Ususally the 
custodial supervision is found in the larger parks 
where children go on special outings, often times 
for a whole day, and usually accompanied by 
adults. Such outings are net an every day oc- 
currence and under these conditions the oppor- 
tunity for organized play is slim. This is the 

151 



152 



PLAYGROUND PLANNING AND LAYOUT 



only place for the unusal and 
the "thrill type" of apparatus. 
High swings, revolving equip- 
ment, and long, undulating 
slides will not be used beyond 
the thrill stage and there will 
be little temptation to experi- 
ment with unorthodox and 
frequently dangerous varia- 
tions in use. The parent usual- 
ly accompanies the child on 
these picnics and is on the alert 
to prevent accidents. The de- 
sign of these custodian-super- 
vised playgrounds is primarily 
a problem of the landscape 
architect to preserve natural 
beauty and develop separated 
open spaces where family 
groups may play their own 
games, all convenient to a field 
house for toilet facilities and 
shelter. 

The neighborhood play- 
ground is different from the 
more distant park playground 
in that the same group of chil- 
dren use it almost every day. 
Usually it is small, and to pre- 
vent "hogging" of space by 
the more aggressive gang, it is 
necessary to organize play 
groups under trained leader- 
ship. Apparatus upon such a 
playground must be the simpl- 
est and safest on the market 
and the importance of even 
this decreases as the leader 
perfects his group organiza- 
tion. The effective leader has 
children playing together in- 
stead of zi'ith things. Because 
these neighborhood play- 
grounds are almost always too 
small, and because of the high 
cost of land, the division of 
the playground for certain ac- 
tivities, the arrangement of 
these divisions, the amount and 
kind of equipment, demand a 
careful study of local condi- 
tions and the most skillfully 
prepared plan. 




PLAN OF SIEFERT PLAYGROUND, MILWAUKEE 

Designed by Gilbert Clegg 

Property dimensions, 440' x 315'. Area, 3.18 acres. Active play 
space, 1.97 acres or 62^. Area occupifed by school building, .39 
acres or 12%. Area of grass and shrub strips, walks, pool, etc., 
.82 acres or 26%. Property is surrounded by four streets. Long 
axis runs north and south. Playground is flood lighted for night 
use. Boys' area is "dished" for winter skating. Playground is 
screened from streets by a 13 foot grass and shrub border. Open 
space has been left near exits of school. There is a main open 
space for baseball and running games and a secondary open 
space for volley ball and basketball and for smaller boys' games. 
The pool and park area where both boys and girls play is acces- 
sible to the two play areas, and the apparatus is grouped away 
from most active play. The planting is so planned that it does not 
interfere with play. 



I 



PLAYGROUND PLANNING AND LAYOUT 



153 



The Activities 

The kind of neighborhood, the kind and age of 
children to be served, the local traditions and 
preference have much to do with the activities on 
a playground and consequently the layout. Ten- 
nis may be popular, but there may be sufificient 
courts near by and here always enters the problem 
of justifying the reservation of 650 square yards 
of valuable play space for the use of four people. 
A skating rink may be difficult to work into the 
plan, but if no other place is within easy reach, 
the extra cost may be worth while. A wading pool 
may draw great crowds in one part of a city but 
fail to attract in another because a nearby park or 




The wading pool at Burbank Playground, Milwaukee, 
has been made +0 fit into the contour of the land 



beach may have a more attractive pool with 
pleasant accommodations for mothers. Baseball, 
soccer, and football have enthusiastic followings, 
but the players are old enough to travel considera- 
ble distances to suitable fields and these space de- 
vouring activities should not be crowded into a 
playground to the disadvantage of play space for 
young children. As a general rule boys want play- 
ground ball diamonds, and if that is all there is 
room for it is better to have a simple layout with 
a good ball diamond and nothing else than a ' 
cramped diamond, and a cramped volley ball 
court, all crowded against an assortment of ap- 
paratus. 

Details of the plans, as, for example, surfacing, 
should be settled by analysis of the problem. None 



of us likes the hard, barren, all weather type of 
surfacing so often used. It isn't a question of 
likes and dislikes ; it is a question of meeting de- 
finite requirements. If the playground is in con- 
junction with a school and the children must use 
it the year round, good weather and bad, then at 
least some portion of the grounds must be sur- 
faced to be available under all conditions. If the 
grounds are large, possibly some can be left in 
turf, but it is the exceptional school playground 
that has extensive grounds and ample play facili- 
ties that can be left entirely in turf. A part of 
many of our northern playgrounds is flooded for 
a skating rink. Our experience is that where 
turf is flooded almost all 
grass is killed and the cost of 
maintenance is high. Where 
flooding is a routine matter a 
hard surfaced area is more 
satisfactory. For some games, 
as, for example, volley ball 
and basketball, a true, hard 
surface is desirable, and even 
under ideal space conditions 
it is probable that some area 
will be hard surfaced. The 
type of surfacing is not im- 
portant in so far as the gen- 
eral layout is concerned and 
will not be discussed here. 

Buildings are always ex- 
pensive and the need for a 
building and its exact use de- 
serve very careful considera- 
tion. If the playground is in conjunction with a 
school it may be possible to utilize the school 
building for toilets, equipment storage, storm 
shelter and craft work. If the playground is in- 
dependent of any school building the field house 
may vary all the way from a box for tools and 
equipment to a large building with all "the facili- 
ties of a community center. If it is decided that 
a large building is necessary and finances dictate 
a small building, the playground plan should be 
made upon the basis of the large building, and, if 
possible, the structure that can be erected with 
funds available should be a part of the larger 
plan. The building architect and the playground 
designer must work in perfect coordination that 
the floor plan, entrances, and maintenance and 
supervision facilities dovetail perfectly with the 
general plan. 



154 



PLAYGROUND PLANNING AND LAYOUT 



The possibility of evening play under flood 
lights should be considered because the layout of 
ball diamonds, basketball and volley ball courts, 
horseshoe courts, and, to a lesser degree, all the 
activities, are affected. The beams of light should 
in so far as possible light the ball at right angles 
to its normal flight and from two sides to prevent 
confusing shadows. For playground ball the main 
sources of light may well be on both ends of a 
line drawn through first and third bases. For bas- 
ket and volley ball the light should be across the 
short axis of the court and from both sides. The 
poles which support these lights must be so placed 
that they do not interfere with active play. 

The organization of the selected activities into 
a workable, economical and beautiful playground 
design starts upon the drafting board. The exact 
starting point and technique is a matter of per- 
sonal preference. In my experience the plan just 
grows; tentative layouts are made, flaws are 
found in them, new layouts are drawn and the 
process is continued until the plan is evolved. If 
a schedule had to be prepared, it would be some- 
thing like this : 

(i) Segregation of Activities 

a. Sex 

b. Age 

c. Kind of activity ^ ^-^^ ^c Holt Aven 

showing boys' area 



d. Degree of segregation 

(2) Circulation (i.e. ease of moving about) 

a. From the street to the playground 

b. To drinking fountains 

c. To toilets 

d. To the neutral areas and quiet corners 
c. For safety — particularly affecting loca- 
tion of apparatus 

(3) Appearances 
o. Simple, orderly layout 

b. Planting for beauty 
(i) Viewed from the outside 

(2) Internal views 

(3) Screening of maintenance opera- 
tions — light equipment 

c. Details of planning such as : 

( 1 ) Height and style of fences 

(2) Seats 

(3) Building architecture 

(4) Wading pools 

(4) Maintenance 

a. Service areas and buildings 

b. Circulation and entrances for equipment 

c. Water system, sewer system 

(5) Design of details 

a. Selection of apparatus ; kind of sur- 
faces, etc. 

b. Establishment of grades 

c. Planting plan 

d. 'Writing specifications 
ue Playground, Milwaukee. <^^ Estimate of Cost 
with surrounding planting 




PLAYGROUND PLANNING AND LAYOUT 



155 



With such a schedule no one part is started and 
carried to completion as an independent opera- 
tion : the plan is built up simultaneously and this 
interrelation must be constantly in the designer's 
mind. Discussion of the plan, one phase at a 
time, will of necessity seem disjointed, but no 
other ways seem open, and I'll touch upon the de- 
tails following the above outline. 

Segregation of Activities 

There must be some segregation of activities. 
Baseball and sand box modeling, volley ball and 
airplane building, don't mix. In planning the 
grounds, the activity requiring the most space, in 
which there are tlie most running and throwing, 
is located first. If there are to be two such areas, 
one for boys and one for girls, the boys' space 
will be larger because they hit further and run 
wilder. No hard and fast rule can be set down, 
but if a twelve inch playground ball is used the 
boys should have a 200 foot batting radius and 
the girls can get along with 125 feet. The increas- 
ing interest in playground ball is likely to lead to 
new standards. For small grounds where a 200 
foot radius is impossible it is probable that a 14 
inch ball will be standard and upon larger grounds 
the 12 inch ball will be used. 

The segregation is dependent upon the number 
of play leaders and becomes greater as the ntim- 
ber of play leaders increases. In homogeneous 
neighborhoods of home owners, segregation of 
sexes is desirable only for the playing of the more 
vigorous games by the chldren of adolescence and 
older. The younger children usually play their 
games together, just as they play together within 
the family circle. 

These active play areas are located so that in- 
ter-play traffic does not cut across them. Off from 
the main path of traffic 
may be located smaller 
areas : one equipped with 
apparatus; another fenced 
and surfaced to be used 
for volley ball, basketball 
or paddle tennis ; another 
for horseshoes; another 
for shuffieboard, handball 
or similar games; another 
with sand box, shade and 
perhaps a pool for very 
small children and their 
mothers; and finally, a 
service area. On the large 



FOUR SURE TESTS 

1. Are the boys and girls who use the play- 
ground satisfied? Do they play the games 
where indicated on the plan, or do they try 
to overcome some shortcomings by a rear- 
rangement of their own? 

2. Is the play leader enthusiastic and con- 
vinced that he has a real playground or is he 
always suggesting important changes? 

3. Are the taxpayers satisfied with the re- 
turn on the investment, and 

4. Do the neighbors look upon the play- 
ground as a nuisance or a benefit? Would 
they like to see the site return to its former use 
or are they proud of the playground? 



playgrounds there will be room for tennis courts, 
regulation baseball diamonds, soccer, field hockey, 
and football fields. The method of separating 
these specialized activity areas will depend upon 
many factors : there may be definite fences in con- 
gested grounds where safety from flying balls is 
an important consideration ; there may be a few 
trees and shrubs where there is no congestion and 
the total area is large, or there may be no physi- 
cal barrier at all. 

In the evolution of the plan, as these different 
areas are located the paths used for the most 
direct passage from one to another and to the 
drinking fountains and toilets can be foreseen. To 
avoid confusion the areas should be arranged to 
produce a very simple pattern of paths to prevent 
interference and make easier the problem of 
supervision. The location of drinking fountains, 
toilets and the play director's store room should 
be studied to prevent interference with active play 
groups. Circulation can be guided and safety pro- 
moted by careful placing of entrances from the 
street. Gates in the middle of a block may be a 
cause of accidents because motorists do not ex- 
pect children to dart out from the middle of a 
fenced playground. 

This pattern of the various play areas and the 
paths of travel can be emphasized and made at- 
tractive with plantings of trees and shrubbery so 
that the planting seems to be the reason for the 
location of the play areas. Within the playground 
itself, particularly near the areas devoted to the 
most active play, the planting should be trees 
only, for shrubbery is not robust enough to stand 
the abuse it is likely to get. Around the quiet ac- 
tivity spaces, such as a wading pool or mothers' 
area, and along the boundaries of the playground, 
the selection of plant material may be wider and 
and richer. Perennial beds 
may be introduced and, if 
interest in nature study is 
aroused, the nature clubs 
may plan beds of annuals. 
In general, the landscape 
work should take its cue 
from the homes of the 
neighborhood, and be just 
a little better than the pri- 
vate grounds across the 
street that the playground 
may be a sample of what 
can be done toward neigh- 
borhood improvement. 
(Continued on page 177) 




The Swimming Pool on the Playground 



A LARGE NUMBER of the play- 
grounds of this country 
now have swimming pools 
on the grounds or in school 
buildings near by. Since swimming is such a joy- 
ous and beneficial sport, it is conceivable that the 
time may come when all playgrounds constructed 
will include a swimming pool. 

The first step in organizing a swimming pro- 
gram with the playground should be the regis- 
tration of all children. Each child should bring a 
doctor's permit stating that he is free from con- 
tagious diseases. This insures more sanitary con- 
ditions about the pool. 

Every summer the playground could have a learn- 
to-swim campaign which should last two weeks, as 
one week is a rather short time to conduct a pro- 
gram of this nature. The pool should be used only 
for instructional purposes during this learn-to- 
swim campaign. Every schedule and program will 
have to be adjusted to the needs of the community. 
Below is a sample schedule that might be intro- 
duced in a majority of the playground pools. 

9 :00- 9 :4S — Beginners, boys and girls 

six to ten 
10:00-10:45 — Beginners all above ten 
11:00-11:45— Intermediate girls above 



By Herbert G. Allphin 

Swimming Instructor 
University of Kansas 



ten 
2:00- 2 :45— Intermediate boys above 

ten 
3 :00- 3 :45 — Diving, boys and girls ten 
4:00- 4:45 — Life saving, juniors and 

seniors 
5 :00- 5 :30 — Competitive swimming, 

boys 



Mr. Allphin believes that the 
promotion of swimming pro- 
grams at playgrounds is a very 
important step toward the en- 
joyable use of leisure in future 
years. He urges that everything 
possible be done to encourage 
swimming and water sports. 



Another plan which could be 
utilized would be to have al- 
ternate days for boys and girls. 
For example, the girls could 
take lessons on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fri- ' 
days, while the boys could attend on Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays. In this case the hours 
could be adjusted to suit the occasion. 

The water work in conjunction with the play- 
ground pool should be divided into about four 
divisions as follows : 

1. Beginners 3. Advanced 

2. Intermediates 4. Life saving 
This grouping will offer several degrees of in- 
struction and should make the swim week more 
interesting to all concerned. 

It will be noticed in the schedule that fifteen 
minutes are allowed between each period. This is 
done to permit the change of one class to another 
and to make sure that Jhe beginners meeting from 
9:00 to 9:45 are all out of the pool before the 
10:00 o'clock class is allowed to enter. Leaders 
must be selected by the swimming directors to 
help with life guard duty, demon- 
strate different strokes, assist in 
taking rolls and perform any 
other duties which may arise on 
an occasion of this kind. These 
leaders should attend a training 
school given by the director be- 
(Continued on page 178) 



156 



The King of Games Conquers the Playground 



Do children enjoy playing chess? Milwaukee's 
experience proves beyond doubt that they do! 



LjvsT SUMMER the Extension Department of the 
^ Milwaukee public schools experimented with 
the teaching of chess on the playgrounds. 
Although the game had been taught very success- 
fully in the social centers for four years there was 
naturally some question as to how well it would 
"take" with boys and girls on the playgrounds. 
Only a demonstration would answer this question. 
During the last three weeks of the playground 
season, fifteen playgrounds were selected for the 
experiment. An instructor was sent to each of 
these playgrounds for four lessons, each lesson 
lasting not over one and one-half hours. The re- 
sult was not only gratifying but very successful. 
Boys and girls ranging from ages of eight to 
twenty-three years dropped the ball and bat and 
equipment of more active games to take lessons 
in chess. As a result 900 boys and girls were in- 
structed by these itinerant teachers. 

The Procedure 

The classes were organized through the 
medium of bulletin board posters and an- 
nouncements during the story hour. After the 
first lesson so much enthusiasm was displayed 
by those who had had the instruction that new- 
comers were constantly joining the classes. 
Those who grasped the game more rapidly as- 
sisted the laggards. 

The method of procedure and instruction 
was as follows : The first 
lesson consisted of instruc- 
tion in the name of each 
piece. En Passant and the 
object of the game. Les- 
son two was a repetition 
of lesson one plus Castl- 
ing, board notation, the 
value of pieces, stalemate, 
perpetual check, etc. Les- 
son three took up the 



FACTS ABOUT CHESS IN MILWAUKEE 
4,200 at beginners' classes 
3,000 at advanced classes 
7 municipal leagues 
48 municipal league teams 
208 municipal league players 
2,460 aHendance in municipal league play 
I annual city tournament 
I annual state tournament 
5,000 in municipal chess room annual for 
play. 



Queening of the Pawn and simple game play- 
ing. Lesson four took in Ruy Lopez and Guicco 
Piano opening. 

The Problem of Equipment 

Equipment for chess is expensive, and one 
of the first problems that arose was that of 
providing sets for the playgrounds. But the 
solution was quickly found when the children 
discovered they could make the sets during 
playground handcraft periods. Drug stores and 
other commercial places developing camera 
films were glad to contribute the spools on 
which the films are wound. These spools, 
which have two metal ends, were cut in two, 
and the chess figure was cut out of a piece of 
pasteboard and stuck in the slit which is in the 
spool. The children dipped one set of chess 
men in black paint and the other in white, and 
a complete chess set was ready for use. Some 
of the more ambitious children carved the 
figures out of wood instead of pasteboard and 
after painting them finished them with shellac 
making very attractive sets. 

And On They Go! 

Several playgrounds organized teams and 

have inter-playground matches. The Sherman 

playground conducted a tournament in which 

seventy-four boys participated, while another 

playground conducted a 

girls' tournament in which 

there were twenty-two 

entries. 

As a result in the inter- 
est aroused in the sum- 
mer program, clubs were 
organized in the fall at 
the social centers. A series 
of six free lessons for be- 
ginners was given at three 

157 



158 



THE KING OF GAMES CONQUERS THE PLAYGROUND 



wo^ot^^o^ 



n 



Rook or 
Castle 



Spools tor +Ke 
\/arit>u& pieces 

KiNG- - •J %\neUts 

QuEeN - 2. '/i • 

ElbHOP- 1 'A ' 

KNiewr- I'/t • 

Cavtle - 1 '/* * 

Pawh - y« - 




<M^ 



Don't be discouraged at the 

~, It's easy, and a lot of fun, 

centers. Ihere was ' 

also a group of 

twelve lessons for those who had advanced 
from the beginners group or for those with 
some knowledge of the game. 

Today chess fans in Milwaukee have a mu- 
nicipal playroom at the Lapham Park Social 
Center which is open to the public every Mon- 
day and Friday evenings the year around. Sev- 
eral tournaments of advanced types are spon- 
sored for all classes of players and one or more 
nationally famous masters are brought to the 
city for simultaneous exhibitions. 




A few facts about the terms used in chess 
may be of interest to prospective players: 

The object of the game is to pretend to cap- 
ture the opponent's King. When capture is 
threatened, the King is in check (Ch or -}-). 
When capture is inevitable the King is "check- 
mate" (+-(-) and the game is won. When the 
King is not in check but no move can be made 
without placing him in check, he is in "stale- 
mate" and the game is a draw or tie. 



Queen Pawn 



cost of chess equipment, 
too, to make your own! 

The chess board is 

identical with the 
checker board. It is placed so that a white 
square is at the lower right hand corner of both 
players. The rows of alternate squares from 
left to right are called ranks, those from bot- 
tom to top — i.e. — "straightup" — are called files. 
The files are named after the major piece that 
occupies them at the start of the game. 

Each player has eight Pawns which repre- 
sent common soldier§; two Rooks, or Castles; 
two Knights, representing the cavalry and 
known as the most elusive and dangerous 
pieces on the board ; two Bishops, one Queen, 
the most powerful piece on the board, and one 
King. The abbreviation for each piece is the 
capital letter starting its name, except that Kt 
stands for Knight. 

Eric E. Eastman, Assistant County Agent, 
Extension Service, Orange County, California, 
has prepared a statement incorporating the 
rules of the game in brief form. Copies of this 
statement may be secured on request from the Na- 
tional Recreation Association. 




Costume Balls in the Black Mills 



FOR sKV'ERAL WEEKS preced- 
ing February 22nd Black 
Hills residents donned his- 
toric costumes and enjoyed a series of costume 
balls. Back of it all was the committee for the 
Pageant of America which will be staged in a 
giant natural bowl near Rapid City, South Da- 
kota, between July 4th and September. The in- 
cidents and episodes for the pageant have been 
selected in view of their relation to Washington, 
Jeflferson, Lincoln and Roosevelt, the giant figures 
being carved on Mount Rushmore by Gutzum 
Borglum. 

The purpose of the balls has been to get Black 
Hills folks into the spirit of play which will put 
them in the pageant mood and will inspire David 
Crockett when he is filling the tourist's gas tank, 
Louis the XIV while he is O.K.ing his check or a 
Sioux princess when she is serving lunch! 

How the spirit of play captured one community 
is the theme of this story. 

"Yes, we'll do it," was the answer of the local 
Spearfish, South Dakota, group to the central 
pageant committee. And this is how they did it. 

First, a representative committee of women was 
selected to make plans. The town people were 
given opportunity to make nominations for a queen 
and a committee representing various organiza- 
tions in the town made the selection. The corona- 
tion ceremony, announced to take place on the 
night of the ball, February 9th, was planned and 
carried out by a skilled dramatic coach connected 
with the Spearfish Normal School. Special dances 



By Margaret S. Bridge 

Spearfish, South Dakota 



were in the hands of a trained 
leader. They all gave their 
services. 

The grand march was set for 9 :oo o'clock. 
When the committee on reception arrived at 8 130 
it found a crowded hall. Unprecedented ! Any 
number of townspeople and guests from neigh- 
boring towns had come early "to avoid the rush" 
and in order not to miss the show. A large per- 
centage came in costume. Hoops, panniers, wigs, 
knee-breeches, side-burns and large shoe buckles 
introduced characters from the Colonial period 
through the Civil War. George and Martha Wash- 
ington, Daniel Boone, a gambler of Mississippi 
River days and a lady of the Empire period were 
among those who entered the grand march led by 
the Queen of the occasion. 

Music, especially planned, introduced a number 
of the waltzes and dances of an earlier day. In 
the intermissions three guests of honor represent- 
ing living history took their places in front of a 
microphone and told something of their recollec- 
tions. Nonagenarians! all — who had lived through 
the administrations of twenty-one of the thirty 
presidents of these United States. Two were 
Civil War brides. The third, a man, had been in 
England when the Civil War started. All had 
been born when only three states lay west of the 
Mississippi River. 

The ball was an occasion of color, and as one 
woman said, "It brightened up the village for a 
bit." Another saw in it something of value from 
(Continued on page 180) 

159 



Start Your Planning Now 

for the 



Summer Closing Festival 



THIS SUMMER will see a larger number of play- 
grounds in operation than ever before in the 
history of the movement. Work relief funds 
will place more leaders on the grounds and many 
new communities of children will enjoy the ad- 
vantages of play with leadership. This means 
that more children will follow the graceful cus- 
tom of expressing their appreciation for a long 
summer of play on public playgrounds in a 
pageant or festival marking the close of another 
season. 

\^^hen the playgrounds open the wise super- 
visor will begin looking ahead to that closing event 
and planning it as a natural development of the 
summer. The closing festival has a two-fold pur- 
pose. It furnishes a goal that spices the long days 
of play with a sense of achievement. It also gives 
the children an opportunity to prove once more 
the benefits of a happy, healthy summer under 
play leadership. With a little foresight and plan- 
ning the festival can be presented without impos- 
ing a last-minute strain on directors and children, 
the work of the summer can be utilized, and the 
burden of the presentation distributed among the 
different grounds. 

From playgrounds where a little group of play- 
ers is accustomed to present plays in some se- 
cluded corner, the leading characters can be drawn, 
while children who have never had drama experi- 
ence can gain some insight into it through par- 
ticipation in the various groups. Perhaps the fol- 
lowing season will find some child who was a 
dancer in the festival joining the little group of 
playground players and trying his skill in more 
difficult roles. 

Since it is impossible to bring the children of 
widely scattered grounds together for more than 
one rehearsal — and in some cities even this will be 

160 



■ out of the question — the success of the festival 
depends on organization and on selecting the type 
of material that is easily adapted to the local situ- 
ation. Every year the supervisor who has pro- 
duced a number of these festivals finds it in- 
creasingly difficult to discover another idea or out- 
line on which she can build her next presentation. 
There are several favorite themes that .are par- 
ticularly adaptable. Among these the Robin Hood 
motif is a favorite. This story not only provides 
opportunities for individual work in the charac- 
ters of Robin Hood, Little John, Will Stukely, 
Friai' Tuck and Maid Marion, but in the roles of 
villagers, strolling players, minstrels, Merry Men, 
outlaws, Jack o' the Green, Will-o'- 

the Wisps, flowers, elves, and fair- Syracuse, New Yor 
ies, every playground child can find a present a beautifu 

climax of the summi 




START YOUR PLANNING NOW FOR THE SUMMER CLOSING FESTIVAL 



161 



part to play. The English folk dances and archery 
that have been part of the season's activities are 
ready to be incorporated into the festival. A 
charming Robin Hood festival was presented 
by the St. Louis public school playgrounds 
several years ago and many other cities have 
employed the popular legend. 

The stories of the Piped Piper and Rip 
Van Winkle also lend themselves easily to 
the playground festival. The councilmen, 
the village children, the burghers and the 
rats furnish group participation while the 
colorful Pied Piper and the little lame boy 
are ideal central figures. The little men of 
the mountain, the Dutch villagers, fireflies and 
other nature groups form the choruses in the 
stbry of Rip's adventure. Bowling and folk danc- 
ing can be utilized. 

Indian pageants and festivals seem to fit un- 
usually well in the summer program. A number 
of years ago the season was devoted to Indian 
lore, handcraft, dancing, etc., in Reading, Penn- 
sylvania, and at the close of the summer an In- 
dian pageant was presented. Details of this pro- 
duction are described in the bulletin An Indian 
Pageant in Reading, Pa* 

The following report of an Indian play festi- 
val presented last summer by the Rec- 
one of the cities to reation Division of the Louisville De- 
door festival as the partment of Public Welfare offers 
ilayground program. 




many suggestions which other communities might 
follow. 
"For the past two summers dramatics has played 



Every year pageants and festivals conceived and de- 
veloped by recreation workers are presented at the end 
of the season — and pass into limbo as far as the possi- 
bility of other communities profiting by them is concern- 
ed. The Drama Service of the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation here makes the plea that every playground super- 
visor who produces an original pageant or festival this 
summer send in a copy of the manuscript, a program or 
even a newspaper clipping describing the event. 



its part in the regular playground program, but 
the Indian plays have proved most popular and 
have attracted more adults and boys to participate 
in them. Because of the rich store of Indian lore 
in our Kentucky history, this central theme for 
dramatization seemed best adapted. Our parks, 
named for the Cherokee, Shawnee, Iroquois and 
Seneca Indians, immediately opened up an avenue 
for adventure. The library was appealed to for 
material and it was found that it, too, had gone 
primitive, having chosen for its children's reading 
course a study of the North American Indians, 
and a vast amount of material was on tap. The 
Filson Club, the local historical society specializ- 
ing in Kentuckiana, was helpful in locating ma- 
terial for the two pioneer plays dealing with the 
infancy of the state. 

"Perhaps one of the biggest values of the In- 
dian plays was the amount of ingenuity and in- 
dustry displayed in presentation. Cheese boxes 
were transformed into beatable tom-toms, kegs 
became water drums by cutting up discarded in- 
ner tubes and nailing them taut across the open- 
ing, tin cans and a few pebbles masquerading 
under bright paint and feathers, became Indian 
rattles; sticky paper when dampened became 
bracelets, belts, and anklets, fit for the most fas- 
tidious redskin maiden. 

"Books on Indian crafts were referred to for 
authentic designs for painting. Trips to the mu- 
seum to view first hand a real Indian outfit were 
looked forward to. Two burlap bags were suf- 
ficient to make a costume and moccasins either 
for a maiden or a brave. For the warriors, two 
pairs of trunks could be • cut from one bag. 
Grocery stores were hounded for the choice bags. 
One interested seed merchant even went so far as 



* This can be obtained from the National Recreation Association, 
together with the bulletin, Indian Lore, for ten cents. 



162 START YOUR PLANNING NOW FOR THE SUMMER CLOSING FESTIVAL 



to obtain for one group of playground children, 
bags from the manufacturer without the printing, 
so that they would be unhampered in their 
decoration. 

"After weeks of feverish preparation, the con- 
test days rolled around. A schedule was worked 
out, and the four judges were transported from 
playground to playground. The plays were rated, 
and the district winners announced. The beat of 
the tom-toms pounded in the brains of the judges 
after two nights and an afternoon of Indians ! It 
rnust be confessed that the dramatic specialist, 
who preceded the judges to place the finishing 
touches on the make-up, resembled the be- 
smudged leading lady of 'The Tewa Turkey Girl' 
who cast her lot with the turkeys — but after all, 
what does it matter if one pale face bites the dust, 
when hundreds of little savages will look back 
many moons from now to a whopping good time?" 

A delightful example of the adaption of fairy 
tales to playground pageantry is the Ugly Duck- 
ling pageant which the Detroit, Michigan, play- 
grounds presented last summer. Miss Lottie A. 
McDermott, Superintendent of the Recreation 
Department, has made the following description 
which may be of use to other directors. 

"Three thousand girls, ranging in ages from 
five to sixteen years, participated in the 1934 sum- 
mer playground pageant The Ugly Duckling, 
which was staged at Belle Isle on the afternoon 
of August 22nd. 

"The pageant field stretched along the river 
with a lovely grove of trees along one end and the 
beautiful Scott Memorial Fountain at the other. 
This fountain, considered one of the most beauti- 
ful in the world, was turned on especially for the 
afternoon. 

"A large center stage, also two smaller end 
stages, were used, and on them all the principal 
characters in the story reigned for the afterndon. 
Mrs. Duck, Mrs. Turkey, Mrs. Hen, Mr. Farmer, 
the young cockerels, who were very amusing and 
dramatic, the Spirit of Nature, Spring, South 
Wind, East Wind, Sunshine, Dew, the Ugly 
Duckling and the little ducklings all played their 
parts successfully. 

"When the pageant opened and the children 
marching on the field in their many colorful cos- 
tumes, the lovely green of the Belle Isle grass, the 
setting of tall trees in the background, the deep 
blue of the summer sky and the sun sparkling on 
the waters of the fountain made a lovely picture 
not soon to be forgotten. 



"Episode I. The Farmyard Scene showed 
farmers, animals, milkmaids and strolling players 
contributing to the dance numbers and the audi- 
ence of 10,000 had the opportunity of witnessing 
the hatching of the duck eggs which took place on 
the central stage. They saw all the troubles ex- 
perienced by Mrs. Duck in teaching her young 
ducklings how to stand and walk. 

"Episode II. The Deep Forest Scene brought 
on the spiders, lightning bugs, crickets and pixies, 
harassing and frightening the Ugly Duckling. 
Then a beautiful nature spirit called the autumn 
leaves to cover the Ugly Duckling and many tiny 
snowflakes spread a blanket of snow over the 
pageant field. 

"Episode III. The Garden Scene brought the 
warm rain and zephyrs to the garden, the mantle 
of snow disappeared and beautiful birds and but- 
terflies made their appearance. Groups of chil- 
dren performed three singing games, followed by 
the lords and ladies who discovered that the Ugly 
Duckling had been turned into a beautiful white 
swan. Myraids of white swans then appeared and 
honored the newcomer with a graceful swan 
dance. The new swan rustled his feathers, raised 
his slender neck aloft and said with exultation in 
his heart, T never dreamed of so much happiness 
when I was the Ugly Duckling.' " 

The Ever-Popular Circus 
The circus is always a popular closing event for 
the playground boys who do not always find ac- 
ceptable opportunities in the more fanciful 
pageants. There were 800 performers in the play- 
ground circus staged last summer in Somerville, 
Massachusetts, under the auspices of the Recrea- 
tion Commission. They were all there — snake 
charmers, Siamese T\vins, elephants, giraffes, 
acrobats, clowns, the glass eater, sword swallower, 
tall man, fat lady, bearded lady, dwarf, tight rope 
walker and trapeze artist. The circus was pre- 
ceded by a parade three-quarters of a mile long 
which gave the citizens an opportunity to see the 
Jailem and Bailem Troupe. Seven playgrounds 
took part. 

In Athol, Massachusetts, more than 125 chil- 
dren presented the Barnhouse and Bailhay Circus. 
Following the parade came a, performance by the 
Harmony Players, two black crows, the Siamese 
Twins, Amos, Andy and Madam Queen, clowns, 
acrobats and magicians, cowboys and Indians. 
(Continued on page 180) 



When the Neighborhood Playground 

Ends Its Season 



By all means arrange for a gala 
event at the end of the season, 
but be sure the children have a 
part In making the plans for it 
and feel it is their own show! 



As WE PAINT up the old swings and see-saws, 
^ then unpack the new mushballs and bats, it 
may, perhaps, seem a trifle early to concern 
ourselves with the playground closing event. 
Nevertheless, it is highly probable that we need 
to turn the matter over in our minds now, in 
order that this final public demonstration may be 
the outgrowth of the season's work, a glimpse of 
the playground activities and spirit, rather than a 
mediocre vaudeville entertainment. 

First of all, we will want the youngsters to feel 
that it is their show. Consequently we must not 
deny them the opportunity of assisting in plan- 
ning the program, as well as in carrying it out. 
Quite early in the season a central planning com- 
mittee might be formed, which would include 
representatives of the different children's groups. 
Committees of older boys and girls can assume 
responsibility for publicity, seating arrangements, 
ushering. 

As we acquire volunteer workers, each can be 
given a special responsibility for working up one 
item on the program. The volunteers may be 
organized into a group of assistant directors. It 
is essential, however, that they recognize the value 
of helping the boys and girls carry out their own 
plans, and that they control any desire to dictate 
their more mature conceptions. 

Gradually, as we make friends among the 
fathers and mothers of the playground children, 
we may well develop an advisory or sponsoring 
committee of parents, so that playground affairs 
may be more closely related to the life of the 
community. 

Concerning the "Mechanics" 

Responsibility for the mechanics of all large 
gatherings must be laid at our own door. Cer- 



By Dora M. Einert 

Department of Social Work 

Carnegie Institute of Technology 

Pittsburgh. Pa. 



tainly the youngsters cannot be expected to exer- 
cise this necessary foresight, and yet their most 
delightful program may be a very disappointing 
aflFair because of failure on our part to think in 
terms of time, place, who will see the shotv, and 
zvill they really be able to see and hear it? 

The closing event, naturally, takes place near 
the end of the season, but as with all outdoor af- 
fairs, alternative dates must be set because of the 
uncertainty of weather conditions. The early 
evening hours are probably the best, since at the 
close of the entertainment a twilight lantern 
parade can be held. 

It is usually wise to center the activities as far 
from the gate of admission as possible, because 
there is usually some noise and confusion near 
the entrance. Often we can make use of natural 
stage settings, such as elevated ground and trees, 
or utilize steps, wading pools or junglegyms. 

Of course the area for the performers must be 
clearly designated. This may be done by such 
crude methods as marking it: oflf with white lines, 
or making a boundary with stones which have 
been whitewashed. The arrangement of seats can 
also help in indicating the performers' area, but 
seats, alas, are movable ! For an evening enter- 
tainment overhead strings of electric lights are 
good, and a row of playground-made or kerosene 
lanterns can serve as footlights. The space may 
be roped oflF at a height of about two and a half 
feet and decorated with brightly colored crepe 
paper pennants attached to this rope. 

We can safely assume that the greater part of 
the audience will be composed of the parents of 
the performers, their neighbors and children who 

163 



164 



WHEN THE NEIGHBORHOOD PLAYGROUND ENDS ITS SEASON 



attend other playgrounds. In neighborhoods 
where there is a possibility that rowdy groups 
may prove a disturbing factor, we can take the 
precaution of using tickets of admission. These 
should be free of cost, but distributed in very 
limited numbers, such as two to each child, so 
that the recipients will feel that it is a special 
privilege to attend the affair. Some responsible 
men from the parents' committee can give very 
effective service at the gate. 

It is often a good idea to invite some guests of 
honor, such as the mayor, the chairman of the 
playground association, the superintendent of 
schools, ministers in the playground neighbor- 
hood, newspaper men, policemen and firemen of 
the district and the storekeepers who may have 
cooperated with the playground program. A craft 
project, such as block printing or crayon decora- 
tion can easily be correlated with this preparation 
for the closing event. 

Seating and lighting arrangements must be 
worked out with great care. It is a well-established 
fact that if spectators have difficulty in either see- 
ing, hearing, or both, they tend to become very 
restless, to move seats or standing positions and 
to discuss the difficulties they are experiencing 
with those around them ! Consequently even an 
audience of kindly disposed people may seem un- 
cooperative under these circumstances. 

Frequently it is advisable to arrange the seating 
in a complete circle, or in a very generous semi- 
circle around the performers' area. The children 
can help in planning different 
seating arrangements, first on 
paper, then on the grounds, so 
that a maximum number of visit- 
ors can have favorable positions. 
Perhaps we can plan that two 
rows of children sit on the 
ground on playground-made 
newspaper seat pads, the next 
two rows might have low seats 
or benches. Outside these there 
can be a number of rows of 



There must be gaiety and laughter 
at your neighborhood gathering, so 
steal a good idea from the circus 
and have mirth-provoking clowns! 



higher chairs and benches behind which the addi- 
tional visitors can stand. 

If we need illumination at night, this can some- 
times be successfully provided by having parked 
cars throw their lights from different angles. In 
this case it is essential that we have a rehearsal of 
these improvised lighting arrangements so that we 
can discover how best to avoid unwanted shadow 
effects. 

• We inust remember that a child's voice does 
not carry well out of doors, so that if the group is 
large we would better avoid any solo speaking 
parts unless we can arrange for sound amplifiers. 
The master of ceremonies can be equipped with 
a megaphone. 

The boy and girl ushers are important people. 
\\'e can help them to secure some playground- 
made identifying insignia. They should be in- 
structed to request people to be quiet; if this is 
done politely, it will probably be effective. 

The Program 

Now for some suggestions regarding the pro- 
gram itself. First of all. Music. Let us be sure to 
enlist the services of a local band, be it police, fire, 
lodge or nationality organization. We will need 
the band for the beginning and close of the en- 
tertainment. In addition to this we will, of course, 
have the outgrowth of the children's musical ac- 
tivities — their toy orchestras, kazoo, comb and 
mouth organ bands and their favorite songs. Such 
songs as "Soldier, Soldier, Will You Marry Me" 




Courtesy Detroit Recreation Department 



WHEN THE NEIGHBORHOOD PLAYGROUND ENDS ITS SEASON 



165 



I 



and "There Was An Old Woman As I've Heard 
Tell" may well be sung by the entire group and 
dramatized at the same time by the necessary char- 
acters. Some songs in which the audience is in- 
vited to join will draw spectators and performers 
more closely together. For instance, it is quite fit- 
ting to open the program with the singing of the 
national anthem, also to sing well-known old folk 
songs or some of the better popular songs. Rounds 
such as "Row, Row, Row Your Boat," "Little Tom 
Tinker" or "Are You Sleeping, Brother John," 
will interest the audience, especially if they have 
actions. 

Second : Laughter. Why not steal a good idea 
from the circus and have clowns? If clown suits 
are not available overalls make satisfactory cos- 
tumes, with the addition of big neck frills of 
pleated crepe or unprinted newspaper. Of course, 
clown make-up will add greatly to such a costume. 
These clowns can work up their many short acts 
which should be interspersed throughout the pro- 
gram so as to keep up the level of gaiety. The 
clowns can give a tumbling act which can be either 
skillful or foolish or both. They can have a leap- 
frog relay race or a "skin the snake" contest be- 
tween two teams. A balloon relay will provide 
much amusement. In this game the first clown on 
each team blows up his balloon until it bursts, 
which is a signal for the second player to begin to 
inflate his balloon. It is advisable to have a pair 
of sun goggles for each team, and the rule that a 
player may not begin to blow up the balloon until 
he has adjusted his goggles. This adds to the fun 
and provides protection for the eyes. Other clown 
acts may be a crazy tug-of-war or some very child- 
ish game such as "Did You Ever See a Lassie ?" 

Third : Skill and Sportsmanship. Why not ask 
the different groups of children to select their 
favorite games and then present these as their 
contribution to the playground closing event pro- 
gram? We should, however, guide this choice in 
terms of which games will have most interest for 
the spectators. Singing games, whether simple or 
complex, are very suitable; running games in a 
definite formation, such as two-deep, three-deep, 
broncho tag, are easily seen and understood. Jump 
the shot is excellent, also the beetle goes 'round. 
Line games are not as effective as circle games, 
with the exception of last couple out and relay 
races. The familiar potato race is always fun, so 
also are dress-up relays such as a rainy day race, 
where players on each team must put on galoshes. 



huge gloves, sweater or slicker and then open an 
umbrella in plain sight of the audience before 
running to the goal. 

The girls and boys can demonstrate poor and 
good form in such games as mushball, volley ball, 
horseshoes and deck tennis with rope rings. Of 
course poor form must be very much exaggerated 
in order to make the comparison with the good 
form really funny. A very brief mushball game 
of boys dressed as girls will amuse the audience, 
so also will a volley ball game played first in the 
orthodox manner and then "slow-motion," using 
a balloon and making extremely slow movements. 

Folk dances will be delightful additions to the 
program, whether in costume or not. A chorus of 
fifty or a hundred children's voices will provide a 
most attractive musical accompaniment. 

Fourth : Mass Effects. Everyone enjoys a grand 
march in which large groups participate. We 
know, too, that very simple snake marching is 
usually just as effective as elaborate marching 
figures. Sometimes an entrance march will serve 
to introduce all the youngsters and permit them 
to reach their assigned places in an orderly man- 
ner. The wind-up of the program may well be a 
grand march. A lantern parade through the twi- 
light will leave a striking picture with the audi- 
ence. Another effective close is some organized 
cheering for special persons and for the spectators. 

Fifth: The Handcraft Exhibit. This year we 
might help the children to work out original ways 
of dramatizing their handcraft exhibit rather than 
follow the usual custom of displaying individual 
pieces of work on carefully guarded tables. The 
neatly printed tag giving name afid age cannot 
show the feeling of the young creator for his 
work, which, after all, is really far more interest- 
ing than the size of the stitches! If the juniors 
have made windmills, these can be shown to the 
public through a lively march of the children with 
their toys. A pantomime of a jewelry booth at a 
fair will serve to show off necklaces and metal 
work. A whole series of booths or counters, 
tended by children in appropriate costumes, can 
serve to display all the boats, airplanes, dolls, 
stuffed toys, pocketbooks, etc., that have been 
made. These booths might line the path from the 
entrance gate to the spectators' seats. 

Finally : Acknowledgments. We must make 
sure that gracious acknowledgments are made to 
(Continued on page 181) 



A Civic-Minded Garden Club 

Cleveland's Garden Club of a hundred members 
which serves over 25,000 people in one year. 



WHEN THE Garden Club of Cleveland was 
organized, its express purpose was to 
stimulate the knowledge and love of gar- 
dening among amateurs. Anything that came 
under this heading was a worthwhile activity. So 
in February, 1930, the club voted to establish a 
Garden Center for the free dissemination of gar- 
den information. 

One of the first problems was that of finances. 
A French Street Fair was held in June to raise 
the necessary funds. So successful did this fair 
prove to be that it was possible to rent for a very 
nominal fee from the city a two-story brick build- 
ing beside the lake in Wade Park, formerly used 
to house rowboats. Extensive alterations were 
made and the following December it was opened 
to the public. 

Located in the Fine Arts Garden (sponsored 
the previous year by the Garden Club) it is in 
the cultural center of Cleveland adjacent to the 
Art Museum, Western Reserve University, the 
Art School and Severance Music Hall. On the 
first floor is a long exhibition room, 15 by 50 
feet, with French doors looking out upon the 
lake. Glass shelves have been fitted over these 
doors to permit of displays of growing plants. At 
each end portable shelves and bulletin boards 
hold various exhibits according to the season of 
the year. A small office, a flower room with run- 
ning water, and a furnace, storage and cloak room 
also open oflf this exhibition room. Upstairs is 
the library, where a real horticultural library is 
being assembled. Six hundred volumes are al- 
ready on hand, touching upon landscaping, hor- 
ticulture, floriculture and ornithology. Some of 
these were obtained from the Garden Gub's 
library, and others were 
donated by members. It is 
hoped to make this an exten- 
sive horticultural library such 
as is found in New York, 
Philadelphia, and Bo.ston. A 
verticle file has been started 



From the Christian Science Moni- 
tor comes this interesting story of 
the accomplishments of a Garden 
Club which is making available au- 
thentic information on all kinds of 
garden problems. 



of clippings on subjects not in book form, and a 
large collection of seed catalogues and garden 
magazines is available. 

Into the doors of the Garden Center flow a con- 
stant stream of people interested in improving 
their own environment — home owners, garden 
club members, apartment dwellers, professional 
gardeners, landscape architects, commercial flor- 
ists, seedsmen, art school students. Boy and Girl 
Scouts, with their leaders, Girl Reserves, teach- 
ers and classes of elementary school children — a 
veritable cross-section of humanity. Out they 
come with practical garden information and a re- 
newed vision of what can be accomplished by 
diligent effort. 

The Director of the Center, Miss Carroll C. 
Griminger, is a practical-minded person with an 
extensive training in horticulture and several 
years' experience with one of the large eastern 
seed houses. Two graduate botany students from 
Western Reserve University give part time as- 
sistance to the Center, for which they receive a 
fellowship tuition. 

Two committees from the Garden Club of 
Cleveland determine policies, pass on matters of 
expenditure, and plan exhibits and programs with 
the help of an advisory committee chosen from 
various city institutions. 

Each month special e.xhibits and programs are 
planned and worked out in cooperation with the 
various garden clubs of Cleveland. One month 
will feature garden insects and plant diseases to- 
gether with the accepted remedies. Another 
month will be devoted to rock gardens with an 
actual garden and pool worked out in one end of 
the room. Other programs have dealt with such 
subjects as design of small 
gardens, roadside improve- 
ment, conservation of wild 
flowers, early seed sowing, 
window boxes, roses, dahlias, 
gladiolus, chrysanthemums, 
(Conlinucd 011 page 181) 



166 



The Farm as a Camp Background 



By Frank and Theresa Kaplan 



To TELL the story of Commune Farm we must 
go back to January, 1934, when the idea of a 
cooperative farm camp for children was being 
crystallized. At that time two people active in 
progressive education and for many years dis- 
satisfied with present day camp programs set 
up plans for a camp built on the background 
of farm life. The original plans called for the 
organization of two counselors, one agricul- 
turist and thirteen to fifteen boys and girls be- 
tween the ages of ten and seventeen, into a 
corporation, each with an investment of $100, 
to share alike in the profits or losses of the 
cooperative farm. It called for group partici- 
pation in work and play during the months of 
July and August pre-season week-end tours for 
the purpose of sowing a crop and making ini- 
tial preparations for a comfortable home, as 
well as post-season trips for harvesting. What- 
ever crops were to be harvested would be sold 
in the open market and to parents of the chil- 
dren at the farm. With fifteen children and 
three counselors as the maximum number in 
the group, Commune Farm could come under 
the category of a large farmer's family sub- 
sisting on the products of the soil and also 
would be adequate for a special play activity 
program suited to its needs. 

Our aims ever in mind, we proceeded to in- 
terest those whom we felt might provide us 
with material assistance and practical guidance 
from their past experiences. These interviews 
brought us in touch with a well seasoned agri- 
culturist possessing a rich academic back- 
ground, as well as a great love for nature's 
every mood and manifestation. Inasmuch as 
the "farmer," as the children affection- 
ately called our agriculturist, was un- 
employed at the time, he gave all his 
time and efiforts to the planning of a 
productive farm. Because of his special 
ability and the possession of a car, he 
was even more welcome to join the 



corporation, though unable to make a financial 
investment. 

One thing led to another, and soon we were 
in the office of the real estate agent who proved 
more kindly and genuinely interested in our 
idea than we had dared hope. Our glowing 
picture of the proposed venture fascinated him 
and our pleas touched him, for he suggested 
that we visit a sixteen acre farm nestled most 
advantageously between two dairy farms two 
and a half miles outside of Pawling, New York. 
A bumpy ride on a dirt road took us to what 
we felt must be our summer setting. The house 
invited occupation for it was sturdy and spa- 
cious, though dirty, unpainted and cold. The 
foundation was very strong, and new casement 
windows had been set in throughout the house. 
We later discovered that an unfortunate inci- 
dent had curtailed complete renovation of the 
aged house, which had an interesting history. 
We found we had much to be proud of in this 
dwelling with its fine old fireplaces, firm wood- 
en pegged beams, many windows, and two airy' 
porches. 

The condition of the house and grounds was 
deplorable. Some filthy old clothes bespoke of 
a vagrant occupant, and we were soon to dis- 
cover that energy would have to be expended 
in cleaning, scrubbing, painting and decorating 
the place. It boasted no plumbing, electricity, 
gas or running water, but we found the water 
from a cool mountain spring a few feet away 
from the house very refreshing. To safeguard 
the health of our residents, we had the water 
tested by a bacteriologist from New York. 
After a cursory survey of the grounds, our 



Two camp directors provide a background for a 
summer vacation designed to "embody definite, 
cooperative responsibilities, new and vital ex- 
periences, and realistic, creative activities." 



167 



168 



THE FARM AS A CAMP BACKGROUND 



agriculturist made a favorable report, and we 
left singing odes of thankfulness to Lady Luck. 
Immediately negotiations were begun for the 
use of the land, a ten acre artificial lake on the 
property, and the vacant house. After confer- 
ring for several weeks we arranged for the 
rental of the property at $50 and were given 
permission to use the lake and the rowboat. 

And Then the Work-and-Fun Began! 

With but $250 as the initial investment on 
the part of the two counselors, work was 
started on repairing the house and sowing the 
crops. Prospective members of the corpora- 
tion, children above ten, were taken on week- 
end trips with us to assist in these initial prep- 
arations. 

Soon after the snow was off the ground we 
all pitched in to remove the debris which was 
left on the grounds and in the house during a 
five year period of disuse. Leaves and over- 
grown brush were quickly gathered and 
burned. The front of the house, a veritable 
graveyard for farmers' unwanted machinery 
and useless cars, was soon cleared by means of 
a small truck and our united efforts to help 
tow them out of sight. The outhouse, a sore 
spot to everyone, was physically picked up and 
moved farther away from the house by chil- 
dren and counselors, given a coat of whitewash 
on the inside and painted green on the outside 
to harmonize with the surrounding trees. The 
renovated outside toilet, spread weekly with 
lye, served adequately throughout the summer. 
Fences erected and paths cleared about the 
place allowed for un- 
hampered movement on 
the farm. One youngster 
put up our mail box, 
above which another 
proudly hung his "Com- 
mune Farm" sign. It 
was equivalent to "Wel- 
come" and we felt well 
under way towards par- 
ticipating in an interest- 
ing and unusual camping 
experience. 

With the grounds 
somewhat cleared oflF, we 
spent the following 
week-ends indoors scrub- 
bing, whitewashing, paint- 



"No period of the year is more opportune 
for the physical, character and intellectual 
growth of the child than the summer vaca- 
tion. Free from the daily routine of the 
school program he lets loose with his youth- 
ful and pent-up energy. This freedom calls 
for a direction for more of the nature ex- 
periencing, inquiring and experimenting than 
a subjugation to skills and techniques. An en- 
vironment in which a child takes over his own 
living and learning processes should be sub- 
stituted for one in which all social and aca- 
demic growth comes from direct dictative 
sources — the home and the school. The lack 
of restrictions placed upon the child's time 
allows for adventures which are real and con- 
tinuous, rather than those which are obtained 
merely from books and interrupted time and 
again by reading, writing and arithmetic." 



ing, and in -general making the house livable. 
Ugly holes in walls and ceilings were filled in 
with plaster of Paris and then whitewashed to 
save the cost of paint. Woodwork and win- 
dow sills were painted a bright green to offset 
the whitewash. The basement was in the throes 
of late spring cleaning, one group having the 
unpleasant task of cleaning out an erstwhile 
chicken coop in the storeroom. Later we used 
this chamber to advantage in preserving our 
foodstuffs. One counselor, aided by two boys, 
fixed up a well equipped shop, cleaned away the 
dirt in the kitchen and converted a large outer 
porch into a dining room. Two long tables 
were made out of old wood doors, and benches 
and small tables were constructed for use in 
the library on the floor above. Later the porch 
was screened with green mosquito netting, and 
we had an ideal eating place with a beautiful 
natural setting ever before us. From odd and 
end pieces of wood found about the barn, pan- 
try shelves were put up in the kitchen and 
book shelves were set up to hold a complete 
agricultural library, as well as books contribu- 
ted by friends and some of our children. A 
generous relative donated an excellent stove, 
kitchen table, living room furniture and a bar- 
rel of dishes. From a camp we secured kero- 
sene stoves for use in an emergency. In addi- 
tion, interested friends lent us curtains, pic- 
tures, vases, beds, floor coverings and cooking 
utensils. Craft work in the form of masks, 
candle holders and wood work, made by some 
of our children at school and at their clubs, had 
both decorative and practical value. Every- 
thing found about the 
place was used to ad- 
vantage. Empty tool 
boxes well covered with 
cretonne and then pad- 
ded with felt served as 
seats about the fireplace 
in the library. On the 
whole, with a minimum 
of expense, a most at- 
tractive home was estab- 
lished. And a crackling 
fire on cool nights made 
it a veritable haven of 
peace and comfort after 
a day full of energizing 
activities. 

Certain ingenious de- 



THE FARM AS A CAMP BACKGROUND 



169 



Copyright^ Presse-Photo, Berlin 



An old farm wagon may 
prove to be quite as 
satisfactory for coun- 
try use as "orthodox" 
gymnasium equipment. 



vices made the 
problem of person- 
al cleanliness a sim- 
ple matter. We 
built an outdoor 
shower house out of 
boards that had 
formerly closed in 
the porches. Un- 
used pillars served 
as t h e foundation 
and three sides 
were boarded up. A 
siphon hose was 
purchased to. which 
we attached show- 
er equipment. A large pail contained our water 
supply, which we enjoyed cold or heated when 
so inclined. By degrees we were ironing out 
most inconveniences. 

Another eventful purchase was a water pump 
which children and counselors set up, for the 
job of toting water to and from the house was 
a very tiring one. After the necessary pipes 
arrived, we attached the hand pump to a tree 
five steps away from the kitchen door and ran 
the pipe from the well to the tree. And so 
another time and efifort saving device was in- 
stalled in Commune Farm. From the outset 
we bought a first aid kit but had no need for 
any medical supplies other than iodine. With 
dangers from work and dirt more prevalent 
here than in any other possible situation, it 
seems almost miraculous that our health in 
toto of the group should prove so satisfactory. 

And Next the Planting 

The house attractively set and personal 
cleanliness insured, we commenced planting 
during week-ends in June. MTndful of the fact 
that late planting would bring a better price 
on the market and handicapped because coun- 
selors and children had to remain at school 
during week days, we could not plant until this 
late date. Two acres were plowed and manured, 




with manure given to us by an adjacent farm- 
er. Our land was surveyed by the children, 
soil tested, diagrams of planting made, daily 
records kept, and on the whole scientific gar- 
dening was practiced. Considerable plots here 
and there were vised for special plantings, such 
as cucumber, onion arud turnip gardens and 
flower patches. A small experimental plot was 
roped off in front of the house for nurturing 
seedlings before transplanting them into larger 
gardens. Fifteen dollars worth of seeds was 
purchased and planted on a stagger system, a 
little each week, to insure successive harvests 
to meet the demands of the kitchen and to 
obtain high prices on the market. Some 250 
tomato plants, 100 c^.bbage plants, 100 cauli- 
flower, and ICO pepper and eggplants were 
bought for approximately one cent apiece and 
carefully transplanted. The use of a wheel hoe, 
jifify wheel plow and wheel seeder enabled us to 
plant with precision and ease. 

Most encoviraging indeed were the benefits 
derived from our farming in cutting down ex- 
penditures for food and in affording our chil- 
dren daily contacts with true experiences on 
the soil. From the outset, troubled by roving 
deer and woodchucks, we lost almost all cab- 
bage and cauliflower plants. Cucumber, bean, 
eggplant, pepper and pumpkin seedlings were 



170 



THE FARM AS A CAMP BACKGROUND 



constantly attacked by woodchucks and other 
pests, thus stunting and affecting their yield. 
Rewired fences served to prevent straying cat- 
tle from devastating our crops. Extensive work 
had to be done with the seedlings — thinning, 
hoeing, cultivating and hilling. Poles had to 
be chopped for the lima beans. Twigs had to 
be secured for the telephone peas. Plants had 
to be sprayed regularly to prevent damage to 
the fruit. One or two storms broke many 
plants, but our crops were successful never- 
theless. Never more conscious of the atmo- 
sphere, our children were constantly on the 
lookout for changes in the weather. Likewise, 
considerable interest was shown in the devel- 
opment of the flower into fruit and seed. 

Harvesting the Crops 

When at the end of the summer crops were 
finally harvested, its distribution and sale 
proved not so difficult as we had anticipated. 
A good deal was sold on open market to local 
grocery and vegetable stores and nearby 
camps. Other products were sold to friends, 
parents and neighbors who were glad to re- 
ceive fresh vegetables at the market price. Of 
all the crops planted the best yields came from 
the sowing of tomatoes, beans and beets. Some 
of the crops were bartered for varied groceries 
at the local town chain store. It was only until 
the last four weeks that the crops played an all 
important part in our diet. The last month's 
diet consisted of our own vegetables, prepared 
^and cooked in almost fifty-seven different ways. 
The use of vegetables resulted in a consider- 
able saving on other food items. Some of the 
crops were preserved : other early fruits were 
made into wine and desserts. 

We Become Our Own Cooks 

Our cooking problems, troublesome at first, 
proved less burdensome as the summer went 
on. At the beginning we hired a cook but she 
left because the need to carry water to and 
fro, the clumsiness of the coal stove, and lack 
of gas proved too difficult for her. Faced with 
these problems, as well as with a sudden drop 
in registration, we decided to do all the cook- 
ing ourselves. One counselor took over the 
kitchen and the purchasing of supplies, and 
wdth the aid of the children was able to pre- 
pare carefully balanced and well cooked meals. 
The group assisted routinely in serving meals,, 
clearing away and washing dishes, as well as 



with the cooking and baking. Pamphlets ob- 
tained from Cornell and the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture taught us how to serve each 
new vegetable as it became abundant. At first 
we churned our own butter and did a good 
deal of preserving, but towards the end of the 
summer we found it inadvisable because of the 
pressure of various work activities and the in- 
creased price of milk. Had we thought of bar- 
tering earlier, we might have been able to 
exchange our vegetables for milk. 

Our limited funds made the purchase of food 
staples in wholesale quantities well nigh im- 
possible, and buying in small lots greatly in- 
creased our total expenditure for groceries. 
Yet to our surprise we discovered at the end 
of the summer that the constant supply of veg- 
etables gleaned from our own fields cut down 
our food bill to approximately $16.95 per per- 
son for the nine week season, or about $2.00 
per person a week. Nor could one call our 
meals cut to the bone in any sense. Every meal 
was well planned and balanced so as to include 
a full quota of nutritious foods. The following 
table is a sample of the daj^'s diet: 

Breakfast 

Fruit (orange, prunes, baked apple, etc.) 

Dry cereal (corn flakes, puffed rice, wheaties, etc.) 

Eggs (various styles or egg substitutes — French toast, 

pancakes, etc.) 

Bread — butter 

Milk (plain or chocolate) 

Dinner 

Entree (varied soups, salads) 

Main dish (some form of meat and three vegetables or 

complete vegetable plate, etc.) 

Bread — butter 

Dessert (fresh or canned fruits, puddings, etc.) 

Milk — cake — cookies 

Supper 

Main dish (some form of fish with cold vegetables or 

noodles with cheese or spaghetti, etc.) 

Bread — butter 

Dessert (chocolate pudding, rice or tapioca pudding. 

jello. etc.) 

xMilk 

Our Members 

From the outset the problem of membership 
was our greatest worry. Parents, unaccus- 
tomed to this sort of camp, sent their children 
with great hesitation because of the newness 
of the adventure and the crudeness of living 
conditions on the farm. Registration was a 
slow and tedious process. With the realization 
that even progressive parents tread lightly on 
untried paths, we were forced to sacrifice much 
in the way of rates, selection of age groups 
and simple camp preparations. After many 



I 



THE FARM AS A CAMP BACKGROUND 



171 



interviews and personal calls we were able to 
muster together a group which throughout the 
summer numbered ten. 

Though small in number for a camp, there 
is much to learn from the Commune Farm's 
experience. Not all children came to us with 
the proper frame of mind. Some came avow- 
ing that they hated farming. One youngster, 
accustomed to many high priced camps and 
military academies, came on condition if he 
didn't like the place he would be at liberty to 
leave. Still others came bemoaning the fact 
that there were no children of their own age 
with whom to work and play. Facing this 
frame of group mind, we set about making life 
bearable. 

With our initial capital on July 1st down to 
the last penny, we ourselves were put in the 
position of making the project pay for itself 
or giving it up. From the start we pointed out 
to the children that as members of the corpora- 
tion we were bound together to make this a 
successful and profitable undertaking. The 
children joined wholeheartedly, partaking in 
gardening, cooking, cleaning their individual 
rooms, washing their clothtSs and seeking out 
the most economical solutions to problems that 
might arise. Some found joy in spreading 
manure, others in destroying devastating pests. 
On clear nights Commune Farm slept out-of- 
doors to keep destructive woodchucks from 
the seedlings. Part of the afternoon was spent 
looking for berries that could be used for des- 
serts and picking cherries for wine from our 
own trees. "Why use coal for the stove?" one 
child exclaimed. "I'll chop some old wood 
around the barn." When it came to some dirty 
work which we felt might incur dangers if some 
of the children were to participate, we would 
hear arguments which would end with, "Aw 
shucks, why can't we do this — isn't this a com- 
mune farm?" One child wrote home saying 
she was having a grand time cooking and bak- 
ing (her mother insisted on nothing less than 
perfection in her own kitchen at home). An- 
other wrote asking that his parents extend his 
vacation so that he could find and kill the 
woodchuck which was eating up all the cu- 
cumber leaves. One older girl, who hesitated 
to come but finally came for one week to see 
if it was exciting, came back to spend the last 
two weeks with us. Before half the season 
was over, the children were with us whole- 



heartedly and assisted with an earnest and wil- 
ful cooperation. 

Play Not Neglected 

One parent asked us whether her child did 
nothing but work, cook and garden all day. 
"Don't they play?" True, most children found 
much play working in the garden and a good 
deal of recreation arose out of these work 
activities. Hunting for woodchucks led to tests 
in markmanship ; chopping wood led to fire- 
place singing and games ; working on tree 
pruning brought many to our agricultural li- 
brary for further reading; picking berries, to 
exploring; spraying plants, to collecting bugs 
and butterflies ; a dead chuck, to a study of the 
internals of an animal. Whenever the after- 
noons were too warm for work on the fields 
we set out to go swimming, boating and fish- 
ing. Arts and crafts played an ever important 
part in our set-up. An eagerness to decorate 
our rooms resulted in our dabbling with clay, 
papier-mache and plaster of Paris masks. In 
the numerous repairs that had to be done about 
the ho'^se there was no end of wood work of 
a creative and inventive nature. Over the din- 
ner table a discussion on the churning of butter 
brought forth a serious study on the part of 
the children of the chemical formulas of foods. 
Trips to other farms and country fairs were 
always welcome. In the evening we all sat 
around the fire, singing, reading, telling stor- 
ies, dancing or listening to the radio. Our 
program was never rigidly set up or standard- 
ized. Activities arose out of need and desire 
and were met with understanding. Commune 
Farm to children, counselors and parents was 
not a ready-made play venture but a real life 
experience, chock full of problems and live 
adventure. 

Advantages of the Farm Project 

Although Commune Farm should not be 
taken as finality in the private camp field 
(much remained undofle because of limited ex- 
perience, membership and funds), its possibili- 
ties and its obvious advantages should act as 
an encouragement to camp directors to under- 
take this type of cooperative enterprise. The 
farm as a camp ofTers an unrestricted field for 
healthful physical activities, situations which 
are suitable for active group participation, a 
program which is of tremendous and lasting 
interest and an emotional satisfaction which 



172 



THE FARM, AS A CAMP BACKGROUND 



leads to a greater understanding of the country, 
as well as a fuller and richer scholastic life. A 
rounded out experience with planting, harvest- 
ting, poultry raising, irrigation, marketing, etc., 
presents more than any artificial camp organi- 
zation. The planning and management of a 
cooperative garden venture, the repairs and 
adjustments on farm property and equipment, 
the budgeting of farm income and expenditure, 
the sale of crops — all these bring about the 
spontaneous cooperation of the children. The 
inconveniences of the farm household, the bio- 
logic experimentation scientific farming re- 
quires, the flower garden — these and many 
others call for initiative and imagination on 
the part of the boys and girls. 

From a health standpoint no better setting 
than the farm can be secured. The work on 
the grounds allows for a minimum of indoor 
activities and a maximum of sunlight and fresh 
air. The activities are such that a voluntary 
physical effort, which is so essential to the 
growing child, is employed. Work becomes 
play on the farm. The physical exhaustion that 
comes with the end of a day's work brings on 
a slumber which is highly beneficial. The sat- 
isfaction that comes from a garden venture en- 
courages an appetite which is almost alarming ! 
Experience has shown that the physical growth 
of the child on a farm is most amazing. 

Since no definite economic requirements are 
set as a goal, a program including swimming, 
fishing, singing, arts and crafts and organized 
games can easily be interspersed during or 
after the day's work. The study of breeding 
and plant life, the farm shop and other tasks 
offer numerous opportunities for individual 
activities. The work on the farm is not so 
defined that the group cannot on sudden notice 
take a farmer's holiday and go off on the coun- 
tryside for a two or three day tour. Organized 
recreation, the basis of most camps, becomes 
on the farm camp only one of the many tools 
that the counselor has for the rounding out of 
an interesting summer. Yet there are sufficient 
opportunities for free play on the farm in the 
execution of daily duties. A trip to town to 
purchase feed for livestock, raking and loading 
hay, pasturing the cows, picking fruits from 
the orcliard for preserving, cleaning the barn, 
stocking the granary — all these entail activity 
which takes the place of organized recreation 
in the camp set-up and daily routine programs. 



Sufiicient situations arise from natural causes 
and work towards that type of social behavior 
which we seek to inculcate in our children. 
Even singing around the fireside in the farm- 
house proves to be more gratifying than the 
camp fire and its unduly prearranged novelties. 
Whatever play activities arise on the farm arise 
spontaneously and are closely correlated to the 
work that is to be done. 

And, finally, one cannot estimate the ad- 
vantages of the farm camp to the child's aca- 
demic life. The experience of the summer on 
a farm becomes a "well of information" from 
which the child can draw material for his 
poetry, painting, clay work and other creative 
arts and academic studies. A well rounded 
out farm experience brings with it an emo- 
tional satisfaction which leads to a great love 
for the country. It reveals the difficulties the 
farmer must constantly face in his struggles 
for existence. Bringing a child out of his own 
limited environment and making him aware of 
his own problems as compared with those of 
other fellow beings, in the long run, makes 
him a more tolerant and sympathetic individ- 
ual. Placing him in a background where he 
becomes an absolute factor in the workings of 
a small farm community makes him aware of 
his own capabilities, and lays the foundation 
for a more poised individual. 

For camps run by institutions, such as 
neighborhood houses, social work agencies and 
community groups, the farm camp may offer 
a practical solution to many difficulties. These 
camps, often faced with tremendous food bills 
and forced to take different groups of children 
every two weeks, constantly resort to contri- 
butions from outside sources for continuance. 
With quantities of vegetables at their call, they 
can not only reduce their food budgets but also 
find an outlet for excess crops, either in bar- 
tering for necessary groceries or in a sale to 
their own city neighbors and parents who 
would welcome fresh vegetables at reasonable 
rates. This double purpose of carrying on a 
farm project might even make a rent free 
camp self-supporting. 

There is no doubt that the need of inter- 
changing camp groups every two weeks is not 
only disastrous to such a farm camp but to any 
sort of camp with a complete program. The 
■ farm camp, however, offers somewhat of a 
(Continued on page 182) 



World at Play 



IT r~ 7'. ', East Orange, New 

.^T- ^""!"r Tersey, has a munici- 

Walking Club pal walking club or- 

g a n i z e d in May, 
1934, by the Board of Recreation Commission- 
ers. Since its organization it has conducted a 
regular schedule of walks, averaging two a 
month. A special feature was the conducting 
of midweek evenings known as "about town 
hikes," and a number of half or full day Sun- 
day trips. Except for the expense for postage 
and paper, only a part of which is now covered 
by the dues of 25 cents, the club is self-sup- 
porting. The program is planned by an execu- 
tive committee, and each week is in charge of 
a leader who is a member of the club and a 
volunteer. 



Harmonica Playing in 
Los Angeles 



Cincinnati Adds to 
Play Space 



On February 28, 
1935, the Public Rec- 
reation Commission 
~~ of Cincinnati, Ohio, 

passed its fifth milestone on the road to the 
fulfillment of its well defined policy of estab- 
lishing a district athletic field adjoining each 
high school in the city. In less than three 
years the City of Cincinnati has moved in on 
five of the city's six public high schools. "This 
policy of the Commission," states Tam Deer- 
ing. Supervisor of Recreation, in his February 
report to the Commission, "is also the policy 
of the Board of Education. The aim is to pool 
the recreational resources of the municipal 
government and the schools. This joint effort 
is required to secure more play space at schools 
— a necessity because of the fact that education 
without play is impossible. It is necessary in 
order that the schools may train our people 
for the use of leisure and to bring about the 
extended use of school facihties and municipal 
facilities for recreational purposes." On Febru- 
ary 10th the Commission dedicated the twelve 
acre "C. & O." Play Field and a $14,000 gym- 
nasium building, thereby marking the comple- 
tion of a million dollar play and recreational 
facility created through "circuses and gifts," 
unemployed labor, and vision. 



Ninety-three thou- 
sand, two hundred 
and s e V e n t y-four 
children in the Los 
Angeles, California, public schools have been' 
taught a repertoire of 200 selections in the nine 
years during which harmonica bands in the 
schools have been organized. From 178 schools 
in which 15,795 players are enrolled, 2,500 ad- 
vanced harmonica players were selected to 
appear in a concert at the Hollywood Bowl 
March 25th. 



Cooking Classes for 
Young Men 



The supervisor of 
activities for unem- 
ployed youth in New 
Britain, Connecticut, 
reports that classes in cooking are very popular 
among the young men. Four classes have been 
organized, and the number of applications be- 
ing received will in all probability make an- 
other class necessary. At first the purpose was 
to teach camp cookery, but then came a de- 
mand for short order work as done in restau- 
rants, and now the serious study of bakery and 
the higher branches of the art is attracting 
attention. 



nu- TLT M T One of the activi- 

Chicago Has New Type . . ^, ~, . 

. ° ,. , . ties of the Chicago, 
of Police Institute xn •• t^ 
Illinois, Recreation 

Commission is the 
inauguration of the police institute through 
which lectures are b^ng given at 36 police 
stations to 4,000 uniformed policemen. It is 
hoped that much good will result from this 
activity, designed as Mayor Kelly points out, 
"to help Chicago police ofiicers in guiding boys 
and girls in the proper paths of recreation." 
Miss Jane Addams of Hull House, expressed 
her interest in the project, suggesting that if pro- 
motion and awards could be given the police- 
men whose districts are most orderly and con- 
tribute the fewest boys to the courts, it would 
afford a tremendous start. 



!/.■> 



WORLD AT PLAY 



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Book Binding 
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to institutions and heads of schools and 
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Training Courses for Camp Counselors — 
The Children's Welfare Federation, 386 Fourth 
Avenue, New York City, announces its eighth 
training course for camp counselors to be held 
at Camp Northover, Bound Brook, New Jer- 
sey, June 13th to 16th. Instruction and prac- 
tice will be provided in specialized fields such 
as nature study, music, dramatics, athletics 
and games, crafts and hobbies. In addition, 
there will be round table discussions on social 
problems for children, camp government, health 
and first aid, waterfront safety, the spiritual 
values of camp life, and similar topics. There 
will be a special conference for directors on 
Sunday noon. 

The Educational Alliance and Young Men's 
Hebrew Association will conduct at Surprise 
Lake Camp, Cold Spring, New York, a train- 
ing course for camp counselors. The course, 
which will extend from June 30th until Labor 
Day, will cover information on. camp adminis- 
tration, personal qualifications, abilities and 
skills, the evaluation of results of camping, pro- 
jects and programs, and participation in all 
phases of camp programs. Information may be 
secured from Mr. Max Oppenheimer, Adminis- 



trator, Surprise Lake Camp, Cold Spring, New 
York. 

Playgrounds Wanted — Three hundred and 
thirty-nine mothers in tenement districts re- 
cently expressed their desires with reference 
to a number of features in housing develop- 
ment such as community laundries in the base- 
ment, laundries in the kitchens. Two hundred 
and twenty individuals reported that they 
wanted a playground for their small children 
and 213 wanted a playground for older chil- 
dren. Few other features received as many 
votes. 

A Volley Ball Demonstration — The first 
large volley ball demonstration ever held in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, for girls and women was 
staged by the Amateur Athletic L'nion on 
Monday, February 18th. The program con- 
sisted of two demonstration volley ball games 
played under different rules, followed by a gen- 
eral demonstration covering coaching methods 
and rules. The first game was played accord- 
ing to the official rules for women established 
by the Women's Athletic Section of the 
A.P.E.A. The second game was played accord- 
ing to the rules of the United States Volley 
Ball Association, and the teams were made up 
of older women. Following the games there 
was a general discussion of various phases of 
volley ball led by Miss Helen Coops of the 
University of Cincinnati and A.A.U. Chairman 
of the Committee on Women's Sports. 

As an outcome of this meeting two events 
have been planned, a game of mixed volley 
ball, three men and three women on one side, 
to be played for demonstration purposes, and 
a volley ball night, a meet in which teams from 
all over the city will come together and play. 
This will be undef the supervision of the 
Women's Committee of the A.A.U. 

A Recreation Conference in Massachusetts 

— On March 15th, 16th and 17th, outdoor en- 
thusiasts gathered at Amherst, Massachusetts, 
for the second annual recreation conference 
held under the auspices of Massachusetts State 
College. One of the highlights of the sessions 
included an explanation of the recent develop- 
ment of game management problems, and it 
was shown how the golfer, the winter sports- 
man, the hiker, the camper, can all make a 



C.J.ATKINSON 



175 



C. J. Atkinson 

On April 4, 193S, after a brief illness, C. J. At- 
kinson, former secretary of the Boys' Clubs of 
America, Inc., passed away at his home in High- 
land Mills, New York. For many years Mr. At- 
kinson cooperated closely with the work of the 
National Recreation Association. He gave him- 
self without stint to the work for boys to which 
he had early dedicated all his powers. 



definite contribution to game management. 
Golfers and golf maintenance officials were 
told that organized gambling in sports is the 
greatest danger which golf faces today. Speak- 
ers recommended immediate organization to 
combat these evils, which threaten to hinder 
seriously further development of the game in 
this country. Other subjects discussed included 
forestry, winter sports, archery, camping, hik- 
ing and community recreation. 

Puppetry Popular — In February, the Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Public Recreation Commission 
held a week's institute devoted exclusively to 
puppetry. Sixty-two people were enrolled in 
the class and nearly as many again sought ad- 
mission. Great enthusiasm was displayed. Dur- 
ing the week each student modeled a puppet 
head, painted it, assembled the body, dressed 
the marionette and attached the required 
string. At the end of the fifth day the students 
were given instruction in the proper operation 
of their puppets. The sixth day was devoted 
to the construction of a marionette theater for 
the Recreation Commission. The prices of the 
finished marionettes ranged from 15 cents to 
95 cents, depending upon the style of con- 
struction. 

To continue the interest aroused, the Recre- 
ation Commission plans to employ a special 
worker to take charge of the group and develop 
a "Littlest Theater." With the group which 
will be developed the plays will be taken to 
dififerent schools and institutions to produce 
children's plays. 



LOUDEN RIGID WHIRL 



Character Training for Youth 

(Continued from page 142) 
of school organization and instruction involves a 
degree of suppression that stimulates unguided 
and unruly activity as compensation beyond the 




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Get full particulars concerning this newest and most popular 
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school walls. It does not arouse tastes and desires 
that would be followed up in constructive ways 
outside the school. It leaves boys and girls, espe- 
cially those more active by nature, an easy prey to 
mere excitement. 

In short, as far as schools are concerned, the 
present interest in more effective character edu- 
cation may have two different results. If it is 
satisfied by merely adding on a special course for 
direct instruction in good behavior, I do not think 
it can accomplish much. If it leads public atten- 
tion to the changes that are needed in the schools 
in order that they may do more to develop intel- 
ligent and sturdy character in the young, it may 
well be the beginning of a most important move- 
ment. 

It seems to me especially important that organi- 
zations of business and professional men should 
exercise an influence along the lines mentioned. 
They have already done a great deal in promoting 
the growth of the playground movement. They 
can determine to a great extent the treatment of 
delinquents, with respect to both prevention and 



176 



ON THE SUMMER PLAYGROUNDS OF 1934 



That Summer Playground 
Program! 

C>K9 

• Have you secured your copy 
of "Planning Summer Playground 
Programs"? 

Whether you are a beginner in 
playground leadership or a more 
experienced worker you will find 
this pamphlet valuable, so com- 
prehensive is it in its discussion of 
the activities comprising the play- 
ground program and the principles 
involved in planning. 
Sample daily, weekly and sum- 
mer schedules help make this an 
unusually practical and useful 
publication. 

Price $.25 

National Recreation Association 

315 Fourth Avenue 

New York City 



cure. They are in a better position than any other 
one class to realize what slums and bad housing 
do to foster juvenile criminality. They can exer- 
cise a powerful influence upon the kind of movies 
that are shown in the community. Instead of 
throwing their powerful influence for so-called 
economy measures that eliminate provision for 
activity in lines of useful work in the schools, re- 
taining only the driest and most formal subjects, 
they can eft'ectively cooperate with school authori- 
ties to promote school subjects that give a healthy 
outlet to those impulses for activity that are so 
strong in the young. Through active parent asso- 
ciations they can bring more of the outside world 
into the school, breaking down that isolation of 
the school room from social life which is one of 
the chief reasons why schools do not do more ef- 
fective work in the formation of character. 



On the Summer PlaygTounds of 1934 

(Continued from page 150) 

there were no organization. The meetings are 
short, but the projects that the club is interested 
in are discussed in order that each girl may know 
whether or not she is interested in them. Among 
the projects discussed at the last meeting were the 



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PLAYGROUND PLANNING AND LAYOUT 



177 



plays to be given, a watermelon party at the Bay- 
shore, the renovation of the ladies' dressing rooms, 
the playground ball schedule, the contribution of 
an act in the playground circus, reading, approv- 
ing and learning a playground song, and the 
promise that two members would read original 
plays to be entered in a national play contest of 
the Girl Scouts. 

Committees are appointed which include girls 
who are genuinely interested; those who are un- 
able to be active in any project for any reason do 
not hesitate to say so. Attendance is good because 
the girls who miss a meeting feel they are not hav- 
ing an important part in the formation of the pro- 
gram and are not having their say in the policies 
of the playground. They concentrate mainly on 
the activities which concern them directly, but 
when they vote to enter with any other group or 
project there is a unified effort the value of which 
is inestimable. 

Sioux City's Honor Point System 

For the past three years the Department of 
Recreation of Sioux City, Iowa, has been con- 
ducting its program on the honor point system, 
including points for memorizing poems. This 
year the system is being revised and for the 
poems a "reading for fun" feature is being sub- 
stituted. The Children's Department of the 
Public Library is selecting twenty books for 
each of the seven classes. In addition, a brief 
synopsis of each book is being prepared for 
use by playground leaders when children give 
their oral reports. 



Playground Planning and Layout 

(Continued from page 155) 
Some Practical Considerations 

The mechanics of keeping a playground tidv 
and in good repair should be as unobtrusive as 
possible. Some sort of a service court, yard, shed 
or at least a tool box is necessary. Without such 
equipment the caretaker is put to great incon- 
venience and collected refuse is a problem. To 
care for the custodian is a simple matter but it is 
often overlooked. His requirements are few: he 
needs shelter for tools, concealment for refuse 
and repair materials, and free access to all parts 
of the grounds. He should have a fence around 
his yard and some screening from public gaze. 
His shelter may be the field house or a simple shed. 
The important point is that the housekeeping fa- 
cilities of the playground should not be overlook- 
ed and later set up by the maintenance department 




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178 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

I 



(Recently Received Containing Articles 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker 



A\AeAZINES 

Leisure, May 1935 

The National Dance Festival, by Sydney Greenbie 
A School Party, by Ruth M. Luther 
The Camp As a Character Builder, by C. R. Mc- 
Kenney 

Character, April-May 1935 

Eight Tests for Parents in Selecting a Summer 

Camp, by Hedley S. Dimock 
Character Education in the Summer Camp, by 

Charles E. Hendry 

The American City, May 1935 

Natural Resources Used to Make an Attractive Rec- 
reation Center, Prescott, Arizona 
What County Parks Should Be, by C. L. Palmer 
Exceptional Opportunity to Enlarge Recreation Areas 

Parks and Recreation, May 1935 

Outdoor Recreation Planning for America, by Con- 
rad L. Wirth 

Claremont Park — The Proiblem and the Solution, by 
Edward Clark Whiting 

East Bay Regional Park, by Emerson Knight 

Esthetic Appeal of Union County Park System, by 
Arthur R. Wendell 

What Shall We Do With This Leisure? by V. K. 
Brown 

Camping Magazine, May 1935 

What Educators Say Regarding'the Educational Sig- 
nificance of Camping, by William G. Vinal 
The Enrichment of Spiritual Life in Camp, by Edwin 
M. Hoffman 

Educational Screen, May 1935 

A Project in Puppet Production, by Naomi D. and 
George W. Wright 

Safety Education, June 1935 

Boys and Girls Organize for a Safe Summer, by 

Elizabeth Brooke 
A Yardstick for Aquatic Safety, by Marie W. 

Bishop 

The Library Journal, May 15, 1935 

Brancli Library Housing for Little Theatres, by 
Clarence Arthur Perry 

Camping World, May 1935 

Waterfront Protection, by Captain Charles B. Scully 
Masks — How to Make Them, by Viola Allen 

The Journal of Health and Physical Education, May 1935 
Leisure-Time Activities for the Summer School, by 

E. M. Sanders 
Leisure, For What ? by Jay B. Nash 
Rural Recreation in Florida Under the Emergency 

Relief Administration, by Lora M. Lock 

Mind and Body, March 1935 

Scientific Foundation of Physical Education, by Jay 

B. Nash 
Recreation in Japan, by Dr. Seiichi Kishi 
How About LaCrosse for Girls? by Martha Gable 



PAMPHLETS 
Winter Report of Wheeling, West Virginia, Recreation 
Department, 1935 

Official Report of the Convention of the Department of 
Superintendence of the National Education Association, 
1935. Price $1.00 per copy 

Sixth Annual Report of the Recreation Commission of 
Amsterdam, New Yorli. 1934 

Annual Report of the Park Department for the Yeat End- 
ing December 31, 1934, of Salem, Mass. 



in some conspicuous spot. The cost of mainte- 
nance can be held low if time saving facilities are 
installed at the time of construction, as for ex- 
ample, the provision of ample water connections 
for lawn sprinkling and a simple, easily cleaned 
system of drainage. Sometimes simplicity of 
operation may justify the use of pipes and wires 
of a capacity greater than actually required. Cer- 
tainly the underground utility equipment should 
be up to the standard of all improvements on the 
playground. 

When the plan has been finished and the 
grounds constructed according to it, the designer 
need not remain long in doubt wondering whether 
he did a good job. There are four sure tests from 
the point of view of the boys and girls, the play 
leader, the taxpayers and the neighbors. To these 
may be added another : Is the average person who 
visits or uses the playground unconscious of the 
planning that has gone into it? Do the arrange- 
ment, the apportionment of space, the location of 
buildings, fences and even of trees appear so logi- 
cal and simple that no studied design is apparent? 

The nearer the plan approaches perfection, the 
more natural and inevitable it seems. This is the 
measure of a good playground plan. 



The Swimming Pool on the Playground 

(Continued from t>agc 156) 
fore the swimming program begins. The leaders 
should be trained in tlie technique of strokes and 
life saving work. 

Groups may be organized such as swimming 
teams, competitive diving and life saving groups, 
master swimmers' clubs and clubs for stunt swim- 
ming. Water carnivals including all the pupils 
may be given at the end of the campaign. These 
exhibitions should be worked out to suit the local 
community. The program must not be too for- 
mal, and it is well to let the ideas come from the 
children allowing them to give their suggestions 
freely. Awards may be presented at this water 
program. 

(Continued on page 180) 



AMONG OUR FOLKS 



179 



Among Our Folks 

W. C. Batchelor, formerly Superintendent 
of Recreation in Pittsburgh, has resigned. 
Louis C. Schroeder, formerly on the staff of 
the National Recreation Association, has been 
appointed as his successor. 

When by a special action of the state legis- 
lature last year the Recreation Board of Park- 
ersburg. West Virginia, was abolished together 
with all existing municipal boards throughout 
the state, D. D. Hicks, Superintendent of Rec- 
reation, became Recreation Director of the 
State ERA recreation program for West Vir- 
ginia. The Parkersburg Community Chest has 
since appropriated $3,000 for reinstating the 
recreation program, and Fred Conaway has 
been employed as full time director. 

Clearwater, Florida, has appointed a recrea- 
tion board and has employed as its full time 
director Ralph D. Van Fleet who for the past 
two years has served as part time worker. 

Recreation commissions have been appointed 
by ordinance in Lafayette and Winnsboro, 
Louisiana. Harry A. Wuelser has been em- 
ployed as year round worker at Lafayette. 

Don Griffin has been appointed Recreation 
Director of the Milwaukee County park sys- 
tem, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, following a period 
of service on the staff of the city's Extension 
Department of the Public Schools. 

Joseph F. Riley, formerly Superintendent of 
Recreation in Elmira, New York, has become Di- 
rector of Recreation of the Elmira Reformatory. 

James F. McCrudden, formerly Director of 
Community Service, Yonkers, New York, has 
been made Superintendent of the Recreation Com- 
mission. 

Arthur Nelson formerly in charge of activities 
of Yonkers Community Service, has become As- 
sistant Superintendent of Recreation. 

Announcement has just been made of the resig- 
nation of Dr. James H. McCurdy as Director of 
the Natural Science Division at Springfield Col- 
lege and the appointment of Professor George B. 
Affleck as his successor. For many years Dr. Mc- 
Curdy has been a very loyal friend of the recrea- 
tion movement, serving as a member of the Board 
of Directors and giving wholehearted service to 
the movement. Dr. McCurdy has given particular 
thought to research problems relating to physical 
education and recreation. Dr. McCurdy has a host 
of friends in the recreation movement. 



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180 



COSTUME BALLS IN THE BLACK HILLS 



Ike C^ampina 
TtlaaaziHe 

If you are interested in 

The leadership of youth. 

The swiftly changing methods in organized 
cannping. 

The statennents of leading thinkers on educa- 
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Leadership training — Counsellor's Education. 

Camp' Programming — Administration. 

Outdoor Sports and Activities. 

New Games, Land and Water. 

Swimming — Canoeing — Sailing. 

Riding — Archery — Riflery. 

Woodcraft — Indian Lore — Nature. 

Artscraft — Dancing — Stunts. 

Council Fires — Story Telling. 

Then read the Camping Magazine regularly 
Send for a sample copy $2.00 a year. 

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Dcpt. R 



The Swimming Pool on the Playground 

(Continued from page 1/8) 
A Brief Bibliography 
Recreative Athletics 

National Recreation Association, 315 Fourth Avenue, 

New York City 
A.R.C. No. 1005 

American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 
Swimming Simplifiied, by Lyba and Nita Sheffield 

A. S. Barnes and Company, 67 West 44th Street, 

New York City 
How to Teach Simmming and Diving, by T. K. Cureton 

Association Press, 347 Madison Avenue, New York 

City 
Recreational Sivimming, by T. K. Cureton 

Association Press, New York City 
Swimming Badge Tests 

National Recreation Association 



Costume Balls in the Black Mills 

(Continued from page 159) 
the business angle. Yard goods that iiad been in 
stock for years was uncovered, and if anything 
proved salable the stores profited. Trimmings, 
outmoded many years ago, were "just the thing" 
to add a desired touch to a costume. Hair dres- 
sers were too busy to fill all appointments, and 
such fun they had planning pompadours, curls 
and fancy twists! The drug store sold lipstick, 
eyebrow pencil and rouge to women who ordi- 



narily leave no place in their budgets for such 
vanities. The local photographer set up his camera 
in one corner of the dance hall, and through the 
lens caught the pictures of the evening. He fin- 
ished these at reasonable cost, enlarged and tinted 
several, and took orders. Of course, the originals 
bought! Dressmakers took on helpers and trans- 
formed their homes into regular workshops. A 
few more dollars in the purses of persons who 
could well use them! 

And when the excitement of the Spearfish ball 
had passed, a large delegation, including the 
Queen's party, attended a ball in Rapid City on 
February 22nd where they exchanged dances with 
couples from Custer, Hot Springs, Hermosa and 
Rapid City, and watched the crowning of the 
Queen who will preside over the Black Hills 
opening of the pageant. 

If the play spirit, caught by Spearfish and other 
Black Hills communities, carries over into the 
summer months, there will be a release of the 
human spirit that will make the Black Hills play- 
ground a scene of incomparable jollity, with the 
touches of history to make vivid the incidents 
that have gone into the making of the American 
scene. 



Start Your Planning Now for the 
Summer Closing Festival 

(Continued from page 162) 
There were singing and dancing acts, a boxing 
match, Indian songs and dances, and ukulele 
playing. 

Last season 700 children from fourteen play- 
grounds in Vancouver appeared in a circus which 
the Elks financed at a cost of $200. The circus 
was such a success that it is to be an annual affair 
with the best of last season's acts incorporated 
each year. About forty acts were presented and 
at the end of the show prizes were presented for 
the best performers,' taking into consideration 
general conduct on the playground during the 
season. 

Folk Festivals 

International folk festivals featuring the idea of 
good will furnish a flexible vehicle as each ground 
can select a nation and develop folk dances or a 
festival scene centering around a custom of the 
country. Such figures as History, Progress, Peace, 
etc., serve as narrators and introduce the groups 
of children. Since it is desirable to have as little 
speaking as possible, most of the pageants re- 
volve around a few such symbolic figures. The 



WHEN THE NEIGHBORHOOD PLAYGROUND ENDS ITS SEASON 



181 



use of amplifiers is recommended whenever pos- 
sible. When the festival tells a familiar story, the 
simple plot is usually carried forward by panto- 
mime and a short description is sometimes in- 
cluded in the; program. 

If the playground supervisor wishes to use the 
closing festival as an opportunity to demonstrate 
the work of the summer. Drama Service recom- 
mends The Gifts* which was prepared for the 
National Recreation Association on its twenty- 
fifth anniversary. This pageant shows children, 
young people and adults in a community-wide 
recreation program. The adult groups may be 
omitted but if the city is carrying on a compre- 
hensive program it may be appropriate to include 
these groups with the playground children. The 
pageant utilizes practically every playground ac- 
tivity. Seven characters — Community, Home, 
School, Church, Spirit of Childhood, Spirit of 
Youth, and Spirit of Leisure — carry the speaking 
parts and introduce the groups. This simple 
pageant presents a colorful and ever changing 
panorama of play which carries an irrefutable 
argument for play leadership and leisure time 
activities. 

* ObtaiJiable from the National Recreation Association. $.25. 



When the Neighborhood Playground 
Ends Its Season 

(Ccntiniied from page 165) 
all who have contributed to the success of the 
summer playground season and the closing event. 
These can be included on the printed program, 
published in the newspapers and given personally 
by the master of ceremonies, or better still, by 
the chairman of the sponsoring committee, just 
before the closing number on the entertainment 
program. 

And then, when we inventory and pack away 
our few remaining supplies, we might again turn 
the matter over in our minds. From this closing 
event, what impression did the visitors carry away 
with them? Was it really that the children were 
amazingly happy and spontaneous, knee deep jn 
their big undertaking? And what of the young- 
sters themselves ? Just "So long 'til next summer." 



A Civic -Minded Garden Club 

(Continued from page 166) 
berried shrubs, compost piles, wardian cases, 
house plants, seed catalogues and Christmas 
greens. 

Informal talks are given three or four times a 




PUT 

DIAMONDS 

ON YOUR 
PLAYGROUND 

Equip your playground with Dia- 
mond Pitching Horseshoes and 
accessories. The line is popular 
with amateurs and professionals 
alike. Diamond products need little 
replacing. Shoes are drop forged 
steel — will neither chip nor break. 
Write for new catalog P. S. 1. 

DIAMOND CALK HORSESHOE CO. 

4610 Grand Avenue, Duluth, Minn. 



month by people who are authorities in some par- 
ticular garden subject. Folding chairs transform 
the exhibition room into a small lecture hall. Over 
8oo people attended these lectures last year. " 

The establishment of a garden center is a pro- 
ject all communities can attempt. It meets a defi- 
nite civic need. The entire town is improved by 
educating the citizens to beautify the surround- 
ings of each individual home. It helps to center 
all garden club groups for constructive work. It 
proves a center for such civic projects as elimi- 
nation of ugly areas, reforestation and commu- 
nity gardening. It provides a place for assembling 
a horticultural library and enables the holding of 
such activities as flower shows and a surplus 
plant exchange. There is no limit to what can be 
accomplished among the children for they clamor 
for classes in growing flowers and vegetables. 
Early in life they thus learn the love of beauty as 
expressed in nature. Model gardens may be laid 
out nearby and a botanical garden started for the 
information of all ages. Who can measure the 
influence for good that such a garden center may 
exert ? 



182 



THE FARM AS A CAMP BACKGROUND 



The Farm As A Camp Background 

(Continued from page 172) 

solution to those organizations who carry on 
this two week system as its basis because of 
prohibitive cost of maintenance. With the food 
bill per child per nine week season cut down 
to $16.95, as at the Commune Farm, and even 
lower in other set-ups, children can spend 
longer periods at the same cost as their two 
week vacation. With longer periods of time at 
the disposal of the child, counselors no longer 
will serve as comedians for these two week 
periods (children acting passive roles) but will 
assume a new outlook and will provide the 
children with limitless opportunities for true 
participation in country life. 

For those schools which have made progres- 
sive steps in their curriculum, the farm pro- 
ject offers much as an extension of work done 
in the city schools. In the farm community 
children have sufficient opportunities for lead- 
ership, active assumption of responsibilities, 
true planning and a real insight into new ways 
of living. From a character-educational set-up, 
this work calls for immediate cooperation on 
e\ery child's part. From the purely academic 



standard, this extension would bring the child 
into direct contact with original fields of study. 
The study of biology, physics, chemistry, ge- 
ology, dietetics, surveying, breeding and cook- 
ing becomes quite alive, substantial and spon- 
taneous. The close contact with life in the raw 
gives vent to a good deal of painting, clay 
work, writing and other mediums of creative 
expression. The crudeness of the household 
calls for an immediate and practical use of any 
arts and crafts that may have played a part in 
the child's school curriculum. The knowledge 
of how to make candles may be of little use in 
a modern home, but the farm household can 
not do without it. Copper candle holders, 
wrought by hand, may have a decorative place 
in the city environment, but they have a prac- 
tical use in the rehabilitation of an old farm. 
It is the hope that this description of the 
experience in working out the camp project 
may pave the way for a better basis of camp 
work. More and more opportunities to get 
away from the unreal and artificial environ- 
ment of the school must be ofifered to children 
if we are to seek well rounded personalities 
that must eventually accommodate themselves 
to a gigantic practical world. 



[play SAFE LYc/7 
^•^.PLAYGROUND 




A SPECIAL SAFETY PACKET FOR 
PLAYGROUND DIRECTORS 

A collection of materials to help the playground director 
promote safety is now available. It includes: 

Ten attractive safety posters 

A short play 

Crayon lessons for small children 

A program of activities for supervised playgrounds 

Price $L00 

Safety Education Magazine, the only publication de- 
voted entirely to child safety problems, brings you each 
month posters, graded lesson outlines, informational 
articles, stories, and plays. 



$1.00 a year 



With the Safety Packet, $L75 



N AT I O N A L 



.COUNCIL 



SAFETY EDUCATION MAGAZINE 
One Park Avenue, New York 

Enclosed find for which please send SAFETY EDUCATION MAGAZINE beginning 

with the issue. 

Enclosed find $1.75 for SAFETY EDUCATION MAGAZINE and the Special Playground Packet. 

Name 

Address 

City and State 



New Publications in the Leisure Time Field 



H 



ours o 



f Lei 



sure 



The Studio Limited, 44 Leicester Square, London. 

FROM England comes a new and delightful series of 
hobbies and handcraft booklets known as Hours of 
Leisure. Profusely illustrated and attractively printed, 
they will be welcome additions to the library of the rec- 
reation worker. Those available include : The Model 
Theatre, by Victor Hembrow ; Puppet Making, by Dana 
Saintsbury Green; Sign-Writing, by T. G. Birtles ; The 
Doll's House, by J. A. Grant; Cut Paper Decoration, by 
Christopher St. John ; Fabric Printing, by W. B. Adeney ; 
Cushion Making, by Jeannetta Cochrane, and Radio and 
Gramophone Cabinets, by P. A. Wells. These publica- 
tions are available from the Studio Publications, Inc., 381 
Fourth Avenue, New York City at 35 cents each. 

Social Games For Recreation 

By Bernard S. Mason, Ph.D. and Elmer D. Mitchell, A.M. 

ARMED with this book, the recreation leader will never 
lack for an answer to the question, "What shall we 
play?" for the volume offers over 1,200 individual games 
for the use at home, school, club and playground. Fur- 
thermore the method of classification makes it easy to 
find the type of material desired. Classifications include 
social mixers ; social dancing aids ; party games ; mystery 
games ; dramatic party games ; social relays and group 
contests ; duel contests and combats ; council ring activi- 
ties ; rotative party games ; mental play ; useful teaching 
games ; clubroom and play room games ; automobile 
games and contests ; picnic activities ; stalking and Scout- 
ing games; joke stunts; forfeits. There are many line 
•drawings and photographs. 

In using this book the leader should keep in mind the 
fact that in itself the book does not attempt to cover the 
entire field of games but is to be used in conjunction with 
its companion volume. Active Games and Contests. 

Great Patriots' Days 

By Nina B. Lamkin. Samuel French, New York. $.50. 
"1- HIS booklet, the most recent of the "All Through the 
' Year Series," contains suggestions for honoring 
Coluinbus, Washington. Lincoln, Lee and Roosevelt. In- 
formation is given regarding these heroes, and there are 
appropriate quotations, playlets and suggestions for pro- 
grams. Source material is offered. 



lOI Best Songs 



Revised 3Sth Edition. Cable Company, Chicago, Illinois. 
10# a copy, $1.00 a dozen, $7.00 a hundred. 

This is the least expensive of all the collections of 
songs of community singing or other informal sing- 
ing. It contains all the old familiar songs, most of them 
in four parts, and also a few choruses from the lighter 



operas, and a few hymns and rounds. It is very clearly 
printed and is of convenient size and weight. It would 
serve very well as a basic or central "text book" for any 
informal singing group, for which additional small col- 
lections or single songs could be added. 

Everybody's Song Book 

Obtainable from Frederic J. Haskin, Director, Washing- 
ton Information Bureau, Washington, D. C. 20# a copy. 

-p HIS book differs from the one mentioned above in that 
' it contains 225 songs, including cowboy songs, sea 
chanteys, Negro spirituals, a larger number of hymns, 
Christmas carols and children's songs and several old 
songs which in their day were very widely known and 
deserve to be revived. There are a number of trivial 
songs which can be disregarded. A very useful, inex- 
pensive book. 

Modern Basketball For Girls 

By Wilhelmine E. Meissner and Elizabeth Yeend Meyers. 
Scholastic Coach Bookshop, New York. $1.00. 

T HE material in this book is designed by the authors, 
' who are members of the Committee on Women's Bas- 
ketball of the A.P.E.A., for people who have a general 
basic understanding of basketball and who wish to make 
the game more interesting by incorporating tactics and 
techniques of various sorts. "Fast and well timed passes, 
clever dodges, quick accurate shots, well executed pivots 
and purposeful floor plays should be dominant in girls' 
basketball today," state the authors in their preface. The 
book is profusely illustrated with a large number of pho- 
tographs and diagrams. 

We Can Take It 

American Book Company, 88 Lexington Avenue, New 
York. Paper 2S(f ; cloth 60^. 

I N this booklet of 128 pages, Ray Hoyt tells the story of 
' the first two years of the Civilian Conservation Corps. 
He paints a vivid picture of thousands of young men at 
work and play, and gives us the objectives and scope of 
this program in which four Federal departments are 
cooperating. Mr. Hoyt has been in touch with thousands 
of men as they have served in the camps and his book 
reflects the spirit of the movement. 

Swimming Analyzed 

By Gertrude Goss. A. S. Barnes and Company. New 
York. $2.00. 

This book presents in order a possible teaching pro- 
gression in swimming, diving and stunts from the be- 
ginning through the advanced stages. It also contains 
chapters on the organization of swimming meets, forma- . 
tion swimming, modified water polo, and the care and 
sanitation of swimming pools. 



183 



184 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



Work Night Program. 

Church Handcraft Service, St. Albans, New York. 
$.25. 
A work night, according to this practical mimeo- 
graphed booklet, is an evening given over to the making 
of simple, inexpensive but attractive and useful articles. 
It is a program designed to acquaint young people with 
the value and enjoyment of simple craft work. The 
booklet tells how to prepare for a work night and de- 
scribes the articles which can be made — metal mascots, 
initialed writing paper, belts, articles of leather and oil- 
cloth, decorated boxes and bottles. This is a helpful little 
book to have in your handcraft library. 

Community Programs for Summer Play Schools. 

By LeRoy E. Bowman. Edited by Benjamin C. 
Gruenberg. Child Study Association of America, 
221 West S7th Street, New York. $.35. 
Vacation projects in experimental education and crea- 
tive recreation through the cooperation of schools and 
other community agencies are described in this pamphlet, 
and conclusions and suggestions from observations and 
field service in various cities are presented. The pam- 
phlet is divided into three parts : The Need and the Op- 
portunity ; Origin and Development of the Program; The 
Prograrn and Suggestions for Organization. 

Behavior of the Preschool Child. 

By Lois M. Jack, Ph.D. Iowa Studies in Child 
Welfare. University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Paper 
bound $1.35; cloth bound $1.70. 
The primary purpose of this study has been to deter- 
mine and to study some of the factors in the social be- 
havior of children of preschool age who maintained a 
position of ascendance in the free play of their preschool 
groups. The subjects selected were four year old children 
in the preschool laboratories of the Iowa Child Welfare 
Research Station. This book gives in detail the findings 
of the .study. 

Swimming Pool Data and Reference Annual. 

Hoffman-Harris, Inc., 404 Fourth Avenue, New 

York. $2.00. 
In 1935 the issue of the Swimming Pool Data and Ref- 
erence Annual, in addition to the Joint Committee Report 
of the Joint Bathing Place Committee of the State Sani- 
tary Engineers and the American Public Health Associ- 
ation, contains a number of articles on swimming pool 
construction and administration. There is also a com- 
prehensive article by Thomas K. Cureton on "Mechanics 
and Kinesiology of Swimming." 

"Kit" 38. 

Edited by Lynn and Katherine Rohrbough. Pub- 
lished by Lynn Rohrbough, Delaware, Ohio. $.25. 
An interesting feature of "Kit" 38, the latest of the 
Pocket Recreation "Kit," is the section on "Guide Posts 
to Leisure" with its analysis and interpretation of various 
phases of leisure-time problems and interests. There is 
also a section in which international games and a number 
of group games and stunts are described. 

Group Activities for Mentally Retarded Children — 
A Symposium. 

Bulletin, 1933, No. 7. Compiled by Elise H. Martens. 

Office of Education. Government Printing Office, 

Washington, D. C. $.20. 
In every school system the education of mentally handi- 
capped children presents serious problems. The author 
of this bulletin has visited classes for exceptional children 
in a number of cities and states in which they are being 
successfully conducted, and with the help of a number of 



teachers, has collected a number of fully tested group 
activities. The activities selected are those related closely 
to the life of the communities in which the children live 
and in which they must eventually find a place economi- 
cally and socially. Orle chapter tells of the organization 
of a toy orchestra ; another of beautifying the schoolroom, 
while a third describes a study of trees, and still another 
the food market. Helpful bibliographies are included in 
the book. 

A Health-Physical Education- Recreation Bulletin. 

Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York. 

$.25. 
The February issue of A Health-Physical Education- 
Recreation Bulletin contains in addition to its section on 
health programs in the Y.W.C.A.'s, the recreation pro- 
grams being conducted by local Y.W.C.A.'s throughout 
the country. 

Sinography of School Buildings, Grounds, 
and Equipment — Part IV. 

By Henry Lester Smith and Forest Ruby Noffsinger. 

Bureau of Cooperative Research, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana. $.50. 
Part IV of this bibliography is an extension of the 
bibliography, Part I of which was first published in Jan- 
uary, 1928. Part IV includes references from April, 1932, 
to Octobep, 1934. The four parts of the bibliography 
should be used together as there is no overlapping of 
references. The material is carefully classified under 
twenty-two subject headings, and there are a number of 
references to playgrounds, athletic fields, indoor play 
rooms, and similar recreational facilities. 



Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 
Joseph Lee, President 
John H. Finley, First Vice-President 
John G. Winant, Second Vice-President 
Robert Gafkett, Third Vice-President 
GusTAVUS T. KiRBY, Treasurer 
Howard S. Bkaucher, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 
Mrs. Edward W. Biddle, Carlisle, Pa. 

WiLIAM BUTTERWORTH, Molinc. III. 

Clarence M. Clark, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Henry L. Corbett, Portland, Ore. 

Mrs. Arthur G. Cummer, Jacksonville, Fla. 

F. Trubee Davison, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 

Mrs. Thomas A. Edison, West Orange, N. J. 

John H. Finley, New York, N. Y. 

Robert Garrett, Baitimore, Md. 

Austin E. Griffiths, Seattle, Wash. 

Charles Hayden, New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. Charles V. Hickox, Michigan City, Ind. 

Mrs. Francis deLacy Hyde, Plainfield, N. J. 

Gustavus T. Kirby, New York, N. Y. 

H. McK. Landon, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mrs. Charles D. Lanier, Greenwich, Conn. 

Robert Lassiter, Charlotte, N. C. 

Joseph Lee, Boston, Mass. 

Edward E. Loomis, New York, N. Y. 

J. H. McCuRDY, Springfield, Mass. 

Otto T. Mallery, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Walter A. May, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Carl E. Millikev, Augusta, Me. 

Mrs. Ocden L. Mills, Woodbury, N. Y. 

Mrs. James W. Wadsworth, Jr., Washington, D. C. 

J. C. Walsh, New York, N. Y. 

Frederick M. Warburg, New York, N. Y. 

John G. Winant, Concord, N. H. 

Mis. William H. Woodin, Jr., Tucson, Arix. 



Joseph Lee 



IN June 1910 — twenty -five years ago — Joseph Lee accepted election as president of the Playground 
Association of America. For all but four years of the Association's history Joseph Lee has been 
its president and its leader. 

Play and recreation in 1910 were no new interest to him. Before the Association was organized 
Joseph Lee had worked many years in this field. As a boy he had known what play meant in his 
own life and the life of his family. He had read and studied Froebel's books. He was interested in pro- 
gressive education before there was any such thing. Not only had Joseph Lee paid for apparatus and 
equipment and the salaries of the play leaders for the Boston Columbus Avenue Playground in the 
early days. For years he had carefully observed the play of children of all ages. With a lively memory 
of his own play days he had recorded what he had observed. 

At the time Joseph Lee graduated from Harvard every man was expected to go into business or 
enter a profession but he did not need to make money and he was not interested in doing so. In 
England a man could enter public service with entire self-respect. In America a man could go to live 
in the slums, but to devote the major part of one's time to play and recreation and to think of this 
not in terms of the poor alone but of every one. was then hard to understand. Courage was required 
forty years ago to devote oneself to play. 

Joseph Lee was a courageous pioneer with vision to see a great need and with readiness to leave 
beaten paths. While Joseph Lee worked in Boston and New England others were working in other 
cities and many persons and many influences were united in the organization that later became the 
National Recreation Association. Many of these persons were professional workers, but Joseph Lee 
as a layman, a public-spirited citizen, an educator, a thinker, with many many fields open to him, has 
not only for the twenty-five years of his presidency but before, dedicated himself specially to the rec- 
reation movement. Year in and year out, in good seasons and in bad, in war and in peace, without 
thought for himself, Joseph Lee gave himself and his influence to the national recreation movement. 
No task was too little, or too big, or too demanding. No job, even that of money raising, was too 
disagreeable. 

Fortunately Joseph Lee was in position to contribute his time, to pay his own expenses as he 
made trips in behalf of the movement, and of course with his interest went his own financial sup- 
port. But most of all the Association and the movement are indebted to him for his philosophy, bis 
understanding of fundamental principles, his readiness always to think in terms of quality rather than 
quantity, to stand resolutely for what he thought really mattered. His presidency these twenty-five 
years has been no casual attendance at occasional meetings, but a vital continuous leadership. 

Few could know the extent to which his humor, his keen mind, his knowledge of human 
nature, his wise administrative judgments have helped mould the national movement day by day for 
a generation. There is a spirit and a tradition which he has had a large part in building up. The move- 
ment of course is the result of the work of many thousands of workers in more than a thousand com- 
munities throughout the county. Its strength has been in its cooperative spirit. What has happened — 
has happened, however, under Joseph Lee's leadership. 

Had Joseph Lee served for eight years in ordinary times as president of the United States it is 
doubtful whether he would have had the opportunity he has had in his twenty-five years' service as 
leader in the recreation movement to leave the impress of his spirit upon the nation. 

The end of the twenty-five year period of consecutive service is a fitting time in behalf of the 
thousands who serve with him to record what his leadership has meant, the affection it has inspired. 

Howard Braucher. 



JULY 1935 

185 



■Li 




Of all man's works of art a cathedral is the greatest. 
A vast and majestic tree is greater than that. 

HENRY WARD BEECHER. 



186 



The New Lei 



eisure 



IN A BOOK written about four 
hundred years ago I find 
these words : "For they . . . 
assign only six hours to work, 
those before noon, upon the 
which they go straight to dinner; and after din- 
ner, when they have rested two hours, then they 
work three hours and upon that they go to 
supper." 

That was Sir Thomas More's Utopia. It 
sounded fantastic when it was penned. But the 
machine is rapidly bringing about an Utopia 
in which there shall be time for men just to be 
idle or to devote their extra hours to fulfilling 
those creative desires and impulses which 
struggle within us. 

This problem of leisure has become one of 
the baffling ones of our time. The machine 
has continually decreased man's hours of gain- 
ful labor. Much of the drudgery of life has 
been taken from the shoulders of men — the 
back-breaking family washing, the old carpet 
sweeper, the twelve hour day in the steel-mill. 
The machine should also liberate the spirits of 
men as well as their bodies. It will if we will 
only realize that perhaps the next great cycle 
in the world's history may be the providing of 
opportunities for all folk to live an abundant 
life. David Cushman Coyle says that the an- 
swer to technological unemployment is cultural 
employment. 

This problem of the new leisure presses for 
solution whether we will or no. Certainly it 
demands that we find satisfying ways of using 
it. We must open up new vistas to men, help 
give them new desires, and ofifer them instruc- 
tion in satisfying those desires. Not only does 
the leisure time on men's hands demand this, 
but the very nature of modern industry makes 
it imperative. More and more the worker finds 
himself a cog in a machine. He turns a bolt 
as the moving automobile belt moves monoto- 
nously by him. This regimented work gives 
him little opportunity for creative outlets. Con- 
sequently, he must find them in his leisure 



By Paul L. Benjamin 

Executive Secretary 
Council of Social Agencies 
Buffalo and Erie County, New York 



time. And society must af- 
ford him full opportunity for 
doing so or dam up latent, 
powerful powers and mo- 
tives which can find an out- 
let largely through unsocial conduct. 

This means that instead of curtailing bud- 
gets for libraries, science museums, art galler- 
ies, community centers, organized recreation, 
and adult education, we must increase them. 
It means that we are destined to see a great 
increase in the place and functions of these 
institutions. 

Just as adults must be served, so youth can- 
not wait. It is the policemen's club or the boys' 
club. On one hand you have the corner gang, 
crap-shooting in the alley, the petty crime; on 
the other hand you have the "Scout Troop," 
the "Y," the play center. 

Clifford R. Shaw, of the Chicago Institute 
of Juvenile Research, states that the hundreds 
of cases studied clearly show that "the unsup- 
ervised play group is the medium through which 
a large proportion of delinquents are initiated 
and through which delinquency is transmitted 
from older to younger generations." Freder- 
ick M. Thrasher, author of The Gang is also of 
the opinion that "the unwise use of leisure time 
of young men from sixteen years of age to the 
early twenties, is responsible for an important 
proportion of the serious crime in America." 
He declares, "It is better to spend $1500 in a 
local crime prevention program based on con- 
structive use of leisure than to spend $750,000 
to convict one public enemy." 

In Cincinnati the experiment has been tried 
of releasing boys on probation from the Ju- 
venile Court to the character-building agencies. 
Over 90 per cent of the boys so released never 
return to the Court. 

A study being conducted by Buflfalo by the 
statistician of the Health Department, Mr. Del- 
mer Batcheller, shows a close correlation be- 
tween anti-social attitudes and anti-social be- 
havior. 

187 



188 



THE NEW LEISURE 



What of the School, the Home, the Church? 

What now is the relation of three great insti- 
tutions — the school, the home and the Church, to 
this problem of the new leisure ? 

The school, of course, should educate for liv- 
ing and for the enrichment of life. Education 
should equip students to fulfill their capacities and 
desires. It should liberate the spirit instead of 
regimenting and dulling it. It should throb with 
the beat of life itself. Too often schools have ten 
commandments of which these are a part : 

1. Thou shalt not permit students to become in- 
terested in their work. 

2. Thou shalt not question the opinions of the 
teacher. 

3. Thou shalt learn books — not life. 

4. Thou shalt not permit students to confer 
among themselves. 

5. Thou shalt not make education an exciting 
experience. 

6. Thou shalt not bring beauty 
into the classroom. 

Now and then you discover 
an educational institution which 
does violate those restrictions. 
For instance, the Arts Guild of 
New York City is an adult col- 
lege in which the students are 
expected to conduct themselves 
like "socialized, exploring, cre- 
ative adults." 

Its philosophy is expressed in 
the words : "Individuals are re- 
quired, in actual experience, to 
respond with whatever inner re- 
sources they possess to the com- 
plete, unassorted welter of life; 
it behooves them, then, to dis- 
cover, by active exploration and 
creativeness, both what their in- 
ner resources are and how life 
may be handled as a whole 
rather than as a succession of 
isolated fragments." They have 



"I see here, Mopey, how a pro- 
fessor has written a book tell- 
ing 800 ways to kill tinne under 
the New Deal. That must of 



chosen the arts as an educational force for the 
following reasons: Through them an individual 
may discover his own latent powers in thinking; 
a complex and puzzling world may assume unity 
and form ; the qualities drawn upon in creative 
performance may be carried over into other fields 
and help condition his life. The arts' helps the 
student to win mastery over self. 

Here you find self-discovery and self-revela- 
tion. In the words of James Stephens : 
"I would think until I found 
Something I can never find. 
Something lying on the ground 
In the bottom of my mind." 
Students at the Arts Guild find themselves 
growing into more socialized attitudes and dis- 
cover a new eagerness about life. 

The marvelous development of the folk schools 
in Denmark hints at what the relation of recrea- 
tion and education may really become. Here plav, 
drama and singing have become an integral part 
of the folk education. It has become a singing 



been an awful lot of work." 




Published by permission United Feature Syndicate 



MOPEY DICK AND THE DUKE 



THE NEW LEISURE 



M«cMurr«y Corio»» LibM«7 



land. A meeting of the stock- 
holders of a bankrupt farm- 
er's bank was opened with 
song. 

Coming near home we have 
the annual music festival i n 
Westchester County, New 
York. A chorus of 500 chil- 
dren is chosen from the vari- 
ous high school glee clubs and 
another chorus of 2,500 chil- 
dren from the grades. These 
take part in the festival. For weeks, the music 
classes in the schools throughout the county re- 
hearse for the grand event. The weaving of music 
into the lives of the children gives them a price- 
less heritage. 

Education needs to become training for life. 
(James, music, drama, play, therefore become aii 
essential part of the curriculum. 

Modern life has twisted and moulded the in- 
stitution of the home into a grotesque shape. As 
Professor William F. Ogburn has so well pointed 
out, all the ties which have held the family to- 
gether in the past — education, employment, recre- 
ation and others — have become seriously weak- 
ened. When my great-grandfather and his young 
bride went by ox-cart in the wilds of Pennsyl- 
vania and carved out a homestead, it became 
largely a self-sustaining one. They made their 
own home-spun, dipped their own candles, for 
recreation had squirrel hunting and sugaring ofT; 
education was at the mother's knee ; religious wor- 
ship was family prayers and reading from the 
ponderous Bible with the brass clasps. Now all 
that is changed — the movie, the Scout Troop, the 
automobile, the golf foursome. 

But, savs ^[r. Ogburn, affection still remains 
as a powerful strand to hold families together. 
This provides us a cue as to some of the tech- 
nique for happy family life. The development of 
the afifectional techniques resides in doing things 
together, in recreational interests and associations. 

I have in mind one family which is a gathering 
place for friends and kin-folk on a Sunday even- 
ing. Here you will find mother at the piano, 
father with his fiddle, INIary with her violin, and 
Jimmy with his flute. The family concert has be- 
come a regular event in that family. Without their 
realizing it, they have drawn upon an atTectional 
technique to bind them together. In our church 
we now have mi.\ed bowling, preceded by a sup- 
per for husbands and wives. 



"With the heavy hand of dire neces- 
sity lifted, men and women may be 
lured into the marvelous world of 
cultural interests which has been a 

closed world to so many Leisure 

should bring a new content into pov- 
erty stricken souls, with new apprecia- 
tion of beauty and fineness and often 
the development of latent power." — 
Gratia A. Countryman in Bulletin 
of the American Library Associa- 
tion, July, 1934. 



Hobbies in which all the 
family can take part are an ex- 
cellent device not only for de- 
veloping a community of in- 
terest but also for having rare 
fun together. I know a family 
which is collecting fossils. 
Winter evenings you will find 
them gathering about the din- 
ing room table classifying their 
finds. On Saturday afternoons 
during the rest of the year 
they are tramping along streams pursuing their 
fascinating quest. There will be no divorce nor 
separation in that family. 

The family provides a continuous medium for 
education. The notion that education is a treat- 
ment applied vigorously between the ages of five 
and sixteen is a curious one; that somehow, life 
begins where education stops. After all, perhaps 
life does really begin at forty. At least our modern 
adult education movement makes it possible. The 
family is a place to nourish hidden skills and 
talents — to grov/ beautiful roses, to make ex- 
quisite sculpture from a cake of soap, to drama- 
tize stories. My two boys spent a happy Christ- 
mas week writing a play, in constructing puppets 
and stage, and in putting on the show. The even- 
ing performance before parents and friends was 
a creative experience for them. 

Clarence E. Pickett tells the story of the coal 
miner who was retrained to make furniture. He 
always came home from the mines ill-tempered 
and unhappy to spend his leisure time in scolding 
the wife and in beating the children. He was now 
employed in making hand-fabricated chairs. He 
happened one day to find a life of Henry Wads- 
worth Longfellow and he found in it a descrip- 
tion of the bed used by Mr. Longfellow^ Finally 
he procured a picture of the bed. He decided to 
make a copy of it. By working at night, he com- 
pleted it, a beautiful piece of furniture. The surly 
disposition vanished. He became aflfectionate in 
his family relationships. Something had become 
released within him. 

Only one who has experience knows the joy 
which comes from common tasks with children 
and mate — of hiking a golden afternoon up hill 
and down dale, of old-fashioned croquet, of read- 
ing the Highwayman of Alfred Noyes aloud in 
the evening with its swinging lines : 
(Continued on page 222) 



When YouVe Making Tin Can Toys 



Save those old tin cans. You 
will be surprised to find what 
attractive toys they will make 



BY USING a little ingenuity many at- 
tractive playthings can be made from 
tin cans of different sizes and siiapes. 
In this article I have undertaken to de- 
scribe the making, by simple methods of 
construction, a number of toys very at- 
tractive to children as playthings that any- 
one should be able! to duplicate. 

The tools needed, with a very few ex- 
ceptions, will be found in any home workshop. 
The following are necessary: 

A can opener which cuts out the top against the 
crimped edge, leaving a smooth top to the can in- 
stead of the jagged edge left by the ordinary old 
type can opener. There are several of these on 
the market. One called a "Gem" can be bought 
for twenty-five cents. 

A pair of duck-bill tin snips 

A block of hard wood about ii/4"x2"xi2" 
which should be planed smooth 

A pair of pliers for cutting and bending wire 
used in handles 

A small hammer (ball pene preferred) and a 
mallet 

A small file 

A punch made from a nail filed square on the 
end 

An alcohol lamp (one can be bought in the ten 
cent stores with a blow pipe attached) 

A small quantity of self fluxing solder; rosin 
core solder is the most satisfactory, ordinary sol- 
der and soldering paste may be used. 

It is important that cans to be used shall be 
washed at once when opened and thoroughly 
dried. Old cans or those that have begim to rust 
should not be used. You "should have a recep- 
tacle handy for scrap pieces of tin, as these should 
not be left lying around. All jagged or sharp 
edges on any pieces to be handled or used should 

190 




By Charles M. Graves 

Acting Executive Secretary 

Transient Bureau 

Columbus, Georgia 



be immediately removed with a file ; a small three- 
cornered saw file will be found convenient for this 
purpose. 

A Toy Sauce Pan 

A toy sauce pan can be made from a small can 
by soldering on a straight handle and making a 
lid from the top cut from a larger can. The 
handle should be a little longer than the diameter 
of the can and should be tapered and have hem- 
med edges — that is, the edges should be folded 
back to make a smobth edge and also to stiffen 
the handle. "Hemming" the edge is a process 
used on all handles and in some other instances 
is easily done by holding the piece on the block of 
hard wood and bending the edge over this with a 
mallet or hammer. When the edge has been bent 
at a right angle to the main piece for its entire 
length, turn the piece over on the block and bend 
this edge down with a mallet or hammer. Both 
edges of the handle should of course be hemmed 
and a hole should be punched in the small end. To 
attach this handle to the pan, bend about one-fourth 



WHEN YOU'RE MAKING TIN CAN TOYS 



191 



HANDLE- FOR 
5TEW POM 



inch of the large end of 
the handle to a suitable 
angle with the handle 
and curve this to fit 
neatly against the can. 
Hold this handle in 
place by a wire around 
the can, being sure the 
can and handle are clean where they join. 

If you have a soldering iron available and are 
accustomed to using it, you will need no further 
instructions; but if you do not have a soldering 
iron, the simplest method of soldering is to use 
self fluxing solder which is also known as acid 
core solder or rosin core solder. Cut a piece of 
self fluxing solder about one-half inch long and 
lay it in the crevice where the handle joins the 
can. Apply heat under the handle by means of a 
small alcohol lamp. As soon as the solder melts 

or flows, remove the 
_ heat and a neat job of 

soldering should re- 
sult. This same pro- 
cess of soldering can 
be used with a small 
piece of soft solder 
and soldering paste 
flux. 



ro m::i 



LOOP TO CKEIV9 
HANOUt OF STEW KtTTLt 



T'"0 



STtPs IN 3uftpm& 

ENDS OP i\mV\£ TO 
KETTLE AfiO BUCKET 



A Toy Stew Pan 

A toy stew pan can 
be easily made from a can the same size as the 
sauce pan or a trifle larger. Shape two handles of 
wire, as shown in detail A, using wire from a 
light coat hanger or the handle of a market bas- 
ket. File these a little flat on the side that fits 
against the can and make the top of the handle 
flare away from the can. Hold these in place by 
a small wire or string around the can. Lay a 
small piece of solder against one end of the 
handle, holding the can so heat can be applied 
from the inside. Heat with an alcohol lamp until 
solder flows. Repeat this for each end of each 
handle. After a little trial it is easily and quickly 
done. By using the top cut from a larger size can 
and soldering on a handle made of wire or a 
small piece of tin, a very accept- 
able lid can be made for either of 
these pans. 




A Toy Stew Kettle 

To make a toy stew kettle with 
a bail, a can about 2V2 inches 



In RECREATION for July. 1933. 
Mr. Graves offered some sug- 
gesfions for tin can craft. 
This monfh he gives us some 
additional articles suitable for 
the playground program. 



B ' high and the same di- 

ameter may be used. 
(One which contained 
Vienna sausage is a 
good size.) Shape two 
loops to receive the 
handles, as shown in 
detail B. These can be 
made from gem clips or wire or they can be cut 
from a piece of tin as the one shown in the illus- 
tration. Fit these loops to opposite sides of can 
so they extend slightly above the top. Secure them 
in place temporarily by a wire around the loops 
and the can. Now solder these to the can by the 
method previously described, using a small piece 
of self fluxing solder on each joint and applying 
the heat on the inside of the can by means of a 
small alcohol lamp. 

To make the handle for the size can mentioned, 
cut a piece of wire 5J^ 
or 6 inches long from D 

a market basket ban- " 

die or other wire about 
that diameter. To 
make the loops bend 
the ends first to a 
right angle and slip 
the handle in place be- 
fore closing the loop 
as shown in detail C. 
To make a lid for the 

stew kettle secure the top from the next size 
larger can. This may need trimming oflf from the 
outside to make it fit between the handle loops. 

A Toy Coffee Pot 

To make a toy cofTee pot select a tall can of the 
desired size. The handle is made by the same 
method as the handle for the sauce pan except 
that it is shaped like the handle of a cup and sol- 
dered over the seam of the can both at the top and 
bottom of the handle. 

The spout is approximately an equilateral trian- 
gle. (See sketch of spout marked D). Bend over 
the finger on the line from the middle of one side 
to the opposite apex. The edges of this should be 
filed to fit snugly against the side 
of the can in the proper posi- 
tion. Now punch or drill a num- 
ber of holes so as to come under 
the spout ; then bind the spout 
securely in place with a fine wire. 
(Continued on page 223) 



3POVJT foe 
COFFEE POT 
(6fNP<W00nTEDU«t) 



Something About Marionettes 



ind 



By 
Elizabeth Haines 



AMARioN'KTTE belongs to the 
great family of puppets, 
which is a general term ap- 
plied to any specially constructed 
articulated figure, and refers both 
to marionettes and hand puppets. 
The main difference between mari- 
onettes and hand puppets is this : 
Marionettes are elaborately con- 
structed figures worked by strings 
fastened to a wooden control, and 
manipulated from above the stage 
level ; hand puppets are simply con- 
structed figures, put on the hands 
like a mitten, and manipulated from 
below the stage level. Punch and Judy, brought 
to us from England, belongs to this latter class, 
as do the hand puppets of France, called "guig- 
nols." In the parks of Paris the French version 
of Punch and Judy is given, to the delight of. 
children and their nurses. 

Where Did They Come From? 

No one person (at least in modern times) ever 
"invented" marionettes, as some people believe. 
Marionettes and puppets are so old that even to- 
day their origin has not been definitely established. 
Figures of marionettes have been found in Greek, 
Roman and Egyptian tombs, and references to 
them have been made in the writings of Aristotle, 
Plato and Horace. The ancient Greek name for 
marionettes means literally, "puppets suspended 
from strings or threads." In India, the name for- 
merly given only to puppet showmen meaning 
"string-puller," has today come to be a term ap- 
plied to any theatrical producer, a further proof 
that puppet plays must be more ancient than the 
theatre of human actors. 

Marionettes were known in China, according to 
written record, as early as 630 A. D., where it is 

192 




Their History 



thought they were brought from 
Turkestan. Owing to the political 
and military expansion of the Mon- 
gols, Chinese traders carried the 
marionettes over Asia to Africa and 
Europe where they were developed 
into religious automata used in 
churches and church processions. 

Their Popularity 
The popularity of marionettes and 
hand puppets, like a great many 
other things, seems to go in cycles, 
and in the 17th Century hand pup- 
pets rose rapidly in favor and at- 
tained their greatest height in the early part of 
the iStli. Then Punch flourished in England. His 
broad burlesques appealed to the low state of the 
English folk humor of the period, and it was then, 
too, that his physical, appearance of hooked nose, 
hump front and back, cap and ruff became stand- 
ardized. In 1713 a permanent theatre was estab- 
lished for him in Covent Garden, but it was not 
until the end of the Century that he married Judy, 
who from that time on remained a permanent 
member of the troupe. Punch was so popular he 
had to appear in every performance, even Biblical 
dramas, to satisfy public demand, and as an actor 
he was seriously confpared to the greatest living 
actors of the day — Edmund and Keene. In fact, 
not only in England but in nearly all Asiatic and 
European countries. Punch, in one form or an- 
other, is the national puppet hero, and in each 
country his characteristics — greedy braggart — are 
the same. Throughout its history we find the 
hand puppet theatre the voice of the common peo- 
ple, and Punch their greatest spokesman. Easy to 
transport, the hand puppet theatre quickly drew a 
crowd when set up on the street corner and was 
the newspaper of the times, for the puppets not 



SOMETHING ABOUT MARIONETTES AND THEIR HISTORY 



193 



only reflected the life and customs of the period, 
but also influenced and shaped pubhc opinion. 
Punch was in turn commentator as well as agi- 
tator on important religious and political questions 
of the day. 

Although the mechanics of manipulating hand 
puppets seem to encourage slap-stick methods of 
expression, that is not true of all hand puppets. 
The French writer, George Sand, established a 
complete puppet theatre in her home. Her son 
carved the heads, and she costumed the figures. 
Over a period of 25 years they presented a series 
of parodies and satires on popular authors of the 
period. The puppets have been preserved and are 
occasionally placed on exhibition at Nohant, 
France. 

Writers of other periods knew and like the pup- 
pets. Shakespeare mentioned them repeatedly, 
and on one occasion makes Hamlet wish to be 
the speaker on a marionette stage. Ben Johnson, 
Addison and Steele, Swift and Pepys refer to 
puppets and shows they saw. Maurice Materlinck 
wrote some beautiful marionette plays. Cyrano 
de Bergerac stabbed and killed a famous ape, 
"Fagotin" who appeared in a puppet show, be- 
cause he thought the ape was making fun of his 
nose! Samuel Johnson thought the marionettes 
played much better than living actors, and coming 
to our modern writers, George Bernard Shaw de- 
clares himself a champion of the puppets. 

Musical geniuses, too, have written for the 
miniature actors. Joseph Haydn had his own 
marionette theatre, 
and wrote a number 
of operettas for the 
puppets, as well as 
his familiar "Toy 
Symphony." 

The greatest poem 
in the German lan- 
guage, which has 
since become a well- 
loved opera, was in- 
spired by mario- 
nettes. As children, 



Si and his wife discuss 
the dairying situation 
in "Down on the Farm," 
created for New York 
State Milk Campaign. 



Goethe and his sister were given a marionette 
theatre for Christmas by their grandfather, and 
having written for and loved the puppets from 
childhood, Goethe drew his inspiration for "Faust" 
from seeing a marionette performance of an old 
German legend on which the plot was based. 

The 1 8th Century might well be called the 
"Golden Age" of marionettes, for it was then that 
they reached their greatest popularity and played 
a considerable part in the public life of all civilized 
countries. At this time marionette showmen be- 
came so numerous as a class that they were form- 
ed into a guild, with their own special regulations 
and customs. One peculiar rule was that none of 
the play texts should be written, but everything, 
even the prompter's stage directions, had to be 
memorized. This custom, in part, has survived 
today, and most professional marionette com- 
panies memorize the lines of a play, and do not, 
as many people suppose, read the lines while 
working the puppets, which would be a task re- 
quiring the physical agility of an octopus and the 
mental agility of a Dorothy Parker. Some com- 
panies do have one group to manipulate the pup- 
pets, while another group reads the lines, but it is 
felt that this method is not as satisfactory as 
when the lines are memorized by the manipulator. 

Strangely enough, at this time the church, espe- 
cially in England and France, was very severe in 
its war against the legitimate theatre, but the pup- 
pets seem to have been in some way overlooked, 
(Continued on !>agc 224) 




Courtesy Flank and Elisabeth Haines 



The Boy Scout 




'Get a hobby, acquire 
skill in its exercise, 
and ride it hard." 



ind His Hobbies 



By 

R. A. Barry 



PROBABLY there are few normal, wide-awake 
boys who are not hobbyists after their own 
fashion. A boy will collect anything and 
everything from snakes to postage stamps, dab- 
ble in anything or everything from whittling to 
soap sculpture, spend endless time and effort on 
whatever the craze of the moment is, whether it 
is making devious jig-saw puzzles, daubing with 
paint or fabricating gliders. So long as the appeal 
holds he will ride any hobby horse tirelessly and 
enthusiastically until it is supplanted by a new 
interest. 

Scouting, recognizing this universal boy pro- 
clivity, utilizes it and directs it to constructive 
ends, offers a wide range of possible hobbies from 
which individual Scouts or group of Scouts may 
choose the project which fits their tastes capacity 
and natural aptitudes. Such hobbies are suggested 
or encouraged as will have more than a transient 
value and offer ever increasing depth and breadth 
of interest, will lead on and on, instead of coming 
to a dead end, and will become a permanent en- 
richment of the boy's life, instead of a passing 
fancy. 

As everybody knows a new hobby may get you 
under its spell at any hour or day. There is no 
closed season for hobbies. But for the Boy Scout 
perhaps the happiest hunting ground in this field 
is his summer camp. In camp hobbies are both 
literally and figuratively in the air and under foot. 

Bugs or butterflies may catch and hold the em- 
bryo naturalist-collector's interest. A talk on leaf 
shape and veining may set more than one young- 
ster to experimenting with leaf moulds in plaster 
or blue prints, both of which lead to engrossing 

194 



new kinds of craft, aside from the heightened 
powers of observation of nature's laboratory and 
design. A wild flower hike may turn attention 
happily and instructively toward pressed flower 
collections and on to botany, including a new zeal 
for conservation of natural beauty. The romance 
of star study by flashlight may go not only to the 
production of constellation maps, but farther still, 
to the science and fascination of astronomy itself. 
Magnifying glasses and telescopes have their en- 
during magic for many a boy who has hitherto 
been more interested in sling shots and jack- 
knives. 

A Patrol on a hike with a leader who "knows 
his stuff" may find, if not actually "sermons" in 
stones, a tremendous new interest in the history 
of this old world which may take the boys to 
libraries when vacation is over to find out rnore 
of what lies behind an apparently insignificant 
boulder, start the habit of mineral or rock 
collection. 

Hobbies are quite frequently unexpectedly born 
on hikes. A bird hike may inspire more than one 
boy to the closer observation of feathered friends 
and that may start him on record keeping or more 
impressive still, to "stalking," that most intriguing 
and challenging form of hunting which is done 
with camera instead of gun, which leads to the 
dual hobby of photography, plus nature study. 
Often, too, it leads still farther to the advantage 
of both birds and boys. Interest in bird feeding 
stations conducted as a winter Good Turn is de- 
veloped, and birdhouse building becomes a Patrol 
project or a hobby for an individual Scout who 
fancies carpentry with a purpose. 



THE BOY SCOUT AND HIS HOBBIES 



195 



The winter camp or hike also offers priceless 
opportunity for the wild life hobbyist. It is a 
thrilling experience to come upon a clear, reveal- 
ing imprint of shy creatures who have passed by 
in the night, going about their secret business 
■ while Boy Scouts slept snug and warm rolled in 
blankets. Observation and deduction are involved 
in this kind of trailing, and it is an exciting Sher- 
lock Holmes sort of adventure to make a careful, 
precise plaster cast of the footprints of a fox or 
partridge, to be later moulded in plasteline for a 
permanent record placed in the Troop museum or 
used for useful and decorative purposes on book 
ends or paper weights. 

Every boy loves to whittle and Scouts are no 
exception. Wood work of all sorts lends itself 
easily to hobby impetus. Boy Scouts carve every- 
thing from peach stone Patrol emblems to elabo- 
rate totem poles in which the Troop history and 
tradition may find permanent, significant form or 
deep delving into Indian lore in pursuit of suitable 
smybols may give rise to another study and hobby, 
whet an interest which the making of Indian war 
bonnets, designing bead work or fashioning mo- 
cassins and axe pouches may have already set in 
progress. 

Whether it is a bird house or a "katchina," an 
art stone vase or a leather first aid kit, a raffia 
fish basket or a ship model which holds the young 
hobbyist's enthusiasm at the minute, he is en- 
couraged to put into it his best efforts. The Scout 
is impressed with the fact that whatever is worth 
doing at all is worth doing well and that Scout 
workmanship should be at all times thorough, 
careful, sincere, "exact," done upon honor. Scout 
fashion, nothing slipshod or half-hearted about it, 
since the product is to be a permanent thing of use 
or beauty, or probably both. He is also encouraged 
to make his hobby project whatever it may hap- 
pen to be, an expression of his own taste, in- 
ventiveness and personality. 
A hobby is a highly individ- 
ual thing and even the ar- 
rangement of postage stamps 
in an album or the moulding 
of a cast may be an indica- 
tion of character and poten- 
tial abilities and bents. 

No one who is a genuine 
devotee of any hobby will be 
content to be merely a dab- 
bler in the subject. He wants 
to know what is behind it all. 



"In the good life craftsmanship is the 
necessary complement of the fine arts. 
In the fine arts one learns to give form 
and limit to the world of dreams. In the 
practical arts, one learns to get rid of 
dreams in dealing with the physical stuff 
of life. One learns that a fine idea is 
nothing until with slow patience and ex- 
periment one has somehow bent the in- 
nate cussedness of metal, and fabric, 
and wood, and paper and paint to its 
realization." — Mat'jorie BtttstowGteen- 
bie in The Atts of Leisure. 



the theory as well as the practice of the art or 
craft involved, the story of what experts have 
done in the field of the interest which he is pursu- 
ing as a halting but eager amateur. In this con- 
nection the Boy Scouts of America has developed 
its "Merit Badge Library," a series of pamphlets 
dealing interestingly and accurately with each of 
the more than a hundred subjects offered as 
Scout electives, the Merit Badges for which they 
may qualify after hard work, intensive study and 
practice and rigorous tests by experts. 

The Merit Badge Program gives Scouts a wide 
choice of worthwhile hobbies from which each 
may make his selection. In his Merit Badge work 
a boy not only delves rather deep into a number of 
arts, crafts, sports, sciences and interesting activ- 
ity projects to his advantage. He also gets an op- 
portunity to discover himself, find out what he 
can do best and is most interested in doing, not as 
a casual experiment but as a permanent interest 
and objective of study and practice. 

The Merit Badge covers an enormous field, in- 
cluding as it does such diverse subjects as avia- 
tion and bee keeping, basketry, pottery, stamp col- 
lecting, archery, weather, printing, dramatics, 
pioneering, chemistry, forestry, wood carving, 
gardening, radio and so on. Here is plenty for 
any hobbyist, something to suit all tastes. A Scout 
training for a Merit Badge test may mean finding 
a life long interest, an avocation which will be 
valuable recreation for off hours as long as he 
lives. He may also, whether he knows it or not, 
be finding his life work or the open sesame to a 
great and unexpected adventure and opportunity. 
It was as an all round trained Scout that Ad- 
miral Byrd selected young Paul Siple, Sea Scout 
and Eagle, among many candidates for his earlier 
polar expedition, and Paul and four other Eagle 
Scouts are with the Admiral now in Little 
America. Another Eagle Scout, Hugh S. Davis, 
had the luck to be chosen to 
accompany the Martin John- 
sons recently to Africa, on a 
"Big Game Trek." Davis, 
who became a Scout the min- 
ute he was within the twelve 
year old minimum age limit, 
developed in the course of 
his years of Scout training 
two contrasting major hob- 
bies, photography and zool- 
ogy, and it was on the 
(Continued on Page 226) 



Playing Indian With a Purpose 



EVERYONE is interested in the 
Indians who were the fore- 
runners of modern civiliza- 
tion and roamed the forest and glen with silent 
tread and watchful eye long before the white man 
set foot on what is now called America. They are 
the fascinating enigmas from the dim and remote 
past. The pitiful remnant of red men herded into 
the reservations is no more representative of the 
original Americans than are the present-day no- 
madic peoples who occupy Egypt like the highly 
intelligent Pharaohs of centuries before. It is in- 
deed ironic that so much more is known about the 
Egyptians, Babylonians, Sumerians and other 
ancient peoples than has been learned about the 
customs of our real Americans. 

The early white settlers aroused bitter hostility 
on the part of the Indians by their unfair tactics, 
land grabbing, dishonest trading and other prac- 
tices. What remained of the traditions of the In- 
dian in the form of mounds, village cites and 
relics was promptly plundered and despoiled. 
Many boxes of priceless relics were stored in 
dusty attics with little or no hope of linking them 
to any historical significance. It is no wonder 
that under this treatment the Indians who sur- 
vived remained mute, stoic, and reluctant to im- 
part their lore to the white man. Indianology has 
died out with the decline of generations since the 
landing of Columbus. 

New Interest Evidenced 

Now at last, at the eleventh hour, the nation 
and states are determined to learn everything pos- 
sible before it is too late. In Pennsylvania, for 
example, an organization has been launched for 
the purpose of arousing people to action in the 
study of Indian lore and in preserving from de- 
spoilers the last vestige of mounds, sites and 
burial places. Some systematic 
work is going on in North, 
South and Central America by 
Foundations which are at last 
bringing to life the hidden 
secrets of antiquity. 

What can a local community 
do? In answering this question 

196 



By John H. Kreher 

Albany, New York 



The material in this article has 
been taken from a book being pre- 
pared by Mr. Kreher. It is the 
author's hope that enough has been 
presented to arouse many workers 
with youth not only to play Indian 
but to play it with a purpose! 



we refer to Aliquippa, Pennsyl- 
vania, where interest, research 
and action have been so ably ex- 
emplified by the children of this Ohio River steel 
town named after an Indian queen and located in 
a richly historic area. Here the schools cooperated 
splendidly. The children became intensely inter- 
ested, with the grades studying various phases of 
Indian lore and adopting certain branches of 
crafts. Thus weaving, pottery, bead work, and 
the construction of Indian dwellings have been 
pursued with interest and satisfaction. The older 
boys laid the foundation for an historic museum 
in the fine local library building where glass show 
cases held the exhibits and displays all attractively 
labeled and oflfering explanations gleaned from 
information obtained from authoritative sources. 
A museum of this type will undoubtedly arouse 
the interest of older people and may result in 
stored, forgotten relics coming to light for study 
and display. 

There Must Be a Purpose 

"Playing Indian" too often consists of care- 
lessly thrown-together programs lacking purpose, 
plan or objective. Many times they are planned so 
hurriedly as to border on the ludicrous, with chil- 
dren whooping, yelling, hopping around in a cir- 
cle and getting nowhere. 

In contrast let lis set a purpose — an objective 
based upon study, educational values and genuine 
enthusiasm ; let us have everything done in as 
nearly an authentic way as possible with well-made 
craft projects to supplement the rituals, ceremon- 
ials, dances and plays. 

The Procedure. It is a fallacy to suppose that 

only real Indians can teach Indian lore. Anyone 

with imagination, the love and thrill of adventure. 

and romance, may find a place for himself in the 

Indian lore program. The leader 

must necessarily read up on his 

subject, trying to look at the 

world through the eyes of the 

Indian and seeking to inspire 

his group with his own spirit of 

enthusiasm and delight in the 

subject. He should visit mu- 



PLAYING INDIAN WITH A PURPOSE 



.197 



seums wherever possible and 
learn all he can, making the 
information available to the 
group, modifying it to meet 
their ability, considering such 
problems as the availability 
of materials, and at the same 
time arranging his program 
to cover a considerable per- 
iod, always keeping at least 
one more trick "up his 
sleeve." 

This is not as difficult as 
it may seem. While there are 
not many books available, 
there are nevertheless enough 



A FEW HINTS TO THE LEADER 

Be well prepared. Be enthusiastic. 
Read up on the subject. 

Set an objective. Don't hurry. Keep 
the children constantly striving to at- 
tain a higher degree of excellence. 

Fit the program to the group. 

Buy little, make much. Whatever is 
done should be v/ell done, unhurried and 
an object of pride. 

Inject into your work the idealism, rev- 
erence and moral values of the Indian. 

Keep the group posted on research. 
Arrange visits to museums and historic 
sites. Learn all you can about Indians. 

Arrange for an Indian camp during 
the summer for a week or more. 



adapted themselves to the 
terrific elements, hunted ani- 
mals for food and clothing, 
raised their crops, wove cloth- 
ing, fashioned tools and 
weapons, and made fire with- 
out matches. Their skill, pa- 
tience and ability to carry on 
under every adverse circum- 
stance are the marvel of the 
ages. Any one of us living 
in the present day would find 
himself in a sorry plight in- 
deed if he were suddenly cast 
into a setting such as the In- 
dian knew and made to shift 



with which to proceed for a 

long time. With the increasing fascination of the 
hobby, the leader's imagination and initiative will 
do the rest, as time goes on, in supplying plenty of 
material and motives for group activities. 

Adapting the Program 

It is very important that the program shall not 
be too difficult or too far over the heads of the 
group. Fortunately Indian lore can be modified 
to suit the age group, from simple activities and 
crafts to the more intensive work for older boys 
and girls, up to the more skilled activities of the 
late adolescents and sometimes beyond that. 

A good slogan in Indian lore is Simplify, Clar- 
ify, Modify. There is no harm in such modifica- 
tions as one cares to make for tlie simple reason 
that initiative must supply what antiquity has 
failed to provide or what might be impossible to 
reproduce because of vagueness, uncertainty of in- 
terpretation and similar reasons. There is no 
harm in producing a mask by some modern and 
simpler method than that of the Indian which in- 
volved carving it on a living tree trunk and later 
felling it. After all it is the spirit with which a 
project is pursued that counts most. 

Through study we learn of the many beautiful 
customs which were practiced by these primitive 
people and of their ideals — their courage pa- 
tience, determination, endurance, skill, reverence 
for elders, tribal fidelity, and religion. Our own 
objectives cannot fail to be enhanced by the per- 
petuation of the Indian's best traditions. 

We moderns so surrounded by every comfort 
and convenience that we are likely to accept them 
as a matter of course can find further inspiration 
from a study of this vanished race ; how they 



for himself. The more we 
study, therefore, the Indian's way the more fas- 
cinated we become. 



Playground and Camp Objectives 

The introduction of the Indian lore into the 
playground and camp program will be worth all 
the time and energy expended, and the entire 
scheme of recreation will benefit from it. In the 
closing exercises of the playgrounds there might 
well be a colorful pageant of Indian lore prepared 
for during the summer. 

The writer has trained groups during the year 
with several weeks in a summer camp as an ob- 
jective. Here the children set up an Indian vil- 
lage with teepees and other paraphernalia made 
during the cool months preceding the opening of 
camp. Teepees up and council ring ready, they 
carried on not as they do in steam heated camps 
but in the ways of the \\ innebago or Siotix In- 
dian. And what thrills and satisfactions were in- 
volved ! 

Getting to Work 

Some leaders spend a great deal of time on 
ground work with a program of story-telling, 
simple crafts, trips and hikes. Others have an 
orderly, methodical plan of progression with de- 
grees, coups for achievement and awards at coun- 
cil fires. Much help may be obtained by studying 
the program of the Camp Fire Girls, Woodcraft 
League, Boy Rangers and other youth programs 
that feature some Indian lore. 

Many leaders use classifications such as pale- 
face, papoose, hunter, brave, warrior, sachem, 
grand sachem, minisino, etc. Other leaders have 
the children qualify as medicine men, chiefs, tom- 



198 



PLAYING INDIAN WITH A PURPOSE 



torn beaters, wampum keepers, fire tenders, and 
runners. Gradually the leader works out some 
sort of a set program, but the main idea is to get 
started and to have the group become "Indian- 
minded." 

Projects 

The list of projects is a long one, and it is pos- 
sible here to suggest only a few. 

History — maps showing location of tribes, 
drawings ; trips to historic places, mounds, coun- 
cil places, etc. ; study of local history, legends ; 
Indian games, lacrosse, shinny, I-ou-tin, etc. ; 
system of degrees, awards; dance steps, music; 
ceremonials, festivals, rituals ; plays, pantomimes ; 
council ring, totems; Indian village; tracking, 
trailing; sign and symbol language; pictographs; 
fire making, cookery ; study of herbs, etc. ; nature 
lore, folk lore, traditional tribal stories ; trailing ; 
all night lone fire vigil ; smoke signals. 

Variety of Craft Projects 

Among handcraft articles appropriate to the 
program are the following: 



Shields 

Rattles 

Head ornaments 

Arm ornaments 

Feather work 

Coup stick 

Masks 

Clothing 

Belts 

Moccasins 

Beaded work 

Medicine bags 

Utility bags 



Teepees, shelters 

Model dwellings 

Wigs 

Model canoes 

Paddles 

Prayer sticks 

Bows 

Arrows 

Quiver 

Totems 

Tom-tom 

War clu'bs 

Tomahawks 



■ Beads 
Claws 
Necklaces 
Spears 

Snow snakes 
Pottery 
Calumets 
Dancing bells 
Council ring 
Whittling 
Basketry 



There is an almost end- 



A few of the many Ind 
be made on playgrounds 



less variety of projects to be made in the realm 
of Indian craftsmanship. Much salvaged material 
is to be had for the finding or asking, such as 
material found in nature — shells, vines, bark, 
grasses, flint, stones for clubs and natural paint. 
In fact, the Indian had to find everything; but 
cheese boxes or jelly tubs make good tom-tom 
shells in lieu of hollow basswood trees ; evaporat- 
ed milk or baking powder cans are splendid for 
rattles, as are barrel hoops for shields. Feathers 
may be procured from farmers or butchers. The 
five and ten cent stores have many trinkets that 
are wonderful additions to the craft projects — 
beads, small mirrors, narrow ribbon for head- 
dress. Look about you and you cannot fail to dis- 
cover something that can be salvaged for use in 
Indian crafts. 

Making Buckskin. Real smoke-tanned buckskin 
is scarce and very expensive but substitutes are 
available. Here is the method of imitating real 
buck which the author has found most successful : 
Secure ten yards of outing flannel at lo cents a 
yard in the. five and ten cent store. Mix a pound 
of wallpaper paste in a tub full of water and add 
a little dry yellow ochre paint pigment, which is 
very cheap, to the solution. Thoroughly immerse 
the flannel. Hang it up saturated and allow it to 
dry, carefully scraping oflf excess paste that may 
clot here and there. If the paste is thoroughly 
dissolved in the water, you should have no dif- 
ficulty. This material is useful for covering 
shields, making head bands 
and for use in many ways. 

Ian crafts which may (Conthmed on J'agc 227) 

and at summer camps 




"Boys and Girls Together" 



By Elizabeth Kemper Adams 



NOT ONLY on the sidewalks of New York but 
all over the country, boys and girls are 
playing together. Yet there is still an ap- 
palling dearth of satisfying and adequate recrea- 
tion for the older group of young people from 
sixteen or eighteen to twenty-four years of age. 

The depression has borne with particular hard- 
ship upon this group. Most of them are out of 
school or college and large numbers of them are 
unemployed — in fact, many have never been em- 
ployed. With so many experienced workmen who 
are heads of families eager for jobs, it is no won- 
der that the single and inexperienced are passed 
over. 

Recreation for Older Boys and Girls 
Most of the organized recreation for boys and 
girls is designed for younger groups. Boy Scouts, 
Girl Scouts, Campfire Girls, the programs of the 
Young Men's and Young Women's Christian .^.s- 
sociations (although these deal also with the ages 
in question), youth clubs of various kinds, and 
the. schools all cater to boys and girls from ten or 
twelve to sixteen. And their task is much simpler, 
since these youngsters just emerging from child- 
hood are at the stage when they naturally form 
gangs and clubs of their own sex and thirst for 
adventure and a chance to use their hands and 
brains in projects of their own devising. 

Recreation for the older 
group is a much more dif- 
ficult thing to organize and 
handle. These young people 
out of school look upon them- 
selves as grown up ; they 
often are grown up. They re- 
sent interference and super- 
vision and prefer to choose 
their own amusements, too 
often socially and morally 
destructive. Many of them 
are casuals of the land, wan- 
dering about as transients, as 
Thomas Minehan has shown 



"The Federal Department of Labor esti- 
mates that about 3,000,000 young peo- 
ple between the ages of 18 and 25 are 
out of school, unmarried, and unem- 
ployed. Sample studies in various states 
and cities indicate that the rate of un- 
employment in this group is markedly 
higher than in the population as a whole. 
In Massachusetts in 1934, 35 percent of 
those between 1 8 and 25 were unem- 
ployed against 25 percent of all ages; in 
Pennsylvania, 42 percent against 28 per- 
cent; in Springfield, Ohio, 39 percent 
against 22 percent. In Milwaukee, 75 
percent of the high school graduates of 
1 933 were unemployed six months later." 



in his Boy and Girl Tramps of America. 
The Civilian Conservation Corps camps per- 
haps point the way to a joint program of work, 
education, and recreation for these older young 
people. Government grants to college students 
and to junior colleges are designed for their bene- 
fit. But their plight is arousing widespread pub- 
lic concern and current magazines are full of 
articles dealing with them and their difficulties. 
The San Diego Exposition is dedicated to Youth 
and its outlook. Just now the Government is con- 
sidering a large-scale program for them to be paid 
for from the new work relief funds. 

Proposed Government Action 

In response to a Congressional resolution of- 
fered by Senator Walsh of Massachusetts asking 
what is being done to aid young people of these 
years to secure employment, the Secretary of 
Labor issued a letter in April, 1935, supplying 
available information and outlining a work-edu- 
cation-recreation program calling for an expendi- 
ture of $96,000,000 and to be administered by a 
new Junior Work and Emergency Education Di- 
vision in the Work Relief Authority, with a co- 
ordinating advisory agency representing the Chil- 
dren's Bureau and the Employment Service of 
the Department of Labor, the Office of Education 
of the I^epartment of the Interior, and other rele- 
vant agencies, public and 
private. 

This ambitious plan calls 
for state and local adminis- 
tration and federal organiza- 
tion and supervision. It pro- 
vides an allotment of $15 a 
month for six months to 
young people for employ- 
ment in local projects involv- 
ing work, training, and fruit- 
ful use of leisure time. It 
suggests the expansion of the 
Junior Employment Service 
in cooperation with school 



199 



200 



"BOYS AND GIRLS TOGETHER" 




Courtesy Girl Scouts^ Incorporated 



The problem of 
boys or girls i 



and community 
placement offices, 
an extension of the 
Federal Committee 
on Apprentice 
Training, a further 
development of C. 
C.C. camps, with in- 
creased provision 
for education and 
guidance and closer 
relations with com- 
munity agencies, 
and the setting up 
of one or two ex- 
perimental camps 
on the model of the 
Fort Eustis Camp 
of the Transient Service. It 
favors the continuation of 
aid to college students and 
junior colleges and educa- 
tional assistance to the extent of $2.00 a week to 
boys and girls of sixteen and seventeen. 

The Federal Office of Education also issued on 
April 26, 1935, a similar plan for a nation-wide 
community youth program, whereby public 
schools would serve as local adjustment and guid- 
ance centers and local projects be worked out pro- 
viding young men and young women with at least 
42 hours a week of work, education, and recrea- 
tion, with a maximum grant of $20 a month as 
wage or scholarship. This plan lists a wide range 
of possible jobs for young people as helpers or 
internes in public or quasi-public agencies, ap- 
prentices on farms, etc., and provides for a Fed- 
eral Advisory Council for Youth, with represen- 
tatives of the Government agencies concerned, the 
public, and young people themselves. 

A Challenge to Organizations for Youth 
Whether these large programs will be author- 
ized and launched, and just how the two plans will 
be reconciled remain to be seen. But they show 
the scope and seriousness of the problem of older 
youth today and the necessity of concerted and 
national planning. To public and private agencies 
dealing with recreation and the maintenance of 
morale among young people they jjresent a chal- 
lenge to clearer and more far-flung thought and 
action. .Above all, they bring home the fact that 
too discouraged or reckless young people, who feel 
beaten by life before they have had a chance to 



recreation for younger 
s not a difficult one 



live, recreation 
must include far 
more than games, 
hikes, and parties; 
must, in fact, be an 
integrated scheme 
for putting them on 
their feet and giv- 
ing them some sense 
of a fairly stable 
and meaningful ex- 
istence. 

Meanwhile, there 
is much to learn 
from recent studies 
of recreation, such 
as the "Leisure of 
5,000 People."made 
by the National Recreation 
Association in 1933, and 
Youth Today, made by nine 
national youth organiza- 
tions in 1034, and from the experiences of schools 
and organizations for young people, both in this 
country and abroad. 

All the programs for younger boys and girls 
have been forced to consider those who have gone 
out from their membership or who have lingered 
along after they became sixteen, seventeen, even 
eighteen or older. Such young people often cling 
to a juvenile program from a sheer sense of in- 
adequacy for the plunge into the grown up world 
and a hesitation in entering upon social relations 
with the other sex. The organizations which 
vaunt the hold they keep upon their older mem- 
bers need to ask themselves seriously whether 
they are not abetting a permanent prolongation 
of adolescence. 

What Is -Being Done? 

Most organizations, however, are facing the 
problem of the older boy and girl and striving to 
meet it. In England, where folk dancing is almost 
a national institution and where the Boy Scouts 
and the Girl Guides are under a single head, al- 
though separate in administration, folk dancing 
among the two groups is a popular and growing 
practice. Week-end parties for this purpose have 
been successfully carried out. In this country, the 
Girl Scouts, with whom the writer is especially 
familiar, have been encouraging boy-and-girl ac- 
tivities among their older members, as well as 



-BOYS AND GIRLS TOGETHER" 



201 



many undertakings for parents and other older 
people and for the community as a whole. 

A recent publication of the Girl Scouts (April, 
1935) deals with the Interests and Activities of 
Older Girl Scouts. Replies from a questionnaire 
sent to 349 older girls in the organization show 
that although nearly all of them liked informal 
parties and "dates" with boys, only sixty-one said 
that their troop activities included parties and 
other forms of recreation in which 'boys partici- 
rpated. Reports from Girl Scout Local Councils 
(sponsoring groups of adults) make a somewhat 
better showing. Of 128 Councils, 71 reported that 
they had boy and girl activities. Of 75 Local 
Councils in small communities, 27 reported such 
activities. 

Instances are cited : Orlando, Florida, has a 
folk dance club of Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, 
which meets twice a month in the American 
Legion Hall and is very popular. In Milwaukee. 
the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts had a party 
and exchanged gifts. In Los Angeles, Boy Scouts 
and Girl Scouts served as ushers at the Twelfth 
Annual Extemporaneous Oratory Contest spon- 
sored by the Evening Herald and Express. In 
Elizabeth, New Jersey, Girl Scouts helped Boy 
Scouts to recondition toys 
for Christmas, repainting 

and dressing dolls. The Providing leisure time 

boys and girls together 



Elizabeth Garden Club is sponsoring a contest in 
tent caterpillar extermination among Boy Scouts 
and Girl Scouts. In Evanston, Illinois, Girl 
Scouts have been asked to share in a Boy Scout 
project of planting berry-bearing shrubs in the 
parks and along roadsides. These Scouts lend the 
girls their camp for a month every summer. In 
Canton, Illinois, where a husband is scoutmaster 
and his wife the Girl Scout troop leader, joint 
skating parties have been much enjoyed. Girl 
Scouts often usher at Boy Scout entertainments 
and vice versa. In this country, the two organi- 
zations are entirely independent, but there is con- 
siderable local friendliness. 

At the annual Eastern States Exposition in 
Springfield, Massachusetts, boys and girls of 
various organizations — Scouts, 4-H Clubs, Junior 
Achievement Clubs — put on demonstrations of 
carding, spinning, and weaving wool, hammering 
silver, dipping bayberry candles, and carrying on 
other pioneer processes. They also act as guides 
and furnish music. 

Modern high schools are doing much to en- 
courage friendly intercourse among boys and 
girls and to provide wholesome interests for lei- 
sure time that will prove a lifelong resource. 
Chief among these are 
school dramatics, choruses, 
activities for older ^"d orchestras. 

IS a harder problem 




Courtesy Westchester Workshop 



I 



202 



"BOYS AND GIRLS TOGETHER' 



Both schools and youth organizations have had 
a large part in promoting an interest in outdoor 
life, nature, hiking and camping. In many places, 
boys and girls have shared in the construction 
and maintenance of a hiking shelter and carry on 
together many delightful outings and excursions. 
Progressive coeducational camps for younger 
boys and girls also lay a foundation for outdoor 
skills and pleasures and wholesome cooperation 
that will last into adolescence and maturity. 

The widespread interest in winter sports is also 
bringing older young people together for week- 
end and holiday skiing, 
toboganning, and skat- 
ing. Here, the new de- 
velopment of youth 
hostels — long familiar 
in Europe — is playing a 
leading part. The 
American Youth Hos- 
tel Association, with 
headquarters in East 
Northfield, Massachu- 
setts, is establishing an 
experimental chain of 
hostels located at inter- 
vals throughout New 
Hampshire and Ver- 
mont, with others in 
Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut. Mount Holy- 
oke College is opening 
the Mary E. Woolley 
Youth Hostel. At the 
pioneer hostel in East 
Northfield, opened on 
December 27, 1934, 
1,100 boys and girls, 

high school and college students, have stayed from 
one to three nights. Much interest has been re- 
ported in this experiment designed to help meet 
the desire of youth for new sights and new ex- 
periences. Educators, youth leaders and others 
are watching the development of this "facility for 
travel," as those sponsoring the movement term it. 

Expenses are being kept at a minimum at these 
informal hostels. While rules are not burdensome 
certain requirements are, of course, made. Some 
of them, as stated, are that nobody may stay over 
three nights, and travelers must bring their own 
sleeping equipment and cook their own food, all 
of the simplest. Hostels must be chartered and 




Courtesy Ctrl S^^outs, Incorporated 



travelers must provide themselves with a hostel 
pass at a cost of twenty-five cents a night. 

Interest in sailing a boat is something that also 
draws boys and girls together. The Girl Scouts 
have recently worked out a Mariner Program for 
older girls who live near the sea or other large 
body of water. A party of older Girl Scouts from 
Springfield, Massachusetts, has chartered for a 
summer cruise the schooner Yankee, just returned 
from a trip around the world. There is no reason 
why Sea Scouts and Alariners should not plan 
sailing trips together. 

The activities of the 
E. R. A. in promoting 
group music and dra- 
matics have incalculable 
possibilities. Young 
people will flock to a 
chorus or orchestra and 
work with absorption 
together in getting up a 
])lay, constructing scen- 
ery and costumes, de- 
vising lighting effects, 
and so on. A common 
interest in any art — 
playing an instrument, 
designing and sketch- 
ing, photography, will 
draw many a boy and 
girl together. 

A project that needs 
to be tried out more 
fully is that of com- 
munity workshops for 
}oung people, especially 
in smaller places. The 
experience of a Girl 
Scout camp in Rhode Island shows what may be 
done. An old craftsman, a man of many skills, 
was in charge of the camp workshop, and the 
girls under his directibn, visited old houses and 
made reproductions of old latches, hinges, and so 
on in wrought iron and reflector lamps, candle- 
sticks, and other articles. of tin, as well as work- 
ing on other traditional crafts. In almost any 
village — at least in the older parts of the country 
— there are these old workmen and w'orkwomen, 
who are able to leach not only a craft but also the 
history and traditions of the local past. And what 
a boon for them to be employed. With such re- 
sources, there is no need for boys and girls to 
waste their time on gift shop trumpery. 
(Continued on page 228) 



Chicago Makes Her Preparations 

for the 




Ul<lc World Photos, Inc. 

Chicago's Recreation Mayor 

TiiK si-XOND Recreation Congress to be held in 
Chicago will convene on the 30th of next 
September. Proud of its new field houses, 
the city invited the National Recreation Associa- 
tion to hold the 1907 Congress in the city, at the 
beginning of the municipal recreation program in 
the park systems. The community small park was 
a new idea at that time ; its service to the people 
of the city was just getting under way ; local en- 
thusiasm over the innovation was at its height, and 
representatives of other cities were interested in 
studying the outcome of Chicago's experiments. 
The fieldhouses at that time numbered ten in the 
South Park System, and under the direction of 
E. B. DeGroot they had established themselves as 
new factors in the life of their neighboring com- 
munities. There were playgrounds for old and 
young, swimming pools and skating areas, athletic 
fields and gymnasiums — indoors and out — sur- 
rounded by landscaped borders, proving that 



Recreation Congress 



By V. K. Brown 

Chief of the Recreation Division 
Chicago Park District 



places for vigorous activity might still be kept 
sightly and constitute adornment to the city and 
a suitable part of a beautiful park system. 

The Old and the New 

Speaking for Chicago, Mayor Edward J. Kelly 
invited the 1935 Recreation Congress to the city, 
because changes have taken place quite as new 
in their way as were those presented to the in- 
spection of the earlier convention. The original 
ten fieldhouses, in the now unified metropolitan 
park system have come to number 90 buildings, 
operating in the service of the people of the city, 
in the Park District alone. Adjoining public schools, 
and serving both the school children and the 
neighborhoods where they are located, the Board 
of Education now maintains 61 school play- 
grounds, many equipped with their own special 
shelter buildings. Under the city government pro- 
per, operated through the Bureau of Parks, Play- 
grounds, Bathing Beaches and Airports, are 39 
neighborhood play centers, ranging from small 
playgrounds in densely populated districts to large 
sized athletic fields. Circling the city there are 
close to 60 square miles of natural forest preserve, 
operated by the Forest Preserve District of Cook 
County, as a woodland place of resort, inviting 
the people of the city to visit and enjoy not only 
the native landscape of the region but also pre- 
pared pleasure grounds — camp sites, picnic groves, 
swimming pools, and golf courses. 

203 



204 



CHICAGO MAKES HER PREPARATIONS FOR THE CONGRESS 



The Mayor invited the Congress to come back 
and see the growth of thirty years in a city made 
conscious of the value of an adequate recreation 
plant and equipment. The Congress was invited 
also to bring its selected group of specialist coun- 
selors into the center of this physical set of prop- 
erties, to consider, together with the local plan- 
ners of Chicago's services to leisure, the means of 
adapting both plant and program to the new needs 
which are emerging, and require new adaptations 
of the service. 

Mayor Kelly was himself President of the 
Board of South Park Commissioners during thir- 
teen critical years of expansion in that system be- 
fore consolidation. He saw through to at least its 
initial stages of completion the filling in of the 
lake front, the increasing of park acreage op- 
posite the heart of the city, and the provision of 
a publicly owned strip of shore land from Jack- 
son Park for six miles northward to the center of 
Chicago. The Stadium — since christened Soldier 
Field — was built as a modern metropolitan town 
hall during his presidency of the Park Board. The 
Shedd Aquarium and the Adler Planetarium were 
donated by private citizens to the newly develop- 
ing civic center in Grant Park, and the Bucking- 
ham Memorial Fountain, electrically illuminated, 
was presented to the Park Board while he held 
that chair. A bond issue was approved by the 
voters restoring in stone the temporary structure 
which housed the Fine Arts Exhibit of the 
World's Fair of 1893, to take permanent place 
among the great institutions of the city as the 
Rosenwald Museum of Science and Industry — 
the gift of Julius Rosenwald to Chicago in its 
museum features and in part as to the building 
itself, supplementing by private philanthropy the 
public contribution to the building restoration 
proper. 

In all of this development the thought of serv- 
ice to the recreational and cultural needs of the 
city had been dominant, and paralleling these ma- 
jor improvements the con- 
tinuing development of new 
small parks went forward 
with additional fieldhouses 
built and put into service, as 
aflfording more intimate bene- 
fits to the masses of the peo- 
ple. Mayor Kelly had seen 
changes take place in the type 
of program operated in the 
parks and on the playgrounds 



In 1907 Chicago was host to the first 
Recreation Congress to be held — one of 
the history-making events in the recrea- 
tion movement. And now Chicago in- 
vites the Twenty-first Recreation Con- 
gress to enjoy its hospitality and see 
the changes which have taken place in 
twenty-eight years. V. K. Brown, who 
for years was associated with the Chi- 
cago South Park System, tells us of 
some of the changes and innovations. 



of the system — -the introduction of more of de- 
mocracy among self-taught and self-sustaining 
groups, with less emphasis upon teaching, and 
more of emphasis on independent experimenting 
among the group members, and now that universal 
leisure presents itself in terms not of the idle 
hour, but rather of the idle half day, and our rec- 
reational institutions must serve not casual visit- 
ors, but whole communities, he voiced not only 
his own experience and deep interest in the recre- 
ational welfare of his city, but he expressed also 
the feeling of the entire city over which he now 
presides as Mayor, when he invited a Congress of 
the nation's thinkers and students to come this 
Autumn to Chicago, look over with us the facili- 
ties which we have, and advise with us in our 
pioneering in the new service to the spare-time 
life of our city. 

Chicago Offers Many Advantages 
Chicago is, we think, a fortunate choice for 
holding a review and stock-taking convention. It 
is a rejiresentative industrial city, with the faults, 
the advantages and the possibilities implied by 
that fact. It is a city which has lately been gal- 
vanized into a progressive outlook by the fact 
that its Century of Progress Exposition was suc- 
cessfully carried through in the darkest days of 
the depression. Dramatizing man's triumph over 
difficulty, featuring the application of thoughtful 
study to immediate problems, reflecting the ac- 
complishment of the scientific approach, the Ex- 
position could not but be stimulating. 

In its second year the Exposition management 
approached the municipal governments of Chi- 
cago, asking that they contribute exhibits. The 
Park Board at the moment was in the process of 
taking over and re-organizing the park services. 
The exhibit which the new Board installed was of 
a demonstration sort, featuring some of the newer 
types of recreational hobbies. There were exhibits 
of boys working on model airplanes, bird hou.ses 
and metal engines; of girls 
making their own dolls. 
masks, and puppets; of 
women quilting, tooling lea- 
ther, and engaged in fabric 
decoration in various art- 
crafts. There was very little 
space given to athletics and 
sports, but considerable space 
devoted to weaving and to 
some of the old and new 



CHICAGO MAKES HER PREPARATIONS FOR THE CONGRESS 



205 



IK'I 



■^^^.. '>^. 



;^%%ta:^: 
















table games. With con- 
solidation of the parks 
impending, visitors were 

asked to register their names, if interested resi- 
dents of Chicago, at any of the booths which at- 
tracted them, in order that they might be advised 
later when club groups should be formed to un- 
dertake such activities in the parks near their 
homes. 

The tremendous registration which resulted evi- 
denced the public's readiness to undertake a new 
sort of recreational program. It proved to our 
satisfaction that locally, at least, there was a need 
of thinking in new terms if we were to meet the 
requirements of the new leisure, and when con- 
solidation of the parks became a fact, under a 
restricted budget — since consolidation had been 
approved by the voter as a means of .economy in 
public expenditure — we were faced not with a 
mere demand that we scale down our costs; we 
were confronted, rather, with the absolute neces- 
sity of building from the ground up a new organi- 
zation, developing a new and much more compre- 
hensive program than in the past, on a basis of 
expenditure below any point of economy which 
the major systems, at least, had ever in the past 
approximated. 

This did not merely tend toward a gradual re- 
vision of program and organization; it demanded 
an entirely new program and organization, as a 



One of the beautiful sights delegates to the Rec- 
reation Congress will see — the Japanese Garden in 
Jackson Park, the gift of the Japanese government 



matter of absolute ne- 
cessity. That program 
and organization has 
now had almost a year in which to prove or dis- 
prove itself. It has shattered all previous attend- 
ance records. Under the stimulus of doing a new 
and experimental work, the personnel of the or- 
ganization has experienced a vitalizing of morale. 
Communities have reacted to the newer type of 
service in a fresh spirit of adventure, and if it was 
true that Chicago had, in 1907, something new in 
its fieldhouses to present to the Recreation Con- 
gress of that year, the various recreation systems 
of the present have also something new to present 
to the Congress in 1935. For Chicago, we .be- 
lieve, has passed through in a brief period of time 
something of a revolution in re-adapting its rec- 
reation service to the needs and to the conditions 
of the present. 

The major part of the program of thirty years 
ago was physical action — the dance, and the spirit 
of play. No one need apologize for that fact; 
working long hours, communities of that day 
stood in desperate need of the spirit of play. Peo- 
ple from various lands, newly arrived in America, 
found a deep spiritual significance in presenting 
to the American audiences at that time the charac- 
teristic dances of their former home land. Sport, 
game, and physical action, now as then, continues 
(Continued on page 228) 



Schlegel Park — A Gift to Reading 



A city receives as a gift 
land and an old homestead 
where aged residents once 
played as little children 



IN 1 86 1 Solomon and Mary 
Schlegel purchased from the 
Peter Strohecker Estate a 51 
acre farm. More than seventy 
years later their sons Edmund 
and Ordmon Schlegel, with their 
wives presented to the city for 
park, playground and recreational 
purposes a part of this tract 
amounting to over 23 acres as a 
memorial to their parents. 

The property was originally 
bounded on the east by the Schuyl- 
kill River. A beautiful stream abounding with 
fish flowed through the center^ of it. The original 
homestead was a mecca for many citizens who 
walked or rode to the farm to drink the cool 
limestone waters and the fresh milk, and to eat 
home-made ice cream. Many of the older resi- 
dents of the city are happy that this garden spot 
known to them in their childhood is now to be a 
public park. 

The City of Reading in 1916 annexed the terri- 
tory to the west of the Schuylkill River, now the 
Eighteenth Ward, and this tract was included in 
the area, thereby making it possible to become a 
park within the city limits. 

The park, which is only a five minute ride from 
the main business section, will include a spring- 
fed pond of about two acres in which children 
will be able to sail small boats and which can be 
used for skating in winter. Adjacent to the pond 
there will be the children's play areas equipped 
with play apparatus. 

Near the center of the park stands the old 
homestead and a fine large stone barn. These will 
be converted for use as an administration and 

206 




This fine old home with all Its traditions 
will soon be serving the needs of a new era 



storage building and possibly a field house or rec- 
reation center where meetings and social gather- 
ings can be held. 

For Outdoor Recreation 

A gentle hillside at one side of the homestead 
will lend itself admirably for development as an 
outdoor theatre. The other side of the homestead, 
which runs up to and includes a knoll, the high 
point in the park, will be planted and set aside as 
a rest park and for small family picnic purposes. 
A high flat area at the extreme north end of the 
park will serve adult active recreation needs. Here 
a running track, baseball diamond, football grid- 
iron and a battery of four tennis courts will 
eventually be provided. Automobile parking ac- 
commodations will be established in connection 
with these facilities and additional parking space 
will be available at the park center buildings. 

The Reading park authorities are considering 
starting the construction work in the near future 
so that some of the new facilities will be available 
for use during the current year. 



How One City Acquired Play Areas 



Proving that there are more 
ways than one of solving the 
problem of more play space! 



By Ruth Sherburne 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Glens Falls, New York 



EIGHT YEARS AGO the City of Glens Falls did 
not own a single square foot of land dedi- 
cated to play purposes. Four of our six 
playgrounds, to be sure, were in school yards, 
always a satisfactory arrangement if space is ade- 
quate and friendly cooperation exists between the 
school and recreation departments, as fortunately 
is the case here. But the other two centers in the 
east section of town where no school sites were 
available, were simply unsightly vacant lots upon 
which we had merely squatter's rights. Unfor- 
tunately, as is frequently the case, this was the 
section of the community where need of play 
facilities and leadership was the greatest. 

The Land Is Found 

So we set about remedying the situation, and 
in our survey we found a beautiful twenty acre 
tract admirably situated to serve a neighborhood 
that seemed to be building up rapidly. The nat- 
ural contours were excellent for our purposes 
and on the lower end was a large quarry pond, 
which, though epcceedingly dangerous because of 
its depth and precipitous sides, nevertheless added 
beauty to the landscape and would be safe for 
skating. Quarrying had long since proved un- 
profitable, the Board of Health had prohibited the 
use of ice cut there, and the division of the 
property into building lots was not feasible be- 
cause of the cost of blasting 
out cellars in a rock ledge ly- 
ing only two or three feet be- 
low the surface. Nevertheless 
the elderly owner of the tract 
insisted upon the exhorbitant 
price of $11,500. 

It was a glorious site for a 
playground and a number of 
attempts were made, but with- 
out success, to get options at 



Several city planners have urged that 
there is really just as nnuch basis 
for requiring the setting aside of land 
for parks and playgrounds and open 
spaces as there is for setting aside 
land for streets when we plan the 
newer parts of our cities. Joseph 
Lee, comnnenting on these statements, 
has said: "In other words, it is just 
as important to live as it is to be 
able to go from place to place." 



a reasonable figure. Finally in 1929 the owner 
died and the City Planning Committee of the 
Chamber of Commerce, whose chairman happen- 
ed to be the Superintendent of Recreation, de- 
cided the time had come to buy it. The land was 
appraised and the figure given by the bank was 
$6,500. Accordingly the committee met in execu- 
tive session with the City Council, and a gentle- 
men's agreement was made that if the committee 
could get title to the property the Council would 
place a referendum on the ballot in November, 
1929 for the purchase of the land. While this 
referendum was not legally necessary, everyone 
agreed that it would furnish excellent publicity 
and would tend to build up public sentiment for 
the playground work. 

A Plan for Payment Is Devised 

Immediately one of the members of the com- 
mittee borrowed $6,500 at the bank and the note 
was signed by sixteen of the most prominent 
business men of the city. Armed with a check 
for this amount, the committee member in charge 
visited the attorney of the estate and oflfered him 
$6,500 for the entire tract. The transaction was 
closed immediately. The endorsers of the note 
then had an agreement drawn up by their at- 
torney that they would hold this property until 
such time as the city took it over at exactly what 
they had paid for it plus taxes 
and carrying charges. Before 
the time for the referendum 
came, moreover, they bought 
another two acre playground 
the same way for $6,000, and 
on election day the voters de- 
termined, two to one, to ac- 
quire both tracts. 

The people in the neighbor- 
hood of the larger area, which 

207 



208 



HOIV ONE CITY ACQUIRED PLAY AREAS 



we call East Playground, were most enthusiastic 
over the acquisition of their playground, and from 
the very beginning they have done everything pos- 
sible to cooperate with the Commission. During 
the winter of 1930 the Commission got rid of the 
unsightly old ice houses, stone crusher and other 
buildings used in the quarry and ice business by 
selling them for salvage. But this was not suf- 
ficient and early the next spring the people of the 
neighborhood planned a great work day and 
eighty men and older boys spent not only that en- 
tire day but many succeeding Saturday afternoons 
picking up, rooting out stumps, grading, seeding 
and planting shrubbery they brought from their 
own homes. As time has gone on the city has 
each year been able] to do more and more toward 
the development of the place. 
A splendid regulation diamond 
and two Softball diamonds 
have been laid out. An attrac- 
tive little field house has grown 
out of the ruins of an old 
blacksmith's shop. A brook 
that was scarcely more than an 
open storm sewer running the 
entire width of the property 
has been directed into a pipe. 
A high fence was erected last 
year to protect the dangerous 
pond. Important grading has 
be accomplished through relief 
projects. 

In the meantime the people 
of the neighborhood have 
formed the East Neighbor- 
hood Association which now numbers more than 
two hundred men and women. Through field 
days, card parties and dances they have raised 
money for a number of different purposes in con- 
nection with the playground — equipping a men's 
baseball team, paying play leaders for a month 
when the Commission's funds were low, building 
on a little kitchen, and this last fall furnishing 
the materials for a beautiful chimney and fire- 
place in the field house constructed of stone quar- 
ried on the place. 

More Land Secured 

The only unfortunate feature about this beau- 
tiful area has been the fact that we have needed 
a strip of land 150 feet wide, extending 750 feet 
along our eastern boundary line, which cut us oflf 
from access to an important thoroughfare. Own- 



ing this land would not only give us the needed 
right of way and broaden out our field, but would 
prevent the possibility of our having, in time, a 
row of unsightly garages or sheds bordering our 
beautiful play area. From time to time efforts 
were made to buy these lots in the same way the 
original property had been purchased, but the 
owner, realizing we needed them, had held out on 
a price so high that; no one would dream of pay- 
ing it. Just before Christmas, however, we heard 
the property was for sale ; the owner was hard up 
and willing to sell at a reasonable price, already 
there were other bidders. A friendly real estate 
man tipped us off to the situation. 

The .Superintendent of Recreation immediately 
signed an option personally and then went to the 










Courtesy Milwaukee County Regional Planning Department 



Fortunate indeed is the city which has within 
its linnits, or near at hand, picnic places 



Neighborhood Association with the information. 
The people in this district are all working men 
and women, owners of their little homes and self- 
respecting citizens, but many are out of work at 
the present time. The $890.00 asked for the 
property seemed a large amount to raise, but with- 
out hesitation they shouldered the responsibility. 
Immediately one member offered to buy the 
property outright and let the Association buy it 
on a three years contract from him. This ar- 
rangement made it possible for the Association to 
get better terms than from the original owner. 
The Association has already paid $100.00 and the 
taxes, and by a series of parties has raised, in the 
(Continued on page 229) 



Music in a Public Recreation Department 



L\ST FAUL a survey of the city's 
^ music activities was con- 
ducted in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
as one part of Work ReHef Pro- 
ject No. 31-F5-300 set up by 
the Hamilton County Emergency ReHef Admin- 
istration under the supervision of the Music De- 
partment of the Public Recreation Commission. 
The project was designed to give work of a con- 
structive nature to unemployed professional musi- 
cians in Hamilton County. Other phases of the 
project were rehearsals for concerts, free public 
concerts, concerts in tax-exempt or tax-supported 
institutions, the organization and teaching of lei- 
sure-time classes for free group music instruc- 
tion of underprivileged citizens, the organization 
and direction of recreational music activities, and 
the arranging and copying of music. 

That there was a real need for such a fact-find- 
ing study and that it was of value to the com- 
nninity are self-evident. As an example, the Pub- 
lic Recreation Commission more than once during 
the past few years has felt the need for such in- 
formation in the development of its program of 
permanent music activities. With the program 
definitely committed by the very set-up of the de- 
partment to include cultural activities, and with a 
constantly shrinking budget during the past three 
years, at least, with which to meet ever increasing 
demands for service, a number of questions were 
constantly arising. "Are we spending what money 
we have to the best advantage?" "Are we dupli- 
cating the work, if not the function, of some other 
agency or group?" Questions such as these must 
surely have confronted other public and private 
agencies in our city. They could be answered 
only by a knowledge of what 
is being done and who is doing 
it. Hand in hand with these 
questions went the inquiries : 
"What music activities inter- 
est our citizens?" "How many 
such activities are there and 
where?" "How many people 
participate in the activities at 
least fairly regularly?" 

We felt, too, that whether 



By Harry G. Glore 

Supervisor of Community Music 

Public Recreation Commission 

Cincinnati, Ohio 



In connection with its work relief pro- 
gram for unemployed musicians, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, recently conducted a 
survey in an effort to get as complete 
a picture as possible of the city's or- 
ganized group music activities. We 
present here some of the findings of 
the study as they relate to the pro- 
gram offered by the Public Recreation 
Commission through its Department 
of Community Music. 



or not any conclusions we might 
attempt to draw from our facts 
and statistics were sound, the 
mere accumulation and publish- 
ing of the facts would be of 
real value to those in our community interested in 
music. Finally, granting that the study would 
prove of value, something would have been added 
to the sum and total of the knowledge of our city 
which would be tangible evidence of the worth of 
the work relief project, long after the free con- 
certs have become pleasant memories, valuable as ~ 
they have proved in adding to the pleasure of our 
citizens and in helping to make life for thousands 
a little more worth while. 

Activities Conducted 

In discussing the findings of the study in rela- 
tion to the activities of the Public Recreation 
Commission, it is important to remember that a 
great many of the musical activities organized and 
supervised by the Department of Community 
Music are made possible by the assignment of 
musicians and music teachers to the department 
by the Emergency Relief Administration and the 
Ohio Emergency Schools Administration. In fact, 
more than one-half of the regular weekly music 
activities of the Commission are being conducted 
with leaders paid by these two relief agencies. 
The centralization of these activities under one 
head makes coordination possible and eliminates 
friction and duplication in a way which would be 
out of the question if each agency were proceed- 
ing separately. Moreover it reduces to a mini- 
mum the expense of operation for the relief agen- 
cies and takes advantage of the facilities of a 
regular branch of the city gov- 
ernment with specialists train- 
ed for the work. 

The entire personnel of the 
department is as follows: 

I supervisor of community 
music 
16 part-time seasonal di- 
rectors and accompanists 
6 teachers paid by Ohio 
Emergency Schools Ad- 
ministration 



209 



210 



MUSIC IN A PUBLIC RECREATION DEPARTMENT 



57 musicians on FERA pro- 
ject No. 31-F5-300 
(2 orchestras and leaders 
of community groups') 
7 auxiliary organizations 
74 volunteers 

The regular program is set 
up with a view to perma- 
nency, with definite long- 
time policies and objectives 
back of it, and before it was 
augmented by the relief agen- 
cies called for permanent dis- 
trict orchestras and choruses 
in each high school district, 
meeting in the public high 
school buildings. These were to serve not only 
the high school graduate in adult life but also 
other members of the community as well. In 
addition, there is the Civic Orchestral Society, 
a non-professional symphonic orchestra to 
draw from the best amateurs in all parts of 
the city. The Cincinnati Choiristers is a mixed 
chorus meeting downtown. Then there are the 
choruses in the West End as well as choruses 
in Sayler Park, Cumminsville, Walnut Hills 
and Madisonville. This permanent set-up 
comprises at present ten adult choruses and 
nine adult orchestras meeting from October to 
April. Seven orchestras are white and two col- 
ored, while eight choruses are colored and two 
white. 

Summer orchestras are conducted along with 
the playground program not only for recreation 
but to give the children an opportunity to con- 
tinue orchestra playing during the summer months 
when school is closed. 
^ . Community singing is handled by volunteer 
song leaders with the music department serving 
as a clearing house and sup- 
plying song sheets at cost. 
The department also serves 
as a consulting agency giv- 
ing assistance wherever pos- 
sible to other groups. 

Of the auxiliary groups 
listed, the Cincinnati Mu- 
nicipal Music Advisory 
Council is the most impor- 
^nt. It consists of the di- 
rector of music in the pub- 
lic schools, the managing 
director of the May Festi- 
val Association, the director 



In his Annual Report for 1934 Mr. (Slore 
gives some supplementary figures and in- 
formation. In 1933 there were 33 groups 
meeting regularly once a week. In 1934 
there were 77 such groups. In March and 
April 1935 the number of weekly activi- 
ties reached a peak of 108 classes and 
groups. Mr. Slore lays great stress on 
the fact that whatever success has been 
achieved in the rapid expansion of the 
music program in the past two years has, 
in his opinion, been due to the coopera- 
tion of local relief agencies in relating 
F. E. R. A. music projects so closely to 
the municipal recreation program and in 
placing them under the same supervision. 



"This year," states the Annual Report, "saw 
the most extensive program of free enter- 
tainment yet offered. The 89 programs the 
two F.E.R.A. orchestras played were given 
!n 63 different places, and definite and 
careful thought was given the planning of 
programs so that they would be of the ut- 
most value as well as good entertainment. 
They were of the following types: (I) Free 
dances for unemployed or people on relief; 
(2) Concerts for shut-ins and inmates of in- 
stitutions for aged and orphans; (3) Con- 
certs in schools correlated with the regu- 
lar school program so as to have education- 
al as well as entertainment values, and (4) 
Outdoor and indoor free public concerts." 



of education of the Cincin- 
nati Conservatory of Music, 
the head of the Theory De- 
partment of the College of 
Music, the dean of the Col- 
lege of Education of the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati a repre- 
sentative of the Federation 
of Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions' Music Committee and 
the supervisor of community 
music who serves as secre- 
tary. This group meets with 
the supervisor and advises 
the department on all mat- 
ters of important policy involving both the de- 
velopment of the program and the relations with 
other music agencies and organizations. It has 
one annual meeting in October, with such other 
meetings from time to time as are deemed neces- 
sary. The members are appointd by the Public 
Recreation Commission for two year terms. 

Another important auxiliary of the Commis- 
sion whose music committee renders valuable as- 
sistance in the promotion of the program among 
colored people, is the Citizens' Recreation Council. 
The leadership supplied by the Ohio Emergency 
Schools Administration has been used to develop 
classes in history of music, voice, piano, harmony, 
sight singing, orchestra, chorus. These are in the 
direction of adult education but in the larger 
sense also recreation. They not only are leisure- 
time activities now ; they are preparing several 
hundreds of people for a richer and fuller use of 
leisure. Again, who can say where education 
stops and recreation begins? 

The classes conducted by musicians on work 
relief project No. 3i-F5-300 are more varied than 
those set up under the Emer- 
gency Schools Administra- 
tion. They include classes 
for underprivileged children 
as well as adults. Where the 
Emergency Schools classes 
are confined by the rules of 
the administration to adult 
education, project No. 31- 
F5-300 was organized and 
approved to allow activities 
of a recreational nature and 
work with children as well 
as adults. 



(Continued on page 230) 



The Place of Drama in Recreation 



An answer to the question — "What type of 
drama belongs in the recreation program?" 



THK RKASON why community 
drama has been so very 
successful — and I do not 
know of a single community where, under proper 
organization, it has failed — is, perhaps, because it 
is not a new and startling idea but a very old one. 
The strolling players, the mummers, the Guilds of 
the early Renaissance are all the spiritual ances- 
tors of the modern drama of the people. Drama 
has always been the most democratic of the arts 
so it is no wonder that it fits into the recreation 
program like an old shoe. Together with dancing 
and music it has always belonged to the people. 

Over and over again I have found individuals 
both among group members and leaders who have 
been fairly antagonistic toward drama and who 
were completely won over to it when confronted 
with the argument of a well-directed community 
production. It has been amazing to watch the 
change that has come about in the last fifteen 
years. Perhaps nothing gives you quite such bird's- 
eye view of the country as a whole as a corre- 
spondence service. Our consultation service 
which is offered free of charge brings us letters 
from people in all parts of the country conducting 
every type of drama activity. Fifteen years ago 
we urged groups to include drama in their pro- 
gram ; now we spend days and weeks reading 
plays and getting out lists to answer the question 
— "can you tell me a good play for my group to 
give ?" Short plays, long plays, royalty plays, non- 
royalty plays, plays for the P.T.A. meeting, plays 
for the family to put on in the home to entertain 
the neighbors, children's plays, senior class plays 
and plays for women's clubs and 
men's clubs are all in demand to- 
day. People know what they 
want. The standards are high 
and today we check the best au- 
thors on the list and only regret 
that there aren't more of them. 

Another inquiry which we f re- 



fit/ Mabel Foote Hobbs 

Nafional Recreation Association 



Mrs. Hobbs discussed the ques- 
tion of drama ini the recreation 
program before the members of 
the Municipal Training School 
for City and Village Officials 
which was held at Rochester, 
April 17th and 18th. 



quently receive is : "how can I 
go about directing a play?" 
Workers without much experi- 
ence but with a willingness to learn are constantly 
asking for guidance and we have succeeded in 
putting on paper a method of production which 
enables them to take the group through the first 
necessary steps toward a successful production. 
The little handful of letters that we received fif- 
teen years ago has grown to six or seven thousand 
a year. 

From Puppet Show to Little Theatre 

In our contacts with recreation executives the 
question we are most frequently called upon to 
answer is — "what type of drama should a recrea- 
tion department sponsor." There seems to be a 
strange idea that it should be very elementary 
drama ; in fact the drama that belongs to the rec- 
reation department is generally called dramatics. 
The recreation department, it seems to me, should 
sponsor any phase which its finances and time per- 
mit — from the puppet show to the peak of ama- 
teur achievement — the Little Theatre. In the 
complete amateur drama program the Little Thea- 
tre is the goal toward which all drama eflfort is 
directed. When every phase of drama is under 
the same department, the child who takes part in 
a little playlet on the playground may look for- 
ward to belonging to the Little Theatre group if 
he can develop into a sufficiently skillful player. 
The Little Theatres represent the ultimate in non- 
professional drama and in a good many communi- 
ties they are the only means of bringing the drama 
of the professional stage to the 
people. 

To perform these difficult 
plays it is necessary to cultivate 
a group of experienced actors. 
And there is nothing undemocra- 
tic in the fact that these groups 
are rather small and exclusive. 



211 



212 



THE PLACE OF DRAMA IN RECREATION 



When the Little Theatre is under the sponsorship 
of the recreation department, however, the door is 
constantly kept open to new talent. Try-outs are 
held from time to time and the only requisite for 
membership is- ability. It works out very satis- 
factorily on this basis because anyone will agree 
that it is no fun to play any game out of your 
class. A poor bridge player or tennis player does- 
n't enjoy playing with experts and the game is 
spoiled for everyone when he is admitted. It is 
just the same with drama. I recently talked with 
a young man who had studied for the professional 
theatre and played a few small parts. He was 
perfectly willing to work with an amateur group 
but when he tried it he found that he simply 
didn't fit in. Helen Ford Stafford has a little 
group of professional actors who play together 
constantly under her direction, just to "keep their 
hand in." Because they are all in the same class 
they are able to get something out of the work. 
Playing with actors who were less experienced 
would spoil the purpose of their work. So, in the 
Little Theatre the best of the community's talent 
is brought together, but under recreation leader- 
ship there is always an opportunity for the actor 
who has developed beyond his little club group to 
step over into the group of more experienced and 
talented players. 

Where Plans Have Become Realities 

This pleasant panorama of community drama is 
not just a fanciful idea. Miss Dorothy Enderis, 
recreation executive in Milwaukee, has proved 
beyond question that such a plan can work out. 
In eight years she has organized a splendid drama 
department from a few scattered groups of play- 
ers. In 1928 a drama specialist was brought in 
and the work of organizing drama through the 
Extension Department of the Milwaukee Public 
Schools was started. There were only six groups 
at that time; now there are twenty-eight active 
drama organizations. A tournament is held each 
year and as many groups as care to may enter 
their plays. No try-out is necessary for member- 
ship in these organizations. An interest in drama 
is the only requirement. In addition to the small 
groups throughout the city a little theatre group 
known as the Milwaukee Players has been formed. 
This represents the cream of amateur talent and 
membership in this group is the goal of all mem- 
bers of the smaller groups. For a number of years 
one outstanding player from each tournament 
production was chosen for membership in the Mil- 



waukee Players, but since this seemed too limit- 
ing a new plan has been adopted this year. Any 
member of other various smaller groups who has 
attended 75 per cent of his group meetings may 
try out for membership. The candidates meet the 
judges at a given time and are handed three short 
excerpts which they interpret. A finished produc- 
tion of "King Lear" by the Milwaukee Players 
last year represents the outgrowth of the move- 
ment begun six years ago. 

During the same year that Miss Enderis was 
launching her program I met with a group in 
Glens Falls, New York, who were planning to 
start a community drama project under the lead- 
ership of Miss Ruth Sherburne, the recreation 
executive. Up until that time there were a num- 
ber of independent groups producing plays in the 
various clubs and churches. But these plays were 
usually given for money making purposes and 
that fact interfered greatly with the type of play 
selected. The new drama organization has raised 
the standard of the productions and opened mem- 
bership to anyone in the town who can qualify. 
After a trial of four years a permanent director, a 
local person, was employed. In a recent produc- 
tion the leading lady had never set foot on a stage 
before her try out. The Outing Club Players have 
given such excellent plays as Little Father of the 
Wilderness, Mr. Pirn Passes By and The Dover 
Road. They have just closed their eighth season 
with a delightful performance of Candlelight, a 
play in which Leslie Howard and Gertrude 
Lawrence appeared on Broadway. 

The York, Pennsylvania, Little Theatre is an- 
other interesting example of a recreation depart- 
ment project. In this case a paid director was 
brought in. This group has a good many mem- 
bers who are not interested in acting but who 
enjoy building scenery, making costumes and 
other back stage jobs so important to the success 
of the production. Under the management of Mr. 
Carl Glick, who is directing the group, a series of 
lectures is also conducted. 

The Play Tournament 

But in many communities it will not be feasible 
for the recreation department to suddenly assume 
the responsibility for a Little Theatre. There are, 
however, any number of opportunities to promote 
drama in your city. Since it is difificult to find a 
community where there are no drama groups, 
there is always the interesting possibility of bring- 
ing the groups already organized together in a 



THE PLACE OF DRAMA IN RECREATION 



213 



tournatnent which the department manages. The 
drama tonrnanient has never been more success- 
ful than when under such a sponsor. This year 
the Rock Island, Illinois, Recreation Departm.ent 
will sponsor the eighth drama tournament. In 
Plainfield, New Jersey, the department will pre- 
sent the eleventh play contest. Lansing, Michigan, 
will hold its fifth. And in any number of other 
cities an annual one-act play tourney under the 
management of recreation commissions will be an 
important community event this spring. 

Last November we received a request from a 
drama director who had just been assigned to the 
Recreation Department of Pontiac, Michigan. She 
wished to know how the department could con- 
tribute to a drama movement in her city. We sug- 
gested the tournament among other things and we 
just recently received a letter from her with a 
program of the first drama tournament sponsored 
by the Recreation Department. It had been a great 
success and was followed by a delightful banquet 
for the players. The tournament paid all expense? 
and the profits are to be used to establish a play 
library. The letter also stated that for the first 
time the Pontiac Civic Players, a fine group of 
actors, had affiliated itself with the Department. 

Other Projects 

The play library is an excellent by-product of . 
the community drama movement and is a worth 
while undertaking for a recreation department. 
A few state university extension departments of- 
fer this service, but there is a great need for it 
in every community that has a drama program. 
The costume bureau and work shop are other pro- 
jects that develop along with play production and 
that might well be sponsored by the department. 
An outstanding example of such a costume bureau 
is the one maintained by the San Francisco Recre- 
ation Commission. 

Besides the tournament there is the civic 
pageant or the playground festival or circus that 
the recreation department may sponsor. New 
York's beautiful May Day celebration in Central 
Park is conducted every year by the Board of 
Education. Hundreds of school children take part 
in this charming festival. The play circuit is an- 
other excellent project. Neighboring communities 
exchange plays or a group may take its play to 
several towns within a county. The outdoor thea- 
tre functions successfully in several localities dur- 
ing the summer months under recreation depart- 
ment management. 



Children's Drama 

But if all these things seem impossible to you ; 
if your deflated budget and small staff would not 
permit any of them, there is still a very logical 
and simple way to begin. I am referring to chil- 
dren's drama. It seems to me that the real secret 
of a successful amateur drama program lies in 
starting with the children and carrying them 
straight through until they form the nucleus of 
your Little Theatre group. Children of nine and 
ten are ready for drama but very little has been 
given them. They have taken part in simple 
dramatizations and festivals, but in only a few 
cities has the work of giving them formal drama 
been undertaken. We all know that for some 
years the high schools have been producing Broad- 
way successes and I believe that these productions 
show a tremendous need for formal drama before 
the high school years are reached. Young people 
who have spent the elementary and intermediate 
grade years in informal drama find it difficult to 
assume the burden of a highly professional play. 
When formal drama is begun at the age of nine, 
competent players and directors naturally develop, 
and as the young people advance the community 
program becomes unified. 

This idea has been carried out with notable suc- 
cess in Greater New York where the Bronx, Man- 
hattan and Brooklyn Boroughs are all conducting 
splendid children's drama programs. I have always 
felt this achievement a striking example of a city- 
wide children's drama program developed through 
a city department's own leaders — a method which 
I strongly favor. About five years ago playground 
directors of the Park Department attended special 
courses in children's drama and began the work 
on their own playgrounds. For two years these 
new drama directors were supervised. From time 
to time short supplementary courses were held in 
one borough or another. 

Now they are carrying on the work independ- 
ently. In checking up this spring I learned that a 
hundred plays were presented by twenty Brook- 
lyn playgrounds during the last season. Since the 
first of February children from playgrounds of 
Manhattan have been producing six plays every 
Saturday morning to enthusiastic audiences at one 
of the recreation centers. In the Bronx four fes- 
tivals in which all playgrounds took part were pre- 
sented last season. One was given on the occasion 
of the opening of a new ground with a swimming 
(Continued on page 230) 




Blue Mound Banishes the Depression Blues 



THIS LITTLE community of 817 
souls certainly never expect- 
ed to entertain between 40,000 and 50,000 visi- 
tors during the sixteen consecutive Wednesday 
nights when we planned, in the winter months pre- 
ceding, for our little open air theatre in the village 
park. 

No one was more astonished at the amazing 
popularity of this venture, planned for the enter- 
tainment of the home folks by the home folks 
than those who sat around the old cannon stove in 
the back part of the hardware store in February 
of 1934 and discussed its possibilities. 

This town of Blue Mound, Illinois, located in 
the heart of what is known as the country's great- 
est corn producing area, had passed through the 
period of 13 cent corn, eight cent oats and two 
dollar hogs. Even good crops did not yield enough 
money to pay the taxes, not to mention rent for 
the landlord or a decent living for the tenant who 
had put in a full year of work with no actual re- 
turn for himself and his family. With the return 
of higher prices came the two worst years of 
drought that had struck this area in a half century. 

Things had been pretty bad throughout that 
winter. We are a wholly agricultural community. 
There isn't an industry in the town^just the grain 
elevator, the bank and the usual stores and filling 
stations found in the rural village of the middle 
west. The surrounding country is one of rich 
black soil, usually prosperous in normal times, but 
when it took a load of corn to buy a pair of shoes, 
three bushels of oats to get into a movie and a 250 
pound hog to buy a hat there 
wasn't much business. Then 
had followed the two dry years 
when crops had failed. 

Spirits were low, very low, 
in our town during the winter 
of 1933-34- When Charles 
Worthan, once mayor of the 
village and a former profes- 
sional showman who was then 
running a filling station, came 
into the hardware store that 
February afternoon and sug- 



By Charles Bradley 



The story of a rural community in cen- 
tral Illinois which lifted itself out of 
the despondency and gloom in which 
the nation as a whole and agricultural 
communities in particular had been 
living for five years, is told by Charles 
Bradley, hardware merchant. Mr. 
Bradley, director of the band, is one 
of the active leaders in this remark- 
able community project which was 
developed so successfully last sum- 
mer and which is being continued 
this year. 



gested that it was time to do 
something to get the village out 
of its mental dumps, nail kegs were upturned about 
the old stove and the subject talked over. 

We had had concerts by the village band but 
interest in them had petered out. Free movies 
were tried, but the movies we could afford to get 
were not up to the taste of the community and 
that flopped. 

The village has a fine little park with great 
towering trees in it. Why not, it was suggested, 
promote a project for the community to be staged 
under the trees in that park during the coming 
summer? And so the idea of the out-door theatre 
was born in that discussion around the old stove 
in the rear of the store. We would see if we 
could not do something to break the community 
of its five year habit of persistently looking down 
its nose. 

A twenty-five piece band was organized, prac- 
tice was faithfully carried on throughout the 
spring and programs, with the band as the con- 
tinuity feature, were gradually developed. As the 
plan slowly took shape more and more members 
of the community became interested and more and 
more nail kegs were upturned for seats at the 
conferences which continued about the stove in 
the store. 

A stage was built in the park by the men of the 
village. The simple properties to be used on it 
were constructed in the rear of the hardware 
store by men who worked far into the night. The 
Wabash railroad gave us old railroad ties which 
we used for uprights (by cut- 
ting them in half) for the few 
seats we set up for the fathers 
and mothers who might attend 
the entertainments we were 
planning to ofifer. The young- 
sters would probably run about 
the park anyway, and we esti- 
mated that the 200 seats we 
were providing would be ample. 
The telephone company gave 
us the poles on which to 
mount the flood lights and a 



;?14 



BLUE MOUND BANISHES THE DEPRESSION BLUES 



215 




generous farmer told us 
we might have the steel 
tower of his unused wind- 
mill pump on which to 
set up our spot lighting 

equipment. This was placed about loo feet in 
front of the stage. All the work was done by 
volunteers of the community and the stage was 
built in a grove of beautiful trees which overhang 
it with long swinging branches. 

On only one thing did we spend monev. We 
employed an expert lighting engineer to design 
and install the lighting equipment for the stage 
with the result that the illumination of the par- 
ticipants in the program was perfect, with floods, 
spots, plain and tinted, and with concealed light- 
ing for the music racks of the band. With this 
exception every bit of the work was done by the 
men of the village, for the idea that we would not 
permit the depression to ruin us mentally and 
emotionally, whatever it may have done to us 
financially, had taken hold. 

\N'hat we thought would be our major "problem 
turned out to be the one most easily solved. We 
had no comprehension of the talent available in 
the town and its immediate environs. After it was 
thoroughly understood that this was a home idea 
to be carried through by home folks for home 
folks, talent, trained and untrained, was uncov- 
ered. This was to be a home entertainment witii 



In the band are eleven farnners, a grain dealer, a 
laborer, two school superintendents, a dentist, a 
Farm Bureau official, the rural mail carrier, an at- 
tendant at a filling station, a mule driver in a 
coal mine, a bank cashier and a plumber's helper 



no charge for anyone who 
cared to attend and no pay 
for those who took part. 
How completely this 
series of evenings be- 
came a community affair will be understood when 
it is realized that during the sixteen Wednesday 
nights on which programs were given more than 
4CX) different members of the community took 
part in some of the features given. On only one 
night, "Neighborhood Night," when towns from 
which hundreds of visitors had been coming to 
Blue Mound each Wednesday, were invited to 
produce a .stunt, were others asked to take part. 
For that night Decatur sent down its Municipal 
Players and other neighboring towns furnished 
skits or acts for a full night's program. 

The program remains and will remain, if the 
present group has its way, strictly a home affair 
using home talent. We will improve it, we think, 
as we gain experience, but we do not expect ever 
again to have the great thrill which we had last 
summer when, expecting to entertain a few hun- 
dred of the village folk, we looked out over audi- 
ences which reached as many as 7,000 persons. 
The members of the local post, American Legion, 
acted as traffic control officers and with as high as 
1,800 automobiles parked in the village at enter- 
tainments it is evident that this traffic control was 



very necessary. 



(Continued on page 230) 



Good Times at a Girls* Camp 



WITH MUCH gayety and merri 
merit stockings of all sorts, 
colors and sizes, are hung around the glow- 
ing fireplace in this spacious rustic hall. For this is 
Christmas eve in 1934; not celebrated on Decem- 
ber twenty-fifth, but July twenty-fifth at the Na- 
tional Camp Fire Girls' Camp in the Ramapo 
Mountains near Arden, New York. 

Christmas in July 

All mystery and wonder surround this annual 
event. Girls scamper off to bed before taps, hold- 
ing tightly to loose and dangling belts from bath 
robes and pajamas. Only the dull "Croak!" 
"Croak!" of the bullfrog breaks the stillness of 
the night as all the children quiet down ready for 
a sound sleep under heavy woolen blankets. Sud- 
denly a beautiful harmony of voices is heard sing- 
ing the Christmas carols. Now softly, then louder 
and louder, finally dying away in the distance. 
Camp "Akiwa" and "Talaulak" are sound asleep 
long before the last echo has been lost in the 
mountains. 

In the morning everyone jumps out of bed and 
scampers to the spacious log hall to poke around 
in bulging stockings to see what Santa has be- 
stowed on her. A sucker, nut cookies, juicy red 
apples, oranges, plums and other delicacies are 
brought forth. While munching an apple or a 
plum, the early risers, clothed in bathrobes and 
pajamas and chattering like blackbirds, gather on 
the open air breakfast porch. 

Camp Chores 

It is a cool but sunshiny morning and everyone 
has a keen appetite. No one hesitates to eat the 
cereal she dislikes at home. All eagerly drink the 
hot cocoa; warm toast and bacon follow. 

After breakfast all hurry to 
dress, make their own beds and 
clean their cabins before time 
for camp chores. "What are 
camp chores?" asks a twelve 
year old Japanese girl, a new 
camper. A dark-eyed Jewess of 
her own age satisfies her curi- 
osity by answering, "Cleaning 



By Gene Grubb 



"Youth craves adventure as the 
sparks fly upward; and this need, 
too, is fortunately met by the 
summer camp, while suppressing 
that element of risk and danger 
inseparable from the uncensored 
outings of the inexperienced." — 
From A Summer at Camp in 
Child Welfare, May, 1933. 



lamps and lanterns, picking up 

paper and other litter about camp, 

scrubbing the wash house, gathering wood for tlie 

council fires and cleaning the guest lodge." Off 

they dash, each to her special duty. 

When the chores are over the Camp Fire Girls 
are ready for their twenty minute swim. Of 
course the swimming counselor is quite the most 
popular person in camp. While the girls have the 
fun of splashing and playing games, they enjoy 
formal instruction in swimming, too, and many 
become excellent swimmers in a surprisingly short 
time. A shrill whistle calls everyone out ; for now 
it is time to dress for the Christmas dinner, with 
a real turkey, plum pudding dinner with all the 
trimmings. A miniature tree stands in the center 
of each of the twelve tables with a star and a 
Santa shining and nodding from the top of the 
tree. Thus Christmas passes at Camp Akiwa. 

Activities of All Kinds 

Another event follows the Yuletide celebration 
which is enjoyed just as much — the treasure hunt 
by 'the pirates, an exciting event. Late in the 
afternoon these Camp Fire maidens are hunting 
through boxes, suit cases and wardrobes for cos- 
tumes for pirates. In the meantime counselors 
are mysteriously and secretly scanning trails and 
marking lanes. After supper, when duties are 
over, each camper hastens to her cabin and very 
soon a great transformation takes place! Black 
eyes and lowering brows appear from under tur- 
bans and caps. Imitation swords and many a cut- 
lass dangle from belts. The search begins and all 
the priates start from the same place. "Look 
under a flat rock at thfe flagpole," is the first clue. 
The pirates make a mad rush for the designated 
spot and after much scrambling 
a dark, crumbled note is uncov- 
ered. It reads, "Go to the south 
end of the bridge at the brook 
for further directions." A 
crudely drawn finger points to 
a secret passage way along the 
trail. The pirates are an excited 
group. Treasure unknown is at 



216 



GOOD TIMES AT A GIRLS' CAMP 



217 



the end of the trail. Sign after sign leads them on 
until, behold a peculiar string attracts their atten- 
tion ! They follow it, and down under a low over- 
hanging rock — the treasure ! A bag of candy bars, 
apples and oranges — enough for all. 

The evening of the following day is warm and 
bright with moonlight when the Camp Fire maid- 
ens take to the boats. Each boat is filled with 
campers in care of two counselors. Slowly the 
boats glide towards the middle of the lake and 
soon the lake is spotted with black moving objects. 
Well-known camp songs come floating over the 
water, from diflferent parts of the lake, to those 
gathered on the dock. As the stars come out one 
by one, the singing from the lake gradually .dies 
away. To the listeners comes the sound of dip- 
ping oars and the bullfrogs resume their inter- 
rupted chorus. 

Bradly Mountain 
towers above us gigan- 
tic and powerful, as if 



"Whether we live In the city or in the country, noth- 
ing so re-creates us as a return to the unspoiled 
variety of the hills and plains, the woods and waters." 



guarding the little lake at its foot. The great 
green mass of foliage that covers its slopes looks 
black in the bright moonlight. The dark and light 
shadows on the lake, the rhythm of the moun- 
tains, an occasional quiver from the lake, a flicker 
of light from a camp fire across the water add a 
repose to the scene which makes the end of the 
day one of peacefulness and rest. The campers 
leave their boats and climb the hillside to their 
cabins. 

Tomorrow is Mary's birthday and a grand 
party is planned for her as well as the rest who 
have a birthday during this camping session. Miss 
Esther, the colored cook, makes the birthday 
cakes. Each of the twelve tables has place cards, 
a souvenir for everyone and a tiny doll. How 
lucky are the campers who have birthdays here, 
for never can they have so many and interesting 

guests at home! Some 
have come from foreign 
lands. 




218 



GOOD TIMES AT A GIRLS' CAMP 



Morning Assemblies and Cabin Suppers 

Morning assemblies at nine-thirty are a treat. 
On warm sunshiny mornings, all campers assem- 
ble on the dock, but if it is cool they meet in 
the lodge before the crackling wood fire where 
the nature counselor tells them the story of the 
muskrat, the snake and the frog ; the music coun- 
selor teaches them new songs that they will sing 
in camp and also back home in the city. 

The cabin suppers are a delight. On Sunday 
afternoon, after an enjoyable hike along a mys- 
terious shady trail, the campers return hungry, 
and ready for the many good things to eat which 
are waiting them. Egg, nut and raisin sand- 
wiches, chocolate cookies, apples and oranges fol- 
lowed by hot cocoa, make a Sunday night supper 
one to be eagerly waited for from week to week. 
The lunches are taken to each cabin and after 
eating, the campers dressed for slumber, snuggle 
down in l^ed ready for the story the calkin coun- 
selor has selected for them. 

This morning is "topsy-turvy" day. The day 
we have dinner in the morning and breakfast at 
night. Twelve-year-old Judith becomes the 'camp' 
director; Helen is the swimming counselor, and 
she has a group of assistants. Similarly other 
transformations take place and new handcraft 
counselors appear from among the campers. The 
girls have become the counselors and the coun- 
selors the girls. Each plays her part to the enjoy- 
ment of all. All are installed in office and then the 
fun begins. A visitor arriving in camp to see the 
director is quite baffled at first by having to con- 
verse with many supposed counselors before 
reaching her, but she enjoys her trip much more 
because she has come to camp on the day so much 
fun was in progress. 

Overnight Trips 

Summer camping is not complete without an 
overnight trip. Late in the afternoon ten or 
twelve campers who wish to spend the night 
under the open sky carry their blankets and pon- 
chos to the great open hall. Here they roll their 
sleeping necessities in their ponchos. The blankets 
are spread out on the floor and then smoothly and 
evenly rolled into a long roll which can be tied 
with a heavy string and thrown over the should- 
ers. Just before dusk a line of movirig figures 
wind along the trail and arrive at the overnight 
camping site in time to select as comfortable a 
spot as possible for their beds before darkness 



sets in. A great pile of wood and brush is gath- 
ered ready for the morning fire. By dark the 
overnight hikers, warmly dressed, have crawled 
into their blankets and ponchos. A small stone or 
twig under a campers bed may require a little 
adjusting, but soon everyone is comfortably set- 
tled for the night. A little moving or turning of 
the sleepers, or perhaps the cry of a nightbird are 
the only sounds until the shrill "Jay!" "Jay!" at 
daybreak arouses everyone. With a little yawn- 
ing, stretching and jumping about to relieve 
cramped muscles the sleepers come to life. 

One group builds the fire, while others cut 
sticks for making toast, prepare the cocoa, set the 
table such as nature provides. How good this hot 
breakfast tastes, for the morning air on the moun- 
tain is thin and sharp ! By nine o'clock all dishes 
are packed and ponchos are thrown over their 
shoulders ready to take the trail back down the 
mountain side. 

Such incidents are a few of the daily and 
weekly events at the Camp Fire Girls Camp, 
where the girls are not preparing to live but are 
living. 

The fourteen days of the camp session pass 
quickly, and packing for home begins for the one 
period camper. Suit cases and boxes are filled to 
overflowing with clothes, kodaks, flashlights and 
other camping necessities. But there must be 
found room for the new nature booklet, leather 
purse, bookends, whistlecord and many other 
things made in handcraft and nature classes. 

The bus arrives to take the first session camp- 
ers back to the city. It's a happy, tanned, husky 
group of little campers that clambers into the bus. 
After the baggage has been safely stowed away 
and noses counted to make sure that no one has 
been left behind, the bus starts down the long 
mountain side back to the city. Cheers and camp 
songs ring out as the bus speeds along the high- 
way, telling of good tilnes, good campers, and the 
hope that next summer they may return again to 
Bear Mountain. 



"I would encourage every one of you to de- 
velop a new hobby, to cultivate hiking or garden- 
ing. Go camping if you get a chance, even if you 
have to put up a tent in your back yard. Hike 
every chance you get. Play a game out-of-doors, if 
your work is indoors. Watch people go camping, 
hiking, gardening ; play traveling, if that makes 
you happy, but my advice is, 'Get out of the grand- 
stand and into the game.' " — Elbert K. Fret-wcU. 



A Community Camp 



By J. M. Groves 

President 

Inter-Service Clubs' Committee, Inc. 

New Haven, Connecticut 



THE CITY of New Haven is attractive 
to visitors and residents not only be- 
cause of its university atmosphere, 
historic interest and the charm of its parks 
and home sections, but also because in a 
fifteen-minute drive one can get out into 
regions of wild beauty suggestive of the 
mountains and wilderness. 

In such a spot, only seven miles from 
the central Green, the service clubs of 
New Haven have maintained since 1925 
a well-equipped camp for boys and girls 
who cannot afford to go to distant camps. 
Camp Cedarcrest is open without charge 
to any group' of youngsters for a one to 
three nights' stay, on application from the 
group leader. Boys' and girls' weeks alternate 
throughout the season. Day campers or picnickers 
are also received in numbers, and outings of young 
people and adults are encouraged when these do 
not interfere with camping arrangements for the 
under-privileged children for whom the camp is 
primarily intended. The Civitan, Exchange, Ki- 
wanis, Lions, Probus and Rotary clubs cooperate 
in support of the project, the property title being 
held by the Inter-Service Clubs' Committee, Inc. 

The camp site of nine acres is in the township 
of Orange, a half-mile from the New Haven- 
Derby turnpike. Except for an entrance parking 
space and the sunny playfield, the area is heavily 
wooded with hemlock, gray birch and red cedar, 
and other forested tracts border it on two sides. 
Entering between rough stone pillars over-arched 
by unfinished cedar, one sees at first only the camp 
director's cabin under great trees beyond the open 
parking area. The winding Wepawaug River, rich 
in natural beauty and historic lore, tumbles over a 
dam beyond the cabin. The dam makes a good 




White birches, hemlocks and cedars make a beau- 
tiful setting for the tents at Camp Cedarcrest 



swimming pool and a sand beach has been created 
artificially. Upstream to the right are picnic areas 
with fireplaces in open woods. Below the dam the 
stream runs through a rocky ravine zigzagging 
picturesquely under big hemlocks. 

Facilities 
Crossing the Wepawaug on a rustic bridge built 
over the dam by Exchange Club members with 
their own hands, the visitor climbs a flight of 
steps up the steep wooded bank to the camjjing 
area on high and nearly level ground. If one ar- 
rives near meal time, groups of campers will be 
seen preparing their meal at army field kitchens 
set on permanent stone arches and protected from 
rain but open on all sides. The dining tables and 
benches nearby are also roofed over. An 
enormous ice box, donated by a Rotarian who 
had used it in employes' quarters at his brick- 
yard, has room for all campers' supplies. Water 
taps are conveniently located. The tents are 
partly shaded, partly open to sunlight from the 



219 



220 



A COMMUNITY CAMP 



adjoining playground. Permanent raised wood 
floors are used with sides of wood up to the screen 
wire. Pyramidal khaki tent roofs of army type 
are supported by a wood frame. Each tent holds 
eight cots. Six tents have so far been erected. 
Tents, as well as grounds, are electric lighted, a 
recent improvement all labor and materials for 
which were contributed by service club members. 

The athletic field was graded and seeded by the 
Civitan Club which also donated a bubbler at one 
side. It is large enough for soft ball. Volley ball, 
quoits and "tether ball" spaces are provided near 
by. A massive flag staff and memorial tablet set 
in a boulder were dedicated recently as a me- 
morial to Frank R. Lawrence, former principal 
of the Boardman Trade School, active member of 
the Lions' Club and a great worker for the camp. 
The staflf is at the farther side of the play field in 
a setting of stately cedars. 

A sizable recreation building provides a central 
hall with a large stone fireplace. At one end is a 
kitchen and at the other end are two good sized 
sleeping rooms used for winter camping and as 
overflow space during the summer season. This 
building was created by work-relief labor, the ser- 
vice clubs furnishing materials, transportation and 
hot lunches. It is used by campers for rainy day 
recreation and evening affairs, and occasionally by 
the service clubs and other adult groups. 

The sanitary facilities are excellent, modern 
flush toilets in adequate number being provided in 
separate quarters for boys and girls, with septic 
tank disposal. 

An attractive feature of the camp scene is a 
large outdoor stone fireplace built by the Ex- 
change Club on a sightly point which juts out into 
the river. Nature trails follow the stream and by 
courtesy of adjoining property owners lead off 
through the woods in several directions. The 
\\'epawaug has all the natural "makings"' of a 
good brook trout stream and' still affords sport to 
camper's and an occasional adult angler. 



Leadership 

The camp has been in charge 
of a resident director under 
supervision of the New Haven 
Recreation Commission until 
this municipal bureau was dis- 
continued, and is now under the 
City Parks Department. It thus 
becomes in a sense an extension 
of New Haven's excellent park 



A number of American cities have 
public vacation camps maintained 
by departments of recreation. In 
some cities an individual service 
club is responsible for a camp. 
New Haven, according to Mr. 
Groves, is the one city in which a 
number of service clubs have united 
to establish and support a camp 
for the city's youth. Here six dif- 
ferent clubs are cooperating. 



system, affording the city's needy children a 
"breather" in the open country. Campers bring 
food and blankets. Everything else is supplied by 
the camp. If the children are unable to bring any 
food or to pay their two-token fare to camp, the 
need is met by the service clubs or a sponsoring 
social agency. Through the American Red Cross, 
150 blankets have been given for use in cases 
where the home cannot spare any bedding. 

Regular campers during the recent summer sea- 
son, June 1st to September 3rd, numbered 1,327. 
In addition, attendance of picnickers and visitors 
was over 3,000 and the past fall and winter season 
was marked by an increased amount of winter 
camping. 

During the past two seasons, an interesting ex- 
tension of the camp's influence has come through 
the bringing to Cedarcrest of groups from the 
Connecticut School for Boys, the state disciplin- 
ary institution for younger boys, at ^leriden. 
These brief vacations, rewards for good conduct, 
have been keenly enjoyed and the visitors have 
been exemplary camp citizens. 

The camp director's salary and the other items 
of the camp budget are the direct responsibility of 
the service clubs' committee, financed by annual 
appropriations from the several clubs, supple- 
mented by special gifts. The town of Orange 
abates taxes on the property, in appreciation of 
this courtesy Orange young people are welcome to 
swim at the camp each afternoon. In a similarly 
cooperative spirit, the Orange Water Company 
remits the water charge for showers and other 
outlets. An annual inspection trip and field day 
brings service club members out to see the pro- 
ject they are supporting and promotes inter-club 
acquaintance and good fellowship. 

The close of Cedarcrest's sixth year as a de- 
veloped camp site finds the facilities made avail- 
able by the New Haven service club members on 
a higher plane than evei" before. Bit by bit these 
clubs have added to the variety and completeness 
of the opportunities for enjoy- 
ment at the camp. Each year 
sees some needed addition to the 
equipment for the comfort, 
safety and health of the boys 
and girls who keep the wood- 
lands echoing with their shouts 
and laughter. 

The end result is not merely 
to provide a glorious vacation 
(Continued on page 230) 



I 




WORLD AT Play 



^, , ^, , ^ i H E Plaj'ground 

Playground Clubs Serve . „ ,• ^ 

^, . ^ . . and Recreation Com- 

Their Communities r ^^, m 

mission of Alton, Ill- 
inois, has found most 
helpful the activities of the playground dads' 
clubs, mothers' clubs, booster clubs, and young 
men's clubs associated with the playground. 
Here are a few of their activities during the 
year ending March 1, 1935, according to the 
Commission's annual report : Water Tower 
Dads improved floodlights, painted the shelter 
house, secured bricks and sand for sidewalks, 
purchased a slide, built a driveway and heated 
the building for the winter. Fathers at Hell- 
rung put a furnace in their shelter house, 
heated the building, and are completing the 
structure. Milton Dads sponsored the entire 
summer playground program, while Horace 
Mann directed the backstop for their ball dia- 
mond ; Salu Park fathers furnished transporta- 
tion for the children, Johnson Street aided the 
directors on the ground ; East End sponsored 
the Sunday program and helped build a stor- 
age building, and the young men's clubs at all 
of the centers helped in every way possible to 
improve conditions. 



Instruction in Sports 
Meets Need 



ONE of the activi- 
ties of the Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, Public 
Recreation Commis- 
sion is the teaching of golf. During February, 
1,190 different Cincinnatians took beginner's 
golf lessons. Of this number 420 were adults con- 



nected with commercial concerns and 770 were 
students in attendance at three public and 
three parochial high schools. Six hundred and 
five residents of the city had instruction in be- 
ginner's tennis. 



A New Swimming 
Pool in Arizona 



THE Safiford, Ari- 
zona, municipal park 
and swimming pool 
project was initiated 
in November, 1933, as a CWA project, with a 
local American Legion Post sponsoring the 
construction. The four acre tract of land in 
connection with the pool and park was donated 
by the Graham County Board of Supervisors 
to the Swift-Murphy Post of the American 
Legion, and an allotment of $25,500 was ap- 
proved by the CWA for the construction of 
the pool and park. On April 1, 1934, the pool 
was incomplete when orders were received to 
stop work under the CWA. Through the State 
ERA a sum of $2,688 for labor to complete the 
project was secured. The local American Le- 
gion Post raised $1,750 to buy necessary mate- 
rials, and the pool was opened July 1, 1934. 
Located in a desert country, it was necessary 
to develop a water supply by underground 
pumping. Fortunately a never ending supply 
of water was encountered at the shallow depth 
of 40 feet directly in the location of the pool 
which is easily emptied by an underground 
passage to the park where the surplus water 
is used to water the lawn. As water is very 
scarce, it is necessary to conserve all the avail- 

221 



222 



WORLD AT PLAY 



able supply. The pool measures 50 by 100 feet 
and ranges in depth from 3 to 11 feet. The only 
swimming pool available for approximately 
10,000 people; during the past year it was 
patronized by 400 boys and girls each twenty- 
four hours. 

A Pet and Hobby Show in Ann Arbor — On 
April 26th the Kiwanis Club of Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, sponsored a pet and hobby show at 
the Yost Field House. There were three de- 
l)artments — (a) collections; (b) crafts and arts, 
including handicraft and household arts ; (c) 
pets. Special features included demonstrations 
of workmanship in arts and crafts held during 
the day and an exhibition of the stunts and 
tricks of the pets. 

Public Forums in Springfield — A very inter- 
esting series of forums have been conducted in 
Springfield, Massachusetts, under the auspices 
of the American Association. for Adult Educa- 
tion. More than 1,000 people attend each of the 
discussions which have to do with social, poli- 
tical, economic and cultural conditions. A pre- 
sentation of some of the phases of Russian life 
and literature filled the municipal auditorium. 

Summer Schools in Detroit — This summer 
the Board of Education of Detroit, Michigan, 
is opening a number of summer schools as an 
expansion of non-credit, non-promotion or 
leisure-time activities. In this division there 
will be no set course of study, no program, no 
rigid entrance requirements, no grading or test- 
ing, and attendance will be left entirely to the 
pupil. Groups of twenty-five will be formed 
on a basis of grade age, for one, two or three 
periods per day, at a charge of $4.00 per period 
through eight weeks. There will be play 
schools for pupils from kindergarten through 
grade 8 with programs made up of music and 
dramatization, hikes, games, supervised play, 
hand work, art, nature study, trips, readings, 
penmanship and spelling, and story-telling. 

Hobby and exploratory classes will be or- 
ganized in schools listing grades 9 upwards 
where the summer school principal can obtain 
use of suitable rooms and facilities. Among 
the projects contemplated are art, dramatics, 
wood work, clothing, foods, chemistry, type- 
writing, gymnasium play or outdoor games. 
Music classes in band or orchestras and instru- 
ments of the orchestra including violins, will be 



formed in nine schools. The cost per subject 
will be $2.00. 

Picnic Activities — A. E. Center, Director of 
Recreation, Pontiac, Michigan, writes that the 
Department of Recreation has available addi- 
tional copies of an eight page mimeographed 
statement on picnic organization and activities. 
He will be glad to send copies to anyone remit- 
ting six cents in stamps. Mr. Center may be 
addressed care of the Department of Recrea- 
tion, Pontiac. 

A Splendid Legacy — The National Recrea- 
tion Association congratulates the National 
Playing Fields Association of Great Britain on 
the receipt of a £10,000 legacv from Lord 
Riddell. 

A Visit from Seumas MacManus — The Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Public Recreation Commission 
with the Cincinnati Story League sponsored a 
visit from Seumas MacManus, the great Irish 
poet, humorist, story-teller and playwright. A 
lecture and story-telling hour was held for four 
nights — April 29th-May 2nd. In addition, Mr. 
IVTacManus spoke and told stories at four high 
schools and one of the literary clubs. "We were 
simply fascinated," writes Miss Mabel Mad- 
den, Supervisor of Community Activities, "by 
his stories and his manner of telling them." 

The Hobby Round-Up — From May 1st to 
11th, Commerce Hall, Port Authority Building, 
New York City, was the scene of an interesting 
Hobby Round-Up held under the auspices of the 
Leisure League of America of which James S. 
Stanley is president. There were hobbies of all 
kinds presented and a number of organizations 
had exhibits. One of the most interesting sec- 
tions of the exhibit was that showing the hobbies 
of a number of outstandmg citizens. 



The New Leisure 

(Continued from fage 189) 
"Tlot-tlot, tlot-tlot! Had they heard? The horse-hoofs 

ringing clear ; 
Tlot-tlot, tlot-tlot, in the distance? Were they deaf that 

they did not hear? 
Down the ribbon of moonlight, over the brow of the hill. 
The highway man came riding, riding, riding. 
The red-coats looked to their priming ! She stood up 

straight and still ;" 
can know the deep joy and fulfillment which life 
holds for a human being. 



THE NEW LEISURE 



223 



But it is through rehgion that the deepest aspi- 
rations of man are released. If recreation is a way 
of hfe, then rehgion is the acme of it. 

Churches are the natural social centers. I 
dropped in one evening recently to see a Catholic 
priest who is a dear friend of mine. I found a 
crowd of men playing bridge with the priest, play- 
ing with the best of them. In contrast I recall the 
church of my boyhood, a place for long and 
solemn faces. I laughed once in Sunday-school 
and was severely rebuked by my teacher. Now 
we know that the church-house is a place for joy 
and happiness. I believe that an association should 
be established between wonder and reverence and 
joyousness. Such habits formed during formative 
years remain through life. 

During the Christmas holidays the students at 
Park School dramatized the old story of the ring- 
ing of the chimes which epitomized for me the 
relationship between school, play and worship. 
During the last act the assembly room, almost by 
a miracle it seemed, was transformed into a 
cathedral with glowing windows, robed choir and 
resplendent altar. A little child stumbled toward 
the altar v/ith her gift of pennies and then the 
chimes rang. Somehow, it caught up beauty and 
worship into a chalice. 

The church is also much concerned with leisure 
because, as Rabbi Hillel Silver has pointed out, 
the church knows that there can be no culture, no 
civilization, hardly religion itself without leisure. 
Culture requires leisure. What people do with 
their leisure is important. Are they amusing 
themselves simply, or are they enriching lives. A 
deeper spiritual being comes from the creative 
use of leisure. 



When You're Making Tin Can Toys 

(Continued from J'age 191) 

Drop small pieces of self fluxing solder on the in- 
side of the spout where it meets the can, holding 
the can in a horizontal position. Apply heat from 
an alcohol lamp along the outside of the spout' 
until the solder flows ; turn the can over and re- 
peat the operation along the other edge of the 
spout. It is possible to make a very neat joint by 
this method. A lid can easily be made by using 
the top of a larger can with a handle soldered to 
the top of this lid. 

A Sand Bucket 
A very acceptable sand bucket can be made 
from a No. 2^/2 can, or a larger size if desired, by 




DEVICES THAT ENDURE 

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gym equipment . . . many items of exclusive Louden design. 
Long experienced engineers will gladly give recommenda- 
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information is just off the press. 
A copy is yours for asking. Write 
today. 



LOUDEN 

PLAYGROUND 
EQUIPMENT 



J.E.PORTER CORPORATION 



120 BROADWAY 



OTTAWA, ILLINOIS 



soldering wire loops to receive the handle the 
same as described for the stew kettle, this handle 
to be made from a piece of wire from a coat 
hanger. 

To accompany this bucket a scoop made from 
a smaller can is desirable. To make this scoop, 
sketch with a pencil on the outside of the can a 
line where you wish to cut away the tin. This 
should be an even flowing curved line. The best 
tool, and really the only tool, I have found to cut 
this curved line around the can is what I call a 
pair of duck-bill snips. (Those I have are 
branded Pexto.) After this cut has been made the 
sharp edge should be taken off with a file. Now 
make a handle of a proper size by the same 
method as that previously described and solder 
the handle to the end of this scoop or what was 
the bottom of the can. 

A Toy Roaster 

A very realistic toy roaster like the one in the 
illustration can be made from two small sardine 
cans. Make handles as described for the stew 
kettle and shown in detail A so that the handles 
on the top half of the roaster fit neatly inside the 



224 



AMONG OUR FOLKS 



You Will Enjoy 

THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY 

A Journal of Community Religion 

RICHARD E. SHIELDS, Editor 



BUaDS COMMUNITY GOODWaL 

Contributing Editors: Frederick B. Fisher, Burris 
Jenkijis, Orvis F. Jordan, W. J. Lhamon, IJ. A. McCune, 
Toseph Myers,, E. Tallmadge Root, John R. Scotford, R. 
tarl StoU, Alva W. Taylor, Carl S. Wcist. 
How to Unite Churches . . . The Communty Church 
Movement . . . Vital News . . . Religious Digest 
ILLUSTRATED 

One Yeor $1.00 Three Years $2.50 



Publithtd bv 

THE COMMUNITY CHURCH WORKERS.U.S.A. 

77 West Washington Street, Chicago 



handles on the lower half. The top half may also 
have a handle such as shown in the illustration, 
which should be made in the same way as the 
handle to the lid of the stew kettle. 

These toys when coated with enamel are very 
attractive. The inside should be either white or 
aluminum. As the so-called "tin" from which 
cans are made is nothing more than thin steel with 
a thin coating of tin they will rust where the tin 
is worn off or scratched, unless coated with some 
material. There are, however, three or more 
grades of tin, and the better cans such as are used 
by one concern in putting up pop corn have a very 
durable coating of tin. 

Something About Marionettes 
and Their History 

(Continued from fage 193) 
Their great vogue, together with this apparent 
leniency on the part of the Church, did not at all 
add to their popularity with the actors on the le- 
gitimate stage, who looked down on the puppets 
and called them "miseries, both dangerous and 
demoralizing." The legitimate stage actors were 
jealous of the puppets because they thought their 
proceeds were being reduced through competition, 
and their dislike finally became too strong for the 
puppets to combat, clever as the puppets were at 
defending themselves with biting satires at the 
expense of the actors. In England the company 
of Drury Lane demanded the puppet theatres be 
closed, while in France the actors succeeded in 
driving the puppet showmen to the markets in the 
Parisian suburbs. Due to the actors, puppet show- 
men were not permitted to produce plays with 
dialogue ; only monologues were allowed, and 
even they could not be spoken in the natural voice. 



Among Our Folks 

FRIENDS of Clark W. Hetherington will all re- 
joice to hear that on June 8th he received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Pedagogy from the 
University of Southern California. 

On June loth Dorothy Enderis, Assistant to 
Superintendent in Charge of Extension Depart- 
ment, ^Milwaukee Public Schools, received an 
honorary ALA. degree from Lawrence College, 
Appleton, Wisconsin. In conferring the degree 
Dr. ^^"riston said : 

"Because you have brought to the increasingly 
significant problem of leisure activity profound 
sympathy, prophetic vision, administrative skill 
and great wisdom, we are glad to recognize your 
achievements, and by the authority vested in me 
I confer upon you the degree of Master of Arts, 
honoris causa, and adinit you to all its rights and 
privileges." 

In April, after twenty-five years of continuous 
service in the playground movement of Hamilton, 
Canada, Charles Peebles retired from active serv- 
ice. Members of the Recreation Commission pre- 
sented him with an illuminated address thanking 
him on behalf of the mothers, fathers and chil- 
dren of the City of Hamilton for work well done. 
From 1911 to 1931 Mr. Peebles held office as 
secretary, as treasurer, as vice-president and as 
president of the Hamilton Playground Associa- 
tion and from that date to 1935 as chairman of 
the Playground Commission which replaced the 
Playground Association. Mr. Peebles was elected 
an honorary life member of the Commission. 

Mrs. Chester G. Marsh, formerly director of 
the Westchester County Workshop maintained by 
the Westchester County Recreation Commission 
in the County Building at White Plains, New 
York, has resigned that position to serve as Di- 
rector of Arts and Crafts for the Girl Scouts, be- 
ginning June first. Mrs. Marsh was connected 
with the Westchester County Recreation Com- 
mission for twelve years, being its first executive. 
For five years she directed the Workshop. 

but had to be distorted by means of the "sifflet 
pratique." This is a small, flat whistle, held be- 
tween the roof of the mouth and the tongue, and 
even today, some modern Punch and Judy show- 
men use this method to impart the squeaky fal- 
setto voice associated with Punch. There is always 
the danger that this whistle may be swallowed in 
the excitement of a tense moment, even by the 
most proficient! 



SEAMAN F. NORTHRUP 



225 



Seaman F. Northrup 

Judge Seaman F. Northrup, who died in May, 
for ten years served as a district representative 
of the National Recreation Association. Cheerful 
and courageous at all times, he gave himself un- 
stintingly to his work. No one could persuade 
him to limit his hours or conserve his strength, 
and every power he had was completely dedicated 
to his tasks. He cared profoundly for the national 
recreation movement. 



Oriental Marionettes 

Oriental marionettes arc so beautiful and so 
interesting that it is difficult to know iust what to 
say about them. Perhaps one of the most inter- 
esting groups are the marionettes of Japan. This 
country had no theatre before the advent of the 
marionettes, about 1660 A. D., when the first pup- 
pet theatre in Japan was established. They did 
have the beautiful "NO" plays, but these were 
semi-historical-religious dramas, presented in the 
language of the court, and far aljove the under- 
standing of the common people. After the advent 
of the puppet theatre, which was under the pa- 
tronage of a powerful and wealthy Prince, the 
legitimate theatre in Japan was developed. Na- 
tionally famous poets wrote dramas for the pup- 
pets, and great painters decorated the stages and 
scenery. The costumes, make-up, dramatizations 
and stage conventions as created then by the mari- 
onettes were so perfect that they have been 
handed down intact and form the basis of the 
legitimate Japanese drama of today whose human 
actors adopted the perfection established by the 
puppets. The Japanese puppets are about one- 
third life-size and each figure is worked by three 
operators. The chief operator is dressed in verv 
beautiful robes, and it is considered quite an honor 
to become one. He works the head and the right 
hand, while his two assistants, clothed in black, 
with black hoods over their faces, work the left 
hand and the feet. In his book, JVIiile Roue 
Burns, Alexander Wolcott tells of the dexterity 
of the Japanese puppet-manipulators, and in the 
Christmas issue of the London Illustrated News 
for 193 1, there is an interesting and profusely 
illustrated article on marionettes in Japan. 



NO DUST 

to Endanger Health 
. . . or mar Pleasure 




• Dust is unsanitary under any circum- 
stances but is particularly objection- 
able where children play. Modern 
playgrounds use SOLVAY Calcium 
Chloride to eliminate dust positively 
and inexpensively and give children a 
firm, compact playing surface. 

Furthermore, SOLVAY Calcium 
Chloride kills germs. Its effective 
germicidal action has won the un- 
qualified endorsement of physicians 
and playground directors. 

Solvay Calcium Chloride is positively 
harmless, does not track or stain. 
Easily applied. Just spread evenly 
over the surface. That's all. Nature 
does the rest. 

too conveniently located shipping 
points assure prompt delivery and 
minimum transportation charges. 
Write for full information and prices. 

SOLVAV 

TRADE MARK REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 

Calcium Chloride 

SOLVAY SALES CORPORATION 

Alkalies and Chemical Products Manufactured by 
The Sohay Process Company 



40 RECTOR STREET 



NEW YORK 



BRANCH OFFICES: 



Note : This is a copyrighted article. 



Boston 

Chicago 

Cincinnati 



Indianapolis 
Kansas City 
Philadelphia 



Cleveland 

Detroit 

Houston 



Pittsburgh 
St. Louis 
Syracuse 



226 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



Magazines and Pamphlets 



I 



Recently Received Containing Articles 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker 



\ 



MAGAZINES 
The Journal of Health and Physical Education, June 1935 
Progress and Problems in Health and Physical Edu- 
. cation Among Colored Americans, by Edwin B. 

Henderson 
The Influence of School Training on Leisure-Time 

Activities, by C. L. Brownell 
New Features in Gymnasium Planning, George A. 

Hagen 
How I Instruct My Tennis Classes, by Mary K. 
Browne 

Packs and Recreation, June 1935 

Wyoming's George Washington Memorial Parks, by 

Harold L. Curtiss 
The Forestry Building at Portland 

Leisure, June 1935 

New Hampshire Encourages Handicrafts, by Thelma 

Brackett 
Tips for Tennis Tyros, by Davis Humphrey 
New Light on An Old Craft, by Edward W. Frentz 
A Game for Children, by C. A. Byers 

The National Parent-Teacher Magazine, June 1935 

The President's Message — A Wise Use of Leisure, 

by Mary L. Langworthy 
Recreation on the Family Plan, by Marian Warren 
Moore 

The Parents' Magazine, June 1935 

Leisure and Libraries, An Editorial by Beatrice Saw- 
yer Rossell 

A New Angle on Camping by R. Alice Drought, 
Ph.D. 

Play in Your Backyard, by Grace E. Batchelder 

A Happy Vacation Spent at Home, by Florence 
Smith Vincent 

Let's Give a Party 

American Childhood, June 1935 

What Shall We Play This Summer? by Nina B. 
Lamkin 

The Sportswoman, May 1935 

Stunt and Formation Swimming, by Gertrude Goss 
Swimming and Waterfront Safety, by Marjorie 
Camp 

PAMPHLETS 
Picnic Bulletin, Department of Public Recreation, Read- 
ing, Pa. 
Des Moines Playground and Recreation Commission An- 
nual Report 1934 
Construction and Maintenance of Baseball Fields, by Clar- 
ence F. Waltz 
Bulletin No. 7— The Athletic Institute, Inc., 1712 
Republic Building, Chicago, 111. 
Famous Places in the United States 
Swimming 
Natural Scenes of the United States 

Obtainable from Frederic J. Haskin, Washington, 
D. C. at 10 cents each 
Biennial Report of the M ilwaukee County Park Commis- 
sion and Milwaukee County Regional Planning Dept. 
1931-32. Court House, Milwaukee. Wis. 
Annual Report of the Minnesota Emergency Relief Ad- 
ministration, Recreational and Leisure Time Depart- 
ment, 1934-35 



Leisure in Our Time — A Survey of Recreational Oppor- 
tunities in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 1934 
Prepared under the joint auspices of the Delaware 
County Park Board and the Delaware County 
Welfare Council. 

Annual Report of the Board of Park Commissioner*, 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1934 

Municipal Recreation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1934 

Educational Activities Promoting the Worthy Use of 
Leisure Time. 

Los Angeles City School District. Special Bulletin 
No. 89 

Report of the Boston Pack Department Competitive 

Sports Program, 1934 
Report of the Recreation Commission of Portland, Maine, 

1934 
First Annual Report of the Department of Public Recce- 

reation of Winston-Salem, N. C, 1934-1935 



The Boy Scout and His Hobbies 

(Continued from page 195) 

Strength of his skill, experience, study and in- 
tense interest in these two subjects that he won 
his chance at great adventure. Hobbies some- 
times take one farther than one's dreams, pay bet- 
ter than one would ever fancy they could or 
would. 

At the Jamboree 

Next August some 30,000 or 40,000 Scouts will 
assemble in an immense encampment in Washing- 
ton, living in tents almost in the shadow of the 
Monument. The occasion is the celebration of the 
Silver Anniversary Year of Scouting, marking 
the completion of twenty-five years' history in the 
making in America. These Scout delegates from 
all over the country will be selected for their out- 
standing qualifications and records in Scout ex- 
perience. 

Most of them will be Life, Star or Eagle 
Scouts, the higher ranks in Scouting, standing for 
arduous training in advanced Merit Badge sub- 
jects, hobbyists all. » 

Among the more spectacular and formal phases 
of the program which will be scheduled during 
this gigantic Jamboree it will be safe to say that 
innumerable unofficial confabs will be held. Who 
knows how much stimulating hobby chat will go 
on, what stimulating exchanges of views as to 
whys and hows of hobbies will accompany these 
tent flap conferences between individuals or 
groups ? What a wealth of new ideas, healthy en- 
thusiasm and fresh breath of life these representa- 
tives of Scouting will have to take back to their 
home Troops when it is all over ! How the more- 
and-better-hobbies horse will rock! 



PLAYING INDIAN WITH A PURPOSE 



227 



These Boy Scouts of today will be the crafts- 
men and creators, the business and professional 
men of tomorrow. Even if these early interests 
! of theirs do not chance to lead directly to their 
life work, there can be no doubt that they will 
pursue their chosen careers no less ably and pro- 
fitably because in their youth they listened to the 
neigh of the hobby horse on the wind, and more 
than likely will go on listening in their maturer 
leisure hours, still follow the delightful lure of 
clattering hoofs, down many an intriguing by- 
path, leading to many a rich and green pasture of 
practically limitless expanse. 

He who has once hugged a hobby to his heart, 
or better still, more than one, is never likely to 
know the irk of boredom. He has always at his 
command an inexhaustible source both of recrea- 
ation and creation. He who learns young to pour 
more of himself into life, will find that life will 
reward him richly, prove a miraculous pitcher, 
"chock full" of health and happiness, a well 
earned increment of pleasure and profit. 



Playing Indian With a Purpose 

(Conthiucd from f>agc 198) 

Rituals — Ceremonies — Plays — Pageants 
There are endless possibilities in the program 
and every opportunity to present unusual pageants 
and rituals following the preliminary work. One 
need mention only a display of craftsmanship, 
decorated teepees, bizarre costumes, rhythmic 
dances, a corn festival dance, perhaps a game of 
lacrosse, a flaming arrow ceremony, a ritual when 
tribal names are given, and many other ceremon- 
ies. Opportunities without end are oflfered by the 
program to pageant the unusual, the interesting 
and the impressionable. 

A Brief Bibliography 

Omaha Tribal Games and Dances, Alice Fletcher 
Rhythm of the Red Man, Seton 
How of the Indian, Parker 
Indian Book, Julian Harris Salamon 
Indian Siyn Language, William Tompkins 
My Life With the Indians, Schultz 

Indian Bead Work, American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York City ($.35) 

Indianlofc {A pamphlet), Cheley, 600 Steele Street, Den- 
ver, Colorado 
Books by Dr. Charles Eastman 

Books by Smithsonian Institute, Dr. Charles Eastman 
(Several books and pamphlets of interest) 




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Before you make the selection of any 
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children to install the safest equip- 
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than EverWear's Patented Stride. Ask 
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Use Spring Rubber Safety 
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An ingenious ar- 
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connplete line of the SAFEST and most DURA- 
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228 



"BOYS AND GIRLS TOGETHER" 



That Summer Playground 
Program! 

• Have you secured your copy 
of "Planning Summer Playground 
Programs"? 

Whether you are a beginner in 
playground leadership or a more 
experienced worker you will find 
this pamphlet valuable, so com- 
prehensive is it in its discussion of 
the activities comprising the play- 
ground program and the principles 
involved in planning. 
Sample daily, weekly and sum- 
mer schedules help make this an 
unusually practical and useful 
publication. 

Price $.25 

National Recreation Association 

315 Fourth Avenue 

New York City 



"Boys and Girls Together" 

(Coiitinucii from f'ai/i' 202) 
What Boys and Girls Themselves Want 
All these things, of course, are but straws in 
the wind, and we must make every effort to find 
out what boys and girls want- themselves. They 
do not really know, but they love new experiences 
and they love to discuss and they are pathetically 
eager to find some clues out of the maze. 

The Dean of Women of Syracuse University 
asked 203 freshman girls to name the problems 
they faced outside the classroom, for which they 
felt they had been inadequately prepared before 
entering college. Their replies, briefly summar- 
ized, were as follows : 
Social experience Boy friends 

Taste in dress Habits of neatness 

How to converse Making decisions 

Living away from home Use of money 

Health and personal hygiene Sex knowledge 

The boys and girls of a Los Angeles high 
school decided that they lacked experience in 
social practices and procedures. So they built a 
guest house, in which they entertain each other 
and their friends. Many a Girl Scout "Little 
House,"' of which there are now hundreds 
throughout the country, furnishes a similar in- 
formal social training. 

One of the things that boys and girls need 



cruelly to learn is to finish what they have begun. 
Too often they undertake something far beyond 
their skill and capacity and leave it half done 
when interest lags under unexpected difficulties. 
Here is where wise older people can be of the 
utmost help in tactfully supplying needed training 
and thus stiffening character. 

It is not easy to know what can be done for 
boys and girls under the present hard and con- 
fused conditions of modern life. But somehow 
they must be helped toward adequate and adjusted 
living, socially, economically, and emotionally. 
Perhaps we shall come to what William James 
urged so long ago in his Moral Equivalent of 
War, a period of compulsory work service for all 
young people, like — and yet how unlike — what is 
now being so harshly carried on in Germany. If 
we ever do, it will be not merely a period of 
work but also a period of vocational direction, 
further education and true recreation. 



Note: As this issue of the magazine goes to press an- 
nouncement is made of the formation of the National 
Youth .\dministration, created by executive order of 
President Roosevelt for the following purposes : to find 
employment for jobless youth; to train and retrain for 
industrial, technical and professional employment op- 
portunities; to provide work relief on projects designe<i 
to meet the needs of youth, and to provide for continu- 
ing attendance at high school and college. $50,000,000 has 
been allocated for the project. 



Chicago Makes Her Preparations 
for the Recreation Congress 

(Continued from ^age 205) 
a basic element in any recreation program. But 
the youth of thirty years ago had not been reared 
to the constant hum of the machine ; it was still 
the day of hand tools. There was no call for the 
exercise and development of patient application in 
the arts and crafts, for which there was little time 
after release, from work. School playgrounds of 
that day were not the»centers of youthful indus- 
try which they have since become under our 
Board of Education. The instructors of that time 
might well devote themselves to personal instruc- 
tion of their charges individually, and give less of 
thought to affording opportunity for self-leader- 
ship and the organization of a functioning democ- 
racy in leagues and tournaments. Recreation was 
ihen a matter of relaxation after work. Now we 
are thinking of it the world over as the major 
business of living, when we are released from 
compulsion and freed to make an art of living. 

Many Demonstrations Will Be OfTered 

The demonstrations planned for this year's 



CHICAGO MAKES HER PREPARATIONS FOR THE CONGRESS 



229 



Congress will differ from those of 1907 as the 
program of today varies from that of thirty 
years ago. There will be demonstrations by hob- 
byists of the city of the processes by which they 
create their products, step by step. Boys will be 
there making planes ; their mothers will be demon- 
strating weaving; their grandmothers will be en- 
gaged in needle point, embroidery, lace-making or 
quilting. Grandfather will be there demonstrat- 
ing some of his special end-plays in chess, in the 
solving of puzzles in checkers. Perhaps he will 
outline the basic strategy of the game of Halma, 
or show how to take the defensive side of the 
game of fox and geese successfully. Sister will 
make a puppet, a doll or a Hallowe'en mask be- 
fore the eyes of delegates, and her brother's 
young bride may well be there engaged in block- 
printing of drapes for her new home or in pat- 
terning Batiks for some article of wearing ap- 
parel or some domestic wall hanging. All of the 
fundamentals of a manual craft or hobby pro- 
gram will be demonstrated, not alone in produc- 
tion, but also in the processes of making those 
products from inexpensive material. 

The National Recreation Association is plan- 
ning also to intersperse with the program proper 
brief, thumb-nail sketches of community music 
numbers, of dramatics and presentation of the 
arts as elements of the newer sort of recreation 
activities. 

Technically too, the plans call for consultation. 
Nearby systems as well as those of Chicago will 
bring to the Congress their planners, architects 
and technical experts in general. If a delegate 
wishes to consult with a technical man on the de- 
sign, construction and filtration of a new swim- 
ming pool, he can make an appointment and be- 
fore him he can lay his blue prints for advice. 
Field trips are planned rather than spectacular 
programs, in order that the delegates in attend- 
ance may see the programs going on in their com- 
munity, with club groups in action. Buildings 
may be inspected and studied on the ground and 
plans and lay-outs examined not alone in the lay- 
out of the original ground of the turn of the cen- 
tury, but in the latest and most evolved develop- 
ment of the city. 

Chicago will eagerly await its opportunity to 
display all that we have learned here in the city 
and will be on the alert for the critical observa- 
tions or suggestions for improvement which we 
expect to receive from visitors, advising us as to 
ways in which still better results may be achieved. 




PUT 

DIAMONDS 

ON YOUR 
PLAYGROUND 

Equip your playground with Dia- 
mond Pitching Horseshoes and 
accessories. The line is popular 
with amateurs and professionals 
alike. Diamond products need little 
replacing. Shoes are drop forged 
steel — will neither chip nor break. 
Write for new catalog PS. 1. 

DIAMOND CALK HORSESHOE CO. 

4610 Grand Avenue, Duluth, Minn. 



How One City Acquired Play Areas 

(Continued from page 208) 

last two months, a large part of the next payment, 
which is not due until summer. 

Undoubtedly the group of men who bought the 
original tract would have purchased this land, as 
well, but we felt that it was far better strategy to 
have the people of the neighborhood buy their 
own playground than to have a few wealthy men 
do it. The effect on the city fathers would be 
quite different. 

We hope that we can persuade the Council to 
include the whole amount in the budget this 
spring, but if the city does not buy the land this 
year we are confident that it will in the near future. 
In the meantime we shall have the use of the land 
and the Association has proved to the city at large 
that the people of the First Ward are solidly be- 
hind the recreation program. 

Note: As a happy ending to this story word reaches 
us as this article goes to press, that the Council has pur- 
chased the fourteen greatly desired lots. 



230 



THE yLACE OF DRAMA IN RECREATION 



Music in a Public Recreation Department 

(Continued from page 210) 

The outstanding example of coordination of 
these different projects is the work being carried 
on at the National Catholic Community House. 
Here is being conducted what amounts to a set- 
tlement school of music using leaders from both 
the Emergency Schools and the Emergency Re- 
lief Administration. The activities include a com- 
munity orchestra, piano classes for children and 
adults, classes for violin and guitar, a glee club, a 
minstrel group, classes in sight singing and voice 
instruction. Other such centers could be organiz- 
ed if the facilities were made as freely available. 

The all important questions as to how effective 
is the program, how far a Public Recreation Com- 
mission should go in the field of music, to what 
level it should confine its efforts, the writer is 
constrained from answering. We will presume, 
however, to say quite frankly that we have faith 
in its basic soundness, while recognizing that 
others might differ with us in detail or approach 
to the problem. 



The Place of Drama in Recreation 

(Continued from page 213) 
pool and probably centered around the pool. 
Aside from these big productions there is always 
a little play in rehearsal on every ground and 
drama is a well established activity. 

One of the most delightful outdoor theatres in 
the east can be found in Bloomfield, New Jersey. 
This theatre was built on one of the playgrounds 
with relief funds and gave work to a group of 
the town's unemployed. In Bloomfield, Miss Ruby 
Oscarson has trained her own directors and will 
conduct the fifth playground tournament this sum- 
mer. Material of high quality is used and it is 
not unusual to find the plays of such excellent 
authors as Stuart Walker, Rachel Field and Con- 
stance Mackay on the tournament programs. 

In encouraging you to sponsor a drama pro- 
gram I can't over emphasize the fact that there is 
talent everywhere, especially among children. The 
schools haven't the time to take over the task of 
giving them well organized formal drama and a 
great opportunity is thus left for the recreation 
department. Leadership is the great need. But so 
many successful programs have been developed by 
training leaders within the department that I think 
it is safe to say that there is no community where 
it is not possible to develop leaders and that there 
is no community where drama cannot be success- 
fully included in the program. 



Blue Mound Banishes the 
Depression Blues 

(Continued from page 215) 

The Programs 

Programs were developed through the help of 
the schools and other organizations. There was an 
operetta by the high school, athletic exhibitions 
under the direction of the high school athletic 
coach, tap dancing and music under the super- 
vision of the music director of the schools, plays 
by the Community Players, a full sized minstrel 
show in black face with a cast of forty, every 
member a farmer from the neighborhood except 
the interlocutor who is a hardware merchant in 
the village, a German band, an Old Fiddlers' con- 
test, folk dancing by trained groups, individual 
and glee club singing — all by local people. The 
master of ceremonies is the manager of an oil sta- 
tion. The leader of the band is a hardware 
merchant and the bandsmen are business and pro- 
fessional men and farmers of the community. 

The social value of the project is incalculable. 
In spite of the continued bad economic conditions 
the habit of glooming about it has been cast off in 
Blue Mound. 

The whole project was born in desperation and 
in the belief that the community was not serving 
itself when it sat about twiddling its thumbs, 
wearing sackcloth and ashes and moaning about 
the economic situation. Working for entertain- 
ment for each other, making one evening a week a 
genuine community holiday, with the occupation 
of preparing for it together, did the trick. 

The community is proud of itself instead of 
being sorry for itself. Members of it know each 
other better than they have ever known each other 
before and they have shown that good wholesome 
fun, created by the community is not only good 
for them but extraordinarily attractive to others 
who came from all -parts of central Illinois in 
thousands to attend the entertainments so freely 
offered and so well done. 



A Community Camp 

(Continued from page 220) 
for thousands of needy youngsters. It is a genu- 
ine service for the business and professional men 
who make up the service clubs to identify them- 
selves in this constructive way with the satisfying 
of a fundamental need of youth. They get a 
deeper thrill than the youngsters when they go 
out and see and hear groups of happy campers 
rollicking through these wild acres. 



New Publications in the Leisure Time Field 



Finger Painting 



By Ruth Faison Shaw. Little, Brown and Company, 

Boston. $2.50. 
rjiN'GER P.MNTiNc is the result of Miss Shaw's quest 
' for improved methods of educating children at her 
private school in Rome. After long experimentation she 
discovered the formula of a firm, clayey paint which 
when mixed with water could be easily manipulated by a 
child's finger and was absolutely harmless. Finger paints 
are now in use in over 125 schools. Finger painting is 
a part of the curricula of summer camps. It is recog- 
nized as one of the most valuable modern developments 
in the training of children. The book contains some inter- 
esting reproductions of paintings done by children be- 
tween the ages of two and a half and thirteen years. 

Tap Dances for School and Recreation 

By Anne Schley Duggan. A. S. Barnes and Company, 

New York. $2.50. 
The use of tap dancing in the school and recreation 

program is I)ecoming increasingly popular and the 
routines offered in this book have been particularly de- 
signed for this purpose, varying from short, simple 
dances for the real beginner to full length, difficult rou- 
tines for the more advanced enthusiast. The book also 
includes several rhythm buck routines, a type of dancing 
recently popularized. Through adaptation of the rou- 
tines to well known melodies, as well as original compo- 
sitions, the author has made her material doubly useful. 
It should be noted that this book is a supplement to the 
author's first book on the same subject. 

The Curriculum in Sports (Physical 
Education^ 

By Seward C. Staley, Ph.D. W. B. Saunders Company, 

Philadelphia. $2.50. 
Intended to serve two purposes — (1) for use as a text- 
book in classes studying the curriculum in sports and 
(2) for the use of teachers conducting sports curricula — 
-this book is woven about one central idea, namely, that 
the curriculum in sports should be organized and con- 
ducted according to standardized educational theories 
and practices. Physical educators and recreation workers 
will be interested in Dr. Staley's conclusion that there is 
not and cannot be a separate and distinct physical educa- 
tion tliat the phase of education, now called physical 
education is sports education. He further suggests that 
it would be advantageous to abandon the title of physical 
education and adopt that of sports education. Whatever 
the title used, however, the practices and principles ad- 
vanced in the book are equally applicable. 



Let's Make a Book 

By Harriet H. Shoen. The Macmillan Company, New 

York. $.75. 
QoYs AND GIRLS are introduced in this small book to the 
"^ fun of book making. First there are the easy books 
• — scrap books, photograph albums, baby picture books 
and other ideas for rainy days at home. Then follow 
clear directions for making a real book, with suggestions 
for rebinding old favorite books. 



Team Sports for Women 

By Alice W. Frymir and Marjorie Hillas. A. S. Barnes 
and Company, New York. $3.00. 

Oaseball, basketball, field hockey, soccer, speedball and 
volley ball are the six sports selected for a thorough 
analysis of techniques and plays. Each sport is analyzed 
as follows : General statement of game ; individual tech- 
nique; offensive individual play; defensive individual 
play ; offensive and defensive team tactics ; and players 
and their positions. Sample examinations and selected 
references are given for each sport, and information on 
officiating and methods is included. 



The Arts of Leisure 

By Marjorie Barstow Greenbie. Whittlesey House, Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York. $2.50. 
11 ERE IS a book for vacation reading when you can 
'* take time really to enjoy a delightful and stimulating 
philosophizing on the many arts which go into the su- 
preme art of living. You will learn something of the 
charm and grace leisure hours may take on, and you will 
discover how life may be made more enjoyable through 
the arts of conversation, reading, loafing, going places, 
letter-writing, song, decoration, making things, growing 
things, and many other activities. You cannot afford 
to miss this book. 



On Soap Sculpture 

By Lester Gaba. Henry Holt and Company, New York. 
$1.00. 

If your hobby is soap sculpture or if you want to learn 
how to go about it, this is a book you must have ! It 
will give you complete instructions on means and meth- 
ods; actual patterns and diagrams of objects to be 
carved; hints about subjects and how special results may 
be obtained, and directions for a soap carving party. 
There are photographs which range from the various 
stages of the actual carving of a Scottie to the finished 
groups which have been used for many national adver- 
tising campaigns. 



231 



232 



NEIV PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



Social Work Year Book 1935. 

Edited by Fred S. Hall. Russell Sage Foundation, 

New York. $4.00. 
The Social Work Year Book, published biennially, em- 
braces more than social work itself. The volume is there- 
fore subtitled "A Description of Organized Activities in 
Social Work and in Related Fields." Activities and 
agencies are regarded as related if their executives or 
other staff members are significantly associated with 
social workers in performing the tasks for which either 
group is responsible. For information within its scope 
the Year Book is a concise encyclopedia, periodically re- 
vised. Nearly all articles in the present issue indicate 
briefly the effect of the current economic depression, but 
their chief purpose is to describe the included activities 
in the form in which they were organized at the end of 
1934. Part I contains a large number of articles con- 
tributed by leading social workers and carefully classi- 
fied. Part II is a directory of 413 national and interna- 
tional agencies, public and private, 526 public state agen- 
cies and 51 state-wide private agencies. 

Leisure Time Directory — Chicago 1935. 

Chicago Recreation Commission, 1634 Burnham 

Building. 
The Chicago Recreation Commission as one of its first 
pieces of work has compiled a Leisure Time Directory 
of Public and Semi-Public Recreation and Auxiliary 
Agencies for the use of recreation and social workers, 
policemen, civic groups and neighborhood leaders. The 
directory first lists the city's parks and playgrounds under 
the Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Aviation, the Board 
of Education and the Chicago Park District. Recreational 
facilities are then listed by communities and city-wide 
organizations are noted. The directory is an outstanding 
example of the effectiveness with which such listings and 
information can be given. 

Demonstration Handbook of Olympia 
Through the Ages 

By Harriet V. Fitchpatrick and Florence M. Chil- 
son. A. S. Barnes and Company, New York. $1.50. 
Everyone attending the American Physical Education 
Association Convention held in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1934 
was tremendously impressed by the pageant, "Olympia 
Through the Ages," depicting the history of physical 
education. Over 3,000 took part in what was felt to be a 
genuinely educational program. This book attempts to 
answer the many questions which have been asked about 
the pageant. With the descriptions given and the definite 
suggestions offered for costumes and music the pageant, 
it is believed, can be adapted to any community. 

Willingly to School. 

Prepared by the staff of the Fox Meadow School, 
with a foreword bv William H. Kilpatrick. Round 
Table Press, New York. $3.00. 

"The new typ« grade school has never had so artis- 
tically beautiful and humanly interesting and engaging a 
presentation as this," states the New York Times Book 
Review section for January 27, 1935, in commenting on 
this interesting book which is an account of what is being 
done and what success is being achieved at the Fox 



Meadow School in Scarsdale, New York. The presen- 
tation is made largely through pictures which are un- 
usually fine examples of photography by Wendell Mac- 
Rae. They show the children engaged in dozens of widely 
varied activities — one alone, a group of two or three or 
more, or a crowd of them with the outdoor and indoor 
backgrounds and environment afforded by the school and 
its gardens and play yards. 

Federal Transient Program. 

By Ellery F. Reed. Ph.D. The Committee on Care 
of Transient and Homeless. 1270 Sixth Avenue, 
New York. 

This evaluative survey, the result of a study made 
under the auspices of the Committee on Care of Tran- 
sient and Homeless for the period covering May, June 
and July, 1934. contains a vast amount of information 
regarding this pioneer effort of the federal government. 
In addition to the findings on housing, physical and med- 
ical care, provision of work, administration and person- 
nel, there is a section on Religion, Recreation and Edu- 
cation. "The importance of leisure time in the transient 
program," the report states, "was recognized early in its 
administration." The camps and shelters, the survey 
showed, nearly all had recreation halls or rooms, but 
these were lacking in adequate equipment, the different 
centers differing greatly in the extent to which recrea- 
tional activities had been developed. Some had especially 
trained persons in charge of the program, and a good 
deal was being done in spite of severe limitations of 
funds. "It was clear that where the recreational program 
was strong it made a great difference in the attitudes 
and entire atmosphere of the transient bureau, and was a 
constructive force in the rehabilitation of the transients." 



Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 

Joseph Lee, President 
John H. Finley, First Vice-President 
John G. Winant, Second Vice-President 
Robert Garrett. Third Vice-President 
Gl'STAVvs T. KiRBY. Treasurer 
HowAKP S. Bral^ciier, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

Mrs. Edward \V. Biddle, Carlisle, Pa. 

William Bitterworth, Molire, III. 

Clarence M. Clark, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Henry L, Corbett, Portland, Ore. 

Mrs. Arthur G. Cummer, Jacksonville. Fla. 

F. Trl'bee Davison, Locust Valley. L. I., N. Y. 

Mrs. Thomas A. Edison, West Orange, N. J. 

John H. Finley, New York, N. Y. 

Robert Garrett, Baltimore, Md. 

Austin E. Griffiths. Seattle, Wash. 

Charles Hayden, New York. N. Y. 

Mrs. Charles V. Hickox, Michigan C!tv, Ind. 

Mrs. Francis deLacy Hyde. Plainfield, K. J. 

Gustavus T. Kirby, New York, N. Y. 

H. McK. Landon, Indianapolis. Ind. 

Mrs. Charles D. Lanier, Greenwich, Conn. 

Robert Lassiter, Charlotte, N. C. 

Joseph I,ee, Boston, Mass. 

Edwaro E. Loom is. New York, N. Y. 

J. H. McCurdy, Springfield, Mass. 

Otto T. Mallery Philadelphia, Pa. 

Walter A. May, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Carl E. Milliken, Augusta. Me. 

Mrs. Ogden L. Mills, Woodbury, N. Y. 

Mrs. James W. Wadsworth, Jr., Washington, D. C. 

J. C. Walsh, New York, N. Y. 

Frederick M. Warburg, New York, N. Y. 

John G. WIinant, Co.ncord, N. H. 

Mrs. William H. Woodin, Jr., Tucson, Ariz. 



\ 



''Enrichment of Life" 

TIME is the raw material out of which life is carved. Leisure is our own 
time. We ourselves are the employers of leisure. The shape or pattern 
of life often becomes largely a matter of how we use what is loosely 
called "spare time." 

As far as accomplishment is concerned for millions of pe'ople, the day is 
done when the whistle blows. "Nothing to do until tomorrow" is the slogan. 
Aimless recreation follows. Yet, most of these people have vague ambitions 
of one sort or another. The time when these ambitions might be set in motion 
is the leisure time. By ignoring this use of leisure the best in life is tossed 
aside Hke an old newspaper. Such waste of time might be more readily justi- 
fied if it led to contentment. On the contrary, no one is more bored with 
himself or leads a duller existence than the person who has no program for 
his after-working hours. 

Most people do not use time with a purpose. They drift with it. Instead 
of making Hfe, they permit it to happen. Their conversation is of yesterday 
and their thoughts of tomorrow. Many of the ancients were wiser. "Carpe 
diem," meaning "Seize the day," was the advice of Horace two thousand 
years ago. Make the, most of today is the sense of this expression. Forget 
yesterday, for yesterday is gone. Dismiss tomorrow. Tomorrow is never 
here. Live today ! Grasp the fleeting moment by the forelock and use it now. 
Let it slip by and it is out of your grasp forever. 

Time is the element out of which life is carved. I am thinking of the 
marble out of which sculptors carve their works of art. In a sense each of us 
is a sculptor. Day by day we hammer away at the marble which is time. 
Chip by chip it falls at our feet. The outline of a statue first appears rough, 
almost formless. Indeed, it is never wholly finished. To the last hour we 
apply the chisel. At length the hand relaxes and life is done. The statue is 
our life's work. It is the result of what we have done with time. If we have 
lived beautifully, it is beautiful. If we have lived usefully, the marble figure 
has, at least, a semblance of beauty. If we have lived badly, aimlessly, care- 
lessly, our handiwork reflects the misuse of the primal material given us — 
Time. 

James A. Moyer, 

Division of University Extension 
Massachusetts Department of Education. 



AUGUST, I 935 

233 




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234 




A Few 

of 

America's 

Outdoor 

Theaters 



Courtesy Look Memorial Park Commission, Northampton 



TiiERK IS NOTHING new about giving plays out- 
of-doors, but the increasing emphasis on out- 
door production has resulted in wide interest 
in the construction of municipal and school out- 
door theaters. In the past few years the allocation 
of funds for ERA and PWA projects which 
serve the cultural interest of the people has done 
much to increase the number of outdoor theaters. 
And so today from coast to coast there are to be 
found theaters ranging from the "Little Lattice 
Playhouse" in Oakland, a simple stage erected in 
an old olive orchard and embellished with lattice 
work, to the elaborate amphitheater in Oklahoma 
City, where, when the project is completed, 14,000 
people will be accommodated. 

Between these two extremes of planned and 
constructed theaters are to be found innumerable 
woodland and garden theaters created by nature. 
Most of these are beautifully located in county 
and municipal parks. The Griffiths Theater in 
Griffiths Park, Los Angeles, is recognized as one 
of the finest in the public parks of the country. 
Salt Lake City's theater in Nibley Park with the 
stage located on an island in the lake, the audi- 
torium being on the opposite shore, is an example 
of an outdoor theater which is performing out- 
standing service ini the musical and dramatic pro- 
ductions presented there each year. 

The Sylvan Theater in Washington, D. C, lo- 
cated in Monument Grounds Park, is well known, 
as is Salem's theater in Willows Park and many 
others which might be mentioned. 

A few details about some of the existing thea- 
ters will be of interest. 



In Northampton, Massachusetts 

One of the outstandmg recreational projects de- 
veloped under the Emergency Relief Administra- 
tion in Massachusetts is the outdoor theatre in the 
Frank Newhall Look Memorial Park at North- 
ampton, a community of 25,000 people located in 
a thickly populated section of New England. H. 
Foss Narum, Park Manager, sends a description 
of it. 

In the original development plan for the park 
drawn by Robert Washburn Beal of Boston, a 
fan shaped area had been set aside for the future 
construction of an outdoor theatre. This area, 
surrounded by tall pine and elm trees, was utilized 
in planning the stage and auditorium when, shortly 
after the initiation of E.R.A. in Massachusetts, 
the local firm of Putnum and Stuart was author- 
ized by the Park Board of Trustees to draw plans 
for the construction of the auditorium. 

The plans as drawn were approved by the 
Trustees of the park and presented to the Com- 
monwealth E.R.A. for their approval. In April 
1934 the approved plans were returned td E.R.A. 
Administrator J. P. Boland and 50 men were as- 
signed to the work. As all of the work was done 
by "wheelbarrow labor" the work progressed 
slowly during the following months. By Novem- 
ber the project had been completed as far as was 
possible by unskilled labor, and the piping for 
water supply and drainage was then installed. 
During the eight months in which the men worked 
there were from 50 to 140 men working 18 to 24 
hours a week. Over 7500 yards of material were 
moved from the front of the area to the rear to 
give an eight foot rise in the rear and a seven 

235 



236 



A FEW OF AMERICA'S OUTDOOR THEATERS 



foot drop at the front of the area. The E.R.A. 
allotted about $18,000 for this work. 

The auditorium is 233' wide at the rear, 130' 
wide at the front and is 176' from the rear to the 
pool in front of the stages. At the present time it 
is not planned to install seats or permanent 
benches. Loam and grass seed will be put on next 
spring after re-leveling the area, as may be neces- 
sary after settling and winter frost. 

Separating the auditorium and the 46' by 100' 
pageant area is a water pool 130 feet long, eight 
feet wide and 24 inches deep. Piping at this pool 
will be arranged so as to permit the use of a water 
curtain to separate the stage from the auditorium. 

The first stage level is known as the "pageant 
area" and will have a floor of grass. This area will 
be used as an orchestra pit as well as for pageants. 

The second level is two and one-half feet higher 
than the pageant area and is 45' deep by 123' 
wide. This will be the main production stage for 
plays and concerts. Future plans for this area 
will necessitate an expenditure of about $10,000 
to permit a stage of flagstone, stage lighting facili- 
ties, two twelve foot square pillars at .each side 
of the stage to be used as control rooms, sound 
amplification, sound shell, and to provide beneath 
this stage the rest rooms and dressing rooms. 

A large number of cities and towns are within 
a 25 mile radius of the park. Smith College in 
Northampton, Amherst College in Amherst and 
Mt. Holyoke College at South Hadley are all 
within a short distance. The possibilities for musi- 
cal and dramatic activities in this new outdoor 
theatre are many. 

Duluth's Outdoor Theater 

In 1907 the Park Department of Duluth, Minne- 
sota, wrote the first 
chapter of the his- 
tory of its outdoor 
theater when it cul- 
verted a creek used 
as a 'storm sewer 
and started on the 
erection of an am- 



The outdoor theater 
in Duluth is un- 
usually fortunate in 
its beautiful ioca- 
cation on the lake 



phitheater. The towers and platforms completed 
in 1928 are of native semi-face stone, having con- 
siderable variation in color. The platform is of 
heavy slate of variegated colors. Underneath the 
platform are toilet facilities and dressing rooms. 
There is a sounding board for band concerts. The 
amphitheater will seat about 10,000 people with- 
out too much crowding, and the audience usually 
sit on the grass. The structure cost $13,600 and 
the culverting, grading and seeding about $4,500. 

The Outdoor Amphitheater in Oklahoma City 

Picture a sloping hillside field, fringed along its 
lower sides with young oaks, well located as to 
elevation so that fine vistas are seen to the east 
across the lake and beyond, and to the south where 
the rolling country spreads away into a scene 
worthy of an artist's recording. 

This is the spot where Oklahoma City has lo- 
cated its largest outdoor amphitheater in Lincoln 
Park and an excellent choice of location it was, 
giving one the feeling of peaceful satisfaction in 
its natural beauty. From the illustration on page 
234 it is possible to see how the stage is located in 
the lower end to the south of the seats, a feature 
important in this particular because wind currents 
are from that direction and will carry the sound 
from the stage into the audience. 

Generous accommodation is provided for the 
spacious seats which will accommodate 14,000 
persons. Although the structure was only half 
completed last year, an entertainment program 
was held there which was attended by 14,000 
children. 

Hundreds of trees have been moved in order 
to landscape the surrounding areas and preserve 
(Continued on pacie 272) 





New 
Facilities 
for 
Recreation 



THIS SUMMER many new recreational facilities 
will be available, a large number of them 
through the cooperation of PWA, city recre- 
ation departments, park departments and other 
municipal bodies. Private groups are also helping 
in the country-wide effort which is being made to 
provide projects from relief funds which will be 
permanent assets to cities throughout the country. 
Here are a few of the recreational facilities 
which thousands of children and adults will enjoy 
during the summer of IQ35. 

A Museum On a Playground 

Prescott, .A.rizona, has a new municipal play- 
ground of n'ne acres, the result of the cooperative 
efifort of the city, the schools, the public, the Un- 
employment Committee of the Yavapai County 
Chamber of Commerce, the Kiwanis and Rotary 
Clubs, the RFC, the CWA and the ERA. The 
project represents an expenditure of approxi- 
mately $120,000. The development is surrounded 
by rock walls made of native granite. There are 
stone bleachers along the east side. Other facili- 
ties include a concrete stadium, four concrete 
double tennis courts, and a .separate stone build- 
ing housing public toilets. A particularly interest- 
ing feature of the project is the Smoki Public 
Museum, erected on the playground from native 
stone to house prehistoric relics. 

A Swimming Pool in Goldsboro 

In January 1935 the Goldsboro, North Carolina, 
community building opened its indoor swimming 
pool built at a cost of $17,000. Of this amount 



approximately $11,200 was furnished by C.W.A. 
The pool is 70 feet long, 24 feet wide, and of a 
graduated depth from two feet nine inches to 
e'ght feet nine inches. It has a modern filtering 
system and a heating plant. Admission prices to 
the pool have been set at such a reasonable figure 
that no one need be excluded. Individual admis- 
sion will be 10 and 20 cents; season tickets good 
for four months will be $2.50 and $5.00. 

A New Community House in Memphis 

On the spot where the old John Gaston Home 
once stood in South Memphis, Tennessee, has 
arisen a new landmark, the John Gaston Com- 
munity House, erected at a cost of about $125,000 
with funds provided by the CWA, TERA and the 
City of Memphis, with CWA labor. The build- 
ing has been named for the late John B. Gaston, 
a pioneer developer of the section in which the 
building is located, and it is a tribute to the mem- 
ory of this outstanding citizen and of his wife, 
who as Mrs. S. W. Alann left not only the prop- 
erty to the city but also a large fund for the 
erection of a hospital in honor of her first 
husband. 

The e>terior of the building is a modern de- 
sign of brick and stone and on the entrance front 
are two stone tablets commemorating John B. 
Gaston. The tablets also mention the Civil Works 
Administration, city and county officials, members 
of the Gaston Memorial Board and of the Park 
Commission, and the architects. The building 
consists of a group of social or club rooms erected 
around a combination auditorium and gymnasium. 
It is provided with a large lobby at the principal 



237 



238 



NEW FACILITIES FOR RECREATION 




The new community building in Memphis, Tennessee, 
which has been dedicated to a richer life for all 



entrance and two large 
stair halls at the op- 
posite end. There is direct access from these halls 
and lobbies to the particular social room to be 
used without going through the auditorium. 

The auditorium will seat 1,500 people. The 
stage is well equipped with lights, drops and 
everything needed to stage professional and ama- 
teur dramatic performances. There is a complete 
talking and moving picture apparatus with loud 
speakers for public meetings. Over the proscen- 
ium arch in the gymnasium is the inscription: 
"That everyone, young or old, shall have a chance 
to play ; shall have an opportunity to find the best 
and most satisfying use of leisure time." 

The building and playground, which are under 
the supervision of the Park Commission, will be 
open to the public at all times. A resident mana- 
ger with his staff will be in charge of activities. 
']\i embers of the staff of the Recreation Depart- 
ment are serving in this connection. 

At the dedication on January i6th, 2,000 peo- 
ple were present. This was the first of a series of 
special events which continued during the week. 

Memphis is proud of the progress it has made 
in the recreation movement since the dedication of 
Gaston Park in 1900 and the formation of the 
Park Commission in that year. Today there are 
1,411.62 acres in the city's 39 parks, a parkway of 
II miles, a zoological department, an art gallery, 
and a museum of natural history. In 1920 when 



the Recreation De- 
partment of the Park 
Commission was organized, there were 7 play- 
grounds. Today there are 25 playgrounds, seven 
of which are lighted and open for night play, 39 
tennis courts, 9 hard baseball diamonds, 28 soft 
ball diamonds, 3 swimming pools, 3 golf courses, 
1 1 football fields, and 4 indoor community cen- 
ters. Recreation Department activities are carried 
on after school hours in 27 public schools. Seven 
institutions are reached with a regular program of 
recreational activities during the year. 

Other Buildings Erected 

Through the generosity of Mr. C. S. Weston, 
Scranton, Pennsylvania is to have a new building 
at Weston Park which will include showers for 
men and women, thVee club rooms, and a large 
room which will serve as an auditorium or assem- 
bly room. Mr. Weston is supplying the material 
for the building in the construction of which 
CWA labor will be used. The approximate cost 
of the structure will be about $30,000. 

With the assistance of the Oilman, Wisconsin, 
public schools the Taylor County ERA has erected 
with relief labor a Boy Scout cabin made of cob- 
ble stones. The high school students use this 
cabin for band practice and social meetings The 
work was done under the supervision of E. A. 
Rowley, Superintendent of Public Schools. 



Planning the Summer Vacation 



By Henry S. Curtis, Ph.D. 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 



THE STUDY of summer activities of children 
made in Ann Arbor was not an attempt to 
survey all summer activities. The four under 
consideration — camps, trips, farms and play- 
grounds — were selected because, looked at from 
a world point of view, they are in the process of 
becoming public undertakings. Camps are now 
being carried on by the government in Russia and 
Italy and are being organized on a wide scale in 
connection with the land retirement plan in this 
country. They are being maintained by many 
schools in Germany and by a few schools and 
some playground systems in this country. Trips 
have been a part of the program of the German 
schools for fifty years and have always been the 
classic European way of spending a vacation. The 
government of Denmark and certain provinces of 
Japan have for many years promoted the journey- 
ing of city children to farms during the summer. 
Playgrounds are becoming a public institution 
throughout the civilized world. 

Ann Arbor is a city of approximately 30.000 
inhabitants, having a few more than 5,000 chil- 
dren, in its public and private schools. The pro- 
fessors from the University of Michigan and their 
families represent somewhere from a fifth to one- 
fourth of the populatioft. There is also a consid- 
erable group with collegians to educate and others 
with large intellectual cravings who are living 
here because of the university, but this class does 
not furnish many of the school children. The 
majority of them come from middle class Ameri- 
can homes such as would be found in any north- 
ern city. 

Near the beginning of the school year last Sep- 
tember a questionnaire was given out in all of the 
schools. In the lower grades it was sent home with 
a note for the parents to fill out. A regular class 
period was taken for it in the upper grades. 



In this article Dr. Curtis gives us a brief ac- 
count of a study of the summer activities of 
the children of Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was 
made with FERA help under the direction of 
the Department of Landscape Design of the 
University of Michigan. The study is not yet 
complete, and it will cover not merely the city 
of Ann Arbor but the county as a whole, in- 
cluding 140 rural schools and six other towns 
and villages ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 in- 
habitants. As far as the study has gone the 
results from other towns and rural schools are 
in line with the findings from Ann Arbor, but 
general conclusions will be more or less un- 
certain until similar studies are completed in 
other parts of the county. 



WASHTENAW COUNTY SURVEY 

SUMMER PLAY 

Name Age 

Grade School 

Did you go to any camp last summer ? 

Name of camp 

Where situated ? How far away ? 

How long did you stay ? 

How much did you pay per week? 

Did you go on any long trip last summer ? 

How far ? 

Did you go by auto, train, bus or boat? 

Where did you spend the night ? 

Did you stay on a farm for a time last summer? 

How long ? 

Was it the farm of a relative ? 

Where is it? 

Did you go regularly to any of the playgrounds of Ann 

Arbor last summer ? Which one ? 

How often ? How long did you usually stay ? ._ 

What was your favorite game or activity ? .' 

Did you go regularly to city beaches, tennis courts, and 
golf courses? Underline which 

(For children of the first four grades only) 

Where do you play when you are at home ? 

How large is your play yard ? 

What do you play ? '. 

Which of the following outdoor play things do you 
have? (Check) 

sand bin wagon bicycle bars junglegym 

seesaw tricycle scooter swing automobile 

Add others : 

Four thousand seven hundred and eleven chil- 
dren sent back the questionnaires. Of this num- 
ber 651 went to camp last summer for an average 
of 22.9 days, a little more than three weeks. This 
accounts for 25.4 per cent of the time given to the 
four activities. 

239 



240 



PLANNING THE SUMMER VACATION 



Camps 

There were three types of camps represented in 
the report — Scout camps, which were nearly all 
patrol camps of less than 25 children, semi-public 
and private camps. The Scouts either took their 
food or bought it as a troop, cooked it themselves 
and lived in their own tents. While they usually 
reported the expenses of the two weeks at from 
$1.25 to $2.50 a week, the food probably cost no 
more than it would at home, and the expense was 
really nothing. The Scout camp has the great ad- 
vantage of being an integrated part of the year as 
it is discussed long beforehand and talked over 
afterwards. It is camping with friends, and is 
one of the best types of camp. 

The semi-public camps maintained by the Y.M. 
C.A.'s and the Y.W.C.A.'s and the University 
Fresh Air Camp take a certain percentage of the 
children for nothing and charge the others $7.00 
a week. The stay is usually for two or three 
weeks. This type of camp suffers from the lack 
of continuity. There is in most cases no prepara- 
tion and no follow-up. The children are usually 
strangers to each other in the beginning, and the 
period is too short for forming friendships or for 
definite training. 

The private camp usually takes its groups for 
eight or ten weeks. It charges from $15.00 to 
$50.00 a week, and as a rule has a fairly well- 
paid staff and a good program of physical activi- 
ties. It is, however, essentially a class camp and 
may promote snobbery. 

Most of the talk that one hears and the articles 
one reads about camping look at it from a nega- 
tive or a physical point of view. It would thus 
appear that the purpose of the camp is to get the 
children out of the city and away from its temp- 
tations and heat, to build them up physically and 
to give them a good time and proficiency in sports. 

Most camps offer swimming, canoeing, rowing, 
athletics, nature study, dra- 
matics and crafts. To many 
this is the program, but the 
fundamental thing about the 
camp is that it is a demon- 
stration in communal living. 
The best camps make "bud- 
dies" of the children. A 
friendly attitude and spirit 
are far more essential to its 
success and popularity than 
any amount of equipment or 
resources. To make a friend- 



Dr. Curtis points out that the reader, 
in order to have a true picture of the 
situation, should keep constantly In niind 
the fact that Washtenaw County is a 
rural county, with nnany retired farmers 
living in its cities and towns. Ann Arbor, 
the largest city, has only 30,000 people. 
There are only two towns outside of Ann 
Arbor that maintain playgrounds. Con- 
ditions are entirely different from those 
existing in a metropolitan district but the 
findings of the study are very signifi- 
cant for all interested in rural work. 



ly world is the purpose of the moral law. The 
camp may be an important step in that direction. 
Sleeping, eating, working, singing and playing to- 
gether all help. But such training requires a ses- 
sion of at least six weeks. 

The camp offers the great opportunity to learn 
cooperation through its joint enterprises of work 
and play. One must become a citizen of the camp 
to enjoy it. Is not this a logical preparation for 
adult citizenship with its responsibilities later? 

The camp also makes it possible for the de- 
pendent child to escape from the apron strings, 
for the spoiled child to be unspoiled, to learn to 
stand on his own feet and be responsible for his 
own acts. 

These are higher values than a knowledge of 
arithmetic. It is the specific training in which the 
state and city are most interested. This oppor- 
tunity should be furnished to all children. 

.Apparently we are at the beginning of an age 
of unprecedented leisure. There are two universal 
preparations for leisure time. They are many 
friends and a love of the open. Neither of them 
costs anything, but they mean far more to enjoy- 
ment than wealth. One of the best opportunities 
for both of these is offered through the camp. 

Trips 

There were reports of "long trips" from 2,238 
children which account for 12.465 days of travel 
at 200 miles a day. These trips thus reached 47.5 
per cent of the children and they account for 21.9 
per cent of the time of the four activities. A de- 
tailed study of this item at one of the schools in- 
dicates that this time would be doubled if short 
trips of from 25 to 50 miles had been included. 
One eighth grade of 125 children covered 102,597 
miles, the boys averaging 1,027 miles per indi- 
vidual. Something over 90 per cent of the long 
trips and close to 100^ per cent of the short ones 
were by auto. As the aver- 
age party on these trips was 
given as 6.8 for the boys and 
5.9 for the girls, this un- 
doubtedly represented in the 
aggregate more recreation 
than the other three items 
combined. 

The classical method of 
spending a vacation in 
Europe has always been tra- 
vel. There is no summer of- 
fering of America that seems 



PLANNING THE SUMMER VACATION 



241 




Courtesy Girl Scouts • 



The young people of America 
of the youth of other countri 
tion time to taking walking 



to me comparable to 
the walking trips of 
the youth movement 

of Europe. There are, according to the last figures 
I have seen, 3,600,000 members in the German 
Hostels Association and somewhere between five 
and six million members in Europe. The hostel is 
the youth hotel, the place for spending the night. 
Many of them are old castles or villas of the rich, 
and some are disused military camps. The regu- 
lar charge for lodging is seven cents and ten to 
twenty cents for meals, though all offer oppor- 
tunity for the walker to cook his own supper if 
he wishes. It probably costs a German youth no 
more to go on a two weeks' walking trip than it 
does to stay at home if he must pay for board and 
room in both places. The railroads oflfer third 
and fourth class fares and one-half rates to the 
walkers if they need to take the trains. 

Our mountain areas offer opportunity for walk- 
ing, but our country highways as a whole are too 
much infested with automobiles for the walker to 
feel safe or to enjoy his walk. There was only 
one walking trip reported from the 4,711 children. 
Some five states have passed laws within the year 
providing for pedestrian paths along certain high- 
ways. This will help, but walking is never likely 
to become popular in our agricultural communities. 

There is a marvelous new possibility in the 
travel field at our doors at this time due to the 



may well follow the example 

es in devoting more vaca- ^^^ highways that 

trips in the open country. u u j i j 
r r J have been developed 

during the depres- 
sion which now cross and recross every part of 
the United States, while one to Mexico City is 
promised by June and its extension to Panama 
and even down the vast shore of South America 
is surveyed with indications that its reality lies not 
in a very distant future. Many new cruises have 
been developed to the Carribbean and the Paci- 
fic, while airplane flights across both oceans seem 
not unlikely during the year. It seems probable 
that there may soon be airplane resorts in Green- 
land and along the shore of the Arctic also. 

Travel may show us nearly everything we read 
about in books or papers in a more vivid way, and 
it brings to our doors all other forms of recrea- 
tion. Many people do not learn easily from the 
printed page but see and learn avidly from travel. 
Travel may make us acquainted with historical 
backgrounds, with economic and social conditions 
throughout the United States. It should develop 
a real appreciation of our great country and the 
enterprises carried on by the government. It 
should help one in choosing a profession and a 
place of residence. It offers an almost necessary 
basis for patriotism and intelligent voting. The 
government should be as much interested in hav- 
ing children know America as in their academic 
training. It might well afford to furnish from its 



242 



PLANNING THE SUMMER VACATION 



vast stores the oil and gas neces- 
sary for such trips. 

The great handicap to any in- 
telHgent travel in this country is 
the lack of any rational directory 
to points of interest such as may 
be had for a penny almost any- 
where in Europe. This survey has made out such 
a directory for this county which has just been 
printed. We have located 58 places, some of 
which are of international interest, but most of 
which are unknown to the oldest inhabitants. 

Farms 

At first thought a farm may not appear to be 
much of a pleasure resort. It has always been 
thought of as a place for work rather than play, 
but an investigation carried on in two junior high 
schools as to preferences for farms or camps 
showed that a larger proportion of the children 
wished to return to the farm than to the camp. 

Farm visits are apparently much the largest 
item in the summer program so far as the chil- 
dren are concerned, as 1,170 children went to the 
farms last summer for a period of 21,353 days 
with an average stay of 18.2 days per child. Ac- 
cording to these figures, 24.8 per cent of the chil- 
dren, approximately one quarter, spent 37.5 per 
cent of the time of the four activities on the 
farms. This figure is, however, probably below 
the actual facts. In making up our tables, if a 
child said he spent the entire summer on the farm 



In this graph is shown the percentage of 
time given each of the four activities 



4,711 children of Ann Arbor 
spend 56,970 twelve-hour days 
in four activities — trips, camps, 
farms and playgrounds. The ag- 
gregate time per pupil in these 
activities is 12.1 days. 




his time was thrown out on the 
supposition that he lived there 
and it was not a vacation to him. 
Later studies have shown that 
this was seldom the case. The 
child nearly always said he lived 
on a farm if that was the fact. 
In an intensive study of one of the junior high 
schools it was found that 202 out of 326 children 
had spent 1,008 longer or shorter vacations on a 
farm and that practically all of them wished to go 
back every summer. Only seven of these children 
paid anything. Most of them stayed with grand- 
parents, uncles, aunts or friends. They reported 
that they helped in the house, garden and on the 
farm, that they fed the pigs and chickens, gath- 
ered the eggs and picked the berries, that they 
went fishing, swimming and rode horseback. 
Nearly as many farm children came back to visit 
them in the city. One hundred and twenty-five of 
the children said that they had learned much of 
value on the farm and 43 said it had helped them 
in their social studies, science, mathematics and in 
writing themes in school. 

The farm stay actually cost less than nothing 
as the parents saved their board and the children 
often came back with presents from relatives. 
They probably earned their way, judging from 
their accounts of the work they did. The city must 
buy its food at retail but the farm has it at a price 
that is below wholesale. Girls of even ten may 
help with the baby, the dishes, the sweeping, gath- 
ering the eggs and picking the berries, and there 
is a yet greater variety of things for the boys to 
do. The children who were most helpful were 
the ones who liked the farm best. Of the 326 chil- 
dren there were only ten who said they did not 
wish to go to the farm; of these six had never 
been there and three had merely loafed on the 
farm without taking an active part in the work. 



Here we see the percentage of 
children participating in the 
types of activities surveyed 



2SL 



zn 



% 



^'^H 



Tr'iiad Playp'roun^ f^irms CaiKl 



f 



7S 



f- 



PLANNING THE SUMMER VACATION 



243 



One hundred and eighty-six of the children said 
they could go to the farm next summer if they 
wished. This is more than half of the entire 
number, but it is undoubtedly too small a 
number, as the question was asked whether they 
might visit anyone on a farm "not more than fifty 
miles away." In the study of the high school it 
was found that 47 out of 181 children who went 
to farms went to farms in other states which were 
scattered over the entire northern part of the 
country. 

If the conditions in this school are typical, it is 
possible for the majority of the older children in 
this area to visit farms without expense during 
the summer. Such visits tend to hold families to- 
gether and to keep country and city in sympathy. 
Without such an experience it is difficult for one 
to understand the conditions 
through which America grew 
up. 



good attendance for a city of the size of Ann 
Arbor. 

But even a 20 per cent increase in this record 
would make no difference in the conclusion that 
the playgrounds, alone cannot offer a program to 
the school population of a city as a whole during 
the twelve hour day of the summer. Playgrounds 
are very beneficial but they cannot minister to 
children who do not come, or greatly help those 
who only come occasionally. The influence of the 
playground is not limited to the time spent there, 
and perhaps its greatest service is in teaching bet- 
ter games and better methods of play to be used 
outside. Furthermore the child who has played 
baseball or tennis for one hour and eighteen min- 
utes has had exercise enough for one day. 



Playgrounds 

The playgrounds were re- 
ported attended by 1,206 chil- 
dren more or less regularly. 
These represent 25.6 per 
cent of the children. On the 
basis of a twelve hour day 
their attendance amounted to 
8,662 days. Converted into 
minutes and divided by 66, 
the number of days the play- 
grounds were open, it pro- 



The Washtenaw County Directory which 
Dr. Curtis mentions bears the sub-title 
"Highways-Byways and Places of Inter- 
est Historical-Scenic-Educational-Recre- 
ational." It is most attractively printed 
in colors and is profusely illustrated. 
In addition to the directory listing 58 
places of interest, twelve sightseeing 
drives, twelve golf courses and seven 
hikes, as well as bathing beaches and 
canoe trips, there Is a map which motor- 
ists will find of great value. Copies may 
be secured at the Business Office of the 
University. Any group planning to issue 
a publication of this type will find the 
Washtenaw County Directory helpful. 



Summary of Findings 
If now we add together 
the number of days given to 
camps, trips, farms and play- 
grounds, and divide by the 
number of children, 4,711, it 
gives us 1 2. 1 days as the 
average recreation time in 
these four activities for the 
children of the city. This 
time varies from only a little 
more than one day for the 
rural children attending the 
city schools to 24.6 days for 
the children of the university 
faculty. In different schools 



vides one hour and eighteen 
minutes a day for the 1,206 children who attend- 
ed, or if the time is distributed over the 4,711 
children who answered the questionnaire, it would 
provide 20 minutes a day for all the children. In 
two of the schools in the wealthier section of the 
city it amounted to less than two minutes a day, 
while in some it amounted to half an hour or 
more. 

This is no reflection on the system of Ann 
Arbor. The city maintains six excellent play- 
grounds, a goodly number for a city of 30,000, 
and during the past summer it has had besides its 
regular staff the assistance of a number of FERA' 
workers. The system of Ann Arbor is above the 
average. To get the attendance for the summer 
we must multiply the 8,662 twelve hour days by 
9.2, the number of 78 minute days there are in a 
twelve hour day. This gives a total attendance of 
79,790 which would be accepted anywhere as a 



it varies from a little over 
seven days in one school to 21 days in the uni- 
versity high and junior high. For the city in gen- 
eral the average of the boys is nearly 30 per cent 
higher than that of the girls. The number at- 
tending camps and taking trips increases with 
financial status, while the playground attendance 
decreases. The percentage going to the farms 
varies but little in the different schools. All of 
these figures are lower than they should be as 
children never remember all that they have done. 
Putting these facts into graphic form we get the 
results shown on the accompanying graphs. 

Possible Services of the School 

It should be reasonably evident without com- 
ment that no city can think of providing a pro- 
gram for its school children through any one of 
the activities mentioned. The effective day of the 
child during the summer is not less than twelve 



244 



PLANNING THE SUMMER VACATION 



hours. On that basis a summer vacation of twelve 
weeks yields i,oo8 hours as contrasted with goo 
hours of a 36 week school year of five day weeks 
and five hour days. There are two kinds of edu- 
cation, one of which consists of the storing away 
of knowledge like grain in a bin. At its best it 
produces a savant. There is another kind which 
consists in learning to do things and to know peo- 
ple. This is the type of education that makes the 
skilled workman, the professional man and the 
politician. 

Our opportunity of training in the active and 
social side of life comes in a large measure in the 
summer vacation, and in this development the 
four activities outlined play an important part. All 
the activities are educational and in their develop- 
ment the school may take a forward step. 

It is possible that camps may be assigned to 
school systems if desired in the new areas now 
being acquired and developed by the National 
Park Service. Many school systems already take 
children to see points of interest that are near by 
and some that are distant. Why should we not 
put two weeks of travel into the program for each 
year from the sixth grade on ? 

Every school should own a bus. The Boy 
Scouts from Ann Arbor have taken three long 
trips this past summer running around 1,700 miles 
each and occupying two weeks. They carried their 
own tents and cooked their own meals, and it cost 
them between $5.00 and $6.00 a week for all ex- 
penses except the salary for the scoutmaster. 
General Motors states that a bus empty will make 
ten miles on a gallon of gas and loaded with 35 
children it will make nine and a half, that it will 
cost less than a third of a cent a mile per child for 
them to see the country in this way. Now if the 
high school costs $75 per child for tuition and it 
costs practically about $3.00 for board and inci- 
dentals of a child at home, to spend $5.00 a week 
to see America would be about what it is now 
costing to keep them in school. 

I should like to suggest seven trips for this pro- 
gram : One to historic New England with its col- 
leges, mountains and return by Niagara Falls ; a 
second to New York, the Atlantic shore of New 
Jersey, Philadelphia, Washington, historic Vir- 
ginia and a return through the Tennessee Valley ; 
a third to the gulf coast; a fourth along the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, possibly as far as Mexico City, to 
include Santa Fe and Taos on return; a fifth to 
our national parks of the West; a sixth to the 
Columbia Valley, Washington and Oregon, and 



the seventh to California, Arizona and the Grand 
Canyon. One of my friends covered this western 
trip last summer with a Chevrolet, a caravan 
trailer and a party of seven. The entire cost was 
a little under $10.00 per week for each. 

The travel of youth has been made cheap in 
Europe by the hostels. We have hundreds of 
CCC camps many of which must soon be aban- 
doned, and the government is now building a vast 
series of camps on the land being retired from 
agriculture. The government should be willing to* 
promote the seeing of America by school children 
in any way that is normally possible. 

The choice of spending the summer on the 
farm is already here for vast numbers of children, 
but it may be that we need also farm boarding 
houses like the dude ranches in parts of the West. 
Farm people can aflFord to board children cheaper 
than anyone else if they have the room. 

It would seem to me also that there is a place 
in America for the junior agricultural school simi- 
lar to those in Denmark and in Russia, which 
might be the summer session of our rural consoli- 
dated schools. This would imply that the school 
should have a large farm in connection and either 
a dormitory or a place where the children could 
camp for the summer. A program of a half day 
in practical agriculture with a half day in scouting 
and sports should make an excellent summer pro- 
gram for city children at very slight expense. 

Planning for Leisure 

If the working week is to be reduced to thirty 
or thirty-five hours, our children are going to have 
a longer day at their studies than their parents at 
their jobs, also in all probability, quite as much 
anxiety. If one is to spend his work time in tend- 
ing an automatic machine and putting bolts 
through holes, there is not much that the school 
can teach that will help. Henry Ford says there 
are 40,000 men in Ms factory that gain their full 
technical skill in one day. The art of living is not 
so simple. To prepare for this new leisure, the 
school should teach all children to swim and dance 
and sing and to play tennis and volley ball and 
Softball, but still more, it should teach them to 
plan for their leisure time. 

The schools may not be in a position to take 
over the camps, travel, and other activities 
enumerated, to administer, but they surely must 
hold it a part of their obligation to help children 
organize their summers. With this objective in 
(Continued on page 272) 



Chi 



cago rioneers on 



New Frontiers 



By V. K. Brown 



THE Recreation Con- 
gress differs from 
many of the profes- 
sional conventions in that 
it welcomes workers in the 
field of community recre- 
ation who have not yet 
reached the salary brack- 
ets which permit them to 
disregard expenses. The 
registration fee is nom- 
inal, the convention does 
not feature expensive ban- 
quets or social affairs, and 
arrangements are always 
made with the host hotel 
to provide rooms at mini- 
mum cost. The Congress 
management gives much 
thought to so planning the 
event that workers whose 
income is limited need not 
go beyond the limits of a 
modest income in order to 
enjoy the benefits of at- 
tendance, nor feel embar- 
rassed by the fact that they 
must" carefully watch ex- 
penses during the Con- 
gress itself. 

When Chicago proposed 
bringing this year's Rec- 
recreation Congress to the 
mid-west, Robert J. Dun- 
ham, President of the Chi- 
cago Park District, played 
an exceedingly vital part 
in the financial arrange- 




Robert J. Dunham, President of the Chi- 
cago Park District, is a nationally known, 
successful business executive now retired 
and dovoting his life to public service. 
Widely known also as the man who has ad- 
ministered the Illinois Emergency Relief 
organization for the past few years, Presi- 
dent Dunham will not be an utter stranger 
lo Congress delegates. Many will learn 
for the first time, howevor, of his keen in- 
terest in, and authoritative knowledge of, 
the broad subject of recreation in modern 
community life. No man knows better than 
does he that pioneering now must be on 
new frontiers, and that the rugged indi- 
vidualist no longer can take his axe and go 
beyond the last outpost to hew his cabin 
out of the old-time wilderness. 



ments which have made 

the Congress possible. His calm and dispassion- 
ate faith in recreation is the sane and observant 
attitude of a man who expects progress to come 
through the plodding tread of the masses march- 
ing toward higher levels and not by the exertion 
of any tugging efforts applied to the boot straps 
of society. In all of our planning to serve the 



leisure of this city in our 
newly reorganized Park 
District his immediate per- 
ception of the goals to- 
ward which we have been 
striving has never failed. 

New Goals 

They have been new 
goals. As I pointed out in 
an article in the July issue 
of Recreation, the' serv- 
ice of our recreation de- 
partment thirty years ago 
was a service to the idle 
hour; we direct our pre- 
sent service to the idle 
half day. Our thought 
then was of an offset to 
the tensions and the mo- 
notony of hours, largely 
occupied by work or busi- 
ness. Now we are think- 
ing of life as an aim in 
itself, preparation for, and 
enjoyment of it, to be pur- 
sued when released from 
the ordered economy of 
work and sleep, with only 
intervals of play, and 
plunged into the economy 
where we must ourselves 
organize half of our lives 
in leisure. Circumstances, 
and the job, thirty years 
ago, operated many of the 
controls which governed 
us; circumstances appear 
now, to be no longer mak- 
ing our decisions and hewing our character for 
us. We dealt with youth in our park and play- 
ground institutions thirty years ago; we deal with 
a new and different youth today. Play had mean- 
ings then ; it now has different and added mean- 
ings. Sports, games, and dances, constituted then 
our major relaxations ; now we have suddenly 

245 



246 



CHICAGO PIONEERS ON NEW FRONTIERS 



awakened to the thought 
that while a gymnasium 
class, or a swim, a game 
of golf, or baseball, or 
Softball, may be an ade- 
quate answer to the needs 
of the idle hour, they do 
not constitute an answer 
to the needs of a half day 
of leisure. The adult gen- 
eration of that time exhausted its imagination in 
building the machine ; the rising generation of to- 
day finds the machine already built, and ready 
to hand, and its imagination starts where the older 
generation's imagination is leaving of¥. My gen- 
eration built the motor car. It took the mechani- 
cal genius of forty years to do it. My ten year 
old son, however, was cradled in the family auto- 
mobile ; he went to sleep to the hum of the vacuum 
sweeper, and he never saw an ice box. Appli- 
ances are meeting his needs, and his adventures 
differ from mine as do the devices 6f the home. 
I learned to pitch- by trial and error ; he goes to 
see the film "Play Ball" and the slow motion 
picture analyzes every element of the game for 
him. Yet he needs his personal problems with 
which to wrestle, just as he must have his in- 
dividual accomplishments and masteries. 

Two observations have seemed to us funda- 
mental in planning our new program of service 
adapted to our present necessities. The first is 
that we think we may expect people to use this 
enlarged leisure in acquainting themselves with a 
larger variety of subjects. We think that the 
future will find people interested in many more 
things than did the past. We expect that people 
will seek variety by turning to a more varied set 
of subjects for attention. Our second thought is 
that finding things of especial interest, we shall 
have time now to carry our inquiries deeper into 
the subject of our particular attention — that we 
shall do more experimenting, more studying; that 
our hobbies will be carried to much greater de- 
gree of specialization, and that out of this larger 
devotion of time and attention there will come 
more complete mastery of the subject, so that the 
amateur photographer, for exampl