(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Recreation"

From the collection of the 

j 



m 

o Prelinger 

v ibrary 
P 



San Francisco, California 
2007 




Triumphant Living 



WHAT CAN BE done to make "every man a king," "every life a masterpiece"; to 
help every man "to play a real and significant part in life's great game"; to 
enable each youth to "sing his song" ; to make life a "glory and not a grind" ; 
to bring it about that every one shall b'e "happier than the happiest of us now are," 
that "the habitual state of happiness should be greater than the happiest moments 
most people have experienced." 

True it is that "the most valuable thing which comes into a life is that 
experience, that book, that person, that incident, that emergency, that accident, that 
catastrophe that something which touches the springs of man's inner nature and 
flings open the doors of his great within, revealing its hidden resources."* 

The purpose of the recreation center is life life in all its fullness life that runs, 
that sings, that lifts, that has power, that flows back into the home, the church, the 
factory and gives greater meaning to everything that happens from hour to hour and 
makes even silence and rest more significant. 

A recreation center that is only a recreation center is not so much any more 
than a school that is only a school. Few persons praise the old-time saloon of the 
nineties and yet there were certain qualities in those saloons that the community 
recreation centers of today have not yet captured a depth of reality, genuineness, 
vitality no imitation, no phoniness. A newsboy, unsympathetic to the saloon, for 
years going in and out of many of them, could not help feeling the saloon keeper's 
nearness to his people, his simplicity, his understanding of men- of their joys and their 
sorrows, his natural gifts of leadership, a knowledge of life beyond the academic and 
the bookish. Here, rightly or wrongly, men felt that they lived. 

Some recreation centers but only a few have caught the best of the reality and 
the vitality and the simplicity of certain of the old-time neighborhood saloons of the 
nineties. There is no reason why the recreation centers of the country as a whole 
should not somehow find that same vitality, that same closeness to the soil, that same 
closeness to the immediate joys and sorrows of the common man. The professional 
glad-hand never takes the place of sincere human interest. 

Only a small percentage of men are born with the qualities that make for a good 
community recreation worker, that make for leadership for happy, triumphant living. 
For these few training of course is most important. Society some day will not waste 
these few so gifted on jobs that are much less important than leadership for triumphant 
living now. 

HOWARD BRAUCHER. 



* This quotation and the phrases are from "How to Get What You Want" by Orison Swett Marden, published by 
Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York City. 



MacMurray College Library 
Jacksonville, Illinois 

ftk Q 



J a^tt.v' 1A v "**- * 

APRIL, 1939 




Courtesy Passaic County, N. J., Park Commission 

SKY DREAMS 

Far from this stale city, My heart to joyous rhythm, 

Among the quiet hills, There my thoughts in crystal gleams 

Where brooks their songs are singing, Rise out beyond the morning 

And the laurel glory thrills To the sky's highway of dreams. 

Rex M, Cate, Manhasset, N. Y. 



Sunbeams 



oat lights 

-xV-S J 




The Design and Construction 
of Playground Theaters 



EVERY PLAYGROUND should provide opportunity 
for creative expression through handcraft, 
music and creative art. All children, and 
most adults, for that matter, love to express them- 
selves dramatically, and it is because of its part in 
helping to satisfy this secret yearning that the 
theater has become so valuable a facility in a well- 
balanced playground development. The word 
"theater" must not be given too literal an interpre- 
tation, however, because physical and financial 
barriers often demand that much be left to the 
imagination. 

Sunbeams for footlights, grass for the stage 
floor, the sky for a canopy, and perhaps the leafy 
limb of a tree for the proscenium arch these are 
nature's contributions to the theater of childhood. 
It is in this secret spot, a new world of the play- 
ground, that dreams become pulsating realities. 
To understand children is a prerequisite to under- 
standing the design of the playground theater. 
Old formulas must be thrown away and we must 
become as children if we are to overcome success- 
fully the obstacles that confront the designer. 

In the general classification of outdoor theaters, 
ranging from the gigantic stadium bowl to the 
simple naturalistic hillside overlooking a level 
clearing in a fragrant woods, the playground 
theater seems somewhat removed except when in- 
troduced as a facility in some of the larger and 
more extensively developed playfields. The small 
playground theater differs fundamentally from 
other outdoor theaters in its functional use. Here 
the emphasis is placed upon the participant rather 



By F. ELLWOOD ALLEN 

National Recreation Association 



than on the spectator. Plays are produced not so 
much for the purpose of entertaining an audience 
but primarily for the value of creative dramatic 
expression. In the playground theater a simple 
charade prepared on the spur of the moment may 
constitute the dramatic high point of the day. 

It is obvious that the playground theater need 
not rely on elaborate settings and props for stage 
effects, and as its use is confined almost entirely 
to morning and afternoon hours, there is no prob- 
lem of artificial lighting, for sunbeams are the 
footlights. 

The type of playground theater depends on a 
number of factors: size and topography of the 
play area; extent, size, and arrangement of other 
facilities; and the need as demonstrated by the 
enthusiasm and interest of the community. 

The playground theater may be one of three 
distinct types which, for want of a better descrip- 
tion can be classified as informal, semi- formal, 
and formal. 

The Informal Theater. This type is recognizable 
as a theater only to those who have claimed it as 
such. A quiet corner of the playground, a shady 
spot under a tree, or an open stretch of lawn can 
easily qualify. There is no defined stage with 
wings or backstage area, no space especially de- 
signed for spectators. In fact, there are none of 

3 



SUNBEAMS FOR FOOTLIGHTS 



the characteristics of a theater apparent. Yet to 
the children it is their theater and to them it is 
very real. 

There is hardly a playground of satisfactory 
size that cannot dedicate some small portion of 
the area to dramatic use. It need not be used ex- 
clusively for this, as this type of playground thea- 
ter can be adapted to many activities and can 
become a valuable contributing factor in a mul- 
tiple use program. The sketch at the head of this 
article illustrates a corner of a playground which 
could easily be adapted for a theater of this type. 
The sand box and benches in no way interfere 
with the use of the area as a theater. 

The Semi-formal Type. A theater of this type is 
simply the expansion or building up of the in- 
formal. The stage may be either clearly or only 



partially defined by a low hedge, wall, or terrace. 
Groupings of shrubs can be adapted as wings and 
trees and shrubs provide the necessary stage back- 
ground. Such a theater, when pointed out to the 
uninitiated, is easily recognized, and its function 
is clearly translated. The element of balance is 
not necessarily applied, but balance may be present 
in its occult form. The size, shape and arrange- 
ment of the theater varies with the existing physi- 
cal and cultural features of the playground. The 
apron of the stage separates the spectators from 
the actors, as in the typical theater. 

The Formal Type. Here will be found all the 

characteristics of the conventional theater. It is 

in many ways comparable to the indoor theater in 

that there is a well-defined, elevated stage, and a 

(Continued on page 43) 




May Day Celebrations 



THE TRADITIONAL May Day 
celebration is heightened 
in importance year by year. 
There is probably no single 
holiday which arouses in chil- 
dren and adults alike so keen 
an appreciation for the truly 
poetic, for the beautiful in na- 
ture, as does May Day with its traditions and 
customs perpetuating the worth of everyday liv- 
ing. The traditional May Day, with its beribbon- 
ed Maypoles, animated dancers, and merry song- 
sters, has unusual charm and appeal whether in an 
atmosphere of simplicity or in a more elaborate 
setting. 

May Day celebrations offer those in charge un- 
limited opportunity to give full play to their 
powers of imagination and their ability. The di- 
rector may reveal his knowledge and skills by 
successfully adapting the traditional May Day to 
the theme chosen. In doing this his technical skill 
in craftsmanship, stage setting, costuming, danc- 
ing, singing, stunts and games is plainly displayed. 
Most important of all is the demand made upon 
his ability to inspire participants to such a degree 
that they will lose themselves in the characters 
they portray. 

Outstanding festivals are the outgrowth of 
careful planning and skillful direction. Continued 
progress and growth call for a still greater appre- 
ciation of the fundamentals which constitute a 
traditionally correct May Day. Unless a May Day 
celebration embodies the folk traditions and cus- 
toms which are universally recognized as typical 
of the welcome to spring; unless it shows an ap- 
preciation for such classical 
observances as the crowning 
of the May Queen, proces- 
sions, rituals, ceremonies, 
dancing, music, singing, 
games, dramatic interludes, 
correct costuming, and the 
winding of the Maypole, it 
will not be recognized as an 
authentic May Day celebra- 
tion. 

Program 

The May Day theme, if 
based upon a central story or 



"I have seen the Lady of the May 
Set in an Arbour (on a holiday) 
Built by the May-pole, where the 
Jocund swains 
Dance with the Maidens 
To the Bagpipe strains." 

From Browne's Pastorals. 



Is it too much to hope that through May 
Day observances we may recapture some- 
thing of the joyous spontaneity and the 
happy social intermingling which were 
so large a part of life in older days? 
Folk customs and festivals are as sig- 
nificant today as they were in the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries. Let us 
continue, through such festivities, to 
glorify the rich heritage which has been 
preserved for us. And let us make more 
meaningful our everyday recreational ac- 
tivities by dramatizing them in a com- 
plete and beautiful festival observance. 



play, gives pleasing continuity 
and dramatic interest. There is 
a rich store of legends and in- 
formation connected with any 
of the following suggested 
themes and characters. 

Conflict Between Winter and 
Spring. Suggested characters: 
Jack Frost and his Sprites, Snow Flakes, Wind, 
Snow, Sunbeams, Flowers, Lady Spring and At- 
tendants, Flower Girls, Garland and Basket Danc- 
ers, Spirit of Spring. 

Awakening of Spring. Suggested characters : 
Winter, Snow Lady, Spring, Butterflies, Flowers, 
Summer, Autumn. 

Spring in the Garden. Suggested characters : 
Snow, Rain, Weeds, Flowers, Gardeners, Birds, 
Butterflies. 

Spring in the Forest. Suggested characters: 
Trees, Woodmen, Nymphs, Dryads, Rabbits, 
Brownies, Fairies. 

The Myth of Ceres and Proserpina. Suggested 
characters : King Pluto, Maidens, Flowers, Villag- 
ers, Phoebus and Sun God, Mercury. (Refer to 
story.) 

Fairy Tales such as "The Sleeping Beauty," "Snow 
White," "Cinderella," etc. (Refer to stories.) 

Going A-Maying in Merrie England, or Revels of 
Robin Hood and His Merrie Men. Suggested char- 
acters: Heralds, Trumpeters, Robin Hood and 
His Merrie Men, Woodmen, Chimney Sweeps, 
Jack o' the Green, Village Groups, Milkmaids, 
Gypsies, Shepherdesses, Haymakers, Alan-a-Dale, 
Ellen-a-Dale, Queen's Attendants, Maid Marian, 
Jesters, Archers, Strolling 
Players, Tumblers, Jousters, 
Pyramid Builders. 

May Day in Many Lands. 
Folk customs, dances, music 
and games of many nations 
may be used. 



Plays 

"The Enchanted Maypole." A 
pageant-play by Marion C. Hoi- 
brook. Relates to the first May- 
pole in America, closes with a 
May Day program. Included in 
Little Plays for Little People, 



MAY DAY CELEBRATIONS 



compiled and edited by A. P. Sanford and Robert Haven 
Schauffler. Dodd, Mead and Co., 449 4th Ave., New 
York City. $2.50. 

"May Treasure." A short play for children Included 
in The Knight of the Funny Bone and Other Plays for 
Children, by Frances Cavanah. Walter H. Baker Co., 
178 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 60tf 

"Little John and the Miller Join Robin Hood's Band," 
by Perry B. Corneau. A play in 2 scenes for 7 boys and 
extras. Old Tower Press, Lockport, 111., 35^ 

"May Treasure." A short play for children. Included 
play for the grades and junior high school. Roman 
Floralia, Old English and modern May Day episodes are 
included. N. R. A., 15# 

"Troubadours of Provence," by Marion Holbrook. A 
May Day fragment for high school or college use based 
on the old Provencal custom of holding a tournament of 
song each May Day. N. R. A., 100 

"Pageants and Festivals Suitable for May Day Cele- 
bration." This bibliography will be sent upon request by 
the National Recreation Association. 

Dances 

May Day is a time when a variety of folk and 
other dances may be used. 

English Country Dances 

The following are available separately for 25 ^ 
each from the H. W. Gray Co., Agents for No- 
vello and Co., 159 East 48th St., New York City. 
Dance directions and music included. 

Gathering Peascods Sellinger's Round 

Mage on a Cree Ruf cy Tufty 

Ribbon Dance Sweet Kate 

"An Introduction to the English Country 
Dance," containing the description together with 
the tunes of 12 dances, by Cecil J. Sharp. H. W. 
Gray and Co., $2.25. Includes the following: 
Sweet Kate Gathering Peascods 

Rufty Tufty Mage on a Cree 

English Morris Dances 

The At orris Book, by Cecil J. Sharp, Herbert 
C. Macilwaine and George Butterworth, in five 
parts with descriptions of the dances. H. W. 
Gray Co., $2.00 each part. 
Part I including: 

"Bean Setting" (Stick dance) 
"Country Gardens" (Handkerchief dance) 
"Rigs o'Marlow" (Stick dance) 
"Blue-Eyed Stranger" (Handkerchief dance) 
and eleven others 

Part II including: 

"Old Mother Oxford" (Jig) 

"Jockie to the Fair" (Jig) 

"Rodney" (Stick dance) and thirteen others 



Morris Dance Tunes (music for the above 
dances) collected from traditional sources and ar- 
ranged with pianoforte accompaniment. H. W. 
Gray Co., $1.50 each set. 

Set I including : 

"Bean Setting" (Stick dance) 

"Country Gardens" (Handkerchief dance) 

"Rigs o'Marlow (Stick dance) and five others 

Set II including : 

"Blue-Eyed Stranger" (Handkerchief dance) 
and six others 

Set III including : 

"Rodney" (Stick dance) 

"Jockie to the Fair" (Jig) 

"Old Mother Oxford" (Jig) and six others 

Folk Dances 

Folk Dances and Singing Games, by Elizabeth Burcli- 
enal. A revised collection of 26 folk dances of Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark, Russia, Bohemia, Hungary, Italy, 
England, Scotland and Ireland. Music, full directions and 
numerous illustrations are given. A number of dances 
have been incorporated which did not appear in the origi- 
nal volume. G. Schirmer, Inc., 3 East 43rd St., New 
York City. Board, $1.25 ; Cloth, $2.75. 

Folk Dances from Old Homelands, by Elizabeth 
Burchenal. Music and detailed descriptions of 33 folk 
dances from Belgium, Czecho- Slovakia, Denmark, Eng- 
land, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Lithuania, 
Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden and the United 
States. G. Schirmer, Inc. $1.50 

Proof of a Revised Edition of "Good Morning," by 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Ford. Comprehensive collection of 
plain quadrilles, contra-dances, lancers, minuets, reels, 
schottisches and round dances. Steps and calls are given 
and music for each type. Dearborn Publishing Co., 
Dearborn, Michigan. 15# 

Maypole Dances 

Second Folk Dance Book, by C. Ward Crampton. A. 
S. Barnes and Co., 67 West 44th St., New York City. 
$2.40. Collection of 32 new folk dances with music and 
descriptions. Includes Swiss May Dance, Maypole Dance, 
and Cornish May Dance. 

Popular Folk Games and Dances, by Mari R. Hofer. 
A. Flanagan Co., 920 North Franklin St., Chicago, 111. 
75^. Contains 54 games and dances of different nations 
with music, words and instructions. Includes : Swiss 
May Dance and the Cornish May Dance. 

Dances Suitable for Court Attendants 
or Flower Groups 

"Dance of Greeting" included in Twice 55 Games With 
Music, C. C. Birchard and Co., 221 Columbus Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. Edition with melody and words, 25^ ; com- 
plete edition (piano accompaniment only), 75tf. 

"Hunsdon House." Dance directions and music avail- 
able from H. W. Gray Co. 25tf. 



MAY DAY CELEBRATIONS 




Co:tr:csy Department of Playground and Rccrcati'ii, Los Angeles 



Processional 

March of the Priests Mendelssohn 
Coronation March Meyerbeer 

Singing Games 

The singing game is one of the earliest forms 
of recreation and may well be included in the May 
Day program. Children in the audience may be 
invited to participate informally in these. One 
might use such games as "Rabbit in the Hollow," 
"Ride a Cock Horse," "Shoemaker's Dance," 
"Farmer in the Dell," "Did You Ever See a Las- 
sie," "Here We Come Gathering Nuts in May" 
and others. 

References: 

Tzvice 55 Games With Music. C. C. Birchard and Co. 
Edition with melody and words, 25tf; complete edition 
(piano accompaniment only) 75^. 

Folk Dances and Singing Games, by Elizabeth Burch- 
enal. G. Schirmer, Inc. Board, $1.25 ; Cloth, $2.75. 

Children's Old and Nezv Singing Games, by Mari R. 
Hofer. A. Flanagan Co. 50^. 

Songs 

Songs of May Day are legion, and there are 
many fragmentary snatches of popular old songs 



which are very appropriate. The list which fol- 
lows is merely suggestive : 

Come to the Fair 

Galway Piper 

Selections from Robin Hood 

Fairy Song from "Midsummer Night's Dream," etc. 

From the National Recreation Association you 
may obtain upon request a bulletin entitled, "Now 
Is the Month of Maying," which lists a number of 
spring and summer songs. 

Other References 

Hcigh-Ho for a Merry Spring. Includes complete 
plans for a simple spring festival. N. R. A., 15tf. (Also 
appeared in RECREATION Magazine, April 1935) 

The Festival Book, by Jennette C. Lincoln. Contains 
information as to early May Day customs, Maypole 
dances with the use of streamers, selected national folk 
c'ances adapted for Maypole festivals, suggestions as to 
accessories and costumes appropriate for such pageantry, 
as well as complete details for a pageant. In addition it 
has a section which would be helpful in regard to events 
which lead up to the crowning of the May Queen, the 
Pageant March, the Queen's Dance, the Wreath Dance, 
etc. A. S. Barnes and Co. $2.40. 

Bibliography on Dancing and Singing Games. N. R. A. 
10*. 



8 



MAY DAY CELEBRATIONS 



Building the Program 

Careful planning in building a truly beautiful 
May Day program is essential. In building the 
program, interest must first be aroused. This may 
be accomplished by poster pictures suggestive of 
the chosen May Day theme. Neighborhood libra- 
ries will gladly cooperate by displaying a few appro- 
priate books in conspicuous places. These books 
should be descriptive of May Day customs, Robin 
Hood stories, nature myths, and tales of Spring. 

May Day stories told during the story hour will 
further stimulate interest in the May Day. The 
children and adult participants should be told that 
the May Day observance is an ancient, world-wide 
rite, and not an interest peculiar to a few people. 
When children are participating in singing games, 
those typical of the May should be chosen during 
this period. 

Greater excellence of performance will inevit- 
ably result from careful application of the fol- 
lowing suggestions : 

Greater spirit and interest will be given the 
program when entering groups remain to welcome 
and applaud succeeding participants. This helps 
to achieve an atmosphere of traditional revelry in 
the celebration of the May. Mass effects heighten 
the program. 

Group singing as the May Queen is crowned 
gives greater meaning to this important ceremony. 
This also enables every participant to share in the 
honors bestowed upon the Queen. 

Pleasing color schemes may be effected with 
colored crepe paper accessories. 

Each participant should be effectively garbed, 
and care should be taken to fit the costume to the 
wearer. An adult should be made responsible for 
the fitting of costumes. Bodices should cover the 
top of skirt; correct and uniform hem lines are 
important; decision should be made beforehand 
just how many inches each costume should be 
from the floor. It is advisable in many instances for 
a participant to take his costume home the night 
before the performance for correct adjustment. 

When a play is used in the May Day, the speak- 
ing characters should come close enough to the 
audience to be heard. However, dancing groups 
should be placed far enough back 
for good perspective. 

A floral bower for the May 
Queen is much more effective 
than a plain throne chair. 

Smoothness is one of the prime 



Much of this material has been 
taken from information issued 
in bulletin form by the Depart- 
ment of Playground and Recrea- 
tion, Los Angeles, California. 



essentials in giving character to the performance. 
This fundamental festival technique should be in- 
creasingly adhered to, for any stops or breaks in 
a festival program are disastrous. 

An English May Day 

To make these suggestions more practical, an 
outline is given for an English May Day, "May 
Day Revel on Nottingham Green," an adaptation 
by Minnette Brodke Spector, Supervisor, Depart- 
ment of Playground and Recreation, Los Angeles, 
California. This festival, based upon the tradi- 
tional Robin Hood story, is divided into three 
episodes. As a prelude, selections from De Koven's 
"Robin Hood" may be played, followed by a 
flower dance to the accompaniment of Scott's 
"Dance Negre." Group leaves the stage at com- 
pletion of the dance. 

At the beginning of each episode, a Herald, an- 
nounced by two trumpeters, relates to the audi- 
ence in a few lines, the action about to take place : 
" 'Tis Sherwood Forest you now shall see, 
In days of ancient chivalry ; 
Before you here shall live again 
Bold Robin Hood and his Merry Men." 

Episode I Sherwood Forest. The scene of the 
first episode is in Sherwood Forest. As German's 
"Nell Gwynn" is being played, milkmaids, shep- 
herds, and haymakers pass to their work on the 
outskirts of Nottingham. Robin Hood and his 
Merry Men enter, as Alan-a-Dale summons them 
with his hunting horn. As they proceed into the 
forest, they frolic and sing "A Hunting We Will 
Go" by Buccolossi. 

Episode II Nottingham Fair. After the Her- 
ald announces the change of scene from Sherwood 
Forest to the Nottingham Fair, merchants enter 
and arrange their wares in various stalls which 
have been set up as part of the scenery. 

As music of "Woodland Whispers" by Czibulka 
is played, a pleasing atmosphere is created as 
groups of haymakers, shepherds, and milkmaids 
pass to and fro. The villagers then enter spirit- 
edly, led by the Burgomaster singing Martin's 
"Heigh-ho ! Come to the Fair." During the sing- 
ing the revellers enter, and upon completion of 
song they beckon the villagers and all to join in 
"Sellinger's Round." When the 
dance is finished, all sing "Twick- 
enham Ferry" by Maizails. A cry 
for another dance follows the 
song and all dance "Sweet 
Kate." 

(Continued on page 44) 



Science 
I ndoors 

and 

Out 

By 

H. HENRY PLATT 



HOW A FOREST 

PREVENTS EROSION 




Elizabeth Peabody 
House in Boston be- 
lieves that children 
should have the op- 
portunity to experi- 
ment, to explore 
and to carry on sci- 
entific research 



WAI/T WHITMAN has told us, "The truths of 
the earth continually await." We know that 
they await children everywhere. Our chal- 
lenge is to help boys and girls to find them, to 
give them greater opportunities to discovei 
things for themselves, to get them acquainted 
with the out-of-doors, to show them how 
things grow, and how to become aware of the 
wonders of the world; in short, to experience 
nature at first hand. 

At Elizabeth Peabody House in Boston, we 
have discovered that children from seven to 
fourteen years old are especially eager for op- 
portunities to handle, experiment and discover 
things for themselves through science. In 
small groups of eight to ten, under the leader- 
ship of volunteers from colleges and industry, 
we are offering them such opportunities. But 
we always have more eager applicants than 
our groups or equipment can care for. 

In the crowded West End of Boston where 
ihis settlement house is located, housing is a 
serious problem. Many children have no play- 
ground but the gutter. There is little room at 
home. The street is the natural meeting place. 
Even in better neighborhoods and bigger homes 
children are often sent out of doors to play 
because their parents can't be bothered with 
their questions or can't answer them. So the 
Science Department at Peabody House pro- 
vides one answer for the eager questions of the 
under-privileged child and an opportunity to 
do many things. 

Because the children so 
eagerly desire to partici- 
pate in such activities, the 
work of the science clubs 
seems important to us. 
This is especially true when 



Mr. Platt, who is director of the Sci- 
ence Department of Elizabeth Peabody 
House, presented this paper at the Nat- 
ural Science Section of the Outdoor Rec- 
reation Conference held at the Massachu- 
setts State College on March 12, 1939. 



we consider that many schools do not offer science 
courses in elementary or junior high school grades. 
In the Boston public schools, science is not offered 
until the seventh or eighth grades. In the 
ninth grade it is an elective. If a pupil is 
taking a college course, he usually takes 
ancient history instead. In the high schools 
science courses usually do not begin until the 
junior year. In some such courses there is 
little or no laboratory work, in which case the 
teacher performs the experiments and the 
pupils copy the facts into their notebooks. 

About a hundred and fifty children take part 
in the science activities at Elizabeth Peabody 
House. It is our concern not only that these 
children shall become acquainted with nature 
and develop scientific interests, but that 
through these avenues they shall develop good 
habits for work and study. After experiment- 
ing for more than twelve years with our science 
program, we believe it has demonstrated that 
science teaching gives valuable preparation for 
life and citizenship. We are ambitious to see 
similar science clubs and related out-of-door 
projects developed until they can reach the 
thousands of children, not only in the West 
End but in all of greater Boston. 

In our Science Department general sciences 
are the basis of all our club work, including 
nature study, astronomy, aircraft, photography, 
chemistry, physics, biology, and the "science 
of common things." All these open exploratory 
paths for the under-privi- 
leged city child from seven 
to eighteen. We respect the 
value of the science instruc- 
tion in the schools and the 
groundwork which it pro- 
vides, but we feel that there 



10 



SCIENCE INDOORS AND OUT 



is still a large opportunity to be helpful to these 
children in the out-of -school hours. 

We try to make it an adventure. A phil- 
osophy of wonder governs all our science 
work. We lead the child into the adventure 
of discovery and the even greater adventure of 
building his discoveries into a fabric of fact. 
We want to use the natural curiosity of child- 
hood and to stimulate that quality in those 
who may seem at first to have but little of it. 
For why should a boy wait for college to raise 
tadpoles from frog's eggs, or to study plant 
molds, or scoop specimens from a pond? Why 
shouldn't he learn to know a flower by its leaf, 
an animal by its tracks, a tree by its bark? 
Our youngsters have been eager to know the 
whys of growing things ; to find out not only 
how a machine runs, but why. They are in- 
terested in the stars, and eager to find and see 
the hidden beauties of the world. 

Elizabeth Peabody House has always sought 
to make the most of its community resources, 
and has been interested in more extended use 
of the Metropolitan Park system for citizens, 
and especially for children. But transportation 
and leaders make getting these children out on 
Saturdays, Sundays, and after school some- 
thing of a problem. Fortunately, the Middle- 
sex Fells is near at hand. There a child may 
tramp for miles without hearing even the honk 
of an automobile. And there is also the Blue 
Hills Reservation and the nearby seashore. 
Once there, children may enjoy themselves to 
their hearts' content. 

Our science program is carried on through- 
out the year, for the environs of Boston afford 
facilities for studying forestry and geology, 
and for collecting specimens. In the summer, 
much of our science work has been done at 
our camp in Sharon, Camp Gannet; only 
twenty-five miles from Boston. Its location is 
ideal for nature hikes, exploration, and the 
collection and preparation of nature specimens. 

A Camp Museum 

Until the hurricane leveled it, we had a 
museum at camp. There the science work was 
planned in summer, although the program was 
carried on out of doors. But it provided a 
headquarters and a clearing house for projects 
and a center of activity. It was an old building 
with an air of mystery about it a former 
garage, rebuilt, painted and transformed by the 
campers themselves. There were two rooms 



with screened windows on all sides. The 
rooms were carefully dusted and cared for by 
the museum "curators," appointed to such 
posts of honor by the campers because of 
scientific knowledge. The larger room was 
used as an exhibition hall, the smaller for the 
biological laboratory. All equipment, shelves 
and exhibit cases, were built by the children 
from scrap lumber and chicken wire. 

Picture a group of boys taking turns in 
carrying in a pail full of interesting things for 
display; or a proud camper, exhibiting to his 
family on visitors' day the leaf prints which he 
had made, or his rock collection, or the camp 
curiosity corner and charts explaining the 
growth of trees, or the thousand and one things 
to be seen. 

The camp museum was an open book, ex- 
hibiting the wonders of natural science as 
they revealed themselves to children. Exhibits 
varied from time to time and might include 
anything from leaf prints to exhibits of the 
life cycle of an insect, or studies of soil con- 
servation and erosion control. The biological 
laboratory facilitated the study of the develop- 
ment of fish and frog eggs and such micro- 
scopic organisms as could be found in fresh 
water pools, and was the center for preparation 
and construction of museum exhibits. The boys 
also built a turtle pond and a rock aquarium to 
house specimens. 

And a Nature Trail as Well 

One of their most interesting projects was 
the nature trail. There the campers learned to 
study "nature in the raw," and many fas- 
cinating experiences? were theirs. They 
learned not only how things look, but how 
they smell and taste and sound. Cleverly 
written little waterproof tags, placed near 
things to be observed, marked the trail and 
lured one on. First came a bird sanctuary 
started by campers. Then a termite colony, 
with headquarters in an old tree stump. One 
division of the trail leads to the beach, where 
swamp life might be studied in a nearby pond. 
Along the trail were challenging charts and 
questions. And at the end of the trail stood 
the museum. 

Nature Instruction Programs 

Correlating the indoor and outdoor aspects 
of the program are the nature instruction pro- 



SCIENCE INDOORS AND OUT 



11 



grams. These include studies of birds, flowers, 
trees, insects, rocks, stars, aquatic life and 
animal life. The textbook is nature itself, with 
the camp library for reference. Collections are 
made for the museum. Work is done on the 
nature trail. Nature handcraft is thoroughly 
enjoyed, particularly by the younger children, 
who make smoke prints of leaves to take home. 
An outstanding contribution of the forestry 
class was the construction of an Indian village. 
Some years ago a small piece of land was re- 
forested by the children and an Indian village 
was built of the salvaged trees. It consists of 
a small clearing in the woods with four leans- 
to, a council ring, flag pole, and a small place 
for outdoor cooking. The village has been used 
for overnight camping parties and for classes 
in pioneering. During the season when girls 
are at Camp Gannett, the village is used for 
sleeping quarters for boys. The village pro- 
vides for them a suggestive illustration of the 
values of pioneer organization and the princi- 
ples of forestry and woodcraft. 

Projects which include research and special 
work by the children stimulate competition 
and give opportunity for the recognition of 
achievement. The child receives a mimeographed 
certificate signifying that he has become a junior 
forester, a naturalist, a biologist, according to his 
accomplishment, and is given a special place at 
council fire ceremonies. The children work hard 
for such recognition and receive their certificates 
with great enthusiasm and appreciation. 
For children who 

do not stay for 

long periods at 

Camp Gannett, 

there is a special 

all-day and over- 
night program. 

Such children are 

taken almost daily 

to camp from Bos- 

ton in small 

groups. They 

sleep in the In- 
dian Village, if 

they remain over- 
night, and do their 

own cooking. 

Every moment of 

their stay at camp 

is full of interest 

for them. 



During spring vacation, nature institutes 
are held at the camp, and science clubs are 
brought out from Boston- for special programs 
such as tree study, or the collection and sup- 
pression of insect pests. These programs have 
interesting speakers and are illustrated by 
movies. 

Indoor Science Clubs 

From the beginning it was felt that a 
properly handled science program should be a 
year-round one. Such a program can be ex- 
ceedingly helpful in aiding the child with his 
school work. Geography, history, painting, 
drawing, reading and many other activities 
which were formerly considered dull tasks 
often take on new interest through the light 
which a science program can shed upon them. 
Although in summer the program is properly 
almost entirly an out-of-doors one, it is natural 
when school begins in the fall to continue the 
program in Elizabeth Peabody House. 

The dream of many a boy is a complete 
laboratory of his own where he can experiment 
and discover things. To many children who 
participate in our science activities, this dream 
becomes a reality. Our equipment is not 
elaborate. Most of it was donated by interested 
individuals and institutions. We do, however, 



Members of the Science Department of Elizabeth 
Peabody House preparing their exhibits for the 
Fifth Annual Science Fair held last February 




12 



SCIENCE INDOORS AND OUT 



have a room equipped with laboratory tables 
and gas and running water, as well as a small 
dark room for photography. Lack of equip- 
ment has made adequate apparatus and suffi- 
cient supplies a challenge in themselves. With 
the help of an art instructor, test tube racks 
have been made from old plywood. Glue bottles 
were turned into alcohol lamps. And from time 
to time discarded materials have been donated 
from college laboratories, often bringing with 
them the active interest of the donating pro- 
fessors. 

It is easier for a settlement to get volunteer 
leaders for science groups than for other types 
of work. For this reason a varied program can 
be offered. By using the particular interest of 
the child possibly photography or chemistry 
and limiting membership in a club to ten, the 
initial interest can be widened to include an al- 
most limitless range of supplemental activities 
in such fields as aircraft, biology, and many 
others. One group may want to prepare news- 
paper, another to broadcast a radio sketch, 
and there is a steady growth of interest. 

Our various science clubs begin to work with 
boys and girls as young as seven, and some 
members of our groups are as old as eighteen 
or twenty. The activities include experimenta- 
tion, popular science talks and demonstrations, 
trips to industrial plants or museums, radio 
broadcasts, publication of science news, and 
opportunities for members to get practical ex- 
perience in the application of science to their 
every day lives. The clubs meet once a week 
for discussion and laboratory work. The 
children study and experiment at home. In 
addition, there are special meetings which 
supplement this program. 

Annual Science Fair 

Each child is encouraged to tackle a prob- 
lem and continue research in it until he has 
found the solution. Once a year the work of 
the individual and of the clubs crystalizes at 
the Annual Science Fair with its exhibits and 
demonstrations. The clubs choose their own 
subjects, and the individual members of the 
group work on research projects, helped by the 
club leaders who act in an advisory capacity. 

The Annual Science Fair usually presents 
exhibits prepared by about 150 boys and girls. 
These are not ordinary, "dead" exhibits. Every 
exhibitor is on hand to demonstrate and ex- 



plain the results of his research. Numerous 
industrial, educational, and scientific concerns 
cooperate with advice and technical assistance. 
The projects presented are important com- 
mercially, or in their presentation of scientific 
information. 

Last year about 2,500 people attended the 
Science Fair in the four hours that it was open 
to the general public. News of the fairs is 
covered by the leading press and radio 
agencies. Some of the Science Fair exhibits, 
such as the chemical man which was exhibited 
two years ago, attracted widespread attention 
both on the radio and through the press. The 
exhibits are of value not only to their makers 
but to parents and the general public. They 
give the children an opportunity to interpret 
what science means to them, and what can be 
done by such clubs. They give the individual 
child a sense of achievement in the application 
of what he has learned. 

A Group Enterprise 

The aim of our program has been group 
enterprise, carried on by the individual mem- 
bers of the group under the leader's guidance. 
The scientific problem selected must be such 
that it can be divided among the individuals 
and then worked out in group experience. 

Take, for instance, the problem of oxygen 
and its relation to daily life. Members set out 
to find out what oxygen is, where it is found, 
its manifold uses, and then to relate these facts 
to their daily experience. Centering all activi- 
ties of the group around one such problem at 
a time, the work proceeds through planned ex- 
periments, demonstrations, notebooks, editing 
a science journal, collection of specimens, and 
the planning of exhibits. All these train the 
hands, eyes and minds of the boys. Concerning 
the problem, we ask What are you trying 
to find out? What are you going to use? What 
did you particularly observe? What are your 
conclusions? How do they apply to everyday 
life? And on these questions we base our out- 
line for experiments. 

Last year and the year before, the General 
Electric Company invited one of our outstand- 
ing boys to go to Schenectady, New York, as 
the company's guest at its laboratories to par- 
ticipate in a non-commercial radio program 
called "Excursions in Science." In 1937, the 
(Continued on page 47) 



Leadership, Organization and Program Making 



m 



Boys' Club 




A few suggestions 
for democratic pro- 
cedure in the boys' 
club program 




Courtesy Iowa WPA 



INCREASINGLY leaders of youth are coming to 
believe that the most effective results in youth 
development are obtained not through direct 
verbal instruction, but rather within a favorable, 
stimulating and happy environment containing the 
right living relationships and large opportunities 
for engaging in interesting, worthwhile activities 
of varied kinds. 

The following suggestions are designed pri- 
marily to be of help to those leaders who are con- 
cerned with questions of recreational leadership, 
organization, and program-making in boys' club 
groups. Many of the principles and procedures 
recommended, however, will apply equally well to 
girls' clubs. 

General Observations and Principles 
In work with recreational groups and clubs an 
informal, friendly, democratic atmosphere should 
be maintained in which unnecessary institutional 
restrictions and controls are absent. 

Basic to effective work is an adult leadership 
with the disposition and capacity to respect the 
individuality of each member of the group, and 
possessing insight into youth nature and needs, 
understanding of democratic procedures, and 
broad social and cultural equipment and vision. 

Not only must the environment be informal, 
friendly, and democratic, but also rich in stimula- 



tion to enjoyable and creative participation and 
expression. 

If richness of experience is to be made possi- 
ble, a plan must be developed that encourages the 
expression of individual interests and abilities on 
the part of the members. The fullest recreational 
expression of the members is the aim, and not the 
execution of some ready-made program. 

Full freedom must be provided for members of 
the group to make and execute plans on their own 
level of interest, need, and ability, and at their 
own pace. 

Since the individual is the focus of concern, 
each member should have a sense of being im- 
portant and of having status in the club. The 
sense of "at-homeness" and of "belonging" is one 
of very strong force in work with boys of club age. 

All members should share in the obligations as 
well as the privileges of the club. Responsibility 
and self-direction are essentials in democratic citi- 
zenship and are learned through acceptance of re- 
sponsibility and of the consequences of one's own 
acts or the acts of his group. 

Potentially, the program of the club is as broad 
as the total range of experiences and relationships 
that grow out of the common interests and activi- 
ties of the members of the group. Actually, the 
program of the club will and should be limited by 
factors of time, the nature of the sponsoring 

13 



14 



IN BOYS' CLUB GROUPS 



agency, aptitudes and interests of the leader, and 
the adequacy of physical facilities. 

It should be kept in mind at all times that the 
individual boy, with his distinctive needs, differ- 
ences, and interests, is our constant and dominant 
concern, and not the promotion of any particular 
organizational scheme, or any particular set of ac- 
tivities, or the realization of any preconceived 
skills or points of view. The leader is interested 
in activities, of course, but chiefly to the extent 
that they conform to individual and group inter- 
ests and needs. 

Leadership . 

In club work, as in any work involving human 
relationships, leadership is the key factor. Any 
person who assumes responsibility for the group 
experience of boys in their leisure time is assum- 
ing a task of tremendous proportions. Let no one 
take the responsibility lightly; the human values 
involved are too important. Consider the follow- 
ing suggestions regarding leadership. 

The leader should be emotionally mature. This 
is utterly essential to proper leadership. What- 
ever the nature or purpose of the club, the lead- 
er's personality will have its influence on the boys. 
Emotional immaturity unfits the leader for doing 
the best job possible. 

The leader should be interested in seeing boys 
grow as happy, constructive, self-responsible 
citizens. 

The leader should be committed to the demo- 
cratic respect for personality, and should know 
and practice the techniques of democratic pro- 
cedure at all times. 

The leader should be equipped with patience 
and a large sense of humor. Human growth is a 
slow process. 

The leader must always be honest and depend- 
able in all his dealings with the group. If a leader 
thinks he can deceive a group of boys regarding 
his motives and desires, he deceives only himself. 

The leader is both counselor and "pal." He 
must, therefore, maintain a certain dignity with- 
out becoming stilted and grave in his manner, and 
must maintain the natural relationship of friend 
without becoming sentimental in manner. 

The leader should understand "boy psychol- 
ogy." He should understand and have respect for 
the longings, ambitions, interests, desires, urges, 
and problems of boys of club age. Without this 
understanding and respect he cannot ever guide 



the recreational experiences of his boys as he 
should. 

It is not enough that a leader should under- 
stand "boy psychology" in general. He should 
know each boy in his group his interests, capaci- 
ties, problems, and needs. Among other things 
this means an understanding of the social forces 
in the community which are 'affecting the boy's 
life for good or for bad. For example, if it is at 
all possible, it is wise for the leader to become ac- 
quainted with the home life of each boy. He 
should also know the several organizations to 
which the boys belong and what the several social 
agencies are doing which are trying to serve the 
boys' leisure time needs. 

The leader should be attractive in personal ap- 
pearance, fair and open-minded in all his behavior, 
and versatile in his ability to follow out interests 
which develop in his group. 

The leader should be an active citizen in his 
community, fully alive physically, enjoy social re- 
lationships, and be a constant student of current 
social thought and movement. Boys' club work, 
it must be kept in mind constantly, is much more 
than a matter of amusing boys. It is a matter of 
helping them to become capable of increasingly 
more complete living. The leader, therefore, must 
be growing constantly in the completeness of his 
own life physically, morally, spiritually, socially. 



Organizing a Club 

One of the most basic things to keep in mind in 
connection with the question of organization is 
this there is no one fundamentally sound basis 
upon ivhich all types of groups should be organ- 
ized. In previous suggestions it has been urged 
that the individual is the focus of concern and 
that the "club process" is simply an effective 
means for contributing to the individual in terms 
of his recreational interests, capacities, and needs. 
If this is our point of view, then it seems clear 
that the form an organization assumes should be 
suited to the peculiar purposes which are to be 
realized by the group. Thus Club A and Club B 
may have different forms of organization because 
of the different purposes of the two groups. 
Furthermore, form of organization assumed by 
Club A may change from time to time as Club 
A changes its purposes. In short, organization 
should always be secondary to purpose; it is a 
means, not an end. 



IN BOYS' CLUB GROUPS 



15 



Present practice in connection with organization 
is extremely varied. For example, one leader may 
rush into the task of organizing his club the first 
time he meets them. He attempts to place upon 
them some type of standard ready-made organiza- 
tion machinery. This leader is at one extreme of 
the organization scale. At the other extreme is the 
leader who allows the purpose and the activity of 
the group to determine its organization. 

Let us look briefly at certain types of groups as 
they relate to leadership and organization. 

There is the club which is discovered after it is 
already formed, in which some natural motiva- 
tion has brought the boys together and created the 
group consciousness. This group may be ade- 
quately unified from the start, knowing what it 
wants, and proceeding to put its wishes into prac- 
tice. This club will require little direction from 
the leader during the first few meetings. His con- 
cern should be to suggest such organizational 
machinery as will protect the original interests of 
the members, preserve their initiative and self- 
dependence, and give encouragement to further 
group effort and to the broadening of purpose. 

There is the club which is already formed when 
the leader comes to it, but which is wandering 
about both in its purpose and program. In such a 
situation the boys need the leader's help in clari- 
fying their ideas and pur- 
poses. Organization of such 



Whenever possible, the program of the 
boys' club will include winter sports 



quantity and type will be needed as will clearly 
develop the club purpose, make easy the carrying 
through of club efforts to successful conclusion, 
place upon each member responsibility which he is 
capable of achieving, and expand the satisfactions 
of each member of the group. 

There is the group which is yet unformed when 
the leader comes to it. It may be a neighborhood 
group of boys which a leader desires to organize 
into a club. It may be a group of boys in a 
church or in neighboring churches. It may be a 
group of boys with one or more common interests 
in a community center. In any event, the leader 
and the boys must make clear to themselves the 
interests and purposes that animate them and 
must devise such organizational machinery as will 
make the club an effective vehicle for the expres- 
sion of their interests, and as will stimulate the 
club to broaden and enlarge its interests. At no 
point in the planning of the organization is the 
leader justified in forcing his ideas and plans upon 
the club. He must endeavor to sense the latent 
interests of the group and its capacities and sug- 
gest organization procedures and program activi- 
ties in line with them. 

In making plans for the organization of any 
new group, it should be kept in mind that before 
persons of any age act in accordance with a plan, 
they must be ready to act. 
There are two very good rea- 




Courtcsv Reading, Pa., Department of Public Playgrounds and Recreation 



16 



IN BOYS' CLUB GROUPS 



sons why a leader who tries to "put over" on a 
club his own objectives and program has not 
adopted the best procedure: (i) To the extent 
that the leader has prepared group opinion in ad- 
vance so that the members are in readiness for his 
suggestions, to that extent will the conditions be 
favorable for success. If readiness is not created, 
the program or policy proposals of the leader 
start under a definite handicap and each step that 
follows in the development of the leader's plans 
may easily develop hostility. (2) The chief argu- 
ment against the attempt of the leader to "put 
over" his own created plan, even if the group 
should be receptive, is that through this procedure 
the boys are being denied the opportunity to know 
the joys of choosing, planning, and creating. We 
learn initiative by being given the opportunity to 
initiate. If we are concerned with producing boys 
who know how to develop intelligent and respon- 
sible plans and purposes, we must give them this 
opportunity in their club work. If a leader would 
maintain the interest of his boys on an ever in- 
creasing basis, he should so guide a project or 
activity or plan that the boys share experience 
with him and with each other at all stages of the 
development of the project. 

The Mechanics of Club Organization. In line 
with the foregoing discussion, it is obvious that 
the first meeting of the group should be directed 
by the club leader, not for the purpose of "sell- 
ing" some pre-arranged scheme of his own, but to 
guide the group in frank discussion of the aims 
and purposes of the club. The purpose of this 
first meeting is as much to get acquainted as it is 
to discuss details of organization and objectives. 
Even if the members are "in readiness" to pro- 
ceed with haste, it is wise for the leader to "slow 
down" the proceedings so that interests and pur- 
poses are clearly defined. The leader is concerned 
with developing a large amount of enthusiasm in 
the first meeting, but growing, cumulative interest 
is to be preferred to high enthusiasm of a super- 
ficial nature which is not based on full under- 
standing of and loyalty to the interests then ani- 
mating the members. 

Such matters as choice of a club name, emblem, 
colors, slogan, password, code, initiation ritual, 
membership, relations between the leader and the 
club, meeting place, writing of constitution, elec- 
tion of officers, may be discussed in an informal 
manner without any motions or resolutions being 
passed. If, however, a number of these matters 
have been discussed among the members prior to 



the meeting to such an extent that they are defi- 
nite as to what they want, positive action may be 
taken at the first meeting. 

Whatever the content of the discussions, they 
should be as informal as possible. If the group 
is too large to conduct a free round table discus- 
sion, it may be wise to adopt some form of par- 
liamentary procedure even at this first meeting. 

The meeting should not end without the desig- 
nation by the group of a temporary chairman and 
secretary to function until a more permanent form 
of organization has been set up. A constitutional 
committee (three or five members) may be ap- 
pointed or elected to draw up a constitution which 
will be presented to the group at its next meeting. 
The time and place of the next meeting should be 
determined. (See a later paragraph for sugges- 
tions regarding club headquarters.) Dues or an 
assessment may be collected in order to cover im- 
mediate expenses. 

Again, it should be emphasized that the details 
of organization mechanics should be developed as 
the club functions and modified as the program 
grows and changes. Such organization features as 
colors, emblem, slogan, pass-word, code, and ini- 
tiation ritual may be entirely out of harmony with 
the interests and purposes which the club pro- 
gram will carry out. Whatever the club aims may 
be the organization should be devised to fit these 
aims, and should be so flexible as to permit modi- 
fication as club aims change. 

Adoption of a Constitution. It is well for the 
leader to work with the constitutional committee 
in an advisory capacity during the drawing up of 
the club constitution. By all means avoid making 
the discussion and adoption of the constitution a 
tedious and interest-killing task. Depending upon 
the experience of the boys, the length of the con- 
stitution, and the number of debatable provisions 
in the constitution, it may be wise to consider 
only portions of the constitution at any one meet- 
ing. Whatever the final procedure decided upon, 
do not let discussions of mechanics interfere with 
the development of interest in worthwhile club 
activities. 

The following outline is suggested as a basis 
for a constitution which can be used by most 
clubs. It can be simplified or enlarged in terms of 
the interests and purposes of the club members. 

Outline of the Constitution 

Preamble. The preamble states the ideals and purposes 
of the organization in general terms. 



IN BOYS' CLUB GROUPS 



17 



Article 1. Name of organi- 
zation. 

Article 2. Purpose. (If a 
preamble is not used, the pur- 
pose of the group can be 
stated at this point.) 

Article 3. A. Grounds for 
admission of new members. 

B. Membership quota (if 
any). 

c. Method of application and 
admission of new members. 

Article 4. Meetings and 
quorum. 

A. Time and place of regu- 
lar meetings. 

B. Order of business (at reg- 
ular meetings). 

c. Provisions for calling of 
special meetings. 

D. Number constituting 
quorum. 

Article 5. A. Elective officers. 

B. The terms of these officers. 

c. Method of election. 

Article 6. Duties and powers of each officer. 

Article 7. Committees : A. Standing committees, ap- 
pointed or elected, and terms of these committees. 

B. Duties and powers of each standing committee. 

c. Special committees. 

Article 8. A. Minor officers (such as captains, editors, 
etc.). 

B. Terms of office, and appointment or election. 

c. Duties and powers of each of these officers. 

Article 9. A. Method of drawing up budget. 

B. Authorization and procedure in payment of bills. 

Article 10. A. Method of replacement of vacancies in 
elective offices. 

B. Method of impeachment of elective officers. 

Article 11. Rules of parliamentary law. (Designation 
of authorities to be followed.) 

Article 12. Method of amendment of constitution. 

The foregoing outline may be modified in any 
way that the group sees fit. A number of the 
articles may be made into by-laws if the group so 
chooses. The form of the constitution is not 
highly important. The main point is to secure a 
practical working document which expresses the 
mind of the club members and is sufficiently flexi- 
ble to fit changing purposes and activities. 

Order of Business. Although it is not necessary 
for a club to adopt a regular order of business, 
experience has proved that the following of reg- 
ular business procedure is in many cases a saver 
of time and effort. In most cases a regular order 
of procedure will involve : roll call, reading of 
minutes, recognition of bills and communications, 
report of standing committees, report of special 




There is never-failing interest for 
boys in model airplane construction 



committees, unfinished business, new business, 
and the planned program for that meeting. This 
or any other particular order of business may be 
suspended at the suggestion of the leader and the 
vote of the members. The reason for wanting to 
change order might be a planned special program 
which would consume all of the time available for 
the meeting, the absence of members who are in- 
terested in certain business, the fact that few are 
present when an important matter is due for con- 
sideration, or some similar reason. 

Group Headquarters. The meeting room in 
which the boys have their headquarters and the 
buildings in which their work is carried on are 
important elements in the effectiveness and worth 
of the club program. The headquarters and work 
and play rooms can be so designed as to stimu- 
late activity and to develop new interests. Mem- 
bers of a club should be able to feel as much at 
ease in their meeting room as they would in a 
vacant lot or in their own homes. We have earlier 
pointed out that the feeling of belonging, of "at 
homeness," is an important factor in boy develop- 
ment. The headquarters room should be simply 
furnished, with sturdy material, and clean. If it 
can be arranged, it is desirable that the boys fur- 
nish the room themselves in accordance with their 
own wishes. Meeting rooms in modern commu- 
nity centers, schools, or churches, which must be 



18 



IN BOYS' CLUB GROUPS 



shared by several groups, can be so arranged that 
groups of approximately the same age can share 
the same rooms and facilities and have easy con- 
tact with each other. Where it is necessary to use 
a school classroom as headquarters, the leaders 
must take responsibility for leaving the room neat 
and orderly at the close of the meeting. Pen- 
nants, banners, posters, and other decorations 
and equipment should be removed in order that 
the room can be used for class purposes the 
following day. 

Discipline. Interest and environment, including 
group morale and opinion, should be utilized in 
controlling behavior, rather than direct disciplinary 
control and authority. When boys are interest- 
ingly and happily occupied, when quarters are at- 
tractive and roomy, when there is democratic co- 
operation in planning and carrying out policies 
and activities, there is little likelihood of what is 
generally called misconduct. 
A membership that has been 
guided in assuming real re- 
sponsibility and in func- 
tioning creatively will de- 
develop good group morale 
and standards and will only 
rarely require the direct ex- 
ertion of adult authority. 
In no event should the 
leader attempt to superim- 
pose upon the group his 
own "code of behavior." 

Pledges to abide by codes or laws, even when 
voted by the group, are not desirable features of 
a club program. When confronted with a situa- 
tion of misconduct or failure to adjust properly, 
the leader and those members of the group not 
involved in the situation should study carefully 
the underlying individual difficulties and attempt 
their correction rather than resort to punishment. 
This procedure is not as simple as the exertion 
of direct adult or group authority, but it secures 
infinitely better results in terms of "boy develop- 
ment." 

Records. Within the life-history of any club it 
is always possible that there will be a change in 
adult leadership. To the end that the new leader 
may become acquainted with the problems and 
achievements of the club and its several individual 
members, it is wise for the leader to keep a per- 
sonal record covering a number of informational 
items. For example, this record should contain a 
description of the original formation of the group, 



"Everyone is interested in the boy. He is 
one of the most fascinating, baffling, in- 
triguing problems in our civilization. Noth- 
ing is wrong with him. He just doesn't fit 
into life as we have organized it today. He 
needs the out-of-doors and we often coop 
him up in a city. His abounding energy 
calls for a forty-acre field, and we confine 
him in city streets and tenements. His un- 
conscious protest we label cussedness, and 
his uncontrollable urge for fun we adults 
call lawlessness." R. K. Atkinson. 



its achievements, and its changing interests and 
activities. It should also contain information re- 
garding the relationships of each member in the 
group, and general information regarding his 
home and neighborhood relationships. In short, 
the leader should preserve for his own use, and 
for the use of any future new leader, such infor- 
mation as will be of help in planning and carrying 
out a growing program of varied, interesting 
activities. 

Simple attendance and membership records, as 
well as permanent records of the minutes of all 
meetings, will be kept by the club secretary. 

Inter-Club Council. If several clubs are organ- 
ized within a community center, church, school, or 
other agency, it is wise to have an Inter-Club 
Council composed of representatives from the 
various clubs. This Council can function in a 
number of ways. For example, (i) if the situa- 
tion is a community center, 
the Council can study the 
purpose of a new club 
which is seeking member- 
ship in the center and de- 
termine whether the club is 
worthy of membership. (2) 
It can, in consultation with 
the community center di- 
rector and his staff, exercise 
the power of conferring 
upon a new club a charter 
which is good as long as the 

objectives are fulfilled as set forth in their con- 
stitution and as approved by the Council. (3) The 
Council can serve the important function of help- 
ing to establish the feeling on the part of the 
several groups that they are a definite part of 
the whole community center organization. (4) 
The Council can promote cooperative social and 
recreational activities involving the participation 
of all clubs. 

Developing the Program 
Types of Program Procedure. Procedures of pro- 
gram development in club work can be grouped 
into three general classifications : 

There are clubs that are subjected to a mini- 
mum of domination by the adult leader and are 
fairly free to plan as they wish in terms of their 
growing interests and experience, but nevertheless 
function along time-honored lines of organization 
and program activities. They choose a name, elect 
officers, adopt a constitution, choose a pin and 



IN BOYS' CLUB GROUPS 



19 



colors, elect captains, appoint committees, learn 
parliamentary procedure, conduct hikes, play a 
few athletic games, arrange parties, and similar 
activities. This is the traditional procedure in de- 
veloping a program and organization. We have 
set forth these procedures in brief detail in pre- 
ceding paragraphs for any who may want to fol- 
low them. 

There are clubs that specialize in some one ac- 
tivity, such as dramatics, music, athletics, nature 
study and activities, public speaking, etc. Such 
clubs are often highly valuable both to the mem- 
bers and to the larger program of the agency 
under which the specialized club operates. Even 
though it may be true that there are larger possi- 
bilities of personality growth and enjoyment in an 
expanded club program, there are situations in 
which a group interested in dramatics, for ex- 
ample, is not greatly interested in other forms of 
activity. The group leader, therefore, must not 
ignore the fact that interests may be highly spe- 
cialized, so that the attempt to substitute a new 
activity for the original leads to resentment, irrita- 
tion, and sometimes to disruption of the group. 

There are clubs that develop a program in terms 
of their own most dominant group interests. In 
these groups the leader serves in the capacity of 
counselor, and responsibility and initiative are 
thrown upon the boys at every possible point. The 
starting point in these clubs matters little, just so 
a whole-hearted interest provides the original im- 
petus to organization. With the whole-hearted in- 
terest as a foundation (whatever it may be), the 
group is helped by a wise, patient, and versatile 
leader to broaden its interests until its activities 
cover a wide field. 

General Principles of Program Development. 

The program should serve the needs of the 
group. A long list of activities does not auto- 
matically mean that there has been effective club 
work. The activities carried on are merely means 
by which the end of developing creative, happy, 
cooperative, democratic personalities is served. 
For this reason the program must always be flexi- 
ble and varied and not traditional and mechanical. 

The program should expand in terms of the ex- 
panding interests of the members. Needs and in- 
terests are not the same things. Present interests 
are always the beginning point in striving to real- 
ize aims that are based on needs. When we push 
program development ahead of interest and en- 
joyment, we lose our group. The central law of 



learning is whole-hearted and enjoyable participa- 
tion in activity. We learn most when we enjoy 
what we are doing and we tend to repeat what we 
enjoy. This is not to say that the leader must not 
strive constantly to broaden present interests of 
the members. If left to its own devices a boys' 
club may continue indefinitely to play basketball, 
without beginning to realize the possibilities for 
development inherent in even this comparatively 
narrow interest. 

Discovering and expanding the interests of the 
club members is, then, a continuous process. The 
leader, therefore, must be constantly alert to note 
new interests as they appear and to give these in- 
terests opportunity for expression. We have 
warned previously, however, that it is important 
not to "force" an activity too much. A leader's 
enthusiasm for an activity does not always repre- 
sent the enthusiasm of the group. Through con- 
versation with individual members of the group 
from time to time, through friendly participation 
with them in their activities, through observation 
as they talk, work, and play, through studies of 
their hobbies, through tests and games of varied 
sorts through these and similar means the leader 
can discover expanding group interests. 

The program should be flexible and growing. 
The program should be so flexible that changes 
can be made as needs and interests come to light, 
so that there is constant adaptation. This does not 
mean that no activities may be started which will 
require a long period of time. On the contrary, it 
is wise for the group to map out a tentative pro- 
gram outline covering a period of months, but 
with such flexibility that new interests may be 
brought in and utilized at the first opportunity. 
There should always be enough variety introduced 
so that there is something to challenge and stimu- 
late the members, and monotony voided. 

The program should provide for a maximum of 
initiation and participation by the boys themselves. 
The importance of this principle becomes obvious 
when we recognize that the program is for the 
boys (and not the boys for the program), and that 
enjoyment and learning flow from creative plan- 
ning and whole-hearted participation. Definite 
help from the leader is necessary in many cases, 
but his role is that of guide rather than that of 
dictator. 

As long as an activity yields enjoyment to the 
boys, and as long as it continues to serve their 
needs, it should be continued as a fundamental 
(Continued on page 47) 



What They Say About Recreation 



*^PHERE is SOMETHING new in the world today, 
| something out of which a new and finer 
world can be built and it is civilized lei- 
sure." Dr. Harry A. Over street. 



"I believe profoundly in democracy. Democracy 
is a living, vital thing, changing its pattern with 
the generations, and living because it changes. It 
has evolved through many centuries ; it has known 
contributions from many races. But if history 
tells us anything at all about democracy, it is that 
the way to its achievement is not the way of com- 
pulsion but the way of freedom. No state ever 
became a democracy because it was compelled to 
be. Democracy is an outgrowth of the voluntary 
reactions of free people." Dr. Harry Woodbnrn 
Chase in Planning the Future with Youth. 



"We don't have to sell recreation in terms of 
some intrinsic goal. We can interpret it as it is. 
What it is is something which meets the basic 
needs of human beings. And we are striving to 
see whether it can also meet the needs of a demo- 
cratic society. That is all." 

Eduard C. Lindeman. 



"Children have got to have, first, the raw ma- 
terial out of which to build bodies, wills and per- 
sonalities. Then we have got to surround them 
with every opportunity for development to their 
fullest powers. There must be a community ac- 
ceptance of recreation as a vital part in com- 
munity living. . . . We've got to begin thinking of 
recreation as a dynamic for character. . . . Crime 
and delinquency will never be reduced until the 
community decides to do something about it, to 
mobilize all its forces to meet clearly defined 
needs. You can't cut welfare budgets and crime 
budgets at the same time." Ethel Collestcr, 
President, Iowa State Parent-Teacher Association. 



"We make a ridiculous fetish of health nowa- 
days. ... Let us, therefore, give play, recreation, 
and the other popular arts their proper place be- 
side the fine arts, and thus avoid the common 
error which degrades play to a medical instru- 
ment." Richard Cabot. 

20 



"Beauty pays. And if we ever should attain to 
universal enthusiasm for it many of our sorest 
economic problems would disappear. We then 
would find more of the satisfaction in activities 
that are not costly. We would have a standard of 
living, as distinguished from the standard of 
spending. And that, after all, may be what we 
must have before we can climb the heights of sat- 
isfying life. On those heights dwells serenity, and 
serenity and beauty are sisters." 

James C. Dcrieux. 



"Are we doing the best we can to prevent the 
delinquent child or youth from becoming more 
lawless and more of a threat to the security and 
happiness of the rest of us? Are we doing the 
best we can to check the forming of delinquent 
habits and to turn his energies and interests into 
pursuits that are permissible in society as now or- 
ganized and that will release him from his anti- 
social drives? Above all, are we agreed upon the 
most effective measures to prevent children from 
becoming anti-social and delinquent?" - From 
Progress Report, issued by the New Jersey Juve- 
nile Delinquency Commission. 



"Leisure time provides opportunity for one of 
life's most enriching experiences the making of 
friends. A beautiful sight or experience is twice 
as beautiful when shared with a friend. On the 
streets, in the factories, in the rooming houses, in 
the schoolroom and even in the church many 
lonely people may be found. Being a friend is one 
of the finest leisure time activities." From Youth 
Action in the Use of Leisure Time. 



"We are coming to realize that there must be in 
the new leisure some room for self-direction, for 
grown-ups and children alike ; that recreation can 
be too much regimented, and too exclusively pur- 
sued in artificial groups. ... As in many other 
forms of community enterprise, emphasis in the 
field of recreation is now being laid on helping 
individuals to develop their own programs in ac- 
cordance with their own tastes and desires, rather 
than in developing patterns into which the indi- 
vidual must fit." Joanna C. Cole or d in Your 
Community. 



Dramatics for the Camp Community 



Some informal suggestions are offered 
the inexperienced dramatics counsellor 



THE FIRST JOB of dramatic counsel- 
ling in camp is likely to prove a 
distinct shock to the well-trained 
dramatics person, particularly if she has had 
experience in producing and directing for only 
college or community groups. So much that 
has been considered of primary importance 
must be forgotten or dispensed with ; so much 
that seems new and strange must be learned. 
The job here is not professional, in the usual 
meaning of that word. It is a recreational-edu- 
cational job, and as such its aims are different 
from those of the professional theater, even 
before the special camp problems within the 
wider recreation program are taken into con- 
sideration. 

What would you think of the following as a 
fairly comprehensive definition of camp (or 
any recreational educational) dramatics? "For 
the purposes of a summer camp program, 
dramatics may be considered a recreational- 
educational activity which has as its purpose 
the provision of opportunities for the develop- 
ment of the individual and of the group 
through increasingly satisfactory participation 
in dramatic activity of either a formal or in- 
formal nature." 

That probably sounds like a large order, and 
it is, but there is more to come when the special 
problems of camp recreational activity come to 
be considered. You see, when Thespis gets to 
camp, she is likely, along with the rest of us, 
to go a bit wild. The 
poor dramatics counsel- 
lor, whether experienced 
or not, suddenly finds 
herself confronted with a 
situation which calls for 
immediate and drastic 
action. Often enough 
there is little or no ma- 
terial at hand. Hastily she 
must cast about to find 
the right thing to do. 



By KATE HALL 

Washington, D. C. 



"In the field of human relationships the 
camp may make a significant contribution 
to the spiritual growth of the individual. 
In a camp where the dominant note is joy- 
ousness and a zest for living there will 
be many opportunities for the devejopment 
of spiritual qualities. This expression may 
take the form of the construction of beau- 
tiful things from actual materials, or it 
may use dramatics, dancing or poetry as 
its medium." From The Place of the Or- 
ganized Camp in the Field of Education. 



Now the job of dramatic counsel- 
ling is a tough one, not because it 
is really hard, but because it is 
different from other forms of dramatic work, 
even within the recreational-educational field. 
Time is almost always important in the world 
of the theater, but in camp it becomes a par- 
ticularly troublesome problem. First of all, 
something new must be planned for every eve- 
ning in the week, including Sundays, if the 
dramatics counsellor is in charge of all evening 
recreation, as well as play production and she 
almost always is. Next, a suitable place for 
preparation and performance must be found. 
And finally, one must somehow get hold of 
the performers for rehearsal. This is no easy 
matter, since dramatics usually has to take a 
subordinate place to sports in camp life. This 
last fact must be faced, and made the best of. 
It is the normal thing in outdoor life and is 
probably a good thing for most of the children 
involved. 

Some of the Problems 

Scarcity of time plus scarcity of equipment 
equals what? There you have a neat little 
problem for the young counsellor to solve. The 
whole business becomes largely a matter of 
improvisation, adaptation, makeshift and in- 
genuity. Often the project must be put over 
by sheer force of personality. 

Here it is Monday, the 
opening night of camp. 
As dramatics counsel- 
lor you are probably in 
charge of that program, 
even though it will most 
likely be given over to 
games and singing, so that 
the children may get ac- 
quainted. Tuesday night, 
if the weather permits, 
you are planning a camp 

21 



22 



DRAMATICS FOR THE CAMP COMMUNITY 



fire; one of the counsellors has agreed to tell 
some stories and the dancing teacher to give 
a short solo performance. On Wednesday 
night, however, you really must bring the 
children actively into the program. They must 
feel that they, and not the counsellors, are to 
be the active force in the summer program. 
The director has probably suggested that you 
work up a little play or pantomime. 

At first, forty-eight hours seems a terrible 
short time for preparing a dramatic per- 
formance, but later in the summer you will 
come to be thankful for such an unusual dis- 
pensation of Providence. There is nothing 
you can do about it tonight until the children 
have gone to bed. Then, if you can catch the 
harassed head counsellor, you must snatch a 
few minutes with her to go over the lists and 
decide which children will be best to use in the 
opening performance. In itself this is a ticklish 
problem. If you are new to this camp, it will 
be twice as hard. 

You and the head counsellor must thrash 
out such questions as these : Shall you use old 
campers who have done things like this in their 
former summers and can be quickly licked into 
shape for entertaining purposes? Or would it 
be better to draw the new ones in at once, not 
only to see what they can do, but to make them 
feel right away that they are an active factor 
in the camp life? Should you mix the groups 
in order to help them get acquainted more 
quickly, and perhaps run the risk of having the 
experienced actors run away with the show? 
Shall you use the younger children at the risk 
of boring the older, or vice versa? If you use 
several groups, how are you to get them all in 
for rehearsal? Would it be better to have an 
outdoor or an indoor performance? (If you 
plan to have it out of doors, you must always 
reckon with the weather and be prepared to 
adapt the show to an indoor presentation at 
the last minute.) Shall you use a set play or 
pantomime and hope to get the children to 
learn it in such a short time? Or would it be 
better to improvise something? Can you de- 
pend on the group you have chosen to help 
with the improvisation, or will most of the 
burden fall on you? Where will you get the 
costumes? The scenery? Is there a make-up 
box in camp? What general tone should be 
given to camp dramatics, anyway? And how 
on earth are you to get hold of these children 



for rehearsal? As you will see, the answers to 
these questions will involve a neat balancing of 
the educational and entertainment factors in 
the situation. 

Tomorrow will be a full day in the camp 
calendar: the water and land sports will be 
organized; the children must be divided into 
age and ability groups; trunks must be un- 
packed, shacks cleaned and straightened; the 
group must be initiated into all the details of 
camp routine. You yourself probably have 
charge of a shack of children. You will have 
to supervise all their comings and goings for 
several days at least, until they are thoroughly 
used to things. Also, if the staff is small, you 
may be doing some other jobs as incon- 
gruously mated with dramatics as office work 
for the director or teaching swimming or ten- 
nis. Wednesday is likely to prove almost as 
busy, and there will be shifting arrangements 
in the schedule, and all sorts of emergencies to 
meet. Somehow on Tuesday you must get a 
dramatic performance for Wednesday night 
under way. This first performance will be of 
great importance to you in your new job. It 
has to "go over big." And not only that; you 
have to be planning ahead for Thursday and 
Friday and all the other nights, and in two 
weeks' time your first big show of the season 
is scheduled. In addition, and of far greater 
importance, is the effect on the children of this 
opening performance and still more of their 
part in it. Time is remarkably telescoped in 
camp. The spontaneous reaction of the children 
actors, stage hands and audience toward this 
first night's performance may well indicate the 
success or failure of the entire summer drama- 
tics program as an integral and meaningful 
part of the total program. 

Now all these problems seem quite different 
from those you have met with in other situa- 
tions. Things are even more confused and 
hurried than in the average public school, 
where at least you know where to find your 
actors when you have time to rehearse them ! 
However, there is much to be said for your 
comfort : such a job can be done and done well, 
because it has been done many times in just 
such situations. 

A Lesson from the Italian Strolling Players 

Perhaps you will remember the Commedia 
delle Arte, those delightful Italian strolling 



DRAMATICS FOR THE CAMP COMMUNITY 



23 



players of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth century ? Their 
method was almost en- 
tirely improvisation and 
adaptation. You may find 
that you can learn a great 
deal from their methods. 
A Commedia delle Arte 
troupe was made up of a 
number of actors and 
actresses, each of whom 



"What is a play, and why do people like 
to make plays? A play is not real life. 
It is a kind of game played by people 
who are pretending to be somebody else, 
in a place that is pretending to be an- 
other place, in a time that is pretend- 
ing to be another time. . . . People of 
all ages love to play this kind of a game, 
and to watch other people play it; and 
they have always liked to do this ever 
since the world began." Marguerite 
Fellows Melcher in Offstage. 



had become identified for 
professional purposes with one type of 
character. Most of these had definite names, 
and all had completely defined characteristics. 
You will remember Pantolone, the Doctor 
from Bologna, the Spanish Captain, Arlec- 
chino, the maid servants, the zanies, Colum- 
bian, and others. 

Now, these people had no set speeches, no 
script from which to study their lines or busi- 
ness. Likely enough they would arrive in a 
town in the morning and set up the show a 
bare platform stage with little or no equipment 
in the market square. The head of the com- 
pany would post at the entrance a brief 
scenario of the story to be acted that day, the 
actors would glance through this, and the play 
would begin. The scenario served only as an 
outline of the action, to keep the incidents 
arranged coherently and in a sequence that 
made for the best dramatic interest. The 
players, finding themselves in a given situation, 
were expected to use their own wits in de- 
vising extempore dialogue and pantomime. In 
the course of time each of these actors must 
have become a wizard at invention, and the 
troupers acting together for some time would 
be able to play upon the theme of the story 
with agility and humor. But in spite of their 
proficiency in dialogue, their real stock in trade 
was pantomime the suggestion of meaning 
by a gesture or a glance, and above all the 
creation of a character by bodily posture and 
movement. 

Just such a method as this might prove 
very fruitful to you in your present situation. 
Suppose you devise a set of scenarios and set 
your children to fill them out with pantomime 
and gradually with interpolated dialogue, until 
at last they are capable of making up animated 
conversations on the stage. Another idea 



would be to concoct a 
"serial" scenario and carry 
your same set of characters 
over from week to week. 
The interest of both child- 
ren and adults in continued- 
next-week radio programs 
is witness that such a 
method would not prove 
displeasing to your audi- 
ence at any rate. I should 
be careful, however, not to 
use any of the stock characters from con- 
temporary comic strips, animated cartoons or 
radio programs, as the stories and acting are 
likely to become merely repetitious and imi- 
tative. Either story book, legendary or his- 
torical characters set in situations which give 
rise to considerable action and well-defined 
characterization, or "every-day" characters 
with whom the children are familiar, set in 
ordinary or extraordinary circumstances with 
the same requirements, would be productive 
of more originality and spontaneity. As for 
your actors, this method would give the group 
who is handling the "continued story" a chance 
really to grow in the art of pantomime and 
the improvisation of dialogue. No training 
could be more valuable for a group of children 
who are especially interested in acting and 
there is always such a group, clamoring to "be 
in" every dramatic performance you give. In 
addition to the increase in knowledge and skill 
which might come as a result, the recreational 
value of dramatics as an outlet for joyous self- 
expression would not be easily forgotten or 
lost in using methods such as those outlined 
above. 

Creative Dramatics 

Of much the greatest value, of course, is the 
type of dramatic method known in the pro- 
gressive school and recreation systems as 
"creative dramatics." It is very difficult to 
succeed with creative dramatics, however, un- 
less dramatics can be established in your camp 
as a regularly scheduled activity, either for a 
specially interested group or for all the 
campers who may need it. Given this, your 
points of emphasis will depend on the needs as 
well as the aptitude of the group, but you will 
probably want to give as much all-round train- 
ing as possible, in the short time allowed by a 



24 



DRAMATICS FOR THE CAMP COMMUNITY 



camp season, in acting, production, and in the 
making or creating of original plays. 

This type of dramatic activity is much more 
difficult for the counsellor than simply pro- 
ducing plays for an audience at stated intervals, 
but it has obvious advantages for the partici- 
pating group and will prove delightful and 
stimulating to the audience as well, if skill- 
fully handled from the beginning. The young 
actors not only receive a broader training in 
expressing character and situation through 
flexible use of the body and voice, but they 
also learn at the same time to make their own 
plays (so much more fun than playing some- 
body else's play!) and to produce these plays 
themselves. In addition, you have had a 
chance at straightening out various personality 
difficulties through the excellent therapeutic 
value inherent in this type of dramatic work 
an aim which should never be lost sight 
of in any type of recreational-educational 
dramatics. 

If the level of entertainment for the camp 
group is not quite up to par, never mind. Re- 
member that your children have had a fair 
start toward becoming creators in the theater, 
or at least toward having a creative attitude 
toward it. This does not mean that you should 
encourage or even permit careless or slipshod 
work; you must expect and get from the 
children the best of which they are capable at 
any given period, but only an encouraging atti- 
tude on the part of the counsellor is likely to 
bring such a condition about. 

When, because of pressure of time and other 
activities, it is not feasible to conduct an in- 
formal but regular class such as the one here 
described in a particular camp group, perhaps 
a similar plan, combined with the giving of 
regular plays for the entertainment of the 
camp audience, may work. At any rate, a little 
"creative experiment" never 
hurts any group at any 
time. While this type of 
dramatic work is being 
tried in the more progres- 
sive schools and recreation 
centers throughout the 
country, camp people do 
not want to lose the oppor- 
tunity to carry on the good 
work, and to initiate it for 
those children who have 



"If drama has been right, If It has given 
satisfaction to a group, then as the bus 
comes to take them home when camp Is 
over, they will be saying, 'Good-by, Rosa- 
lind! 1 "See you next winter, Wendy!' 
The great pleasure of all the arts lies In 
happy recall. This is as It should be, for 
the mother of the arts was Memory. From 
Memory the arts came and they will live 
again In minds enriched by their pres- 
ence, if they are truly her progeny." 
Abb'te Graham In The Girls' Camp. 



never had a chance for this kind of self-ex- 
pression. Camps avowedly exist for the pur- 
pose of developing both the minds and the 
bodies of children, and for giving them a 
chance for a good and wholesome time during 
the summer. If they are to do any dramatic 
work, beyond simple entertainment, which has 
its place very definitely in the scheme of 
things, if understood as such, they will develop 
more skill, practice more self-reliance, and 
enjoy themselves more in the creative drama- 
tics field than by just producing plays, how- 
ever skillfully they are rehearsed and presented 
by the director. 

However, in many camps, even this com- 
bination may be difficult to achieve amid the 
exigencies of the sports program. Moreover, in 
the majority of camps the dramatics counsel- 
lor is asked to stage as many plays and to use 
as many children as possible, and at the same 
time to take the children out of the schedule 
no more often than she absolutely has to. She 
does not have the campers in a class where 
she can continuously and progressively help 
them to make and produce their own plays; so 
she must have on hand a stock of ready-made 
plays available and useful for this kind of pro- 
duction. Anyone who has tried will agree that 
assembling this material is not so easy as it 
may sound. 

Plays to Use 

Many of the plays which are best adapted 
to camp use carry royalty, and the camp which 
can or is willing to pay for these is very rare. 
In cases where the royalty charges refer to any 
kind of production, it is best to write directly 
to the author or to his publishers to ask them 
for a reduction. Sometimes, when the produc- 
tion is strictly within the camp audience group, 
no charges will be made. Sometimes a reduc- 
tion is granted, and often 
the fees for one-act plays 
are quite small anyway, 
usually about $5.00. In 
other cases, there will be a 
statement in the copyright 
of the play that the royalty 
applies only to perform- 
ances where there is a 
paying audience. If thi& is 
true, the director won't 
need to worry, of course. 
(Continued on page 48) 



Our National Pastime 



WHATEVER its stimulat- 
ing effects generally 
may be, there seems 
no doubt America's national 
game inspires widespread in- 
terest at this time of the year on 
the Broadways and the Main 
Streets alike. 

This is baseball's one hun- 
dredth's year of official existence. 
Because an active boy decided to 
improve on his favorite outdoor game by adding 
the factor of running, modern baseball had its 
beginning. Abner Doubleday could not have for- 
seen that the result of his experiment would be a 
highly specialized game played on a nation-wide 
scale and thrilling millions of Americans from 
March to October. 

Every year about this time the American sports 
fan is subject to an awakening of his baseball 
consciousness. While he goes about the monotony 
of his daily work, often in weather still bitterly 
cold, a part of his mind is in sunny Florida, Louisi- 
ana, Texas or California, while his favorite base- 
ball team is preparing for the rigors of the com- 
ing season. The newspapers keep him informed 
as to the condition of his established stars, the 
possibilities of newcomers for strengthening the 
team, the squabbles between owners and players 
over salaries, and give him a line on the relative 
skills of his favorite club by reporting the results 
of early practice games. 

Always, with much fanfare, a civic dignitary 
will toss out the first ball, 
and a season of 154 games 
per season will be on. 
Months later the team win- 
ning the most games in 
the American and Na- 
tional League, respectively, 
will meet in the World 
Series. The first team to 
take four out of seven 
games wins the world's 
championship. 
Baseball's Interesting 
History 



This year all over the country 
baseball will celebrate its cen- 
tennial. What's back of it all? 

By VINCENT FARRELL 

Recreation Director 

West Side High School 

Newark, New Jersey 



most every town and hamlet 
in the country has some kind 
of baseball team, amateur or 
professional relatively few 
modern baseball fans know 
much about the colorful history 
of baseball. 

Abner Doubleday is popularly 
credited with the founding of the 
game, and baseball's "Hall of 
Fame" is located in his home 
town of Cooperstown, N. Y. Actually baseball is 
a combination of the English games of cricket 
and rounders. The influence of cricket is per- 
haps the strongest, although because of the dif- 
ficulty of gathering enough cricket players living 
in one locality to make up a match, cricket never 
attained a great popularity in this country. 

Early baseball had no bases at all, as does 
cricket, and the first bats were simply boards 
whittled down to fit the hand with a flat hitting 
surface in the general style of cricket bats. The 
cricket term "hands," for "innings," was used in 
early baseball, and the pitcher, who was forced 
to pitch underhand as in cricket, was allowed a 
short run before releasing the ball. The player 
or team hitting the ball most often in a set num- 
ber of tries was the winner. 

Doubleday added the base, calling it "One Old 
Cat." In the early game the batter was required 
to run to the base and back after hitting the ball. 
He was out when touched or hit with the ball 
between home and the base. There were usually 
only two boys on the team. 
Later, as more boys began 



It is always a matter of pride to a city when 

boys who played their first games of baseball to play, two more bases 
on the community's playgrounds develop into were added and the game 
big league players. And many of the nation- 
ally known players were playground boys. In 
Sacramento, California, for example, the fol- 
lowing World Series players were all former 
participants in the Sacramento Winter League 
program: "Stan" Hack, Chicago; Joe Marty, 
Frank Demaree, Myril Hoag. Alexander Kam- 

pouris, son of a Greek barber, was a player on diamond, setting the bases 
the high school team. Henry Steinbacker of n j ne ty feet apart and the 
the Chicago Sox also played on the Sacra- itchet , s box forty-five 
mento playgrounds. The Great Ma.U of The 

Cleveland was a Sacramento lad. Earl Mc- 

Despite the tremendous Neeley of Washington, World Series hero, distance between the bases 
interest in baseball al- was at one time a playground director. has remained the same but 

25 



was given the name base- 
ball. 

Alexander J. Cartwright, 
one of Doubleday 's play- 
mates, who was studying 
draftsmanship, created the 



26 



OUR NATIONAL PASTIME 



the pitcher's box has been moved back to sixty 
and one half feet from home plate. 

As the bases were added the number of players 
grew. In addition to the pitcher and the catcher, 
a player was added to each base and a roving 
fielder installed. Then came the outfielders, and 
the roving fielder found his place because most 
players were right-handed and naturally hit more 
balls in that direction than any other. 

A feature of "Town Ball," immediate prede- 
cessor to baseball, was the pelting of the runner 
with the ball. Instead of throwing to the bases or 
tagging the runner, "Town Ball" called for the 
fielders to hit him with the "pill." Thus "Bean 
Ball" is one of the oldest institutions in the 
national pastime. 

Doubleday invented bases, cut the sides down 
to eleven, and had the fielders throw to the base 
or tag the runner to make the put outs. From 
1839 to 1845 batters used wagon-tongues, rake 
and axe handles, and branches of trees for bats. 
The first custom-made bat was ordered by Pete 
Browning, a slugger with the Louisville Club, in 
1884. It weighed forty-eight ounces and was 
thirty-seven inches long. 

Early Rules of the Game 

Under early rules a team had to score twenty- 
one runs to win the game, regardless of the num- 
ber of innings, but each team had to play an equal 
number of innings. From 1839 to I 9 tne rules 
were being changed constantly, but there has been 
few important rule alterations since the turn of 
the century. The Knickerbocker Club of New 
York was the first organized baseball team and 
played the first match game in 1846, winning 23 
to i in four innings. 

The first intercollegiate game was played be- 
tween Williams and Amherst in 1859, and in the 
same year 1,500 persons paid the first admission 
price (50 cents) to see a baseball game between 
Brooklyn and New York at the Fashion Race 
Course on Long Island. Amherst won 66-32 in 
twenty-six innings, after four solid hours of play. 
Sixty-five runs were necessary to win the game. 
Every player on each side had to be put out to 
complete an inning in those old days. 

Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be- 
come an ardent fan. In 1860, when a committee 
of the Chicago Convention called at his Spring- 
field home to notify him of his nomination, he 



was out on the town commons playing ball. When 
a messenger rushed out to him to inform him of 
his visitors he turned and said, "Tell the gentle- 
men that I am glad to know of their coming, but 
they'll have to wait until I make another base hit." 

Collegiate baseball contributed one of the game's 
most important inventions in 1877 when Fred 
Thayer, captain of the Harvard team, devised the 
catcher's mask. Credit for the shin guard goes to 
Roger Bresnahan who first wore them in a game 
played in 1908. Two years before the invention 
of the mask, Charlie Waite, Boston first baseman, 
shocked his colleagues by appearing on the field 
with a thin leather glove. He was ridiculed as 
being a "sissy," but he stuck to his glove and in 
five years the idea had taken root among ball 
players. In 1890 Buck Ewing, Giant catcher, pro- 
duced the catcher's mitt. 

It Can Never Happen Again ! 

In professional baseball, at least, there will 
probably never be a recurrence of a happening in 
the game between Brooklyn and Philadelphia in 
1886. The score was tied at the end of the eighth 
inning when the umpire raised his hand and an- 
nounced, "Game called." Both fans and teams 
gasped with astonishment until the umpire ex- 
plained, "On account of the supply of balls being 
exhausted." Six balls had been knocked over the 
fence and lost ! 

And On They Go ! 

The National League was formed in 1876, and 
the American Association was forerunner of the 
American League in 1882. The American Asso- 
ciation disbanded in 1891, and in 1900 the Ameri- 
can League was formed with eight clubs. The 
National League was reduced from twelve to 
eight and three years later, in 1903, a national 
agreement was signed banding the American 
League with the National League and the Na- 
tional Association of Minor Leagues, as "or- 
ganized baseball." 

From these beginnings began the parade of na- 
tional heroes from Napoleon Lajoie, Honus 
Wagner, Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby, to Babe 
Ruth, Lou Gehrig and Joe Di Maggio at the bat ; 
and from Christy Mathewson, Rube Marquard 
and Rube Waldell, Grover Cleveland Alexander 
and Walter Johnson to Dizzy Dean, Carl Hubbell 
and Vernon Gomez in the pitcher's box. 



A 

Neighborhood 

Makes Its Own 

Playground 



LAWRENCE C. WOODBURY 

Boys' Director 

Central Square Center 

East Boston Social Centers Council 



WITHIN A YEAR East Boston, Massachusetts, 
a neighborhood of 733 families with almost 
1,500 children, has attained its objective of 
obtaining land and constructing a playground for 
its own use. 

It started when a number of socially-minded 
citizens, including an Italian nurse, a WPA 
worker with several children, a mother of nine 
children, five young men and several volunteer 
leaders at Central Square Center, met to organize 
a playground association. This group studied the 
needs of the district, a natural neighborhood of 
eighteen blocks bordered by the Boston harbor on 
one side and electric car tracks on the other. Each 
family was visited, and the names and ages of all 
children were secured. The need for a safe play 
area was discussed with the families, who proved 
willing and ready to cooperate in any project which 
would improve neighborhood play conditions. 

It was found that with the nearest playground 
one mile away most of the children were playing 
on the streets, sidewalks, and on the deserted, un- 
safe wharves near-by. The Police Department re- 
ported a high percentage of accidents to small 
boys and girls in the district. The children were 
for the most part a destructive group owing to 
their lack of satisfying, wholesome play oppor- 
tunities. 

The playground association gradually enlarged 
its membership to a total of twenty-three indi- 
viduals, all interested in securing the playground 
so badly needed by the neighborhood. Through 
the cooperation of S. Max Nelson, general di- 




A notable example of successful 
accomplishment by community enter- 
prise may be found in one of Bos- 
ton's most depressed neighborhoods 



rector of the East Boston Social Centers Council, 
a conveniently located piece of land containing ap- 
proximately 15,000 square feet was leased from a 
savings bank. As the association had no money, 
the Centers Council agreed to pay the yearly 
rental fee. 

The land secured was once the site of a large 
factory of which nothing remained except parts 
of chimneys, iron boilers, cement foundations, and 
rubbish. In the clearing of this much labor was 
involved. The boys and young men, realizing the 
possibility of having their own playground, turned 
out in large numbers to help clear away the de- 
bris. Corner gangs, poolroom loafers, settlement 
house boys' clubs, and others labored for weeks 
with borrowed picks and sledge hammers leveling 
off the land. Fathers came out at night, first to 
give advice and then, catching the spirit, to con- 
tribute their labor as well. 

The city's Public Works Department, delighted 
at this attempt of the citizens to provide a play- 
ground through their own efforts, donated hun- 
dreds of truck loads of gravel and loaned a num- 
ber of city welfare laborers to help with the proj- 
ect. These men worked long after hours to com- 
plete the grading of the land. A surveyor volun- 
(Continued on page 50) 

27 




By 

JAMES V. MULHOLLAND 

Director of Recreation 

Department of Parks 

New York City 



The Multiple Use 

',....,.; Y : of . 

Recreation Facilities 



THE MULTIPLE use of playground and park fa- 
cilities is very important in communities where 
land values are exceedingly high and there are 
few neighborhood recreational facilities. A 
superintendent of recreation is always anxious 
to obtain the widest possible use of all available 
facilities because of the ultimate value to the 
neighborhood. A proper layout and design 
assists the superintendent and the playground 
director in the organization of the playground 
activities and aids in eliminating many play- 
ground accidents. It is for these reasons that 
architects and playground executives should 
confer on the layout and design of all recrea- 
tional facilities for the widest possible use. 
Taxpayers, and school authorities also have a 
vital interest in this matter. 

In New York City, careful consideration 
has been given to this matter. The New York 
City problem, perhaps, has been more difficult 
due to the cost of land, density of population, 
and lack of facilities for all age groups. In a 
few neighborhoods it was necessary to take care 
of all age groups on an area 100' x TOO'. The 

28 



question of apparatus, activities, age of par- 
ticipants, neighborhood cooperation, all had to 
be carefully considered before recommending 
a particular layout and design. 

Wading Pools 

We have found that by designing wading 
pools for multiple use they can be used foi 
group games, basketball, and volley ball. The 
wading pools in New York City are approxi- 
mately 9" x 12" deep at the center. They are 
practically level, with only sufficient grade to 
carry off rain water. Nearly all of them are 
drained towards the center. In one of our large 
wading pools, at the Roosevelt Playground 
located at Chrystie and Forsythe Streets, Man- 
hattan, we use the pool during the summer 
months for wading from 10 A. M. to 5 130 P. M. 
and then, at 8:30 P. M., after the pool has 
drained and surface water evaporated, the 
same area serves for dancing. During the fall 
of the year the wading pool area is used for 
basketball, group games, volley ball, paddle 
tennis, roller skating, and similar activities. 
In the spring, on this large wading pool, we 
play softball with a 14" ball. The area is thus 
used by children and adults at different times 
according to schedule, and, being floodlighted, 
it is open until 10 P. M. Our smallest wading 
pool, approximately 40' x 75', is used during 
the day by children, and at night by adults. 
During the winter months the wading pools 
are floodlighted for ice skating and some are 
used for snow sculpture and snow architecture. 



THE MULTIPLE USE OF RECREATION FACILITIES 



29 



Wading pools, therefore, 
form an important part of 
the design of a playground. 
Their successful use in New 
York City warrants careful 
consideration by authorities 
of other cities. 



Outdoor swimming pools become basketball courts, and 
wading pools skating rinks and other sports areas in 
New York City's plan for multiple use of facilities 



Swimming Pools 

The swimming pools of the Department of 
Parks of New York City are constructed in a 
similar manner for a multiple recreational use. 
These have been used during the fall and spring 
for basketball, handball, volley ball, paddle ten- 
nis. The backboards and equipment placed in 
these pools are portable and are removed dur- 
ing the summer months so that the entire area 
can be used for swimming purposes. Here, 
again, the facilities have been planned in a 
unique and novel manner and have proven ex- 
tremely successful. The dressing rooms of 
bath houses have been used as indoor game 
rooms during the winter months, and many of 
them are sufficiently large to accommodate 400 
dancers. A weekly indoor dance during the 
winter months is one of the activities taking 
place in some of the buildings used during the 
summer for dressing purposes in connection 
with the outdoor swimming pools. The basket 
system is used, thus providing a large area in 
all buildings used for dressing and shower 
purposes. 

Other Facilities 

The fixed equipment used for such games as 
basketball, volley ball, 
tennis, is so affixed to the gg| 
ground with a sleeve de- 
vice that the piping can 
be easily removed, mak- 
ing available the entire 
area for other games and 
sports such as softball, 
modified games of soccer, 
and roller skating. Park- 
ing fields near the Ran- 
dall's Island Stadium are 
also marked out so that 
they can be used for soft- 
ball when the parking 
fields are not occupied by 
cars. Some of the hand- 
ball courts of the Depart- 
ment of Parks are the 
back walls of a field house. 



Handball courts as far as possible are erected 
in batteries of four to six, and the area in 
front of the wall have been used for roller 
hockey and social dancing. 

Other facilities used for recreation have in- 
cluded areas under elevated structures such 
as bridge approaches. In these areas have been 
installed handball, tennis, and Bocci. It is in- 
advisable to locate wading pools under elevated 
structures as it is very desirable to have as 
much sunlight as possible where wading pools 
are located. A good example of recreational 
facilities placed under elevated structures can 
be found in New York City at the Bronx and 
Queens approaches to the Tri-Borough Bridge. 

We have found that a careful study made by 
the playground supervisor and architect prior 
to the development of the play area of neigh- 
borhood conditions, ethnical and recreational 
tastes and desires, the size of the area, the 
recreational needs of the neighborhood, and the 
popularity of activities, will bring about a wide 
use by children and adults of the facilities 
when they are completed. 

(Continued on page 50) 




The 0reen Revolution 



UNHERALDED, UHSUHg, 
and even unnoticed, 
the green revolution 
continues to spread ; to gain 
new converts by the thou- 
sand each year. Slowly but 
surely it has been creeping 
into our educational insti- 
tutions. It has gained so 
firm a foothold in schools, 
in colleges and even in the 
primary grades that it ap- 
pears extremely doubtful if it can ever be weeded 
out. 

Seventy-six million seed, bulb and nursery 
catalogs were distributed in the United States last 
year. A single seed house sends out more than 
2,000,000 catalogs every year. 

Last spring more than 175,000 persons each 
paid $1.00 to visit a single exhibition of flowers, 
the International Flower Show held in New York 
City. A dozen similar big shows are held each 
year the country over, not to mention local shows 
by the tens of hundreds. 

The coming of the age of specialization had 
its decided influence on horticulture and ama- 
teurs began to interest themselves in one 
favorite plant or flower. These enthusiasts 
presently banded together in national societies 
for the study and improvement of their chosen 
specialties. Today strong and influential na- 
tional organizations exist for the promotion of 
most of our important garden flowers: roses, 
peonies, delphiniums, chrysanthemums, dahlias, 
and many more. Even the lowly gourd has its 
organized devotees. 

A still later phase was the organization of small 
local garden clubs, for the most part women's 
clubs. As these increased in number they united 
into state and finally into national organizations. 
For two or three decades they 
have been, and promise long to 
be, the most vital and effective 
influence upon gardening in 
America. The movement was 
initiated by green-fingered 
groups in many women's cul- 
tural clubs. As the movement 

30 



By FREDERICK FRYE ROCKWELL 



A door may open anywhere; 
Upon a wood or path or lawn 
Or crowded street or road, or there 
Where none pass by from dawn to dawn: 
But, if you'd have a mind at peace, 
A heart that cannot harden, 
Go find a door that opens wide 
Upon a little garden. 

E. M. Boult. 



These extracts have been taken 
from an article by Mr. Rockwell 
which appeared in the January, 
1 938, issue of the "Journal of Adult 
Education." They are published by 
permission of the American Asso- 
ciation for Adult Education. 



grew, however, every type 
of woman gardener found 
a niche in one of the many 
organized clubs. 

Now too the men have 
organized. The national 
organization, the slogan 
of which is "More Pants 
in the Garden," is pub- 
lishing an amusing yet 
thoroughly practical 
monthly bulletin. Today 

the American market offers almost too much in 
the garden field narrative garden books, per- 
sonal experiences, encyclopedias, practical 
handbooks, poetry, monographs, and sectional 
books pour from the presses in an unending 
stream. 

State colleges and other educational institu- 
tions have begun to assume an important role 
in the green revolution. Today a large num- 
ber of state experiment stations devote much 
of their energy to ornamental horticulture. 
Some of the state colleges, such as those of 
New York, New Jersey, Ohio and California, 
have attained international reputations for re- 
search and discovery, and also in the purely 
aesthetic side of the garden movement. The 
Agricultural College of New Jersey initiated 
the first well organized and really successful 
effort to utilize radio in the garden field. The 
Radio Garden Club now conducts two pro- 
grams each week over a coast-to-coast net- 
work. 

The green revolution spreads and educa- 
tional forces of the country in an ever increas- 
ing measure give it further impetus. It has its 
own specific aim the creation of an America 
more beautiful. But it has a social significance 
far beyond this. A country of 
home gardens is a country of 
good citizens, a country of 
men and women who love 
peace. It would be difficult 
to overestimate the stabiliz- 
ing and humanizing effects of 
the green revolution. 





A Lollipop Land Party 

Suggestions for a Mother's Day party when 
mothers are entertained by their daughters 



BACK TO ROMPERS and bibs ^ JULIA 

goes this attractive party 
where the years drop away 

and mothers laugh and play together in Lollipop 
Land. Mothers come wearing sun-suits, rompers, 
or short dresses and pig-tails, and bringing favor- 
ite toys. Daughters appear as nursemaids a pro- 
tective role which they find delightful. Daughters 
wear plain dresses, aprons and caps. (Cooking 
school outfits do very well.) 

Room Decorations 

The color scheme of this party is pale green, 
with bright-colored balloons and wall decorations 
for accent. Cover the ceiling with pale green 
paper streamers radiating from a central chande- 
lier. Hang balloons among 
the streamers. Giant pots 
of lollipops standing here 
and there in the room are 
most effective. They are 
made as follows : A num- 
ber of long and round bal- 
loons (not in fancy shapes 
or painted) are blown up, 
tied tightly and fastened 
to the ends of sticks about 
3*/2 feet long. These sticks 
may be cut from saplings ; 
or bamboo sticks may be 
bought at the florist's 
(price about two for five cents). Tie 
cellophane over the balloons and 
fasten with Scotch tape. These are 
the lollipops. For jars in which to 
plant them, paint metal wastebaskets 
or large tin cracker cans with silver 
paint. Or cover the cans with dark 



ANNE ROGERS g reen or black cr6pe paper Fffl 

jars with sand. The giant lolli- 
pops should be made the day of 
the party, for balloons deflate if left too long. 

The frieze for the walls shown at the top of the 
page is made of wrapping paper on which are 
pasted amusing paper figures representing lolli- 
pops with arms, legs and faces, and gum drop 
dolls and animals. To make the figures, cut out 
circles, ovals and longer pieces of kindergarten 
paper of various colors. These pieces represent 
gum drops and lollipops of different shapes. Com- 
bine to form dolls and animals. Paint in features, 
and arms and legs for the lollipops. Another ef- 
fective room decoration is made by covering 
screens with light green paper on which have been 
pasted some of these lolli- 
pop figures. If you do not 
have the giant lollipop 
plants, have little ever- 
green trees in jars, hung 
with real lollipops. Fill in 
corners of the room with 
plants, flowers and foliage. 

Invitation 

Invitations to mothers 
are written on pale green 
paper with amusing 
sketches of lollipops with 
faces, arms and legs, simi- 
lar to frieze. 

Come to Lollipop Land 
Lollipop Land where the babies all play 
And walk with their nurses is not far away. 
Please come and see it ! And dress as a tot ! 
Wear the most juvenile clothes that you've 

got. 
Playmates you'll like are all coming too, 

31 




32 



A LOLLIPOP LAND PARTY 



Just make a note that we're looking for you ! 

Place : Hour : Date : 

Please bring a baby picture of yourself. 



O 
x 



ox 



Activities 

Upon arrival, children and nurses have their 
names pinned on them: Baby Marjorie Randall; 
Nurse, Joan Randall. 

Baby Picture Contest. Lay all the baby pictures 
on a table; put numbers on their backs. Give 
guests pencils and paper and have them guess who 
the babies are. Prizes : lollipop, skipping-rope or 
ball to mothers with best two lists. 

March. While a spirited march is played, babies 
and nurses march in pairs. Bring the line around 
to form a large circle. All hold hands, then drop 
them, ready for circle games. If there are more 
than thirty people at the party, 
split the circle in the middle to 
form two smaller circles. Each 
circle has a leader to direct the 
games. Then the following jolly 
games are played: 

Find the Leader. Everybody 
is standing for this game. The 
player who is "it" is sent from 
the room while another is se- 
lected as leader. When "it" re- 
turns and stands in the center of 
the ring, all the players are tap- 
ping feet, nodding heads or do- 
ing something else initiated by 
the leader. The gesture is chang- 
ed frequently by the leader, 
while "it" tries to determine who the leader is. 
When "it" guesses correctly the leader becomes 
"it" and another leader is selected. 

Baby Snooks, the Lone Ranger and the Wolf. 
Everybody sits on the floor. Divide the circle into 
three groups and assign to teach group a part as 
follows : 

Baby Snooks "Waaaaa !" 

Lone Ranger "Hi yo Silver" 

The Big Bad Wolf "Wooooooo !" 

The leader tells the story of Little Red Riding 
Hood, using these characters named. As each 
character is mentioned the group waves arms and 
shouts the proper response. The following story 
may be elaborated as the storyteller wishes : "Once 
upon a time there was a charming girl named 
BABY SNOOKS who was loved by a cowboy, the 
LONE RANGER. BABY SNOOKS lived near a great 
forest and in this forest dwelt the big bad WOLF. 



o 



Join, kands 
Join hdttds 



x 
X 



x o 



To divide, la rye, c/rcle, 



One day BABY SNOOKS decided to visit her grand- 
mother who lived deep in the heart of the forest. 
THE LONE RANGER urged BABY SNOOKS not to 
go into the forest where the WOLF lived but BABY 
SNOOKS insisted upon going and would not let 
THE LONE RANGER accompany her. "I'm not 
afraid of the big bad WOLF/' said BABY SNOOKS 
as she put on her red cloak and started out with 
her basket on her arm. But when she entered the 
forest and saw the eyes of the WOLF gleaming at 
her from behind a tree she was sorry THE LONE 
RANGER was not with her. The WOLF followed 
BABY SNOOKS step by step getting closer and 
closer, and behind him came THE LONE RANGER. 
Just as the WOLF was about to spring on BABY 
SNOOKS, THE LONE RANGER killed him with his 
trusty rifle, and saved BABY SNOOKS' life. "LoNE 
RANGER, my hero, you've killed 
the WOLF and saved my life," 
said BABY SNOOKS as she fell 
fainting in his arms. 

Game ends with everyone 
singing "Who's Afraid of the 
Big, Bad Wolf" from Walt Dis- 
ney's "Three Little Pigs" (see 
end of article for publisher). 

Little Tom Tinker. Players are 
still sitting in a circle on the 
floor. Divide circle into three 
sections and sing as a round : 
Little Tom Tinker was burnt by a 

clinker and he began to cry 
Ma ! Ma ! Poor little innocent b'y. 

Music for this song in "Twice 
55 Games with Music," Red Book. (For publish- 
er's address see end of article.) 

Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush. Players 
stand in a circle, join hands and move in a circle 
singing first verse. The other verses are acted out 
in pantomime. After each new verse the first 
verse is repeated as a chorus. 

Here we go round the mulberry bush 
The mulberry bush, the mulberry bush 
Here we go round the mulberry bush 
So early in the morning. 

This is the way we wash our clothes, etc. 
So early on Monday morning. 

This is the way we iron our clothes, etc. 
(Tuesday) 

This is the way we mend our clothes, etc. 
(Wednesday) 

This is the way we sweep the floor, etc. 
(Thursday) 



o 



A LOLLIPOP LAND PARTY 



33 



This is the way we bake the bread, etc. 
(Friday) 

This is the way we scrub the floor, etc. 
(Saturday) 

This is the way we go to church, etc. 
(Sunday) 

Music for this song is in "Twice 55 Games with 
Music," Red Book. 

Jump, Jim Crow. Still standing in circle, play- 
ers are instructed by the group leader on the sim- 
ple motions for this delightful singing game : 
Jump, jump and jump, Jim Crow! 
Take a little twirl and then away we go ! 
Slide, slide and stamp just so 
Then you take another partner and you jump Jim Crow! 

Music and actions for this song are in "Twice 
55 Games with Music," Red Book. 

Hunt the Slipper. Players sit on the floor in a 
circle. The slipper may be a ball, a beanbag, paper- 
weight, or some other easily handled object. Play- 
ers hold their hands behind their backs, going 
through the motions of passing an article from 
hand to hand. The person who is "it" sits in the 
middle and guesses who has the slipper. Whom- 
ever she catches becomes "it." Do not let a game 
of this type run on for any length of time with the 
same person "it." Ask for a volunteer and re- 
lieve the unsuccessful player before she becomes 
tired or embarrassed. 

Flowers of Lollipop Land. This is a guessing 
game played with pencil and paper while the play- 
ers are still seated. 
An amiable man Sweet William 
The pulse of the business world Stocks 
A bird and a riding accessory Larkspur 
A pillar of a building, a syllable that rhymes 

with dine Columbine 

A flower between mountains Lily of the Valley 
A dude and an animal Dandelion 
The place for a kiss Tulips 
A wild animal and a bit of outdoor wearing ap- 
parel Foxglove 
A lot of sheep Phlox 
What he did when he pro- 
posed to her Aster 
The person to whom she re- 
ferred him Poppy 
A favorite object for win- 
ter sports Snowball 
Prizes: Small bouquets of 
lollipops in lace-paper frills. 

Intermission. Players get up, 
move around and talk. 



This party, arranged for from sixteen 
to sixty persons, is one of a number 
of such events described in a book on 
Parties and Programs for Parents' 
Days by Miss Rogers to be published 
at an early date by the National Rec- 
reation Association. The Lollipop Land 
Party, as well as many other social 
events described in the book, may be 
successfully used on other occasions. 



Gum Drop Dolls. Everyone sits on tne floor, 
wherever she happens to be. A piece of newspa- 
per or a paper towel or paper napkin is given each 
person to work on. A tray containing gumdrops 
of different sizes and shapes, pipe cleaners, 
matches, toothpicks and cloves is passed around. 
See who can make the best gumdrop doll. 

Paper Dolls. Instead of the gumdrop dolls you 
may prefer paper dolls. Pass around colored kin- 
dergarten paper and ask each person to tear out 
a paper doll. 

Lollipop Lady. Soft music is heard. (Suggestion 
for music is given at the end of article.) The over- 
head lights are turned out, leaving only low lights 
burning. The Lollipop Lady comes in. She wears 
a billowy dress of light green tarlatan and a cap 
of the same material which floats in a short veil. 
Small gold bells are sewed at the bottom of her 
dress and crescent moons of gold paper are pasted 
here and there on the dress. Her belt is a gold 
ribbon. Her perfume is that of a flower some 
fresh scent such as lily of the valley. She carries 
a tray on a ribbon around her neck, or a basket on 
her arm, full of lollipops. She smiles radiantly, 
tossing lollipops to each child and to each nurse. 

Refreshments. These are passed around on trays 
by some of the nurses. They consist of sherbet 
in cups, on plates, and cookies cut in the shape 
of animals and dolls. On each plate have a lace- 
paper doily on which is pasted a picture of a 
baby face cut from a magazine. Napkins should 
have pale green as the principal color. Recipes 
for sherbet and cookies are : 
Lemon Sherbet 

2 quarts boiling water 
1 quart sugar 

8 lemons (more if a really tart sherbet is desired) 
White of one egg beaten stiff' 

Boil sugar and water until clear. Add lemon juice to 
syrup and strain. Pour syrup gradually into the beaten 
egg white. Freeze an hour or more. 
Doll and Animal Cookies 
3 egg whites 

1 cup sugar 

1 teaspoon grated lemon rind 
\ l /2 teaspoon cinnamon 
1-1/3 cup chopped almonds or 

filberts 

J4 cup powdered sugar 
% cup all-purpose flour 
Beat the egg whites until stiff, 
add sugar gradually. Mix the lemon 
rind, cinnamon and nutmeats to- 
gether. Add to the egg whites. 
(Continued on page 52) 



Writing for Publication 



LCE MANY a favored individual 
foreordained to success, the 
Mesa Writers' Club was born 
of humble parentage, and from its 
infancy was marked for success. It was sired by 
an ambitious and energetic director of recreation 
who, back in the early months of 1937, was look- 
ing for new worlds to conquer. 

Although he had already originated a large 
number of widely varying activities in the field of 
organized recreation, Joseph Smith Jarvis, Parks 
and Playgrounds Director of the City of Mesa, 
deep in Arizona's famed Valley of the Sun, had 
not yet found an outlet for his own secret and 
suppressed longing to write something. It oc- 
curred to him that others, too, might be afflicted 
with that impelling urge to write which persists in 
some of us like an exasperating plague. Then 
why not add a Writers' Club to the constantly 
lengthening list of clubs and activities ? Why not, 
indeed ! 

The idea became an actuality on the night of 
April nth, 1937, when, at the invitation of Mr. 
Jarvis, some eight or ten would-be authors met 
for the purpose of forming a club and outlining a 
program that would stimulate writing as a form 
of recreation. Miss Ida G. Wilson, the City Li- 
brarian, became the first President and Miss Mary 
Alice Bell, a teacher in the grade schools, was ap- 
pointed Secretary. A committee was appointed to 
draw up a constitution and plans were laid for a 
membership drive. Meetings were held twice a 
month in the homes of the members. At each 
gathering a program chairman was appointed for 
the following meeting so that variety and quality 
of entertainment would be maintained. Occa- 
sionally guest speakers discussed various phases 
of writing. Original articles and poems were read 
by members and then filed in a club file at the 
library. 

Several members of the club succeeded in hav- 
ing articles published, and 
this gave steady impetus to 
the desire to do more writ- 
ing. One evening the inevit- 
able happened. Someone pro- 
posed that the club publish a 
magazine of its own ! "Great !" 
somebody else agreed "Why 

34 



By GEORGE ML ROY 

Editor, "Cactus Cuttings" 
Mesa, Arizona 



"Why are writers given so little atten- 
tion in the recreation program?" queries 
Mr. Roy in submitting his account of the 
Mesa Writers' Club. We thoroughly be- 
lieve that such groups as he describes 
should be given every encouragement, 
and we shall be glad to have informa- 
tion to pass on about similar clubs. 



not?" The decision was unani- 
mous. After several more meetings 
in which the matter was discussed 
at some length and tentative plans 
were drawn up, the author of this article agreed 
to act as the editor. The Parks and Playgrounds 
Board consented to finance the project, and the 
local high school superintendent generously 
donated both his secretary and his mimeograph 
machine to take care of the press work. 

A splendid dinner our first annual banquet 
was arranged to herald the introduction of our 
first volume, with the Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tion acting as caterers. Guests included WPA of- 
ficials from the state recreation office and friends 
of club members. That first issue was enthusias- 
tically received. Members mailed copies to all of 
their friends and clamored for more. A few 
copies, placed experimentally on the newsstands, 
quickly disappeared. Soon the edition of 250 
copies was exhausted. 

The highlight of the venture was the success 
encountered "back East," last summer when Mr. 
Jarvis, attending the National Recreation Con- 
gress at Pittsburgh, distributed some thirty or 
forty copies to government workers and recrea- 
tion leaders from the Eastern centers. Perhaps it 
was the attractive cover, depicting a typical desert 
scene cactus and all which appealed to the in- 
quisitive Easterners. At any rate, the available 
copies were quickly taken up and Mr. Jarvis re- 
turned from his trip with glowing accounts of the 
enthusiasm which our little magazine had aroused. 
He even reported that plans had been made to 
publish similar magazines in the East as a direct 
result of our humble contribution. We hope those 
plans materialized and that magazines are even 
now being published by writers' clubs along the 
Atlantic seaboard. We would be happy to ex- 
change copies with any of them. 

Early in 1938 the members of our little club 
began clamoring once more 
for a magazine and so plans 
took shape for a second vol- 
ume. This time, guided by 
the experiences of our first 
venture, the articles were 
chosen with greater care 
(Continued on page 52) 



Play Space in New Neighborhoods 



IN PITTSBURGH, Pennsyl- 
vania, two large public 
housing projects being 
constructed in adjoining 
neighborhoods have afforded 
a basis for effective cooperation 
in neighborhood re- planning. 
Through an arrangement between 
the city and housing authorities, 
part of a municipal playground 
of 5.8 acres on three levels lying 
between the two sites will be used 
for housing, and in return the 
city will receive a new 12-acre 
area on one level. Among the 
recreation features to be provided 
on this area, which will be oper- 
ated by the city Bureau of Recreation, is an out- 
door swimming pool. The city authorities have 
acquired a site immediately adjoining the field on 
which they are to erect an elementary school 
which will contain an indoor swimming pool. 
Thus through cooperative planning the people 
will have the benefit of a level recreation area 
more than twice the size of the former play- 
ground, and it will be available for both school 
and community use. A junior playground of 1.3 
acres is being built in one of the projects. Co- 
operation in Pittsburgh is being facilitated by the 
fact that the chairman of the housing authority is 
the city councilman in charge of the park and 
recreation bureaus and that officials and techni- 
cians of the local city planning commission are 
also serving the housing authority. 

This example of cooperative planning for rec- 
reation space is taken from the appendix to the 
report "Play Space in New Neighborhoods" re- 
cently brought out by a committee appointed by 
the National Recreation Association at the request 
of the Society of Recreation Workers of America. 
Unfortunately, this type of planning has not char- 
acterized many public or private housing projects 
in the past, according to the committee's report. 
In fact, in its statement of the play space problem 
the committee says : 

"Present building practice offers a hope that adequate 
light, air and open lawn areas will be provided in new 
housing projects. Yet there is little indication that the 
new neighborhoods being created are to have adequate 
open space suitable for and permanently dedicated to 



A committee report on stand- 
ards of outdoor recreation 
areas in housing developments 



The committee responsible for 
preparing this report consisted 
of George D. Butler of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association, 
Chairman; C. E. Brewer, Recre- 
ation Commissioner, Detroit, 
and E. Dana Caullcins, Superin- 
tendent of Recreation, West- 
chester County, New York. 
Copies are available from the 
National Recreation Associa- 
tion at twenty-five cents. 



recreation use. Well kept lawns 
and shrubbery have aesthetic 
value but they are no substitute 
for active play space. Unless 
definite steps are taken to estab- 
lish properly located recreation 
areas of suitable size and development 
in new neighborhoods cities will be 
obliged to acquire such areas later at 
much greater cost." 



Holding that the responsibility 
for seeing that recreation needs 
are not overlooked in the plan- 
ning of new housing develop- 
ments, the committee states that 
the responsibility for meeting the 
problem is a common one shared 
by subdividers, public housing 
authorities, city planning commissions, recreation 
departments, city councils, school authorities, and 
the taxpayers. 

The report presents a body of recommenda- 
tions, outlines the principles which guide its sug- 
gestions and then offers a detailed discussion of 
the requirements and standards involved in rec- 
reational planning for housing developments. 

Recommendations 

The committee presents the following recom- 
mendations for the prevention of past mistakes 
and the assurance of well balanced outdoor recre- 
ation for people in new housing developments : 

1. In the initial conception of any housing proj- 
ect, due consideration for the recreational needs of 
the people to be housed, in consultation with local 
authorities responsible for city recreation service. 

2. Play lots within each block or for each group 
of dwellings except in developments where back- 
yards are provided for individual families. 

3. Within each neighborhood whether com- 
posed in part or entirely of the housing develop- 
ment, a properly situated playground. 

4. A playfield for young people and adults 
within easy reach of every housing development. 

5. Wherever practicable, utilization of space 
not occupied by buildings for informal recreation. 

6. Consideration of indoor recreation facilities. 

7. Consideration of the problems of operation, 
maintenance and leadership. 

35 



36 



PLAY SPACE IN NEW NEIGHBORHOODS 



Fundamentally a Planning Problem 
The three principles underlying the above rec- 
ommendations are : first, that provision of recrea- 
tion areas in housing projects is primarily a prob- 
lem of city and neighborhood planning; second, 
that intelligent provision of outdoor recreation 
areas demands an understanding of their types, 
essential functions and requirements as to size, 
location, design and facilities ; and third, that the 
need for indoor recreation facilities must also be 
considered and that they must be planned in rela- 
tion to the outdoor features. Furthermore, it is 
essential that methods of financing and adminis- 
tering areas and facilities be considered. 

The essential elements in the planning of a 
neighborhood unit of a city are the playground, 
school and indoor recreation center which serve 
as a focus of the neighborhood and its common 
life. The solution of the recreational needs of 
persons to be cared for in new housing develop- 
ments should be approached from the standpoint 
of neighborhood play space requirements. This 
principle has been recognized to some extent by 
public housing authorities. 

Many agencies share in the responsibility for 
providing outdoor recreation spaces. It is not the 
province of this report to suggest the division of 
responsibility but it does hold that only as each 
agency, public and private, understands, accepts 
and meets its share of the responsibility can rec- 
reational needs be met. Studies of local recrea- 
tion needs must be the basis for sound, coopera- 
tive planning. Some recreation areas in housing 
projects have proved unsuccessful because de- 
velopers did not understand the essential func- 
tions of areas and their requirements. 

Essential Types of Areas 
Of the several types of municipal recreation 
areas essential to a well balanced public system, 
three have special applica- 
tion to housing projects. 
They are play lots, play- 
grounds and playfields. 

The play lot is the sub- 
stitute for the backyard. 
In general, it should be 
provided in the central 
open area within each 
block or adjoining each 
group of dwellings. In 
projects serving family 
groups such a lot should 



The Advisory Committee assisting in the prep- 
aration of the report were: Frederick J. Adams, 
Professor of City Planning, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology; F. Ellwood Allen, Spe- 
cialist in Recreation Facilities, National Rec- 
reation Association; Charles S. Ascher, Sec- 
retary, Committee on Public Administration, 
Social Service Research Council; Louise P. 
Blackham, Recreation Consultant, Hillside 
Homes, New York City; W. Burke Harmon, 
Real Estate Operator; Seward H. Mott, Chief, 
Land Planning Division, Federal Housing Ad- 
ministration, and Clarence S. Stein, Architect. 



be provided for every thirty to sixty families. The 
required space for the play lot is from 1500 to 
2500 square feet. This presents no serious space 
problem. If the play lot is not restricted to chil- 
dren up to eight, some 2000 to 4000 square feet 
may be required. In the play lots should be a few 
pieces of simple, safe and attractive apparatus 
such as chair swings, low regular swings, low 
slides, a sand box and simple play materials. 

For children from five to fifteen there should 
be a children's playground located at or near the 
center of the neighborhood where it may be 
reached easily and safely from all the homes. In 
densely built up sections no child should be 
obliged to go more than a quarter of a mile to 
reach the playground. A desirable space standard 
is that of one acre for each one thousand popula- 
tion. In most neighborhoods an area between three 
and five acres is needed. The playground must 
have good design and effective development in- 
cluding such features as an apparatus area, open 
space for informal play, fields and courts for 
games, an area for quiet games, crafts, etc., shel- 
ter house, wading pool and possibly a play lot for 
the very young children. In the past a common 
mistake has been to develop exceedingly small 
playgrounds which create difficult problems of ad- 
ministration, discipline and maintenance. A sin- 
gle large playground, designed on a functional 
basis eliminates the shortcomings raised of small 
play areas for older children. 

In order that young people and adults may have 
an opportunity for recreational activities within 
walking distance, there should be a playfield 
within a half mile to a mile of every home, the 
distance depending upon the density of the popu- 
lation. Ten acres is a minimum size. A playfield 
should be provided for at least each 20,000 of 
population and there should be at least one acre 
of playfield for every 800 people. 

In addition to these fea- 
tures every multiple family 
development affords op- 
portunity for introducing 
on the building site a 
number of recreation ac- 
tivities which do not re- 
quire the setting aside of 
special spaces, which in- 
volve very little if any 
construction or mainte- 
nance costs and which can 
(Continued on page 53} 



The National Recreation Association 



ON APRIL 12, 1938, the National Recreation 
Association arrived at the ripe old age of 
thirty-two. Today the Association is inter- 
ested in the promotion of satisfying recreational 
opportunities, not only for little children, but for 
people of all ages, all races, all colors, wherever 
they may be. It is interested not only in physical 
activities, important as they are, but also in every 
other form of wholesome, developmental, leisure- 
time pursuit, calculated to give answer to the deep 
hunger of human beings for expression, the 
absence of which in their lives may mean a chok- 
ing of the best that is in them a form of spiritual 
death. 

Broadly speaking, the National Recreation As- 
sociation is concerned with the leisure-time prob- 
lem of America. 

The National Recreation Association wants to 
see many things happen, many advances made. It 
wants to see the establishment of recreational fa- 
cilities and services in all communities of the land 
wherever they may now be non-existent. 

It wants a keen appreciation by all school au- 
thorities of the great significance of growing lei- 
sure to human life and to the future of America, 
together with the direct implications for educa- 
tion inherent therein. 

It wants to see communities ready to open to 
young folks ample opportunity to continue with 
their music, art, craft work, their nature, dra- 
matic, reading, civic, social, and physical activity 
interests during free time. 

It wants to see civic organizations, dedicated by 
their constitutions to civic service, become in- 
creasingly active, cooperatively active in efforts to 
persuade public officials to get the right concep- 
tion of the recreational needs of the people, and 
then to appropriate adequate funds therefor. 

It wants to see a children's playground within 
a quarter mile of every home in built up sections ; 
a neighborhood park and playfield for every 
15,000 to 30,000 of the population in larger cities, 
and at least one such in smaller places ; a baseball 
field for every 5,000 of the population; a tennis 
court for every 2,000; a swimming pool 60 by 150 
feet for every 15,000 persons, but accommodating 
more if the pool is larger, with at least one pool 
for every community; an indoor center in every 
major section of a community. Also many other 



-ooks to the Future 



By EUGENE T. LIES 



This month the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation will celebrate its thirty-third 
birthday. It is, therefore, an appropri- 
ate time to publish these extracts from 
an address made by Mr. Lies, a member 
of the staff of the Association, at the 
Regional Recreation Conference held at 
Louisiana State University last spring. 



fine things to meet the carefully ascertained needs 
of the people. 

The National Recreation Association wants to 
see well trained workers everywhere, not merely 
caretakers, not mere cheap political appointees, 
but persons chosen on a merit examination basis 
and continued in their jobs on a merit-checking 
basis. 

It wants to see great advances in cooperative 
thinking, planning, and action in reference to the 
leisure-time problem. This hope applies to the 
getting together of public officials and boards, 
also to the getting together of such public officials 
and boards with private or semi-public agencies 
plus schools and churches. 

It wants to see, in every state of the union, a 
home rule statute to permit municipalities to go as 
far as the people want to go and are willing to 
pay to go in providing for their recreational needs. 

It wants municipalities to pass regulations re- 
quiring a reasonable percentage of the area of 
every new subdivision to be set aside for recrea- 
tional use by the people. 

It wants to see more volunteers of the right 
type, especially hobbyists, enlisted in both public 
and private leisure-time agencies. 

It wants to see organized more and more citi- 
zen groups who will relate themselves helpfully 
to public recreation in their communities. 

It wants to see more summer recreation sys- 
tems expanded into year-round systems since 
people go right on living during the spring, fall, 
and winter seasons. 

(Continued on page 53) 



37 



You Asked for It! 



Question: What has been the experience of 
recreation workers in using amplifying systems in 
their recreation programs? For what types of 
programs are they especially effective? Does the 
expense make them prohibitive or do they pay for 
themselves in the added effectiveness of the pro- 
grams ? What about upkeep ? 

Answer : Over eighteen months ago the Recre- 
ation Association of Boulder, Colorado, purchased 
a portable sound system which we have found in- 
dispensable for use at many of our events. We 
have used it regularly for twenty-one different 
types of social gatherings throughout the year as 
follows : 

The weekly free social dance held at Central 
Center originated through a demand of twenty- 
five young people for cheap, wholesome dance 
surroundings. As we were paying for the sound 
system at that time, we made a charge of five 
cents per person per evening. The dance has 
grown to an average attendance of 220 people per 
night, and it is now free. A collection is taken up 
at each dance to purchase floor wax. Floor man- 
agers, hall monitors, and parking custodians are 
chosen by the group to assist the two recreation 
leaders. The music selected is from the most fre- 
quently requested popular tunes. Following the 
termination of the dance season in the spring, the 
dance committee gets together at an informal 
banquet. Washington Recreation Center and Lin- 
coln Recreation Center each have a dance night 
during the week, and enjoy both folk and social 
dancing. This is also free and the average attend- 
ance is fifty-six. Two afternoons per week ele- 
mentary grade children are enjoying folk dancing 
through recordings at Central Center. The mari- 
onette players, whether playing to a group of 
fifteen or fifty, use the microphone because of 
ability to maintain a natural voice with consistent 
volume. 

For P.T.A. meetings, clubs, church groups, and 
other social gatherings, the system is invaluable 
for dinner music, dance accompaniment, and voice. 

A discussion group of young people meets each 
week to hear the Forum of the Air, have their 
own discussion afterward, and dance to popular 
tunes for a social period. 

Santa Claus inaugurates the season on Decem- 
ber first, and the public address system is used for 

38 



greeting him on his arrival. We furnish appro- 
priate music prior to the arrival of the band and 
Santa Claus riding on the fire truck. The address 
system is then used by Santa Claus in interview- 
ing his little friends, and most of all in bringing 
together children and parents separated by the 
crowd. During the week preceding Christmas the 
system is placed in a car parked near a street 
light in the business district, and carols are played 
for an hour and a half. One church used the 
Christmas records for their Christmas Eve 
services. 

At the close of the Yule season comes the 
Twelfth Night ceremony when we use the micro- 
phone for amplification of choral singing and 
solos. It would have been very difficult to keep 
people at a safe distance from the huge bonfire of 
Christmas trees without the use of the system. 

In directing activities at large picnics and club 
outings, instrumental numbers and voice amplifi- 
cation assist considerably in the program and the 
direction of games. The Annual Easter Egg Hunt 
is conducted with a minimum of disorder because 
of the control of children made possible through 
the use of the loudspeakers. 

The annual Hallowe'en party for the school- 
age children of Boulder is held in two sections at 
the University of Colorado Field House. One 
thousand six hundred children attended the party 
in 1938. Public address systems are a necessity in 
both the smaller group's activities in the women's 
gymnasium and the larger children's activities in 
the field house. 

The high school play day held in May is more 
easily controlled from a central point of view with 
the aid of the amplifying system to announce win- 
ning groups, special attractions, and to maintain a 
festive spirit. 

The football games at the high school are an- 
nounced throughout in the collegiate manner. The 
softball leagues are conducted with the aid of the 
public address system for the games as they pro- 
gress, music between games, and special announce- 
ments. This keeps the sound system busy from 
four to six nights each week during the summer, 
but only after the playgrounds have closed for the 
day. 

(Continued on page 53) 



WORLD AT PLAY 



School Center 
Activities 



HIGHLAND PARK, 
Michigan, reports that 

from the beginning of 

November 1937, all of 

the schools, including the high school and Hackett 
Field House, were open for gymnasium, audi- 
torium, and pool activities in the evening. Partici- 
pating in the evening programs were over sixty 
organizations including clubs, fraternal organiza- 
tions, Camp Fire girls, Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, 
church, and youth groups. The workshop in one 
of the schools was open to the public for the third 
successive vear. 



Playgrounds and 
Reading 



FROM time to time the 
Association receives 
information regarding 
efforts which are be- 
ing made to interest playground children in read- 
ing. In Long Beach, California, for example, di- 
rectors at various times have operated book clubs 
with duly appointed officers. A recommended 
book list from the public library a block away 
from one playground was posted on the bulletin 
board, and reports were given at the weekly meet- 
ings by members who had read any of the books. 
Points were given for the activity which counted 
toward the playground certificate. Another di- 
rector at Long Beach reports an effort to work 
out a lending library, borrowing books from the 
public library and loaning them to the children. 
Still another director arranged to have a long ban- 
quet table indoors with magazines and a few chil- 
dren's books on it. This table was particularly 
popular in the heat of the day. 



May Day Child 
Health Day 



"THE health of the 
child is the power of 

the nation." This will 

be the slogan of May 

Day Child Health Day 1939, which as usual will 
be sponsored by the Children's Bureau, Washing- 
ton, D. C. It is the hope of the Bureau that com- 
munity groups will arrange for the presentation 
to the public of child health needs in the com- 
munity, for planning by interested groups of joint 
efforts for advancing child health during the year, 
and for launching new child health projects. It is 
urged that school children as a climax to the year's 



health education program will show by exhibit, 
demonstration, organization, and plays what they 
have learned about safeguarding their own and 
the community's health, and will celebrate in fes- 
tivals and games the progress made during the 
year. 



Winter Sports 
Popular 



THE Union County, 
New Jersey, Park Sys- 
tem reports that on 
Sunday, January I5th, 

21,000 skiers, coasters, and tobogganists swarmed 
over the hills at Galloping Hill golf course. From 
early morning until eleven o'clock at night these 
winter sports enthusiasts were gliding down over 
hill and incline. Few accidents were reported. In 
most cases, states the report, either carelessness or 
lack of courtesy were contributing factors in the 
injuries which did occur. 



A Bird Sanctuary 
for Durham 



A BIRD sanctuary of 
1 6.8 acres, initiated in 
Durham in 1938 and 
near ing completion, 

will be a unique addition to the city's recreational 
facilities. The park was built to attract wild birds 
and wild life and will provide a splendid oppor- 
tunity to study wild bird life which will be at- 
tracted to the area by feeding stations, bird houses 
and by trees and shrubs planted there. 



More Facilities 
for Oakland 



THE Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, Recreation De- 
partment, reporting 
achievements for 1938, 

states that through WPA help the $1,400,000 mas- 
ter project was drawn up and approved, giving 
the city through the next few years an oppor- 
tunity to build facilities in keeping with the 
growing population. 



An Easter Breakfast 
Table Contest 



AN attractive feature 
of the annual Phila- 
delphia Flower Show 
is the Easter break- 
fast table contest in which women's clubs of the 
city participate. Each club provides a table and 
furnishes it completely with china, table linen and 
centerpiece. The display, roped off, is easily visi- 

39 



40 



WORLD AT PLAY 




Keep Your Pitching 
Horseshoe Equipment 

UP-TO-DATE 

Write for catalog of the DIAMOND 
line of horseshoes and accessories, 
the complete line of official equip- 
ment. It includes : 

Many Styles of Horseshoes 

Official Courts Stakes 

Stake Holders Carrying Cases 

Rule Books Score Pads 

DIAMOND CALK HORSESHOE CO. 



4610 Grand Arenu* 
DULUTH, MINN. 



"Jbrfy Approaches to 
Informal Singing" 



Price $.25 



Just off the press a 
pamphlet of suggestions 
by Siebolt H. Frieswyk of 
the staff of the National 
Recreation Association for 
some interesting methods 
of varying group singing 
and making it even more 
enjoyable than it would 
otherwise be. Helpful dia- 
grams are included. 



National 
Recreation Association 

315 Fourth Avenue New York City 



ble to visitors who enjoy expressing opinions on 
the entries. Two of last year's most successful 
entries expressed, respectively, the religious and 
the non-religious aspects of Easter. The first table 
was set with heavy white damask and delicate 
gold-banded white china. An exquisite small 
modernistic statue of the Madonna in clear colors 
surrounded by a low arrangement of narcissuses 
formed the centerpiece. A prayer-book bound in 
white and gold lay on the table. The other table 
had plum color and gold as its theme. The center- 
piece was purple anemones and yellow calendula 
in a low bowl. The china, a charming rough pot- 
tery in a lighter shade of plum, appeared to ad- 
vantage on mats of wisteria colored linen. There 
was an amusing pottery dish in the shape of a hen, 
in which colored eggs were piled. 

Activities for Girls The Recreation Depart- 
ment of Evanston, Illinois, is providing many ac- 
tivities for girls. There are forty-five after-school 
or early-evening clubs with varied programs, with 
approximately sixteen girls in each class. Many 
of the leaders are college girls employed part time. 
About once a month the leader accompanies the 
girls on an outing either at club time or on a Sat- 
urday. At Christmas time each club made three 
doll houses to be presented to welfare agencies 
for distribution. Activities for women include 
classes in gymnasium, volley ball, tap dancing, 
swimming, bowling, badminton, handcraft, piano 
instruction, softball, and hockey. Opportunities 
are offered for mixed groups in badminton. A 
shelter house was open for winter use with heat 
provided and a WPA leader placed in charge. 
Here roller skating, old-time dancing, social danc- 
ing, ping-pong, and table games were conducted. 

Rural Teachers' Open House As a gesture 
of friendliness and appreciation of the coopera- 
tion of community friends and parents of the 
students in their classes, the teachers of rural St. 
Louis County in Minnesota introduced, three 
years ago, the Teachers' Open House. To 
this event adults of the community are invited to 
enjoy the winter play areas and facilities at night 
following which entertainment of one sort or an- 
other and refreshments are provided by the local 
school faculty. The Teachers' Open House has 
been most heartily enjoyed by the community and 
faculty alike. In many communities it is fast be- 
coming a tradition and a "looked for" event. 
Twenty-three of these events were given by the 
teachers last year. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



41 



Music Week, May 7-13, 1939 Another Mu- 
sic Week is approaching as the National Music 
Week Committee again makes its appeal for a 
widespread observance of the week through ac- 
tive participation, concert attendance, and listen- 
ing in the home to the better type of musical radio 
program. As in previous years the National Com- 
mittee recommends the featuring of American 
music since the occasion offers an appropriate op- 
portunity to give recognition to our American 
composers and to acquaint the American public 
with their work. The Committee further urges 
American communities to encourage their local 
music groups. Orchestras and bands, whether 
professional or amateur, glee clubs, mixed 
choruses and chamber music groups, school or 
adult, are all an asset to any city or town, and are 
not only a stimulus to the cultural development 
of the individual member but also a means for 
enriching the life of the community. 

The National Music Week Committee, whose 
headquarters are at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New 
York City, has available a number of pamphlets 
and other material which will be helpful to local 
groups promoting observances. Information re- 
garding these publications may be secured from 
Mr. C. M. Tremaine, secretary of the Committee. 

Playgrounds First! Edward J. McCormick, 
M.D., Grand Exalted Ruler, Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks, places playgrounds first in 
the list of services which local Elks carry on. 
From Survey, February, 1939. 

News from Los Angeles Touch football is 
proving a safe and satisfying substitution for the 
regulation sport for an army of Los Angeles boys, 
according to an announcement issued by the Play- 
ground and Recreation Department. Thirty-five 
playgrounds were reported in the touch football 
tournament conducted in all sections of the city, ' 
with the grand play-off between the winners in 
eight sections of Los Angeles scheduled for De- 
cember loth. The interplayground tournament 
was held for loth, nth, and I2th grade boys in a 
number of high school auditoriums. Other boys 
from nine to fourteen years of age competed in 
intramural touch football leagues organized with- 
in each playground. 

The Lamp Clubs, which offer every Los Angeles 
girl between the ages of nine and sixteen years 
not a member of a character-building club an op- 
portunity to affiliate with a municipal group, are 




Patented 



FOR PLAYGROUNDS 

SOLVES YOUR OUTDOOR BAS- 
KETBALL EQUIPMENT PROBLEM 

One unit will provide needed 
facilities for game. 

Inexpensive Requires little space 
Will accommodate more players 

For further particular!, write 

SCHUTT MANUFACTURING CO. 

LITCHFIELD ILLINOIS 



BEN PEARSON 



Used by leading universities and tournament 
winners throughout America, Ben Pearson 
Bows and Arrows are made by master crafts- 
men, archers themselves, in America's largest 
plant devoted exclusively to fine quality 
archery equipment manufacture. 

Get New Low Price Catalogue 
Send for complete free interesting catalogue 
and Manual of Archery on care of equip- 
ment, correct shooting form, building targets, 
tournament rules, etc. 



BEN PEARSON. INC. Dept. H9 



Pine Blufi, Ark. 



to be expanded. There are now thirty- four such 
girl groups in the city. Membership entitles a girl 
to go camping, to learn woodcraft and nature 
lore, and to acquire skill in arts and crafts, home- 
making, and citizenship. 

Chicago Recreation Commission Receives 
Budget Increase The Finance Committee of 
the City Council of Chicago, Illinois, with the ap- 
proval of the Mayor has increased the appropria- 
tion to the Recreation Commission from $20,000, 
which was received by the Commission last year, 
to $25,000 for the present calendar year. 



The Twenty-Fourth National Recreation Congress 
will be held in Boston, Massachusetts 

OCTOBER 9-13, 1939 

Headquarters will be at the Hotel Statler 

Additional information will be 
issued at an early date 



42 



WORLD AT PLAY 



GROUP WORK INSTITUTE 

May 29 - June 16, 1939 

Western Reserve University 

A three weeks' institute for experienced group 
workers including credit courses in Principles of 
Group Work, Supervision in Group Work, Work with 
Individuals in Groups. The Use of the Creative Arts 
in Group Work, and Methods of Workers' Education. 
A bachelor's degree from a college of approved 
standing is required for admission. 

For information address 

SCHOOL OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES 

Western Reserve University 

Cleveland, Ohio 



Camp Education The December, 1938, is- 
sue of the Phi Delta Kappan a journal for the 
promotion of research, service, and leadership in 
education is devoted to the subject of camp 
education. It contains a number of articles on the 
subject of camping by Elmer D. Mitchell, Bernard 
S. Mason, Dr.. Henry S. Curtis, Joseph E. Maddy, 
L. H. Weir, and others. Copies of this issue may 
be secured from the executive offices of Phi Delta 
Kappan at 2034 Ridge Road, Homewood, Illinois, 
at 35 cents each. 



ADVENTURING 
in NATURE 



A venture in a comparatively new 
field of activity for the recreation 
movement, Adventuring in Nature, 
by Betty Price has already received 
favorable mention by nature 
specialists. 

With its suggestions for simple collec- 
tions, playground museums, nature 
trails, informal exploring trips, nature 
clubs, games, handcraft, and other 
activities, the book offers a wealth of 
information to recreation workers, 
club leaders, and camp counselors. 

. . . Price $ .60 

National Recreation Association 
315 Fourth Avenue, New York 



Unique Community Center Developments in 
England The magazine, Community^ the Jour- 
nal of Social Science in Birmingham, England, 
tells of the organization of the unemployed into 
community clubs. These were known as the 
Feathers Clubs inasmuch as the insignia of each 
club carried the "three feathers" of the Prince of 
Wales crest. These clubs aimed to meet the oc- 
cupational and recreational needs of the family as 
a whole and, when there was a nursery school 
available, the parents of the children automatically 
became eligible to membership, subject to ap- 
proval of the house committee. 

In 1934 a Feathers Club Association was formed 
to coordinate the activities of the present clubs 
and plan for additional clubs in the future. Un- 
employment was at first a requirement for mem- 
bership but is no longer so. The majority of the 
members have now regained employment. Each 
club has its workshop and is equipped to meet the 
occupational needs of its unemployed members. 
The clubs are in a position to link themselves up 
with other social organizations, joining in their 
classes and interchanging activities. These clubs 
are self-governing and almost entirely self-sup- 
porting except for the salaries of leaders. 

Midyear Park and Recreation Conference 

The annual Midyear Conference of Park and 
Recreation Section of the League of Wisconsin 
Municipalities was held in Madison on January 
25th and 26th. Among the topics discussed were 
the following: Does nature study provide recrea- 
tion? Who is liable for accidents in your parks? 
Where should you locate your parks and recrea- 
tion facilities? 

Boys and Girls Week The 1939 observance 
of Boys and Girls Week will begin on the morn- 
ing of April 29th and conclude on the evening of 
May 6th. From the National Boys and Girls 
Week Committee, Room 950, 35 East Wacker 
Drive, Chicago, Illinois, may be secured an il- 
lustrated folder known as the Advance Herald for 
Boys and Girls Week which is designed to stimu- 
late interest in the event. There is also available 
a manual of suggestions giving detailed instruc- 
tions for the carrying out of the program out- 
lined in the Advance Herald. Copies of these two 
publications may be secured free of charge from 
the Committee of which S. Kendrick Guernsey is 
secretary. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



43 



The Irene Kaufmann Settlement Celebrates 
Its Forty-fourth Anniversary The Irene Kauf- 
mann Settlement of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, of 
which Sidney A. Teller is director, received from 
Henry Kaufmann an additional gift of $100,000 
recently. Since 1908 Mr. Kaufmann has given 
more than $2,000,000 to the Settlement which was 
founded by Mr. and Mrs. Kaufmann as a me- 
morial to their daughter, Irene. This year the 
Settlement is celebrating its forty-fourth anni- 
versary, and at its annual meeting it presented a 
"living" annual report which consisted of demon- 
strations of the work of the Settlement instead of 
long reports, speeches, and statistics. 

An Indian Village A large and modern 
trailer camp is being erected in connection with 
the New York World's Fair in which there will 
be many recreational facilities. An Indian Village 
is being planned where parents may leave their 
children under the care of practical nurses and 
recreation workers. For others there will be fa- 
cilities for shuffleboard, horseshoe pitching, hand- 
ball, and a large outdoor swimming pool. Other 
recreational facilities will consist of a library with 
a reading room, a game room, and an outdoor 
movie. 




SPORTS EQUIPMENT 

For Playground and 
Recreational Departments 

Complete Line of 
j x^- Equipment for all Sports 




THE P. GOLDSMITH SONS, Inc. 

JOHN AND FINDLAY STS., CINCINNATI, OHIO 



Dancing in Richmond The Bureau of Parks 
and Recreation, Department of Public Works, 
Richmond, Virginia, is stressing the organization 
of dancing groups. Square dancing clubs are be- 
ing successfully organized, and two are in opera- 
tion with twenty to twenty-five couples in each. 
There are two social dancing clubs with a mem- 
bership of two hundred older boys and girls who 
meet each week. The social dances are supervised 
by leaders from the Bureau, and there are present 
chaperons from the neighborhood. 

An Annual Spring Festival The thirteenth 
Annual Spring Festival of the English Folk Dance 
and Song Society of America will be held on the 
afternoon of April 2Qth at the Seventh Regiment 
Armory, Park Avenue, New York City. Of this 
annual festival John Martin, dance critic of the 
New York Times says, "It constituted one of the 
major dance events in New York." 

Over 600 dancers from various Eastern cen- 
ters will participate that afternoon. By far the 
greatest number participating are adults, the ma- 
jority of whom do the English dances as a hobby 



and find that they offer them exercises and a 
highly enjoyable recreation of a social nature. The 
festival climaxes the season's dance activities and 
offers a spectacle of great beauty. The program 
will include Morris, Sword and Country Dances, 
the latter both English and related American. A 
large number of the country dances this year will 
be danced by the entire body of participants at 
one time. This massed dancing is considered one 
of the highlights of the festival because of its 
great beauty of color, movement and pattern. 

Mrs. Arthur O. Choate is chairman of the Fes- 
tival; Miss May Gadd, Director of the Society, 
will direct the program. Information may be se- 
cured from the headquarters of the Society at 15 
East 4Oth Street, New York City. 



Sunbeams for Footlights 

(Continued from page 4) 

larger area for spectators, corresponding to the 
auditorium under roof. There should be no pro- 
vision made for permanent seats in a theater of 
this type. The seating in the auditorium, which 



44 



SUNBEAMS FOR FOOTLIGHTS 



1001 CRAFT IDEAS 
in this New CATALOG 



Ideas ! At Craft Service 
practical craftsmen are 
continually developing new 
handicrafts, from a large 
stock of standard and hard- 
to-find projects, supply kits, 
other welcome ideas. Spe- 
cial discounts to recreation 
leaders. Free. Write today. 
Please mention your or- 
ganization. 




FREE! 

Send for 
1939 Copy 

Write Dept. 92 



CRAFT SERVICE 



360 University Ave. 
Rochester. N. Y. 



is usually a turf area, should be directly on the 
lawn, or in portable seats. The element of bal- 
ance is emphasized by symmetry in this type of 
theater. Wings and background of plant materi- 
als, well-screened backstage area, a definite stage 
apron, and often a sloping amphitheater, are char- 
acteristic elements of the design. In many ways 
this type of theater corresponds to the "garden" 
theaters associated with schools and college cam- 
puses, and large private estates. Its size, shape 
and general construction will again depend on 
existing conditions and needs. 

The illustration of a proposed play field-park 
for Watertown, South Dakota, shows a theater of 
the formal type. It is interesting to note here the 
sloping auditorium, the dry wall forming the 
apron of the elevated stage, the formal arrange- 
ment of clipped plant material wings and back- 
ground, and the well-screened ample backstage 
area. There are various approaches both to the 
auditorium and the stage. The introduction of 
trees in connection with the screen planting of 
shrubbery adds much to the sky line and mass 
effect of the planting. 

In the design of a playground theater the rela- 
tion to other recreational facilities must be taken 
into consideration. In a multiple use program its 
function as a theater may be secondary. Every 
playground should provide some area for quiet 
games and outdoor handcraft. It is logical to con- 
sider the theater either a part of or adjacent to 
this area. The theater should be removed as far 
as possible from the vicinity of noisy and active 
games and should be within easy access to the 
entrance of the playground. It should never be 
necessary for children to cross active play areas 
in order to reach it. If possible it should be con- 
venient to the shelter building or point of control. 



Simplicity should be the keynote of the design, 
regardless of the type of theater selected for the 
playground. Care must be taken in the selection 
of plant material from the standpoint of texture, 
type of growth, and hardiness. The arrangement 
of these plant materials should be functional as 
well as attractive to the eye. When not in use the 
playground theater is a definite landscape feature 
of the area and is a means of introducing beauty 
into an otherwise unsightly spot. There are many 
playgrounds which are bare of trees and shrubs on 
which it is difficult to visualize such a develop- 
ment. This is especially true in playgrounds ex- 
hibiting a pronounced evidence of overuse. Un- 
for^unately all playgrounds are not beauty spots 
and much can be done to give the necessary 
aesthetic touch, through judicious and simple 
planting. 

If a playground is fortunate enough to possess 
one or two trees, or possibly a group of trees in 
some favorable spot, then these may form the 
nucleus around which the theater may unfold. 

NOTE : The construction of playground theaters will be 
discussed in a future issue. 



May Day Celebrations 

(Continued from page 8) 

Episode III Coronation of May Queen. The 
Herald announces the coming of the May Queen 
and her court. The procession is led by the shep- 
herdesses, who form an arch through which pass 
the Queen, her ladies-in-waiting, the Queen's 
court, jesters, pages, and flower girls, to the ac- 
companiment of De Smetsky's "Marche Royale." 
All sing "Happy Days" by De Koven, as the 
Queen mounts her throne and is crowned with 
due ceremony. The shepherdesses then entertain 
the Queen with a minuet. As they finish their 
dance, the villagers call to the jesters to entertain 
the Queen, and they do so by characterizing 
Hofer's "Juggler Dance." 

Following this, the milkmaids dance "Gathering 
Peascods." At completion, a group of gypsies run 
in and take places for their dance, for which the 
music of the "Italian Peasant Dance" may be 
used. At completion of dance, the Burgomaster 
announces to the crowd : 

"Hear Ye! Hear Ye! The Archery Contest! The 

Archery Contest! 

All archers are invited to participate. The winner 
will be given a place among the King's Forest- 
ers, and he who shoots straightest of all will be 
given the prize of a golden arrow. 
Archers, to your places !" 




use 



GULF OIL CORPORATION 
GULF REFINING COMPANY 




the modern dust allayer 



HERE'S an ideal product for dust allaying pur- 
poses on earth surfaces. Gulf Sani-Soil-Set 
another sensational development by Gulf's re- 
search technologists offers a practical solu- 
tion to the dust problem on playgrounds, ten- 
nis courts, athletic fields, parking lots, etc. 

One application of Gulf Sani-Soil-Set per 
season will usually do the job. Properly applied, 
it will not track or harm shoes or clothing. 

Don't let another season pass without getting 
the benefit of this inexpensive dust allayer. 

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 

GULF OIL CORPORATION GULF REFINING COMPANY, 
I General Offices: Gulf Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. R 

Please send me without obligation a copy of the booklet "Gulf { 
^ Sani-Soil-Set for Treating Playgrounds. 



GENERAL OFFICES: GULF BUILDING, 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 



Name . . 
Title . . . 
Address 




46 



PHILIP H. SLOCUM 



for 






Safe 

MITCH 

WRITE FOR INFORMATION : 

MITCHELL MFC. CO 



LI PLAY APPARATUS 
I- POOL EQUIPMENT 



DEPT. RM-4 



MILWAUKEE. WIS. 



During the archery contest, the first and second 
movement from "Round of Country Dances" by 
Dorothy Berliner may be played. Robin Hood 
and his Merry Men take their turn in the archery 
match. Robin, the winner, is awarded the golden 
arrow, which he presents, ceremoniously, to the 
Queen. The villagers then all join in the "Morris 
Stick Dance" to the music of Grainger's "Shep- 
herd's Hey." 

Following this, all sing the "Morris Dance 



Swimming Pool Data and 
Reference Annual 

(1938 Edition. Vol. VI) 

$3.00 Prepaid 

220 pages filled with a vast 
assortment of informative 
material for those interested 
in swimming pools in anyway. 



EARL K. COLLINS, Editor 

425 Fourth Avenue New York, N. Y. 



Make all checks, money orders, etc., 
payable to Earl K. Collins 



Philip H. Slocum 

Ox FEBRUARY /th Philip H. Slocum, Director 
of the Joliet, Illinois, Bureau of Recreation, 
died after an attack of angina pectoris. For fifteen 
years Mr. Slocum had been in charge of the recrea- 
tion program in Joliet, and his passing came as a 
shock to the entire community. 

Philip Slocum's first recreational experience 
was gained before the World War in work with 
the Y.M.C.A., in New Bedford, Massachusetts, 
and Newport, Rhode Island. After service in the 
war he returned to New Bedford where he opened 
the first community center at Catherine Street 
School and was active in organizing recreation 
activities for boys. Two years later, in 1921, he 
went to Richmond, Indiana, to take charge of the 
recreation program. In 1923 he took up his work 
in Joliet. 

Speaking of the widespread influence Mr. Slo- 
cum exerted, the Joliet Herald News said : 

"Philip Slocum possessed a rare gift of organi- 
zation, a surpassing ability to win the cooperation 
of any individuals or groups with whom he 
worked. Whether he was developing a single 
child's interest in a new game or directing a league 
of four thousand players, he always successfully 
attained his objective. The players inevitably 
benefited from their association with the recrea- 
tion director. Unconsciously he taught rules of 
the game of life not found in books. By his own 
perpetual practice he taught the finest sportsman- 
ship, fair play, self-control. The death of Mr. 
Slocum was mourned today by men high in city 
affairs, and by men and women and boys and 
girls who loved him as their playtime leader." 

Song" by German. As they finish singing, the 
shepherdesses take their places and dance "Green 
Sleeves." Upon completion, the revellers take 
center of stage and proclaim : 

"Come all ye lads and lasses, 
Join in the festive scene, 
Come dance around the Maypoles 
That will stand upon the green." 

As all groups run to the Maypole and remain in 
place, the Queen's attendants dance to Schubert's 
"Greeting." When they finish, they give a signal 
to the Maypole dancers to commence their dance. 
At completion of the Maypole dance, all sing De 
Koven's "Farewell to Old Sherwood." 

The Herald then announces the end of the 
revel, all groups triumphantly leave the stage 



SCIENCE INDOORS AND OUT 



47 





Re -Equip Old Swing Outfits with 




Nothing is finer for a playground than swings. And good EverWear 
Safety Swing Seats with rubber-cushioned ends, edges and corners are 
one of the best investments you'll ever make ... in fun ... good 
exercise . . . and playground SAFETY. 

The rubber cushion-and-steel construction of these seats is a patented 
feature exclusive with EverWear. A spring steel core is surrounded by 
tubular rubber resilient as balloons. All horizontal blows and shocks are 
absorbed, disfiguring cuts prevented. It will pay you to insist on 
EverWear Safety Swing Seats. They will make your playground SAFER. 

Address Dept. R for complete details and Catalog No. 30 NOW 
Send for Catalog No. 28W describing complete line of BEACH and POOL Equipment 

THE EVERWEAR MANUFACTURING COMPANY SPRINGFIELD, OHIO 



All edges, ends and cor- 
ners are deeply cush- 
ioned with flexible tubu- 
lar rubber to absorb 
shocks and blows. Notice 
how deeply the cush- 
ioned rubber ends of the 
seat can be bent to pre- 
vent any dangerous ef- 
fects of a blow to the 
child's bead. AH seat 
surfaces are non-slip. Suspension clevises are re- 
versible so that both sides of seat may be used. 
Interior frame is strongly braced spring steel. 



in the following way : Jesters, Queen, her attend- 
ants, Burgomaster, Robin Hood and his Merry 
Men, dancing groups, and villagers. The music 
for the recession is "The Village" from "Scenes 
Poetizue" by Gedard. This is played until groups 
are completely out of sight. 

NOTE: The important thing to remember in this fes- 
tival is the spirit injected into it by the May Day merry- 
makers, all of whom remain on the scene after complet- 
ing their dance. This spirit reaches a high climax of 
expression when all cheer and applaud after each dance 
or song. Quiet, eager interest is evinced by all during 
each number, which should progress without any stops or 
breaks. 



Science Indoors and Out 

(Continued from page 12) 

General Electric Company awarded the Science 
Department of the Elizabeth Peabody House 
its Thomas Edison Medal for outstanding work 
in promoting science activities for children. 

Now opportunities for enlarging our science 
work open up almost every day. We are con- 
vinced that science, indoors and out, offers 



one of the best possible opportunities for 
children. It aids their general educational de- 
velopment, helps them to a keener interest in 
life, and points out that interest toward a 
creative future, either as a vocation or avoca- 
tion. Equally important is their fresh young 
interest in present constructive activities, their 
acquaintance with nature and its wonders, and 
a resultant awareness of the possibilities of 
creation and conservation which help to make 
them responsible young citizens. Such training 
cannot help but have an important effect on 
their characters and daily lives and make them 
better able to plan for and direct their own 
future. 



Leadership^ Organization and Program 
Making in Boys' Club Groups 

(Continued from page 19) 

part of the club program. Just as the leader should 
be alert to discover new and expanding interests, 
so he should be alert to observe waning interests 
and to foresee the death of an activity. When he 



48 



DRAMATICS FOR THE CAMP COMMUNITY 



A 

5 MONTHS 
TRIAL 
OFFER 

. your opportunity 

to really become acquainted with one 
of the most stimulating and helpful 
school magazines. 5 months' trial 
offer of the 

Junior Arts and Activities 
magazine for only 

*I.OO 

... our opportunity 

to prove to you the reason teachers 
are turning to this new type of crea- 
tive schoolwork and methods. Un- 
equalled in the amount of usable proj- 
ect material in each issue. If not en- 
tirely satisfied with first copy your 
money will be refunded. Mail today, 
your name, address and a dollar bill, 
and receive the next five issues of 




Junior Arts & Activities 

DEPT. R 

740 Rush Street Chicago, Illinois 



sees that the boys are losing interest in something 
they have been doing, he should guide them in 
making new program plans. 

The leader should freely use the abilities of 
persons with special talents in guiding the develop- 
ment of the program. It is not at all necessary for 
a good leader to be a jack-of-all-trades in leisure 
time activities. Obviously, the leader should seek to 
develop his knowledge and abilities along all the 
lines of endeavor which the boys may undertake, 
but he should also not hesitate to use persons in 
the community with specialized abilities when the 
effective development of the program calls for 
specialized knowledge and skill. Leaders should 
not attempt to give boys the impression that they 
know everything. Often the fullest growth pos- 
sible comes when leader and boys set out to ac- 
quire together certain informations and skills. All 
club work should be a process of mutual sharing, 
learning, and enjoying. 



Dramatics for the Camp Community 

(Continued from page 24) 

However, there is a growing list of short and 
entertaining plays for children which carry no 
royalty. Such lists may be obtained from the 
National Recreation Association or from the 
National Service Bureau of the Federal 
Theater Project, WPA, 1697 Broadway, New 
York City. 

Since many of these plays are scattered 
through various more or less expensive an- 
thologies of one-act plays, the best thing for 
the young dramatics counsellor to do is to 
type, during the previous winter, copies of all 
the useful plays she can get hold of in the 
public library or borrow from friends and ac- 
quaintances. Several carbons should be made 
of each play for the use of the leading actors 
in the camp production. (Hand copying by the 
children, after the play is cast, causes a dis- 
tressing delay in beginning rehearsals, and also 
reduces by just that much drudgery the fun 
of the whole proceeding.) On each manuscript 
there should be careful notes as to royalty 
and publishers. In this way the director may 
build up an excellent library of plays situable 
to camps. Of course, when plays can be ob- 
tained inexpensively printed, it is highly desirable 
to have them in this form. 

There are also a number of good books on 
the various phases of directing, producing, and 



RECREATION ACTIVITIES IN STATE PARKS 



49 



teaching dramatics that should be included in 
the camp dramatics counsellor's personal 
library. If I were able to own only a few 
books which would help me as a director of 
camp dramatics, I believe I should choose the 
following volumes first : Creative Dramatics, Wini- 
fred Ward; The Process of Play Production, 
Crafton and Royer, or Acting and Play Produc- 
tion, Andrews and Weirick; Seven to Seventeen, 
Alexander Dean (plays) ; Ritual and Dramatised 
Folkzvays, Jasspon and Becker (plays), and Con- 
stance D'arcy Mackay's books of children's 
plays. If in addition the dramatics counsellor 
owns a good book or two of ballads and story 
poems, and has stored in her head (or on 
paper if necessary) a fund of appealing stories 
full of action and dramatic possibilities, she 
should have plenty of literary dramatic material 
to last for quite some time. The rest of her 
material is a thing of imagination, and if she 
has that, she really will not have to worry 
too much about the limited library she may 
happen to have available. 

Plays which are useful for camp should 
usually be lively and full of action, the speeches 
short, the parts fairly evenly divided among 
the various actors, the costumes easy to im- 
provise from the materials at hand, and the 
setting simple and capable of quick change. 
Also, when the camp is for only boys, or only 
girls, it is necessary to find a play in which it 
is not too hard for the children to play parts 
that would normally be assigned to the op- 
posite sex. This would mean cutting out the 
all-too-common type of comedy in modern 
dress. 

In planning the whole program for the 
summer, it is also best to provide for variety 
in the kind of plays to be given, so that the 
dramatic fare may be well balanced. The 
plays need not be of uniformly high calibre, 
but there are enough good plays for children 
available to prevent the necessity of resorting 
to trash. Even when entertainment is the chief 
end in view, camp dramatics can be kept at a 
fairly high intellectual, moral and artistic 
level. It is the responsibility of the camp 
dramatics counsellor to see that this level is 
maintained, not only for the sake of the 
audience, but more particularly that the camp- 
ers participating may benefit to the full by 
working in a worthwhile dramatic atmosphere. 

NOTE : Miss Hall's article will be continued in the May 
issue of RECREATION. 



Recreation Activities in 
State Parks 

RECREATION PROGRAMS in state parks under the 
leadership of Works Progress Administration 
workers are proving very popular, according to a 
resume prepared by WPA at its Washington 
headquarters. The experiences on which the re- 
port is based cover at least six states and approxi- 
mately twenty-five parks within these states. 

In most instances the recreation program oper- 
ated by WPA is sponsored by the state agency in 
charge of state parks usually called the State De- 
partment or Division of State Parks. From one 
to seven leaders are being supplied to an indi- 
vidual park according to its size, attendance, and 
the type of program conducted. The leaders are 
usually under the supervision of the WPA dis- 
trict or county or area supervisor in whose terri- 
tory the park is located. 

There are no reliable statistics available on the 
individuals coming to the parks and participating 
in the programs. It is estimated, however, that 
from 45 to 65 per cent of the participants are 
adults. Park attendance varied from 10,000 for a 
season in one park to 60,000 for one week end in 
another. The individuals included campers who 
stayed overnight or for a longer period, tourists 
who were in the park for only a short time, and 
people from near-by communities who came to the 
park for only special occasions. 

The recreation program is operated mainly in 
the summer for periods of about seventy-five days. 
Many of the state park officials, however, have 
become so enthusiastic over the program that they 
have asked to have it carried through the winter. 

The duties of the recreation leaders in the parks 
vary greatly, including the following: acting as 
host or hostess; planning a recreation program 
and directing people in activities'; keeping a bul- 
letin board or some other means of informing the 
public on the activities offered ; organizing people 
of neighboring communities to attend programs in 
the park and to use the park facilities for their 
special events, festivals and play-offs of league 
games, and organizing leagues and groups among 
the campers in the parks. 

The recreation program includes a wide range 
of activities nature study, arts and crafts, pup- 
pets and marionettes, hiking, camp fire programs, 
community singing, dramatics, festivals, games 
and sports of all kinds, horseback riding, first aid 
instruction, swimming and water sports, and win- 
ter sports. 



50 



A NEIGHBORHOOD MAKES ITS OWN PLAYGROUND 



CHARACTER 
AND CITIZENSHIP 

brings each month to its readers a story 
of what community organizations, insti- 
tutions, and agencies are doing or 
not doing 

To lay the foundation for good citizenship 

To build good character 

To develop personality 

To solve community problems 

To safeguard democratic institutions 

To improve family life 

To promote recreation and good health 

To encourage cooperative activities 

The magazine is the medium of expres- 
sion for the National Council on Educa- 
tion for Character and Citizenship. It is 
of particular value to: 

Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. Secretaries and 
Directors 

Boy and Girl Scout Executives 
Parent-Teacher Association Officers 
Leaders of Youth Clubs and Activities 
Directors of Recreation 

Leaders of Other Character Building 
Agencies 

Miss Maria Leonard, Dean of Women, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, says: "I wish to tell you how 
much help I feel CHARACTER AND CITIZENSHIP 
is to us who are trying to build youth. The name 
of the magazine itself emphasizes the two great- 
est goals in building youth. The sooner that 
character and citizenship can be made the basis 
not only of all human relations but of education 
itself, the sooner a new era will be ushered into 
America." 



Send your order to 

National Council on Education 
for Character and Citizenship 



5732 HARPER AVENUE 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



j* 

> Please record my name as a sub 
scriber to CHARACTER AND CITIZEN- 
SHIP as checked below. 

One year subscription at $2.00 



NAME 

ADDRESS 

CITY ... ... STATE 



Nat. Rec. 



A Neighborhood Makes Its Own 
Playground 

(Continued from page 27) 

teered to make the proper grades, and near-by 
factories loaned drills to break up the cement and 
iron pipes. 

When all the preliminary work was completed 
last fall, the playground association sponsored an 
opening ceremony. This included a monster pa- 
rade in which 700 children marched, some of them 
carrying placards which read: "i,455 children and 
no playground, so we made one." The other pla- 
cards read: "Play is life for the child." Field day 
contests at which public officials officiated were 
also a part of the program. 

The playground association, in a series of meet- 
ings, has planned for future developments. Start- 
ing this spring there will be handball, volleyball, 
tether ball, baseball practice, horseshoe courts, and 
paddle tennis for the older boys and girls. There 
will also be several bocci alleys for the Italian 
fathers and a small children's area with sand 
boxes, swings, and slides. Activities will be su- 
pervised by members of the association with the 
help of several Central Square Center volunteer 
leaders who live in the neighborhood. During the 
winter- the association sponsored two dances at 
which a considerable sum of money was raised for 
playground equipment. 

The entire project aside from reaching its main 
objective, that of giving the many children in the 
neighborhood a safe place to play, has accom- 
plished much in addition. It has to its credit the 
splendid achievement of having changed the atti- 
tude of many individuals. Boys who formerly 
had a reputation for destructiveness are now work- 
ing to improve the playground. Parents, now edu- 
cated to the value of wholesome play and recrea- 
tion, are taking full advantage of the many 
opportunities at the settlements and recreation 
centers. 



The Multiple Use of Recreation 
Facilities 

(Continued from page 29) 

We have found it advisable to hard surface 
all of the play areas of limited size in con- 
gested areas as such a type of development will 
serve a great many more people than it will 
if the earth surface is retained. An asphalt 
surface of a play area of sufficient size in a 
(Continued on page 52) 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



51 



Twenty-five Years Old 

A FAMILY SUPPER and neighborhood program 
featuring activities of the rural countryside 
was a fitting opening ceremony on February 5, 
1939, to the twenty-fifth anniversary and found- 
ing of the Little Country Theater, at the North 
Dakota Agricultural College, Fargo. The famous 
little theater, founded by Alfred G. Arvold, was 
once a dingy, dull chapel. It is today a country 
life laboratory typifying the average neighbor- 
hood community center in a small town or the 
open country. 

During the four days which followed oppor- 
tunities were given for the public to inspect the 
theater and study its operation; plays were pre- 
sented; demonstrations in make-up, costuming, 
sound and lighting were given; and a speech 
clinic held. Addresses and symposiums on vari- 
ous phases of drama and rural social life were 
other features of the program. From throughout 
the state came 4-H Club puppeteers, talented in- 
dividuals representing rural community and 
homemaker clubs, bands, choruses, and other mu- 
sical groups all examples of home talent that 
had been developed in rural communities. 

Membership of a male chorus which performed 
consisted of eight farmers, three farm laborers, 
two painters, two teachers, two students, a clerk, 
mail carrier, minister, carpenter and blacksmith. 
The representative of one community not only 
told how he had made a violin from a cedar 
fence-post, but also played it. On display were 
hobbies of rural folk including a mounted butter- 
fly collection, miniature stage settings, marion- 
ettes, character dolls, lighting effects, and rare 
books on the theater and country life. 

The climax to the silver jubilee celebration was 
an evening devoted to "Plays of the Yesteryears," 
highlighted by a series of tableaux and short ex- 
cerpts from many of the dramas that had been 
presented in the Little Country Theater in years 
past, including such well known productions as 
"Little Women," "Peter Pan," "Peer Gynt," 
"Elizabeth, the Queen," "The Good Earth," "Dr. 
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," "Cappy Ricks," "David 
Harum," and others. Taking part in the program 
were college students and graduates who came 
from many communities, representing many 
vocations. 

It was a gala event and a great tribute to the 
Little Country Theater and the influence it has 
had on the lives of individuals and communities. 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

Recently Received Containing Articles \ 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker ( 



MAGAZINES 

Minnesota Municipalities, February 1939 

"Crookston's New Winter Sports Arena" 

Camping World, February 1939 

"Summer Camp Insurance, Fire Insurance Part I" 
by Norman M. Godnick. This is the first of a 
series of articles on camp insurance appearing in 
Camping World. 

School and Society, February 11, 1939 

The Association of American Colleges and the Social 
Security Act 

School and Society, February 18, 1939 

"The 'Love of Strenuous Activity Among College 
Women' Myth" by Mary C. Baker 

Progressive Education, December 1938 

"Some General Characteristics of Adolescence" by 
Caroline B. Zachry 

Character and Citizenship, March 1939 

"Beyond School Walls" by Paul J. Misner 
"Conservation and Citizenship" by W. P. Beard 
"Guidance A Community Approach" 
by Agnes Samuelson 

The Journal of Health and Physical Education 

March 1939 

"I Have to Teach Recreation" by Mabel Madden 

National Parent-Teacher, March 1939 

"Rating with the Group" 'by Gertrude Chittenden 

The Regional Review, February 1939 

"The Human Factor in Recreation Planning" 
by R. C. Robinson 

Junior League, March 1939 

"Why Be a Volunteer?" Mary Cooper Robb 

PAMPHLETS 

First Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public 
Recreation, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1938. 

Thirty-Second Annual Report, Board of Recreation Com- 
missioners, East Orange, New Jersey, 1938. 

Twenty-Fourth Annual Report, Department of Recrea- 
tion, Detroit, Michigan, 1938 

Annual Recreation Report of the Department of Recre- 
ation, Provo City, Utah 

January 1st to December 31st, 1938 

Annual Report, Playground and Recreation Association 
of Wyoming Valley, W ilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, 1938 

Annual Report, Mount Vernon Recreation Commission, 
Mount Vernon, New York 1938 

1938 Winter Bulletin, Department of Recreation, Detroit, 
Michigan 

Annual Report, Recreation Department, Austin, Texas, 

1938 

Annual Report 1938, Department of Recreation, Kala- 
mazoo, Michigan 

Annual Report 1938, Recreation Commission, 
Plainfield, N. J. 

Facts About Recreation in Davenport 1938 
Department of Recreation, Davenport, Iowa 



52 



WRITING FOR PUBLICATION 



First Annual Report 1938, Kane Playground 

Kane, Pennsylvania 

Annual Report 1938 Park Department, Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma 

Annual Report 1938, Recreation Department, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

Annual Report 1938, Department of Recreation, 
Two Rivers, Wisconsin 

Seasonal Report of City Playgrounds 1938, 
Salem, Oregon 

Annual Report 1938, Miles City W.P.A. Recreation, 
Miles City, Montana 

Annual Report 1938, Houston Recreation Department, 
Houston, Texas 

Annual Report of the Delaware County Park and Recre- 
ation Board 1938, Media, Pa. 

Annual Report Board of Park Commissioners for Year 
Ending March 31, 1938, Winnetka, Illinois 

Annual Report Community Service 1938, 

Memorial Community House, Whiting, Indiana 

Annual Report 1938, Recreation Department, 
Portland, Maine 

Homestead District Playgrounds, Supervisor's Report 

1938, Pennsylvania 

Annual Report 1938, Bureau of Recreation, Department 
of Public Works, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

What's Ahead for Rural America? 

Youth Section, American Country Life Association, 
March 1939, 744 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C., 
price $.15 

Social Relationships and Institutions in an Established 
Rurban Community, South Holland, Illinois 

by L. S. Dodson, Resettlement Administration, 
Washington, D. C. 

The Bulletin of The Association of College Unions, 

The Report of Proceedings of the Nineteenth An- 
nual Convention held at the Minnesota Union, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, De- 
cember 1-3, 1938. 



The Multiple Use of Recreation Facilities 

(Continued from page 50) 

congested area also makes available an area 
which can be used by both children and adults 
for many activities, including roller skating, 
softball, basketball, and volley ball. 

The multiple use of community recreational 
facilities is extremely important in providing 
the widest possible use of facilities and in help- 
ing to solve problems of children's play and 
of the leisure of adults. 



degrees F; time, 25 minutes. Ice when cold with confec- 
tioner's sugar frosting if desired. 



A Lollipop Land Party 

(Continued from page 33) 

Chill. Mix the powdered sugar and flour together and 
spread on a board. Drop nut mixture onto this, knead 
lightly, and roll out to Y* inch in thickness. Cut out with 
doll and animal cookie cutters and place on a buttered 
cookie sheet. Bake in a preheated oven : temperature, 325 



Music for Lollipop Lady: Victor Record No. 11832, 
dream pantomime from "Hansel and Gretel." $1.50 plus 
postage from G. Schirmer Inc., 3 East 43rd Street, New 
York City. Or secure from your local music dealer. 

"Twice 55 Games with Music" The Red Book. C. C. 
Birchard and Co., 221 Columbus Avenue, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. Edition containing words and melodies, 25# ; 
complete edition with musical accompaniment, 75<f. 

"Who's Afraid of the Big, Bad Wolf." Irving Berlin 
Inc., 799 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Or secure 
from vour local music dealer. 



Writing for Publication 

(Continued from page 34) 

and there were more to pick from. The result was 
a somewhat larger and much more attractive num- 
ber, although this time we unfortunately used a 
faulty machine for cutting some of the stencils 
and so the press work was somewhat less appeal- 
ing. But we ran more cuts this time and they 
greatly enhanced the finished work. Our second 
annual banquet was the occasion of the introduc- 
tion of our second publication to our public. 

One incident serves to illustrate the possibilities 
of such a project. One of our members wrote a 
short play called "Meet the Professor" which we 
published in our second volume. This play so ap- 
pealed to the boy who assisted with the mimeo- 
graphing that he asked for permission to use the 
play in the grade school he attends. One can 
imagine the thrill that afforded the girl who wrote 
the play! 

The recreational value of our Writers' Club and 
the stimulating results achieved by our publica- 
tion have gone far toward popularizing recrea- 
tional writing in our community. The project has 
caught the public fancy and each meeting of the 
club brings added applications for membership. 
We are doing things, and we are growing. A few 
months ago we were privileged to broadcast a 
program over a radio hook-up. That provided a 
great deal of fun. 

Already, with our latest issue barely off the 
press, plans are being formulated for publishing 
a bigger and better issue for the current year, 
with more and better articles and more cuts. The 
annual banquet and with it the appearance of the 
current issue of the club magazine has already be- 
come a fixed tradition ! 

We cannot help but wonder why so little atten- 
tion is accorded writers in our recreation pro- 
grams. Surely no form of recreation is more 



PLAY SPACE IN NEW NEIGHBORHOODS 



53 



wholesome, more stimulating, and more produc- 
tive of constructive results, than that of writing. 
Most people would like to write. Many of them 
have tried it at one time or another, and would 
again, if they could receive the stimulus afforded 
by an organized group such as our Mesa Writers' 
Club enjoys. 



Play Space in New Neighborhoods 

(Continued from page 36) 

be carried on without leadership. Thus lawns may 
be used for croquet, badminton, paddle tennis, 
group games and paved courts and other areas for 
showers, shuffleboard, hopscotch and other court 
games. The outdoor areas should be supplemented 
by such indoor facilities as game rooms, work 
shops and rooms suitable for parties and a variety 
of group activities. Both indoor and outdoor fa- 
cilities and areas should be included in the recrea- 
tion plan. 

Finance and Administration 
Some of the most troublesome problems in con- 
nection with recreation areas in housing projects 
relate to finance and administration. Satisfactory 
solutions for them are likely to be found only as 
realtors and public authorities sit down and work 
them out together. It is pertinent at the outset to 
work out a definite plan for assuring proper oper- 
ation and maintenance. The problem of leader- 
ship should also be faced in considering planning 
and design. Certain types of play space may bet- 
ter be omitted than provided without adequate 
supervision. In a number of cities leadership at 
recreation areas in housing projects is now fur- 
nished by the local recreation department. 



The National Recreation Association 

(Continued from page 37) 

It wants to see schools and colleges everywhere 
cut loose from the rank tradition that star teams 
must be developed at all costs regardless of the 
rest of the student body, who can merely buy 
tickets to see the few play and who get exercise 
only for their vocal cords. 

In other words, it wants to see general partici- 
pation as against meager participation. 

It wants to see such agencies as the Y.M.C.A. 
and the Y.W.C.A., the Boy and Girl Scouts, the 
Camp Fire Girls, the Hebrew and Catholic cen- 
ters, and the social settlements flourish. 

Finally, the National Recreation Association 
trusts that in the interests of a still better and 



" Roads to Music Appreciation " 

By A. D. ZANZIG 

A brief statement of the essentials of musical 
growth for listeners and some descriptions of 
fundamental ways of proceeding in these 
essentials will be found in this pamphlet. 

Designed to provide a short cut for the leader 
or teacher to basic insights into the purposes, 
the choices of music, and the procedures 
through which he himself can work in this 
field, it will also serve as an introductory 
guide for the mere listener and for the 
recreation or educational director who wishes 
to gain in a short time a better understanding 
of what his music teacher or leader is striving 
to do. A helpful bibliography is given. 

Price $ .25 



National Recreation Association 

315 Fourth Avenue New York City 



more glorious America there will come about 
general and genuine conviction in high and low 
places that "Man does not live by bread alone," 
and further that "Depending upon the use made 
of it, leisure can degrade or elevate people. ... It 
can bring everlasting grief or minister to con- 
tinuing happiness. The use of this gift of mar- 
ginal time, by individual and nation, veritably 
involves human destiny." 



You Asked for It! 

(Continued from page 38) 

The regular Sunday night combined church 
services in the bandshell are carried through the 
loudspeakers so that people may sit any place in 
the park and hear plainly. 

At the bandshell the public all-playground 
demonstrations and exhibits are augmented by 
sound for musical accompaniment announcements. 
Talent shows are produced with the playground 
master of ceremonies in charge. The regular city 
band concerts held in the bandshell during the 
tourist season are amplified for solos and an- 
nouncements by the public address system. 

The annual Fourth-of-July "Pow Wow" cele- 
bration uses three public address systems for 



54 



YOU ASKED FOR IT! 



various group control uses. Ours was used for 
"barking" in front of the marionette concession. 

The public address system is rented to organi- 
zations for private dances and allowed to use rec- 
ords free; this pays for the recordings for the 
whole department. 

We hope to arrange time for use of the system 
and the bandshell for quartette and other im- 
promptu singing, and for the development of 
music appreciation. The police department is con- 
sidering the use of the system for traffic warnings 
at downtown intersections. Microphone tests 
for good speaking and singing voices may be 
attempted. 

Our experiences have shown that best results 
were obtained through the use of better grade ac- 
cessories. The sound equipment should reproduce 
both the high and the low tones equally well. The 
maximum volume for voice with our unit is 
twenty-five watts, and for music, eighteen watts. 
This is sufficient volume to enable people stand- 
ing a block away to hear clearly. There should 
be very little record scratch. Feed-back (humming 
oscillating noise) should not be audible when us- 
ing the microphone, and when using maximum 
volume the quality of musical tones should not be 
distorted. We have found one hundred feet of 
microphone cable a necessity, as well as two hun- 
dred feet of lead-in cable from the speakers with 
about a hundred feet separating the two. A light 
pick-up arm on the turntable saves records, as 
does constant changing of needles. 

The wisdom of our investment in this equip- 
ment has been proved not only through the cheap 
maintenance figures but through splendid per- 
formance. The original cost was $148.00 which 
included an eighteen watt amplifying unit, one 
turntable, two speaker units, a microphone, a 
small radio, two hundred feet of wire, and twenty 
recordings. The turntable, amplifying unit, and 
recordings were used equipment. We built the 
turntable box, the loudspeaker horns, and the rec- 
ord containers. Upkeep amounts to about $14.00 
per year. Recordings include folk dances, square 
dance, popular, novelty, classical, and Christmas 
music, of which 78 per cent are 22^f and 35^ 
records, and 22 per cent are 75^ records. From 
the standpoint of future service it is wise to pur- 
chase through a local merchant, or have him build 
the system. Since most of our microphone uses 
are for voice amplification we use a directional 
dynamic type. >. W. Pinneo, Director of Recre- 
ation, Boulder, Colorado. 



Why They Subscribe! 

What School Activities brought to its 
readers the past year for only $2.00! 




School Activities 

in their school 

means . . . 

For the PRINCIPAL 

School and community in- 
terest attention that is 
always given to things 
going on. 

School interpretation dem- 
onstration of what the 
school is doing, exhibi- 
tion and explanation oi 
the work that justifies the 
modern school. 

School spirit, harmony with- 
in and among school 
groups, school loyalty 
and goodwill. 

For the TEACHER 

Material for assembly and 
community programs. 

Practical ideas and sugges- 
tions for clubs and home 
rooms. 

Plans for parties, banquets, 
and socials. 

For the STUDENT 

Always an educative some- 
thing-to-do. 

A wholesome good time 
a happy eventful school 
life. 

A rich experience in genu- 
ine democratic living. 



47 articles on Ad- 
ministration and 
Supervision of Ex- 
tra-Curricula r Ac- 
tivities 

articles on School 

Assemblies 
14 articles on 

Athletics 
56 articles on Clubs 

1 1 articles on 
Commencement 

7 articles on Debate 
13 articles on 
Dramatics 
7 articles on Fi- 
nancing Activities 

6 articles on Home 
Rooms 

7 articles on Music 
20 articles on 

Parties 

23 articles on Pro- 
gram Material 

8 articles on School 
Publications 

3 articles on School 
Spirit 

12 articles on Stu- 
dent Government 

10 articles on Mis- 
cellaneous Ac- 
tivities 

Also scores of pithy 
Editorials, News 
Items, Book Reviews, 
etc. 

This is more usable 
material than sev- 
eral books at many 
times the cost would 
have brought to 
them! 

(Completely indexed 
in Education Index) 

With a nationally 
prominent editorial 
and advisory board 

SCHOOL AC- 
TIVITIES speaks with 
authority on matters 
of great importance 
to all schools. . 
Only $2.00 per year 



Subscribe NOW to 

SCHOOL ACTIVITIES MAGAZINE 

College Hill 
Topeka Kansas 

"The Magazine with a Big Place in Every School" 



New Publications in the Leisure Time Field 



The Costume Book for Parties 
and Plays 

By Joseph Learning. Frederick A. Stokes Company, New 
York. $2.50. 

HERE is A comprehensive and elementary book on cos- 
tuming in which the descriptions of all sorts of cos- 
tumes are so clear and nicely illustrated that the amateur 
costume-maker would have little difficulty in following 
them. There are descriptions of twenty-seven national 
folk costumes, the costumes of nine historical periods, 
and the oft-sought directions for the making of many 
of our most fanciful costumes from Peter Pan to the 
Witch who reigns supreme at almost every Hallowe'en 
festivity. The book will be of special service not only to 
those concerned with the making of costumes from inex- 
pensive materials but to those who find it necessary to 
adapt available garments to meet special needs. Simple 
pattern guides are given for tunics, caps, and other com- 
monly used garments. The 138 illustrations by Hilda 
Richman are not in color, but the accompanying text 
describes the color schemes. 

How to Win at Checkers 

By Millard Hopper. Published, by the author at 422 

First Street, Brooklyn, New York. $.15. 
II ERE is A simple guide to skill at checkers for the new- 
* comer in the field who wants to know the purpose of 
each move he makes. Seven lessons are given in the book- 
let which is profusely illustrated by diagrams showing the 



various moves. 



The Barnes Dollar Sports Library 

A. S. Barnes and Company, New York. 
II ERE is A NEW SERIES of books on sports covering the 
* techniques, rules, and plays of our most popular 
sports, all published at the uniform price of $1.00 each, 
and designed for coaches, players, and enthusiasts. Each 
volume is illustrated. The following books are now avail- 
able : Baseball, by Daniel E. Jessee ; Modern Methods 
in Archery, by Natalie Reichart and Oilman Keasey ; 
Track and Field, by Ray M. Conger; Better Badminton, 
by Carl H. Jackson and Lester A. Swan ; Basket Ball, by 
Charles "Stretch" Murphy ; Fundamental Handball, by 
Bernath E. Phillips ; and Football, by W. Glen Killinger. 
Further volumes to be included will cover golf, swim- 
ming, tennis, skiing, skating, winter games, fencing, box- 
ing, wrestling, etc. 

Shellcraft 

By Ruth Lippincott Walworth. Bruce Humphries, Inc., 

Boston. $1.00. 

THE RESPONSE to an earlier edition of this book has led 

to the publication of this profusely illustrated book 

which contains an added section on jewelry as well as 

much of the material which appeared in the first edition. 



Folk Songs of America 

By Robert W. Gordon. Issued by Folk-Song and Folk- 
lore Department, National Service Bureau, Federal 
Theater Project, 1697 Broadway, New York. $.25. 
THIS BOOK, reprinted by special permission of the New 
* York Times, includes interesting information concern- 
ing the basic origin and development of the American 
folk song. It is also a comprehensive collection of folk 
songs themselves some mountain songs from North 
Carolina; Negro work songs, spirituals, and "shouts" 
from Georgia; Negro chants; outlaw songs; jailhouse 
songs; lumber-jack songs; the old ballads; nursery 
songs ; and songs of the pioneers. 

Mr. Gordon not only presents the songs but also ex- 
plains the mode of their presentation. We are given sum- 
maries both of the background of the songs and of their 
actual use. We learn how Negro spirituals are actually 
used and developed, and why the songs of cowboys and 
lumbermen are usually sung after work instead of on the 
job, as is the case with sailor chanteys and Negro work- 
songs. Music has not been included. 

Encyclopedia of Sports 

By Frank G. Menke. Published by Frank G. Menke, 

Inc., 235 East 45th Street, New York. $2.00. 
AA R. MENKE has given us a wealth of information in 
' this encyclopedia representing "filtered facts from 
2,000 books and the independent findings of twenty 
years." Starting with the amazing fact that Americans 
spend about four billion dollars annually in pursuit of 
their favorite sports, Mr. Menke gives us information re- 
garding the history and development of games and sports 
of all types. As a result of his research, the author has 
come to the conclusion that a combination of running and 
hurdling was mankind's first competitive sport ; that 
throwing was second, and wrestling combined with 
punching the old rough-and-tumble manner of fighting 
was the third sport. Field hockey, requiring nothing but 
a branch from a tree and a pebble, is probably the oldest 
of games and lawn bowling, its youngest brother. 

A Practical Bibliography of Recrea- 
tional Activities 

Compiled by C. O. Jackson. Curriculum Library of the 
University High School. University of Illinois, 
Urbana, Illinois. 

I N THIS FIFTEEN PAGE mimeographed bulletin a carefully 
' selected and classified list of books, pamphlets, and 
magazines is given. Mr. Jackson states in his preface that 
in many cases the 'bibliographical references have been 
read and evaluated personally. Where this was not pos- 
sible, reliable book reviews and recommendations of com- 
petent individuals have been accepted. Anyone interested 
in securing a ropy may do so by sending a letter or postal 
card to the Curriculum Library, 203 University High 
School, Urbana, Illinois. 

55 



56 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



Successful Stunts. 

Kit 46. Edited by Katharine and Lynn Rohrbough. 

Cooperative Recreation Service, Delaware, Ohio. $.25. 
Here is a collection of stunts there are sixteen of them 
with twenty-five stunt hints which are both social and 
dramatic : "social because they enlist a large part or all 
of the group as participants and their fun depends upon 
cooperative action ; dramatic to the extent that they have 
plots and are highly imaginative." The recreation leader 
will find them a helpful addition to his "just-for-fun" 
library. 

Stories for Parents. 

By Jean Schick Grossman. Child Study Association 

of America, New York. $.05 each. 
The Child Study Association has issued the first four 
of its proposed series of leaflets, "Stories for Parents," 
designed to present in simple and attractive form material 
which will help parents of limited educational background 
in meeting some of the problems which arise in the home. 
The leaflets are (1) "A Game of Jacks" (a discipline 
situation) ; (2) "A Promise" (on keeping one's word to 
children) ; (3) "A Happy Day for the Whole Family" 
(on encouraging children's success) ; (4) "Dad Comes 
Home" (a typical "hard times" situation in the home). 

Personal Experiences A Two-Act Play. 

By Ada Louise Barrett. Womans Press, New York. 
$.35. Royalty $1.00. 

This play, particularly designed for the use of Y.W.C.A. 
groups, relates the experiences of five girls who are out 
of jobs looking for employment. There is opportunity 
for good acting in the play, and there are some amusing 
situations. 

Teachable Moments A New Approach to Health. 

By Jay B. Nash, Ph.D. A. S. Barnes and Company, 

New York. $1.50. 

A radical departure from the usual book on health, 
this little volume lays down some simple, understand- 
able rules which may be followed at no expense. Through- 
out Dr. Nash stresses the importance of play and the 
provision of adequate facilities, and leaves with his 
reader the thought that the will to live is the driving 
force of life in general and of health in particular. "What 
man needs/' he says, "in fact, wants, is scintillating 
worth-while activities which are balanced by challenging 
workshop patterns in his leisure." 

"The Call to Youth." 

National Council of Catholic Women, 1312 Massa- 
chusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D. C. $.35. 
This booklet contains the seventeen talks of the 1938 
"Call to Youth" series conducted by the National Council 
of Catholic Women in cooperation with the National 
Broadcasting Company. Of special interest to recreation 
workers are the discussions of "Youth Creates Beauty," 
"Leadership of Volunteers," "Youth in Action," and 
"What Youth Demands." 

Social Agency Boards and 
How to Make Them Effective. 

By Clarence King, Professor of Public Welfare Ad- 
ministration and Community Organization, The New 
York School of Social Work. Harper & Brothers, 
New York. $1.25. 

This book traces the origin of Boards of Directors, 
defines their functions as they have been developed, cites 
some of the disadvantages of such boards, and indicates 
how they should be organized. The subject of officers, 
board meetings, relations between executives and the 
board, and other helpful topics are treated in simple and 



very readable fashion. A very good bibliography of eight 
pages is found at the close of the book. 

This is a helpful guide for executives who are dealing 
with Boards of Directors. 

Manual of Knitting and Crocheting. 

Compiled by Sarah Barnes. William H. Horstmann 

Company, Philadelphia. $2.50. 

Is knitting your hobby? If so, here is a book you will 
want ! Its publishers have endeavored through it to as- 
sist the reader to solve the various problems of knitting 
and crocheting and "to induce the worker to think for 
herself." The volume is arranged in five sections with 
actual photographic illustrations, full working instruc- 
tions, and detailed charts. 

Programs with a Purpose. 

Mignon Quaw Lott. Pentagon Court, Baton Rouge 

Louisiana. 

Under this title Mrs. Lott has issued a series of bul- 
letins containing five safety programs which approach the 
problem from the constructive side and attempt to popu- 
larize the information which everyone should have 
through the medium of entertainment. It is suggested 
that anyone interested in learning how to secure the ma- 
terial and the expense involved communicate with Mrs 
Lott. 



Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 

JOHN H. FINLEY, President 
JOHN G. WINANT, First Vice-President 
ROBERT GARRETT, Second Vice-Prcsident 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, Treasurer 
HOWARD S. BRAUCIIER, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

F. W. H. ADAMS, New York, N. Y. 

F. GREGG BEMIS, Boston, Mass. 

MRS. EDWARD W. BIDDLE, Carlisle, Pa. 

MRS. ROBERT WOODS BLISS, Washington, D. C. 

MRS. WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH, Moline, 111. 

HENRY L. CORBETT, Portland, Ore. 

MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER, Jacksonville, Fla. 

F. TRUBEE DAVISON, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 

HARRY P. DAVISON, New York, N. Y. 

JOHN H. FINLEY, New York, N. Y. 

ROBERT GARRETT, Baltimore, Md. 

AUSTIN E. GRIFFITHS, Seattle, Wash. 

MRS. NORMAN HARROWER, Fitchburg, Mass. 

MRS. MELVILLE H. HASKELL, Tucson, Ariz. 

MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX, Michigan Cty, Ind. 

MRS. MINA M. EDISON HUGHES, West Orange, N. J. 

MRS. JOHN D. JAMESON, Sugar Hill, N. H. 

GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, New York, N. Y. 

H. McK. LANDON, Indianapolis, Ind. 

MRS. CHARLES D. LANIER, Greenwich, Conn. 

ROBERT LASSITER, Charlotte, N. C. 

SUSAN M. LEE, Boston, Mass. 

J. H. McCuRDY, Springfield, Mass. 

OTTO T. MALLERY, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WALTER A. MAY, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

CARL E. MILLIKEN, Augusta, Me. 

MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS, Woodbury, N. Y. 

T. SUFFERN TAILER, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 

MRS. JAMES W. WADSWORTH, Washington, D. C. 

J. C. WALSH, New York, N. Y. 

FREDERICK M. WARBURG, New York, N. Y. 

JOHN G. WINANT, Concord, N. H. 

STANLEY WOODWARD, Washington, D. C. 



More What? 



Eat more food. 
Wear more clothes. 
Sit in more chairs. 
Sleep in more beds. 
To what end? 

Ride in more autos. 

Reside in more houses. 

Clutter houses with more trinkets. 

No. 

Rather 

Sing more songs. 
See more sunsets. 
Walk more paths. 
See more birds. 
Sail more seas. 
Catch more fish. 
Jump more waves. 
Swim more swims. 
Take more sun baths. 
Act more plays. 
Take more pictures. 
Paint more paintings. 
Create more beauty. 

Write more poetry. 
Read more books. 
Think more thoughts. 
Dream more dreams. 

Rest more. 
Create more. 
Love more. 
Worship more. 
Live more. 

Howard Braucher 



939 



May 




Photo by L. B. Sharp 



THE FOREST FLOOR 



The forest floor is mine 
My friends are there; 
Small plants and dark earth 
Nestle close to trees, 
Reaching high to sunny air. 

Life is calm and sweet 
On the forest floor, 
Small lives' cool retreat 
Where rarely rougher winds 
Disturb their quiet lore. 



Courtesy Life Camps, Inc. 

Green around a grassy place 
Where insects drone, 
Making sunny lace 
With shadows of the leaves 
Stretched above my home, 
On the forest floor. 

Come with me some day, 
To meet my forest friends, 
Down a winding way 
Through the woods together, 
Beyond where the city ends, 
To the forest floor. 

M. R. Nichols 




The program for this year's observance 
of Joseph Lee Day, in honoring the mem- 
ory of Joseph Lee may fittingly be dedi- 
cated "to the children who this summer 
will play safely on public playgrounds; 
to the youth of the country whose con- 
structive use of leisure may become one 
of the bulwarks of the American way of 
life; and especially to those men and 
women who are following Joseph Lee's 
example that body of laymen who are 
giving of their time, energy and re- 
sources to help keep strong and grow- 
ing the national recreation movement." 



National Joseph Lee Day 



And its significance for the inter- 
pretation of community recreation 



THERE WAS a hush on the playgrounds of the 
nation. Flags were lowered to half mast ; tens 
of thousands of children listened reverently 
for a few moments to the story of Joseph Lee, the 
friend of little children. Then came a rush of 
joyous activity as the children and their leaders 
entered into the events that had been planned to 
observe National Joseph Lee Day. The record of 
what happened on that day is not only in the files 
of a host of grateful executives but is deeply en- 
graved on the hearts of those who shared the fun 
and fellowship of that memorable day. Children 
had learned of a great man, suitably called "one 
of God's playfellows," who gave his life and for- 
tune that they, and all children to come after them, 
might have a chance to play. So they played that 
day in memory of Joseph Lee. 

And now requests have come from all over the 
United States for a second observance of Na- 
tional Joseph Lee Day. After careful considera- 
tion the Board of Directors of the National Rec- 
reation Association have acceded to that request 
and have set Friday, July 28th, as the day. 

As we look forward to another Joseph Lee Day, 
perhaps the most helpful thing we can do is to 
review some of the things that actually happened 



last July. While the reports from the field 
will be referred to, it is well known that 
many celebrations occurred of which we 
have no written record. 

The purpose of National Joseph Lee Day, ac- 
cording to the National Committee, was to com- 
memorate the life and work of Joseph Lee and to 
interpret the importance of community recreation. 

What Was Done to Interpret Community 
Recreation 

The efforts of interpretation were significant. 
A large number of cities all over the United 
States and four countries participated in some 
way in the observance of Joseph Lee Day. In all 
of these some attempt was made to acquaint chil- 
dren and adults with the life and work of Joseph 
Lee, through the newspaper, the radio, and by 
events on the playgrounds and in community 
centers. 

In several hundred cities where there was no 
active observance the newspapers carried editori- 
als in honor of Joseph Lee, used his picture, or 
reported on activities in some other city which 
actually observed the day. 

A special letter with the brochure was sent to 
columnists whose materials are syndicated. Bruce 
Catton wrote a column on Joseph Lee and Joseph 
Lee Day which was widely printed, constituting 
the bulk of the publicity in non-participating 
cities. Most papers used it as an editorial, but 
some credited the copy to Catton. One paper used 
it in the "Voice of the People" signed "An 
Anxious West Sider." 

59 



60 



NATIONAL JOSEPH LEE DAY 



National and local broadcasts carried the mes- 
sage over every network in the country. Com- 
mentators made special note of the day, and dis- 
tinguished speakers such as Charles Francis 
Adams spoke of the life and work of Joseph Lee. 

Local broadcasts were made in some cities, ty- 
ing in the local situation with the national com- 
memoration. 

Proclamations declaring July 28th as Joseph 
Lee Day were made by Governor Hurley of Mas- 
sachusetts and by the mayors in a number of 
cities. Mayor James E. Dunne of Providence, 
Rhode Island, issued the following : 

PROCLAMATION 

Thursday, July 28th, will be known 
throughout the nation as "Joseph Lee Day," 
and thousands of children and adults will 
take part in festivities, exercises and games 
in celebration of the day, observed for the 
first time this year. 

Joseph Lee, who died last year, was 
known as the "father of the playground 
movement in America." He gave his en- 
tire life to the promotion of good causes 
and most of his inherited income he gave 
away quietly to advance playgrounds, edu- 
cation, social service, housing and other 
civic improvements. 

As Mayor of the City of Providence, I 
am heartily in accord with this movement 
of setting aside a special time to pay tribute 
to the life and work of Joseph Lee. Ap- 
propriate exercises will be held on the play- 
grounds of our city in order to bring the 
attention of those gathered there just what 
Joseph Lee meant to the Playground Life 
in our nation. 

Activities 

The type of activity which occurred most fre- 
quently was the informal, usually brief memorial 
program, on the playground around the flagpole, 
or in the evening when adults were present. 

Many cities combined commemorations of 
Joseph Lee Day with a track meet, a field meet 
or swimming meet. Some used the day to run off 
finals in tournaments started earlier in the sum- 
mer. Among the happiest events was playing the 
favorite games of Joseph Lee, singing his favorite 
songs, and dancing his favorite dances. No 
speeches or formal ceremony could mean so much 
to the children as these simple joyous activities. 

Libraries and stores cooperated by displaying 
special exhibits of recreation books, pictures and 



material about Joseph Lee. Where attempts were 
especially made to interest adults with the pro- 
grams of the playgrounds and community centers, 
there were displays of arts and crafts work, na- 
ture collections, and similar exhibits. 

The pageant "Pursuit of Joy" which was sent 
out by headquarters was used in a number of 
cities and was very well received. In Westchester 
County, New York, fourteen towns cooperated in 
the pageant using a cast of 500 children and play- 
ing before a large audience. 

The Child's Biography of Joseph Lee was used 
in a number of localities, posted or read or dis- 
tributed. 

Addresses at Service Club meetings on the sig- 
nificance of the life and leadership of Joseph Lee 
carried the message to a wide spread group of 
influential adults. 

Various other activities such as soap, clay and 
sand modeling of Joseph Lee's head or profile, 
essay contests, carnivals, circuses, fairs, story 
telling hours devoted to Joseph Lee, festivals and 
nature hikes were a part of the many programs. 

Having learned that Joseph Lee loved picnics 
and hiking through the woods, one city built a 
part of jts celebration of National Joseph Lee 
Day around a nature program. 

Significant Observances 

Boston, as Joseph Lee's home for many years, 
had a particularly fine Joseph Lee Day. Charles 
Francis Adams had spoken over the Columbia 
Broadcasting System from Boston on July 25th, 
so Boston was prepared for the Day. Governor 
Hurley designated July 28th as Joseph Lee Day 
"to memorialize the services of one of the fore- 
most citizens and benefactors of the State of 
Massachusetts and of the whole nation." 

At the dedication of Joseph Lee Playground in 
the morning, the President of the City Council 
gave the dedicatory address and the Fire Com- 
missioner also gave an address. The remainder 
of the ceremony was given over to group play 
engaged in by 2,000 children. In the afternoon 
there were playground demonstrations on all park 
department playgrounds, and an adult arts and 
crafts exhibit on Boston Common. In the eve- 
ning, 1,000 boys participated in the Greater Bos- 
ton Playground Olympic Games at South Boston 
Stadium, and on Boston Common the adult rec- 
reation project of WPA, Drama Division, put on 
a pageant with episodes depicting Joseph Lee's 
battle for Boston playgrounds. 



NATIONAL JOSEPH LEE DAY 



61 




Courtesy East Orange, N. J., Board of Recreation Commission 



Boston newspapers cooperated very well and 
gave the day a great deal of publicity. Commis- 
sioner Long of the Park 
Department headed a large 
Boston Committee. 

Houston, Texas, had al- 
ready planned on July 28th 
as the date of their folk fes- 
tival, the crowning event of 
the summer program. They 
dedicated this program of 

folk dances by representatives of the many na- 
tionalities to Joseph Lee. The Mayor of Houston 
issued a procla- 
mation making 
July 28th Joseph 
Lee Day. On play- 
grounds through- 
out the city the 
week was given 
over to activities 
in memory of Mr. 
Lee. 

Approximately 
300 children and 
adults were cast in 
the festival "Heri- 
tage" illustrating 
the contributions 
made by the va- 
rious nationalities 
to our national 
life. There was 



Joseph Lee always advocated a wide range 
of play activities, and on Joseph Lee Day 
no type of play, from games to dramatics, 
was neglected in the tribute to the man 
whose life was so largely devoted to 
making play opportunities fully available 
to the children and youth of America. 



an audience of about 2,500. 

In Jacksonville, Florida, the 
big event of Joseph Lee Day was 
a city-wide swimming meet 
climaxing a day of games, ath- 
letics and various kinds of tour- 
naments. Ribbons awarded at the 
swimming meet for first, second 
and third places, mentioned Na- 
tional Joseph Lee Day. There 
was also a proclamation by the 
Mayor and libraries displayed 
Joseph Lee's writings. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, featured 
visitors' day on all the play- 
grounds, inviting the public to 
come out and see what was being 
done. In the evening there were 
entertainments on the grounds 
and a member of the local committee, headed by 
Mrs. Fred R. Easterday of the National Commit- 
tee, was at each playground 
to welcome visitors. 

The Library reported that 
circulation of recreation 
books went up during the 
week and that the Joseph 
Lee exhibits attracted a 
great deal of attention. 
Some of the stores featured 

Joseph Lee Day in their advertising and some had 
window displays. Radio Station KFOR broad- 




Covrtesy East Orange, N. J., Board of Recreation Commission 



62 



NATIONAL JOSEPH LEE DAY 




Marlbel Smith and Associates 



casted invitations for four 
days to listeners to visit 
playgrounds on Joseph Lee 
Day. 

Los Angeles had appro- 
priate activities on nearly 

all playgrounds. Their special event was the dedi- 
cation of the Joseph Lee Wading Pool and Foun- 
tain in Echo Park. 

San Francisco, in addition to dedicating a tree 
to Joseph Lee, had an outstanding set of exhibits 
in San Francisco department stores. Large parch- 
ment scrolls reading "Joseph Lee Day The San 
Francisco Recreation Department honors the 
memory of Joseph Lee, Father of Recreation 
July 28th, 1938," were displayed in many depart- 
ment store windows. There were stories of Joseph 
Lee told at story hours on the playgrounds and 
clay modeling of his head and profile. The Mayor 
issued a Joseph Lee Day Proclamation and among 
all the publicity was a cartoon concerning recrea- 
tion and Joseph Lee Day. 

California recreation executives from eighteen 



The festival, "The Pursuit of Joy," presented 
on Joseph Lee Day under the auspices of the 
Westchester County, N. Y., Recreation Com- 
mission in cooperation with local recreation 
groups, introduced activities of many types. 
A group of children from the West Harrison 
playgrounds is shown in an Italian folk dance. 



cities voted unanimously 
for a "Recreation Week" 
which should fuse with an 
Annual Joseph Lee Me- 
morial Event. 

In Reading, Pennsyl- 
vania, dedication of the city's new Joseph Lee 
Playground featured a speech by Mayor Stump, 
who said : "Every cent expended for playgrounds 
is money spent in the wisest manner. Playgrounds 
will become more important in the future when 
adults will have shorter working hours and more 
leisure. More playgrounds mean less juvenile 
delinquency." 

Playground flags were at half mast all day. 
Two cities, Memphis, Tennessee, and Detroit, 
Michigan, had different observances. Memphis 
dedicated the entire summer program to Joseph 
Lee with special activities during the week of 
Joseph Lee Day. In Detroit there was no ob- 
servance on July 28th but the climax of the sum- 
mer season on each playground was a "Joseph Lee 
Day." These wind-up celebrations took the place 
(Continued on page 106) 




WHAT'S NEW about the din- 
ghy? Just this. Formerly 
used as a tender by large 

motor boats or yachts and propelled by oars or by 
means of a motor, it has, by the addition of sails, 
become a smart sailing yacht. The dinghy has 
been streamlined at least in Chicago ! 

With all its facilities for water sports, Chicago 
has until recently lagged in small boat building 
chiefly because of the prohibitive cost. This was 
changed when the Lake Michigan Yachting Asso- 
ciation of Chicago took a hand. Believing that the 
growing youth of 
Chicago would 
benefit by an inter- 
est in boating, the 
Association secured 
from Phil Rhodes, 
noted naval archi- 
tect, a simplified 
type of plan for a 
speedy little dinghy. 
The Chicago Park 
District was then 
asked to organize a 
number of junior 
yacht clubs from 
among the boys who 
participated in park 
activities. 

Thus originated the now 
famous Rainbow Fleet, or- 
ganized to bring Chicago's 
great lake front to the youth 
of the city who might other- 
wise have no opportunity to 
become acquainted with the 
sport of sailing on Lake 
Michigan. There are now 
thirteen clubs in the fleet which have built a total 
of twenty-four boats. 

Any Chicago boy between the ages of fourteen 
and nineteen, even though he has had no previous 
sailing experience, may become a member of the 
junior yacht club at no expense to himself. To 
date the Lake Michigan Yachting Association has 
purchased all materials for the construction of 
thirty of these sailing dinghies, and no expense 
has been spared in securing the best of materials. 



By F. E. KARDES 

Technician, Crafts Department 




Dinghy racing as an organized sport is 
comparatively new. During recent years 
it has become quite popular in the East, 
and has reached the stage where inter- 
collegiate races are held. And now, in 
Chicago, the Rainbow Fleet sponsored by 
the Lake Michigan Yachting Association 
of Chicago and the Park District is dot- 
ting the waters of lakes and lagoons. 



The hulls are built of mahogany 
and oak, the spars of spruce, and 
the fittings and hardware of 
bronze. 

The boats are made in the various craft shops 
maintained by the Park Department. As boat 
building is a somewhat new phase of craft work, 
it was found necessary first to give the various 
craft instructors a thorough understanding of the 
required technique. This was accomplished by 
holding a series of institute sessions and having 
the instructors construct the first boat. As was 

expected, difficul- 
ties were encoun- 
tered, but in gen- 
eral the work was 
carried out success- 
fully, and now many 
of the junior yacht 
club members are 
capable of carrying 
on the boat build- 
ing program with 
little or no instruc- 
tion. 



Safety Measures 

The finished din- 
ghy remains the 
property of the 
Rainbow Fleet but is avail- 
able at all times during the 
sailing season for use by 
members who have passed 
the swimming and safety 
tests established by the Park 
District. During the build- 
ing program technical in- 



struction is given the boys 
in sailing, and they are required to pass certain 
swimming tests. In addition to these tests they 
are given the opportunity to take the Junior Red 
Cross life saving and first aid course. 

One of the principal requirements in the swim- 
ming test is that a boy must be able to swim two 
hundred yards in open water and demonstrate his 
ability to swim fifty yards fully clothed in deep 
water. The first test qualifies him to be a crew 
member in moderate weather; additional tests 

63 



64 



BOAT BUILDING IN THE CHICAGO PARK DISTRICT 



carry him through various 
stages to unlimited skip- 
per privileges. 

Except in the case of 
races or intercity regat- 
tas, all sailing is done in 
the protected waters of 
Burnham Park Lagoon. 
The sailing is further safe- 
guarded by the presence 
of the instructor, life guard 
lookout, and an emergency 
lifeboat which is always 



"Boat building is a fascinating, socializing 
sport, and while the boy is dreaming of skip- 
pering his craft in a leisurely lake or lagoon 
he is unconsciously laying the foundation for 
the development of dexterous hands, a healthy 
body, and a contented mind. Building a boat 
requires a high type of craftsmanship, teaches 
exactness in wood working, and in the neces- 
sary fitting and joining it develops superior 
mechanical skills. In fact, the construction 
work, and the swimming and sailing tests re- 
quired all aid in building the faculties on 
which depend accurate judgment. The train- 
ing the boy receives cannot fail to help 
produce a sound balance between mind and 
body, as well as a broader outlook on life." 



four other craft shops car- 
rying on a major boat 
building program. The 
members of the Gage 
Park Yacht Club alone 
produced fifteen Class "B" 
or eleven and one-half 
foot dinghies last winter. 
The National One design, 
a seventeen foot boat, has 
been quite popular and 
about ten have been built in 
different parks. Another 
boat which is being built 



ready to speed to the aid 

of a disabled or capsized dinghy. 

The boat designed for the Rainbow Fleet by 
Mr. Rhodes is a modified Frostbite dinghy of the 
center board type, 10 feet in length, 52 inches in 
beam, and carries 75 square feet of sail. Carry- 
ing out the theme of the Rainbow Fleet, the sails 
are multicolored, and each club has its own burgee 
in the same colors. Every junior club is organized 
as a regular yacht club, having its regularly 
elected commodores, vice-commodores, and other 
officers. 

Interest Grows 

With the advent of the Rainbow Fleet, the gen- 
eral interest in boat building has grown by leaps 
and bounds and has spread to older boys and men 
who are desirous of building boats which they 
may retain as their own property. Exhibits 
in the various boat 
and sport shows 
have aroused so 
much interest in 
small boat building 
that our facilities 
and instructional 
staff are being tax- 
ed to the utmost, 
and two new shops 
have been establish- 
ed the activities in 
which are confined 
entirely to boat 
building. 

In addition to 
the parks in which 
Rainbow Fleet 
boats are being 
built, there are now 




extensively at this time is 
the Sea Gull which is eighteen feet in length. 

Building is not confined entirely to sailing boats 
as several small motor cruisers are now under 
construction and two Sea Scout groups are build- 
ing twenty-six foot cutters. 

One of the principal reasons for the popularity 
of small boat building is the fact that splendid, 
seaworthy boats may be built for as little as $100. 
As this cost is spread over the period necessary to 
construct the craft, it puts boat building within 
reach of hundreds of men and older boys in our 
city. Needless to say, of course, the splendid shop 
facilities of the Park District and competent in- 
structors are essential to a boat building program 
of this magnitude. 

Kayaks and Canoes as Well 

The desire of many boys to build even cheaper 

boats than the sail- 
ing dinghies has re- 
sulted in an exten- 
sive program of 
kayak and canoe 
building. In this 
type of work 
elaborate shop fa- 
cilities, machinery 
and equipment are 
not required, and 
there are about 
twenty parks in 
which large num- 
bers of such craft 
and other water 
sports equipment is 
being built. 

(Continued on 
page 106) 



The Craft Program 0oes to the Waterfront 



By MARGUERITE ICKIS 

New Yorlc City 



DURING THE PAST few years 
much consideration has 
been given to the impor- 
tance of correlating crafts very closely with other 
recreational activities. So far, the waterfront crafts 
seem to have been a neglected field. The use of crafts 
with nature study has long been employed where 
nature prints, plaster casts and aquariums help to 
motivate the program. More and more we find 
those leaders interested in recreation music, mak- 
ing shepherd pipes or simple stringed instruments 
for use with their community singing group. Per- 
cussion instruments are easily constructed and are 
becoming popular for use with the dance. 

Let us consider the possibilities that waterfront 
crafts have to offer and see if they cannot be 
made more popular in the outdoor program this 
summer. 

Waterfront crafts are not new; in fact, they 
are probably among the oldest on record. Primi- 
tive man must have sat along the shore or river 
bank while he fashioned his boat out of materials 
he found that would float. Today we look back on 
dugout and birch bark canoes with carved or 
painted paddles and fibre fish- 
nets as curiosities, but many of Haye you ever t h oug ht of all the 



tie large gourds to their babies to 
keep them afloat should they fall 
overboard. Pieter Brueghel, a 
Flemish painter of the i6th century, in his famous 
painting of children playing games has shown a 
child keeping afloat in a stream by means of 
waterwings. 

Very often the camper or the craftsman who 
loves the open seeks the woods for an interesting 
medium from which to create his craft. He might 
fare equally well if he were to take a stroll along 
the shore. There he can find beautiful shells to 
set his creative mind to work, or the driftwood 
and rocks washed in from other shores might 
stir his imagination. If he wishes to make some- 
thing simply to utilize material at hand, creating 
projects from shells or driftwood will satisfy this 
urge. Or, if he wants to add pleasure to his stay 
at the waterfront, let him make games that can 
be played in the water. 

The educational angle, too, can be considered in 
selecting a craft. Why not make a weathervane 
and place it on the waterfront so the boats can be 
brought to shore properly and docked according 
to the direction of the wind? 

There are man y kinds of ba ~ 



them represent the superb crafts- 
manship of primitive 
man. South American 
Indians on Lake Titi- 
cara fashioned boats 
from bundles of straw 
and wheat. A famous 
Carthagenian, Hannibal, 
in his fight with the 
Romans is credited with 
building a boat under 
which were tied hun- 
dreds of gourds to make 
it float. 

Waterwings are an- 
other form of water- 
front craft that seems 
to have been used for 
many centuries. For 
thousands of years 
Chinese living on boats 
have been accustomed to 



things you can make from shells? 




rometers that are easily con- 
structed and lend in- 
terest to the study of 
weather. Nautical in- 
struments such as ones 
used in making charts 
may also be made. A 
chip log, like those used 
years ago, will afford 
much pleasure to chil- 
dren in measuring how 
fast their canoe or row- 
boat is traveling. 

Things to Make 
From Shells. Every 
shore offers an abund- 
ance of shells, and yet 
almost no use has been 
found for them in the 
craft field. Not so many 
years ago nearly every 

65 



66 



THE CRAFT PROGRAM GOES TO THE WATERFRONT 



farmer's wife used a large 
shell as a trumpet to call 
the men folk in from the 
field at meal time (Figure 
i). Such a shell trumpet 
might be useful today in 
camp, or for signaling while 
on a hike. They are easily 
made by boring a hole in the 
side of the shell and cutting 
off the apex in which to 
blow. There should be many 
uses for the broad flat shells 
similar to those of the fresh 
water clam. They can be 
used as individual bake 
dishes (Figure 2) ; paint 
pots for the craft room 
(Figure 3) ; or bulbs may 

be planted in them, converting them immediately 
into dish gardens. The smaller shells may be 
pierced and strung together with elastic for brace- 
lets (Figure 4) ; or they can be fashioned into 
boutonnieres. Very attractive necklaces can also 
be made by combining them with native seeds 
(Figure 5). 

Games. Games that may be contrived with lit- 
tle craft knowledge are as numerous as the in- 
dividual's capabilities for imagination. Two sim- 
ple games are suggested 




With an old fish net and two bobbers 
you can have an absorbing beach game 



marked off for scores as 
shown in the illustration 
(Figure 6). Two fisher- 
man's bobbers are tied to- 
gether with a short string 
and used for tossing at the 
net. The bobbers will loop 
through different holes to 
make their points. 

A Water Ball. The water 
ball and animal shown in 
Figure 7 are designed for 
play days or pageants ; they 
are easily made and can be 
as colorful as desired. They 
are made from wrapping 
paper and colored with 
waxed crayons which pro- 
tects them from the water. 

The small diagram next to the ball shows its gen- 
eral shape before it is sewed together. They last 
longer if the seams are bound with a piece of 
paper an inch in width which is folded in the 
center and sewn with yarn or thread. Kapoc is 
used for the stuffing, as it is light in weight and 
its greasy quality tends to keep the water from 
seaping inside. If the ball is large, clump up some 
paper and use it for the center. Then cover it 
with kapoc so the project will not become too ex- 
pensive. Such balls and ani- 
mals have lasted for three 



one for use in the water and .... . .. , , 

Why miss the fun of a water ball when 

you can have one which costs nothing? davs m the water - 

Other Articles. 



the other for the beach. There 
is a water quoits game 
readily to be recognized 
as being adapted from 
the one used on land or 
more familiarly known 
as "Horseshoes." It is 
made by placing a round 
stick about fifteen 
inches long in the cen- 
ter of a round flat 
board, with a long rope 
attached to the bottom 
in order to anchor it at 
a given spot. Rings can 
be fashioned from cork, 
light wood or pressed 
paper. . 

The beach game is 
made by tying fish net 
between two poles and 
numbering the squares 




The 

bathing belt is made of 
hard seine twine, Num- 
ber 36, such as the cord 
used in making fish 
nets. There are nine 
strands of string the 
measurement of the 
waist plus five inches, 
and two longer lengths 
are left at each end for 
whipping. The original 
of this belt was made 
by a fisherman of Ber- 
muda. (See Figure 8.) 
Old bathing caps 
make excellent lining 
for washcloth holders, 
especially for use on an 
overnight hike. They 



THE CRAFT PROGRAM GOES TO THE WATERFRONT 



67 




may also be used to line compacts or a powder 
puff bag. 

A Novel Checkboard. The checkboard illus- 
trated may be used either at the waterfront where 
the swimmers are checked as they go in and out 
of the water, or as an achievement board, which 
is placed usually in the recreation hall. If it is 
installed at the waterfront, it is suggested that 
each child cut his own fish out of tin and paint 
it the color of his cap. He may cut a mummy, a 
gold fish, a trout or any fish he chooses, and 
punch a hole near the eye and another near the 
top of the back. He hangs the fish up by the 
hole in the back while in swimming, and by the 
hole in the eye while on land. If the board is to 
be used as an achievement chart, the fish may be 
made of colored construction paper or cardboard. 

Using Fish Nets. For many years, the wives of 
the fishermen along the Virginian shores and 
other coasts made nets while their husbands were 
making practical use of them on their fishing 
trips. Finally a machine was invented that could 
produce thousands of yards of fish nets in a single 
year, so that the women could no longer compete 
with the market. The Works Progress Adminis- 
tration, finding these women destitute several 
years ago, discovered a commercial use for net- 
ting and now they have a new use for their skill. 

Scarfs made from net are now being sold at all 

And where will you find a more 
ingenious checkboard than this? 



From an old fisherman in Bermuda came 
the directions for making this belt 

summer resorts, and in the past season new ones 
appeared dyed in beautiful colors. Netting is also 
being used for curtains, luncheon cloths, bed 
spreads and other decorations appropriate for 
summer use. These projects can be made at any 
waterfront and are useful as accessories or for 
decorations in the cabins or homes. 

An attractive bathing suit bag would be very ap- 
propriate for the waterfront and it can easily be 
made from fish net. Usually someone can be 
found in the neighborhood that can teach netting, 
and certainly there is an opportunity to visit the 
fishermen along the shore and be introduced to 
the ancient craft in its real setting. The bags can 
be made in any size, and if they are made from 
regular fish cord it is not necessary to line them. 

NOTE : Miss Ickis, who prepared this article for the 
readers of RECREATION, is author of Nature in Recreation 
which is reviewed in this issue of the magazine. 




A Hobby Craft Program for Cleveland 



CRAFT PROGRAMS are not new 
in recreation though adult 
crafts are comparatively 
new in our program. In our 
first experiment, the open- 
ing of a well equipped work- 
shop for adults, we were 
not seeking for novelty of 
approach or presentation, 
but for a definite goal to 
strive for which would be 
within reach of our limited 
resources. Should our effort 
be to turn out skilled craf ts- 



By MARGARET E. MULAC 

Division of Recreation 
Cleveland, Ohio 



What is to be the purpose of the program? 
What crafts shall be offered? How can the 
leadership available be most effectively 
used and the limited funds at our disposal 
most efficiently spent? How may the op- 
portunities for craft activities best be 
presented to the public? In the answers 
to questions such as these lay the solution 
to the problems faced by the Cleveland 
Division of Recreation in planning its 
program of crafts for adults. 



men concentrating only on 
those with evident talents? Should our attempts 
be in the direction of producing pieces suitable for 
exhibition or should the emphasis be placed on the 
individual's reaction to the craft? 

Crafts as Hobbies 

We decided to develop the program on the 
hobby basis with the emphasis on the individual 
rather than the craft. Our whole objective in the 
program became that of giving opportunities of a 
varied nature to every interested person ; of help- 
ing him find the activity that interested him most, 
and of developing an interest which would grow 
with experience and have a lasting value for the 
individual. 

With this principle in mind, the question of 
what crafts to pre- 
sent took on new 
importance. We had 
to decide whether 
to choose the "fad" 
type of craft that 
crops up now and 
then, runs its short 
course with a burst 
of enthusiasm and 
dies, or to spend 
our limited funds on 
materials and tools 
for crafts that have 
long been recogniz- 
ed and practiced. 
We decided with- 
out hesitation that 



68 



our policy would be to concen- 
trate on the long established 
crafts. Jewelry, metal craft, 
marionette making, wood- 
craft, leather craft, and 
game craft took their place 
on the list along with rug 
making, weaving, sewing, 
and quilting. A number of 
other crafts, as, for exam- 
ple, ceramics, enameling and 
bookbinding, were tempo- 
rarily omitted because of 
the initial cost involved or 
lack of trained leaders. 




Leadership and Materials 
How could we stretch our leadership to cover 
the entire program? Each of the seven leaders 
had other duties three days of the week, leaving 
only two full days for each leader for instruction 
in crafts. Each leader decided which craft he 
liked best and was most proficient in, then made a 
special study of it and outlined a series of short- 
term projects. Thus instead of seven miscellan- 
eous craft leaders we had a staff of craft special- 
ists, each prepared to answer questions on his 
particular specialty and well able to conduct a 
program in that particular craft. 

With a large program in mind and a very small 
pocketbook, our next question was how can we 

make each dollar do 
the work of five? 
Is it advisable to 
buy materials or 
spend all our money 
on permanent tools ? 
We bought per- 
manent tools. The 
purchase of a lathe, 
buzz saw, jig saw, 
and an electric 
motor nearly ex- 
hausted our budget 
allotted to wood- 
craft. Through 
careful buying we 
managed to secure 
a hammer or two, 

(Continued on 
baae 106) 



A Rovers 1 Archery Course in Milwaukee 



THE ROVERS' ARCHERY course in Milwaukee had 
its origin in one of the boys' clubs maintained 
by the Department of Municipal Recreation 
and Adult Education. The boys had become adept 
making their own bows and arrows and in shoot- 
ing at regulation targets, and interest was some- 
what on the wane. There was need for devising 
a plan which would catch the imagination of the 
boys and make them feel more akin to the Indians 
they were emulating, whose feats with the bow 
and arrow were far famed. 

Animal Targets 

And so the idea of a rovers' archery course 
came into being. Why shoot at a regulation tar- 
get when you were reliving the days of the Indian 
roaming the forest with bow and arrow in search 
of food? "Shoot at animals," was the answer to 
that question. So the boys began constructing 
targets which would represent animals. 

These targets are made of six thicknesses of 
corrugated cardboard sewed or wired together. 
(Corrugated cardboard can be obtained from any 
local merchant.) 
On the face of 
each target is 
painted the pic- 
ture of an animal 
or bird, usually 
one and a half 
times larger than 
life size. Deer, 
bears, wild fowl, 
geese, rabbits, clay 
pigeons, foxes, 
lions, tigers, and 
other denizens of 
the forest are cre- 
ated. In painting 



Making the tar- 
gets and other 
articles of equip- 
ment is a large 
part of the fun 
of archery for 
Milwaukee boys 



By RICHARD G. BREEDEN 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 



the animals every effort is made to approximate 
their natural colors. Water colors have been 
found most satisfactory for the purpose. It is 
helpful to make a sample target base out of ten 
so that it can serve as a pattern in making other 
targets. 

When the targets are completed they are 
mounted on two or more stakes, depending on the 
size and weight of the target and the number of 
supports needed, and driven into the ground at 
least a foot for support. If this is not done, when 
the arrow hits the target it will jar and crack the 
whole structure. Wiring the target to the stake 
is more practicable than nailing it because if an 
arrow hits a nail it is liable to break. 

Through the use of these targets the boys learn 
much about animals and conservation. They come 
to realize the incorrectness of putting a doe on a 




69 



70 



A ROVERS' ARCHERY COURSE IN MILWAUKEE 



target instead 
of a buck and 
of shooting 
such birds as 
robins and blue- 
fa i r d s. They 
also become in- 
genious in plac- 
ing their tar- 
gets, sometimes 
concealing the 
animal in his 
native habitat. 
A lion's head, 
for example, 
will be discov- 
ered coming 
out of the brush. These de- 




also seimcircu- 
lar to conform 
with the loca- 
tion of the tar- 
gets. The dis- 
tances between 
the targets 
vary, and they 
are never shot 
at from a range 
greater than 40 
yards; from 15* 
to 20 yards is 
the usual shoot- 
ing distance. 
The advan- 



Photo by Larry C. Whiff en tagCS of this 

Moving targets are popular and there P lan are that shooting can con- 
vices make shooting more dif- are various types which may be used tinue on all the targets at one 
ficult and increase the shoot- time and that individuals shoot- 

er's skill. ing at a particular target need not wait for people 

Type of Targets. Moving targets are popular. A shooting at an adjacent target to complete their 
target is cut out in the shape of an animal and 
hung from an easel, and a cord is attached to it 
so that it may be swung either automatically or by 
hand. Other types of targets may be used. I have 
seen an old mattress rolled together with perhaps 
a head on it and an apple on top of the head a 



perfect setting for the William Tell act! The 
greater variety of targets the more interesting will 
the rovers' course be. 

The Course 

There are two types of rovers' course ranges. 
The first type is semi- circular in form, and is de- 
signed more especially for tourna- 
ment use ; the other is the form of a 



large circle. 

An ideal location for 
a range is one in which 
there is a semicircular 
hill in the background 
to stop arrows in flight. 
It is highly desirable 
from the standpoint of 
safety to have a rather 
high embankment in 
back of the targets to 
stop arrows which miss 
the mark. The targets 
are placed in a semi- 
circular form and the 
position of shooting is 



Sample Score Card 



15 



(6 



17 



2* 



35 



40 



~2~3~ 



5-0 T 



3^ 



^1S23 



0UL 



* IT" 

l^_uy. 



rounds before picking up their arrows. Since 
safety must be taken into account at all times, this 
is a major consideration. It is interesting to note 
in this connection that since the recent revival of 
this sport no one has been killed by an arrow. 

The second type of rovers' range involves a 
large circle. Here again it is ideal, though not 
absolutely necessary, to have a fairly high em- 
bankment surrounding the circle to stop arrows 
which have missed their mark. This method of 
layout is somewhat similar to that of clock golf 
in which players shoot at one target and go on to 
the next, the range changing from target to tar- 
get. If properly laid out a regular 
archery shooting range can be made 
to accommodate both a 
rovers' range and an 
archery shooting gallery 
by having the rovers' 
course encircle the arch- 
ery shooting gallery. 
Each target will accom- 
modate six people at a 
time, and it is possible 
to have as many groups 
of six as there are tpr- 
gets. 

At least a square acre 
should be set aside for 
this activity, and it is 
desirable to have sev- 







.-/ ROVERS' ARCHERY COURSE IN MILWAUKEE 



71 



eral acres if possible. As a safety precaution ade- 
quate signs should be posted indicating that shoot- 
ing is going on. No one should be allowed to get 
behind the flight of arrows, and spectators must 
remain in back of those shooting. 

Scoring 

In scoring no target counts more than ten or 
twelve points. Rings are drawn around the tar- 
get, and the most vulnerable part of the animal 
carries the highest score. The more difficult the 
target, the lower the score for the reason that the 
more experienced archer, although he does gain a 
hit in the more difficult target, will not in the end 
have a great deal higher score than the poorer 
archer. In this way the less experienced and suc- 
cessful archer will not be discouraged by his score. 

It is well to use a standard method for scoring 
each target, taking into consideration the contest- 
ant's shot and the size of the target. 

By using higher mathematics, our groups have 
devised a scoring system which is uniform for all 
targets. It takes into consideration the diameter 
of the bull's-eye, the diameter of the arrow, and 
the shooting range or distance. The following are 
the elements of the formula : 
S= maximum possible score 
K= constant. It is determined by assuming a 
score for one target and working the 
problem backward. 

D= diameter of the bull's-eye in inches 
d= diameter of the arrow in inches 
R= range in yards 

Formula: S = K (D+d) 
R 

The group has also devised a score sheet which 
makes use of the above formula. Across the top 
of the sheet is the diameter of the bull's-eye in 
inches, and down the left-hand side is the range 
in yards. All possible scores are worked out 
ahead of time, so it is merely a matter of consult- 
ing the card and adding up the scores to deter- 
mine the final score. 

Although this is a rather complex method of 
scoring, it has many advantages over the average 
method of scoring. The extreme accuracy in 
scoring is its outstanding characteristic. Archery 
associations all over the country have faced the 
problem of a uniform scoring system in order to 
hold telegraphic meets. We believe we have 
solved this problem. 



General Suggestions on Equipment 
We have found that it adds to the boys' inter- 
est in archery if they make their own equipment. 
In Milwaukee the boys buy their own material, 
and the average type of wood they can afford is 
ash or hickory or rock elm. If this is bought in 
large quantities in six foot lengths about eight 
inches wide and ripped into proper bow widths 
of 1^4 to i l /% inches, it is possible for the boy to 
make a bow stave for about 35 cents. If a better 
type of bow is desired, lemon wood or yew or 
osage orange should be used. The last two woods 
mentioned are the best. 

The boys make two types of bows the Indian 
flat bow and the round bow. The flat variety is 
easier to make and more mathematically correct 
than the round bow, though the latter type is 
more beautiful when completed. 

We usually buy the arrows in the dowel form 
28 inches long. The boys put steel heads on the 
arrows, fletch them, and cut in knocks. They also 
make their own strings out of either No. 12 or 
No. 25 linen thread which is marked in different 
ways in different parts of the country. Many of 
the boys have gone even further and made their 
own archery tackle. Such things as quivers, arm- 
guards, and finger tips are examples. 

Why Have a Rovers' Course? 

A rovers' archery course has a number of ad- 
vantages. It makes archery more interesting; 
though less scientific in certain respects it is more 
fun ; it accommodates more people at a time and 
has all of the physical values of the regulation 
game. A recreation department will find it well 
worth while to develop one of these interesting 
courses. 

NOTE : In submitting this material Mr. Breeden ex- 
presses his appreciation to Vincent E. Victoreen for his 
work on the uniform scoring formula and scoring sheet 
and to C. G. Whitman for his design of targets. 



"Along with the revival of interest in all sports 
of the individual type, archery is being used by 
a fast-increasing number of men, women and chil- 
dren as an absorbing leisure-time activity. There 
are probably several reasons for this growth of 
interest. One is the fact that the new method of 
shooting which is being developed is easier to 
learn and tends to be more accurate than the old. 
Another is the development of more efficient and 
accurate bows and arrows, and the fascination 
many people find in the making of their own arch- 
ery tackle." From Modern Methods in Archery. 



What f They Say About Recreation 



// |OY IN PHYSICAL RECREATION may be com- 
.1 pounded of many elements, including pleas- 
ure in the actual activity, relaxation and 
change, pleasant surroundings, companionship, 
anticipation and memory. There is satisfaction 
in doing well some physical thing." Dudley B. 
Reed, M.D., in Keep Fit and Like It. 



"We must see youth clearly our boys and girls 
who long to be happy, to go places, to feel and 
experience life; who want to work at tasks they 
love, and play with those they love, and some day 
become the parents of children they will love ; 
who want a part in making over this world along 
lines of their own adventurous thinking and who 
dream of rendering their service to humanity." 
Frances S. Pettengill, President, National Con- 
gress of Parents and Teachers. 



"Always people have liked to make plays. Some- 
times they have made them just for fun: to amuse 
themselves and others, and to make people laugh. 
Sometimes they have made them as artists paint 
pictures, and musicians compose music, and chil- 
dren build block houses : for the joy of creating a 
thing of beauty." Marguerite Fellows Melchcr 
in Offstage. 



"I do not care by what term you call what I 
have in mind. You may call it culture if you like. 
What I am pleading for is the recognition of the 
supreme importance of the enrichment of the 
inner life of the youth of today and tomorrow. 
In so far as education can accomplish this, much 
that distresses us in the inequalities and injustices 
and confusions of the life about us will vanish." 
Dr. Harry Woodburn Chase in Planning the 
Future with Youth. 



"There is nothing more essential to the liva- 
bility of communities than an allowance for an 
adequate background of open land. Such allow- 
ance as this will become more important as the 
margin of human leisure continues to widen." 
Karl B. Lohmann in Regional Planning. 



"There are new forces in the world, new pa- 
trons of architecture. A new architecture is being 
born an architecture for the people. It is proj- 

72 



ects of social value, parks, swimming pools, tre- 
mendous dams and power plants and schools that 
form the great architecture today. A new vision 
of decently housing all the people has come in like 
a breath of fresh air. That is what has changed 
and is changing our architecture today. The 
architect is beginning to realize his opportunity 
and his duty to the people. They are his really 
significant patrons." Talbot Hamlin in Bulletin 
of the American Library Association. 



"Today, with vastly increased leisure and edu- 
cational facilities, the common working man can 
become as broadly educated as were formerly only 
the aristocratic few. And if the masses are taught 
to use their leisure in such a way as to enrich 
their lives, this can be made a more civilized 
world." Dr. Harry A. Over street. 



"It is just as much a symbol of patriotism to 
have the nation's schools lighted at night as to 
have flags flying over them in the daytime." 
Mark McCloskev. 



"A challenging job confronts us all. The home, 
the church, the school must each do its part but 
you as playground directors and recreation lead- 
ers have an equally important task to perform. 
Yours is essentially a great adventure in social 
relations and a splendid opportunity to mold the 
character of the plastic material with which you 
work." Frank S. Gaines, Berkeley, Calif. 



"We need a new conception of life. It must con- 
cern itself less with the number of years we live 
and more with how we live them. After all, there 
is plenty of evidence that some men live more in 
ten years than others do in ten decades." Gabriel 
Heatter in Faith. 



"The great problem before us today is to create 
a civilization that does not degenerate under lei- 
sure. This can be done only by setting in opera- 
tion forces making for a culture that recognizes, 
as no civilization since the fall of Rome has been 
required to do, that leisure must be a means and 
not an end ; that its value is measured by what we 
do with it as to whether it lifts or lowers us in 
the world of spiritual values." Dr. Philip Seman. 



Sunbeams for Footlights 



IT is FUN to build a 
playground theater. 
There is a thrill in 
transforming almost 
overnight a corner or a 
barren portion of a play- 
ground into a thing of 
real beauty which will 

serve many purposes. The playground theater 
adds to the general landscape development of the 
area. It is simple and inexpensive to construct and 
economical to maintain. The planting of decidu- 
ous shrubs or evergreens, the establishing of a 
lawn, or the introduction of a tree or two may be 
all that is necessary in the construction process. 
In the case of an existing lawn area, it becomes 
merely a problem of adaptation. 

It must be clearly understood that this article 
is dealing with the natural types of playground 
theaters which depend entirely upon natural fea- 
tures for effects. This means, of course, that 
there will be no artificial scenery, draw curtains, 
or specially constructed wooden stages, as is typi- 
cal of the indoor theater. The structural theater 
of the playground with its artificial scenery and 
effects, sometimes permanent but often portable, 
has been used successfully in various playgrounds 
throughout the country. This type of theater is 
very popular and adapted to certain types of dra- 
matic productions. It usually means the introduc- 
tion of a portable stage in as desirable a setting as 
possible, which is immediately removed after the 
production is over. The construction of a per- 
manent theater of this type which will materially 
contribute to the aesthetic value of the playground 
involves a great deal of expense. 

The permanent natural theater which we are 
discussing is inexpensive 
to construct. It is made 
up primarily of living 
plant materials, ever- 
changing in character. Each 
season of the year brings 
forth different color and 
texture effects. Even in 
the wintertime, if care- 
fully planned, it can be a 
thing of unusual charm. 

It would be well per- 



Some suggestions for the design and 
construction of playground theaters 

By R ELLWOOD ALLEN 

National Recreation Association 



In the first part of this discussion of play- 
ground theaters, which appeared in the April 
issue of Recteation, Mr. Allen outlined three 
types of theaters the informal, semiformal 
and formal, and presented a plan for the pro- 
posed playfield-park for Watertown, South 
Dakota, showing a theater of the formal type. 
In this article he continues his discussion 
of natural types of theaters which depend 
entirely on natural features for effects, and 
takes up problems of grading, drainage, soil, 
and types of plant materials to be used. 



haps to mention briefly 
some of the general prob- 
lems involved in the con- 
struction of the natural 
playground theater, such 
as grading, drainage, soil, 
and types of plant ma- 
terials, before discussing 

the individual problems pertaining to each theater 
type. 

Grading. Abrupt changes in grade should be 
avoided. The grade should be uniform regardless 
of slope. If the stage is elevated there should be 
a slight pitch toward the apron for surface drain- 
age. This pitch should not exceed an inch and a 
half for every ten feet. (See Figure 3.) When 
the stage and the auditorium are on the same 
level it will only be necessary to provide enough 
slope for surface drainage. (See Figure 2.) The 
direction of the pitch depends on the size and 
design of the theater and the topography. A 
pitch from the periphery of the theater to a point 
at the imaginary or actual center of the stage 
apron (provided with a catch basin) would be 
ideal. Terracing is not recommended for the play- 
ground theater except where the slope of the audi- 
torium is so steep that terracing is necessary for 
erosion control. Terraces are expensive to con- 
struct and very costly to maintain. All top soil 
should be removed and stored before the grading 
operation, and then replaced over the area for the 
establishing of a turf. 

Drainage. Drainage is a very important factor 
in the construction of the outdoor theater. If the 
soil is porous and has natural drainage, very little 
needs to be done. If, however, the soil is heavy 
or impervious, it will be necessary to provide sub- 
drainage by tiling. One 
catch basin will probably 
be necessary at the low 
point to carry off surplus 
surface water. The size 
and type of basin will de- 
pend entirely on the size 
and topography of the 
area. Often a six inch vit- 
rified tile with wrought 
iron grating connected 
with proper underground 

73 



74 



SUNBEAMS FOR FOOTLIGHTS 



outlets will serve for all practical purposes. The 
principles covering drainage for any lawn, play, 
or planted area are applicable to the playground 
theater. 

Soil. As the theater is constructed of living 
plants, the soil should be prepared according to 
standard planting specifications. At least three 
inches of top soil will be necessary for the estab- 
lishing of a turf area. Beds for plant materials 
should be carefully prepared before planting and 
should be provided with sufficient top soil to in- 
sure satisfactory growth. It will probably be 
necessary to supply some form of fertilizer both 
to the soil of the lawn area and of the planting 
beds, either in the form of commercial fertilizer 
or barnyard manure. 

Types of Plant Material. Plant materials should 
be selected to serve their special use, namely for 
screen purposes. This means that dense foliage 
will be necessary where plants are used for wings 
and background. The habit and character of 
growth of the plants should be carefully studied 
as well as their 
adaptability to 
shearing or 
pruning. Only the 
hardy, tested vari- 
eties should be 
used, and those 
producing pleasing 
effects. Varieties 
having thorns and 
briers should be 
avoided because of 
the danger of in- 
jury, and tearing 
of clothing. It is 
possible to select 
materials that will 
not only serve for 
screen purposes 
but produce very 
pleasing winter, 
spring, summer, 
and fall effects. 
They should be 
planted at the pro- 
per time, either in 
the fall or in the 
spring. Fall plant- 
ing is usually con- 
sidered better than 
spring planting as 



the season is longer and the soil in better physi- 
cal condition. 

Care should be taken in the selection of the 
seed mixture for the lawn. In the Atlantic coast 
region and north to the Great Lakes, Kentucky 
bluegrass has no superior for general lawn use. 
A mixture of Kentucky bluegrass seven parts, 
red top two parts, white clover one part, by 
weight, has proven very satisfactory in producing 
a durable lawn for concentrated use. 

General Considerations. A planting and grad- 
ing plan of the area should be prepared before 
actual construction is begun. This plan would show 
the size and arrangement of the beds, the type, size, 
number and placement of plant materials, the lo- 
cation of all drainage and water supply features, 
and the existing and proposed elevations. Shrubs 
are usually grouped in masses and rarely used as 
specimens in this type of development. 

Figures i, 2, and 3 illustrate respectively the 
three types of playground theaters previously 
mentioned informal, semiformal, and formal. 




SUNBEAMS FOR FOOTLIGHTS 



75 



!-!-! i 




This plan illustrates the arrangement of a proposed play- 
field showing the relation between the playground theater 
and other facilities. It is interesting to note that the 
theater is located near the shelter and away from noisy 
types of activities. The tennis and horseshoe courts act 
as transition between the quiet area and that devoted to 
field activities. The plan takes advantage of a terrace 
slope for its auditorium and has a low elevated stage 
supported by a retaining wall. The wings and backstage 
areas are formed by mass planting of deciduous shrubs. 



All plant materials 
suggested in these 
plans are adapt- 
able to the north- 
eastern coastal and 
Great Lakes regions 
of the United States. 
Figure I shows the 
general arrangement 
of suggested plant- 
ing for the informal type of playground theater. 
The stage is merely a part of a level lawn area in 
the corner of a playground. Around the border 
are plant materials for screen effects and to im- 
prove the general landscape appearance of the 
playground. The dotted lines in the beds repre- 
sent the outline of one particular variety of shrub. 
For example, five Spirea Thunbcrgii would be 
necessary for the space indicated for that variety 
in the plan. The shape of the bed provides a 



partial wing. The 
imaginary apron of 
the stage would ex- 
tend from this ex- 
treme point to the 
tree located thirty 
feet away. Such an 
arrangement is easily 
adapted to other uses, 
in addition to dra- 
matics. It can be used for quiet games, for arts 
and crafts, and is an excellent location for the 
storytelling hour. 

Figure 2 illustrates the semi formal type of 
playground theater. There is only a slight change 
in grade. The stage is not elevated, but a low, 
dwarf privet hedge is designed to act as a divi- 
sion between the auditorium and the stage. This 
should be kept low, and not allowed to grow over 
twelve inches high. A mass planting of Weigelia 



76 



SUNBEAMS FOR FOOTLIGHTS 



rosea forms one wing of the stage and the exten- 
sion of the planting bed with the Siberian Dog- 
wood forms the opposite wing. Here again the 
area can be used for many types of activities as 
well as for dramatics. 

Figure 3 illustrates the formal type of play- 
ground theater, with elevated stage. A dry wall 
two and a half feet high forms the apron of the 
turf stage. The wings and background shown in 
hatch are solid blocks of sheared evergreens, 
usually six feet high. There is an ample back- 
stage area, completely screened by the surround- 
ing shrubbery borders. Access to the stage is pro- 
vided from the rear. The wall of the stage can be 
of any type of material stone, brick, concrete. For 
pleasing effects and low construction cost, a dry 
stone wall is most satisfactory. This type of wall 
requires no foundation, and if the bonding ma- 
terial is soil the joints between the stones can be 
plajited with alpines with interesting results. These 
plants should be placed in the wall at the time of 
construction and not inserted after the wall is 
completed. In this way the roots of the plants 
will have direct contact with the soil, which should 
be thoroughly packed around them. 

There are many alpines suitable for wall treat- 
ment. Among the outstanding species are Dian- 
thus deltoides, Saphonaria ocymoides, Sedums in 
variety, Alyssum, Phlox subulata, Campanula gar- 
ganica, Arabis, and many others. These plants 
are profuse bloomers and many of them are ever- 
green throughout the year. They are all very 
hardy. While the plan indicates Hemlock for the 
wings and back- 
ground, there are 
many types of 
evergreens satis- 
factory for this 
purpose. Arbor 
Vitae, upright 
Junipers, and 
Yews are often 
used for such 
purposes. Any 
evergreen that 
can withstand 
severe shearing 
and attain the 
necessary height 
is satisfactory 
for wings and 
background.If 
deciduous shrubs 



are used for this purpose, it is best to select those 
that adapt themselves to severe shearing and pro- 
duce dense foliage from crown to top. Various 
types of privets are the most satisfactory, and they 
are inexpensive. The introduction of trees in con- 
nection with the stage not only provides shade but 
helps to create a more pleasing skyline effect. 
Elms, maples, and oaks are standard hardy varie- 
ties used but the occasional introduction of a semi- 
weeping willow, such as Salix elegantissima adds 
variety and beauty in color and effect. 

The width of the proscenium depends on the 
type of use and the size of the area. Thirty feet 
is usually considered a desirable width for most 
activities. This type of theater is more difficult to 
adapt to other playground uses than the informal 
or the semi formal types. It is probably not feasi- 
ble to construct the formal type unless there is a 
keen interest in dramatic and musical activities. 
Careful planning and programming, however, can 
find many uses for it. It does have the distinct 
advantage of inviting use. 

The question of dressing rooms is often im- 
portant in the outdoor natural theater. Usually an 
adjacent shelter building or similar structure is 
used for this purpose. It is sometimes practical 
(Continued on page 108) 



This picture illustrates the effective use of alpines in 
the construction of a dry retaining wall supporting 
the stage. These plants are very striking through- 
out the entire year, contrasting with the harshness 
of the stone and softening the severity of the wall. 




Rainy Day Programs for Camps 



By DAN DRYDEN and BILL SCHAFER 




THE PROBLEM of providing a good program for 
rainy days has long been a "headache" for 
camp leaders. One of the reasons it has been 
a problem is that it has been approached in the 
wrong light. If counselors and directors could 
look upon the rainy day as a boon, the problem 
would be half solved. Variety is one of the things 
we try to plan for in any recreation program, so 
why shouldn't we accept a change in the weather 
and put it to use as we would any new activity ? 

It is not a bad idea to plan for a lull in activi- 
ties once in a while and the rainy day is just the 
time for a let-down. By this we do not mean that 
the day should become boresome or that time 
should hang heavy on the campers' hands. There 
are plenty of activities which can provide a lot of 
fun and may be a welcome relief from the usual 
more athletic type of program. If it is felt that 
something exciting is needed to vary the program, 
there is no lack of games of a more robust type 
which may be played indoors, even if the space is 
fairly limited. 

Perhaps one of the best things counselors can 
do is to give the campers a chance to use their 
own ingenuity in dealing with the rainy day. That 
is one of the things camp is supposed to develop, 
and this is a good chance for a little practice. In 
most cases weather has little effect on the natural 
exuberance of children. They will find a great 
many things to do if left to their own devices. 
Of course something is needed to fill in the gaps 
when the youngsters run out of good ideas tem- 
porarily. For you may bank on it that they will 
not be at a loss for something to do for very 
long! If they run out of ideas that are acceptable 
to the camp, they will soon concoct schemes that 
may be somewhat devastating. However, if coun- 
selors are on the lookout they 
may be able to provide the neces- 
sary stimulus or added ingenuity 
which will produce a good activity 
from a hazy or imperfect idea. 

Why not, in the first place, 
prove to campers that bad weather 



The authors of these practical 
suggestions on how to take the 
gloom out of rainy days at camp 
are both associated with the rec- 
reation program of the Children's 
Aid Society of New York City. 



can be pleasant ? The explanation of this paradox 
will be apparent Lo the reader who has spent a 
cold, blustery evening before a pleasant fire when 
the sound of the wind and of the rain beating on 
the roof has "seemed actually to add to the warmth 
and snugness of the room. 

Another easily demonstrable point is that 
many activities enjoyed during sunshiny weather 
are just as pleasant to pursue in the rain 
if one is properly equipped. We don't know 
whether the experts agree with us, but in our 
youth we did a lot of fishing in the rain and en- 
joyed it, especially trolling for bass and pike. We 
do not remember whether the catch justified our 
belief that a light rain enhanced our chances, but 
we do remember the main thing about it and 
that is that it was fun! Hiking or just going 'for 
a walk in the rain will give campers a view of 
beauties of nature not to be seen in fair weather. 
Anyone who has seen a spider web adorned with 
crystal raindrops or who has walked with the 
summer rain in his face will appreciate this. 

Swimming, too, can be fun if it is not overdone 
and the air is not too cold. Perhaps it should be 
suggested that this sort of activity should be en- 
tirely voluntary, but that enthusiasm or a show of 
interest on the part of counselors will engender 
greater participation and also greater enjoyment 
on the campers' part. Campers also like to run 
naked or almost so in a heavy downpour and it 
can be done without harmful effects if care is 
taken that it is not continued until the children 
become too cold and that they have a good rub- 
down afterwards. 

A spirit of informality and do-as-you-please 
will allow for relaxation and spontaneity. All or 
as many as possible of the various camp depart- 
ments should be available to the 
campers. All counselors should 
be "on tap" and ready for any- 
thing. The craft shop, of course, 
should be open, and it will in all 
probability be well attended. Sug- 
gestions for rainy-day work 



77 



78 



RAINY DAY PROGRAMS FOR CAMPS 





Box Refoij 



L 

Shot Put 





Peanut Party 



Test 





Friendly 



HiKma m tK Rai r\ 





Pillow Fiejht 



Treasure Hunt 



We admit that a rainy spell of 
several days is a trying situation, 
but with the proper attitude in 
the leaders and a knowledge of 
the many things that can be done 
most of the unpleasantness can 
be relieved. Make provision for 
the comfort of the campers by 
providing neatsfoot oil or any 
other waterproofing material. It 
is a good idea, too, to have a sup- 
ply of old clothing on hand to 
replace wet outfits. Check camp- 
ers' blankets to see that they 
haven't become damp from the 
atmosphere; if they have, they 
may be thoroughly dried in a 
commercial laundry. 

A Few Rainy Day Programs 

The following programs for 
rainy days are by no means new, 
but can be adapted to almost any 
camp. We have used them and 
found them both practical and 
popular with the campers. 

Scavenger Hunt. Prepare a list 
of articles that are difficult to find 
on a rainy day. Organize group 
into teams and give each team the 
list of articles; the first team to 
return with all the articles wins 
the hunt. 

Suggestions for the list are: a 
dry leaf, a snail, a butterfly, a 
mushroom or puffball, a fish- 
worm, a spider web. 



might include decorating the slickers or the can- 
vas jackets youngsters are wearing these days, 
and making miniature gardens. Certainly there 
should be a place for wrestling, tumbling, boxing, 
and general rough-housing. A few of the camp- 
ers might like the chance to gather around the 
piano and sing informally. Others might enjoy 
just poking the fire to their own satisfaction! 
Time spent about the fireplace in a good old- 
fashioned bull session is not always wasted. There 
is a good opportunity on rainy days for practice 
in signalling and perhaps Indian sign talks. Quiet 
games such as cards, Monopoly, Parchesi, check- 
ers and chess will pass the time both pleasantly 
and profitably. 



Treasure Hunt. Treasure hunts have long been 
a popular program at camps. A rainy day will 
give it added thrills and adventures. Make the 
trail difficult, but not dangerous, to follow. 

Cowboy and Indian Fight. This may be played 
outdoors or indoors, if space is available. The 
group is divided into two teams Cowboys and 
Indians. Each member of both teams is given a 
number of gummed stickers. At the signal, "War 
declared," teams try to capture each other by 
sticking a gummed sticker on an opponent, thus 
eliminating the captured player from the fight. 
The team wins which captures all of its opponents. 

This is an excellent game when played outdoors 
(players wear trunks or bathing suits) where 



RAINY DAY PROGRAMS FOR CAMPS 



79 



players can stalk opponents and hide behind 
foliage and rocks. 

Indoor Track Meet. An indoor track meet can 
be held in a very limited space. The group is 
divided into teams a small number of players on 
each team. The events in the track meet may be 
such as: 

Shot put Shot is a blown up paper bag or 

balloon. 

Javelin throw Javelin is a piece of broom 

straw. 

100 yd. dash Dash over marked area hopping 

on one foot. 

High Jump on one foot. 

Broad jump on one foot. 

Discus throw Discus is a paper pie plate or 

cardboard disc. 

Relay race relays hopping on one foot. 

Medley relay crab walk, backward walk, and 

snake walk. 

Pole vault standing pole vault for distance, 

using broom stick for pole. 

Hammer throw Hammer is blown up paper 

bag with string attached. 

Peanut Party. Use the same organization as for 
the indoor track meet, and offer novelty events 
and races. Each team winning an event is per- 
mitted to send a representative (the one with the 
largest hand) to take a handful of peanuts. The 
teams keep the peanuts until the events are fin- 
ished and divide them among the members. Sug- 
gested events for the party are: 
potato race, using peanuts ; a race 
in which peanuts are pushed with 
nose ; needle-threading race in 
which contestants race over given 
distance, thread needle and re- 
turn ; cracker eating race in which 
each player eats three crackers and 
whistles ; and a match box relay. 
In this stunt the first player sticks 
his nose into one end of the lid 
of a match box. He passes it on 
to the second player by pushing 
the other end onto the nose of 
the second player withdrawing 
his own nose. Neither player is 
permitted to touch the lid with 
his hands. 

Stunt Party. The stunt party is 
a program of events that are 
mainly entertaining. Little or- 



ganization is required as volunteers participate in 
the events. Encourage all of the members of the 
group to enter into at least one event. Suggested 
events for the party are : 

Chef's hat boxing paper bag is placed on the 
heads of the boxers for hats ; object is to knock 
opponent's hat off. 

Paper tear-outs Give every member of the 
group a piece of paper. By folding or tearing 
the paper countless numbers of figures and de- 
signs can be made. 

Friendly enemies Two contestants, blindfold- 
ed, lie prone on the floor facing each other. They 
grasp left hands and hold swatter (roll of 
paper) in their right hands. 

A starts by calling to B, "Where are you?" 
When B answers, "Here," A strikes spot where 
voice came from. In return B asks A where he 
is and attempts to hit him. 
Chinese get-up. Two players sit on the floor 
back to back, with arms folded. Each presses 
against the other's back and attempts to rise to 
a standing position without unfolding his arms. 
Handkerchief pick-up A handkerchief is 
placed on the seat of a low chair. Player, stand- 
ing on one foot with arms folded behind his 
back, bends forward and attempts to pick up 
the handkerchief with his teeth. 
Pilot's test Blindfolded player leans forward 
and rests forehead on short broomstick. Object 

(Continued on page 109) 





flamy Day in Jhe 5hof> 



\ 



and Indians 





in ('he Rt*\ 




THE OLD battle cry of 
recreation leaders 
"Playgrounds for 
Children" is now giving 
way to a new and more 
far-reaching slogan "Play- 
grounds for Everyone" for 
youngsters, mother and dad, 
big brother and sister, and the 
man and woman next door. 
Formerly a playground was 
open from nine in the morning until five at night. 
Now playgrounds are open, with supervision, 
from nine in the morning, or earlier, until dark 
and, in many instances, until ten or eleven at 
night. The old playground program consisted 
largely of games, sports and swimming, with a 
smattering of dancing, handcraft and dramatics 
for children. Many playgrounds displayed signs : 
"For children under sixteen years of age," and 
parents visited the playground at the closing ses- 
sion or on a special occasion to watch a play, 
exhibit or demonstration of the activities of their 
children. 

A Center for All! 

The new conception of a playground is a gath- 
ering place, a community center, so to speak, 
where children have the use of the facilities and 
play space during the day, but where everyone in 
the neighborhood can congregate at night for 
games, swimming, handcraft, movies, hobby in- 
terests, social dancing, band concerts, or just to 
sit around and talk with neighbors and friends. 

Concerts. In Cincinnati, under the direction of 
Robert E. Coady, Supervisor of Playgrounds, the 
playgrounds are rapidly becoming the summer 
neighborhood meeting place, with particular em- 
phasis placed on programs for adults after 5 130 
P. M. In cooperation with the Board of Park 
Commissioners and the Federal Music Project, 
band and orchestra concerts are given two or 
three times a week on different grounds. On the 
day of the concert available benches are delivered 
to the playground by the Recreation Commission, 
chairs are borrowed by some members of the 
audience from houses in the vicinity, while others 
bring their own boxes, stools, or folding chairs. 

80 



As you plan your summer program 
ask yourself this question: "Are 
our playgrounds serving adults?" 

By MABEL MADDEN 

Supervisor of Community Activities 

Public Recreation Commission 

Cincinnati, Ohio 



Dances. Social dances 
are conducted in many 
districts one, two, or three 
nights a week by the 
Playground Mothers 
Clubs. Where WPA orchestras 
are used admission is free; 
where private orchestras are 
employed the charge is two 
dances for five cents. The 
Playground Mothers Club, 
with the playleader, assumes complete charge of 
the dance, including employment of the orches- 
tra, sale of refreshments, and chaperonage. Any 
profits derived from the dances are used by the 
clubs to purchase material for costumes, pay the 
carfare of the children for inter-playground 
games, and for special treats for the children. 
These dances are conducted especially for the 
'teen age boy and girl, to give them a place where 
they can dance in out of doors in pleasant sur- 
roundings and with wholesome supervision at a 
very small cost. 

Everyone Helps! Other money-raising activities 
conducted by the Playground Mothers Clubs with 
the assistance of the playleaders are carnivals, 
festivals, and bake sales. Booths are erected by 
the Recreation Commission, often with the help 
of the men in the neighborhood. When these car- 
nivals or festivals are held on Saturday, parents 
and friends throng the grounds all afternoon and 
evening, purchasing the articles for sale and par- 
ticipating in the many progressive games of skill 
which are placed at intervals on the playing field. 
The men, particularly, take a sporting interest in 
making a better score than their opponents. 

Handcraft. In several locations "Ladies' Night" 
is celebrated once a week, with softball diamonds, 
the wading pool, and other facilities reserved for 
the exclusive use of girls and women. Some of 
the community center handcrafts, knitting and 
leather-tooling classes continue all summer, meet- 
ing in the playground shelter building under the 
covered shelter, or simply in a cool spot under 
the trees. Last year one of the community center 
photography classes met each week during the 
summer at the playground shelter building, the 
members traveling from there to one of the parks, 



PLAYGROUNDS AS COMMUNITY CENTERS 



81 



the conservatory, the Zoo, or some other interest- 
ing place to take pictures and compare, discuss and 
criticize photographs taken on previous trips. 

Swimming. Cincinnati, unfortunately, is one of 
the few large cities that does not have a publicly 
owned swimming pool for adults, and in spite of 
the many songs and poems written about the 
"Beautiful Ohio," it is not safe for swimming. 
When one of the playleaders suggested a few 
years ago that the children's wading pools be kept 
open at night for adults, no one believed that 
grown men and women would want to try to swim 
in pools having a maximum depth of three and a 
half to four feet. The experiment was made, 
however, and much to everyone's amazement the 
pools are crowded on hot nights with boys and 
girls and men and women from sixteen to sixty 
years of age. One or two large floodlights at- 
tached to the shelter building outlets serve to il- 
luminate the pools and the surrounding space. A 
charge of five cents is made to cover the extra 
service of caretaker and playleader, and in some 
districts a small profit is realized. 

Play Days. Community play days, with three or 
four playgrounds in the district combining for a 
celebration at the largest or most accessible area, 
are another source of stimulating good fellowship 
and better community spirit. Committees, with 
representatives from each place, are formed to 
assist the supervisor and 
play leaders in organizing 
the program. Wherever 
possible the Federal 
Music, Theater and 
Vaudeville Projects are 
enlisted to provide en- 
tertainment. 

Pageants. Two years 
ago Cincinnati discon- 
tinued the city-wide 
playground pageant and 
substituted a pageant on 
each playground to 
demonstrate to the par- 
ents one part of the 
playground program. 
The pageants include 
dancing, dramatics, 
tumbling and singing, 
and of course the par- 
ents and relatives attend 
to see little Johnny and 



On this summer's playgrounds many young 
people will be absorbed in making things 



Mary perform, even if they are only members of 
a large chorus. Many times the supervisors, stand- 
ing on the sidelines, have heard remarks to the 
effect that "I certainly had no idea the children 
were doing anything like this," or "I thought all 
they did on the playground was swim and play 
games." The playground pageant, as well as the 
handcraft and hobby exhibits can be excellent edu- 
cational and publicity media for selling the play- 
ground program to men and women who other- 
wise think only of the playground as a "safe" 
place where children are "watched" by play- 
leaders. 

On the Fourth of July. Independence Day, com- 
ing so soon after the closing of school and the 
opening of the summer playgrounds, can serve the 
triple purpose of helping children to appreciate 
the advantages given them by the Declaration of 
Independence and the efforts of the great patriots 
who made it possible for us to live in a de- 
mocracy; to give them a joyous holiday without 
the dangers of fireworks; and, through parades, 
athletic events and short historical tableaux, to 
bring large numbers of adults to the playground 
early in the season, thereby creating an interest 
which can be fostered throughout the summer. In 
most neighborhoods the Playground Mothers Club 
helps sponsor the Fourth of July celebration, 
sometimes in cooperation with the local Welfare 
Association, by giving small 
inexpensive prizes for the 
best costumes and win- 




Courtesy WPA, Iowa 



ners of athletic events, 
and a treat, generally 
ice cream and cake, to 
every child participat- 
ing in the parade and 
program. In a similar 
way, Labor Day can be 
a fitting climax to the 
season's activities. 

Co -Recreation. The 

evening program, if 
carefully conducted, 
should provide a con- 
structive social outlet 
for the young men and 
women in the neigh- 
borhood. Often we have 
found that a group of 
young women playing 
(Continued on page 110) 



Travel Tours via Wishful Thinking! 



PLAYGROUND chil- 
dren in Leomin- 
ster, Massachu- 
setts are going abroad 

"via imagination," and are having almost as much 
fun withutheir trips as if they were the real Mc- 
Coy! Under the direction of Mrs. Mary Rocca 
travel tours have been conducted to France, Italy, 
Japan, England, Poland, and other foreign coun- 
tries. How ? It really is quite simple. 

First, the children gather around in a circle to 
start planning their trip to another distant land. 
Paragraphs concerning the various countries are 
read from a travel book to help in deciding what 
shall be the next trip on their list. Comparisons 
are made between our country and the foreign 
ones. Transportation, food, dress, historical 
features, and modes of living are discussed. An 
effort is made to answer all questions and to 
obtain a clear picture of other countries. 

In outlining their trip, the map of the country 
is used to locate the important cities and rivers. 
Parts of books are read about these places to pre- 
sent a general picture of the country itself. Nat- 
urally the group must carry along a dictionary of 
the language used in each country visited, and in 
this way members learn conversational expres- 
sions in many foreign languages. 

Next, the children get down to business with 
time-tables, bus and 
steamship pamphlets, 
and plan in detail the 
actual traveling involv- 
ed. This gives them an 
idea of what the trip 
will cost, including rail- 
road and steamship 
fares, food, tips, sou- 
venirs and similar ex- 
penses. Each child has 
his own expense book 
in which he jots down 
the sum agreed upon to 
cover the whole trip. 
After deciding definite- 
ly on the date of de- 
parture and the number 
of stops en route they 
are off with the aid of 

82 



An adventure in vicarious traveling which 
proved both recreational and educational 



a map and a certain 
amount of imagina- 
tion! 

As the trip pro- 
gresses, the children spend their money, which is 
carefully budgeted, and subtract it from the main 
total, being careful to have enough for the return 
trip. 

The good thing about a vicarious "crossing" is 
that no one can possibly become seasick! Once 
on the other side of the water, some time is spent 
at each of the foreign cities on the list, and the 
children learn for themselves the historical facts 
of the country, noting the differences in customs, 
food, and ways of living, and being very careful 
to pay the exact amount for guide and taxi ser- 
vice with the air of a connoisseur. 

Stamps and souvenirs are often brought in to 
make the trip seem more real. Many times the 
children draw pictures of some of the places, and 
often they are taught to weave articles or to make 
metal ornaments like those of foreign countries. 
Once in a while some child has a relative or a 
friend abroad and through this contact may be 
able to add very interesting knowledge to the trip. 
Upon returning home, each child tells about the 
part of the trip he enjoyed most. The expense 
books are checked and balanced, and a general 
discussion follows which helps in planning the 

next trip. Each trip be- 
comes longer and more 
interesting. The chil- 
dren soon become well 
enough acquainted with 
many countries to feel 
quite at home in them. 

This project in vica- 
rious traveling has 
proved to be both edu- 
cational and entertain- 
ing. Children as well as 
(Continued on page 110) 



Ail ready for a trip 
even to the suitcase 



Photo by Leo Meister, Newark, N. J. 





There are many themes 
which are adaptable for use 
in the summer playground 
program, and in them dra- 
ma, music and handcraft 
may all be introduced 
in happy combination 



ast Orange, N. J., Board of Recreation Commission 



On Wings to Fairyland" 



U ^^N WINGS To FAIRYLAND" was the delight- 
^^/ fill theme on which the Playground and 
Recreation Association of Wyoming Val- 
ley built last summer's entire playground program, 
with the exception of the athletic program which 
was run separately. The idea of "On Wings to 
Fairyland" was the feature, week by week, the 
fairy tales of different lands, correlating the musi- 
cal, dramatic, storytelling and handcraft activities 
with the countries under discussion. The season 
ended with a final pageant in Kirby Park bringing 
together 3,000 children in the costumes repre- 
sented by the fairy stories. 

The theme was unusually well chosen since it 
was culturally worthwhile and at the same time 
interesting, colorful, and adaptable to children of 
all ages, especially to young ones. From the di- 
rectors' standpoint it was an 
easy program to put on be- 
cause of the variety of 
handcrafts involved and 
the wealth of available 
program material of all 
kinds. 



"On Wings to Fairyland" 
First Week Get Ac- 
quainted Week 

Handcraft: Insignia for 
leaders, bean bags for 
relays. 



For a number of years the Playground and Rec- 
reation Association of Wyoming Valley, Penn- 
sylvania, has adopted a theme for its summer 
playground program. In 1937 it was a "Friend- 
lier Neighborhood." Last summer "On Wings 
to Fairyland" was the theme developed with 
great success. Many playground directors, 
cogitating on the subject of this summer's 
program, will find in "On Wings to Fairy- 
land" a perfect portmanteau of ideas. The 
outline of events as described by Ruth Sweiey, 
Director of Recreation, is given here, with 
a few changes of minor importance to 
make it more adaptable to countrywide use. 



Music: Get acquainted songs. 

Storytelling: Explain plan for summer. Tell 
and act out Taffy was a Welshman, Little Red 
Riding Hood, Little Boy Blue and other simple 
stories. 

Second Week Germany Week and Music Week 

Handcraft: Seven Dwarf dolls, caps, animals, 
German toys, fruit banks. 

Music : Festival on every playground. Use old 
German airs and folk dances. Music from Walt 
Disney's Seven Dwarfs. 

Storytelling: Pied Piper, Hansel and Gretel, 
Legends of the Rhine. Smaller children: The 
Easter Rabbit, The Queen of Hearts, The House 
that Jack Built. 

Dramatics : Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. 
Puppet show. 
Third Week British Isles 
Week and Folk Festivals 

Handcraft: Build fairy 
castles from oatmeal boxes, 
chip carving, dolls of dif- 
ferent northern countries. 
Music: Folk songs of 
Ireland, Scotland, England. 
Storytelling: Sleeping 
Beauty, the Frog Prince, 
Tom Tit Tot, Puss in 
Boots, Alice in Wonder- 
land. 



83 



84 



'ON WINGS TO FAIRYLAND' 



Dramatics : Old King Cole, Sleeping Beauty. 
Folk festivals on all playgrounds using dances 
and tunes of Ireland, Scotland, England and Wales. 

Fourth Week Orient Week and Kite Week 

Handcraf t : Oriental lamps, trays, pottery, para- 
chutes, kites. 

Build set for Aladdin and the Lamp. 

Music : The Chinese Fan and other songs. 
(See song list.) 

Storytelling : Aladdin and the Lamp. The Great 
Bell of Pekin. 

Dramatics : Aladdin and the Lamp. 

Kite tourneys. 

Fifth Week France Week and Puppet Shows 

Handcraf t : Columbine and Pierrot puppets. 

Music: Alouette, En Passant par Lorraine and 
other songs. (See list.) 

Dramatics: Puppet shows on all playgrounds 
using the Columbine and Pierrot. 

Sixth Week Mexico Week and Handcraft Week 

Handcraft : Scarfs, Mexican hats, boleros, belts, 
tambourines. 

Music: La Paloma, Cielito Lindo and other 
songs. (See list.) 

Stringed music groups. 

Storytelling : The Talking Bird and other Aztec 
stories. 

Handcraft exhibition on each playground. 

Seventh Week America Week 

Handcraft : Rip van Winkle set, Negro dancing 
dolls, Eskimo sets, totem poles, Indian craft. 

Music : Sour wood Mountain, Li'l Liza Jane and 
other songs. (See list.) 

Storytelling: Traditional American stories, In- 
dian stories, Pioneer stories. 

Dramatics: Mary Had a Little Lamb, Hickory 
Dickory Dock, The Little Turtle, Frog Went a 
Courting, Old Bang 'Em. 

Eighth and Ninth Week were filled with pre- 
paration for the final pageant and play, Rip van 
Winkle. 

Songs Used 

We are not listing here the songs used for the 
first get-acquainted week as they are miscellaneous 
sociability songs and action songs such as The 
More We Get Together and Looby Loo. The 
members accompanying the following songs refer 
to the list of song books which follows : 



Second Week Germany 

Hansel and Gretel Dance (1) 

Where Has My Little Dog Gone? 

The Generous Fiddler (6) 

Du, Du, Liegst Mir Im Herzen (6) and (3) 

A Walking Song (6) 

Schnitzel bank (3) 

Johnnie Schmoker (4) 

Ach Ja 

Ach du Lieber Augustin (3) 

Broom Dance (1) 

Whistle While You Work (Walt Disney's Song Hits) 

Heigh-Ho (Walt Disney's Song Hits) 



Third Week British Isles 

Jack and Jill (7) 

Sing a Song of Sixpence (7) 

Billy Boy (4) 

Little Sir Echo (4) 

Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat (1) 



Frog Round ( 1 ) 
Muffin Man (1) 
The Duke of York (1) 
The Keeper (6) 



Fourth Week Orient 

The Chinese Fan (1) The Rabbit and the Turtle (11) 

Sing-a-Ling-a-Ling (4) Cherry Blooms (11) 

Old Mother Wind ( 9 ) From Nippon Bridge ( 1 1 ) 



Fifth Week France 

Alouette (1) 

The Apple Tree (9) 

Balloons (9) 

Sixth Week Mexico 

I Saw You (6) 
Tarentella 
La Paloma (4) 
Juanita (5) 



En Passant Par La Lorraine (6) 

Vive la Compagnie (4) 

On the Bridge at Avignon (13) 



Cielito Lindo (6) and (3) 

Papoose (9) 

In Old Madrid (12) 

Spanish Cavalier (12) and (5) 

To Jerez We Will Go (11) 



Seventh Week America 

Sourwood Mountain (6) 

Li'l Liza Jane 

Home on the Range (10) 

Dogie Song (10) 

O Susanna (12) 

Night Herding Song (6) 



A- Jogging Along (6) 

Cape Cod Chantey (6) 

Old Bang 'Em (6) 

The Turtle (9) 

Frog Went a Courting (6) 

Hickory Dickory Dock ( 1 ) 



Where to Find the Songs 

1. Twice 55 Games with Music, Red Book. C. C. 
Birchard & Co., Boston. 25# 

2. The Golden Book of Favorite Songs. Hall & Mc- 
Creary Co., Chicago, 20tf 

3. Time to Sing. Edward B. Marks Music Corp., R.C.A. 
Building, Radio City, New York City. 25tf 

4. Get Together Songs. Lorenz, 91 Seventh Avenue, 
New York City. 20tf 

5. Sociability Songs. Rodeheaver Co., 124 N. 15th St., 
Philadelphia. 20tf 

6. Songs for Informal Singing, Sets I, II and III. Na- 
tional Recreation Association, 315 Fourth Avenue, 
New York City. Price 10# each, $7.50 per 100. 

7. Treasure Chest of Children's Songs and Games. 
Treasure Chest Publications, Inc., New York City. 



"ON WINGS TO FAIRYLAND" 



85 



8. Let's Sing Mother Goose. Ella Sonkin & Sophia 
Bregman, Harold Flamer, Inc., Publisher, New York 
City. 60tf 

9. The Music Hour One Book Course. Silver Burdett 
& Co., 45 E. 17th St., New York City. 84tf 

10. Community Song Leaflets. National Recreation As- 
sociation. $1.10 per 100. 

11. Botsford's Collection of Folk Songs, Vol. 1. G. 
Schirmer, Inc., 3 E. 43rd St., New York City. $1.50 

12. Twice 55 Plus Community Songs, Brown Book. C. 
C. Birchard & Co., 221 Columbus Avenue, Boston. 
15<; with accompaniments, 75# 

13. Fifty Favorite Songs for Girls and Boys. Whitman 
Publishing Co., Racine, Wis. Also obtainable in ten 
cent stores. 15tf 

Some of the songs such as Cielito Lindo are 
found with dance arrangement in Parties, Musical 
Mixers and Simple Square Dances, published by 
the National Recreation Association. 50^ 

Stories Used 

The numbers accompanying the following titles 
refer to the list of story books which follows. 



Great Bell of China (6) Aladdin and the Lamp 
(4) and (5). 

France 

Columbine and Pierrot (17) Cinderella (i) 
and (n) Jack and the Beanstalk (n) and (i). 

Mexico 

The Talking Bird (7) Pepe and the Parrot (8) 

America 

Rip van Winkle (9) 

Where to Find the Stories 

1. Told Again, Walter de la Mare. Alfred A. Knopf, 
501 Madison Avenue, New York City. $3.00 

2. Fairy Stories and Fables, James Baldwin. American 
Book Company, 88 Lexington Avenue, New York 
City. 56tf 

3. Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll. The Macmil- 
lan Company, 60 Fifth Avenue, New York City. $1.00 

4. Arabian Nights' Entertainments, Edited by F. J. 
Olcott. Henry Holt and Company, 257 Fourth 



Germanv Avenue, New York City. $2.00 

Edited by Laurence Houseman. Garden City Publish- 

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Walt Dis- ing Company, Garden City, New York. $1.00 

ney's story adapted from the original story (12). 5 The children's Book, Horace Elisha Scudder. Hough- 

Hansel and Gretel (10) Legents of the Rhine ton, Mifflin Company, 2 Park Street, Boston, Massa- 

(13) Raven of Stolzeneck chusetts. $4.00 

(14). On playgrounds everywhere this summer, in 6 - The Chinese Wonder Book, 

activities of all kinds, children and older Norman Hinsdale Pitman. 

British Isles b oys anc j g ; r | s as we || wi || turn fo fne E. P. Button and Company, 

King Arthur Stories (15) fairy stories and legends which will never 30 Fourth Avenue, New 

The Frog lose their power to thrill young and old. YorkCity.$3.00 

Prince (10) 7. The Talking 

Sleeping 



Beauty (i) 
Tom Tit Tot 
(2) Puss in 
Boots ( 2 ) 
Alice in Won- 
derland (3). 

The Orient 

The Flying 
Carpet, The In- 
visible Cap, 
The Gold Giv- 
ing Ring and 
the Smiling 
Club (18) Ali 
Baba (16) Ali 
of Cairo (4) 
Arah and His 
Camel (5) The 




Courtesy East Orange, N. J., Board of Recreation Commission 



Bird, Idella 
Purnell and 
John Martin 
Weatherwax. 
The Macmillan 
Company, New 
York City. 

$1.75 

8. Pepe and the 
Parrot, Ellis 
Credle.Thomas 
Nelson and 
Sons, 381 
Fourth Ave- 
nue, New York 
City. $2.00 
9. Rip van Win- 
kle, Washing- 
ton Irving. The 
Macmillan 
Company 

(Continued on 
page 111) 



'The Strong and the Brave" 



An Indian playground pageant 
given last summer in Reading, 
Pennsylvania, by the Depart- 
ment of Public Recreation 



By CATHERINE HERB 

Supervisor 
Dramatics and Storytelling 




IN THE SUMMER of 1938 the overhead theme 
chosen for the Reading playgrounds was that 
of the Plains Indians. Two very helpful ad- 
visors were William "Lone Star" Dietz, foot- 
ball coach at Albright College, a full-blooded 
Sioux Indian, and Fred Cardin, Senior High 
School music director and a Quapau Indian. 
During the usual playground leaders' insti- 
tute both these men lectured on handicraft, 
customs, music, dances and legends of the 
Plains Indians. Most of the games, dances, 
songs and handicraft learned there were later 
incorporated into the final pageant. In this 
way the pageant was merely an outgrowth 
of the summer's work. 

The events of the pageant centered around 
two orphaned, outcast children in the Pawnee 
tribe Ishnela, "Lonely Heart," and Whean, 
"Little Girl." As is the custom among Indians, 
wandering orphans remain outcasts because 
the instinct of self-preservation is too great. 
The children try to join in the games of the 
small children, the tournaments of the older 
boys, the work of the women and finally the 
council of the men. There Ishnela hears that 
the men are planning to attack a neighboring, 
hostile tribe whose stealthy ways Ishnela 
knows. He tries to interrupt their "War 
Dance" and also their march toward the 
enemy. Finally, in desperation, they all drive 

86 



An exhibit of Indian handcraft 
articles made during the summer 

him back to the village, reaching safety just 
as the hoots of the enemy are heard outside. 
Because of Ishnela's insistence and bravery, 
which has saved them, the men decide to admit 
him into the tribe, and to change his name. 
Now follows the "Change-of-Name" ceremony 
in which he is killed as his old self and revived 
as his new self with the new name "Chi-tan 
Wa-lit," the "Strong and the Brave." After 
the celebration he is given the honor of lead- 
ing all the members of the tribe in a snake 
dance which incidentally leads all of the per- 
formers off the field. 

Organization 

After the third week of the playground 
season, each leader was asked to give the num- 
ber of boys and girls, ages 6-8, 9-12, 12-up, 
the number of tomahawks, tepees, tom-toms, 
and any other particular talent which the 
playground could provide. From these lists 
were made the final assignments. Those who 
could provide older boys were assigned the 
parts of the braves ; those who had more small 
children were given the little girls' games. 
As far as possible nearby playgrounds were 
grouped together in the pageant, thus facili- 
(Continued on page 112) 




Courtesy Department of Recreation, Sioux City, Iowa 



In Step with the Playground Procession 



ME EARLY, Mother 
dear," the alert play- 
ground director will 
say this year, not because he is 
to be Queen of the May, but 
because the playground pro- 
cession is almost under way 
and it behooves him to be on hand to join the 
lively marchers ! So many splendid, colorful pro- 
grams will be put on all over the country by re- 
sourceful recreation directors and energetic play- 
ground supervisors that we wish we could have a 
roll call and beat the drum for each one. This 
being impossible, we are jotting down a few of 
the news items that have come our way about last 
summer's program. Some of them may prove 
adaptable to your playground program, if you 
haven't already tried them. 

Junior Fire Fighter Clubs. When the "clang 
clang" of the fire bell is heard, where is the child 
who does not run to follow the engine? 

Four years ago Park Roberts, an Akron fire- 
man, after careful study came to the conclusion 
that fire prevention must be recognized as a prob- 
lem demanding constant education and further 
that it must be directed primarily at youth rather 
than adults. Today there are 20,000 members en- 
rolled in the Junior Fire Fighter Clubs in Akron, 
Ohio. 

The activities of the program are varied. Radio, 
dramatics, debates, demonstrations, lectures, and 



The playground procession will 
soon be on its joyous way, skip- 
ping and dancing through America 
to the music of song and laugh- 
ter. Won't your city join it? 



motion pictures are all used in 
the club program which has 
been adopted as a part of the 
curriculum in all elementary 
schools of Akron with regular 
firemen acting as instructors. 
During the school term regu- 
lar meetings are conducted on schedule once every 
two weeks in each of the sixty elementary schools. 
Specially made 16 mm. motion pictures accom- 
panied by simple synchronized lectures on various 
fire problems are the core of each meeting 
program. 

In the spring of 1937 the Akron Recreation 
Commission suggested that the Junior Fire 
Fighter Club program be incorporated in the sum- 
mer playground program in order that the fire 
prevention education might continue during the 
summer and outdoor demonstrations be conducted 
which would be impossible in the winter indoor 
club program. A station wagon painted a fiery 
red, completely equipped with loud speakers and 
demonstration equipment, each day all summer 
long attracts club members and their friends to 
several scheduled key playgrounds throughout the 
city to take part in a demonstration dealing with 
the chemistry of fire, proper extinguishing meth- 
ods, first aid, and other allied subjects. There 
were fifteen clubs last summer on the playgrounds, 
and they were of unfailing interest. 

A Whistling Contest. New York City whistlers 

87 



88 



IN STEP WITH THE PLAYGROUND PROCESSION 



There'll be music, and plays and 
pageants, lantern parades, hikes 
and picnics, and circuses as well 



rallied round last summer when the Department 
of Parks announced a whistling contest! The 
contest was open to all types of whistlers, whether 
finger or lip, and to two age groups, those under 
eighteen and those over this age, with separate 
divisions for boys and girls. The classifications 
were: whistling soloists (classical, semi-classical 
and popular songs), whistling novelties, and bird 
imitators. Each contestant was required to par- 
ticipate in the borough eliminations in order to be 
eligible for the finals at Mullaly Playground. The 
winner of each classification in the borough elimi- 
nations, from both age groups of the boys and 
girls divisions, qualified for the city-wide compe- 
tition. Persons prominent in the radio and whistl- 
ing world acted as judges. 

Venetian Nights in Oklahoma City. The an- 
nual evening beach festival presented at Oklahoma 
City is an event of color and beauty. For the past 
two years the festival has been titled "Venetian 
Nights." As complete darkness settles upon Lin- 
coln Park Lake, floodlights over the water and 
beach are extinguished, and from one end of the 
lake three long columns of lighted lanterns wend 
their way towards the judges' stand in the center 
of the bathing beach. Small children carry their 
lanterns along the beach; older boys and girls 
form a column out in the water about knee deep. 
Far out in the lake a motor boat pulls a train of 
beautifully decorated lantern floats on boats in a 
winding course about the lake. 

Last year numerous lanterns were displayed on 
a float near the center of the lake, and when the 
parade was at its peak thousands of fireworks 
when set off creating a beautiful background for 
the spectacle. On the float was an accordion Vene- 
tian band producing lilting melodies which floated 
back to the thousands of listeners along the shore 
line. So successful has the beach festival been 
for the past two years that it will be repeated this 
summer ; the theme this year will be Noah's Ark. 

Attractive Articles from Scrap Wood. Day- 
ton, Ohio, playgrounds and community centers 
find boys perennially interested in woodworking. 
Several hundred prune boxes and orange crates 



secured through the city relief bureau were con- 
verted last year into over 6,000 articles. The fol- 
lowing were some of the articles made: corner 
shelves, book ends, wall brackets, tie holders, cor- 
respondence files, sewing kits, towel racks, pipe 
holders, ash trays. Each one of these articles was 
made in several different models; tops in variety 
were book ends and ash trays, numbering twenty 
models each. 

Storytelling in Cincinnati. Storytelling hours 
for the benefit of both children and adults were 
made possible through the unselfish assistance of 
the Cincinnati Story League. The storytellers 
visited the play streets, hospitals, orphanages and 
other institutions. 

Hobo Day Picnic. The Hobo Day Picnic was 
an outstanding feature of the special activities 
promoted on the Davenport, Iowa, playgrounds 
last summer. Children were encouraged to don 
Mother's and Dad's old clothes, -paint their faces, 
bring their lunches and enjoy a full day at the 
playground. Many picnic games, races and novel 
events carrying out the Hobo Day theme proved 
popular with the children. 

Special Activities During Heat of the Day. 

Realizing that harmful results could occur in 
the promotion of strenuous activities during the 




IN STEP WITH THE PLAYGROUND PROCESSION 



89 



heat of the day, Kansas City, Missouri, play- 
grounds last summer placed emphasis on the fol- 
lowing mid-day activities (in addition to dra- 
matics, music, handcraft and nature study) : mar- 
ble golf, clock golf, golf baseball, mumblety peg, 
knife baseball, shuffleboard, O'Leary, tether ball, 
horseshoes, stick bowling, checkers, marbles, do- 
do boards, caddy, ring tennis, hand tennis, nine 
man mill, loop tennis, box hockey, hop scotch, 
homemade games, top spinning, story telling and 
target pitching. 

Wheel Day. Friday, July i, was Wheel Day on 
all the Davenport, Iowa, playgrounds, last sum- 
mer. Boys and girls had an opportunity to test 
the speed of their scooters, wagons, kiddie cars, 
bicycles, and anything else that ran on wheels. 
Climaxing the local contests an inter-playground 
wheel contest was held in which finalists in the 
playground championships competed for city titles. 
One of the most amusing races was the "used 
tire" event in which boys eight years of age at- 
tempted in most cases successfully to roll huge 
tires over the finish line. Another of the more 
exciting races was the cross country bicycle race. 
Hazards were erected to check the speed of the 
cyclists and a large crowd watched breathlessly 
while the boys hurdled the barriers. 




Photo by Leo Meister, Newark, N. J. 



And there'll be athletic contests 
and games, roller skating races, 
handcraft and clubs of all kinds 

Original Playground Songs. Playground chil- 
dren of Salem, Massachusetts, turned poets last 
summer and wrote playground songs which were 
not only sung but used as accompaniments to 
marching, and, in some cases, as themes for singing 
games. The following tunes were chosen: The 
Ranger's Song, Columbia the Gem of the Ocean, 
Notre Dame Alma Mater, If I Had One Wish to 
Make, Heigh-Ho, I Love to Whistle, Happy Days 
Are Here Again, Anchors Aweigh, Shipmates 
Stand Together, Something About a Soldier, Stars 
and Stripes March. 

Baseball School. One of the features of last 
summer's city-wide program in a midwestern city 
was a baseball school in which instruction was 
given both in batting and fielding by some of the 
city's ace baseball men to midgets, juniors and 
seniors. Seventy-five boys, chosen for their inter- 
est and faithfulness in attending the school were 
given a trip to Chicago, to be guests of the Chi- 
cago Cubs. In spite of the fact that Old Man 
Weather played his meanest trick by sending 
enough rain that the game was called off, the boys 
proclaimed it a great holiday and spent an inter- 
esting half-day at the Brookfield Zoo. 

Around the World in Sport. For Salt Lake 
City's children's parade, (part of a city- wide cele- 
bration), "Around the World in Sport" was 
chosen as the theme. Each playground represented 
at least one country and portrayed the sport most 
typical of the country. The spirit of fun and 
drollery prevailed, and a steady roar of laughter 
and applause greeted the frolicking youngsters as 
they passed by. 

Playground Caps and Other Handcraft Projects. 

The making of playground caps was an original 
and much liked feature of Salem's last summer's 
handcraft program. It was fun for the children 
to make the caps and it was fun for them to 
wear them at the annual field day meet. Other 
projects that were enthusiastically carried through 
were: burlap belts of Tyrolean design; leather 
chain purses, pocketbooks, pouches, billfolds and 
wrist pocketbooks; doll needlecases (felt) ; spool 
knitting ; bead work, table mats woven with jersey 



90 



IN STEP WITH THE PLAYGROUND PROCESSION 



loops. All of these articles were fairly inexpen- 
sive to make. 

The girls at several Chicago playgrounds made 
in their art craft clubs little peasant aprons to be 
kept in their playground lockers and worn at club 
meetings. 

Carnival Capers. August I3th was a far from 
unlucky day for the children of Provo, Utah. 
Weeks before this date hundreds of busy fingers 
had fashioned gay crepe paper into attractive fes- 
toons and pompons. Large, life-like cardboard 
animals, with a carnival air about them, had ap- 
peared at the various play centers and fanciful 
costumes bloomed like tulips. At 6 130 on August 
1 3th, the parade went 
into action. Led by boys 
and girls of the Drum 
and Bugle Corps, bears, 
giraffes, trained ele- 
phants and other strange 
beasts dazzled the on- 
lookers. Hundreds of 
children appeared in 
costume as Indians, 
cowboys, freaks and 
snake charmers. Eighty 
floats were entered and 
approximately 800 chil- 
dren took part. After 
the parade, twelve side 
shows were opened at 
North Park in the new- 
ly lighted softball dia- 
mond and a sixteen-act 
Karnival ''bigger than a 
and better than a circus 
presented. 

Olympics in Webster County, 
Iowa. At the first annual Webster County, Iowa, 
playground Olympics conducted last summer 
under the sponsorship of the City Recreation 
Commission of Fort Dodge, events included pad- 
dle tennis for men and women, checkers, tether 
ball, chinning the bar, horseshoe pitching, soft- 
ball throwing, and volleyball for men and women. 
Each member of the winning and losing softball 
and volley ball teams playing in the Olympics was 
awarded a ribbon, the awards being made at the 
playground jamboree which was the closing event 
of the season. The cost of the yards of ribbon 
badges totalled not over $5.00; thirty-one yards 
of ribbon were used and were typed by members 
of the staff instead of being printed commer- 




show 
' was 



"No, I'm not too little to go to 
the playground. Please, Mother!" 



daily. This summer it is planned to add Chinese 
checkers, tennis, croquet, and swimming to the 
list of Olympic events. 

Step-by-Step Development of Dramatics. Plau- 
dits to Salem, Massachusetts for its very reason- 
able approach to the treatment of playground 
dramatics! The first week saw dramatics in its 
most rudimentary form, the pantomiming of sim- 
ple scenes familiar to the children, such as scenes 
in a doctor's office, a bus or a store. The next 
week, the director chose a simple story and guided 
the children in its pantomimic presentation in 
three scenes. The following week, the children 
themselves chose the story and pantomimed it 

with the help of the in- 
structor. The next step 
was the introduction of 
dialogue and by the lat- 
ter part of the season 
the children were writ- 
ing and acting their own 
plays. The last two 
weeks were given over 
to preparing for and 
staging a play on each 
of the playgrounds. 
These plays were adapt- 
ed from well-known 
tales, such as Hansel 
and Gretel, Tom Saw- 
yer, Alice in Wonder- 
land, Red Riding Hood, 
and The Three Bears. 

Theater Trailer Unit. 
A theater trailer unit decorated in 
circus fashion was in constant 
use in the Akron, Ohio, play- 
ground dramatic program all 
summer. Equipped with sound, lights, scenery 
and piano, the unit was scheduled on playgrounds 
for one or two days at a time. The marionette 
plays, part of the program, attracted especial at- 
tention and interest. 

Playground Booster Clubs. St. Paul, Minne- 
sota, has playground booster clubs similar to 
Parent-Teacher organizations connected with the 
schools. The chief function of the clubs, which 
meet monthly, is to help the Playground Bureau 
to provide the necessary materials for their re- 
spective community centers. The majority of such 
clubs have furnished pianos, chairs, tables, and 
dishes for their centers. The clubs also assist or- 
(Continued on page 113) 



Photo by Leo Meister, Newark, N. J. 



Dramatics for the Camp Community 



BETWEEN the produc- 
tion by the director 
of "regular" plays 
and the creation by the 
children of their own productions 
there is an intermediate stage in which 
the campers, may take the initiative, 
but which is more or less impromptu, 
so that it does not require so much time for plan- 
ning and rehearsal. These brief performances 
may take the form of "stunts," in which case they 
are played in a humorous manner, or they may 
have the dignity of amateur dramatic tourneys. 
The result will depend upon the spirit in which 
the plan is first presented to the children. A great 
deal depends upon the tact and the enthusiasm of 
the director. 

One dav we announced a contest between 

* 

groups of campers to take place that very night. 
The problem was for each group to take a ballad 
or a story-poem and arrange it in any dramatic 
form that seemed most interesting. We submitted 
a list of poems for them to choose from, but sev- 
eral groups thought of better ones, and we, with 
"hands off," waited eagerly for the evening's 
performances. 

At the performance, what amazed us most was 
the high imaginative level of the whole affair, 
though the groups had been made up arbitrarily, 
not divided according to ability. Some of the 
younger children did good work with nursery 
rhymes ; there was the usual "Young Lochinvar," 
unusually well done, and a version of "There 
Were Three Gypsies" acted in pantomime to the 
singing of the poem. Best of all was a perform- 
ance of one of A. A. Milne's 
delightful poems, "King 
John's Christmas" from Now 
We Are Six. This was some- 
thing we counselors had nei- 
ther suggested nor expected, 
and it was really thrilling to 
see what those girls of high 
school age made of it. The 
India Rubber Ball remains in 
my memory as one of the 
funniest and most convincing 
"" characterizations" I ever 
:saw. It was a real triumph of 






A few specific suggestions for the 
guidance of the dramatic counsellor 



By KATE HALL 

Washington, D. C. 



The first article of this series, appear- 
ing in the April issue of Recreation, dis- 
cussed the general situation in regard to 
dramatics as it exists in the average full- 
time summer camp, the objectives of a 
good camp dramatics program, and some 
of the methods which may be used in 
reaching these objectives. In this article 
certain specific suggestions for more or 
less informal dramatic activity are offered 
from the writer's experience in summer 
camps in which sports constituted the 
major part of the total camp program, 
and in which little opportunity was 
provided for regular classes in dramatics. 



the imaginative spirit 
which sometimes finds its 
best release in self-expres- 
sion through informal dra- 
matic activity. After that we discov- 
ered even more possibilities in Mr. 
Milne. "The King's Breakfast" is 
particularly rich in pantomimic pos- 
sibilities, and, although I have never tried, per- 
haps the Pooh books. 

Source Material 

The dramatics counselor should certainly own 
a good book of storytelling ballads, such as Vir- 
ginia Olcott's Storytelling Poems. The Robin 
Hood ballads are useful for groups not too old to 
feel sophisticated about them. (Naturally these 
appeal more to boys than to girls.) "King John 
and the Abbot of Canterbury," "King Robert of 
Sicily," "The Highwayman," "Young Lochinvar," 
are all good ballads which dramatize well. They 
may be used for performances like these or as the 
basis for a real "created" play. Mother Goose 
rhymes are a fertile source, of course, and any 
story-songs, such as "There Were Three Gypsies," 
or the delightful French folk song, "Malbrough," 
as well as less literary efforts such as "Frankie 
and Johnnie" (a mild version) or the nonsense 
"backwards tale" which begins : "A long time to 
come, I remember it well." 

When there is not time for the children to plan 
and "make" it, the counselor can often adapt a 
simple story by combining a group of old English 
songs, or songs of several countries. If these are 
folk songs already familiar to the group, they can 
be used effectively with sim- 
ple pantomime and dance. 

Another useful idea is to 
take excerpts from certain 
well-known material like 
Shakespeare's comedies. We 
have often used the "Pyra- 
mus and Thisbe" episode 
from the rustic scenes in "A 
Midsummer Night's Dream," 
sometimes in pantomime, ac- 
companied by the reading of 
the scene, sometimes with the 
characters speaking their own 



91 



92 



DRAMATICS FOR THE CAMP COMMUNITY 



parts. It always seems to go over well, and is not 
very hard to do. The fairy scenes from the same 
play prove to be good material when cut or pan- 
tomimed. There are also scenes from "Twelfth 
Night" and "The Merchant of Venice" that may 
be done in the same manner. I have seen a high 
school girl pantomime the Launcelot Gobbo scene 
beginning "Certainly my conscience will serve me 
to run," with the most delightful effect. 

Of course if the children have time to learn 
lines and take part in a number of rehearsals, all 
the better, and if you have the opportunity to pro- 
duce a whole Shakespearean play, such as "A 
Midsummer Night's Dream," what better place 
could you have than the naturally beautiful set- 
tings of the out of doors ? If this kind of cutting 
seems sacrilege to you, then I shouldn't do it, but 
personally I think Shakespeare wouldn't mind a 
bit ! I have seen dramatizations by children made 
from the Lamb stories of these plays, with songs 
and some speeches taken from the plays them- 
selves. They seemed to me a very delightful in- 
troduction to the richness of the Shakespearean 
study which would come with their high school 
and college days. Of course what holds good for 
Shakespearean plays also holds good for certain 
other dramatists in the annals of English, Ameri- 
can and even foreign-language literatures. There 
are no royalties on any but the more modern 
"Classics," and if the cutting is done with rever- 
ence it would seem to be in the good interest of 
all theaters to give children a chance at doing 
plays that have stood the test of time. 

In the list of "creative materials" are included 
many simple fairy and folk tales, fables and 
myths. Sometimes the younger children will avail 
themselves of this material to make a play, even 
when there is no place on the camp program for a 
group in experimental or creative dramatics. I 
remember once being asked to attend a production 
("show," I suspect they called it) in the shack of 
some of the youngest girls in our camp. I was 
both amazed and delighted to witness a very effec- 
tive production of "The Sleeping Beauty," drama- 
tized, acted and well directed by these nine and 
ten year olds, without benefit of counselor. No- 
body had known what they were up to, and their 
pride in this achievement was delightful to be- 
hold. It made me wish there were more time in 
that camp for the development of such originality. 
One should watch for spontaneous productions 
of that sort and encourage them quietly without 
nipping them in the bud with what the young im- 



presarios would doubtless regard as uncalled-for 
interference on the part of grown-ups ! 

Well-known stories like "Little Black Sambo," 
"The Three Bears," "AH Baba and the Forty 
Thieves," and "The Three Wishes," may be acted 
more or less spontaneously, either in pantomime 
while someone else tells the story, or by combining 
this scheme with some spoken dialogue. Of course 
these, along with the more elaborate fairy and folk 
tales, may also be used for more complete and 
finished dramatizations. 

One word of warning concerns the possibility 
of over-use of the most familiar stories. Try to 
help the children recollect or discover stories less 
often used for dramatic material. A judicious use 
of the others is all right, but if the children con- 
tinuously follow the path of least resistance in this 
way a situation may arise as ludicrous as that now 
existing among new puppeteering groups, where it 
has almost come to be necessary that "Hansel and 
Gretel" is produced as the first play of every 
group ! 

"Operas" 

At one camp we had a girl about fifteen years 
old who loved to give impromptu versions of 
what she called "operas," but who could never 
make a success of them when she was asked to 
elaborate them in the recreation hall for the whole 
camp group. They were most entertaining per- 
formances, however, if you could catch a pro- 
duction on the wing and be swept along by the 
enthusiasm and personality of the young impre- 
sario. These "operas" were largely a hodge- 
podge of the stories of the various operas she had 
seen or read about, with the rest being "made up" 
as they went along, and with the pantomime and 
songs impromptu. The result was quite colorful 
and very funny. 

This kind of activity is useful in developing 
originality and spontaneity. It should be en- 
couraged, or even casually suggested by the dra- 
matics counselor, if she thinks there is any latent 
or budding originality in camp. The interest of; 
the other campers permitted to participate or to 
watch her performances never failed to manifest 
itself enthusiastically, and we came to feel that 
they had more real dramatic value for our chil- 
dren than many of the more elaborate productions 
at the recreation hall. 

This girl, incidentally, was a very good charac- 
ter actress if she could be caught out of one of 
her "moods"; she learned quickly and worked 



DRAMATICS FOR THE CAMP COMMUNITY 



93 



Courtesy Life Camps, Inc. 



Where life is all drama as 
the campers relive the ex- 
citing adventures they have 
just had and make new plans 



hard at rehearsals. With 
a little time and some 
skillful handling on the 
part of the dramatics 
counselor, spontaneous 
productions like these 
"operas" might be made 
over into more finished 
performances. 

While we are on the 
subject of operas, I 
might mention that cer- 
tain scenes from Gilbert 
and Sullivan are excel- 
lent material for short 
dramatic episodes. The 
"Willow, Tit Willow" 
scene from "The Mi- 
kado," for instance, with Ko-Ko and Katisha, is 
always fun. If you have a copy of Light Operas 
the Whole World Sings, you will find more than 
enough material ready to hand, particularly if 
there is a volume of Gilbert's texts at hand. Ex- 
cerpts from Humperdinck's "Hansel and Gretel" 
are effective and easy to do. Of course, this de- 
lightful little opera is often given by the children 
in its simplified form in its entirety. 

Naturally, you need a good pianist for this kind 
of work, but you need her anyway ! Once I didn't 
have one for the whole summer (or even a piano), 
and I had to substitute my own voice and the 
guitar as accompaniment for my own attempts at 
pantomime and for my colleague's dancing classes. 
We managed but if you can get them by hook 
or by crook, do have a piano and somebody who 
can play it! No other equipment is more neces- 
sary to a camp dramatics director. 

Pageants and Rituals 

Often the dramatics counselor is called upon 
for the production and sometimes for the writ- 
ing and planning of pageantry or ritual for vari- 
ous special occasions. If these occasions are tra- 
ditional, you will simply have to adapt yourself 
to circumstances and do your best to enter into 




Photo by L. B. Sharp 

the spirit of the group who cherishes them. If the 
occasion is a new one for celebration, you will 
probably have to make the script yourself. 

One such production used many times in our 
camp was an adaptation for pantomime and dance, 
played to the accompaniment of music, and with 
a preliminary reading of the story, "Le Jongleur 
de Notra Dame." This is a legendary French 
medieval tale which has an operatic version, and 
which Anatole France has written beautifully in 
short story form. The version we use is my own, 
adapted for our special needs. It has become part 
of the tradition of the camp and is given on a 
special Sunday once every summer. 

There are many other religious, semi-religious, 
Biblical, or legendary tales which can be used in 
the same way. The Ruth and Naomi story, ar- 
ranged for pantomimic production accompanied 
by reading, in Ritual and Dramatized Folkways, 
Jasspon and Becker, is another excellent example 
of what can be effectively done with this type of 
material. You will need only a few rehearsals, 
except for special small groups, and if the setting 
is right and the atmosphere simple and sincere, 
you will find that you have done a very appealing 
piece of work. 



94 



DRAMATICS FOR THE CAMP COMMUNITY 



Pantomimes, Too 

Very lovely pantomimes accompanied by music 
can be easily arranged from the more dramatic 
star myths, either the Greek and Roman tales, the 
Chinese and East Indian myths, or the legends as 
told among the Red Men of North America. The 
Greek story of the Great and Little Bears is one 
such legend that lends itself well to damatization, 
and the story of the Lyre, which is really that of 
Orpheus and Eurydice, is equally effective. If 
there is a teacher of rhythmic dancing in the 
camp, you will probably find it more satisfactory 
to get her to work the story out in dance drama 
form, unless you decide to collaborate and make a 
real dancemime of the production. 

For example: in dramatizing the Greek legend 
of Lyra, the first scene pictures Orpheus, with his 
lyre, weeping over the grave of Eurydice and re- 
fusing to be comforted by his friends, the nymphs, 
until one of them suggests that he go to Hades 
to seek her. 

The second scene presents his meeting with the 
Furies and how even they give way before the 
wonderful power of his music. In the third scene, 
he pleads before Pluto and Proserpine and his 
music is so moving that he is allowed to take Eury- 
dice back to the regions of earth, provided that 
he does not look at her until they have reached 
the upper air. When he is unable to resist the 
temptation, she is carried back to Hades by the 
Furies ; Orpheus drops his lyre and goes away in 
a frenzy of grief.- Jupiter comes and lifts the lyre 
to set it among the stars, where it becomes our 
constellation, Lyra. 

In this last scene, which can be continuous from 
the time Orpheus meets the Furies, or from the 
time he presents himself before Pluto, as soon as 
Jupiter disappears with the lyre, a group of girls, 
dressed in flowing robes and carrying torches, 
enter and form the shape of Lyra on the hillside, 
as the appropriate ending for the story. We have 
used this legend several times in our camp, as it 
is a great favorite with the children. The Furies, 
in particular, enjoy themselves. Such productions 
are splendid examples of the fusion of several 
self -expressive art forms here of pantomime, 
dance, music, and poetry, as we had a specially 
written prologue read as an introduction to one 
production of this star legend. 

Simply costumed with Greek robes and tunics, 
these little pantomimes, especially if done out of 
doors on a moonlight night, take on a quality of 
delicate solemnity and ritual-like beauty. The 



nature counselor may tell the story beforehand, 
even if it is well known to the entire audience, or 
a clever poet may arrange it in simple rhythmic 
verse and have it read as a prologue to the action 
(see paragraph above). 

A Few General Suggestions 
For reading of this kind, a warm, clear, sympa- 
thetic voice is desirable. Often such voices, sur- 
prising in their richness, may be found among 
both counselors and campers who are not inter- 
ested in acting but who can give much pleasure by 
contributing their talent in this way. Music, too, 
is always a desirable accompaniment to the action 
of a star legend, whether or not there is speaking. 
A good pianist can arrange a selected score from 
her repertbire. Victrola music may be used with 
effect, if the sound is arranged to come through 
the loud speaker of a radio. 

A word about the settings for camp productions 
may not be amiss here. Since this article is not 
intended for dramatic directors who are working 
where there is a regular auditorium or even a 
stage, it is not necessary to go into the designing 
and making of stage sets. One of the chief charms 
of camp dramatic productions is the flexibility 
both necessary and desirable in the planning of 
the season's productions. It is good training for 
both actors and audience, for director and scene 
designer, to make use of as many different places 
in the camp environment as possible, for the vari- 
ous plays, pageants and dance dramas. If the cli- 
mate permits, the outdoor environment should be 
used frequently, at least for pantomimes, dances, 
pageants, and plays which require many actors 
and not much talking. Even the speaking out of 
doors, so often an obstacle when untrained voices 
must try to adapt themselves to the larger tones 
that are necessary for good audibility, is not so 
hard to manage in camp, where the audience is 
comparatively small and may be closer to the act- 
ing area than in a regular amphitheater or sta- 
dium. Most children with normal speaking voices 
can be taught to project their tones effectively 
even in a large stadium, but we are presupposing 
limited time for teaching by the director of camp 
dramatics. 

A Rewarding Experience 

In setting camp plays a great deal of reliance 

should be placed on the wits and imagination. All 

the "regular" experience the dramatics counselor 

(Continued on page 114) 



With the Day Camps of Pittsburgh 



By LOUIS C SCHROEDER 

Superintendent 
Bureau of Recreation 



THE DAY CAMP movement in Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, was launched by the Federation of 
Social Agencies in 1933. Since 1937 the Bureau 
of Recreation has assumed complete direction of 
the city's day camps, the Federation of Social 
Agencies lending its aid in times of need. The 
purpose of the founders was similar to the ob- 
jective sought by other cities with similar proj- 
ects, namely : to give the so-called underprivileged 
and malnourished children an opportunity to en- 
joy the benefits of a camping experience. This 
means a contact with nature, an inviting daily 
program of. activities under trained leadership, 
and a supply of carefully selected, nourishing 
food. 

Purpose. The day camps are primarily for chil- 
dren whose ages range from eight to thirteen 
years. The selection of campers during past years 
has been made by case workers of the Federation 
of Social Agencies. A new plan will be adopted 
this year when the selection will be made of chil- 
dren who are on the public and parochial school 
milk list. School nurses who serve both schools 
and the City Department of Health will, in 1939, 
do the choosing. 

Medical Examination. All prospective campers 
must pass a strict medical examination by the 
city doctors. Those having physical and organic 
defects are not accepted. These examinations are 
held on Fridays in the public schools or recreation 
centers in the districts in which the campers re- 
side. A pass is given to each child who has been 
accepted, and this serves as his identification card. 
The case workers and the camp counselor assist 
the doctors in the recording of results. Approxi- 
mately 600 to 700 children are examined weekly. 

Camp Sites. Pittsburgh is indeed very fortu- 
nate in having large, beautiful parks easily acces- 
sible within its corporate limits. The six that have 
been used in the past two years Schenley, Frick, 




Courtesy Life Camps, Inc. 



Photo by L. B. Sharp 



The fun of cooking his own meal is an 
experience many a day camper may enjoy 



Riverview, Highland, McKinley, and McBride 
have splendid camping facilities. The Bureau of 
Parks designates certain sites for the day camps, 
thus insuring protection and privacy. These have 
shelters and open fireplaces. 

Transportation. The children are taken from 
their home districts to the city parks by special 
chartered trolley car. They gather at nine o'clock 
each morning Monday to Friday inclusive at 
a designated street corner, where they board the 
trolley cars. The camp counselors assume charge, 
and accompany the children at all times. The 
children are carefully counted as they board the 
cars, and again at their destination. The "buddy 
plan" is used, and by this method a careful check 
can be made. The arrangement with the trans- 
portation company calls for movement after rush 
hours in the morning, and the return trip to their 

95 



96 



WITH THE DAY CAMPS OF PITTSBURGH 



home areas before the rush hour in the evening. 
The plan is altered for Friday evening when a 
special camp fire program is held. The children 
leave the parks on this night about eight-thirty 
o'clock. One trolley car is employed for each day 
camp site, and the load is varied from 75 to 125 
children. 

Personnel. The day camp personnel consists of 
a camp director, an assistant camp director, six 
head counselors, twelve junior counselors, and 
volunteers. The directors and counselors are 
under the Civil Service Commission. Theoretical 
examinations are held each spring, and the suc- 
cessful candidates are chosen from the list. The 
personnel of each of the six day camps operated 
in 1938 called for one head counselor, two junior 
counselors (i male and I female), and a number 
of volunteers. 

Matters relating to food are handled by a dieti- 
tian who is under contract to supply meals. She 
has a corps of workers to assist in the handling 
of food. The daily luncheons are transported by 
auto to the camp sites. 

All administrative matters are taken care of by 
the office of the Bureau of Recreation. 

Training Institutes are held weekly throughout 
the camping season for all members of the ac- 
tivity staff. 

Meals. Since the camps are made up of children 
who are malnourished, special consideration is 
given to the question of the noon day meals. Each 
child is given a half pint bottle of fresh milk with 
the meal and again at three o'clock. A sample 
weekly menu consisted of the following: 



Monday 

Ham Salad Sandwich 
Jelly Sandwich on cracked 
wheat bread 
Milk 
Fruit 
Cookies 
Wednesday 
Date and Nut Sandwiches on 

white bread 

Jelly Sandwich on cracked 

wheat bread 

Milk 

Fruit 

Thursday 

Corn Chowder 

Bread and Butter Sandwich 

"Some-mor-es" 

Milk 

Fruit 



Friday (Lunch) 

Egg Salad Sandwich 

Jelly Sandwich on 

cracked wheat bread 

Milk 

Fruit 



Friday (Supper) 

Baked Beans 

Apple Sauce 

Roll 

Milk 

Fruit 



Tuesday 

Vegetable Salad 

Cheese and Pickles 

on rolls 

Milk 

Fruit 



The National Recreation Association an- 
nounces the publication early in May of 
a pamphlet, Day Camping, prepared by 
Maude L Dryden. Comparatively little 
has been written up to the present time 
on this phase of the camp movement. In 
view of the increasing attention being 
given day camping, this new publication 
with its practical suggestions for organ- 
ization, administration and program mak- 
ing has a helpful contribution to make. 



Thursday is the day for the "cook-out," when 
children, under the direction of the counselors, 
prepare their own meals. 

The Activities Program. The program of activi- 
ties for a day camp composed of malnourished 
children needs be different from the camp having 
normal children. A lesser attention needs be paid 
to the more vigorous games and sports. Mal- 
nourished children do need a mild form of daily 
exercise, but one must not lose sight of the fact 
that they are sent to the day camp primarily to 
build up reserve power. So all forms of strenuous 
competitive activities are taboo. The program of 
physical activities consists of regulated hikes, folk 
dances and singing games, circle and ball games, 
and other types which do not tax the organism. 

The program of activities is in no way re- 
stricted. In addition to the physical recreation 
program, others are offered, such as handicrafts, 
drama, music, and nature study. 

The handicraft program has been particularly 
stressed. Every attempt is made to use material 
around the camp site. Frequently pottery is made 
from clay discovered near the camp. All kinds of 
articles are fashioned out of wood, and arrow 
heads are formed out of soft stone. The Bureau 
of Recreation supplies a limited amount of ma- 
terial such as unbleached muslin, paper, cord, soda 
straws, and oilcloth. Indian lore proves most 
popular, and many are the articles made by chil- 
dren, including tom-toms, head-dress, tomahawks, 
and gourds. 

Drama has always played an important part in 
the day camp program. Every camp has its plays 
which are, for the most part, made up by the 
children themselves. One of the crowning achieve- 
ments of the camp is to show 
visitors their little plays. 
Boys make properties; the 
girls, their own costumes. 

What would a day camp 
amount to in the lives of the 
campers, if it were not for 
music? The days seemed to 
be a continual round of song. 
The Pittsburgh day camps 
(Continued on page 114) 




A Modern Playground 



in 



BOUNDED ON ONE side by railroad tracks and on 
the other two sides with steep hillsides, a tri- 
angular tract of bleak lowland owned by the 
City of Cleveland lay deserted and forgotten for 
many years. It served no purpose. Today the sec- 
tion is a beehive of activity. Several thousand 
men are busy with trucks, excavating machinery 
and picks and shovels remaking the terrain. The 
ground has been leveled, trees planted, the course 
of a creek straightened, two hills of shale re- 
moved ; in fact the area is hardly recognizable as 



Cleveland discovers 
a forgotten area and 
transforms it into 
a vast playfield 



By 
J. NOBLE RICHARDS 

Recreation Commissioner 
Cleveland, Ohio 



the old location. In an- 
other few months will 
emerge one of the largest 
and most extensive rec- 
reational areas in north- 
ern Ohio. 

Known as Brookside 
Park No. 2, the area is 
situated adjacent to the 
Brookside Zoological 
Gardens on the south- 
west side of Cleveland, a 
few miles from the cen- 
ter of the city. Few rec- 
reational facilities are available in this section of 
the city and the completion of the playground will 
provide a needed safety valve. The development 
of Brookside No. 2 is just one part of the major 
recreational building program undertaken by the 
city. The scope of this playfield is so great, how- 
ever, and the facilities so comprehensive, that it 
stands out as the most important recreational de- 
velopment in Cleveland in several decades. 

The selection of the site is a fortunate one for 
large crowds are drawn to this section of the city 
by the zoo. Formerly some recreational facilities 
were provided in the area adjacent to the zoo 
grounds. These consisted of ball diamonds, ten- 
nis courts, a swimming pool and picnic grounds. 
The land occupied by these facilities will be used 
for expanding the zoological buildings ; all athletic 
activities will be moved to the new development. 
A portion of Brookside No. 2 was one of the 
old city nurseries. For years it had been neglected 
and unused. At the recommendation of Parks 
Director Hugo E. Varga, Mayor Burton author- 
ized in 1937 a large WPA park and recreation 

97 



98 



A MODERN PLAYGROUND IN NO MAN'S LAND 



program to rehabilitate and "streamline" the park 
and recreational facilities of Cleveland which have 
fallen short of modern requirements during the 
last decade or more. In 1937 Mr. Gordon Cooper 
was commissioned to prepare general landscape 
architectural plans for this fifty-four acre tract of 
land, formerly used as a city nursery. Ideally 
located and of about the right size, it was decided 
to construct an athletic field that would be second 
to none in the country. A WPA project employ- 
ing over 4,000 men at one time was approved, and 
work began in the early part of 1938. Total cost 
of labor and materials being used in construction 
is estimated at approximately $2,000,000. 

The first major task in renovating the territory 
was to straighten and confine Big Creek which 
winds through the center of the area. Stone em- 
bankments were built and a 32-foot hard surfaced 
road constructed along the stream. For a distance 
of one-half mile the road and a walk, ten feet 
wide, border the creek, providing a pleasant and 
attractive thoroughfare through the park and 
playgrounds. 

Five distinct divisions of recreational facilities 
are being built. These include a regulation foot- 
ball field with a quarter mile running track around 
it. Eight baseball diamonds, five large ones for 
hardball and three small fields for softball, have 
been laid out. Eleven hard surfaced tennis courts 
and several picnic areas in secluded spots are 
almost ready. A large swimming pool and a 
smaller diving pool are in process of construction. 
In addition, a large and adequately landscaped 
bath house will be built at the north end of the 
swimming pool. 

The large swimming pool will be 200 feet long 
and 50 meters wide, the regulation width for 
Olympic swimming events. The diving pool, lo- 
cated at the north end of the swimming pool, will 
also be 50 meters wide, but only 40 feet in length. 
A lo-meter diving tower is planned as well as 
several three-meter and one-meter diving boards 
for all types of diving competition. Permanent 
seats of eight tiers will be built on the east, south 
and west sides of the diving pool for spectators; 
those on the east side will also be available for 
bathers. 

At the north end of the pool is the large bath 
house with showers, locker facilities and equip- 
ment for filtration and chlorination of the pool 
water. Four small buildings of identical archi- 
tecture will be located at each corner of the pool, 



one for athletic field equipment, one for equip- 
ment and control of the tennis courts, a rest room 
and a shelter house. Athletic field, pools and ten- 
nis courts lay side by side. This plan permits the 
use of buildings surrounding the pools to be used 
for all three activities. Bleachers are also being 
built on the west side of the athletic field for 
spectators. 

South of the tennis courts is an area set aside 
for children's apparatus, swings, sand boxes, a 
shower basin, see-saws and similar equipment will 
be placed here. 

Two large parking spaces, to accommodate ap- 
proximately 450 cars each, are located near each 
entrance to the area. A foot bridge over Big 
Creek connects the north and south sections. Just 
south of the swimming pools is a picnic area. It 
will be equipped with stakes for pitching horse- 
shoes, picnic tables and seats and outdoor fire- 
places. 

Just north of the railroad tracks which form 
the northern boundary to Brookside Park No. 2, 
and close to one of the entrance drives is Cleve- 
land's city-owned amateur baseball stadium. Fitted 
with lights for night games, the stadium was first 
used at night last summer. A record crowd of 
100,000 persons attended the opening game and 
throughout the season thousands of Clevelanders 
visited the stadium to witness amateur games. 
Although not an integral part of Brookside No. 2, 
the stadium is near enough to be included in the 
recreation field. Tiers of concrete seats have been 
in existence at this location for almost twenty 
years, but as part of the renovating of this base- 
ball stadium two additional tiers on each side of 
the original will soon be constructed. When fin- 
ished it will be among the largest and best equipped 
athletic fields in the country. 

On a bluff overlooking and to the east of t 
area, an animal house with large runs is bein ; 
built. Other buildings are being erected in the 
zoological gardens and when completed will serve 
to make Brookside Park a well balanced unit. A 
few minutes walk from any spot, will enable one 
to reach any of the facilities for all popular sports, 
the zoo, picnic grounds, the large baseball stadium 
or walks and wooded areas. 

With the modernization of Cleveland's recrea- 
tional areas and with the development of Brook- 
side Park No. 2, as well as some other large 
athletic areas, Cleveland has decidedly taken a 
great step in advance. 



The What, Why and How of Handcraft 




on a 
Small 

Budget 



Courtesy WPA, Des Moines, Iowa 



THE ARTS AND CRAFTS of our forefathers, if 
they are known and appreciated, express the 
urge to create something beautiful out of the 
materials at hand and to fill the commonplace 
needs of everyday living. This urge is the 
inner spirit of man that has found expression 
through the ages and has given him a place 
above the animals. What is there which gives 
us more faithful records of the history of man 
than his works of art? Cities may fall, dates 
and heroes may be forgotten, but the creative 
expressions live. Primitive man and the Indian 
worked with materials of their native habitat. 
They made things of beauty and necessity for 
everyday comfort. 

Knowing that summer days are ahead and 
that lively boys and girls will be crowding our 
playgrounds and recreation centers in a few 
iveeks, we are confronted with the problem: 
What can we use for materials? Why should 
^e use them? How can we make them func- 
:ion in our recreation program? 

In order to find the answers to these ques- 
:ions, approximately one hundred men and 
vomen of Westchester County met for a six 
weeks' course during March and April at the 
bounty Center Workshop in White Plains, 
STew York. The opening meeting found them 
iager to discuss what was meant by using 



By IDA Jo FULLER 

Instructor, New York University 



materials with very little expense. Some 
people call these materials junk or rubbish, but 
we feel that bits of discarded materials, a few 
simple tools, and a happy, creative child take 
such experiences out of the "tin can" class. 

By adding local material, such as seeds, 
shells, dried weeds, pits, drift wood and many 
others, we have very good media for excellent 
experiences and experiments. The experience 
is of far greater importance in the development 
of the child than the finished product and 
should be gauged to the ability of the child. 

"What Can We Use for Materials?" 

This question was most interestingly an- 
swered in Westchester County by exhibitions 
each week of work done by leaders and 
children, as well as by experiments done in the 
class. The idea of sharing with children as 
well as with adults was found to be a basic 
factor in the creative life. If more material 
than one could use in his own work was at the 
disposal of a member of the group, he was glad 
(Continued on page 115) 

99 




Campaigning for Industrial Salvage 



IN 1932-33, the Flint, Michi- 
gan, schools found them- 
selves financially embarras- 
sed because of a fifteen mill tax 
limitation which cut school rev- 
enues to nearly one half of what they had previ- 
ously been. This forced all departments to make 
decided cuts in school budgets and reduced so 
drastically supply budgets in the industrial arts 
department that the teachers of this subject had 
to resort to collecting materials from salvage 
dumps about the city. Realizing that industries 
had salvage which might be used, some of the 
teachers recommended that contacts be made with 
all the city's industrial plants to learn whether this 
material might not be used in the shops. 

The Chamber of Commerce undertook respon- 
sibility for making the contacts, and the manager, 
Mr. John Routzen, wrote letters to the heads of 
all Flint industries, thus paving the way for our 
approach to them. The officials of the companies 
with whom we talked were cordial and sympa- 
thetic, and immediately began saving material for 
us. 

The next step involved making arrangements 
for a Board of Education truck to collect the ma- 
terial from industries on regular schedules. So 
much material was given the schools that it be- 
came necessary at once to provide storage space. 

100 



By HARRY A. BURNHAM 

Supervisor of Industrial Arts 
Public Schools 
Flint, Michigan 



The Superintendent of Schools, 
Mr. L. H. Lamb, who was 
greatly interested in the pro- 
gram, arranged for a former 
coal shed 80' x 30' belonging to 
the Board of Education to be turned over for the 
use of the project. All materials are now collected 
and sorted in this building, and all deliveries made 
from it. Two men are employed by WPA to sort 
and distribute materials to the shops through sal- 
vage requisition blanks which are turned in by the 
industrial arts teachers. 

When the program was first organized the Flint 
Board of Education truck was used, but this was 
found to be expensive so the work is now being 
done by a truck from the Mott Foundation with 
no cost to the Board of Education except for gas- 
oline and oil. This arrangement was made by a 
business man who is vitally interested in securing 
salvage for the schools. 

All School Departments Benefit 

Other school departments are now making use 
of this service. For example, the elementary 
grades use orange crates and salvage pattern pine 
for some of their work. The physics department 
uses the old radios for their radio instruction, and 
the art department utilizes the salvaged leather in 
(Continued on page 117) 



This Year It's Boston 



Yes, This Year It's Boston 
October 9-13! 

BOSTON, the home of Joseph 
Lee, the scene of some of 
the earliest beginnings of 
the recreation movement, will 
welcome the Twenty-Fourth 
Annual Recreation Congress 
during its sessions to be held at 
the Statler Hotel, October 9-13. 

To Joseph Lee, as perhaps to none other, goes 
the credit for the fact that the recreation move- 
ment has grown so remarkably for more than 
thirty years, and that this is the Twenty-Fourth 
Annual Recreation Congress. A movement that 
can continue to bring people together in Congress 
from all parts of the country for so many years 
has something of unusual vitality and has struck 
its roots deep in the life of the nation. 

Let us take a look at the Congress which last 
year brought together over 1,400 persons from all 
parts of the United States and from Canada. You 
might think that a Recreation Congress set up by 
the National Recreation Association was intended 
for public recreation workers only. Far from it. 
There are hundreds of delegates from private or- 
ganizations of all kinds. People from gardening 
clubs, representatives of industries, educators, 
legislators, housing authorities, hospitals, life in- 
surance companies, churches, libraries and social 
work councils, social agencies, governments, all 
are there to learn and to share their experience in 
recreation. Editors, students, manufacturers and 
distributors of materials used in recreation and 
leisure, planning consultants, landscape architects, 
extension agents of State Universities, leaders in 
camping, in 4-H Clubs and Future Farmers of 
America, youth groups, all share in the discussion 
and enjoy the fellowship of the great gathering. 

What do they do, you ask? Well, while they 
come from many walks of life, and while they 
differ in race, creed and politics, they come with 
one dominant interest to learn how they can do 
a better recreation job in their communities. They 
listen to the best inspirational speakers that can 
be secured. They attend group conferences where 
under able leadership they discuss the most im- 
portant recreation problems that community lead- 
ers face today. They hear people from other cities 



It is fitting that the Recreation 
Congress should be going back to 
Boston this year. It will be like a 
return to a cherished shrine. The 
memories of Joseph Lee will inspire 
and enrich its deliberations. His 
home and the scene of his early ef- 
forts to provide playgrounds for the 
children will be of interest to all. 



than their own tell of successful 
experiences and profit by the 
hearing. They tell their own ex- 
periences for the benefit of all. 
They also learn of the relation- 
ships of the various parts of the 
great national movement the ex- 
perience of which is pooled and 
made available through the Na- 
tional Recreation Association to any recreation 
workers who want- such information. 

When the discussions are over, there are demon- 
strations of puppets, special moving pictures, a 
splendid array of recreation equipment on display 
and a special room where people may arrange ap- 
pointments with the specialists in all phases of 
recreation work. Last year 684 interviews were 
arranged besides the many, many conversations 
that occurred in the hotel lobby, the corridors or 
in private rooms. A splendid display of the latest 
and best books on recreation will be there. A large 
exhibit of printed matter gathered from all parts 
of the country will be available for inspection. 

One night is dedicated to fun Play Night 
when dancing, square and formal, is enjoyed by 
the delegates. 

A large group of Board members are in the 
Congress each year and they will have special con- 
ferences where their particular problems will be 
discussed. And they do enjoy getting together 
when there are no professionals around ! 

The recreation movement is really a laymen's 
movement. It was started by laymen, and its 
policy making groups today are solid lay citizens. 
No more important or helpful group will be found 
in the Congress. 

One simply cannot describe the genial fellow- 
ship that is found all during the days of the Con- 
gress. Bill Jones of Rhode Island meets Sam 
Smith of Texas to swap yarns about common 
knotty problems. Daisy Dean meets Sarah Swift 
to talk about work for women and girls on social 
recreation. Meeting new friends, renewing ac- 
quaintances and pumping old timers is a part of 
the joy of the Congress. 

Much is being said these days about democracy. 
Well, the Twenty-Fourth Recreation Congress 
will have something to say about democracy too, if 
(Continued on page 118) 

101 



WORLD AT PLAY 



, _. MR. JOHN D. ROCKE- 

A New Park Is G,ven f has en 

Greater Cleveland (o Gr ^ r cleveland 

the old homestead of 

his father, a beautifully developed tract of 266 
acres lying in the heart of the city, partly in East 
Cleveland and partly in Cleveland Heights. Mr. 
E. D. Taylor, well known landscape architect, has 
prepared a booklet with illustrations artist's 
drawings and maps descriptive of the property 
and plans for its development. This will add very 
materially to the fine park development of Cleve- 
land and will stand as another monument to the 
generosity of Mr. Rockefeller. 



LAST YEAR, according 
American Anglers Have 

_. , r to the January 23rd 
a Busy Year . r ' . 
issue of Time, 

6,000,000 United 

States residents took out fishing licenses ; probably 
twice that number went fishing. They spent more 
than $10,000,000 on tackle alone twice the 
amount spent in 1933. Of every dollar spent for 
sport equipment in the United States last year 
twenty-four cents went for fishing tackle. The 
major reason for the current increase in interest 
in this sport, according to Time, is a vogue for 
deep sea angling, increasingly popular in the past 
five years since it has been dramatized in 
news reels and publicized by such fishermen as 
Zane Grey, Ernest Hemingway, and President 
Roosevelt. 



Feeding the Birds 
of Wisconsin 



FOR SEVERAL years the 
Wisconsin Conserva- 
tion Department has 
conducted an extensive 

winter bird feeding ground, and this year $11,410 
was set aside for snowy weather dinners for 
pheasants, partridges, grouse, and prairie chicken. 
Each of Wisconsin's seventy-one counties re- 
ceived a basic dollar allotment arrived at through 
relating the number of birds stocked to the num- 
ber packed in 1938. From 200 to 250 tons of grain 
were used for feeding. To assist cooperating 
schools, sportsmen, and civic groups, the Conser- 

102 



vation Department has made available leaflets de- 
scribing the construction, erection, and location of 
feed hoppers. 



Cincinnati's Drama 
Tournament 



ON MARCH I4th and 
1 5th the fifth annual 
one-act play tourna- 
ment conducted by the 

Drama Advisory Council of the Public Recreation 
Commission of Cincinnati, Ohio, was held. Since 
its introduction five years ago the tournament idea 
has grown in popularity with the result that many 
groups including church organizations have held 
their own tournaments. Following the contest one 
play was broadcast over station WCKY. 

Judging was done on the following basis: 50 
per cent for presentation covering casting, light- 
ing, costumes, make-up, the tone, spirit and 
smoothness of the performance and the degree of 
success attained in conveying the idea of the play 
to the audience ; for acting, meaning aggregate in- 
dividual interpretation, technique, speech and 
voice, 30 per cent was given ; for the selection of 
play, dramatic qualities, appropriateness of the 
group presenting it, and value of the play, 20 per 
cent was given. 



A Museum on the 
March 



THE Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of New York 

has undertaken to 

serve the many neigh- 
borhoods of the city from which few if any per- 
sons ever do or can come to its galleries. Special 
exhibits such as Art of China, Arms and Armor, 
Ancient Egypt: Its Life and Art, the Art of 
Japan, European Textiles and Costume Figures. 
Ancient Greece and Rome, and the Near East 
were shown in various institutions such as the 
Public Library, high schools and colleges, and 
branches of the "Y." The high schools were 
found to have special advantages because the ma- 
terials could be used as collateral in many school 
subjects and could be seen by students from all 
parts of the city instead of only by the general 
public in the neighborhood. Over a five year 
period the actual attendance for a total of 2,596 
exhibition days was 1,450,031. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



103 




's anExcitina 

ASEBAII CAME; 

Developed for PlaqqKounds/ 

Easy to Set Up and Take Down 
Movable to Any Location 



PATfNT PfNDIHG 



Any Number of Boys Can Play .... Minimum Supervision 

based on nine innings of play . . . target acts as 
silent catcher and umpire. Unique though simple 
method of competing for high score keeps boys 
interested. Several sets can be used on each 



TOOYS everywhere get keen enjoyment from the 
"K" Baseball Game. Every boy wants to be 



a good ball player. Here's an exciting, competi- 
tive game which develops perfect control in 
throwing baseballs by infielders and outfielders 
as well as by pitchers and catchers. Game is 



recreation field. 



Sturdy Construction! I Send for Sample! 



The "K" Baseball Game may be quickly and easily 
moved. Requires small storage space. Complete outfit 
consists of SOLID OAK 3'x4' TARGET FRAME fitted 
with heavy canvas target and pocket, suspended by 
springs, six junior target baseballs, instructions for as- 
sembling, directions for playing, and score cards. 



Send at once for this interesting game which promises 
to attain quick and widespread popularity. You need 
something new and different to keep boys interested. 
The "K" Baseball Game will immediately win enthusi- 
astic response. Boys in your community will appreciate 
this splendid recreational activity. 



The "K 1 



Sample Price Complete $2.^5 f. o. b. Cedar Rapids 
Shop P. O. Box 7O2 Cedar Rapids, Iowa 



A College Play Day Nearly twenty colleges 
and universities in Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky 
sent delegations to the University of Cincinnati to 
participate in the Tri-State Play Day held in 
March. The event was sponsored by the Women's 
Athletic Association of the University of Cincin- 
nati and the Women's Division of the Depart- 
ment of Physical and Health Education. 

A Municipally Owned Seashore Resort 

Within ten minutes' ride from the center of 
Bridgeport, Connecticut, is Pleasure Beach Park, 
an island of approximately thirty-seven acres, 75 
per cent of which is devoted to an amusement 
park, the rest to parking and roadways. In addi- 
tion to an excellent beach a half mile long on Long 
Island Sound, there is a 150' by 50' salt water 
swimming pool supplied with clear, filtered salt 
water by a wellpoint system which uses the sand 
of the island as a natural filter. The park was 
originally a private enterprise operated by private 
concessions on city-owned land with city-owned 
buildings. In July, 1937, the city was obliged to 
place a receiver in charge of the project and to 
operate it as a municipal function. At the close of 



the 1937 season the city began making improve- 
ments in the park, paying for them out of its cur- 
rent budget. A new pier was built and the well- 
point system was installed. Throughout the sum- 
mer season weekly dances were held in a spacious 
ballroom. The Bridgeport symphony orchestra, a 
WPA project, gave weekly concerts on Monday 
evenings. A charge of five or ten cents was made 
for the special attractions such as scooter planes 
and sky rockets. A children's playground is pro- 
vided, and there are picnic groves and athletic 
fields and a stage. There is no charge for admis- 
sion and parking is free. 

A Year-Round Recreation System for Al- 
bion, Michigan Albion, Michigan, has insti- 
tuted a year-round recreation system which is a 
comparatively new venture for the city. Chase 
Hammond is director of the department for which 
$2,500 was appropriated as the first year's budget. 
Two thirds of this amount was given by the 
Board of Education ; one third by the City Coun- 
cil. Cooperation by WPA in the provision of 
workers has helped greatly in securing a maxi- 
mum use of the facilities and funds available. 



104 



WORLD AT PLAY 




Keep Your Pitching 
Horseshoe Equipment 

UP-TO-DATE 

Write for catalog of the DIAMOND 
line of horseshoes and accessories, 
the complete line of official ecfuip- 
ment. It includes : 

Many Styles oi Horseshoes 

Official Courts Stakes 

Stake Holders Carrying Cases 

Rule Books Score Pads 

DIAMOND CALK HORSESHOE CO. 



4610 Grand Avenue 
DULUTH. MINN. 



Social Clubs in New Brunswick Social 
clubs are becoming more popular each year in 
New Brunswick, New Jersey. During the past 
year the clubs met once a week at the homes of the 
members. The groups discussed current topics of 
the day and took part in such activities as knit- 
ting, cooking, sewing, and crocheting. Refresh- 
ments usually concluded the evening's program. 
The clubs also took educational trips during the 
year and enjoyed theater parties in New York. 
Each group of girls was sponsored by a recrea- 
tion leader. At the present time there are six 
such clubs with v several more in the process of 
formation. 

The Audubon Camp The National Asso- 
ciation of Audubon Societies, 1006 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City, announces the 1939 season of its 
nature camp to be held at the Todd Wild-life 
Sanctuary, Muscongus Bay, Maine, from June 16 
through August 31, 1939. Adult campers are en- 
rolled for one or more two-week periods. Dur- 
ing this time all classes are held out-of-doors 
where living forms of natural phenomena, includ- 
ing birds, insects, plants and marine life, are 
studied first hand. 



Club Organization in Danville, Va. The 

Danville, Virginia Recreation Department an- 
nounces an increase in the number of clubs or- 
ganized, both for children and adults. Twelve 
clubs are listed in a recent staff bulletin including 
an Adults Chess Club with seventeen members 
and a Boys and Girls Piano Club with a mem- 
bership of thirty. 

An International Association for Workers' 
Leisure An international conference on work- 
ers' spare time was held in Brussels, Belgium, on 
December 10 and n, 1938, to draw up a consti- 
tution and rules for an international organization. 
The conference was attended by the representa- 
tives of seventy-nine organizations, including 
twenty national associations. The name chosen 
for the new organization was International Asso- 
ciation for Workers' Leisure. The executive 
committee consists of twenty-five members ap- 
pointed for a period of three years. Between 
meetings of the executive committee, which must 
take place at least once a year, the current busi- 
ness of the association will be handled by a secre- 
tariat composed of the five officers of the associa- 
tion. Brussels was chosen as the headquarters of 
the new organization. 

A Group Work Institute The School of 
Applied Social Sciences, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, Cleveland, Ohio, will hold its annual Group 
Work Institute on May 29 June 16, 1939. Staff 
workers' courses will be offered in Principles of 
Group Work, Problems in Supervision of Group 
Work, the Understanding of Individuals in Groups, 
the Place of Creative Art in a Group Work 
Agency, and Methods of Workers' Education. 
Further information may be secured from the 
director of the Institute. 

Folk Dance Evenings in Detroit Six of De- 
troit's leading folk dance societies during January, 
February, and March offered a course in folk 
dancing for teachers, recreation leaders, club ad- 
visers, and folk dance enthusiasts. After a demon- 
stration of a particular dance by the teaching 
group those attending were given an opportunity 
to participate. Emphasis was placed on the cor- 
relation of the various folk arts. With this in 
mind, the teaching group wore costumes, and 
there was an exhibit each evening of background 
materials, textiles, pictures, handicrafts, bibliogra- 
phies on folk life, and reference to folk music. So 
far as possible traditional instruments were used 



WORLD AT PLAY 



105 



to accompany the dancers. Six evenings were 
jevoted to the course. 

New Playgrounds for New York City On 

^\pril ist the Department of Parks opened offici- 
illy two new playgrounds which will add materi- 
illy to the recreation facilities of the districts in 
tvhich they are located. One area, obtained by the 
Department of Parks from the Board of Trans- 
portation for an indefinite period, includes eight 
:ennis courts, nine handball courts, a volleyball 
:ourt, and a sitting area for mothers and guard - 
ans of small children. This area is surrounded 
jy continuous rows of benches under shade trees 
with two separate sand pits for the children to 
slay in. The second playground, adjacent to a 
Dublic school, was the first parcel of ground pur- 
:hased jointly by the Park Department and the 
Board of Education and developed in collabora- 
ion to the advantage of both departments. Be- 
sides being completely equipped with play ap- 
)aratus, the area also provides facilities for hand- 
jail, basketball, paddle tennis, roller skating, 
lockey, and ice skating. These two areas bring 
he total number of playgrounds available in New 
fr)rk City to 383 ; 275 of these have been added 
:o the park system since January, 1934. 





SPORTS EQUIPMENT 

For Playground and 
Recreational Departments 

Complete Line of 
Equipment for all Sports 



V^ 



jj^ttr 

^> 




THE P. GOLDSMITH SONS, Inc. 

JOHN AND FINDLAY STS., CINCINNATI, OHIO 



A Nature Study Camp The Huerfano 
jroup of the Colorado Mountain Club will conduct 
i nature study camp from June 11-25, *939 at 
:he Cuchara Camps ten miles south of La Veta, 
Colorado. The program each day will consist of a 
norning hike, an afternoon of games, projects or 
lovel teaching methods, followed by an evening 
:amp-fire program with songs and entertainment, 
ind a lecture feature. There will be three all-day 
rips. Further information may be secured from 
Paul W. Nesbit, Superintendent, Huerfano County 
Eiigh School, Walsenburg, Colorado. 

Federal Music Project Orchestras Two or- 

rhestras of the Federal Music Project played for 
:he recreation groups of Dayton, Ohio, through- 
out the entire year. During the summer months, 
:he large concert orchestra was assigned to play 
:hree concerts a week, one each at Walnut Hills 
Park, McKinley Park and Island Park. The 
iverage attendance at each of these concerts was 
ipproximately 150. During the community center 
season, the dance orchestra played an average of 
ive nights a week for community dances. 



National Aquatic Schools The American 
National Red Cross announces a number of 
aquatic schools to be held during the summer 
for instruction and training in life saving, 
swimming, diving, first aid, water stunts and 
games, canoeing, boating, aquatic pageantry, 
and accident prevention : Camp Kittiwake, Pass 
Christian, Mississippi, June 7-17; Camp Caro- 
lina, Brevard, North Carolina, June 11-21; 
Camp Letts, Edgewater, Maryland, June 11-21 ; 



BEN PEARSON 



EXCEL. L. ENCE 



Used by leading universities and tournament 
winners throughout America, Ben Pearson 
Bows and Arrows are made by master crafts- 
men, archers themselves, in America's largest 
plant devoted exclusively to fine quality 
archery equipment manufacture. 

Get New Low Price Catalogue 
Send for complete free interesting catalogue 
and Manual of Archery on care of equip- 
ment, correct shooting form, building targets, 
tournament rules, etc. 



BEN PEARSON, INC. 



Dept. R9 



Pine Bluff, Ark. 



106 



WORLD AT PLAY 




FOR PLAYGROUNDS 

SOLVES YOUR OUTDOOR BAS- 
KETBALL EQUIPMENT PROBLEM 

One unit will provide needed 
facilities for game. 

Inexpensive Requires little space 
Will accommodate more players 

For further particular*, write 

SCHUTT MANUFACTURING CO. 

LITCHFIELD ILLINOIS 



Boat Building in the Chicago 
Park District 






Culver Military Academy, Culver, Indiana, 
June 15-25; Camp Kiwanis, South Hanson, 
Massachusetts, June 18-28; Chautauqua Insti- 
tution, Chatauqua, New York, June 19-29, 
Camp Manhattan, Narrowsburg, New York, 
June 19-29; Chautauqua Institution, Chautau- 
qua, New York, August 23-September 2 ; Camp 
Carolina, Brevard, North Carolina, August 24- 
September 3. Further information may be 
secured from the Director, First Aid and Life 
Saving Service, American National Red Cross, 
Washington, D. C. 

A Contest in Travel Letter Writing 
The Instructor, the magazine for elementary 
teachers, published at Dansville, New York, is 
offering $1,000 in cash awards for the best 
hundred letters of 500 words or less on "Where 
I Would Like to Go on My Vacation This 
Year and Why." The contest is open to all 
persons professionally identified with schools 
and colleges, and also to students in teacher- 
training institutions. The closing date of the 
contest is June 10, 1939. Further details may 
be secured from W. D. Conklin, Travel Editor 
of The Instructor. 



National Joseph Lee Day 

(Continued from page 62) 

of the children's pageant and circus of other years. 
The observance in Escanaba, Michigan, con- 
sisted of abolishing swimming check fees for the 
day. As children came to swim, instead of being 
asked for check fees, they were asked to think 
about Joseph Lee "who was always more inter- 
ested in the enjoyment of others than he was in 
his own." Material about Joseph Lee was posted 
on the beach bulletin board. 



(Continued from page 64) 

Various kayak and canoe clubs which have been 
formed in the parks ars enjoying week-end river 
trips and other sojourns in the surrounding 
locality. 

A series of local dinghy regattas are planned 
each summer, and this year we hope to have 
number of exciting kayak races on the local par 
lagoons. 



A Hobby Craft Program for Cleveland 

(Continued from page 68) 

a few necessary chisels, and some glue, screws, 
nails, and paint. A motor, buffers, blowtorch, vise, 
and small metal craft tools went into the makin; 
of the jewelry kit; similar tools comprised th 
metal craft kit. Game crafts boasted a small jig sa 
and a drill press in addition to the necessary sma 
tools. Materials for Keene cement craft wer 
bought for experimental purposes in order to sta 
this program. Luckily our leather craft speciali 
had her own tools so this craft was initiated with- 
out expense to us and will continue in this man- 
ner until we are able to buy the necessary supplies. 
At this point all of our grant of $150 from the 
Cleveland Foundation had been exhausted in one 
delightful orgy of spending! "Flat broke," we 
faced the problem of getting materials for the 
first classes scheduled to begin the first week in 
January and that only a week away! How we 
did it is still a surprise to all of us, but the 
classes started on time with the necessary ma- 
terial and enough to carry them for a few class 
periods. This gave us a breathing spell in which 
to raise other funds or gather more materials. 

The Working Program 

With a kit of tools for each craft, a specialist, 
and twenty- four weeks of the winter program 
left, we were faced with another question : how 
could we distribute our assets so that every perr 
son could have an equal opportunity to share? 

It was a problem in simple magic. Twenty-four 
weeks, seven centers, seven craft kits, and seven 
specialists were all thrown into the high hat, the 
magic words were spoken, and the solution came 
quickly ! The craft program of each center would 
be divided into six four-week periods, each period 
to run afternoon and evening two days a week 
all the time and space each center could devote to 
the craft program. At the end of the four weeks, 





the modern dust alia yer 



HERE'S an ideal product for dust allaying pur- 
poses on earth surfaces. Gulf Sani-Soil-Set 
another sensational development by Gulf's re- 
search technologists offers a practical solu- 
tion to the dust problem on playgrounds, ten- 
nis courts, athletic fields, parking lots, etc. 

One application of Gulf Sani-Soil-Set per 
season will usually do the job. Properly applied, 
it will not track or harm shoes or clothing. 

Don't let another season pass without getting 
the benefit of this inexpensive dust allayer. 



GULF OIL CORPORATION GULF REFINING COMPANY, 
General Offices: Gulf Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Please send me without obligation a copy of the booklet "Gulf 
Sani-Soil-Set for Treating Playgrounds." 



GULF OIL CORPORATION 
GULF REFINING COMPANY 

GENERAL OFFICES: GULF BUILDING, 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 




108 



A HOBBY CRAFT PROGRAM FOR CLEVELAND 



Do you like to WIN when you play this game? 

TABLE 
TENNIS 



STEP-BY-STEP he reveals the 
technique of the stars 
themselves, from first stroke 
through the fine points of 
championship strategy. 48 il- 
lustrations help you learn 
things right. $ 1 .2 5 at all book- 
stores, or by mail from 



HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 
DEPT. R, 257 FOURTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY 




Then 
read 



COMES OF AGE 

by Sol Schiff 

Twice the United States Champion 



kits, leaders, and crafts would depart to another 
center, making space for another experiment with 
a different craft. Thus in a period of twenty-four 
weeks groups in each center would have a fair 
taste of six different crafts. 

Four weeks, you may say, is a very short time 
in which to accomplish anything in a craft that is 
new to you. You are just getting started. What 
can you hope to do in that period? Can anything 
worth while be accomplished? 

These questions were in our minds as we began 
the program. We were sure, however, that at the 
end of the experiment we would have valuable 
information on the following points: 

We would know which crafts were most popu- 
lar at the various centers. This would enable us 
to spend our crafts budget to the best advantage. 

Since the space allotted to crafts was limited in 
each center, we would be sure of using that space 
to the greatest advantage. 

Leadership could be concentrated on the most 
popular crafts instead of being spread around a 
craft program of doubtful value and importance. 
If at the end we could have information which 
would enable us to use most effectively money, 
leadership, and space all of which were limited 
the experiment would not have been in vain. 

Working on this basis, we have given every 
center's clientele the opportunity to try each craft 
long enough to determine which was suitable to 
the individual. At the end of the first four weeks 
a number of individuals have said to us, "I haven't 
had enough of this craft. I'd like to know more 
about it." If, on the other hand, at the end of the 
four weeks' program the individual feels satisfied 
and is looking forward to the next experiment, we 
know that person has not found the medium 



which will serve him as a hobby for years to come. 
Too often too much emphasis is given to mass 
recreation and not enough to individual. We rec- 
reation leaders are still "figure-conscious" and rate 
the value of the activity by the number attending. 
We know that this program will never make itself 
known through mass demonstrations, but the pos- 
sibilities to the individual are unlimited. 

It is time for programs for the individual to be 
considered and promoted. Hobby craft programs 
seem to be the answer. 



Sunbeams for Footlights 

(Continued from page 76) 

especially in the larger type theaters, to set up 
'tents as portable dressing rooms for each produc- 
tion. This is a very simple process and has been 
used successfully. 

Adequate maintenance of playground theaters 
is very essential. It should always look neat and 
trim and ready for use. The beds should be kept 
cultivated. Lawn areas should be mowed, and 
shearing and pruning should be done when neces- 
sary. During dry seasons it will be necessary to 
water both lawn and shrubs frequently. The main- 
tenance of the informal type of theater is negli- 
gible. The semiformal type requires more atten- 
tion because of the increase in the number of plant 
materials used, and the problem of mowing is 
complicated by the stage hedge. In the formal 
type a more difficult problem of maintenance is 
presented. The mowing of the lawn is more com- 
plicated because of the stage wall and the wings. 
If the wall is planted, it will require some atten- 
tion. The wings and background will have to be 
sheared regularly. If the plant materials for screen 



RAINY DAY PROGRAMS FOR CAMPS 



109 




MARKS THE SPOT 

WHERE AN ACCIDENT 

WAS PREVENTED 



Even if a child receives a direct or 
glancing blow from an EverWear 
Safety Swing Seat, the injury will be slight. EverWear's exclusive 
rubber-cushioning prevents disfiguring cuts . . . absorbs shock . . . 
cushions the blow. 

You owe it to children and their parents to provide the safest play- 
ground swing apparatus that money can buy. Replace old swing seats 
with EverWear rubber-cushioned Safety Swing Seats. 

Write for Catalog No. 30 Today. Address Dept. R 




MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



DEPT. R, SPRINGFIELD, OHIO 



All edges, ends and corners are deeply cush- 
ioned with flexible tubular rubber to absorb 
shocks and blows. Notice how deeply the 
cushioned rubber ends of the seat can be 
bent to prevent any dangerous effects of a 
blow to the child's head. All seat surfaces 
are non-slip. Suspension clevises are reversi- 
ble so that both sides of seat may be used. 
Interior frame is strongly braced spring steel. 




Send for Catalog No. 28 -W describing complete line of BEACH and POOL EQUIPMENT 



purposes are selected carefully as to character and 
growth, no more than ordinary attention will be 
required. 

The construction of a natural outdoor theater 
requires a. knowledge of plant materials and hor- 
ticultural practice. Anyone who can make a lawn 
or plant a shrub satisfactorily can construct an 
outdoor theater of this type, provided an adequate 
plan has been prepared in advance. 



Rainy Day Programs for Camps 

(Continued from page 79) 

is to revolve around broomstick three times and 
then walk in a straight line. 

Quiz Program. This is similar to the radio quiz 
programs. Ask novel and humorous questions 
and encourage campers to ask their own questions. 

Fire Building. Building a fire in the rain offers a 
new challenge that campers will be eager to ac- 
cept. Equip them with only two matches and let 
them find their own tinder in the woods. Excel- 
lent materials for starting fires are pine knots, 



ground cedar bark, birch bark, old squirrel and 
field mouse nests. This may lead to preparation of 
fire building kits and practice in making fire by 
friction and with flint and steel, all of which can 
be done on rainy days. 

Sunshine Pool. We are all weather prophets. 
Write down camper's prediction of the time the 
sun will come out and see who is the best weather 
prophet. 

Pet Show. Give the campers some time to make 
pet animals out of clay, wood, paper, corks, and 
rags, and place them on display. Judge for the 
largest pet, smallest pet, handsomest pet, homliest 
pet, most unique pet, and other characteristics. 

Storytelling. There is no better time for story 
telling than on a rainy day with the group gath- 
ered about a fire place. Encourage the campers to 
tell stories. 

An excellent variation is the progressive story. 
One of the members of the group starts a story 
and each member around the circle adds to it. 

Whittling Contest. Give ca"mpers a limited time 



110 



PLAYGROUNDS AS COMMUNITY CENTERS 




+ MITCH ELL ^V 

PLAYGROUND APPARATUS 

= a*t ideal fruilet fasi 



Write for Free Literature on 
PLAYGROUND or SWIMMING POOL EQUIPMENT 

MITCHELL MFG. CO. 

Dept. R-5 MILWAUKEE, WIS. 



to select a piece of wood and to whittle some 
object. Judge for most original production; the 
fastest made. 

Impromptu Dramatics. Numerous entertaining 
acts can be developed with little preparation and 
property. These could include skits, stunts, story 
acting, singing, magic tricks, acrobatics. Try to 
stimulate originality in the acts. 

All children like to masquerade. If the cos- 
tume department is open to them they will have 



Day Camping 

By MAUDE L. DRYDEN 

At last a pamphlet on 
day camping! 

Problems of organization, plan- 
ning the site, facilities, supplies, 
transportation, meals, activities, 
leadership, and other consider- 
ations entering into day camp- 
ing are all discussed in this 
practical pamphlet by a worker 
who has been one of the pioneers 
in the field. 

Ready for distribution 
May 10th 

. . . Price 25 cents 
National Recreation Association 

315 Fourth Avenue 
New York City 



no end of fun in "dressing up" in a large variety 
of ensembles. As a finale a nut parade may be 
held to show off the costumes. 

Pillow Fight. What boy doesn't like a pillow 
fight? Variations in pillow fights are passible by 
having contestants sit astride a horizontal pole or 
stand on a narrow plank, and by blindfolding 
them. 

NOTE : For the attractive sketches used in this article 
we are indebted to Bill Schafer, one of the authors of 
this article. It will be of interest to our readers to know 
that Dan Dryden, joint author, has collaborated with his 
mother, Mrs. Maude Dryden, in the preparation of a 
pamphlet on Day Camping which will soon be off the 
press, and ready for distribution through the National 
Recreation Association. 



Playgrounds as Community Centers 

(Continued from page 81) 

volley ball will need two or three extra players 
and will induce some young men to join them. 
Generally the men are, or appear to be, reluctant 
to play with girls. They have such a good time, 
however, that others join them. After a few 
nights it becomes the accepted thing, and on many 
grounds young men and women play volley ball 
together night after night. On dance nights they 
come early to play a game or two before the dance 
begins. 

It is a really inspiring and soul-satisfying ex- 
perience to walk onto a playground in the early 
twilight hours to find the place teeming with 
activity ; young men and women playing, shouting 
and laughing together; men and women playing 
shurHeboard, table tennis and checkers, or just 
talking with their friends and neighbors in short, * 
making the playground a real community center. 



Travel Tours via Wishful Thinking! 

(Continued from page 82) 

adults are curious about different people and in- 
terested in them, and by going on imaginative 
trips to foreign lands they acquire knowledge al- 
most as vivid as if the experience were real. 
Most of them probably will never have an op- 
portunity to see a real foreign country, but the 
next best way is almost as much fun. They learn 
also to acquire a friendly feeling for foreign 
countries and a closer bond of relationship to all 



"ON WINGS TO FAIRYLAND" 



111 



lations which, after all, is the foundation of every 
Teat civilization. 



A penny for your thoughts? 

No siree, not mine ! 

Would be the reply of the children in Mrs. 
Mecca's group if such an offer were made to them. 

And who wouldn't? For their thoughts have 
vings beautiful, white, sailboat wings that carry 
hem far, far off to distant shores of foreign 
ands, to the sunny banks of the Lido, and lovely 
/enice, to the snowy slopes of Switzerland, and 
o gay Paree. Whether they go on a freighter, a 
:attle boat, or Queen Mary cabin class, what dif- 
erence does it make to these children with the 
vorld at their feet? They may not come back 
vith candid camera shots of Notre Dame and the 
"hamps Elysees, but you may be sure the beauti- 
'ul pictures their imaginations have created for 
hem will last through the years. 



"On Wings to Fairyland" 

(Continued from page 85) 
(Children's Classics) New York City. $1.00 

.0. Tales from Grimm, Wanda Gag. Coward-McCann, 
Inc., 2 West 45th Street, New York City. $1.50 

11. Book of Fables and Folk Stories, Horace Elisha 
Scudder. Houghton, Mifflin Company, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. $2.00 

2. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Wanda Gag. 
Coward-McCann, Inc., New York City. $1.00 

13. Silesian Folk Tales, James and Carey Lee. Ameri- 
can Book Company, New York City. 56tf 

14. Wonder Tales from Goblin Hills, Frances J. Olcott. 
Longmans, Green and Company, 114 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. $1.75 

15. The Story of King Arthur and His Knights, Howard 
Pyle. Charles Scribner's Sons, 597 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. $3.00 

16. Ali Baba and Other Plays for Young People or 
Puppets, Mrs. Helen H. Joseph. (Out of print. Con- 
sult at libraries.) Harcourt, Brace and Company, 
383 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

17. My Book House (a set of books), Edited by O. K. 
Miller. The story referred to is in Volume 3. Book 
House for Children, 11 West 42nd Street, New York 
City. Per volume, $2.75 ; per set, $33.00 

18. Fairy Tales of the Slav Peasants and Herdsmen, 
Alexander D. Chodzko-Allen, London. 

For more ideas on stories for children, see "For the 
Storyteller," Mary J. Breen, published by the National 
Recreation Association, 35^ 

Handcrafts 

The handcrafts program in connection with the 
summer's program was particularly ingenious, 
much of it originating with the Playground and 
Recreation Association of Wyoming Valley. The 



"Parties and Programs 
for Parents Days" 

By JULIA A. ROGERS 

PROGRAMS for Mother's Day, Father's 
Day and All-Family Days are offered 
in this book, but Mother receives special 
prominence/ '-r . 

There are suggestions for mother's day in 
the home, for social affairs and banquets 
in which daughters entertain mothers; 
there are banquets for fathers, programs 
for parents' days in church, community 
and school, and many other events. 
And for the help of those responsible for 
planning programs tableaux, sketches, 
pantomimes, and skits are given and many 
source materials are presented. 
Price $.75 paper bound 
$1.25 cloth bound 

National Recreation Association 

315 Fourth Avenue New York City 



fruit banks mentioned were a clever idea and easy 
to make papier-mache made over clay forms and 
painted to look like apples or other fruit. The 
fairy castles were made of oatmeal boxes and 
mailing tubes, covered with a clay mix. The dolls 
were made of inner tubes, cloth and other ma- 
terials; some were made over milk bottles and 
designed to be used as door stops. 

Parade and Rip van Winkle Play 

The wind-up of the season was the colorful 
Parade from Fairyland and the Rip van Winkle 
pageant. Each playground had a float in the par- 
ade portraying one story (not Rip van Winkle) in 
costumes and decoration of float. The Wilkes- 
Barre Railway Company cooperated by furnishing 
free transportation. 

Other Activities 

Aside from the activities in connection with 
"On Wings to Fairyland" each playground had 
scheduled games for the three age groups in vol- 
ley ball, baseball and quoits, twice and three times 
every week. A midsummer track meet was held 
in each neighborhood and a final event in Kirby 



112 



"THE STRONG AND THE BRAVE" 



A 

5 MONTHS 
TRIAL 
OFFER 

... your opportunity 

to really become acquainted with one 
of the most stimulating and helpful 
school magazines. 5 months' trial 
offer of the 

Junior Arts and Activities 
magazine for only 



. . . our opportunity 

to prove to you the reason teachers 
are turning to this new type of crea- 
tive schoolwork and methods. Un- 
equalled in the amount of usable proj- 
ect material in each issue. If not en- 
tirely satisfied with first copy your 
money will be refunded. Mail today, 
your name, address and a dollar bill, 
and receive the next five issues of 




Junior Arts & Activities 

DEPT. R 

740 Rush Street Chicago, Illinois 



Park. Each playground conducted a pet show 
hop scotch and jacks tournament and other specia 
events. 



"The Strong and the Brave" 

(Continued from page 86) 

tating group rehearsals during the week be 
fore the performance. Two final rehearsals 
were held at Lauer's Park, where the pageanl 
was given. The younger children came to only 
one of them. 

The park was made to represent an Indian 
village with a large council fire in the center. 
Tepees of all descriptions, made as play- 
ground projects, were used in a semi-circle 
around the fire. The material used ranged from 
burlap and blue-dyed muslin to real skins. 
Grouped around the tepees were many ever- 
green trees donated by the city from its over- 
crowded watershed near one of the city reser- 
voirs. The costumes were made by women of 
a WPA project. The ornaments, by the 
wearers. 

The playground orchestra provided the 
music before the pageant and for the dances. 
The signal to start was the igniting of the fire 
and the arrival of the sixty tom-tom beaters 
ranging in age from seven to nineteen. They 
set the mood for the entire show with their 
kegs covered with taut inner tubing. Leaders 
were assigned to each group, thus easing the 
problem of discipline and direction. Next fol- 
lowed the dedication of the tepee by two 
braves and a woman from the playground* 
where the tepee was made. Then entered the 
other women and braves, with the latter lining 
up for the soldiers' dance. After this the 
women did the Owl dance. 

As they were finishing, the small children 
rushed across the field pursuing the Medicine 
Men who then supervised the little girls in 
"Squirrel in the Trees" and "Cat and Rat," 
and the little boys in "Step on the Rattler" 
and "Rat on His Lodge." The final players 
led all the little children in a grand "Follow 
the Leader" to the bleachers where they could 
watch the rest of the pageant. As they were 
leaving, the next group of boys and girls ap- 
peared, the girls playing "Flower and Wind" 
and "Snatch the Moccasin." After this the 
boys took part in "Flying Stick" and "Bear in 
the Pit." As the bear was being caught all 
dropped back for the tournament between a 



THE MEMPHIS COTTON CARNIVAL 



113 



representative from each of thirty playgrounds 
who engaged each other in "Indian Strong- 
hand," "Indian Wrestle," and "Cock Fighting." 
These winners led all of this group to the 
bleachers, leaving the field to the women, the 
Braves, Ishnela and Whean. The orphaned 
children had tried to participate in every sport 
but were repulsed. Now the men, with the help 
of the women, participated in a peace pipe 
ceremony. Then the men went into council. 
The remainder of the story has been told 
previously. 

To give the semblance of Indians, diluted 
Bol-Armencian was used on the skins with 
the help of some colored grease paint lining 
pencils for the braves. To help give the 
pageant coherence the leaders used the infor- 
mation given by the supervisors of dancing, 
games, symbols, and ceremonies. 



In Step with the Playground Procession 

(Continued from page 90) 

ganized athletic teams by providing the entry fees 
to municipal leagues. In 1938 there were twenty- 
two such clubs, with average membership of 30, 
making a total membership of 660. 

Good Manners Classes. Classes in good man- 
ners and courtesy informally conducted were an 
innovation last summer on the playgrounds of 
Hamilton, Canada. A growing tendency toward 
discourtesy on the part of the children in their re- 
lationships with the supervisors led to the sug- 
gestion that the plan be tried of giving instruction 
in good manners and etiquette. 

The main problem in conducting classes was 
to maintain the children's interest. In doing this 
informal classes were found to be more success- 
ful than formal groups. The usual procedure was 
:o announce, not a class in courtesy and good man- 
ners, but a story hour when stories were told which 
would illustrate the importance and desirability of 
:ourtesy. Many practical illustrations were intro- 
duced based on playground happenings, the super- 
visor deviating from the regular story to explain 
proper procedures. The subject of courtesy was 
unobtrusively introduced very successfully into 
landcraft classes. On some grounds a special 
Deriod in the afternoon session was set aside for 
:he discussion of courtesy and good manners, the 
:hildren having previously been told that an inter- 
esting talk was to be given. 

Discussions of the subject were publicized by 
various methods. Tea party groups, however, 



The Memphis Cotton Carnival 

DOWN IN MEMPHIS plans are being made for 
the ninth annual edition of the South's 
"Greatest Party." The Memphis Cotton Car- 
nival, an annual non-profit civic organization 
has scheduled its celebration for May 9th-i4th. 
A new entertainment feature of this year's 
Carnival is a national air show with stunt 
flying and other spectacular exhibitions to be 
held on May I4th at the city's new municipal 
airport. Among other features of the cotton 
fete are daily parades, parties, balls, receptions 
and a variety of interesting and educational 
activities. 

The Children's Activities Division of the 
Association has scheduled a parade for several 
thousand children of Memphis and its sur- 
rounding territory. Registration of participants 
in the children's parade is under the super- 
vision of Miss Minnie Wagner, Superintendent 
of Recreation of the Memphis Park Commis- 
sion, and children taking part in the parade 
are selected through playground and school 
officials. Entertainment for the children cul- 
minates in the children's ball to be held at the 
Municipal Auditorium. 

The usual track meet, which includes par- 
ticipation of athletes of national prominence, 
will be held on Friday, May I2th. Other sport 
activities include a skeet shoot, boxing matches 
and playground competitions. 

The Cotton Carnival, although primarily an 
entertainment enterprise, has its serious side 
in the production and exploitation of cotton. 
This year Carnival officials have scheduled a 
"New Uses for Cotton Exhibit" to be on display 
in Memphis during Carnival week through the 
cooperation of the Cotton Research Founda- 
tion of Mellon Institute of Pittsburgh, Pa. 
The complete exhibit showing the numerous 
new uses of the South's primary agricultural 
product developed recently through cotton re- 
search chemistry will be on display in connec- 
tion with a Cotton Fashion Show during 
which attractive models will display modern 
style trends in cotton garments. 

The Negro section of the Carnival, "The 
Beale Street Cotton Makers Jamboree" has for 
its theme this year "King Cotton's Thorofare" 
depicting the life and habits of the Negroes in 
the deep South. 

NOTE : This material has been submitted by Richard 
C. Rippin. 



114 



DRAMATICS FOR THE CAMP COMMUNITY 



Untying 
Apron Strings 

A Guidebook on Better 
Personality Development 

Recreation leadership and personality guidance are 

inseparable. . . . True recreation results in integrated 

personality development 

UNTYING APRON STRINGS reveals the kinks in 
personality growth. It's one of the best inter- 
pretations of personality problems yet printed. 
Every recreation leader should understand the emo- 
tional phases of character development this book 
will help him achieve a 'better understanding of his 
work. It's as easy to read as the daily newspaper, 
and yet is based on accepted scientific knowledge 
as revealed in actual case studies. 

The Chapter Headings give you a bird's-eye view 
of the book : 

PART I Warped Personality Patterns 



Emotions the Motivating 
Forces of. Personality 

He Goes Back to Mother's 
Arms 

His Hand Against the 
World 

He Enjoys Poor Health 

PART II Adjustment 

The Attitude of the Adult 
Who Would Help 

Approach Through Voca- 
tional Interest and 
Hobbies 

Self-Understanding 



He Likes to "Show-Off" 

He Loves to Punish 

He Isn't Happy Unless He 

Is Miserable 
He Feels Inferior 
In Love With Himself 
Love That Never Grows Up 



Boy and Girl Relationships 
A Directing Philosophy 
Personality Development in 

the School-Community 
Religion (With Apologies to 

the Church) 



UNTYING APRON STRINGS is only $1.00 
cloth-bound in attractive red and black. 

The book plus a year's subscription to 

CHARACTER and CITIZENSHIP 
(regularly $2.00 alone) is $2.50 for both 



Send your orders to 

National Council on Education for 
Character and Citizenship 

5732 HARPER AVENUE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



proved most successful. At an imaginary tea 
party the girls would be given instruction con- 
cerning the proper methods to be used' in meeting 
people, in opening doors to visitors, in answering 
the telephone, in associating with friends on the 
playground, and in showing consideration for 
others in all playground activities. Much interest 
was aroused in typewritten statements regarding 
courtesy and good manners expected on the play- 
ground which were posted on the bulletin board. 

The 1938 season saw five hundred children en- 
thusiastically participating in discussions of good 
manners. 



Dramatics for the Camp Community 

(Continued from page 94) 

may have had, and all her fine training in technique 
of production are of the utmost value to her. But 
she will also have to learn from her own experi- 
ence that to these things, something more must 
be added in a camp dramatics job the ability to 
"makeshift," and to do it in such a delightful 
way that nobody at camp will miss the trappings 
and glitter of the more formal kind of production 
to which he is accustomed at home. If at the same 
time she is able to build up in her young audience 
an appreciation of and a delight in new forms 
and experiments (either of her own invention or 
adapted from the current trends in the best of the 
modern work) in production and acting, and in 
her players and production staff a real experi- 
mental and creative urge toward these things, she 
need not be ashamed to think of her job as im- 
portant in the scheme of things dramatic and the- 
atrical. It is a job which challenges the young 
director to use every ounce of mother wit she has, 
and a job which can be the best kind of training 
ground for later work, either of a more profes- 
sional nature in the regular or community thea- 
ter, or for leadership in educational-recreational 
programs of dramatics. Above all, it is a job 
which contains much self-satisfaction within itself 
for the director, in the provision of opportunities 
for service to individuals, the group, and the big 
field of dramatics itself. 



With the Day Camps of Pittsburgh 

(Continued from page 96) 

have quite a repertoire of songs, many of which 
have been composed by the counselors during the 
past six years. 

Our beautiful parks afford an excellent medium 
for the children to learn something about nature. 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



115 



A period is devoted daily to nature hikes and 
study. Each camp has its own nature museum. 
For children who seldom have the opportunity to 
romp on the green, or roam through the woods 
and to see bird life, this is a rare opportunity. Out 
of such a program should come a greater respect 
for tree, shrub, plant, and bird life. Beautiful 
things, the children learn, are made to be seen and 
admired, and not to be destroyed. 

Fiscal. The City Council has annually appro- 
priated the sum of $10,000. for the day camp 
project. Of this amount, in 1938, $4,960. was 
spent for 24,688 lunches at $.20 per lunch; 
$2,028.75, for transportation; $62.50, for car 
checks for volunteer counselors; $13.38 for the 
camp director's car expense for gasoline and oil ; 
$2,387.50 for salaries and wages; and $49.30 for 
printing of registration cards and similar supplies. 

Last year the camps were operated for a period 
of six weeks July i8th to August 26th and in 
former years for seven weeks. 

A total number of 4,351 children enjoyed a 
week's camp experience. Many of these, if it 
were not for the day camp, would never have the 
opportunity of visiting the city parks and would 
be forced to spend the hot summer vacation 
months in their own neighborhoods either on the 
streets or around their sub-standard homes. The 
close contact with nature cannot fail to affect the 
children physically, mentally, socially and spiritu- 
ally. It is an investment which gives good returns, 
and one which might well be made a permanent 
feature of city life. 

There should be no hesitancy on the part of our 
City Fathers to allocate funds for a project which 
brings happiness in the lives of many children, 
and which, furthermore, starts many on the road 
to good citizenship. A week's camp experience is 
certainly beneficial, but not enough. Consideration 
should be given to having those who need this 
kind of experience spend at least the entire sum- 
mer in camps. Some of us are of the opinion that 
the day camps might well be operated the year 
round. 



The What, Why and How of Handcraft 
on a Small Budget 

(Continued from page 99) 

to give the surplus to someone who could 
use it. 

Of more importance than the sharing- of 
materials was the sharing of ideas, directions 
for making articles, and addresses of such 



Magazines and Pamphlets 



\ 



Recently Received Containing Articles 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker 



I 



MAGAZINES 
Parks and Recreation, March 1939 

"Shakespeare Open Air Theater Unique in City 
Parks" by Arthur H. Alexander, Chief of Division 
of Landscape Architecture, Department of Parks 
and Public Property, City of Cleveland. Designs 
for an outdoor theater. 

"University of Washington Arboretum" by Frederick 
Leissler, Assistant Director 

"A Playground for the Soul," a description of Phila- 
delphia's Graphic Sketch Club established by 
Samuel S. Fleisher. This probably is unique 
among recreation facilities. 

The Camping Magazine, March 1939 

"Setting the Stage for Camp Safety" by Herbert 
J. Stack, Director, Center for Safety Education, 
New York University. 

The Journal of Health and Physical Education, April 

1939 

"School Health and Recreation Services" by Heriot 
Clifton Hutchins 

"Toward a Philosophy of Physical Education," by 
R. J. Francis, Department of Physical Education, 
The University of Wisconsin 

"Archery in the Recreation Program" by William 
P. Uhler, Jr., Associate in Health, Safety, and 
Physical Education, Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, New Jersey 

The Regional Review, March 1939 

"Leadership in Organized Camps" by Stanley M. 
Hawkins, Associate Recreational Specialist, Rich- 
mond, Virginia 

National Parent-Teacher, April 1939 

"Chores, Work, or Fun?" by Bess Naylor Rosa 

The Camping Magazine, April 1939 

"The Contributions of Camp to Democracy" by Hed- 

ley S. Dimock 
"Projecting Camp Recreational Skills into Adult 

Years" by Fred C. Mills 

School and Society, April 8, 1939 

"Sound Mental Health and the High-School Student" 

by William H. Johnson 
"The Controls of Public Education in a Democracy" 

by James Marshall 
New Jersey Educational Review, April 1939 

"The Recreation Teacher Comes of Age" t>y Allan 

Krim 

PAMPHLETS 

Woodland Trail Walks with the H. T. B Spring- 
Summer 1939 

Compiled by Ernest A. Dench, Director, Hiking 
Trips Bureau, Ho-ho-kus, New Jersey. Price $.10 

Bulletin of the Association of American Colleges 

March 1939 

March issue contains The Cultural Obligations of the 

College Faculty and the Proceedings of the Annual 

Meeting of the Association. 

The National Urban League in the Year 1938 Toward 
Democracy 

Extracts from the Twenty-Eighth Annual Report 
of the National Urban League. National Urban 
League, Inc., 1133 Broadway, New York City 



116 



SWIM FOR HEALTH WEEK 



Swim for Health Week 

THE FOURTH annual national Swim for Health 
Week will be celebrated June 26th to July 1st 
under the sponsorship of the Swim for Health 
Association, 122 East 42nd Street, ,New York 
City. This year emphasis will be placed on a 
learn-to-swim drive, and it is suggested that 
during the week swimming exhibitions and 
meets can be staged at municipal and school 
pools. It is also hoped that there will be a 
publicity campaign designed to focus attention 
on the health values of swimming as well as its 
recreative features. Newspapers will publish 
stories and a series of swimming lessons ; news 
releases and radio talks on the value of swim- 
ming will add to the effectiveness of the 
campaign. 

All campaigns will not be the same, but there 
are certain attractions which can be featured 
to advantage by recreation officials. One such 
event is the conducting of special learn-to- 
swim classes at swimming pools for boys and 
girls from six to fourteen years of age. Classes 
for adults may also be conducted at this time, 
as may life saving courses for competent swim- 
mers who should be trained in rescue technique 
in preparation for the summer swimming 
season. 

Last year, according to Martin Stern, Execu- 
tive Secretary of the Swim for Health Associa- 
tion, a number of recreation boards participated 
in the campaign and planned special activities. 
Among these cities were Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, 
New Orleans, Birmingham, Peoria, Duluth, 
Kansas City, Bridgeport, Springfield, and 
Tucson. Recreation executives who are in- 
terested in having a share in this year's cam- 
paign may secure from the Swim for Health 
Association stamps and posters and other 
promotional devices. 



Report of Summer Recreation Activities 1938, Recreation 
Commission, Bakersfield, California 

Year Book 1938, The Board of Recreation Commissioners, 
Livingston, New Jersey 

Annual Report 1938, Superintendent of Recreation, Union 
County Park Commission, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Annual Report of the Park Department, 1938 
Salem, Massachusetts 

Club Bulletin Municipal Recreation Department, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Annual Report 1938 Eugene Playgrounds and Com- 
munity Service, Eugene, Oregon 



places as factories where scrap leather, felt, 
hooks, and other material could be found for 
for very little expense. 

Many games that children could make and 
enjoy playing were made and decorated. Paint- 
ing the swings, seesaws and toys on the play- 
ground; adding birdhouses and feeding sta- 
tions ; creating such necessities as coat hangers, 
coat racks, door fasteners, and similar articles 
from the limbs of trees were among the sub- 
jects taken up. 

"Why?" 

Why we should use such materials is the 
question of some who have not had experience 
in working with children. We believe that it is 
the heritage of every child to have access to 
materials with which he may satisfy the crea- 
tive urge. It has been proven that the 
overprivileged child who has quantities of ex- 
pensive toys finds joy in making things out 
of materials he finds, with his own hands 
designing and building a toy, making a neck- 
lace or a picture lantern which really works. 

There is a place for art in even the poorest 
of homes, and the many children who have 
only the necessities of life would never, with- 
out the use of inexpensive materials, have the 
opportunity which is the birthright of every 
child, to know and use the creative urge to 
transform ideas into three dimensional experi- 
ments rather than into the spoken or written 
word alone. These experiments often give the 
child self-respect. 

"How?" 

How we can make mere materials function 



A Manual of Settlement Boys' Work 

Through a regrettable oversight there was fail- 
ure to give credit in the article in the April issue 
of RECREATION on "Leadership, Organization and 
Program Making in Boys' Club Groups," to A 
Manual of Settlement Boys' Work edited by John 
M. Kingman of Lincoln House Association and 
Edward Sidman of Hecht Neighborhood House, 
Boston, and published by the National Federation 
of Settlements. The Association is indebted to 
this Manual for a number of statements, particu- 
larly for the material on "General Principles of 
Program Development," for the suggested con- 
stitution, for much of the material under "The 
Mechanics of Club Organization" and under 
"Leadership." 



CAMPAIGNING FOR INDUSTRIAL SALVAGE 



117 



in our recreation program was our last big 1 
question. We must have leaders who know 
and love children. A person must be able to 
see beauty in commonplace things. "Things 
that function are beautiful." 

To free the child and give him materials that 
he can use is our first step, and the leader must 
know the possibilities and limits of materials. 
A studio or an elaborate plant is not necessary 
as a place to work, and a fund to buy expensive 
art materials and tools is not needed to 
carry on a worth-while, constructive, creative 
program. 



Campaigning for Industrial Salvage 

(Continued from page 100) 

its leather craft classes. The Mott Foundation, 
which sponsors the night school program, relies 
almost entirely on the collection of salvage for all 
industrial classes, and, in addition, most of their 
stage scenery and game room equipment are now 
made from salvage. 

The industrial arts department now has in its 
possession fifteen machines, including five milling 
machines, four drill presses, one shaper, two tool 
grinders, one electric arch welder, one band saw, 
and one surface grinder. These machines are all 
in good running condition and are being used full 
time in the shops with very little repair expense 
necessary. When these machines were given to 
the schools some of them needed minor repair, but 
others were in excellent mechanical order. 

It is estimated that the cost of the supplies, 
tools, and machines which are given to the schools 
in Flint each year by all industries would amount 
to approximately $7,000. This is a real contribu- 
tion when one realizes that instead of curtailing 
the industrial arts department and laying off 
teachers, the department has grown each year all 
through the depression. The plan is of benefit to 
the students because they are now supplied with 
many materials for which they form^ly paid, and 
many more students are now taking industrial arts 
courses than ever before. Any student who wishes 
to use salvage is given this material. Many proj- 
ects are made entirely from salvage while others 
are constructed from materials purchased by the 
Board of Education, with salvage used to supple- 
ment the new supplies. 

Business Men Cooperate 
The program has been sponsored since its be- 
ginning as one of the chief activities of the Junior 



Chamber of Commerce which is devoting one of 
its regular membership meetings each year to 
school and industry night. The industries furnish 
excellent speakers for the program, and this meet- 
ing is proving to be the largest dinner -meeting of 
the year. Many business men are interested in the 
program, and some of them have invited as many 
as fifty of the best boy craftsmen in Flint to at- 
tend the dinner as their guests. Industrial leaders 
who have cooperated in the program are invited 
to attend as guests of the Chamber of Commerce, 
and school board members and labor leaders are 
also among the guests. Through these contacts 
and others a spirit of friendly feeling has been 
created toward the schools, and the program has 
aided all phases of education because schools, 
business, and industry are now working closely 
together. 

The Chamber of Commerce has made arrange- 
ments for the schools to have some central busi- 
ness house for an exhibit of all articles made from 
the salvaged material. This exhibit, shown a week 
prior to the banquet, attracts thousands of people 
and creates interest in the affair. All of the out- 
standing projects are brought in for display, and 
an effort is made to show only the unusual pieces 



Story Parade 




Invaluable for Story Tellers 

Begin now and get the complete story of Geppy, 
the horse detective, together with tales of treasure, 
blizzards, wrecks and a boy who pinch hit for a 
traffic cop. Summer issues will have articles on por- 
cupines and owls by Wilfrid Bronson, a cowboy song 
and its history, seasonal crafts and hobbies. A trial 
subscription for six months $1. 



STORY PARADE 70 Fifth Ave. New York, N. Y. 
Enclosed is $1 for a trial subscription to be sent to: 

Name 

Street 

City 



118 



THIS YEAR ITS BOSTON 



Why They Subscribe! 

What School Activities brought to its 
readers the past year for only $2.00! 



school 
Activities 



School Activities 

in their school 

means . . . 

For the PRINCIPAL 

School and community in- 
terest attention that is 
always given to things 
going on. 

School interpretation dem- 
onstration of what the 
school is doing, exhibi- 
tion and explanation of 
the work that justifies the 
modern school. 

School spirit, harmony with- 
in and among school 
groups, school loyalty 
and goodwill. 

For the TEACHER 

Material for assembly and 
community programs. 

Practical ideas and sugges- 
tions for clubs and home 
rooms. 

Plans for parties, banquets, 
and socials. 

For the STUDENT 

Always an educative some- 
thing-to-do. 

A wholesome good time 
a happy eventful school 
life. 

A rich experience in genu- 
ine democratic living. 



47 articles on Ad- 
ministration and 
Supervision of Ex- 
tra-Curricula r Ac- 
tivities 

2 1 articles on School 

Assemblies 
14 articles on 

Athletics 
56 articles on Clubs 

1 1 articles on 
Commencement 

7 articles on Debate 
13 articles on 
Dramatics 
7 articles on Fi- 
nancing Activities 

6 articles on Home 
Rooms 

7 articles on Music 
20 articles on 

Parties 

23 articles on Pro- 
gram Material 

8 articles on School 
Publications 

3 articles on School 
Spirit 

12 articles on Stu- 
dent Government 

10 articles on Mis- 
cellaneous Ac- 
tivities 

Also scores of pithy 
Editorials, News 
Items, Book Reviews, 
etc. 

This is more usable 
material than sev- 
eral books at many 
times the cost would 
have brought to 
them I 

(Completely indexed 
in Education Index) 

With a nationally 
prominent editorial 
and advisory board 

SCHOOL AC- 
TIVITIES speaks with 
authority on matters 
of great importance 
to all schools. . 
Only $2.00 per year 



Subscribe NOW to 

SCHOOL ACTIVITIES MAGAZINE 

College Hill 
Topeka Kansas 

"The Magazine with a Big Place in Every School" 



of machinery that have been constructed. Students 
give demonstrations of welding, electrical work, 
and the different uses of the electric eye in 
industry. 

One of the finest developments resulting from 
contacts with industrial and business men through 
the salvage program has been the organization of 
a school placement department made possible by 
the interest of industrial leaders. One of the 
plants which has aided the schools has hired over 
a thousand school graduates since 1935. 

Business and industrial leaders now feel they 
have a part in the school program and are glad to 
visit classes and make suggestions for the im- 
provement of instruction. Many of these men are 
experts in their fields, and school men have gained 
much help and information through their coopera- 
tion. Many of our industrial leaders now request 
to be taken through school shops. They ask many 
questions about school organization policies and 
glean information which is of help to them. One 
group of factory superintendents who visited the 
classes at their own request was so impressed with 
the safety organization plan we were using with 
great success that they requested copies of the 
safety engineer's check sheet to show to some of 
their shop foremen. 



This Year It's Boston 

(Continued from page 101) 

we may judge by the suggestions and comments 
coming to the program committee. Recreation 
leaders rightly think that the recreation movement 
has something uniquely important to say about 
that subject. The best speaker available will dis- 
cuss recreation from the point of view of de- 
mocracy. The discussions will bring out the prac- 
tical means by which recreation contributes to 
democratic processes and helps build good citizens 
for a democracy. 

Boston is rich in historical, architectural, art 
and music interests. 

And then there is the New York World's Fair 
to be seen as a secondary attraction. It's only five 
hours from Boston and can be seen best before or 
after the Twenty-Fourth Recreation Congress is 
over. Perhaps you will do that on the way home 
and it is worth doing. 

News regarding special railroad rates will be 
sent out later. Long range planning is essential to 
good recreation. Plan now, decide soon, and do 
not fail to come. 

Boston October 9th to 13th, 1939 



New Publications in the Leisure Time Field 



Nature in Recreation 

By Marguerite Ickis. Order from author. $1.00. 

THE PURPOSE OF Nature in Recreation is twofold," 
says Miss Ickis in her introduction, "to inject fun 
into a recreation program by introducing nature through 
the different activities, and to indicate some workable 
approaches and methods which will create an awareness 
of living things in the world about us." With these 
objectives in mind, she has used her booklet to introduce 
nature to children in a friendly, intimate fashion by 
suggesting activities under the following headings: 
Nature in Camping, in Handcraft, Games, Dramatics, 
Music, Dance and Aquatics. The suggestions range from 
hiking to the making of a nature museum ; from nature 
jackstraws to a nature theater. There is a fund of infor- 
mation in this mimeographed booklet of 80 pages which 
will be invaluable to the camp counselor, playground 
worker, and many organizations providing activities for 
children. Delightful illustrations add to the interest of 
the book. Copies may be ordered from the author at 70 
Morningside Avenue, New York City. 

Camps and Camping 

A Selected Bibliography. By Mabel A. Badcock. Russell 
Sage Foundation Library Bulletin Number 153. Russell 
Sage Foundation, 130 East 22nd Street, New York. 
$.10. 

A BRIEF BIBLIOGRAPHY on camps and camping listing 
r * general references, periodical references, and classi- 
fied references. A special section is devoted to National 
Park Service and State Programs. 

The Committee in Action 

Edited by Ivah Deering. Obtainable from Mrs. Ivah 
Deering, 1118 Cypress Street, W. H., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Single copies $.10; in quantities of 100, $7.00. 
THE CONCLUSIONS presented in this pamphlet, which are 
intended for the use of individuals engaged in com- 
mittee work, are the result of more than sixteen hours 
>f group discussion at a Conference on Committee Pro- 
redures conducted under the auspices of the Woman's 
City Club of Cincinnati. The findings are offered in the 
hope that they will help to clarify the thinking of the 
lew chairman toward his task and to assist him in 
ittaining a point of view as well as a course of action 
which will make his work effective in whatever type 
af organization he may function. Practices which have 
ailed and others which have succeeded have been studied, 
md a few practical suggestions and some concrete 
:echniques have been worked out as a contribution to the 
ifficient working of democracy. 

How to Build 20 Boats 

Fawcett Publications, Inc., Fawcett Building, Green- 
wich, Connecticut. $.50. 

r^iREcnoNs FOR MAKING cruisers, sailboats, iceboats, 

speedboats, dinghies, and such miscellaneous craft 

is a collapsible pneumatic raft, an aquaplane, and a boat 



trailer are given in this 'book. There are also a number 
of articles with practical suggestions for the care and 
repair of boats and equipment. Plans, diagrams, and 
pictures are given. 

Handbook of Nature-Study 

Anna Botsford Comstock, B.S., L.H.D. Comstock Pub- 
lishing Company, Inc., Ithaca, New York. $4.00. 
-J-HE Handbook of Nature Study has long been a classic 
I in literature on nature study, more than 115,000 copies 
of twenty-three former editions having been distributed. 
The twenty-fourth edition, which has recently appeared, 
has been completely revised and contains a considerable 
amount of new material and many new illustrations. 
Approximately 300 separate subjects in nature are dis- 
cussed, including many kinds of birds, fishes, reptiles, 
amphibians, mammals, insects, flowers, weeds, flowerless 
plants, cultivated crop plants, and trees. The treatment 
of inanimate nature covers streams, water and water 
formations, the soil and soil conservation, crystals, 
minerals, magnetism, the stars, and the weather. 

There are almost 950 pages in this encyclopedic work 
and hundreds of illustrations. 

Let's Play 'The Game" 

The Book of Charades. By Clement Wood. Greenberg : 
Publisher, New York. $1.35. 

*THE GAME" is the title bestowed on charades because 
1 according to its enthusiastic supporters it is the king 
of popular games, combining as it does guessing, acting, 
speed, hilarity, teamwork, and instruction. The book 
meets the wide demand for a simple, clear, and concise 
explanation of "the Game," its rules, conventions, and 
etiquette and illustrates every point with many examples. 
It also gives hundreds of suggested words, phrases, 
sentences, and proverbs to serve as the subject of the 
charades. 

Amusements and Sports in 
American Life 

By Robert B. Weaver. The University of Chicago Press, 

Chicago, Illinois. $1.00. 

THIS PUBLICATION has been prepared to furnish side- 
* lights on the development of amusements and sports 
in American life. It reviews the history of many of our 
most common sports and amusements and is illustrated 
from old drawings and cuts. For those who are in- 
terested in the historical background of many of our 
common games, the book will be of considerable interest. 

Keep Fit and Like It 

By Dudley B. Reed, M.D. Whittlesey House McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, Inc., New York. $2.50. 

"I IFELONG PARTICIPATION in physical recreations and 
* many years of teaching them," says Dr. Reed "have 

convinced me that they may contribute much to the health 

and satisfaction of adults. However, exercise is not a 

119 



120 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



cure-all and may do harm as well as good. It should, 
therefore, be undertaken intelligently. Everyone should 
attempt to choose the recreations that are likely to be 
the most enjoyable and beneficial to him." This note of 
enjoyment in activities permeates the book. It is present 
in the first chapters devoted to the effects of different 
types of exercise and the mechanisms by which each 
type is carried on. It is inescapable in the later chapters 
dealing with some of the physical recreations. And the 
reason for this may be found in Dr. Reed's own words : 
"I have indulged, or now indulge, in all the sports con- 
sidered except bowling and badminton with a good deal 
of zest and approach them as a participant with gaiety 
and levity ; I am a firm believer in joy." 

Hand Puppets and String Puppets. 

By Waldo S. Lanchester. The Manual Arts Press, 

Peoria, Illinois. $1.25. 

Puppets of gloves and of wood; string puppets and 
puppets with wire frame foundation are all described in 
this book which contains a number of photographs and 
diagrams. There are also suggestions for dressing the 
puppets, for controls, and for making a theater and stage. 
The book is especially designed for the use of schools 
in many of which puppetry now has a permanent place. 

The Boy Scouts Book of Indoor Hobby Trails. 

Edited by Franklin K. Mathiews. D. Appleton- 

Century Company, New York. $2.50. 
Here is an attractive book for 'boys with an introduc- 
tion by James E. West. There are articles on pets 
by Dan .Beard and Lord Robert Baden-Powell, and a 
chapter on Charlie McCarthy by Edgar Bergen; Fred 
Waring tells how a hobby became a habit, and Orville 
Wright discusses the subject always fascinating to boys, 
"How I learned to Fly"; J. Edgar Hoover tells of 
fingerprints, and a master magician lets the public in on 
some secrets of his craft. Other hobbies, games, and 
sports are described hockey, boxing, amateur radio, 
reading, and many others. The 'book is profusely illus- 
trated and invites not only boys but grown-ups to read 
its pages. 

The Major Tactics of Checkers. 

By Millard F. Hopper. Available from Mr. Hopper 
at 422 First Street, Brooklyn, New York. $.50. 
This pamphlet presents a complete course in the 
strategies and science of checkers as given in a series 
of radio lectures over Radio Station WNYC. 



How to Make a Community Youth Survey. 

By M. M. Chambers and Howard M. Bell, Ameri- 
can Youth Commission, Series IV, January 1939. 
American Council on Education Studies, 744 Jack- 
son Place, Washington, D. C. $ .25. 
A very helpful booklet for executives who are con- 
templating surveys, particularly of youth problems. The 
booklet is based on the methods and materials used by 
the American Youth Commission in the Maryland Sur- 
vey. It defines clearly preparatory steps, budget, 
schedules, staff and actual methods of conducting the 
survey itself. The second half of the booklet is given 
to descriptions of appraisal methods and copies of the 
actual forms used in the Maryland Youth Survey. 



How to Organize a Science Club. 

American Institute of the City of New York, 60 

East 42nd Street, New York. 

An interesting document for the organizer of science 
clubs, including procedures, types of clubs, equipment, 
typical programs for a single meeting, and a sample 
program for the year, books for the science library, and 
other information. 



Group Methods in Vocational Guidance. 

By Louis H. Sobel and Joseph Samler. The Furrow 
Press, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York. $.75. 
The economic adjustment of Jewish youth has pre- 
sented various problems to those organizations working 
among Jewish young people. This volume, entitled 
"Group Methods in Vocational Guidance," has grown out 
of such needs. It deals simply and practically with prob- 
lems of occupational adj ustment among Jewish young 
people, discusses various types of vocational guidance, 
the function of club leaders in the guidance program, the 
utilization of special interests in group guidance, and 
group guidance as it applies to camps and child welfare 
institutions. While the problems dealt with concern pri- 
marily Jewish youth, as a method of treatment it is ap- 
plicable to young people in general. 

More Fun for the Family. 

Compiled and edited by Jerome S. Meyer. Green- 
berg: Publisher, New York. $1.95. 
Another book of this series of books on family fun is 
now available with hundreds of puzzles, charades, men- 
tal antics, mystery picture clues, oral and written games 
to test your knowledge on subjects of all kinds and make 
you wonder whether you are really as stupid as you 
seem! There are 319 pages of material and illustrations 
enough to supply you with party suggestions for years 
to come. 



Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 

JOHN H. FINLEY, President 
JOHN G. WIN ANT, First Vice-President 
ROBERT GARRETT, Second Vice-President 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBV, Treasurer 
HOWARD S. BRAUCHER, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

F. W. H. ADAMS, New York, N. Y. 

F. GREGG BEMIS, Boston, Mass. 

MRS. EDWARD W. BIDDLE, Carlisle, Pa. 

MRS. ROBERT WOODS BLISS, Washington, D. C. 

MRS. WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH, Moline, 111. 

HENRY L. CORBETT, Portland, Ore. 

MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER, Jacksonville, Fla. 

F. TRUBEE DAVISON, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 

HARRY P. DAVISON, New York, N. Y. 

JOHN H. FINLEY, New York, N. Y. 

ROBERT GARRETT, Baltimore, Md. 

AUSTIN E. GRIFFITHS, Seattle, Wash. 

MRS. NORMAN HARROWER, Fitchburg, Mass. 

MRS. MELVILLE H. HASKELL, Tucson, Ariz. 

MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX, Michigan Cty, Ind. 

MRS. MINA M. EDISON HUGHES, West Orange, N. J. 

MRS. JOHN D. JAMESON, Sugar Hill, N. H. 

GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, New York, N. Y. 

H. McK. LANDON, Indianapolis, Ind. 

MRS. CHARLES D. LANIER, Greenwich, Conn. 

ROBERT LASSITER, Charlotte, N. C. 

SUSAN M. LEE, Boston, Mass. 

J. H. McCuRDY, Springfield, Mass. 

OTTO T. MALLERY, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WALTER A. MAY, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

CARL E. MILLIKEN, Augusta, Me. 

MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS, Woodbury, N. Y. 

T. SUFFERN TAILER, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 

MRS. JAMES W. WADSWORTH, Washington, D. C. 

J. C. WALSH, New York, N. Y. 

FREDERICK M. WARBURG, New York, N. Y. 

JOHN G. WINANT, Concord, N. H. 

STANLEY WOODWARD, Washington, D. C. 



Recreation and the American Way of Life 



AiAIN THE RECREATION LEADERS of America gather. This time 
in Boston. It will be the Twenty-Fourth National Recrea- 
tion Congress. It will be composed of men and women who 
have devoted their lives to building the recreation movement in 
America. Pioneers in play. Organizers of recreation. Students of 
the larger problem of leisure. 

If this movement is new to you do not fail to consider its im- 
portance. Recreation as it is here interpreted and understood is in 
reality the art of living life in the American way. 

In an unusual sense, and to students of the democratic process a 
very heartening experience, the Recreation Congress is the round 
table of America across which the ideas, aspirations and practical 
experiences of all groups working on this vital human problem are 
exchanged. Sitting together, public officials, laymen, educators, in- 
dustrial and labor leaders, scientists and religious teachers, profes- 
sional recreation workers and program specialists will face again 
fundamental questions about the real meaning of life not theo- 
retical questions but those rising up out of the desires of men and 
women and the known needs of growing boys and girls. 

Here is a movement, unchanneled in its flow cutting across and 
reaching into many aspects of our community and national life. Its 
implications must be reckoned with by leaders in the church, home, 
school, industry and, above all in America, by municipal govern- 
ment the effective instrument of all who live in local communities. 

You do not have to belong to this or that. No label profes- 
sional or otherwise is necessary. If you are thinking or working or 
are interested in any phase of this broad effort to keep the avenues 
of life open to all, come to Boston in October. Come and be a part 
of the Recreation Congress. 

Thomas E. Rivers. 



UNE 1939 



121 



une 




Photo by H. Lou Gibson, Rochester, N, Y. 



"When God created beauty He created eyes, 
and did He not thereby lay upon man the 
obligation to develop his powers of obser- 



vation, and to enjoy that which had been 
created for his delight?" Mary C. 
Butler, in "Happy Nature Adventures." 



122 




The Recreation Year Book 

THE RECREATION YEAR BOOK is a report of the public recreation facilities, 
leadership, expenditures and programs provided by public and private agencies 
in town^ cities, counties, and other local governmental units. In some cases 
single reports contain information pertaining to a number of communities for 
which a larger local unit provides recreation services and facilities. 

The YEAR BOOK is primarily a statement of community recreation activities 
conducted under leadership and of facilities operated chiefly for active recreation 
use. Agencies are entitled to have their work reported if they conduct play or 
recreation programs under leaders paid from local funds, or if they operate such 
facilities as golf courses, bathing beaches, or swimming pools which involve 
continuous supervision. 

The expenditure data reported in this publication should not be confused 
with the figures reported under the heading "Recreation" in the "Financial Sta- 
tistics of Cities" reports issued by the United States Bureau of Census. The 
Census Bureau figures also include expenditures for municipal parks, street trees, 
museums, community celebrations, band concerts and other special recreation facili- 
ties and services. Because they cover a wider range of recreation services and 
facilities, Census Bureau expenditures have amounted to as much as four times 
the YEAR BOOK total for the same annual period. 

There is always some variation from year to year in the individual com- 
munities submitting YEAR BOOK reports. However, since most of this fluctuation 
is accounted for by small communities reporting part-time programs and limited 
facilities, YEAR BOOK totals for any particular year can reasonably be compared 
with similar totals for other years. 

The 1933, 1934, and 1935 YEAR BOOKS, in addition to the usual data, in- 
cluded a special section containing information concerning recreation services 
provided in communities where leadership or operating personnel was financed 
entirely through emergency funds. In this YEAR BOOK, references to data for 
previous years do not take these emergency sections into account, 



123 



A Summary of Community Recreation in 1938 



Number of cities with play leadership or supervised facilities 

Total number of separate play areas reported 

New play areas opened in 1938 for the first time 

Total number of play areas and special facilities reported : 

Outdoor playgrounds 9,712 

Recreation buildings 1,553 

Indoor recreation centers 4,059 

Play streets 297 

Archery ranges 380 

Athletic fields : 904 

Baseball diamonds . 3,902 

.,.!'. ' 

Bathing beaches 564 

Bowling greens 201 

Camps day and other organized 278 

Golf courses 354 

Handball courts 1,806 

Horseshoe courts ' 9,289 

Ice skating areas 2,643 

Picnic areas 2,877 

Shuffieboard courts 1,881 

Ski jumps 114 

Softball diamonds 8,833 

Stadiums 241 

Swimming pools 1,162 

Tennis courts 11,310 

Toboggan slides 281 

Wading pools 1,516 

Total number of employed recreation leaders 40,403 : 

Total number of leaders employed full time the year round 3,345 

Total number of volunteer leaders 9,701 

Total expenditures for public recreation $60,629,200 4 



(1) This figure includes outdoor playgrounds, recreation buildings, indoor recreation centers, 
play streets, athletic fields, bathing beaches, golf courses and camps. 

(2) Indoor centers open for the first time are not included. 

(3) 16,428 were emergency leaders. 

(4) $31,263,728 of this amount was emergency funds. 

124 



Community Recreation in 1938 



THE YEAR BOOK for 1938 records the recrea- 
tion service of 1,295 communities in which 
some leadership paid from local funds was 
provided.* This figure is slightly higher than the 
number reported in 1937 and exceeds by 130 
the number of such communities reported in any 
previous YEAR BOOK. 

One of the most significant developments in 

1938 was an increase of 26% in the total local 

and emergency expenditures for recreation. Total 

expenditures from local funds increased approxi- 

mately 14% from nearly 26 million to over 29 

million dollars. Most of this gain is accounted for 

by much larger operation and maintenance figures. 

I Emergency funds expended in communities pro- 

jviding regular service rose 41% from approxi- 

imately 22 million to 31 million dollars. In con- 

trast with the gain in local funds, the increase 

emergency expenditures is due largely to the 

fact that the amount spent for land, buildings 

|and permanent improvements was almost double 

jthat reported in 1937. 

The number of recreation leaders paid from 
regular funds increased from 22,160 in 1937 to 
| 2 3>975 in 1938, a gain of 8%. This increase com- 
ipares favorably with gains of 11% and &% re- 
corded in 1937 and 1936 respectively. The 3,345 
[full-time year-round leaders reported for 1938 is 
:he largest number in any year book and repre- 
sents an increase of 47% over the low figure of 
j.he depression reported in 1932. At least fifteen 
Hes employed full-time year-round executives 
:or the first time in 1938. 



In contrast to the significant increases in regu- 
iar leaders was a drop of 10% in total emergency 
jeaders supplementing regular personnel. This 
leems to indicate a slowing up of a trend which 
jvas more marked in the preceding year when the 
lecrease was 



Playgrounds, recreation buildings and indoor 
enters all increased in number during 1938. In 



Reports from the following were received too late to 
t>e listed separately in the statistical tables, although 

"formation which they contain has been included in 
the summary figures : Kalamazoo, Mich. ; Johnson City, 

f^'V 3 ? NCW Y rk> N ' Y ' (Communit y Councils 



fact the totals for all three are greater than in any 
previous YEAR BOOK. Of special interest is the 
increase of 13% in the number of recreation 
buildings, a large part of which can be attributed 
to a number of new buildings for colored persons. 
A growing public, appreciation of the programs 
offered at playgrounds and indoor centers was evi- 
denced by the attendance figures for these facili- 
ties which were much greater than in the previous 
year. 

Progress in the development of areas for varied 
recreational use is indicated by the reports of vari- 
ous recreational facilities. Especially significant 
are large gains in the number of archery ranges, 
bowling greens, day camps, handball courts, shuf- 
fleboard courts and stadiums. Participation at- 
tendance figures, on the whole, were larger than 
in 1937 and in most cases were greater than the 
exceptionally high figures reported in 1936. Strik- 
ing gains are recorded in attendance at bathing 
beaches and softball diamonds and to a lesser 
degree, at day camps, golf courses and handball 
courts. 

Thirteen per cent more municipal agencies than 
in 1937 employed one or more full-time year- 
round leaders. An increase in total municipal 
agencies administering recreation during 1938 was 
accompanied by a decrease in the total number of 
private agencies. 

The YEAR BOOK for 1938 records rather sig- 
nificant gains in regular service provided from 
local funds. Although cities still rely on emer- 
gency sources to supplement their regular pro- 
grams, local authorities are apparently assuming 
a larger share of the costs of operating their rec- 
reation programs. It is encouraging to note that 
municipal recreation has recouped many of the 
losses sustained during the early years of the de- 
pression and in a number of respects has reached 
new levels of accomplishment. 



NOTE : Throughout the summary statements references 
will be made to the number of cities reporting various 
data. Since it is impossible to tell how many small com- 
munities included in a report such as one submitted for a 
county should be credited with providing a given service 
or facility, these reports are counted as single cities 
except in the section on finances. 

\25 



Paid Leadership 



A total of 23,975 recreation leaders paid from 
regular funds was employed by 823 cities during 
1938. This figure exceeds the 1937 total of 22,160 
by 1,815, an appreciable increase inasmuch as only 
23 additional cities reported such workers. The 
1938 figure is the largest reported since 1931 and 
is exceeded only by totals reported in that year 
and in 1930. Taking into consideration agencies 
covering two or more localities, over 1,200 com- 
munities benefited from regular leadership service 
in 1938. Of the total regular leaders reported, 
approximately 57% were men and 43% women. 
This ratio is about the same as for 1936 and 1937. 

The number of full-time year-round leaders 
increased from 3,067 leaders in 1937 to 3,345 in 

Recreation Leaders Paid from Regular Funds : 



Total Leaders 

Cities reporting 823 

Men 13,588 

Women 10,387 

Total 23,975 



1938, an increase of approximately 9%. At the 
same time, -the number of cities reporting full- 
time year-round leaders rose from 319 to 337. 
Over 70% of the additional 278 leaders reported 
were men, and of the total full-time year-round 
leaders, 62% were men and 38% were women. 

A total of 16,428 emergency leaders was made 
available to local recreation authorities in 567 
cities providing some recreation leadership paid 
from regular funds. Despite the fact that 14 
more cities reported emergency personnel, 1,825 
less workers were reported for 1938 than for 
1937. Approximately 63% of the emergency 
leaders were men. 



Full-Time Y ear- 
Round Leaders 

337 
2,075 
1,270 
3,345 



Supplementary Leaders Paid from Emergency Funds in Cities 
Providing Regular Service : 

Cities reporting 567 

Men 10,301 

Women 6,127 

Total 16,428 



Volunteers 

This year for the first time separate figures were 
gathered for volunteer leaders of activities and 
for persons serving as volunteers in other capaci- 



ties. A total of 9,701 volunteer leaders was re- 
ported by 310 cities and 15,277 volunteers serving 
in other capacities were reported by 301 cities. 



Volunteer Leaders 

Cities reporting 310 

Men 5,480 

Women 4,221 

Total 9,7 01 

Playgrounds and Indoor Centers 




Outdoor Playgrounds 

The total number of outdoor playgrounds under 
leadership increased from 9,618 in 1937 to 9,712 
in 1938, a gain of 94 playgrounds. At the same 
time, the number of cities reporting playgrounds 
increased by seven. Playgrounds open the year 
round and playgrounds open only during the sum- 
mer show gains of 3% and 2% respectively. Al- 
though the total number of colored playgrounds 
was smaller in 1938 than in 1937, a significant 

126 



increase is noted in the number of grounds open 
the year round. This figure increased from 186 
to 220, a gain of 18%. 

Striking increases over 1937 figures are re- 
ported both in total attendance at playgrounds 
and in the average daily summer attendance. Both 
of these attendance figures are the largest reported 
in any Year Book. 



Xumber of outdoor playgrounds for white and mixed groups (772 cities) 9,089 

Open year round ( 257 cities) 2,261 

Open during summer months only (657 cities) 5,i88 

Open during the school year only (79 cities) 496 

Open during other seasons ( 128 cities) 1,144 

Average daily summer attendance of participants (5,880 playgrounds in 555 cities)... 2,296,083 

Average daily summer attendance of spectators (3,923 playgrounds in 404 cities) 719,609 

Xumber of outdoor playgrounds open in 1938 for the first time (263 cities) 698 

In addition to the foregoing, outdoor playgrounds for colored people are reported as follows : 

Number of playgrounds for colored people ( 196 cities) 623 

Open year round (88 cities) 220 

Open during summer months only ( 135 cities) 325 

Open during school year only (9 cities) 19 

Open during other seasons ( 16 cities) 59 

Average daily summer attendance of participants (348 playgrounds in 124 cities) 109.524 

Average daily summer attendance of spectators (302 playgrounds in 98 cities) 34.O94 

Number of playgrounds for colored people open in 1938 for the first time (50 cities) . . 71 

Total number of playgrounds for white and colored people (776 cities) 9,7 1 2 

Total average daily summer attendance of participants and spectators, white and colored 

(6,228 playgrounds) 3,1 59,3 10 

Total attendance of participants and spectators at playgrounds for white and colored 

people during periods under leadership (8,537 playgrounds in 638 cities) 325.424,585* 

Total number of playgrounds for white and colored people open for the first time 769 



* In addition to this figure a total attendance of 26,376,363, including figures for facilities other than playgrounds was 
reported for 350 playgrounds in 12 cities. 

Recreation Buildings 

The 1,553 recreation buildings reported open tion buildings for colored persons show an in- 

nnder leadership in 1938 represent an increase of crease of 23% over the 1937 figure as compared 

[73 buildings over the number reported in 1937. to an 11% increase in recreation buildings for 

This increase is significant in that a smaller num- white and mixed groups, 
ber of cities reported buildings in 1938. Recrea- 

Number of recreation buildings for white and mixed groups (349) cities 1.397 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (967 buildings in 262 cities) 52,832,823 

Number of recreation buildings for white and mixed groups open in 1938 for the first 

time (95 cities) 164 

In addition, recreation buildings for colored people are reported as follows : 

Number of recreation buildings for colored people (107 cities) 156 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (117 buildings in 79 cities) 4.095,095 

Number of recreation buildings for colored people open in 1938 for the first time (32 

cities) 3 6 

Total number of recreation buildings for white and colored people (367 cities) 1,553 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants at recreation buildings for white and 

colored people (1,084 buildings in 272 cities) 

Total number of recreation buildings for white and colored people open in 1938 for the 

first time 200 

* In addition to this figure a total attendance of 3,568,754 containing some attendance figures for facilities other than 
buildings and also including some spectators was reported for 30 buildings in six cities. 

127 



Indoor Recreation Centers 

Unlike recreation buildings which are facilities 
used primarily or exclusively for recreation ac- 
tivities, indoor centers include facilities such as 
schools, churches, city halls and other buildings 
not used exclusively for recreation but in which 
a recreation program is carried on under leader- 
ship for community groups. The total number of 
indoor centers reported, namely 4,059, is an in- 
crease of 205 centers over the 1937 figure and is 
the largest number reported in any Year Book. 



Practically all of this increase is accounted for by 
a gain of 20% in the number of indoor centers 
open less than three sessions weekly. Of the 
centers for which the number of sessions per 
week were designated, 58% were open three or 
more sessions weekly. However, these centers ac- 
counted for 77% of the total segregated attend- 
ance. Accompanying the increased number of 
centers was a gain of 16% in the total attendance 
of participants over the 1937 figure. 



Number of centers open 3 or more sessions weekly (368 cities) 2,320 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (1687 centers in 270 cities) I 8>95O>597 

Number of centers open less than 3 sessions weekly (214 cities) 1,682 

Total yearly or seasonal attendance of participants (1204 centers in 152 cities) 5,801,661 

Total number of indoor recreation centers (428 cities) 4,059* 

Total attendance of participants (3197 centers in 318 cities) 26,582,428** 



* Includes 57 indoor centers for which the number of sessions per week was not indicated. 

** Includes total attendance of participants at 306 indoor centers for which the number of sessions per week was not in- 
dicated. In addition to this figure a total attendance of 3,036,948 containing some playground attendance figures and 
also including spectators was reported for 145 indoor centers in two cities. 



Play Streets 

Twenty-three cities report 297 streets closed 
for play under leadership. This figure represents 
a sharp decrease of 28% from the number re- 



ported in 1937. Twelve cities report an average 
daily attendance of 10,492 participants at 65 
centers. 



Recreation Facilities 



. The following table indicates the extent to 
which several types of recreation facilities were 
provided and used during 1938. More than half 
of the types represented show increases over 1937 
figures both in the number of facilities and in the 
number of cities reporting them. The number of 
facilities reported for the following types repre- 
sent the largest figures appearing in any Year 
Book: 



Archery ranges 
Bowling greens 
Day camps 
Other camps 
Handball courts 
Horseshoe courts 
Ice skating areas 



Picnic areas 
Shuffleboard courts 
Softball diamonds 
Stadiums 
Tennis courts 
Toboggan slides 
Wading pools 



Exceptional increases are noted in the case of 
archery ranges, bowling greens, day camps, hand- 
ball courts, shufHeboard courts and stadiums. 

Accompanying the general gain in facilities was 
a substantial rise in total participation attendance 
at most facilities. Attendance figures for more 

128 



than three-fourths of the facilities listed in the 
table below were larger in 1938 than in 1937. 
This is only partially accounted for by the greater 
number of attendance reports received for 1938. 
However, a gain of nearly one hundred million in 
bathing beach attendance is due largely to the at- 
tendance at four New York City beaches not re- 
ported in 1937. A surprising gain of 7^/2 million in 
participation at softball diamonds is partially ac- 
counted for by increases in facilities and attend- 
ance in some of the larger cities. Total participa- 
tion at softball diamonds continued to surpass 
participation at baseball diamonds both in num- 
bers and rate of increase. The 1938 figure for 
softball exceeded that of baseball by about 8^ 
million as compared to only 3 million in 1937. 

In the table below, the figures in parentheses 
indicate the number of cities reporting in each 
particular case and the figures in brackets indi- 
cate the number of facilities for which informa- 
tion relative to participation is given. 



Facilities Number 

Archery Ranges 380 (221) 

Athletic Fields 904 (416) 

Baseball Diamonds 3,902 (686) 

Bathing Beaches 564 (240) 

Bowling Greens 201 (78) 

Camps Day . 173 (86) 

Camps Others 105 (63) 

Golf Courses (g-Hole) 136 (112) 

Golf Courses (i8-Hole) 218 (139) 

Handball Courts 1,806 ( 193) 

Horseshoe Courts 9,289 (643) 

Ice Skating Areas 2,643 (396) 

Picnic Areas 2,877 (45) 

Shuffleboard Courts 1,881 (235) 

Ski Jumps 114 (61 ) 

Softball Diamonds 8,833 (728) 

Stadiums 241 ( 170) 

Swimming Pools (indoor) 324 (119) 

Swimming Pools (outdoor) 838 (372) 

Tennis Courts 1 1,310 (700) 

Toboggan Slides 281 (98) 

Wading Pools 1,516 (429) 



Participation 
Per Season 

193,353 (H7 



3,998,728 (177) 
[336] 

11,539,458 (328) 
[1,858] 

173,446,706 (127) 
[2 9 6] 

139,652 (38) 



198,556 (46) 
[82] 

260,327 (42) 
[70] 

2,264,213 (71) 
[92] 



4,724,572 (92) 

[917] 
4,558,860 (334) 

[4,459] 

13,202,313 (205) 
[1,436] 

12,869,523 (199) 

[1,438] 

2,219,044 (l2O) 
[1,107] 
38,244 (27) 
[42] 

20,208,089 (402) 
[4,601] 

1,941,920 (54) 
[73] 

3,57i,33i (80 



26,249,891 (240) 
[595] 

10,798,311 (397) 
[6,684] 

696,701 (47) 
[114] 



Number open in 
1938 for first time 

91 (62) 

46 (33) 
206 (98) 

33 (26) 

5 (5) 

62 (25) 

25 (13) 

6 (6) 

5 (5) 
226 (21) 

875 (HO 
176 (81) 
266 (57) 

426 (73) 

9 (8) 

642 (190) 

19 (16) 

7 (6) 

46 (39) 

527 (i39) 

44 (21) 

103 (5o) 



129 



Management 



The following tables record the number of pub- 
lic and private agencies of various types reporting 
facilities and programs recorded in this YEAR 
BOOK. In studying these tables it should be re- 
membered that some agencies serve a number of 
communities and that there are several cities with 
more than one recreation agency. 

Total Agencies 

A definite shift is noted in the relative number 
of agencies represented in each of the major types 
of managing authorities, when compared with 
1937 figures. Although the total number of mu- 
nicipal agencies was slightly larger in 1938, au- 
thorities administering recreation as a single func- 
tion are the only major type which increased in 
the number of agencies reported. This type shows 
an increase of 23% as compared to slight de- 
creases for park and school authorities and a sur- 
prising decrease of 19% for "other municipal 
agencies." This latter figure is almost wholly ac- 
counted for by a drop in the number of municipal 



legislative bodies directly administering recreation. 

Agencies Reporting Full-Time 
Year-Round Leaders 

The increase in municipal agencies employing 
one or more full-time year-round recreation lead- 
ers observed in 1937 continued in 1938. The 
number of such agencies rose from 289 in 1937 
to 326 in 1938, a gain of 13%, which was shared 
by all four major types of municipal authorities. 
Some of these additional agencies were authori- 
ties which failed to report in 1937, but the ma- 
jority of them employed full-time year-round per- 
sonnel for the first time in 1938. Exactly one- 
half of the total agencies employing full-time 
year-round leaders were separate recreation 
authorities. 

Municipal Authorities 

The forms of municipal administration in the 
cities reporting recreation service in 1938 are 
summarized as follows: 



Total 
Managing Authority Agencies 

Authorities Administering Recreation as a Single Function 315 

Recreation Commissions, Boards, Departments, Committees, and Councils.. 315 

Authorities Administering Recreation in Conjunction with Park Service 278 

Park Commissions, Boards, Departments, and Committees 225 

Park and Recreation Commissions, Boards, Departments and Committees. . 35 

Departments of Parks and Public Property or Buildings 12 

Other departments in which park and recreation services are administered 

by the same bureau or division 6 

Authorities Administering Recreation in Conjunction with School Services. ... 172 

School Boards, Departments, and other School Authorities 172 



Agencies 
zvith Full- 
time Year- 
Round 
Leadership 



163 



163 



95 



Other Municipal Authorities Administering Recreation Services .............. 

City and Borough Councils, County Boards, and other legislative bodies ..... 82 

Departments of Public Works ........................................ 25 

Departments of Public Welfare ................ . ...................... 12 

Golf Commissions, Boards, and Departments ........................... 8 

Swimming Pool, Beach, and Bath Commissions and Departments ........ 6 

Departments of Public Service or Public Affairs ...................... 5 

Forest Preserve or Forestry Boards ................................... 3 

Other municipal commissions, boards, and departments ................. 29 



170 



29 



2 

8 

10 

3 

I 

4 

1 1 



29 



39 



Grand Total 



935 



326 



130 



Private Authorities 

Private organizations maintaining playgrounds, recreation centers or providing community recrea- 
tion activities in 1938 are reported as follows: 

Agencies 
ivith Full- 
time Year- 
Total Round 
Managing Authority Agencies Leadership 

Playground and Recreation Associations, Committees, Councils and Leagues; 

Community Service Boards, Committees, and Associations 63 24 

Community House Organizations, Community and Social Center Boards, and 

Memorial Building Associations 26 17 

Kiwanis, Lions, Rotary, and Other Service Clubs 12 I 

Y. M. C. A's ii 

Welfare Federations and Associations, Social Service Leagues. Settlements, and 

Child Welfare Organizations 8 4 

Civic, Neighborhood and Community Leagues, Clubs, and Improvement 

Associations 8 3 

American Legion 7 i 

Chambers of Commerce , 6 2 

Industrial Plants 5 4 

Park and Playground Trustees 5 2 

Women's Clubs and other women's organizations 4 

Boys' Work Organizations 2 I 

American Red Cross 2 

Miscellaneous 13 I 

Total 1 72 60 



Boards, Committees and Councils 

This year information was gathered as to the following table, boards and other citizen groups 

extent to which boards, committees and councils are classified under three headings: (i) policy- 

idminister or share in the responsibility for the making boards, (2) advisory boards, and (3) 

recreation programs under "separate recreation" committees and councils. The number of "recre- 

md "park" managing authorities. School authori- ation" and "park" agencies operating without such 

:ies are not included because they are almost uni- groups but directly under an executive are also 

yersally administered by school boards. In the indicated. 



Recreation Authorities Park Authorities 

Number Percent Number Percent 

Policy-making Boards 169 54% 170 61% 

Advisory Boards 65 20% 3 % 

Committees and Councils 43 12% 6 2% 

Single Executives 38 14% 7 2 2 &% 

Total 315 100% 278 ioo% 

131 



Finances 



Despite the fact that the country was experi- 
encing a recession, the total amount expended dur- 
ing 1938 from regular sources, public and private, 
exceeded the amount expended in 1937 by more 
than $3,500,00x3, an increase of 14%. This total, 
namely $29,3665,472, was spent for recreation 
service in 1,258 communities, and is the largest 
figure reported since 1931. The large total for 
1938 is especially significant in that it does not 
contain expenditures of over one million dollars 
which were reported by the Chicago Park District 
in 1937 but not in 1938. 



A breakdown of the regular expenditures re- 
veals that the amounts spent for land, buildings 
and permanent improvements; upkeep, supplies 
and incidentals; leadership; and services other 
than leadership are all larger for 1938 and are in 
approximately the same proportions as comparable 
figures for 1937. 

The following table presents the amounts spent 
from regular funds during 1938 classified as to 
type of expenditure. The figures in parentheses 
indicate the number of communities in which the 
funds were expended. 



Expenditures (Regular Funds) 

Land, Buildings, and Permanent Improvements $ 3,729,632 (426) 

Upkeep, Supplies and Incidentals 4,935,819 (924) 

Salaries and Wages for Leadership 7,884,882 (963) 

For Other Services 6,159,030 (622) 

Total Salaries and Wages 14,226,084 (951 ) 

Total Expenditures for Recreation in 1938 29,365,472 (1258) 



Approximately 60% of the communities report- 
ing regular expenditures also received supple- 
mentary financial aid from emergency funds in 
1938. The total emergency expenditures in these 
755 cities amounted to $31,263,728, an increase 
of more than nine million dollars over 1937 ex- 
penditures. Not all of the above expenditures 
were classified as to type, but an examination of 
the amounts which were classified indicates that 
most of the increase resulted from expenditures 

Expenditures (Emergency Funds) 



for land, buildings and permanent improvements. 
The figure reported for leadership salaries and 
wages is slightly higher than the 1937 amount. 
Unlike 1937, emergency expenditures exceeded 
regular expenditures in 1938. 

The following emergency expenditures in 1938 
were reported in cities carrying on some regular 
service. Figures in parentheses indicate the num- 
ber of communities. 



Land, Buildings, Permanent Improvements $14,830,088 (221) 

Salaries and Wages for Leadership 8,987,610 (61 1) 

Total Expenditures 31,263,728 (755) 

Sources of Support 

The sources from which regular funds were secured for financing community recreation programs 
and facilities are summarized in the following table. Receipts from fees and charges supplemented the 
sources in 516 cities. Some cities with two or more agencies are counted under more than one heading: 






Source of Support 

Municipal Funds Only 

Private Funds Only 

County Funds Only 

Municipal and Private Funds 

Municipal and County Funds 

Miscellaneous Public and Private Funds, 



Number of Cities 
786 
130 
171 
127 

43 

83 



132 



The following table indicates three main sources of recreation funds. Money secured from appro- 
priations and other public sources, as has been the case for several years, represents more than 80% of 
the total. Despite an increase of over 3^ million in the total funds, the amount received from private 
sources was somewhat less than in 1937. With the exception of private sources, the number of com- 
munities involved was higher for 1938. 



Source of Support Amount 

Appropriations and Other Public Funds .... $23,897,237 

Fees and Charges 4,484,862 

Private Funds 9 2 7>797 



% of Total 
82% 



3% 



No. of Cities 
1 120 
516 
363 



The $4,484,862 reported above as funds derived from fees and charges in connection with recrea- 
tion facilities and services represents only funds expended directly by the recreation agencies collecting 
them. In addition to this amount, 114 agencies collected $2,289,621 in fees and charges which they turned 
over to local city and county treasuries. Thus, the total amount of fees and charges collected during 
1938 was $6,774,483. 

Accounting Records 

Out of 773 agencies reporting, 467 or 61% keep all or part of their essential accounting records in 
the recreation office. Thirty-one per cent of these 467 agencies are separate recreation authorities, 30% 
park, 27% school, and 12% "other municipal authorities." Three hundred and six of the agencies indi- 
cated that all recreation accounting records are kept by municipal accounting offices. 

Bond Issues 

Twenty-eight cities reported bond issues for recreation passed in 1938 totaling $3,155,323. Cities 
reporting bond issues in 1938 with the amount passed are listed below. 



Amount of Bond 
City and State Issues Passed 

Prescott, Arizona $ 40,000 

Seymour, Connecticut 300 

Waukegan, Illinois 125,000 

East Chicago, Indiana 108,000 

Kansas City, Kansas 20,000 

Wichita, Kansas 18,000 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 100,000 

Lowell, Massachusetts 2,500 

New Ulm, Minnesota 35, 000 

Manchester, New Hampshire 25,000 

Linden, New Jersey 3,ooo 

Wilmington, North Carolina 12,000 

Cincinnati, Ohio 335,000 

Martins Ferry, Ohio 7,ooo 

Struthers, Ohio 30,000 



Amount of Bond 

City and State Issues Passed 

Mohnton, Pennsylvania ............. $ 3 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ........... 1,847,600 

Scranton, Pennsylvania ............. 6,200 

Wilkes-Barre and Wyoming 

Valley, Pennsylvania ............. 76,231 

Newport, Rhode Island ............. 

Providence, Rhode Island ........... 

Dell Rapids, South Dakota .......... 

Pierre, South Dakota ............... 

Woonsocket, South Dakota .......... 

Tyler, Texas ...................... 47 ,o 

Beloit, Wisconsin .................. 40,000 

Racine, Wisconsin ................. 75- 000 

Honolulu, Hawaii .................. 154,150 



7,000 

5,54 2 
20,000 

5 



Special Recreation Activities 



The figures presented in the following table 
show the extent to which various activities are 
included in the recreation programs of agencies 
reporting in this YEAR BOOK, and the number of 
j different individuals participating in each activity. 
Because many cities failed to submit participation 



figures, these totals are not complete. However, 
the number of cities reporting activities may be 
considered fairly inclusive. 

Three fourths of the activities listed show in- 
creases in the number of cities in which they were 

133 



conducted during 1938 when compared with the 
previous year. Activities showing increases of 
18% or more in the number of cities reporting 
them are : roque, shuffleboard, forums and discus- 
sion groups, puppets and marionettes, and bad- 
minton. Bicycle clubs, motion pictures and hockey 
were reported by 15% more cities during 1938. 

It is difficult to compare participation figures in 
the following table with similar figures in previous 
YEAR BOOKS because of the variation in cities re- 
porting and other variables entering in the gath- 



Activities 
Arts and Crafts 



ering of statistics of this sort. However, in the 
case of the following activities, the increases over 
1937 participation were so pronounced that they 
warrant recognition: (i) forums and discussion 
groups, (2) roque, (3) drama tournaments, (4) 
track and field, (5) boating, and (6) community 
singing. According to the figures submitted, swim- 
ming, picnicking, softball and skating are the 
most popular activities. 

Figures in parentheses in the following table 
indicate the number of cities reporting. 



Cities 
Reporting 



Art Activities for Children 431 

Art Activities for Adults 237 

Handcraft for Children 605 

Handcraft for Adults 350 

Athletic Activities 

Archery 249 

Badge Tests (NRA) 139 

Badminton 370 

Baseball 699 

Basketball 578 

Bowling indoor 107 

Bowling-on-the -green 86 

Handball 238 

Horseshoes 701 

Paddle Tennis 434 

Roque 71 

Shuffleboard 317 

Soccer 300 

Softball 770 

Tennis 703 

Track and Field 485 

Volley Ball 628 

Dancing 

Folk Dancing 396 

Social Dancing 342 

Tap Dancing 318 

Drama 

Drama Tournaments no 

Festivals 186 

Pageants 224 

Plays 368 

Puppets and Marionettes 274 

Storytelling 509 

134 



Number of Different 
Individuals Participating 



93,443 (i?8) 

22,579 (95) 

271,923 (278) 

99,856 (146) 



19,697 

47,393 

47,424 

277,832 

266,512 

12,140 

12,271 

67,43i 

233,907 

105,129 

13,432 
62,614 



342,903 
163,433 
169,561 



("4) 
(66) 

(191) 

(325) 

(305) 

(50) 

(27) 

(90) 

(309) 

(188) 

(24) 
(126) 

(121) 

(360) 

(297) 
(192) 

(289) 



26,876 (175) 

223,383 (161) 
53,893 (142) 



i7,84i (56) 

83,533 (79) 

74,095 (88) 

38,020 (169) 

22,478 (in) 

128,828 (206) 



Music 



Choral Groups 247 

Community Singing 298 

Instrumental Groups 292 

Outing Activities 

Camping 196 

Gardening 100 

Hiking 451 

Nature Activities 306 

Picnicking 526 

Water Sports 

Boating 94 

Swimming 646 

Swimming Badge Tests (NRA) 169 

Winter Sports 

Hockey 180 

Skating 391 

Skiing 1 36 

Tobogganing 124 

Miscellaneous Activities 

Bicycle Clubs 162 

Circuses 141 

Community- Wide Celebrations 355 

Forums, Discussion Groups, etc 164 

Hobby Clubs or Groups 309 

Motion Pictures 229 

Playground Newspaper 1 16 

Safety Activities 295 



28,354 (131) 

385,883 (121) 

23,106 (151) 



24,671 
12,173 



(84) 
(46) 



66,933 (189) 

40,722 (no) 

619,407 (185) 



24,423 (30 

982,296 (227) 

39,166 (68) 



33,931 (67) 
457,076 (131) 

3-578 (35) 
37,536 (29) 



7,575 
34J73 



(69) 
(60) 





135 




Courtesy IVPA, Iowa 



The planning of recreation for adults is receiving increasing attention, and 
more indoor centers are being opened for their use. Statistics for 1938 show 
an increase of 205 indoor centers over 1937, with a total attendance in 318 
communities of 26,582,428. There was a marked emphasis in 1938 on the 
activities which young men and young women can enjoy together. 




Courtesy Department of Recreation, Sioux City, loiua 



136 



Tables 

of 

Playground and Community 

Recreation Statistics 

for 

1938 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNIT 
Footnotes -folk 









Paid 














Recreation 














Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


-i- 
1 








Workers) 






1 


STATE AND 


Popula- 


Managing 




















"3 


CITY 


tion* 


Authority 








e 








Salaries and Wages 




'g 










a 


"2 


V 




Land, 


Upkeep, 















g 


g 


>>T3 


2 




Buildings, 


Rent, 



















Jj 







>-5 




Permanent 


Supplies 




Main- 




Total 










"8 


s 


RX 


. 


1 


Improve- 
ments 


and 
Incidentals 


For 
Leadership 


tenance 
and Other 


Total 




o 
8 








6 
X 




X 


O V 


f 


ifl 










Services 






1 



1 

1 

t 

( 

8 

9 
10 
11 

12 

13 
14 

15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 

32 

33 

34 
35 
36 
37 

38 

39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 

54 

55 

56 
57 
58 
59 

00 
Cl 


Alabama 


259,678 

3,711 
48,118 

5,517 

1,706 
32,506 

17,816 

7,394 
31,429 
81,679 
20,760 

35,033 

8,569 
29,472 

10,995 
26,015 
82,109 

17,429 
2,435 
13,270 
7,961 

3,118 
2,116 
12,516 
45,000 

7,018 
4,314 
52,513 
62,736 
5,530 
6,788 

142,032 

1,257,680 

2,208,492 
13,842 
5,498 
9,141 

284,063 

13,583 
8,066 
5,558 
13,652 
76,086 
9,333 
20,804 
3,517 
20,093 
29,696 
6,425 
93,750 
11,603 
667 
147,995 

634,394 

13,444 

30,322 
33,613 
65,167 
7,057 

37,146 
47,963 


Park and Recreation Board 




A 


1 


6 
2 

a 

i 






2,000 

578 
1,110 
3,997 


42,700 

3,685 
1,500 
4,000 


11,515 

2,675 
11,000 
3,600 


33,091 

1,423 
12,948 

297 


44,606 

4,098 
23,948 
3,897 


89,30f 

8,361 

26,555 

'11,894 
2.15C 

10.50C 
1,255 

1.37J 

2,ose 

1,875 

12.59C 

42.39C 
5,83/ 
8,0(X 
18,595 
1,200 
14,768 

85,286 
5.00C 
835 
51C 

J 23,11C 
625 
1,408 
1,256 

6,075 
63C 

7 

63,335 
56,274 
12,887 
20,073 
129,054 

51,859 

873,246 
152,407 
98,978 
328,248 
18,667 
7,808 
4,684 
300,330 
193,500 
J l,500 
326 
20,127 
37,341 
28,885 
8,055 
17,000 
3,395 
9,309 
6,500 
1,750 
174,831 
9,544 
8,274 
71,889 
186,888 
676,091 
1,185 

38,860 
644 
14,000 
1,976 
2,270 
9,680 
9,323 


Arizona 
Mesa 


Parks and Playgrounds Board 


22 


5 


Phoenix 


Parks, Playgrounds and Recreation 
Board 1 


10 

4 


; 


Prescott 


Park Board, Kiwanis Club and Chamber 
of Commerce 


15 


i 


Safford 


American Legion Post No. 32 


Tucson 


Department of Playgrounds and Recrea- 
tion and W. P. A 


13 


( 

- 1 

i 


i 

i 


20 
101 


46 
40 


400 


3,650 
1,251 

75 


4,050 

] 

150 


2,400 


6,450 


Yuma County* 

Arkansas 
Fayetteville 




150 


Harmon Playfield Association 


1 


1,150 




Fort Smith . 


Park Department 




6 
60 
20 

1 

3 


5 

18 




Little Rock 


Recreation Commission and W. P. A.. . 
Park Commission 


1 
3 

1 

i 




.... 
i 


i 

8 

1 

1 




1,197 
5,990 

3,592 
2,503 






675 
4,600 

29,229 
2,945 


Pine Bluff 


2,000 

9,569 
389 


3,100 

7.869 
2,520 


1,500 

21,360 
425 


California 


Department of Playground and Recrea- 
tion 


Albany 


Park and Recreation Commission 
/Playground and Recreation Commission 
\Park Department 




Anaheim 


1 


3 


3,747 


6,082 
300 






8,763 
900 


Recreation Commission x . 


2 


i 


900 




Bakersfield 


Recreation Commission 


15 










7,545 

4,157 
3,500 




Berkeley 


City Recreation Department and Health 
Education Department, Board of Ed- 


31 
1 

1 


14 
1 


5 
1 






27,623 


36,317 


17,189 


53,506 


Beverly Hills 
Brea 


Playground Department 






City of Brea 






332 


500 




500 




Union High School District 


1 














Chico 


Board of Recreation and Bid well Park 
and Playground Commission 


3 


. 


1 






1,800 
100 
200 


9,000 


2,360 
400 
248 
580 

3,839 
330 


9,950 
125 
480 


12,310 
525 
728 
580 

4,089 


Chino 


Recreation Association 





1 












? 






18 


35 


480 
676 

1,986 


Compton 


Playground Department, City Schools . . 


t 






Compton Union 
School District 6 . 


Playground and Recreation Department, 
School District 


28 
1 

f 

12 
If 


| 
1 

1 
1 

16 
5 


1 

i 

A 
i 

"26 
1 


1 

8 






250 


City Council ' 


22 




Crockett 


Crockett Club 










Fresno 


Recreation Department 






17,885 
31,700 


10,680 
5,805 
4,387 


20,080 
11,824 


14,690 
6,945 


34,770 
18,769 
8,500 


Glendale 


Parks and Recreation Commission 
Recreation Committee 


18 
18 
8 


6 
63 

9 




Lodi 


Recreation Department 


6 
45 

1 


2 
23 


3,364 


5,100 
66,377 




Long Beach 






17,506 


83,883 


Golf Committee and Public Service 
Department 




| 








Department of Playground and Recre- 
ation 


14? 


67 


93 






120,298 


210,461 
11,000 
25,148 


259,348 
141,407 


283,139 


542,487 
141,407 
60,783 


Los Angeles Co.' . . 
Modesto 


] Board of Education 


112 
1 


115 








Board of Park Commissioners 


1 






13,047 




Department of Parks and Recreation. . . 


20 
1 
1 


3 
3 


23 
1 














4.850 


3,825 


2,946 


7,046 


9,992 


Monte bello 


Natatorium Department 


1 

6 

1047 
31 
3 


1 

10 
257 

'"9 

fl 


Monterey 


Recreation Board 


5 
114 
23 
2 
1 
11 
16 
23 
1 
2 
3 
7 
1 


104 
6 
1 
1 
1 
6 
39 
5 
3 
1 
5 
1 
1 


1 
31 
29 




2,054 
93,762 


1,430 
110,153 
43,500 
700 
258 
1,412 
20,000 
23,777 
5,901 
2,700 
1.178 
8,216 


1,200 
96,415 


2,630 
206,568 
43,500 
1,200 
258 


Oakland 






Ontario 


\East Bay Regional Park District 10 
Recreation Board 1 


150,000 


300 
68 


500 


Orange 






Pacific Grove 
Palo Alto 


Recreation Commission 
Community Center Commission 


2 
8 
5 
4 
3 


9 
25 


36 
300 


1,450 
718 




12,964 
3,048 
1,059 
900 
568 
1,093 


3,659 
2,060 
495 
1,900 
364 


23,659 
25,837 
6,396 
4,600 
1,542 
8,216 


Pasadena 11 


Recreation Board 


Piedmont 








600 
11,500 
1,285 


Pomona 
Red Bluff 


Recreation Department 
City Council 










Richmond 


Recreation Department, School Board. . 








Riverside 


1 


1 








Rogeville 




6 


1,666 
19,192 
766 


455 
68,561 
2,317 
2,136 
5,425 
39,620 
138,516 
343 


295 
39,269 
1,698 




295 
87,078 
6,461 
6,138 
62,458 
147,268 
370,244 
842 


Sacramento 


Recreation Department 


29 
? 


20 


20 
1 




47,809 
4,763 


Jan Buenaventura. 
3an Clemen te 
San Diego 


Park Department 






City of San Clemente 












Playground and Recreation Department 
/Board of Park Commissioners 


28 
4 


11 


14 

4 


64 


159 


4,006 


37,847 
14,100 
182,823 
530 


24,611 
133,168 
187,421 
312 


San Francisco 
San Mateo 


J Recreation Commission 


217 
? 


90 


70 


4 


7 


167,331 


[Union High School District 


I Park Department, Recreation Depart- 
ment and W. P. A. 


1 












Santa Ana 


Board of Education 1 


1 
20 
T 


2 
3 










35 
2.660 


540 
11,340 
1,976 
2,120 
3,180 
8,437 


69 


609 
11,340 


Santa Barbara 
Santa Barbara Co. 1 ' 
Santa Maria 

Santa Monica 
Stockton 


Recreation Commission 


3 










33 

1 


6 
25 








4 


1 






150 
6,500 
886 




2,120 
3,180 
8,437 


Playground and Recreation Department 
School Board . . . 


2 
22 


1 

16 


1 














Public Works Department 














14 


9 


3 






11,640 


12.565 


9,425 


13,050 


22,475 


46,680 











138 



RECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

he table. 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 




Baseball Diamonds, Number 


1 

1 
Z 

1 

1 



j 

I 


| 
Z 

J 

S 

E 

6 


1 

a 

1 

"i 

1 

g 



6 


J 



Z 

1 
a 

\ 
o 

"c 

C 


Golf Courses. 18-Hole. Number 


1 
| 

Z 

T: 

c 

1 

HI 

c 

'I 
1 

02 


I 
Z 

| 

C 

X 

1 

in 
c 

cc 


1 
1 

J 




1 


Z 

1 
g 

I 


Emergency Service 




No. of City 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 




V a. ""'A 
Xnr> 10 -OM 


1 

1 

1 

a 


2 
, C 

i 


'| 
1 


J 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


J 
j 

Z 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


1 
S 
a 
Z 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Athletic Fields, Numbel 


Number of Men 


o 
( 
"o 

I 

Z 


Land, 
Buildings 
Permanen 
Improve- 
ments 


; Leader- 
ship 


Total 


Source of 
Information 


33 

6 

2 


49 

7 
3 

2 






82 

14 
10 
9 


924,938 

130,061 
96,795 
40,000 


10 

8 
8 
2 


325,851 

7,085 
14,406 
8,000 






1 

1 
1 


IS 

1 















4 


110 
14 


19 

f 


70 

20 
?8 


66 

9? 


50,000 

11,334 
3,322 


96,000 
15,813 


146,000 

29,25 
9,322 
16,320 




1 

2 
8 

4 
5 

6 
7 

8 
9 
10 
11 

12 
13 
14 
a 
15 
16 

17 

q 


2 
1 
4 


1 


J 


















5,972 














Alice Spotts 




. 




n 







, 


II 




13 












































C. A. Firth 


5 
'2 


3 
4 

1 


1 
1 



6 


11 

13 

1 


640,000 
132,274 


2 
1 


8,840 


,8 
T 


2,000 




, 
















4 




14 


5 




11,160 
1,500 


11,210 
4,945 

2,281 
4,342 
19,915 
3 360 


Harold A Patten 




























































2,281 


Mrs. C. M. Reinoehl... 
H. S Peck 


4 
9 

5 
8 

9 








4 
10 
3 

5 

8 
10 


57,000 
131,118 
28,430 

644,291 
491,276 
1,218,316 


3 
4 
3 

ft 
3 
2 


61,990 
14,400 
44,900 








1 














j 


11 


i 




| 


4,342 


1 
3 






5 




1 


.: 




1 












14 




9 


10 














1 














1 




i 










C. C. Beers 




4 

4 


] 


6 


1 












|< 




31 


1? 




37,456 
36,792 


37,456 
39,672 
33,000 
425 
5,000 


Otto Rittler 








44,830 


2 
1 


6,070 


1 








1 


8 


1 


24 
23 
1 
16 


18 
10 




T. L. Farnsworth 






1 










































] 


15 


1 

1 
1 




425 




24 
"4 


5 
3 

"2 


2 


1 


ft 

3 

27 
2 
4 


165,000 
34,555 

1,459,858 
52,000 
10,866 


1 




4 


3,970 


















11 

6 




Richard M. Glover 
John L. Compton 






2 


















8 


24,865 


4 


26,218 


4 


5 






J 






2 




24 

17 


1 
1 


33 


24 




74,404 


99,630 


Charles W. Davis 














1 




3. D. McCary 






4 


2,130 


1 


3 














1 
1 


f 


1 


8 


3 




767 


767 


S. S. Smith 


19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
6 
27 

8 
9 


1 

n 

3 
a 
b 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
a 
9 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
>0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
I 
5 

t 

6 
7 
8 
9 
>0 

b 
1 


























C. E. Righter 


2 

'l 

10 

5 

"l 
14 
4 
9 

'50 


2 
2 


4 

i 




8 
2 
2 

10 

7 

s 


425,000 
13,200 
7,200 
5 146,836 

=278,198 


I 


22,000 


12 


210,000 


3 
1 


3 
1 








1 






I 


'4 

4 


1 


7 
3 


4 
2 
1 


23,000 


14,000 
2,637 
1,200 
4,479 

19,080 


2 37,000 
2,637 
3,600 
4,479 

19,080 


Ralph E. Hensley 














-<evi Dickey 


1 

10 

1 


4,200 


1 


3,350 














1 








? erdinand Ambrose 
K. W. Mason 




















? 




30 

35 
5 


10 

15 

1 




1 
1 


i 

2 




30,335 


e 


167,550 


7 


1 
1 














1 

1 


14 


i 

i 

6 

1 
1 
1 




K. W. Mason 




1 












laymond L. Mahoney. . 
Frank H. Young 




1 

17 


<) 


62,351 
997,840 
249,861 


1 
i 
4 




i 

7 

1 

10 


2,000 
56,685 
1,500 


1 

8 


1 

10 














1 
1 
1 

1 

1 


2 
30 

8 
8 


3 

2 






22,960 
20,000 




1 


1 
1 


1 






14 
17 
16 


13 
8 
11 


48,530 


21,248 
17,000 
24,300 


71,232 
17,000 
32,066 


laymond L. Quigley 
William A. Burr 














2 


3 
2 

9 


'i 

14 


1 


1 






1 
1 






2 
7 






2 

57 


54,000 
7,131,408 


1 
10 










W. G. Hurrle 


651,828 


81 


767,846 


4 










34 




45 


25 








Walter L. Scott 










1 


1 










George W. Hjelte. . . . 


48 
103 




'99 




48 
202 


9,727,227 
4,995,829 


69 


1,716,569 






1 

54 


28 
33 


3 




4 


1 
6 


19 
1 


102 

78 


17 


85 
90 


55 
91 


86,968 


109,162 


250,655 


38 


109,640 




C. L. Glenn 


















. J. Hassett 


156 

1 


"4 


5 




161 
5 


18,889,000 
5 35,000 


40 




44 




10 


23 
2 


11 
2 




2 


'i 


1 




3 


14 

4 


3 
5 
1 


203 

7 


98 
3 


635,745 


270,481 


906,226 
2,078 


ames K. Reid 








City Engineer 


























1 






'ancil E. Row 


4 
64 








4 
73 


33,324 
2,860,482 












1 

12 
3 
2 


1 
1 

2 


















24 
54 

"3 
5 

8 
8 
51 

1 
12 


14 
26 

"3 
4 
4 
6 

48 
1 
8 








ames N. Parsons 




9 




10 
14 
J 


311,177 
418,000 
4,200 


11 






3 
1 


i? 


A 

'i 




1 
1 




1 
2 
1 


66 

20 

8 


1 

'i 




70,510 


88,373 
1,000,000 
4,100 


R. W. Robertson 




1,000,000 


ElbertM.Vail 
FredH. Clapp 


4 

"2 
4 
12 
3 

7 


6 
4 
2 
2 
1 




2 


12 
4 
4 
C 

25 
3 
7 
1 

12 
10 
4 


141,180 
5 6,279 
75,600 
168,000 
943,318 
77,303 
324,000 
4,745 
320,820 
212,208 


5 


9,800 






4. Haven Smith 


2 

4 


9,000 
60,000 


1 
2 

4 
1 


2,000 
2.000 
24,596 
3,000 


1 
1 
10 
1 


'2 
12 
2 


1 






1 






1 

2 
2 


5 

14 
58 

7 


1 




9,060 


9,060 
15,860 
84,434 
2,938 
25,800 


3. W. Easterbrook 








Marvin R. Kahn 


12 


















84,434 
2,158 


3ecil F. Martin 










> 










rfrs. Telura Swim 








5 


40,362 




i 










1 
1 


4 


1 




Earl E. Workman 






1 




























Mrs. Enville Spaulding. . 
.W. Hill 


12 
9 
4 
14 










8 

8 
2 
14 


15,525 
45,803 
1,800 




3 
1 






3 






1 
> 




9 
1 9 




18 
15 
3 
50 


2 
"4 
4 
15 




18,336 


21,156 
15,000 
3,594 
60,360 






1 








3. E. Wilson 












1 
















4 

19 


1 
5 




2,010 
54,600 


rene E. Meyers 








14 


610,457 


13 


. > 


2 


12 

1 


"i 
1 




2 


i 
1 


1 




2 




. B. Maloney 
D. C. McMillan 










































1 






1 
1 
1 
2 
2 


2 
37 
71 

77 














filliam Holmes 


33 


2 






35 


1,478,284 


8 




R 






7 
19 
14 


9 

2 




'i 




'3 




4 

1 


54 


23 


16,240 


56,988 


73,228 


7. A. Kearns 












5 
2 


. P. Lamb 


70 


37 






107 


"5,261,089 


28 




26 


123,676 


166 


72 


186,500 


211,822 


398,322 


osephine D. Randall . . . 
[omer Martin 








21 
"5 








21 

8 
16 


171,516 
26,512 
223,703 


1 


22,460 


13 


90,958 















1 






4 




15 


9 
1 




24,784 


26,800 
5,270 
23,742 


Vrthur Ryan 


8 
3 


's 




















1 








i\ A. Henderson 


4 


120,828 


2 


5,815 




4 


2 
4 














23 
1 


2 


25 

f, 


7 




23,742 


1 C. Christiansen 
Frank E. Dunne 


i 














2 
9 
10 


2 






4 
q 


20,421 






2 


4,550 




1 






2 








1 


h 
8 

ir> 




2 
56 
15 


2 
31 
16 




66,587 
14,869 


66,587 
14,869 


iYank P. Holborow 
ATS. Bess Shirley King. . 
3eorge Basil 








10 


S 371,298 


1 




3 




2 


5 


























1 












1 


6 




2 


9 


631,840 


1 


51,740 








6 


1 




1 


1 






1 


15 


7 


20 


18 






56,900 


. E. Swenson 















139 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNITY 



>, 

5 
8 

1 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


Source of Financial Support t 


a 

i 

"8 

i 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 


Activity Leaders 


1 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 

3 
4 

5 
1 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 

12 

13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 

37 
38 
39 
40 
4 
4 
43 

4 

4 
4 

4 

4 

4 

6 

5 
5 

5 
5 
1 

5 
5 
5 
1 

W 
6 




Calif. Cont. 
laft 


3,442 

7,271 
14,476 
14,822 

11,223 
5,938 
595 

33,237 

287,861 

7,980 
11,489 

4,423 

1,825 
10,247 
1,226 
36,008 
6,029 
3,566 
1,236 
50,096 
7,195 
1,785 

146,716 
28,451 
6,951 
17,218 
5,783 
33,112 
19,020 
164,072 
21,973 
24,554 
12,660 
68,128 
2,372 

162,655 

29,640 
36,019 
32,438 
2,767 
6,890 
10,113 
56,765 

19,212 

26,040 
14,278 
99,906 


Co-ordinating Council (Union High 
School, Junior College and City 
Schools) 


7 
1 


5 


1 
1 


38 






1,765 
1,259 
1,000 
1,000 

315 
312 


5,644 
1,920 
6,910 
3,500 

1,820 
180 




5,644 
2,341 
7,500 
3,500 

2,100 
205 


7,409 
3,600 
10,000 
4,500 

3,665 
517 
1,125 
19,773 
3,517 
17,218 

125,000 
900 

3,000 
2,544 
549 
400 
18,617 
1,535 
7,500 
8,557 
325 
50 
18,825 
2,356 
500 

34,899 
1,491 
6,000 
2,900 
5,746 
31,237 
8,590 
74,870 
19,905 
7,000 
3,520 
2,925 
2,100 
38,450 
11,671 


MAP 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 

M 
MAP 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

C 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
MAP 

M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
MAP 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 










421 
590 




Recreation Commission 


4 




2 


4 


7 


1,500 




Recreation Commission 


12 

5 
1 


5 

2 


Colorado 






46 


- 3 


1,250 


280 
25 




City Council 


3heyenne Wells . . . 
Colorado Springs. . 


City and Private Groups 


3 
1 


2 




?, 






Patty Stuart Jewett Memorial Field . . 


1 






480 


2,983 
711 
719 


1,620 
908 
9,393 


14,690 
1,898 


16,310 
2,806 
9,393 


Park Commission 


4 
23 

16 


11 
22 




? 




Board of Education 


8 






7,106 


Parks Department and Department of 
Public Grounds and Buildings 






Recreation Committee 


1 








53 


350 


300 


250 




250 


Fort Collins 


)epartment of Public Works and Amer- 
ican Legion 


?, 












City of Fort Morgan 


3 














477 
459 






Fort Morgan 

Men wood Springs. 
Jrand Junction. . . 
Holyoke 


School District and City . . 


1 
2 

2 


1 
1 
1 










90 




459 


School Board 












Recreation Commission 


1 


10 














Municipal Power and Light Department 






664 
1,000 
1,922 






871 
1,500 
4,771 


.as Animas County 
Longmont 


1 






? 




5,000 
1,864 






Park Commission 


?, 










1,980 
150 


2,791 


Montrose 


Park Cnmmissmn , .......,, 




1 








ifount Harris 
Pueblo 


Public School 








4 












Rfirreftt.inn Onmmiwiinn 


14 






3 


47 
27 


9,800 
900 


5,600 
296 
200 

3,875 
449 


2,850 
1,060 
300 

30,124 
1,042 


575 
100 


3,425 
1,160 
300 

31,024 
1,042 


Sterling 


Recreation Commission 


3 
1 


1 




Wray 


Board of Education 






Connecticut 
Bridgeport 


Board of Recreation 


105 
4 


29 
6 


4 








900 


Bristol 


Playground Cnmmisainn 








Darien.'. 


Park Cnmmispinn ....... , , , ^ . 












Fairfield 


Joard of Recreation 


15 
3 
78 
10 
30 
8 
9 
17 


8 

"i7 
9 
11 
4 
6 
1 




18 
5 
2 


48 
19 
36 




760 
1,903 
9,104 
1,160 


2,140 
818 
15,491 
2,090 




2,140 
2,440 
22,133 
2,090 




School Board, Selectmen and W. P. A.. . 
Recreation Board 


1,403 


1,622 
6,642 


Greenwich 


3 


Hamden 


Recreation Commission 


5,340 


Hartford 
Manchester 


Recreation Division, Park Board 


8 
2 








Recreation Committee 








9,758 
1,200 
340 
348 


5,486 
2,000 
2,900 
2,477 


4,661 
1,800 
280 
100 


10,i47 
3,800 
3,180 
2,577 


tfiddletown 
Milford 


3 ark Board 
Recreation Commission 






2,000 


New Britain 


ftfVTPntinn Cnmmiwiion 


11 
1 


10 




6 






New Canaan 


Park Commission and Lions Club 












[Park Commission 


70 

74 

| 


1 
54 

t 


6 


8 


111 




950 
276 






37,500 
11,395 


*tew London 
Norwalk 


\Board of Education 




8,640 


2,755 


Board of Education and City 










Recreation Commission 


11 
10 
1 


12 
14 




19 


J 

' 
16 




1,414 
1,600 
167 
75 
200 
3,717 
138 


3,076 
3,300 
2,320 
430 
600 
11,612 
2,335 




3,076 
3,800 
2,320 
455 
800 
12,536 
2,335 


4,490 
5,500 
2,487 
680 
1,000 
16,253 
2,473 
900 
6,260 
1,000 
40,570 
9,832 
350 
2000 


Norwich 


Recreation Commission 


100 


500 


Salisbury 


Recreation Committee 


1 


j 


Seymour 


Playground Association, Inc 




1 


150 


25 
200 
924 


Shelton 


Recreation Commission 


1 
33 
13 


j 

22 
13 




n 




Stamford 


Board of Public Recreation ... . 


( 











[Recreation Department 








Torrington 


\Sterling Park Trustees 


5 

Q 


4 

4 




189 








Recreation Commission . 




20 

4 


30 




1,125 


2,800 


2,335 


5,135 


Wallingford 


Playground Association 


| 








Water bury 


Board of Park Commissioners 


29 

i; 


38 
1 


jj 










12,512 
2,709 






m 


[Board of Education 






6,613 


510 
30 




2,709 


Westport 


6,073 
2,01 

106,59 
486,86 

5,26 
7,60 
16,59 
2,63 
10,4fi 
129,54 
110,63 
6,49 
12,11 

40,42 


ICivic Union 








Park and Athletic Commission 


J 






1' 


4 




400 
950 
9,125 
2,500 
144,977 






Wood bridge 


School Board and Amity House Asso- 
ciation 




. 










300 




950 


1,250 
32,211 
'2,500 
209,580 
149,615 

'4,853 
9,550 
51,814 
1,265 
6,500 
111,943 
63,537 
33,000 
6,300 

61,693 
35,997 


Delaware 
Wilmington 


[Board of Park Commissioners 


20 
8 

12C 
103 


20 
13 

151 
75 








2,998 




j Department of Adult Education, Boarc 
[ of Education 






2,500 
186,153 
125,296 


Dist. of Columbia 

Washington 


[Department of Playgrounds 


66 
18 








23,427 
24,319 


41,176 


| Community Center Department, Pub- 
[ lie Schools 


78 


118 




Florida 
Bartow 


City Manager 








Clearwater 


Recreation Board 


j 




1 






3,950 


760 


2,220 
5,200 


2,620 


4,840 


Day tona Beach . . 
De Funiak Springs 
Gainesville 
Jacksonville 
Miami 


Recreation Department 


g 


6 


2 


! 




Park Committee, City Council 














Department of Public Recreation 
Board of Public Recreation 
Division of Recreation 


11 
48 

20 

I 


l 

1 


27 

17 


10 
61 


2' 


400 
31,080 
4,250 
5,000 


600 
13,029 
14,610 
5,000 


5,200 
33,457 
19,927 
12,000 
1,580 

12,176 


300 
34,377 
24,750 
11,000 


5,500 
67,834 
44,677 
23,000 


Miami Beach 
St. Augustine 

St. Petersburg.... 


Recreation Department 1 






Recreation Department 






[Bureau of Recreation, Department o 
\ Public Welfare 












7,973 


33,999 


7,545 


19,721 


(Bureau of Pier and Spa 


2 

































140 



I 'CREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

f table. 



Playgrounds 
Under. 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing Beaches, Number 


1 

I 


Camps Other Organized, Number 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


1 

j 

1 

. 
1 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


6 

"o 
6 
S5 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


5 
2 
6 


w R 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


I 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanen 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 








9 


393,000 




























1 




1 


1 




3,204 
10,80 
7,70 


3,95 
10,80 
25,509 


Gordon N.Arlett..., 


1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 
7 
8 
a 
9 

a 
10 

11 
12 
a 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
a 
7 
8 
9 

1 
2 
3 
4 
a 
5 
6 
7 
8 

9 
50 

1 
a 

2 

8 

3 
4 

5 



8 
q 
.0 

i 

I 








1 


146,993 
111,000 


1 


1,000 


6 


8,600 
6,000 

9,646 


2 


8 
















1 




1,800 


Dale Riley 
Arthur J. Kirk pa trick. . 


1 
1 


4 


2 


1 


8 


8,755 
56,700 


2 


7,940 
2,880 
























' 






7,30 
3,95 
360 


7,34 
3,95 
360 


D W Pinneo 
























Amos Stamm 
A. R. Schwarz 


1 

; i 

2 

i i 
. 

; : 

6 . 
C8 

: 

5 . 
22 
i . 

7 
3 . 
5 . 

i ; 

2 
2 

i i 

: 

r . 
i 

. 
? 


45 






45 


540,369 






6 




4 


I 










, 




* 


1 
30 

6 


1 


6 


3 




107,69 


107,69 


Humphry Saunders. . . 
Willard N. Greim 




' 


6 


20,000 






1 


10,000 


















2,500 


2,500 










, 


























Burgis G. Coy. . . . 














i 


1,550 
































1,97 


1,99 


Dwight E. Neill 






































M R Moorhead 


1 


5 


5 


1 


60,175 


< 




1 






T 














t 


' 




24 


1 


15,000 




15,000 


Jack Hunn 
G. L. Bereman 
William F. Robinson. . . 
C A Flanders 


1 

1 

12 




I 




3,60( 

243,825 
'16,664 


i 


240,11; 


1 

17 


1,800 
96,000 
22,050 




i 










, 






1 




2 


1. 


49,000 
900 


33,700 
3,46 
82 


90 
90,850 
4,97 
82 


Robert A. Finlayson. . . 
S. M. Barbiero 
Fred W. Huling 
Harold R.Whyman.... 




1 


1 


'7.000 

'143,674 
'20,880 






9 


3,120 


1 


i 


i 


















1 


6,346 


6 


14 


2 


21 


4 














26 






Robert A. Leckie 




























A C Hitchcock 






















! 




























Walter A Bates 


1 
14 
9 
12 
4 
9 
5 
8 
1 






8 
1 
14 

q 


25,812 
30,870 
335,171 
5 43,711 






5 

8 
17 
1 


12,667 
8,448 
53,795 

























i 







2,07 
8,633 
2,56 


2,91 
10,73 
11,33 


Walter H. Hellmann. . . 






\ 


29,402 
27,836 




1 








, 








2 




r 


2 
















1 










14 




1? 








































Mrs. James Bulger 
James H. Dillon 






20 
4 
9 


'3,781,147 
53,000 




235,282 
70,123 


20 


1,577,786 


' t 


32 
4 


1 


2 






I5 ? 






M 




76 


43 




106,85 


110,85 








] 


1 


8 
4 




6 






Sertrude E. Fenerty. . . 






1 




] 


4 


1 














5 
8 
1 


'4,050 
35,000 






















2 




























































James J. Naughton, Jr. 














1 

4 


1 

22 
















4 


j 














5 
22 
4 


17 
42 
4 
14 
10 
3 


1,700,073 
"100,179 






2 

9 


1,600 
40,542 


3 


1 


1 




1 




f 


29 




26 
3! 


1 

11 






22,680 
47,149 


larold V. Doheny 
Henry J. Schnelle 


20 




1 


32,841 




36,106 


1 
1 


4 
1 
f 


3 














10 






Robert C Rice 


14 
10 
3 
2 

ii 

6 




'42,366 
105,000 


1 




ft 




















11 


8 






16,000 


oseph F. Andrews 
Matthew J. Sheridan 


























3 
















1 




































Wilbert R. Hemmerly . . . 
F. B. Towle 






2 
3 

17 
6 
1 
5 
1 
13 


39,000 
35,000 
206,940 
'34,096 
3,814 
56,000 
35,000 
154,163 






1 


12,000 


1 

1 
2 


1 
1 

5 
3 














1 






1 

5 


2 

S 




400 
2,500 


400 
2,500 


3 
4 






















s 






George W. Anger 


1 


12,552 


22 


19,700 
















s 


g 




Sdward J. Hunt 


2 


2 










1 


6 


1 












William H. Shea 


5 
1 
13 






1 


50,000 
20,000 


2 


32,500 


1 

2 
3 


3 
2 
5 


1 


1 
















1 
12 


10 


15,000 


5,000 


20,250 


lose K. Eagan 
















1 




William B. Hall 




4 


45,000 






1 








1 




2 


18 


2 


3 


11 
1 






2,500 
16,164 


William J. Derwin 


3 




15,444 


720 


toward C. Harrison 
ohn H. Cassidy 


1 
1 


?, 




1 
1 

3 


11,675 
12,123 












1 


















1 












1 


1 
















(i 














.Ian E. Breslin 


T 




































.eorge J. Rapnano 
Edward R. Mack 


22 






22 


'374,324 


1 


38,466 


9 
10 


93,257 
38,310 


1 


14 










"' 




5 


30 





10 


4 


18,800 


9,982 


31,183 
1,500 
350,237 
44,837 


Marguerite H. Burnett. . 
ibyl Baker 


32 
20 




12 


87 
20 


5,689,034 
437,997 


2 


37,000 


7 
6 


4 
5 












1 


S 


35 

1 


14 


65 
51 


35 
53 


215,073 




21 


1,261,855 




Mrs. E. K. Peeples 
. S. James 


















n 

'2 
l 


3 
8 
4 
2 
3 


1 

'i 






->. 

3 

5 
i 
1 

i 


2 
1 


6 




10 













1 

2 


1 
2 


1 

1 




3 




'1 




14 


10 






12,926 
350 
1,408 


.. B. Van Fleet 




4 




7 











350 


.O.Eberling 










1 








2 






[. 0. Warren 


1 

'2 
'4 
3 


23 




6 
13 
10 
3 
4 

28 


230,000 
577,410 
509,002 
273,000 
24,056 

167,252 


1 
2 

14 




6 

11 


11,000 
4,288 


1 

2 

a 


2 
8 
4 

1 

1 






1 










7 
7 
1 
3 
1 

3 


4 
4 

19 


568 


2,463 
5,971 


3,031 
5,971 


,. G. Manchester 


30,321 
427,293 














3 


20 




oseph E. Byrnes 
















.E.Seiler 







1 




1 


'i 


1 




'i 


13 
4 

16 


i 
i 








B. Lemon 


4 
14 


43,417 
496,521 


1 
5 






3 

2 




1,883 
3,494 


1,883 
3,974 


. Drazba 


530,881 




2 


1 














. V. Gahan 










1 










. L. Roberta 




















































14 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUN] 

Footnotes /, 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 




1 

s 
*s 

6 

55 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 


i 

% 

Tj 




1 

s 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


Florida Cont. 


10,700 
101,161 

270,366 


Recreation Department 


f, 




1 
10 


4 
75 


3 
5 


2,494 
1,765 

54,323 


890 
10,275 

6,057 
128 


2,535 
21,480 


756 
5,880 


3,291 
27,360 

57,111 
1,200 


6,675 
39,400 

117,491 
1,328 
8,628 


1 
M 

M, 
MA 
MA 
MA 
M 
M 
i 

: i 

M 

M 

W 
W 

5 

MA 

! 

M4 
M 

3 

1 

J 
M 
M 

i 

M 

MAI 
M 
MA 
M 




Board of Public Recreation 


12 
11 


14 


Georgia 

Atlanta 


Park Board 




14,022 
43,131 

6,681 
10,321 
64,045 
8,027 
85,024 

21,544 
3,826 
8,297 
1,592 
9,429 
4,476 
1,891 
16,471 
3,048 
2,724 

30,151 
46,589 
47,027 
30,930 
16,534 
13,532 

12,298 
11,718 
2,200 

12,583 
20,348 

3,376,438 

5,920 
3,982,123 
36,765 
57,510 
9,908 
4,502 
14,055 
63,338 

14,555 
22,045 
6,295 
25,130 
11,625 


City, County and W. P. A 




1 

7 


1 
3 






1,200 
3,344 






'Park and Recreation Department 
\ City and Lions Club 


6 


17 


27 






Columbus 
Dublin 










'ark Department 


1 












2 
4,900 
2,500 


216 
600 
7,700 




216 
5,700 
9,140 


218 
11,100 
11,640 


Griffin 




3 




8 1 






500 


5,100 
1,440 




Recreation Department 


1 
1 


12 


12 






Moultrie 


Y. M. C. A. and City 










Recreation Commission 


3 
1 

?: 


7 
1 


2 
<2 


80 


12 
4 




897 

400 
150 
160 
165 


5,898 

600 
530 
93 
1,530 
686 
553 
172 
468 
300 


780 


6,678 

600 
600 
93 
1,530 


7,575 

1,000 
893 
253 
1,980 
3,925 
6,905 
417 
760 
350 
2,857 

"19,310 
19,977 
13,392 
5,152 
2,517 

13,960 


Idaho 








City and School District No. 1 




13 


143 


70 


Doeur d'Alene 
jooding 
Idaho Falls 


Recreation Council 


1 










? 






2 




285 
1,500 
5,357 




Youth Welfare Council 


4 

1 
1 


2 
1 




2 


12 






School Board and W. P. A 


248 
245 
292 
50 
1,332 

9,466 
5,715 
5,723 
4,151 

1,758 


747 


1,300 
172 
468 
300 
1,525 

9,844 
8,200 
7,669 
90 
759 


Mullan 


Board of Trustees 








Pocatello 


Recreation Association 


1 
1 

6 
4 
3 
1 


1 
2 

8 
12 
3 






6 










2 
2 
3 


2 


7 
5 






Weiser 

niinois 
Alton 


Park Board 
Playground and Recreation Commission 




1,525 

5,302 
1,439 
3,401 


4,542 
6,761 
4,268 
90 
600 






36 


6,062 




Playground and Recreation Commission 
Recreation Board and W. P. A 






7 


911 


Blue Island . . . 


Playground and Recreation Commission 
Park Commission, Rotary Club, Goll 
Club and W. P. A 


1 

1 
1 








159 


Cairo 


1 




4 






Calumet City 


Memorial Park District Board 


1 
















Park District Board and School Board . . 


4 
8 


1 




2 


2 


938 


1,938 


2,182 


1,097 


3,279 


6,155 




Centralia 


/Recreation Commission 




8 


1 


20 


21 


522 


1,751 


2,542 




2,542 


4,815 
105,400 
2,018 

245,350 
20,000 

756,923 




Recreation Commission 


1 




" 4 j 




5 




1,118 

24,450 
11,312 

67,016 










Bureau of Parks, Recreation and Avia- 
tion . . ... 


37 


19 


56 






5,000 


142,740 


73,160 
8,688 

179,504 


215,900 
8,688 

495,107 


Recreation Commission 10 






Clinton 


Bureau of Recreation, Board of Educa- 


63 
540 

t 


62 
190 


125 
350 






194,800 


315,603 


Park District Board 






Park Board 






142 


72 






712 


926 


Cook County". . . . 
Danville 


Forest Preserve Commission 
















Recreation Commission 


12 
16 
1 
1 
1 

42 
3 
1 


U 
1 

25 
1 


i 


24 
2 


72 
128 




2,015 
5,013 
75 


5,521 

9,448 
775 




5,521 
10,444 
775 


7,536 
41,560 
850 
600 
6,774 

40,714 
4,250 
2,500 
16,801 
4,500 
3,000 
19,641 
3,506 
2,130 
740 
87,694 
390 
15,800 
141 
12,263 


Decatur 


Playground and Recreation Board 
Park Commission ... . 


26,103 


996 


Dixon 


East Alton 


City Council and W. P. A 


] 


14 

10 
1 

17 


15 

160 


400 




Elmhurst 


Park District Board 
Bureau of Recreation, Department ol 
Public Works 


3,774 

4,480 
1,677 


1,800 

23,609 
1,894 
400 


1,200 

12,625 
161 


3,000 

36,234 
2,055 


Forest Park 


Playground and Recreation Board 
Park Board 


518 


Freeport 
Glencoe ... 


Municipal Playground Commission 


1 












8,089 
2,000 




8,712 
2,500 
3,000 
12,423 
2,907 
2,130 
740 


Granite City 
Harrisburg 


Park District Board 














785 


1,715 


Public 'Schools and Park Board 


i 












Highland Park.... 
Hoopeston 


("Park Board 


6 


3 




10 
19 


20 
40 




7,218 
599 






5,613 
17,747 


\Community Service 




2,907 
750 
320 




City Council 


1 








1,380 
420 


Jacksonville 


Y. M. C. A. 


10 














Joliet 


42,993 
10,103 


School Board and Park Board 


1 




1 










La Grange 


Civic Club 


I 


1 




3 






65 
1,000 
21 
3,769 


325 
2,800 
120 
4,094 




325 
14,800 
120 
5,970 


Lake Forest 


6,554 


Park Board 










12,000 


Lincoln 


12,855 
25,829 
32,236 
5,118 
8,466 
63,982 
3,910 


Board of Education 


1 












Maywood 


Playground and Recreation Board 
Playground Department 


j 

3 
4 
1 


H 
2 


1 


7 


41 


2,524 


1,876 


Moline 


Naperville 


City Council and Y. M. C. A 




6 






200 
1,500 
8,412 
500 


700 
1,150 
8,028 
1,280 




700 
3,650 
20,420 
1,280 


900 
6,250 
28,832 
2,489 
700 

68,000 
4,300 
7,087 
2,095 
31,412 

3,000 
5,595 


North Chicago. . . . 
Oak Park 


FOBS Park District Board 


1 






1,100 


2,500 
12,392 


Playground Board 


7 
1 


8 


8 

1 




5 


Oglesby 


Park Board 


9 


16 


700 


Pekin 


16,129 
104,969 

9,121 
8,829 
6,770 

85,864 

37,953 
2,388 
5,377 


Park District Board 


1 






Peoria 


Pleasure Driveway and Park District 
Board 


19 
5 


1 


3 


10 
6 


4 
5 














Recreation Department 


2,000 


1,200 
653 
270 


600 
4,658 
1,590 
13,176 

1,500 
3,531 


500 
1,776 
235 


1,100 
6,434 
1,825 


River Forest 
Riverside 


Playground and Recreation Board 
Playground and Recreation Board 
(Park District Board 


2 
2 
10 


2 
1 

8 

1 
4 
1 


4 
1 


2 


5 




Rockford . ... 




{Booker Washington Community Cen- 
1 ter" 


1 
1 


8 






500 
1,412 


1,000 
449 


2,500 
3,980 


Rock Island 
Rnshville 


Playground and Recreation Commission 
Park Board 


21 

1 




203 






St. Charles 


Baker Memorial Community Center . 










4,229 


1,500 


3,543 


5,043 


9,272 



















142 



CREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

table. 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 

Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number | 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


M 

Q 
J 

M 

'3 
n 


1 
I 

E 

i 

6 


Camps Other Organized, Number 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-HoIe, Number 


J 
g 

o 

c 

1 

* 

CO 


1 

-o 
O 
"I 

5 

CO 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


Paid 

Leaders 


Expenditures 


I ear Kound 
Summer Only 


School Year Only 


i 

1 
s 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


1 

1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


I 

a 
s 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanenl 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


3 3 
4 

7 2 
6 ... 
9 2 


1 
5 


'i 


7 

29 

29 
6 
12 


63,851 
746,232 

831,687 
84,284 
646,900 


1 
1 


11,067 


4 

21 
9 


31,761 
9,500 

24,617 




1 




















4 
13 

32 

2 


10 
19 

36 
12 


8,341 


4,121 
8,429 

52,826 
8,171 
12,855 


12,462 
8,429 

55,000 
8,483 
19,401 


Ralph E Carter 




4 




i? 












17 
80 


1 
4 






4 


12 








4 


1 




6 






1 

1 


23,036 
79,850 










Dorothy A. Thiot 
JEdwina Wood 
M.A.Rogers 


7 


7,641 


1 


7 




i 






1 




1 


9 
1 




9 


15 


5,012 


1 
8... 
3 




4 


5 

18 


5 5,800 
404,688 


5 


64,910 


I 


13,839 




7 
I 




1 






1 




1 


K 

7 
4 


1 
h 
1 


17 
8 

10 
4 
10 

"20 
5 


34 
5 
< 

3 
3 
10 
3 
10 
1 




44,640 
12,240 


47,250 
12,240 

9,533 
1,124 
9,300 
1,900 
4,016 
3,780 


R. A. Drake 
Mrs. WilmaE. Beggs... 
J. H. Kenney 
H S Bounds 


6 2 

. 3 
. 3 
. 3 

. 7 

. 2 


1 

'2 




18 

n 


662,830 






2 

8 


10,000 
















































Gwendolen S. Stevens. . . 
aeorge E. Denman 
Donald J. Boughton 
M. W. Tate 


'i 


3 
3 
(i 
7 
2 


79,200 
84,300 






8 
2 


36,900 
12,120 


1 


1 


1 














3 
S 


1 




1,124 
9,300 
540 
4,016 
3,780 




















i 




1 
1 


1 
1 














1 


4 
8 


1 
3 
1 


1,000 


89,030 
7,300 






4 
3 


13,000 
3,200 












1 


Joe Call 


















1 




Claude Hart 






















1 






J. W. Hutchins 


. 4 
. 2 






4 
.2 


59,400 
16,278 


i 


2,400 


1 
1 


3,000 
1,409 






















2 
1 


14 
4 


14 
9 




2,964 
748 


3,422 
1,000 


Clarice 0. Smith 




1 














1 
1 


5 
4 

6 

14 
7 
7 

2 

16 
4 
5 
2 
6 




Vern Waldo . .. 
























Lyle Wood 


i 3 

. 11 
1 6 
. 9 
. 8 

10 

t ... 
1 
1 

: 4 


1 

12 

'e 
'2 


3 

2 

1 


10 
13 
7 
21 
8 

10 
3 

7 
1 
8 


496,933 
160,206 
180,588 
146,487 
74,984 

22,800 
72,500 
186,000 
15,387 
40,110 


4 
9 

I 
1 

l 

15 

2 


50,950 
65,305 
85,920 
1,980 
47,504 

15,500 
66,250 


4 
4 
1 
15 
t 

10 
1 


43,200 
26,084 
1,750 
284,127 


1 


3 
4 








1 




1 


1 
3 
4 

1 
1 

'2 
1 

1 
1 


15 
23 
14 
22 
12 

19 
4 


10 

5 
5 
17 
1 

13 




10,929 
21,300 


22,190 
34,615 


Russell J. Foval . . 




i 










5 




Russell Perry 




5 
















George Sluka 




1 
















940 


28,121 
13,444 

27,200 


39,474 
14,764 

30,560 


C. 0. Hamilton 


1 

6 
2 

1 


5 

11 
2 
3 
1 
















E. Klings 


9,000 
11,000 








1 






2 
2 
1 
1 




Quentin J. Powell 










1 






Edward Fedosky 






















L. H. Gillet 






















5 

7 


2 
3 








rfildred T. Murphy 


4 


42,972 


4 


9,879 


1 


3 


1 














3,486 


4,190 












1 




Guy F. Ware 


3 






13 
35 


451,987 
5,181,546 


4 

4 


107,923 


11 


135,527 


1 
11 


1 

16 
















7 




18 
21 


16 
14 




36,002 
27,300 


36,929 
27,300 


8 














46 


9 




Theodore A. Gross 




























Ddward L. B orchard 

lerman J. Fischer 
V. K. Brown 








63 
224 


"6,717,484 
55,561,599 


63 
88 
1 








3 
31 


13 
114 


















576 


5 

78 


334 


196 












224 


18,100,965 






15 


i 




4 


1 


6 


40 
1 
















Harry L. Bean 






















40 
.1 


2 




1 


1 


4 


i 


3 


3 
13 

22 


1 
4 
3 












ohnB. Morrill 


10 
19 


14 


'i 

i 


10 
34 
4 
1 


460,571 
619,114 
10,000 


5 

4 


208,911 
18,374 


16 
11 


9,577 
232,958 




17 
15 


10 
22 
1 






32,941 
96,695 


George A. Fairhead 
R. Wayne Gill 




8 
















4,876 


30,130 




g 


"1 














lelen M. Hiland 


2 


3,000 


5 


2,505 


1 


1 
1 
















2 
7 

IS 


1 
3 


3 


3 






6,240 


iaron Brown 
























1 






Oakley V. Morgan 


1 






11 
3 
7 


424,980 
86,311 
105,500 


5 


116,240 


22 

6 

1 


243,080 
14,231 
18,000 


1 


3 


9 












18 
9 
3 


25 
6 
1 




28,906 
11,416 
2,000 


39,854 
14,056 
2,000 


Charles T. Byrnes 














1 

14 


1 
1 




Sara Peyton 


2 


10,000 




g 














1 




J.C.Sleezer 














1 






.A.Williams 


7 




io 


8 
10 
5 


613,181 
56,000 
43,062 


3 
9 


10,620 
13,400 


1 

6 


1,200 
21,600 


1 

1 


2 

1 
1 












1 


1 

1 


2 
5 

5 


'i 

i 


10 
16 


8 
8 




11,021 


17,693 


. W. Senett 


"a 


2 


1 








xiuieE. Belli 
George Sohcuchenpflug. 
ack Goodwine 


4 







1 








5 


8,400 


























... 






























1 


5 














9 

2 
1 
5 
5 
4 
4 

2 






11 
4 
2 

1 
5 


177,176 
9,400 
30,000 
2,580 
75,000 


2 




7 


19,838 


1 
1 


8 
1 
2 


i 
i 








3 

1 




1 


34 
4 
4 


4 


27 
2 


11 
2 




17,810 
360 


22,418 
360 


(artin Jackson 
R.O.Sedgwick 
R. H. Peters 










13 


47,000 


1 

1 
1 


2 
4 
1 
3 

1 
1 














1 


4 
12 
5 

1 


1 
1 


8 


7 






8,085 


ohn S. Ludlam 
Altha Robison 






4 
11 
5 
3 


5,996 
44,832 
865,311 
"123,474 






1 




i 
i 










i 












E. Gordon Bowman 


6 




2 
5 
1 


61,250 
379,641 


2 

1 


2,760 


"5 














5 
9 


5 


11 
15 
4 


5 

3 
2 




9,270 
3,700 


11,190 
4,000 


Max Prxyborski 5 
osephine Blackstock . . . 
Harold Snedden 


2 










1 








2 
1 
2 


1 

6 
2 
4 




j 




1 


3 




1 

4 

1 


4 

17 
3 
6 

7 


1 

3 

1 












i.G. Keller 
B. B.Maticka 


1 

2 
1 
7 

1 

8 

1 






1 

3 
6 

7 

1 
10 
1 


45,968 
43,166 
203,070 

3,200 
102,209 


1 


2,625 


1 
4 


12,000 
19,400 
10380 












i 


6 
4 
IS 


1 
1 
1 


1,476 


5,388 


3,093 
6,864 


William C. Lad wig 
John Walsh 






1 

1 
1 








1 


16 


i 






1 


2 




2 


45 


11 


2 

18 


6 
11 


7,200 




7,200 
21,244 


Homer E. Folgate 
Lola Robinson 


1 


i 




15 




1 


a 
i 








1 






1 


24 
3 


1 






;. A. Dyson 












1 


80,861 









































143 









Paid 














Recreation 














Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


*- 
1 
i 








Workers) 






1 
d 


STATE AND 


Popula- 


Managing 




| 
















CITY 


tion* 


Authority 








% 








Salaries and Wages 




i 













~$ 


I 




Land, 


Upkeep, 






i 








d 


a 


o-l 


$ 




Buildings, 


Rent, 



















jiS 


| 


-2 5 
& 


t9 




Permanent 


Supplies 




Main- 




Total 












^ 


OH 


>* 




Improve- 


and 


For 


tenance 






1 








"o 


"o 


. - 


'> 




ments 


Incidentals 


Leadership 


and Other 


Total 




i 











d 

55 


-" 
55 >< 


' 

<! 


1 








Services 






1 



ll 


Illinois Cont. 


71,86 
10,01 


[Playground and Recreation Commis- 
< sion 


3 


4 










12,73 


21,43 




21,43 


34,170 


Sterling 24 


[Park District Board 










Park Board 














1.70C 
4.00C 
5,76 


1,23 
1,900 
600 


1,584 
1,000 
4,87 


2,81 
2,90C 
5,47 


4,514 
8,400 
13,240 
4,606 
617 
480 
16,000 
7,420 
465 
8,236 
2 7,765 
23,144 
51,177 
5,203 

56,311 

550 
800 

173,424 
9,143 
2,782 
32,246 
38,666 
67,597 
1,435 
14,565 
2,100 
1,370 
8,784 
2 4,600 
4,345 
17,480 
2,378 
2,600 
1,500 
3,878 
1,500 
32,461 

7 

25,500 
5,031 
43,000 


Sycamore 


4,02 

13,06 
4,34 


/Recreation Commission 


26 


i 


3 


1.50C 
2,OOC 


Urbana 


Park District Board 








Vandalia 


Park Board 






















Villa Grove 


2,00 
33,499 

3,894 
15,233 
117,373 

12,166 
8,136 

39,804 

8,744 

4,046 
54,784 

68,875 
10,685 
102,249 
64,560 
364,161 
11,946 
32,843 

15,755 

28,630 
46,548 
25,819 
132,752 
1,538 
5,290 

32,493 

104,193 
417 
62,810 

8,840 
10,880 
4,487 


School Board 














180 


300 




30C 




(Park District Board 












Western Springs. . 
Wilmette 


IPlayground and Recreation Commission 
Park District 










1 




4,200 
16 
1,83 


1,32 
300 
6,40 


1,900 


3,220 
300 
6,403 




Playground and Recreation Board. . . . 
















Winnebago Co. 27 . 


Forest Preserve District 
















fPark District Board 






















12 
13 

14 

15 

16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 

24 

25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

32 
33 
34 

35 
36 
37 

38 
39 

40 

41 

42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 

48 
49 

50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 

56 
57 

58 


Wood River 

Indiana 

Anderson 


ICommunity House 




8 


1 


1,40 


33,72 
2,54 

3,932 

250 
100 


11,55 


4,49 
2,65 

12,37 


16,04 
2,65 

14,94 

300 
550 


Recreation Board 


Community Recreation Committee 
Park Board and Negro Welfare Asso- 
ciation 


1 


| 




4 


23 
3 


37,430 


2,570 

300 
300 

11,780 


Brazil . . . 


Recreation Board, Y. M. C. A. an< 
W. P. A 


Crown Point 
Bast Chicago 

Elkhart County 28 . 
Elwood 


City of Crown Point 


j 










150 

108,000 


250 


Department of Recreation, Park Com- 
mission 


21 
6 

5 


6 


3 






Recreation Committee and Y. M. C. A. 
City and W. P. A 


1,343 
2,118 
6,293 




7,800 
544 
21,87 






1 


65 


120 
4,08 






Evansville 


Recreation Department, Park Board . . 
Park flnmmissinn 


35 


2 


5 


12,767 


9,104 


Hammond 


14 


in 


Indianapolis 
Jeffersonville 
Kokomo 


Department of Recreation, Park Board 
Recreation Board 


90 


7( 


3 






4,500 
200 
2,565 


28,900 
500 
1,000 
200 


8,204 
735 


25,993 


34,19 
735 
11,000 
1,900 


2 


8 


Howard County Recreation Council. . . 
/Board of Education 


| 


: 


it 




T T> _A 






1,900 




Mishawaka 


[Civic Auditorium Advisory Board . . . 
















3oard of Public Works 


7 


6 












1,400 
3,800 






Muncie 


School Board, City and W. P. A 
Valley View Golf Club, Inc 


8 


8 




3 






800 




3,800 


New Albany 
North Township 29 . 
Pendleton 












S'orth Township Trustees 


2 




















Town Board 














478 
650 




1,900 
1,700 


1,900 
1,950 


Plymouth 


Park Department 


i 












250 


Richmond 


(City of Richmond 














Townsend Community Center** 




5 


2 


10 


14 


300 


698 
225 


2,520 
1,275 


360 


2,880 
1,275 


South Bend 


School Board 


i 


Department of Public Recreation 
Louisville Cement Company 


35 


J 


1 


1 








Speed 


2 














Terre Haute 


Board of Park Commissioners and Rec- 
reation Council 








30 


6 




500 
3,916 
17,840 








Wabash 


Community Service 


1 








1,080 
7,660 


35 
17,500 


1,115 
25,160 


Whiting 


Community Service 


4 


1 











Winchester 


Park Board 












Iowa 

Ames 


10,261 
56,097 

60,751 

142,559 

41,679 
4,949 


Recreation Commission 














387 
2,358 

635 
3,860 
4,992 


614 

6,549 

5,980 
7,141 




614 

7,749 

10,730 
7,725 
9,027 
22,000 
29,918 
8,541 


1,001 
11,583 

14,415 
12,842 
25,204 
22,000 
52,261 
11,298 
200 
3,230 
3,514 


3edar Rapids 


Playground Commission 


20 

4 
21 


18 

1 
18 


"i 


92 
"9 




1,476 

3,050 
1,257 
11,185 


1,200 

4,750 
584 
9,027 
2,500 
29,918 
2,824 


Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty 


/Recreation Commission 




Board of Park Commissioners 


'Playground and Recreation Commission 
IPark Board 


32 


29 


4 






19,500 


Dubuque 






6,614 


15,729 
2,757 


^ayground and Recreation Commission 
3rinnell College 


19 
1 


17 


1 




9 


5,717 


irinncll 








.owa City 
Marshal Itown 

Pocahontas 


15,340 
17,373 

1,308 
79,183 

2,032 
46,191 

10,277 
5,792 
121,857 
20,155 
64,120 
111,110 

9,071 
10,008 
11,668 


lecreation Board 
'layground Board and City 


4 
1 


3 


1 


19 
41 


12 
59 




1,055 


2,175 




2,175 


City of Pocahontas 


5 
















Sioux City 


Department of Public Recreation, 
Board of Education 


26 


55 


9 


55 


35 




3,326 


13,308 


1,738 


15,046 


18,372 


VillLsca 


Parks Department 




'ark Board 






















1,512 
7,106 
780 

3,000 
3,356 
49,312 
16,190 
4,408 
44,960 

4,650 
2,410 

5,625 


Waterloo 


Playground Commission 


9 
1 


9 


1 


1 


12 




2,473 


3,553 


1,080 


4,633 
780 

2,000 
730 
9,240 


Kansas 

yhanute 
Concordia 


Park Board 




Engineering Department 
Park Committee 












1,000 
1,926 
27,113 






2,000 
730 
1,498 


700 
12,959 




fansas City 

Salina 


lecreation Department and W. P. A. . . 
Park Department 


10 


6 


6 


14 


16 


7,742 


Wichita 


loard of Education 
ioard of Park Commissioners 

Board of Education 


20 
26 

1 
3 
I 


19 
22 

1 
4 


1 




10 
4 


18,000 
4,000 


233 


3,748 


427 


4,175 


Kentucky 

Dayton 


250 
330 
1,025 


400 
1,601 
1,800 




400 
2,080 
2,600 


fort Thomas 
Henderson 


'layground Committee 


479 
800 


lecreation Council . 


1 


8 




2,000 











144 



CREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

table. 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


1 


1 

ea 
3 

1 
1 

pa 


Bathing Beaches, Number 


1 
| 



s 

O 
E 

1 


Camps Other Organized, Number 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


Swimming Pools, Indoor, Number 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


No. of City || 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


3 

1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


21 


1 


8 


82 


=233,363 


j 


42,264 


15 


36,400 




















4( 


, 


11 










Ijohn E. MaoWherter.. 
Edward C. Goshert. . . . 
}weldon B. Wade 
W. C. Noel . . . 


1 

a 
2 
3 
ft 
4 
5 
6 
7 
ft 
8 

10 

n 



12 

13 

14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
I'J 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
:l 
25 

26 

27 
28 
29 
JO 
il 
\\ 

b 

i2 
38 

4 
B 
1 

37 

s 
'.i 

ft 
10 

ft 
i 
a 

2 
1 

4 

r, 
M 

7 
:l 

H 
(1 
ft 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

B 

7 
8 






j 






9 






] 


' 


























1 
















a 


i 












"i 


1 


'i 


] 

i 


2,000 
55,000 


1 

1 


57,470 
3,150 





3,740 
























6 






1,200 
616 


1,800 
616 




1 










1 




| 


2 


1 


8 


-* 


























i 






1 


9,600 
15,500 




























>. 






! 








Mildred T. Murphy . . . 
Sherwood E. Wise 
Charles L. Whyte 






1 




1 




1 


3 




1 












2 




3 


2 


100 


500 


800 




































A 




i 


3 




14 

1 


252,406 


2 


39,983 


7 


78,934 


1 


1 


| 














If 


2 


21 


I 




15,276 
1,742 
12,084 


18,816 
2,024 
18,284 


























J. H. Lokke 


4 


1 




124,979 


1 


28,768 


o 


41,465 


1 


fl 
















4 


; 


\ 


5 




Daniel M. Davis 


















H. 0. Lundgren 
George B. Caskey 

Mary Williams 







































A 
























1 
1 


18,700 














1 
























, j 
i 

i 

i 

3 

1 

7 

13 


1 
12 




6 






























- 










Merle W. Manley 

Edw. J Ronsheim 
E. A. Brunoehler 


4 


29 

] 

29 
18 

1J 

14 
3( 


557,753 

303,800 
10,000 

215,739 
130,416 
306,832 
250,951 
200,000 
1,028,021 
160,000 


4 


81,227 
4,600 


11 
1 


65,533 
56,000 


1 


8 










1 






r 


8 


19 
'4 


1 


23,409 


16,349 
12,000 


46,129 
12,000 


8 

1( 


4 


























E. L. Ferris 


3 


7,419 


2( 
4 
9 
25 


309,767 
92,638 
7,714 
19,440 
4,000 


1 

i 


1 

1 

23 


2 












j 


26 

i: 


( 


59 
30 
14 


28 


76,030 


50,337 


126,337 
50,000 
9,466 
126,775 
550,000 


John DeJong 


Vic Palmer ... ... 


- 
I 


39,789 
415,000 
22,000 
482,276 










9,300 
26,000 


Eric E. Cox 


] 




i 


] 


i 




4 

i 


2. r 
11 

8: 


21 


18 
25 


10 




James R. Newoom 
A. B. Scott 


550,000 




H. Walden Middlesworth 
S. Harlan Vogt 



















1,400 
19,200 


4,500 
21,475 






i 




3 


15,923 


2 


13,133 




. 










1 




1 


8 
1? 




20 


4 


454 


C. G. Abrams 






* 


5 40 861 


1 


9 














Mrs. Mabel F. Lutman. 
G.E.Walker 


"a 


i 

4 


1 
8 
93 


518,750 
68,279 
305,546 


1 


125,000 






































4 

4 


6,000 
15,843 


1 

4 


i 

4 








1 








9 


3 


10 


4 




3,300 


3,700 


Frank M. Steele 












1 






' 








3 








W. J. Winter 




















n 













\ 






4 


] 
1 












Carl J. Etter 






















1 




1 










1 












J. H. Walker 


i 






1 


15,000 


1 


2,200 


1 


2,100 


1 


1 
1 
















i 




o 


o 




600 


1,600 


A. F. Becknell 












\i\ 








., 










S. W. Hodgin 












1 


26,000 






































Mrs. Julia Wrenn Partner 
L. H. Lyboult 


8 

24 






8 

24 
1 


60,497 
452,815 






1 


i 
















3 

32 
1 

20 

n 


i 
(i 


6 
21 


6 
9 




1,350 

74,053 


1,350 
83,156 






2 

1 


255,268 


18 


29,080 


S 


11 


1 


2 




1 
1 


1 


1 


i 

2 




Floyd V. Merriman 
Jesse G. Dorsey 














ft 




8 


912,000 


29 
3 


35,680 
7,540 


6 


6 
1 


1 






1 


2 




3 


39 
10 
10 


19 

1 
7 


1,500 


31,200 


37,279 
6,840 


Frank P. Elder... 


4 

(i 






4 

a 


4,960 
75,000 




i 


W. C. Mills 






1 


313,859 




f 












1 




10 






9,939 


10,014 


Tohn Sharp 












1 








1 






1 
1 


5 

6 
12 






Shirley J. Blake 


fi 
13 






e 

13 


5 38,800 
188,730 






2 
4 


2,800 
44,560 


1 


1 
? 




I 










1 
4 


2 
19 


3 

7 




400 
10,757 


400 
12,656 


Ray Donels 
























"levin Nichols 














1 






1 








Ed. Stefan 


S 




3 


is 


165,430 






6 


26,600 


















1 


e 

9 
22 

47 
11 
ft 


2 
4 
14 


7 


11 






12,240 


lobert L. Homey 








1 










> 








3. 0. E. Boehm 






27 


27 


5 245,321 


i 


6,259 


8 


9,204 


1 


16 


1 








"? 


3 


1 
3 
1 


15 

'is 


7 
"9 






23,514 
46,268 
14,316 


Cathryn E. Krieg 


46,268 


14,3i6 


lelen Richter 
3arl L. Grabow 
bhn C. Truesdale._ 
kt. Eugene Trowbridge. . 
Roy W. Harnack and 
C. E. Daubert 


13 






14 


101,280 


4 


110,958 


1 


2,460 




3 












"i 






1 


2 














2 

5 


i 


1 


4 



15,971 
54,116 


1 


19,496 


1 


1,080 




















10 

8 


11 

4 




3,060 
4,200 


3,060 
4,200 


















1 

1 




1 














1 
















A. P. McCarlan 


21 


12 




33 


426,357 






28 


45,453 


1 


2 
1 
















9 




10 


1 




7,200 


7,200 


''erdinand A. Bahr 
E. 0. Johnson 
R. F. Runyan 












1 






3 


3.5 


2 




9 






e 


111,884 






8 


6,260 




3 

1 
1 
7 
2 


1 
1 






1 


1 




1 

"1 
1 
6 
1 

4 
5 


15 


3 

52 
12 
41 
14 

2 


2 

2 
2 
3 
1 
2 
3 


15 


6 




7,200 


7,200 


3. D. Wardell 
C. C. Chesterman 




















1 
2 
2 
1 












Ross Cooper 


2 




10 


16 


803,388 


7 


482,760 


17 


146,335 












i 


87 


30 


125,000 


170,956 


297,728 


Frank R. Ventura 














rvin R. Ricklefs 


II, 
11 

1 

3 

8 






16 
11 

2 


201,084 
447,000 


4 


68,000 


fi 
2 


21,000 




2 

10 


1 


1 




M! 


1 




4 

30 


3 
30 




525 


775 


^an Henderson 
W. A. Bass 












3 
8 


27,155 
120,000 


2 


50,050 






1 



3 








1 






1 


3 
3 




8 

8 


3 

5 








. P. Edwards 















145 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNI 

Footnotes fo 



No. of City || 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 




1 

*o 
6 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 


E 

, 

!S 
< 


o 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 

12 

13 

14 
15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 

22 

23 
24 

25 
26 

27 

28 

20 
30 
31 

32 

33 

34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
II 

4 

41 

4: 

44 
4.- 
4( 
4~ 

4X 


Kentucky Cont. 


45,736 

307,745 

33,541 
6,204 
4,764 
2,084 

26,028 
458,762 

70,810 
6,965 


/Recreation Department 


23 
2 
5 

31 


10 
9 
1 

25 


1 
2 
4 

30 




18 






8,992 
5,130 






27,845 
10,091 
!I 69,281 

52,496 


M 

M 
\ 

M 

M 
P 
M,V 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

Mi 
M\ 
1 

1 

\ 

i 
1 
1 

1 

1 
P 

M 
M 


.icxington 
Louisville 


\ Recreation Department 2 * 


3 


50 


1,261 


1,000 


2,700 


7,830 


Board of Park Commissioners 
Division of Recreation, Department of 
Public Welfare 








10,598 


35.821 


6,077 


41,898 


Paducah 


City of Paducah 










Recreation Council 


1 








16 


300 
1,500 


200 


240 
225 
475 


150 
100 


390 
325 


890 
1,825 
792 

3,995 
3,000 
20,475 
35,663 

26,517 

11,978 

17,042 

7 

5,000 

154,724 
230,763 

10,000 

31,500 
1,015 
J 6,445 
1,800 
1,777 

6,900 
4,217 
2,100 
27,163 

69,830 
1,060,691 
25,010 
"42,274 

77,399 
20,532 
15,000 

43,632 






1 






2 




Community Playground Committee . . . 
/Department of Streets and Parks. . . . 


2 


1 










Louisiana 
















Monroe 




3 


6 


1 


30 


7 




732 


2,268 




2,268 


[Audubon Park Commission 






City Park Improvement Association . . 
Playground Community Service Com- 


2 
9 

5 


21 

19 


2 
6 

1 










2,400 
21,459 

5,307 






Maine 

Portland 














/Recreation Commission 








3,451 


3,220 


8,527 




























13,392 

804,874 

37,747 

14,434 
3,000 
10,997 




4 

121 

9 


2 
158 












2,000 
83,994 






Maryland 


f Playground Athletic League 


20 




13 




42,846 


27,884 


111,878 


Board of Park Commissioners 






Division of Recreation for Colored 
People" 


1 

2 
4 

1 


4 

7 
8 
1 


5 




17 




1,478 


6,900 


1,622 


8,522 


Department of Streets and Public Prop- 
erty 






30,000 


Frederick 




100 


915 
945 




915 
945 


Greenbelt 88 




2 






5,500 
















fakoma Park 

Massachusetts 
Andover 


6,415 

9,969 
36,094 
7,271 
21,748 

781,188 

63,797 
47,490 

113,643 
7,477 
4,220 

15,136 

11,323 
10,951 
40,692 

22,210 

19,399 

5,934 
6,657 
56,537 
9,467 
100,234 
102,320 
23,170 

16,434 
112,597 

65,276 

24,381 
15,049 
21,345 
49,677 
71,983 


Parks and Playgrounds Department . . . 

Recreation Board and Andover Guild. . 
School Board 


4 

8 
6 

21 

69 
15 


3 

9 

7 








600 


77 

2,277 
758 


1,100 

4,623 
1,442 




1,100 

4,623 
3,459 
2,100 
13,054 

61,700 
46,522 
16,982 


1 


9 


46 


2,6i7 


Arlington 




Barnstable 


Recreation Council 










Belmont 


Playground and Recreation Commission 
Department of Extended Use, School 
Committee 


19 
98 








7,150 


6,959 

8,130 
916,969 
8,028 


8,456 

30,639 
46,522 
11,900 


4,598 
31,061 


Boston 








Park Commission 


IS 






97,200 


Community Service, Incorporated .... 
Metropolitan District Commission 84 . . 


2 


2 


4 


1 


14 


5,082 






Department of Physical Education, 
School Committee 
/Playground Commission 


20 
11 


480 
13 










8,959 
10,927 


52,610 


15,830 


68,440 
9,605 










Brookline 


[Park Commission 














Gymnasium and Bath Commission 


6 


8 


4 








9,317 


16,797 


17,518 


34,315 


[Park Board 








Board of Park Commissioners 
Playground Committee 


31 
3 
5 
3 
1 
6 

* 

8 
1 


23 
5 
2 
4 
9 
5 
3 

I 


9 




9 


15,000 


5,100 
418 
7,184 
1,940 
337 
800 


31,590 
1,310 
7,279 
2,250 
502 
650 


24,231 


55,821 
1,310 
9,999 
3,320 
502 
1,215 


75,921 
1,728 
17,183 
5,635 
941 
2,015 


Concord 


Dalton 


Community Recreation Association. . . . 
/Community Association 


3 
1 


21 
12 


40 
12 




2,720 
1,070 




375 
102 


Easthampton 
Fairhaven 


\Playground Council 


Recreation Commission 








565 












Fitchburg 


Board of Park Commissioners 
/Parlf Commission 


1 


1 


8 




701 


3,310 
1,200 
2,050 


4,456 


7,766 


8,467 
6,500 
10,674 
11,000 
4,433 
367 
2,300 
21,648 
8,135 
44,102 
32,180 
35,186 
1,228 


Framingham 




\ Civic League 




1? 






6,489 
4,750 
1,463 
34 
200 
3,581 
1,233 
493 
4,353 


2,135 


4,185 
5,500 
2,970 
210 
1,600 
18,067 
5,849 
9,529 
13,704 


/Greenwood Memorial Trustees 
\Municipal Golf Commission 


1 


1 






2 


750 


Great Barrington. . 
Hingham 








2,970 
30 
1,200 
9,024 
4,160 


Playground Commission 


j 


1 

4 




ie 


" 


123 
500 


180 
400 
9,043 
1,689 


Playground Commission 


Holyoke 


Parks and Recreation Commission 
Park and Playground Department 
Board of Park Commissioners 


20 
( 


37 


1 


Lexington 






1,053 
34,080 
14,123 


Lowell 


Lynn 




21 
j 


20 

' 4 








3,500 
3,200 
1,030 


10,204 


Melrose 


Park Board 










[Park Commission 
















New Bedford 
Newton 


Cunningham Foundation 


1 
1 


1 


* 








' t 






Park Commission and City Counci 
Committee 








3,229 
100 

14,824 
847 
3,500 
2,394 
275 


1,634 
400 
37,774 


7,884 


9,518 
400 

69,474 
2,740 
5,300 
7,418 
500 


12,747 
500 

87,240 
3,587 
10,300 
15,127 
775 
2,532 
23,587 


Recreation Committee and Standard- 
Times Mercury 


1 

56 
1 
8 
1J 


1 

4; 

t 










fPlayground Commission 


J 


"23 


3f 


2,942 


31,700 


Northampton. . . . 
Norwood 


Lock Memorial Park Board 


1,500 
5,315 


3,000 
2,884 


2,300 
4,534 
500 


Board of Selectmen . . . 








Peabody 


Park Commission 












Pittsfield 
Quincy 


Park Commission and W. P. A. 


















1 


24 












3,587 

























146 



:REATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

able. 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


| Athletic Fields, Number 


| Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing Beaches, Number 


1 

55 

5? 

\ 

1 

o 


Camps Other Organized, Number | 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


M 
a 

55 

-o 
c 

M 
1 

on 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number | 


Tennis Courts, Number j 


Wading Pools, Number j 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


6 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


Summer Only 
School Year Only 


| Other Seasons 


1 
f- 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


| Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


6 ... 
5 ... 




6 
C 


316,119 
375,120 


2 
2 


88,594 
40,512 


1 


4,316 




1 
















9 
6 

91 


1 
1 
9 


5 


6 
3 






800 
4,560 




l 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 

a 

8 

B 

b 

9 

a 
10 
11 

12 

a 
b 

13 
14 
15 
lf> 
17 

18 
1!) 
20 
21 

22 
a 
b 

C 

d 

23 
a 

24 

25 
M 
27 

28 
1 
29 
30 
51 
32 
B 
5.3 
I 
54 
55 
iti 
57 
88 
10 

40 
41 

B 

42 

43 
B 
44 
45 

47 
48 












1 










4,560 


Mrs H H Rowe 








27 








2 


2 




2 




Smith B. Hanna 

Harold L. Brigham . . 
L V Bean 


17 ... 


2 


22 

8 


1,305,560 


ft 


88,735 


16 


116,451 












17 
S 


12 




15,511 


15,511 




1 














1 


8 


i 




1 ... 




1 

2 
1 


8,000 
16,000 
43,533 


1 


3,000 








1 














1 




2,035 
300 


3,035 
2,400 




'l '.'.'. 


2 


6 


5,000 


1 
1 


2 
















2 

4 


] 
1 


3 


2 


2,000 












































1 




















5 . 




A 


30,440 


1 


29,462 








' ft 














1 
1 


6 
23 


J 


1 


1 




1,478 


1,478 






















14 














1 

6 


33 


1 

8 


15 


5 




13,920 


42,191 
'13,920 


Mrs. L. W. Griffis 
L. di Benedetto, Sr 

Granville R Lee 




21 
12 


1,225,697 
5 240,000 


1 


72,390 






















12 .. 










"t 


1 














10 






















1 








































I 
1 














1 


4 














Mark Trafton 


2 .. 




2 

100 


25,000 
1,631,994 


,1 


5,000 

198,986 




















Harry Stott 


26 .. 


45 


134 


1,040,565 


' 8 


28 


"2 




1 


4 


"3 


1 


6 
6 




2 


44 


48 




53,260 


57,956 


H. S. Callowhill. . . 
J. V. Kelley 


17 ... 

5 ... 




17 
ft 


142,372 






11 


156,613 


27 


34 




59,900 


60,800 


Mrs .Virginia B. Hall. . . 
Edgar Reynolds 























1 


4 










6 ... 




6 
8 


147,924 










i 


9 
























Mrs. Helnia Hann Bowers 
Vincent C. Holochwost 










1 


9,680 




















































1 










I 


a 








16,218 


64 


16,218 
64 


Clarke Gardner ........ 


4 ... 




4 

3 
8 

4 
10 


16,160 

27,395 
5 35,944 
5 16,059 
218,436 










i 
i 


1 






















1 


C. J. Bride 


3 . 




1 


17,253 
























1 




Margaret Davis .... 


8 ... 








i 


1 
















ft 












Joseph S. Keating 


4 ... 




1 


3,978 


\ 


27,643 




















4 


a 




5,950 


5,950 
12,000 


John Bradley 




10 




J 














1 


19 








12,000 


Lewis S. Harris 






14 


460,000 




















James T. Mulroy 


* ... 




68 




11 








4 


15' 5 


10 








* 


J 




r'i 




122 
126 


55 
41 


3,500,000 


431,197 
158,374 


3,931,197 
259,872 


A. R. Wellington 
W. Duncan Russell 
W. E. Whittaker 














03 


373 476 








































n 


1*1 


10 








t 

A 




1 


2( 




120 ... 
11 ... 


40 


KiO 

u 


53,280,000 
5 53,951 
































Nathaniel J. Young 
Abbie 0. Delano 


























4 








































1 


















3,344 


D. W. Field 


12 ... 




12 


5 107,988 


1 


66,633 






1 


10 






















2 








Charles P. Cameron .... 


















1 






is 














Charles P. Cameron and 
Edward P. Sheehan... 
Stephen H. Mahoney . . . 
Anne Root 


... 

2 ... 
3 

i '.'. 
5 ... 


9 


24 
2 
8 
1 
ft 


510,000 
514,400 
16,000 
9,450 


8 








C 


J 


3 






i 








10 
E 


( 


35 


18 


65,000 


29,185 


94,755 




















] 


75,774 








i 












j 






1 


6 


1 








William L. Stearns 
David R. Kibby 




3 600 





























































453 


453 


Mabel D. Clarke 
Howard Stone 
Mrs. H. B. Dutton 


5 4 
4 . 




12 
4 
10 

t 


13,000 
19,125 
410,600 
17,100 










1 


2 














2 


10 
3 
ft 


t 


12 
1 
19 
14 


1 

3 
2 
6 


















9 ... 

5 


1 


4 

i 


32,000 
55,915 


1 


15,200 
3,205 




a 















.> 




18,691 
19,776 


20,473 
21,676 


John C. O'Malley 


1 


( 


L 














A 






Raymond J. Callahan . . . 
F. D. MacCormick 
Richard N. Greenwood.. 
Fred G. Kegler 




















































1 


1 










































i 






















.j 














o 














Ruth F. Gorham 







8 

13 


7,000 
5 1 17,085 
20,000 










1 
1 
1 
3 
4 


1 
1 

It 

18 
















ft 














Karl C. Hough 


13 . . . 
3 . 




















1 


3 
1 


7 

12 
33 
1(1 
12 


2 
3 

"i 
1 










944 


Mrs. Mina F. Robb 
John J. Garrity 










"i 


























6 
31 


"15 


196,556 
93,900 




196,556 
112,529 


John W. Kernan 


t 


15 


U 

t 

. 1 


5 186,532 
550,712 
5 18,000 
100,000 


i 


36 88,534 


8 






1 


i 


1 




7 


18,629 


John Morrissey 




George W. Rogers, Sr.. . 


i . . 










1 


















fl 














John L.Kelly 


6,000 








a 














1 


ft 














iV. L. Caldwell 












f 
























William P. Hammersley. 
Mia Neves and Walter 


11 .. 




11 
2fi 


182,144 
1,600,000 






























i 


16 
15 


20 
5 




6,153 


6,153 
26,148 


5 ... 


12 


i 


37,000 


I 


39,000 
10 372 


2 


14 


i 


"i 












43 




Ernst Hermann 








Helen I. Sandstrom 


1 . 

9 .. 

f 
5 ... 
19 . 




1 
9 
6 

5 

19 


70,000 
56,000 

172,oio 
203,184 












j 




1 










1 
1 


6 
10 
1 


i 


2 
15 
8 
14 
31 


2 
5 

7 
6 
7 


30,000 


700 
3,636 
19,760 
15,966 
49,494 


30,700 
3,636 
22,260 
15,966 
"49,494 


VI. F. Narum 


i 


6,000 
35,123 


'is 


12,680 
78,000 


8 

] 


j 

i 


] 
8 














W. Graf ton Broughton. . 
Joseph F. Kelly 
William J. Spargo 














8 

23 


- 





















147 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNI 



No. of City || 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Vo un- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


( 

3 
W 

B 
< 

j 


a 

3 

*o 
d 
&5 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 


1 



]> 

-< 


B 

ja 
O 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 

Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


1 
( 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 
19 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 
29 
30 
31 

32 

33 
34 

35 

36 

37 
38 
39 
40 
41 

42 

43 
44 

45 
40 
47 

48 
49 
50 
51 

52 

53 
54 
55 
56 

57 
58 
59 
00 

61 

02 
03 
04 
05 
00 
07 


Mass. Cont. 
Salem 


43,353 


Park Board 


18 


10 


















12,603 
17,02 
900 
73,17 
500 
7,06 

2 409 
12,10 
5,00 
4,63 
22 
1,73 
600 
15,54 
2 1 1,394 
96 

42,830 

6,500 
1,509 

47,626 
22,149 
5,200 
1,750 
8,500 
600 

49,730 
542,235 
259,105 
5,785 
1,000 
1,005 
15,304 


N 

I 

t 

M 
M 

M 

SI 

M 

MA 
M 

MA 
P 
M 

M 
M 

"c 

MAP 
M 
M 

SI 

MAP 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 

SI 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 

P 
P 
M 

P 

M 
M 

" 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
C 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
MAP 
M 
M 




103,908 
6,272 
149,900 
1,762 
37,355 

7,273 
11,439 
19,775 
10,005 

16,684 

2,097 
6,090 
12,719 
19,434 
195,311 

13,064 
8,324 
26,944 

43,573 
47,355 
9,539 
1,888 
5,307 

50,358 
,568,662 

29,941 
5,550 
12,716 
14,524 
20,855 

156,492 

8,345 
168,592 

23,933 
56,268 

1,892 
5,227 


Recreation Commission 


17 

si 


i; 

3 : 


i 


? 






1,822 
200 


8,59 
300 
15,768 


6,612 
400 


15,20 
700 




Park Commissioners and School Board 
Recreation Division, Park Department 








1 
















300 
2,488 




200 
4,574 




Park Commission and W. P. A.- 


8 


1 










2,68 


1,893 


Walpole 












Wellesley 




T> 


5 




99 




7,500 




4,000 
2,500 
3,040 


600 
1,500 
357 


4,600 
4,000 
3,397 


Westfield 


Playground Commission 












1,000 
1,237 


West Newton 
West Springfield... 




375 


4 


1 


8 

45 


30 




/Y. M. C. A. :.. 






! 


; 






5 




140 
160 


1,547 
440 
4,000 


45 


1,592 
440 








g 




Whitinsville 


Whitin Community Association 


12 


'"5 


j 


50 


8 








2,000 


1,700 
45 

9,599 

500 
342 

15,706 
4,216 
1,544 
525 
3,500 
50 

12,300 
82,951 
96,775 
150 
300 
565 
3,520 
500 
28,882 

7,824 
918 
300 
19,132 
18,641 
206 

2,100 
150 
100 
4,680 
450 




7,694 
924 

33,231 

2,000 
1,167 

31,920 
10,944 
3,656 
1,225 
5,000 
550 

37,430 
455,810 
162,330 
1,345 
700 
440 
10,723 
3,220 
38,203 

34,368 
4,475 
1,310 
20,558 
32,110 
13,293 

17,169 
1,200 
200 
27,620 
1,900 




Public Works Department 








924 
28,214 

1,200 
175 

25,677 
2,784 


Worcester 


Parks and Recreation Commission and 
W. P. A. 


21 
5 


13 










5,017 

800 
992 

6,243 
8,160 
3,656 
825 
2,400 
450 

22,680 
239,483 
17,230 


Michigan 
Adrian 










4,000 


Albion 88 


Recreation Board 


1 

43 
70 
21 
3 


1 

18 
3 
13 
2 
2 
1 

29 
130 




1 


3 


Ann Arbor 


Board of Education and Park Depart- 




Battle Creek. . . . 


Civic Recreation Association 


2 




15 

8 


6,989 


Bay City 


Department of Recreation 


Birmingham 












400 
2,600 
100 

14,750 
216,327 
145,100 
1,345 


Caspian 


Community Center 


2 


22 


38 




Charlotte 


Board of Education 


1 

41 
158 
8 




Dearborn 


Recreation Board 


3 

99 


34 


131 
191 




Detroit 


/Department of Recreation 


3,474 


)ickinson Co. 40 . . . 
Dowagiac 


County Park Trustees 










4,290 


School Board 


2 
1 
1 
10 
20 

164 
1 
3 
23 
1 


1 
1 

9 

7 

145 
1 
1 
10 








700 
440 
2,375 
2,720 
14,413 

27,368 


Ecorse . . . 














Escanaba 


Department of Parks and Recreation . . 
Recreation Board 


1 

"e 


5 
4 

34 
1 


295 

7 
66 

208 
31 


1,061 


8,348 
500 
23,790 

7,000 


Ferndale 


3,720 
72,085 

48,692 
5,393 
2,510 
39,690 
50,751 
14,927 

19,951 
1,450 
300 
32,300 
5,850 
1,600 
2 2,147 
35 6,000 
25,944 

5,479 

42 32,800 
1,600 
9,275 

27,347 
500 
2,500 
2,862 
3,740 
600 
580 
1,370 
757 
1,000 
3,500 
5,172 
200 
6,800 
955 
7,948 
9,900 
2,100 
4,800 
19,927 
880 
6,750 
1,700 


Flint 


(Park and Recreation Board . . 


5,000 
6,500 


Mott Foundation and Board of Educa- 


Grand Haven 
.irand Rapids 

3rosse Pointe 
Hamtramck 




Board of Education and City Council. . 


900 


1,135 
4,415 
1,203 
3,078 

16,669 
1,200 
200 
14,805 
1,800 


175 
16,143 
30,907 
10,215 

500 


Department of Parks 


i 








Neighborhood Club 


2 

31 
1 


2 
19 


2 
3 






1,428 

682 
100 


Department of Recreation, Board of 
Education 






Jarbor Beach 
Hastings 


Board of Education 


a 




Youth Council 


1 






i 

5 


3 
8 
6 
1? 




Highland Park 
Holland 


52,959 
14,346 
6,562 

55,187 

54,786 
78,397 

8,898 
14,789 
8,038 

1,947 
18,110 
13,497 
5,211 

41,390 

15,584 
1,416 
6,552 
11,326 
211,251 
336 
14,496 
2,279 

64,928 

31,361 
17,314 
80,715 
4,804 
28,368 
10,143 


Recreation Commission 


16 
7 
? 


9 
10 


4 




12,815 
100 


Recreation Commission 


3,500 


.onia 








Jackson 


/Recreation Council 


9 


7 










396 


1,751 




1,751 


Kalamazoo 


Recreation Commission 


68 
2 

12 
1 


34 

1 
18 


3 
1 

2 




7 




5,691 
2,405 

4,020 
200 


15,953 
2,409 

10,649 
650 
1,745 

5,884 
200 
2,000 
2,252 
500 
300 
330 
1,270 


4,300 
665 

4,731 
750 
600 

10,151 

" ' iss 

333 


20,253 
3,074 

15,380 
1,400 
2,345 

16,035 
200 
2,000 
2,407 
833 
300 
330 
1,270 


, Douglass Community Association, 
I Inc. 24 . 








Lansing 


Board of Park Commissioners and Board 
of Education 


35 


25 


13,400 


Ludington 


Board of Education 


Marquette 48 


Recreation Board 


3 




1 
1 


2 

1 
15 

1 


21 

'is 

8 
8 


6,930 
3,816 


Midland.. .. 


Recrea'ion Commission, Board of Edu- 
cation, Community Center and Red 
Cross 


6 
1 


6 


7,496 
300 
500 
455 
1,707 
300 
250 
100 


Milan 


Recreation Council 


Monroe 




11 
14 
1 


6 
8 






Mount Clemens. . . 
Mount Pleasant. . . 


Department of Recreation 




Recreation Department 








1,200 


/City of Muskegon 


1 










Muskegon Heights. 

KwMM 


[Board of Education 


1 














Board of Education 


5 
1 


4 












Bay De Noquet Company 






1 






^egaunee 
Niles 


Board of Education and City 


1 
1 






2 


2 




400 


200 
400 


400 


600 




1 






Dak land County. . 
Otter Lake 


bounty Park Trustees 
















American Legion 


1 
1 


2 












200 




200 
3,000 
565 
7,224 
7,700 
600 
1,965 
11,364 
640 
6,000 
1,400 


)wosso 


Board of Education 








3,000 
200 


800 
190 
724 
2,200 
1,500 
835 
8,158 
240 
750 
300 




Plainwell 




3 
21 
1 


2 

7 


"2 
1 




7 


460 
7,224 
1,800 
600 
1,165 
5,650 
640 
3,000 
1,400 


105 


P * 


/Department of Recreation 


Port Huron 


Park Department 








5,900 

"'soo 

5,714 


Board of Education 


1 



1 










liver Rouge 
Saginaw 


iecreation Board 








2,000 
405 


Department of Public Works 


11 

5 

13 


5 
1 


441 






South Haven 
Wyandotte 


Joard of Education 




10 


Recreation Commission 


1 




18 




3,000 


fpsilanti 


lecreation Board . 


5 


4 











148 



CREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

table. 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number | 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing Beaches, Number | 


a 

i 



1 

6 


Camps Other Organized, Number | 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


M 

B 

f 

1 

M 
CO 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number | J 


Emergency Sjrvice 


Source of 
Information 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


a 

JS 

O 


a 
1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


1 



Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


1 
fe 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


10 
9 

2 
36 

1 
9 




4 

11 


14 
20 
2 
46 
1 


'123,103 
350,000 
15,000 
2,500,000 






4 

4 


125,000 
50,000 


1 

"i 
i 


14 
7 
1 
11 
1 
9 

2 
2 
2 


8 
1 
1 
2 
1 






1 






3 


5 


1 
4 


19 
8 


9 
2 






26,602 
20,499 


Daniel J. Phalen 
Francis J. Mahoney 
William A. Thibault.... 
Arthur E. Gardner 
Carolyn P. Clark 



































i 

4 








7 

4 


481,721 


l 


1 




2 






55 


5 


87 


44 

4 






134,448 








13 


189,000 


1 


35,000 


7 


225,846 


2 

1 
4 

1 


i 










1 
1 


6 

1 

8 


2 


29 


10 






41,874 


Pauline M. O'Neil and 
Howard Briggs . . 


















F F Libby 


4 


1 




6 


7,500 


5 








1 


2 


1 




















Herbert H. Snow 
















8 




3 


3 








Edward W. Cerveny 
Gertrude MacCallum. . . 












1 


"14,369 


8 






1 
















































1 




8 




9 










4 
2 






4 

2 


'19,378 
'4,140 










1 
















T 




1 












G. A. Clark 
















3 


1 




























Edward H. Gillespie 


1 
1 


200,000 
23,000 
















1 


















2 






2 


44,000 






1 

1 

14 


8 
8 

20 

1 
1 


2 

'1 

7 

1 














24 














T. P. McGowan 




































James H. Kelley 








f 


















1 






33 

3 
5 

13 
15 
12 


9 

1 

1 

2 


3 

9 

16 
17 

7 


1 
3 

7 
8 
3 


55,000 
20,000 

68,i39 


600 
2,445 

5,681 
24,000 
2,400 


56,300 
22,445 

64381 
92,139 
2,400 


John J. Nugent 

Hervey C. King 
Chase H. Hammond 

L. H. Hollway 


4 

1 

2 
11 
IS 
4 
1 
2 

15 

95 


6 


1 

4 


e 

8 

12 
11 
IS 


55,000 
54,000 

167,622 
582,839 
'176,000 


























1 

10 
4 
2 


8,960 

14,790 
3,487 












1 


1 






1 

2 
2 


2 

10 


1 
1 
1 








1 


1 


70,820 










3 
1 


2 


A. R. Flannery 














Walter A. Olsen 






4 


'6,495 












1 












1 




4 






M. W. Robinson 






1 
2 

Ti 


10,603 
'4,000 

5129,680 


1 


70,350 






































Mrs. Frances S. Berry . . 
Helen Collins and Mal- 
colm Gobel 


















































18 




3 

2 


14 
54 




1 








5 




15 

195 


1 
11 


9 
105 


6 
69 


6.45S 
1,411 


15,300 
159,060 


26,758 
232,346 


Henry D. Schubert 
C. E. Brewer . . . 






125 


7,778,901 


7 


"1,200,487 


144 


39 2,980,894 






1 






17 








l 






1 


4 




1 


Henry W. Busch. . 






















1 
1 
2 
1 

1 

14 

12 


8 


















21,417 




21,417 


J. A. CIulo 


3 

2 

1 
9 
10 

27 




'5 


8 

7 

4 
10 
16 

40 


523,700 
62,505 
102,805 
78,958 
371,982 

858,117 


1 


30,000 


2 
1 
8 
2 


11,400 
11,000 
15,223 
8,065 


1 
1 

i 














4 

4 


1 


6 
6 
16 


2 
1 
5 




7,240 
1,120 
12,096 


7,240 
1,120 
12,096 


0. C. Morningstar 


















D. M. Draper 


2 
2 
4 

1 


71,665 
1,905 
224,148 

13,070 


1 




1 










7 






Bevier Butts 


















It 






David C. Brown 






1 
1 






2 


2 


1 
1 


3 


28 
7 


1 


50 
55 


45 
52 






227,481 
84,800 


Theodore Prichard 
Frank J. Manley 






20 


360,855 


2 


20,000 


64,800 




















William W. Norton 
Ray C. Schaubel 


3 
10 




1 


4 

23 


35,000 
1,285,099 






2 

17 


1,200 
156,213 




1 
















4 




6 
92 


1 

27 


3,000 


850 
80,000 


3,850 
80,000 


2 




5 

















8 


30 


5 


John Bos 








2 


2 






U. M. Lowing 








1 

8 

2 
4 

10 
8 
6 
9 


64,948 

365,128 
6,600 
8,100 
833,191 
30,000 
47,379 
85,424 


1 

1 

1 


179,211 

30,167 
8,500 








7 












6 

8 

ft 


1 
1 












George Elworthy 






8 


9 


130,597 




2 












* 




15 
3 
7 
7 
2 
9 
2 

"io 

4 
25 


3 
1 

8 
5 

1 
3 
2 

'"3 
4 
15 




15,515 
2,600 


15,515 
2,600 
1,400 
16,315 
2,300 
22,713 
24,000 
200,000 


C.J.Reid 
R. S. Brotherton 


2 
4 






1 
1 

6 

f 


1 






















1 
2 














A 






Lyle Bennett 




8 


8 


50,000 


9 
2 


218,665 
3,680 












ft 




Hi 




3,500 
2,000 
15,600 


12,815 
300 
4,493 


H.G.Myron 


5 


















14 




Leon N. Moody 




G 








t 














1 


3 
1 




Fred J. Buck 


9 








23 


320,000 
















K 


G. L. Greenawalt 










1 


2 










1 






8 
8 


1 

3 


200,000 




L. W. Ambs 
Lawrence P. Moser 

E.N. Powell 


12 






12 


5199,609 






12 
1 

12 


35,745 
720 
28,950 












1 


1 


i 


32,000 


















3,178 
9,000 


3,178 
12,600 


20 

1 
6 

4 
3 
B 

6 
3 






20 
1 
6 

4 

8 

e 
e 

4 


231,019 
25,000 
221,121 

144,679 
59,000 
'59,268 
57,985 
14,838 


i 


4 
1 
1 








2 


1 




1 


27 


2 




Mrs. H. R. Harvey 
H. H. Hawley 





















2 
1 












1 


4 

9 


1 


20 


1 








Clarence T. Bullock 
Charlotte Conley 






1 


85,801 


3 
1 
4 

1 


9,871 
6,000 
10,000 
3,200 


























1 
















2 
6 

a 


2 
6 




"270 


1,060 
12,000 
270 


J. S. Detar 
B. M. Hellenberg 
Bernard Ballantine 
L. C. Wendt 


1 




1 


1 












1 




A 




















1 




4 




























1 


2 




8 
?,6 


2 
















3 


















Frank Driscoll 


13 
6 






14 


125,000 
'37,680 










1 
2 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


2 
1 






1 








6 

2 


1 


22 


20 




5,710 


5,710 


0. E. Johnson 
Charles Good 


1 
6 


'i 




1 
8 


64,000 
50,000 






2 


10,000 


1 
1 








1 
"1 








4 
4 


1 


1 

4 








1,050 


G. J. Antell 
H. C. Bradfield 
John A. Bradley 
A B Cherpes 


4 

1 
16 




1 


ft 
2 

16 


201,350 
4,400 
'293,277 






8 
1 

15 


3,330 
900 


1 


1 
1 
















10 


2 


4 


3 




4,368 


6,368 


Helen Kremer 
Walter W. Wegerly 


1 


40,469 








2 




1 




16 


2 


84 


60 






33,821 


A. E. Center 
Lewis M. Wrenn 


6 
3 
19 
2 
11 
5 






ft 
5 

19 
2 
11 
5 


130,000 
5125,000 
12,000 
51,615 
113,757 


1 
8 


7,000 


8 
8 
28 
2 

4 
3 


4,050 




21 
1 


3 


1 








1 
1 




8 
A 


1 


24 
5 
24 


24 
1 
4 




10,000 
5,740 
22,680 


10,000 
5,740 
22,680 


C. V. Fowler 
Frank Weeber 


Y,8oo 

6,000 
20,000 


"i 

2 

1 


6 


j 


2 










1 


8 
1 


1 




Russel 0. Koenig 
L. C. Mohr 






10 

i 
















7 
1 


1 

2 


17 

9 


10 
3 






7,500 
3,780 


Benjamin F. Yack 
James W. Schaeffer 
















1 






3,780 



149 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNH 



No. of City || 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


Source of Financial Support t 






"3 
o 




No. of Women 


INo. Employed 
Year Round 


Activity Leaders 


,c 
O 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

8 
9 

10 
11 

12 

13 

14 
15 
1(5 
17 
18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 
25 

26 

27 

28 

29 
30 
81 

32 
89 
34 
35 
36 

37 
38 
89 

40 

41 
42 

43 
44 

45 

41 

47 
48 
4!) 
50 
51 
52 
M 

54 
66 

56 

67 

58 


Minnesota 


12.276 
2,590 
8,308 
6,782 
1,243 
3,675 
101,463 

6,156 
7,484 

15,666 
5,036 
2,880 

464,356 

1,349 
2,555 
7,308 
9,629 
2,552 

20,621 

21,000 
204,596 

271,606 

10,009 
2,049 
11,963 

10,043 
18,601 

48,282 

9,613 
14,967 
399,746 

13,772 
1,672 
80,935 

821,960 
25,809 

6,855 
4,629 
28,822 
5,358 

6,669 
10,297 

2,791 
6,192 
75,933 

18,529 

12,377 
25,228 
13,573 
7,073 
76,834 
31,463 
2,018 

573 
26,974 

38,077 

3,306 
15,699 


Committee of Library Boarfl 


4 


1 


2 


3 


6 


150 


25 


4,200 


300 


4,500 


4,675 
600 
32,758 
10,953 
15,850 
16,038 

103,409 
2,824 
2,925 
16,270 
48,479 
855 
829 

310,669 
37,827 
3,000 
800 
2,525 
4,383 
770 
2,760 
2,340 
21,422 
800 

15,355 

97,837 
3,500 
675 
1,240 
4,314 

600 

3,666 
3,500 


M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
MAI 
M 
M 

C 

\ 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

MA 

MAI 

MAI 
M 
MAI 

1 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 



P 
MAP 
M 
M 

MAP 

M 

M 
M 
P 
M 
P 






Recreation Department, Library Board 


9 
2 
4 
1 


1 
1 
2 


1 
3 




8 




1,511 

5,258 
500 


2,918 
5,695 
200 










5 

12 
14 


' 15,000 




5,695 
350 




Independent School District No. 2. 


150 


Detroit Lakes 
Duluth 






5 


Recreation Department, School Board 


43 
6 
1 

1 
34 
? 


21 
10 
1 

2 


1 


60,390 


8,159 
200 
225 
4,954 


7,731 
2,624 
1,620 
1,020 


27,129 

1,080 
3,744 


34,860 
2,624 
2,700 
4,761 


Ely 


School District No. 12 








f Recreation Department 


1 
1 
4 








Hibbing 46 








6,552 


Village and School District No. 27 






International Falls. 
Litchfield 










705 
500 

51,050 
590 


i93 

169,936 
500 




School Board and Village Council 
' Recreation Department, Board of Park 


2 

40 
1 


2 
27 


19 


2 


4 
247 




136 

89,683 
36,737 


693 

220,986 
1,090 






Mountain Iron 48 .. . 










Board of Education, District No. 21 ... 


3 

3 


1 


















250 
225 
1,585 


450 
400 


100 
400 


550 
830 
2,798 


NewUlm 
Red Wing 
Redwood Falls 




6 
2 
1 


3 

1 








1,500 


























5 


6 
1 










310 
725 


2,250 
900 


200 
715 


2,450 
1,615 


| Board of Public Health and Welfare. . 


1 


13 


65 




St. Cloud 




1 












200 
2,117 
19,680 


250 
10,373 
40,817 


350 
2,865 
22,340 


600 
13,238 
63,157 


St. Louis County 49 . 
St. Paul 


Leisure Education Department, County 


17 

21 
1 


12 
8 


1 

29 




in 




(Department of Parks, Playgrounds and 
\ Public Buildings 


47 


171 


15,000 


South St. Paul.... 
Springfield . . . 






1 






5 

7 


13 






225 








2 
s68 

3 

1 

2 

fi 


2 
a>124 

4 

7 
2 






550 
205 




690 
4,109 


Virginia 












4,109 

540 

1,400 
500 




Mississippi 

Clarksdale 


Parent Teacher Association 
Park Commission and Playground Com- 
mission 






















1,186 


1,080 
3,000 


2,480 
3,500 


Jackson 

Missouri 

Clayton 


Park Department 




















/Recreation Commission 


13 


11 

? 


















5,587 
1,748 

10,490 
2,850 
250 
28,228 
78,913 
450,000 
32,581 

35,437 
600 
8,478 
850 

2,608 
525 
3,000 
1,500 
2,200 
34,622 

6,000 

5,239 
7,290 
2,000 
6,175 
39,255 
4,783 
1,325 

36,736 
5,500 
21,000 
5,035 
20,406 
516 


Kansas City 




'0 






980 
2,000 


650 
6,830 


118 
1,660 


768 

8,490 
2,850 
200 


Recrea'ion Department, Board of Edu- 
cation 


6 




1 


2 






Moberly 
Plattsburg 


Park Board . . . 








1 








1? 




50 


200 




St. Joseph 




R 
















/Board of Education 


160 
22 
14 

4 


172 
26 
9 










6,500 


67,913 


4,500 


72,413 


University City . . . 

Montana 

Bozeman 


\ Department of Public Welfare 
Board of Park Directors 


48 
8 1 














12,189 
1,921 


6,51b 


13,876 


20,392 
3,454 








30,062 


Glerdive 




1 
i 


1 

1 












Great Falls 


Recreation Association 


I 


f 




906 


3,535 


3,487 


550 


4,037 


Lewistown 

Nebraska 

Alliance 


Youth Coordinating Council 


City and W P A 




1 




















/Playground Board 


( 

4 


6 
I 




4 









380 






Blair 
Fairburg 
Lincoln 


\Park Board 




22 


15 












a 


1 
















< 


1 










1,392 


808 




808 




< 










6,500 




Nevada 

Reno 


Engineering Department 


1 


















New Hampshire 

Claremont 


Playground Commission 












947 


1,165 
1,000 


240 
3,200 


2,887 


3,127 


Concord 




11 


9 
I 


1 






Dover 
Lebanon 




I 1 ) 










Carter Community Building Association 


1 










723 
32,589 


1,382 


3,152 


918 


4,070 


Manchester 


I 








Nashua 
Pittsfield 


Recreation Commission 


10 
1 

J 


8 
1 






i 


877 
600 

22,906 
1,910 
6,732 
767 


3,708 
325 


198 
400 


3,906 
725 

13,830 
2,400 
14,268 
1,992 


School Board 










New Jersey 
Allenhurst 


Beach Department 










Belleville 




J 




1 






1,190 


2,400 
14,268 
415 


Y.577 




fBcard of Recreation Commissioners. . . 
\ World War Memorial Association 52 


25 




12 
I 


I 






Bradley Beach. . . . 
Bridgeton 






2,276 


Borough of Bradley Beach 1 












Jol.nson-Reeves Playground Association 




1 








179 


87 


250 




250 

















150 



3REATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

able. 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number | 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing Beaches, Number 


1 
& 

o 

1 


Camps Other Organized, Number | 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


Swimming Pools, Indoor, Number 


1 

o 

1 
.5 

'& 
cc 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


2 






8 


29,000 


1 


22,500 








1 
1 


1 
1 














5 

a 


1 


3 








5,000 H. I.. T inlror 
















"1 
















F. B. Slaughter 


6 
2 
! 2 
3 

18 
7 
5 






5 
ft 

22 
7 
5 


65,114 
18,000 
10,000 
26,950 

256,061 
=18,000 
75,540 


1 
1 


13,174 
31,300 


8 


4,517 


















1 


7 


10 




7,620 


8,290 










2 
















3 


F. L. Redfield Jr. 


1 




4 




1 

1 
1 

1 


4 
1 

18 
1 
6 




8 




1 




2 




4 




2 
5 


1 






25,000 
2,875 

27,488 


H W D utter 


1 

4 

1 
1 


8,000 
135,245 


1 

34 
1 
1 


530 

190,316 
3,000 
4,848 


1 

5 








1 






A 




2,000 


800 
21,653 




















''4 




26 
3 


5 
















1 










Edw. Buckley 






6,805 


1 














4 




5 








4,898 










1 












5 








Everett Forsman 


8 

1 
1 

25 
20 

i 

3 

1 






8 
1 


43,039 


1 


195,425 


9 
1 


25,267 


2 


2 
1 

1 

30 


1 
1 
1 

18 










1 




R 




36 
1 


12 




13,420 
243 

102,821 
39,011 


13,420 
243 
1,419 

103,367 
39,511 


Jess T. Porteous 








1 


















1 


i 


4 

83 

20 
3 


< 7 8,206 

=2,298,904 
5 234,922 






4 




1 


















2 

50 
24 
1 


1 

25 
21 




Clarence A. Nelson 
K. B. Raymond 


26 




22 
80 
1 


14,000 
208,346 








5 




1 


199 


16 














R. C. Tapp 


1 
1 
1 


8 
1 












1 








George A. Kakela 


























fl 














Judd F. Gregor 






ft 


























5 
A 


8 

1 












Carl W. Frank 






1 


4,800 










- 1 


1 
1 














1 












James F. Enz 














1 






















F. B. Forbes 








7 


41,300 
























7 














Paul F. Schmidt 






1 






























3 


7 




5,265 


5,265 


Louise Wood ... . 


' 


















1 


1 
2 

32 
83 










1 




1 


8 
2 

R 


8 

1 






i 5 
28 






5 


47,760 










2 


1 










18 
5 

35 
10 
2 


8 
5 

21 

6 
1 






8,158 


V. L. Morrison 














8 














12,542 

71,544 


15,132 

499,370 
14,542 


B. G. Leighton 




10 

8 


28 
8 
6 


1,743,130 
5 100,000 
44,400 


19 


335,800 


4 




1 








8 




1 


117 




426,689 


Ernest W. Johnson 
W. W. Kilbourne 




















5 












1 
1 


8 
1 
1 






1 










7 
2 


1 




1,500 


1,500 


Robert G. Wentworth... 
R. J. Mueller 


























1 




, 3 2 
i 






10 

4 

8 
12 

1 


=31,248 

12,000 

28,000 
57,960 




















1 














L. G. Hurst . ... 


2 














1 














1 
1 


5 

5 

R 


2 
2 




3 








Evelyn Baird 


3 


15,000 






1 


1 


i 


















E. M. Albritton 
















"1 




7 










H. M. Carmichael 






1 


6,000 






















1 
1 


11 


1 


1 


1 




540 


45,000 
1,052 
1,800 

5,067 


Earle B. Greene 
Kenneth Osman 






4 






























i 




2 


27,656 


1 

7 


























9 
40 


7 
15 




1,800 
5,067 


Lucile Olney 


,5 


41 




M 


268,102 


















R 










Les L. Warren 














i 














3 






John Groeber 








1 


5 600 






1 




1 
1 

10 


1 
1 

7 
















ft 














Elmer C. Black 






















1 




2 


11 

16 
116 
16 

7 
2 
4 


2 
40 
27 
5 






10,502 




10,502 
18,915 


Viola Thorp 


55 



-' 


3 




77 


1,810,300 


"B 




















22 


20 


18,915 


Alfred 0. Anderson 
Robert D.Turner 








1 
1 


1 


A 


2 
1 

1 
1 






8 
2 


=29,232 












3 


















James K. Monteith 
M. E. Henderson 






7 










1 








































1 


1 














1 












Tom Henderson 


'! 

:i 


13 


1 


28 
7 

1 

4 


239,666 
23,583 

35,472 
16,916 


i 
i 


17,i66 
55,245 


12 
2 

3 


38,287 
500 

2,970 














22 
11 

5 


11 
10 

5 


3,010 

32 


26,504 
7,375 


32,234 
8,797 

7,717 


Frank C. Kammerlohr . . 
Richard Nelson 

Mrs. Alice Yon 




1 














1 
1 


3 
2 


1 

1 






































Charles E. Plath 










1 




g 










1 
1 


7 


1 












Dr. W. A. Rush 


I 










































1,700 


Reed O'Hanlon 
G. E. Bell 




































1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


2 
32 

12 

i) 
8 












~ 






22 


254,106 


4 


47,000 


8 


115,640 




7 










1 




8 

5 


50 


10 




40,000 


40,000 


lames C. Lewis 
























Charles L. Hill 
A. B. Kellogg '... 


i? 






f 














7 


















8 


='92,032 


1 


6 950 






1 


B 














1 


1 




110 


110 


Paul Crowell 
^.dith G. Brewster 


; 






9 




1 










10 
4 
1 


2 
1 












2 


18 


1 




1 








W. E. D. Ward 
Thonns F. Sweeney 






8 

l 


=38,476 
=6,794 










1 














8 














Lester B. Badger 














1 












1 




" 












Margaret P. Ekstromer.. 






2 
14 


53,402 
5 4 16,975 


1 


10,525 


1 


8,960 




A 




1 










1 


2 
4 




3 
3 


1 
2 




3,300 


3,300 
5.100 


Edward J. Lister 
\C. A. Emmons 










1 


88,000 










A 










1 




A 


1 












Frederick P. Reichey 
Mrs. Estella T. French.. 






1 


16,830 




























3 


3 











































151 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUN1 



1 

8 
d 

Z 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


| 

03 
1 

a 

'& 

c 


a 
1 
"o 
6 
iz; 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 


Activity Leaders 


.3 
5 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

19 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

25 

26 
27 

28 
29 
30 

31 

32 
33 
34 
35 
36 

37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 

44 
45 

40 

47 
48 
49 
50 

51 

52 
53 

54 
55 
56 
57 

58 
59 

1,0 
SI 

Ii2 

n 

fi4 
65 


N. J. Cont. 
Burlington 


10,844 

118,700 
12,723 
68,020 
3,478 
114,589 
17,805 
833,513 
5,990 
6,894 
7,365 
24,568 


Board of Education and Recreation 


1 












50 
426 


250 
4,398 




250 
4,398 


30C 

4,824 
1,000 
42.33C 
2212 
64,764 
1,000 
128,616 
3,015 
250 
9,797 
3,900 
500 
423 
7,845 
325 
24,442 
10,579 

291,000 
37,877 
11,000 
2,043 
15,000 
1,480 
3,360 
2,000 
3,687 
14,552 
3,282 
4,480 
M.800 

237,352 
1,000 
2 26,000 
10,084 
31,789 
19,456 

15,750 

27,692 
7,430 
980 
2,613 
295 
10,000 

2,240 
19,103 
600 

21,326 


M 
MA 
M 
C 
M 
P 
M 
M 
M 



i. 

M 
M 

\ 

1 

1 
M 
M 
M 

C 
M 

M&P 
M 
M 

M 

MIP 

Mil 

M 
M 
M 

I 

M 
M 

M 
M 

MAP 
Ml' 
M 




Recreation Commission 


?4 


1? 












Collingswood 
East Orange .... 


RnarH of nntnmissinners 
















Board of Recreation Commissioners 
Department of Public Property 


6 


* 


i 


10 


285 


3,143 


7,200 


13,068 


18,919 
212 
8,128 


31,987 
212 
34,937 
725 
111,133 
1,980 
220 
3,170 
3,400 


Egg Harbor City. . 
Elizabeth 


Board of Recreation Commissioners 
Board of Education 


58 
4 


32 


^ 


20 


100 




29,827 
275 
17,483 
410 
30 
2,000 
500 


26,809 
725 
12,424 
1,320 
220 
320 
2,900 






Essex County 55 




99 


99 


1 








98,709 
660 












5 


625 


Freehold 


Recreation Association 


] 


3 






Glen Ridge 


Playground Committee 








4,627 


2,850 
500 






9 
1 


\ 




P 




Hackettstown 
Haddonfield 


3,038 
8,857 
15,601 
5,658 
59,261 
56,733 

316,715 

40,716 
5,350 
21,206 
3,476 
7,481 

21,321 

8,602 
42,017 
7,247 
15,197 
442,337 

9,760 
5,525 
62,959 
302,129 
138,513 
43,516 

34,422 
1,600 
11,622 
12,188 
3,879 
34,951 

35,000 
14,556 
5,669 

123,356 

305,209 
1,728 
15,801 
37,107 

24,327 

26,570 
4,143 

127,412 
34,817 
36,652 
11,933 

76,662 
1,794 

573,076 

1,788 
23,226 
2,909 


Board of Education 




1 






Camden County Y. M. C. A 








9 


40 




155 
1,300 
75 
2,442 
1,869 


268 
4,465 
250 
22,000 
7,400 




268 
6,545 
250 
22,000 
8,710 




Board of Recreation Commissioners 




3 


3 




2,080 


Hasbrouck Heights 


Board of Education 


] 

1 

i 

22 
36 
1 


1 

8 

j 

9 
1 










Department of Parks and Public Propertj 
Department of Public Recreation . . 


15 

4 

24 
5 <30 
T 












20 


124 
28 




1,310 


Jersey City 
Kearny 


( Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
\ erty 




(Board of Education 








1,500 


27,149 
2,000 
422 
5,783 
50 


9,228 


36,377 


Recreation Commission 




1? 




Leonia 




1 

24 
1 
1 

56 6 

12 
7 

i 


1 
7 
1 
1 

6 
2 
2 


.... 


2 
1 

1 


11 

'"7 


1,500 
3,000 




121 

2,845 


543 

8,628 
50 


Linden . ... 


Board of Recreation Commissioners 
Board of Recreation Commissioners 
Board of Recreation Commissioners 
/Township Park Committee 


3,372 
1,430 


Livingston 








Maple wood 55 

Millburn . 










200 

827 
4,968 
142 
640 


1,800 
2,460 
5,396 
3,140 
3,185 
1,800 

171,517 
850 




1,800 
2,860 
9,361 
3,140 
3,425 


\Community Service 


1 
1 

1 








400 
3,965 


Recreation Commission . . . 


2 


3 


223 


Montclair 


Board of Education 


Moorestown 
Morristown 


Recreation Commission 
Park Department 


1 

6 


1 


2 


36 

8 


250 


415 


240 


Newark 


Recreation Department, Board of Edu- 
cation 


132 
3 
1 


108 
1 


73 


200 






46,328 
150 


19,507 


191,024 
850 


North Plainfield... 
Ocean City 


Recreation Commission 






City of Ocean City 












Passaic 


Recreation Bureau, Park Department. . 
County Park Commission 


30 
4 


22 


4 
1 








800 


9,057 


227 


9,284 


Passaic County 57 . . 
Paterson 
Perth Amboy 

Plainfield 








Board of Recreation 


20 

39 
10 

6 
3 
? 


20 

39 

6 
2 
1 


1 

2 
4 
2 


2 


5 


6,283 

2,000 
7,973 


1,713 
2,200 


8,160 

9,000 
9,478 
3,660 
780 
325 
270 


3,300 
2,550 


11,460 
11,550 


Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty ... . . 


Recreation Commission 


"io 

2 


5 


Radburn 


Radburn Association 


2,970 
150 
1,690 
25 


800 
50 
598 


4,460 
830 
923 
270 
10,000 

1,640 
13,287 
300 

15,327 


Red Bank 
Ridgewood 
Roxbury Twsp. 58 . . 
South Orange 
School District of 
So. Orange and 
Maplewood 
Summit 


Recreation Cominittpp 


3 




Shade Tree Commission 




Board of Education 


1 

1 

11 
9 
1 


1 

1 

3 
5 










Recreation Commission 


1 




5 






Board of Education 








600 
4,914 
300 

5,999 


1,640 
7,115 
300 

4,758 


6,i72 


Recreation Commission 


2 


1 


5 


902 


Tenafly 


Board of Education and W. P. A.. . . 


Trenton 


(Playground Division, Department of 
| Public Buildings and Grounds 


14 


10 


1 








10,569 


Union County 59 . . . 
Waldwick... 


[Board of Education 








County Park Commission 


52 


25 


7 


740 








33,009 


85,535 
700 




174,512 
860 
573 

5,500 


Borough of Waldwick 




160 




700 


Westfield 


Community Center Association 24 




1 




4 
21 


4 

19 






West New York... 
West Orange 


Recreation Division, Department of 
Parks 


? 




3 

1 






3,900 






Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty 1 


10 
1 


15 










New Mexico 
Albuquerque 


Board of Education 








151 
100 

2,200 
3,772 


250 
300 

19,376 
6,054 
4,800 

1,620 




250 
300 

19,376 
9,779 


401 
400 

21,576 
15,159 
9,142 

2,350 

600 
3,973 
3,126 

324,237 
55,208 
215 
5,000 
690 
3,055 
1,200 


Tucumcari 


School Board and Kiwanis Club 


1 














New York 
Albany . . 


Department of Recreation, Board of 
Education 


42 
26 
11 


39 
8 

9 

1 


1 

1 
1 

1 










Amsterdam 


Recreation Commission ... 




27 
<>4 


1,608 


3,725 


Auburn 


f Recreation Commission 


^Booker T. Washington Community 
( Center" 


3 






430 


300 


1,920 


Beacon 


Recreation Commission and Board of 
Education 


1 






Jinghamton 
Briarcliff Manor 60 .. 

Buffalo 


Board of Education 


13 
4 


16 










113 
1,401 

35,465 
2,700 
15 
600 
300 
945 
300 


3,860 
325 

104,638 
36,278 
200 
4,000 
390 
1,279 
900 




3,860 
1,725 

288,772 
52,508 
200 
4,400 
390 
1,307 
900 


Park Department 










1,400 

184,134 
16,230 

'"400 
'"28 


[Division of Recreation, Department of 
| Parks 


28 
114 
1 


26 
83 


51 








Cazenovia 


Board of Education 








Central School Board 




1 






Dohoes 
Cooperstown 


Department of Public Works 
Village Board 


12 
2 
2 
5 


31 
1 
2 
1 


















Croton-on-Hudson. 
Delmar" 


2,4471 
3,000 


Recreation Commission 


1 


23 


61 


803 


Board of Education 

















152 



:REATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


1 

5 

1 
1 


Bathing Beaches, Number 


1 
B 

's 

Q 

a 




1 

.H 
c 

_C 

5 

1 

5 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


1 

i 

-o 
c 

1 

3 

' 

"5 

03 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


6 

2 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


a 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


| 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


| 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


6 
29 






t 
'.'9 








t 


1,159 

7,200 


1 


1 

11 






















4 








V. H. Smith... 
Samuel E. Fulton . 


1 
2 
8 
4 
ft 

7 
8 
9 
10 

11 

12 
18 

14 
15 
18 

17 
18 

19 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

a 

H 

27 
28 
29 


1 
12 
1 

4 

5 

7 

8 

it 
1 
12 

1 

4 
5 

ti 

7 
8 
9 

JO 

1 

2 
1 

4 
1 
1 

a 

7 
18 

9 

18 

i 

,2 

a 

64 
65 


1 




1 


< 




4 


43,500 


9 


11,000 


4 

1 


l 


1 














25 


4 


18 


8 


6,700 


8,700 


15,400 


R. S. Wigfield 
John M. Rowley 
John Schuster, Jr 
Arthur T. Noren 
Winton J. White 


17 

4 
30 
t 

4 
4 
1 
1 
4 




8 


25 
4 


'435,568 
34,000 


ft 


218,762 


9 


32,460 




1 








1 


6 
6 


3 


12 


1 




12,74 


12,74 


1 


4 












1 










64,008 













1 










1 






148 


! 


4 


2 


30,000 


300 


31,800 


Kenneth V.C.Wallace. 






4 
4 

1 


S 9,101 
5 14,527 
55,714 
19,125 










1 
1 
1 
1 


1 

1 
3 
1 
















1 






































4 


6 


12,478 


1,547 


14,025 


A. F. Eschenfelder 
Frank DeMartine 






j 


















^ 


a 














1 














o 


















4 
3 
1 
I 


8,320 
15,000 
*8,624 












1 
























Edmund S. Johnson . . . 




8 










1 
1 


2 
2 






























1 




1 




1 
1 
ft 


3,725 
32,400 
7,347 






























C.C.Hitchcock 


6 

11 
3 
4 

1 
9 
4 

1 




'is 


ft 

16 

21 
ft 
1 
9 

4 
1 


103,483 

725,000 
613,200 
152,600 
10,779 
"60,010 
18,574 


1 


14,110 


2 


1 
12 
















13 
oq 


,' 


8 

20 
24 

1 

( 


18 
35 
4 
1 
S 
7 


9,200 


5,454 

10,000 
36,666 


14,654 

25,000 
36,666 


Philip LeBoutillier 

Frank A. Deisler 
Arthur G. Humphrey . . . 
James P. Crai? 






11 


352,000 




1 








10 














2 


2 
















5 

8 


2 










































7 
7 


22,876 
8,009 




















s 




11,000 


2,256 
5,210 


13,816 
5,210 






1 
































1 
















2 
A 


I 








6 





25,000 












6 


























H. W. Heilmann 


2 
7 
2 

.5 

10 
3 


1 




7 
12 
ft 

43 
3 


55,740 
38,945 
'13,102 
144,231 

36 2,849,371 
34,000 


1 


4,363 


ft 

19 

4 
7 


12,224 
26,852 
3,050 




1 














1 


4 
4 




1 
8 
4 
5 

15 
2 


2 
4 
2 
2 

25 




2,898 
6,173 


2,898 
6,173 


Dyer T. Jones 


1 

4 
1 

2 


2 

4 
2 

2 
















Arthur J. Garthwaite . . . 
Charles L. Juliana 
Gerald R Griffin 




9 


8 


71,265 












1 






















1 


4 
7 


2 










33 
















200,000 


40,322 


240,322 


Ernest H Seibert 










1 


2,000 
















5 














1 

1 


2 
ft 


18 
1 
1 














20 
15 
4 


1 
2 
1 
1 

1 

1 














9 
3 

20 






9 

3 
20 

13 
12 
4 
2 


751,237 
128,319 
900,000 

153,200 
'194,053 
'40,000 
'4,800 






8 


75,000 










1 




5 
4 
50 

13 
3 


2 

'23 

2 
1 




4,739 
17,369 

2,666 


4,739 
58,234 

32,368 


leeve B. Harris 
Charles A. Winans 
















U 1 






35,815 
""29,708 






1 
2 


47,227 
27,000 








g 


















13 
6 


10 
9 

1 


69,300 
67,265 
45,000 


1 


2 

4 


2 














21 
13 
4 
4 


Charles T. Kochek 


6 

2 
2 








1 




2 




2 


55,000 


2 

1 


1 
1 














2 


lobert J. Tierney 
W. A. Robbins 


















































j 


















1 






1 
1 

9 
5 
1 

10 


5 11, 480 
95,000 










1 
1 


1 
4 


1 














^ 






































1 


10 
g 


1 


1 








852 








9 
3 




















1 








I. Marjorie Wilson 
H. S. Kennedy 


1 

1 

5 




77,927 
M.OOO 

204,000 


2 


24,819 


5 


8,014 


1 
1 

2 


1 
1 

7 
















8 


1 


1 


1 

9 




2,040 


2,040 
























1 


3,000 


1 




3 














47 


1 


7 








5,000 


Fred Cooper 
















^ 










W. E Short 


15 






15 


496,623 










3 


17 
1 




11 


2 




i=l 




2 
1 


20 
2 


2 


"i 

12 


2 

i 

4 


498,490 




498,490 


i". S. Mathewson 
Hharles A. Beaue 
Herbert R. Welch 














1 

2 
1 

e 

i 

20 






1 




1 


500 




























e 


2 

28 
4 
8 


20,000 


4 




1 
8 

1 


8 
1 

6 
1 
















10 


2 












1 






























William E. Boland 


34,888 
12,039 

360,000 
85,024 
5 53,803 
























3 

a 


1 


6 
4 










ohn Milne 


4 


1 
"4 














1 










6 




1,280 


1,280 


Ray A. Paulson 






10 
4 


28,445 
23806 


2 




10 


1 










6 


1 

1 


70 
1 
15 

1 
2 


6 

1 
4 

1 




Frederick F. Futterer . . . 
ackson J. Perry 






44 
4 

2 
1 






8,675 
2.100 

1,910 


8,675 
4.500 

2,326 
1,200 


8 








1 


1,350 




ft 

1 


1 












1 
4 

2 


2,400 


deorge Syme, Jr 






















Mrs. Elaine T. Pollard. . 

Bernard MacDonald 
Willard Hamlin 


2 

7 

1 

25 
45 
1 
8 
1 
1 
1 






2 
7 
1 

28 
45 
2 
8 
1 
1 
1 


30,000 
'44,484 
5,745 

4,872,655 
'560,209 
5,400 
95,000 
20,000 
2,630 
35,000 






1 


3,072 




1 




























2 






































1 














1 
7 


3 

70 


1 
11 












Alfred H. Pearson 

'oseph F. Suttner 
Carl H. Burkhardt 
Maxwell H. Buckley. . . . 






9 


372,505 


73 
19 
j 


514,290 
14,644 


3 


20 


2 






2 


2 


io 


19 


1 




19,200 


19,200 


"i 












2 
2 

1 


1 
1 














i 






















1 












l 


8 




10 






500 


500 


oseph S. Wright 
L.G. Bursey 






I 


8,024 


2 


2,620 


1 


1 


1 














5 




fl 






838 


838 


Ldrian L. Hull 
Solon L. Butterfield 











































153 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNIT 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


Source of Financial Support t 


a 

i 

"o 
d 
K 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 


Activity Leaders 


E 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 

Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


N. Y Cent. 


5,741 
17,802 
4,815 
20,340 

47,397 
10,016 
12,462 
11,430 
18,531 
23,099 
740 
7,097 

10,446 
6,449 
25,582 




1 
4 


1 
4 


1 


5 


12 




1,370 
250 
80 

4,250 


1,950 
1,296 
320 

8,643 


1,100 
720 


3,050 
2,016 
320 

11,711 


4,420 
2,266 
400 

15,961 
4,000 
5,570 


M 
M 
M 

M 
M ' 
M 
M 
M 
M4P 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

P 
M 

P 

M4P 
P 
M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

MAP 
M 
C 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 

M 

P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M ' 

M :' 
M ; 

p ' 
p ' 

M ' 
M if 
M If 
M ' 
M - 
M - 
M * 
M i 
P 
M ^ 
M c 
M 
M 
M f 
C i 
C 
M < 
M ' 

M 

M i 

P ( 
M < 
P f 




Board of Education 








1 

18 
1 


1 
11 












Division of Recreation, Department of 
Public Welfare 


2 


25 


45 




3,068 


Elmira ..... 


Recreation Department 




Floral Park 




1 


1 










2,870 


650 


2,050 


2,700 


Fulton 


Recreation and Park Commission 












Department of Public Works 






















5,422 
14,049 
12,441 
382 

6,700 
4,461 
500 
300 
9,748 
5,800 

4,024 
2,997 
2,524 
498 
4,869 

24,170 
5,000 
6,000 
2,549 
659 
9,447 
2 11, 508 
4,800 
35,378 
165 
240 
J 3 1,484 

39,628 
'1,631,733 
"498,159 

50,765 
3,900 
5,000 
2,420 

710 
2,188 
3,000 
13,951 
2,000 
3,024 
1,650 
1,275 
7,232 
8,064 
9,000 
2,460 

145,754 
9,745 
5,500 
656 
36,051 
1,505 
1,917 
459,765 
6,400 
4,360 
37,277 
26,269 
11,949 
15,000 
"735,037 
135,921 




Recreation Commission and Outing Club 


2 

2 
1 

5 
6 
1 


2 

1 
1 

2 
3 
1 
? 


M! 






















5,814 


813 
57 

640 
1,108 
230 
100 
584 
1,000 

963 
1,725 
157 
10 
242 


493 
325 

5,310 
1,399 
270 
200 
5,190 
4,200 

1,410 
1,260 
1,105 
488 


5,321 


5,814 
325 

6,060 
2,168 
270 
200 
6,140 
4,500 

3,061 
1,272 
2,158 
488 
4,277 




Board of Education 








Hastings-on-Hudson 


Recreation Division, Community Service 


3 


15 


25 




750 
769 


Recreation Commission 


i.iss 


Hudson Falls 


Playground Board 






















20,708 

45,155 
13,567 
16,482 
28,088 

2,930 
5,282 
23,160 
407 
11,766 
423,881 
5,127 
61,499 
1,070 
7,649 
31,275 
54,000 

6,930,446 

75,460 

19,019 
8,378 
5,392 

21,790 
10,558 
15,241 
22,652 


Board of Education 


11 

3 

| 


4 
4 








3,024 
300 


950 
300 

1,651 
12 
1,053 






100 


24 


Park Department, Board of Public 
Works 


Jamestown 
Johnson City 




] 




1 


24 


11 




Board of Education 
Board of Education 


8 
3 
15 

12 


.... 

4 

8 


209 










350 




Kingston 
Lake Placid . . 


Department of Recreation, Board of 
Public Works 


1 


12 


57 






Village Board 












Larchmont 


Park and Recreation Committee 


2 

7 
1 
1 


4 
11 

1 
2 






20 


3,000 


500 
196 
23 


1,500 
2,353 
350 
1,620 


1,000 


2,500 
2,353 
362 


Lockport 


Board of Education 
















274 


12 


Mamaroncck 
Monroe County 65 . . 


Park Commission 








Department of Public Welfare 




















? 




1 








450 

22,698 
150 
200 
8,700 

33,992 
740,560 
422,746 

6,260 
2,700 
3,600 
1,078 

479 






Mount Vernon. . . . 
Naples 


Recreation Commission 


31 

1 


23 


6 


22 


22 


240 


7,856 
15 
40 
6,284 

4,040 
48,800 
51,179 

9,798 


4,584 


27,282 
150 
200 
18,700 

35,588 
1,582,933 
446,980 

40,967 


Board of Education 


Newark 


Board of Education 


1 














Newburgh 


Recreation Commission 


6 

44 

377 
931 

8 
1 
3 
5 

2 


11 

21 

457 
1128 

8 
1 

2 
1 

3 


2 

17 
496 
4 

1 

2 


20 


50 

38 


6,500 


10,000 

1,596 
842,373 
24,234 

34,707 


New Rochelle 
New York City. . . . 

Niagara Falls 

North Tonawanda. 
Norwich 


Bureau of Recreation, Department of 
Public Welfare 


/Department of Parks 








Board of Education 








Recreation Commission, Bureau of 
Parks 








Community Center Association 14 
Department of Parks and Recreation. . . 
Park Commission 


1 

4 


5 


















109 


450 


783 


1,861 


Nyack 


Women's Civic League Recreation Com- 
mittee 








Clean 


Board of Education 










505 
150 
4,415 
500 
314 
100 
462 
1,855 
450 


1,683 
1,950 
250 
300 


1,683 
2,850 
7,556 
1,500 
2,710 
1,550 
813 
5,377 
7,312 


Oneida 


Park and Playground Commission 
Recreation Commission 


1 

34 
10 


10 
9 










900 
7,306 
1,200 
2,710 
1,550 
813 
4,697 
5,230 


Ossining 


3 


10 




1,980 


Oswego 


Department of Works 


Peekskill 


17,125 
11,851 
4,540 
22,662 
40,288 
500 
1,569 
328,132 

32,338 
13,169 
4,060 
95,692 
7,986 
3,737 

209,326 

6,841 
72,763 

101,740 
32,205 
520,947 
5,500 

35,830 
134,646 

50,193 
9,737 
5,117 


Board of Education 


8 
2 
2 
15 
21 
1 
1 


6 
1 
1 
11 
53 
1 










Pelham 


School Board 












Pleasantville 
Port Chester 


Board of Trustees 












Recreation Commission 


1 


35 


5 




680 
2,082 


Poughkeepsie 
Purchase 


Board of Education 


302 


Community House, Inc 


1 

68J 

28 

1 






Rhinebeck 


Recreation Association 


11 






485 

24,535 
2,245 
2,400 
120 


1,900 

36,860 
5,000 
3,100 
296 
8,650 
390 


75 

84,359 
2,500 


1,975 

121,219 
7,500 
3,100 
296 


Rochester 


Division of Playgrounds and Recreation, 
Park Bureau 


24 
15 
2 
1 
12 
1 


27 
15 
2 
1 
12 






Rome 


Public Works Department 


60 


35 




Saratoga Springs . . 
Saugerties 


Board of Education 




Playground Board 


.... 


5 


5 


240 




Schenectady 


Department of Parks and Recreation. . . 
Board of Education 




Solvay 






600 


320 


195 


585 


Southampton 


Highway Department 












Enicipal Recreation Commission. . . . 
nbar Association, Inc. 24 


40 
4 
2 
18 
34 


34 
5 
1 

21 

41 


12 
2 
1 
2 

2 






126,075 


71,900 


22,910 
4,200 
2,656 
9,756 
16,902 


238,880 


261,790 


Tarrytown 




19 


efttion Cnmmissinn 


9 


35 




1,585 
6,893 
6,779 


119 

20,628 
2,588 


2,775 
30,384 
19,490 


Troy 


Recreation Board 






/Board of Recreation 








Watertown 


IPark Board 








Recreation Department . 


15 

6 


2 


5 








5,880 


9,120 




9,120 


Westchester Co." 9 .. 
West Harrison .... 

White Plains 
Yonkers 


(County Park Commission 










\Recreation Commission . . . 


74 
1 


35 


5 
1 


34 


20 


8,268 


42,939 


51,560 


33,154 


84,714 


Recreation Commission 


Board of Education 


5 

10 

106 

1 
I 
I 


8 

6 
107 

' 1 

3 








150 

2,637 
1,300 


650 

9,981 
12,455 

100 
235 
230 


3,350 

26,092 
28,190 

1,800 
1,389 
2,082 




3,350 

56,004 
67,093 

2,300 
1,389 
2,082 


4,150 

68,622 
80,848 

2 2,400 
1,624 
2,312 


Bureau of Playgrounds and Recreation 
Centers. . 


14 

17 

2 
1 


9 

18 
3 
4 


"*7 

10 


29,912 
38,903 

500 




North Carolina 

Asheville 


Negro Welfare Council 24 


Burlington 


Recreation Commission 




Canton 


Y.M.C.A 











154 



.ECREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number | 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


I 
a 



s 

_c 
bo 

B 
2 
"rt 

O 


i 
a 

z 

$ 

o 

! 

6 


Camps Other Organized, Number | 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


1 


X 

~a 
e 

1 

.a 
1 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number | 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 1 1 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


. 

1 

1 

i 
i 

i 

i 

i 

6 

1 

5 
08 


Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


M 
1 

K 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


'5 
1 

5 
14 
2 
1 




2 
4 


2 
6 
1 

10 
14 
2 
1 


35,703 
86,700 
5 6,240 

5128,295 
41,600 
57,400 
8,763 


2 


<K2,760 


4 


28,156 


1 
1 


1 


i 














2 
7 


1 


4 
3 


6 




6,320 
2,436 


7,480 
2,436 


Vincent Cherico 




Russell L. Augram 
Mrs. A. E. Nield 


1 


33,081 


9 
2 


31,715 

9,922 


1 
'2 


1 

1 

14 
2 
















4 


1 






















2 
10 


4 
8 




3,572 
3,650 


3,572 
3,650 


Vivian Wills 














1 


6 

8 














Louis P. Weber 
Willard Anderson 
Joseph A. Stance 
Burt M Keene 


1 


9,615 






'i 


2 
1 

4 


i 

2 
1 














ft 




9 






















9 




"s 


2 




3,183 


3,i53 


5 
2 
1 

'2 
1 
2 
9 




3 
3 


6 
2 
1 

3 
3 
1 
2 
12 


127,392 
5 20,000 
5 4,321 

33,280 
"80,000 
57,455 
58,000 
35,992 


1 


16,971 










2 
1 


2 














1 


11 
1 






































Marvin C. Williams 

Robert W. Crawford. . . . 
Mrs. John Campbell. . . . 
David S Fisk 


1 


8,000 


3 




1 
2 


1 
2 

1 




1 












3 




3 
3 


1 
1 




2,340 


2,340 


















? 














1 
1 














2 




































2 


2 








T. Elizabsth Hackstaff . . 
E. E. Bredbenner 






4 


13,914 


1 


2 


1 
























2 


40,000 














































1 








1 






1 


4 


1 












Richard S. Baker 


1 
4 

1 
1 

9 


'i 




2 
4 

1 
8 


3,000 
5 24,796 
5 2,730 


1 


5,428 


1 


5,428 


















2 


2 






900 


James L. Gibbs 




1 
1 
I 

7 
1 
















9 








Harry T. Watson . . 






















1 
















H. B. Eccleston 






i 
4 


6,568 








i 




A 














Earl H. Ruckman . . 


4 


13 




1 




'i 














8 

fl 


4 


7 


4 








Sidney G. Lutzin . . 


















Edward Herb 


1 

12 
1 
2 






1 

12 
1 
f 


30,000 
60,956 
6,345 


1 


5,000 


















g 












30,000 




8 


8,945 


1 


















4 


1 


3 


2 




3,913 


6,172 


A. E. Gay 
Paul H. Rhode 








i 






















1 
1 


1 
2 
1 


i 

2 














() 














R. J. Whitney 


















4 






1 




1 


8 
1 














Robert W. Cochrane. . . . 
F. Fulton Carpenter .... 
R. W. Cammack 


1 
3 
1 
1 
3 

7 
27 

86 

6 


5 


i4 
'2 

54 


1 

17 
1 
1 
6 

17 

89 
86 

6 


29,700 
320,561 
M.080 
517,500 
379,950 

339,548 
73,793,748 
7,678,679 

5 30,702 


2 
2 




1 






7 






7,200 
19,910 
480 


8,800 
23,809 
480 


40,721 


14 


47,376 


1 


8 




1 












Iff 




54 
1 


15 


2,415 














1 

1 


2 
2 
8 

8 




Roger Killian 
H. W. Hatsell 












1 














1 










1 

14 
1 

49 


3,024 

103,598 
120,000 
2,397,969 


1 

l 
14 
11 

2 


3 

8 

158 
27 

2 












5 






3,000 
6,200 


3,000 

6,200 
2 3,000,000 
1,960,234 

13,284 


Douglas G. Miller 


11 


5,191,717 


2 
6 














9 






Peter J. Mayers 
James V. Mulholland . . . 
Francis J. Brennan 

Victor de Wysocki 
J. M. Pollard, Sr 


4 






10 


39 


12 


381 
59 


136 








065 


395 




1,900,000 






1 


' 1 




1 


14 


2 


1 










5 
1 




17 


17 

2 

1 


299,100 
7 20,725 

7,248 






6 


124,615 


1 
1 

1 


8 

l 

1 












i 




12 




9 


1 




9,720 


9,720 


W. L. Ramsay 


















1 



1 






Kurt Beyer 


































Edna B. Hopkins 




















I 
















H. W. Stone 




8 

1 
5 






8 
5 
| 


534,487 
28,645 
45,000 
70000 












2 
















5 












2,00) 


Francis M. Donahue 


1 


82,078 


1 


1,800 




1 














1 


7 
A 




9 








4,750 


Frederic T. Feeney 
J. Francis Gill 


1 
1 

1 


3 
1 
2 
3 








































i 




3 


1 


1 


1 








John Devins 




4 




1 


1 

4 
































El. Isabel Mead 


23,252 






















1 
















William T. Guion 




25 

1 


f 






II 
8 


5154,991 
98,829 






( 




1 


3 

8 
I 
















13 
1 


i 


11 


1 




8,364 


8,354 

1,986 


Sam J. Kalloch 






j 










1 














1 






Marion D. Coday 


U 
! 

11 






1 

35 

11 


'2,500 

3,950,517 
162,000 
59,000 
5,000 
200,270 


1 

29 

t 

] 


1,250 

3,372,191 
8,000 








I 

18 


i 


1 

A 












1 
















Harold C. Davis 

Gertrude M. Hartnett.. . 
William L. Koch 
Patrick B. Kearney 
W. F. Keenan 
F. H. Marvin 
H. E. Hadlev 




1 
6 






1 








s 

1 


1 


2 
1 

2 


46 
18 

12 

*!! 


8 

2 
1 
1 
1 


40 
16 

17 
5 


22 
4 

4 
1 






56,185 
14,000 

17,900 
1,250 


"i 


37,332 








5,000 


5,666 

17,000 
1,250 


2; 

li 
1( 




8 


30 

10 

18 


1,056,932 
8,734 
43,002 
5159,238 
478,447 


11 


27,030 
8,393 
50,000 


22 


153,654 
3,876 


] 


2j 

1 


1 


1 




\ 
\ 






10 
1 


78 

5 

23 




30 
1 
9 


25 
4 


504,300 


54,524 


558,824 
4,433 


William P. Nugent 
Smith T. Fowler 
Theodore E. Brown 
Pauline T. Foley 
Edtrard A. Wachter 

JM. Esthyr Fitigerald.. 


10 


55,095 


1 


9 














1 


24 


9 


20 


7 


250,000 


15,000 


265,000 












1 








12 


903,23 


3 


185,000 


' 2 


7,000 


2 


11 


"ft 








4 




i 


12 

8 


1 


11 

3 






14,000 


14,000 
13,503 


Robert L. Banford 
George S. Haight 
E. Dana Caulkins 


'i 




'i 


1 
S 


24,479 
547,27 

83,310 
596,56 

123,43 
"71,86 
81,000 












2 




















4 


i 








Thomas E. Pietrani 
Frank B. MeGovern 

Frank T. Hanlon 
James F. McCrudden . . . 

Julius C. Highe 
Ollie Stadler 






3 


18,500 
242,450 


i 


( 
















17 

































82 

L 




23 
i 


27 
< 




21,300 


21,300 
'6,422 








1 




















4,680 


































G. C. Suttles...'. 



155 



PLAYGROUND AND GOM'MUNn 

Footnotes foil 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 

Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergenc> 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


Source of Financial Support f 


1 

*S 
1 


No. of Women 


INo. Employed 
Year Round 


Activity Leaders 


8 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 

Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


N. C.-Cont. 
Charlotte 


82,675 
52,037 
17,093 
53,569 
36,745 
1,500 

11,362 
9,652 
100 
37,379 
53.013 
32,270 

75,274 

11,090 

5,451 
28,619 
17,112 
1,650 
500 
5,268 

255,040 

23,934 
2,035 
6,688 
104,906 
451,160 

900,429 

1,250,000 
50,945 

290,564 

1,201,455 
200,982 

8,818 
8,675 
39,667 
12,751 
12,790 

3,791 
9,859 
589,356 

16,621 
7,069 
70,509 

18,716 
42,287 
44,512 
33,525 
1,800 
14,524 
5,518 
30,596 

16,314 

4,427 
10,944 
16,009 
10,622 
24,622 
17,783 
6,198 
4,399 
68,743 
35,422 
11,249 

290,718 


Park and Recreation Commission 


1 

36 
11 
94 
9 

9 


1 

16 
10 
34 

9 


] 
] 
1 
I 


















M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
P 
M 
C&P 

M 

M&P 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 

M 

M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M&P 

M 

M 

M 
C 

M 
P 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M 

M 
M 
M&P 

M 

M&P 
M 
M 
M 
P 
M&P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 
M&P 
P 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M&P 
M 
M 

M 
M 

P 


Recreation Commission 


42 
"66 


3f 


15,750 
10,300 
1,336 
8,125 


6,543 
411 
15,508 
9,275 


14,460 
2,934 
19,697 
4,523 

3,000 


8,477 
1,480 
8,272 
16,300 


22,937 
4,414 
27,969 
20,823 


45,230 
15,125 
44,813 
38,223 

! 5,500 


Gastonia 


Recreation Department 


Recreation Commission 


High Point 


Park and Juvenile Commission 


Hiwassee Dam. . . . 

Kinst.nn 


Training Division, Tennessee Valley 
Authority 


60 


14 

q 


City, Recreation Council and W. P. A.. . 


j 


o 










Lexington 


Board of Commissioners and Mayor. . . 


1 














1,000 
1,600 
2,900 
2,820 

1,170 

8,838 

586 






12,000 
2,600 
3,600 
8,340 

5,371 
17,526 

20,649 
1,300 
17,500 
11,707 
1,250 
450 
1,500 

49 240 


Montreat 


Mountain Retreat Association 




i 










1,000 
700 
2,384 

1,498 
5,720 

4,742 




1,600 
2,900 
4,556 

3,873 
11,806 

8,898 


Raleigh 


Recreation Commission 


1 

4 


3 

I 

17 

| 


. I 
I 


j 
't 

5 


50 
42 

54 






Wayne County 72 . . . 
Wilmington 73 

Winston-Salem. . . . 

North Dakota 
Bismarck 

Devils Lake 


Memorial Community Building 
Recreation Division, Public Works De- 
partment 


1,400 


1,736 

2,703 
2,968 

8,312 


Public Recreation Commission 


19 

5 

3 




Board of Park Commissioners and World 
War Memorial . 




H 


7,009 


Board of Park Commissioners 






Fargo 


Park Board 


3 


*1 




9 














Grand Forks . 


Board of Park Commissioners . . 


3 


1 






6 


2,214 
200 
150 
500 


3,490 
200 
150 
500 

16,240 


1,612 
450 
50 


4,391 
400 
100 
500 

22,541 


6,003 
850 
150 
500 

33,000 


Lisbon 


Park District Board 


1 








Portland... 


City of Portland 


1 






5 
5 


5 
13 


Valley City 


City and W. P. A 








Ohio 


/Recreation Commission 


50 
T 


15 


I 
1 


10,459 


Barberton 


U. Edw. Good Golf Commission 








13,861 
1,610 
213 


Board of Education 




1 










982 


628 
120 




628 


Bluffton 
Bowling Green 
Canton 


Board of Education 


1 














Park Board and W. P. A 


? 






1 












Recreation Board . . . 


31 
239 

80 

137 
5 

6 


10 
133 

77 
126 


j 
U 

20 

I 

2 

3 






11 
274,201 


14,570 
83,460 


10,652 
82,793 


8,352 
53,223 


19,004 
136,016 


33,585 
493,677 

327,144 

86,587 
2 3,424 

28,418 
15,695 

49,086 
6,260 

200,225 
500 
3,500 

7 

3,766 
610 
36,072 
600 


Cincinnati 


Public Recreation Commission .... 


119 


1725 


Cleveland 


Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty 


Department of Playgrounds, Board ol 
of Education 








14,147 
1,271 

1,865 

2,674 

9,975 
2,975 

. 50,320 
50 
1,000 


57,502 
2,052 

6,000 
11,058 

25,666 
3,285 

30,015 
300 
2,000 


14,938 
101 

20,553 
1,963 
6,803 


72,440 
2,153 

26,553 
13,021 

32,469 
3,285 

119,905 
450 
2,000 


Cleveland Metro- 
politan Pk. Dist. 75 
Cleveland Heights. 

Columbus 

Cuyahoga County 76 
Dayton 


Hiram House Settlement 


28 






Metropolitan Park Board 






Division of Public Recreation, Board oi 
Education 


30 
102 


21 
37 


1 

9 
? 


4 
3 


38 




Division of Public Recreation, Depart- 
ment of Public Service 


6,642 


Recreation Commission 


Bureau of Recreation, Department ol 
Public Welfare 


86 
] 


2 
5 


15 


58 

<i 


333 


30,000 


89,890 
150 


Defiance 


Men's East Defiance Booster Club 
Cooperative Recreation Service 


Delaware 




1? 




500 


East Cleveland 
Euclid 


Service Department 


12 
4 

1 
1 


6 
6 
1 










Board of Education 


















Fostoria 


/Board of Education 










150 
285 
150 


460 
465 
450 




460 
2,037 
450 


Geneva 


\Park Commission 








33,750 


1,572 


Young Men's Club 


1 
1 


1 








Girard 


Liberty Memorial Park Board 












Hamilton County 77 
Ironton 


Recreation Commission of Cincinnati 
and W. P. A 


5 
8 
g 


1 

2 








11,000 


2,900 
1,407 
200 


3,000 
1,753 
300 

11,000 
1,100 
3,940 


2,200 


5,200 
1,753 
450 


19,100 
3,160 
650 

26,300 
1,200 
8,203 
5,575 
3,655 
4,000 
26,181 
2 1,400 
4,692 
5,592 
4,400 
4,500 
3,440 
1,130 
7,000 
1,045 
6,273 
1,000 
421 
2,946 
32,462 
1,750 

109,594 
HOO 

6.967 


Recreation Board 








Kenton 


Department of Education . 










150 


Lakewood 


Recreation Department, Board of Edu- 
cation 


71 
1 


76 


1 


5 






Lancaster 


Recreation Board and Y. M. C. A. 






100 
3,463 
575 
1,109 
1,000 
6,004 




1,100 
3,940 
3.800 
2,546 
3,000 
8,976 
400 
4,492 
3,693 


Lima 


Recreation Board 


8 
6 


9 








800 
1,200 




Lorain 


Park Commission 










Mansfield 


Recreation Board 


8 


10 




13 
6 
3 


5 
12 
10 


2,300 


246 
3,000 


Mariemont 


Thomas J. Emery Memorial Board 




Martins Ferry 
Miamisburg 


Recreation Commission 


8 
2 


1 


<1 


11,201 
1,000 




Recreation Board 


400 
1,042 
2,609 
2,312 




Newark 


Board of Education 


3 
3 


1 








200 
1,899 


3,450 
1,084 


Niles 


(Recreation Commission 


1 


44 


74 




Orrville 


\Pftrk Commission 


4 
1 


1 




Board of Park f!ommissioni>rs 
















Painesnlle 


Recreation Board 


3 

6 


1 

5 


1 


10 


75 
25 






1,440 
1,000 
3,000 
585 
5,573 






Piqua. . . 


School Board 




130 
2,000 
235 




1,000 
4,000 
585 
6,273 
800 


Sandusky 


Memorial Building Association . . . 
Recreation Commission 


1 
4 




1 






1,000 
225 


1,000 


Shaker Heights 
Shelby 


Board of Education 


13 
? 


8 








700 


Seltzer Memorial Park Board 










200 


South Euclid 
Springfield 


Department of Recreation 


1 
















Recreation Board 


12 




1 
1 


3 
3 


26 
201 




1,586 
6,243 


1,281 
8,829 
1,050 

24,265 


79 
6,970 


1,360 
15,800 


Steubenville 
Struthere 


Department of Parks and Recreation.. . 
Park Board and Recreation Board 


9 
3 


7 


10,418 
500 

50,630 


Toledo 


[Division of Parks and Recreation, De- 
partment of Public Welfare 


32 
? 


6 


7 




12 


14,271 


20,428 


44,693 


Metropolitan Park Board 




Frederick Douglass Community Asso- 
ciation* 4 


1 


1 


2 


10 


18 


175 


2,740 


3,450 


602 


4.052 



156 



CREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

table. 


Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


J 

a 

55 

4 
-3 

K 

3 
33 


1 
55 

a 

c 

I 
.S 
Q 

1 


1 
55 

S 

ja 

M 

a 
13 
"S 



1 

55 

S 

o 

[ 

1 


J 

a 

55 

1 

1 

S 

b 

ja 


1 

55 

1 

S 
S2 

1 
S 


1 

55 
*o 
S 

^H 

O 

O 

"o 

O 


1 
| 



1 
c 

1 

M 

.a 

CQ 


1 
55 

8 

T 

C 

1 

S 
I 

w 


M 

& 

4 

1 

.3 

a 

i 


Emergency Service 




>, 
3 

3 

1 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


Year Kound 
Summer Only 


> 

8 
> 

8 

.c 

I 


1 

J3 




1 


| 

IP 

1^1 B 

sill 

"3 S-s "S 

sill 

E-iOaPnCQ 




B 

55 


S 

fel-a 

s 

li 

3 ' 

O S C5 

HwPW 


1 

a 



8 
>> 

4|| 

Jx'g.S 1 


1 
55 a 

1 ^ 
PL< "8 

bo t 

s -1 

"2 S 

. 3 

55 


a 


"o 

1 
55 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanen 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


Source of 
Information 


. 11 

3 : 

.. E 
3 t 
c 

1 .. 

2 . . 


. . 


'i 


1 

1 


379.00C 
218,16 
110,68 
108,01 
5 27,OOC 












1 

r 
















2< 


1 1 

i; 


i 








Walter J. Cartier. . . 
C. R. Wood 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 
13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
a 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

37 


b 

28 
39 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

S 
1 



1 

2 

3 
4 
5 

M 

f 

8 
1 


) 

4 
a 

) 




126,88 




44,30 














42.00C 


19,18 
3,69( 
8,6(X 
8.50C 


61,18 
4,48 
18.60C 
63.50C 




71,93 

00,00 

100,000 




66,66 
19.00C 














10.00C 
50.00C 


H. Rutter 
Daniel R Neal 


















W. F. Bailey 


0. D. Johnson. . . . 
Charlotte M. Hill 
































6 : 
l .. 








*18,000 
146,31 
169,000 


































30.00C 




30.00C 


John B. Craven 
Albert R. Bauman 
G. M. Matlaek 






6,84 




















.. i 


1 
1 

2! 




10,14 
94 

7,54 
20,34 


10,14 




48.68 


23,11 
17,40 

8,87 




i 
















17 . 

72 


'i i 
is 




94 

7,54 
23,460 


Charles Stapleton 
Flora Miller 


". 1: 
.' 
.. 

.. .. 

! . 13 
i . . . 






1 
1 


717,404 

11,97 
10,000 
73,70 
14,28 
16,000 




5,82 












Loyd B. Hathaway 
Myron H. Atkinson. . . . 






















2,89 
17,79 
19,25 
3<X 
7! 
7,42 

424,52 


























F G Storrs 












3,12 


3,83 


Mrs. M. B. Kannowski 
C.G.Mead 


















17 








36 


48 


12,000 
390,400 


\ 


10,000 
59,110 




3,360 
233,80 




i 
















49 


3 17 


3 




7 
7,42 

149,52 


E. R. Foss 
Donald R. Henderson. . 

Willis H. Edmund. . . 


34 


275,000 


I . 8 




38 


8 

6 
14 


304,000 
. 6,500 


* 


KS.OOO 


! 


18,000 
18,300 


' 2 


5 
40 

55 

10 
9 
19 


















4 3< 


1 
164 

70 

14 

40 




14,44 
2,020 


14,44 
2,02 




. 1 
1 3 2 
i . 14 
J9 44 

r:3 29 

i . 59 
> 1 ... 














A. J. B. Longsdorf 


1 






2 








12 
22 
158 . 

72 




498,743 
1,471,480 

2,000,000 

1,721,499 
148,000 


13 
11 




25 
197 


25,141 
751,081 


3 1 
. 145 

7 240 

1 24 
1 30 

3 8 






23,55 
855,07 

983,91 

50,765 
4,364 


C W Schnake 




53 

70 

59 
] 


504,744 
2,973,588 


5 




; 




2 


5 


<4 


456,74 


290,49 


Tarn Deering 


Margaret E. Mulao 
G. I. Kern 


30 
6 


353,733 
350,000 








4,364 


tlary E Gilbert 






1 

1 




V. A. Stinchcomb 
Earle D. Campbell 


4 24 
:. 101 

5 27 
. 1 




11 
18 


11 

28 
19 

32 

1 


24,676 

530,577 
5,038,428 

5 960,841 
15,000 






10 












1 




14 


13 






9,000 


9,000 

15,722 
161,939 

46,720 


10 
15 


162,862 


6 

M 


29,831 






1 




1 




9 


45 1 


4 35 


?0 








( 
















158 


39 

46 




161,689 
46,720 


Charles L. Ho wells 


506,763 


12 




4 


10 

1 




i 




1 


3 


3 


i 

1 


56 1 
4 


69 
1 










1 




































. 7 
. 5 

. 5 






7 
5 
5 


167,610 
86,439 
75,000 


1 
























1 


12 
1?! 


1 14 
5 


6 
4 
6 













5 




2 

1 


5 
4 


1 
























t 
















5 
1 
2 . 


1 6 
1 






1,440 


). W. Trubey 










1 












1 






R L Collins 


L 1 

i' J 
) 6 

! "2 

I 9 
, 4 

9 
1 6 

16 






1 




























1 


1 

7 

13 
2 
3 

6 
5 
5 
12 




360 


360 








1 














1 














1 

1 
1 


4 
19 


2 1 

5 16 
8 




.. L. Willi^m^ 




'5 
4 


25 
5 
2 

14 

4 


1,891,000 
108,057 
1,050 

815,705 


'a 


2,740 


51 
1 


"12,666 





19 














69.000 


32,400 
2,966 
990 


101,400 
3,563 
990 

30,000 


j^m Dpftring , L 














velyn Edelson 


1 

2 


2 

6 
1 
















2 

21 
8 
9 
16 
7 


1 3 

3 27 
1 7 
3 20 
3 22 




j. E. MnKinlpy 






17 


375,421 




i 
i 








1 


'i 




harles A. Foster 
















9 

10 
16 


297,376 
192,194 
244,894 


2 




4 




1 


3 
7 

? 
















12,462 
31,480 


12,462 
31,480 


larold C. Dillon 




7 


113,179 


2 
















jorge J. Crehore .... 
















i 




loyd Dent 


1 
1 


30,000 
25,847 






1 

'l 
2 


1 
2 
1 
2 
3 














6 












iVarren W. Parks 


. 7 
2 
15 

i 2 




2 

'i 


9 
2 
15 
8 


176,935 
20,000 
H91.856 
231,325 


5 


107,591 














i 

i 

i 


7 
5 
14 
8 


1 11 
1 


2 


13,000 


7,836 


20,836 


arold K. Williams 
ussell Becker 








1 












1 16 
2 16 


10 
13 




4,771 
18,096 


4,771 
18,096 


joyd G. Millisor 


2 


8,500 


9 


79,630 




W. G. Llewellyn 


7 
6 
2 
4 
6 






7 
6 
2 
4 
6 


18,000 
40,000 
48,000 
34,191 
5 9,864 


3 




4 




1 
1 

1 

1 


2 
3 

1 
5 
2 


1 












i 


4 .. 
8 
? 


7 
1 .... 


1 




3,000 


3,000 


tanley Prague 
aymond S. Mote 
M. Kelley 


1 

2 


12,600 
29,856 








1 








4 

s 


23,826 


2 










1 
1 




1 .. 

?6 


. 10 


8 




13,591 


13,591 


liiabeth Niles 




liar lea A. Thornton 
ert Fix 






















1 














2 
10 
10 
3 

i 35 
2 






2 
10 
10 
3 

45 
3 


"23,762 
'254,000 
*170,129 
70,750 

1,054,513 


1 
2 

1 










1 














3 


6 .. 
3 .. 
8 .. 
3 

55 
6 


10 
. 21 
. 15 
1 12 

1 75 
4 


1 

5 
5 
3 

61 








''rank G. Curtiss. .. .. 


17,000 
78,180 


6 
4 

2 

22 






S 














11,250 
13,500 


11,250 
78,906 


Yilliam F. Keller 


61,198 
20,000 


3 


1 
3 

21 
6 




2 




1 






I. B. McClintock 






ndrew M. Lindsay .... 
rnest Curley, Jr 


13 


648,463 


1 
2 




1 


2 




8 


1,577,598 


121,968 


1,699,566 






Sed Bridenbaugh 










1 


56,252 


















?, 


3 


2 








tarenoe L. Thomas 



157 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUNIT 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Eme'gency 
Workers) 


Vo un- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


si 


a 
S 
o 
o 
55 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 



^ 

;f 
- 


2 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 

Services 


Total 


Ohio Cont. 


7,044 
8,675 

41,062 

170,002 
36,440 

11,261 


Recreation Board 


2 
5 

6 
8 1 


2 
4 
4 


1 


3 


5 
30 




250 


500 
1,587 




500 


750 
11,808 

11,153 
9,200 
5,400 
99,754 

50,015 
1,300 

910 

4,033 
1,100 
5,600 

900 

1,800 
M9.160 
34,500 
50,000 

140 

2,875 
435 
318 

101,847 
7,343 

143,170 

35,699 
2,500 
4,958 
175 
925 
25,631 
8,678 
524 

860 
1,875 
3,473 
1,354 
5,700 

2,373 


M 
MAP 

MAP 
M 
P 
M 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
MAP 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

C 

MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAC 
M 
M 

M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

MAP 

C 

M | 
M | 

M 
M 

MAP 
MAP 
M 
P 
M 
P 

M 

MAP 

M . 
MAP 

P I 

MAP L 
M .. 
M 

M i 

P c 

MAP - 
M i 


Troy 


{ outh Recreation Commission and Park 


462 




Warren 


Park Department and Recreation Corn- 


















200 


4,700 


2,300 


2,000 


4,300 




2 
33 

7 
3 

4 


2 
23 

1 

6 

3 


1 


4 


9 


Park and Recreation Commission 
Board of Park Commissioners, Town- 
ship Park District 




13,000 

12,406 
300 


17,794 

6,250 
1,000 


68,960 
28,243 


86,754 

34,493 
1,000 




3 


2 




3,116 


Playground Board 


Oklahoma 
Ada 


Park Commission 














2,236 
9,301 
8,363 
4,806 

8,064 

185,389 
141,258 

5,325 
4,544 




3 
3 
3 

. 1 


2 
1 
1 








2,177 


206 
50 


140 
1,050 
2,100 

300 

500 
11,565 
18,500 


1,510 


1,650 
1,050 
2,100 

700 
1,300 

' 27,000 




Recreation Board 


















3,500 




Mangum 


Park Department and Parent-Teacher 
Association 




4 




200 
500 


400 
800 

8,500 






4 












Oklahoma City.... 
Tulsa 


/Recreation Division, Park Department 
\Board of Education 


27 
69 


38 
109 


6 


552 


651 






7,500 


Park Board 


2 






10,000 


Oregon 

Albany 


Board of Education 


1 




















Park Board 




1 






4 












Eugene .... 


18,901 
8,050 
6,621 


Playground Commission 


7 
I 


4 
] 






I 




512 

25 






2,363 
410 
318 

73,955 
3,232 


La Grande 


Recreation and Playground Committee . 
Park Commission 




13 


3 




410 
182 

28,436 
3,232 


' 136 
45,519 






Portland 


301,815 
26,266 

1,374,410 
92,563 

82,054 
5,940 
3,506 
17,147 
120,546 
57,892 
5,296 
19,306 

23,568 
12,558 
12,596 
4,851 
15,731 

59,164 
15,201 
14,582 

7,004 
280,264 
4,548 

115,967 

14,359 
16,508 
6,156 


Bureau of Parks, Department of Public 
Affairs 


27 
10 

100 
68 


29 
8 

21 

25 
14 


9 






680 
1,760 


27,212 
2,351 


Salem . . 


School Board and Park Board 




10 


Pennsylvania 

Allegheny County 80 
Allentown 


Department of Parks 








Recreation Commission and School 
Board 


1 


14 


107 


18,000 
400 


4,679 
1,100 
1,964 

20C 
15,000 
1,675 






13,020 
1,000 
2,994 
173 
325 
10,631 
7,003 


Altoona 


Park and Recreation Commission 


1,000 

" 173 
225 
10,118 
5,720 
315 

180 
1,263 
2,820 
1,042 
700 




Avalon 


Borough Council 


1 










2,994 




Borough Council 


1 












Beaver Falls 


Recreation Board 


1 






s 
1 

39 


8 

25 
57 


400 


100 
513 
1,283 


Berks County 81 .... 


Recreation Board 


51 

2S 


35 
17 


.... 


Recreation Board 




Blairs ville 


Borough Manager 




Bradford 


Parks Department and Playground 
Commission 




















Butler 


Women's Club, School Board and City. 
Borough Council 


4 
I 

1 

3 

4 


4 
3 
6 
2 








300 


312 

398 
89 
1,000 




1,263 
3,075 
1,265 
3,200 


Canonsburg 




4 




255 

223 
2,500 


Carlisle . 


School Board and Borough Council .... 
Board of Education 










Catasauqua 






1,500 


Cheltenham 
Chester 


Township Parks and Playgrounds Com- 
mittee 








Recreation Board and Department of 
Parks 






















Clairton .... 


Bureau of Recreation, Department of 
Public Affairs . . . 


1 




1 
1 


2 


98 




2,600 

2,575 


2,400 

2,850 
1,155 




2,400 
5,050 


5,000 

7,625 
1,517 
7,615 

2,191 
4,094 
21,261 

62,798 
4,348 
1,863 


Coatesville 


Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty . . . 


5 
4 


4 
4 




2,200 


Crafton 81 


Recreation Committee 


2 






Delaware County. . 
Downingtown 


Park and Recreation Board 88 


9 


















Kerr Memorial Park and Board of Edu- 
cation 


1 

6 


1 

8 










729 

477 
2,364 


275 
2,316 
3,959 


1,187 
1,301 
14,938 


1,462 
3,617 
18,897 


[School Board 










1 Bureau of Water 










Farrell 


1 Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
[ erty 


? 












City Council 


1 










2,457 
117 


543 
351 


433 
1,079 


915 
316 


1,348 
1,395 


Greensburg 


Playground Association 


4 


5 








Grove City 


Borough Government 








Harrisburg 


80,339 


Department of Parks 


32 

1 
13 


18 

1 
18 


1 
















8,000 
400 
16,733 


Kennett Square . . . 


6,825 
59,949 

10,644 
25,561 

13,357 
9,668 
5,647 
1,824 
8,675 
2,716 
3,017 
12,995 


Park and Recreation Board . 
















'Recreation and Playground Association 
Buchmiller Park Trustees 


2 


35 


18 


6,500 


2,577 


7,478 


178 


7,656 


Latrobe 


Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
erty 












8,813 
141 
136 
270 


593 
256 
167 
311 




16,764 
228 


16,764 
1,068 
487 
339 


26,170 
1,465 
790 
920 
52 
1,004 
2,300 
600 
2,019 
290 
992 

4,692 


Playground Association 


3 
1 

1 
1 


5 

1 
1 








840 
487 
339 




'Progressive Playground Association. . . 
Southeastern Playground Association. . 
Fifth Ward Playground Association 








Lewistown 


















Lock Haven 
Mechanicsburg. . . . 
Mohnton 


'layground Association 


1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 

10 


5 
1 
1 
2 

1 
1 

8 










504 


500 




500 


-"ark Commission 












Recreation Board . 






5 




200 


300 


100 


400 


Monongahela 
Mount Joy 


Recreation Commission 










Rotary Club. . . 












258 
378 

3,261 






Mount Penn. . . 
Munhall* 


Recreation Association 




6 


14 




520 
1,431 


94 


472 
3,261 


Homestead District Recreation Com- 
mittee. . . . 







158 



.CREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 

table. 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number | 


1 

-a 
a 

a 

3 

I 


Bathing Beaches, Number 


1 

a 

I 
| 

a 
6 


Camps Other Organized, Number | 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


Swimming Pools, Indoor, Number j 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


icar ivouiiu 
Summer Only 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
"Participants Only 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve* 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


3 






8 

4 
f 


50,000 
513,113 
450,000 












1 




















4 


1 




684 


684 




1 
ft 










1 








1 




1 




4 












9 








1 




1 


3 














1 


10 


4 


23 


8 




22,000 


22,000 
400 
11,000 


















1 




400 




6 
22 

"G 






7 








3 






1 
















2 
38 

12 


1 


7 


8 




John H. Chase 






22 
1 


5 371,700 

212,026 
532,776 












9 








1 






3 








1 






2 




1 


1 
1 










2 






4 

8 


1 

8 






3,000 


Kenneth C Wible 
























5 








M. M. Shamp 
Wayne Wheelock 




































1 

1 
4 

1 

3 






1 

l 

4 


27,500 
9,000 












1 














1 


2 
4 


1 












Ira A Hill 










2 




1 

1 


1 
2 
























W. B French 






9 




1 
















1 

1 
1 
9 


2 

2 
4 

26 
19 


3 

1 


12 


12 
4 


2,600 




2,600 
200 








1 

3 
23 
47 
A 


11,400 
10,000 
3,560,434 
840,532 


1 




















200 


C B Lewis 




ii 








1 
1 
3 


1 

10 
6 




i 
















H. G Freehauf 


5 


336,670 






i 






1 


2 


fl 


8 
4 


40 


56 




65,559 


2 65,559 




47 
6 

3 

1 
7 
4 

2 

21 
5 




47 


357,677 






Herschell Emery 


















r 




2 


42 

1 


17 

1 
1 


10 

2 


12 

7 






3,500 
1,483 


0. A Zeigler 






8 

l 
7 

4 


512,870 
5,069 
64,079 










1 


2 
















1,351 


Frank B. Bennett 






























Dorothy Ann Knox 
Gilbert A. Sprague 














1 

1 


1 

3 














1 


6 
4 


1 


6 
3 


12 






1,755 










l 






3 


1 










90 
136 


90 
136 

102,000 








2 

21 
5 


57,500 

1,063,240 
286,761 
















2 

3 

3 
2 
1 


1 

89 

10 

35 

14 
8 


1 

20 
1 

6 

1 




j 




Mrs. A. C. Mclntyre.... 
Katharine E. Funk 






8 
1 


185,104 
23,000 


7 

1 


77,789 
1,800 


8 

l 

1 
1 


13 

1 

10 

9 
5 




2 




1 


2 


1 


20 
13 

' i 


39 
16 

'40 










5,537 


5,537 

200,000 
2,000 








2 




10 




2 


1 


200,000 


Ben H. Giffen 

Irene D. Welty.... 
R.H.Wolfe 
Joseph N. Arthur . 


20 
15 






20 
18 


741,497 
5 21,901 


1 


43,200 














































1 
3 
37 
16 






1 

3 

37 
l(i 


5 5,625 
34,625 
532,079 
599,397 










1 
















1 








1 






200 
2,009 
4,185 
6,000 


H. E. Drew 










2 
26 

6 


7,500 
12,362 
32,316 




1 




















5 

17 
2 


2 

1 
2 




1,909 
4,185 














99 














5 

1 


8 


4 




Lloyd H. Miller 










1 


4 


1 












Robert M. Shultz 




















1 










H. C. McCrea 


1 
4 






1 












2 

1 


1 
1 

} 
















j 














J. L. McCutcheon. . . 






4 


50,000 
80,400 
23,660 
























' 7 














Ellis W. Love 




6 


8 




















1 


l 
5 




18 


1 




8,160 


8,160 


Cecil F. Barnes 


6 

1 

3 

11 
6 

4 
1 

1 

1 
10 










1 


1 

1 
















George P. Searight 










1 
















1 
1 
2 


8 

B 

3 




1 


1 


10,000 


240 


13,540 


J. Russell Moat 






1 














4 














Harold C. Pike 






11 














g 








1 








11 
15 
4 


11 
35 
1 








William P. Lear 
Michael E. Wargo 






(i 
ft 


199,129 


4 

1 


61,608 


8 

1 


4,926 




1 


















10,340 






1 


4 










q 


1 


1 


12 
6 


I 






Chester Ash 






1 








3 


10,427 


1 






1 












Dr. D. M. Albright 






1 


























1 


7 








765 


Carl H. Schmitt 






I 

10 


12,500 
588,116 












1 
















4 








John P. Noll 














8 


3 
1 

A 












ft 




17 




1 










D. G. Evans 














1 
1 












1 
















1. S. Dunwoody 




















6 






1 


1 








9 












Gale H. Ross 


3 

7 

1 
17 
1 
16 






8 
7 
1 


67,080 
33,261 


















12 


12 






1,659 


John Hetra 








































A. W. Leeking 


























1 


8 
26 


I 

3 












3. F. Smith 






17 


367,300 










1 




1 


1 




















William C. Pelton 






































Mrs. George Ladley 
VGrant D. Brandon 

3. Warren Seldomridge. . 
H. I. Snyder 






16 


396,061 


1 


15,000 


7 


40,831 




1 


















2 


9 


6 






14,000 
















1 








17 
























8 


2 
1 




1 




1 


Ml 






29 














5 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 

( 

1 
1 

12 






5 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 


561,750 
30,500 
23,625 
7,750 
526,869 
















1 


1 














1 


2,000 
























1 










E.F.Frank 










































PaulE. Kuhlman 










1 


















1 


2 


1 








300 
192 


Mrs. S. L. Allison 
Mrs. W. T. Betts 
W. W. Strong 




























4 
Ii 


1 
1 




4 














1 
1 


1 

1 
2 

1 
























2 






7518 
























f 














Albert A. Werner 




9 
1 


54,920 
























< 
4 


1 


1 








1,086 


Mrs. Carl E. Gibson. . . . 
Joseph D. Moore 






1 

12 


31,764 
5174.122 












1 


















1 


17 


13 




450 


450 


T. A. Hasley 
T. M. Rutter 



159 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUN 

Footnotes j 


a 

"8 

A 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


+- 
1 

o 


B 

a 

"o 

1 


No. of Women 


f. 

H 

l 

dS 

Zi* 


Activity Leaders 





Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


\ 

I 

10 
11 

12 
13 

14 

la 

It 
1 
18 

19 

20 
2 

sa 

23 
24 
2o 
26 

27 

28 
29 

30 
31 

ta 

83 
34 
M 

M 

37 

38 
39 
40 
41 

42 
43 
44 

45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 

51 

52 
53 

54 
55 


Penn. Cont. 
Myerstown 


2,59 
23,00 
35,85 
7,67 

1,950,96 

12,02 

669,81 

9,266 
111,17 

6,313 

1,468 
7,433 
143,433 

2,797 

25,908 

4,395 
3,85 
1,236 

15,626 

8,055 
14,863 
24,545 
12,325 
464 
4,908 
250,000 

45,729 

1,484 
3,111 

55,254 

10,304 
27,612 

252,981 

4,460 
10,997 

62,265 
14,774 
29,154 
2,419 
8,776 
11,780 

16,465 
1,009 
1,290 
1,657 
10,946 
663 
3,659 
10,404 
2,664 

33,362 

881 
2,850 

10,214 
1,108 


Uhrich Playground Association, Inc. . . 
















3 
70( 
8(X 






10( 
74 

W 


P 
M 

Mi 

P 

M 

P 
P 

P 
M 
M 

M 

M 

MA 
M 
M 

M 

MA 

MA 
P 

M 

M 

MAP 

MA 

P 
MA 
M 
M 

P 



M 
M 
P 
M 
M 

MAP 

M 

MAP 
M 
M 

P 

M 
M 
M 

M 

MAP 
M 

M 

MAP 

M*P 


New Kensington. 


School Board 


22 
1 


14 
1 










4 

19 




70( 
8<X 


School Board 












Palmert.nn , , 


Neighborhood House, New Jersey Zin 
Company 


7! 
1 




5 






Philadelphia 

Phoenix ville 
Pittsburgh 


Bureau of Recreation, Department o 
Public Welfare 








53,43 

2,98 
6,08 

7,764 


146,75 
4,35 
12,31 

32,83 


148,63 
5,12 
3.50C 

6,74 


295,38 
9,48 
15,81 

39,57 


348,82 
12,47 
"21.90C 

47,34 
2 81,01 
3,58 

445,46 

60,000 
2,090 
=28,69 
1,01 

107,28 
1,83 
500 
1,27 

35,023 
700 
1,130 

1,038 
3,558 
1,530 
1,800 
70 
315 

7 

480 
1,630 
3,680 
2,576 
5,750 
5,883 

60,994 

2 1,620 
630 
4,192 
7,958 
4,448 

316 
15,086 
37,352 
54,263 
6,200 
322 

38,874 
7,729 
4,740 
2,300 
2,729 
13,618 

1,399 
349 
2,000 
7,659 
8,055 
200 
13,552 
6,970 
248 


Children's Playhouse Trustees 








Playground and Recreation Associatio 
j Smith Memorial Playgrounds and Mar 
tin School Recreation Center 


1 

1 


50 






[Fairmount Park Commission 1 






Rewpat.inn CVimtnissinn 


15 


11 










75C 

50,65 

10,000 
4 
1,000 
52 

10,69 
14 
50 
4 

8,71 
100 
1,13 

33 
1,32 
35 
200 


2,68 

164,47 


15 
69,19 


2,83 
233,67 

50,000 
2,04 
27,69 
49 

35,48 
29 


Bureau of Recreation, Department o 
Public Works 


4 






161,14 


Bureau of Parks, Department of Publi 
Works 






Punxsutawney . . . 
Reading 


1 Soho Public Baths 


B 


4: 










2,04 
25,07 
49 

25,52 
28 
360 
1,23 

15,11 
500 




[Board of Education 








2,620 


Y. M. C. A. and Board of Education 










Board of Public Playgrounds and Recre- 
ation 


8 


6! 






81 


61,10 
1,400 


9,96 
1 


Ridgway 


Recreation Commission . 


Robesonia 


Recreation Board 


St. Marys 


Boys' Club of St. Marys 












1,23 

24,86 
600 


Scranton 


Bureau of Recreation, Department o 
Public Works 


4 


2 






1 


1,45 


9,74 
100 




/Public Schools 


Sharon , 


1 Community Council 




1 


3 




[Youth Welfare Committee, Chambe 








45 


250 
2,23 
48 




250 
2,23 
68 
1,600 
7 
24 


Somerset 
Souderton 


[F. H. Buhl Farm Playground 














Lions Club 
Playground Association 






10 


20 


500 


200 


Spring Grove 
Sunbury 
Titusville 


School Board 










4 

225 


25 
15 


(Kiwanis Club 












50 


2 


I Oppenheimer-Weinrich Trust Fund anc 
{ Parent-Teacher Association 












Recreation Board 








25 


80 


350 
88 
3,280 
86 
250 
1,85 

13,12 


25 


37 


Warren 






3 






Washington 


Recreation Board 










200 
1.14 
3,500 
2,364 

5,91 

600 
155 
2,539 
1,06 
1,797 

100 
4,553 
7,998 
8,677 


200 
563 
500 
1,338 

300 


3,480 
1,43 
750 
3,190 

13,42 


West Chester 
West Leesport . . . 
West Reading. . . . 
Wilkes-Barre and 
Wyoming Valley 9 
Williamsport 

Womelsdorf 


Civic Association Recreation Council 






40 




Recreation Board 








10 


20 


1,500 
329 

41,650 
50 


Board of Recreation 








Playground and Recreation Association 
of Wyoming Valley 


30 
1( 


28 






50 


Department of Parks and Public Prop 
erty 1 . . . 


Playground Committee 






j 


336 
799 
5,687 
2,390 

160 

5,564 
22,354 
8,574 


139 
853 
810 


475 
1,653 
6,49 
2,65 

176 
10,025 
22,354 
45,586 


Wyomissing 


Playground Association ... 














York 


/Recreation Commission 


2 


13 




'"5 


100 


400 


Rhode Island 

Dumberland M 
Newport 


Post 14, American Legion 




40 
508 
7,000 


26 

16 
4,461 


Board of Recreation Commissioners. . . 
/Board of Recreation 


i 
48 


7: 


11 










9 




South Kingstown 94 
Westerly 


[Park Department 


37,012 


Neighborhood Guild and Town Council 
School Board . 


5 


', 


2 




13 










11 
6,000 


308 

12,874 




311 
12.874 


South Carolina 
Charleston 


ioard of Parks and Playgrounds' 
City and W. P. A. . 


30 


ll 


15 




14 


20,000 
5,469 
100 


Florence 




jrreenville 


Chillis Wheatley Association 24 . 


1 


1 

i 

4 


4 


15 




330 
300 
874 
450 


3,710 
2,000 
1,855 


600 


4,310 
2,000 
1,855 
600 


5reer 


School Board 




M 
M 
M ' 

M - 
M 
M < 
M 4 

M < 
M < 

M < 

M 1 
P 5 
M 5 
M 
M 5 
M 5 
MAP 5 

i> 


)rangeburg 


' ayground Commission 












3umter 


Trees and Parks Department 




1 




10 
9 


14 


12,568 




South Dakota 
Aberdeen 


Park Board 




1 








Armour 


City Council 


1 




















31ark 


Joard of Education 


3 

i 


2 










500 


1,500 




1,500 


)ell Rapids 
Huron 


'ark Board 

f!ity Commission 




5 


6 
2 


6,157 
4,600 




428 


375 
200 
360 


2,652 


3,027 
200 
2,160 
1,000 
226 


rtclntosh 


3ity Council . . . 


i 








ierre 
Rapid City 
Redfield 


'ark Department and W. P. A 
City of Rapid City 


2 


1 




3 




10,542 
5,670 


850 
300 
22 


1,800 
1,000 


Recreation Committee 


1 

4] 


1 

1 






5 


226 




Recreation Department and W. P. A. 




1 








pringfield 


[Park Board 
























Recreation Board 


1 

3 
1 


1 

1 












528 


175 


703 


703 
3.500 
1,035 
2,471 
820 


fermillion 


'ark Department 




3 










Youth Council 


















(Veonsocket 


Park Board 














1,541 
175 




930 


930 


./ity and Commercial Club . . . 


1 






1 


S 




120 



160 



IREATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


Bathing Beaches, Number 


J 
E 

Z 



P 

! 


Camps Other Organized, Number 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


1 
6 

55 



o 
-o 

1 

1 

! 

1 

j 

cc 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 


Tennis Courts, Number 


1 
E 

55 
i 

1 
.1 

1 


Emergency Service 





Q 

a 

6 

S5 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


> 

C 

j. 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


1 


% 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings 
Permanen 
Improve- 
ments 


; Leader- 
ship 


Total 


Source of 
Information 




















































Mrs. Haze .C. Farquhar 
Elizabeth Morgan 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

a 
b 

c 

d 

a 

7 

a 
b 
c 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
a 

15 
a 

16 
17 
18 
19 

a 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 

27 

28 
29 
30 

a 

31 
32 
33 
a 
4 

H 

6 
7 
8 
9 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
B 
7 
8 
9 

1 
a 
2 
3 
4 
a 
5 






4 




















































1! 


85,000 
6:! 4 1,980 


3 


21,895 


43 


I 






- 








38 


40 














Leroy Lewis. . . 
B. Margaret Tennant. . 

Gertrude MacDougall 
H. M.Shipe... 






40 


7,577,484 
2 '74,129 


1 


129 


44 




169,179 


169,179 
























K 






3 


5 83,798 
H 

=359,628 


2 


91,000 
296,847 




56,054 
























12 


10 








C.H.English 

Mrs. P. H.Valentine... 
0. B. G. Fullaway 




4, 


j 






si) 








n 


















104 


26,76 
'796,687 








546 


1 
































15 


91,852,405 


T 














20 


w 


2 


25 


10 


209,000 


26,566 


235,566 


Louis C. Schroeder 

Ralph E. Griswold 
Mrs. Chas. W. Houston 
Harry B. Burns, M.D.. 





























58,205 










































3l 
30 

: 
12 






32 


442,361 
32,000 






J 


159,246 


i: 


10 












20 




12 












" 142 

368,628 
380 






30 
1 
. 1 
1 

14 


5 579, 146 
15,331 
21,000 
22,745 

129,927 


t 


154,518 


11 


57,200 


l 


4 
















18 


3 


45 


4 


341,350 


23,354 
380 


Thomas W. Lantz . 
William G. Blowers. . . 
Richard M. Moll 






























j 












































































3 


224,646 






1 


14 












i 


3 


8 


3 


'4 


i 


2,655 


7,543 


27,920 






1,000 


















4 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
3 
5 
9 






4 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

? 


4,583 

517,192 
524,000 
52,000 
30,000 
3,311 
22,825 


I 


13,879 














1 














o 


2 




3,444 
1,600 


4,308 
2,125 


Luther D. Grossman. . . 
Earl D Bacon 
































14 
















































1 


7,000 


1 


1 
















( 











670 


670 


A. J Kerin 


















j 












Floyd G.Frederick... 
J Milton Swartz 










































5 










1 
















1 






1 




285 


581 


Paul F Keefer 






































Mary E. Holsapple... 
Henry Ott Jr 






3 
5 
9 


18,000 
31,504 
42,000 












1 




























450 


470 










1 


1 
















































1 
















Ellen Jane Smith 










1 

1 


1 


91! 












"i 
i 


\'i 


1 
1 


i 








95,666 


D inton E. Moffett 
[Joyd L. Clemens 


1 
2 

38 

12 
2 
1 
10 




'l 


1 
2 

38 

12 
2 
2 
10 


50,000 
572,282 

1,150,000 

146,670 
3,250 
538,000 
5 185,933 


















1 

i 


1 
^ 














i 


4,000 


80 
















l 

2 


26 

2 
\ 


4 

1 


10 


5 






1,795 


Juth E. Swezey 

H. E. Kempf 
Annie L. Eberly 




l 
1 

K 


6 

1 


] 






1 










1 




i 
i 
i 


2,500 
2,500 
31,500 


















1 
















Allen W. Rank 


6 


8,550 


1 


1 
















16 


2 


15 

1 
"3 

22 


7 

1 

i 




1,500 
2,016 

14,891 


1,500 
2,016 

14,891 


Frances J. White 


















Chester N. Hayes 


2 
3 

17 




'5 


2 
8 

34 


7,050 
52,465 
{ 1,500,000 








? 














1 


1 

11 


1 




)aniel J. Gorton 
Lrthur Leland 
Henry J. Bishop 


2 

20 


25,124 


1 
19 


812 


1 
1 


5 
19 


1 


























11 
















1 






SS 








5 
2 






7 




a 


18,600 






1 


1 
? 


3 














B 




3 


i 




1,100 


1,100 


Emma H. Howe 






2 

10 


56,510 
1,290,829 


















4 






W. H. Bacon 


i 
i 
i 


8,880 
12,480 
20,568 






1 



? 
















1 




9 


3 
2 
? 








Corrinne Jones . 


2 


5,300 














1 
1 


3 
4 


1 


5,000 


2,000 
1,440 


7,000 
1,440 


David G. Adams 


7 


5 




16 
5 
8 
4 


71,949 
40,000 
5 142,778 
3,500 


2 
1 

6 


1 

2 
3 






7 


1 
1 








tfrs. Hattie Duckett 
Villiam M. Albergotti... 
A rs. Martha H. Zeigler. . 
drs. Julia L. Dillon .... 

ilrs. Alice Gambrel 
Phil Felton . . . 


3 
2 


43,000 
9,250 










7 


110,780 
















5 




3 
16 


4 
10 






3,744 
15,600 






















3 

8 

1 


1 
2 






5 
1 
1 
1 
5 
2 
2 






5 
1 


83,300 






2 


18,000 




3 


2 


































I 




4 




1 




1 




1 

1 


1 
I 

3 
1 


1 
1 
1 














i 




1 
1 
9 
1 
5 


1 

'ie 

i 

2 




300 
600 
6,687 
440 
2,450 


500 
5,600 
7,137 
440 
5,472 
10,000 
1,232 
11,220 


3. F. Voss 




1 
























3 

9 


1 


5,000 


E. P. VanBuren 






5 
o 


5 16,195 






1 
1 


26,000 


1 












Loftus H. Ward 


i 

i 


3,000 
3,669 










1 
1 


2 






j. B. Pitts 




2 


4 


23,321 






1 
















Fhilmer Benson 










1 














4 




10,000 


xslie H. Kiel 


2 
6 







2 
6 


26,000 
10,000 






1 


3,000 


1 


2 


1 














4 




8 
9 

"3 


4 

8 

"i 


560 
11,220 


3. A. Haddorff 
























Jarney A. Boos 












1 


3 








1 




'i 


e 


2 




Viargit Arno 
SlizabethFitzGerald.... 
E. A. Lcnhart 


2 
3 
5 






i 




i 


835 












? 










9 








1 






1 




1 












5 


23,833 


i 


54,028 








1 


1 














>, 




7 


23 






6,076 


Irs. I. G. Bergh 














1 






i 








Mary Andrew 


1 


2 




31 2,200 






1 


900 




1 


1 


















i 






330 


330 


f . D. Richards 



161 



PLAYGROUND AND GOMMUNH 

Footnotes foil 



to 

8 

"B 
& 


STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


"8 


g 
3 
3 
6 
S5 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 


Activity Leaders 


E 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


1 

s 
s 

4 

1 


7 

8 

V 
10 

11 

12 
IS 
14 
15 

16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

as 

24 
25 

26 
27 
28 

29 

30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

M 

37 

38 
39 

40 
41 

42 
43 
44 
45 
M 

47 
48 
4!) 

50 
51 

52 
53 

M 

55 

M 


Tennessee 


119,798 

11,914 
105,802 

153,866 

43,132 
53,120 

57,732 

95 57,500 
260,475 
9,587 

102,421 
163,447 
52,938 

12,622 
292,352 

5,036 
7,311 
16,203 
7,913 
10,470 
15,649 
50,902 

231,542 

5,225 
10,848 

17,113 
52,848 
43,690 

3,047 
3,248 

5,093 
2,826 
9,979 
5,172 
40,272 

3,045 
14,766 

140,267 
3,727 

11,307 
9,816 

24,789 
1,822 
835 
17,315 
6,955 

24,149 
15,245 
22,247 

40,661 
34,417 
129,710 
28,564 

182,929 

4,833 
10,271 


Department of Public Utilities, Grounds 


3 
5 


32 
3 


1 


46 
















M 
M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

M 

MAP 
P 
M 
M 

M 
P 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
MAP 

M 
M 

MAP 

MAP 

P 
M 
MAP 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

S 

M 

P 
M 
M 
P 
M 

MAP 

M 

MAP 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
CAP 

M 

p 

M 
M 


Kingsport 
Knoxville 








216 


1,554 




1,554 


1,770 

11,400 
103,393 

10,870 
75,784 

'29,000 
1,134 
3,054 
98,276 
1,046 

33,152 
12,000 
82,509 
8,000 

12,364 
3,872 
216,982 
42,468 
8,500 
1,350 


Recreation Advisory Council and Wei- 




508 
25 


63 
36 










34 
1 


42 


15 


31,771 


21,247 


16,409 


33,966 


50,375 


Texas 






Department of Recreation 


57 

13 
1 
1 


22 

5 
1 


12 


70 


6 


9,559 
22,000 


16,684 


35,771 


13,770 


49,541 




[Department of Parks, Recreation and 


Corpus Christ! .... 
Dallas . . . 


( Barnwell Community Center 24 


2 
1 
23 


7 
4 
110 




234 
929 


900 
1,800 




900 
2,125 


44 
50 
15 

200 




325 


Park Board . . 


19 
4 


37 
3 






Park Board 


96 
1,469 


375 
14,422 


575 




575 
17,261 


El Paso 


(Recreation Department and Park De- 


in 




2 
4 
15 
1 


20 
110 
225 
38 




Fort Worth . . 




2 
32 

1 


2 
23 








60 


6,159 
1,000 


35,506 
700 


24,321 
1,200 


16,523 
5,100 


40,844 
6,300 


Galveston 




| Department of Streets and Public Prop- 






Highland Park.... 
Houston 


Town Council . ... 


4 












2,576 
18,061 


1,069 
41,140 


227 
4,010 


1,296 
45,150 


/Recreation Commission 
jPark Department 


35 

1, 


34 


17 

?. 


15 


260 


153,771 


Longview 
Luf kin 


Park Department 


2 
1 


2 




3 


3 


1,800 
450 


2,600 


900 




4,100 
900 


Marshall 














Orange 


City of Orange and W P A 


1 








7 
8 


60 


240 
177 






720 

794 


1,020 
971 
2,400 
9,352 
26,573 
26,966 
57,000 

6,175 
8,679 
16,345 
4,229 

2,095 

875 
9,410 
1,725 
2,845 
2,600 

34,000 
2,583 
10,557 
29,240 

J 74,380 
1,450 

2,300 

920 
2 9,964 
M.200 
1,622 
1,781 

5,206 

3,300 
3,533 

6,000 
17,360 
4,863 
18,792 
4,500 
16,264 

78,400 
8,308 
1,055 
7,016 


Pampa 




3 


1 






794 




Paris 














Port Arthur 


Park Board 


1 








1 

7 


4,952 
1,056 


313 
2,072 


300 
13.845 


3,797 
9,600 


4,087 
23,445 


/Recreation Department 


4 


7 


11 




Sequin 






9 

3 
3 
24 
1 


3 

2 
3 

7 


1 


16 


22 


50,000 




5,000 






Sweetwater . 


City Council, Board of Education and 
W. P. A. 








Tyler. . . . 




i 


5 
6 


14 

8 
6 


4,545 


600 

7,161 
787 

95 

400 
1,391 
837 
444 
600 


2,600 
6,313 


934 
2,871 


3,534 
9,184 
3,442 

1,000 

475 

3,204 
188 
997 
1,400 


Waco 




Wichita Falls 

Utah 

American Fork. . . . 
3ingham Canyon. . 

Brigham City 
Lehi 






Recreation Board 


1 
1 


1 




8 




1,000 


1,000 

375 
1,485 
188 
510 
100 

2,500 
726 




American Legion and Board of Educa- 
tion 


100 
1,719 


Recreation Department 


3 
1 


3 






15 
6 
23 


4,815 
700 
1,404 
600 

20,000 






47 
12 


jogan 


City School Board and W P A 


5 

3 


5 




487 
1,300 


Murray 


Park Department 


3gden 


Department of Parks and Public Prop- 


6 

1 
7 
1 


7 
3 
16 


<i 


10 
6 
15 


26 
12 
55 


Payson 


Recreation Department 


1,857 




726 


Provo 


Recreation Committee . 






Salt Lake City. . . . 
Spanish Fork 

Vermont 

Jarre 


[Finance Department 












\ Department of Parks and Public Prop- 
( erty 


28 
1 

2 
3 


27 
1 

2 
1 


3 

i 


16 
35 














Recreation Council 


35 




200 

350 
150 


750 

1,200 
600 


500 

150 
170 


1,250 

1,350 

770 
2,964 




600 


irattleboro 


Bathing Beach, Inc. and Leisure Time 
Committee 








Burlington 










7,000 


Morrisville 


Copley Golf Club 








?0 










Putney 






1 






25 


120 


454 

960 

1,019 

1,300 
1,410 

861 


600 
821 


448 


1,048 
821 

4,187 

2,000 
2.123 

4,189 


Jutland 


Park Board, School Board and W. P. A. 
Recreation Commission, Community 
House and Town 


2 


1 

9 






Springfield 












Virginia 

Alexandria 
vharlpttesville 
Danville . 


Playground Department 


2 


10 

2 

6 
11 
7 
5 
2 
18 

45 

2 










2,000 
2,123 

3,525 
7,699 
3,744 




Recreation Department 


2 

1 
9 


1 

'"s 


2 
25 






Recreation Division, Department of 
Public Welfare 


7 
5 
9 
4 
12 
10 

20 
1 
? 


950 


664 


Lynchburg 


Playground and Recreation Department 
School Board 


Newport News. . . 
Norfolk 






1,119 




3,744 


Department of Public Welfare 


3 


5 








Petersburg 


Recreation Department 














Richmond 


[Community Recreation Association 98 . . 
1 Bureau of Parks and Recreation, De- 
] partment of Public Works 


2 

4 

2 




3 




5,025 

10,000 
3,286 
630 
822 


11,239 

24,000 
3,300 
425 
150 




11,239 

30,000 
5,022 
425 
194 






38,400 


6,000 
1,722 


Salem. . . 


(Colored Recreation Association 
Town Council 


12 


4 




Suffolk 


Recreation Council 




1 


i 


4 




6,000 


44 









162 



REATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number | 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


1 
S 

S5 

f 

j= 

M 
C 

JS 
K 


J 



% 
& 

Q 
. 

1 


Camps Other Organized, Number 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


1 
6 

Z 

8 

73 
= 

1 
M 

C 

'e 

s 

i 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 


Tennis Courts, Number 


M 
s 


1 

M 
B 

1 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


No. of City || 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


Summer Only 
School Year Only 


I 

1 




rt 
1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


1 
% 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


34 .. 




38 


H85.000 
104,902 


15 


976,000 


4 


350,000 


3 


12 
















38 






fl 








J. Edward Hargraves . . 
Paul R. Elliott 

Monte Fariss 
J. G4enn Skinner 

J. M. Barker. 
James A. Garrison 

Frank L. Bertschler. . . . 
Rev. Chas. F. L. Graham 
Hugh T. Henry 
W F Jacoby 


1 
2 

3 
4 

ft 

fi 

7 

a 
8 
9 
10 

U 


12 
18 


14 
15 
:i 

u 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
ft 
24 

28 

26 
27 
28 

29 

30 
31 
32 
18 
84 

i5 
M 
H 

i8 

ft 
M 

40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

4li 

7 
8 

1 

.0 

1 
2 
3 

4 

ft 

b 
I 

fi 


































11 . 




15 


230,292 






40 


65,650 




U 
















20 




IS 


12 




16,758 


17,835 


6 ... 




Ib 
20 


"1,860,958 


11 










1ft 








fl 






14 


3' 














1 
16 

2( 






21 






12,000 
43,32 

65,746 


5... 


\ 


a 

1*1 


949,379 
544,943 


8 


89,168 


ft 


14,920 






~ 








7 


3 


10 
23 


29,770 
49,000 


10,579 
16,746 






i 

10 
39 


17 


85,392 
920,000 
1,626,274 
220,942 


1 


1,831 






















i ..! 

V , . . 

1 .. 


"9 


< 


21,000 






Q 














'IS 


?fl 


14 


65 


5,200 


3,692 
48,648 
6,237 

40,000 


8,892 
48,648 
6,237 

46,000 


8 
1 

1 

I 


553,559 
5,475 

21,380 
120,000 
411,860 
26,757 






I 


3( 










o 




J 


16 


18,650 
39,170 


1 


1 






















10 




Frances Hardisty 
E. R Bowman 














is 




4 


( 


2 


38 


22 


6,000 


























J. R Taylor 


7 ... 




34 




1,523,391 
442,123 


1 


5,725 


1 
I 


24 

4 


1 








i 




5 


38 
K 


4 


20 


32 


71,747 


7,500 


198,401 
7,500 


R. D. Evans 


1 




Ifoe R. Greenan . . 






















1 
















oderic B. Thomas 


































1 


( 
45 


: 


61 










i . . . 


4 


ft 


*m,5u 


8 


2 64,052 


9 


17,228 




11 




4 








59 


118,229 


61,200 


179,429 






















Clarence Brock. . . 
B. N Taylor 


2 




2 
1 


M.OOO 












1 










1 




1 


n 






























1 












1 


4 














C. S. Stine 


































1 
















H. J. Graeser 


4 

3 ... 


1 


6 
S 


113,400 
9,419 






6 


105,312 
























< 


1' 




7,200 


7,200 


Orell G. Thomen 


































Rosemary Roach 






























1 


4 














W. F. Hicks 






7 

22 


209,602 
699,298 


l( 


28,618 
258,303 








1 


















J 


1 

17 


17 
29 


5,802 


9,585 
27,700 


15,387 
27,700 


M. C. Creswell 
JMary Wilson Young. . . 
W. P. Witt 


1 '.'.'. 




7 


4,250 




13 














8 


4( 
















1 

I 


1 






1 




1 

7 

14 
12 


5 


32,038 

5 126,065 
833,684 
171,677 
158,706 


A 


34,000 


3 


3,240 












1 
1 


( 


1 

1 
1 


6 

9 
15 


4 

18 


75,000 


270 

9,772 
17,486 


75,270 

9,772 

17,486 


1 














1 






James F. Houlihan, Jr. . . 
R. Foster Blaisdell 


3 2 








8 


2,352 








1 










1 
1 


60,718 




4 










1 




1 


14 
17 

A 










R. H. Schulze 


















1 




21 


14 




20,353 
3,000 


20,353 
3,000 


Frank Collier 


T 








5,000 




? 






6 












Leo B. Nelson 


1 




1 
i 
3 
8 
1 


17,076 
56,000 
28,000 
142,413 












ft 






















8. J. Stantistevan 
Vernal J. Harris 


1 














1 




1 










1 


4 


1 




8 




555 

4,596 
10,792 
2,100 

15,000 
2,139 


555 

4,596 
10,792 
25,000 

15,000 
2,139 
18,142 






1 


1,500 








1 
















Dean Prior 


4 . 




S 


3,400 


1 


3 
1 












i 


i 


( 


1 

1 


1 


4 
3 




31en Worthington 
R.. R. Rasmussen 

Aaron Home 


1 


















1... 

4 
3 3 


4 


14 
8 

10 


137,400 
213,008 


S 
8 


22,500 
16,448 


5 


30,000 


1 
1 


4 
1 
1 


"i 


1 
2 


2 
1 


1 






i 


11 
3 


2 


1 
8 
8 


32 
16 
30 




Stanley Wilson. . . 


4 


244,405 


1 




"i 


i 
i 

7 
1 


12 


I 




Fena V. Holland 
























Jessie Schofield 
Urs. Blanche Jensen. . . . 

Harry C. Fisher 


6 




16 
ft 


97 552,837 


2 

f 




6 
5 


7,200 




ft 








g 




4!) 
ft 

2 


1 
10 

2 


48 
3 


55 
10 








4 






1 


2 


i 

i 
i 


2 










3,600 


3,600 


2 




2 

f 


60,000 


















1 
























4 
25 


1 
10 




750 


840 
5 7,000 


Theresa S. Brungardt. . . 
Thomas F. ('onion 


4 




4 














6 


i 














HI 


7,000 
























I 
















'. M. Kelley 










1 
1 

1 


4,000 
20,400 
























1 




1 
9 


1 
5 

1 




840 
5,302 


840 
5,302 


Mrs. Esther J. Pratt. . . . 
Richard F. Hayden 

Mrs. lone E. Locke 




5 


8 


65,000 








1 














1 












1 














1 






r... 


1 


7 
4 

6 
13 
9 
f 


47,500 
48,353 

153,858 
669,317 
103,453 










1 


6 

1 














1 


9 
18 

fl 


1 
1 












Lucy Houston 


2 

2 

3 


48,684 

14,330 
102,902 


1 

1 
1 


3,092 














2 

5 
2 


5 

4 

4 




3,000 
2,808 


3,160 

3,528 
45,800 


*Ian Crow 




1 
















31,000 


Alan L. Heil 


21,869 




4 














4 


18 

6 


1 


Aoyd L. Howard 


i ... 




1 

I 
1 


3 

2 
3 


















Charles E. Hosier 


1 

2 


28,284 






'i 


1 




1 


1 






11 










2,592 


3,552 


I.G.Parker 






g 















3 
2 


10 
19 

7 
17 
3 
3 


8 
20 

20 
31 
6 
6 




l.C. Day 




34 




M 

2 
3 
3 


36,800 

944,000 
62,081 
41,500 
74,500 






11 

8 
3 
1 
2 


54,750 

106,102 
8,104 
3,600 
24,243 
















32,940 
21,000 


32,940 
52,086 


] aire McCarthy 


] 


98 112 


7 


10 














1 


68 
1 


24,786 


P. N. Binford 
A ice H. Harris 








2 
1 
















2 
3 




16,000 


5,336 


860 
21,336 


D. E. Denton 
Grace W. Williams 

























163 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMU: 



j 

a 
< 


I 

STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


c 

s 

"o 
1 


No. of Women 


No. Employed 
Year Round 


Activity Leaders 


1 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Salaries and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


i 

i 
i 

11 

i 
i 
i 

i 

18 

1 
2 

2 
22 
23 
24 

25 

26 

27 
28 

29 

30 
31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 

87 

38 

39 
40 
41 

42 

43 

44 
45 

46 
47 

48 
49 
60 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 

56 

a 

58 
59 

CO 


Washington 


30,82 
4,62 


Park Board 












2.50C 


25 


1.20C 

n 

2<K 
25( 




1.20C 


3,950 
1,000 
2,303 i 
12,550 
620 
27,000 
282,781 
76,583 

26930 


Ellensburg . . . 


Park Board 














Everett 


30,56 
12,76 


Chamber of Commerce and Park Boarc 
Park Board 


























12,000 


300 




25 


Olympia 


11,73 


Y. M. C. A 
















3,32 
365,58 
115,51 


Kiwanis Club 


2 
4 


2( 
1 








25,000 
35,54 
10 

3,62 


400 


l.OOC 


60C 


1,600 


Seattle 


Playground Division, Park Board 
Park Board 


2 




1 


Spokane 


40,23 
6,32 


23,88 
3,554 


12,36 
13,42 


36,24 
16,98 


Tacoma 


106,81 

11,62 
79 
22,10 

23,15 

4,84 
75,57 


Recreation Department, Metropolita 
Park District 






Wenatchee 


City Engineer 






24,000 

,11? 

5,663 
1,971 
2,731 It 
2,500 
1,688 
2,077 
5,167 
5,050 
17,164 
33,500 } 
500 

65,504 1 
1,400 1 
2,702 1 
391 M 

8,433 I 
7,500 I 
12,348 } 
6,640 
5,855 J 

17,108 J 
45,077 Ii 
400 J 
6,600 li 

28,320 * 
6,744 N 
487 ( 
9,415 N 
3,500 k 

635,600 & 

52,465 V 

392,364 C 
11,505 MJ 
1,550 Mi! 
1,360 W 
1,540 MJ 

16,198 M 
35,800 M 
93,652 M 
2,700 M 

10,835 M 
13,850 M 

21,781 M 
1,974 M 
269 M 
23,853 M 
839 M 
24,491 M 
6,468 M 
10,500 M 

8,106 M 
11,691 M 

24,000 M 
55,200 M 

1,940 M 
1,900 M 
1,200 M 


White Salmon.... 
Yakima 


Columbia Union High School 














1 


12 




120 


Department of Public Works 
















West Virginia 


/Water Department 


















Follansbee 


jPlayground Association 


1 








1 




37 
1,07 
600 
28 


1,59 




1,59 
1,65 
400 
1,400 


Park Commission ... 










1,653 
100 


Huntington 


Lions Club 












1,500 


300 
1,400 
39 
2,58 


Monongalia Co.". 
Moundsville 

Parkersburg 
Wheeling 


50,08 
14,41 

29,62 

61,65 
9,410 

23,61 
4,114 

26,287 
2,340 

26,449 

37,415 
2,279 
21,628 

50,262 

1,748 
39,614 


Recreation Council 




4 


4 


Playground Association 








150 




/Board of Recreation 












2,23 


33 


2,92 


\ Department of Streets and Parks 




/Recreation Department 


2 


2 








1,000 
10,000 


3,39 
1,500 


11,65 
10,000 
450 

9982 


1,11 
12,000 


12,77 
22,000 


Williamson 


Kiwanis Club 


1 


10 








Wisconsin 

Beloit . . . 


Recreation Department 








42,000 


8,722 


4,800 


14 782 


Burlington 


Park Commission 
















Eau Claire 


Dity Council and Board of Education. 
Park Committee 










662 


1,740 
300 
3,021 


300 
9 
3,005 


2,040 
39 
6,026 


Elkhorn 




2 






Fond du Lac 
Green Bay 


/Board of Education 


1? 


13 




2 






2,407 


IPark Board 














Department of Recreation, Park Boarc 
Recreation Department 


11 


i 






9 

66 


7,051 


808 
1,900 


2,572 
640 
3,058 

11,548 
3,908 
300 


1,917 
800 


4,489 
1,440 


Greendale 




16 
18 


3,300 


Jamesville 


Department of Public Works 


T4 


1? 




Kenosha 


Department of Public Recreation, 
Board of Education 


Of 


40 


1 


45 


30 




3,376 
7,602 
100 


2,184 
12,708 


13,732 
16,616 
300 


Kohler 


Department of Parks and City Planning 
ioard of Education 


20,859 


t 








La Crosse 


Joard of Education and Park Board. . . 
Department of Recreation, Board ol 
Education 


10 

18 
1 


1 

16 
6 












Vladison 


57,899 

22,963 
70,629 
9,062 
5,595 


1 
1 
















Manitowoc 


lecreation Board 


1 


14 




2,481 


3,082 


1,181 
487 


4,263 
487 
400 


Marathon County . 
Menasha 


County Park Commission 




'ark and Recreation Board . . . 


7 










8,880 


135 




tfenomonie 


'ark Board 


















578,249 

725,263 
1,819 


Department of Recreation and Adult 
Education, School Board 


580 


333 


54 








111,032 


298,827 


125,741 


424,568 


Milwaukee Co.' 00 . . 
Montreal 


Playground Division, Department ol 
Public Works 






52,465 

79.298 
4,700 


Recreation Department, County Park 
Commission 


W 




<TC 






82,986 
3,400 
200 
500 


73,795 
1,655 
1,350 
300 
240 

10,998 


156,285 
1,750 


230,080 
3,405 
1.350 
860 


ithletic Board 


3 
5 
1 
? 


1 
3 
1 






5 


^eenah 


9,151 
4,661 
2,033 

40,108 

67,542 
8,019 

39,251 
13,479 

10,706 
4,949 
36,113 
2,919 


jity Council and Red Cross 






tfew London 


'ark and Recreation Board . . . 










560 


Niagara 


School Board and City 










Oshkosh 


Department of Recreation, Board of 
Education 


108 


13 


1 






500 


3,500 


1,200 


12,198 


Racine 


Park Board 






'ark Board 


24 
2 

29 


18 
1 

11 


2 
1 

1 






47,500 
200 


12,000 
450 

3.770 
1,972 

9,323 


16,152 
1,250 

5,167 


18,000 
800 

1,898 
9,101 

2,058 


34,152 
2,050 

7,065 
9,101 

12,458 


Ihinelander 


lecreation Department 






Sheboygan 


Department of Public Recreation, 
Board of Education 


95 


263 


Shorewood 


Park Division, Board of Public Works. 
Joard of Vocational and Adult Educa- 
tion 


2,777 


49 
2 


38 
2 








10,400 


outh Milwaukee. . 
Sparta 


Recreation Department, School Board. . 
Council Committee 


























uperior 


ioard of Education and Park Board. . . 
Park Board 


2 




1 


3 


6 


7,500 


5,149 


2,044 


9,160 
839 
10,865 
6 


11,204 
839 
16,838 
1,839 
300 

5,374 
9,294 

18,000 
200 

1,300 
1,200 
1,100 


Fomahawk 


'wo Rivers 


10,083 
17,176 
5,768 
23,758 

21,194 
34,671 

4,760 
5,362 

8,726 


Recreation Commission 


14 
17 
1 

^ 


5 

1 


3 






328 
2,000 
10,000 

919 


7,325 
2,629 
200 

1,813 
2,397 

6,000 
5,000 

640 
200 
100 


5,973 
1,833 
300 

425 
4,280 

12,000 
200 

800 


Vaukesha 


lecreation Board 


14 


12 


Vaupun 
Vausau 


ioard of Education 1 
lecreation Committee, Y. M. C. A. and 
W. P. A 


4,949 
5,014 

6,000 


SVawatosa 


Extension Division, Board of Education 
Department of Recreation, Board of 
Education 


44 
55 

9 


21 
22 








Vest Allis 


2 








(Vest Bend... 


.thletic Commission 


14 




50,000 


SVhitefish Bay 
VLsconsin Rapids. 


^creation Department, Board of Edu- 
cation 


4 




1 






500 
1,200 


Park Board 












500 


Board of Education 


5 


1 








1,100 















164 



LEATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 
It. 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 


Baseball Diamonds, Number 


1 

S5 



-C 

1 



6C 

.5 
J3 

1 


| 

& 



a 
i 




Camps Other Organized, Number 


Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


1 
1 

z 

"2 

1 
&c 
_c 

cc 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 


Tennb Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


bummer Unly 
School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


-S 




Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


c 

S 

"o 

1 

S5 


Number of Women 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 


g 




s 

I 


'69,235 












8 
















4 


1 


22 


2 






2 750 


Herbert J. Olson 


> 




























1 






1 ... 
I 


... 


11 

2 
4 


39,600 
9,000 






6 


1,680 


1 
1 


1 


2 














10 
2 


1 
1 


26 
6 
6 


7 
3 
4 




3,960 


3,960 


Mrs. F. X. Pelegren 
Chester M Reese 




























1 


8 
1 




1 


















E. H. Burwell 
J Fred Bohler 


1 




1 

27 
13 

IS 
1 


11,000 
1,292,948 
1,473,590 

518,810 






















1 




T 


5 . 




9 
2 

1 


453,619 
18,560 

19,192 


15 


295,580 




21 
12 


10 


1 


1 


1 


2 

fl 






90 
52 

17 
4 
2 
9 


9 

12 

10 
4 


60 
20 

65 


31 

9 

60 










3 






5 


20,000 


25,000 




S.G. Witter 
Alfred R Hodges 


3 .. 
. 2 




18 


67,619 


i 


2 
4 


5 












47,000 












1 
1 
2 

1 






























1 






150 


150 









10 


85,000 










i 


1 
















6 


11 




George W Clark 
































W. G. Robinson 


4 




14 


134,244 












4 




















2 


20 






900 


Patrick A Tork 




























1 






1 








1 




1 












































W. B. Trosper 






24 
1 


'71,287 


2 




1? 






fl 
















4 
3 
i 


1 
1 


14 


6 




12,163 


12,663 














i 


1 

3 


1 












3 




L. D. Wiant 


... 


4 


6 


66,453 









22,538 












10 


6 




10,978 


10,978 










1 














1 




1 






... 


12 


25 


612,394 






15 


23,159 




8 
















10 
2 
3 


15 
2 


13 


6 




14,700 


14.700 
125,000 










fl 








? 






2 


125,000 








1 

8 
2 


8,298 
97,852 
























1 












... 




1 


33,832 


3 


5,376 


i 
i 


2 
2 

10 
1 










1 




1 


13 
2 



"i 


6 


1 


363,334 


5,870 


385,870 


Lawrence A. Krueger . . . 
Louis Rein 


1 
2 


1 










7 




7 
1 

20 


75,904 
5,400 
5 158,796 




















12 


3 






17,000 


Adolph M. Olson 


1 ... 


























ft 








E. E. Lawrence . 


5 15 








4 


10,639 


i 


3 
1 
6 
















8 
4 
6 
3 
12 


2 
4 
1 
3 


11 


6 






9,264 


F. G. Kiesler 






1 
1 


















1,500 
4,000 
5,548 
3,310 

26,190 
245,936 


Fred Fraiier. . . . 


9 





6 
9 

15 


148,983 
20,760 
149,066 

447,406 


'i 






















10 
15 
5 

37 


2 
9 
3 

15 




4,000 
5,548 


E. H. Wilson 








1 
2 

9 


43,443 
2,800 

212,358 


















Charles A. Murdaugh. . . 
Pat Dawson 








i 


2 


1 






1 










1 (i 




i 


23,400 










1 






26,190 


G. M. Phelan .. 


i 


4 
fl 


8 






1 








18 

9 


1 


245,936 


Floyd A. Carlson 






i 

5 

14 
8 


25,000 
'56,696 

265,024 
92,924 






























Roy A. Ebben 
















fl 














1 


8 
34 


1 












G. M. Wiley 










7 




8 


3 

1 


6 






















Harry C. Thompson 
L. J. Petrosky 






i 

4 


10,980 


6 


235,964 














99 




17 


2 




8,400 


8,400 








2 
1 
1 

14 


2 
2 
3 




















I. S. Horgen 






5 




1 


27,000 


















1 


6 


3 


2 


1 




840 


840 


Kenneth Carrick 




























J. C. Wilcoz 


;... 




87 


5 4,667,807 


5 


1,213,333 


27 


1,279,330 


1 










1 




53 


8 


36 


14 




51,828 


201,016 
540,935 

'24,900 
2,500 
150 
600 


DorothyJEnderis 












7 




540,935 


Gilbert Clegg 






25 

4 
4 
S 
1 


805,752 
18,879 
16,600 
8,012 


17 
1 




11 




1 
1 
1 


21 
1 
2 
1 


8 






1 


5 




4 


122 
3 


5 


32 
2 
1 
2 


5 
3 


24,900 
1,500 
150 
600 


Donald Griffin 


; ... 


1 


30,362 










1,000 


Glenn H. Stevens 






1 














13 


8 

1 
1 


Armin H. Gerhardt 
R. M. Shortell 










1 


1,430 












1 


2 














1 














1 


2 




F. A. Mates 




33 


88 


141,900 


1 


31,225 


5 


120,310 


1 




1113 






















R. C. Miller .. 


ft 










1 






7 
17 
4 


1 
2 












A. L. Cone 






13 
| 


173,107 


3 


66,125 


6 
1 


27,500 


2 


5 


2 
1 






2 


1 






9 


4 


100,000 


14,040 


114,040 


B. A. Solbraa 










T. M. Ward well 






7 


117,333 






7 


24,269 




3 












1 




18 




17 


2 




4,410 


8,826 


Harry J. Emigh 














4 
















8 




Gordon Z. Rayner 




4 


7 

4 


88,769 
30,000 






6 

ii 


63,964 
















1 




fl 














H. M. Genskow 






2 

1 


4 

1 
5 
1 

1 
2 
















A 




in 






10,000 


10,000 


Pernon F. Peak 














1 

1 
8 
1 
1 


1 












1 










tlarry L. Berkman 






14 


120,475 






18 


162,222 






1 






13 


2 


16 


8 


9,000 


20,886 


44,886 


Joe T. Leszcynski 






















Lillian Zeitelhack 






s 
1 


70,281 
90,282 


1 


114,224 


3 
5 


11,302 
3,945 












j 




11 
12 
4 


3 
2 


8 
14 










Arthur Eckley 
















' 7 1 




3,000 


6,720 


10,220 


Earl A. Lockman 
F. H. Bates 


2 


"2 


9 

S 



2 

4 


58,000 
69,004 

350,000 






9 
6 

5 


12,880 
39,203 

154,900 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 


8 

1 

3 

2 

1 


l 












1 


15 
8 


2 


16 
9 

52 
4 

5 






13,300 


13,300 


I. S. Horgen 














1 


6 

15 
1 

2 




Thos. B. Greenwill 
Fred W. Zirkel 
















i 




6 
9 

1? 


2 
1 






46,925 


9 




2 
2 




1 










50,000 




50,000 
7,900 


loy T. Grignon 

C. A. Wangerin 
H. C. Denuts 


"52,000 






4 














1 




.!... 




2 


15,000 










1 


1 
















6 




8 










f. A. Torresam 



165 



PLAYGROUND AND COMMUN 



STATE AND 
CITY 


Popula- 
tion* 


Managing 
Authority 


Paid 
Recreation 
Leadership 
(Not Including 
Emergency 
Workers) 


Volun- 
teer 
Workers 


Expenditures Last Fiscal Year 
(Not Including Emergency Funds) 


1 

% 
"8 

& 


No. of Women 


INo. Employed 
Year Round 


B 

^ 

& 

< 


J3 
O 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Upkeep, 
Rent, 
Supplies 
and 
Incidentals 


Sa 


ariss and Wages 


Total 


For 
Leadership 


Main- 
tenance 
and Other 
Services 


Total 


Wyoming 


16,619 
17,361 
8,609 
1,800 
8,536 

19,468 
137,000 

4,500 
3,300 
50,000 

84,000 

18,000 

694,263 
39,000 


City of Casper 


1 




















2,950 
1,200 
4,500 
3,100 

5,200 

3,666 
32,715 
109,368 

16,723 W 
9,500| 

85,270 

5,795 

61,527 
11,800 

101,165 

10,000 

12,565 
25,000 
3,000 
6,435 

32,706 
57,694 
2 251,497 
6,519 

310,300 
24,678 
2,111 
17,596 
73,017 

3,235 

27,541 
9,698 

nds; C 




Board of Education and City . . 


1 












200 


500 


500 


1,000 




City Engineer 


2 

2 

1 

3 
17 


1 
1 

1 

4 
21 












School District 


2 

1 
5 


2 
36 

90 
550 


66 

30 
9 


2,000 


500 
1,200 

1,178 
6,096 


600 
3,400 

2,488 
26,619 


600 


600 
4,000 

2,488 
26,619 




Community Boys Work and Community 
Girls Work 


Hawaii 
Hilo 


Recreation Committee, Chamber of 






[Recreation Commission 






Kaunakakai, Molo- 
kai 
lanai City ... . 
bounty of Maui 102 . 

CANADA 

Alberta 

Calgary 

British Columbia 

'Jew Westminster, 
"rovince of British 
Columbia 105 


\ParkBoard 






Community Center, Inc 


5 
6 


4 


3 
3 

12 


25 
21 

190 


100 


2,071 


6,235 
500 

5,000 


5,367 
5,000 

16,770 
1,500 


3,050 
4,000 

4,500 


8,417 
9,000 

21,270 


Hawaiian Pineapple Co., Ltd 


Alexander House Community Associa- 
tion 


13 

2 
3 


6 
8 


233 


59,000 


Parks and Recreation Department 
Board of Park Commissioners 
















Department of Education 


68 
1 


49 


16 


30 


150 




26,575 
2,000 

50,021 

1,000 

3,000 
5,000 
700 
1,000 


34,952 
400 

15,479 

4,000 

8,408 
2,820 
2,200 
1,625 

5,300 
17,176 


6,000 
35,665 


34,952 
6,400 

51,144 

4,000 

8,733 
20,000 
2,300 
3,435 


Park Department 


3,400 


Manitoba 


218,000 

12,000 
155,547 

32,000 
71,000 

127,000 
631,000 


Public Parks Board 


27 
4 


4 








Ontario 


Athletic Commission 


4 




9 
9 


5,000 
832 




[Playground and Recreation Commis- 
J sion 


20 
? 


17 


1 
? 




325 
17,180 
100 
1,810 




( Board of Park Management 


fPublic School Board 


14 
4 


14 










London 


\Board of Park Management 








2,000 

12,545 
582 


Playground Department, Public Utili- 
ties Commission 


15 
29 
126 
22 

121 
11 
2 
34 
3 

1 

13 
7 

M 

nH 


10 
17 
112 
21 

24 
10 
3 
22 
3 

11 

14 
7 

[ ! 
PI- 


"'a 

14 

121 
3 


42 


87 


Ottawa 


Playgrounds Committee 


19,340 


20,596 


37,772 


Toronto 


Parks Department 




974 


Windsor 


63,000 

819,000 

131,000 
26,000 

21,000 
53,209 

43,000 

er Soi 

ntv Fi 


Playground Association 


362 


43 




1,647 

50,020 
9,150 
181 
7,423 


4,872 

146,880 
9,732 
387 
3,763 
3,693 

1,390 

4,392 
3,000 

te Fun 




4,872 

260,280 
15,528 
1,430 
10,173 
3,693 

1,690 

5,196 
4,384 

Jtate Fu 


Quebec 


Recreation Department 1 




113,400 
5,796 
1,043 
6,410 




Parks and Playground Association, Inc. 
Playgrounds Association, Inc 


29 


20 




500 


Westmount 


L'Oeuvre des Terrains de Jeux, Inc. . . 
Parks Department 


5 
1 

1 

t 

1 

FO 

hm 
p 


42 

6 


65 
21 


34,024 
600 


Saskatchewan 

Moose Jaw 


Recreation Committee 


945 

2,345 
5,314 

P Privi 


300 

804 
1,384 

is; S S 


Regina 


Playgrounds and Recreation Division, 
Parks Board 


98 


90 


Saskatoon 


Playgrounds Association 




t Und 

P"mi 


irces of Financial Support 

inHe- F" PVHoral T^nn/lc a 


OTNOTES 
icipal Funds ; 



* Population figures taken from the 1930 Federal Census. 

1. Attempts to verify certain information in this report were unsuccessful. 

2. Expenditure data incomplete. 

3. This report covers recreation service in Bouse Dome, Gadsden, Prison Hill, Quartsite, Roll, Salom 
Somerton, Wellton and Yuma. 

4. Paid by both W.P.A. and reporting agency. 

5. Participants only. 

6. This report covers recreation service in Compton, Clearwater, Enterprise, Lynwood and Willowbrook. 

7. Data not available. 

8. Golf course manager. 

9. The Los Angeles County Department of Parks and Recreation maintains recreation facilities in Arcadia, 
Artesia, Azusa, Baldwin Park, Bellflower, Bell Gardens, Belvedere, 1 51 on m field, Castaic, Centinella, Clare- 
mont, Clearwater, Covina, Culver City, Downey, Duarte, El Monte, El Nido, Gardenia, Garvey, Glendale, 
Glendora, Gloria Gardens, Graham, Hawthorne, Hermosa Beach, Huntington Park, Inglewood, Lancaster, 



166 






EATION STATISTICS FOR 1938 



Playgrounds 
Under 
Leadership 


Recreation 
Buildings 


Indoor 
Recreation 
Centers 


Athletic Fields, Number 




\ 

3 

I 


Bathing Beaches, Number 


Camps Day, Number 


1 

a 

6 




Golf Courses, 9-Hole, Number 


Golf Courses, 18-Hole, Number 


1 

a 
8 

-a 
c 

1 
a 
1 

1 

02 


Swimming Pools, Outdoor, Number 1 1 


Tennis Courts, Number 


Wading Pools, Number 1 1 


Emergency Service 


Source of 
Information 


Paid 
Leaders 


Expenditures 


School Year Only 


Other Seasons 


1 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants and 
Spectators 


j 

3 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number 


Total Yearly or 
Seasonal Attendance, 
Participants Only 


Number of Men 


a 

"o 

1 
55 


Land, 
Buildings, 
Permanent 
Improve- 
ments 


Leader- 
ship 


Total 






7 
5 
4 


18,200 
520,000 










1 
1 


6 
2 










1 




1 


6 

e 

6 
2 

8 

4 


1 

1 

1 
1 


7 
10 

'"3 
8 

4 
17 


23 
15 

9 

3 

9 


'266 
666 


4,500 
1,000 

'840 


4,500 
1,500 

1,440 
9,011 

3,763 
22,075 












3 


2,000 


1 














1 
1 

2 


















1 
1 


Elmer K. Nelson 




2 
6 

9 
38 




1 




It 




1 
1 

1 


1 
2 

4 

11 














516,400 

530,398 
1,583,745 






8 

9 
1 


6,000 

1,680 
4,480 






6 








H L Rowe 


1 
8 


6,698 
72,417 














1 




3,763 
22,075 




2 








1 










Arthur K. Powlison 




1 

1 
1 

21 

19 
3 


16 

2 
2 






1 








12 
3 


1 








4 




1 
8 


47,954 
19,500 

55,000 


f 
6 


4,680 
3,000 


1 
1 

8 

1 
1 


4 


1 
1 




















James M Hill 










1 






1 
3 


8 
27 














Frank Katterman 
E. L. Damkroger 

William R. Reader 
A G Brine 






ft 








1 


4 


3 




1,200 


1,200 
6,268 






10 

s 


581,491 














"1 










3 




















2 
2 


8 

8 
12 

66 


2 
2 
10 






















92 


173,067 


8 










1 


















1 








2 
1 
1 


2 
8 
4 


1 
2 


1 
















7,000 


W H Warren 






29 

2 
16 


282,000 

5 55,000 
328,316 










2 


2 


1 
1 










S. Walker 






3 
I 


10,000 
2,500 




















1(1 


















f . 






50 


193 


360 








1 
1 
1 

8 
1 


9 
1 
1 

9 










1 


1 




''3 








F Marshall 






6 








e 






7 


4 












H. Ballantyne 






























1 


















9 

'57 


9 

16 
63 
25 

104 
7 
2 
9 
7 

7 

18 

4 


5325,000 
5572,263 
1,888,828 
5460,865 

8,522,465 
331,818 
36,000 
14,907 










2 
4 






1 


1 




2 


7 


3 












William Farquharson . . . 
E. F. Morgan 



























700,673 


67 


512,907 


3 
3 

8 


21 
12 

14 


6 














321 
10 

60 
2 


14 
14 












C. E. Chambers . . . 










5 














61 




33 


1,225,837 






1 








1 


18 


15 












Lucien Asselin 


1 


29,912 








2 
1 












William Bowie 










1 
3 


1 
























J. B. O'Regan 


























6 


6 
33 














Elzear Poitras 




7 


1 


i"116,112 






1 
















1 
1 












P. E. Jarman 


46,500 

172,366 
521,878 










1 
























B. C. Crichton 
J. W. Gray. 






4 


71,239 


1 


8 


1 








1 








'} 


























1 




3 












L. A. Kreutzwieser 











































La Verne, Lawndale, Lennox, Los Nietos, Lynwood, Manhattan Beach, Monrovia, Monterey Park, New- 
hall, North Ranchito, Norwalk, Palmdale, Palos Verdes, Pomona, Puente, Redondo Beach, Rosemead, San 
Dimas, San Fernando, San Gabriel, Saugus, Sierra Madre, South Gate, South Pasadena, Temple City, 
Torrance, Whittier, Willowbrook and Wilmar. 
10. This report covers recreation service in Alameda, Albany, Berkeley, Emeryville, Oakland, Piedmont 
and San Leandro. 
This report also covers recreation service in Altadena. 

12. This figure includes attendance at the recreation buildings, athletic fields, tennis courts and softball 
diamonds. 

13. The Santa Barbara County Board of Forestry operated bathing beaches at Carpinteria, Gaviota, Goleta 
and Surf. 

14. 1397 registered participants were reported for these indoor centers. 

15. Includes one 27-hole golf course. 

16. Represents summer participation only. 

17. Leased to private operator. 

18. Operated by non-profit corporation. 

19. In addition to this amount $9,304 were spent for land, buildings and permanent improvements by Dads' 
and Mothers' Clubs. 



167 



20. The Chicago Recreation Commission acts in an advisory capacity and serves as a liaison group between 
the public and private recreation agencies. 

21. Includes participants at the recreation buildings. 

22. The Cook County Forest Preserve Commission maintains major recreation facilities in Chicago City, 
Leyden, Lyons, Niles, Palatine, Palos and Thornton Townships. 

23. Represents total attendance at all facilities. 

24. Maintained a program of community recreation for colored citizens. 

25. This report also covers recreation service in Coloma. 

26. Employed four months by the Park Board and eight months by the Recreation Commission. 

27. The Winnebago County Forest Preserve District maintains recreation facilities in Durand, Harlem 
Pecatonica, Rockton, Roscoe, Shirland and Winnebago Townships. 

28. This report covers recreation service in the communities of Elkhart, Goshen and Wakarusa. 

29. This report covers recreation service in East Chicago, Hammond, Highland, Munster and Whiting. 

30. Three-hole golf course. 

31. Represents only expenditures for golf and swimming. 

32. Includes one 5 -hole golf course. 

33. This report covers the last 3 ! / 2 months of 1938. 

34. The Metropolitan District Commission maintains major recreation facilities in Arlington, Belmont, 
Boston, Braintree, Brookline, Cambridge, Canton, Chelsea, Cohasset, Dedham, Dover, Everett, Hingham, 
Hull, Lynn, Maiden, Medford, Melrose, Milton, Nahant, Needham, Newton, Quincy, Revere, Saugus, 
Somerville, Stoneham, Swampscott, Wakefield, Waltham, Waterbury, Wellesley, Weston, Westwood, Win- 
chester, Winthrop and Woburn. 

35. Represents only expenditures for golf. 

36. Includes participation attendance at the indoor centers. 

37. Four additional leaders representing both men and women gave part-time recreation service but have 
been included in the Newton Playground Commission report. 

38. Program started June 15. 

39. This figure represents attendance of both participants and spectators. 

40. This report covers recreation service in Channing, Iron Mountain, Norway, Quinnesec and Ralph. 

41. The Flint Community Music Association promotes and operates a community-wide music program in 
cooperation with public schools, churches, industries and homes. 

42. This amount does not include expenditures for golf. 

43. This report covers the period, June 1, 1938 to December 31, 1938. 

44. Director of municipal band and orchestra. 

45. This report covers recreation service in Bovey, Calumet, Cloverdale, Marble, Pengilly and Taconite. 

46. This report covers recreation service in Carson Lake, Kelly Lake, Kerr, Morton and Mahoning. 

47. Represents summer attendance. 

48. This report covers recreation service in the villages of Leonidas, Mountain Iron, Parkville and West 
Virginia. 

49. This report covers recreation service in Alborn, Bear River, Brimson, Cherry Grove, Cook, Cotton, Em 
barass Valley, Floodwood, Jackson, Munger, Palo and Toivola. 

50. These workers were employed for short periods and personnel was changed frequently during the summer. 

51. Includes participants at the bathing beach. 

52. Supervision provided by the Recreation Commission. 

53. This report covers recreation service in Belleville, Bloomfield, Caldwell, East Orange, Essex Fells, Irving 
ton, Millburn, Montclair, Newark, Nutley, Orange, South Orange, Verona and West Orange. 

54. Employed only in the evenings during winter. 

55. Also see report listed as School District of South Orange and Maplewood. 

56. Supervisory personnel provided by the Community Service and included in that report. 

57. This report covers recreation service in Paterson, Totowa, Wayne Township and West Paterson. 

58. This report covers recreation service in Kenvil, Ledgewood and Succasunna. 

59. The Union County Park Commission maintains major recreation facilities in Cranford, Elizabeth, Gar- 
wood, Hillside, Kenilworth, Linden, Mountainside, New Providence, Plainfield, Rahway, Roselle, Roselle 
Park, Scotch Plains, Summit, Union and Westfield. 

60. This report covers the annual period ending February 28, 1939. 

61. This report covers recreation service in Bethlehem Center, Elsmere, Normansville, Slingerlands am 
Van Wies. 

62. This figure represents attendance at only one recreation building. 

63. Appointed in October, 1938. 

64. Includes participants at the skating rink. 

65. This report covers recreation service in Churchville, Mendon, Perinton, Pittsford and Webster. 

66. Does not include expenditures for custodial services. 

67. This figure includes participants at the swimming pool and other facilities run in connection with one 
of the playgrounds. 

68. Appointed June 15, 1938. 

69. The Westchester County Park Commission maintains major recreation facilities in Ardsley, Cortlandt, 
Harmon, Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, Rye, Scarsdale, Tarrytown, White Plains, Yonkers and Yorktown. 

168 







70. This amount includes a small portion of park maintenance expenses. 

71. Represents participants at playgrounds and recreation buildings. 

72. This report covers recreation service in Brogden, Eureka, Fremont, Goldsboro, Grantham, Nahunta, New 
Hope, Pikeville, Rosewood and Seven Springs. 

73. This report also covers some recreation service in New Hanover County. 

74. Children's pools. 

75. The Cleveland Metropolitan Park District maintains recreation facilities in Bedford, Berea, Bentley- 
ville, Brecksville, Euclid, Fairyiew, Hinckley Township, Lakewood, Olmsted, Parma, Parma Heights, Rocky 
River, Royalton and Strongsville. 

76. This report covers recreation service in Bay Village, Bedford, Berea, Brecksville, Brook Park, Cleveland, 
Cleveland Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, Dover, East Cleveland, Euclid, Fairview, Garfield Heights, Lake- 
wood, Lyndhurst, Maple Heights, Mayfield Heights, Olmsted, Parma, Parma Heights, Rocky River, South 
Euclid and Strongsville. 

77. This report covers recreation service in Addyston, Arlington Heights, Blue Ash, Cleves, Deer Park, 
Elmwood Place, Fairfax, Finneytown, Glendale, Green Hills, Hazelwood, Lockland, Loveland, Madeira, 
Mariemont, Milford, Montfort Heights, Montgomery, Mount Healthy, New Burlington, Newtown, North 
Bend, North College Hill, Plainville, Reading, Remington, St. Bernard, Sharonville, Silverton, Spring- 
dale, Sycamore Township, Terrace Park, Woodlawn and Wyoming. 

78. This figure includes participants at seven additional playgrounds operated by other agencies but 
furnished WPA leaders by the Division of Recreation. 

79. Includes one 15-hole golf course. . 

80. The Allegheny County Department of Parks maintains major recreation facilities in Broughton, Mc- 
Cardles and Snowden. 

81. This report covers recreation service in Alsace, Amity, Baumstown, Berkshire Heights, Bernville, Blan- 
don, Boyertown, Centerport, Fleetwood, Fritztown, Gibraltar, Green Valley, Hamburg, Hampden, Hyde 
Park, Kenhorst, Kutztown, Laureldale, Leesport, Lenhartsville, Lyons, Mohnton, Mohrsville, Mount Penn, 
Oley, Pennside, Pennwyn, Port Clinton, Reiffton, Robesonia, St. Lawrence, Shillington, Shoemakersville, 
Sinking Spring, Stony Creek, Temple, Topton, Walnuttown, Wernersville, West Hamburg, West Lawn, 
West Leesport, West Monacacy, West Reading, West Wyomissing, Womelsdorf, Woodvale, Wyomissing 
and Wyomissing Hills. It includes some figures reported separately in this table by seven of the above 
communities. 

82. This report covers recreation service in Crafton and Ingram. 

83. In addition to operating and maintaining its own facilities, this board also serves local park and recrea- 
tion authorities in Delaware County. 

84. Twelve-hole golf course. 

85. This report covers recreation service in Homestead and West Homestead. 

86. Includes participants at the playgrounds and 18 recreation buildings. 

87. This figure represents expenditures for the period, March 1 to December 31, 1938. 

88. Playground attendance included in attendance figures for recreation buildings and indoor centers. 

89. Eleven-hole golf course. 

90. This figure includes attendance at the 15 year-round playgrounds. 

91. Privately owned but supervised and financed by the Civic Association Recreation Council. 

92. This report covers recreation service in Georgetown, Larksville, Lee Park, Midvale, Plains, Plymouth, 
Sugar Notch, Warrior Run and Wilkes-Barre. 

93. This report covers recreation service in the villages of Berkeley and Lansdale. 

94. This report covers recreation service in Kingston, Mantanuck, Peace Dale, Wakefield and West 
Kingston. 

95. Population as listed in City Directory. 

96. Includes attendance at seven of the recreation buildings. 

97. Includes attendance at the outdoor swimming pools. 

98. This report covers recreation service in Brook Hill, Dumbarton, Fair Oaks, Highland Springs, Lakeside, 
Laurel, Richmond, Sandston, Varina and Woodville. 

99. This report covers recreation service in Barbe, Bertha Hill, Canyon, Cassville, Greer, Hildebrand, Laurel 
Point, National, Niles Hill, Osage, Pursglove, Riverside, Sabraton, Star City, Waitman, Wana and 
Westover. 

100. The Milwaukee County Park Commission acts as co-sponsor of recreation programs in Cudahy, Mil- 
waukee City, South Milwaukee, Wauwatosa and Whitefish Bay. 

101. These beaches were operated jointly by the Park Board and Board of Education. 

102. This report covers recreation service in Crater, Haiku, Haliimaile, Hamakuapoko, Hana, Honokohua, 
Honowokai, Huelo, Kaanapali, Kaeluku, Kahana, Kahului, Kailua, Kapunakea, Kaupakalua, Keahua, 
Keanae, Kelawea, Kihei, Kuhua, Kula, Lahaina, Launuipoko, Makawao, Olowalu, Orpheum, Paia, Lower 
Paia, Paunau, Pauwela, Pehai, Pulehu, Pump Camp, Puukolii, Puunene, Spreckelsville, Camp Ukume- 
hame, Wahikuli Pump, Waiehu, Waihee, Waikapu and Wailuku. 

103. This report covers recreation service in Abbotsford, Agassiz, Armstrong, Atchelitz, Bradner, Burnaby, 
Camp River, Capilano, Chemainus, Chilliwack, County Line, Duncan, East Chilliwack, East Kelowna, 
Esquimalt, Essondale, Fairfield Island, Fernie, Grouse Mountain, Haney, Harrison, Harrison Mills, Holly- 
burn Ridge, Hope, Jubilee, Kamloops, Kelowna, Ladner, Ladysmith, Laidlaw, Lake Hill, Lynn Valley, 
Malahat, Marigold, Matsqui, Mount Lahman, Nanaimo, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Okanagan 
Mission, Peachland, Peardonville, Penticton, Port Alberni, Prince George, Prince Rupert, Princeton, 
Rosedale, Rossland, Saanich, Sooke, South Fort George, Sumas, Vancouver, Vernon, Victoria, Webster s 
Corner, Westbank, West Summerland, West Vancouver, Whonnock and Yale. 

104. Includes attendance at the athletic field. 



Emergency Recreation Service in 1938 



DURING 1938, the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration and the National Youth Administra- 
tion made possible recreation service in a 
large number of communities throughout the 
country. No attempt has been made to secure re- 
ports of this service for the RECREATION YEAR 
BOOK. Fifty-three cities, however, did submit re- 
ports indicating that the recreation work which 
they carried on in 1938 was made possible through 
emergency funds. Because of their cooperation 
in submitting reports, the service is briefly re- 
corded here. 

A total of 663 persons 418 men and 245 
women paid from emergency funds, was re- 
ported as having served as recreation leaders in 
these localities. A total of 68 volunteer leaders 



was also reported. The total amount spent for 
leadership from emergency funds in 34 of these 
localities was $375,687. 

Among the facilities provided in these 53 cities 
were: 205 outdoor playgrounds, 61 recreation 
buildings and 98 indoor recreation centers con- 
ducted under leadership, 26 athletic fields, 81 
baseball diamonds, 1 1 bathing beaches, one 9-hole 
golf course, I indoor and 7 outdoor swimming 
pools, 139 tennis courts and 22 wading pools. 

Forty localities reported expenditures from 
emergency funds totaling $535,170. Local funds 
totaling $130,980 were raised to supplement the 
funds made available from emergency sources. 

The following is a list of the localities from 
which these emergency reports were received. 



Arkansas 

Eureka Springs 

California 
South Gate 

Colorado 
Brighton 
Pritchet 

Connecticut 
New Britain* 
West Hartford 

Idaho 

Twin Falls 

Illinois 

Chicago Heights 

Indiana 

New Harmony 

lozva 
Fairfield 

Kentucky 
Ashland 
Hopkinsville 

Louisiana 
Lafayette 



Massachusetts 
Athol 
Attleboro 
Cambridge* 
Danvers 
Holliston 
Leominster 
Marblehead 
Palmer 
Provincetown 
Watertown 
West Springfield* 
Worcester* 

Michigan 
Coldwater 
Wakefield 

Minnesota 
Faribault 
Moorhead 
Mt. Iron* 
Robbinsdale 

Mississippi 
Biloxi 
Jackson 

Montana 
Butte 
Miles City 

Nebraska 
Fremont 



New Jersey 
Garfield 
Ridgefield Park 

New York 
New Castle 

North Dakota 
Des Lacs 

Ohio 

Bridgeport 
Coshocton 
Gallipolis 
Garfield Heights 
Wadsworth 






Pennsylvania 
Connellsville 
Conshohocken 
Northumberland County 

Rhode Island 
Warwick 

Texas 

San Angelo 

Washington 
Walla Wall 

Wyoming 

Lander 



* In these cities, agencies providing recreation service financed from local funds were also reported. 

170 



The Service of the 
National Recreation Movement in 1938 



732 cities in 47 states were given personal service through the visits of field workers. 

1,867 local leaders were given special training in recreation skills, methods, program, 
and philosophy of the recreation movement at one six-week institute and 9 four- 
week institutes in 10 cities. Nature recreation, arts and crafts, music, drama, 
social recreation and games, organization and administration, and recreation 
for girls and women were stressed. 

45 cities were given personal field service by the Bureau of Colored Work. Some 
time was given to training, and a conference of colored workers was held in 
Columbus, Ohio. 

69 cities were visited by the Katherine F. Barker Memorial Secretary on Recreation 
for Girls and Women in a study of girls' clubs. In addition, the secretary gave 
courses at two major institutes, conducted a two-week institute and a one-week 
institute, and took part in a program of training for rural workers involving 8 
county institutions. 3,567 individuals attended the training courses. 

44 institutions for children and the aged in 5 states were visited by the Field Secre- 
tary on Play in Institutions. 

16,554 boys and girls in 467 cities received badges, emblems, or certificates for passing 
the Association's athletic and swimming badge tests. 

4,813 individuals attended the 93 institutes conducted by the Rural Recreation Service 
in cooperation with the Extension Service of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

33 states received personal service from the representative of the National Physi- 
cal Education Service, 80 cities being visited. Through correspondence, consul- 
tation, and monthly News Letters 45 states were served. 

6,000 and more different communities in the United States and in 38 foreign countries 
received help and advice on recreation problems through the Correspondence and 
Consultation Bureau. Approximately 21,000 letters were answered by the Bureau, 
5,256 individuals called at the office for personal consultation. 

1,317 delegates from 335 cities in 38 states and 14 representatives of foreign countries 
attended the Twenty-Third National Recreation Congress held at Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, October 3-7. 

1,552 cities and towns, 46 of them in foreign countries, received RECREATION, the 
monthly magazine of the movement an increase of 128 over 1937. 

2,331 individuals in 926 communities received the bulletins issued by the Association. 
Booklets, pamphlets, and leaflets were published on various subjects in the recre- 
ation field. 

171 



197-545-35 
$255,297-29 



National Recreation Association 

Incorporated 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
January I, 1938 thru December 31, 1938 

General Fund Balance December 31, 1937 $ 42,751.94 

Borrowed from Emergency Reserve Fund 15,000.00 $ 57,75 1.( 

INCOME 

Contributions $143,414.43 

Contributions for Specific Work 6,202.73 

Interest, Dividends, Loss and Gain on Sale of Securities 14,195.02 

Recreation Sales, Subscription and Advertising 8,957.54 

Badge Sales 1,314.96 

Special Publication Sales 16,021.81 

Interest and Dividends Frances Ross Poley Memorial Fund. . 225.00 

Interest and Dividends Henry Strong Denison Fund 1,679.51 

National Recreation Congress Exhibits 1,821.00 

National Recreation Congress 2,500.00 

National Recreation Congress Registration 1,188.35 

National Recreation Congress 1939 25.00 

EXPENDITURES 

Community Recreation Field Service $150,934.41 

Field Service to Colored Communities 7,977.41 

National Physical Education Service 10,673.49 

Correspondence and Consultation Bureau 25,658.10 

Publications and Bulletin Service 17,129.10 

Recreation I 5> 2 57-79 

Recreation Congress 8,543.77 

Apprenticeship Fellowship 2,440.61 * 

General Fund Balance December 31, 1938 

* Of this amount $1,679.51 from the Henry Strong Denison Fund 

KATHERINE F. BARKER MEMORIAL 

Balance December 31, 1937 v $ 5,481.04 

Receipts to December 31, 1938 

Contributions $8,000.00 

Book Sales 295.00 

National Physical Achievement Standards for 

Girls 1 10.54 

Contributions for Specific Work 2 55-87 

8,661.41 

$ 14,142.45 
Expenditures to December 31, 1938 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial Field Secretary 
on Athletics and Recreation for Girls and 

Women 5,463.96 

District Field Work 3,197.45 

8,661.41 $ 5,481.04 

172 



238,614.68 
$ 16,682.61 



PLAY IN INSTITUTIONS 

Balance December 31, 1937 . . 

Receipts to December 31, 1938 

Bulletins . 



300.46 
113-95 



Expenditures to December 31, 1938 



414.41 
414.41 



MASSACHUSETTS PROJECT FOR CONSERVING 
STANDARDS OF CITIZENSHIP 

Balance December 31, 1937 $ 450.00 

Receipts to December 31, 1938 

Contributions 1,050.00 



$ 1,500.00 
Expenditures to December 31, 1938 1,500.00 



RECAPITULATION 

BALANCES December 31, 1937 

General Fund $ 4 2 75 1 -94 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial 5,481.04 

Play in Institutions 300.46 

Massachusetts Project for Conserving Standards of 

Citizenship 450.00 

$ 48,983-44 
Borrowed from Emergency Reserve Fund 15,000.00 

INCOME to December 31, 1938 

General Fund $197,545-35 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial 8,661.41 

Play in Institutions 1 13-95 

Massachusetts Project for Conserving Standards of 

Citizenship 1,050.00 

EXPENDITURES to December 31, 1938 

General Fund $238,614.68 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial 8,661.41 

Play in Institutions 41441 

Massachusetts Project for Conserving Standards of 

Citizenship 1,500.00 

BALANCES December 31, 1938 

General Fund $ 16,682.61 

Katherine F. Barker Memorial 5*4** I<O 4 

Play in Institutions 

Massachusetts Project for Conserving Standards of 

Citizenship 

ENDOWMENT AND RESERVE FUNDS 

Special Fund (Action of 1910) $ 25,000.00 

Lucy Tudor Hillyer Fund 5,000.00 



$ 63,983.44 



207,370.71 
$271,354.15 



249,190.50 
$ 22,163.65 



$ 22,163.65 



173 



Emil C. Bondy Fund 1,000.00 

George L. Sands Fund 12,742.72 

"In Memory of J. I. Lamprecht" 3,000.00 

"In Memory of Barney May" 2,500.00 

"In Memory of Waldo E. Forbes" 1,403.02 

Frances Ross Poley Memorial Fund (Restricted) 6,167.72 

Ellen Mills Borne Fund 3,000.00 

Other Gifts i?5-OO 

C. H. T. Endowment Fund 500.00 

Frances Mooney Fund 1,000.00 

Sarah Newlin Fund 500.00 

"In Memory of William Simes" 2,000.00 

"In Memory of J. R., Jr." 250.00 

Frances R. Morse Fund 2,000.00 

Emergency Reserve Fund $155,000.00 

Loaned to General Fund . 15,000.00 

- 140,000.00 

Loss and Gain on Sale of Securities 10,299.64 

Ella Van Peyma Fund 500.00 

Nettie G. Naumburg Fund 2,000.00 

"In Memory of William J. Matheson" 5,000.00 

Alice B. P. Hannahs Fund 1,400.00 

"In Memory of Daniel Guggenheim" 1,000.00 

"In Memory of Alfred W. Heinsheimer" 5,000.00 

Nellie L. Coleman Fund 100.00 

Elizabeth B. Kelsey Fund 500.00 

Sarah Fuller Smith Fund 3,000.00 

Annie L. Sears Fund 2,000.00 

John Markle Fund 50,000.00 

Katherine C. Husband Fund 884.55 

Leilla K. Kilbourne Fund 3,750.00 

Ella Strong Denison Fund 200.00 

Annie M. Lawrence Fund 93-73 

Frederick Mc'Owen Fund 1,000.00 

Clarence M. Clark Fund 50,662.20 

John G. Wartmann Fund 500.00 

"In Memory of Joseph Lee" . . 1,025.00 

"In Memory of Seaman F. Northrup" 500.00 

Henry Strong Denison Fund 50,000.00 



$396,490.58 



I have audited the accounts of the National Recreation Association for the fiscal year ending December 31, 1938 
and certify that in my opinion the above statement is a true and correct statement of the financial transactions of the 
General, Special Study, and Endowment Funds for the period. 

(Signed) J. F. CALVERT, 

Certified Public Accountant. 



Form of Bequest 

1 hereby give and bequeath to the National Recreation Association Incor- 
porated, New York, N. Y., the sum of dollars to be 

applied to the uses and work of said Association. 

Signed : 

Date 

Gifts and bequests deductible in accordance with Federal tax laws. 



174 



National Recreation Association 

Incorporated 
315 Fourth Avenue, New York City 



OFFICERS 



JOHN H. FIN LEY, President 

JOHN G. WINANT, First Vice-President 

ROBERT GARRETT, Second Vice-President 



GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, Treasurer 
HOWARD S. BRAUCHER, Secretary 



DIRECTORS 

F. W. H. ADAMS 

New York, New York 

F. GREGG BEMIS 

Boston, Massachusetts 

MRS. EDWARD W. BIDDLE 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania 

MRS. ROBERT WOODS BLISS 
Washington, D. C. 

MRS. WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH 
Moline, Illinois 

HENRY L. CORBETT 
Portland, Oregon 

MRS. ARTHUR G. CUMMER 
Jacksonville, Florida 

F. TRUBEE DAVISON 

Locust Valley, Long Island, N. Y. 

HARRY P. DAVISON 
New York, New York 

JOHN H. FINLEY 

New York, New York 

ROBERT GARRETT 
Baltimore, Maryland 

AUSTIN E. GRIFFITHS 
Seattle, Washington 

MRS. NORMAN HARROWER 
Fitchburg, Massachusetts 

MRS. MELVILLE H. HASKELL 
Tucson, Arizona 

MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX 
Michigan City, Indiana 

MRS. MINA M. EDISON HUGHES 
West Orange, N. J. 



MRS. JOHN D. JAMESON 
Sugar Hill, New Hampshire 

GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY 
New York, New York 

H. McK. LANDON 
Indianapolis, Indiana 

MRS. CHARLES D. LANIER 
Greenwich, Connecticut 

ROBERT LASSITER 

Charlotte, North Carolina 

SUSAN M. LEE 

Boston, Massachusetts 

J. H. McCURDY 

Springfield, Massachusetts 

OTTO T. MALLERY 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

WALTER A. MAY 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

CARL E. MILLIKEN 
Augusta, Maine 

MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS 
Woodbury, N. Y. 

T. SUFFERN TAILER 

Locust Valley, Long Island, N. Y. 

MRS. JAMES W. WADSWORTH 
Washington, D. C. 

J. C. WALSH 

New York, New York 

FREDERICK M. WARBURG 
New York, New York 

JOHN G. WIN ANT 

Concord, New Hampshire 

STANLEY WOODWARD 
Washington, D. C. 



175 



DAVID ALEXANDER 

Akron, Ohio 
RAY STANNARD BAKER 

Amherst, Massachusetts 
MRS. GEORGE D. BARRON 

Rye, New York 
A. T. BELL 

Atlantic City, New Jersey 
MRS. EDWARD C. BENCH 

Englewood, New Jersey 
NATHAN D. BILL 

Springfield, Massachusetts 
GEORGE F. BOOTH 

Worcester. Massachusetts 
ANNA H. BORDEN 

Fall River, Massachusetts 
THOMAS E. BRANIFF 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 
JOHN R. BRINLEY 

Morristown, New Jersey 
MRS. C. DOUGLASS BUCK 
Wilmington, Delaware 
RICHARD E. BYRD 

Winchester, Virginia 
MRS. HENRY B. CABOT 

Brookline, Massachusetts 
WARD M. CANADAY 

Toledo, Ohio 
G. HERBERT CARTER 

Huntington, New York 
MRS. GEORGE EDWARDS CLEMENT 

Peterboro, New Hampshire 
MRS. WALTER S. COMLY 

Port Chester, New York 
CHARLES M. Cox 

Melrose, Massachusetts 
WINTHROP M. CRANE, JR. 

Dalton, Massachusetts 
MRS. HARRY PARSONS CROSS 
Providence, Rhode Island 
JULIAN W. CURTISS 

Greenwich, Connecticut 
HENRY L. DEFOREST 

Plainfield, New Jersey 
MRS. JOHN W. DONALDSON 

Millbrook, New York 
CLYDE DOYLE 

Long Beach, California 
MRS. S. S. DRURY 

Milton, Massachusetts 
MRS. CHICHESTER DU PONT 

Wilmington, Delaware 
MRS. D. E. F. EASTON 

San Francisco, California 
JOHN ERSKINE 

New York, New York 
MRS. IRVING FISHER 

New Haven, Connecticut 
MRS. PAUL FITZSIMONS 

Newport, Rhode Island 
MRS. RALPH E. FORBES 
Milton, Massachusetts 
ROBERT A. GARDNER 

Chicago, Illinois 
HARRY G. GAULT 
Flint, Michigan 
CHARLES C. GEORGE 
Omaha, Nebraska 
CHARLES W. GILKEY 

Chicago, Illinois 
THOMAS K. GLENN 
Atlanta, Georgia 

176 



HONORARY MEMBERS 

MRS. CHARLES C. GLOVER, JR. 
Washington, D. C. 

C. M. GOETHE 

Sacramento, California 
REX B. GOODCELL 

Los Angeles, California 
MRS. CHARLES A. GOODWIN 

Hartford, Connecticut 
CHARLES W. GORDON 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
WILLIAM GREEN 

Washington, D. C. 
FRANKLIN T. GRIFFITH 

Portland, Oregon 
MRS. S. H. HARTSHORN 

Short Hills, New Jersey 
DOROTHY HEROY 

Stamford, Connecticut 
MRS. WILLIAM G. HIBBARD 

Winnetka, Illinois 
JOHN W. HIGGINS 

Worcester, Massachusetts 
MRS. FRANCIS L. HIGGINSON 

Boston, Massachusetts 
MRS. ALBERT W. HOLMES 

New Bedford, Massachusetts 
MRS. HOWARD R. IVES 

Portland, Maine 
H. H. JACOBS 

Madison, Wisconsin 
MRS. ERNEST KANZLER 

Detroit, Michigan 
HELEN KELLER 

Forest Hills, New York 
JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG 

Battle Creek, Michigan 
MRS. WILLIAM KENT 

Kentfield, California 
WILLARD V. KING 

New York, N. Y. 
TULLY C. KNOLES 

Stockton, California 
A. H. LANCE 

Kenosha, Wisconsin 
WILLIAM LAWRENCE 

Boston, Massachusetts 
PHILIP LEBOUTILLIER 

New York, New York 
ALICE LEE 

San Diego, California 

LUCIUS N. LlTTAUER 

New York, New York 
SETH Low 

New York, New York 
MRS. WILLIAM G. MATHER 

Cleveland, Ohio 
JOHN W. MCCLURE 

Chicago, 111. 
GEORGE A. McKiNNEY 

Alton, Illinois 
SUMNER T. MCKNIGHT 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 
MRS. P. L. McMAHON 

Charlotte, North Carolina 
MRS. WM. G. MATHER 

Cleveland, Ohio 
CHARLES G. MIDDLE-TON 

Louisville, Kentucky 
JOHN F. MOORS 

Boston, Massachusetts 



MRS. ADELBERT MOOT 

Buffalo, New York 
CHARLES NAGEL 

St. Louis, Missouri 
ROY B. NAYLOR 

Wheeling, West Virginia 
CHARLES PEEBLES 

Hamilton, Canada 
DANIEL A. POLING 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

ARTHUR POUND 

New Scotland, New York 
HERBERT L. PRATT 

Glen Cove, New York 
MRS. ROBERT RANLET 

Rochester, New York 
MRS. SIDNEY H. RHODES 

Deal, New Jersey 
FREDERICK H. RIKE 

Dayton, Ohio 
MRS. R. SANFORD RILEY 

Worcester, Massachusetts 
MRS. THEODORE D. ROBINSON 

Mohawk, New York 

MRS. WlLLOUGHBY RODMAN 

Los Angeles, California 
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT 

Washington, D. C. 
THEODORE ROOSEVELT 

Oyster Bay, New York 
MRS. HENRY H. SANGER 

Grosse Pointe, Michigan 
MRS. ALGER SHELDEN 

Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan 
MRS. ALBERT G. SIMMS 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 
MRS. JAMES R. SMART 

Evanston, Illinois 
JOHN D. SPENCER 

Salt Lake City, Utah 
M. LYLE SPENCER 

Syracuse, New York 
A. A. SPRAGUE 

Chicago, Illinois 
ROBERT GORDON SPROUL 

Berkeley, California 
MRS. O. A. STALLINGS 

New Orleans, Louisiana 
FLORENCE M. STERLING 

Houston, Texas 
MRS. SIGMUND STERN 

San Francisco, California 
MRS. S. EMLEN STOKES 

Moorestown, New Jersey 
HAROLD H. SWIFT 
Chicago, Illinois 
GRANT TITSWORTH 

New York, New York 
MRS. FRANCIS J. TORRANCE 

Sewickley, Pennsylvania 
WILLIAM G. WATSON 

Toronto, Canada 
C. S. WESTON 

Scranton, Pennsylvania 
D WIGHT C. WHEELER 

Bridgeport, Connecticut 
HAROLD P. WINCHESTER 

Albany, New York 
STEPHEN S. WISE 

New York, New York 
HENRY YOUNG 
Newark, New Jersey 




Courtesy Life Camps, Inc. 



L I F E 
Community Living 

r-r/X 3 C a m p s, 

at Life Camps T ... 

Inc., with 

headquar- 
ters in New York City, are de- 
veloping a training center for 
men and women counselors in 
connection with the acquisition of 
a 1,000 acre tract of lake and for- 
est land in northern New Jersey. 
The camp on the new tract will 
comprise a small country village 
including a blacksmith's shop, 
village general store, town hall, 
bank, post office, barber shop, hardware store, and 
lumber yard. The village will serve as a com- 
munity center and commissary for the living needs 
and amusements of the campers who will live out 
on the trails emanating in various directions from 
the village. Campers will solve their own prob- 
lems of community life, relying on their own re- 
sources in living and government, finding their 
own place in life, exploring, adventuring, discov- 
ering, learning the essentials of citizenship. The 
entire program is designed to embrace year-round 
activity. The summer camp season will include 
the counselor training camp as well as a camp for 
girls, while winter will be devoted to week-end 
and holiday camping and individual follow-up and 
guidance, winter counselor training groups, and 
conferences of leaders in the field of camping and 
education. Dr. L. B. Sharp is executive of Life 
Camps, Inc. 




Church Centers for 
Children 



Weekly Art 
Programs 



A NEW venture in 
the 1938 recreation 
program of Salt Lake 
City, Utah, was the in- 
auguration of weekly art concerts at the Greek 
Theater at Fairmont Park. Each Friday evening 
during the summer from 8:00 to 9:30 p. M., from 
600 to 4,500 people gathered to listen to the pro- 
grams that were presented. The beauty, art, mu- 
sic, drama and dancing of the immigrant nation- 
alities residing in the community was presented 
on these evenings. Ten varied programs were 
given. 



Photo b}> L. B. Sharp 

FOR the convenience 
of parents attending 

the New York World's 

Fair this summer an 

interchurch sponsoring committee, of which Rev- 
erend Frederick Underwood of St. Bartholomew's 
Parish, New York City, is chairman, will spon- 
sor several centers near parks where children will 
be cared for during the day in the educational and 
parish buildings of the churches. This is being 
done as an expression of the church's hospitality 
to summer guests. Young children will be cared 
for and fed in small groups for a nominal, non- 
profit daily fee.. In addition to this service, there 
will be offered individual child care by the hour 
with trips included where desired and advisory 
service for parents. The staff is being selected 
from trained nursery school teachers, recreation 
leaders and registered nurses. Children's center^ 
will be open from 9 :oo to 5 :oo o'clock daily ex- 
cept Sunday from June I5th until September i5th. 
Anyone wishing additional information may 
secure it from Children's Centers, care of Feder- 
ation of Churches, 71 West 23rd Street, New 
York City. 



New Playground on 
Historical Site 



THE Newark, N. J., 
birthplace of Stephen 
Crane, the city's great- 
est literary genius, is 

about to be demolished to make way for a play- 
ground to accommodate a skating ground. The 
project calls for a 1 2-inch concrete wall eight feet 



177 



178 



WORLD AT PLAY 




Keep Your Pitching 
Horseshoe Equipment 

UP-TO-DATE 

Write for catalog of the DIAMOND 
line of horseshoes and accessories, 
the complete line of official ecruip- 
ment. It includes: 

Many Styles of Horseshoes 

Official Courts Stakes 

Stake Holders Carrying Cases 

Rule Books Score Pads 

DIAMOND CALK HORSESHOE CO. 



4610 Grand Avenue 
DULUTH. MINN. 



high surrounding the plot with twenty-four 
shower sprays built into the wall for summer use. 
The rear wall will be ornamental in design with a 
limestone carved panel and a fountain incorporat- 
ed. At the center of its base a bronze plaque will 
be inserted and dedicated by the Stephen Crane 
Association. The cost of the project is approxi- 
mately $7,370 of which the city's share would be 
$2,081. 

From Incinerator to Playhouse Soon after 
the development of a new clubhouse in Houston, 
Texas, the Recreation Department acquired the 
abandoned incinerator adjoining it which the 
Square Dance Association fitted up as a perma- 
nent home for themselves and other department 
activities in 1931. Through various gifts from 
local organizations and with labor from Federal 
emergency projects, the building was permanently 
improved in 1934 and became the Playhouse of 
today. 

Ranger Naturalist Service The National 
Park Service of the United States Department of 
the Interior employs ranger naturalists who ac- 



company groups on hikes and trips through the 
parks of Washington, D. C, and on trips to points 
of historical interest and of natural beauty. At the 
amphitheater in Fort Bunker Hill Park moving 
pictures have been shown of geological subjects. 
Similar programs have been given at other parks. 

A Bond Issue in Centralia On March 28th 
citizens of Centralia, Illinois, voted by a two to 
one majority to provide a $40,000 bond issue for 
funds for the construction and equipment of a 
community building for use as a recreation center. 
The total cost of the building will be $108^000, 
the Federal government's share being $68,000. 
The building is to be constructed by WPA labor. 

A Friends of Youth Tribute Dinner On 

April 20th in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, an inter- 
esting and unusual banquet was held which was 
called the "Friends of Youth Tribute Dinner." It 
was sponsored by the "Exceptionally Able Youth 
Committee" of the Civic Club of Allegheny 
County as a tribute "to those individuals and or- 
ganizations of Allegheny County who are extend- 
ing constructive efforts to prepare our youth for 
lives of maximum happiness and community use- 
fulness." Approximately two hundred leaders 
from many organizations, all of whom were listed 
on the program, attended the banquet. Practically 
the entire discussion centered about the subject, 
"The Utilization of Leisure Time for Youth." 
The Bureau of Recreation of Pittsburgh pre- 
sented in dramatized form "Youth's Response." 

New York's Swimming Pools The swim- 
ming pools maintained by the Department of 
Parks of New York City were opened to the pub- 
lic on May 27th. During the swimming season 
children under fourteen years of age will be ad- 
mitted free from 10 :oo A. M. to 12 130 p. M. every 
day except Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. 
After i too P. M. on weekdays and all day on Sat- 
urday, Sundays, and holidays there will be a 
charge for children of 10 cents ; for all others the 
fee will be 20 cents. 

Play Day in Akron, Ohio City-wide cham- 
pions in ping-pong, foul shooting, volley ball, and 
checkers for boys and girls in A and B classes 
were chosen by elimination at the first annual in- 
door play day of the Akron, Ohio, Recreation De- 
partment. Features of the program on play day 
were exhibits of handcraft from the winter pro- 



WORLD AT PLAY 



179 



gram and a short music program by five boys and 
girls from the department of the physically handi- 
capped. 

Charges and Fees In order to help finance 
the cost of maintaining the bathing beaches, an an- 
nual family fee of $2.00 is charged by the Park 
Board of Winnetka, Illinois. This serves to re- 
duce the tax burden and also to place a portion of 
the maintenance cost upon those who make direct 
use of these recreational facilities. During the 
season 1,416 family tickets were issued and the 
revenue from this source and from daily fees col- 
lected from persons not holding resident family 
tickets amounted to $2,942. In comparison, the 
cost of operating the beaches for the season of 
1937 was $3,405.51. 

Municipal Bands in Austin, Texas Five 
municipal bands functioned throughout last sum- 
mer in Austin, Texas. The Junior Municipal 
Bands were divided into two groups with the 
older boys appearing in one band and the younger 
in another. The Men's Municipal Band was a 
separate unit. The boys groups were presented in 
a full program on the various playgrounds. A 
Colored Band of men gave weekly concerts at one 
of the community centers. A Boys' Band which 
served as a junior organization to the colored 
groups was also presented at various times during 
the summer. 

A New Recreation Center Hoquiam, Wash- 
ington, is to have a new $225,000 civic recreation 
center which will cover approximately fourteen 
acres. It will contain an enclosed stadium seating 
9,000 people with a turfed field containing a foot- 
ball field, a hard ball diamond, and two softball 
diamonds. The area will also include two con- 
crete tennis courts and a children's play area, pic- 
nic area and game courts. The playfield will be 
lighted for night use. 

A Playing Fields Association for South 
Africa During his recent visit to South Africa 
as Manager of the English Rugby Team, Major 
Hartley, with his wonted enthusiasm for the 
Playing Fields Movement, addressed many meet- 
ings at which he referred to the work of the Na- 
tional Playing Fields Association of Great Bri- 
tain. At an influential meeting held at Cape Town 
those present, after hearing from Major Hartley, 
an account of the work and methods of the As- 
sociation, unanimously resolved to take steps to 



_ T TCP ot tn@ CcitivpSi 

B\ eat bercraitjn Summer tc .. 

Playgrounds a^ zed as p l^s 

SWP " 



LEATHER-WO^Vs, 'knives, 

tags, key ES;1__( Special bei^ sse inbiy 
PROlECtS & ^1ets ready io^^uons) 






form a similar organization for the Cape Penin- 
sula. The Association is proud of its colonial off- 
spring which it hopes may prosper and prove a 
powerful factor in securing for the towns and 
villages of South Africa adequate facilities for 
open air recreation. 

Table Tennis Tables Recreation workers 
will be interested in knowing that plans for mak- 
ing tables for table tennis are available. The Na- 
tional Recreation Association has prepared a bul- 
letin presenting a plan with directions for making 
a portable table which may be secured for 10 
cents. Word has been received from Henry D. 
Schubert, Superintendent of the Department of 
Recreation, Dearborn, Michigan, that blue prints 
are now available showing a plan for constructing 
the portable table which is in use in Dearborn. 
Copies may be secured from Mr. Schubert at 15 
cents each. 

Shut-In Program in Dayton The Bureau of 
Recreation of Dayton, Ohio, in reporting on the 
second year of its program for shut-ins, states 
that the children on the playgrounds made quiet 
games and puzzles, took them to the shut-ins in 
their community, and taught them how to play 



180 



Shuffleboard Game Equipment 

Complete Sets $5.00, $10.00, $15.00 and $25.00 
METAL FOOTED CUES $1.50, $3.00 and $4.00 

Composition and Noiseless Rubber-Tired Discs, $6.00 per set. 

Guentheur Easy Glide Discs, $7.00 Set; with Carrier, $7.75 

1 Cents Brings Plan Standard Court and Catalogue 

DAYTONA BEACH SHUFFLEBOARD CO. 

PHILMONT, N. Y. 



the games. Contacts were made with 178 differ- 
ent individuals. 

Chicago Reports In analyzing its total at- 
tendance at the play centers, the Playground Di- 
vision of the Bureau of Park, Recreation and 
Aviation in Chicago, Illinois, reports that of the 
total attendance of 5,181,546, 56 per cent were 
boys ; 34 per cent, girls ; and 10 per cent, men and 
women over eighteen years of age. 

Recreation in Detroit "The Detroit recrea- 
tion program needs places for small children 'to 
let off steam and for old men to play pinochle.' " 
There is a terrific need for letting children get 
away from their mothers between the hours of 
four and six in the afternoon and older men need 
places to spend their leisure too. In the old days 
the back room of the corner grocery was good 
enough for a pinochle game. The A. & P. and 
Kroger do not lend themselves to that kind of 
thing nowadays. 

"We haven't begun yet to use church facilities 
and school buildings for recreation as we should. 
It has been suggested that an enormous amount 
of volunteer help could be organized if we would 
but use it." From Fred M. Butzel, Pioneer 
Worker in Recreation in Detroit. 

Paying for the Baseball Program One of 

the difficult problems faced by the Public Recrea- 
tion Commission of Cincinnati, Ohio, has been 
that of maintaining the greatly increased facilities 
for baseball and softball according to the stand- 
ards demanded by the players without an increase 
in tax funds allocated to the Commission. The 
Commission took a step toward solving the prob- 
lem by increasing the receipts from spectators. 
When this proved insufficient, a plan was worked 
out whereby teams pay a nominal sum for the 
reservation of diamonds and an entrance fee 
graded according to the classification of teams. 
By these measures the Commission has succeeded 
in doubling the receipts from baseball and soft- 
ball, though such proceeds represent only twenty- 
five per cent of the cost of maintaining ball dia- 
monds and operating the athletic program. 



Hobbies 

IN THE Purdue Memorial Union Building a 
Purdue University one room has been set asid< 
as a "puttering" shop where anyone with a "yen' 
to do something may work away to his heart's 
content during his leisure. One of the enthusiastic 
sponsors of the hobby idea at Purdue is J. E 
Walters, Director of Personnel, an exhibit o: 
whose pictures was recently held in the Memoria 
Union Building. Mr. Walters had never done an) 
painting until four years ago. At that time, ir 
order to discover which of three hobbies golf 
fishing, and painting was the one he wantec 
most to pursue, he wrote to a number of art in- 
stitutes for the best references on landscape paint- 
ing. These books he read and studied. A fewj 
lessons from friendly amateurs and professional 
artists followed, and then he began painting. 

Mr. Walters points out that in order to have 
an exhibit it was necessary to have frames for the 
pictures, so with Mrs. Walters' help he made his 
own. Molding was purchased, and Mr. Walters 
did the manual work of putting the frames to- 
gether, while Mrs. Walters gilded and finishe 
them. 

In an article entitled "Learning to Ride th 
Right Hobby Horse," which appeared in the 
September, 1938 issue of RECREATION, Mr. Wal- 
ters presented the procedure which he believes 
should be followed by an individual in determin- 
ing what hobbies he wants to pursue. Readers of 
RECREATION will be interested in referring to this 
article. 



An innovation known as a "Hobby-O- Meter' 
has been placed in the Chicago Public Library 
for the use of hobbyists. Designed by Miss 
Matilda Kelly of the Hild Branch of the library, 
it consists of a large panel divided into sections of 
blue window panes underneath which a keyboard 
is labeled with various hobbies. A push of the 
button on a given hobby reveals the names of the 
books on the subject available in the library. Tin 
can craft, marionettes, sketching, and model build- 
ing are only a few of the hobbies listed in this 
guide to recreational and educational leisure-time 
pursuits. 



1,700 Acres Acquired Elbert M. Vail, Dis- 
trict Manager of the East Bay Regional Park 
District, California, announces the recent acqui- 
sition of 1,700 acres of hill land densely covered 
with redwoods. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



181 



PLAY SAFE! 

Use Our 

SELECTED FREE AND RENTAL FILM PROGRAMS 

FOR CAMP AND PLAYGROUND USE 



16 m/m Sound or Silent 16 m/m 



NATURE STUDY 
SPORTS 
ADVENTURE 
TRAVEL 



HEALTH 

POPULAR SCIENCE 
ART AND ARCHITECTURE 
VOCATIONAL STUDIES 

and the 



BEST 



ENTERTAINMENT FILMS 

Send for catalog 



Y. M. C. A. MOTION PICTURE BUREAU 



347 Madison Avenue 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



19 South LaSalle Street 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



351 Turk Street 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



A Build-a-Bank Contest In connection with 
National Thrift Week, the Recreation Division of 
ihe Department of Public Welfare of Danville, 
/irginia, cooperated with two local banks in a 
!>uild-a-bank contest open to children under six- 
een years of age. In planning and making the 
anks the children showed surprising ingenuity 
.nd imagination. The banks submitted were not 
nly sturdy but showed good taste in color and 
esign. Newspaper notices emphasized the use of 
taxes, jars, cans and other containers, and their 
Adaptation to whatever form or design the chil- 
fren desire to make. Among the forms which the 
! *anks took were the following: church, clock, 
;>iano, house, duck, pig, cabin, elephant, book, 
'hip, radio, airplane, igloo, a snuffbox with draw- 
tigs on the side of Snow White and the Seven 
pwarfs and many others. Neatness, originality, 
nd durability counted most in the judging. The 
.wards offered to the makers of the seven most 
utstanding banks took the form of savings 
iccounts. 



Sioux City, Not East Orange! 

On page 85 of the May issue of RECREATION 
there appeared a photograph for which credit was 
incorrectly given to the East Orange, New Jersey, 
Board of Recreation Commissioners. The photo- 
graph came from Sioux City, Iowa, and was sent 
through the courtesy of the Department of 
Recreation. 




The ideal book for 
your group 

GAMES, DANCES 
AND ACTIVITIES 

(Junior Athletics) 
FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION 

By FRED L. BARTLETT.B. A., Director of Physical Education, Toronto 
Price $2.00 

In this book you will find a wide selection of games, 
dances and activities in which the members of your 
group can experience success in school, at camp or on 
the playground. Following general suggestions for group 
instruction, the book contains numerous individual exer- 
cises, games, dances and activities, both corrective and 
playful, adapted to the growth level, interests and 
capacities of growing boys and girls. Other devices are 
suggested for relaxation and pleasure. 

Write for your copy of our new free booklet No. 23 R 
NOBLE & NOBLE, PUBLISHERS, INC., 100 FIFTH AVENUE, N.Y. 



182 



WORLD AT PLAY 




No. 301 Foot-Treadle Loom 21" wide 
Price $35 Other Looms 50c and up 



LOOMS 

WEAVING 
MATERIALS 

BASKETRY 

Reed, Bases, Raphia 

BOOKBINDING 

MODELING 
OTHER CRAFTS 

SANDCRAFT 

By J. LEONARD MASON 
Sc. D. 

Price $1.25 Post Paid 

Send for 

Handicraft 

Catalog 



J. L HAMMETT CO. 

Educational Supplies 

299 MAIN STREET, Kendall Square, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



A Nature Publication The Junior Naturalist, 
published in San Francisco by the Junior Recrea- 
tion Museum of the San Francisco Recreation De- 
partment, is a very interesting little booklet for 
guiding children in the study of nature. The 
editors represent the Junior Naturalist Club, the 
Golden Eagle Club, Junior Birdmen, Earth Study, 
and Stamp Chatter. Very attractive to children 
and suggestive to nature workers. 

Industrial Recreation in Oakland Indus- 
trial recreation in Oakland, California, offers lei- 
sure-time activities to 30,000 employees of eighty 
business firms. The annual report for 1938 re- 
cently published states that 5,512 participated in 
the various activities of the program, while the 
spectator attendance record reached a new peak of 
134,790 persons. Ice hockey, softball, basketball, 
and the sports carnival led the activities in at- 
tendance as well as in number of participants. 

Developments in Aurora, Illinois The Au- 
rora Playground Commission is promoting an un- 
usual project in the establishment of an aero- 
nautic school in which 256 individuals are reg- 
istered. The upper floor of a factory building has 



been secured at a rental of $20.00 a month, at 
very attractive quarters have been arranged wi 
a classroom and shop. All kinds of equipment ha: 
been installed, including three large motors, car- 
buretors, and electric equipment. For their flying 
hours the students go to the flying field in clu 
organized outside the school to relieve respons 
bility for flying accidents. Students pay $1.00 fo 
half an hour for instruction. Classes are held eac 
day from I p. M. to 10:00 P. M. 

Ann Arbor's Doll Show The doll show hel 
last December in Aurora, Illinois, under 
auspices of the Playground Commission was ja 
great success. Various organizations in the city 
took responsibility for sending projects whicli 
were used as a background with the dolls as the 
figures. A ten cent admission charge was madfc 
and almost $300 was taken in which was dis- 
tributed among the exhibitors. Among the groups 
exhibiting were garden clubs, high schools, Scouts, 
Y.W.C.A., and similar organizations. After the 
exhibit the dolls were given to needy children. 

Hymn Singing in Grand Rapids Grand 
Rapids has had an exceedingly popular season of 
hymn singing, the last event having drawn more 
than 6,000 persons. The local Christian Endeavor 
Union has sponsored the series and because of the 
success so far arranged for a giant sing in the 
Civic Auditorium on Christmas night. Carols as 
well as hymns were sung. This splendid program 
began with a sing in a church after regular eve- 
ning service. The church was filled and many- 
were turned away. A larger church was selected 
for the second sing and again there was an over- 
flow crowd. Then the Endeavor officers engaged 
the Civic Auditorium and it was filled to capacity 
with approximately 6,000 seated and nearly i,ooc 
standing. 

They Started on Playgrounds Vario 
cities are listing the names of famous players i 
many fields of sports who have developed thei 
original talent on city playgrounds. Clevelan 
claims to be the residence of over sixty form 
major leaguers, including Bill Wamby, Manag< 
of the Fisher Foods, who was the only player 
ever to complete a triple play unassisted in a 
World's Series. 

The National Cooperative Recreation School 

A National Cooperative Recreation School will 



WORLD AT PLAY 



183 



THE 



RECREATION 

LINE 
PARK PLAYGROUND AND SWIMMING POOL EQUIPMENT 



For the Beach and Pool 



For the Playground 

Swings, Slides, See-Saws, Gym Combina- 
tions, The Famous Monkey Jungle and 
other Climbing Devices ... In fact a com- 
plete line of play equipment. 

Write for complete free catalog 

RECREATION EQUIPMENT COMPANY 



Diving Board Outfits, Ladders, Slides, Life 
Guard Chairs, Life Lines, Foot Baths, Life 
Buoys, Umbrellas, Racing Lanes, Pool 
Cleaning Equipment, Diving Mask Outfit, 
Hair Dryer, etc. 



ANDERSON 



INDIANA 



be held in Milltown, Wisconsin, June 26 to July 
5, under the auspices of the Cooperative League 
)f the U. S. A. Among the staff members will be 
tfiss Neva L. Boyd of the Department of Soci- 
plogy and Division of Social Work, Northwestern 
Jniversity, and Miss Ruth Chorpenning of the 
professional theater in New York City. The pro- 
gram, which is designed to meet the needs of 
eaders and organizers in recreation, includes 
ourses in folk dancing, drama, theory of recrea- 
ion, instrumental music, group singing, puppetry, 
landicraft, and games. Inquiries regarding the 
ichool should be addressed to Frank Shilston, 739 
|ohnson Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

National Chickamauga Celebration Chatta- 
stooga, Tennessee, celebrated its one-hundredth 
birthday" in September with an elaborate ten-day 
:>rogram named officially the "National Chicka- 
nauga Celebration," attended by President Roose- 
' l elt on "President's Day," (September 20), and 
pened by a Cotton Ball, gayest of southern social 
! vents. In addition to the city's own centennial, 
he affair was staged in commemoration of the 
leventy-fifth anniversary of three famous Civil 



RED OR GREEN TENNIS COURTS 
ASPHALT and CORK 

Playground Surfaces 
Write 

LEICESTER CONTRACTING CORP. 

WAYNE, PENNA. 



War battles and the one hundredth anniversary of 
the tragic exodus of the Indians. Other features 
of the program included a banquet for visiting 




New and modern Bakelite Shuffle Disks and 
Cue Heads. More accurate, practically unbreak- 
able. Now lower in price. Afford recreation for 
young and old oi both sexes. Write for catalog. 



H.G. CRESS Company, Troy, Ohio 



184 



WORLD AT PLAY 



7 OUT OF 10 

PREFER LEATHERCRAFT 




We have the most complete line of LEATHERCRAFT 
in the country, but WE HAVE OTHER CRAFTS TOO! 
METALCRAFT BEADCRAFT 

BASKETRY SPONGEX 

LINOLEUM BLOCK CRYSTOLCRAFT 

WOOD CARVING CLAY MODELING 

GLOVE MAKING KNOTTING 

ORNAKRAFT (Leather Jewelry) 
Send lOc for our 74 page catalogue of supplies and 

tools (free to recognized directors) 
CRAFTS FOR ALL AGES AND PURSES 

AMERICAN HANDICRAFTS CO. 

Distributors of Quality Craft Supplies 

193 WILLIAM STREET NEW YORK, N. Y. 

2124 S. MAIN STREET LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 



governors, a military re-enactment of the Battle 
of Chickamauga, a pageant by descendants of the 
Cherokee Indians, horse shows, polo matches, a 
water carnival and speed-boat regatta on the 
Tennessee River, and a historical spectacle, 
"Drums of Dixie." The historical entertainment 
and recreational diversions afforded by the cele- 
bration were sufficient to attract an average of 
fifty thousand tourists a day. 

In Honor of Theodore Wirth Glenwood 
Park in Minneapolis, Minnesota, has been re- 
named "Theodore Wirth Park" in honor of 
Mr. Wirth, for many years Superintendent of 
Parks in that city. 

With the Boys' Clubs The Boys' Clubs of 
America, according to the "Boys' Club Quar- 
terly," received forty-eight specific requests 
from forty-two different cities in twenty-two 
states to assist local organizations in the 
planning and promotion of building projects. 
Total expenditures in the erection of twenty- 
four new buildings and additions to twenty- 
four others will amount to $3,151,000 when 
completed. 



Kent County, Michigan, Acquires Area for 
Park Kent County, Michigan, has recently 
acquired approximately one hundred acres o 
land near Long Lake in Solon Township, to be 
used for a public park. The acquisition was 
authorized by the Kent County Board o 
Supervisors. The park will be equipped with a 
bathhouse and bathing facilities. The ful 
amount of $10,000, which the county previously 
had set aside for its share of a WPA project 
for the park, probably will not be spent. The 
initial expense to the county will be $1,350, am 
cost of maintenance is estimated to be about 
$2,000 a year. 

Camping Helps The January, 1939, issue of 
The Camping Magazine contains a number of in-; 
teresting articles for the camp director and coun- 
selor. Among them are "Winter Camping," by 
C. S. Chase; "Adventures in Music at Camp," by 
Edwin M. Hoffman; "Nature Study," by Mil- 
dred Jensen : "The Reconstructed Work Shop," 
by Dorothy B. Martner ; and "Woodcraft, Plus," 
by Scott Dearolf . Individual copies of this issue 
may be secured at 25 cents each from the Ameri- 
can Camping Association, 330 South State Street, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
. 

Courses in Community Recreation James 
E. Rogers, Director of the National Physical Ed- 
ucation Service of the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation, in cooperation with Elmer Mitchell, will 
teach two courses this summer at the University 
of Michigan one in community recreation, the 
other in curriculum problems in physical educa- 
tion. The courses will be given from June 26th 
to August 4th. 

Dorothy C. Enderis, Assistant to Superintend- 
ent, in charge of the Department of Municipal 
Recreation and Adult Education, Milwaukee Pub- 
lic Schools, will conduct a course in this year's 
summer session at the University of Wisconsin 
under the title "Organization and Administration 
of a City Recreation Program." 

New Pools for Buffalo The Department of 
Parks of Buffalo, New York, last summer dedi- 
cated three new pools, each a combination of 
three pools a wading, a swimming, and a diving 
pool designed to accommodate small children 
and adults. It is estimated that 15,000 people at- 
tended the dedication ceremonies at the Schiller 
Park pools with almost as many people attending 



WORLD AT PLAY 



185 



the ceremonies at the Centennial Park pool. At 
the close of the dedicatory addresses competitive 
swimming races were held. 

Recreation in Long Beach The annual re- 
port of the Recreation Commission of Long 
Beach, California, for the year 1937-1938 has 
been published under the title "Long Beach Rec- 
jeation" in the form of a tabloid newspaper. The 
twelve pages which the report contains tell of the 
activities along various lines. There is a letter of 
transmittal to the City Manager and the City 
Council from Clyde Doyle, President of the Rec- 
reation Commission, and also a letter from Wal- 
ter L. Scott, Executive Secretary of the Com- 
mission. 

Salt Water Swimming Pools Recreation 
leaders who have access to sea water will find in 
; he December issue of Beach and Pool a helpful 
article on the construction, sanitation and opera- 
tion of salt water swimming pools by Louis J. 
lay New York City and C. W. Stedman, Cleve- 
and, Ohio, with the cooperation of the Engineer- 
ng and Research Departments of the Josam 
Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. From 
Beach and Pool, December 1938. 

Pamphlets Available Through the National 
Commission on the Enrichment of Adult Life in 
Washington, there are available two mono- 
graphs which recreation workers may wissh to 
Know about. One of them is "Techniques in 
Adult Education," the other "Basic English." 
jFhe cost of each is 75 cents. Copies are avail- 
able from the National Commission at 1201 
Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

; A Birdhouse Contest in Detroit Nearly 125 
toys from five to sixteen years of age working 
t the Elm wood Recreation Center in Detroit, 
Kchigan, made birdhouses and feeding shelters . 
or the sixth annual birdhouse contest which 
losed in March. Last year the boys entered 611 
jxhibits. Entries were judged on the basis of the 
jegree to which the completed birdhouses, nesting 
nd feeding shelves conformed to the specifica- 
ions, their suitability for the purpose intended, 
nd their durability, skill, and originality. 

; Delaware County Parks The Delaware 
County Park and Recreation Board in its News 
Bulletin dated February ist reports that work is 



(To Meet the Requirements 
of Limited Finances) 

CEND for this FREE booklet which fully de- 
^ scribes a selected list of short and full length 
non-royalty and lower royalty plays, selected pri- 
marily for the use of schools, churches, clubs and 
other amateur groups who find it necessary to 
curtail their production expenses. 

There is also described an excellent assortment 
of skits, stunts, mock trials minstrel material and 
other entertainments for recreational groups, 
granges, 4-H clubs and other community groups. 

Indispensable to Community and 
Recreational Leaders 

Send for your copy today 

SAMUEL FRENCH 

25 West 45th Street New York, N. Y. 

811 West 7th Street Los Angeles, Calif. 



progressing on the development of a new park 
known as Kent Park designed to be an active rec- 
reation area. An administration building, wading 
pool, small children's playground, and a sports 
area are being constructed with WPA labor. Lo- 
cated in one of the most populous sections of the 
county, a wide use of the park during the coming 
summer is anticipated. Approximately thirty-six 
acres have been added to the original Hemlocks 
Park opened last year which became very popular 



H. S. SDUDER 

SOUDERTON, PA. 



Manufacturer of 

UNPAINTED 
NOVELTY BOXES 



Attractive Prices 1 Write for Catalogue 





186 



HISTORIC CANAL TURNED INTO RECREATION AREA 






MAKE 



"BELTS 




THINGS 



PUK5E5 



SHAPE PUlLSU-.it/ram AN YAMS'' 

CORD HANDICRAFT 



Teachers, Recreation and Playground Instrnctors, Occupa- 
tional Therapists, etc., find this craft useful and inter- 
esting. SQUARE KNOTTING requires practically no 
equipment, is easy to learn, develops (kill and origi- 
nality and is a pleasant diversion. 

Send for our catalog and samples FREE or take advan- 
tage of our SPECIAL OFFER which inclndes our 
regular $1.00 Instruction Book together with the 50c 
Beginners Outfit, all for $1. DON'T DELAY! 

P. C. HERWIG CO. 
SQUARE KNOT HEADQUARTERS 
121 Sands St. Dept. K-6 Brooklyn, N. Y 



as a picnic area. Development plans at this new 
area call for a bridle path through the park, pic- 
nic areas to accommodate hundreds of picnickers 
in groups of various sizes, boating on Crum 
Creek, facilities for both summer and winter 
sports, and for swimming. This area is being de- 
veloped through NYA labor. 

Sacramento Camp Last summer Sacra- 
mento, California, maintained a camp for 500 
underprivileged children, 250 boys and 250 
girls. The city supplied the use of Camp 
Sacramento, while the National Guard fur- 
nished transportation. Most of the $2,500 
needed for food was raised by the Junior 
Chamber of Commerce. The Recreation De- 
partment was responsible for the management 
of the camp through an interesting system of 
follow-up. Most of the campers, after the sum- 
mer season is over, are enrolled in playground 
clubs. 

A New Community House Through the in- 
terest and wholehearted support of its residents, 
the Pine Grove Community Club of Sparkman, 
Arkansas, is soon to have a new, modern com- 
munity house. According to Mrs. Harvey Taylor, 
organization president, interest in the project 
started three years ago at a meeting of a home 
demonstration club. The women in the group felt 
that cooperation and a real community spirit, so 
essential to community life, was losing foothold 
in Pine Grove and something had to be done about 
it. An acre of land in the center of the community 
was soon deeded the club by Mr. and Mrs. C. C. 
Jackson. Money for the club house project has 
been raised through the presentation of home 



Historic Canal Turned into 
Recreation Area 

FOR MORE THAN a hundred years the early build 
ers of our nation dreamed of a barge cana 
connecting the upper waters of the Potomac witf 
the waters of the Ohio. Thus, they said, the vasl 
resources of the whole mid-continent could tx 
brought to the eastern seaboard at a minimum ex 
pense. From his early youth George Washingtor 
had faith in the future of a channel of watei 
transportation into the heart of the Alleghenies 
In 1748 the Ohio Company was organized, and it 
1754 Washington made the survey of the pro 
posed area. Later as promoter, stockholder anc 
director, and eventually as its first president 
George Washington initiated the "Potowmack 
Canal Company." 

Twenty years later this company went out o 
existence, but Washington's dream lived on. ! 
1828, the first spadeful of sod turned. In t 
meantime the invention of the steam engine ren- 
dered the canal obsolete and work ceased alto- 
gether in 1850. The project had been completed 
to Cumberland, Maryland, however a distance of 
1 86 miles and navigation for that distance was 
possible. 

The canal was never a financial success but has 
been maintained in part for all these years. Now 
the United States Government is acquiring pos- 
session of the canal and the National Park Ser- 
vice will develop twenty-two miles of its course 
for recreational and historical purposes. The ol 
canal is rich in beauty and charm. The can 
itself is to be used for canoeing, boating and fis' 
ing, while its right of way will be ideal for hiking. 
The historic development will consist of rebuild- 
ing certain of the century-old lock houses, the 
famous Great Falls Tavern and the reconditioning 
of certain sections of the towpath. 

Thus a century-old project will be transformed 
from a useless financial burden into an attractive 
park area, unique in its character and with the 
possibility of providing recreation to thousands of 
eager citizens. 

From releases of the United States Department of the 
Interior "Old Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Rich in His- 
toric Associations." 

talent plays, an amateur hour, musical program, 
Hallowe'en carnival, bazaar, sale of a quilt, and 
an egg shower. The NYA is assisting in the con- 
struction of the building. 



se 

11 

h- 



EDUCATION FOR WHAT? 



187 



Education for What? 

EDUCATION should not only be training to gain 
a livelihood, but it should be a rich experience 
in the art of living. True education should be 
concerned with life itself ; it should be joyous, 
vibrant and realistic. In these thrilling times of 
fundamental changes in our national institutions, 
certainly the school must be prepared to train 
youth to live realistically in a real world. Un- 
fortunately, however, in spite of the many pro- 
gressive school systems throughout the country 
most of our schools are still in the lock step of 
tradition. The curriculum is still in the strait- 
jacket. Many still worship the little red school- 
house and the sacred 3 R's. We threw out the so- 
called fads and frills when we needed them most 
during the trying years of this depression. We 
must change our points of view. The social 
studies, music, avocational education, recreation, 
become the essentials in this New America and 
this New Day. They are the necessities if we wish 
to train youth for living. 

American life today needs integration most of 
all. We have no focal points ; we are drifting. 
We have become opportunists. Education must 
immediately help to focus and give unity to our 
national life. We must stop wishful dreaming 
and do some realistic thinking. The child must 
deal with the real issues. Even in arithmetic they 
must meet everyday problems that give meaning 
and satisfaction. Wallpapering a room without 
doors and windows is idiotic. Cube root has no 
meaning today. So many of our school problems 
are so artificial and without significance to the 
student. The great need is to develop integrated 
personalities, but there is so much in school life 
that works against this. The administration of 
grades is split up into segments; subjects are put 
into departments; teachers have become special- 
ists; subjects have been split into pieces; students 
are cut into slices. In one situation many teachers 
operate on one pupil, while in others each pupil 
works under many teachers. Work and play are 
separated. Theory and practice are divided. In 
brief, one of the great needs is for education to be 
integrated itself. However, there are many ef- 
forts in the country working for the integrated 
personality through the integrated school curricu- 
lum which should be praised and multiplied. 

Education is functional. It is a process of learn- 
ing through doing, achieving and living. Our at- 
( Continued on page 188) 



TENNIS NETS 

also 

Backstop Nets 

Soccer Nets 

Golf Practice Nets 

in fact 

ALL SPORT NETS 

This house has long been 
headquarters for all the above 



W. A. AUGUR, Inc. 

35 FULTON STREET NEW YORK 



Preventive Police Work Frank J. O'Malley, 
Superintendent of Police of Grand Rapids, Michi- 
gan, announces an undertaking which will be 
watched by advocates of preventive work. A "city 
of youth" is being founded in a congested district 
of meager social advantages in which the majority 
of the inhabitants are Negroes. Officers corre- 
sponding to those in municipalities are to be 
elected by the youthful population under the di- 
rection of mature leaders. When several such 
centers have been organized, representatives and 
senators will be chosen to legislate for a ''com- 
monwealth of youth" with a government pattern- 
ed after that of the state. Leading citizens in 
business concerns are helping to make the man- 
agement possible. Young men of the neighbor- 
hood are doing the work of remodeling a recrea- 
tion room, and money and gifts of furniture and 
equipment are being donated. Teachers of manual 
training and domestic arts will be supplied, and 
instruction given in boxing and other athletic 
activities. 



IINI-GOAL 



\m PLAYGROUNDS 




Patented 



SOLVES YOUR OUTDOOR BAS- 
KETBALL EQUIPMENT PROBLEM 

One unit will provide needed 
facilities for game. 

Inexpensive Requires little space 
Will accommodate more players 

For further particular*, writ* 

SCHUTT MANUFACTURING CO. 

LITCHFIELD ILLINOIS 



188 



AFTER THE FAIR 



THE (DEAL CHARCOAL GRILL 




WRITE NQW TO ARCH B. HORNE 
PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT CO. 
82 DUANE STREET NEW YORK 

34 Years in Playground Equipment 



MIDWAY OF 
A PERFECT 
DAY . . . 
Charcoal 
Grilling 
at Camp 
and on the 
Playground 


WHY NOT? 


SOME FUN! 



Junglegyms 
Diving 
Boards 
Complete 
Playground 
Equipment 



After the Fair 



tention should not be devoted solely to the develop- 
ment of skills and techniques, but should be given 
to the handling of life situations as a whole. We 
still separate the school from the community, and 
this distinction is a pernicious one. We still have 
the cloistered attitude of the monastic, who lives 
apart from the community. School and com- 
munity are something separate and different. This 
should not be because they are one and the same. 
Society has given a mandate to both school and 
community to foster a richer and finer living in 
America. James Edward Rogers in School and 
Society. 

Nature Lore By adding to its staff an ex- 
perienced nature study director, the Bureau of 
Recreation of Dayton, Ohio, has made it possible 
to conduct a nature study program which is at- 
tracting much favorable notice. Nature clubs 
have been developed in all of the community cen- 
ters as well as on the playgrounds. School classes 
have been assisted in their nature study, and talks 
have been given before a number of local 
organizations. 

Patriots' Day On the 19th of April, eight 
cities and towns of Massachusetts joined in ob- 
serving the anniversary of Paul Revere's ride 
under the auspices of the Citizens' Public Cele- 
brations Association. The first re-enactment of 
Revere's Ride under the present form of observ- 
ance was in 1916. The first similar re-enactment 
of the ride of William Dawes from Boston to 
Lexington was in 1920. Since 1930 a "Prescott" 
has ridden from Lexington Green to Concord 
Battle Ground. Each of the cities and towns has 
its own local committee designated by the Mayor 
or selectmen, which arranges and conducts the 
local exercises and historic ceremonies. 



UNDER THE; TITLE, "The Flushing Meado\\ 
Improvement," the Coordinating and Prog- 
ress Committee of which Allyn R. Jennings, Gen- 
eral Superintendent of the New York Part 
Department, is Chairman, has issued a booklei 
containing a complete resume of all improvement; 
to date of the World's Fair area, together witl 
plans for the construction of Flushing Meadov 
Park after the Fair. Within a short time aftei 
the last Fair rocket has flared in the sky a splen 
did 1 200 acre public park will have emerged. Ir 
this area there will be provision for both activi 
and passive recreation pleasant gardens am 
promenades, and formal development for rest am 
scenic beauty. There will be woodland areas o: 
less formal development and bird sanctuaries. Ii 
addition, tree-bordered open meadows for pag 
eants and festivals will be provided, and children' 
gardens where children may plant, cultivate, am 
harvest flowers and garden produce under tb 
leadership of competent instructors. Playground 
will be located at points convenient to residentia 
areas for children of all age groups, and there wil 
be ample facilities for all active sports includinj 
tennis, baseball, football, golf, archery, lacrosse 
hockey, roller-skating, and ice-skating. Six mile 
of bicycle paths, five of bridle paths, and picni 
grounds will be laid out and facilities will be pro 
vided for model yacht racing. 

In addition to the wide variety and number o 
play facilities throughout the extensive park areas 
it will be possible to present pageants, wate 
operas, musical shows, band concerts, and spec 
tacles of all kinds in the 12,000 seat amphitheate 
on Meadow Lake, erected by the State for th 
Fair but constructed as a permanent improvemen 
for the Park. 

The New York City Building which houses th 
city's own exhibits at the Fair will be an out 
standing feature of the park. This fireproof, ail 
conditioned structure covering two and one-hal 
acres will be converted into a great indoor recrea 
tion center. Half of the main floor space, 180 b 
1 1 6 feet, has been constructed to provide for ice 
skating or ice-hockey with provision for indoo 
baseball, gymnasium exhibitions, dramatic preset! 
tations, basketball, regulation tennis, badmintor 
and shuffleboard. 

(Continued on page 190) 



THE SIXTH ANNUAL NATIONAL FOLK FESTIVAL 



189 



The Sixth Annual National 
Folk Festival 



M 



ORE THAN six hundred "homespun" Ameri- 
cans from farms, villages, Indian reserva- 
: tions, and cities in twenty-six states came to Wash- 
ington in April to take part in the sixth National 
Folk Festival and to present the American scene 
in song, dance, and story. For three days, at after- 
noon and evening performances, varied folk 
; groups presented informally and spontaneously 
the vivid and colorful traditions which make up 
American folk lore. Each of the six programs was 
complete in itself, presenting a cross section of the 
nation's folk culture, but each was different. Oys- 
ter shuckers, crab pickers, sailors, miners, lum- 
berjacks, canal boatmen, and Indians were there, 
as well as folk dance groups Lithuanians from 
\ Chicago and groups from West Virginia, Dela- 
; ware, and Massachusetts. There were Negro 
i spirituals, ballads with dulcimer accompaniment, 
; tunes on homemade shepherd pipes, and Bach chor- 
r ales sung by the Girls' Council Chorus of Bethle- 
; hem, Pennsylvania. All parts of the country 
East, West, North, and South contributed to 
this festival of music, song, and dance appropri- 
ately opened by the town crier from Province- 
1 town, Massachusetts, and brought to impressive 
close by a presentation of a typical Mormon camp 
meeting on the Trek. 

More than 16,000 people at one session there 
j were 3,000 children, given leave of absence from 
school for the afternoon attended the perform- 
ances of the festival which was held under the 
(auspices of the Washington Post and the leader- 
! ship of Miss Sarah Gertrude Knott, founder and 
director of the festival. 

It will be of interest to recreation workers and 
! teachers to know that this year the entire festival 
was recorded and that records are available for 
: phonograph or transcription through the Na- 
tional Folk Festival at 1337-43 E Street, N. W., 
Washington, D. C, or through Radioscriptions, 
Inc., 726 Eleventh Street, N. W., Washington. 
iThe transcriptions are 16" double face ; the phono- 
graph records, 12" double face. Through the re- 
jcording a number of fiddle tunes have been made 
(available which may be used in square dances or 
singing games. The discussions and demonstra- 
jtions at morning meetings were also recorded. 
These include animal tales from the South, the 
playing of bamboo pipes, ballads, nursery rhymes, 
and choral speaking. 



An Indispensable Handbook 
for All Who Direct the Play 
Activities of Children 

I'll i III ITU'S II iiy 

Indoors and Out 

By ELIZABETH F. BOETTIGER 

"Ten years of practical experience as well as special 
study have given the author exceptional familiarity 
with why and how children like to play, how play 
can be made most helpful in their mental and physi- 
cal development, and how to select play materials and 
activities. Well organized and simply and pleasantly 
written." Journal of Home Economics. 

"A book which teachers may recommend unhesi- 
tatingly to parents of children two to seven. . . . 
Space and equipment for out-of-door play are fully 
treated, together with suggestions concerning valuable 
play possibilities offered by the outdoors itself. . . . 
Excellent suggestions concerning gardening and pets." 
Childhood Education. 



fust 

DOROTHY GORDON'S 

Treasure Bag of Game Songs 

A delightful collection of game songs gathered 
from all parts of America as well as England, 
Denmark, France, Germany, Scotland, Belgium 
and Ireland. Charmingly illustrated, and com- 
plete with words, piano accompaniments, and 
simply written instructions for playing each 
game. Send for illustrated folder. 



E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY. INC.. 

Educational Dept. 

300 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Please send: 

copies of Children's Play: Indoors and Out at $2.00 

copies of Treasure Bag of Game Songs at $1.50 

$ enclosed D C. O. D. fj Charge fj Qn approval 

(To have books charged or sent on approval, state 
official connection. Postage extra) 

D Send illustrated circular Valuable Books for Music and 
Activity Directors Working with Children 



Name 



Address 

Prof. Affiliation 



190 



LEISURE 



Newly Revised 

ILLUSTRATED SWIM CHART 

Shows and Explains to your Pupils at a Glance the Latest 
Technique of AH the Standard and Basic Swim Strokes in 

Minute Detail 





Profusely Illustrated Easily Read 

Highly Endorsed by Leading College Coaches, Playground 
Directors, Varsity Champions. School P. E. Teachers, and 
Y.M.C.A's. on Heavy Paper, 22 x 32 inches 



Price: $1.00 post paid, $1.75 ior two 

R. R. BOARDMAN 



2380 East Nob Hill 



Salem, Oregon 



After the Fair 

(Continued from page 188) 

The bill for the permanent city and state im- 
provement program serving not only the Fair but 
the future park and including the closely related 
improvements affecting the entire area surround- 
ing the Fair, will amount to $59,000,000. It is 
estimated that the cost of converting the grounds 
into a park will be approximately five and one- 
half million dollars. 

Westchester County Holds a Barn Dance 

A novel affair at the Westchester County Center 
at White Plains, New York, was a barn dance 
sponsored by the County Recreation Commission 
on May I3th. One of the features of the dance 
was an auction of "knick-knacks" unearthed from 
attics. The proceeds of the sale went into the 
treasury of the Westchester Arts and Crafts Guild 
to finance a scholarship for an ambitious student 
at the Westchester Workshop. The carnival spirit 
of a country fair prevailed throughout the eve- 
ning. The little theater became a glorified barn 
for the occasion, providing an excellent dance 
floor for square and rustic dances and a colorful 
background for the picnic supper at which each 
woman guest produced a basket supper which she 
shared with an unknown partner, the identifica- 
tion of her companion not being revealed until 
the "auctioneer" made the decision. 

An Annual Civic Music Night More than 
150 members of a dozen musical groups in Ann 
Arbor joined to present the third annual Ann 
Arbor Civic Music Night program. No admis- 
sion was charged. A large group of persons in- 
terested in music underwrote the necessary ex- 



Leisure 



THE FIRST CONCERTED action of the I.L.O. in 
relation to this subject was the adoption in 
1924 of a "Recommendation concerning the de- 
velopment of facilities for the utilization of work- 
ers' spare time." This Recommendation does not 
have reference specifically to young people but its 
attack upon its subject is so broad as to deserve 
reference here to show the approach of the Or- 
ganization to the whole subject of provision and 
use of leisure. It begins by pointing out that 
wages for employment should be such that people 
need not spend what ought to be their free time 
in earning money by supplementary work. It then 
urges that the working hours of the day be so 
arranged as to make periods of free time as con- 
tinuous as possible and that, the transport system 
be so organized as to reduce to a minimum the 
time spent between homes and workplaces. After 
urging these measures for assuring freely disposa- 
ble time in the hours not given to regular work, it 
goes on to recommend that housing policies should 
make possible the enjoyment of a proper home 
and that there be public provision of facilities for 
physical exercise and recreation, such as swim- 
ming pools and facilities for games and sports, that 
measures be adopted to suppress unhygienic con- 
ditions and debilitating and demoralizing forms of 
recreation, and that cultural facilities be provided 
such as libraries and technical and general educa- 
tional courses. Finally it calls attention to the 
"necessity of safeguarding the individual freedom 
of workers against any system or scheme which 
has a tendency towards compelling the workers 
directly or indirectly'' to use any particular 
facilities. 

More recently a special committee has been set 
up to devise and promote measures enabling 
young persons in employment to get the most both 
from their spare time and from their holidays and 
vacations. Representatives of youth organizations 
have been invited to accept membership and the 
first meeting of the committee is scheduled to take 
place in October 1938 in London. From "Youth 
and the International Labour Organization," In- 
ternational Labour Office, 1938. 



penses in order to make the program free to the 
public. Included in the program were represen- 
tatives of the various musical organizations in 
the city, including the Ann Arbor Civic Orchestra. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



191 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 
IN THE 

LEISURE TIME FIELD 

You Can Design 

By Winold Reiss and Albert Charles Schweizer. Whit- 
tlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New 
York. $3.75. 

V/ Y OU CAN DESIGN/' say the authors in their foreword. 
' "Whether you realize it or not, the power of creating 
forms and patterns lies within you, and you should give 
yourself the pleasure that comes from this kind of self- 
expression." This volume outlines the method by which 
creative design may become a part of the experience of 
everyone. Starting with random scrawls, the reader is 
introduced to simple abstract designs and then to flower, 
bird and animal patterns. From black and white he pro- 
ceeds to the use of various grays and, finally, color. 
There are ninety illustrations, including sixty-seven full- 
page plates, twelve of them in full color. 

Handicrafts as a Hobby 

By Robert E. Dodds. Harper and Brothers, New York. 

$1.75. 

I FATHER WORK, strip confetti, painting on glass, metal 
L flowers, and book making are a few of the fascinating 
handicrafts included in this volume. All of the projects 
described have been worked out in the classroom, and 
the articles selected require a minimum of expense and 
equipment. Children can follow the simple instructions 
with little supervision and adults can carry them out 
readily. 

Games, Dances and Activities for 
Physical Education 

By Fred L. Bartlett. Noble and Noble, Publishers, Inc., 
New York. $2.00. 

T HE AUTHOR, in compiling this book on junior athletics, 
1 has had as his purpose the provision of a manual of 
physical education activities for teachers in the elemen- 
tary schools of Canada, and he has sought to develop a 
program which would be educationally sound, practical, 
and graded. In addition to a discussion of the program, 
its objectives and content, there are general suggestions 
to teachers, a chapter on Organization and Method, and 
a section on Physical Education Activities in the Class- 
room, with teaching material from grades one through 
eight. 

1939 Swimming Pool Data and 
Reference Annual 

Volume Seven. Hoffman, Harris, Inc., 425 Fourth Ave- 
nue, New York. $3.00. 

THIS YEAR'S ISSUE of 1939 Sunmming Pool Data and 
Reference Annual is a particularly attractive and val- 
iuable one. It contains a number of articles which will be 
>f interest to recreation officials, among them a summary 
>f state health department regulations regarding the san- 
itation of swimming pools, how to arrange for official 



BEN PEARSON 



Used by leading universities and tournament 
winners throughout America, Ben Pearson 
Bows and Arrows are made by master crafts- 
men, archers themselves, in America's largest 
plant devoted exclusively to fine quality 
archery equipment manufacture. 

Get New Low Price Catalogue 
Send for complete free interesting catalogue 
and Manual of Archery on care of equip- 
ment, correct shooting form, building targets, 
tournament rules, etc. 



BEN PEARSON. INC. Dept. R9 Pine Bluff. Ark. 



swimming and diving programs, building a well balanced 
aquatic program, and arranging community swimming 
programs. There is also an interesting article entitled 
"Principles and Design of the Water Level Deck Pool," 
a subject which has never before been presented in any 
publication, according to Earl K. Collins, editor. Still 
another article entitled "Sanitation and Conservation of 
Water" tells of a pool the water for which is brought 
through three hundred miles of pipe line, with seven 
pumping stations along the way. 

Shadow Plays and How to 
Produce Them 

By Winifred H. Mills and Louise M. Dunn. Double- 
day, Doran and Co., New York City. $2.00. 

A BOOK THAT should be in the library of anyone in need 
of a practical guide on shadow play production. There 
are three fascinating parts to this publication : PART I 
Cut-Out Shadow Plays ; PART II Shadow Plays with 
Music ; PART III Human Shadow Plays. Included are 
twelve plays ranging in scope from simple fairy tales to 
more elaborate entertainments with detailed notes on pro- 
duction. All of them have been produced by boys and 
girls in the Cleveland schools and the Cleveland Museum 
of Art. Numerous photographs and diagrams add to the 
value of this interesting and intriguing volume. In in- 
troductory and closing chapters the authors briefly dis- 
cuss the history and scope of shadow plays and list 
numerous references containing stories suitable for adap- 
tation to shadow use. 

Golden Gate Song and Chorus Book 
For Home and Community 

C. C. Birchard and Co., 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, 
Mass. Price, 25^. 

A COLLECTION of 114 songs and choruses which includes 
some of the world's best loved melodies. Many of the 
songs in this book may be found with piano accompani- 
ment in the piano accompaniment edition of the Brown 
Book and the Green Book, published by the same 
company. 



H< ic mi 

Toolinq Calf 45c, 50c, and 55c per ft. Craft Lace I 1 '40 per yd. 
Goat Lace 4 Vic per yd. Western Belts $3.50 per doz. Link 
Be't- $2.75 doz. Dugan Moccasins $1.35 pr. Beach Sandals 
$3.50 dz. New Wooden Soled Shoes $1.00 and $1.35 per pr. 
Semi-finished Bow and 4 Arrows $1.05 per set. 

The above are quantity prices. Send for Catalog 

WESTERN CRAFTS & HOBBY SUPPLIES 
532 W. 2nd St. (Dept. R) Davenport, Iowa 



192 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 






Write /or Free Information 

PLAYGROUND APPARATUS 

SWIMMING POOL EQUIPMENT 

* *-. CO. 

MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN 



DEPT. RM-7 



100,000 Days. 

By Dorothy Ketcham. Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. $2.00. 

This book analyzes the hospital as an essentially social 
instrument, showing how the experience of illness can by 
careful planning be made to yield dividends to the patient 
and to the community through education of patients, se- 
lection of occupational projects, and study of patients 
and their relationship to the hospital and to the com- 
munity. Based on experiences of the University Hospital, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, in which the author is director of 
the social service department, the book treats of the 
medical background with which the social service work 
for Children is correlated. On this framework is de- 
veloped a full, new and valuable account of handcrafts, 
amusements and education of child patients which will 
interest all persons who are concerned 'with the rehabili- 
tation of the ill and the handicapped. 100,000 Days is 
illustrated with photographs of patients in activities. The 
finger-painted book jackets are hand-made by patients. 

Some Notes on Amateur Dramatics. 

By Elisabeth Moss Palmer. The Womans Press, 600 

Lexington Avenue, New York. $.20. 
Eleven pages of interesting notes are offered which will 
be of particular interest to the amateur dramatics leader 
who is working with adolescent boys and girls. These 
are based on a two-year experiment made in a consoli- 
dated school by a teacher, w'ho, in addition to carrying a 
full-time teaching load, worked with a school drama club. 
In the sections "Why a Dramatics Group Is Valuable," 
"What To Give," and "Some Hints About the How," 
the author relates impressions and experiences that have 
resulted from the project experiment. 



Here's Your Ideal Activity 

The New ARCHERY 



HOBBY SPORT CRAFT 
By Paul H. Gordon 

Field fun for fair days. Shop 
work for wet days. This book 
covers all phases for Director 
and Counselor. $3.5O 

D.APPLETON- CENTURY COMPANY, 35 West 32nd New York 




What to Do with Herbs. 

By Mary Cable Dennis. E. P. Dutton and Company 

Inc., New York. $1.50. 
This delightfully written book will receive a heart; 
welcome from those garden hobbyists who specialize ii 
growing herbs. Mrs. Dennis takes us through her gardei 
at Rien du tout in Normandy, points out the variou 
herbs, tells of their uses and of the fascinating tradition 
connected with some of them. There are too recipe 
telling how the herbs may be used in salads and cooking 

The Administration of High School Athletics. 

By Charles E. Forsythe, A.M. Prentice-Hall, Inc 

New York. $2.00. 

In compiling this book the author has had in mind tw< 
groups first, individuals who expect to become teachers 
supervisors, or directors of physical education an< 
athletics and second, those already administering hig 
school athletic programs. The purpose has been to offe 
practical suggestions and guides for managing the busi 
ness affairs of an athletic program. The discussions ac 
cordingly have to do with policies concerning athleti 
eligibility, contest management, equipment, the awards 
finances and budgets, safety, layout and maintenance o 
facilities, intramural athletics, girls' athletics, junior hig 
school athletics, and current athletic trends. 

By Way of Introduction. 

Jean Carolyn Roos, Editor. American Library As 

sociation, Chicago, Illinois. $.65. 
This book list for young people, compiled by a join 
committee of the American Library Association and th 
National Education Association, replaces "Recreationa 
Reading for Young People" issued in 1931 by the Ameri 
can Library Association. Since it is intended to be in 
troductory. it is not inclusive. The list of 1,200 book 
chosen is based on reading interests of youth and in 
eludes both fiction and readable nonfiction. Books hav 
been arranged under broad reading interests in an attemp 
to catch various moods of the reader and thus stimulat 
further reading. 

One Reel Scenarios for Amateur Movie- Makers. 

Edited by Margaret Mavorga. Samuel French, New 

York City. $2.50. 

A handbook for those who wish to make their owi 
film. Part I, which discusses family and local news reel 
includes nine miniature scenarios which are available foi 
amateurs to ""break down" into detailed shooting-script 
for filming. In Part II, on photo plays, seven origina 
shooting-scripts are given for amateurs to film. Part II 
has to do with documentary films and is a study ir 
methods. A bibliography on reference readings in ama- 
teur cinematography is included and catalogues listing 
available non-theatrical films are offered. An appendix 
presents a bibliography of reference readings in motion 
picture arts and a study outline in motion picture art. 

The Power of Dance The Dance and 
Related Arts for Children. 

By C. Madeline Dixon. The John Day Compan 

New York. $3.50. 
The modern dance in children's groups includes nearl; 
every other art and demands the use of the whole chil 
physical, emotional, and intellectual. This book, with i 
many interesting and unusual illustrations, presents da 
on the transition of play to art expression during th; 
period between the ages of eight and fifteen when chil- 
dren become critics of what they are creating and must 
have accompanying skills and techniques if their art 
experiences are to endure. 

The Offender in the Community Year Book, 
National Probation Association, 1938. 

Edited by Marjorie Bell, National Probation Asso- 
ciation, 50 West 50th Street, New York City. 
"The Offender in the Community," which presents the 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



193 



papers given at the annual conference of the National 
Probation Association held in Seattle in June, 1938, con- 
tains several articles of interest to all recreation workers. 
The initial article entitled "Next Steps in Crime Con- 
trol" by Sanford Bates, Executive Director of the Boys' 
Clubs of America, Inc., is an excellent statement of 
i present problems of crime treatment and a look into the 
; future. In the chapter on Recreation as Crime Preven- 
- tion, Glen O. Grant states the delinquency problem that 
confronts our country today and praises the recreational 
approach that is being made to it in many parts of the 
country. Two chapters on Community Coordination by 
Harry A. Wann, Supervising Principal of Public Schools, 
Madison, New Jersey, and by Kenneth S. Beam, Executive 
Secretary, Coordinating Councils, Incorporated, give a 
: combined statement of the purpose and progress of the 
Coordination council movement which well deserves at- 
tention. 

Fun's Fun. 

By Jeanne Abbott. The Reilly & Lee Company, 
Chicago. $1.50. 

In this book Miss Abbott gives us some completely 
^planned parties, offering a nurriber of games which have 
i proved successful and, in addition, new and unusual sug- 
gestions for invitations, decorations, and refreshments. 
Twenty special parties are described together with a 
lumber of pencil games, active games, and quiet games. 

Social Work Year Book 1939. 

Edited by Russell H. Kurtz. Russell Sage Founda- 
tion, New York. $3.50. 

i For five years the Social Work Year Book has under- 
aken to report the current status of organized activities 
n social work and related fields. In the 1939 Year Book 
here are three major sections : Part I consists of a group 
>f eighty-two signed articles on various phases of social 

;vork. Part II introduces a state-by-state description of 
he public assistance programs in effect in the forty-eight 
tates. Part III is a directory of national and state 
geneies, both public and voluntary, whose programs are 
elated to the subject matter in Parts I and II. Among 

;he eighty-two signed articles is one giving a bird's-eye 
iew of the recreation movement as it operates through- 
ut the country in unban and rural areas. Recreational 

'evelopments in state and municipal parks are noted, and 

.amping too is considered, as well as athletics, music, 
rama, and other recreational activities. 

lasic Principles of Healthful Housing. 

American Public Health Association, 50 West 50th 
Street, New York. $.25. 

i This, the preliminary report of the Committee on the 
lygiene of Housing of the American Public Health As- 
)ciation, was reprinted from the American Journal of 
ublic Health for March, 1938. It suggests the funda- 
mental physiological and psychological needs to be met in 
jiy consideration of housing and also discusses neces- 
;iry provisions for protection against contagion and ac- 
\ dents. Of special interest to recreation workers is the 
ction on "Fundamental Psychological Needs" in which 
| .e Committee discusses the provision of opportunities 
T normal family life and normal community life. 

J You're Going to Do Publicityl 

By Dorothy S. Cronan and Clara W. Alcroft. The 

Womans Press, New York. $1.00. 
The authors have given us a rather unusual booklet 
>ne in loose-leaf form dealing with the essentials of 
jtblicity for the social agency. Such questions are dis- 
>ssed as Who Does It; what is good salesmanship; the 
|.rt of the volunteer ; the issuing of good folders ; the 
je of the newspaper, posters, and talks. The publica- 
;>n will have special value to workers having responsi- 
' ity for publicity. 



Recreation Directors' Most Popular Line of 

MEDALS, BALL CHARMS and TROPHIES 

Medals 25c each For Every Sport and Competition 

America's Biggest Award Values . . . Silver Loving Cups 

Send for FREE medal indicating sport for which wanted 

Write for Medal, Cup and Trophy Bulletin R 

AMERICAN MEDAL & TROPHY CO. 

Mfg. Jeweleri School, Club and Frat Pint and Ktyt 
79 FIFTH AVENUE at 16th Street NEW YORK CITY 



Happy Birthday to You! 

By Horace J. Gardner. J. B. Lippincott Company. 
Philadelphia. $1.00. 

Someone is always having a birthday it's an inescap- 
able anniversary! So it is well to be armed with this 
book which has been planned to add to the pleasure of 
everyone's birthday from the tiniest tot to grandmother. 
Refreshments, as well as activities, are suggested. 

"Supervision in Social Group Work." 

By Sidney J. Lindenberg, Association Press, 347 
Madison Avenue, New York City. $1.50. 
When a social agency carries on its program in part or 
wholly through groups of its members or participants, 
it must call upon the best available resources of leader- 
ship in the country. Some such leaders have a knowl- 
edge of the agency and its program, while others do not. 
All need to be fully familiar with the nature and purpose 
of the agency and the methods of dealing with people in 
groups. This book might almost be called .Selection and 
Training of Volunteers. It describes the theory and il- 
lustrates with carefully chosen selection of experiences 
the operation of the group under trained and capable 
leadership. 




Special Offer to Camps 

$1 for 7 Issues of 

STORY PARADE 



TOUGH PAPER COVERS 



HANDY SIZE 



We will send four issues to start and three as 
published, June 25, July 25 and August 25. 
You will find stories to read and tell, songs to 
sing, verses, puzzles, articles on the owl and 
porcupine by Wilfrid Bronson, a puppet play 
by Remo Bufano with instructions for produc- 
ing, crafts and hobbies for outdoors and for 
rainy days. 

Order now and give date you wish ship- 
ment made. State whether express or parcel 
post is preferred. 

STORY PARADE INC. 
70 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK, N. Y. 



194 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



"Pastimes Here, and Pleasant Games" 
TWICE 55 GAMES WITH MUSIC 



childhood to old age, the normal person likes 
to play an activity that means spontaneous rec- 
eation, with study as a negligible factor. Singing 
games offer a simple and practical means of genuine 
recreation amusement. Send 25c. in coin for The Red 
Book, the nationally accepted source-book containing 
I 10 games with music and directions. Separate book 
cf accompaniments, 75c. 

C. C. BIRCHARD & CO. 

221 Columbus Ave., BOSTON, MASS. 

Publishers of "Community Music" handbook for 

supervisors, the "Twice 55" Series of Community 

Song Books, Operettas and Musical Plays. 



Physical Education in the Elementary Grades. 

By Strong Hinman. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York. 
$2.00. 

The purpose of this book is to provide an abundance 
of practical materials for use 'by elementary classroom 
teachers in rural and city schools, and the object has 
been to offer in one book sufficient subject matter for a 
year's well-rounded program for each grade. Many 
games, relays, story plays, and rhythmical activities are 
described, and there are suggestions for conditioning 
exercises, and for stunts and self-testing activities. 

Marriages Are Not Made in Heaven. 

By Janet Fowler Nelson, Ph.D., in collaboration 
with Margaret Hiller. The Womans Press, New 
York. $1.25. 

This book, one of "Education for Marriage Series," 
was prepared at the request of young business women. 
It has been arranged as discussion material for use in 
a series of weekly meetings. Problems of man-woman 
relationships are frankly and sympathetically discussed, 
and consideration is given to the importance of leisure- 
time interests in their relation to happiness and satis- 
faction in such relationships. "Just as no two individuals 
are ever identical in their interests or activities, so leisure 
hours vary in form and content and meaning from one 
person to another, and in their contribution to one mar- 
riage or another. Yet without any set formula we can 
apply to ourselves the fact that a distinct contribution 
may be made to marriage by satisfying leisure-time 
activity: satisfaction in the activity itself, satisfaction in 
sharing the interest with another, satisfaction in the in- 
creased understanding of that other glimpsed in leisure 
time spent together." 

How to Build It. 

Edited by Clifford Peters. Modern Mechanix Pub- 
lishing Company, Greenwich, Connecticut. $.50. 
Here are plans for making trailers and equipment for 
home accessories and improvements, miniature trains, 
models, and radio and photography equipment. The 
directions for making a number of miscellaneous 
articles are given, and there are suggestions for a 
workshop. 

New York Advancing World's Fair Edition. 

Municipal Reference Library, 2230 Municipal Build- 
ing, New York City. $.50. 

In this book of facts about New York City there is a 
chapter on the New York World's Fair which visitors 
will find most interesting. The booklet describes New 
York of 1939 and 1940 and has 130 photographs. It also 
contains a guide to the City Exhibit Building at the 
World's Fair. 



Housing for the Machine Age. 

By Clarence Arthur Perry. Russell Sage Founda- 
tion, New York. $2.50. 

Mr. Perry has climaxed his long years of service with 
the Department of Recreation of the Russell Sage Foun- 
dation with this book which rounds out his earlier pre- 
sentation of the neighborhood unit idea with a method foi 
making its actual application more generally practicable 
The procedures suggested for this purpose, however 
when fully worked out showed an additional usefulness 
in offering important aids toward a solution of the prob- 
lem involved in the application of modern industria 
technology to the production of buildings. Mr. Perry's 
contributions to the wider use of school plants and th( 
neighborhood unit plan are well known to recreatior 
workers who will find much of interest in this illustrated 
volume. 

Scenes for Student Actors, Volume IV. 

Edited with notes by Frances Cosgrove. Samuel 

French, New York City. $1.50. 

The fourth of a series of compilations of dramatic 
scenes from carefully selected and well-known Broadway 
plays, including scenes from Stage Door, On Borrower 
Time, Father Malachy's Miracle, Page Miss Glory 
Shadow and Substance, Squaring the Circle, and a num- 
ber of others. 

The volume offers excellent study and teaching material 
for drama club groups, which is suitable for use witr 
high school students as well as older groups of players 
There are scenes for : one man, one woman, two m 
two women, one man and one woman, and groups. 

A Child's Book of Famous Composers. 

By Gladys Burch and John Wolcott. A. S. Barnes 

and Company, New York. $1.50. 

This interesting book, designed for children from eighl 
to twelve years of age, is a collection of short biogra- 
phies covering the lives of twenty of the world's greal 
composers. Each biography places the composer both ir 
time and kind of music from the child's point of view 
Accompanying each is a full page reproduction of ai: 
authentic contemporary picture of the composer. 

Public Problems in Landscape Design. 

Prepared by Paula Birner under the joint direction 
of Franz A. Aust, Professor of Horticulture (Land- 
scape Design), College of Agriculture, University of 
Wisconsin, and Aimer e L. Scott, Director, Depart- 
ment of Debating and Public Discussion. 
Part I of this series of study aids deals with roads, 
highways, and roadside development. An introductory 
chapter is followed by eight sections quoting references 
to books and magazines under the subject headings oi 
Roads ; Highway System of the United States ; Roadside 
Development; Roadside Plants and Planting; Mainte- 
nance of Roadsides ; and Roadside Development Work in 
Wisconsin. Part II is devoted to parks, play areas, and 
parkways. The same general plan is followed out as in 
Part I. References are given under the following sub- 
jects : The Park Movement; Municipal Parks; County 
Parks ; State Parks ; National Parks and Monuments ; 
Play Areas ; and Parkways. Each pamphlet is available 
to residents of the state for 25 cents ; for individuals and 
groups outside, at 35 cents. Requests should be sent to 
the Department of Debating and Public Recreation, Uni- 
versity Extension Division, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Activity Book for School Libraries. 

By Lucile F. Fargo. American Library Association, 

Chicago, Illinois. $2.50. 

In the foreword of this book it is described as a book 
of undertakings, "not the undertakings of teachers or of 
librarians, but of such purposeful undertakings of boys 
and girls as center in the school library." Accordingly the 
aim of the book is to contribute ideas of practical value 
in carrying out those phases of the school activity pro- 
gram in which the library plays a part. The result is 
an exceedingly practical volume containing hundreds of 
suggestions for activities, many of them recreational. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



195 



A Girl Grows Up. 

By Ruth Fedder. Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, Inc., New York. $1.75. 
Written for and addressed to the teen-age girl, A Girl 
Groivs Up interprets some of the commonest difficulties 
adolescents have to face and describes in an interesting 
style the adjustments 'which must be made in the process 
of growing up. There are chapters on Gaining Self-con- 
fidence, Growing Up Emotionally, Getting on with Peo- 
ple, Living Happily with Your Family, and Associating 
Happily with Boys. There is also a chapter on Deciding 
about a Job which is full of practical suggestions. A 
bibliography of books for the adolescent concludes the 
volume. 

Musical Programs. 

Edited by Florence Hale. Educational Publishing 
Corp., Darien, Conn. 25tf single copy ; when thirty or 
more are ordered, 15^ each. 

A collection of nine plays for the primary and inter- 
mediate grades, accompanied 'by songs. Included is a 
health sketch, a Japanese play, a safety novelty number, 
and several programs especially suitable for presentation 
during the spring and Christmas holiday seasons. The 
editor has included production notes. 

Forum Planning Handbook. 

By John W. Studebaker and Chester S. Williams. 
Published by the American Association for Adult 
Education in cooperation with the United States De- 
partment of the Interior, Office of Education, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Copies may be obtained through the 
Federal Forum Demonstrations, Washington, D. C. 
This hand book is a guide to the organization of school 
administered forums and has been prepared for study and 
discussion for planning groups of educators and civic 
leaders. It is based on the authors' experience in de- 
veloping demonstrations centers for the past six years in 
Des Moines, Iowa, through a grant from the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York through the American Asso- 
ciation for Adult Education, and similar projects in school 
managed forum programs in thirty-eight states during the 
past three years, with financial assistance from the Fed- 
eral government through the Office of Education. These 
experiments have formed the basis for a general study of 
specific plans for developing adult civic education under 
public school administration. 

The Correct Toy. 

Edited by the Child Study Group of the Raleigh 
Branch of the American Association of University 
Women, Raleigh, North Carolina. $.25. 
The compilers of this mimeographed bulletin have 
given given us a list of toys classified according to 
chronological age levels and based upon the observation 
and study of children's play interests consistent with the 
underlying principles of mental and physical development. 
As a guide it is by no means exhaustive 'but merely sug- 
gestive of representative types. Recreation workers will 
find this bulletin helpful. 

The Y.M.C.A. and Social Need 

A Study of Institutional Adaptation. 

By Owen E. Pence. Association Press, 347 Madison 

Avenue, New York. $2.75. 

Neither a comprehensive history nor an attempt to in- 
clude all of the continuous accounts of the history and 
activity of the American Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations, this volume has as its objective the examination 
of certain internal and external factors that have made 
for continuity and for change in the organization. It 
seeks to contribute to better understanding of the essen- 
tial elements making for continuity and change, and to 
suggest ways by which it may be possible for the present- 
day Y.M.C.A. to make such additional timely changes as 
may be needed in keeping with its historic character and 
its opportunities. 



w* ** UL 







on HOW TO 
FLOODLIGHT 



FOOTBALL FIELDS 



In this complete 48-page manual you'll 
find the answer to practically every ques- 
tion on floodlighting football fields. Shows 
how to light football fields to attract more 
spectators and provide better playing con- 
ditions. Explains Benjamin's method of 
floodlighting, shows why Benjamin flood- 
lights cost less in long run. Contains light- 
ing layouts developed by Benjamin en- 
gineers from which you can easily plan 
your own lighting layout; principles of 
illumination design; and all necessary in- 
formation on the various types of Benja- 
min Floodlighting Equipment. 



SOFTBALL FIELDS 



This manual clearly shows why Benjamin 
Floodlighting Equipment leads all in soft- 
ball installations. Explains the four funda- 
mental factors of correct baseball flood- 
lighting. Shows how to obtain the correct 
type of light distribution; how to protect 
the players and spectators from glare; etc. 
Contains complete lighting layouts with 
specifications for nearly every type of 
baseball or Softball lighting installation. 



TENNIS COURTS 



Special Data sheets prepared by the Benja- 
min Engineering Department show you 
how to secure good and excellent tennis 
court lighting through one of the several 
methods available. Gives you complete 
information on overhead and side lighting 
of tennis courts and complete information 
on the special Benjamin reflector units 
available for this purpose. 



OTHER PLAY AREAS 



Playgrounds, swimming pools, trap and 
skeet shooting, and other play areas to be 
lighted for night use are treated in a spe- 
cial MANUAL OF LIGHTING LAY- 
OUTS FOR NIGHT SPORTS and by 
special reports prepared by the Benjamin 
Engineering Department. 



*8t ft! 


a- 




!i{ ' ii 

.4 * ME i l! 




FREE ENGINEERING SERVICE 


<MJ|(+l |[ 

xjl f ' i 

^>;L^<--"5 


^ 
> 

> 

^ 


All of the above publications are made 
available to those interested in floodlight- 
ing by the Benjamin Electric Mfg. Co., 
Des Plaines, 111., makers of the most com- 
plete line of engineered sports area flood- 
. lighting equipment. In addition to these 
publications which may be secured without 


^ 




ing Department will cooperate with you or 


1 


1 


plans and recommendations. 



Vou're sure when you specify 



Pioneer and World Leader in 

FLOODLIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

Diitributed Exclusively Through Electrical Wholesalers 



196 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



TEACHERS 



Save Money 

On your favorite magazines. Write 
for JUNIOR ARTS AND ACTIVITIES' 
new complete list of money-saving 
combinations. 



No need to wait until school opens 
next September. You can place 
your order now and be sure of 
receiving September issues on time, 
and you need not remit until next 
October ! 



Every teacher will be interested 
in seeing the new and better June 
issue of JUNIOR ARTS AND ACTIVI- 
TIES. // you have not seen a copy, 
mail lOc today for a sample number. 




Send today for our complete list 
of magazines and a sample copy 
of JUNIOR ARTS AND ACTIVITIES 

Junior Arts and Activities 

Dept. R . 
740 RUSH STREET CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



Safety Every Day. 

By Herbert J. Stack, Ph.D. and Esther Z. Schwartz 
Noble and Noble, Publishers, Inc., New York. $.80. 
It is generally conceded that in the elementary schools 
one of the best ways to teach safety is to present life 
situations through worth-while activities. In this .book 
the authors have endeavored to include the essential ele- 
ments of safety in the everyday life of a child. The 
stories are child centered ; the approach is simple, and 
the chapters cover activities appropriate to each month 
of the year. A number of games are offered, and safety 
on the playground is discussed. 

Talks to Counselors. 

By Hedley S. Dimock and Taylor Statten. Associa- 
tion Press, New York. $.50. 
Growing out of an informal set of talks to counselors 
at the Statten Camps for boys and girls, and published in 
enlarged form as the result of many requests from camp 
directors and counselors, this book presents fifteen talks 
in which the authors, pioneer leaders in camping, present 
valuable suggestions drawn from many fields. The book 
is designed to serve in a counselor training course pro- 
gram. The value of the talks lies largely in the fact that 
they represent a selection, simplification, and concrete 
application of materials from the standpoint of the task 
of the counselor. 

Modern Trends in Physical Education 
Facilities for College Women. 

By Ruth Elliott Houston, M.A. A. S. Barnes and 

Company, New York. $5.00. 
It is not surprising that this book in manuscript form 
should have received the honor award for creative work 
made in 1937 by the American Academy of Physical Edu- 
cation. The way in which the material has been presented 
and the artistic quality of the many photographs com- 
bine to make it an unusual volume. The book portrays 
adequate and proper indoor and outdoor facilities for the 
physical education of college women. A detailed analysis 
of the progress and the facilities in use in seven colleges 
and universities is described. The book is particularly 
addressed to administrators who can use it in aiding the 
architect in interpreting the modern program of physical 
education in terms of proper areas and equipment, and in 
convincing trustees of the need for modern physical edu- 
cation facilities. The volume has been published in a 
limited edition of a thousand copies and the type has 
been distributed. 






The Municipal Year Book 1939. 

Edited by Clarence E. Ridley and Orin F. Nolting. 
The International City Managers' Association, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. $5.00. 

The purpose of The Municipal Year Book, now in its 
sixth edition, is to record current municipal events and 
developments and to present an analysis of trends and 
statistics in the many activities of local governments. As 
in the case of its predecessors, this Year Book places 
primary emphasis upon trends and upon the problems 
of municipalities as a whole. As an added feature this 
year, in order to give a more adequate picture, more 
space has been given to individual statistics of cities. To 
avoid possible misuse of statistics, an interpretative arti- 
cle on the proper use of Year Book statistics is presented. 
An entirely new section has been added, "Part Five, 
Alunicipal Activities," which contains statistics on the 
"line" or service functions of police, fire, utility, wel- 
fare, health, library, and recreation administration. Ma- 
terial in sections which have been repeated has been 
brought up to date. 

Textbook of Healthful Living. 

By Harold S. Diehl. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
New York City. $2.50. 

Included in this encyclopedia, designed to make indi- 
viduals intelligent concerning health, is a rational exer- 
cise program emphasizing the contribution of a sane pro- 
gram of play and recreation to the feeling of well-being. 



YOU ASKED FOR IT! 



197 



You Asked for It! 

Question : We are anxious to secure informa- 
tion regarding certain procedures in boys' clubs 
such as practices in regard to membership dues, 
the opening of the boys' club building for girls' 
programs, and the use of women's auxiliaries. 

Answer: In regard to membership dues the 
amount and method of assessment there is no 
general standard set for charges in boys' clubs. 
Each local club handles the problem in the light of 
local conditions, but in general it is the practice at 
the present time to charge 25 cents for juniors, 
50 cents for intermediates, and $1.00 for senior 
members. The amount received from dues sel- 
dom, if ever, makes up for any considerable pro- 
portion of a club's budget. 

Since a boys' club is a thoroughly democratic 
institution, it is general practice for all boys to 
pay alike in their age group. The principle is to 
make the dues so low as not to be prohibitive to 
any members. However, if a boy cannot pay any- 
thing at all, there is provision made in most clubs 
for him to work out the amount of his dues 
around the club. 

As to girls' programs in a boys' club, there are 
several clubs which permit the use of the building 
at certain periods for girls' activities, such as the 
use of the swimming pool, social dances, etc. It 
is not the general practice, however, for boys' 
clubs to carry on regular girls' programs within 
the building. The national office is of the opinion 
that boys' clubs should be operated for boys. 
Many communities no doubt should have girls' 
clubs, but we think it is not good judgment or 
good economy to combine the two activities. 

Regarding women's auxiliaries, we have some 
fifty-three reported through our annual report 
forms, with a total membership of 4,042. Little 
Rock has one of the largest auxiliaries and a most 
active one. Of course, these women's auxiliaries 
in the clubs throughout the country are not gen- 
erally responsible for any girls' programs. 
Sanford Bates, Executive Director, Boys' Clubs 
of America. 



A Picture Dictionary for Children. 

By Garnette Watters and S. A. Courtis. Grosset and 
Dunlap, New York. $1.00. 

Recreation workers may wish to know of this com- 
prehensive book for young children containing 480 pages 
of simple words with pictures. There are 4,832 words 
jand their variants, and 1,200 illustrations. The book rep- 
j resents a real adventure in words and in reading for the 
.you no; child. Perhaps contrary to the old belief, dic- 
tionaries can be fun ! 



Keep in touch with trends 
in Character and Citizen- 
ship education through 
the magazine 

CHARACTER 
and CITIZENSHIP 

Its stimulating articles on character develop- 
ment and citizenship training through work 
and play in the home, school, church, and 
community give you a well-rounded picture 
of all character and citizenship building 
agencies. 

Learn to Understand the 
Children, and Adults Too, with 
Whom You Have Contact 

Read the fascinating story of personality 
development, 

UNTYING APRON STRINGS 

by Helen Gibson Hogue 

A book scientifically accurate yet easy to 
read as your daily newspaper. 



Send your orders to: 

CHARACTER and CITIZENSHIP 
5732 Harper Ave., Chicago, HI. 

I enclose $ for 

D One-year subscription to CHARACTER 
and CITIZENSHIP $2.00 

D One-year subscription to CHARACTER 
and CITIZENSHIP plus a copy of the 
book, UNTYING APRON STRINGS $2.50 



Name . . . 
Address 
City 



State 



THE BUYERS' GUIDE 

Check list of advertisers using RECREATION from June 1938 through June 1939 

(A) indicates Advertiser; 

(E) Exhibitor at Twenty-third National Recreation Congress in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 3-7, 1938 



Publishers 

A E The Abingdon Press, 150 Fifth Avenue, 

New York 

A number of publications on parties 

and games. 

A D. Appleton-Century Company, 35 West 
32nd Street, New York 
A number of books on hobbies and 
recreation. 

A E A. S. Barnes & Company, 67 West 44th 
Street, New York 

Publications on health, physical edu- 
cation, recreation, sports, dancing and 
pageantry. 

A C. C. Birchard & Company, 221 Colum- 
bus Avenue, Boston, Mass. 
Music, including singing games and 
recreational music. 

A E E. P. Dutton & Company, 300 Fourth 
Avenue, New York. General List. 

A Samuel French, 25 West 45th Street, 
New York. Plays for all ages. 

E Greenberg Publisher, Inc., 67 West 44th 
Street, New York. General List. 

A Harper Brothers, 49 East 33rd Street, 
New York. General list. 



A Henry Holt and Company, Dept. R, 25 
Fourth Avenue, New York. 
General list. 

E Lea & Febiger, 600 South Washington 
Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Medical and recreation books. 

E J. P. Lippincott, 250 Park Avenue, Ne 
York. General recreation titles. 

A Noble & Noble, 100 Fifth Ave., New Yor 
"Beginners Puppet Book" and "Art 
Adventures with Discarded Materials." 



E Oxford University Press, 114 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. General list. 

E W. B. Saunders Company, West Wash- 
ington Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Physical education, medical and health 
publications. 

A Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, 
New York. General list. 

Handicrafts 

A American Handicrafts Company, 
193 William Street, New York 
Leather for handicraft work a specialty. 

A American Reedcraft Corporation, 
130 Beekman Street, New York 
Handcraft material. 



To Readers of RECREATION : 

We are bringing to the attention of our read- 
ers the names of the advertisers who since the 
publication of the last Year Book have taken 
space in the pages of the magazine, thus help- 
ing to provide the financial support which has 
made it possible to make RECREATION more ef- 
fective. We believe our readers will wish to 



show their appreciation of this service by turn- 
ing to these advertisers as need arises for the 
products they have to offer. 

Do not neglect to read the advertisements 
appearing in RECREATION. They can be of 
practical help to you. 



198 



E Burgess Handicraft & Hobby Service, 
117 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Handicraft material. 

Craft Service, 350 University Avenue, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Craft materials of all kinds, featuring 
Craftene Rings. 

Dennison Mfg. Company, 
Framingham, Mass. 
Crepe for handicraft. 

J. L. Hammett Company, Kendall Square, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Manufactures looms, weaving materi- 
als and other craft goods. 

E The Handcrafters, Waupun, Wisconsin 
Handicraft materials. 

P. C. Herwig, 121 Sands Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Cord handicrafts. 

Osborn Brothers, 223 Jackson Boulevard, 
Chicago, 111. Leather for handicraft work. 

H. S. Souder, Souderton, Pa. 
All styles of wooden articles for chip 
carving, painting and wood burning. 

L Walco Bead Company, 37 West 37th 
Street, New York 
Complete line of beads for craft work. 

L Webster Textile Handicrafts 

7317 Wise Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 
Handicraft material. 

A Western Crafts & Hobby Supplies 

532 West 22nd Street, Davenport, Iowa 
Handicraft material. 

Playground Equipment and Supplies 
E Ackley, Bradley & Day 

Starr Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Architects of swimming pools. 

A The "K" Shop, P. O. Box 702 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 
Baseball game for playgrounds. 



THE BUYERS' GUIDE 
A 



199 



W. A. Augur, Inc., 35 Fulton Street, 
New York 
Nets for tennis and other games. 

Benjamin Electric Mfg. Company 
Des Plaines, Illinois 
Floodlighting equipment. 

E The J. E. Burke Company 
Fond du Lac Wisconsin 
Playground equipment. 



A E Everwear Manufacturing Company 
P. O. Box 958, Springfield, Ohio 
Playground and water apparatus. 

E Golf Promotion Bureau 

14 East Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Illinois. 

A E Hoop-X-Company 

Muskegon Heights, Michigan 
Games for playgrounds. 

E Law Pipe Railing Corporation 

43-15 llth St., Long Island City, N. Y. 
Copperweld fence. 

A Leicester Contracting Company 

Wayne, Pa. Green or red tennis courts. 

A Mitchell Manufacturing Company, 
1540 Forest Home Avenue, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Playground apparatus for schools, homes 
and parks. 

E National Billiard Association 

629 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

E Playground Equipment Company 
82 Duane Street, New York 
Manufacturers of Jungle-Gym, climbing 
structure for playgrounds. 

E J. E. Porter Corporation 

120 Broadway, Ottawa, 111. 
Jungle-Gym, climbing structure for 
playgrounds. 



200 



THE BUYERS' GUIDE 



Recreation Equipment Company, 724-726 
West Eighth Street, Anderson, Ind. 
Complete line of park, playground and 
swimming pool equipment. 



A Schutt Manufacturing Company 

Litchfield, 111. Playground equipment. 

Surfacing 

A E Gulf Oil Corporation, Gulf Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Gulf Sani-Soil Set for treating play- 
grounds, tennis courts and other areas 
for dust control. 

Sporting Goods and Games 

A Daytona Shuffleboard Company 

Philmont, N. Y. 

Complete shuffleboard equipment. 

A Diamond Calk Horseshoe Company, 
4610 Grand Avenue, Duluth, Minn. 
Complete equipment for official horse- 
shoe games, including rules, instruc- 
tions, horseshoes. 

A E P. Goldsmith and Sons, John and Findlay 
Streets, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Equipment for all sports. 



E A. G. Spalding and Brothers 
105 Nassau Street, New York 
Complete line of sporting goods. 

E W. J. Voit Rubber Corp., Box 250 
Arcade Station, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Rubber balls for all types of games. 

E C. B. Webb Company, 732 Walnut Street, 
Lebanon, Penna. 

Manufacturers of rubber balls for many 
types of games. 

E Wilson Sporting Goods Company 
2037 Powell Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
Sporting goods. 



A H. T. Cress, Troy, Ohio 
Shuffleboard equipment. 

Archery 

A Ben Pearson, Inc., Pine Bluff, Arkansas 
Archery equipment. 



Films 
A 



Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau 
347 Madison Avenue, New York 
Distributors of films for recreation 
meetings. 



Medals and Trophies 

A American Medal & Trophy Company 
79 Fifth Avenue, New York 
Trophies for every sport and competition. 

Schools 

E Chalif School of Dance 

Rockefeller Center, New York 

A Western Reserve University 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Courses in group work. 

Miscellaneous 

E Association of American Playing Car 
Manufacturers, 420 Lexington Avenue, 
New York 

Arrco Playing Card Company, Brown 
and Bigelow, E. E. Fairchild Corpora- 
tion, United States Playing Card Com- 
pany, Western Playing Card Company. 
Makers of playing cards. 



E Coco Cola Company 
Atlanta, Georgia 

R. R. Boardman 
2380 E. Nob Hill, Salem, Oregon 
Illustrated Swim Chart. 



E J. V. Patten 

Sycamore, Illinois 

Royal Typewriter Company 
2 Park Avenue, New York 
Portable typewriters. 



The Recreation Leader 

WHAT THE recreation leader is, the qualities a recreation leader 
possesses have great influence over a long period of time on 
the people who come to the recreation center. It is important that 
the recreation leader have as wide as possible an experience of 
living, a capacity to enjoy beauty and to recognize truth. No one 
can give the kind of recreation leadership which modern life requires 
who has not attained a very considerable measure of self-control, of 
self-discipline. It goes without saying that the position of recreation 
leader is not one for a man who is thought of as "too academic." 

It is hard for a community recreation -leader to do what he ought 
for his neighborhood except as he at least understands what is taking 
place in the civic and political life. With the rapid increase in leisure, 
with the likelihood that men will be retiring at an earlier age, it is 
of the greatest importance that recreation leaders understand the 
opportunities for civic and political life in their neighborhoods, that 
they are able to think in terms of the problems of home life, that 
they are able to foresee much of the planning that needs to be done 
in the various neighborhoods of our cities. 

It is hard to conceive of a recreation leader, successful and happy 
in his work, who does not have a philosophy of life, who has not 
himself studied the needs and wants of men and gained a vision as 
to the possibilities of life for various kinds of men, who has not 
also thought in terms of the needs of contemporary society. 

Men and women are happy only as they continue to grow. The 
recreation leader must be conscious of ways in which men and women 
may for themselves find growth in home, neighborhood and com- 
munity activities. Recreation leaders need to become masters of the 
art of living. 

LESTER K. ADE 

Superintendent, Department of Public Instruction 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 



201 



July 




Courtesy Montctair, N. ] ., Model Yacht CM 



"The origin of model yachting is shrouded 
in mystery, but it is as old as sailboats 
of large size. In England and Scotland 



the sport is a very old one, and here we 
find its greatest following and highest 
development." (See article on page 203.) 



202 



Model 
Yachting 



THE ORIGIN of model 
yachting is shrouded 
in mystery, but it is 
as old as sailboats of large 
size. The museums in all 
countries show historical 
evidences of model 
yachts. In England and 

Scotland the sport is a very old one and here we 
find its greatest following and highest development. 
In America, New York and San Francisco com- 
pete for the honor of having organized the first 
model yacht club in the early seventies. One local 
historian reports that the first model yacht club 
was on Long Island and the members sailed on 
(iowanus Bay in 1872. Another says the first 
model yacht club sailed on a lake in Prospect 
Park, Brooklyn about 1880. Central Park Lake 
and the lakes on Staten Island lay claim to model 
sailors about the same time. 

It is easy to understand that wherever there are 
sailors and water there have always been model 
sailing yachts. 

England can show records of model yachting 
that antedate America. The sport in England is 
not only older but much more extensive and bet- 
ter organized than in this country. England is a 
nation of sailors, and when sailors retire from the 
sea they naturally become model yachtsmen. This 
is true even of British 
Admirals, several of whom 
are today members of 
British model yacht clubs. 
There are now over three 
hundred model yacht clubs 
in England and Scotland. 
There is an active club in 
Calcutta and one in Cape 
Town, Africa. 

In 1932 there were only 
three ponds in the United 
States that could compare 
with those abroad. In 1938, 
New York, Chicago, 




"Model yachting is my hobby," writes the au- 
thor. "And it would be the hobby of thousands 
of other business and professional men if they 
knew about it. In the very few places where 
such sailing is being done the model yachts 
act as magnets. Business men, old and young, 
surround the yachts not only to satisfy their 
curiosity regarding construction and rigging, 
but to ask questions as to how they can get 
yachts and how they can enter the sport. 
At every regatta there is plain evidence of 
great latent interest in the sport which needs 
only to be awakened to cause a develop- 
ment in this country which would give us 
more than the three or four hundred clubs 
which now exist in England and Scotland." 



By CHARLES E. NORTH, M.D. 

New York City 



Philadelphia, Detroit, St. Louis, Boston, Wash- 
ington, Grand Rapids, Port Washington, Long 
Island, Berkeley, California, Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, and Charleston, South Carolina, had 
built good yacht ponds. 

Model Yacht Ponds 

The basis of this whole sport is ponds and 
winds. Development is hopeless without good 
water and good wind. Both are necessary. In 
many localities there is good water, but if this is 
located in a place so sheltered by hills or banks or 
trees and shrubs or houses that wind cannot get 
at it, such water is not suitable for model yacht- 
ing. Many clubs have struggled in vain to develop 
interest on ponds with no 
wind. 

The dimension of a 
model yacht pond as ap- 
proved by most authori- 
ties are from eight hun- 
dred to one thousand feet 
in length, two hundred to 
three hundred feet in 
width, and from three to 
six feet in depth. Wooden 
starting platforms or floats 
from thirty to fifty feet in 
width are desirable at each 
end. The shore line of the 



203 



204 



MODEL YACHTING 



pond should be of sand gently sloping from the 
water edge both ways at an angle that will make 
the depth of water eighteen inches within six feet 
of the edge. A pathway at least six feet wide 
around the entire pond is desirable to accommo- 
date yachtsmen following and launching yachts. 
A shore line of stone or cement or wood is ob- 
jectionable because of the damage caused to yachts 
striking the shore. A sloping sandy beach fur- 
nishes the best of conditions for both yachts and 
yachtsmen. Yachts go aground in the soft sand 
without damage. They can be handled by yachts- 
men in rubber boots without bending too low or 
getting down on knees as has to be done with 
ponds surrounded by cement and stone and wood. 

Need for Properly Constructed Ponds. The only 
obstacle to a large development of this sport is the 
lack of proper sailing ponds. The maps of the 
city parks all over the United States show a sur- 
plus of ponds. There are ponds enough so far as 
numbers go. Practically all plans for parks new 
and old include ponds either for decorative fea- 
tures, for boating, for skating, and in a few cases 
for swimming. Many of them are for the accom- 
modation of ducks. There are several thousand 
ponds in city parks, but out of all these at the 
present time there are scarcely one dozen really 
fit for a model yacht regatta. The defects are in 
their dimensions, or their shape, or their shore 
line, or in trees, shrubbery, hills, or houses which 
shut off the wind. 

It is urgently hoped that park commissions, in 
making plans for new developments, will include 
facilities for model yachting. Model yacht ponds 
cost no more than other ponds. In some cases 
they cost less because of their simplicity of con- 
struction. In landscaping, in place of a fringe of 
trees or shrubs which block off the wind, the pond 
can have low sloping banks suitable for rock gar- 
dens or flower beds. There is no decorative fea- 
ture to a park equal to a fleet of model yachts with 
their sails of white and of many bright colors. 

It is no argument to point out the comparative 
spaces required for other recreations such as base- 
ball, football, and tennis. All model yachtsmen 
ask is the opportunity to make use of the water. 
They do not offer model yachting as a substitute 
for other sports. The space required is the space 
now occupied or to be occupied by the ponds 
which park commissions maintain. 

In the case of plans for new parks ponds can 
be planned so that they will be correctly designed 



at the outset. In the case of old parks there are 
many ponds which at comparatively small expense 
can be remodelled. Shore lines can be made 
straight, sand beaches can be filled in, nearby trees 
and shrubs can be removed. If all of these things 
cannot be done at once enough can be done to 
furnish fairly good facilities for each city. 

Boston has the most expensive and in some re- 
spects the best yacht pond in the United States. 
Its pool is a part of the costly development of the 
esplanade on the bank of the Charles River. The 
city is now building a first class club house where 
the yachts of the Boston Model Yacht Club can 
be kept and the yachtsmen can have club house 
facilities. 

Port Washington, Long Island, has an ideal 
pond built several years ago. Because of this i 
has one of the strongest clubs of Class A boat; 
and stages many important regattas. A beautifu 
pond has been built by the Park Commission a 
Hempstead, Long Island, where one of the larges 
clubs of M Class boats has been developed. The 
Lincoln Pool at Washington is the home of 
model yacht club, but while the pond and su 
rounding park are beautiful, the club finds sailing 
conditions often unfavorable because trees and 
shrubs shut off the wind. Detroit, Chicago, St. 
Louis, and San Francisco have been supplied wi 
first class ponds by their Park Commissions an 
have thriving clubs. Detroit has a very fine po 
and both men's and women's clubs. 

One of the most thickly populated areas in t 
United States is the North Eastern part of Ne 
Jersey, which is part of the metropolitan distri 
near New York. Paterson, Newark, Elizabet 
Jersey City, and a score of suburbs in Union 
County, Hudson County, Essex County, and Pas- 
saic County have a population of over 2,000,000. 
Here are scores of lakes and ponds, many of them 
built by park commissions. Yet there is not a 
single one of these which furnishes proper con- 
ditions for model yachting. The large resources 
of these park commissions and the numerous fine 
parks show that the cost of ponds is not an 
obstacle. 

The demand for model yachting is latent, 
cannot show itself before the pond is built. The 
pond must come first. The response is immediate 
wherever good ponds have been built. A model 
yacht pond always creates a model yacht club. The 
future of this sport depends entirely on the action 
of park commissions. It can become as important 



MODEL YACHTING 



205 



a sport in America as it is in England and Scot- 
land. If the park commissions will furnish the 
ponds the model yacht clubs will be immediately 
created. Cooperation between organized recrea- 
tion and park commissions can easily make a 
major sport of model yachting. 

The Boats 

Class A Boats. The A Class are the largest size 
boats used by model yachtsmen. They weigh 
from forty to sixty-five pounds and are from six 
to seven feet in length overall. The masts are 

: seven feet in height and the lead fin keels have a 

I depth of from eleven to twelve and a half inches 
below the water line. These are heavy and pow- 
erful boats for models. They have all the features 
of the largest racing yachts. For designers and 
builders this class of boats is of the most interest 
because they must come within the limits of rules 

;very similar to rules required for the large racing 
yachts. These limits are indicated by mathema- 

jtical formula too complex for popular under- 
standing, but the limits restrict the length of wa- 

terlines, weights, sail areas, and other features. 

jThese limits do not prevent wide variations in 

jsize and in design, but prevent any excesses by 
imposing penalties. 

To the keenest students of yacht design and of 
sailing the A class is the most interesting class. 
The most modern theories of naval architecture 
:an be successfully tested more quickly and more 
Dften in these models than in the larger boats. 
The newest theory of design which makes a boat 
self-sailing has been applied to many of the newer 
/achts. Because of their size and the serious study 
-equired for their design, 



his class appeals only to 
i small number of model 
yachtsmen. The cost of 
he materials and labor 
equired in building a 
nodel of the A Class is 
estimated to be at least 
jive hundred dollars. But 
vhile the yachtsmen in 
his A Class are small in 
lumbers, they have for 
r ears been the leaders in 
he organization and de- 
'elopment of the sport, 
t is their work that has 
levated the game above 
jhe level of child's play 



"For whom has model yachting a special appeal? 
First for that man who, loving the sea and 
ships, yachts and yacht racing, cannot afford a 
full-sized yacht of his own. Second for the 
yachtsman who is also artist or engineer, to try 
out his ideas of form at minimum expense, or, 
who, loving to fashion beautiful things with 
tools, seeks to satisfy this craving through his 
favorite sport. Third for the very young sailor, 
or very old, unfit to go to sea. And fourth 
for those students or instructors at manual train- 
ing and engineering schools whose desires to 
give practical expression to their acquired knowl- 
edge holds this special form. Last but by no 
means least for the many proficient model 
yachtsmen from among the interested bystand- 
ers who have fallen victims to this fascinating 
game." E. L. Cheney in the 1938 Year Book of 
the Model Yacht Racing Association of America. 



and made designing and building matters of scien- 
tific interest. 

Class M Boats. The M Class is comparatively 
new. It was originated by Mr. Roy Clough of 
Marblehead, Massachusetts, and the M stands for 
Marblehead. It is also called "the 50 - 800 class." 
This is because of the simple rule that all yachts 
must be fifty inches in length overall and cannot 
carry more than eight hundred square inches of 
sail. There is no mathematical formula setting 
limits to any other features of these yachts. 

The M Class boats can be of any depth and any 
shape. Their weight is not limited but the average 
is from twelve to twenty pounds. There are some 
outstanding advantages offered to the public by 
this class of model yacht. They present no serious 
difficulties in design. Anyone with shop facilities 
can build a boat of this length after any design 
that suits his fancy. The size and weight of such 
a boat makes it easy to carry in an automobile. 
The time required to build a boat of this class is 
much less than the time necessary for building a 
boat of the A Class. The cost of M boats in ma- 
terials and labor is about $50. For all these rea- 
sons the M Class, model yacht makes its appeal to 
a much larger number of persons than the A 
Class. Since the introduction of the M Class at 
Marblehead the growth of this class has been re- 
markable. In eight years nearly one thousand 
boats have been built. 

The simplicity and comparatively low cost and 
the convenient size of class M yachts makes them 
attractive to a much larger number of yachtsmen 
than the class A boats. Full credit must be given 
to the originator of the M Class for the great 
increase which has taken 
place in the number of 
clubs and the number of 
yachtsmen in recent 
years. The influence of 
the M Class on this in- 
creasing interest still con- 
tinues as is shown by the 
growth in numbers from 
year to year. 

Refinements. Building 
has progressed to a point 
where there is much re- 
finement. White cotton 
sails have now given 
place to sails of oiled silk 
in many bright colors. 
Wooden masts and spars 



206 



MODEL YACHTING 



have been succeeded by brightly polished stainless 
steel. Clumsy brass fittings have been succeeded 
by chromium plated fittings of beautiful design 
made by specialists as skillful as jewelers. In 
woodwork, metal work, and sails there is no finer 
workmanship on display than many of the model 
yachts of today. They represent arts and crafts 
at their best. 

Sailing 

Each yacht requires two sailors. One is the 
skipper or captain and the other the crew or mate. 
Each of the two sailors handles the boat, one on 
one side of the pond, the other presiding over 
the opposite side of the pond. If there are ten 
boats in a regatta there are twenty sailors. 

There is something "uncanny" about the be- 
havior of a model sailing yacht. The rigging is 
designed to make the wind move the sails and the 
sails move the rudder. By the use of springs or 
elastics the rudder is kept from moving out of a 
straight position until it is pulled to the right or 
left by the string (sheet) which attaches it to the 
booms of the mast and jib. When the wind blows 
the sails hard enough to turn the boat off its 
course, the sails turn the rudder and the rudder 
steers the boat to keep it on its course. An ad- 
justment can be made by the skipper who knows 
his boat so that the turning movement (moment) 
created by the sails is exactly counter-balanced by 
the turning movement (moment) created by the 
rudder. To see a well designed boat struggle in a 
strong wind to keep on a straight course is a great 
thrill to a model yachtsman. To him the yacht is 
a living creature. If it has been designed and built 
by the skipper it is his own child. 

Self-Sailing. Self -sailing to the majority of 
model yachtsmen means the control of the direc- 
tion of the yacht by adjustments of the steering 
gear and the sails. Both of them can be made to 
change the direction of the course. On the other 
hand, to the serious students of designing self- 
sailing means much more than this. Good design- 
ers know that the shape of the hull itself has a 
big influence on the direction a yacht will take 
when it heels over. Since much sailing is done 
with yachts in a partly heeled position, it is obvi- 
ously of great advantage to have a hull designed so 
that the boat will run in a straight line at any 
angle of heel. Admiral Turner of the British 
Navy who is the most successful of all model 
yacht designers has added greatly to the interest 
of the sport by introducing principles of design 



which, if followed, guarantee that a yacht will be 
self-sailing. This means that she will hold a 
straight course at any angle of heel when sails and 
rudder are properly set. In this feature model 
yachtsmen are a step in advance of the designers 
of big boats. If this same principle were used on 
big boats they would also be "self-sailors" and the 
rudder would not be fighting against the sails an 
the hull. The boat could be steered with the lit 
tie finger. 

Model Yachting an Ideal Hobby for 
Business Men 

In cold or rainy weather there is endless work 
to be done on the drawing board with new de- 
signs, or in the shop with repairs to fittings, rig 
ging, sails, or the building of new boats requiring 
metal work and woodwork. The majority of 
model yachtsmen are equipped with shops in their 
homes where they spend leisure hours in occupa 
tion which is a complete diversion from all other 
business. On racing days the sport is out of doors. 
The exertion required is much less violent than that 
of golf or tennis and yet calls for considerable 
walking, running, and bending. In a racing day 
on a pond one thousand feet long each heat to 
leeward and windward the skipper travels two 
thousand feet. If he races six other boats in a 
regatta he has walked twelve thousand feet and 
since there are many irregular steps he has travel- 
ed two miles and a half and been outdoors from 
four to six hours. Such an amount of exercise is 
well suited to the condition of the average busi- 
ness man. 

Other Candidates for the Sport 

High school boys who work in high school 
shops are all embryo model yachtsmen. The draw- 
ing boards are just the place for drawing yacht 
designs. The metal shops have all the equipment 
for making all the metal and casting the lead keels. 
The woodworking shops are the right place for 
making the wooden keels, the ribs, the planking, 
and the masts and spars. The paint shops furnish 
all the supplies for finishing the yacht with coats 
of varnish or paint. All boys and girls and men 
and women who like to work with their hands on 
drawing boards and in metal shops, and in wood 
shops, would find the building of model yachts of 
great interest. The existence of suitable sailing 
water in their neighborhood is a sure method of 
arousing their interest. 



MODEL YACHTING 



207 



Public Interest 

The fact that most automobile driving on holi- 
days is aimless is shown by the speed with which 
a large gallery of motorists collects when model 
yachtsmen are sailing. The sport is attractive 
to all classes of spectators not only because 
sailing yachts are good to look at but because 
people like to watch racing. With a good wind 
competition is keen and exciting enough for any 
sportsman. It is common for spectators to leave 
their cars and crowd the shore line of ponds to 
see the finishes of close contests. 

Women, as well as men, are interested in the 
sport. There is a thriving women's model yacht 
club in Detroit. In the eastern states girls are 
acting as very efficient crews for the skippers of 
several clubs. Women make most of the sails for 
model yachts. They preside at the lunch parties, 
always a feature of regatta days. They help keep 
the score books of the races and furnish much 
expert advice to the skipper. 

Organizations 

The Model Yacht Racing Association of 



America was organized in New York City, July 
1 9th, 1921. Total membership of club sixty-eight, 
(other clubs twenty). Model yacht clubs having 
a roster or not less than ten members are eligible 
for membership. Annual dues of clubs $10. 
Eugene L. Cheney, President, Box 582, Winter 
Park, Florida; Charles H. P"arley, Secretary, 87 
Ouincy Street, Medford, Massachusetts. 

There are four divisions, Eastern, Mid-west- 
ern, Pacific and Canadian. The number of clubs 
in each division are : twenty-seven, Eastern Di- 
vision; fourteen, Mid-western Division; seven, 
Pacific Division ; and nine, Canadian Division. 
Each division has its own officers and its own 
regattas. There are national championship races 
by winners from each division. 

In regattas all yachts start from scratch. They 
sail in pairs once to windward and once to lee- 
ward. Each yacht meets each other yacht in turn. 
The points for the winner are a windward leg 
three points and a leeward leg two points. 

In the membership clubs there are 739 Marble- 
( Continued on page 246) 




Photo bv Les'ie C. Lore 



Model Boat Sailing in New York City's Parks 



THE SAILING of model and 
miniature boats still capti- 
vates the interest of many 
children and adults. Not only 
do recreation executives make 
provision for this activity in their recreation pro- 
gram, but commercial organizations, department 
stores and sporting goods companies, keenly alive 
to business opportunities, have manufactured com- 
ponent parts of models of large ocean liners and 
famous yachts for assembly by both enthusiasts. 
In New York City there are located 200 models 
ranging from twelve to fifty inches at the Model 
Boat House located at the peninsula of the large 
lake, Prospect Park, Brooklyn. The opportunity 
to engage in this type of leisure-time activity de- 



By JAMES V. MULHOLLAND 

Director of Recreation 

Department of Parks 

New York City 



pends to a large extent upon 
the facilities available for the 
models constructed. 

The sailing of model boats 
is an activity in which the child 
of parents who can afford to purchase boats rubs 
shoulders with the child who makes his or her 
own boat. We have found in New York City 
that girls are also interested in this form of rec- 
reational activity. Quite often, the homemade 
boat has been victorious over the entries of the 
children possessing more expensive and elaborate 
craft. A special division for homemade boats is 
included in the program of events to encourage 
this particular hobby. The owner of a homemade 
(Continued on page 247) 




Wide World Photo 



208 



The Recreational Values of Water 



THE NATION'S water re- 
sources constitute a her- 
itage of every Ameri- 
can citizen, and part of that 
heritage is the recreational 
value of water along our 
seashores, rivers, and lakes. 
We in the recreation field 
feel that the recreational 
value of water has been 
largely ignored in the past 
and that because it is so 
vital and so essential it 
should not be neglected in 
the future. 

Provision for recreational 
use in the planning of water 
developments produces 
slight, if any, interference 

with transportation, industry, or other such 
projects. It is not necessary to give over our 
rivers, harbors, streams, canals, lake shores, 
and seashores solely to commercial enterprise. 
There are miles and miles of shore line that 
can be made attractive and very useful for rec- 
reation, and I feel that those handling the plan- 
ning of seashore, river, and harbor develop- 
ments should consult with those trained in rec- 
reational planning and make provision for 
swimming, for boating (all the way from canoe- 
I ing to yachting), and for fishing for pleasure as 
well as for commercial purposes. I can assure 
' you that it pays also not to overlook the scenic 
I aspect of water development projects. Often it 
] is less costly, and very seldom any more ex- 
i pensive, to develop our shore lines with an eye 
| to beauty and recreational use than to develop 
them without regard to those particular phases 
of planning. 4 

There are, in fact, times when recreational 
use is such an important aspect of water de- 
velopment projects that it becomes a serious 
factor in the economic justification of the un- 
dertaking. So important was the recreational 
aspect of the Boulder Dam project that man- 
agement of the whole vast Lake Mead area for 
recreational purposes was assigned to the Na- 
tional Park Service. In the case of the pro- 
; posed Ohio Valley flood control project, in- 



By CONRAD L. WIRTH 

Supervisor of Recreation and Land Planning 
National Park Service 



We are presenting a few extracts from an 
address given by Mr. Wirth at the meeting 
of the American Shore and Beach Preserva- 
tion Association held in Washington, D. C., 
January 1 1, 1939. Mr. Wirth is a director 
of the Association, representing the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Much of the discussion 
at the meeting was concerned with the en- 
gineering and legislative problems of beach 
authorities, though most of the speakers 
frequently mentioned the recreational value 
of beaches as the dominant factor which 
makes them so valuable, and the prime 
reason why they must be protected from 
erosion and made available for public use. 



volving the construction 
of some eighty-nine dams, 
multiple use for recreation 
offers much greater justi- 
fication of the cost than 
the flood control factor 
alone. Floods of disas- 
trous proportions in the 
Ohio Valley are relatively 
infrequent. At present only 
fourteen of the proposed 
eighty-nine dams are con- 
sidered economically jus- 
tified for flood control 
purposes. Although the 
National Park Service has 
made no specific recom- 
mendations concerning 
this proposed project, we 

do point to the additional economic justifica- 
tion which provision for recreational use in the 
planning would offer. The Service is at present 
concentrating with the Army on problems of 
recreational development in this area, and it is 
expected that definite conclusions will soon be 
reached. 

Our studies of the recreational use of parks 
show that water is a leading attraction where 
it exists, and that where it does not exist it 
nevertheless stands well up on the list of pref- 
erences of park users. A park use study was 
undertaken last summer of 292 state and local 
park and recreation areas throughout the 
United States by National Park Service, Civil- 
ian Conservation Corps, Works Progress Ad- 
ministration, state and local personnel, in con- 
nection with the Park, Parkway and Recrea- 
tional-Area Study. The results of this study, 
which will be valuable in determining the ade- 
quacy of present facilities and the need for ad- 
ditional provisions, are now being tabulated 
and analyzed, and it is expected the informa- 
tion will be published at a later date. 

A similar study was made in the summer of 
1937 on eighty-six selected areas in the eastern 
and southeastern states, which revealed that 
scenic resources or exceptional opportunity for 
swimming appear to be necessary to draw any 
appreciable patronage from beyond a fifty 

209 



210 



THE RECREATIONAL VALUES OF WATER 



mile radius of a park. Another item revealed in 
this survey which may interest you was that 
less than fifty per cent of bathers at park 
beaches use bathhouse dressing facilities. It 
was shown that in general the activities of 
visitors to state park areas rank in the follow- 
ing order : scenic use, picnicking, swimming, 
hiking, boating, sports, camping, horseback 
riding, fishing, and nature study. These state- 
ments, while illuminating, cannot be consid- 
ered conclusive since they are based upon in- 
complete data taken over a relatively short 
period of time. 

I am happy to be able to report that from 
our observations there appears to be a quick- 
ening of interest of late in the recreational 
value of water, and that several new projects 
are under way both by the Federal government 
and the state governments for the preservation 
and development for recreation of several 
valuable coast and inland water beach and 
shore areas. 

Millions of dollars are now being spent by 
the Federal government in 
cooperation with state and 
local authorities on flood 
control, water conservation, 
and power projects. In con- 



nection with the development of these areas 
the planning for recreational use is receiving 
increasing recognition, especially in the more 
arid sections of the country where water is al 
a premium. The National Park Service has 
been requested to advise on the recreationa 
planning and development for a number o: 
these projects and in every case has endeavorec 
to correlate proposed developments with the state 
plan which is being developed under the Park 
Parkway and Recreational-Area Study. 

With those responsible for planning park anc 
recreational facilities and programs, water 
must be kept in mind always as of paramount 
importance. With those responsible for water- 
way developments of any nature, the recrea- 
tional value of water should be kept in mind 
for the producing of plans which will provide 
for the fullest use of this invaluable resource. 



More and more communities are mak- 
ing provision for swimming. Caze- 
novia Pool in Buffalo, New York, is one 
of a number provided by that city. 



"Half the lure of sailing is adventure. Divide 
the rest between the two other universal human 
qualities the desire for freedom and the urge t 
create and you have that un 
shakable architecture that i 
often puzzling to laymen : 
sailor's love of sailing." 

Samuel Carter. 




A Swimming Pool as a Recreation Center 




THE GRANT Union High School 
Swimming Pool in North Sacra- 
mento, California, was opened in the early 
summer of 1934. Designed under official A.A.U. 
regulations, the pool is 120' by 50' with a depth 
running from 3/^ to 9 feet. The pool contains 
about 300,000 gallons of water sterilized by the 
chlorine ammonia process. 

The pool was completely paid for at the com- 
pletion of the 1936 season. The proceeds prior to 
1937 were used for maintaining the pool as well 
as paying off the indebtedness on it. The pool was 
constructed with the cooperation of the County 
I Road Construction Fund, the Civil Works Ad- 
ministration, the State Emergency Relief Fund, 
and the National Youth Administration. Thus the 
cost to the student body and the district was very 
slight, consisting chiefly of the cost of filtering 
and locker room housing equipment. 

An interesting feature of the administration of 
the pool is that at the completion of the second 
! semester of the school year in June it is turned 
over to the Student Body 
Association which manages 
the pool for the benefit of 
the student body during the 
summer months. The Grant 
Union High School, with 
Ian enrollment of about 1,600 
pupils, is one of the few 



By J. R. HORAK , , , , .u 

high schools is the country which does 
not charge dues such as student body 
fees. Consequently the only means of revenue for 
the student body are the proceeds from charges at 
football games, basketball games, and other sports, 
and student card parties and dances. One of the 
chief sources of revenue for the student body is 
the money received from swimming pool charges. 
Adults pay a fee of twenty-five cents which in- 
cludes the suit and towel and also a large bath 
towel used for sun baths. Children pay fifteen 
cents for suit and towel. The pool is open from 
10:00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M. throughout the sum- 
mer. Free lessons are given in the mornings to 
all patrons desiring them. 



The North Sacramento High School is the 
proud possessor of a swimming pool which 
combines with aquatic sports many other 
recreational features, including organ con- 
certs. It is also unique in the fact that 
during the summer months it is man- 
aged by the Student Body Association. 



Swimming Plus! 

For those who enjoy other forms of recrea- 
tion with their swimming there are facilities 
around the pool for table tennis, horseshoe courts, 
tennis, badminton, and softball games. These 
games are available to the public without charge 
from the time the pool is 
opened in the morning until 
it is closed at night, and the 
various game courts are 
lighted in the evening. There 
is no charge for spectators 
who may come in at any 
time to enjoy the cool re- 



211 



A SWIMMING POOL AS A RECREATION CENTER 



freshing atmosphere surrounding the pool. These 
spectators are permitted to use the picnic tables 
and chairs at no charge whatever. 

Other recreational facilities include an annual 
water carnival with clowns, water stunts, water 
wrestling on a floating ring in the middle of the 
pool, diving and swimming exhibitions, swimming 
meets, and many other features. 

Each day during the summer there are concerts 
on our outdoor electric Hammond organ. At the 
present time we are installing in our new cafeteria 
which will open onto the pool a beautiful pipe 
organ which will be played throughout the sum- 
mer during the day and evening. 

Another unique feature scheduled in the rec- 
reation program at the pool are the radio 
broadcasts given direct from the pool in many 
different forms. One outstanding broadcast of 
last season was an under-water broadcast ac- 
complished through the means of a diving 
helmet and numerous microphones which the 
announcer took down to 
the bottom of the pool. 



Regulations 

In our locker rooms we use a hanger baske 
system which is manufactured by the Ameri- 
can Wire and Form Company. This system 
has been very satisfactory, and it affords a very 
clean and neat locker room set-up. We have 
from twenty to thirty employees on duty on a 
busy day, many of them students who have 
attended or are attending the high school and 
are working their way through high school 01 
college. We have on busy days from three t 
four certified Red Cross life guards. 

We maintain very strict regulations in re 
gard to the use of the pool by bathers with am 
type of disease or skin irritation, and we art 
careful to suppress any rowdyism and unneces- 
sary roughness. We have made very stricl 
rules regarding the" use of soap and warn 
water in the nude in shower rooms. Footbaths 
are provided which the patrons using the poo! 
must go through before entering the water 01 
returning to the lockei 



The public, without charge, may use the game 
facilities, and the picnic tables and chairs 







Calling All Landlubb 



ers 




Even though your craft may 
be just a simple model sail- 
boat you'll want to know the 
language of the sea and to 
understand its etiquette 



By 

OLIVE McCoRMicK 

Mariner Adviser 
Girl Scouts, Inc. 



Paul Parker Photo'' 



FROM TIIH GLKKFrL boy who sails a chip boat 
down the gutter after a heavy rain to the world 
traveler who thrills to see his ship plow from 
the sullen green of the North Atlantic into the 
Gulf Stream's blue, the moving waters of the 
arth lure us all. 

The operations of a clipper ship are romantic 
Hysterics to a landlubber. Even the passenger on 

ferryboat, bewildered by bells and whistles and 
men busy at coils of rope, dimly understands that 
ie is at the threshold of a strange, exciting new 
world. 

It's easy to step across that threshold. For any 
one who learns the language of the sea and under- 
stands its etiquette, a ferry ride becomes a fas- 
cinating expedition and a vacation cruise can never 
)e dull no matter how unpretentious the ship. 

What is the language of the sea of "ships that 
)ass in the night and speak to each other in pass- 
ng" ? In darkness they may speak silently. Every 
seagoing vessel carries a red light on its left or 
3ort side and a green light on its right or star- 
Joard side. The arrangement of white lights can 
tell you the kind and size of boat, the direction in 
which it is going and whether or not it is carrying 

tow. The long strings of barges that plod up 
and clown our rivers in the wake of bustling tugs 



are clearly marked in the dark for the water-wise 
observer. Each barge carries red and green run- 
ning lights and a white light on the stern (with 
the exception of the last barge which carries two 
white lights on her stern arranged horizontally 
five feet apart, four feet above her deck house, 
and showing all around the horizon). 

Signals and Their Meaning 
The "rules of the road" will guide the vessels 
in passing without the need of giving signals. A 
boat (not a sailboat) approaching from the right, 
unless she is more than two points abaft the beam 
(which means well behind the middle of your 
boat) has the right of way. Watch, next time you 
are aboard a boat, and see how this works out. 

Whistle signals at sea are much more accurate 
than the honk of an automobile horn on land. 
Listen to what the navigator says : One blast 
means, "I am going to starboard." Two blasts 
mean, "I am going to port." Three mean, "I am 
backing," and four mean "Danger." 

Bell signals from the bridge direct the engine 
room. When the engine is stopped, one bell means 
"Ahead slow." When running ahead slow, a jin- 
gle means "Full speed ahead." If you are running 
full speed ahead, one bell means, "Slow down," 

213 



214 



CALLING ALL LANDLUBBERS! 



and once you are running slowly, another bell 
means, "Stop." There is a beautiful economy 
about the signals of the sea ! 

The road signs and silent policemen of the sea 
are the buoys that mark the channel. The law of 
the sea is courtesy and no seaman disregards the 
warning of the markers. A nun buoy (red, with 
an even number painted in black) says: "Leave 
me to port when you are going out of the harbor." 
A can buoy (black with odd numbers) says: 
"Leave me to starboard going out." Buoys with 
vertical stripes say: "Come close; we mark the 
center of the channel." White horizontal stripes 
say, "Stay away; we are covering a wreck." Bell 
or whistling buoys may mark the entrance to the 
harbor or other important locations. They are 
often lighted. 

"Storm warnings are flying from Boston to 
Hatteras." Would you recognize one if you saw 
it? The cautious owner of a small sailboat will 
probably take you back to shore if he sees a red 
pennant flying from the mast at the yacht club or 
the Coast Guard station. The pennant is the small 
craft warning and it has told him that a fairly 
strong wind is expected. 

The storm signal is a square red flag with a 
square back center. Flown in combination with 
the red pennant or a white one, it tells the sea- 
farer not only that a wind is coming, but from 
what direction. At night storm signals are given 
by red and white lanterns. 

And the dread hurricane warnings? Two storm 
flags, one above the other, or three lanterns, red, 
white, red. Hurricane, or whole gale warnings tell 
of a wind traveling a mile a minute or better. 

There are other flags that supply nautical con- 
versation flags for every letter of the alphabet 
of the General Service Code (International 
Morse), pennants for numerals, and those fas- 
cinating yachtsman's flags that say "Owner on 
board," "Crew at meals" and other interesting 
gossip about the private lives of the vessel's 
inhabitants. 

About the Weather 

If you are water-wise you must be weather- 
wise. Do you know where weather comes from? 
That question is not as silly as it sounds. Weather 
comes from the west, as a rule, in the United 
States. Look at a map of the United States 
W'eather Bureau and see how the high and low 
pressure areas travel across the country from the 
Pacific coast to the Atlantic. (For twenty cents a 



month the Weather Bureau in the nearest city wil 
send you a daily map; or look for it in you: 
newspaper.) How fast does weather travel 
That's not a silly question either. It averages abou 
400 miles a day. Today's weather in the countn 
400 miles west of you is likely to be your weathei 
tomorrow, subject, as the train schedules say, t< 
change without notice. To seamen, however, th< 
weather does give notice and some of the sea 
man's wisdom may be yours. Notice the wind an 
watch the western clouds ! 

Fair weather clouds are the cream-puff, o 
cumulus clouds. You can see them on bright sunn 
days, arranged in rows parallel to the westerr 
horizon. They are thick, flattish on the bottom 
and dome-shaped on top. On very hot, mugg) 
clays they may bring showers in the afternoon 
but nothing to alarm a sailor. The mackerel sky 
with its tiny cloud flakes lined up like the ribbing 
of sea sand or the scales of a fish, foretells winds 
or warmer weather. 

Seamen watch for the high-riding feather) 
clouds called mares-tails. They are the cirrus 
clouds that some people call weather breeders 
their appearance usually means that the end of 
fair weather is in sight ; rain will fall within a 
day or so. 

The mares-tails are light and so they travel fast, 
ahead of the storm. Close on their heels, some- 
times overtaking them, are the puffy, often gray- 
ish strato-cumulus clouds. They confirm the mes- 
sage of the first couriers. 

The thin milky sheet of clouds that sometimes 
covers the sky in the morning means nothing, as a 
rule, for the sun may burn through by noon. If 
the clouds arrive in the afternoon or persist until 
then, they mean rain within twenty- four hours. 
Storm coming closer! 

The low-lying cloud sheet whose rolling sur- 
face covers the whole sky is made up of stratus 
clouds. When they appear, get ready for rain in 
seven hours or less. 

Everyone quotes proverbs about the weather but 
how many of the proverbs are true ? Here are a 
few that the Girl Scout Mariners quote because 
they are borne out by fact : 

Mackerel skies and mares-tails 

Make lofty ships carry low sails 

Red sky at night, sailors' delight 

Red sky at morning, sailors' warning. 

When the sea gulls fly inward uttering sharp, shrill 

screams, a storm may be expected. 
A ring around the moon is a sign of rain. 
What weather do you predict for tomorrow? 



CALLING ALL LANDLUBBERS! 



215 



Identifying Boats 

But there's more than weather to interest you 
in the never ending pageant of the sea and sky. 
When the moon rises over the water and a tall- 
masted ship sails silhouetted into the circle of 
light, do you say, "Oh, look at the boat"? Or do 
you know (by her size and her three headsails) 
that this lofty beauty is a cutter, one of the fastest 
modern sailing vessels? Can you tell a gaff-rigged 
, sloop from a jib-headed sloop, and would you 
mistake a ketch for a yawl in broad daylight? In 
:he words of a recent advertising campaign, "It's 
;fun to be fooled but it's more fun to know !" The 
(rigging of a ship can tell you a great deal about 
the work she does, how far and how fast she 
rravels. Her canvas spread in a high wind will 
:ell you something about the wisdom or the fool- 
lardiness of her owner, too. 

The fascinating terminology of boats is too long 
:o go into here. But you might like to remember 
:hat both yawls and ketchs are two-masters, hav- 
ng one large mast forward and one small mast 
ift. The small or mizzen mast of the yawl is 
farther back than that of the ketch almost at the 
:nd of the boat (aft of helm is the technical way 
)f saying it ) . 

The little one-mast, one-sail boats that dot the 
larbors of our seacoast and our inland waters are 
'atboats. Their masts are stepped well forward 
nd they may be gaff-rigged, jib-headed, or some- 
imes, even smaller, with a lug sail or sliding gun- 
er. Look at the pictures in a dic- 
ionary or nautical reference work 
f you want to see what these are. 

Being able to recognize the type 
f boat your friend possesses is 
ne of the finest courtesies a 

landlubber can pay an owner, 
aid it doesn't do you any harm 
'ith other landlubbers' either ! 

Marvels of Marine Life 

Mermaids, dolphins, Mother 
'arey's chickens, and Davev 
sties' Locker have passed from 
'a lore to every day conversa- 
on. Some of them are real and 
>me are not, and the amazing 
uing about marine life is that 
];ality is likely to be as unbeliev- 
,)le as legend. 

! What is the mysterious force 
iat makes clouds of gorgeous 



Monarch butterflies gather at the shore and fly 
resolutely out to sea until they are destroyed by 
wind and wave? Who could trust his own eyes 
when he sees an animal that does not bother to 
swallow his food, merely throws out his stomach 
and surrounds it! (That's the starfish.) Why 
does the wood duck, which nests in a hollow tree, 
always carry its young, one by one, to the nearest 
lake or river? Once you have made friends with 
the sea you can never escape it. The skeletal re- 
mains of prehistoric fish have been found in the 
mountains of Bavaria and in our own deserts. 
Perhaps that is why sea lore is so fascinating. It 
reaches back into the very beginnings of all life 
and is touched with the glamour of a day when 
all the world was new and infinitely mysterious. 

New Interest Guaranteed ! 

There is no end to the new interests that will 
come into your life if you take watermanship as 
your hobby. It makes no difference what your age 
or sex may be. Women and children first and 
not to the lifeboats either. They're more likely to 
man the halyards or holystone the deck. More 
than 2,603 girls, for example, in the Girl Scout 
Mariners are learning how to go down to the sea 
in ships (including ihe items mentioned in this 
article and many more). They are enjoying shan- 
ties and stirring tales of yachtman's exploits, the 
world's navies and merchant marines. 
(Continued on page 247) 




"Paul Parker Photo" 



What They Say About Recreation 



it i KNOW of no better way of expanding one's op- 
portunity for real pleasure than in the culti- 
* vation of one's tastes for beauty and art. As 
a matter of fact, no life seems quite complete, be 
it ever so useful or successful, that has not felt 
the thrill that comes with such appreciation or cre- 
ation. Thousands of young people toil during the 
day whose lives are unavoidably cast upon a back- 
ground of routine and sameness the world's 
work must be done to them should be offered 
pastures where beauty and inspiration may be 
gathered, places where rich and poor alike may 
give expression to their finer emotions play- 
grounds for the soul." Samuel Fleishcr, Founder, 
Philadelphia's Graphic Sketch Club. 



"The rootage of much that man has done and 
thought is found in the field of the arts. Com- 
merce itself and trade, whether national or inter- 
national, depends on developments in these fields. 
In a casual survey of the history of man there 
seems to be ample evidence that developments in 
these fields have gone hand in hand with the rise 
of civilization ; where creative genius in the arts 
and crafts has been stagnant, civilization seems to 
have made little progress.'' - Dr. George M. 
Wiley in School and Society. 



"The best teachers, in my observation, are those 
who contribute by a subtle process of contagion a 
joyous attitude toward life." Henry A. Wallace, 
Secretary of Agriculture. 



"We are no longer so sure of stocks and bonds, 
but we are more sure than ever of the carry- 
over values of reading, nature, hobbies, music, 
art, drama, crafts, camping, and activities in the 
fields of social recreation and sports. All of these, 
with proper guidance, will aid greatly in round- 
ing out the education of youth and in bringing 
about a better interplay of leadership, facilities 
and services, not only among individuals but also 
among schools and municipal governments serv- 
ing the people recreationally." G. W . Danielson, 
Director of Recreation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 

216 



"A full arsenal of recreational resources should 
contain more than one type and should furnish 
activities for different seasons. They might well 
come in pairs like animals into the ark, one for 
summer and one for winter. Thus golf and bowl- 
ing may lie down together, or tennis and skating 
or swimming and volleyball." Dudley R. Reed, 
M.D., in Keep Fit and Like It. 



"Recreation is not merely amusement. It is ex- 
pressing, creating, daring, adventuring. It is put- 
ting life together in trial patterns and new de- 
signs. It is subjecting imagination, courage, reso- 
lution, and our whole range of skills and creative 
capacities to the test. We don't really live in the 
things we must do. We live when released to fol- 
low the beckonings, the lures and enticements of 
freedom. That's when life mounts to high tide 
That's the stuff we are dealing with in rec 
reation." V . K. Brozvn, Chicago. 



"It is the community's job to re-create the 
spirit of the neighborhood, to see to it that 
individuals do not remain 'lost souls' in the city. 
Unless we are prepared to accept as desirable the 
corporative State, which I trust we never shall, 
where each individual is assigned a particular 
function and station in life, we must restore tc 
society opportunities for voluntary association 
where the instinct to want to be a neighbor anc 
to have neighbors will be gratified." Dr. Harol 
W. Dodds, President of Princeton University. 



"Those who are interested in directing the use 
of leisure time into desirable channels are in- 
creasingly interpreting the social objectives of 
leisure in terms of enriched personalities anc 
abundant living. Personality enrichment includes 
the development of the body, the equipment of 
the mind, the control of the emotions, the growth 
of character, the acquisition of skills and efficient 
social expression, and the art of living together. 
Martin H. Ncnmcver. 



Swimming Pool Construction and Operation 



An informal chat on aquatic rec- 
reation and a few suggestions for 
the construction and efficient 
administration of swimming pools 

By DAVID McCARY 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Beverley Hills, California 



THERE is NO physical activity, sport or 
recreation that can be compared with 
swimming, nor one from which the 
'participant derives such benefit; and for 
those who have enjoyed this sport, noth- 
ing revives more pleasant memories. 

The history of aquatic recreation goes 
back beyond the time of the Roman Em- 
pire, with some interesting relics such as 
(Assyrian carved stone tablets dated 800 B.C. show- 
ling a soldier swimmnig toward a fort, and, sur- 
prisingly, with a well denned "crawl" stroke. 

The all-time aquatic record probably goes to 
':he Roman Emperor Caracalla. This man has lit- 
:le claim to fame except that he built a public 
path which covered four hundred thousand square 
/ards, required forty thousand workers in its con- 
jitruction, and accommodated three thousand bath- 
ers. Of these baths an encyclopedia says, "We 
niave only to gaze upon the ruins of Caracalla at 
:Rome to see how utterly -words fail to describe 
! he vastness of this glorious and luxuriously 
lidorned edifice." 

Be that as it may, it has been left to America 
Jo reach the greatest development of aquatic rec- 
reation. Today we construct an elaborate swim- 
;ning pool, press an electric button, set in motion 
. score of devices, filtration and sterilization 
;quipment, produce thousands of gallons of pure 
parkling water, and accommodate thousands of 
Uvimmers. 

Having brought the construction and operation 

If pools to a point of technical perfection, the 

problem now is : What shall we do to promote this 

ascinating sport r.nd make it a national recrea- 




tion for the greatest number a recreation that 
will develop healthy bodies, clean minds, and save 
lives? 

Among the most important things to be con- 
sidered in the interest of patrons of swimming 
are the following: the enforcement of regulations 
dealing with public health and the particular needs 
of the individual at both private and public pools, 
and the development of a standard of aquatic eti- 
quette to protect the swimmer from his own vio- 
lation of personal cleanliness and give decent 
preparation to the swimmer about to enter the 
water of a public pool. 

Compulsory shower lanes and antiseptic foot 
baths are not the solution. While construction of 
proper showers and other necessary sanitary con- 
veniences are a beginning, other necessities in- 
clude privacy combined with fairly luxurious con- 
struction, proper heating, good ventilation and 
supervision of the shower rooms. 

The construction of a modern swimming pool 
cannot be appraised in dollars and cents; it is a 
matter of service. Today such an institution 
should include refinements and color schemes that 
approach the inspirational. 

217 



218 



SWIMMING POOL CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION 



The Beverley Hills Pool 

In planning and construction, the city of Bever- 
ley Hills set a high standard in community effort 
when it built its municipal pool at La Cienega 
Park, cost of which was defrayed by an appro- 
priation of $85,000 from the city's general fund. 
The pool, opened to the public in 1929, has been 
improved from time to time, one interesting ad- 
dition being a steel sash and glass surrounding 
wall. Another improvement has been the creation 
of a one hundred per cent slip-proof concrete 
deck surrounding the pool. 

Two pools are provided a shallow pool for 
small children, and the main pool, 150' x 45', con- 
taining 280,000 gallons of water, with a filtration 
turn-over of 900 gallons per minute. 

The pool is located at the entrance to a nine 
acre recreation center developed by the city. This 
playground is beautifully landscaped and pro- 
vided with improvements such as thirteen stand- 
ard championship concrete tennis courts, a lighted 
softball field, putting greens, volley ball and cro- 
quet courts and other recreational facilities as 
well as beautiful picnic grounds. 

Construction Features. The entire pool is en- 
closed with a solid glass wall windbreak twelve 
feet high connecting with the men and women's 
locker rooms, which are constructed parallel and 
on opposite sides of the pool. This attractive 
glass enclosure prevents prevailing cool winds 
from the ocean from chilling the bathers, and 
debris from blowing into 



the pool from the surround- 



ing park. It is a great factor in maintaining a 
clean pool in such an open location. 

In designing the main building and locker 
rooms, a combination of Moorish and Spanish 
architecture was followed, giving the pool the at- 
mosphere of an estate or country club. It has 
often been used by motion picture studios in the 
production of pictures. 

The second floor is designed as an apartment 
for the superintendent of recreation, who is re- 
sponsible to the City Council for maintenance and 
successful operation of the pool as well as other 
recreational activities. 

The doors and windows of the first floor are 
bordered with green, blue and gold glazed tile. 
This color scheme and material is effectively con- 
tinued in the lobby and along the locker room 
walls and around the deck of the pool, and per- 
mits a wainscot color scheme of sea green with 
sky blue on the walls surrounding the entire pool. 
Flooring in the main lobby is of twelve inch 
square dark brown Spanish tile, with walls and 
ceiling finished in a two-toned brown, and counter 
of mahogany. 

The bottom of the pool is of smooth white 
medusa cement, with drains provided under ex- 
pansion joints converging into an inspection pit 
in the filtration room. The sides are part tile and 
part a special smooth white plastic. 

The deck of the pool has been made exception- 
ally slip-proof. This feature has attracted much 
attention and has been used in the construction of 
other pools. This slip-proof 



Arrangement of lobby, office and other 
service rooms greatly facilitates supervision 



deck has been produced by 



TO POOL. AND ME.N5 

DRESSING ROOMS 



ro POOL AND WOMEN s 

DRESSING ROOMS 




SWIMMING POOL CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION 



219 



In this picture will 
be seen a section of 
the solid glass wall 
windshield which pro- 
tects swimmers from 
the prevailing winds 



the use of a grinding 
machine with a car- 
borundum wheel. 
Cutting into the ce- 
ment surface one- 
sixteenth of an inch, 
grooves three-six- 
teenths of an inch 
wide are produced 
two and one-half in- 
ches apart, parallel to 
each other and at an 
angle of forty-five 
degrees to the edge 

of the pool. In addition to its safety features it 
iis attractive in appearance, and accelerates drain- 
! age of the pool deck. 

The edges of the pool are bordered with one 
inch square blue and white tile construction which 
(also forms the gutter and continues two feet down 
the side below the surface of the water. The bot- 
'tom of the pool slopes very gradually from a 
depth of three to nine feet. This construction has 
proven satisfactory. It gives both the non-swim- 
ner and the beginner a large play area without 
j:he danger of suddenly stepping off into deep 
j.vater. It is also good for the purpose of instruc- 
tion in swimming. 

Locker and Shower Rooms. Locker rooms are 
Hat roofed with massive beams and equipped with 
j>oo individual steel lockers 36" x 18" x 10". The 
lockers are located in the center of the room with 
private dressing rooms along the walls. Rest 
rooms and showers are located at the exit from 
:|he locker rooms to the pool, and are finished in 
Ivhite and black tile with partitions of marble. 
I he showers are thermostatically controlled by 
Dressing the foot on a chromium button, and there 
.re individual liquid soap dispensers directly 
'under each shower. 

j In the construction of modern pools, greater 
onsideration should be given to accommodations 
n the locker rooms and shower rooms. If proper 




facilities are provided the requirements for a high 
degree of personal cleanliness will be met by most 
persons using a swimming pool. There should be 
full-length lockers, with separately divided ac- 
commodations for adults and children. Clean, dry, 
sanitary floors, and air conditioning to the right 
temperature are among the requirements of the 
locker and shower rooms. 

The Water Supply. The water used in the pool 
is secured from the city's water treatment plant 
located 500 yards from the pool. This arrange- 
ment is an ideal one, for in addition to furnishing 
the pool with filtered water of high quality it 
permits frequent bacteriological tests of the pool 
water to be made in the laboratory of the plant. 
At no time is green water added to the pool, all 
water added to the pool being first filtered. The 
importance of this cannot be overemphasized. 

The circulation of the water in the modern pool 
should be so arranged that the water will flow into 
the pool from the bottom upward, and out over 
beautifully constructed gutters covered with ap- 
propriate decorative grating, and back to the puri- 
fication plant. Such a system of circulating the 
water would revolutionize conditions in the swim- 
ming pool, because all debris and other matter that 
contaminates a swimming pool floats on top of 
the water until it becomes water-logged, when it 
seeks a lower level, mixing with the water until 



220 



SWIMMING POOL CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION 



all bathers are out, then settles to the bottom 
where it remains until vacuumed out. 

Filters are the horizontal pressure type and are 
backwashed by taking the water from the pool, 
and in addition means are provided to add to the 
backwash pressure of the domestic water supply, 
if desired. This is arrived at safely, and in com- 
pliance with the law, through the installation of 
check valves and a vacuum breaker attached to 
the water main before it connects with the filters. 
It permits the operator to add make-up water, 
fill the pool and frequently overflow the pool 
through the filters. 

The temperature of the pool water is thermo- 
statically controlled. All other equipment, such as 
heating units, pumps, chlorinators, alum and soda- 
ash feeders, is automatic, or manually controlled. 
The pool is vacuumed and brushed daily, thereby 
eliminating the algae problem. 

Notes on Facilities. Facilities provided should 
include a laundry room, first aid room, and a 
modern hair drying room equipped with six hair 
dryers of original construction. The air is con- 
trolled through flexible rubber tubing; all elec- 
trical apparatus is placed out of the reach of wet 
hands and hair. Make-up tables and mirrors sur- 
round the room. 

Life guard chairs in the modern pool should be 
at least nine feet high, in order that the guards 
not only be separated from the patrons, but to 
facilitate observation of submerged persons and 
more efficiently carry out necessary safety meas- 
ures and supervision. 

Some Hints in Administration 
Sixteen employees are required for the opera- 
tion of the pool : six life guards, four locker at- 
tendants, two- .cashiers, one operator, one laundry- 
man, a bicycle checker and supervisor. Four or 
five guards are on duty during busy hours, they 
change their stations every fifteen minutes, ro- 
tating clockwise around the pool deck. Discipline 
is maintained through dignified, courteous service, 
with familiarity between employee and patron 
prohibited. Locker attendants lock and unlock 
lockers for patrons and enforce necessary pre- 
cautionary measures to insure compliance in con- 
nection with all rules of health and conduct in the 
locker rooms. These employees are selected upon 
evidence that they have good judgment and 
ability to handle a difficult situation. 

Persons coming to the pool on bicycles are re- 
quired to park them under the supervision of an 



employee who devotes his time to caring for thes 
prized steeds while their youthful owners are tx 
coming Helene Madisons or Johnny Weismuller 

Eating and smoking on the premises are not a 
lowed, and foodstuff cannot be sold, either c 
rectly, or by slot machine on or near the premise 
Carefully selected bathing caps are sold to p 
trons, and all women and girls are required 
wear caps while swimming. Boys and men a 
permitted to wear trunks only. 

The price of admission is fifteen cents for a 
persons under sixteen years of age, and twent 
five cents for all persons over that age. A priva 
dressing room costs ten cents additional, an 
rental of a suit is ten cents. Reduced rates of ad 
mission are allowed Boy Scout troops and othe 
organizations attending the pool in groups. 

Swimming hours are from 9:30 A. M. to 5:, 
P. M. with a half -hour period of free instructio 
in swimming to boys and girls from eight 
twelve years of age at 9:00 A. M. The first st 
in this instruction is a lecture, then a demonstra 
tion which shows the meaning of all the term 
used in swimming. The American Crawl is "take 
apart" for the beginners bit by bit, then recor 
structed by the demonstrator, first showing th 
float, next the flutter kick, then the arm strok 
and breathing. The group is cautioned concern 
ing the disadvantages and possible hazards o 
some activities which are really acrobatics, sucl 
as walking on the hands in shallow water, jump 
ing into water feet first, swimming under wate 
and any unusual activities which might caus< 
water to be forced through the nose and into th 
inner ear. 

It is surprising how quickly children from eigh 
to twelve years of age will learn to swim througl 
the method described, especially when the in 
structor goes into the water and gives each chile 
individual attention during the first lesson. Th< 
classes are limited to twenty pupils. 

Swimming and playing in water are refreshing 
and vitalizing for a certain length of time, varying 
with the individual, but it is doubtful whether an] 
child should be permitted to remain at a swim 
ming pool more than two hours under the usua 
conditions, where rest periods in a wet suit an 
followed by violent exercise with little supervision 

Looking Ahead 

The 1939 aquatic recreation center should b< 
built to fulfill a useful community purpose. In i 
(Continued on page 248) 




Courtesy Public Recreation Commission, Cincinnati, Ohio 



A Regatta of Their Own! 



BLUE SKY, with gulls fly- 
ing overhead ; a white, 
sandy beach ; rippling 
; a breeze which filled the sails of countless 
allant yachts, and a horde of youngsters, clad for 
ne most part in bathing trunks, with the light of 
.onquest in their eyes ! 

This was the picture presented at Mission 
,ieach, several miles from San Diego, California, 
tie morning last June, when 750 boys ranging in 
from twelve to fifteen years, gathered to com- 
2te for a series of silver trophies and certificates 
merit. The occasion was the fourteenth an- 
.ial model yacht regatta sponsored by the Manual 
raining Department of the San Diego Junior 
igh Schools. Boys from ten schools met for the 
ent. 

Every boat was designed and built by the boy 
10 sailed it. The teachers gave instruction, su- 
rvised and made suggestions, but all of the 
:tual work was done by the boys themselves, 
oreover, if a boy had any original ideas regard - 
the construction of keel or sail which he 
aught would make for greater speed or 
.unchness, he was permitted to try them out. 
r weeks the boys had spent all their spare 
mients working on their yachts, adding little 
iches here and there to increase the efficiency of 
tj:ir boats, and today, before a throng of several 
' nisand admiring friends and relatives, came the 
S'at test. 

I here were two general classes of boats, wooden 

aji metal, with a great preponderance of the 

fjmer type. The wooden boats were of two dif- 

nit kinds: the hollowed out (cut from a single 

'ck of wood), and the built-up (after the fash- 

1( 1 of the modern yacht). Each general class was 



By WILLIAM BLISS STODDARD 

Redondo, California 



divided into four sub-classes 
the one, two, three and 
four footers. Competition in 
the one foot yachts and there were more of 
these than in all the other classes together was 
limited to boys of the seventh grade. The course 
was shorter fifty yards, while for the larger boats 
it was seventy-five yards. The wooden and metal 
boats did not compete against each other but ran 
in separate classes. 

The entire morning was taken up with the one- 
foot class, as it was necessary to run sixteen heats 
and four semi-finals before eliminations permitted 
the sailing of the final race. And when the last 
little fleet had sailed across the water, watched by 
thousands of eager spectators including school- 
mates of the entrants who formed enthusiastic 
rooting bands, and the winners had been picked 
up by the motor boats stationed just behind the 
fifty yard line, it was found that a little Japanese 
lad had outsailed all of his schoolmates and had 
won the coveted prize. The young commodores 
all along the shore cheered the winner and almost 
overwhelmed him with congratulations. 

Although fewer in number, the two, three and 
four foot entries commanded the keenest interest 
of the spectators because of the impressive picture 
they made, as with sails set to catch the rather 
stiff breeze the)'' glided majestically across the 
water. 

An innovation this year was the introduction of 
power boats a symbol of modernism to which 
the manual training directors gave heed. These 
boats were of two classes the simpler boats 
worked by rubber bands or clock springs, and 
those with tiny electric motors. Interest ran high 
(Continued on page 249) 

221 



Recreational Aspects of Stream Pollution 



THE RECENT report of the 
Water Resources Com- 
mittee to the President 
states that while public health 
will always be the basic con- 
sideration in pollution abate- 
ment, nevertheless the rela- 
tive importance of wild life, 
recreational and aesthetic con- 
siderations seems likely to 
increase. Following a discus- 
sion of the difficulty in evalu- 
ating wild life losses on a regional or national 
scale Mr. Abel Wolman, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee, makes the following significant statement : 

''Recreational values which have depreciated or 
failed to materialize as a result of water pollution 
are even more elusive to measurement. They are 
affected by bacterial pollution which renders 
water unfit for bathing, and by solid or dissolved 
substances which cause obnoxious odors, taste, 
and color and produce unsightly conditions that 
make the water unattractive to the angler, swim- 
mer, or summer cottager. Pollution has caused 
the decline in recreational use of some water and 
land areas, particularly in metropolitan districts. 
It has been more influential in limiting new recre- 
ational development in such districts and in forc- 
ing public and private agencies to seek more dis- 
tant locations for park and resort facilities. A 
clear stream has aesthetic value which is real but 
intangible, and its restoration or preservation may 
yield large community benefits. 

"The Committee wishes to emphasize the im- 
portance and the intangible character of the wild 
life and recreational effects of water pollution in 
comparison with its other effects. As the public 
health hazards are eliminated or minimized, and 
as that abatement which patently is feasible from 
the standpoint of reducing water treatment and 
corrosion costs is accomplished, the justification 
for a greater degree of abatement will rest in con- 
siderable measure upon the values assigned to 
wild life, recreation, and the aesthetics of clean 
streams." 

In discussing the effect of pollution on recrea- 
tion before the Rivers and Harbors Committee, 
Mr. Bleecker Marquette, Executive Secretary of 
the Public Health Federation of Cincinnati, filed 

222 



In connection with the bill now before 
the Congress for the control of water 
pollution through the creation of a Di- 
vision of Water Pollution Control in the 
United States Public Health Service, 
Hudson Biery, Chairman of the Commit- 
tee of the Chamber of Commerce of 
Cincinnati having the subject under con- 
sideration, calls attention to some of the 
implications for recreation which are in- 
volved. We quote a number of extracts 
from Mr. Biery's statement on the subject. 



an 



a series of photographic ex 
hibits relating to the problen 
and made the following 
statement : 

"The condition of oui 
streams is a serious detri- 
ment to recreation possibili- 
ties in this area. In a climafc 
such as ours, with high h 
midity and intense heat du 
ing the summer months, wa 
ter sports, including swim- 
especially desirable form of 



tiling, form 
recreation. 

"Unfortunately there are no natural lakes in the 
Cincinnati area, the only bodies of water being 
rivers. The excessive pollution of the Ohio River 
makes it so dangerous for swimming that the 
Board of Health has for several years had to 
notify the inhabitants of this area of this danger 
and warn them against swimming in the rivers 
The minor streams, now contaminated to a lesser 
degree, are year by year becoming more danger- 
ous for swimming. It is fully established by 
medical science that there is great danger in swim- 
ming in a polluted stream. Any of the raw water 
may contain the bacilli of typhoid fever, dysen- 
tery, or other diseases. 

"Organizations conducting health camps in this 
area have found it necessary at great expense to 
construct pools, largely because of the fact that 
the adjoining streams are unfit for swimming 
purposes. 

"The pollution of the Ohio and its tributaries 
to a larger degree restricts water sports. Even the 
use of boats is rendered undesirable by the odors 
arising from filth constantly dumped into the 
river. There is no fishing in the Ohio and little 
in the smaller streams because fish cannot live in 
highly polluted water. 

"In communities adjoining rivers elsewhere in 
the country the banks are developed for parks 
and recreation purposes to the great advantage of 
the health, comfort, and pleasure of the people of 
the community. Such a program is envisioned 
for Cincinnati by the Cincinnati Planning Com- 
mission and the Recreation Commission, but the 
fulfillment of their hopes in this direction is 
(Continued on page 250) 




Courtesy Hirs-Graf Studios 



wames and Stunts for Water Play 



MANY PEOPLE prefer to take their swimming 
"straight" ; others like to introduce a little 
sauce in the form of games and stunts. So 
here are a few fun provoking activities to give 
your program added zest. 

Games Adapted to Water Play 

There are many games played on land which 
| may be readily adapted as water sports. A few 
of them follow : 

Cat and Rat. Cat and Rat is an activity for the 
'smaller children. Half of the group grasp hands 
jand form a circle in water from waist deep to 
shoulder deep. One individual is selected to be 
"it," or in this case, the cat. A second individual, 
I who is to be chased, is designated as the rat. The 
jgroup holding hands will allow the rat to pass in 
jand out of the circle at will, but will impede the 
i progress of the cat at all times. When the rat is 
; caught by the cat, both may select other indi- 
jviduals from the group to take their places and 
(the game continues as before. A game of this 
type is excellent in helping smaller children over- 
come fear of the water. 

Bull in the Ring. Children 
hold hands, forming a circle 
in water about waist deep. 
jOne individual, known as the 



; bull, is chosen to stand in the 



These water games and stunts have been 
assembled from a number of sources. A 
bulletin on the subject issued by the 
Chicago Park District has been particu- 
larly helpful in preparing the material. 



center of the circle. He will charge the circle, 
trying to break through or swim under or over 
the hands of the players in the circle. If he suc- 
ceeds in getting out of the enclosure, the entire 
group will drop hands and swim after the bull. 
The first one to tag him becomes the new bull in 
the ring and the game proceeds as before. 

Crows and Cranes. Choose two teams, one to be 
known as Crows and the other as Cranes. Each 
will have a safety zone in which they cannot be 
tagged. The leader lines up the teams which face 
each other at a distance of about six feet and 
calls either "Crows" or "Cranes." If the Crows 
are called, the Cranes try to get to their safety 
zone without being touched by the Crows, who 
tag as many Cranes as possible. All of the Cranes 
who are caught automatically become Crows and 
must go to the opposite side. After playing the 
game in this way two or three times have the 
players, when they line up, turn their backs on 
their opponents and then call either "Crows" or 
"Cranes." 

Select two teams of equal 
number. Designate an area in 
the center of the pool as a 
neutral zone. This corre- 
sponds to the net in volley- 
ball. Play starts with one 
team tossing the water ball to 

223 



Water Volleybal 



224 



GAMES AND STUNTS FOR WATER PLAY 



its opponents. If opponents catch the ball, they 
receive one point for their team. The person 
catching the ball then throws it back into the 
opponents' territory. He may pass it to another 
member of his team who is closer to the neutral 
zone than he is at the time. If the ball is dropped 
by a member of his own team during the play, 
the opponents receive one point. If the player in 
trying to throw the ball into the opponents' ter- 
ritory fails to get it past the neutral zone and 
into the opponents' area, his opponents receive 
one point. Twenty-one points usually constitute 
a game. 

Pom Pom Pullaway. This is one of several games 
of the same type that can be used. The doggerel 
for the game, Pom Pom Pullaway, is : "Pom Pom 
Pullaway, come away, come away." Other games 
of practically the same order are Hill Dill and 
Red Rover. In playing the game one player en- 
ters the water while the others line up along the 
bank. The player in the water shouts the dog- 
gerel and all the players on the bank must dive in 
and swim to the other side. If the player in the 
water can tag any of the other players, those who 
are tagged stay in the center and help catch the 
rest of the players as the game continues. 

Tag Games 

There are many forms of tag games which may 
be played in the water. 

Under Water Tag. One player who is "it" 
chases the other. A player must be under water 
when he is tagged. "It" must also be under water 
before the man he tags can be made "it." 

Cross Tag. The player who is "it" designates 
one of the boys in the group and starts chasing 
him. The player chased must keep out of his way, 
for if he is tagged he becomes "it." Should a 
player dive between the boy being chased and the 
one who is "it" he becomes the one to be chased. 

Ostrich Tag. The players are bunched together 
in one end of the pool, preferably the shallow end. 
One player is designated to be "it." He starts 
chasing the others until someone is caught. To 
keep from being caught a player must have one 
of his arms under one of his legs and must be 
holding his nose between his thumb and finger. 
The player tagged becomes "it" and the game 
progresses. 

Ball Tag. This game is played in a limited area 
in water waist deep for non-swimmers or in deep 
water for swimmers. A player who is "it" tries 



to tag someone by hitting him with the ball. The 
player tagged becomes "it." 

Japanese Tag. The leader announces a certain 
part of the body which must be tagged by "it." 
Those who are tagged must join "it," and try to 
tag the remaining players. 

Third Frog in the Puddle. Players form in a 
double circle with couples facing each other in 
the shallow end of the pool. They choose one o 
the players to be "it" and one to be chased. Th 
player who is to be chased may walk or swim 
around or between the two players of any group 
"It" must try to tag the player toward whom th 
chased player turns his back. The player taggec 
becames "it" and should if possible tag the on 
who caught him. Short and quick changes ar 
necessary to make the game exciting. 

Tread Tag. One player is selected to be th 
tagger ; the others swim around the pool. To 
escape being tagged a player must tread water 
The tagger tries to touch a player before he can 
stop swimming and begin to tread. A player who 
is tagged changes places with the tagger. 

Handicap Tag. From five to fifteen players may 
take part in this game. The player who is 
tries to tag the other players as they swim arounc 
the .pool. He must, however, tag them about tl 
arms, or legs. When a player is tagged he cor 
tinues to swim but cannot use the arm or If 
which was tagged. When he has been tagged sev- 
eral times and can no longer swim at all he is out 
of the game. The player keeping in motion long- 
est wins. 

Hair Tag. The player who is "it" must touch 
another on the head who in turn becomes "it." 
Any number may play. Swimmers dive or jump 
from sides and climb out on opposite side usually. 
"It" chases the players until he can touch anothei 
on the hair. No one may run around the corners 
of the pool but must jump or dive in the water 
at every corner of the pool. After "it" has taggec 
a player he cannot be tagged again until another 
player has been made "it." 

Flashlight Tag. The pool is darkened and all the 
players chase "it" who has a flashlight. 

Games Which Introduce Floating 
Log. From five to twenty players may take part 
in this game. A space is marked off at the op- 
posite end of the pool for the two goals. One 
player becomes the log and floats on his back in 
the center of the pool midway between the twoi 



GAMES AND STUNTS FOR WATER PLAY 



225 



goals. The other players swim in a circle around 
the log. Without warning the log suddenly rolls 
over and gives chase. The players try to reach 
one of the goals without being tagged. Any player 
caught becomes a log and floats in the center with 
the first log. The last one to be caught is the log 
for the next game. 

Still Pond. There may be from twenty to fifty 
playing this game. One player who is "it" stands 
at one side of the pool and covers his eyes with 
his hands. As soon as he is blindfolded, all the 
other swimmers start to swim the length of the 
pool. "It" counts from one to ten, then says 
"Still Pond no more moving," and opens his 
eyes. When he does this everyone must be floating 
motionless. Anyone seen moving is sent back to 
the starting point. The game is continued until 
all have swum the length of the pool. The last 
| one who arrives becomes "it" for the next game. 



Games Which Introduce Treading Water 
Count Ten and Stop. Five to twenty players. 
One player who is leader stands with his back 
-against the wall at one side of the pool, all other 
players being lined up in the water at the op- 
posite side. The leader covers his eyes and counts 
< aloud slowly from one to ten. He then says "Stop" 
I and looks up quickly. When he begins to count, 
'all the players start to swim toward him. When 
she says "Stop" they stand up if in shallow water; 
,if in deep water they tread. Any who are still 
swimming when the leader looks up are sent back 
to the starting place. The game proceeds until all 
(have reached the side on which the leader stands. 
Broncho. Any number of players must take 
:part. Players stand in couples with the one repre- 
senting the broncho 
directly behind the 
player who is to be 
he rider. The rider 
stands with his feet 
wide apart. The 
Droncho bends his 



2anoe tilting has 
ong been a popu- 
ar stunt. But be 
iure you're a good 
wimmer before you 
attempt this stunt! 



knees and places his head between the legs of the 
rider. The broncho then straightens his body and 
carries the rider up on his shoulders. With a 
toss, the broncho flings the rider backward into 
the water. Broncho and rider then change places. 
Acrobatic Swim. Any number of players may 
take part in this game. They start from the deep 
end of the pool and finish in the shallow end. The 
object of the game is to see how many stunts can 
be executed while swimming the length of the 
pool. The players begin with a fancy dive. For 
example, a player begins with a jackknife dive, 
swims a few strokes under water, executes a por- 
poise, then the rolling log sculls, and finishes by 
standing on his hands in shallow water. The 
player who presents the greatest variety of stunts 
is the winner. 

Swimmers' Games 

Follow the Leader. One player acts as leader and 
the rest follow. The leader demonstrates all kinds 
of strokes and does all kinds of stunts. The boys 
following must do everything the leader sets for 
them to do. When the majority of the crowd can 
stay to the finish in a match of this sort they can 
be rated in the human fish class! 

Swimming the Duck. The teams are divided and 
lined up on both ends of the tank. A wooden de- 
coy duck is placed in the center of the tank. The 
side designated starts for it on the signal to go. 
The first who reaches it swims in toward the op- 
ponents' goal, and, if blocked, can pass it by hand- 
ing it to a member of his team. The other team 
is on defense and it counts a block when a mem- 
ber of its team secures the duck. The first team 
has three trials to swim the duck through the 




226 



GAMES AND STUNTS FOR WATER PLAY 



enemy lines to safety and the other team takes the 
duck. Should the duck be thrown into the air it 
is called a "fly" and the opposing side wins a 
point. It is a strenuous game and is good practice 
for water polo. 

Stunts, Races, and Relays 
Crocodile Race. Two teams of even numbers 
line up behind their captains, each keeping his 
hands on the hips of the man in front, and, with 
the exception of the first man, all swim with the 
power of the leg kick. The person with the 
strongest kick should be at the end so as to keep 
the line unbroken, or each man can lock his legs 
around the middle of the man behind him, and 
then each can use the arms, either crawl or breast, 
the last man using only the kick. 

Scramble Ball. Twelve floating corks or balls are 
required. Players are divided into two teams, with 
team "A" on one side of pool, team "B" on other. 
(It is advisable for players to be in water and 
hang to side of pool.) The director stands on 
spring board, tosses balls into water, and at com- 
mand "Go" players try to get as many balls for 
their team as possible. Balls are then collected and 
teams are credited with number of balls obtained. 
Games continue as above until one of the teams 
has secured fifty balls or any other number 
decided upon. 

Potato Relay Race. Twelve floating corks or 
balls are required. Equal teams lined up at end of 
pool (as for shuttle relay). Floating corks thrown 
in water to represent potatoes. At "Go" one 
player from each team dives in, secures a potato, 
returns and deposits same in gutter or box. then 
next man goes, etc. Team through first wins. 

Animal Race. Animal heads are cut out of wood 
or cardboard and attached to sticks carried by 
swimmer swimming under water. 

Obstacle Swimming 

Swimming in the Rain. Each player swims car- 
rying an umbrella and using a side stroke with 
one arm. 

Prisoner. Each swimmer has his hands behind 
his back or swims with both hands and feet tied 
either hands in front or in back. 

Towel Race. Players swim, crawl, or backstroke, 
a large towel held in each hand by one corner. 



Plate Swimming. Players swim with large plat< 
or shell in each hand. As a variation a paddle ma} 
be strapped to forearms and hands. 

Paddle Race. Swimmers paddle through wat 
with regular size canoe paddle. 

Obstacle Race. Various obstacles are arrange 
in the path of the swimmers and special difficu 
ties are prescribed. Canoes, boats, or logs hinge 
together are used. The swimmers go over 
under as instructed. 

Stunt and Comic Diving 
Torpedo. With a running start, the swimmei 
springs from dock or end of pool and plunger 
feet first into the water with arms extended ovei 
head. He sculls with hands pushing body, feel 
foremost under water, and then comes up feet 
first together with toes pointed. 

Diving for Accuracy. Player dives through in- 
flated inner tube with body in different positions 
such as plain dives, feet foremost dive, sailor dive 
and jackknife. The valve stems should be taped tc 
avoid injury. 

Chinese Dive. The swimmer places his hands 
together and moves them up and down as though 
praying. He squats and rises, springs high into 
the air with legs drawn up as in the frog kick 
recovery, then plunges straight down. He comes 
up holding pigtail in self-rescue attempt. 

A Simple Carnival Program 
The following program is suggested for a win- 
ter carnival : 

1. Burlesque style parade Craziest swimming suit wins. 

2. Twenty yard free style Boys 12 years and under. 

3. Twenty yard free style Girls 12 years and under. 

4. Getting watermelon from greased pole Boys must 
stand on feet 6 minutes. 

5. Girls obstacle race. Changing clothes (2 teams, 4 on 
each shuttle). 

6. Forty yard free style Boys 14 and under. 

7. Forty yard free style Girls 14 and under. 

8. Pie Eating Eating while swimming Girls (8 small 
pies). 

9. Pillow fight on greased pole. Boys (4 minutes). 

10. Forty yard back stroke. Boys open division. 

11. Forty yard breast stroke Girls open division. 

12. Chinese Life Saving. 

13. Fancy Diving. Open division. 

14. Obstacle race. Boys. 

15. Tug of War. Boys. 

16. Lighted Candle Relay. Girls. 

17. Water Basketball Game. Boys. 

18. Greased Watermelon Fight- Boys 15. 

19. Sixty yard free style Girls open division. 



A City- Wide Swimming Program 



By MAX FARRINGTON 



THE MOST extensive public swimming program 
ever staged in Washington, D.C., was conducted 
during the summer of 1938 when, for the first 
time, the facilities of all organizations operating 
pools in the District of Columbia were combined 
under a single authority. This program included 
a large and very successful swimming instruction 
and free-swim campaign; a series of city-wide 
competitive meets for both boys and girls in which 
particular attention was paid to beginners; su- 
pervised activity for younger children in wading 
pools and street showers ; a schedule of advanced 
life saving classes conducted by Red Cross ex- 
perts, and, finally, as an appropriate close to the 
entire program, a colorful water pageant which 
featured the special work accomplished under each 
of these details during the summer. 

It is estimated that an aggregate of more than 
600,000 persons were in attendance as participants 
in this varied and extremely interesting program. 
The oft-told story of Washington's sweltering 
summer heat is no fable, and last summer was 
certainly no exception. During July and August, 
those who are not able to escape the heat by leav- 
ing the city, "dunk" themselves almost to a man 
in one of the public pools ! For this reason, the 
coordinated swimming program put on by the 
Public Recreation Committee struck a most re- 
sponsive chord. The newspapers and radio sta- 
tions cooperated most generously, and news of the 
program was kept before the public throughout 
the summer. It was no 



effort to sell this pro- 
gram ; it sold itself. Once 
under way, the swim- 
ming instruction and 
free-swim campaign, 
which of course had the 
greatest popular appeal, 
attracted more persons 
each week until late in 
August the classes fairly 
bulged with those anxious 
to learn to swim or to 
take advantage of the 
one and a half hours 
when the pools were open 
without charge. 



In 1938, for the first time, all water sports facili- 
ties in Washington, D. C., were unified under a 
single head. For the first time all organizations 
in the National Capital worked as a unit to pre- 
sent an extensive program of swimming and water 
sports. The Municipal Department of Playgrounds, 
the National Capital Parks, the Welfare and Rec- 
reation Association, the Community Center De- 
partment of the Public Schools, the American Red 
Cross and S. G. Loeffler Company pooled their 
resources under the Public Recreation Committee 
to make the program an outstanding success. Each 
agency was represented on a central committee. 
Max Farrington, Executive Officer of the Men's 
Physical Education Department of the George 
Washington University, served as pool and swim- 
ming supervisor for the Department of Playgrounds 
and was in charge of the city-wide program. 



Facilities Available 

Eight public pools, six for white persons and 
two for colored, were used during the campaign. 
Five of the eight, Anacostia, McKinley, Takoma, 
Banneker and Francis, were operated by the Wel- 
fare and Recreation Association for the National 
Capital Parks Office. Two, Georgetown and Rose- 
dale, were in charge of the Department of Play- 
grounds. The eighth was the East Potomac Park 
Pool, operated by the S. G. Loeffler Company. All 
of these pools, except those at Rosedale and 
Georgetown operated by the Department of Play- 
grounds, charge an admission fee during their 
regular hours from i to 10 P. M. Georgetown and 
Rosedale, the municipal pools, operate without 
charge from 6 A. M. to 6 p. M. It was, therefore, 
something of a concession for the other six pools 
to be used from 9 A .M. until noon each day for 
the swimming instruction and free-swim campaign. 

A Learn-to-Swim Campaign 

The "learn-to-swim" drive was opened on June 
23rd and conducted for a period of ten weeks until 
September 3rd. Instruction, supervised by the 
Red Cross staff, was given without charge for 
i ,600 persons per week throughout this period. 
New classes opened every Monday morning at 
each pool. They were limited to 200 in each of 
the eight classes and were open to boys and girls 
and men and women of all ages. Official Red 
Cross cards were provided at each of the eight 
pools, and enrollees were required to register on 
these cards the week 
prior to the start of in- 
struction. No additions 
or changes were made in 
the classes for the week 
after they were started 
on Monday morning. 

The classes were con- 
ducted from 9 to 10:30 
A. M V Monday through 
Friday. Boys and girls 
were instructed separate- 
ly in three groups be- 
ginning, intermediate and 
life saving particular 
attention being paid to 
the first two groups. Fol- 

227 



228 



A CITY -WIDE SWIMMING PROGRAM 



lowing the instruction period 
from 9 to 10:30, the period 
from 10:30 until noon was 
devoted to free swimming at 
each pool. At this time the 
pools were open to the pub- 
lic as well as to the class 
members. The latter were 
given individual instruction and informal tests by 
the instructors, who remained on duty until the 
free swimming period closed at noon. In this way 
considerable application of the lessons learned in 
the early instruction period was at once available, 
it was an ideal set-up. Public Recreation Com- 
mittee officials estimated a total of over 400,000 
visits to these pools during the free-swim period. 

Meets for Boys and Girls 

The program of meets was unusually success- 
ful for both boys and girls, and 7,500 took part 
in the individual pool, sectional and city-wide 
meets. In the boys' class, city champions were 
selected in each of six weight divisions, starting 
with the 7o-pound class and extending through the 
unlimited divisions. The boys engaged in varied 
and spirited competition. Teams from each play- 
ground battled eagerly for pool honors. In the 
girls' class, however, competition was restricted 
to individual pool and section meets. The girls 
had colorful and interesting programs. They are 
more restricted in their choice of events, but their 
novelty races, such as the fan race, the balloon 
race, the life preserver relay, as well as the night 
shirt races, more than make up for these re- 
strictions ! 

Approximately 3,800 boys turned out for the 
sectional qualifying meets which were held at 
seven pools throughout the city. First, second, 
and third-place winners in these meets advanced 
to the city finals which were held August 5th in 
the McKinley Pool. Each contestant was limited 
to participation in one event and a relay, and each 
playground to three entries in each event. About 
375 survived the qualifying competition and be- 
came eligible for the city championships. 

A large, lively crowd was on hand for these 
finals. The McKinley Pool was beautifully dec- 
orated with American flags and with the pennants 
and banners of the various playgrounds through- 
out the city. It was a colorful occasion, and 
there was great enthusiasm as the youngsters 
splashed their way to various titles. Presentation 
of awards was made at the conclusion of the meet, 



Washington's experience last year con- 
clusively demonstrated that by coordi- 
nating their efforts the various agencies 
concerned with the operation of public 
swimming pools can vastly improve their 
services. Our National Capital, deter- 
mined to raise up a generation of swim- 
mers, believes it has found the way. 



with the winners receiving 
"gold" medals for first place, 
silver for second, bronze for 
third. 

The classes and events fel- 
low : 7o-pound class ; 25- 
yard free style, 25 -yard side 
stroke and loo-yard relay; 
85-pound class: 25-yard free style, 25-yard side 
stroke and loo-yard relay; loo-pound class: 25- 
yard free style, 25-yard breast stroke and 100- 
yard relay; 135-pound class: 5o-yard free style, 
5O-yard breast stroke, 25-yard back stroke and 
loo-yard relay; unlimited class: 5O-yard free 
style, 5O-yard breast stroke, 5o-yard back stroke 
and loo-yard relay. 

Sectional Meets for Girls 

The girls had no city-wide meet, but confinec 
their competition to individual pool sectional 
meets. These were held at all eight pools, and 
each was a decorative and competitive success. 
The girls naturally go in for pageantry, and the 
colorful decorations that surrounded each pool on 
the day of the meet made each program a gay, 
attractive affair. The list of events and exhibi- 
tions was specially made up to demonstrate the 
program of instruction carried on throughout the 
summer, as well as to determine the oustanding 
competitors in the orthodox swimming events. 

As has been suggested, the novelty races drew 
great applause and proved most popular with the 
contestants. The night shirt race, for example, 
held for the first time in Washington, proved a 
quite popular innovation. In this unusual contest, 
the swimmers donned large, white shirts, swam 
the length of the pool, jumped out at the end and 
exchanged shirts, then swam back, amid the 
laughter of the spectators. The feet-tied race in 
which the girls swim with both ankles securely 
bound was also an interesting novelty. 

The girls were limited to two events in the fol-' 
lowing classes and events: 10 to 12 year class: 
25-yard free style, floating demonstrations, fan 
race; 13 and 14 year class: 25-yard side stroke, 
feet-tied race, balloon race; 15 to 16 year class: 
25-yard free style, life preserver relay, back stroke 
swim; 17 year and over class: 25-yard free style, 
feet-tied race, butterfly breast stroke demonstra- 
tion, night shirt relay. 

The girls' swimming program was supervised 
by Miss Maude Nelson Parker, director of girls' 
and women's activities in the Department of Play- 



A CITY-WIDE SWIMMING PROGRAM 



229 



grounds, assisted by a capable corps of instructors 
and playground officials. 

Showers for the Tiny Tots 
The facilities for keeping the younger children 
cool and giving them an opportunity to swim were 
provided in the large wading pool and street 
shower program. Fourteen playground wading 
pools were maintained under trained supervisors. 
This gave the small children two hours of wel- 
come play each morning and afternoon. In addi- 
tion to combating the heat, the program eliminated 
fear of the water, thus making it easier for the 
children to learn to swim. 

The Department of Playgrounds, in coopera- 
tion with other recreation agencies, maintained 
twelve street shower routes numbering about eighty 
showers in all. With the cooperation of the Metro- 
politan Police Depart- 



hour. Attendants turned on hydrants and the chil- 
dren were allowed a half hour's play at each 
shower stop. This schedule, maintained during 
July and August, and did much to provide recre- 
ation and a cooling dip for those unable or too 
small to attend pools. Playground officials re- 
ported that an aggregate of over 150,000 children 
visited the wading pools during the 1938 season, 
and more than 200,000 visited the street showers. 

And at the End, a Pageant 
The summer swimming program was climaxed 
in two beautifully staged, colorful water pageants 
at the East Potomac and Banneker pools. Both 
were open to the public and attracted capacity 
crowds of more than 3,500 each. The East Po- 
tomac pageant was titled "Navy Day." It featured 
formation swimming of more than a hundred chil- 
dren from playgrounds 



jment streets were 
[blocked off from traffic 
each day at the same 



This picture shows a section of the audience which 
witnessed the pageant "Navy Day," presented at 
East Potomac Pool, Washington, last August. A 
team of expert swimmers maneuvered the giant star. 



and pools throughout 
Washington. There 

(Continued on page 250) 




Romper Day's Silver Anniversary 



IT WAS THE second season of 
Allentown's playgrounds, and 
the interest of Allentown's 
leading citizen, General Harry C. 
Trexler, had been attracted to the program being 
conducted for the little people and youth of his 
city. When an outing at the close of the play sea- 
son was proposed to him, he agreed at once to 
sponsor it and to assume the expenses connected 
with it. The General himself set to work to 
organize a staff of his friends and business asso- 
ciates to carry out the idea and to take charge of 
the many necessary details involved in providing 
refreshments and in transporting and caring for 
the children during the day. 

That was twenty-five years ago. Our play- 
grounds have grown from nine to twenty-one; 
the number of children attending from 4,000 to 
10,000. General Trexler was with us for twenty 
of the twenty-five Romper Days, and Mrs. Trex- 
ler for twenty-one of them. Throughout their 
lifetime there was never any question about its 
perpetuation. Years before they passed away, in 
the preparation of their wills Romper Day seemed 
to have been first in their thoughts in their long 
list of charities. In fact, the General had ar- 
ranged that should it happen that the earnings 
were insufficient from the money set aside for 
Romper Day, it can and must be replaced from 
any other funds. Thus Romper Day will be the 
last of his many bequests to disappear, because as 
long as there is any money in the estate it must be 
used for this purpose. 

"Romper Day" got its name from the fact that 
twenty-five years ago the children wore rompers 
or bloomers in participating in the program. Each 
playground had its own color, and the rompers 
and caps were of the color of the playground. 
Today the colors still remain, but shorts have 
taken their place. 

The affair immediately became a local city holi- 
day. It was held at the Fair Grounds, with the 
program conducted around the track. The grand- 
stand seating 12,000 people, and 
the paddock providing stand- 
ing room for another 5,000, 
were always filled to capacity. 
It was reminiscent of Harvest 
Days in Slovakia when the 



By IRENE WELTY 

Superintendent of Recreation 
Allentown, Pennsylvania 




In August, Allentown, Pennsylvania, 
will celebrate the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of Romper Day a day which 
is marked in red on the calendars of 
the playground children of that city! 



230 



land owner has a feast and 

for the entire population of his 

city. 

The children, with their play- 
ground leaders, are transported in trolley cars tc 
the Fair Grounds. They assemble in the grove 
and march to band music to their places on the 
track. After all are assembled, the program be- 
comes a mass exhibition of games, dances and 
skills which had been learned during the summer 
months. The program has always ended with the 
May Pole dance by each playground, and the 
spectacle is a colorful and beautiful one. 

The first year that General Trexler was not 
with us a memorial song was written, which is 
sung by the entire assemblage of children and 
spectators. The children face the west and sing: 

Our Romper Day 

1. Lehigh County, we salute thee 
Land of hearts e'er brave and true 
May thy hills and vales with beauty 
Lead us on with hopes anew ! 

Chorus: 

So we'll sing a song of good old Romper Day 

Allentown we'll love and praise 
And we'll ne'er forget our dear old school and hoi 

No matter where we roam 
And General Trexler's memory 

To us shall ever sacred be 
Sing all ! Sing all ! Proclaim our festal day 

And cheer our Romper Day. 

2. Ever forward ! ever learning ! 
Let there be no word as "Fail" 
Ever onward ! ever yearning 
God and country may prevail ! 

The singing is concluded with taps. 
Usually about eighty children are selected from 
each playground to participate in the program, but 
every one enrolled on playgrounds receives free 
transportation and tickets for refreshments. 

After the program the eating begins ! Food sta- 
tions are set up at six different houses on the Fair 
Grounds, and two hundred school teachers volun- 
teer their services to help 
serve the food. The children 
report to their places on the 
ground and then proceed in 
single file to their stations. 
(Continued on page 250) 




fffer 



IN RESPONSE to many requests 
received from community 
residents and organizations 

for suggestions and help in planning and handling 
picnics, a number of recreation departments, park 
departments, and other agencies have made pro- 
vision for special picnic services which in most 
cases may be had for the mere asking. Religious, 
fraternal, social, employee and other community 
organizations, are being helped through these ser- 
vices. The addition of such services provides the 
possibility of drawing in many people who may 
not be fully acquainted with the recreation pro- 
gram and strengthens ties already established. 

Bulletins issued some years ago by the Cleve- 
land Recreation Council contain interesting infor- 
mation about their picnic services and plans for 
handling picnic kits and programs for activities 
which are appropriate for these special occasions. 
We include a few of the suggestions as outlined 
in material received from the Council. 

Objectives 

To take the "nick" out of picnic. Many picnics 
are a failure because of the lack of an interesting 
program and proper leadership. 

To demonstrate the values of directed play. 
There are still many people who do not believe 
that leadership is essential. A 
good time at a directed picnic 
under qualified leadership and 
a planned program is con- 
1 vincing. 

To effect a personal contact 
* between various groups of 



By CLARK L. FREDRIKSON 

National Recreation Association 



Picnics do not run themselves! On 
the other hand, careful planning is 
necessary. So here are a few hints 
on handling some of the preliminary 
details which help make picnics so 
much fun for everyone who attends. 



adults and the recreation de- 
partment. The interviews nec- 
essary for the planning of the 
picnic afford an excellent opportunity for the rep- 
resentative of the recreation department to sell 
his department to the group and to give to. its 
members the objectives of the recreation move- 
ment and problems, judiciously soliciting their 
cooperation. 

Publicity 

Letters to churches, industrial concerns, lodges, 
clubs and other community organizations. Lists of 
many of the organizations can be obtained from 
the city directory and the local Chamber of Com- 
merce. A short, snappy letter explaining the offer 
of assistance in planning and conducting picnics 
is all that is necessary. 

Newspaper articles. 

Addresses. When making addresses, such as all 
recreation leaders are called upon to make, do not 
fail to mention the picnic service. 

Picnic leader identification. Have the picnic 
leader wear some insignia of the department, such 
as an armband. It will attract attention, curiosity, 
with resultant questions. 

Council Assistance 

Selecting a place for the picnic. Many organi- 
zations have gone to the same 
place for years, and wish ad- 
vice on other possible places. 
Arranging a program. 
Providing data on prizes. 
Loaning play material and 
furnishing a list of play 

231 



232 



PICNIC SERVICES 



material to be bought by tbe picnic group. 
Supplying play leader, if desired. If no play 
leader is wanted, assistance is given the picnic 
committee on how to plan and successfully con- 
duct a picnic. 

The Picnic Kit 

Usually one of the more common services is 
the picnic kit. It is one of the first necessities of a 
picnic and is essential to a successful program. 
It usually includes baseballs and bats, volley balls 
and nets, horseshoes and stakes, tug-of-war rope, 
and other equipment needed for picnic races and 
novelty events of all kinds. Additional equipment 
which might be included is listed in a request form 
which follows. Application 
forms for the use of kits 
should include information as 
to the individual and group 
presenting the request, equip- 
ment wanted, when received 
and returned, and other rules 
and special regulations relating 
to the conditions of the loan. 
Such an application might be 
similar to the one outlined on 
this prge. The articles listed 
are some of the more common 
equipment included in picnic 
kits. 

In order that there shall be 
a minimum loss and expense 
in connection with the loan of 
these kits, some person repre- 
senting the organization, in 
making the request, must sign 
for the articles borrowed. This person should be 
authorized to assume every responsibility for the 
replacement of equipment which is lost or un- 
necessarily damaged. 

In order that their limited amount of picnic 
equipment is properly taken care of, the Depart- 
ment of Recreation at Reading, Pennsylvania, re- 
quires a deposit of $5.00 on the loaning of a kit, 
one dollar of which is kept by the Department 
for maintenance of the kit and its equipment, the 
remainder being refunded when the kit is re- 
turned. A fine of $1.00 is charged if it is not 
returned at a designated time. 

A satisfactory bag for carrying the equipment 
and supplies can be made of heavy brown canvas, 
about 3^ feet high and 18 inches or more in 
diameter, with a draw string at the top. Boxes 




representing treasure chests also make excellent 
containers and are often more durable than can- 
vas bags. Hinged tops, locks, reinforced corners, 
and leather handles for carrying, add to their at 
tractiveness and serviceability. Sides and tops car 
be constructed from three-ply wood ; the botton 
of one-inch material. The size of the kit will, o 
course, depend upon the equipment one intends t( 
put in it. However, bear in mind that it shoulc 
be of a size that can be conveniently carried in ar 
automobile and is not too clumsy to handle. Th< 
name of the department supplying the kit could b< 
either stencilled or painted on the outside of thi 
canvas bag or wooden box. 

Picnic Equipment Kit 

To: (Stock Clerk, Caretaker, etc. 



Address 



For transporting your picnic game 
supplies you will find it helpful 
to have a heavy canvas bag or a 
wooden "treasure" chest, which is 
even more durable than the bag. 



Please check out to M 



whose address is 



O/TPARTrtEflT 



and who represen 



(organization) 



Picnic Kit No. 
containing the 
ment : 

Number 
Value (Checked Out) 



Activity Article 

Baseball (regular) 

Balls $ ( ) 

Bases ( ) 

Bats ( ) 

Catchers' Chest 

Protectors ( ) 

Catchers' Masks ( ) 

Catchers' Mits ( ) 

Softball 

Balls ( ) 

Bases ( ) 

Bats ( ) 

Horseshoes 

Shoes (large) ( ) 

Shoes (small) ( ) 

Small sledge ( ) 

Stakes ( ) 

Track and Field 

Batons (relays) ( ) 

Start and Finish Tapes ( ) 

Stop Watches ( ) 

Tape Measures ( ) 



following equip 

Number 
(Checked In 



PICNIC SERVICES 



233 



Activity Article 



Number 
Value (Checked Out) 



Number 
(Checked In) 



Volley Ball 

Balls ( ) 

Nets ( ) 

Standards ( ) 

Equipment for Other Picnic Games 

Basketballs ( ) 

Bean Bags ( ) 

Bean Boards ( ) 

Burlap Sacks .' ( ) 

Cageballs ( ) 

Paddle Tennis Kits ... ( ) 
(4 paddles, 3 balls and net) 
Quoits 

Rope Quoits ( ) 

Rubber Quoits ( ) 

Standards ( ) 

Ropes for Tug-of-War ( ) 

Soccer Balls ( ) 

Miscellaneous 

Alphabet Cards (2 sets) ( ) ( ) 

Balls (Rubber) ( ) ( ) 

Blocks ( ) ( ) 

Clotheslines ( ) ( ) 

Clothespins ( ) ( ) 

Hammers ( ) ( ) 

Jump Ropes () () 

Lacing Needles ( ) ( ) 

Megaphones () () 

Pumps (Inflation) ( ) ( ) 

Song Sheets () () 

Straps, Leather ( ) ( ) 

Swatters ( ) ( ) 

The Stock Clerk will check the articles when the kit 
is returned and list any missing articles. The depositor 
will be charged with their value. Minimum deposit of 
$ is required. 

By ! 

Picnic Bureau 

MEMORANDUM 

Equipment Received Equipment Returned 

Date Date 

(Signed) (Signed) 

(Checker) 

Deposit fee of $ received Deposit fee of $ returned 

by by 

(Checker) 
Date Date 

NOTE : The kit may be picked up any week day be- 
tween A. M. and P. M. It should be returned 

on the day after use if borrowed during the week. If 
borrowed on Saturday, return on Monday morning. 

Responsibility for the pick-up and safe return of equip- 
ment rests with the organization holding the picnic. 

Picnic Leader 

In some instances recreation departments have 
provisions whereby experienced directors are 
available for large community picnic gatherings. 
Sometimes these services are free but more often 
it is imperative that a charge be made. The De- 
partment of Playgrounds and Recreation, Los 
Angeles, handles picnic programs at a nominal 
' ( cost of $2.00 for the first two hours, and $1.00 
for each hour thereafter. 



A suggested request card for picnic leadership 
follows. 

Request for Picnic Leader 

Organization 

(Name) 
Address Telephone 

Time Hours 

Place 

Type of Picnic 

Estimated Attendance 

Ages and Sex of Participants 

Requested by 

Address Telephone 

Picnic Leader Sent 

Estimated Attendance 

Remarks ... 



Where a specialist has been detailed to meet by 
appointment with picnic chairmen or committees 
a charge is generally not made, providing the 
meeting is held at the leader's office or some place 
convenient for him. 

In every case where help is given to individuals 
and organizations, it is advisable that some record 
should be made of any important conferences, and 
if at all possible, copies of the final picnic pro- 
gram should be secured. Such material will 
always help in meeting similar requests. It may 
also be studied to avoid certain duplications in ar- 
ranging programs in future years for the same 
organization. 

If a picnic leader is assigned to an outing it is 
highly important that he has an opportunity to see 
the information on the leader request card. No 
doubt he will want to call the picnic chairman for 
further instructions and to check on certain de- 
tails. When he has the needed information he can 
then proceed in outlining the actual picnic pro- 
gram, arranging for needed supplies and equip- 
ment, including material that is to be bought by 
the organization sponsoring the outing. A few 
such supplies which are more widely used in pic- 
nic programs are listed in the chart suggested 
here. 

(Continued on page 251) 



"Old River" 



THE NATIONAL Cash Reg- 
ister Company at Day- 
ton, Ohio, has under way 
a comprehensive recreational 
project which will eventually provide facilities for 
outdoor sports and recreation in an ideal setting 
for thousands of the company's employees and 
their families. Situated immediately adjoining 
the factory buildings, the development is taking 
form on 205 acres of company-owned ground 
called "Old River." 

The ultimate program calls for a gun club, for 
trap and skeet, a rifle range, picnic groves, la- 
goons for boating and canoeing, athletic fields for 
baseball, recreation ball and tennis, a wading pool, 
several playgrounds for children, a swimming 
pool and a recreation building for winter activi- 
ties. Ground work for most of these activities is 
well under way, with the gun club already in use. 

The company's purpose in clearing this land 
is two-fold : to provide recreation for the thou- 
sands of workers, and to beautify this unused 
property which lies at the southern gateway to 
the city of Dayton. 

Although the company had been planning for 
some years to make practical use of this extra 
acreage, about a year ago conditions arose that 
made it advisable to begin development of the 
tract. Patterson Boule- 



By ANDY WEAVER 

Recreation Director 
The National Cash Register Company 



erty, was to be widened, 
parked, and corrected as to 
curvature, thus beautifying 
the entrance into Dayton 
from the south. The company felt that this would 
be a highly economical time to clean up and beau- 
tify their own "front yard" and at the same time 
inaugurate their long planned recreational de- 
velopment. 

Preliminary surveys supported the belief of t 
officials that this area of ground formed a natural 
setup for a recreation center or park. A prom 
nent landscape architect was called in and, folio 
ing numerous conferences and surveys of t 
"Old River" area, the company decided to begi 
work. 

Initial activity involved clearing out the wee 
and underbrush in the area of the old channel 
the Great Miami River. The State and Feder 
Highway Departments needed approximatel 
153,500 cubic yards of fill for the new Patterso 
Boulevard construction, and the National Cas 
Register Company consented to give them thi 
provided it was scooped out of the old river cha 
nel. As a result, the company's plan for a bea 
tiful lagoon entirely surrounding the "Old River 
park area, took form at little cost to the compan 
through this method of clearing out the channe 

The wooded area 



vard (otherwise known 
as U. S. Highway 25) 
adjacent to this prop- 



In the center background a swimming pool is under 
construction. The woodlands beyond will contain 
the picnic groves. The small building in the ex- 
treme background is the NCR Gun Club building. 



have been cleaned o 
undergrowth and roa 

(Continued on page 252) 




234 



The Playground Newspaper 



THE PLAYGROUND nCWS- 
paper kills a number of 
fine birds with one stone. 
Not only does it stimulate 
interest in playground ac- 
tivities among playground 
children and their families 
and friends but if the 

paper is gotten out by the children themselves in 
so far as possible it gives them a variety of 
highly valuable and enjoyable experiences. 

The worst kind of a playground paper the 
kind prepared wholly by the directors may be 
the handsomest to look at. The best kind of a 
playground paper may evidence occasional de- 
partures from adult 
standards, but if the true 
playground spirit is 
there, if the editorials 
show that the children 
are learning sportsman- 
ship and cooperation ; if 
the news stories reveal 
happiness and growth 



A playground paper stimulates 
interest in the activities of 
the playground, gives child- 
ren a variety of enjoyable ex- 
periences, and is great fun! 






Editorial OebarUtirt gus'livets 



ovt 



Ourieri 



in skills and sports the 
paper is a success. 



One method which is sometimes followed in 
organizing the staff of a playground paper 



elects, every two weeks, its 
editor-in-chief and assistant 
editor. (In order to start 
the season, the first play- 
ground editors may be ap- 
pointed by the directors.) 
For this type of paper, il- 
lustrating by half-tones is 

often possible. All playground children are in- 
vited to contribute articles which go to the cur- 
rent playground editors of the respective play- 
grounds. 

Paper Centrally Printed. By the second method 
of publication, each playground may have its own 
paper, on which mimeographing or other typo- 
graphic work is done at 
a central office. The edi- 
torial board or the pro- 
duction department 
from each playground 
paper goes to the cen- 
tral office, taking along 
the stencils, and runs 
off the copy on the ma- 



ypii 



Three Methods Possible 

The playground paper may be handled in three 
ways : ( I ) it may be one general paper to which 
the various playgrounds contribute their news; 
(2) each playground may have its own paper on 
which mimeographing or other typographic work 
is done at a central office; (3) the entire produc- 
tion of the paper may ta'ke place at the play- 
ground itself. 

One General Paper. By the first method, the 
paper is usually issued weekly or bi-weekly. Some- 
times it is a special sheet in one issue of a city 
newspaper. This method requires a joint staff of 
representatives from the different playgrounds. 
There are various ways of appointing this staff. 
One way is to have each playground represented 
by a playground editor, with the office filled anew 
every two weeks on the basis of highest amount 
of accepted material. These playground editors 
constitute the staff of the paper and are responsi- 
ble for preparing copy and- editing it. They meet 
regularly in a central place. The general staff 



chines there. This method 
effects economies, in many 
cases, which make it advis- 
able to use it. 

Each Paper Produced on Its Own Playground. 
By the third method, the entire production of 
the playground paper takes place at the play- 
ground itself. This method from both the edu- 
cative and interest angles is usually the most 
worth while if it is at all practicable. It heightens 
the children's interest and understanding by en- 
abling them to see each step of the entire project 
and to participate in larger measure in the actual 
work. There is time enough later on in life for 
the efficiency that results from industrial mass 
production. Creative experience through acquired 
skills is what the children need now. Let them 
have the fun of experimentation even if results 
are not perfect. The home-grown paper may be 
handwritten and posted on the bulletin board, or 
it may be typewritten ; or a secondhand, hand- 
power mimeograph or a hectograph may be secured 
inexpensively. Type printing will be, in most cases, 
out of the question. But in playgrounds where 
typesetting is a year-round activity, this method 

235 



236 



THE PLAYGROUND NEWSPAPER 



may be employed. This rather informal play- 
ground paper will probably not come out very 
often twice a season is a good objective. Try to 
have it come out on the occasion of some festival 
or gala event at which parents and friends are 
present. It can be passed around them. 

Organization Hints 

In organizing the board of editors it is a good 
plan to designate a member of the playground 
staff as consulting editor. He exercises the direc- 
tional function and final authority. This indi- 
vidual should use his power lightly and should not 
quench the literary spark too readily even if it 
seems to burn, at times, with a peculiar gleam. A 
good consulting editor will try to preserve intact 
the always precious spirit of a contribution. Don't 
blue-pencil too quickly such pleasant vagaries as 
the following superscription to a poem by a Rome, 
New York, child : 

written by Dominic Rossini 
for the first time in his life 

The consulting editor himself may prepare oc- 
casional announcements, editorials and news 
material. 

Under the consulting editor comes the editor- 
in-chief (elected by the playground members for 
each issue of the paper), who presides over three 
departments : editorial, business and production. 
The names of the entire staff should be printed in 
the paper if space permits. 

In the editorial department are the reporters 
and the art director, who may be appointed by a 
committee consisting of the consulting editor, the 
editor-in-chief and the assistant editor. General 
contributors, too, are encouraged to write for the 
paper. Their names are signed to contributions 
and those who do outstanding work may become, 
in the course of events, reporters. There should 
be a special sports reporter; the rest of the re- 
porters and their number is determined by the 
size of the playground cover news, social events, 
and sometimes editorials. If desired, special re- 
porters may be assigned to certain groups like the 
' boys' harmonica band, nature club, and girls' dra- 
matic club. Reporters may enjoy having press 
badges. The art work, if any, of the home-grown 
playground paper, will be confined to line draw- 
ings which can be reproduced on the hectograph 
or on the mimeograph. Children will enjoy mak- 
ing amusing sketches of Bill Jones knocking a 
homer or of Jim Bonczak in the pie-eating con- 



test. They can also draw the ornamental headings 

for columns such as Sports. 

. 

The function of the business department of a 
playground paper is perhaps not so large as that 
of the other departments. It is not advisable to 
try to make a playground paper self-supporting 
by sending out children to solicit advertisements. 
Nor is there a circulation to be built up, since the 
paper should be distributed free. The expense of 
the playground paper should be taken care of 
along with other operational expenses. The busi- 
ness department is really no more, then, than a 
distribution department, but it can do its work 
efficiently. The business manager heads a corps 
of carriers who distribute the papers at the en- 
tertainment or festival, or stand at the playground 
gates handing out the papers to children as they 
leave the playground. Younger children may 
serve in this department. 

The production department sets the paper up in 
type, if printing presses are used. Cutting a 
mimeograph stencil, which is difficult work, is 
probably beyond the ability of the average play- 
ground child. The work will usually have to be 
done by a staff member. The children may run 
the copy off on the mimeographing machine. If a 
hectograph is used, the entire production may be 
done by the children, under supervision. 

Helps for Editorial Staff 

To help the editorial staff along its way to 
glory we are adding a few suggestions adapted 
from records of various playgrounds. The gen- 
eral duties of the staff are as follows : Each edi- 
tor-in-chief makes assignments of stories to re- 
porters: he keeps a record of all stories handed 
in, with name of writer and title. The editor-in- 
chief posts notices on bulletin boards inviting all 
children to contribute material, telling where to 
turn copy in, stating the dead line. He also has 
charge of making up the paper. The assistant 
editor aids in the above work and may take one 
or more of the jobs under his charge. The editor- 
in-chief and the assistant editor confer with the 
consulting editor before copy goes to press. Re- 
porters gather news items, write them plainly and 
correctly, putting a title or "head" of not more 
than five words on each story and turning in copy 
before the designated dead line. Have a dictionary 
on hand, if possible. There's nothing like edi- 
torial responsibility to drive even a child to the 
dictionary ! 



THE PLAYGROUND NEWSPAPER 



237 



Meetings are held of entire editorial staff once 
when plans are talked over; once when the copy 
is in and paper is being made up; oftener, if 
desired. 

The consulting editor at each meeting when a 
new staff comes in may discuss the following 
points : 

1. What is news? Any unusual thing that hap- 
pens that is of special interest to a large group. 
In the case of a playground paper, news is con- 
fined to subjects concerning the playground and 
those who attend it. 

2. Contents of paper: A playground paper will 
have some or all of the following parts : calendar 
of events ; editorials ; special news stories of com- 
ing events, past events and other timely material ; 
sports; letters to editor; personal column (one- 
sentence news items about members of the play- 
ground. One playground paper titles this depart- 
ment "The Snooper") cartoons; humor and 
riddles. 

3. Headlines : They tell specifically one story. Use 
the active voice, with strong verbs. Example 
follows : 

(weak) Szotak is First in Contest 
(strong) Szotak Wins Short Story Contest 
The articles (a, an, the), the verb (be) and con- 
junction (and) are omitted sometimes. Do not end 
a line with a preposition or break a word at the 
: end of a line. Avoid negatives and repetition. 

4. Reporting : The A B C's of good reporting are 
accuracy, brevity and clearness. Get all possible 
information about your subject, then get it into 
your story. Put the esssentials (who, when, 
where and what) in first paragraph. In giving 
names of children, use both first and second 
names. Give two initials or first names of adults. 
Write on one side of the paper only. 

5. Editorials : Editorials can do four important 
things : teach, attack, defend, and praise. Have 
one at least in each issue and make it a good one. 

6. Definitions of common reportorial terms : Story 
any news item. Lead first paragraph in a 
story. Head the title of a story as it appears in 
print. Copy the written story as it comes from 
the reporter. Deadline the final time up to which 
copy can be put in the paper. Dummy a set of 
pasted-up sheets showing final arrangement for 
printing. 

7. Format : While a playground paper may be 
produced in various styles, the most practicable is 
usually the typewriter-size page with two columns 



separated by a ruled line. Covers or entire paper 
may be of tinted stock. Heavy enough stock is 
selected that both sides of the paper may be utiliz- 
ed. At the top of the front page is a decorative 
heading with the title of the paper. At the bot- 
tom of the heading is the volume number, date 
and number. The copy is typed in the proper 
width, then a dummy is made, pasting the typed 
copy where it will look well (do not begin an 
article too near the bottom of page) and allowing 
spaces for drawings. The stencil is then cut by 
the typist following the dummy. Sheets are 
stapled together. 

Visits to City Newspapers 
A trip to one of the local newspapers will be 
a treat in which the entire staff of the playground 
paper should participate. Most city papers are pre- 
pared for visits of this sort and make them very 
enjoyable. Where a joint paper is published by all 
playgrounds, or the paper is published as a part of 
a city paper, a member of the newspaper staff will 
sometimes meet with the children's staff to assist 
and instruct. 

Getting Out a Paper Is Fun 
The playground paper should be fun. It should 
provide a major thrill to many a youngster in 
whose veins the printers' ink will begin to rise as 
soon as he feels in his hand a stubby pencil and a 
grimy sheet of ruled paper. Don't mar this joy by 
being too serious about things. There should be 
no regrets over errors after everyone has done his 
best. 

The following poem by Anna Radliniski of Cran- 
ford, New Jersey, shows perhaps certain lacks. 
But do not famous poets lapse occasionally, too? 
It's the spirit that counts and we would say that 
Anna has it. What do you think ? 

THE LINCOLN SCHOOL PLAYGROUND 



School is ended, happy are we 

Now for Lincoln Playground we go free. 

Now we are happy once more 

For know of the fun we have in store. 

Big John is ready for a game of tether ball. 

Little Jane is thinking of building a sand wall. 

Many are ready for the fun of flower making. 

Everyone for a swing is waiting. 

Why is that boy looking so happy. 

Oh Boy ! isn't that home run snappy 

The girls are making pocketbooks 

Many there are that are snapped with hooks 

Now for the tournaments, 1-2-3. 

There are jack stones, horseshoes, hop scotch, see. 

Miss Wheeler is our leader, the best yet. 

She is always happy and for everything is set. 



-arks in -atimer Street 



A SUCCESSFUL bazaar is 
not news. But a suc- 
cessful bazaar that 
has definite beauty and style is 
news. And an open-air bazaar 
held in the heart of a large city 
is, at least, uncommon. So we consider the Larks in 
Latimer Street, Philadelphia, worthy of mention. 
Too, too often a bazaar or fair presents a me- 
lange of palms, bunting and the inevitable crepe 
paper thrown together according to the fancies 
of the chairmen of the various booths. This 
hodge-podge is obviated, in the case of the Larks, 
by the domination of one organization the Cos- 
mopolitan Club, whose membership bulks large in 
artists, writers and such creative folk. It is a 
committee of this club which dictates one general, 
original scheme of decoration. Lest this be inter- 
preted as usurpation of power (in view of there 
being other cooperating groups) it should be 
mentioned that this club assumes most of the 
risks, does most of the work and in return takes 
the gate receipts. The other organizations in- 
volved furnish 
booths or spe- 
cial features. 

The set-up of 
the Larks is 
rather unique, 
both as to back- 
ground and par- 
ticipants. First 
you have Lati- 
mer Street, a 
charming nar- 
row brick-pav- 
ed street, lit at 
night by the gas 
lamps of old 
Philadelphia. 
On one side are 
quaint old-fash- 
ioned entrances, 
high arched 
doorways, 
paned glass 
windows ; on 
the other side, 



Experiments in sharing aesthetics 
and in discovering neighborliness 



By JULIA ANNE ROGERS 




picturesque gateways an 
brick- walled backyard 
These facades and back- 
yards appertain to select clubs; 
and to shops, studios and or- 
ganizations of uniformly high 
standard. 

The idea of the Cosmopolitan Club to unite all 
of these groups in a street fair was a rather brave 
one. The majority of bazaars of any importance 
are held indoors or on the lawns of suburban 
estates or public buildings. The club took a 
chance on the weather, and a further chance in 
plumping the fair right down in the center of 
Philadelphia among the apartment houses and 
rows of brick dwellings, a stone's throw from the 
commercial arteries. 

Tickets for the Larks were made available to 
the public and charges were made for each special 
attraction. 

Success of the Larks may be attributed, con- 
cretely, to the decorations and to the entertain- 
ment. In 1935, tne colors chosen were red and 

white. Aides 
were dressed as 
Pierrots and 
Columbines. 
Barkers were 
in pink hunting 
coats. In 1936, 
the Lark too 
the form of 
Mexican fiesta 
The high, arch- 
ed doorways 
were wreathe 
in foliage and 
flowers, in imi 
tation of the 
decorations o i 
Mexican 
churches. The 
old iron bal- 
conies were 
hung with 
vines. One of 

(Continued on 
page 252) 



238 



Playground Beautification 



GONE ARE THE DAYS in Long Beach when 
children's playgrounds were only 
shadeless expanses of dusty ground 
and the only grassy plots bore the sign 
"Keep Off." Playgrounds have come to 
mean far more than ball diamonds and athletic 
fields, although these indispensable facilities for 
modern youth have not been omitted. A four- 
year planting campaign is already showing notice- 
able results, and hundreds of trees and shrubs are 
growing luxuriantly in the typical California 
manner. 

Sheltered spots for table games and study, 
shaded lawns where outdoor pageants and dra- 
matic festivals may be held, arbors where lunches 
may be eaten under pleasant and restful condi- 
tions are provided. The lines of the beloved Long- 
fellow come to mind with a slightly new twist : 
"Beneath the spreading 
chestnut tree the village 
children play," although 
the tree is apt to be a 
California pepper, syca- 
more, or eucalyptus, and 
perhaps the word village 
should be changed to 
avoid offending the dig- 
nity of this community 
of about 180,000! 

The Long Beach Coun- 
cil of Parents and Teach- 
ers, which had previously 
sponsored several me- 
morial tree-planting ex- 
ercises on school prop- 
erty, decided that school 
playgrounds offered a 
fine field for a general 
beautification program. 



This picture, presenting 
a view of a Long Beach 
playground, shows a 
number of newly plant- 
ed trees and the way in 
which they are protected 



Long Beach is enthusiastic over the results 
of its four-year planting campaign, a suc- 
cessful adventure in community cooperation 

By LLOYD A. ROCHFORD 

so this organization, in the spring of 1936, pur- 
chased, planted and dedicated eighty-six trees. 
The following year, encouraged by the success of 
the first campaign, the P.T.A.'s enlarged their 
program and planted almost two hundred trees 
and many shrubs. 

In 1938 interest in playground tree planting 

reached a high point when trees planted on every 

school ground in the system totaled 320 more 

than the combined total of the two previous years. 

(Continued on page 253) 




239 



The Man Back of the Park Executives 



WILL O. DOOLITTLE 
is the Executive 
Secretary of the 
American Institute of 
Park Executives and 
the American Park So- 
ciety, which will hold 
its fortieth annual convention 
September 18-21, in Philadelphia. 
He is also the Managing Editor of that organiza- 
tion's monthly publication, Parks & Recreation. 
This magazine has at all times conducted an ag- 
gressive policy of constructive park 
and outdoor recreation expansion 
and conservation of nature and 
wild life. It has as its liter- 
ary contributors many 
of the leading profes- 
sional men actively en- 
gaged in park build- 
ing and manage- 
ment in all parts 
of the country, em- 
bracing all classi- 
fications and 
branches of park 
administration. 
During the twenty- 
two years of its ex- 
istence, Parks & Rec- 
reation has been an in- 
structive medium for the 
exchange of ideas and ex- 
periences among park men in 
all phases of that large field of 
public service, and its informative, in- 
spiring, and beneficial influence may well be 
credited in conjunction with other similar publi- 
cations as being at least in good part responsible 
for the progress accomplished in the park and 
recreation movement which has made such tre- 
mendous advances during the past decade or two. 
Mr. Doolittle was born in Painesville, Ohio, 
and while absorbing the teachings of the local 
public schools and special studies in forestry and 
ornithology, his natural literary facility and in- 
clinations found exercise and experience as the 
young editor of a local daily newspaper. After 
four years of service to his native community as 

240 



He serves park executives through their 
professional organizations, edits their 
magazine, and helps them in innumerable 
ways. We introduce Will O. Doolittle! 



By THEODORE WIRTH 




City Forester and S 
perintendent of Park 
he went to Northe 
Michigan to purs 
further studies in fo 
estry and landsca 
work. In 1913-14 
taught silviculture, dendrology 
and economic ornithology in t 
Forestry School then located at Munising, Micl 
gan. We next find him in Minot, North Dako 
where he established and administered that nort 
ern city's well-conceived park syste 
from 1915 to 1925. 

It was at the Louisville co 
vention in 1920 that IV 
Doolittle became iden 
fied with what was 
that time the Ame 
can Association 
Park Superinten 
ents, and assum 
the duties of t 
management 
the Association 
quarterly publica- 
tion. In 1921, at 
the Detroit conven- 
tion, a reorganiza- 
tion was effect e< 
changing the name to 
the American Institute o 
Park Executives and cre- 
ating the American Park So 
ciety. Under his ambitious, effici- 
ent, and untiring leadership and perse- 
verance, Parks & Recreation has weathered many 
storms and financial embarrassments -- which 
would have brought about a foundering under a 
less experienced and optimistic helmsman. 

After resigning the Superintendency at Minot 
Mr. Doolittle was in Rockford, Illinois, where 
Parks &" Recreation has since been published. 
From 1926 to 1937, he held the office of Super- 
intendent of the Tulsa, Oklahoma, park system 
from which he resigned to give full time to the 
office of Executive Secretary of the Institute and 
his editorial work. He has therefore been an 
(Continued on page 254) 



Nation-wide Interest 

in the 
National Recreation Congress 



NATION-WIDE INTEREST is now being centered 
on the coming National Recreation Congress 
in Boston October 9-13. Seldom, if ever, 
has there been such a deep sense of the import- 
ance of dealing with the leisure of the American 
people on an adequate local, state and national 
basis. 

The cooperative nature of the Congress is 
i clearly indicated by the individuals and organized 
groups that are participating. A number of col- 
lege presidents have agreed to share, in panel dis- 
cussion, their concern and best thought on the 
; larger problems of a growing leisure. Recreation 
.'executives from all parts of the country have sent 
i questions for discussion and suggestions for 
I Congress procedure. 

Industrial leaders, management and labor, are 
(cooperating in enlarging this phase of the pro- 
jgram. Three full periods will be devoted to in- 
jdustrial recreation. Publicists, government offi- 
cials and educators have sent helpful suggestions. 
;A Youth Section will emphasize the needs of 
youth and methods which they and others are 
using to meet those needs. A Model Yacht Re- 
gatta in the Charles River Basin, put on by Con- 
'^ress enthusiasts, will be a novel event. 

It is significant that such organizations as the 
National Industrial Conference Board, the re- 
j search body for American industry, and the Office 
>f the Kiwanis International will have special 
epresentatives in the Congress to study the whole 
ield of recreation in relation to special new de- 
r elopments within their own organizations. 

Those expecting to attend the Congress should 
five notice at the earliest possible date. Hotel ar- 
angements should be made 
lirect with hotel authorities and 
s soon as possible. 



From the point of view of subjects or problems 

What are the foundations for belief in rec- 
reation ? 

What is the relation of recreation to democracy? 

Training recreation workers. 

Use of Federal and state facilities and leader- 
ship by local communities. 

Agency relationships in serving community 
recreation needs. 

Clubs and their problems in the recreation 
program. 

Planning and designing recreation areas and 
facilities. 

Progress in the wider use of schools for 
recreation. 

Seminar on administrative problems in recrea- 
tion. 

Public relations in recreation. 

Pet Ideas of 1939. 

Recreation problems of smaller cities 5,000 to 
30,000 population. 

From the point of view of special groups 

Recreation boards members look at their job. 
W r hat youth wants and how they can help to 

get it. 

Providing recreation for rural America. 
How can we better meet the recreation needs 

of girls and women. 

Industry faces the recreation needs of workers. 
Recreation and the churches. 
Recreation planning and housing developments. 

From the point of view of the recreation program 

A series of meetings to discuss progress, 
method, and plans for further enrichment of the 
recreation program through : 



Topics for Group Discussion 

The major subjects for dis- 
ussion in the Congress are in- 
dicated in the following outline : 



Topics and speakers for the gen- 
eral sessions of the Congress will 
be announced in a later issue of 
Recreation. The August number of 
the magazine will tell of some of 
the many places of historic inter- 
est which those attending may 
visit In Boston and its environs. 



Arts and Crafts 
Winter Sports 
Co-Recreation 
Day Camps 



Music 
Drama 
Nature 
Gardening 

Boating 

Over forty different meetings 
(Continued on page 254) 

241 



You Asked for It! 



Question : Will you give us suggestions for 
events for special days on the playground, includ- 
ing some novelty events which will attract outsid- 
ers who may be reluctant to enter into the regular 
playground program ? What preparation is neces- 
sary for these events ? 

Answer: On some playgrounds an entire day 
is set aside for a major project. Often several 
days or weeks are necessary for the preparatory 
work; on the other hand, for some of the events 
little or no preparation is needed. As far as pos- 
sible the children on the playground should have 
a share in the planning. 

Pirate Day 

Costume effects : eye patch, bandana for head, 

belt sash, wooden sword. 

Pictures of pirates and ships to cut out and 

color. 

Games and athletic contests between rival pirate 

bands. 

"Capture the Flag" may be played. 

Treasure hunt. 

Song such as those in Gilbert and Sullivan's 

"Pirates of Penzance" and sea chanteys. 

Indian Day 

Costume effects : feathered head-dress, bow and 

arrows, inner tube moccasins, burlap outfit, 

tomahawk, wigwams. 

Parade with tom-toms beating (use gasoline 

cans). 

Selection of chief by skill contests. 

Inter-tribal races, games. 

Indian dances and songs. 

Bow and arrow shoot at enlarged picture of 

bear pinned to baseball backstop. 

Bead making, basketry and pottery making by 

handcraft classes in costume. 

Tell Indian legends and dramatize them. 

Wild West Show Cowboy Day Rodeo 

Costume effects: chaps, spurs, hats, bandanas, 
wooden guns, rubber holsters, covered wagons. 
Parade with covered wagons. 
Hobby horse races, roping, lassoing. 
Cowboy songs. Each team or group of children 
should have its own ranch name, brand and 
song. 

Activities to represent bulldogging, bronco bust- 
ing, racing. 

Target Day 

All sorts of targets things to aim at, areas to 
bat to, circles to throw at, and holes to roll balls 
into may be used in a Target Day. Each 

242 



child's score should be recorded for each event 
and the scores be totaled to determine the high- 
point winner of the day. A good target event 
is a small alley where balls may be rolled to 
knock down blocks of wood (as nine-pins) that 
are dressed up like dolls. 

Special Events (requiring little preparation) 
Treasure Hunt 

(a) Scatter papers of several colors, each color 
with a different score value. The person 
getting the highest score from the papers 
which he finds, wins. Also scatter five to 
ten special shapes of paper (as stars) to be 
exchanged for treasure. 

(&) Clues are posted at various locations, one 
clue leading to another and finally to the 
treasure. Have two teams, each following 
a different line of clues if the group is 
very large. 

Peanut Hunt 

While children are assembled in a room, pea- 
nuts or colored papers are hidden about the 
grounds. Children are divided into teams each 
haying an animal name, as cow, dog, etc. The 
captain of each team is the only one who may 
pick up the papers or peanuts but the team 
members can find them and call the captain's 
attention to them by making the sound of their 
animal. This creates much noise and keen ex 
citement. 

> 
Girls' Newspaper Party 

Provide plenty of pins and newspapers. Girls 
work in pairs, one acting as model while the 
other fashions a paper dress on her. Choose a 
best costume. 

Millinery fashion show : n : each girl makes a hat 
out of newspaper and pins. Paper plumes, 
flowers, ribbons may be made. 
Games with newspaper : 

(a) Each child with a sheet of newspaper and 
a pencil tries to find all letters of the alpha- 
bet, circling them as she finds them. 

(b) Blindfolded, two girls sit on floor grasping 
right hands. Each has a roll of newspaper 
with which she tries to swat the other girl. 

Paper Turtle Race 

Cardboard turtle figures, 12 x 8 inches, are 
strung on separate pieces of string, 10 feet 
long and attached at one end to the lowest rung 
of a chair. The player tugs at the end of the 
string which movement causes the turtle to ad- 
vance along the string. The turtles are raced to 
(Continued on page 254) 




Picture by Evelyn Young in "Chinese Babies," Tientsin Press 



WORLD AT PLAY 



_ . , THE Playground Lib- 
A Library Service for , . r TT 

_., brary Service of Har- 

Playgrounds . , 

nsburg, Pa., is co- 
operating with the De- 
partment of Parks and Public Property in offer- 
ing to the children of the city as part of the sum- 
mer playground program a book-loaning service. 
Three visits weekly are made by a librarian with 
a truck. Books may be borrowed by any child who 
is a member of the library. Those who have not 
joined before are able to do so at the playgrounds. 
Notices telling when the library truck will visit 
the playgrounds are posted on the bulletin board. 



For the Hikers of 
Great Britain 



WORD has been re- 
ceived from William 

ArthurWardof 

Liverpool that if "the 

Access to Mountains Bill" becomes a law it will 
bring to an end a half century of agitation and 
struggle on the part of ramblers and other out- 
door folk of Great Britain for the right to walk 
on the uncultivated mountains and moorlands of 
their native land. Many of the ramblers' clubs 
are greatly opposed to a clause in the bill which 
makes it a criminal offense for people to be found 
walking intentionally on land to which access has 
not been granted, whether they commit any 
damage or not. As the law now stands, a person 



cannot be prosecuted for the mere act of trespass, 
i. e., walking on someone else's land "for air or 
exercise" unless in the course of such trespass he 
wittingly or unwittingly damages property such as 
game preserves, crops, and hedges. In spite of 
the new penal clause, which ramblers claim will 
create a new criminal offense where none existed 
before, the general feeling is that the bill repre- 
sents the best possible compromise at present 
available between the interests of the landed pro- 
prietors and the general public. 



j. rir, dads and moth- 
Dads and Mothers , , , . , , 
__ ers clubs, it was stated 
Clubs Are Helpful . . 

r in the 1938 annual re- 

port of the Recreation 

Commission of Alton, Illinois, did excellent work 
last summer in making many improvements on the 
playgrounds. Retaining walls, bleachers, flood- 
lights, score boards, shelters, and other facilities 
were erected and special equipment was purchased 
such as chairs, fans, and tables. 



Harmonicas Popular 
in Dayton, Ohio 



ABOUT 250 bovs and 
girls are receiving in- 
struction in harmonica 
playing through the 

program of the Bureau of Recreation of Dayton, 
Ohio. In addition to regular class instruction, the 

243 



244 



WORLD AT PLAY 



Civic Harmonica Band has been enlarged to sev- 
enty members. During the year this group gave 
fifty-one concerts before local groups. Instru- 
mental instruction has been broadened to include 
ocarinas and celestephones. Students have been 
taught to make these instruments. It has been 
found that in casting ocarinas it is possible to 
secure a very true tone. The celestephone, which 
is a glass xylophone, is an experiment in which 
the children have been greatly interested. 

A Toy Loan Library at Wichita Falls The 

large second floor of a downtown building in 
Wichita Falls, Texas, has been turned over to 
WPA, which is opening some of the rooms for 
recreational activities and others as offices. The 
space is also taking care of a new toy loan library 
in operation for a number of months which has 
the support of the various women's clubs which 
with the Boy Scouts helped to bring in about 
i, 800 toys. On April ist 745 children had regis- 
tered as borrowers. 

British Youth Hostels In the nine years of 
its existence the Youth Hostel movement in Great 
Britain has made remarkable progress, according 
to Mr. William Arthur Ward of Liverpool. There 
are now approximately three hundred hostels in 
England and Wales and about sixty in Scotland, 
with a smaller number in Ireland. The member- 
ship has reached the 100,000 mark and is grow- 
ing daily. The movement has its national head- 
quarters, but the management is in the hands of 
regional organizations with well defined areas 
which cover the entire country. To meet the needs 
of the constantly expanding membership, new 
hostels are being opened in localities not already 
provided with them whenever suitable sites can 
be secured. The hostels are usually located in the 
most picturesque parts of the country where walk- 
ing can be freely indulged in, as well as at the 
seaside and in cities with special historic associa- 
tions such as Chester, Strat ford-on- Avon, and 
Winchester. Those in Scotland are located amid 
the finest scenery of the Highlands, and in North 
Wales there is a notable group of seven hostels 
forming "the great mountain circle" round the 
Snowdon massif. 

In August an international conference and 
youth rally will be held in Britain's first national 
forest park at the head of Loch Long on the Firth 
of Clyde. 



Career Museums John W. Higgins of Wor 
cester, Massachusetts, an honorary member of the 
National Recreation Association, has suggestec 
that industries might well institute trade museums 
in their plants which young people may visit who 
are choosing their life careers as well as em 
ployees with their families. First-hand informa 
tion regarding trades and working conditions in 
factories, he points out, will raise the standard o 
workmanship and pride on the part of both the 
visitors and the factories of any community. Such 
an industrial museum at the plant of the Wor 
cester Pressed Steel Company has attractec 
10,000 visitors a year for the past decade. 

Chicago's Spring Festival of Music On May 
7th, six hundred children took part in the annu 
spring festival of the Civic Music Association o 
Chicago. All winter these children had bee 
studying folk songs and a festival cantata b 
Mozart, and with but one joint rehearsal, ac 
companied by the Civic Orchestra, they sang th 
entire program from memory. The festival pro 
gram is a concrete demonstration of what is be 
ing accomplished in the children's singing classe 
maintained by the association. 



Suggestions for Playground Scrap Books 

Friendship, memory or autograph book, picture 
books. 

A collection of drawings, paintings and mounted 
cut-out pictures, jokes and funny stories. 

The imaginary history of a friend told by the ar- 
rangement of magazine pictures. 

A model home made from magazine furniture 
pictures. 

Game books, cook book, animal book. 

Nature book with mounted flowers and leaves, 
bird feathers, pictures. 

The days we celebrate ; sport clippings ; interest- 
ing costumes. 

From "Our 1939 Children"; Department of Parks 

and Public Property, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 



A Recreation Center for Wichita Falls 

Plans have been made for the construction of a 
community center in Wichita Falls, Texas, to 
cost $60,000. Of this amount $15,000 was raised 
by public subscription to serve as the city's tribute 
to a WPA project. Most of this money was 
given by one public-spirited citizen. 



WORLD AT PLAY 



245 



Some of America's New Recreation Facili- 
ties From July, 1935 through June 30, 1938, 
according to a report issued by WPA workers 
enrolled in this department of the Federal gov- 
ernment have through their labor made important 
additions to many fields of recreation. They have 
constructed 5,486 recreation buildings, built ad- 
ditions to 296 more, and improved 3,546 existing 
buildings. Of these new structures, 215 were 
auditoriums, 974 stadiums and grandstands, 497 
gymnasiums, and 3,800 miscellaneous in type such 
as pavilions and bathhouses. A total of 1,787 new 
athletic fields were built and 1,504 were improved. 
No fewer than 1,067 new parks with a total 
acreage of 32,559 were constructed ; 4,232 exist- 
ing parks were improved, and no were enlarged. 
Playgrounds to the number of 1,594 were con- 
structed, while 5,010 were improved. 

Another important phase of the program was 
the provision of safe and sanitary bathing facili- 
ties. During this period WPA workers construct- 
ed 471 new swimming pools and improved 225, 
while for small children 440 wading pools were 
built, and 60 more improved. For the golf en- 
thusiasts WPA crews built 143 new courses and 
improved 214 existing courses. Other additions 
to the nation's recreation facilities included 4,582 
tennis courts, 728 handball courts, 1,142 horse- 
shoe courts, 1,037 i ce skating rinks, 41 ski jumps, 
62 ski trails. 73 outdoor theaters, and 116 band 
shells. 

Junior Olympics at Norwalk, Connecticut 

Seven hundred boys and girls from the city play- 
grounds took part in the Junior Olympics pro- 
gram held last summer in Norwalk, Connecticut. 
The program consisted of chinning the bar, slow 
jump, potato races, dashes, target throwing, and 
similar events. 

Community Theaters in Austin, Texas 
The plan evolved for the Community Theaters 
embodied setting up organizations in each com- 
munity of Austin where a sufficient interest was 
displayed to give persons in the community an 
opportunity to work in the field of drama. Each 
Community Theater had a workshop division for 
those interested in the technical angle of set build- 
ing and design, lighting, make-up, properties and 
costumes ; an experimental division for those per- 
sons who wanted to perform for their personal 
j enjoyment rather than for an audience, and a 
radio division for those who were interested in 




Keep Your Pitching 
Horseshoe Equipment 

UP-TO-DATE 

Write for catalog of the DIAMOND 
line of horseshoes and accessories, 
the complete line of official equip- 
ment. It includes : 

Many Styles of Horseshoes 

Official Courts Stakes 

Stake Holders Carrying Cases 

Rule Books Score Pads 

DIAMOND CALK HORSESHOE CO. 



4610 Grand Avenue 
DULUTH, MINN. 



the field of radio drama. Each Community 
Theater elected the Board of Directors and select- 
ed its own director from persons who were in- 
terested in directing without salary. All of the 
theaters sent three delegates to the Central Com- 
munity Theaters Council which met once every 
three months to give aid in solving problems 
which arose and to schedule those activities of 
the separate theaters so as to prevent conflict of 
dates. 

Church Recreation Institute Over 500 Dal- 
las County Baptists were enrolled for a Church 
Recreation Leadership School held in Dallas, 
Texas; January 30 February 3, 1939, under the 
sponsorship of the Dallas Baptist Association, ac- 
cording to Miss Uleta Ray Williams, a recreation 
leader in that city. Ten courses covering a wide 
range of recreational activities were offered at 
each evening's session, including such topics as 
the planning, financing and promotion of church 
recreation programs. 

Camp Fe-ne-ho Underprivileged children 
of Toledo were given a chance to enjoy a real 
camping experience last summer by the coopera- 



246 



A NEW ARBORETUM 



tion of the Federation of Neighborhood Houses, 
the Rotary Club, and the Works Progress Ad- 
ministration recreation workers. The initiative 
was taken by the WPA leaders. The Rotary Club 
contributed $400 to make the camp possible. Each 
of four participating neighborhood houses con- 
tributed $20 toward the salary of the resident 
WPA worker who was also a trained nurse. Each 
neighborhood house also agreed to pay 50^ per 
day for each camper and leader present in the 
camp. Children who were able to do so paid $4.00 
per week. Each participating organization pro- 
vided its own transportation and leadership for 
the groups if sponsored. Liability insurance for 
campers and workers was shared by the various 
organizations. The WPA provided two senior 
recreation instructors and two recreation attend- 
ants. Very attractive camp awards were made by 
camp instructors and campers from scraps of felt 
fabric. 

This was a unique form of cooperation made 
possible by the fine camping experience for a con- 
siderable group of children who would otherwise 
have been deprived of such experience. 

A Strange Hobby ! One of the strangest 
hobbies in the land is that of Paul Domke of 
Ossineke, Michigan who, in his spare time, is 
building a life-size menagerie of the monsters 
that roamed this continent before the dawn of his- 
tory. His "prehistoric garden" is located on U.S. 
23, ten miles south of Alpena, on the shores of 
Lake Huron. One of his "pets" on which he is 
now working is the Tyrranosaurus, a kind of 
lizard, which lived 50,000,000 years ago and 
measured fifty-three feet from his snout to his 
tail. These creatures are being built in the midst 
of a grove of hardwood trees and occupy only the 
spare time of the creator. From I.M.A. News, 
Flint, Michigan. 

Students' Hobbies Win School Credit The 
Superintendent of Schools in Dundee, Michigan, 
states that with increasing leisure time for men 
and women of the coming generation, instruction 
in how to use this leisure becomes a function of 
the school. "Accordingly," says the Superintend- 
ent, "we require that each student join some 
school club travel, camera, home economics, 
handicraft, outdoor study, radio, dramatics, or 
music study. Then each student is allowed about 
a school hour a day to read about or practice his 
hobby. The students are developing some worth- 
while interests which reflect in some cases in- 



A New Arboretum 

THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON is to have an 
arboretum of 260 acres made possible by the 
leasing of Washington Park to the University in 
perpetuity by the city of Seattle. The city reserves 
the right to the arboretum as a park and agrees as 
funds are available to furnish water and lighting, 
to police the area, and maintain the roadways. 
The University has accepted administrative con- 
trol and will have complete supervision of the 
area, furnishing the technical staff for carrying 
on scientific study and experiments. The Works 
Progress Administration will furnish labor, a 
Federal grant of approximately $800,000 having 
been allotted as a relief measure. Fifteen per cent 
of this sum will be used for necessary materials. 
The Arboretum Foundation has been organized by 
an advisory board appointed by the Governor, the 
University of Washington, and the Mayor of 
Seattle to promote the arboretum and to raise an 
endowment, as well as funds for immediate use. 
This is a nonprofit organization, state-wide in 
scope, and open to all interested in the project. 
Thus far over $11,000 has been furnished by the 
Foundation to date. 

Some of the outstanding features planned for 
the arboretum include an Azalea Way, a sixteen 
foot wide turf trail three-quarters of a mile long, 
to be massed on either side with rhododendrons 
and azaleas ; alpine gardens consisting of ten acres 
of ledges and alpine meadows ; a two acre shady 
dell comprising woodland gardens with a series of 
small pools and cascades ; a lilac collection and a 
system of four lagoons which will afford an ex- 
cellent opportunity for the development of water 
gardens with an extensive collection of aquatic 
plants. There will also be extensive collections of 
magnolias, camellias, flowering cherries, and tree 
peonies and exotics collected from other lands. 

creased interest in other school studies, such a 
the study of chemistry with photography. Par 
ents are particularly interested in the fact tha 
students amuse themselves at home with hobbie 
instead of going out at night." From Detroi 
Free Press. 



Model Yachting 

(Continued from page 207) 

head boats and two hundred A Class boats. 
the boats in the twenty independent clubs an 
added, there are considerably over one thousanc 



MODEL BOAT SAILING IN NEW YORK CITY'S PARKS 



247 



models. Over one hundred new boats are being 
built this year. 

There is also an International Association of 
Model Yachtsmen called the "International Model 
; Yacht Racing Union." It includes : Great Britain, 
1 France, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, Germany, and 
the United States. The officers are : President, 
John Black, 65 Pine Ridge Road, West Medford, 
Massachusetts ; Secretary-Treasurer, William M. 
Carpenter, 65 Forest Road, Birkenhead, England. 
In New York City there is a Metropolitan As- 
sociation of nine clubs. The regattas are of sev- 
eral kinds : 

1. Home club races between members of home 
clubs for club championships; weekly, Sat- 
urdays, and Sundays, and holidays. The 
average is ten races in spring and ten in the 
fall. 

2. Interclub races between nearby clubs a 
limited and equal number of boats from each 
club. Special races. 

3. Official regattas for championship of each 
division at dates fixed by officials of division. 

4. Invitation races for special cups. 

5. National championship regatta yearly. 

6. International championship regatta yearly. 

Bibliography 

"Year Book" of the Model Yacht Racing As- 
sociation of America, Charles H. Farley, 87 
Ouincy Street, Medford, Massachusetts. 

"Sailing Rules," John Black, 65 Pine Ridge 
Road, West Medford, Massachusetts. 

"Marblehead" 50-800 class Rating Rules 
'John Black, 65 Pine Ridge Road, West Medford, 
', Massachusetts. 

"Marine Models," 59 Fetter Leave, London, 
E. C, England. 

"Model Sailing Craft," W. J. Daniels and H. 
jB. Tucker, Marine Models, 52 Fetter Leave, 
London, E. C., England. 



NOTE: Model yachting is to have an important place 
iat the Boston Recreation Congress. The Montclair Model 
'Yacht Club in cooperation with the Boston Model Yacht 
Club will stage an invitation regatta on the Charles River 
: Basin, Thursday afternoon, October 12. 

Hundreds of yachtsmen will sail their personally built 
models in a special demonstration for Recreation Con- 
gress delegates. This is an unusual opportunity for model 
j yacht enthusiasts to demonstrate for recreation officials a 
fascinating leisure time activity that is rapidly developing 
; in America. 

A consultation service on model yachting will be avail- 
able at the Congress. 



BEN PEARSON 



Used by leading universities and tournament 
winners throughout America, Ben Pearson 
Bows and Arrows are made by master crafts- 
men, archers themselves, in America's largest 
plant devoted exclusively to fine quality 
archery equipment manufacture. 

Get New Low Price Catalogue 
Send for complete free interesting catalogue 
and Manual of Archery on care of equip- 
ment, correct shooting form, building targets, 
tournament rules, etc. 



BEN PEARSON, INC. Dept. R9 Pine Bluff. Ark. 



Model Boat Sailing in New York 
City's Parks 

(Continued from page 208) 

boat, however, is permitted to compete in any one 
of the other subdivisions of the contest, and often 
triumphs over the more elaborate craft. 

Another indication of the interest in model 
boat sailing contests is the formation of children's 
clubs. In addition to these clubs there is an or- 
ganization in Brooklyn for men from twenty-one 
to seventy years of age whose chief hobby is the 
sailing of model boats. Each day members of 
this club can be found at the Prospect Park Lake 
sailing their models. For these men a special con- 
test is held annually at which prizes are awarded 
to all winners. For successful model boat sailing, 
the boy, girl or adult must consider wind condi- 
tions and be able to properly adjust the helm and 
set the sails to obtain the full value of the wind. 
The events in the sail boat contests, which are 
conducted in twenty designated locations in New 
York City, include the following: 

SAIL BOATS 
Classes Classes 

A From 12" - 18" D From 32" - 40" 
B " 18" -25" E " 40" -50" 
C " 25" -32" F Constructed models to 30" 

MOTOR BOATS 
Clouts 

G Electric and spring powered 
H Steam and gasoline driven 



Calling All Landlubbers! 

(Continued from page 215) 

On their summer cruising the Mariners are fre- 
quently offered the hospitality of friendly yacht 
clubs or have the opportunity to visit on board 
other boats. One of the first things they learn is 



248 



UNIVERSITY ATHLETICS 



University Athletics 

PRESIDENT DODDS of Princeton, in speaking at 
the annual football banquet at the close of 
this year's season, made some pointed comments 
on the place of athletics in the intercollegiate 
world. As quoted in the New York Times, 
he said : 

"Athletics have a place in a university only 
under two conditions. The first is that the oppor- 
tunity to participate be extended on equal terms 
to all undergraduates under scholarship require- 
ments applying uniformly to all. This implies a 
broad program of both intercollegiate and intra- 
mural athletics. Every university which supports 
an intercollegiate program is dealing unfairly with 
the less gifted athletically unless it provides a 
comprehensive intramural program as well. 

"The second requisite which must be fulfilled 
to justify intercollegiate athletics and football in 
particular is complete absence of commercialism. 
This condition is violated when athletes are sub- 
sidized either by the university or by the mis- 
guided supporters of the university. When subsi- 
dies are paid the attempt is always made to keep 
them secret. This fact alone is a confession that 
something dishonorable has taken place. When 
one is proud of such acts he does not go to such 
pains to cover them up. 

"It is not necessary that our teams win all their 
games. The Princeton family does not demand 
undefeated seasons. Fundamentally they demand 
that you play your games as intelligent sportsmen 
and that places on the team shall always be won 
in fair competition among amateurs playing not 
for money but for sport." - From New York 
Times, December u, 1938. 

the etiquette of such visits. Since even a casual 
ferryboat rider may some day find himself a 
visitor on a launch or yacht, it's well to learn the 
vocabulary and behavior of the perfect nautical 
guest. 

Suppose the hearty host exclaims, "Let's go be- 
low ; stow your things in the starboard bunk. The 
head doesn't work very well. Then come topsides 
and we'll splice the main brace." 

A well-informed guest would go downstairs (a 
phrase you'll never use on shipboard), put his 
things on the built-in bed at the right side of his 
stateroom, and note that the door leading into 
the bathroom (head) was closed. Then he'd go 
into the main cabin and join his host in a drink 
(splice the main brace). 



If the party goes ashore in the dinghy, the 
owner will direct the seating of his guests and 
then get aboard himself. Landing, the guests 
leave the boat first. And on your return, remem- 
ber that owner and guests board the yacht from 
the starboard side, crew use the port side. 

If you can't go a-sailing, you may take land 
cruises in your imagination as the Girl Scout 
Mariners do, planning your visits to strange ports, 
deciding what you'll see and buy, and scudding 
homeward at last in a spanking salty breeze of 
your own conjuring. But you won't stay. You'll 
be off again on another jaunt, real or fancied. The 
spell of the moving waters will be upon you and 
you'll go ! 

Are you water-wise? Try your knowledge on 
these true and false statements. 

1. Dog Watch the period in which the watch dog 

is the only member of the crew on deck. 

2. Pipe down keep quiet. 

3. Dinghy Ship's mascot. 

4. Charley Noble Stove pipe. 

5. Captain's gig is a dance aboard ship. 

6. Painter is a marine artist. 

7. Brig is the ship's prison. 

8. Galley is the ship's kitchen. 

9. Foc's'l is the captain's quarters. 
10. Yawl sailor's southern accent. 

A n&wers 

1. False. A dog watch is one of two watches ex- 

tending from 4 to 6 P. M. and from 6 to 8 P. M. 

2. True. 

3. False. A dinghy is a small rowboat. 

4. True. 

5. False. A captain's gig is the captain's own boat. 

6. False. The painter is the rope in the bow of a 

boat for towing or making fast. 

7. True. 

8. True. 

9. False. The foc's'l is the raised deck of most 

merchant steamers in the forward part of the 
vessel. 
10. False. A yawl is a kind of sailboat. 



Swimming Pool Construction and 
Operation 

(Continued from page 220) 

intelligently planned and conducted instructor 
play, and healthful exercise and recreation shoul 
replace horseplay and rowdyism. With Americ 
now leading the world in the number of pools i 
use, with federal funds making it possible foil 
many municipalities to own and operate their ow .i 
pools, it would seem an opportune time for cei 
tain educational institutions to add courses i 
modern swimming pool operation and sanitatio 
to their curricula, thereby helping to ensure prc 



A REGATTA OF THEIR OWN ! 



249 



//' You Remember 



the story Grandma used to tell about Uncle Silas, who was 
such a character, if you remember that story and love it ... 



Then You Should Read 




the magazine for Yankees everywhere. We've heard it said 
that New England is the only part of America where such 
characters as Uncle Silas are left. If Uncle Silas and all like 
him are dear to you or if you are an Uncle Silas, you will 
enjoy YANKEE, the magazine with the flavor of New England 
sea captains, and Saturday afternoon in the general store. 
Subscription price is three dollars a year. 

Almanac . . . Swops . . . Fiction 
Pictures . . . Garden Talk . . . Leisure 

Published by YANKEE, INCORPORATED, Dublin, N. H. 



Advertising Offices 
321 Park Square Building, Boston, Mass. 



per administration of pools, and maximum oppor- 
tunity for the many thousands who find in aquatic 
recreation great enjoyment and benefit. 

While the baths of Caracalla did not save Rome, 
the modern pool undoubtedly will go a long way 
toward disproving the ancient adage that history 
i repeats itself, and will aid materially in building 
up rather than destroying this most enjoyable and 
beneficial recreation. 



A Regatta of Their Own! 

(Continued from page 221) 

in this latter class, especially. Among the crowd 
massed in one spot on the shore was a family 
group, eagerly watching the entry of their son 
[and brother. "Bobby has been working on his 
motor boat for four months," said his sister. "He 
can't think of anything else. And last night he 
actually said his prayers a thing he hasn't done 
for months." It is good to record that faith and 
works were rewarded, for Bobby's trim little 
motor boat darted out from the fleet that made 
the start and shot through the waters, almost run- 
ning down a competitor, to cross the line to win 
second prize. 



The making and sailing of boats gets into the 
blood, and many who for several years have com- 
peted in this big model yacht regatta were loath 
to give up the sport. So a special open class was 
held for boats built in previous years, and thus 
high school boys were permitted to compete with 
their old rivals. Only boats that won prizes in the 
past were eligible to sail in this class, probably the 
most keenly contested of any. These yachts, 
mostly of the larger size, have had the benefit of 
thorough seasoning. Schooled by their perform- 
ance in previous races, correction of any minor 
defects have been made, and it was a truly im- 
pressive sight when the big, white sailed boats, 
as though guided by the hand of the builder, 
floated across the sunlit waters. 

Doing their part to make it a perfect day, the 
owners of the big bathhouse on the beach dis- 
tributed to all of the 750 boys who had entered 
boats tickets entitling them to ice cream cones. 

Late in the afternoon, when all the heats had 
been run, the crowd adjourned to the beach pa- 
villion where the awards sixty silver loving cups 
were given in the various classes. 

After this came the inspection of all the prize 
winners and runners-up to determine the best 



250 



RECREATIONAL ASPECTS OF STREAM POLLUTION 



constructed boat in each class. For these addi- 
tional trophies were awarded a difficult task in- 
deed, as all the shop instructors agreed. Last of 
all, a group picture was taken, and as the sun sank 
into the waters of the Pacific, carloads of tired, 
happy and excited youngsters, most of them car- 
rying their own yachts, boarded the electrics, or 
were picked up by the family car, eagerly talking 
of the events of the day and planning improve- 
ments that would make their boat a winner in 
next year's regatta. 



Recreational Aspects of Stream 
Pollution 

(Continued from page 222) 
greatly retarded by the condition of the water." 

Another significant statement has been placed 
in the public record by Representative A. Willis 
Robertson of Virginia, Chairman of the Select 
Committee on Conservation of Wild Life Re- 
sources, in the report of his committee to the 
Seventy-sixth Congress : 

"Much is being said today of the strain under 
which we are living in this age of high speed, and 
the fact that people do not take necessary time to 
rest and relax taut nerves ; that our pleasures and 
pastimes are too artificial and we are too depend- 
ent upon mechanical devices for happiness. Much 
unrest and unhappiness could be alleviated and 
quiet, wholesome minds developed for more ef- 
ficient discharge of daily duties by a fuller knowl- 
edge of and closer contact with the great outdoors 
and nature's children." 

Recreational benefits of a broad national pro- 
gram of stream pollution abatement are so vast 
and so far-reaching that they challenge imagina- 
tion to the limit. When we think of the countless 
thousands of miles of native streams into which 
cities and industries dump their filth and wastes 
and what it would mean to the people of America 
to restore these streams to some semblance of 
their natural beauty and usefulness, we begin to 
visualize what pure streams would mean to this 
country. 

There is much misunderstanding about the 
stream pollution problem. Many people think that 
it is necessary to reroute a river through some 
mysterious process and purify its waters. Of 
course, this is all wrong. The way to purify a 
stream is to stop putting filth into it, and the 
stream quickly clears. .The problem is largely one 
of finance and education. Further scientific re- 
search is necessary to enable certain industries to 
deal with their wastes. Both cities and industries 



need money to finance disposal works. And th 
country needs education on the barbaric practic 
of dumping our filth into the water we use am 
drink. Friends of pure streams who want action a 
the present session might well communicate thei 
views to members of the Congress. 

NOTE : A compact commission has been formed of re 
resentatives of the states of New York, Pennsylvam 
West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana providin 
for cooperative action on the part of these states 
cleaning up the Ohio and its tributaries. The West Vi 
ginia and Indiana legislatures have already enacted t' 
necessary legislation to put the compact into effect. Ohi 
according to a statement recently received, will soon pa 
the necessary legislation. 



A City-Wide Swimming Program 

(Continued from page 229) 

were twelve acts depicting a day on board shi; 
Each group was colorfully attired in dress an( 
uniforms that took full advantage of the great op 
portunity to use color. The Banneker pagean 
was a water circus featuring formation swimmim 
of boys and girls costumed as seals, beavers, am 
sea horses, in many interesting and difficult fig 
ures. Featured also were the colored A. A. U 
fancy diving champions of the United States 
Each act was presented by a different playgrounc 
or pool under the direction of Mrs. Katherim 
Ladd of the Department of Playgrounds, in co 
operation with the Welfare and Recreation As 
sociation and the Red Cross. 

The experience of last year demonstrated thai 
by coordinating their efforts the various agencie.' 
concerned with operation of public swimming 
pools can vastly improve their services. In Wash- 
ington we are determined to raise up a generation 
of swimmers, and we think we have found the 
way. 



Romper Day's Silver Anniversary 

(Continued from page 230) 
This has been so thoroughly systematized and can 
now be executed with such precision that the ten 
thousand children and the adults present receive 
in one hour's time paper bag containers with 2 
delicious Trexler orchard apple, a hot dog, lolly- 
pop and ice cream popsicle. 

Many enterprising boys would scheme, as boys 
always do, for extra refreshment tickets and the 
General's eyes would twinkle and he woulc 
chuckle in amusement when he found a boy ir 
line the second time. His usual comment was 
"No one will have to take care of that fellow 
He'll take care of himself." 



MAGAZINES AND PAMPHLETS 



251 



As long as there are youths to play, so long will 

the children of our city have one day of the sum- 

I mer set aside when they gather together to pay 

tribute to the joy of living and to the memory of 

the man who cared about their happiness. 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

(Recently Received Containing Articles i 
of Interest to the Recreation Worker 



Picnic Services 

(Continued from page 233) 
Supplies Needed 

Articles Description Number 

Balloons 

Barrels 

Blindfolds 

Brooms 

Candles 

Candy kisses 

Clothesline 

Clothespins 

Eggs 

Fans 

Hammers 

Hoops 

Kiddie Cars 

Lemons 

Lollypops 

Marbles 

Matches 

Marshmallows 

Match Boxes 

Nails 

Needles 

Nipples .. . 

Old Clothes :. 

Pans 

Paper Bags 

Paper Cups : 

Paper Plates 

Peanuts 

Pennies 

Pins 

Planks 

Potatoes 

Rolling Pins 

Scissors 

Skipping Ropes 

String 

Tubs 

Umbrellas 

Wooden Blocks 

List prizes needed: 1. t 

2. 

3. 

etc. 

Equipment needed for guessing contests: 1. 

2. 
3. 
etc. 

Treasures needed for hunts: 1. 

2. 
3. 
etc. 

Information Files 

Printed material, including books and bulletins 
on games, stunts, other outdoor entertainments, 

and sample picnic programs, are on file in many 

recreation department and other agency libraries. 

These references are available to those planning 
' outing programs. 



MAGAZINES 

Public Management, April 1939 

"Taking City Government Back to the People" by 
Clarence .E. Ridley and Orin F. Nolting 

Camping World, April 1939 

"Democracy in Camping" by Dr. Ira S. Wile 

The Journal of Educational Sociology, April 1939 

"Minorities, A Challenge to American Democracy" 
by Maurice R. Davie 

"Culture Conflicts and the Welfare of Youth" by 
M. M. Chambers 

"Culture Conflicts and Recent Intellectual Immi- 
grants" by Clara W. Mayer 

"Snaring Culture Values" by Rachel Davis-DuBois 

School and Society, April 15, 1939 

"Science Instruction in a Democracy" by Ordway 
Tead 

Playing Fields The Quarterly Journal of the National 
Playing Fields Association in London. Bound volume 
has just been received covering issues from October 
1936 to July 1938 

School and Society, April 22, 1939 

"Objectives of a Program of Extra-Curricular 
Activities in High School" 

Shore and Beach, April 1939 

"Shores and Beaches in the National Scheme of 

prr P 3tion" by Conrad L. Wirth 
"Model Forms of Bylaws as to Seashore" 

Child Study, April 1939 

"When the Family Vacations Together" by James 
Lee EHenwood 

Safety Education, May 1939 

"How Safe is Swimming?" by F. C. Mills 
"The Bicycle and the Law" 

The Womans Press, May 1939 

"Adolescence Sans Religion ?" by Hedley S. Dimock 
"Modern Trends in Camping" by Mary L. Northway 

National Parent-Teacher, May 1939 

"The President's Message," Frances S. Pettengill, 

President, National Congress of Parents and 

Teachers 
"Straight Thinking versus Crooked" by Holland D. 

Roberts 
"Fducation for Civic Responsibility" by Clarence A. 

Dykstra 

Journal of Physical Education, May-June 1939 

"Suggested Minimum Desirable Practices in the 
Operation and Maintenance of Swimming Pools" 

Youth Leaders Digest, May 1939 

"If I Had a Magic Wand" by Robert Moses 

Parks and Recreation, May 1939 

"Schools Aid in Combatting Park Vandalism" 

National Municipal Review, May 1939 

"Planning for Seven Million : Year One" by Phillip 
B. Thurston 



252 



"OLD RIVER" 



Beach and Pool, May 1939 

"Modern Swimming Pools" by Walter J. Cartier 
"Water Pageants and Stunts" 

The American Observer, May 8, 1939 

"Facts About Magazines RECREATION" 

School and Society, May 6, 1939 

"Federal Aid to Education" by Charles H. Judd 
"Democracy at Work in the Community" by W. 
Carson Ryan 

The Journal of Health and Physical Education, May 1939 

"Health Factors in Attractiveness" by Anne Schley 

Duggan 
"How Is Your Professional Conduct?" by Harry A. 

Scott . 
"Planning an Elementary School Playday" by 

Florence Owens 

The Camping Magazine, May 1939 

"Miscellaneous Campcraft Hints" 'by Barbara Ellen 

Joy 
"Fun in the Craft Shop" by Lester C. Smith 

Scholastic Coach, May 1939 

"The Country's Schools are Lighting Up" (Play- 
grounds) by Ralph A. Piper 

PAMPHLETS 

Community Recreation Program Summary of 1938 Re- 
port Recreation Committee, Anderson, Indiana 

Spring-Summer Program and Guide St. Paul Play- 
grounds 1939 St. Paul, Minnesota 

Report of Executive Secretary for the Year 1938, Annual 
Report of the Rosemount Community Center, Seventh 
Annual Report of the Community Garden League of 
Greater Montreal, Annual Report of the Parks Com- 
mittee to the Montreal Parks and Playgrounds As- 
sociation Incorporated 

Montreal Parks and Playgrounds Association, Mon- 
treal, Quebec, Canada 

Annual Report of Recreation Commission 1938 

Norwalk, Connecticut 

Annual Report of Recreation Commission 1938 
City and County of Honolulu 

Urban Government Volume I of the Supplementary Re- 
port of the Urbanism Committee to the National 
Resources Committee, Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Washington, D. C. Price $.50 



"Old River" 

(Continued from page 234) 

ways and footpaths have been completed. The 
picnic groves are already invitingly beautiful. 
Shelter houses and outdoor cooking facilities are 
being completed. 

The Lagoon will consist of approximately two 
miles of waterways for boating and canoeing. It 
will be from fifty to seventy-five feet wide and 
will wind its way around the entire "Old River" 
groves. The water will attain a depth of nine 
feet, from a gradual slope on each side. 

The dredging out of the old channel formed an 
island consisting of about forty acres of ground. 
Most of this island is wooded with sycamores, 
willow, poplar and other trees. It is here that the 



shelter houses, fireplaces and barbecue are 'being 
provided, while benches, chairs and tables will be 
scattered throughout the grounds. Practically all 
the wooded section faces the lagoon. 

Along with these projects the athletic fields are 
being transformed. The plot of forty-five acres 
of land now needs little more than the charting of 
of the baseball and recreation ball diamonds. 

One of the most popular spots for employees 
and their families in years to come will be the 
swimming pool, which consists of two units. One 
unit consists of an elliptical pool 80' x 120' which 
will provide enjoyment for smaller children. The 
maximum depth of the water in this pool will be 
eighteen inches. There will be a miniature play 
ground connected to this area which will be f encec 
off so as to keep the little ones away from any 
possible danger while their parents are enjoying 
other parts of "Old River." 

The second unit will be a large elliptical poo 
measuring 220' x 280' which will provide f o 
adult bathing, swimming and diving. This pool wi 
be divided into two section. One section, from 
four to ten feet deep, will be used for swimming 
and diving. This section will also contain a 220 
racing course. The second section, with depti 
ranging from two to four feet, will be for the us 
of those who do not swim or who do not care to 
enter the deeper water. Equipment of the most 
modern design will be used in and around th 
pool, and every precaution will be taken for the 
safety of the users. Six diving boards will be 
provided for those interested in this phase of 
water sports. The dressing and locker room fa- 
cilities will be large enough to permit of 5,000 
persons being in the big pool at one time. 

Colonel Deeds, President and Chairman of the 
Board of the National Cash Register Company, 
much of whose personal time has been spent in 
the planning of this great unit, has this to say 
about the development : "By making intelligent 
use of everything nature and circumstances have 
given us, a good beginning is being made toward 
the creation of a beautiful and practical park at 
minimum cost. We will begin to use it in the 
rough. By adding improvements from time to 
time as we can afford them, we shall see our pro- 
gram gradually become a beautiful reality." 



Larks in Latimer Street 

(Continued from page 238) 
these balconies formed a romantic setting for a 
singer in Spanish costume. And everywhere were 



LARKS IN LATIMER STREET 



253 



Spanish ladies, dons, and Mexican peons. The 
1937 Lark was an Autumn festival, done in blue 
and yellow. Screens with bold designs of sun- 
flowers on a dark blue background made an un- 
interrupted dado along the walls. Aides were in 
yellow cellophane dresses and blue ruffs, with yel- 
low crescent moons on their heads. Yellow and 
blue lights and paper pumpkins dangled from the 
trees, braided corn stalks framed the doorways, 
and a great yellow cellophane moon shone 
beneficently. 

Entertainment at the Larks has always been 
plentiful and in unexceptionable taste. Guests 
have been quickly initiated into the spirit of 
revelry by street singers and dancers. These have 
included costumed Irish singers with shillalaghs, 
Hungarian dancers in colorful native dress, a 
Spanish singer drawn in a donkey cart, and an 
accordion player. In 1937 an organ grinder with 
a talented monkey delighted the adults as well as 
the children. In 1936 there was a small horse- 
drawn merry-go-round for children. At the next 
Lark it is planned to have a good orchestra for 
street dancing. 

Side shows offered by the various organizations 
have been of a highly amusing nature : a marion- 
ette show put on each year in Mr. Yarnall 
Abbott's studio ; a variety show given by college 
students in 1936, by entertainers with special acts 
in 1937. At the Mexican fiesta, hot tamales were 
warmly welcomed, while the Autumn Lark saw 
brisk traffic in coffee, doughnuts and chestnuts. 
There were, naturally, the ever-beloved fortune- 
tellers' booths, and tea booths. Walled gardens 
were opened for tea or outdoor suppers. Some 
organization always provides games shuffle- 
board, darts and the like. Many of the groups 
have booths with fascinating things to sell 
among these, the flower booth and the Russian 
booth were especially colorful and the social 
service organizations present very fine handcraft 
exhibitions. 

Difficulties of putting on a street fair in the 
heart of a large city are not so numerous, we are 
told, as might be supposed. There's a certain 
amount of red tape to be gone through with with 
city officials. And of course the handling of ad- 
missions is important; gates must be efficiently 
manned and should admit one person at a time. 
But on the whole, Latimer Street people have 
found complications surprisingly few. The 
"bouncer" in his high hat is seldom, if ever, called 
into action. The worst obstacle is the chance of 



bad weather ; it is possible to meet this at least, 
to some extent by the purchase of rain insurance. 
Creators of the Larks in Latimer Street men- 
tion as one of the benefits of the affairs, the spirit 
of neighborliness engendered between organiza- 
tions. The Garden Club, for example, gets to 
know the Print Club. The Women's City Club, 
Red Cross, Grenfell Association, the dentists' 
group and the Colonial Dames join hands co- 
operatively. All of which, Latimer Streeters agree, 
is a marvellous thing. 



Playground Beautification 

(Continued from page 239) 

This year the work was continued, and for the 
first time the Board of Education purchased 218 
trees, leaving to the P.T.A. only the work of 
planting and dedication. The result was to bring 
the grand total of planting for the four years to 
814 trees and several hundred lineal feet of 
shrubs. 

The planting has been carried on in a systema- 
tic manner. A technical committee on which the 
school landscape architect, the Department of 
Physical Education of the schools, the Recreation 
Commission, and the Council of Parents and 
Teachers were represented, provided tentative 
planting charts for each school ground, which 
were checked by the business office of the school 
district from the standpoint of future building 
construction plans. 

The children of the several schools had an 
active and important part in the dedication pro- 
grams which were arranged in each instance by 
the principal of the school, cooperating with the 
Parent-Teacher Association and the central physi- 
cal education office. 

In addition to the natural pride and pleasure 
which this beautification program brings to the 
schools and the city as a whole, keen interest and 
satisfaction is also felt by the Recreation Com- 
mission, for in this city a coordinated plan is ef- 
fective, with the supervisor of health and physical 
education of the schools serving as director of 
school and municipal recreation under charter 
provision. 

The planting project, which has added so much 
of beauty, safety, and comfort to the schools, has 
also enlarged and improved areas on which many 
of the activities of the Recreation Commission's 
broad program will be conducted. As would be 
expected, the entire achievement has had the 
active support and inspiration of the city's rec- 



254 



YOU ASKED FOR IT! 



reation director who could foresee the great im- 
portance of the project from the community rec- 
reational standpoint quite apart from the element 
of simple beauty. 

Another project which has just been started on 
the Long Beach elementary school playgrounds is 
the surfacing of the large open areas with bitu- 
muls, an emulsified asphalt paving recently de- 
veloped for playground surfacing. Special activity 
areas will also be treated with bitumuls in the 
secondary schools. With this, in addition to the 
trees and lawns, it will be "goodbye, dust and 
grime" from now on an improved condition 
which will be a source of satisfaction not only to 
the children using the grounds but to adjacent 
residential areas as well. 



The Man Back of the Park Executives 

(Continued jrom page 240) 

active guiding head and spirit of the Institute 
practically since he joined the organization. Mr. 
Doolittle's interest in the American Institute of 
Park Executives and the American Park Society 
is at par with his intense enthusiasm, constant 
teaching, and advocacy for the conservation of 
wild life. He is a most worthy, forceful disciple 
of the late Dr. W. T. Hornaday, that noble, cou- 
rageous fighter for the conservation of wild life, 
whose intimate friendship he enjoyed for many 
years and whose teachings he successfully 
carries on. 



Nation-Wide Interest in the National 
Recreation Congress 

(Continued from page 241) 

for discussion of these and related subjects will 
be held. Each person planning to come will re- 
ceive in advance the Question Pamphlet contain- 
ing detailed questions listed under each topic. The 
final programs giving time, place and personnel 
for all meetings and arrangements will be avail- 
able at registration desk. 



You Asked for It! 

(Continued jrom page 242) 

the chair. A mat or rough floor prevents slip- 
ping and makes a better race track. The back 
heels of the turtle must remain in contact with 
the floor throughout .the race, and the player 
must stay in his starting position. 



Special Contests 
The challenge of competition creates much o 
the excitement and interest in many special ac- 
tivities. Although these events are being listed 
under contests, many of them are fine, informal 
activities that children enjoy playing again an 
again with no thought of formal contests c 
competition. 

Jacks tournament 

Top spinning contest 

O'Leary tournament 

Yo Yo contest 

Marble tournament 

Hopscotch tournament 

Rope jumping contest 

Pie eating contest 

Seed planting or plant growing contest 

Give each contestant a certain number oi 
seeds, or a slip to plant and tend. Judge re- 
sults after a period of time. (Beans gro\v 
rapidly.) 

Fishing contest 

Contest in sailing model boats 

Ping pong tournament 

Carrom tournament 

Checkers and chess tournaments 

Tetherball tournament 

Whistling contest 

Each contestant is required to whistle a cer- 
tain piece of music which all must do, as well 
as one which he selects for himself. 

Soap bubble contest 

Judge the largest bubble, prettiest bubble 
double or triple bubbles, longest floating bub- 
ble. Add glycerine to soap suds to mata 
stronger bubbles. Besides the regular pipes 
soda straws or empty thread spools may be 
used. 

Model airplane and glider contests 

Toy parachute contests 

Tin can golf (9 holes) 

Sink 9 one-pound coffee cans into the ground 
various distances apart. Game is played am 
scored like golf, using a flat board or bat a.' 
club, and a large soft indoor baseball for the 
ball. 

Other Special Activities 

Signalling with flags by codes. 

Rhythm band 

Any number of things may be used to marl' 
a rhythm along with a melody instrumen 
such as a harmonica, piano, accordion, etc 
Wood blocks, railroad spikes, pot lids, tii 
cans, and bottles partly hl-led with water ma} 
add to the sound of a rhythm band. 

A sandy city. Build a miniature city in the sane 
box. Make cardboard or wooden houses, stores 
city hall, street signs, trees, etc. 



New Publications in the Leisure Time Field 



Swimming Pool Standards 



| By Frederick W. Luehring, Ph.D. A. S. Barnes and 
Company, New York. $5.00. 

THIS BOOK has been written to provide guiding stand- 
ards which will be helpful to those charged with the 
responsibility for the planning, construction, and ad- 
ministration of swimming pools in educational institu- 

, tions. In addition to the laws, rules and regulations 
for swimming pools, criteria for judging standards are 
offered as well as for the standards themselves as they 
relate to site, location and environment and to construc- 

' tion, equipment, and administration. There is an 
interesting chapter reporting an historical survey of the 
swimming pool made by Dr. Luehring, which in his 
judgment is the first time such an historical account has 

i ever been published. The edition of this volume has been 

: limited to a thousand copies. 

A Marblehead Model Sailing Yacht 

By Claude W. Horst. The Bruce Publishing Company, 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin. $.50. 

^"*OMPLETE DIRECTIONS and full-size station templates are 
^* given for building a 50-inch sailing yacht with a sail 
, area of 800 square inches. Mr. Horst is known as the 
author of "Model Sail and Power Boats," and "Model 
Boats for Juniors," and he is an authority on boat 
building. 

Puppets A Handbook of Marionettes 

By the Hamburg (N. Y.) Puppet Guild. Bacon and 

Vincent Co., Inc., Buffalo, New York. $.50. 
A MANUAL OF PRACTICAL directions for the making of 
stringed marionettes with suggestions for their cos- 
tuming, stringing and operation. A short chapter on the 
' building of a stage, its lighting equipment, scenery and 
: properties is included. To assist the beginner there is 
i given a "chopping list" of all the materials needed in the 
! construction of a single marionette- The authors describe 
I in some detail directions for the making of a puppet 
I head from craytonite, a new plastic modeling material de- 
I veloped by the Guild. They suggest, however, that heads 
I can also be made in other ways from wood, papier- 
: mache, molded of clay, and cast in plaster of paris. The 
; book is illustrated. 

Sports for the Handicapped 

; By George T. Stafford, Ed.D. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New 

York. $2.50. 

TiiE NEWER TREND in many schools is away from the 
correction of the physical defect by formal exercises 

, and toward the provision of the advantages and oppor- 
tunities available through games and sport activities 

j properly supervised and adapted to the needs of the 

| atypical student." With this principle in mind, Dr. 

; Stafford has presented to the physical educator, the 
school nurse, the physician, the handicapped, the parent, 



and all who are concerned with the education of the 
handicapped, a method of teaching that will motivate the 
atypical student to improve not only his physical condi- 
tion, but also his outlook on life. The book is exceedingly 
practical and makes definite suggestions for the activities 
suitable for handicapped individuals with different types 
of physical disabilities. 

Photography as a Hobby 

By Fred B. Barton. Harper and Brothers, New York 

City. $2.00. 
I N AN INFORMAL, non-technical way the author discusses 

composition, printing, developing, enlarging equip- 
ment and methods, and many other subjects which will 
satisfy the veteran's quest for new ideas and at the same 
time help the beginner become a proficient and enthusiastic 
camera fan. 

Dances of the Hungarians 

By Elizabeth C. Rearick. Bureau of Publications, 
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York 
City. $2.10. 

I N PRESENTING the results of her careful research, the 
author has given us not only authentic dances with 
illustrated descriptions and music, but she has emphasized 
the social significance of folk dancing in the life of 
nations. Unusually attractive illustrations accompany the 
text. 

Group Instruction in Tennis 
and Badminton 

By Harry D. Edgren and Gilmer G. Robinson. A. S. 

Barnes and Company, New York. $1.00. 
VWiTH THE INCREASING popularity of tennis and bad- 
minton has come the demand that these games be 
taught to young people of school age. Limited equipment, 
playing facilities, and the. numbers involved make teach- 
ing individual activities a difficult task. Accordingly the 
attempt is made in this book to aid teachers of physical 
education and others in giving group instruction. Funda- 
mentals of play in each sport are briefly described, and 
the playing strategy and other aids to play are given. 

Promenade 

By Lloyd Shaw, Superintendent of Cheyenne Mountain 
Schools. Entertainment Department. Woman's Home 
Companion, New York. $.10. 

A COLLECTION OF SEVEN western cowboy square dances 
^^ and variations with complete calls and full dance 
directions. Included are "Form a Star," "Ladies to the 
Center," "Lady Round the Lady," "Two Gents Swing 
With the Elbow Swing," "I'll Swing Your Girl, You 
Swing Mine," "Forward Six and Fall Back Six," and 
"Forward Six and Fall Back Eight." All of the dances 
start in square formation, and their success, according to 
Mr. Shaw, depends largely upon the caller, who must 
be enthusiastic enough to memorize the calls and to study 

255 



256 



NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THE LEISURE TIME FIELD 



out the directions so that he can time them to the dance 
steps. The pianist who plays a good persuasive marching 
rhythm to such familiar tunes as "Turkey in the Straw," 
or "The Arkansas Traveler," is needed to accompany the 
dances. Music is not included in the pamphlet. Everyone 
will want to "dosey-doe," "allemande left" and "swing 
their opposites" to Mr. Shaw's interesting calls. This is 
a publication many will want to add to their recreation 
libraries. It will help one in planning evenings of fun and 
entertainment. 

Know Your Community Its Provision for 
Health, Education, Safety, Welfare. 

By Joanna C. Colcord. Russell Sage Foundation, 
New York. $.85. 

The expert "surveyor" of community life is warned by 
the author that this book is not meant for him. Rather 
it is designed to help local persons and organizations to 
become familiar with the health, safety, education and 
welfare of their communities. How and where to find the 
information desired, how to record it for most effective 
use, how to interpret the facts, and how 'best to prepare 
the material for public consumption are major phases of 
treatment. 

Chapter XII deals with recreation unorganized, pub- 
lic and private, commercial, and the planning of the com- 
munity program. Other chapters of interest to recreation 
workers will guide the student to information regarding 
Foreign Born and Racial Groups, Clubs and Associations, 
Agencies for Community Planning, etc. The book, a sub- 
stantial volume of 250 pages, will be an excellent guide 
to persons in the general social work field. 

Silk Screen Stencil Craft as a Hobby. 

By J. I. Biegeleisen. Harper and Bros., New York. 

$2.00. 

A book that introduces one to a fascinating hobby 
through which a variety of colorful designs can be trans- 
ferred in an interesting way onto paper, wood, textile, 
glass, etc. In the process, a stencil of a decorative or 
pictorial design is put on a silk or organdy "screen" that 
is stretched over a wooden frame. Colors are forced 
through the stencil onto the printing surface, thus giving 
a facsimile of the original design. Suggestions have 
been included for decorating such articles as lamp shades, 
posters, greeting cards, handkerchiefs, scrap books, favors. 
It is a practical handbook written in simple, non-technical 
terms for the beginner. Instructions are specific and 
illustrated with numerous diagrams and photographs. A 
printing unit consists of the screen, a flat printing base, 
and a squeege, which is a long narrow strip of sub- 
stantial rubber belting sandwiched between two pieces of 
wood. The investment in permanent equipment amounts 
to less than five dollars. 

Dances of Our Pioneers. 

Collected by Grace L. Ryan. A. S. Barnes and Com- 
pany, New York. $2.00. 

With the return of the country dance have come a 
number of practical books to aid the social recreation 
leader in developing the art of old-time dancing. Miss 
Ryan, in her version, has traced many of the pioneer 
dances which are still found in the rural sections of our 
country and has recorded them so that many people can 
enjoy them. Directions are given with illustrations for 
a number of quadrilles or square dances, for contra 
dances, circle and couple dances. Music for the various 
dances is reproduced. 

Fundamentals of Leathercraft. 

By Ross C. Cramlet- Bruce Publishing Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin. $1.00. 

The main purpose of the book as outlined in the 
preface is "to give fundamental information and instruc- 
tion to the beginner in leatherwork, placing emphasis 



upon the types of materials to be selected for different 
articles and the simple tool processes necessary to make 
things desired." This purpose has been fulfilled. Mr, 
Cramlet tells very simply exactly what to do and how 
to do it. Every step in the leatherworking process is sc 
clearly described and illustrated with clear-cut diagrams 
and pictures that the beginner would have little, if any, 
difficulty in following them. There are complete instruc- 
tions for the making of eleven useful leather articles 
including book marks, key cases, coin purses, comb case, 
belts, book cover, and others. This is a publication thai 
should be helpful to both the beginner and the ex- 
perienced craftsman. 

Schools in Small Communities. 

Seventeenth Yearbooks American Association of 
School Administrators, 1201 Sixteenth Street, North- 
west, Washington, D. C. $2.00. 

The Seventeenth Yearbook of the American Associa- 
tion of School Administrators of the National Education 
Association is devoted to the problems of schools in 
small communities. The book is the work of a special 
committee of which Hobart M. Corning, Superintendent 
of Schools, Colorado Springs, Colorado, was chairman 
Practical treatment is given such problems as guidance, 
curriculum, public relations, schoolhouse planning, 
budgeting, finance, and leadership. 



Officers and Directors of the National 
Recreation Association 

OFFICERS 

JOHN H. FINLEY, President 
JOHN G. WINANT, First Vice-President 
ROBERT GARRETT, Second Vice-President 
MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS, Third Vice-President 
GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, Treasurer 
HOWARD S. BRAUCIIER, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

F. W. H. ADAMS, New York, N. Y. 

F. GREGG BEMIS, Boston, Mass. 

MRS. EDWARD W. BIDDLE, Carlisle, Pa. 

MRS. ROBERT WOODS BLISS, Washington, D. C. 

MRS. WILLIAM BUTTERWORTH, Moline, 111. 

HENRY L. CORBETT. Portland, Ore. 

MRS. ARTHUR G. CI'MMER, Jacksonville, Fla. 

F. TRUBEE DAVISON, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 

HARRY P. DAVISON, New York, N. Y. 

JOHN H. FINLEY, New York, N. Y. 

ROBERT GARRETT, Baltimore, Md. 

AUSTIN E. GRIFFITHS, Seattle, Wash. 

MRS. NORMAN HARROWER, Fitchburg, Mass. 

MRS. MELVILLE IT. HASKELI.. Tucson, Ariz. 

MRS. CHARLES V. HICKOX, Michiga.n City, Ind. 

MRS. MINA M. EDISON HUGHES, West Orange, N. J. 

MRS. JOHN D. JAMESON, Sugar Hill, N. H. 

GUSTAVUS T. KIRBY, New York, N. Y. 

H. McK. LANDON, Indianapolis, Ind. 

MRS. CHARLES D. LANIER, Greenwich, Conn. 

ROBERT LASSITER, Charlotte, N. C. 

SUSAN M. LEE, Boston, Mass. 

J. TT. McCuRDY, Springfie'd, Mass. 

OTTO T. MALLERY, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WALTER A. MAY, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

CARL E. MILLIKEN, Augusta, Me. 

MRS. OGDEN L. MILLS, Woodbury, N. Y. 

T. SUFFERN TAILER, Locust Valley, L. I., N. Y. 

MRS. JAMES W. WADSWORTH, Washington, D. C. 

.1. C. WALSH, New York, N. Y. 

FREDERICK M. WARBURG, New York, N. Y. 

JOHN G. WINANT, Concord, N. H. 

STANLEY WOODWARD, Washington, D. C. 



Where Shall the Administration of a 
Recreation System Be Placed? 

A REGENT report of the Educational Policies Commission of the National Education As- 
sociation proposes : "That communities supporting several unrelated recreation agencies 
establish a recreation commission in order to promote coordination of programs and use of 
facilities." 

The Educational Policies Commission "foresees the ultimate unification of all school, li- 
brary and recreation systems in communities or areas of appropriate size under the leadership 
of a public education authority." 

The leaders in the National Recreation Association very much appreciate the fine spirit 
in which the whole problem of recreation administration is faced in the National Education As- 
sociation report. There has been increasing evidence of more satisfactory progress in recrea- 
tion development under the recreation commission. The Association has not itself discovered 
evidence which would point to an ultimate consolidation of school, library and recreation sys- 
tems. Always the Association has urged the widest possible use of school grounds and school 
buildings for community recreation purposes, but it has also urged the widest possible use of 
park and other city property. It is essential to think in terms of the needs of the men, women 
and children of our communities and of what will in the long run, under the human limitations 
which prevail in our thinking, mean most for our communities. 

Already our school systems have attained such tremendous size that a very considerable 
proportion of the money raised in the local community through taxation is turned over to the 
public school system. There is serious question whether the additional funds necessary to meet 
recreation needs would ever be made available adequately and continuously under the school 
board or under an educational authority. There can be no satisfactory unification of recreation 
administration in a locality except as thought is given to the park system as well as to the school 
system. Many park leaders are talking about consolidation of recreation interests and are urg- 
ing that what is now being done in recreation under school systems and recreation commissions 
and park boards be consolidated under the park board. For many years park boards have, in a 
number of cities, been administering public recreation, even caring for recreation activities on 
school property. 

The present financial value of the properties given over to public recreation uses, aside 
from the school systems, in the cities, counties, state, and nation is very great. The management 
of the recreation properties and the recreation systems is in itself a very big task and one that is 
rapidly growing. To give recreation properties as well as school properties, let alone library 
properties, to an educational authority would mean soon if not now practically doubling the 
property to be administered by educational authorities, would mean that a very high per cent 
if the tax rate was being turned over to a single administrative unit, that a considerable part of 
.he city administration was being turned over to one authority. 

Advocacy of a public recreation commission is, an increasing number of recreation leaders 
igree, a step in the right direction, though the National Recreation Association itself is waiting 
intil certain studies have been completed before making a final declaration. But the leaders in 
he Association do not at present have evidence which would point the country over to the ulti- 
nate unification of the recreation system with the public school system. 

Recreation is a part of religion, of education, of health, of industry and business, of 
vork. There is evidence, however, that recreation, abundant living in the larger sense, has be- 
:ome and ought to be a great, outstanding, major interest, side by side with religion, education, 
msiness, and labor. Religion, like recreation, should permeate all of life. Recreation cannot 
>ermanently be made a subdivision of any one part of life. 

HOWARD BRAUCHER 

i 

MJGUST, 1 939 

257 



August 




Photo furnished by M. Bonlonnois, Sitrcsnes, France. Used by courtesy of Health 
Section Secretariat, World Federation of Education Associations 



258 



The Trek Back to Che-Pe-Ko-Ke 



THE SESQUICENTENNIAL cre- 
ated by Congress to com- 
memorate the passing of the 
Ordinance of 1787 and the es- 
t