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From the collection of the 


X Z 

elinger h 
v JLlibrary 

t) ti C 

San Francisco, California 




It's New! 

It's Fun! 

It's Full of Good Ideas! 

Same size 12 weekly issues 

Same time Beginning 

April 25, 1952 

Same Price $ 1.50 


For Every Playground For Every Playground Leader 

USEFUL? Ask the subscribers! 
Ask these communities bon nnttiy subscriptions they used. . . 

Auburn. Me. 
Pal* Alto. C.I. 

( .trrn. K h. ( onn. 

R.hw.. \ I 12 ....I. 

f*o. N I 
Ai*w. S -\ 

I ,mlrn N I 13 

Jackson, Mich. 14 

Davenport, Iowa and Salina, Kansas 15 

Evanston, III. 18 

Salisbury, N.C. and Jackson, Miss 20 

( I ..nil >t It-. N.C. 30 



quickly and effectively 

wiffc Gulf Sani-Soil-Set 

GULF SANI-SOIL-SET is the practical answer to 
your dust annoyance problems. Here are a few of 
the many good reasons why it will pay you to in- 
vestigate this efficient dust-control medium now: 

HIGHLY EFFECTIVE-Gulf Sani-Soil-Set eliminates dust 
annoyance completely immediately after application. 
No long waiting periods are necessary before the ground 
is ready for use. The dust allaying effect is accomplished 
by the action of the compound in adhering to and weigh- 
ing down dust particles. 

LONG LASTING Because of its extremely low volatility 
and insolubility in water, Gulf Sani-Soil-Set remains 
effective for long periods. One application per season or 
year is usually sufficient. 

Gulf Oil Corporation Gulf Refining Company 


Sales Offices - Warehouses 
Located in principal cities 

and towns throughout 
Gulf's marketing territory 

APRIL 1952 

EASILY APPLIED-Gulf Sani-Soil-Set is free-flowing, 
easy and pleasant to use. It can be applied by hand- 
sprinkling or by sprinkling truck, and spreads quickly. 

prevents the growth of grass on areas treated, and mini- 
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Write, wire or phone your nearest Gulf office 
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have not yet received a copy of the booklet which 
gives further information on this quality Gulf 
product, mail the coupon below. 

Gulf Oil Corporation Gulf Refining Company R 

719 Gulf Building, Pittsburgh 30. Pa. 

Please send me. without obligation, a copy of the booklet, "Gulf 
Sani-Soil-Set the modern, proven agent for controlling dust." 



Time is FLYING . . . 

Soon you will start planning 

your summer vacation, and if 

you are looking for new ideas, 


If you want to try something 

"different" . . . 




This special publication, planned to supplement our usual ten issues of RECREATION, will 
tell you, your family and your friends how you may have BETTER summer vacations, for LESS 
MONEY at home, in the community and nearby recreation areas, and in the state and na- 
tional parks throughout this country. Here is a chance to become familiar with exciting and in- 
teresting information on the subject. Do you know, for instance, that there is an organization 
which will give you information on farm vacations; that pack trips in the Eastern mountains 
can be arranged for you; what "treats" to plan if you stay at home; what to take on a camp- 
ing trip; how to keep your children amused on a long drive? Are you an expert car packer? 
Would you like to know about dude ranch visits, wilderness trail rides, or special events in 
different parts of the country? Would you like your trip to be an adventure in leai ning? 

SPRING 1952 mil with a new mogai>ne >wbcripfion or a renewal $.5O per Copy 

U. S. Fofetl Service 

FREE offer with new subscription or renew- 
al of a subscription to RECREATION mag- 
azine will be available for a limited period 
of time only so ORDER NOW. Magazine 
$3.00-One Year; $5.50-Two Years; $.35 
per copy. 

315 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, N.Y. 


#&***********#**#***#*******#* *************** 

Because of narrow back margins this volume 
has been sewed to cords No covers or 
advertising can be removed except double page 
cCdvr? -iisements when this type of sewing is used. 


APRIL, 1952 



Business Manager, ROSE JAY SCHWARTZ 


Recreation Administration, GEOKGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 

Vol. XLV1 

Price 35 Cents 

No. 1 

On the Cover 

Two youngsters leaping through the spring sunshine 
two boys expressing their joy of life this is April, 
and children, anywhere. This happy spirit of fun 
symbolizes playground aims of recreation leaders. 

Next Month 

Photo Credits 


General Features 

What Community Recreation Programs Can Do for 

Service Women ( Editorial) , 

Oveta Gulp Hobby 5 

Declaration of Brothers, Otto T. Mallery 11 

Congress Committees 32 

Hobby Show at Boeing, Arthur G. Scott 33 

Water, Seattle's Staff of Life. Lou Evans 34 

Hot Dog. This is it! Bernard Ballantine 55 


Blacktop for Apparatus Areas? 19 

Please, Mister, May I Have a Ball? Ernest B. Ehrke 20 

Filing Equipment for Playgrounds 22 

In May, RECREATION matches the season, with article^ , , , , , ,-, i /-. 

like Boy and Girl Anglers, It's Garden Time ano^\. New Ideas for Playground Equipment, A. J. Gatawakas 38 

The Air Force Takes to the Farm. Other subjects Training Playground Leaders, W. C. Sutherland 42 

range from swimming pool anil golf course operation ^v c r> *n 

ttough painting as a hobby to another good article \Summer Recreation 

golden agers. Look for The Value of Play in Summer Items 50 

Children's Homes by Helen Dauncey and the second c ^L- IVT m j u i D j i i r 

article of the series on photography. Something New in Playgrounds, Helena Braddock Lamp 53 

A Safe Playground for Every Child, William F. Keller 58 

Page 5, Houston Post; 13, Los Angeles City Recrea- Program 

lion and Park Department; 14, 1950 Graflex Photo 

Contest; 15. Department of Recreation, Oak Ridge, A Look at Our Playgrounds 

I Vnne.s,,- ami .1. K Westcott; 16, Herald and Re- Weave in Some Singing, Arthur Todd . 17 

anil Playground and Recreation Hoard, Decatur. 

Illinois: 21. 22, Los Angeles City Department of Rec- A Summer Playground Production, John V. Smith 

reation and Parks; 24, Carl Gustafson, Vancouver. and Minna B. Reichelt 23 

Washington; 25 Park and Recreation Department. We H d Baseball League, Robert W. Ruhe 25 

t.naneston. \\esl Virginia: 26. Aslieville Department 

ol Ill-creation, courtesy of North Carolina Recreation Crafts in the Recreation Program, Viva Whitney 26 

Society. Incorporated; 29 I'la^ionnd and Rec,,-:,- Young Anglers, Frank W. Bramhall . 29 
linn Board, Decatur. Illinois; 28, Manitowoc. Wiscon- 
sin Recreation Department: 29. Miller-Martin Siudio, Special Events Improved, Doreen 0. Kirkland 30 

Torringlon. Connecticut; 31. Metropolitan Life Insur- The photographic Group, Irma Weber .. 36 

ance l.unipany; .vi. Hoeing Airplane Company; 40, . D r 

Recreation Commission. Long Head,. California: .">8, Lets Have More Play on Playgrounds, 

Recreation Commission, Long Beach, California. Helen M. Dauncey 40 

How To Do It! Make Sandals for Beach and 

RECREATION is published monthly except July Swimming Pool, Frank A. Staples 56 

and August by the National Recreation Association, 
a sriviie organization supported by voluntary con- 
tributions, at 315 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, Regular Features 
New York; is on file in public libraries and is 

indexed in the Readers' Guide. Subscriptions $3.00 I , 1 1,., ^ 7 
a year. Canadian agency, G. H. Welch Company, 

Ltd., 1149 King Street West, Toronto 1, Ontario; Frlitnrinllv Sripakinp 
Canadian subscription rate $3.85. Re-entered as 

,',;. i <'', '"-"t-r April 25 1950, at the Post Things You Should Know 10 

Office in New York, New York, under Act of 

March 3. 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special Sntro-pstinn Rnv ^Q 

rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act 

of October 3, 1917, authorized May 1, 1924. Personnel 

rf^Ws3?j8L^WTSta^ Services of the National Recreation Association, 

Spun- Representatives: H. Thayer Heaton, 415 W. C. Sutherland . 44 

Lexington Avenue, New York 17, New York; n r T-> /- i T 

Mark Minahan, 168 North Michigan Avenue, Recipes lor r un Games and Parties 51 

Chicago, Illinois; Keith H. Evans, 3757 Wilshire r n,r i IVT 

Boulevard, Los Angeles 5, California. Recreation Market INeWS 60 

Natioua, &S' AToeiaX'tcorporated =1 fi ' > ? PI B ks Received ..62 

rrinied in the U.S.A. 3 iigii 2 - 5 v J New_ Publications 64 

* Trade mark registered in the U. S. Pl^lKOffice. , Pf i f f f. ol i L\-Kia V 11 j i /^ 

*" " " "V I ' ReeiJeStiBft Leadership Courses Inside Back Cover 

Mac IVI.i- ray Colleg-e 

* i. O 

APRIL 1952 


A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 
JOSEPH I'lII M>I KGAST, Executive Director 


Ono T. MALI tar Chairman of the Board 

PAUL Mooar. Jt First Vice-President 

Mtt. OCOCM L. MILM Second Vicc-Prnidcnt 

SUSAN M. LIE. .Third Vice-Preiident and Secretary of the Board 

AMIAN M. MASIU Treasurer 

GUITAVL-S T. KtRBT Treaiurer Emeritui 

jourtt PKKKDtacAtT Secretary 


f. W. H. AOAWS New York, N. Y. 

. BIMII Boston, Miss. 

Ma . RoaisT Vooos Butt Vathiagton, D. C. 

Mt . AKTHI a G. CLUMII Jacktonville. Fla. 

Vt tuu H. DAVIS New York, N. Y. 

HA T P. DAT ISO K Ntw York. N. Y. 

GA LOU> OOMMBLLST Chicago, 111. 

Ma . PAUL GAIIACHIB Omaha. Ncbr. 

Roaiar GAUITT Baltimore, Md. 

ALSTIN E. Gairmm Seattle. Vh. 

Mi t NCMMAM Haaaovta Fitchburg, Mail. 

Mat. CHAaitt V. HICAOI Michigan City. Ind, 

Mm, JOHN D. JAMISON Bcllpon. N. Y. 

SUSAN M. LK New York, N. Y. 

OTTO T. MAI irar Philadelphia, Pa. 

CABL F. MlLLlKEN Augutla, Me. 

MRS. OCDZN L. Mm J Voodbury , N. Y. 

PAUL Mooat. Ja Jersey City, N. J. 

JoitrH PaCNDEaCAST New York, N. Y 

Mas. Slcwt'ND STUN Sao Francitco, Calif. 

GaANT TmwoKTH Noroton. Conn. 

Mai. WILLIAM VAN ALIN Philadelphia. Pa. 

J. C. WALSH Yonker.. N. Y. 


t*e*ulive Dtrevtor'i Ofice 

E. THOUAS E. Rivtas 


Ai raco H. '* 


GaariUDC BoacMAio 

R*if*tion Mataiint 


Social Public a tiom 


PrvaBl Service 

Viti ar> C. StrTHiaiAMO Airaio B. jlNttM 


Research Department 


Work with Volunteers 


Field Department 


GroacE T. ADAM* HELENA G. Horr 



.\rtti **J ftcilititt PUmiimi **4 Sariryi 



fint f. B-f*/r Mrmurul 
SffTtttry for Women imJ Girli 


Jxitrul Rfcrrstio* 

C. E. BaivtR 

Hfcrfttiom Lt*4evtki} Trtimimf COMTIM 



New E.|UJ Diairict 
R- HAiNtvoeiH . . BotroM, MAIS. 
fewnt a44r*u . . . New York) 

Middle Atlantic I>,.ir .. 

H V. FA< 1 1 f jit Orange. N. J. 

A Nistm New York. N. Y. 

Cfwal Leke D.itrm 

)eiM J. Couau Toledo. On,o 

ROMRf L. HoaNtT Midiion. T.I, 

DISIUK T UI:IKI:>I \ i \n\i- 

Southern District 

MISI MARION Pauct Aleiandria, Va. 

R*i m VAN hi HT Clear witer. Hi 

VIU.IAM M. HAT Nathvillt. Tnn. 

Midw.n District 

AITHLR Tooo Kansas City. Mo, 

HAROLD LATtiaor Denver, Colo. 

Southwest District 
HAHOI n VAN AasDAia Dallas, TCI. 

Paciic Northwest District 

VIIIAKD H. SHI MAUD Seattle, Wash. 

Pacific District 
I.TNM S. ROONRT Los Angelei, C *l.l 

Affiliate Membership 

Aw,l,ic wmberihip in the National 
Recreatiee) Aaaociettoo. it ofs to all non- 
f4t feivate a*d pmblic orgsnualiosis 
when fwactseej i* whoJIf or prinstnl? the 
Meatiosi oe oroawMio* of mreatton ttrr* 
KOS or which incloeW recrtatiosi ai a* ins- 
oorsoat oert mf their total oewgras* and 
hsisi CMoirxtoei U the work of the **o- 
cittHMi wwottt. In the ofintoo of the MO- 
<i*te'i IWaed ol Directors, teriher the 
ewalf el the MJowel rocreacton Movtusent, 

Active Associate Membership 

Active associate membership in the 
National Rrcrcxton Association is open to 
all individuals who are actively engaged 
on a full-time or part-time employed bam 
or a* volunteers in nonproAt private or 
publ ic r*c r r a i inn org in 1 1 a t ion and whose 
cooperation in the work ol the association 
would, in the opinion of the associstion'i 
Ward ol Directors, further the ends of the 
national recreation movement 


The continuation of the work of the 
National Recreation Association tr 
to rear is made possible by the iplrnJid 
cooperation of several hundred vol untwr 
sponsors throughout the country, and the 
generous contributions of thouund< 
porters of this movement to bring health, 
happiness and creative living to the boy* 
and girls and the men snd women f 
America. II you would like to join in the 
lupport of this movement, you msy send 
your contribution direct to the association. 

The National Recreation Axorialion it nation- 
wide, nonprofit, nonpoliliral tnd nonvcltriin civic 
oriimialion. ril.!,.hr.| , n 1906 mil *upported by 
voluntary roninl.uiionv and dedicated to the MTV- 
ice ol all recreation necativea, leaden and agen- 

further Information regarding the auocialion'i xrn-irri and mtmbrnhip. pirate vritr ti, thr 
IHrertor. \aiional Recreation Auocialion. 315 fourth Avenue. Netr ) -r*, 10. \ew York. 

ciw. public and private, to the rnd that every child 
in America *hall have a place to play in nafety anil 
that every perton in America, young and old, nhall 
have an opportunity for ih> l.r-i and nnt Mtisfy- 
ing ue of Hi rxpandiiifi leisure time. 

Ill t Kl \TION 

What Community Recreation Programs 
Can Do 

A Guest Editorial 

by Oveta Gulp Hobby 

idea of women in uniform was so 
new and to some still so shocking 
that the problem of recreation was 
only a part of a greater problem. 

In the early stages, therefore, the 
effort to provide recreation for the 
women was sometimes misguided, 
sometimes well intentioned, occasional- 
ly ludicrous. 

The WAG remembers with some 
amusement in its official history the 
post commander who was so startled to 
receive a shipment of WAGS that he set 
up what looked to be emergency rules 
for them: they were to use the post 
exchange and the post movie on Tues- 
day and Thursdays, and with careful 
segregation the soldiers to use them 
on Wednesdays and Fridays. 

As the army discovered that WAGS 
were simply people the same kinds of 
women they had known in civilian life 
there was a swing to acceptance of 
women in uniform as a normal thing. 

But this, in turn, resulted in another 
misconception: that women in uniform 
are just like men in uniform, and can, 
therefore, be given the same enter- 
tainment and recreation. 

Looking back on papers of World 
War II, I find a notation: "One of the 
main distinctions between successful 
leadership of women and similar 
leadership of men is that women need 
to remain individuals to such an extent 
that group activity, outside of office 
hours, can very easily be overdone with 

Now, with women a permanent part 

MRS. HOBBY, formerly director of the 
If omen's Army Corps, is now executive 
vice-president of The Houston Post. 

APRIL 1952 

of the armed forces, the time has come 
to analyze their military situation, to 
see their needs, and to plan a balanced 
recreation program and facility for 

Because women are new to the 
services, the average military post to 
which a WAG, WAF, Wave or Wom- 
en Marines' Unit is assigned does not 
have as complete a recreational facility 
for women as for men. 

Though the station may try to in- 
clude women in its baseball, football, 
and other athletic programs, these at- 
tract only the younger women. Most 
stations share their swimming pools 
and bowling alleys if they have them 
with women, but as women are only 
a small minority, only a few hours a 
month can fairly be alloted to them. 

Even for officers, the usual officers' 
athletic club, such as the one in the 
Pentagon, finds that men and women 
cannot use the facilities at the same 
time, and that the number of women 
who would attend is not consistent 
enough to justify giving them set hours 

If the armed forces cannot make 
special provisions for the women, it 
may fall to the community to help 
make community facilities available to 
the service women- golf, tennis, horse- 
back riding, swimming, hiking and 
other sports. Because enlisted women 
may lack the funds to take advantage 
of local clubs, or may lack transporta- 
tion, the community help may be tre- 
mendously important. 

The community has much to offer 
the service woman which the defense 
department either cannot or has not 

While the armed forces have made 
all their special study courses by cor- 
respondence and off-duty training 
available to women, the majority of 
these courses are more apt to appeal 
to men only being on such subjects 
as electrical engineering, welding and 
other trades and occupations. 

This lack could be met by the com- 
munity, by arranging for service wom- 
en to attend its classes in sewing, 
cooking, languages, as well as arts and 
social sciences. Though the armed 
forces encourages company parties, 
skits and "blackouts," again the ma- 
terial is tailored for the all-male cast. 

The service woman would enjoy 
being included in community theatri- 
cals, and in dance, music and drama 

Despite the magnificent job done by 
the national service agencies during 
World War II, both here and overseas, 
not all of them are equipped to pro- 
vide for service women to the same 
degree they provide for men. Another 
factor has been that here and there, a 
local representative of the agency has 
not been indoctrinated to the needs of 
the service woman. 

Though the USO headquarters made 
vigorous efforts, some USO local units 
in World War II did not allow service 
women to attend the dances and other 
events planned for servicemen. 

In Italy, England and Australia, 
some Red Cross field workers turned 
a deaf ear to headquarters' ruling that 
they should provide equally for service 
women. And not until the end of the 
war were the rest camps made availa- 
ble to women. 

In the actual planning of military 

installations, the question of recrea- 
tion fur service women de-erve- -pe- 
rial -tudv and especially adapted ar- 
rangements for them. 

\\ here the average barracks for men 
needs only one day room, the women's 
unit- need tun types, one for girl- re- 
ceiving date-, anil the other for those 
M|HI urr not dating and need a place 
t<> lounge and write letters, in pajamas 
if lhc\ like. 

The fir-I -hould have a record plavei 
or juke box, and if possible a snack 
bar. The second should have com- 
fortalile furniture of a home-like quali- 

One advisor to the air force noted 
that attractively furnished dav rooms 
"go far toward offsetting the harmful 
effect of regimentation on women." 1. 1. 
( ioloiirl Margaret Craighill. a doctor 
employed l>\ tin- >ur<:con (iencral (lur- 
ing the war as consultant on women's 
health and welfare, wrote that " Ml 
women [H-r-ontiel nee<l a day room in 
which they can lounge informallv t- 
jfether, as well as a recreation or re- 
i-eption room in which they can enter- 

tain men. 

"If adequate facilities are not availa- 
ble, the incidence of pregnancy and 
venom] disease i- likely to increase." 

The Mriti.h women's services felt 
the same need, saving "The gregarious 
are well cared for \<\ wireless, games, 
concerts and dances, hut more quiet 
loom- are needed for women who wish 
to relax." 

This need of women for reasserting 
their individuality is felt in the mat- 
ter of social entertainment as well as 
in facilities. 

In WAC units all over the world, 
it was found that the women very soon 
lired of large parties or mass enter- 
tainment, and would not willingly go 
to such entertainment whether it was 
arranged on the post or off. 

In-lead. thev preferred social gather- 
ings in small groups and where indi- 
vidual choice played a part. A dinner 
in a private home, or individual in 
v itations to social events or concerts 
or plays, meant more to them than 
unit affairs to which they were taken 
in mass groups. 

No one can fail to reali/e llie deep 
need for good recreation services for 
women in uniform. Because their work 
is sedentary, because thcv have little 
outdoor training on their schedule. 
and because they do not have the in- 
centive of keeping fit for combat. the\ 
can easily overlook their own need for 

In thi.- strange period of wailing. 
none of the armed forces has e]uite the 
\i\id incentive and stimulus which 
wartime j;i\e> to keep their morale 

This means to me that service wom- 
en today need communitv help 
coinmiiiiilv friendship more than thev 
ever needed it before VJ Dav. 

Women of all kinds, mam of them 
niilv eighteen, far awav from home. 
detached from all the hometown pat- 
terns, set in a mililaiv installation 
which seem- remote from everything 
thev have known, need healthful, in- 
telligent cordial recreational help from 
lii'th the armed forces and from the 
individual communities a- thev have 
never needed them before. 


Showt mony eoy to moke camp project* 
ready lo put together, tuch at beautiful 
1 bertt, bag*, punei. cigarette cam and 
hundred of other item. 


Genuine leather with compoii 
lion lolet All tiiet lor all ogei 
Ideal lor the beach, in the 
wood*, along pathi and lor 

Per Pair - 3.9J 
(J33J in 12 pair Ian) 

Illuitrain ill type* erf mofcyjni end leather Item* of tn- 




223 W J.tkion II. d Chl<oe , III. 

Veer nuh C Free IlluMratorl 





Hi. in viin\ 






Hoard Members 


You will be interested to know that 
a copy of RECREATION magazine is 
placed on the magazine stand in the 
lobby of the General Tire and Rubber 
Company each month. 

Mr. Charles Burke, Chairman of the 
Akron Park and Recreation Board, is 
assistant to the president at General 
Tire and Rubber Company. Each 
month, after Mr. Burke has completed 
the reading of his copy, he gives it to 
the receptionist in the lobby, who 
places it on the magazine stand. This 
suggestion might prove of some value 
for other board members who have 
business connections. 

A. E. CENTER, Superintendent of 

Recreation, Akron, Ohio. 


We saw an article, "Clowns Un- 
limited," in the January 1952 issue of 
RECREATION magazine. Enclosed is our 
check to cover cost and mailing. Please 
send a copy to our address. 

"K.VKV, Chief Clown, Phoenix, /// . 

Playground Accidents 


In reference to the article by Dr. 
Hollis Fait, "The Picture Isn't Com- 
plete," appearing in the February, 
1952, issue of RECREATION, I was much 
interested in the suggestion made 
therein that studies of accidents be 
made by recreation people as a con- 
tribution to the field of recreation. 

To those who might be interested. I 
wish to point out that such a study 
was published in the RECREATION 
magazine in the April issue of 1938, 
or thereabouts, entitled "A Study of 
Playground Accidents in Pittsburgh," 
of which I was the author. It was and 
still is, as far as I know, the only study 

of playground accidents made in the 

past twenty-five years. 

MICHAEL E. WARGO, Director of 
Recreation, Clairton, Pennsylvania. 

Menial Health 


In the January issue of RECREATION 
there was a wonderful article by Dr. 
George E. Gardner, "Recreation's Part 
in Mental Health." I have been work- 
ing on a study similar to his theories 
for the past seven years, "Introducing 
Recreation as a Therapeutic Instru- 
ment in Child Care Institutions," which 
is almost finished. 

I am very happy to see that there 
are psychiatrists and other profes- 
sionals who are recognizing the real 
powers of recreation in relation to the 
child's mental and social growth. 

CHARLES BAKER, Athletic Director, 

Pleasantville Cottage School, Pleas- 

antville, New York. 

From 4'anada 


We were greatly intrigued with the 
guest editorial by Kenneth W. Kindel- 
sperger, "The Relationship of Recrea- 
tion, Physical Education and Group 
Work." This editorial was very timely 
and will be of great assistance to the 
combined physical education, recrea- 
tion and group work organizations in 
the Montreal area. . . 

We are getting into our stride, 
somewhat slowly perhaps, in our or- 
ganization for civil defense. We note in 
RECREATION magazine that the Na- 
tional Recreation Association will sup- 
ply twenty-five copies of the booklet 
entitled "Emergency Recreation 
Services in Civil Defense." This, also, 
will be of great help to us. . 
WILLIAM BOWIE, Executive Director, 
The Man/real Parks and Play- 
grounds Association, Incorporated.- 

group work program. Skills and experience 
necessary. State details. 


1391 Lexington Avc., N.Y.C. 

Phone-ATwater 9-0568 



of the 

33rd National Recreation Congress 
Price $2.25 

315 Fourth Avenue New York 10, N.Y. 

tennis, badmin- 
ton, squash and 
paddle tennis. 

Faster play...longer life. \ 

For years DAYTON Steel Rac- 
quets have been the favorite of 
professionals and beginners 
alike. Thousands are now play- 
ing an improved game with 
more speed and accuracy than 
ever before. 

Day tons are practically inde- 
structible ideal for 
schools and play- 
grounds. Steel strings 
and tubular steel 
frames are not af- 
fected by climatic 
changes. No covers or 
presses are needed to 
protect them. They won't 
Warp, splinter, rot or sag. 

It will pay you to investigate 
now. See them at your local 
dealer's or write direct to factory 
for more information. 


742 Albright St. Arcanum. Ohio 


Rules and 
court layouts 
for badminton 
or tennis are 
yours for the 

APRIL 1952 



Empluuii on Creative Leadership 

Bachelor'! degree and experience, 

as Recreation-Group-Work-Teaching. 

\\rite lo 

1,00 lr,,n;l.,li X 

1 Services, 

New York 22, N.Y. 

:nmn*U5 & for ALL 

N* Rl ; i i 

I New, true-to-life 


I for teen-age boys, girls 
i _ 

i \MCHKI \H\rMl UK -IUUI! 

:., n aK'-r pathway and guide to 
inii.|>"ii ,i.|i. Mm.-, my-l.-ry and fun . . . 
in two i ni'l -i\ -Imrl -lorn-- 

that pp. r 22 -Inn "hour-" fur 

Trading lo young p<-opl. anywhere. Maine 
fori-t- anil tin' <tnili.ui Ni.rllnvoo.l- pro 
it'll- lli- Minn' f"r tlt<'- absorbing lair-, nn real-life camp adventure* of 
\nung people. 

by Allan A. Macfarlan 

' \\ll'l IKK AD- 

\r\llltf -|iililh> in iltrin, your 

younglrr will probably clamor fur murr 

I rvrry availahlr >i|i|Htrtnnity," tayt I'|..,t\. i-ililur atnl |iul>li-.|i 

ifiinf \fafatinr. Mi. M.II farlan 

i ihr .niilinf ill "< Jmipfirr and GHIIH il 

K-rni" and i- .1 irn -ml., r of lit.- 

...... %riirn Wn and Natl A.nln 

hoi $2.9$ 


291 Iroodwoy. N.w York 7, N. Y. 

Send m. cop,., of CAMPFIRE 

ADVENTURE STORIES ol $7 95 each. 

* H| 

D Payment hfwith 

O NX M pottog. eilra) 

Dear Recreation Reader: 

I 01 the ronvt'nirnce of you who, by 
sfiiding us information, articles and 
photographs, help to make RECREA- 
TION a magazine which can be of 
value to recreation workers and to 
people everywhere, who are interested 
in recreation, we are publishing the 
deadline dates for all i>-m-- still to 
be published in 1952. Please consult 
this schedule carefully when consider- 
ing the submission of material for 

Mthnii^h issues are regularly made 
up three months in mliance of publi- 
iniiiin i/iiif. the September, October 
and November issues must be made up 
during the spring and early summer in 
order to make possible a summer va- 
cation schedule for our office staff. 
/"">:' Deadline 1952 Istue 10 June 

May 7 September 

June 7 October 

July 7 November 

~. -pit -mluT 8 December 

Please note that Halloween articles 
-hmild be in our hands this spring, 
and that Christmas material should 
reach us not later than the eighth of 

We are particularly interested in 
n-ii-iving. right now, articles and in- 
formution on: 

1. >|prl-. iniliMir- IT out .ntuili'--. lead- 
rrhi|>. in-lfii. lion, organization, i.n ililn -. 
i-i|ni|iiin-iit ninii-i -port- particularly. 

\.!i\ilir. for cliurrh croup-, chili 

i and painting in lit.- r. . i. .irmn pro 

1 ll.ll.l.l. - < III. H to . I" .III 

t. -allott in rollfge*. 
6. V.i' 

' r.tfl- pros- 

R. Rrrrraiion program* or arluiin- nil 
li/iri)! nr i rn .nr.i^iii.- lit.- Trading of book*. 
'i \\ nil- i liiktiiti or 1-inni 

\\nii n- the sort of thing that 
M.II. yourself, would fiml helpful in 
Ihr iiiagn/ini-. 

And. please don't forget our l<-t 
i. i- t.. tin- i-ilitor page. 

Kitex ^v 


Tough Job Well Done 

The following editorial, quoted from 
The Garden City Daily Telegram, Gar- 
den City, Kansas, points up some of 
the qualities and ways of work which 
go into the making of the effective rec- 
reation director: 

"Public servants suffer through in- 
difference to their efforts, until thr\ 
get off base in the opinion of one 
or a group of voters and taxpayers. 
Then they hear about it! 

"That's why, today, The Telegram 
wants to point to the very good work 
being done by one new division of 
our city government the city recre- 
ation department. 

"City Recreation Director Herman 
Beringer has been doing a hangup job 
for the youth of the town ever sime 
he arrived two years ago. He started 
from scratch without a program, a 
building, or without even the full as- 
surance that the adults and the kids 
of tlie community realh wanted a full- 
wale recreational program. He liuill 
solidly and he put in more hours than 
most workers would care to count. 

"Arriving at a time when there was 
considerable coimiiiiiiiu contro\ci-\ 
about all the school and non-school 
demands being put upon the young- 
-Icr-' after-school hour-. In ' .ircfullv 
\\nrked out a program which didn't 
demand too much of any age group of 
\oungsters, but gave them all an equal 
opportunity to mak<- f;iir use of the 
.enter's facilities each week. 

"He has had his problems and he 
has worked them out. quietly and ef- 
fectiv.-U. He like- M.imgsters and will 
he tin- t'u-t ti> tell \ou that today's 
yeiicralioiis nf ki.l- are nothing for 
,in\ a. lull- to w..rr\ al.oul. thai tlic\'ll 
do nk.iv. He keep- 'hep' to all the 
neu ideas in hi party and entertain- 
ment program. He tee> that people 
know what is going on. espocialK the 
parents, and he like- to iiuite adult-. 
-.. they will understand better the 
. it\ - \iuith recreation program by 
seeing it in operation. He hasn't neg- 
I the adults themselves, cither. 

Ki i HI \ri<iN 

Some of his adult education classes 
have been standout successes. His club 
for old-timers has given the oldsters 
a lot of enjoyable hours together, 
something they need so much. He likes 

the local kids, the parents, and the 
program he is working with. 

"We think Garden City likes him, 
too. The Telegram wants to tell him 

Here's Help You Need 

for Successful Recreation 

Become a monthly reader of PARK MAINTENANCE. Its articles will give 
you expert aid for more efficient and economical operation of your fa- 
cilities. Each October you receive a complete Buyer's Guide, listing more 
than 500 sources of equipment and supplies. 

$3.00 Per Year 


P.O. BOX 409 




So easy to tetvut . . . So ea&y to 

"> l= ^ With these Square Dance Records with Progressive 

Oral Instructions and Calls by CD DUKLACHER. 

Here is the easy and economical way to meet the 
ever-growing demand for square dancing in your 
community ... the HONOR YOUR PARTNER 
series of square dance records. 

Each record in albums 1 to 4 starts with simpli- 
fied progressive oral instructions by Ed Durlacner 
instructions easily understood by dancers of all 
ages. Following a brief pause, giving the dancers 
time to square their sets, the music and calls begin. The TOP HANDS, directed 
by FRANK NOVAK, offer the best in scintillating and foot tapping square dance 
music. The calls are delivered by one of the nation's most outstanding square 
dance authorities, ED DURLACHER. 

The fifth album in the series contains music only, without calls or instructions 
"The Square Dance Caller's Delight". 


"The square dance album 'Honor Your Partner' is all that you claimed it to be we 
tried out the records on a group o] eighth grade students and they picked up the 
instructions without difficulty. In the space of thirty minutes, this group, which bad 
never square danced be/ore, were doing the figures in an expert fashion. The records 
were also a hit at the adult square dance which we held last night." 

Alfred Elliott 
Recreation Director 
Greenwood, Mississippi 

All records guaranteed 
against breakage/ 
in normal use. 


Learn more about the 


Write for a descriptive folder. 


DEPT. R-6 



if It's 



Gymnasium Equipment 

Telescopic Gym Seats 

Basketball Scoreboard* 

Basketball Backstops 

Steel Lockers, Lockerobes 
and Grade-Robes 

TVntte fr* 

3566 DE KALB ST. ST. LOUIS 18, MO. 

For 78 Yean 
The Standard Of Quality 

Easy-to-teach GAMES 
for boys and girls 
to play anywhere . . 


Here's a new, omnibus collection of 
popular, easy-to-teach group games and 
group entertainment for boys and girls, 
from age 7 through the teens. THE ROOK 
OF GAMES makes more fun instantly 
available in active and' quiet games, in- 
door and outdoor games, contests and 
tournamtnts, as well as stories, magic, 
and puzzles for group entertainment. 

The Book of 

by G. S. Ripley 

Author of "Games for Boys," etc. 

"This book goes farther than the average 
gamebook," says Virginia Musselman in 
Recreation. It includes sections on shows 
and exhibits and neighborhood contests." 
"Places a high priority on fun," says Wes 
H. Klusmann, U.S.A. Nat'l Camping Serv- 
ice Director. "Has wide variety and a 
host of activities." $3.00 


291 Broadway, New York 7, N. Y. 

Send me 

OF GAMES at $3.00 each. 



copies of THE BOOK 

City, Zone, State 

D Payment herewith (postpaid) 
D Bill me (postage extra) 

APRIL 1952 

sued a booklc-t. I'rfjxirulion for Retin-- 
Hit-nl Years, which explains their ap- 
proach to the- problem. 


\IMIO\ is being held at the Hotel 
ii Chi<ag". \pril 16 through 
h. There will l>e a large exhibit of 
camp newspapers at the meeting. Blue 
ribbon- will !. awarded to those which 
best r. -lire 1 the convention theme 
"letter Camping . - . for All." 

VVHK falls on the dates May 21 to 
June ") tlii- vear. For promotion ma- 
terials write to Weldon B. Wade. 
American Institute of Park Executives, 
30 North LaSalle Street, Chicago 2. 

TIIK IUVKMK ACT OK 1 ( '">I. Public 
I^w 1K3, recently signed l>\ the Presi- 
ilent. removes the excise tax on admi*- 
sion fees to "swimming pools, bathing 
beaches, skating rinks, or other places 
providing faei lilies for physical \.-i- 
i i-.-. o|NT<itcd bv any state or political 
subdivision thereof" if the benefits 

iherefrom inure cxclu-lvcU to the IN-IIC- 
til of tin- -tale or political subdivision. 
The admissons tax is also referred to 
in Public 121 bv providing that, 
No tax shall IN- imposed in the case 
of admission. free of r -barge, of a 
member of the armed force* of the 
Male- when iii uniform." 

on number of social workers and their 
geographic distribution: pei-.mal 
cliaracteii-tic - such as age, sex and 
marital static, fields of specialization. 
employment in federal, state, local and 
voluntary agencies. educational prep- 
aration, and length and type of em- 
ployment. The report is available for 
one dollar a copy. 

. mi n\\ CAMP UNIT of the New York 
City board of health has a special 
advisory committee which is studying 
conditions in day camp- and other Dim- 
mer programs for children. A series 
of seminar- have been held for camp 
directors and operators, and have been 
concerned primarily with counseling 
and good standards. 

For help to parents in selecting a 
day camp, the department of health 
published and released last spring a 
pamphlet entitled. I'ointers for Part-nl.i. 
Free copies are available at the de- 
paitinent'- Divi-ion of Day Care, 125 

\\orlh Street. New V.rk I.".. 

. i in \ VTIHN vi. i IIII.II|(I:N"S i HI VIKI 
i i INK in MI. will be held in Madison. 
Wisconsin, in August l't'i'2. 

. Illf IM M II. <A -<( l\l ttciltK I HI 

i vi IMS approved by-laws at a con-lilti- 
llonal i i.nveiiiioii belli on Januars J.".. 
\'>',2. The purpos,- "f the newlv or- 
/. d (...inn il i- to pn>m|e tin- de- 
velopment of ...mid pi. .gram- "f 
work nliiealiofi in ibe I tilled x -. 
it- territories and p ..... ion., and 


HI Ammcialion ,,f >... 
\\.-rk.r-. OKI- Park \vemie. New V.ik 

ha published a rep.ul on. " I In- 
Mud'. ..f Salaries and Working Condi 
I,..,,. - vv - In addition to 

information about the . -lalii- 

i.d worker-, the ludv givr data 


(f a three year study, to be conducted 
bv the New V.rk Adult F.dinalioii 
Council, which will begin in September 
l').")2. One hundred men and women 
approaching retirement age will !>< the 
gllini-.i pig-" in this on,- hundred 
lliou-aiid ib.llai ventuie. f..i which 
funds are now Iwing rai-i-d. I IM' pilot 
project will Irv to determine how p.-i 
-on- in their forties and fifties ", ,m |.c 
heljied to make- good and ieali-ln 
picpaialion" f..t the- Ic-iiglhening num- 
ber of vrars that follow ri-lin-menl. 

In line with teps U-ing taken bv 
industries |.. help employee* adjust to 
the- r. litcmcnl veat. the- I. ( "in "f New Jersey HM rec.-nllv i 

i:i c i;i vi ION iii Oakland. California. 
will be fillc-d bv Jav M. Ver Lee. who 
has been appointed to succeed Robert 
W. Crawford. Mr. Ver Lee formerly 
held the' same 1 position in Colorado 
Jsprings, Colorado. 

Marvin Kife. coordinator of the- rec- 
reation curriculum at the I niveisity of 
Wisconsin, this June will assume new 
duties as director of camping and rc- 
-eaic-b for the Herald Tribune Fresh 
Air Fund of New Vnk. 

AS A NEW \ i M i UK. the National Rec- 
reation Association is sponsoring a 
training institute for playground supcr- 
v i-ors in the Great Lakes District to be 
held in Toledo, April 7, 8, 9, !':>_'. 
The course will include sessions on: 
Planning ^ our Playground Training: 
Rating Yourself as a Supervi-oi: 
Leadership Training Techniques. Prac- 
tice workshops in arts and crafts, dra- 
ma. music and social recreation, and 
an evaluation of the total program 

w ill be' included. 

'leaching and Id-search 

Assistantships in Recreation 

Part-time leaching and 

a-sis|an|ship- in iccrcation will be 

available- at the I niveisity of HI). 

nois for the school \.-.u I 1 
\pplicalions < lose \pril .'<(!. \'>~i'2. 

\-i-laiil- leach -ix boms |>er 
ue.k in -c-ivic-e courses, or assist 
twelve hours per week in roc-mli 
\ppointees are eligible for a full 
academic s, hedule without tuition 
pavmenl. The- po-itimi ..HIM- .1 
-li|M-nd of SfdHI for M. S. eandidatc-s. 

' (id. il.-- should have- .1 I..K 
calauieate degree with majoi cm 
pb.i-is in rectealion "I a close! v al- 
lii-il de-Id, and a "IV average' for tin- 
last Iw.. v.-ai- of undergraduate 

-Inch. Illtele-led pel-oil- -llollld le 

I ..mi 111 \1 -H-lfi from: 
( li.iil.-s k. Hughtbill. Piofc- "i. 
>upi-iv i-orof Itc-c-rc-ationTraining. 
Ill HufT (ivm. I niveisjiv of llh 
noi-. I il.aiia. llh 1 

l!l c Id VII'IN 

Written as a part of a 
"declaration of interdependence," 
this poem carries an Easter message 

Otto T. Mallery 

We speak: 
Sons of God: 

Black and white, brown and yellow 

men of all nations; 

The halt and the hale; 

The filled and the empty; the 

naked and the clothed; 

The builders of buildings, the 

dreamers of dreams 

All sons of God; 

All brothers in our deep currents. 

I said, Hold my hand: 

we shall walk together; 

We shall destroy fear, you and I; 

We shall fill the empty ones and 

ease those who suffer; we shall 

strengthen the feeble; the tyrant 

shall flinch from us; we shall 

impart knowledge; 

And feeding them, be fed; and healing 

them, be healed. So shall we profit, 

the one by the other; 

For we are the sons of God; 

We are brothers in the deep currents. 

They told me, the child unborn is a 

sword to the heart of the mother; and 

man to woman a sword; our footsteps 

are bloody. 

What is man but a sword a sword and 

fodder for cannon? 

We have felt the earth shake, we have 

seen the mushroom swell over the city. 

Let us build no more houses. 


_ave I shown you my truth? It is a 
small thing. I shall add yours to 
it, mine small and yours small; but 
together they compass the heavens. 
Spare, then, my truth; lest yours, too, 
be wounded; 

And my tent, lest yours, too, should 

Your way is your way; mine is mine; 
to each his own forebears and offspring: 
the black, the white, the brown, the yellow; 
men of all nations; 
Yet all sons of God; 
All brothers in the deep currents. 

APRIL 1952 

Shall we carve our meat with a dagger, 

then, and make our porridge with gunpowder? 

Or go hungry, saving our substance to kill with? 

I knew not my brother in the battlesmoke, 

nor his voice in the song of the rocket. 

Now the tanks have clanked 

on over the hill; my brother lies 

bleeding; I know him. 

Can men with clenched fists clasp 



I have looked on your lace. m\ brother; 

1 know your compassion. Behold m\ 

heart; understand me: pity im tailing. 

Yuii and I moving forward united: so it 

shall be. I swear it. 

\\ liu whispers evil ol \ou. I will not 

hear him. 

Who strikes at his neighbor through 

greed, wheresoever, \ou and I will not 

aild to that striking. 

\\'e will not march in the army of the 

a-- lessor. 

Swear with me. for we are brothers in 

our deep currents. 

. where one rests, 
his brother may rest also; and where 
one eats, his brother 
may break bread; there shall be 
no discrimination between us. 
Nor will I impede your passage across 
my count r> . What I have is here; 
go home and tell them: 
"( )re in the mines, so much: 
and factories and farms; yes, 
and in that cmmtiv such and such 

Send me \our bales. [ will buv them. 
and send in turn: 
we \\ill exchange freely according 
to our needs. 

Sri k Ebfthrightly 

\our p.irtinilar yxxl; I will help you. 
I he lalxirers shall gather together 
lor their good, and the farmers. 
and those \\lio buy; and the children 
shall gather in the schools; with none 
favored, all for their particular HOIK!; 
All brothers our children, too, broil 
I or it was said. "\o man lives to himself . 
and no man dies to himsell; but living 
or dying, we are the I ord's 
and caih otln 

"The, forth yields its jullnrs* 
to all mm; alt are brothers." 

Therefore we speati: 
Sons of God: 

Brothers in our deep currents. 

\\ e say to our leaders, Lead us in the 

way or love 

and reconciliation, 

and we shall follow; 

\\ e shall toil up the steep slopes. 

II Deed Ix 1 . all our lives long: and 

barefoot il need be; 

I ill we reet the day of justice and 
love, the day 
ol freedom Irom fearing. 

I Ins is our pledge and our contract 

I he black 
anil the white, 
the brown 
and the yellow, 
men of .ill nations. 

I his is our pledge to our Father. 

Mil. M \l I I in . ii /m rrlirril from 

i>l llir I'hildilrliihiti n-i rrntiiin n\\u< inlim, 

in l'>l.".. M Chnii 1,1,11, ,./ Ihr li.Hinl of NRA. 



It's Time to Spruce Up the Program! 

of Owt, Playgrounds 

Every summer more and more communities are developing comprehensive, crea- 
tive playground programs. Many recreation departments set up special projects to 
be featured each week, or summer-long projects to culminate in a concert, tourna- 
ment or exhibit. Examples of playground activities in this article have been chosen 
from monthly and annual reports, in the hope of passing on usable ideas, all of 
which have been successful in action. 

SCHOOL IS OVER. The spark 
of enthusiasm, should be ignited 
by interesting, joyous activities. 
Above: Los Angeles youngsters. 

WN Lancaster, South Carolina a surplus World War II 
combat plane is standard equipment at one of the 
playgrounds. The youngsters are encouraged to swarm 
over the plane and to "get the feel" of aviation. Here 
imaginations are called into play, and flights take off for 
far corners of the world. The gift of War I ace, Colonel 
Klliott Springs, the plane wears out and must be replaced 
every six months though in regular flying service such 
planes last ten years or longer. 

Worcester, Massachusetts, under the direction of John 
J. Nugent, the supervisor of recreation, provides a loose- 
leaf notebook of mimeographed instructions for summer 
play leaders. General theories of play are briefly stated; 
I In- playground program is outlined: and specific instruc- 
tions arc fiiu-ii for special events. 


Sometimes little extra treats are offered as a surprise 
APRIL 1952 

to both leaders and youngsters. Last year in Martinsville, 
Virginia a dairy sent a calf to the playgrounds. The child 
who came nearest to guessing its weight won a quart of 
ice cream. 

In Flint, Michigan the fire department invited groups of 
youngsters to visit the fire stations. Firemen slid down 
poles, rang bells, blew sirens and showed television. 

In International Falls, Minnesota, the country club makes 
its golf club facilities available, for instruction and play- 
ing, to boys and girls under fourteen years of age. The 
recreation department purchased twenty-four sets of clubs 
several years ago and these are loaned to youngsters who 
want to learn the game. 

The annual storytelling festival held on twenty-two play- 
grounds in Salt Lake City is open to the public. The leaders 
are in costume and tell stories of about ten minutes in 


length. Eager and fascinated children move from one story- 
teller to the next at a signal from a coordinator dressed 
as Old Father Time. 

In Elmira, New York the playground storytelling is 
developed somewhat differently. Supervisors tell stories at 
all seventeen playgrounds. Then the children have an op- 
portunity tn retell their favorites at storytelling contests. 

Spray pools versus swimming pools present great problem in 
warm weather. (April and May, 1951 issues of Recreation.) 

It sometimes includes character dramatizations and pan- 
tomimes. However, storytelling is interesting enough in it- 
self, and does not need the added impetus of competition. 

^ oungsters love to undertake dramatic productions on 
their own. Miss Ilcne N. Langsam of Ventnor, New Jersey, 
now eleven years old, wrote us this letter several months 

"l,a*l year my friends and I produced the play, 'The 
Captain's Hat.' We collected eight dollars through the sale 
nf ticket*, lemonade and popcorn. \\ gave this IIHUH-V to 
the B-l!\ l!.n lira* li lloinr for Crippled Children in Long- 
port. New Jersey. . ." 

l'la\gr<>und leaders often are the adult guidance behind 
project* of this sort and encourage the strides toward in- 
dependent leader-hip made l>\ the i-hildn-n. 

I In rr is a Water Babies Club in Sylacaupa, Alalmma. 
Water games are supervised for pre-choo| children, in a 
wading pool. There is an adult night (adults only) when 
i il.|. - are arranged around the pool for bridge, <-anasta 
nuil other table games, and a record player add- aimo- 

,l/oi rna. New York boast* dart baseball league. f.. t 
group* sixteen to seventy-five years of age. There are seven 
to nine on a tram. Contests are held once a week and have 

proven very popular. The dartboard is six by eight feet and 
the darts are seven inches long. Throwing line is twenty- 
five feet for men, twenty feet for women. 

In Mobile, Alabama, to follow through on one feature of 
their well-planned, vigorous program, the children selected 
a "playground reporter" for the children's page of the 
Mobile Press Register, and made trips through the news- 
paper oilier and radio station \\ Mil!. The\ wrote moiitliK 

reports and made drawings of activities. 

* * 

Omaha, Nebraska has a Woodland Pixies Club which 
ii-es- seeds, cones, twigs, and so forth, to make miniature 

animals, birds, pixies and models of storybook character-. 

* * * 

In Tenafly, New Jersey, a residential community, a popu- 
lar item on the playgrounds has been the making of num- 
bers for the front lawns of houses. Orange crates and other 
wooden boxes can be used to make the placards, the num- 
bers burned or painted on the wood. A stake nailed to tin- 
back can be driven into the ground. 

From Honolulu comes news of the combining of adult 
dancing and playground recreation. A volunteer dancing 
teacher offered to give ten lessons to couples winning in a 
series of ballroom dance contests, to be held at playgrounds 
and community centers. The recipients of this special 
training in turn were to become teachers of the teen-agers. 

Mobile Playgrounds 

In Rillinps, Montana a "new show wagon has IMVII a 
real asset and is used for fun frolics, talent show, and 
square dancing in some neighborhood every night of the 
week. On nights of adult square dancing the children also 
attend and have games and play. Sometimes the show 
wagon is used on school and park grounds, other times on 
roped off streets. About twenty different locations in the 
city are visited on schedule. Talent shows are balanced 
because all specialists from various skills are consulted 
and help contribute." 

In Lafourche Parish in Thibodaux, Louisiana, equip- 
ment for horseshoes, croquet. Milles ball, table temii-. 
archerx. softball. children's games and stories, square 
dancing, badminton, box hockrx. track, games and con 
te-i. checkeis. darts, and special events such as doll 
-hows, pet shows and bicycle days is nioxed to \arious 
locations, visiting each section of the comtnunitj six times 
during the summer. One feature i- \dnll l>a\ when C.H h 
child must be accompanied by an adult and pii/c- are 
given for the youngest parents, the tallest, and s,, forth. 
It was found thai attend im e increased on days of social 

The superintendent of recreation. Al Ix- Blanc. Jr.. write* 
that this i- a stop-gap program and i- unable to provide 
many of the services of a standard playground. One of iN 
major purposes is to arouse publn mi.-n -t in support of 
a regular program, with one or two rolling playgrounds 
retained to serve rural areas. 


111 I Id MIIlN 

Community Nights 

From Meridan, Mississippi comes a report describing .' 
successful all-family program. 

"In an effort to give parents more opportunities to play 
with their children, 'Community Night' was established 
this year on our playgrounds. 

"Each playground director formed a parent council in 
an effort to bring about better understanding and coopera- 
tion of the parents with the playground program. 

"Every two weeks each playground celebrates com- 
munity night. Mother, dad, and all the children gather to 
participate in the planned activities, such as picnics, cook- 
outs, community sings, square dances, band concerts, 
talent shows, bingo parties, lawn parties, treasure hunts, 
box-suppers, tack parties and watermelon cuttings." 

Basketball School 

The Los Angeles, California report announcing the last 
week of their annual basketball school demonstrates the 
type of program which will draw eager participation. 

"The casaba school's classes, open to all boys thirteen 
years of age, are being held at thirty Los Angeles munici- 
pal playgrounds. Its teaching staff is made up of recrea- 
tion directors well versed in the intricacies of the court 
game, and top-flight collegiate players and coaches are 
acting as guest instructors. 

"At several of the classes, a sixteen-millimeter sound 
film will depict professional basketball as played by the 
Minneapolis Lakers, Baltimore Bullets, Chicago Staggs, 
Boston Celtics, New York Knickerbockers, and other high- 
scoring fives. 

"Pro stars George Mikan. Jim Pollard, Joe Foulks, and 
a host of others wilt be seen in individual and team action 
shots. Scenes of actual pro games will enable members of 
the school classes to see at close range the play-for-play 
hoopsters' scoring plays and defense maneuvers." 

The Point System 

In Watertown, New York, a point system is used to 
create a competitive spirit among the playgrounds of the 
city. Points are awarded to boys and girls for: 

1. Learning a New Game: Must be able to explain rules 
for playing to the instructor 25 points. A game is con- 
sidered to be new when first taught. 

2. Each Article Made in Handcrajts: For each project 
completed and accepted by supervisor of handcraft 50 

''>. Bringing New Children: Introducing two new chil- 
dren to the playground 25 points. 

4. Specialty Events: The first three places in each spe- 
i-ialty event, and for participating 25 points for first 
place; 15 for second; 10 for third; 10 for participating. 

5. Tournaments and Interplay ground Leagues: Parti- 
I'ipating 10 points for every competitor; 3 for each 
-jiinic: 20 to anyone in the playoffs. 

6. Part in Music and Dramatics: Taking part in any 
musical club or dramatics of any type 50 points. 

7. Improve Grounds Weekly: Picking up papers, stones, 
filling in holes, repairing baseball diamond, sandbox, 

horseshoe courts, and so forth, under supervision 25 
points each week. 

8. Five Good Turns on Playground: Five good turns 
during the week, such as assisting smaller children, watch- 
ing swings, slides, and so forth to prevent accidents 25 

9. Good Behavior and Sportsmanship All Week: Being 
in harmony with all work done on the playgrounds during 
the week 50 points each week. 

10. Volunteer Leader: Helping with games, checking on 
equipment, encouraging the proper placement of bicycles 
points judged by leader. 

Weekly awards to individuals are made on each play- 
ground, and an end-of-summer banner is awarded to that 
playground earning the most points. Events used in de- 
termining the winner include: interplayground doll show, 
Safety Day. Indian Day, playground circus, Joseph E. Lee 
Day. interplayground boxing show, interplayground 
checker tournament, interplayground volleyball tourney, 
interplayground softball, interplayground tennis, interplay- 
ground horseshoe tourney, interplayground Mardi Gras, 
interplayground hobby and craft exhibit, and Gypsy 

A group of adults, measuring ringers in game of horseshoes, 
attests to popularity of playgrounds for those of all ages. 

The banner is presented to the playground receiving the 
highest number of awards for the summer season. In addi- 
tion to special events, each week, the most interesting 
bulletin board, the appearance of the playground, and the 
originality of the programs that week are judged on each 

Tots on the Playground 

Pre-kindergarten playgrounds, in fenced-in areas with 
grass and playthings take care of the youngest children 
in Manitowoc, Wisconsin. As many as thirty or more little 
ones attend each daily. Through the gentle guidance of 

APRIL 1952 


trained attendants from the state teacher- colleges, these 
tots learn the important and basic lesson of how to get 
along with others and share their toys and activities, which 
will help them in school and throughout their lives. Some 
of the children show early preference for art. or clay work, 
and all of them like to play on the swings. 

Al J. Schara, Manitowoc's recreation director, works 
with a <|uict BodMHMn which -|em- from a natural lo\e 
for people and for children in particular. He reali/.es the 
deep importance of recreation, i-ornlui'li'il in u i-i>n.tlriirtin- 
manner, in the shaping of woith\ citi/en-. -u\- he. "It i- 
morc important to have ten children plaxing together with 
one hall, than to have one child playing with five halls by 

The recreation department in Manitowoc conducts eight 
pla\ grounds for youngsters from ages six to eighteen, 
which are open from 9 A.M. to 11:45; 1 P.M. to 4:43 and 
6 P.M. to eight. The program is conducted by men and 
women trained in recreation for children. Mr. Schara be- 
liexe- that the playground should \tc the most interesting 
place in the community and that children should come 
because they are attracted there. Says he, "The leader must 
I*- like one of the xoungsters and pet into the game, like 
thnn as well as they like him." 

Craft Exhibit 

In (ireensboro, North Carolina, part of a very full sum- 
mer program is an intensive Handera f I schedule. Last 
-iiinmer an nxerage of four hundred sixteen children re- 
.-ucd Hi-inn lion each week in one of the following pro- 
!!-: caning wood and colored pla-tcr paii-: modeling 
sawdust, clay, excelsior and papier mache; making shell 
earrings and pin-; finger painting on glass, paper and 
wood; weaving leather and plastic pocketboob and bell-: 
weaving potholders and rugs with looper clip-; textile 
painting including stenciling, potato prints and spatter 
prints; carving and hammering metal trays and pins; and 
constructing marionettes from wooden Mock-. 

Congratulatory remarks were plentiful when the annual 
arts and crafts exhibition was placed on the theatre me/. 
zaninc. A five by thiitx-ix font taMi- wa- i.n.-i.-d with 
samples of the wnk done l>x the c hildren. 

In addition, those on r.n li playground coni|>cled in the 
annual sand' raft route. t 1>\ Iniilding a sandl">\ display. 
e of the -tun lute- fc.ituicd wcic an Independence Day 
cenr. the ideal eonimiinilx pla\lnt. a drixe-in thealu-. 
Alcalrax, and a l.oiii- Charles boxing hoiit in Madi-on 
Square Garden- all con-inn -led with sand, materials natixe 
to the plaxground. and object- made in craft classes. The 
i hildrcn'* di-plax of originality and the degree of perfec- 
lion in many of llic model* were astonishing. The winning 
pUx ground >a- honored at an ice cream parU. 

More Good Ideas 

When Irndci- cx> h.mgc idi-.i- .r 'ii < ongrene or 

dilri't conference meetings, playground propr.i 
feel ih- lift of new activities. One good idea is a balloon 
Mcetuion content. Postcard* are attached to the balloons, 
before their releaae, addres* of a playground on ih.-m. and 

a child's name. The first card received back is the winner. 
And a prize can be given for the card mailed hack from 
the farthest distance. 

Older boys especially will be interested in interplay- 
ground radio programs with ham radio operators in auto- 
mobiles or on the playgrounds handling them. There may 

\ pH parade is one of the most popular of "special events.' 
Both boy and dog seem to be having fun in Dn.ilur. Illinois. 

be broadcasts from east side to west side playgrounds. 

There are sportsmen's shows and fishing derbies. In one 
cilx they didn't catch any fish, and xxere ii|> against what 
to do with the prizes. In a case like that, it is nece--arx to 
do some (|iiick thinking in determining wax- I" di-p"-c of 
the pri/.e- pci hap- to the l>o\ with the most freckles, or 
the girl dressed most like a fishing lady. In one <il\. tin- 
fishing contest was constantlx interrupted bx squeals from 
the girls who wanted the box- I" bail their h"..k- <n re- 
move a fish that they had caught. 

Fun for Everyone 

from dull -how- and |M-| -how- t.> athletic tournament-. 
from riafl- to communilx sing- (lie plaxgmund- 
servc all .1-1- 'I heir summer piogiam-. though designed 
primal dx for children, haxe a definite pl.n fm adult-, too. 
Last summer in /iliir. l< KM iwi-ntx -nine teams. Imlh inen'- 
and women'-, plaxed a -w-rie- of -ofiludl toiirnamenl-. in- 
.hiding exhibition games with oul-of-lown li-am-. league 
team- paid an enlrx fee, and fifteen and lwenl\-iixe ceni- 
admisiiion was charged sjHictator-. I Im-c- of school age and 
a guest for each plaxer wen- admitted free. Income w.i- 
II-.. I for iinproxemenl-. icpail-. -llpplie-. umpne-. -col 
-. .111,1 other expen-e- 


Hi I IU XI!" N 

If Bing Crosby or a Venetian gon- 
dolier were playground leaders, there 
would be music on their playgrounds 
because they would sing and their 
singing would be contagious. The chil- 
dren would join in, and it would be as 
natural as breathing, which is the way 

the ways of bringing this situation into 

The first step is to win the minds 
and hearts of leaders to the idea. In- 
tellectual acceptance is not enough. 
They must be shown. They must be- 
lieve it because they feel it. Therefore, 
the best basic training for leaders in 
music is the pleasant experience of 
participating in singing. It is a matter 
of becoming accustomed to it in much 
the same informal manner that is to 
be followed on the playground. This 
means singing at staff meetings, during 
pre-playground training sessions, at 
staff picnics and social affairs, singing 
at open and closed meetings, during 

Even if this person is engaged for only 
part of the time, it is worthwhile. The 
specialist should work out the detailed 
plans, with the help of the music com- 
mittee, and endeavor to have them 
carried out by the staff. It is well to 
remember that the success of any mu- 
sic program which is comprehensive 
and significant depends upon the in- 
dividual leaders. Therefore, the work 
of the specialist that will count for the 
most will be that which is done with 
the leaders. If there is no specialist, 
quite obviously the whole responsibili- 
ty falls upon the leaders. 

We have been concentrating upon 
the leaders and nothing has been said 



singing on the playground should be. 
There would be interesting musical 
events and programs because every- 
body's mind would be attuned to music 
and to thinking up ways of having fun 
with it. 

Unfortunately, der Singles, gondo- 
liers and their ilk are the exception 
among playground leaders, which is 
not to say that there are not many ex- 
cellent and well trained leaders. There 
just don't happen to be many who 
have an irresistible urge to sing or who 
seem to be able to touch off the musi- 
cal spark in children, most of whom 
need very little encouragement to 
burst into song. 

Informal singing can and should be 
an integral and very natural part of 
the day by day playground program, 
so let us proceed to look into some of 

MR. TODD, a musician himself, writes 
from many years of experience as the 
NRA Midwest District Representative. 

breaks a:;d to fill gaps. This is quite 
a different thing from a special music 
period, although that will be necessary 
too. It means having, perhaps, a few 
"special" songs to be used on certain 
occasions: a song of recognition, of 
welcome the sort of thing that is 
frequently done in camps. 

A large part of staff training should 
consist of the learning of many songs. 
There should be a sharing of favorite 
songs. There should be someone to in- 
troduce good songs which may not be 
well known. There is a need for having 
printed song sheets. This calls for a 
committee and a leader. The leader 
may be someone from the staff who is 
competent, or it may be someone from 
the outside. The committee is made up 
of playground leaders. Together they 
make plans for the singing at staff 
meetings and for the playground pro- 
gram, working closely as a team. 

If it is possible to have a music 
supervisor or specialist, that is fine. 

Arthur Todd 

about what to do on the playground. 
The fact of the matter is, if the leaders 
do enough singing and talking about 
ways of using music in their programs, 
the job will be done. There are a few 
suggestions that might be made. 

Song sheets should be a part of the 
playground equipment. Like everyone 
else, children do not remember the 
words of familiar songs and they need 
to have the words of new songs. The 
song sheets can be used by groups 
when a time is set aside for singing, 
and they should be available when- 
ever a few children want to use them. 
Different sets of song sheets should be 
prepared and issued from time to time 
throughout the season. 

Regular periods for singing should 
be scheduled, with either a weekly 
"sing" or some group singing at sched- 
uled special events. The goal of getting 
ready for a weekly event is an excellent 
incentive to learning new songs. 

The choice of appropriate songs will 

APRIL 1952 


greatly enhance playground themes. 
The use of weekK or seasonal themes 
is unquestionably one of the finest 
means of motivating and sustaining 
mt. [.--I. It i- impossible to think of a 
good playground theme that does not 
suggest a rich vein of songs. Musical 
acti\it\. like no other, can weave to- 
gether and tie up the threads of the 

There should be regular times for 
singing, such as at flag raising and 
lowering ceremonies, the opening of 
special events and to welcome guests. 
There should be special songs learned 
for use on these occasions. Also, sing- 
ing can improve the story hour. The 
possibilities here are almost too ob- 
vious to mention. 

The making of a song scrapbook can 
be a rewarding project. It may be a 
Scrapbook of Favorite Songs. Each 
participant takes a page, writes or 
pastes in his favorite song and deco- 
rates it appropriately. When the book 
is completed, each child tells why he 
likes his song and either sings it or 
leads the group in singing it. This may 

be done as a contest, if so desired, 
with the group divided and each sec- 
tion making a Krapbook. M;m\ dif- 
frrcnt theme- can be used: occupa- 
tions, ships and sailormen, people of 
other land-, nonsense and others. 

There are excellent musical aeti\i- 
ties that require organization and 
trained leadership: choruses, instru- 
mental groups such as rhythm bands, 
harmonica and ukulele groups, even 
"real" bands. These activities require 
equipment and rehearsal facilities not 
available on many playgrounds, but 
all are desirable and of proven value. 
There is ample instructional material 
available which leaders can find in 
libraries and obtain from other sources. 

It is suggested that every playground 
leader who has the skill and interest 
develop special music groups, and that 
the necessary equipment be supplied, 
insofar as this is possible. Paid or 
volunteer leaders trained for this kind 
of work should be used to the fullest 
extent. There is no thought of dis- 
paraging the importance of organized 
music groups. But after years of oh- 

-enm;: pki\ grounds in man\ different 
eilio. the realization that even a little, 
>imple. informal musii o\en into the 
life of the playground is something 
quite rare and in need of encourage- 
ment leads me to emphasize this aspect 
of playground music. 

There is one final suggestion for 
lho>e who \\ould like to do something 
about playground music but feel in- 
capable of going ahead. Call upon the 
local school music supervisor or a 
mu!-ie teacher whose vocation indicates 
intcreM in music for the sake of people. 
Modern musie education stresses music 
for everybody, and once the teacher or 
supervisor understands the conditions 
prevailing on playgrounds, knows the 
purposes of the music program and is 
told something about the leadership, 
the chances are good that he will have 
some extremely practical suggestions 
and will want to help. It is a mistake 
to pass up this resource. 

Give music a place in the program 
this summer. Blend it in easily. Culti- 
vate it carefully. The children need it, 
and they love it. You can't lose. 

Designed for the Playground 

Priced for the Playground 

Rolla-Hoopl The body builder and exerciser. Sturdily 
constructed of V round solid steel. Hoop 24" in 
diameter and it's Zincrome Plated. The handle is 
permanently attached which propels and guides 

Price per Doz. $9.60 (F.O.B. Steelton, Pa.) 


P. O. Box 30, Steelton, Pa.*d for lb Playground Priced for the Playground 

The Pennsylvania State College 
Summer Sessions 1952 

l\ [> II >! [UN 

Jiinr JO to June 17 

M UN M \I\IHI Sh -.-HIV 

Jun? -ill l,> Any,. 

\ 11 to .\ngust S9 

nciiili-inif program ith special- 
i/"l council in health iilumlion. physical 
i. lu. iilnm. rtiTrnlion. ami alhli 

air living expenses an. I instructional 
Ni> iiililitioniil f.f. charged to out-of- 

1 1.. ..K.I. mountain environment <>f l'< -nn 
Slate i- iilral for suimnrr >imly and rec- 


Room 107-1 Burrowrt Building 

Stole College, Pcnntylvonio 



THE ELEMENTARY school principals in Portland, Oregon, 
were asked their opinion regarding playground ap- 
paratus, "hardsurfaced" areas and apparatus accidents on 
school playgrounds in a survey conducted in 1951. Replies 
to a questionnaire sent out by the supervisor of elementary 
education indicated that most of the principals favor hard- 
surfacing on at least a substantial area of their playgrounds 
and the installation of playground equipment on them. A 
summary of the information submitted by the principals 




1. With the exception of three schools, all are equipped 
with hardsurfaced areas. 

2. The hardsurfaced areas vary considerably. Most 
schools are equipped with from ten thousand square feet 
to two hundred eighty thousand square feet. 

3. Seventeen principals recommended that the entire 
playground be hardsurfaced; forty-seven, that a substan- 
tial area be hardsurfaced; one, that no hardsurface be 
installed on playgrounds; one made no recommendation. 

4. Two hundred twenty-six pieces of playground equip- 
ment were reported by all principals; one hundred fifty- 
one pieces, or sixty-seven per cent, are installed on black- 
top surface ; seventy-five pieces, or thirty-three per cent, are 
installed on playground areas not hardsurfaced. 

5. Sixty principals stated that they would advise in- 
stallation of playground equipment on school playgrounds; 
three, that they would advise against installation of play- 
ground equipment on playgrounds; three made no state- 

6. Forty principals stated that they would recommend 
hardsurfacing under playground equipment installed; 
twenty-one, that they would recommend against hardsur- 
facing the area under playground equipment; five made 
no statement. 

7. Nine hundred ninety-four accidents from all causes 
were reported to the business office between September, 
1950 and May 17, 1951. Ninety-eight, or nine and nine- 
tenths per cent of these, occurred on playground equip- 
ment. Sixty-five, or sixty-six per cent of the accidents on 
playground equipment, occurred at schools where equip- 
ment was not installed on blacktop. Thirty-three, or thirty- 
three percent of the accidents on playground equipment, 
occurred at schools where equipment was installed on 
blacktop. Two hundred seventy-five accidents attributed to 
playground equipment, were reported in the questionnaire 
by all principals. (An explanation for the discrepancy be- 
tween accidents reported to the business office and on the 
questionnaire could be that less serious accidents were not 
reported to the business office, but were listed on the ques- 
tionnaire.) One hundred seventy-two, or sixty-three per 
cent of the two hundred seventy-five accidents reported on 

the questionnaire, occurred at schools where playground 
equipment was not installed on blacktop. One hundred 
three, or thirty-seven per cent of the two hundred seventy- 
five accidents reported, occurred on equipment installed 
on blacktop. 

8. Sixty-seven per cent of playground equipment is in- 
stalled on blacktop, yet reports indicate only thirty-seven 
per cent of all accidents can be attributed to playground 

9. Accidents related to specific apparatus: 




Type of 







on blacktop 

Jungle gym 








Horizontal ladder 




Triple horizontal bars 












Traveling rings 










10. Accidents on playground equipment reported by 
principals to business office: 1947-48, fifty-nine; 1948-49, 
forty -nine; 1949-50, seventy-four; 1950-51, ninety -eight. 

Analysis of the principals' replies further revealed 
that in relation to the number of units installed, traveling 
rings and horizontal bars are most dangerous. More ac- 
cidents occur on jungle gyms and slides, but a much larger 
number of these units are in use. 

A further consideration would be the number of ac- 
cidents that occur in relation to the number of youngsters 
who use the various pieces of equipment. We have no 
statistical information on this, but from observation, the 
jungle gym, merry-go-round and slides would appear to 
get more use than other equipment. 


Installation Installed 

Traveling rings 3 

Triple horizontal bars 23 

Swings 15 

Slides 39 

Merry-go-round 12 

Jungle gym 56 

Horizontal ladder 44 

See-saw 18 

Accidents Accidents per 
Reported Installation 










APRIL 1952 


\ story of the honor system as applied to the 
checking out of playground supplies. 

i MMKK is HERE! A great tidal wave 
uf ini|iatient young humanity heads 
-tr.iif.-hl fur the nearest playground, 
-w miming pool, sports field, beach or 
park. "This is summer vacation, and 
box. will we have fun!" 

At the headquarters of a San Pedro 

playground, win-re Mr. Keen is the 

.ilion director, there's a noisy 

' rowd surging around outside the open 

window of the office. What is this? 

Three boys are shouting for a 
and Softball: that pretty blond girl 
. i MI- a table-tennis ball: this calm old 
:_-ciit would like to borrow a checker 
board. A red-headed boy wants to re- 
turn a soccer ball and check out a 
football: that fine-looking woman is 
waiting impatiently to ask about the 
Friday night square dances; and then 
lln- telephone rings! 

Mr. Keen is busily engaged in or- 
ganizing a boys' club. In fact, poten- 
tial members are now gathered in the 
ne.nhx i luhroom right where he ! It 
them txxcntx minutes ago. ie-tlc 1\ 
wondering what they can <lo for fun 
until Mi. Keen H-II, 

Of cour-- tin- i- I he woman di- 

re. |,,|', dax ,.|f: I. iii in the world 

ran have happened [> tin- xoung man 

.il ic.n ,i-- i -i .1 nl . a part-ti me 

Worker.' He Mil- -llppo-ed to ll.ixe 
Ix-.-n on du|\ ne.uK an hour ago. 

Our hiira *-d Mr. Keen dei ide- thai 
.ime ruliintriT lirlf, i- needed at once! 
Mr glances over the milling crowd 
and -pot- foiiiiii ii vi .11 i. Id Jimmy 
rraching in through the open 
window I., ;:el the mllalei. 

"Jimm\. plca-w- come in and : 
me ii hand.'" 

rephe- Jinmiv. 

"Thank. Jim". Mr. Keen i- -miling 
now. "pli-.i-e i hn k ., lit bit II- and pl.iv 
ilpplie. Have ihe (tcnplr ign for 

KllM-l rllKkt M ilnrrlHT of ihr hni 
IHII ilnlrnl nj llir Drftarlmrnl nl 
rralion ami I'nrki in IMS Anfl' *. < nlii. 


!^\ Please, Mister, 

e\er\ thing they borrow, and be MIIC 
that tlie\ bring back everything when 
they are finished." 

With that, young Jimmy suddenly 
become* a very busy boy. He is a 
volunteer worker now, and a good one. 
Before long things -imiiier down. As 
Mr. Keen leaves the office, he can l>e 
heard muttering something about how 
a recreation director really should 
have "eight arm- like an octopus!" 

Summer vacation i-. really here!"> briefly aiial\/e -nine of the 
more important considerations con- 
erning that responsibility so agreea- 
bly assumed by our mythical Jimmy 
Jones, namely that of tin- i\.\uin/i <>/ 
film <n/i/i/<ej. 

The exact manner in which this is 
ai i omplished. or iii fail x\liether il is 
done at all. i-. of coiir-c. a mallei of 
IIM .il polii x a- determined \>\ the de- 

pailmelil i olii erneil. lloxxi-xi-l. mol 

pul'lii n i re.ilion departments an- inn 
I -IP h de-iied plax -upplie- 
-hoiilil be made axailahli- In eni-ourilge 
maximum parlii ip.ilmn. "MI. h a pnln \ 
means moie fun for all. l>-au-<- ex en 
xi-iling cili/en therein i a nreil an 
oppoilunitx to pailii ipale. ri-g.'irdle 
of hi* or Ii' latu?. 

Certainly our patrons want this 
service: they ex/xv/ to l>e able to bor- 
nnv the ei|iiipineiit or play supplies 
which will help them to enjoy the use 
of the facilities at the playground. 
I he-e are the taxpayers and their chil- 
dren, the cili/ens who pay the bill-, 
and il i- our job to do our best to 
"keep "cm happy." 

Then-fore, if the availability of some 
play supplies is justified and highly 
desirable and is a vitally necessary 
part of our service wlu-rexer there are 
urn patron- on public playgrounds, 
what then an- -ome of the factors to 
be i iin-idcicd. from the practical stand- 
point';' How can we handle this routine 
problem with a minimum staff, so that 
the -nhilinn will be a happy one for 
all concerned'.' 

hi'- lake a look at the following 
"held note-." which reflect my personal 
idea- oiilx. and. therefore, are not 
necessarily (he ollnial opinion- or poli- 
n - of any municipal department. 
U /,! /,. (.l,,;-k Out? 

I In- -i,,ik of pi. ix Mipphe- which arc 

ii. n lied for check-nut plllpo-e- -Imuld 
represent a wide \aiielx in Aim/v of 
ili'iii-. for mam different types of 

.-.inn - .'i in lix ilie-. HOXM-XIT. the wi-c 
i'<ieaiioii dim tin will avoid trying 


BE PREPARED. An avalanche may 
descend upon you, as the children 
head for their nearest playground. 

May I Have a Ball? 

Ernest B. Ehrke 

to compete with Santa Glaus and will 
limit the "visible" quantity of any one 
kind of item. Thus, while there are 
occasions when it seems as though 
"everybody wants a ball," it is a fact 
that the patrons will be encouraged to 
play together and to socialize more, 
learning how to get along with one 
another, if fewer balls are issued. Also, 
fewer checked out items means fewer 
losses. For example, the temptation to 
take a ball home is much less for the 
patron who is required to play with a 
group than it is for the solo ballplayer. 

AH "check-out" supplies should be 
clearly and expertly branded or 
marked, in such a manner that any em- 
ployee of the department, and any pa- 
tron as well, can immediately identify 
the items as being departmental proper- 
ty, at a distance of ten feet or more. 
Incidentally, the manufacturers of rub- 
ber balls are able and glad to bake the 
department label into the rubber sur- 
face in permanent fashion, as an in- 
tegral part of the manufacturing 
How to Arrange Checking Out? 

The chances are that the department 
budget will not permit the hiring of 
special part-time employees just to 
check out play supplies, although any 

recreation employee, full-time or part- 
time, will assume this responsibility 
when not too busy elsewhere. However, 
the regular full-time directors should 
not be interrupted for such routine at 
times when they are directing activities 
or occupied with program leadership. 

Assign volunteers? Maybe! But the 
recreation director is not always able 
to find such a dependable "eager 
beaver" as our gracious Jimmy Jones. 
True, many directors do discover ex- 
cellent volunteer personnel among the 
membership of the clubs, classes and 
groups which meet regularly on the 
grounds, and which the director him- 
self has organized. Some directors or- 
ganize service groups, similar to the 
Safety Patrol, whereby such volunteer 
duties are assumed on a rotation basis 
among the members. ( Let's prevent 
"volunteer fatigue.") Also, every play- 
ground director knows a few faithful 
individuals who enjoy being asked to 

It is interesting to note the tremen- 
dous success of the honor system, 
when properly encouraged, in the 
checking out of play supplies on neigh- 
borhood playgrounds. In this case the 
director will indoctrinate the "regular" 
patrons with the idea that all this 

property, including land, community 
building, apparatus and facilities, plus 
expendable equipment and play sup- 
plies, really belongs to them, and that 
the department is working for them. 
Thus a neighborhood attitude of loyal- 
ty and responsibility may be culti- 
vated, and patrons will see to it that 
"their" equipment is returned after 
use. Woe betide anyone of their group 
who tries to get away with any item, 
for the pressure of this localized group 
opinion will react upon the delinquent 
companion until the missing item is 

Now, let's see how the honor system 
may be applied to the subject of our 
discussion. A series of sixty day tests 
were made on several playgrounds, to 
see what would happen if the play sup- 
plies were left out-of-doors all day un- 
attended. They were placed in a large 
open cabinet, so that people could help 
themselves freely, borrowing and re- 
turning equipment as they pleased, 
without clerical attention and without 
even signing for it. 

Each morning an employee would 
move the portable cabinet, loaded with 
play supplies, to its destination on the 
grounds about fifty feet away from 
the building but in plain view of the 

APRIL 1952 


office. And each evening it was re- 
turned to the building, whore the cabi- 
net and its cargo were locked up for 
the night. 

(NOTE: An attractive cabinet can 
be made for use as a portable con- 
taiiii-r. willi wheels or casters so that it 
can be rolled like a cart. Such a cabi- 
iifi -hould have a height limit of about 
two and one-half feet, to avoid top- 
In-. i\ mess and to accommodate the 
\ "linger patrons.) 

Thex- i-\|Tiini-tit> were deemed -u< 
'i fill. \"t a item was missing 
until the forty-sixth day, when a new 
fimiliall di-appeared. One bvdgGt-WIM 
director estimated that even if the en- 
lire supply of play equipment w i- 
-tli-n and replaced each month, it 

-till would be far cheaper than the 
salary of a recreation assistant for the 
-.inn- length of time: but as has been 
pointed out. the actual loss was quite 

Then-fore, it was derided that check- 
out -er\ice |>\ personnel is realh not 
necessar\. < -\irpt in emergency situa- 
tions or special cases. No longer is this 
regarded as a "problem," for the cafe- 
teria st\li "-rrve yourself plan proves 
workable. And happily, everyone seems 
to benefit. The honor system is good 
when it is stimulated by skilled leader- 

But now if you will excuse me, I 
wonder what that small boy is saying? 
It sounds like, "Please, Mister, may I 
have a ball?" 

All will watch out for the "littlest 
one" on this Los Angeles playground. 

Filing r<|iii|Mii4'iii for 

mnifiidcd procedure for the 
filing nf materials at individual play- 
ground-, has been issued by the Los 
la Department of Recreation and 
I'.uk-. Hie information which it con- 
tains will be of interest to all who are 
with the operation of play- 

-. especially on a year-round 

I i' li |i|.i\ Around in Los Angeles was 
pro\idcd with a three-drawer steel fil- 
ing cabinet for records and other ma- 
l.-n.ik The following directions were 
unued to the directors in order that 
ili---. imtrlit obtain the maximum bene- 
fit fn.iTi it- ue: 

One drawer will be designated 
for the man rlircc-tor, one drawer for 
the woman director, and one drawer 
will In- ucd l.nih In the man and wom- 
an director, anil will be railed tin- 
playground general file. Please note 
the -ul'i' I headings for each drawer 
M desiirnatrd. 

Three et of Oxford Index 
file* have been -nt to the phi> ground, 
which are alphalwtii all\ annotated. 
Wr havr. therefore, ordered gummed 
labels on which the -iil,|..i heading* 
will U- l\pcd and glurd on ther in 
dexen 'there will be delivered onr 


hundred (100 1 manila folders to be 
u-r.l for file folder headings. These 
will lie made out at the time a piece 
of subject matter is ready to be filed, 
using the standard headings as shown 
on this bulletin. 

(c) The central office will, in the 
future, record on the lower left-hand 
side of the material sent out. the file 
reference for information for filing 
same when received. 

"I i This administrative bulletin 
should be placed in front of the 
"general file," so that it may act as an 
index to information filed in the three 

(e) All material sent to the play- 
ground should be filed as soon as the 
staff has had an opporluniu to exam- 
ine it- i onienN and place their initials 
thrri-on as having seen the same. 

i f i Since each playground will have 
identical fi|e. employees transferring 
from on!- center to another will not 
take material out of the files to their 
new assignment. 

Accompanying the directions for us- 
ing the filing e(|ui|.ni. nl w-r- lists of 
-iibjcti headings to be followed in 
filing material and also titles foi 
iti' tile f..|dcr under ome of thcae 
hc.idings. The general subject headings 

suggested were as follows: Administra- 
tive Bulletins; Aquatics; Communitv 
Organizations: Department Policy: 
Finances; In-Service Training; Munici- 
pal Sports; Personnel; Programming; 
Public Hclations: Recreation Papers 
and Publications; Reports; Requisi- 

The subject headings for the men 
and women director- wen- almost 
identical although the file folder head- 
ing- differ widely because of the nature 
of their respective duties and -pecial 
interest-. The special subject headings 
were as follows: Active Games and 
Sports: Arts and Crafts; Club Aelivi- 
tic-: Collecting: Dancing; Dramatics. 

I \pical of the file folder headings 
-ted an- tin- following: 

>ulijrct heading- \< ti\c I lames and 
^|H.[|- i for the woman director i 

A ilr folilrr hradinfi Low-organized 

u-.iiiii--. Individual and Dual Games, 

Came-. (eneral: Basketball. 

S,,fll..ill. Yollevlull. 

>'u />/!/ /xW/nc Arts and Crafts 
i for the man director i 

AV/e fl<lrr Carving 

Wood. Hone: Ceramic-, l.calhej 
Craft. Metal Craft. Model Aircraft. 
Model Making. PbotQfnpbjr, Pla-iii 
:-. To\ Making, Woodworking. 


How To Add Zip To 
Your Program 




The actors? 

The youngsters. The grownups. 

The producers? 
You and your staff. 

The stage? 
Your playground. 

The audience? 

Your whole community. 

The run? 

July through August. 

John V. Smith and Minna B. Reichelt 

WILL YOUR SHOW be a Broadway hit or a flop? It 3!! 
depends upon you. Perhaps the following few sug- 
gestions may help you produce a satisfying performance. 

The Rising of the Curtain Start the show promptly and 
start it right. Make a real ceremony of the flag-raising 
at nine o'clock each morning. Pick out a star actor every 
day to play the leading role and raise the flag briskly 
while the rest of the cast stands at attention. All recite 
the "Pledge of Allegiance" and sing a patriotic song as 
part of the ceremony. 

At sunset, the flag is lowered slowly, with care being 
taken that it does not touch the ground. Never place any 
object or emblem on or above our national flag. 

The Chorus By this we mean singing; the more the bet- 
ter! This is an important part of your daily production. 
See that it goes over with a bang, because a flat sing is 
as flat as a deflated balloon. 

Gather the singers around you and start with a song 
that everyone knows. Announce the title clearly. Be sure 
that the pitch or tone on which the song is to be started 
is heard. Get them all "set" for the start of the song; 
leave no doubt in their minds that "now" is the time. 
Give a sharp decisive movement which will bring every- 

MR. SMITH is chief oj Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Bureau 
of Recreation; Miss REICHELT serves as assistant chief. 

body in on the first note. A clean-cut release or ending 
of a song is no less important than a good attack. 

Always maintain variety in the choice of songs to keep 
up continued interest. Ask for requests from the group 
and select the song that you think will go best at the 
time. Keep your ears open for special talent upon whom 
you can call to sing a verse or chorus alone. 

The introduction of rounds or canons adds much to the 
fun and good-fellowship of singing. Divide your chorus 
into parts and sing such songs as: 

"Oh! How Lovely is the Evening," three parts; "Three 
Blind Mice," four parts; "Are you Sleeping?" four 
parts; "Row, Row, Row Your Boat," four parts. 

Contra singing is fun, too. Combine two familiar tunes 
when musically possible, such as: 

"Long, Long Trail" and "Keep the Home Fires Burn- 
ing," "Tipperary" and "Pack Up Your Troubles." 

Old favorites that have been found satisfactory for 
group singing include: 

"Abide With Me," "All Through the Night," "Ameri- 
ca, the Beautiful," "Annie Laurie," "Believe Me, If All 
Those Endearing Young Charms," "Billy Boy," "Carry 
Me Back to Old Virginny," "Farewell to Thee," "Good- 
night Ladies," "Home on the Range," and so on. 

Patriotic songs and, of course, the current hit tunes 
always go over big. So, vary them for best results. For 
music accompaniment use a piano, banjo, accordion, 
ukulele, harmonica, guitar or violin. The use of the 
microphone is a big help outdoors for the director and 

Big Sing Week Feature a "Big Sing Week." Publicize it 
early, and dig up talent for it! Make it a gala week. Get 
any number of groups, quartettes and solos. Use boys, 
girls, men and women as performers. Hold a contest 
for original playground songs. Have the song writers 
sing their songs and let audience applause decide the 
winner. If you have enough talent, have eliminations and 

APRIL 1952 


-.I.-.! the best numbers for a star bill (or the main per- 
formance. Be sure to use all the local talent you have 
on hand. 

If there is an outstanding song leader in your com- 
munity, invite him to lead the group singing. Ask local 
church choirs and musical groups to sing on the program. 
In\it- a local band or orchestra to pla> for the singing. 
> ..ut around for someone in the community to serve as 
\K . lo add local color and interest. Use variety in your 
|iiogiam I" make it entertaining. 

Musical Number (iood music is tin- finest entertainment can he offered to |co|>le who |o\e music. "Listening 
programs can be the highlight of the sea-on'- schedule 
for many of your patrons. A varied program of music 
that appeals to all can be arranged so easily, especially 
where a "\'\" -\stem is available. 

Talent Hour Is there a youngster alive who doesn't want 
i<> ! a part of the show, to get up before an audience 
and get into the act? Talent hours held at regular speci- 
lie.l times all during the season's run will give the embryo 
-i.irs a chance to ''strut their stuff" whether it's singing, 
dancing, reciting, acrobatics, comedy, magician's tricks. 

(.iris' Hut ShowFor a bit of amusing entertainment, 
I.LIU a hat show. This will bring out large hats, small 
hats, old hats, new hats, pretty ones, funny ones, original 
ones suc h as those trimmed with kitchen utensils, fruits 
and \cgetables a la Carmen Miranda, turban* and many 
other t\|M-s that ingenuity and initiative can create. 
Judge- i an -elect the IK-SI in the various classifications. 

(..IIMC Week A game jamboree should keep things buzz- 
ing for a while and everyone busy. Plan active games for 
the cool |>art of the day and in the evening, quiet games 
in a cool place dining tin- heat of the day. Singing game- 
fur the little one- .lie line. -Ill ll a- "Oat-. IV.I-. BlMII-. 
"The hirmer in the Dell." "Looby Loo," "Did V.u Ev 

See a Lassie," "Hig-a-Jig-Jig," and so on. 

Holler Derby h.r exhibition ami -|M-. tator attraction, 
toiler -kilting i- top-.. >o|i- exhibitions, double- with 
mii-i. . triple* with music, relay race*, one-legged iacc 
lone -k.ile on and .it r \ing tin- olhet i .mil no\ell\ c\enl- 
will pi.--enl i|iiile a -how. 

Stilt Kxhihitioii 'I hi- i- ml'-ie-ling. a bit unusual and 
hound to p|.M-c III-- audience. M.ike a -eric- of thirty-six- 
inch -ink-. Im feel apart. \ conic-taut for each -in le 
plae- both -tilt- m-iil.- of tin- i in le and takes a position 
for mounting. A command is gi\en for all contestants 
to do as follows: Mount and turn around to right, turn 
around In left, hop on Mill*. raic one Milt while Manding 
on .mother, walk an.iind rim of circle. 

--tie doing ihn-w thing* without gelling out .-f 
the ring or dismounting. win. In < .IM- of tie*, repeat until remain- ilemrnt. hmh ill-- d.-rb\ with .1 di- 

tanrr race. 

Doll Parade < on-i.l'-r mgle and group cnlrn-v pi-.\idc 
table* for group nitric*. Singi will ! 


Friendly policemen of Vancouver "arrest" most convimlim 
"hobos" at an all-city "Hobo Day," for tour of City Hall, 
including jail. Adults are (I. to r.) Captain Crowli-v. Po- 
lice Chief Diamond, Mayor Anderson and Officer Spin-line. 

in the parade. Judge the following: Smallest doll, largest. 
oldest, best-dressed, prettiest, most original, novelty doll- 
made up of yarn, raffia, taffy, gumdrops. clothespins. wlii-k 
brooms, fruit, and so on. Additional classifications can 
be judged for street costume, sports costume, evening 
dress or colonial dress. Group judging can be for tin- 
largest collection, authentic foreign collection, complete 
foreign family, bridal party, Indian family, and so on. 
Red, white and blue ribbons for those judged the best 
or other inexpensive prizes will pleas* tin- winners. PlenU 
of advance publicity in local new-papers, on bulletin 
boards and by individual contact will increase the number 
of entries. 

Sand and Water Carnival For real carnival 

decorate the sandbox with flags and bunting. Place flags 

around wading pool. Have -and well dampened before tin- 

sand modeling project Ix-gins. and set a time limit for the 

contest. Allow twenty minutes to a half hour to complete 

projects. No molds should be permitted. Make \oiir own 

rules co\i-ring the use of small flags, artificial trees, 

picket fences, and so forth for decotati\e purposes. Mod 

eling a castle, farm house, church or boat make g ..... 1 


Murcli Grus -This should be along the genual line- of the 

lelehratcd Mardi l.ia- in New Oilcan-, ll -hould be a 
highly colorful and jolly affair, with local band- supplxing 
the niu-ii . 

\d\erli-e the cNetil well ill advance and decoiatc the 
plavground with Hags and bunting, \wanl iibb..n- or in- 
expen-ive prizes for the following divisions: de<i.ialed i. -a. he- and -liollei-. bioclcs. doll carnages and 
doll-, cxpic wagon-, toy automobile- diivcn or pulled 
|.\ .1 i hild. with patlii ipant- in . .-tunic. 

Krom the m.i-.|ii. i.idc i o-lumc dixi-ion -elecl winncr- 
aml .iw.inl ribbons for the f-.llowing: nn>-t elabotale. fun- 
nirl. tnoM origimd. IN-M < -.uple. ..iil-l.inding group, \\ind 
up the atfair with nn outdoor jand.oiee including music. 
dancing and singing. 

Ill i HI VM"N 

Circus The possibilities of a playground circus are nu- 
merous with clowns, acrobats, elephants, freaks, balloons, 
pennants, the circus barker. What fun! Rope off a large 
area for the performers' ring. Erect a booth at the en- 
trance of the grounds with a "barker" who announces 
the wonderful features of the circus "stupendous," "co- 
lossal," and so on. A snake charmer and fat lady or any 
other freak can be on the platform beside him. 

Begin with a parade of all performers around the inside 
of the rope. The "ring master" introduces them as they 

pass in review. Have as many freaks as possible tall 
man I on stilts), bearded lady, fat lady, (stuff with pil- 
lows), sword swallower, snake charmer (use papier-mache 
snake), tight rope walker (stretch white tape on ground). 
Also include cannibals, clowns, Indians, cowboys, ballet 

Make up an interesting program of acrobatics, dances, 
Wild West activities. 

What a show will have been produced when the curtain 
rings down on the final number! 

We Had a Baseball League 

LAST SUMMER we operated baseball leagues for boys be- 
tween the ages of twelve and fifteen years as a part 
of the La Porte, Indiana recreation program. Any boy in 
the community desiring to play was given the opportunity, 
and all groups were encouraged to choose their own 
players on the basis of friendship rather than solely on 
ability to obtain a more natural grouping. We attempted, 
insofar as possible, to organize this program on an intra- 
mural basis. The boys themselves, at an organizational 
meeting, decided that they should pay a small registration 
fee, so that they might have some feeling of responsibility. 

At the outset of the season we anticipated having four 
teams of boys in the specified age groups. However, on the 
day that rosters were filed, we were astonished to find that 
ten teams of boys, one hundred and fifty in all, had entered. 
It was quite heart warming to see these youngsters bring- 
ing pennies, nickels, dimes, and so on, to the office and 
feeling that this was their program. 

At the organizational meeting, the policies of the recrea- 
tion commission pertaining to athletics for the group were 
discussed with the boys. They were: 

1. Teams would not be allowed a financial sponsor to 
buy uniforms or equipment. 

2. Our program was to be geared to the masses, and we 
would attempt to enroll the largest number that we could 
handle adequately. 

3. There would be no all-star teams. 

4. There would be no trophies or awards given. 

It is interesting to note that there was not one forfeited 
game throughout the ten game season. 

The participants recruited their own coaches. The 
coaches' major responsibility was to teach the boys in 
practice sessions the fundamentals of baseball. I do not 
believe that this was overemphasized. 

The boys furnished their own gloves (spikes, too, if they 
wanted them). The recreation commission furnished leader- 
ship, facilities, balls, bats and catching equipment. The 
operation of these leagues cost the recreation department 

MR. RUHE, with a M.A. in recreation from Indiana Universi- 
ty, became La Porte' 's director of recreation in July 1950. 

Robert W. Ruhe 

Park and recreation department con- 
ducts baseball school, Charleston. 

a total of $231.35 for leadership and supplies for a ten- 
week period. 

Volunteer umpires were recruited and during the sea- 
son there was no expenditure for umpiring. The leader 
was a part-time person who served as the athletic adviser. 

At the conclusion of the season the boys decided that 
they would like some celebration, so a banquet was ar- 
ranged. Each boy paid fifty cents for his meal, and the 
twenty-five cents which each boy paid at the beginning of 
the season helped to defray the cost. 

At the banquet the only recognition for accomplish- 
ments during the season was the asking of the teams, who 
won the championship, to stand and receive applause from 
those present. This was also done for leading batters. 

The values of this recreational athletic program are 
threefold: first, the most important factor is the end 
result of the activity upon the boy. Opportunities must be 
present for youngsters to participate at their own level of 
efficiency. There is so much to be accomplished in addition 
to determining a "winner." Secondly, this department, like 
most other departments, does not have an abundance of 
funds. We feel, however, that regardless of how much 
money is available this type of program is still advan- 
tageous in that volunteers can more readily interpret it 
to the community; the participants have a share of re- 
sponsibility in the planning and feel that it is "their" pro- 
gram. Third, it releases the constant dependence on local 
merchants for trophies and awards. 

As a result of this experience, last fall found us besieged 
with constant requests to organize basketball leagues on 
the same basis. 

APRIL 1952 


Children should experiment with variety of materials. Arts and 
crafts are a daily part of Asheville, N. C., recreation program. 

"Why will the child desert his play 
The craftsman's work to see? 
Something uilhin him latent still 
Whispers, 'Work waits for ni>-.'' 

Tm:-t: MUHIIS were copied in my first craft notebook. 
although 1 know not who wrote them. Nearly e\.i\ 
craft teacher frequently hears the equivalent of the follow- 
ing n-iii.irk: "No. I don't want to play a game, 1 am going 
In nurk." Crafts often mean work to children, not in the 
- of laborious toil. but in its fuller meaning. 

Our hrl venture in crafts found our youngsters hys- 
Icricallv land I use the word advisedly) eager to make 
something quick!) and run home with it. No conception 
of ( rafiMiian-hip. no idea of patience, no notion of one 
process following another to create form and l>eauty was 
present. Indiv development i- expected, hut there is 
a group development, a craft consciousness that come- only 
over a |>criod of vears. 

\fler six years of ups and downs in a , itv of eighteen 
thousand. He e.|ahlihfd a craft renter, where three hun- 
<lre.l ,111,1 fiflv register. -.1 for summer classes, and had 
facilities for preparing five hundred and liflv p[<.je, is p.-r 
wrek for us- .in id,- cilv's s.-v.-n plavgrund>. >atmd.iv 
classes for -event* -live and vacation classes for an aver 
of right* were held, leadership training sessions Iwi,. 
>rar were atlernleil l.v eighlv p -,,,-, M | classes for 

,t- III and many small leader training meclr 
I'.irl of the program, \dult interest showed lc.nlv growth. 
and seven to ten adult classe. wen- held werklv. In addi- 
lion, five local organizations added craft classes to il 
program, utilizing as Ira- -her-, ih..c ),., had l-en .lud.-ni- 
in the craft classes at the renter. 

Mio. \\ MI r SKY, formerly artt and i-m/n nn,l ,,-, r.;,i,,>n ,li- 
r i/i Rutland, is with thr Kuilun,! f,irl .s, , , ,,/. 


Our basement has a shop equipped for woodworking, a 
paint corner, and in the assemhlv hall, tables where many 
activities may be carried on simultaneously. Our attic 
holds a wealth of scrap material supplies as well as pur- 
chased ones. 

Our summer program includes classes in: woodworking, 
finishing wood and plaster, decorating and design, sketch- 
ing, kindergarten, primarv crafts, flower arrangement, 
met-.'.lcrafl. leathercrafl. individual project time. At all 
times, there are self-directing projects available, such as 
(he making of woven pot holders. Hon Ami painting, pine 
dolls, and so on. Each season the emphasis i> different. 
With all of these classes available, however, the children 
on the playgrounds still need crafts brought I., them. It was 
nece-sarv. therefore, to plan a program of playground 
crafts which would not overburden the playground in- 
structor, which would not require a shop setup and which 
would cost very little money. 


I ii-t of all. for each playground, we constructed a craft 
cupboard made of inch pine, four and one-half feet tall. 
three feet wide, twentv inches deep, with three shelves 
eight, twelve and sixteen inches wide. The front is remova- 
ble, fitting across the lop to act ,i> .1 \ ha-p and pad- 
lock hold il at the top. The conslrucii.ui ,,,st. including 

finishing with w Islain. was >T>.o(> per cupboard, while 

the equipment and materials for each averaged jl.2n. 

r'urclu-ed materials for crafts proje. t- averaged nine 
dollars per plavground. or Sc>.S.<U for the seven ground-. 
\lo-t of this was spent for sponge and lanvard material. 
\\.ilfi i o|oi paints. pa|M-r. and felt for banners. 

On the lop shelf of each cupboard we placed a knife 
b..\ the- Ivpe s,,|,| in the dime tOTM. Clinch |..,xe held 

I'M'-. I'u-li lack* 

! ami niii-kini; lipr 
MBMf runrnl. lilirrv | 

'!' Kf - iuon 
1I..HI. in.i.l.- ruler* 
~iv IKHP. of rrayoiu 
l'< n< iN ,-incl rriMTt 

null hammer and can 

i--irti-i| mil. 
Saw and blade* 


I'aprr pun. h 



Hour for paste. Iwrlvp pair 

I'i> tnii|H-ra painl*. t,l\. 
mall hru-li, -. -i\ .,n. -in. -li 


' -MM,, -l.rlbr and alco- 


Viva Whitney 

Sandpaper, steel wool 
Paper cups and plates 
Needles and threads 

Cloths and newspapers 


Assorted ribbons and yarns 

The place for each tool or container was marked, by draw- 
ing the shape of the object and printing the word under it. 

If the budget had permitted, we would have added to 
each outfit the following: a paper cutter, pinking shears, a 
few leather tools, tin snips, small vises, mallets and molds 
for metal work. 

The next step was to make a list of projects for the 
playgrounds. Materials had to be inexpensive, something 
a teacher with no special crafts training could teach suc- 
cessfully and, for the most part, one-session projects. 

Things We Made 

This was our list for the year, varied, of course, by the 
instructor on each ground according to the age of the 
children, their natural interests, and the instructor's own 
ability and experience: 

Indian bead rings 
(beads from donated 

Textile painted T-shirts 
(stencil with playground 
name each child furnish- 
ing a T-shirt) 

Twisted copper wire brace- 

Sponge rubber objects of all 
sorts, including model 
playground layouts 


Leather bookmarks 
Leather wallets 
Braided leather belts 

(leather scrap from glove 


Playground banners of felt 
Lanyards and bracelets from 

Wooden napkin rings 
Wooden games checkers 

and boards 

Paper objects: 

"Woven mats 

Double woven baskets 

Three kinds paper chains 

Catstairs flowers 




Pine dolls 

Drinking cups 
Stuffed animals 
Easel-type pictures 
Can rubber pictures 
Lace paper doily designs 
Sunbonnet walking dolls 
Mother Goose dolls 

Each of these projects was processed at the craft center 
and distributed at the weekly staff meetings. By processed. 
I mean that all materials for a project were collected in 
units of ten ready for presentation to the class. 

Taking the woven mats, for example, this involves: ten 
shirt cardboards for foundations; ten pieces of wallpaper, 

cut the size of the shirt cardboard with the slits cut; 
weaving strips cut for the weavers. To these the instructor 
adds from her cupboard: newspapers, paste, brushes, shel- 
lac and she is ready to proceed. 

We divided our materials in packets of ten for a reason. 

Nine-year old Billy Wond, Decatur local playground young- 
ster, weaving belt in crafts demonstrations at State Fair. 

The leader with a small playground would take perhaps 
two units, while a large playground could take seven. De- 
pending on large or small attendance on a particular day, 
the units could be sent to the playground needing them. 

Children under twelve do not want to spend eight or ten 
weeks becoming proficient in any specific craft. They want 
and need to experiment with all sorts of materials, learning 
their possibilities and limitations. We try to provide the 
following selection of materials. All of these cannot be used 
on the open playground, but all are available at the craft 
center: paper; leather; wood; plaster; oil and water color 
paints; good pictures; plastic; metal; shells; stains, var- 
nishes and enamels. 

Both the instructors at the center and the ones on the 
playgrounds must have clear objectives before they present 

APRIL 1952 


.my project ti> a group of children, In- il rvrr so .w/i />/<. 
If the leader doe- nut have objectives dearl] in mind, it is 
l-ctter I" -uhMilule some other acti\ itv . 

\\ hat \Ve Set Out to Do 
I here are two sets of objectives tin- child'- and the 

Ir.lilrl '-: 

Child's: ill He needs the article in his play or work: 
' _' v* ishe* l<> make a gift for someone; (3) enjoys the crea- 

"\Vrite in your niincl 
and heart the fact 
that the material 
molds the child." 

nr the thrill of c\|>ci -imenting with a new media. 
Teacher's: Vary with each project, but fall under the 
following general headings: (1) To develop originalitv : 
(2) to encourage careful workmanship; (3) to ensure 
-ucce |,y careful, wise guidance, without destroying 
originality. N>mc of the aims in specific projects are as 
follow-: ill design and application. i2) color harmon\. 
cutting. (4i folding, i ~> i mounting, (6) use of ad- 
hesive-. iTl shape and form. (Ill limitation- cif materials, 
harmony cif form, design and material. 

OnK a -in. ill part of the total handcrafl project- at- 
tempted in a c itv are i-arricd on by the recreation depart- 
nii nt or an organi/ed craft center. Scouts, 4-11. Junior 
Catholic Daughters, adult women's group-. Sunda\ schools 
.md ..ili. i- have many such projects during the year. 
'lln-11-foir. we have found that the greate-l -cr\ ice that ean 
IM- rendered in our community i- to provide: 
I. l-cader training fc.r iln--e groups. 

line c,f -uppK fur coiisiihation- and information 
on nv ( ilic project. 

' Cooling of orders to ohtain necessary -upplics that 
..flii! 1. 111 ! ..I. I. lined onK in large <|uantit\. 

|. depot where -i i a p -iipplie- may be Mmed. 
--d and re di-tril.iilcd. 

I \hil.iiioiit. movies and material- cm the- ever in 
rrramg niiriil-r cif new project, .ind materials available. 
teaching, at the tamr time, the fundamental values in 

Volvi d 

6. An awarrnrw and desire I" i- n h the ncgl 
groii|M> ihr agn-l, the i rippleil. the homelioimd child or 

The < lulil Is the Material 
Take all of the** 1 f<l-.r inl" < onideratiiin: then, write 

on your mind and heart these words: "It is not what the 
child does to the material that is important, lint what the 
material does to the child." I'sually the child or adult who 
take- an inten-c interest in craft- i- more of an introvert 
than an extrovert. All well and good, you -ay. \\e'll help 
him. with craft-, to become Ix-tter liulain cd. ^ e.. \ou will 
if you consciously rccogni/c the fact that you imi-t not. 
dare not. work for i|iiality and piodiiction alone, hut onl\ 
for cjuality and production as it develop- the individual. 

Craft projects can. with thought, he related to social n I- 

and responses: craft clas.-e- al-o can provide -oc ial con- 
t.ic i- and hroadening social inlere-t-. 

What do I mean? 1-cl's lake our little folks on a plav- 

ground. \\ e plan to color paper doilies and napkin- 

of the simplest things we do. The children who want to do 
il are the small ones, the sh\ ones. ,md often the- hackward 
ones. If they color the napkins and doilies and take them 
home that is that. They have learned a bit about color, 
design and careful handwork. Hut if iln-v use tho.-c -ami' 
doilies and napkins to entertain their mothers at tea. they 
have had a social experience. If they send a package of 
the doilies to a sick child, or show a sick child how to make 
them, they have shared their interest with othci-. us consider an adult metalcraft class. In a . l.i of 
thirty, many will have taken up this work to satisfy some 
need, perhaps to find release from strains or tensions in 
their personal lives. It is well to become an exjx-rt silver- 
-inith. hut most of these people do not de-ire tin-. If. in 
addition to cla-s instruction, the class puts on exhihit-. 
meets socially with other group- with similar inlere-t-. if 
the members feel lliem-cKc- re-jionsible for helping their 
c.n group and other group-, he-ides working as indi- 
v.diial-. then the project is worthwhile. 

Creative experience is one of our basic need-. More and 
more-, specialization lakes away from us the opportunity 
for cicalivene-s in our exerydav liv ing. Organi/ed group 
aclhils i- the an-wer to tlii- need. 

If we needed proof of inlcre-t in llie field of ciafl-. the 
hook-tore- would supply il. Six veai- ago. one had to 
-eaidi for a book on handcrafls. Todav. the' hook-lore 
-helve - display many fine one-. Library record- -how crafl 
hocik- called for frequently, and often then- aie waiting 
h-l- for new ones. This is a trend of the limes -old as 
lime il-clf hut with new approachc-. new and new 


One of the grc.ite-l service- ,i i.. n.ilion department can 
render a community i- to furnish leader. -hip. , .In. alum .md 
I. nice -o thai the expcricnc cs of l.oth children and adults 
in thi- field mav he full, rich and inlegr alcd. Tin- fo<i||i.ill 
h<.y-. mc-inliers of the aic hc-ry class, the dancing class, the 
hiker-, the hicyc I, c Ink tec n lowner- to goldec ips. 

all h.ivc- in-ill- the i -raft piogiam can (ill for them. 
I ten the boys who Morn anything but boxing like to 
make their own I -hut- with appropriate Idler- and ii-ing textile p. mil 

liu .Hhvilic- yn-ld -inh direct .md immediate -lali-f.ii 
lion-, vet h.ive. at the -.inn- time, -inh potential value for 
building happier people and a better -..IM-IV. 



Boys in every state like fishing. Above, prize winner for the best 
Becky Thatcher outfit, Torrington recreation department fish derby. 

17 OR A NUMBER OF YEARS the San Jose recreation de- 
3 - partment was concerned about the fact that it had con- 
ducted very little in the way of such out-of-door activities 
as conservation, hiking, camping, fishing, and so on. 

In 1949, therefore, the department opened "Rustic 
Lands" day camp for youngsters and the response from 
the community in the way of registration for camp at- 
tendance was excellent. Many individual playgrounds 
also initiated hiking programs, with outdoor cooking and 
nature study features; but even so, little or nothing was 
done about conservation activities and fishing programs 
were non-existent. 

Then, early in 1950 the department received a communi- 
cation from Better Fishing, Incorporated, Chicago, Illi- 
nois. (See September 1950 issue of RECREATION. Ed.) 
It learned for the first time, that the main purpose of that 
organization is to assist communities in introducing to 
youngsters the joys and highly satisfactory recreational 
benefits of fishing. Better Fishing, Incorporated, was 
prepared to give, without cost, to every city that would 
sponsor a youth fishing program, four complete fishing 
outfits, consisting of a casting rod, line, reel, hooks, arti- 
ficial bait in the way of plugs and other lures. These, 
of course, were to be used by the sponsoring city for 
awards in the juvenile fishing rodeo which would be held 
in connection with the program. 

A date for a juvenile fishing rodeo was immediately 
set, for a Saturday in May, at the Stevens Creek Reservoir 
about fifteen miles from San Jose. The superintendent of 
recreation, an avid fisherman, and Wilbur Knudtson, "Fish 
and Game" writer of the San Jose Mercury Herald, got 
in touch with representatives of the San Jose Sportsmen, 
the San Jose Nimrods, the San Jose Rod and Gun Club 
and the president of the Willow Glen Lions Club. The four 
organizations agreed to contribute one hundred fifty dol- 
lars in cash to be used in defraying expenses for trans- 
portation to the reservoir, bait and other necessities, and 

MR. BRAMHALL, who is the "avid fisherman' of the article, 
is superintendent of recreation in San Jose, California. 

Young Anglers 

Frank W. Bramhall 

to supply fifteen to twenty volunteers each, to assist in 
supervising the program and to act in the capacity of 
fishing instructors. 

The program was set up according to Better Fishing, 
Incorporated, regulations; registration blanks were run 
in the columns of the San Jose Mercury and the San 
Jose News; and the big event officially got under way. 

On the great day, the boys were met by the committee 
in charge of the program, and one adult volunteer leader 
was placed in charge of every four boys. Fishing tackle 
was provided for those who did not have it. Bait, includ- 
ing fishing worms and salmon eggs, was distributed; sites 
along the face of Stevens Creek Dam were assigned to each 
fishing group; two first aid stations with two qualified 
attendants were set up by the recreation department; five 
life guards, one of whom worked from a boat off shore 
and four from positions across the face of the dam, were 
assigned to their stations; the wily trout all scurried for 
cover; and the young anglers were off. 

Long before noon the gigantic lunch which each boy 
had brought to assuage the pangs of a typical American 
boy appetite, had disappeared, along with the two hundred 
half-pints of milk that were provided by the program 

At three o'clock, the persevering anglers reluctantly 
stopped fishing and assembled at the fishing rodeo head- 
quarters on top of the reservoir for the judging of the 
catches. Well, would you believe it? With two hundred 
boys fishing under the expert guidance of the volunteer 
sportsmen leaders, how many trout were caught? Exactly 
four! Boy, those local trout are plenty smart. 

The San Jose recreation department feels that the Bet- 
ter Fishing rodeo was one of the best recreational activi- 
ties that has ever been conducted in this area. Forget- 
ting the number of fish caught, two hundred boys were 
taught how to assemble their tackle, had a whole day in 
the out-of-doors, received expert instruction from local 
sportsmen, went home with terrific appetites. They were 
taught something about, and really practiced, conserva- 
tion because they wanted to catch only enough trout to 
make it possible to award the prizes legally. They are 
now bitten by the fishing bug and will probably be the 
best storytellers in Santa Clara Valley. 

Since then, one trip each month has become a regular 
part of the recreation program in San Jose during the 
summer season. 

APRIL 1952 





Doreen O. Kirkland 

EVENTS conducted during the summer play- 
ground season at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were indeed 

In the past, special events were held according to the 
"ni'.rr tin- merrier" theory, but in recent years stress has 
licen pla< cd DII i Pinlucting fewer events hut of tin- "bigger 
and In-Hcr" variet-.. 

U. .ill know that man) activities are "tagged" special 
event. when thcv ar<- mercK loutme and should !>< part 
of a well balanced daily or weekly program. Storytelling, 
drain. ill' -. inuic, crafts, even routine activities ;in- oftrn 
lost in the shuffle of tin- < <>iiiinnii- |ir<-|>.ir.itinii for the 
next |*f ial a< tiv ilv. 

In 1949 a curtailment of tin- number of event*. -.n li 
local plat ground conducted wa- \l llir close of 
that season, these were evaluated, showing that the organi- 
Ution of I he events had improved over ihe prev iou*> \e.ii. 
hut that tho-w whirh had U-en < ondui led were "-hop 

At ihr beginning of the next Mirniner season, a* a 
further Mcp t'iH.ird improved |>e. activities. an ap- 

\l TIIOR 11 tn;/vi nor of recrealinn irnlrn m Oak Ridff. 


Oak Ridge, Tennessee, locale of United States Atomic 
Energy Commission, takes steps to raise the level of 
playground special events. 

proved list of fourteen events was given to the playground 
leaders at our annual five day workshop, with instruc- 
tions that three events should be conducted. The approved 
list consisted of: All Wheels Day, Fashion Show. Frog 
Jumping Contest, Joseph Lee Day, Horse Show. Indian 
Pow-Wow, Kiddie Karnival, Little Brother and Sister 
Show. Mother Goose Party, One-Act Plays, Dressed up 
Pet Show, Quizz Show, Tagged Fish Rodeo and Turtle 
Derby. This list was compiled as a means of getting play- 
ground directors to plan events requiring organization 
and forethought. New ideas were readily accepted if thev 
appeared to have general appeal to several age group-: 
therefore, originality was not curtailed- among playground 
leaders. In addition lo these activities, there were three 
annual citv-wide events: the Junior Olvmpics. the Art- 
and Crafts Exhibit, and the Playground Circus, held in 
mid-summer, the ninth and last week respectively. 

The approved list was accompanied by a special event 
form containing fifteen pertinent questions which had to 
be completed and turned in to the central office one week 
in advance of any scheduled activity. This gave the super- 
visory staff time to go over the completed form, ask ques- 
tions and make suggestions. The purpose of this form 
was to aid the playground staff in planning for their 
event: t<> help them determine in their own minds the 
problems and steps necessarv in planning a successful spe- 
cial activ il\ . 

Holding fewer special events resulted in more cntlm-i- 
asm on the part of the \oungsters in preparing for the 
1-xenN. increased participation and improved parental 

Many playgrounds, with DOticeable -IK < -e . . held c\ent> 
in addition to those specified, among them scavenger 
hunt-, slunt nights, hat shows, and so on. 

Seven playgrounds conducted dressed up pet -lio\s-i 
llirce. little brother and -i-ter -hows; three, kiddie kar- 
ni\aU: three, all wheels n>deo>: two. Indian |>"\\ w<iw-: 
one each, Joseph Lee celebration, musical extravaganza, 
button contest, and kraz\ kolxmpics. The latter three 
wen- ni i>n the specified li-t but wen- j;i\en the "go- 
ahead" In the supeiM-.M -laff. 

As an added attraction, movie* wen- -howii at dark 
evcrv other week at each of the pLiv ground-. 

A more enriched dailv piogram developed from this 
planning, with creative .iclivitir- -haling honors in popu- 
larilv with the leagues and tournament*'. *-perial evcnl- 
ceawd being unpleasant chore- to both leaders and 
hililten and Ix-came fun and exciting to pirp.ire for and 
!. p.niicipale in w holc-hcart'-dl*. 

Handbill!) advertising their own -pecial event- were 
prepaid! bv thr due. t.. i- .,f all plavgrounds. F.ach play- 

Hi i HI vil<>\ 

Form Filled Out by 
Playground Directors 
Recreation Department 1950 

1. What arp von Cdllina vftiir Snprinl Fvpnt? 



Onto Hour 

Arp you using adult volunteers? 

In what capacity? 



What are their names? 
Full Name Address 


What propprt'ps arp you using? (list) 







Is your event scheduled at a good hour for parents 

tn nttpnrl? 

Are you using any of the following mediums 
Handbills 3 PlararrU 

to adver- 

Are you having a Community Sing before 

the event 

What duties do you have for your Junior Leaders? 


Does the event answer these questions? New- 


ground contributed an act to the annual city-wide events. 

Among Events Chosen 

Kiddie Karnival This presented unlimited possibilities 
and was a real playground project. All age groups were 
interested. The older boys constructed booths, which were 
gaily decorated by girls and younger children. Games of 
skill were set up to form a large circle similar to a midway. 
Paper hats and Hawaiian leis were made by the children 
to be given as prizes at the bingo booth. Leg toss, spear- 
ing corks, bean bag toss, weight lifting, hit the pins, bounc- 
ing ball, nail driving and weight guessing (on bathroom 
scales) and other guessing games were conducted. Bark- 
ers kept the crowd moving from one booth to another. 
Score cards were given each participant and attendants 
at the booths tallied their scores as they played. Small 
prizes were awarded to high scores in the various age 
classifications. Participation of both children and parents 
was very good. 

Indian I'ow-Wow A village of decorated teepees, made 
from brown wrapping paper and small trees, was placed 
in a circle. Indian music, as a background, was played 
on a record player. Several !><>\s beating on tom-toms 
which were constructed in craft class opened the event. 
A medicine man had the place of honor in front of the 
largest teepee. Indian dances, selection of an Indian chief 
and princess, pony race, tug-of-war. judging of best 
dressed, most savage, best squaw and smallest Indian were 
conducted. The event was an ideal activity for boys and 

girls twelve years and under. It was also an excellent 
spectator activity for parents. 

All Wheels Day or All Wheels' Rodeo A large crepe 
paper wagon wheel was constructed, with contestants in 
each classification circling inside of the rim of the wheel. 
Judging of the various classes of decorated wheels in- 
cluded: bicycles, tricycles, wagons, scooters, doll buggies, 
even a wheelbarrow and a lawn mower. Tricycle and doll 
carriage races climaxed the program. The event appealed 
to all age groups and was both colorful and a good specta- 
tor activity. 

Krazy Kolympics The Krazy Kolympics followed a 
"track-meet" theme, and was a good activity for a crowd 
wanting lots of action. Children were divided into equal 
numbers of teams, and each team was given a color. 
Scores were recorded on a large score board, and the 
winning team was presented with a watermelon. This 
activity appealed to boys and girls under twelve years 
of age. A few of the events were: discus throwing, using 
paper plates: shotput, using blown up paper bags; stand- 
ing broad grin, measuring the biggest smile; javelin 
throw, using toothpicks: Softball throw, with small balls 
of cotton; fifty-yard dash, with strings fastened to wall, 
other end in contestants mouth, hands behind back, chewed 
until nose touched wall; two hundred twenty-hurdle, eating 
cracker and whistling; one hundred yard dash suitcase 

Little Brother and Sister Show This activity had less 
appeal to all age groups, but twelve and under youngsters 
were proud to show baby brothers and sisters. Babies were 
divided into three age groups: up to nine months, ten to 
eighteen months, and nineteen months to four years of age. 

Babies were judged on the following: brightest eyes, 
happiest, most tears, most dimples, fattest, daintiest, most 
personality, most rugged boy, daintiest girl. Certificates 
were awarded to winners in each age classification. 

Dressed Up Pet Show Rings were set up for each clas- 
sification and novel ways of decorating brightened and 
gave color to the event. Prior advertising of the classes 
increased originality among the children in dressing their 
pets. Birds, dogs, cats, rabbits, white mice, turtles, gold- 
fish, alligators, hamsters came dressed as cowboys, cow- 
girls, babies, football players, and so on. A splendid 
turnout of children and adults appeared at every show. 

Tents made and dec- 
orated by children, 
part of crafts pro- 
gram in Alexandria, 
would be just right 
for a "pow-wow." 


The cooperative machinery, which each \r;ir produces tin- National 
Recreation Congi.---. i- now being assembled so work may begin on 
the I'>."i2 model which will be displaxe.l in Seattle. Washington, Sep- 
tember 29 to October 3. 

I 'iinil. in all congress planning are the committees, which 
llii- \i-ar will include a national advisory committee, district advisory 
committee, a local arrangements committee, an executive's advisory- 
committee and a rural advisory committee. Other committees may be 
appointed, if needed. 1 a ist with problems of special meetings. 

The National Advisory Committee includes representatives from the 
main social interests which find a home at the congresses. Those who 
have thus far agreed to serve on this year's committee are: 

H. T. Abbott, Superintendent of Parks, 

Paul V. Brown. Superintendent of Paik-. 

Mu* Theresa Chicsa, Recreation Super- 
lleparlinent nf Rei reation, I Inn IT. 
ae Hjelte, General Manager, Depart- 
ini-nl nf lli-< realioii ;iinl Parks, lx>s Angele-. 

Dr. John I . llulchin-on, \--oeiale Pmfe-- 
>!. I >. |. nf Health Education and 
Ph\ Kdiii-alinii. College, Co- 
liimlii.i I'nitci.iix. N.w "iork. 

David M. I-angkamin, r, >uperintendent of 
MliHina, I'. mi-* Kania. 

Martin \l. Nailing, .li-. Dii.Tlm n[ K 
lion and Secretary to the Board of Park 
I iiMiiiiiinii'T-, Kurt Wayne. Indiana. 

I I I'.irkiT. \ilinini-li. itixc Supervisor, 
In. lii-ni. il It. I. iii. .n-, Callaway 
Mill- Conipanx. I.a<. range. C-corgia. 

Mi- hi. mi,- M. Parri-h. DhrUaa "I !.' 

.IM-lllle. KiTlllli kv 

Mi- li'ntli I !' I, i n. in. Mai.- 

l'rk and I!. .T..IIIOII Coniim--ioii. M. a |||e. 


Ur Durii W. Plewe-. \--i-l.ini hm.Ior <d 
1 1. |,.iilnn TII MJ National 
ll..ilili ami Welfare. Ottawa, Ontario. Cana- 

\ Hewiol.l-. llm i im -i( Ite.rcalion 
ami I'.irk-. Kirliiiinnd. \ H 

"M KlMIIIH-v. Chi. f. < iHllllllimlX 5< 

Kramli. *>p. -.MI,., Dni-n.n. I 
.1 tin \iiin. Wj-hmglon. I' ' 

i SarniMin. Ix-.iilm Ihn, ii.i. 
erratum Pnimnlinn .nl S ' Imini: 

Inn. Dclawarr. 

(' I. Soprrinlendrnl nml 

I nf I'nrk ' \ HI 

iii-h < ..liiinl.i i. Canada. 
II I ..r, ).-.. i, I In- 1 I: 

ning I 1 iiional Park ""im. . \\.i-li 

n, k -i. I i i 

Mil', till I.I 

r and 
Mli-H Dn-a~-. Ni- ^i>rk 

Mr. Prr| Wanamakrr. Stal' n. 
irnd'ni of I'nlilii lnlrin ii..n. I >' 


The District Advisory Committee. 
which will give special attention to 
matters relating to the general area in 
which the Congress will he held, con- 

The Committee of Executives to plan 
the special sessions for exe< uli\es: 

R. B. McClintock, Omaha, N.l.ia-ka 

Homer D. Abbott, Grand Forks, North 

R. K. \ndcr-on. Richland. Washington. 

Eugene I_ Karnviell. Alexandria. Virginia. 

Mi-- \irginia Carinicliacl, Atlanta. 

Pat (.minor-. \na< Montana. 

John II. Grain, Jr.. Portland. Maim-. 

Chail.- \V. llaM-. l!,ik,-lrv. 

John Downing. New *1 ork. 

Alvin Kggeling. Ilklahonia <!ily. 

John Karina. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 

K. P. Hartl, I-a Crosw. Wisconsin. 

Kran.T- Hail/. -II. I Iliamlier-lmrg. Pnin->l- 

Vini-cnl J. Hi-lii-rt. Pitt-field. Ma-a. hu 

Mi-. Marjorie Milne. Yanioin.-r. l!riti-h 
i ..I inn liia. Canada. 

K. S. Richler. Pontiac. Michigan. 

Paul S. Roc, Salt Lake County, I'tah. 

lii-MTK S. Sheffield. All-till, I . 

The Rural Advisory Committee in- 
cludes the following rural leadei-: 

Mi-- Jessalee Mallalieu. Idcri-alioi 
ciali-t. Oregon State College, Corvallift, Ore- 

Miss Lucille H. Moore, Recreation 

riali-t. Agricultural Exten-ion Serxii 
lege Station. Texas. 

Hi. K. J. Nii-dcrfrank. Kxlen-ion Rural 
>ocitdoL;i-t. I nited Male- 1 lepart inent of Ag- 
riculture. Washington. 1 1. ('.. 

Mi-. Ruth Radir, Exten-ion Ml Cluli Sp.-. 
ciali-t. State College of Washington. Pull 
man. Washington. 

I'.ni K\an-. Director of Rrcrralion, Seattle, 

\\ .l-lllll^loll. 

k, iinrtli Fowell, Superintendent of Rec- 

I..IIHHI. i.n-ai !. ill-. Montana. 

TUMI I .ml/. MipiTiiilrndiTit of Public Rcr- 
i. ilion. Taconia. \\ u-liiii|:tiin. 

Mi-- a I in-ili. Din-cior of Recrea- 
tion. Portland. (Ir.-^iin. 

(!arl >. Mun-iiii. Cil\ Rrcrration Ilin-rinr. 

Mn-ro. Idaho. 

>. (.. \\illrr. Rrcrration SuprrintiTidiTil. 
"p'ikaii. . \\a-hiiiKlon. 

The Local Arrangement! Committee 

which will help \\ork out details of the 
Ci>njire>> which pailii iiLiiU loiicern 
Seattle, ha- .1- memliei-: 

Ullfll (illtlrr. Kxrcilln. (Itln. r. >cllool of 

Pli\ and Health aln.n. 1 1. partincnt 
Im Mm. I ni\iT-il\ "I \\ v '.i"l' 

I'., i, Ivan-. Hiri'i-loi of Rci iralion. >callli- 
I liairinani. 

William J. (.oldi-n. Manayii. |..iint and 
( OHM nil. Hi llrp.irtim nl. Si-alllr Miami..! ..i 

Ur. \oriiian K kiiml. . \--...iii. I 

i ..... I ,.! Pin -i. al nil. I II. allli ! 

lion. DfparliniTil for Mm. I IHMT-IU of 
\\ a-liiii;-l..ii. "oalllr. 

\\ llll.lin It. POII. I. >upiTi !->!. R 

miuion. Srattlr. 

\ 1 1 - ..n I >ii.. I.. i of H. , i. an. n. 


\\ illi.iMi -|.. i.l. I .i.linini-iialivr ailanl 
lo ih< niiiMir of Sralllr. 

Koli'it I MrplnTi*. SuprrinletideiH of 

Kinu < >iiinl\. 
Wai' T Seattle. In.or 


I. .lin H. Vandi-r/i. III. I'm. l..i. latr Park* 
mid Rn rraiinn ( 'ommiion. >-attlr. 

Have \oii sent ill your suggestions 
for the Congress? Please help the 
-e\eial committee-. h\ sharing with 
them \our own idea-, \ildre MUM 
suggestions concerning topic- fm 
ili-ru ion. program participants, 
special features to T. K. |{i\ei-. . 
retan. liecieation Congfes- Coin- 
mill. . .?!."> Fourth Avenue, New 
V.rk In. 

Special Trip? 

The Kockies. both Ameiican and 
Canadian, and other mountain ranges; 
Yellowstone, Glacier and "ttiei nation- 
al park-: the wheat country: the "Bad 
I .ami-:" Unimex illc and Grand Colllei- 
.lam- the latter the large-l man-made 
attraction in the world: tli.-e ,ir. -nine 
of the wonders of nature and of man 
that delegates can see on their w.ix in 
the CnniMe . 

I In- < "tigress Comtnittee wnul.l like 
In |- a- helpful as p.i il.le to |ii..-pe. 
live deli-gal.--. I- then- am iiil.Te-l in a 
-pe. i.illx ananged train trip l Seattle, 
originating al -<>me point, -in li 
.1- ( In. .ig..'.' Would -nine nlher Mart- 
ing point be beller .' \\ milil ,|. I. 
like to meet and ttaxel logell). \V : 
\ ..:i |dea- write |.> u ami let n- kn.,w .' 

in Ml. IN 

This year's show will be held during the week of the National 
Recreation Congress in Seattle. Delegates will be invited to attend. 



Arthur G. Scott 

Part of fine arts section of show. Boeing em- 
ployees later staged full-scale fine arts exhibit. 


T WAS A FINE SHOW, and I've seen a lot of them," stated A. F. 
Logan, vice president industrial relations of Boeing Airplane 
Company, after viewing the employee-initiated hobby show held late 
last winter in the company's huge sixteen hundred seat cafeteria. 
The largest show of its kind in Boeing history, it was witnessed by 
27,652 employees, their families and friends during its fire-day run. 

Larry Popp, chairman of the employee committee which organized 
and presented the show, explained that one of the principal jobs 
entailed in planning the exhibit was the classifying of entries. 

"We decided early in the game to limit the entries to thirteen dif- 
ferent divisions," Popp said. "It was a good thing we did because our 
entries ranged from a forty-eight-foot wingspread sailplane, that an 
employee flew as a hobby, to a crocheted tablecloth entirely made by 
an employee while riding to and from work on a bus. 

"If we hadn't set the tight classification rule, none of us doubts that 
each of the one hundred six employees who registered a total of one 
hundred twenty-nine exhibits would have considered his entry in a 
class by itself." 

Other exhibits included a Ming tree (the committee classed this as 
handcraft rather than horticulture on the tenth ballot), a 
twenty-four-foot sail boat, a ninety-eight-year old marine 
chart of a portion of Puget Sound and a wide range of 
scale and operating model airplanes, boats and trains. 

The committee awarded attractive gold cups in addition 
to ribbons for first, second and third place division win- 
ners. They also presented a gold cup to the sweepstakes 
winner Norm Hood, whose ten wheeler Pennsylvania 
G-5 steam locomotive was adjudged the finest exhibit in 
the show. His locomotive is thirty inches long, is oper- 
able at one hundred pounds steam pressure, and weighs 
one hundred eighteen pounds. Hood said that the minia- 
ture represented 6,735 hours of spare time labor. 

Not a single exhibit was lost or damaged during the 
entire run of the show. This, despite the fact that many 
rnl lies were displayed on open tables and not behind 
sliour;ises. Popp attributed this success largely to the 
elloils of the exhibitors themselves who acted as hosts 
and hostesses during every moment that the show was 

MK. SCOTT is the company's capable recreation coordinator. 

Radio controlled sailboats, yachts and a 
fireboat drew best attention of the show. 

Above typical crowd shows popularity of this 
event. Largest crowds visited it at lunchtime. 

Exhibit laid out in shape of a "U" in blocked 
off portion of Boeing's 1600-seat cafeteria. 



Lou Evans 


Seattle is a city girdled by water. To the east then- 
are ihr cold. clni|i|i\ -t retches of Puget Sound, the deep- 
water harbor that put? the city high on tin- list of import 
and export tonnages. To the west there is the vast ex- 
panne of take Washington, fifty miles in circumference. 

-mack in the middle of the city, like a dropped emerald, 
i- (irecn l^ike. \rouild it.- three-mile i In iimfereiiee are 

two bathing beaches, the (|uarter-million dollar Aqua 
I hratrc, a bicycle path and iniiumeral>le pienir 

An ill mil training program of park department ensures 
a high degree of safety on tin- miini(i|>al bathing benches. 

I In- lake is a -iimnn-r mecea for youngsters and their par- 

II i-. then, little VM.nder >eallli- i- ( i-l IM-I irninp 
the w.iter --purl- i of tin- nation. The ariniiul Seufair 

ten d.iv- of i i\ ic whoopee center- on aipialn- The 
I'l'il (told (.up lr"|ih\ -pei-dl>ii.i| i.i >H-|I| on Lake 

\\.i-liinglon. The world-champion I niver-ilx of \\a-hing- 
Imi crew- work out on the lake. The .hori-line- of the 
lake and I'up-t >..uml ,ir<- dotted with l>oal n 
When (he wind i in the right ipi.iilei tin- < iU i- -urroiind- 
ill l>\ I'.illooiiing -.til- and lo.iiin^- |>oat engine-. \nd I-M-M 

one goc. to the IM-.II ll. 

III virn of (he marine life of -eallli ile-. the eili/en- 
ill. ink ihr rigid -li|>er\ i.ioli of niunn l-.illnni! l.c.n In -. 

Mil I \ xx-. Inr ntnn\ 'tlllr'\ imi\lnnt ilirnlnr of 

nlinn. M m/Mino/ili- Inr ihr .^i-iilti. -nut. 

and the all-out training program of the Seattle park de- 
partment, for the fact that there are so few drowning*. 

For more than thirty years, the recreation dm-ion 
of the department has worked to make -un- that e\er\ 
youngster in the cily \\ill know the l>a-ie- of water -afi-t\. 
I nder the coaching of men like di-liict reeication super- 
\i-or Tom Sedfiwick. recenlK nominuted one of >eatlle- 
"Men of the Year." more than fift\ thousand hu\s and 
girls have learned what to do when faced with an emer- 
gency in the water. 

The city's newspapers, the Times anil the I'osl-litti'lli- 
^i-nciT. work in close cooperation with tile department on 
the program. So does the Seattle-King C.ounty chapter of 
the \meriean Hed dross. Among them, these four agem-ie- 
sponsor summer-long swim classes for youngsters under 
fifteen, and lifesa\ing classes for those o\er twelve. 

In addition, one or another of the four agencies spun- 
-oi- -wim tournaments. In a space of about eight week- 
there will lie eight ran-- one a week, with an average 
entry li-l of two hundred and hft\ Ministers. 

l!i winning shortly after school i- di-mi-scil for the 
summer, and continuing for eight week-, the I'o^t-lnlflli- 
^I'lii-tT and the park hoard -pon-m .1 -cue- .il swimming 
i I.i c-. In-tiuclioM is su|KT\ised l>\ two roxiiifi te.iihci- 
\\lio \i-il each of the ritv hi-ache- at lea-l on. c ,i week. 
Park department lifeguard* augment the teaching. \n\ 
\oiingster. from li\e to liftecii. may enroll in the classes, 
which an giadcd acconling I" al'ilils and previous train- 
ing. \ trenicndoii- suimmiiig caini\.d. with inoie than -i\ 
hlindied swimmer- entered in the twcnl\--i\ event-, 
winds up the season. 

I hi- junior and -cnior Ited < i '-- life- i\ ing i la e- fm 
tin- more advamcd -\iiiiiinii- .in inn otT at almut the 
-.inn- lime a- tin- -w miming ill e-. |Yi-,,n- h.. lini-h 
the eight week imii-e go llnoiigh a liiuil te-t invoKing 
-wiinming with clolhing on. re-< in pioiedme- and arlifi- 

i l.ll le-pil.llion. !ll.-e who p.l .lie .IW.Ilded lied < |o 

lifea\ ing i eililn ile- 

I he f.imoii. l.n-eii Lake Mile >wim. -pon-meil \>\ the 

ille / itnr< and the p.nk do. ml. i- In Id in i ..n|un< lion 

with the I'.ieiln \oilhwe-l Jimioi \.\.\ . open ih.impion- 

-hip-. < onle-i.iiil- fiom all of the l',i. ih. \oiihwe-t -l.ih - 


III I lil.XlllIX 

journey to Seattle for the two-day event. To provide the 
best possible conditions for the tourney, new concrete 
piers and cement turning bulkheads have been constructed 
at the site. Standard steel A.A.U. diving equipment is 

The city's high schools come in for a special event of 
their own. Before school begins in the fall each of the 
high schools enters teams of swimmers for an annual 
championship meet, co-sponsored by the park board, 
school board and the PTA. Upwards of four hundred 
boys and girls compete in the tournament. The winning 
team carries off the Seattle park board trophy for the 

Two community districts. West Seattle and Rainier, 
hold swim meets during the annual Seafair. These are 
open events, with awards presented by the district com- 
mercial clubs. 

Swimming and diving training is only the base for an 
elaborate program of water-safety. Sailing is an important 
recreation activity in Seattle. There are probably more 
sail and power boats per capita in Seattle than in any 
other American city. With available water space cluttered 
by hundreds of ships, an extensive knowledge of sailing 
is. a requisite for safety. Last year (1951), the park de- 
partment started two sailing clubs, one with meeting 
headquarters in Rainier fieldhouse, the other at Green 
Lake. Instruction is given at the department's Leschi 
Boat Moorage. Youngsters who want to join the clubs 
must first know how to swim. From then on, experienced 
sailors teach them the intricacies of handling small boats 
under sail in all types of weather. 

Those with a deep interest in yachting, but without the 
means to acquire boats, can join one of the model yacht 
clubs around town. There is a fine deep-water model 
yacht basin at Golden Gardens beach, and the races be- 

tween the sleek homemade models are often as exciting as 
those between expensive sloops and yawls on Lake Wash- 

Seattle is sometimes called the crew race capital of the 
world. The University of Washington crews 1936 Olym- 
pic and world champions train on Lake Washington. 
During crew season, the lake surface is dotted with the 
slim shells, skittering atop the water like giant beetles. 

To maintain the city's high standing in this arduous 
sport, junior crew clubs have sprung up. One of these, 
co-sponsored by the park department, has a neat little 
shellhouse on the shores of Green Lake. Each day, scores 
of bronzed youngsters dip their oars into the water under 
the watchful eyes of former university crew members. 

Any discussion of aquatic events in Seattle would be 
incomplete without mention of fishing. The area is laced 
with swift mountain streams, ideal breeding grounds for 
speckled trout. Puget Sound teems with steelhead and 
king salmon. The Alki Fishing Derby, with prizes for 
the largest salmon hooked, is a nationally famous event. 
So is the Alki Kids' Fishing Derby, co-sponsored by the 
park department. Children of ten and eleven often come in 
off the water toting salmon as big as themselves. 

For those who prefer the delicate art of casting, the 
department, in cooperation with the Seattle Times, holds 
a skish bait and fly casting tournament during the An- 
nual Sports Show in the civic auditorium. Men, women 
and children cast their bait or flies at targets, much as in 
a rifle competition. Winners of the various events are 
awarded trophy cups. 

Water has given to Seattle more than a booming inter- 
national trade. It has also given it year-round recreation. 
No one is so poor, and no one so rich, that he cannot 
find release from daily tensions on the lake, seawaters 
and rivers of the city. 

Swimming instruction is under 
the supervision of two roving 
teachers, who visit each city 
beach at least once every week. 

APRIL 1952 


The Photographic 

tiO" IMU i VMNC" has universal 
* appeal. Il's as common as rocks 

..ii .1 hill-id. -. ami anvonc can -u> < <--. 
full) parlii ipat. IT- .1- fa-, -mating as 
.1 -pid.-r -pinning a web. whether pur- 
-ued h> individuals or groups of any 

< |.| anil \oung alike ran have fun 
anil n-lax with tin- hobby. \\li.-lh.-r 
VOIH group centers almut the school, 
church, small neighborhood i luh. s, mil 
in.op. id.- "V. -mimi.-i . .iiii|>. i>r any 

..ill. -i .ill eiit.-i. v..ii .111 

I. uilil a iUCCClwful program which i an 
I.. ..f J.TI-.II -.-ivi. i- I.. Miur organi/ i 
linn in mnnv v 

in .in.- ..f l.-lnnl'- 
. i.inmiin it v ( eiil.-i. pholngiapliN 
-I. ill.-. I when Iwo voting l.'.v- !!.. tight 
llu it let fr tin- fun 

king a picture <>( a fm-n.l I .ii. -i. 
.1 few nn>rr . .'line in will) iam.-t.i-. 
ami tin- informal gel-logrther r.-ullril 
in omc ..rkhop ,nli\il\. \n inti-lli- 
grill .lit.-. tr -polled ihi anil wa* 
.piiik l>> ulili/.- ii Hi propovd thai 

Mi-- \\ I nut K M i>hi>l"i.rni>ln in\lrn<li>r 
al th Hi Ji s. /i.././ in !)!, ml. 


Imilfl a permanent visual record 
of their work, games and parlies, lie 
equipped a darkroom, asked for a 
\olunteer photo leader, anil the\ were 
.ill willi fun and (iliulography. 

Today, the \<\* and ^irls IKIU- 

eoxereil not only all acli\ilie- \\illiin 

llie main n-i n-alinnal center, hut are 

going into branch centers as well. 

They >li.">t I. -en-age parties, woriuhop 

groups, and "gnnsnu|)" functions, too. 

I lin-. llii- pennancnt record wlmli 

i- n-cful in man> ways is the out- 

gioulh of lo camcia I'liu- coining in 

to take a simple picture of tlicir friends. 

\nd right (here \<>u have the secret 

of -larting a -in . < fill photo group 

in any clul> or organization. ( .ipi- 

lali/e on e\i-lenl in|en-l. Ix-t the 

gioiip ilexelop naturalK li\ choosing 

it- own olijccliM--. (.i\e it a u-eful joh 

lo perform. - llial people .an -ee how 

iiiiportant their pictures are In tin- or- 

g.mi/alion. I'loxide onlv the direction 

n... to keep eiillm-ia-m and ac- 

eoiiipli-hment high, and wateh it grow ! 

Main of llie-c hohlix gioup- -I. irl 

with a eoiiiiiion inlet. --t in ju-t taking 

pn lures and enji>\ menl in -haling 

-in. ill -n.ip-linl-. > i -in h people IK-- 

i nine intcrc|ed in i aniera-. nol ju-l 
- ni\ . aiin-1.1. " lull "MH inn le'- ' aineia" 
or "m\ I'lldiK'- i-ameia." Tin- . in I"- 
the -larl of eager learning, without 
..|>\i..ii- leaching, \\hen .1 gang IM-- 
gin I" nolle.- the ditf.-i.-n. <- in < .1111 
era. len". nhultrrs and film, thai is 
\.uir '.p.-ning \< I ' 

I. [..lip p. Illl. Ip. ill. 'II in 

Irma Webber 

terest, but give the spotlight to 
individual. Let him talk about his 
camera, and show his pietures. H\ com- 
bining tact with enthusiasm at this 
point. \ou can really start the ball 
rolling. Also, you can often "-park" 
activities li\ asking ordinarv ipieslions 
to \Nhi(li main alrcad) know the- an 
-\M-I-. This will lead to olhcr i)iii'-tions 
which the \oungsters would lik. I.. 
have answered, but are often loo shy 
I., a-k. It put- .-\.-rybody on an equal 
plane. The iee i- broken and uniU i- 

One -nee . fill photo group leader 
uses a pin hole camera as a starting 
point. She gives a demonstration of 
how I., i on-tiuc t one from a < ardl'oard 
l...\. The excitement in the group is 
worth watching, espe, iallv after a pi< 
tine i- taken, developed and printed. 

Another leader a summer camp 
i oun-elor alw.iv- -tail- the fun with 
a bo\ lamcia. knowing that most of 
the clan own one. I sing a familiar tool 
give- them .1 feeling of sivurilv and 
"onene with their leader. It helps 
di anv dividing line at the time 
of shooting a picture, loiter, when 
print- an- made, the . "iniselor hopes 
ih it some will be out of f... u-. .n -how 
i.mieia movement. This will give hei 
an opporlunitv to illustrate the point 
thai it's the pel-.. n lirhiiiil I he e.imeia 

wl in. 01 i annol. control the tool. 

-in. all f the camera- u-ed bv the 
group are similar. 

I he e\peneines of this iomi-e|..i thai a g....d lead. -I should v\.nl 


7'A/s, the first in a series of three 
articles dealing with photography as 
a hobby, emphasizes its value as a 
leaching tool. The second will deal 
with getting an active photographic 
program started, while the last will 
outline the "do's" and "don't's" of 
photography JOT the recreation pro- 
gram leader. 

until she has gained the confidence and 
respect of the group, by proving that 
she can produce with a simple tool, 
before a more complicated camera is 
introduced. She has learned that it 
definitely pays up to and including 
the introduction of new cameras to 
Id the group explore the subject "as a 
group." And it is best not to give the 
advanced members more attention than 
is bestowed upon the beginners. 

If this is your first photo group, 
you'll find that different youngsters 
will learn at various rates of speed. 
Some will be contented for many weeks 
with just taking pictures. Who can 
deny there isn't great joy and satis- 
faction in that? Others will want to 
learn, in a very short time, all the 
"know-hows" of the skills involved. 

In view of these varying interests it 
is important for the leader to have a 
definite purpose in mind in addition 
to having fun. In small groups one can 
know the individuals, their wants or 
needs, and carry them along at their 
own rate of speed. When their interest 
in "know how" becomes apparent, be 

Again, there are no upper or lower 
levels. Many boys aspire to be big 
leaguers, but have fun for years pitch- 
ing a ball around, as they know they 
must grow up to accomplish this. A 
good leader will not expect profes- 
sional skill with a camera in a few 
short weeks. Growth in skill comes 
with both mental and physical develop- 
ment. Good guidance and sympathetic 
understanding, plus an abundance of 
enthusiasm, can bring this about. One 
excellent way to show them their 
growth is to keep on file a record of 
their pictures. On the back of each 
picture, give date, title, kind of camera, 
when, where and why it was taken. 

These files should be available at all 
times for individual study and com- 
parison with the latest pictures they 
are making. 

This means of instruction varies a 
bit from some of the organized pro- 
grams planned in the recreational cen- 
ters. In some of the Scout groups it 
occurs on a more or less individual 
basis. However, there are definite 
standards set up. Each Scout progresses 
at his own rate of speed. The Scout 
who works for a merit badge is given 
a set of questions. On his own, he will 
look up the answers and must be able 
to explain and demonstrate what they 
mean. Guidance is given, however, in 
where and what to explore for picture 

One Scout troop in the Detroit area 
has done surprisingly well in the short 
time they have been working with a 
camera. A large scrapbook has been 
made and filled with record shots of 
all trips. Other snapshots include se- 

An amazing thing you're likely to 
find as a result of photo activity is 
how frequently this hobby will pop up, 
perhaps to overpower another. For 
example, in a nearby small community 
several families recently started vying 
with one another in raising and dis- 
playing garden flowers. They formed 
a garden club, studied flower arrange- 
ments, even qualified as judges in local 
and regional exhibits. One day a 
camera bug sneaked into all these gar- 
dens, and later a big surprise came 
during a monthly club meeting. Repli- 
cas, in color, of all members' gardens 
were flashed on the screen. Now, they 
have many black-and-white camera en- 
thusiasts, and all experiment, working 
in color. Slides are always a part of 
their club program. Members of this 
club never travel without cameras. 
They are also reaching out for help 
from professional teachers and lec- 
turers, and often the guest speaker is 
a photographer. 

Cameras help make field trips more effective and more memorable. 


lected phases of their home and social 
life. Some very interesting pictures 
show activities at their monthly meet- 
ings when guest speakers have ap- 
peared. It is always a source of pride 
to parents when they attend these 
meetings and see the book on display. 
The picture, taken by their John, is 
enjoyed again. Guest speakers, too, are 
always pleased to be remembered later 
with pictures they receive from the 

Another wonderful outgrowth of 
photography's application to a specific 
problem came about in an art class. 
The boys and girls in this class were 
doing memory sketches of their 
parents. The teacher asked for snap- 
shots of Mother and Dad. The idea 
swept through the class in no time. A 
new bulletin board was set up for the 
snapshot display. It gave the teacher 
a yardstick for judging the sketches, 
plus some first-hand information con- 

APKII. 1952 


' .-mini: thr parents and the homes. 

But tin- portraits were only the be- 
ginning! "Our house-." "nur neigh- 
borhood." "our car." and "our pets" 
appeared in HMCeeding exhibits on the 
(..aril. The shelter theme was tackled 
iii-\i. Tin- led ^indents into other sec- 
tion- of llu- ilv. to neighborhood:- far 
different from their owit. It helped de- 
velop an awareness of the many st\le- 
in architecture. 

I In- subject of food, too, was worked 
out. A shot of Mom shopping, pre- 
paring the dinner and sister arranging 
the table were "talking" pictures. l.ven 
a trip ti> tin- product- terminals and 
markets was made and recorded. 
Both the students and teacher know 
now that it"- a wonderfully alive thing 
to be working with a camera instead 
f ii-ing standard pictures from a file. 

Another situation where the camera 
was put to practical use paid big divi- 
dends. One teen-age girl in an art 
class became interested in display ar- 
rangement. She collected the art and 
< i.i ft work and arranged it each week. 
>he often u-ed the bulletin board as a 
background. Her added materials were 
-i r,i|i p.iper. \arn-. -Irings. bits of dis- 
carded i lolli. and so on. She felt a 
sense of pride over each finished pro- 

duction, but anno\anee when she had 
to dismantle it for a new replacement. 
\\ hen the rest of the class took their 
work home from tin- di-plav. Joan had 
nothing left to show for her creative 
ellorts. The teacher, in this case, sug- 
gested that she use her camera to keep 
a record of her assembled displav. In 
this way she, too, could take some- 
thing home to her parents. One eve- 
ning on her way home she showed her 
pictures in a gift shop. Recognition of 
her talent was instantaneous on the 
part of the shopkeeper. Here was a 
small genius, who could be put to work 
creating window displays. Joan was 
hired on the strength of her snapshots. 
Again, the box camera had come 

Getting down to the organization of 
group camera work in adult recreation 
centers, some workers feel that a com- 
pletely formal program is necessary. 
In some instances, such an approach 
woik- MTV well, although in other 
cases it is not as successful as a more 
spontaneous course which is more 
adaptable to the desires and objectives 
of the participants. However. since 
most of the folk who join a group will 
come in because they are already en- 
joying photography as a hobby, they 

can usually get more from a formal 
program because lhc\ wi-h technical 
help in order to progress a hit more 
rapidl). Stumbling along alone can \>c 
might) d i -roii raging, and a good 
leader who has varied experience can 
help Ix'ginners materially. 

Most successful VWCA and YMCA 
leaders give weekh demonstration les- 
-oris. including lessons on types of 
camera-, lenses, shutters, films, de- 
velopers, papers, contact printing and 
enlarging. Some have a course on 
fillers alone. Others may devote an en- 
lire term to Hash photography. As tin- 
individual leaders var\. >c> do the les- 
sons and demonstrations. There is al- 
ways something new for the amateur 
to learn. 

But no matter what your group or 
how vou start, remember that one of 
the vital things about a hohl>\ is it- 
fun. Learning is fun. Fun lies in shar- 
ing with others and in companionship. 
\ real. live hohl>\. such a- phologra- 
ph\. will account delightfully for a 
surprising amount of well s|KMit leisure 
time. Bv encouraging your group to 
have fun photographically and 
through photograph) to fulfill some 
useful ini--iiin the success of \our 
activity certain!) will lie assured. 


A. J. Gatawakas 

h.ive grown verv rare. Kxcepl for 
adaptation- .if i \i-ling games and 
.ulile.l -,if.-|\ me, mures applied to 
-lid.--, -wing., leet.-r-ho.ird-. jungle 
gvrn-. borinatal ladders and bars. 
traveling ring-, and no forth, (he nlv 
I innovation has b.-.-n the .ip 
prarancr of a few modcrni-lu . mn n-le 
true tur.-- . ontiMing of strp. ramps 
and tunnel-. 

ll.-rr are a few idra. for poil.|r 
furlhrr appraisal anil exploration: 

It ha alnv required two plaver- 
lo nprratr a teeter-totter. A illglr 
lx>ard mounted on a fulcrum involving 

\i nnm mm inihV SO in California. 

a tension principle would permit a sin- 
gle person to teeter up and down. In- 
clusion of a swivel base would .ill<>\\ 
not onlv vertical movement but also 
u circular motion, and could prohahlv 
v.-iv aptly be called a "teeter round." 

I'-v. ho|ogi-l- often u -e a .lev ii e 
known as a "maze" in their -limuln-- 
re-pun-e .mil learning te-t- with -m.ill 
animal-. A durable plnv ground 
four or live feel in height, would pro 
vide the elemenl- of -uspcnse. adven- 
ture, -urpri-e and molor-arliv ilv . and 
stimulate (he imagination of the -mailer 
children, \n obtcrvittiofl platform 
could IK- ere. ted t., -id. ,,f -uch a 
-Inn lure to |M-rtnil plav lenders to 
-u|-rvi-e .niivitv within the maze. 

Often grassy play areas are too hard 
and solid to permit children to indulge 
fully their natural inclination to rll 
and tumble around. Why not have an 
.in-. i -et a-ide as a "natural tumbling 
mat." built up and -ceded like the 
gie.-ns on a golf courw? This could 
in. hide an incline or hill, to allow 
them to roll lo (heir hearts content 
without fear of a< cumulating luimp- 
.ind bi nines. 

( liildren h.ive aluav- loved to *wing 
whether on a standard seat swing 
or n a garden gale. I he . .n-triirlion 
of a !>w ing-gale device, patter ned after 
an ordinarv gale, i mild .illmd small 
i -bildren a- rniii h plea-lire a- -winging 
on an old-fa-hioned gale. 


l(l i I1KATION 



We strongly urge all recreation 
departments to establish a new poli- 
cy, if they are not already practicing 
this suggestion. On all reports and 
bulletins, include the name of your 
state, as well as the name oj your 
city or county. As many as six or 
eight states may have a city or 
county with the same name. It is 
sometimes impossible to determine 
from what locality a report comes, 
unless the name of the state also is 
clearly printed preferably on the 
first or second page. 

Prizes Can Be Fun 

From Harry D. Edgren, professor of 
recreation at George Williams College 
in Chicago. Illinois, we have received 
sonic original ideas for making your 
own prizes. They are the kind which 
can be fashioned from the cast off 
materials usually found around the 
home or the office. You can think of 
any number of other ideas to fit the 
mood of the occasion or the personali- 
ties of your guests. 

1. Loving Cups 

a. Miniature cup made from thimble, 
man's collar button, ami safety pins. 

h. Milk bottle, coffee cup, pipe cleaner 
covered witb tin foil. 

2. Ribbons 

Ribbons with medallion made from coke 
bottle cap. one-half egg shell, a prune, or 
a kernel of popcorn. 

3. Cream of the Crop 

Milk bottle top, with match box for rib- 

4. l.ucky Strike 

Top of can. Lucky Strike cigarette wrap- 
per, and colored paper. 

5. Volleyball Champ Spiker 

Wooden plank with colored railroad spike. 

APRIL 1952 

6. Screwball 

A colored steel screw with wooden bail. 

7. Golf King 

Golf ball with painted face and golf lees 

for crown. 
3. Dead Eye Willie 

Ping pong ball for head, pipe cleaners 

for body and rubber ball in hands. 
9. Booby and Grand Prize 

Smiling and sorrowing faces on acorns. 

Inspiring Publication 

Under the sponsorship of the Evans- 
ton, Illinois recreation department the 
Smi>hine Club publishes the Arm 
Chair Sentinel. We are reprinting an 
item from their January - February 
1951 issue because other cities with 
similar needs may feel encouraged to 
start, or start again, a creative pro- 
pram for shut-ins. 

Why an Arm Chair Sentinel? 

We of the Sentinel would like to 
point out that this issue marks the 
beginning of this magazine's fifteenth 
year. We think this is quite a credita- 
ble, record for a magazine of this type, 
as many of them have a tendency to 
"blink out" with discouraging fre- 

The Sentinel has three main reasons 
for being: 1. To bring a bit of cheer 
and entertainment into the dull and 
lonesome lives of its readers. 2. To dis- 
seminate information about the 'do- 
ings' of the Sunshine Club and its 
members. 3. To serve as an outlet for 
the literary efforts of its readers, to 
give them that feeling of successful ac- 
complishment which shut-ins, more 
than others, need so much. 

We suggest that an acquaintance 
with this little publication might be 

helpful, even to the hale and hearty. 
It has a quality of light-heartedness 
and inspiration which could serve as 
a pattern for others. 

Citizenship Dramatized 

Do you need a one-act play that is 
fun to do, but still carries a message 
about the importance of taking part in 
civic affairs? Then order a copy of 
Our Way, Leaflet 6, Series 17, issued 
by The Country Gentlewoman League, 
Curtis Publishing Company, Inde- 
pendence Square, Philadelphia 5, Penn- 
sylvania. No royalty required if credit 
is given. Copies five cents each. It's 
good, particularly for small and rural 

Knee Pads 

For around three dollars rubber 
knee pads can be purchased by gar- 
deners and others doing "kneeling" 
work. However, Charles Dorian of 
Sudbury, Ontario, Canada suggests a 
way to make your own from cast-off 
galoshes. Trim the cloth down to the 
rubber toe and heel, leaving cloth flaps 
to be fastened at the back with the 
dome fasteners. Or, the dome fasteners 
can be replaced by hooks and eyes, 
and thick felt pads can be glued to the 
insoles for greater comfort. They are 
worn with the knee in the heel of the 
galosh and the rest of the sole fitting 
over the shin. 

May Baskets 

Wouldn't it be fun to 
hang a little umbrella 
full of flowers on your 
friend's door knob? 

To make the um- 
brella, begin with a cir- 
cle of paper, six inches across, and a 
pipe cleaner for the handle. Fold the 
circle across once, then once again. 
Now fold it diagonally, making a pa- 
per triangle with a rounded top. Cut 
the top into a hollowed line, like the 
above illustration. Punch a hole at 
each side for a ribbon or cord, which 
should be laced through all the holes 
and tied. This holds the umbrella 
closed. Poke the handle down through 
the center and bend its lower end up a 
bit to keep the paper from slipping off. 
Other types of May baskets can easily 
be designed, also. From a News Bul- 


Let's Have 

A s \m I.T- I.IHIK li\< K In their child- 
*"* hood and x.nith. there arr ecitain 
high occasions which stand out in 

memorx . Some teacher- .mil leaden 
an- well remembered, while Mores of 

olhcrs haxe long -imc II.-.-M forgotten. 
Mthough we (lid nol know it at tin- 
nine, thi- "in-- wr rememln-i IH--I 
li-.iili.t-. i. imp . oiiii--|or- .mil re. ica- 
lion worker- were all examples of 

u I leadership. Ih.-x max ha\i- IM-CH 

re*pon>il>lc for snme nf the high 

..r ihc\ may have been people 
We rnj.ixi-d I..-IMU with and didn't 
P. ill/.- until later how much \M- li.ul 
Icarnrd lli.-in. Without I-M .-|ili<.n. 
ll|r\ Wetc ill.- I. lit", who alwax- It'.llr.l 
ii- with coiirl<--\. liniiiiil .mil inid.-i 

l/radi-r on |..d.i\ - pl.ixginund- will 
mruilMTril lix \ niingtcr main 

MlSS |!\IMM' iriiiniinrniliilintu rr- 
ult from hrr tnnn\ 

Mf I Kalhrrinr f. llnrkrr Mrmnriiil 
t'lflii U ninrn anil (,irlt. 


years hence or they will have joined 
(In- parade of the forgotten ones. 
\\ liii-li ill it be? 

Are lh-> planning MUIH- of tin- good 
linn-- which will always stand mil? 
Will tlli-v lie lememliered ln-can-i- .if 
their per.woiKilitie- and he. an-.- lh.-\ 
rri-aled thai lirsl interest in something 
whieh carried over nian\ \.-ar- into 
the future? 

I lu-sc are a few .|iie-lions which 
make llie juli of a |)la\ ground leader 
an imp.. it, ml mi.. Much ha- |.een writ- 
I. -n .iliiuit (In- i| ii.i I i f jcal ion- fm a 
worker on a |ila\giound. All of them 
in 1 1 in and all of them are good. 

Much has IM-CII written al-o ahoul 
jilayground programs and the i in 

pf.ll.inie "f -p.-i l.ll .-\cnl-. I'd like lo 
make a plea for the da\ ! d.n pi..- 

V'ain-. i I of whi.h -Imiild ) much 

n. her than ihry are. I'd like lo make 
a plea, ton, fur llu- I\|M- of |M-ron who 
M a real leader not a -.pml- per 
former or an allracli\. M.ung man or 
WHIM. in iiii-r.-U looking for Mimtner 
emplo) in. ni. 

On a typical playground there are 
l>o\s and girls of many age groups 
and from many I\|M-S of homes and 
l>aekgrounds. They are all there be- 
cause they have chosen to come and 
l>i-caii-e lhe\ are hoping there will IK- 
lomeming interesting going on. Their 
need-, their abilities and their inlci.--t- 
show tremendous dillerences. It is m> 
small task for leaders to meet this 
situation successfully. 

It rei|iiire- a knowledge of child de- 
\c|opmenl and a recognition of child 
differences In-fore program aclivilic- 
ean he planned. Working with cliililn-n 
in a group rather than with a grou\> of 
children is nol onl\ dc-italile. Iml im- 
peralixe. There'- a l>ig dilference he 
I ween the two! 

When this method i- used, ihr Ic.nlci 

lie. - aware of the child who does 

not participate or who is u,,\ success- 
ful in attaining acceptance l>\ the 
group, and take- >t.-p to reined \ it. 
If lie do.-- Mol. that child stop, coming 
to the pla\ground. or if he conlinnes 

I me. he pin|>alil\ lie. oinc- a IH-- 

li.ivim juolilcm. 

Mlhoiigh games are an important 
I'. ill of tin- playground da\. nianv chil- 
dren who attend do not have the l..i-i. 
-kill- which are essential to the enjox- 
ni. -lit of anx game. The child who can- 
not throw, jump, dodge or -lop a hall 
with some degne of -kill will no) haxc 
a xcix jolh time plaxing dodgclull. 

If the rules of xolle\|,all are iml 

undeistooil. and i ne has taught the 

xoungsler how to *< i \ c ,.r hw lo con- 

I!) i IH xin IN 

Helen M. Dauncey 

More Play On Playgrounds 

trol the ball, why should he lose face 
with his friends by being the dub on 
the team? It is easier in either case 
to say, "I don't want to play," or "I 
don't like games." 

Although it is most desirable to 
have plenty of play equipment on a 
playground balls, bats, bean bags, 
jackstones, checkers, deck tennis rings, 
paddles, quoits, box hockey, croquet, 
craft material, and so on it becomes 
a tool for effective learning only if it is 
identified with a good teaching situa- 
tion and associated with a feeling of 
success and achievement for the in- 
dividual. It is too easy to pass out 
equipment to children day after day 
with the result that at the end of the 
summer, they know no more about 
how to use it than they did on opening 

It is not surprising that many chil- 
dren come to a playground, use a few 
pieces of play apparatus, perhaps make 
a craft article and then disappear for 
the rest of the day, unless a special 
event is being planned to lure them. 
Special events are fun. but they are 
not substitutes for good, day-by-day 
programs. Too much cake spoils the 
appetite for bread! 

"Choice" is the key word in recrea- 
tion, but it presupposes a nodding ac- 
quaintance with several types of ac- 
tivities before selection is made. A 
playground must never be regimented, 
but, with skilled direction, much of 
the dailv program can be changed 
from aimless activity to one of pur- 

\PKII. 1052 

pose, progression and pleasure for all 

Any child who, at the end of the 
playground season, has not learned 
many new games (quiet, active, group, 
individual or team) which he has en- 
joyed at his own level of performance, 
has been cheated. 

If a child has not been given the 
opportunity to experiment with some 
new things in crafts, drama, music, 
storytelling, being in a tournament, 
serving on a committee, helping to plan 
events and feeling responsibility for 
the success of his playground then 
the summer program has failed him. 

If the leaders have not learned to 
know which children need help in 
making an individual, as well as a 
group, success they have failed in 
their most important responsibility. 

It is essential that a playground 
leader, like any good workman, have 
lots of good activity materials at his 
fingertips, for those are his 
tools. In the brief span of time 
available for training, just ^ 
prior to the opening of the pro- 
gram, too much time often has 
to be spent on giving material 
which a leader should know be- -? 
fore he makes application for 
the job. More time is needed 
for methods and techniques of 
using what he may know and 
more time for discussion of ways in 
which the child may be helped to 

In this day of gun-toting and cow- 

boy jargon perhaps it is too much to 
expect, but it does seem unfortunate 
that youngsters are not familiar with 
many of the games that are part of 
their heritage. The traditional singing 
games for little children should al- 
ways be part of the summer program, 
and the time-honored Prisoners' Base, 
Run Sheep Run, Duck on the Rock, 
Blind Man's Buff and Still Pond and 
No More Moving should be passed 
along to this generation of boys and 

By all means, have surprises, special 
events, community nights and all the 
other wonderful things which go into 
the making of a good playground pro- 
gram, but meanwhile, be sure that the 
day-to-day activities are interesting, 
appealing and meaningful to the boys 
and girls. 

Be very sure that no children leave 
the playground because they just don't 
have a good time there! 

"The more good things we are interested in, 
the more ardently we live." Francis Bacon. 




W. C. Sutherland 

TIMIMM. pla\ ground leaders is not a minor problem or 
a fund ion Io be taken lightly. The playgrounds of 
\merica provide the major centers for the play life of a 
large portion of the tuition"- child and udult population. 
and play an important part in tin- -Imping of our future 

i ili/en-. 

The -i/e .mil importance of the training prohlem be- 
Ot clearer when .me i oti-iders la-t -mniner nearly 
four million visits were made each day to the playgrounds. 
'I he m.ijorilv of nearlv fifteen thousand playgrounds were 
under leadership. Training institutes for lenders prior 
to the o|>emiii: of (he play ground season are considered 
essential for a successful program. 

'(here i- n<> -i.o .In. I training program that nan meet 
adei|ualel\ the requirements of all conmmnilii-. Not only 
do roininiiiiilie- \.it\ iii -i/i-. f.icililie-. te-oiirers and 
char. I- lei i-hi -. Iml the I\JM- of leadership availaMc for 
-iimmer |.l.u fioimd work nun \,u\ on-ideralil\ among 

Ihi-ie .ire. h'.wever. a mimiHT of publications which 
havr Iwrn found helpful h\ those intrrmled in training 

\\ . I . i r III III \Mi M in i IIIHL:'- <>l N /' nnrlSn- 

their playground leaders. Probably the best known, and 
most widely used, are prepared by the National Recre- 
ation Association and include those suggested below: 

Training Your Playground Leaders. An institute syllabus for the 
training of playground leaders, which contains suggestions for 
organizing and conducting an institute, with comprehensive bibli- 
ography. 1.35. 

Playgrounds -Their Administration and Operation. A compre- 
hensive guide for the use of the playground executive and the 
worker on the individual playground, this is used widely as a 
text (revised edition 1950). $4.00. 

I'luy ground Summer .\Htrhi>tik t.-K. w.,-kl\ i in-, during the 
summer. $1.50. 

Conduct on Playgrounds. Practical suggestions for leader-hip, 
activities, program planning, administration, equipment and sup- 
plies. $.50. 

Many cities use the association's specialists in the train- 
ing of playground leaders. These specialists have suggested 
the following outline for a playground training course, 
presented in two-and-one-half-hour naskuM, which has 
been acceptable in many places: 

Session I Discussion: Playground Goals and Objec- 
tives; The Job of a Play Leader. Activities: Low-organized 
games group, line, circle. 

Session II Discussion: Planning a Well-Rounded Pro- 
gram for All Age Groups: Leadership Methods: Play- 
ground Problems. 

Session III Discussion: Special Events on the Play- 
ground; Using Volunteers; Publicity Aciirities: Rhyth- 
mic Games for Children; Quiet Games for Hot Days or 
Rainy Days; Active Group Gann-. 

Session IV Dixfiissiiin: Neighborhood Relations; Com- 
munity Nights; Question Box. Activities: Team Games. 
Games for the Whole Family; Square Dances and Couple 

The following three-day and five-day institute programs 
were conducted last season in Westi lic-ter Counly. New 
York, and in Hutchinson, Kansas. 

Thn-i'-i/in institute under the auspices of the \\ V-ldi, -t, -r 
('minty, New York Recreation Commission and Recreation 

I. \eculi\e- \ 111 -iulion: 

Tue-da>. June 2fi. 1'<.~,I 

'i:L'n 'I;. Ml \.M. Fun willi \1ii-n and Dancing on the Play- 
. 9:30-10:00 A.M. Playground Goals Age Characteristic* and 

A.tmtir- for each age group. 
10:00-10:30 A.M. Playground Activilie. an. I H.-inc.n.lration for 

the Pr<-.chool group. 
HI:.TI III: III \.\I. liilennii'inn 

10:40- 12:00 Noon Plavground \i-li\ili.-. and I leinmi-lralion* 
for the following age groups: 6-8 years; 
'' II year: 11-14 yearn. 
12:00-12:*i I'M Management .( thr Playground. <"m- 

KI|III|>IMI in. I JHiperalicm with Mainienance 

\Vedne-d.l\. Jin: 

9:20 ''Hi \M Kim willi Mu-n an. I Dam-ing on the Play- 

in ,n \ \| \,i. ,,n. I ia(l- f-r the I'layground 

in Wl II INI \.\|. Inieriiii inn 

H.fHIII to \M -af.-n ..n the PUycround 

II M.I '..i oilier Pla\grnund \rimtir- in 

i-liidmi: Naini. i i ill-, (rail Nunt. Imlian 
Crad-. l'np| Making Mu-ical lnlrmnrnl. 

I liur-.l.n. lune 28 

9:20- 9:30 A.M. Kun with Muic and Dancing on thr Play- 

Hi ( HI MHiN 

9:30-10:30 A.M. Planning the Playground Program (daily, 
weekly, seasonal) ; Leadership Methods and 
Techniques, Schedule Making, Playground 

10:30-11:20 A.M. Special Events for the Playground; Use of 

11:20-11:30 A.M. Intermission 

11:30-12:30 A.M. Public Relations in the Neighborhood of the 
Playground Community Nights, Question 

Five-day institute conducted by the Recreation Commis- 
sion, Hutchinson, Kansas: 

Monday. June 4. 1951 

8:30- 8:45 A.M. Registration 
8:45- 9:00 A.M. Opening Proceedings 
9:00- 9:45 A.M. Playground Programs 
9:50-10:35 A.M. Musical Games and Mixers 
10:40-11:30 A.M. Group Contests 
1 :00- 1 :45 P.M. Womens and Girls Programs 
1:50- 2:35 P.M. Active Games for Young and Old 
2:40- 2:55 P.M. Playground Crafts 
3:00- 5:00 P.M. "Craft Work Shop" 

Tuesday, June 5 

9:00- 9:35 A.M. Playground Manual 

9:30-10:10 A.M. Musical Games and Mixers 
10:15-10:40 A.M. Storytelling 
10:45-11:30 A.M. Group Contests 

1 :00- 1 :45 P.M. Quiet Games for Young and Old 

1:50- 2:50 P.M. Stunts and Fun Songs 

3:00- 5:00 P.M. "Craft Work Shop" 

Wednesday, June 6 

9:00- 9:25 A.M. Program Content 
9:30-10:10 A.M. Circle Games and Relays 
10:15-11:30 A.M. Athletic Games and Sports 
1:00- 1:45 P.M. Games for Hot Weather and Rainy Days 
1:50- 2:50 P.M. Co-Recreation and Family Recreation 
3:00- 5:00 P.M. "Craft Work Shop" 

Thursday, June 7 

9:00- 9:25 A.M. Reports and Questions 

9:30-10:10 A.M. Games for Individuals and Small Groups 
10:15-11:00 A.M. Folk Games and Folk Dances 
11:00-11:30 A.M. Planning for All Ages 

1:00- 1:30 P.M. Special Event Planning 

1:30- 2:10 P.M. Active Games 

2:15- 2:55 P.M. Leadership Advice 

3:00- 5:00 P.M. "Craft Work Shop" 

Friday, June 8 

9:00- 9:30 A.M. Registration and Reports 

9:30-10:00 A.M. Athletic Game Schedules 
10:00-10.30 A.M. Equipment and Supplies 
10:30-11:00 A.M. Arts and Crafts Program 
11:00-11:30 A.M. Administrative Papers and Payroll 

1 :00- 1 :30 P.M. Special Event Days 

1:30- 2:00 P.M. Final Instructions 

2:00- 3:00 P.M. Games and Sports 

3:00- 5:00 P.M. "Craft Work Shop" 

It is not possible to prepare a person adequately for 
playground leadership in a single institute lasting for only 
a few days. It is hoped, however, that most of those at- 
tending will have had some previous playground ex- 
perience and special training in high school or college. 
Also, those selected for positions should have acceptable 
social attitudes- and be personally desirable and profes- 
sionally promising. Many of our future full-time profes- 
sional leaders should be recruited from among these sum- 
mer workers. 

Because the institute training is all too short, it should 
be followed by in-service training throughout the sum- 
mer in the form of staff meetings, interviews, leaders' con- 
ferences, close supervision, directed reading. 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in addition to the institute, con- 
ducted before the playgrounds open, holds Saturday morn- 
ing classes of three hours each week throughout the season. 
Many cities hold staff meetings on Saturday mornings, or 

on Monday evenings. 

In addition to the wise selection of the right people, 
another matter which is closely related and should receive 
careful consideration, has to do with establishing condi- 
tions that will tend to hold good workers after they are 
trained. There is little gain in training leaders only to lose 
them to more lucrative positions in business, industry and 
other professional fields. Turnover is costly and it is 
doubtful if private concerns could stay in business with 
the rate of turnover that takes place in some of our public 
recreation departments. 

Summer positions should be paid fairly and adequately 
if we expect to attract and hold the type of leadership 
children deserve. Not only fair salaries but other factors 
are important and make for satisfied workers with good 
attitudes and high morale. Workers want good supervision, ' 
reasonable hours, recognition as individuals, a feeling of 
acceptance as professional members of the recreation 
team; workers want to feel that they are doing something 
important and socially useful; they want to have respect 
for the executive and the department for which they work. 
Securing, developing and holding the best leadership pos- 
sible is second to no other consideration. Unless a city 


wishes to accept a standard of leadership and service much 
less than the best, it must: 

1. Select wisely and only those who are professionally 
apt and personally desirable. 

2. Provide the best training possible. 

3. Establish personnel policies and practices that make 
for desirable and acceptable conditions of work. 

A Challenging Career 

To college trained women who believe that work with the 
youth of our country is a challenging responsibility, the 
Camp Fire Girls organization offers opportunities for an 
interesting and satisfying career. 

Throughout the United States there are more than three 
hundred sixty thousand Camp Fire Girls between the ages 
of seven and eighteen. To the administration of this pro- 
gram the professional worker must bring a sincere interest 
in people. She helps to obtain, train and supervise volun- 
teer leaders. She works with local board members, coun- 
cil committees and community leaders. The direction of a 
summer camp is often her responsibility. In every aspect 
of the job there is opportunity for creative thinking, origi- 
nality and initiative, a challenge to be met. 

APRIL 1952 


Thf Recreation Personnel Scrv ice of 
National Recreation Association i- the 
national central clearinghouse fur 
prospective employers in need of rec- 
reation personnel ami for professional- 
ly prepared candidates seeking re< rea- 
timi portions. Its purpose is to serve 
ition agencies. pro-|H'clive em- 
ployers, and professional leaders in the 
interest of extending and enriching the 
recreation movement. 

How It Functions 

Its statT of three, together with steno- 
graphic and clerical assistance, works 
throughout the year recruiting 
Iccting. classifying and placing recrea- 
tion workers. It provides specialized 

cumulative record up to date and ac- 

Guidance, counseling, and response 
to inquiries regarding professional op- 
portunities, sources of training. t\ pr- 
of positions, joli requirements and 
worker qualifications, salaries and 
working conditions are supplementary 

For Communilii's- Park and recrea- 
tion departments, hospitals. in-tilu- 
tions, voluntary agencies. ci\il service 
commissions, industries and the armed 
services turn to Recreation Personnel 
Service for consultation and advice on 
personnel standards, policies and prac- 
tices, procedures in recruiting, selec- 
tion and placement of recreation per- 

wide publicity is desirable and requests 
are submitted in advance. Jo|> notices 
are then publicized through our various 
mailing channel-. 

For Colleges. Thea ociation j keep- 
ing in touch with colleges and uni- 
versities and continues to provide op- 
portunities for their graduate- to regi- 
ler for |MTsom>el ser\ ice. I'ei-onal 
\i-il- are made to schools for the pur- 
pose of interviewing -indents and ad- 
vising them with reference to the field. 
I diversities are assisted with prob- 
lems related to their recreation cur- 
rii nlurns and the National Recreation 
Congress programs include college 
training sessions. The schools are kept 
informed regarding the demand for 

fVf tMHinct Services of the NATIONAL 

-Mie- to the prof.- ional |H-op|e in 
the held and to the communities, agen- 
,ind executives who employ them. 

For Career Workers An opportuni- 
Iv i- o Me red to the individual to regis- 
ter as a professional worker in the 
ition field. This registration as- 
-iire, e.if h person that if he wi-ln--. 
hi- profe ional rerord uill 1 K; main- 
tained at National l!ci realion .\s-oi ra- 
tion h-.ili|iiaili-r-. I In- r< -gi- 
tration i- on a standard pcr-onrn-l 
form which i- ,rl-o adapted for use in 
unit serv n c. 

A each person regi-ler-. he is clas- 
-ihc.l .iiiordmg lo edne.iliori. cxpcri- 
i-nie. -kill-, and position- de-ired. 
I'efci. me. ,IM- .11 1 umiilaled with the 
.indiilali '. |MTiiii-sion and filed for or future u-f. I In- iii-inc- 
thal a omplele -el of credential- with 
in e. can I..- riiiide available to 
cmplovcr. without delav when the ap 
pin .ml dene. a new p.. -id. .11 >in h 
Information i- rnadr avail. idle with the 
i .indnl.ile - per mi-- ion arid in ac- 

ii e with Ili- Wi-he. I'.llodi. 

check-up questionnaire* in. ike it easy 

for worker- in (he held |.. k.-.-p llie 

rmm.VM> it Ihr ,lirr,l,,i ,>l ill. 
Hi, m r>-tM>nn,-l >.v, i. .- ,./ \ A 1 | 

-oiinel. \dditional information is 
available on salary schedules, qualifi- 
'cations for workers, job specification-, 
working conditions in the field, and 
in-service training opportunities for 
paid and volunteer \\orker-. 

The central |H-rsonnel service main- 
tains a con-iarillv changing pool of 
people qualified for and intercsled in 
recreation positions of many tv|es in 
all geographical areas of the countrv. 
Employer* may draw from this group 
and l!ei ic.iiion I'er-onnel Service will 
.mil -elect indiv iduals in one of 
four wav-: 

1. \ carefulK x-lecleil group mav \><- 
< and their confidentinl creden- 
tials silbrnilteil to the einploving agCII- 

iv < Candidates may or mav not l- 

in. tilled, depending upon (he ieipie-1 
of the ageni \ . 

2. Candid. lie- MI. iv In- iiolihcil .iml re 
i|tic-led lo ,ippl\ direcllv to the em- 
ploving ag< ricie- with tin- nnder-land 
ing that complete -cl- of credential- 
will IM- -Illilllilled |iV Recle.ltioll I'er- 

Minncl "-i-rvue .1- it I...., me- ,idvi-.ili|e 
'. \ li-l of pi. Is. with then .i.l 

,li.--.- ...I, I., -ill. milled ilini-llv to 

ihe einplover -o he mav appro. i- li 

randid.ile- pci-on,illv. 
! \.l.| -eivi. e i- nndcreil when 

leaders and the tvpc- of positions 
available. Other information relative 

to training and emplov merit condi- 
tion- is available upon rcipic-t. I p- 
to-date lists of colleges offering rn.ijoi 
itiiin curriculum- an- rnainlaincd 
and made available, and their train- 
ing programs are interpreted to pro- 
spective -Indent-, employers and to the 
n-creation profession. These services 
n being maintained and increased. 

Membership and participation in 
professional groups and related agen- 

cie- help to make the overall per-oli- 
ncl -ervice more elfeitivc. \lso. the 
general resources of the a ocialion 
the rc-carch. consultation nnd field 
-erv ices contribute gn-allv lo the de- 
velopment and maintenance of ile-ira 
ble -landards and conditions for work- 
er- and emplover-. Ilirough our |MT- 
sonnel and held -I. ill- we .ire able lo 
make follow-up- and main- 
tain i iiiieul report- .m the develop 
menl .mil growth of pr o f e-.j on a I 


r.i-omiel -civile i- no) .1 one-wav 

-Ireel Ml the t.-| -ibllllV doe- II.. I 

re-l with the a IH lalion. K.flcilive 
M-iviee de|M-nd- upon teamwork an. I 



full cooperation involving candidates, 
employers, college training centers and 
the association. 

The Employer's responsibility in- 
cludes the provision of a statement 
covering the following items: (1) the 
name and location of the employing 
agency; (2) the full name and address 
of the person to receive communica- 
tions; (3) a statement about the spe- 
cial conditions and characteristics of 
the agency, neighborhood or city; (4) 
a description of the position listing its 
major duties and responsibilities; (5) 
qualifications desired of the candidate, 
such as personality traits, training, ex- 
perience, age, sex and marital status: 
(6) salary schedule; (7) date employ- 

This article is based on address given at the third annual 
meeting of the "College Recreation Association." It is pub- 
lished here because of many inquiries, upon request of those 
present and of others who were not able to attend. 

for recruiting and selecting competent 
students. The selection process is, ac- 
cording to some authorities, an aca- 
demic exercise unless the number of 
would-be students exceeds by fifty per 
cent the number who can be admitted. 
Under less favorable conditions, only 
the obviously unfit are eliminated. It is 
not fair to the student, the college, or 
the profession to allow a person who 
lacks desirable qualifications to enter 


ment begins; (8) statement of person- 
nel policies and practices. 

Tin; employer has the further re- 
sponsibility of keeping us informed 
of his progress and advising of any 
major change in the situation. He is 
obligated to respect the confidential 
nature of personnel credentials and to 
return all records promptly after they 
have served their purpose. He is ex- 
pected to acknowledge correspondence 
from candidates and treat them all in a 
fair and courteous manner. 

The Candidates are responsible for 
filling out application forms adequate- 
ly and accurately. Additional informa- 
tion required should lie submitted as 
requested. They are expected to be 
prompt in answering all communica- 
tions and in reporting changes in their 
employment status. New information 
should be reported promptly, such as: 
change of address, additional train- 
ing, new assignments, change in mari- 
tal status or number of children. Agree- 
ments and appointments should be kept 
and a high standard of behavior, per- 
sonally and professionally, is assumed. 

Professors also have responsibility 
in this personnel business. In many 
respects, theirs is the greatest of all. 
hi the first place, they are responsible 

W. C. Sutherland 

and remain in the professional cur- 
riculum. The number of years of 
schooling is not an accurate measure 
of the quality and ability of the per- 
son. Qualities of the mind and hqart 
are primary requisites to good leader- 
ship. Devices, techniques and methods 
are adjuncts to, but cannot be sub- 
stituted for, these qualities. 

Professors should make sure that 
students know how to apply for jobs, 
how to present themselves in written 
communication and how to conduct 
themselves in personal interviews. Lack 
of preparation in these matters may 
nullify much of the professional and 
formal training. They are responsible 
for assisting directly or indirectly in 
the placement of those trained. They 
are obligated to follow up graduates, 
to help assure success in the early 
years of their careers and to determine 
the effectiveness of the professional 
training. They are expected to submit 
honest and adequate appraisals regard- 
ing their students, as a guide to us 
who are trying to place them. 

Factors Influencing Employment 

Factors that influence and determine 
employment according to employers, 
candidates and personnel specialists, 

whether good or bad, can be summed 
up as follows: (1) education and prep- 
aration, (2) experience, (3) person- 
ality and character, (4) intelligence, 
(5) health, (6) luck and chance, (7) 
prejudice and favoritism, (8) supply 
and demand. 

Whether these factors should deter- 
mine employment in all cases is not 
the point; whether we like it or not, 
they very often do determine it. The 
first five factors have to do with the 
individual. He can do something about 
them, and they are more or less within 
his control. The other factors, how- 
ever, are for the most part beyond his 
control, as, for instance, the forces of 
emotion unfortunately expressed in 
prejudice and favoritism. In spite of 
proved fitness, the candidate can do 
little in the face of prejudices when 
they exist for and against persons on 
the basis of age, sex, race, marital 
status, religion, political affiliation, eco- 
nomic views, or place of residence. 

The factors of supply and demand 
set aside or nullify much or all that 
the individual can do. This factor is 
influenced by economic conditions and 
by political, financial and educational 
policies; and from the standpoint of 
the candidate, it makes little difference 
whether these conditions are real or 
fancied, wise or unwise. An oversup- 
ply of workers in the recreation field 
means persons out of work. Also, it 
means stationary or falling salaries for 
those who have jobs. In general, this 
situation is a dangerous hazard to all 
personnel standards and a threat to 
the recreation movement, as well as 
to the profession as a career field. 

New Services 

The personnel staff of the National 
Recreation Association has been aug- 
mented to meet the new and increased 
demands growing out of the national 
defense situation. A national roster for 
the registration of park and recrea- 

APKII. 1952 


tion personnel has been e-tabli-hed as 
a defense measure. attention 
has been anil will continue to be given 
to tin- need- cif the \arioii- branches 
of tin- armed for< n. 

It is hoped that, as soon a- -nine of 
the emergency needs are met, more 
can be done to channel additional posi- 
tions into tlif personnel service and 
into the college recreation training cen- 
ters. We need a more complete listing 
of the staff positions in the classifica- 
tion* appropriate for beginners with 
professional training but with little or 
no experience. In the highly populated 
and urbanized Kast more of these posi- 
tions are received. Consequently, we 
are able to place more graduates with 
\ur\ing degrees of qualifications. On 
the other hand, we are not at the 
moment able to place younger leaders 
as rapidly in the less industrialized 
and more rural sections. This means 
that we are more helpful to graduates 
of some schools after they have been in 
tin- fit-Id for three to five years and are 
i. aih for larger responsibility in top su- 
pi-r\i-or\ and administrative positions. 

I here are many agencies, public and 
private, that are not adequately in- 
formed regarding the association's 
personnel services and the improved 
rei n-ation training programs at many 
of the colleges and universities. 

We are hoping to be able to keep 
I IK- ' olleges better informed regarding 
d, xelopments in the field as it relates 
to tin ilrinand for leaders. We want to 
plan- in. ili-rial on standards in the 
hands of more employing groups and 
to adxi-e ihi-m of the high calibre of 
|M-o|i|c who arc lieing trained in our 
well-balanced n < n -.ilimi i -urricuhims. 
Tln-rr is need for more and letter vo- mall-rial lo ilrarnali/r tin- i"l< 
of the recreation leader in our i-lforl 
to recruit better students for profes- 
sional training. 

Job Situation 

'I hi- number of exeiiitixe pi-itn.ns 
tilli-il m l''~>l -honed a slight increase 

| 'IV I. | he i-M-l Illixe pldilillllS 

filled by thr association during I''M 
were in a Mlar\ range of three ili-u 
and In -ix thousand dollar*. The me- 
dian salary was four thousand two hun- 
dred dollars. Thr di-rnand for women 
has been especially heavy, primarily 


because of the large number needed in 
the arrnx special service club program 

>M -r-eas. For the most part, these posi- 
tions have been for club directors and 
program people. Tin- \ arious army area 
headquarters in the continental United 
"Mates have absorbed quite a few. Re- 
cruiting for this emergency defense 
service will continue to he systematic. 

The usual staff positions, mostly for 
well-balanced program people, will 
probably show an increase. The num- 
ber of requests from institutions, es- 
pecially hospitals, should show a de- 
cided increase. 

The number of vacancies occurring 
annually for recreation leaders in pub- 
lic and private agencies is estimated 
conservatively at fifteen hundred. This 
does not include the war emergency 
jobs with the military. 

The 7950 Yearbook reports a total 
of 6,784 full-time, year-round workers 
in public recreation systems. This is 
a gain of 885 positions since 1948. 
This two-year annual average of 442 
new positions looks very good com- 
pared with the twelve-year average 
gain of only 140 per year from 1935 
to 1946. The annual average increase 
from 1946 to 1948 was 376 positions. 
This new rate of increase is most en- 
coifraging. Since full-time positions oc- 
casionally develop from part-time as- 
signments, it is interesting to note 
that the latter increased from 42,649 in 
1948 to 51,245 in 1950 a net gain of 
,"..")')(> part-time and seasonal positions. 
The number of volunteers increased 
from 8'>.2.'U in \<>U\ to 104,589 in 
1950 for a gain of 15,355 volunteers 
in the same two-year period. 

Leadership All Important 

There are still too many employing 
agencies willing to accept unxonc who 
shows up with a letter of Introduction 
from the "right party." There are -I ill 
loo many professional training schools 
admitting all eomers without enough 

oin ern for their qualities of leader- 
ship or promise fn[ -in . . \\ i need 
to get more "-learned up" about this 
l>i]>-me<. of |M-r-nin-l and radiate our 
enthusiasm and n\ i' tum- to others. 

!' r-onili-| I- the eerill.ll powellli.ll-e 

of the n-i ! ih. .n moM-menl. It i- tin- 
I" nl and soul of our profession, the 
"k.-\" to the future and ! the fulfill- 

ment of our purpose. The colleges and 
universities are carrying too large a 
part of the responsibility for the re- 
cruiting ami -election of our future 
leader-. This is so because the pro- 
fc-sion it-elf lias not yet awakened to 
it- ii -(Minsibilitx . This is a serious 
matter U-eaij.-e the profession that does 
not recruit its own membership is 
. loo. ned. It is good that the college 
i -creation educators realize the -erimi- 
ind magnitude of this ta-L for 
recruiting and selection are important 
foundation stones upon which rest the 
extent and quality of recreation service 
now and in the years to come. 

The college recreation educators are 
important members of the recreation 
team lhe\ are the first line of attaek. 
Their training programs are irnpro\ ing 
rapidly, and they deserve the respect 
and support of the recreation profe- 

Volunteer Leader 

Last year, as an outgrowth of their 

rla es in marionette making and han- 
dling. I'ulterson Park recreation center 
in Baltimore. Maryland, developed a 
teen-age volunteer leader. Fifteen-year- 
old Robert Petza became so intere-ted 
in tlie projeet that together with his 
father he built and wired a marionette 
stage. Soon he lie-ran writing and pro- 
duciiif! show-, and he and his friends 
-pent hours making scenery, recon- 
structing and redie ing marionettes, 
selecting records and making plan-. 
Shows were given at the center on spe- 
cial holida\s. In the spring. Robert 
a-ki il lo lie a \olunlecr leader, and 
eai li day during the summer he as- 
-i-teil with tin- general playground pro- 
gram, while onee a week he i otidurted 
a s|H-eial marionette la. 

s.i -mi e fill weie the marionette 
-how- thai hi- father helped him build 
.1 poiiable -la^e. and "Hob's Mario- 
nelie-" inured liallimiire. staging show- 
lor i hildien of other playgrounds and 

ilimi i enter-. 

Fall and u inter classes and slmw- 
followed llii- successful beginning. Nut 
nnlv did one iiirealion i enter gain 
an arlm- and the entile . il\ 
of Halliinon benefit from it. but a 
i may have INTII laurx -lied, a- 

Koberl and hi- group are -elledllled to 

appear lix-alK on telex i-i.m. 

Ill HI \IHiN 

Summer Recreation 

LONG EXPERIENCE has proved that 
an efficient recreation director 
usually becomes a community leader, 
and he soon has many voluntary as- 
sistants in every part of his program. 
He must be a diplomat, whose ideas 
and guidance come to the surface in 
other persons' performances, expres- 
sions of their desires and their coopera- 
tion. Lack of interest, lack of personali- 
ty and laziness on the part of the 
recreation director result in poor pro- 
grams, small attendance and no in- 
terest by the adults in the community. 

Leadership Qualifications: The need 
of playground equipment pales into 
insignificance beside the need for spe- 
cial "equipment" on the part of the 
playground director. The following are 
some of the personal qualities neces- 
sary: personality, to attract others; 
executive ability, to make orders carry 
weight; common sense, plus a good 
sense of humor; courtesy and tactful- 
ness, combined with patience; robust 
health; alertness; enthusiasm. 

Personal hints: Develop confidence 
through preparedness. Confidence is 
acquired through experience, but even 
the experienced leader enjoys such 

From Summer Recreation, The Organization 
of a Community-Wide Program. Prepared by 
The Youth Conservation Commission, 117 
University Place, St. Paul, Minnesota. Avail- 
able free. 

confidence only when he is thoroughly 
prepared to do the particular work at 
hand. Be enthusiastic. The successful 
game leader must spontaneously enjoy 
his work of leading quite as much as 
the players enjoy playing. Leadership 
must be carried out in the spirit of 
play. The avenue of least resistance is 
not the way to real recreation leader- 

Helps for Program Planning: The 
following suggested schedules, weekly 
and daily, are samples of the type of 
preliminary planning which will be 
helpful in organizing the summer rec- 
reation program. 

The summer schedule lists a featured 
activity for each week and one or more 
special events, with some suggestions 
to guide the director in advance 
preparation. For example, the fourth 
week might have an "On Wheels" con- 
test, including tricycle, bicycle, scooter, 
pushmobile and roller skate races, doll 
buggy parade, novelty events and con- 
tests for construction of best pushmo- 
biles. Construction work should start 
during the second week. Practicing for 
the various events will be done for one 
or two weeks in advance. Publicity 
and other necessary arrangements 
should be made during the third week. 

The weekly and daily schedules sug- 
gested assume that there would be one 

man and one woman leader on each 
playground. In case only one leader is 
available for the playground, use must 
be made of volunteer leadership, or 
the schedules be substantially reduced. 
In the weekly schedule, while one per- 
son is conducting instruction in golf 
or tennis, the other leader would be 
at the playground getting out the 
equipment and taking care of pre- 
liminaries as indicated on the daily 
schedule. Definite activities are sche- 
duled for each day of the week at spe- 
cified times. This is important in order 
that participants and volunteer leaders 
may know exactly when the activities 
in which they are interested will be 

For example, a leader may be availa- 
ble for storytelling on Monday morn- 
ing for younger children, and on Tues- 
day and Thursday afternoon for upper 
elementary children, or league games 
in Softball may be scheduled for Mon- 
day and Wednesday afternoons. The 
weekly and daily schedules should 
clearly show these points. The daily 
schedule indicates the types of activi- 
ties which would be provided for each 
age group at specified times during the 
day. Posting of such schedules on the 
playground bulletin boards and pub- 
lishing the information in the news- 
papers will enable children and parents 
to know how to plan their time. 

APRIL 1952 





I i'-.i-me Hunt and Hike. 


Learn to 

s in i Week 

Know Your 


\\ Ili-fls" 




and Movie 



( ,.,fts 






1 1 \ i ii- 

( iiiniiiimity 

lii-lrui -timi Swimming. Life saving, 
Water Carnival. Bicvcle Club. Hike. 

Trips to parks, zoo, industrial con- 
Cents, hi-torical plan-*. Moulin- sings. 
Nature study. Field trips. Picnics. 

"On Wheels" contests. Doll buggy 
parade. Races for scooters, tricycles, 
l.ic\cle*. pushmobiles, wagons, roller 
skates; novelty e\i-nl-. I'usbmobile 
i iin-liuction. Music Festival. 
Trip to park, picnic grounds or area 
Miilable for nature stud\. Fourth of 
Jul\ celebration. One - day camp. 
Overnight carnp. Camera hike. 

Camera and Movie F.\hibit 

Arts and Crafts Exhibit: woodwork, 
coloring, pastel*, metal tapping, weav- 
ing, knitting, clay modeling, and so 
on. Soap carving conic*!*. Sanderaft 

li.i<k and Field Meet. Horseshoe 
Conle-t*. \idici\ Conic*!*. Tourna- 
ment* in tennis, golf, \oll.-\l.all, ta- 
ble tennis, paddle tennis, and so on. 
-u iiiiming meet. 

||,,bb\ Flower Show. I'd 
>bow. Drama Festival. Kile l>a\. 
Model Boat Kcgatta. Model \irplane 

l'la\griind I )emonstratiii i "know 
'loin I'lav^roirnd" Da\. \chie\einent 
1-Ahibil. Square Ham. I -. -tival. Pro- 
gressive (faun I'.irlv. 

Suggest linns .for I'refMinttittii 

Take inventory of supplies and equipment. See that 
facilities are in good condition. Hold general practices; 
-ct up organizational meetings, practice schedule* for 
athletic leagues- -midgets, juniors, intermediates, sen- 
iors, "old-timers" -low ball. Start to organi/e clubs 
garden, drama, bicycle, camera. Select, work with 
oinmittce to plan treasure hunt hike, (iet acquainted 
with children: try to discover junior leaders. Teach 
proper use of playground facilities \naiii:c for 
*econd week swimming instruction: publici/c "I .earn 
to Swim" week, post schedules, rules and regulation*. 
Begin work on swimming badge tot*. Make pre- 
liminary arrangements for trip for third week. Begin 
construction of pushmobile* for "On Wheels" contot. 
Organize committees for Fourth of July celebration. 
\|.|.oint junior leaders to assist in dailv acti\itie*. 
Special events (community sings, stunts, quiz pro- 
grams) for intermission at band concerts. Make nec- 
essary arrangements for "On Wheels" contest use 
oT *t reels, police protection, publicity, registration. 
Make final plans for Fourth of JiiK celebration. Pub- 
lish week to week results of all league competition. 
Work on swimming and athletic badge tests. Develop 
projects for arts and crafts groups. 

\nange with library for display of books on natme. 
Identification of trees and shrubs on playground. F.n- 
courage nature collections. Begin teaching folk dances 
for square dance festival. Prepare for camera club 

I .ncourage commercial concerns to exhibit camera and 
movie supplies and materials. Prepare for arts and 
crafts exhibits, arrange for demonstration. 

Make preliminary plans for Hobby Week. Prepare for 
Athletic Week publicity entries for all events, ar- 
range for simple awards, post schedules for week and 
tournament drawings on bulletin board. 

Prepare for Hobby Week publicilv. contact people 
with special*. arrange for flower show, pet 


Piepaic publicity to encourage communilx -w ide par- 
In ip.ilion in recreation activities during "(lommilnitv 
\\eek." Complete league schedules. 

\iian<;e for final play-off game* in league competition. 
C|o*e plavground* in\cntor\ . n-paii equipment. *loie 
siipplie*. prepare reports. 

\\ Ml. Mill. I \\ Cbei k il.i\ of w.-ek or month, and hoin*. \on . .in N ,,, (,. dm-. I ..i Mi|K-i\i*.- an ai lixilv. 
|l \1 ll(l\\ ill- IKN IIMI 

Once a week Morning 

M. T. W. 'Hi. K Sat. Mm. Once a month \ft.-rnoon 

Other Fvening 

\\ ith what age group 

Maximum number >u prefer in vour group or adi\il\ 
and MX do you pief.-r t" work'/ 

I indicate nam of other* who might IN- inter.-. led m *er\ing their . ..mmimilv . 

Pll \-l III II UN Nil- loliM Mi 


Fil < XI \lli.N 


SAMPLE DAILY SCHEDULE (Two leaders with volunteer assistance) 





Get out equipment, Inspect apparatus and play areas, mark courts and fields, distribute game supplies, post 
announcements, organize groups* 

Group games ) 
Singing games)* 4 nour each 
Apparatus play # 

Low organized games** 
Apparatus play # 
Team and group games ** 

Informal team & groups games* 
Table games # 
Stunts and tests * 



Sand box play # 
Block building | 
Story telling 

League games * 
Handcraft, quiet games * 
Nature activities 
Badge tests and stunts ** 

Handcraft * 
Nature activities * 
Quiet games a 
Badge tests and stunts ** 





Sand box | 
Apparatus # 

Group games * 
Music, dramatics, story telling ** 
Apparatus play # 

Individual games # 
Athletic events ** 
Organized team games * 




Low organized games * 
Sandbox & apparatus play # 
Watching other events a 

Contests, Tournaments * 
Special features - preparations it 

Organized team games ** 
Preparation for coming events # 
Handcraft * 








Self-organized games 

League games in Softball, 


Free play, 

Watching other . 

volleyball, archery, 



Quiet games 

activities # 

horseshoes, etc. * 


* indicates leader directed 

" volunteer leader (junior or adult) 

* indicates free play - nay have leadership, if available. 











Golf Instruction 


Tennis Instruction 


Group Games 

Low Organized 

Music Activities 

Group & Singing 

Free Play 



Apparatus Play 

Tests Ic Stunts 

Tests & Stunts 

Softball League 




Softball League 


Music Activities 










Story Telling 




An Occasional Picnic 



Apparatus Play 

Story Telling 

Group Games 




Table Games 




for Special 




Group Practice 

Story Telling 



League Contests 






Preparation for 

League Contests 



Apparatus Play 

Tournaments It, 

Club meetings 


Speclaf Contests 


An Occasional Weiner Koast and bonfire Sing 



Iague Contests 


League Contests 




For High School 


For High School 




Boys & Girls 


Boys & Girls 



Deck Tennis 


Aerial Dart's 


Aerial Darts, etc. 

league Games 

C nnttiun 1 ty N 1 gh t 

League Games 

Deck Tennis 


I * I<M if Games 

for Women 

Band Concerts 

for Men 

Quoits, etc. 


for Men 

Spe c 1 a 1 Fe a tures 

League Games 

for Women 

Children not in formal activity may utilize equipment and space not required for the directed program. 

Arrangements may be made for free use of local golf course by high school students during early morning hours tohen it is not 
in great demand by regular club members. 

Requests for instruction in golf and tennis might be satisfied by scheduling an hour per week for mass instruction in each 
of these activities. 

APRIL 1952 


COMMIMTY VOLUNTEER FORM-Among the many types of record forms that are suggested for 
IIM- in connection with the summer recreation program is one relating to volunteers. A form of this type 
is helpful in recruiting volunteers and in using them effectively. 


Mililll-'sN flat* nf ihU report 

I'HUNK lRu..t lRl Do ynii hv , r ? r 

^ on nrnl mil ! highly skilled in an arlivity in order to serve as a volunteer. Thr essential requirements are an interest 
in the arlivity or program. Please check any of the following wliirli you would like to teach or supervise. 


1 1 K- 




)l TIHHili- 



rn Archery 
rj Baseball 
rj Hakrtball 
Q Rowling 
rn Ti-nni. 
rn Swimming 
rj K<n ball 
rj Golf 
rj Hockey 
Q Skating 
[J Skiing 
[J Sofihall 
rj Volleyball 

f"~l |lm -Non!, 

Q Cubs 
rn (.irl Scout- 
rn Brownies 
PI Camp Fire 

D *" 

Q F.F.A. 
D F.H.A. 
Q School 


rj i'a|i.-r 
rj \V,x>d 
Q Metal 
Q Oil Fainting 
rn Water Colors 
rn Drawings 
Q Mcnrilling 

rj Block 

rn leather 
Q ---winR 
Q Others 

Q Folk 
Q S.|uare 

D Ta P 

Q Ballet 
rn Modern 

r~] Photography 
ri Stamp 

rn ("oins 

rn Flowers 
Q Insects 
[J Others 

Q Camping 
rn Omking 
Q Bii-ycling 
Q Bait Castinj; 
rn Fly (lasting 
rn Huntinp 
Q Hiking 
rn Naluri' I.ori- 

rn Danci 1 - 
Q I'arti.'- 

rn 1'irnii- 
rn Tours 
rn Conimunil\ 
Q Storytelling 
rn Cards 


rn Slajiecraft 

rn Direction 

r~] Acting 
Q I'uppnrv 
rn Marionette^ 




r~\ Cookiim 

rn DiM-oratin;; 

Q Ulhrr- 

rn (iroup -iiiiiin' 
rn Choral group- 
PJ Band 
Q Orchestra 
rn In-lriiincnt- 
i kinds) 

rn Pre-school 
rn Nursery 
rn Home \i-ii- 
Q Service to 

rn Church 


rn Garden 


fj Others 







Complete Stock 

Prompt Shipment 

Lrallwri rjlt it our nnl> htitinrit, and our itock it Ihr 
largrt and moil complrlr in Amriica. That i> why MHI 
CM alwayt Hrprnd upon immnliafr anct complete inlp- 
n.rnt ol orrirn trnl to at. Whrthrr >nnr n-i|iiir>-nirnl 
arr lor brfinncn' tilt nrr.linj no looU r,r i-t|M-rirncr. lor 
vrr youni hor anil urU, nV loolin( lull,.,, >,,,,;,!,,. 
ami luiU for olflrr. inurr advjii.rrl ttndrnlt or hnhhti'ti. 
br tun lo rkrt \ Ihr I ARSIIN II \ I HI IK II U I < \ I \ 
1 IK. hr.l. U ,,ir today lor your FREE cep of our hit i|. 
InMralrd Catalog Uirtt I .ralhrrrmlt projrrtv 


rh* for.moif Namu in Ltalhrrcratt 
20 S. Tripp Ave.. 0pl. 1507. Chicago 24, III. 

1. C. LARSON CO.. 1507 

30 5. Tripp A... Chicago 24, III. 

PWaw MW! m* a FREE cvpr > roar lain) 
llluilr.lrd Calalof and (.id to 






Playground Hours 

Adaptation of the hours of summer phygroaad ii|-ia- 
tion to meet local conditions is ir|>ort<-<l in IVoria. Illinciis. 
For a number of \rai> the Peoria playgrounds \\i-rt- O|H-M 
aflrrnoons and evenings. A chrck of the attendance 
showed the eienin^ participation to IK- approximalelv twice 
that of the afternoon. Several of the pla\".r"iiiid- li,i\e little 
or no shade, and the reerealimi atilhurilie- Ix-liexe that the 
heat during the afternoon hom> < lit down on the |iarli( i- 
palioit. l..i-t M-ai. th-ref<ire. the plaxfiround- w.-n- "pen 
during the morning and evening hours, with the ir-ult 
that the morning attendance nearK equalled that duriiij: 
ihe evening. Thus, the total attendance wa- increased ap- 
pro\imalcl\ iwetit\ -ti\i- |MT cent. The plan cif closing the 
pl.i\^iiiumls during the afleinoon a-. then-fore, continued 
in I'eniia during the I Til i-.i-on. (!hiltln-ii .n< I-IH cittraged 
to \i-il tin- -untuning pools during the afternoon. The new 
schedule ha- hei-n a. i epled with enlliil-i.i-Mi li\ hold .idilll- 
and chihlren. 


In rincinriali. Ohio, high choo| -ludcnl- .in- \\\-< 
cial golf I. --mi tales of lucnl\-tl\e i i nl- |i |e-,n. Illi5 
appli'-s Ihn.iith the -iimmei U-fon- ten in ihe morning two 
i|.i\ a week at earh IMIII-I. ,ind after luo-lhirl\ in the 
afternoon on thre iln\ during the -'I I xear. 

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Helena Braddock Lamp 



in Silver Springs, Maryland, last week 
completed, with father-labor, an imagi- 
native new playground which should 
help to revise present-day concepts of 
equipment for public play areas for 
children. The playground was con- 
ceived and designed by Samuel Sn\- 
der, young electronics engineer with 
the navy department, when he was 
chairman of the Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciation Playground Committee. 

The design of the playground is di- 
rectly related to the school's philoso- 
phy of "learning through doing," and 
to the desire of the staff for play 
equipment on which the children may 
use I heir imaginations as well as their 
muscles. It also provides continuous 
activity for large numbers of children, 
thus circumventing the age-old play- 
ground problem of the more aggres- 
sive children taking over, while the 
shyer and smaller children spend most 
of their time waiting their turn. 

The playground is a concrete and 

Hun, jump, climb, crawl, hide! Fun on concrete and cinder-block structures. 

Reprinted through the courtesy of The 
Amvncan City, New York. 

APRIL 1952 

cinder-block structure, sixty by sixty 
feet, embracing ramps and steps for 
running and jumping, three culverts 
for crawling through, a fireman's pole 
for sliding and shinnying, an "inching 
ledge" along which the children can 
creep by clinging to the bare wall, 
and even a "secret" passage. The only 
items that are subject to weather and 
wear are movable dowel sticks that 
can be placed into apertures in the 
walls to form ladders and shinnying 
bars. There is an amphitheatre, suita- 
ble for outdoor classes, seating seventy- 
five children. There are also a number 

of auxiliary structures surrounding 
the central one. They include a small 
house for playing "dolls" or "store" or 
"pirate's lair," a foxhole, an airplane, 
a ship, a spiral staircase, a hop-scotch 
court, jump-off ledges, hurdles, and a 
corral. So sturdy is the construction 
that there will be little if any cost for 
deterioration and replacement. 

Careful attention was given to the 
safety features of the structure, which 
rises in one place to a height of eight 
feet. The children are protected on the 
higher ramps by an iron railing with 
openings too small for them to be 


pushed through. In the spring, a mix- 
ture of sand and suwilu-t will soften 
the ground around jumping ledges. In 
the three months of the playground's 
operation, there have been fewer cuta 
anil hruises than on the conventional 
u-f. iv. -It-il placing field according to a 
rcpnrt by the principal. 

\\ hole Community Helps Out 
To make tin- playground financially 
fe.i-ible for the FTA treasury, Mr. 
>nyi|i-r hit upon the novel idea of hav- 
ing the fathers of the school's four 
hundred children act as volunteer con- 
-tni. ii,,n men. Except for land-clearing 
by a board of education bulldozer, all 
work of excavating for foundations, 
brick -laying, form - building, and so 
forth, was done by crews of fifteen or 
(unity volunteers, working two or 
tlirt-t- evenings a week and all day 
Saturdays and Sundays, over a two- 
month period. The PTA was thus able 
lo provide a ten thousand dollar struc- 
ture for a cost of two thousand six 
hundred dollars, all of which has been 
raised during two school years by an 
annual Christmas Book Fair and an 
annual Spring Fair. 

The playground project had a uni- 
fying effect upon l>oth the school and 
the community. With ninety per cent 
of the fathers participating on con- 
struction, and the mothers cooperating 
on fund raising (they also served cof- 
fee and doughnuts at mo-t work, ses- 
MOII-I. tin- I'TA was welded solidly 
together. In the community widespread 
interest was aroused. The volunteer 
fire department supplied searchlights 
for night work, the park commission 
jraxc log railing, a local factor) do- 
nated lumber for concrete forms, and 
radio stations and newspapers in the 
\icinily took the initiative in publi- 
cizing the project. 

I. \cn the children had a hand in 
building their playground. Many older 
boys helped their fathers lay bricks, 
and the sixth graders who were study- 
ing conservation used an eroded hill 
behind the structure as an object-les- 
son. They constructed drains, a retain- 
ing wall, steps down the hillside, and 
covered the slopes with planting to 
stop the erosion and beautify the area. 
They carried the project into art and 
mathematics classes by running a 

school bazaar of children-made objects 
to finance the shrubbrr\ . 

Children Enthusiastic- 

The real test of the playground came 
when it was turned over lo the chil- 
dren, who greeted it with wild en- 
thusiasm and use it at every oppor- 
tunity. As one small boy put it. "Gee, 
you can pla\ some real games on this! 
It's .better than some old swing where 
you wait all the time, and then \<>n 
just sit there, anyway." As many a- 
two hundred children have used the 
playground simultaneously with acti\ i- 
ty for all. 

A number of schools and communi- 
ties across the nation have inquired n 
to how to build and how to finance 
similar structures. The Parkside chil- 
dren, the school staff and the I'TA are 
all so enthusiastic about their challeng- 
ing new play area that they hope to 
make the ideas accessible to main 
other groups. The playground is stimu- 
lating and satisfying to the children. 
It is durable and inexpensive to keep 
up; and through volunteer labor, it 
can be feasible financially even for the 
relatively small school or community. 

Made Right 
to Perform Right! 


Choke of the Champions in every league 



by Bernard Ballantine 

HOT DOG. Tills Is it! 

EVERYONE IS MAKING a survey of one kind or 
another these days, I might as well get into the swim 
and tell the many readers of RECREATION magazine about 
the results of the survey I took one warm afternoon last 
summer at Briggs Stadium, home of the Detroit Tigers. 
This survey was made with the thought of trying to find 
out whether baseball is still our national pastime. ( Some- 
where I had heard that television was pressing baseball 
for the number one rating.) 

Without mincing any words or using a lot of boring 
statistics, let's take the survey, proceeding from character 
to character. The first person talked to was usher number 

"Mr. Usher," I opened up, "do you think baseball is 
still our national pastime, or do you prefer television or 
maybe even checkers?" 

"I dunno, sir," he replied. "All I know is that my pet 
corn is kicking up quite a fuss today, and I would like 
to go home. If I could leave now, I'd make it home in 
time to see and hear Hopalong round up those culprits he 
was after yesterday." 

Realizing I wasn't making much headway with my sur- 
vey, I shunted usher number eleven aside and grabbed a 
peanut vendor by the arm. 

"Say," I addressed the goober merchant, "what do you 

MR. BALLANTINE'S "surveys" in no way interfere with 
his duties as director of recreation in Roseville, Michigan. 

think of baseball as compared with the other sports?" 

"Man, it's the greatest game on earth. Why, there's more 
peanuts sold at baseball parks than at all other sporting 
events combined. Without baseball the peanut business 
would be just a shell of its present self." 

Encouraged by the peanut hawker's claim, I made my 
way to another part of the park so as to obtain a cross- 
section view. My next subject was a hot dog dispenser. 

"My good man," I said to the puppy merchant, "would 
you mind telling me why you like baseball?" 

"Likka da baseball? Likka da baseball?" he shouted. 
"Meester, I likka da hot dogs. I sella da hot dogs. You 
take uppa my time. I gotta no time to talk da baseball. 1 
sella da hot dogs. You likka one, maybe, with mustard?'' 

"No," I blurted, and down the aisle he went to dispense 
his dogs and mustard, leaving me somewhat discouraged 
and with a large gob of French's special on my sport 
shirt sleeve. I went to my seat and sat down, forgetting 
about my survey until the seventh inning, when the Tigers 
started a rally. In the midst of the rally, I recalled my 
purpose for being at the stadium and arose to interview a 
fan behind me. 

"Mister," I spoke to the fan politely, "what do you like 
or dislike about baseball?" 

"I can tell you what I dislike," he answered quickly, 
"and that's guys like you who stand up and block my 
view, especially at a time like this. Sit down, you jerk." 

I responded hurriedly, sensing that I had had enough for 
the day on the subject of baseball surveys and hot dogs. 
Some day maybe I'll disclose the results of another vital 
survey I made, but right now the butcher boy is knocking 
at my door with the frankfurters my wife ordered. Did 
I say frankfurters? I mean hamburger. 



how To Do IT 


Make Sandals for Beach and Su/imming Pool. 


Sole leather. 
Heavij felt. 
Canvas or leather. 
Cement and ."tacks. 
Heavu paper. 


1. Trace foot shape on heavtj paper ~ bofh r iqhf and left. 

2. Cut out paper foot shapes and cement to sole leather. 

3. Cut sole leather correct foot shape sne. 

ii -^ 

4. Cut felt lininq ^ smaller all around 

"than leather sole si 36. 


^5=S>' -V f~ , <., 

\^^roor Shape 
So/e Leather 3 

Felt' Lininq 
Leather Sole 

. Cement felt lining 
to leather sole. 

6. Make upper form to fit foot . 
Use canvas or feather 


in leather 


7 -Split leather sole at five poinls where upper "form is 10 be 
attached. Cement upper form ends in splits and 1-ack. 


lil ( I1KATION 

no playground is complete without a 

Reg. U. S. Pot. Off. 

climbing structure 

Safety, no maintenance, biggest play capacity per 
square foot of ground area and per dollar of 
cost these are just a few of the reasons why 
JUNGLEGYM is admittedly the world's most famous 
playground device. Thousands are in daily use 
from coast to coast. Why not give the children of 
your playground the advantages of a JUNGLEGYM 
. . . now? 

Write for Illustrated Bulletin On Porter's 

1952 Streamlined Line That Will Save 

You Money . . . Time. 

PORTER can supply you with these fundamental playground units, too! 

No. 240 Merry-Go-Round 

Will safely accommodate 30 children at 
one time. Noiseless, no-wobble, no- 
sway operation. An engineering mar- 
vel, and precision -made. Guaranteed. 

No. 136 Stratosphere See- Saw 

Sensationally new. Gives " up s -a -daisy" 
ride 33-1/3% higher than conventional 
tee-saw, yet safer because of hoop 
handles, saddle seats and level - seat 

No. 58-F Playground 
Basketball Backstop 

All - Steel fan - shaped bank 
rigidly mounted on steel 
matt and braced for perma- 
nent service. Finished to with- 
stand the weather. Official. 

No. 38 Combination Set 

Offers six different kinds of funful, 
healthful playground activity. A com- 
pact, economical unit that's ideal for 
limited ground areas. Ruggedly con- 

No. 109 Six-Swing Set 

Built for tafe, permanent service. Sturdy 
1 ft. frame held rigidly together by 
Tested Malleable Iron fitting of exclu- 
sive Porter "bolt-through" design. 

THE J. E. 







Reg. U. S. Pol. Off. 


Ai-Kii. 1952 


The rlcment of danger is continuous- 
1\ present on ever) playground, and 
all possible precautionary measures 
must be employed. Safety always 
should be the primary consideration of 
the recreation leader. 

Although it is estimated that in- 
telligent planning and operation will 
rliminatc at least fifty percent of play- 
ground accidents, the fact remains that 
accident- can and do occur. 

A playground should be clean. 
I linughtless persons sometimes leave 
broken bottles, sharp edged empty 
cans and similar trash where it can 
IK- picked up or stepped on by playing 
children. F.\en an unbroken bottle can 
soon become a jagged piece of glass 
if it is left where a child can get his 
hand- on it. 

>ince no playground leader, no mat- 
ter how well trained, can possibly be 
in all placo and see in all directions at 

A Safe 

for Every Child 

William F. Keller 

Time not twinginc thould \tand back. 

il bdlOOVei li|)i p.m-nl- .mil 
children ti. lii tin- fulle-t 

I'-ni 111 order to maintain a safe pl.n 

<.hildrrn' cooperation i, ol.l.iined 
at thr playground* in Hurl. .ink. ( .ill 

furili.l. b\ llle ,i|. p.. iif nfelv 

MR. K>: ' Hurlnink, (,'a/i/or- 

nut. <n thr tuprrintendent of rrrrralntn. 

patrol- maile up of Miuii-i-ter.- ranging 
in age from nine to fifteen. Members 
of the patrols are given arm bands 
designating their authority. Adults also 
render valuable assistance by acting 
as volunteer supervisors of wading 
pools, assisting with tiny tot programs, 
and by calling any hazardous condi- 
tion to tlie attention of the leader. 

Safety is the purpose of at lea-t 
ninet) percent of all playground rules. 
If the leader says, "Don't ride your 
hike on the playground." he is merely 
tr\ ing In prevent some tot from being 
run down. If he says. "Don't park it 
in front of the building." his objective 

18 to keep someone from falling \' T 


Few. if any. recreation leaders like 
to keep saying, "No. You can't do this 

Mm can't do that." People come to 
playground- for on|\ one purpose, and 
that i to have a pood time. The leader 
knows lliin and tries to go along but 
there till exist* the problem nf -af.t\. 

For thai rea-on rule- an- -el up and 
inu-t In- followed. If children and their 
parents are familiar with them 1 simple 
regulations and willinglx inopcrnte 
with the din-ilor. il will make for bet- 
ter leadership ami a happier, -.if.-r 

In iHillfinnii-* I'l.u ntil> in deig- 
tinted areas awa\ from other .1. li\ihe 

and where there is little likelihood of 
the ball rolling into the street: never 
throw the bat; spectators stand hack: 
no baseball spikes in the lower age 
groups: no hard soled shoes in basket 

In sitings: Those not swinging keep 
back; do not climb framework: no 
jumping off while -win:: is in motion; 
no landing or other acrobatic-: never 
run across the swing area. 

On slides: Slide feet first: no run- 
ning up slide: climb the ladder only: 
keep hands away from sides when 
coining down; be sure front of slide 
is clear before coming down. 

Teeterboards: Warn other |>erson be- 
fore getting off: no standing; do not 

General: No throwing of rocks or 
sand; keep out of play areas of other 
game-: wrc-lling or rough house only 
on mats or lawn; stay off walls. I 
high places: do not bring danger.. u- 
t..\- -ii. h as air rifles, sling shot-, and 

so on. to tin- playground; do not at- 
tempt to lift hi i i- l-cMiiid M'lit 

*.if. l\ regulations \.\r\ ;il each play- 
ground, but I he general pattern rr- 
main ihe same. If we all empl.iv i our- 
illinium sense and i mi-idi i.iti..n 
for oilier-, there will |.e \,r\ f. u .1. 

lil i IU.MHIN 


is one of the fields in which 

has been serving the schools of America 
for twenty years. Under the editorship of 
Dr. Harry C. McKown, well-known au- 
thority on extracurricular activities, this 
monthly magazine promotes the following 

ACTIVITY PROGRAMS - Current thought of leaders in the field of democratic group activities. 

SCHOOL ASSEMBLIES An assembly program for each week of the school year. 

CLASS PLAYS Help in selecting and staging dramatic productions. 

CLASS ORGANIZATIONS Directions for the successful guidance of school groups. 

FINANCING ACTIVITIES - Suggestions for financing student functions. 

ATHLETICS News and ideas on late developments in intra-mural and interscholastic sports. 

DEBATE Both sides of the current high school debate question. 

DEPARTMENT CLUBS Instructions and aids in the directing of school clubs of all types. 

HOME ROOMS Ideas and plans for educative home room projects. 

PEP ORGANIZATIONS - Devices for stimulating loyalty and school spirit. 

STUDENT PUBLICATIONS - Guidance in the production of school newspaper and yearbook. 

PARTIES AND BANQUETS Suggestions for educative and wholesome social activities. 

STUDENT GOVERNMENT - Sound direction in development of student sense of responsibility. 

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES - Music, commencement, point systems, etc. 

Subscription Price 0.3(1 Subscribe Now 

School Activities Publishing Co* 



APRIL 1952 




In San Francisco the recreation and 
park commission has installed gal- 
vanized stcrl portable bleachers in 
s-\rii iif its sixlx-fixe |>hi\ grounds and 
plans to provide bleachers in all the 
pl.ix (it-Ids as the budget permits. \|. 
tendance at both youngsters' games 
and tin- industrial leagues' games has 
increased noticeably. The product of 
Ki.ittx >af\\a\ Sc;itl"ld. Incorporated 
>if >an Francisco, these bleachers in 
-ections six rows high accommodate 
two hiindii-d fiftx-lxxo persons. \ -ec- 
lion this size can l>e erected and takm 
down bx two men in half a day. Gal- 
vanized -teel icquires mi painting, 
milking maintenance economical. A 
- if--t\ feature of tin- engineering design 
In- in llu- exen dislribuliiiii of -t; 
and strains. 

Sxx ininiini; I'ool Manual 
A new lxx.-|\e-p,ij_'c .Himiniii" pool 
manual tilled. "> Vm re <,oing li, 

Muild a I'ool." max I blamed hx 

writing to Koxi-n ~li I **wimining 
I'ool-. Itn orpot.iled. I'll Opleii Ave- 
nue. I ' ix 7. \i Ji-i-i-x. I In- 
manual dirume the advantages of a 
-I.-. -I toiiiiining pool and t-ixe- full 
i-ltin lion ami en-i IKHI dc- 
tails of tin Kox.-n Ijirp. and standard 
l.arli d- i'if i- < li-.irlx 
illn-lral'-'l In drawing, oi ki-|ehe. 

Baseball Bats 
Manna Katrilr Bal* for Itavl.nll and 

Softball recently celebrated their txven- 
ty-fifth year of manufacturing. Their 
bats range in price from thirtx-fixc 
cents for a miniature model fifteen 
to eighteen inches in length and a 
natural as a novelty souvenir or party- 
favor, to the professional quality and 
weight models at $3.85. A detailed 
price list and catalog may be obtained 
l>\ xx riling lo The Manna Manufactur- 
ing Company. Athens, Georgia. 

1952 Catalog 

W. J. Voit Rubber Corporation has 
announced the publication of its new 
athletic equipment catalog. Illustrated 
in color, this thirty-two page booklet 
carries an Olxmpir Games motif 
through its layout and artwork. Over 
eightx ill-ins arc described, including 
-nine new ones, such as safety month 
protectors, adjustable s\xim-tin-. de- 
luxe i iistom > xx i m-mask, and other-. 
\\ lite to a Voit office in Los Angeles, 
Chicago or \exx >, ork. 

Biddy Basketball 

Minified after Little league Base- 
ball is a piojeit knoxxn as Hiddx l!.i- i See Ht:i:KK.\TioN Magazine, 
October I Till, page 270.1 \- ii cater- 
to ages eight to thirteen, plaxinj; -it.-- 
aiid ei|iii|iini-nl an- tailored to measure. 
li.i-ki-l- are plaied ci^-lit and one-half 
feel fioin the floor, which i- reduced 
III -l/e lo hflx IPX tlllllx feet. The ball 

i- onlx luenlx -eight inches in ciri inn- 

feri-IH ' 

I In ^i-anile linbher ( in in pn n \ . 
Nen Haxen .'{. Conneetieiit. iiianiifai 
lute- their Kohl,- ball in this -| 
-!/ for linldx ll.i-ketliall. lnfotinali..n 
ahoul the fsjime ite|f may IK- obtained 
bx nrilini; to it- originator. Jay 
\nher. (H)| |t|o.,k- liiiildiiij:. Scran- 
Ion. IVmnx Ixnnia. 

Bat Bak 

Endorsed by army and navy sports 
and recreation officers, Bat Bak com- 
bines features of paddle handball and 
table tennis. A portable backboard, 
which may be set up on its own table 
or on a table tennis regulation table, 
the game may be played solo or with 
two players. No. T-5. packed xxith two 
sets per carton, S.H7.:>(i retail. S.mOO 
institutional price. No. B-20. one set, 
S43.75 retail, $35.00 institutions. Bat 
Bak. Box 1133, G.P.O., N.Y. 1, N.Y. 

Garden Sprayers 

With garden club season under way 
there will be much experimenting to 
combat insect- cITcctixelx. Hax Sanders 
and Company, National Distributor, 
220 Security Building, Pasadena 1, 
California handles the new Hayes Jr. 
IV garden sprayer. It weighs three 
pound- fully loaded with liquid or 
powder insecticide. It attaches to the 
garden hose and chemicals are 
thoroughly mixed with running water 
in internal jets. Water pn---ure does 
the work of mixing and sprax ing. A 
bock-flow breaker \al\e pn-xenl- in- 
-ecticide from beiiif; drawn hack into 
the xxalet -lieam. Thi- four-gallon 
model retail- at S'l. l.~>. The txx o-^ 
llaxes-Ltte II retails for s.Y I".. 

Bar-B-Ouc Grill 

\lioiit iln- -i/e of a serving plallci 
llii- Table-Top Hat-HOile (irill lend- 
it-elf In picnic atmosphere when xmi 
can I pi farther than xour dining room 
ot kite hen. \ jif:p-r of denatured .il 
cohol poured oxer the gla xx ick in the 
central potterx OM-II luirns with a 
-leadx. od. nlc llanie liol enough to 
b.itbei in- \xeenie-. kalnih- oi -qiiab. 

Made by Nahdger. Incorporated, 6472 

\\ North \xeiuic. Chicago .'?.">. Illinois, 
this grill retail* for >1 V"> prepaid. 

Hn HI Miu\ 










Considers the progressive ac- 
quiring of democratic con- 
cepts and attitudes from 
childhood through early and 
late adolescence, and adult- 
hood. Applies to the fields of 
health education, physical ed- 
ucation, and recreation, re- 
cent research on methods and 
techniques in group dynam- 
ics, sociometry, social group 
work, and general education. 

562 pp. 



American Association for 
Health, Physical Education 
and Recreation 

1201 16th St. N.W., Wash., D.C. 


Please send me_ 
AAHPER Yearbook. 

D Check enclosed 


copies of the 

D Bill me 

Zone State 








. . Use Clean Odorless 
Low Cost 



Want your playgrounds 
athletic fields, tennis courts 
kept free of annoying, germ- 
bearing dust? It's easy with SOL- 1 
clean, colorless, odorless material completely eliminates 
dust on practically all types of unpaved surfaces. It's in- 
expensive and is easily applied, even by inexperienced 
help. Requires no expensive equipment. Makes play areas 
better, safer, healthier places to play in. Used by school 
boards, park departments and tennis clubs for over thirty 
years. Solve YOUR dust problem with SOLVAY CAL- 


For complete infor- 
mation on methods 
of application, quan- 
tities required and 
other details, send 
for free book-"END 
DUST with Solvay 
Calcium Chloride". 
Contains important 
information on the 
dust problem, a s 
well as helpful in- 
structions. Mail cou- 
pon today ... no 


Allied Chemical & Dye Corporation 
40 Rector Street, New York 6, N.Y. 

Please send me, without obligation, your free book "END DUST 
with Solvay Calcium Chloride." 




City Zone 



APRIL 1952 


II I Mil 11(1 1 111! 

lexis . . 

Introduction to 
Community H k <*iM k sitioii 

My (iroi-iic I). Miitlrr, National Recreation \- 
M.ciation. Second Edition. 558 pages, $5.50 

A popular book dealing with the methods and 
problems of organizing and administering a com- 
munity recreation program. This text will give 
the reader a comprehensive picture of community 
recreation in the United States. It includes sec- 
tions covering the nature, extent, significance, and 
history of community recreation; recreation lead- 
ership personnel its functions, training and se- 
lect ion; the planning of recreation areas and 
facilities; recreation activities and program plan- 

Tin* I'amn t oinix-lor 

Hy U. A. H.iiMM,. M.I).. NVu York Medical 
C..II.-U.-; and .1. A. (...Idberg. N. Y. Tnl.rreulo^ 
and Health AsMieiat ion. Mi-Cmir-IIHI Scric.i in 
llriiltli Kilni-ution. riiyxii-nl Ki/iirnfiini, and 
Iti-i-n-nlion I ~<~> 

( .\cis all phases of the child and child develop- 
ment and problems that arise in camps in ion 
net lion with the pli\ mental, emotional, .md 
social conduct of the individual. An exceptionally 
i omprehcnsive study, this tevt. well supplemented 
with class-room aids, u ill be invaluable to anyone 
connected with camp administration. 

Send for your t opics on approval 
Mi-4.ll \\\-llll.l. 

HOOK ro.>nA.\v. i\4 . 

330 West 12..,! sired Nw York 36, N.Y. 


BIKTHIMY PARTIES FOR Bov-. \M> (liui.s. Mary Grosvenor 
I .ll-worth. \\oinan'> I'ress. New ^ ork. S_>. .">(>. 

C.v MI-KIRK ADVENTLKK STORIES. Mian A. Macfarlan. Asso- 
ciation Press, New York. $2.95. 

CHILDREN'S GAMES FROM MAM I.VM>~. edited \<\ Nina 
Milieu. The Friendship Press, 156 Fifth Avenue, New 
York. $2.00. 

Project for the Aged of the Welfare Council of Metro- 
politan Chicago. \\ ilcox and Follett Company, Chicago. 

Filtnn. Alfred A. Knopf. \e\% 'l ork. $3.00. 

Ruth Gonser Lease and Geraldine Hiain Siks. Harper 
and Brothers, New York. S4.00. 

F \MOIS NATURALISTS. Lorus J. and Margery J. Milne. 
Dodd, Mead and Company, New York. $2.50. 

Gvn WAYS TO READABLE BOOKS. Ruth Stranp. Christine B. 
Gilbert. Margaret C. Sc-oggin. The H. W. Wilson Com- 
pany, New York. Second edition. $2.7.~>. 

HO\II-:>IM N CRAFTS. K. Kenneth Baillie. The Bruce I'nhli-li- 
ing Compain. Milwaukee 1. \\i-ronsin. s.'?.IM). 

HORSEMASTERSHIP. Margaret Cal)ell Self. A. S. Barne- ami 
Company, New York. $5.00. 

MAKING A START IN ART. Anna Airy. The Studio Publica- 
tions, 432 Fourth Avenue. New York 16. $5.00. 



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the Diamond JUNIOR 

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PROCEEDINGS, Volume Eighty-nine. 
National Education Association, 
Washington. D. C. 

William Morrow and Company, In- 
corporated. 425 Fourth Avenue, 
New York 16. $2.75. 

Macpherson. Dodd, Mead and Com- 
pany, 432 Fourth Avenue, New 
York. $2.50. 

and Glen A. Richardson. John Wiley 
and Sons, Incorporated, 440 Fourth 





Avenue, New York. $5.50. 

Cash Seaton. Irene A. Clayton, How- 
ard C. Leibee, Lloyd Messersmith. 
Prentice-Hall, Incorporated. New 
York. Paper, $2.65. 

RY SCHOOLS, Dorothy LaSalle. A. S. 

Barnes and Company, New York. 

Schneider. Simon and Schuster, New 
York. $.25. 

1815, Emiliana Pasca Noether. Co- 
lumbia University Press. $3.00. 




In a feature by feature comparison, BURKE-Built 
Equipment definitely offers outstanding value. 
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superiority. Special fittings and scientific design 
offer functional advantages that really contribute 
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Equipment by BURKE is built on constant research 
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You Can Be More Successful 

In Camping! 

The secret lies in always keeping up to 

date with the latest ideas in 

organized camping. 

Alert camp directors and their staffs read 
about tried and proved ideas in the monthly 
CAMPING MAGAZINE and the annual REF- 
know the danger of static thinking and obso- 
lete ideas. You, too, will find these publications 
a never-ending source of new, usable ideas. 
Membership includes your subscription to 
these publications and many more valuable 
benefits, costs $3.00 to $25.00 per year, de- 
pending on classification. For full information, 
write American Camping Assn., 343 S. Dear- 
born St., Chicago 4. Or you may subscribe 
to the publications alone for $3.00 per year 
(Canada $3.25, Foreign $3.50.) Fill in and 
mail the handy coupon NOW, so we can send 
you your first, fact-packed issue right away. 

343 S. Dearborn St. 
Chicago 4, Illinois 

705 Park Ave. 
Plainfield, N. J. 

Please send me full information on member- Please enter my subscription to Camping 

ship in American Camping Association. Magazine. Payment of $ is enclosed. 


Street and No 

City . 

Zone State 

Use separate sheet to enter additional orders for your staff. 


APRIL 1952 


new Publications 

Covering the Leisure-time Field 

The Book of Games 

G. S. Ripley. Association Press, New 

York. $3.00. 

Almost all of us in the recreation 
profession have at one time or another 
had the task of conducting games 
OBMwfacn on the playground, in the 
i i-nii-r. at camp, at meetings. We all 
have our own ideas about the best 
methods of classifying games, and 
some of us would not always agree 
with Mr. Kipley's classifications. 

We would not, however, quarrel 
with him on his careful selection of 
j_Miii'--. and we would praise him for 
including a section on balloon games, 
and a -cetion of small-group game- in 
which he includes many good magic 
game-, -hint- and puzzles. 

Those of us who conduct summer or 
day camps would also praise him for 
his sections on -talking and hiking 
i/r:,.-. i amp stunts and water sports. 

This book goes farther than the 
average game book, in that it includes 
-eiiimi- nn -Imw- and exhibits and 
in-irlil."ili..'.r| contests. Its diversified 
i t.nieni- thus make it helpful to play- 
j.-r..>ind leaders, camp counselors, club 
leaders and teachers. 

Dance and Play Activities for 
the Elementary Grades 

Lois M. Bauer and Barbara A. Heed. 
Charlwi-ll Hoii-r. Ini nrpor.iterl, 280 
Madi-nn \\rmie.Ni-w V>rk. Volume 
I Grades One L. 11,,,-e, $3.00; 
\nliimc II Grades Four to 
The material in these books has been 

wr|| organized, according t<> grades, 
contains a nice balance of game*, 

rh\ thins, self-testing activities and dra- 
matic play. 

\- each grade is discussed, the au- 
ihors give a brief picture of the child's 
plu-ical and emotional needs at this 
I" rind in his development. These, plus 
the emphasis on safety, should be most 
helpful to the teacher or recreation 

Playground and recreation leaders 
should find Volume I particularly use- 
ful, because so many game books do 
not contain very much material for 
children of grades one, two and three. 
Many of the self-testing activities in 
both volumes would be useful for hot 
days when strenuous play is not ad- 
\ isable. 

The authors have also been very 
u i -r in giving the tune to each singing 
game, and also the number of a phono- 
graph record with the song whenever 
po ible. 

The volumes are attractively printed 
with blue covers and red spiral bind- 
ing. Helen \l. Dauncey, Katherine F. 
Barker Memorial Secretan for \\oinen 
and Girls, National Recreation Asso- 

How to Use Hand Puppets in 
Croup Discussion 

Jean Sehick Grossman. Play 
Association, 119 West 57th Street, 
New ^1 ork. 8.60 paper. 
III'.-.- familiar with other publica- 
tions l>\ this author will not be sur- 
prised at the clarity and sincerity of 

llli- I IJe|. 

New iinili, ,d- fnr stimulating group 

di-i ll inn- are lllllell lleeileil. One of 
the l>e-t cif the-e mellmil- i- through 
drnmatie .iket'-hc*, and in thc-e. pup 
pets allow a wider freedom of per- 
-ii. il rxprin-in . . -inn- ihe players can 
flfii -av and !.. through puppet.- what 
lhe\ would be too self-' "ii-' ions to 
say or do as acton. 

I In- I kl'-t discusses in detail tin- 
use of pupp.-t- in fostering group dis- 

cussion among children, parents and 
professional leaders. In recreation and 
social group work there is a great need 
for material dealing with tcrhiii<|iic- 
aiul methods, and we hope the author 
will follow up this booklet with others 
of the same type, discussing other 
methods and techniques.- -Virginia 
Musselnian, Correspondence and Con- 
sultation Service, NBA. 

A History of Popular Music 
in America 

Sigrnund Spaeth. Random House, New 

York. (New Edition) $5.00. 

Groups planning to include numbers 
by American composers on their pro- 
grams for Music Week and other oc- 
casions will find helpful material in 
this book. First published in 1948, it 
includes data on all songs, written be- 
tween the founding of the Republic 
and the middle of the pre-ent century, 
of interest to people in general. 

It is the kind of material a leader 
would want to have conveniently at 
hand if he were planning to present 
ballads celebrating incidents in the 
country's historx. sentimental tunes of 
the Gay Nineties, songs of the first 
World War. or familiar melodies about 
the writers of which little i- known. 

I here are useful observations on 
the official state songs, and light is 
thrown nn the obscure backgrounds of 
m.inv in. .ilrin and former favorites. 
There are |i\el\ note- on the better 
I. line and musical comedx hits and 
lirec/\ anecdotes concerning their com- 
po-er- and inteipietei-. Ining Berlin. 
ll.iiiimri-trm II. |{ing l.anlner. 
the team of (.allaghcr and Shean. 
George Ger-hwin. Gertrude Lawrence 
and Damn are a few of the 
ni.iiu and theatrical figures 
who pas in exciting procession across 
the pages nf this book. Gertrude 
I:. Hi luinl. Correspondence and Con- 
sultation >cr\ii.. N.iii, IJ. -i [ration 



Recreation Leadership Courses 

Sponsored jointly by the National Recreation Association and Local Recreation Agencies 

April and May, 1952 


Social Recreation 


Social Recreation 


Social Recreation 

Creative Recreation 


Arts and Crafts 

Inglewood, California 
April 14-17 

Santa Rosa, California 
April 21-24 

Berkeley, California 
April 28-May 1 

Petaluma, California 
May 5-8 

Palo Alto, California 
May 12-15 

Whittier, California 
May 19-22 

Toledo, Ohio* 
April 7, 8 and 9 

New York, New York 
April 14-17 

District Conference 

Bear Mountain, New York 

April 23-26 

District Conference 
Wheeling, West Virginia 
April 27-29 

Huntington, West Virginia 
May 5-8 

Atlanta, Georgia 
May 12-15 

District Conference 
Eugene, Oregon 
April 2-4 

Vancouver, British Columbia 
April 7-10 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 
April 21-24 

University City, Missouri 
April 28-May 1 

Hattiesburg, Mississippi 
May 5-8 

West Point, Georgia 
May 12-15 

Toledo, Ohio* 
April 7, 8 and 9 

District Conference 

Madison, Wisconsin April 16-18 

Lafayette, Indiana 
May 9-10 

Merom. Indiana 
May 12-17 

Toledo, Ohio* 
April 7, 8 and 9 

Annapolis, Maryland 
April 21-24 

Columbus, Ohio 
May 19-22 

R. K. Goates, Director, Park-Recreation Department, 621 North 
La Brea Avenue 

Hans A. Thompson, Recreation Director, Recreation Department, 
500 King Street 

Charles W. Davis, Director of Recreation and Parks, 2180 Milvia 

Steven A. Mezzera, Director, Recreation, Parks and Music 

Edward E. Bignell, Superintendent of Recreation, Community Cen- 
ter, 1305 Middlefield Road 

R. Walter Cammack, Superintendent of Recreation 

John J. Collier, 949 North Prospect, Ypsilanti, Michigan 

Miss Florence Kennedy, Department of Child Care, The Catholic 
Charities of the Archdiocese of N.Y., 122 East 22 Street 

G. A. Nesbitt, National Recreation Association, 315 Fourth Ave- 
nue, New York, New York 

Miss Marion Preece, 814 Bashford Lane, Alexandria, Virginia 

Marvin A. Lewis, Managing Director, Cabell County Recreation 
Board, Administration Office, Field House 

Miss Virginia Carmichael, Director of Recreation Department of 
Parks, City Hall 

Willard H. Shumard, 1627 Tenth Ave. West, Seattle, Washington 

Miss Marjorie Milne, Supervisor, Playgrounds and Community 
Centers, Stanley Park 

Charles F. Renfro, Director of Recreation, 221 West Lead Avenue 

Melvin Oppliger, Chief Recreation Supervisor, 6801 Delmar Boule- 

Dr. Pete Davis, Professor of Recreation, Mississippi Southern 
College, Station A 

Robert A. Turner, Coordinator, Department of Community Rec- 
reation, West Point Manufacturing Company 

John J. Collier, 949 North Prospect, Ypsilanti, Michigan 
Robert L. Horney, 100 Shepard Terrace, Madison, Wisconsin 

Jackson M. Anderson, Assistant Professor of Recreation, Purdue 

John L. Marks, Assistant in Rural Youth Work, Indiana Farm 
Bureau, Inc., 130 East Washington Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

John J. Collier, 949 North Prospect, Ypsilanti, Michigan 

E. R. Seeders, Director, Community Service Building, 9 St. Mary's 

N. J. Barack. Superintendent, Department of Public Recreation, 
Room 124, City Hall 

*This course open to supervisors only. 

Attendance at training courses conducted by National Recreation Association leaders is usually open to all who wish to attend. 
For details as to location of the institute, contents of course, registration procedure, and the like, communicate with the sponsors 
of the courses as listed above. 


M si; \so\ / 

With school vacation only a few weeks away, it is time to begin 
planning the busy days and evenings ahead. 

Often the ideas and instructions in a good book or pamphlet can 
turn a hard task into a happy venture. The following may be obtained 
by writing to the National Recreation Association, 315 Fourth Avenue, 
New York 10, New York. 


Playgrounds Their administration and operation $4.00 

Community Sports and Athletics Organization, administration and 
program 5.00 

Conduct of Playgrounds .50 

Summer Playground Evaluation A check list 23 


Personnel Standards in Recreation Leadership JO 

Training Your Playground leaders .35 

Training Volunteers for Recreation Service 50 


A B C i of Public Relations for Recreation, The 
Publicity for Recreation (MP 424) 



Arts and Crafts 

Art! and Crafts for the Recreation Leaden 

by Frank A. Staples 

Finger Puppets (MP 322) 

Make Your Own Games (MP 332) 

Make Your Own Puizles (MP 333) 

Manufacturers and Distributors of Croft Supplies 
and Equipment (MP 238) 

Outline Guide in Arts and Crofts Activities at 
Different Age levels (MP 258) 



Plostic for the Beginner by Frank A. Staples .1.50 

Dancing and Musk 
Action Songs (MP 325) 
Born Dance Return, The 
Dances end Their Management (MP 313) 
Forty Approaches to Informal Singing 
"Good Morning" by Mr. and Mrs Henry Ford 
Muicol Miiers and Simple Square Dance* 
Storing and Developing a Rhythm Band 




"Children of the Americas" (MP 338) a pageant 
Entertainment Stunts (MP 170) 

"Festival of Freedom, A" (MP 16) A program of 
songs, tableaux and story 

Inexpensive Costumes for Ploys, Festivals and Pageants (MP 41) 

Music Unites the Nation (MP 350) Music and dances, of the 
United Nations 

Playground Fair, A (MP 304) Script and directions 

for a playground pageant 

Pussy Cat, Pussy Cot (P 6) A ploy for children 

Silver Bells and Cockle Shells and Seven Other Plays 

Games and Special Activities 

88 Successful Ploy Activities 

For the Storyteller 

Games for Boys and Men 

Games for Children 

Games for Quiet Hours and Small Spaces 

Picnic Programs (MP 251) 

So You're Planning a Parade (F 14) 

Twice 55 Games with Music Singing games and rounds 
for all age-groups .... 

Water Games and Stunts (MP 158) 

Nature and Camping 

Adventuring in Nature 

Day Camping 

Enjoying Nature 

leader's Nature Guide by Marie Goudette 

Playground Summer Notebook, The Twelve weekly issues 

Recreation Magazin 
Per Year 

-Ten issues annually 











r*biilbr XJbra.r\ 
Murray OolJe 


To start planning your summer 

Tired of going to the same 

Want to get MORE-for LESS? 

Whether you plan to travel, or 
stay at home 




IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT According to a new agreement, this special publication is 
being distributed by Rand McNally & Company, publishers, through their bookstore outlets. 
Format and content have undergone considerable change. Sixteen new pages of text, ac- 
cented with color, have been added, and the book will have a cover in color. Because of 
these improvements, it must now retail for $1.00. 

ADVANCE ORDERS for Su*tMtVl 1/aeaUtHtA - It. S. ;4.. which were postmarked 
before April 15, will be filled at the 50-cent price, as originally announced. The offer of 
a free copy with a new subscription, or renewal of a subscription to RECREATION magazine, 
terminates May first. 

Spring 1952 



U. S. Foreil Service 

Delegates traveling to the National 
Recreation Congress in Seattle, per- 
haps planning their vacations along 
the way, will find this book particu- 
larly helpful in determining how to 
go, things to do and see. 


315 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, N.Y. 


Control PUST quickly and effectively 

Gulf Sani-Soil-Set is the practical answer to your 
dust annoyance problems. Here are a few of the 
many good reasons why it will pay you to investi- 
gate this efficient dust-control medium now: 
Highly Effective Gulf Sani-Soil-Set eliminates 
dust annoyance completely, immediately after ap- 
plication. No long waiting periods are necessary 
before the ground is ready for use. The dust allay- 
ing effect is accomplished by the action of the com- 
pound in adhering to and -weighing down dust 

Long Lasting Because it has extremely low vola- 
tility and is insoluble in water, Gulf Sani-Soil-Set 
remains effective for long periods. One applica- 
tion per season or year is usually sufficient. 
Easily Applied Gulf Sani-Soil-Set is free-flowing, 
easy and pleasant to use. It can be applied by hand 
or by sprinkling truck, and spreads quickly. 
Saves Maintenance Expense Gulf Sani-Soil-Set 
minimizes dust annoyance and cleaning expense 
in near-by houses, stores, and laundries. 

MAY 1952 

Write, wire, or phone your nearest Gulf office 
today and ask for a demonstration of the advan- 
tages of this modern proven dust allayer. If you 
have not yet received a copy of the booklet which 
gives further information on this quality Gulf 
product, mail the coupon below. 

Gulf Oil Corporation Gulf Refining Company R 

719 Gulf Building, Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

Please send me, without obligation, a copy of the booklet, "Gulf 
Sani-Soil-Set the modern, proven agent for controlling dust." 






no playground is complete without a 

Rtg. U. S. Pot. Off. 

climbing structure 

Safety, no maintenance, biggest play capacity per 
square foot of ground area and per dollar of 
coit these are just a few of the reasons why 
JUNGLEGYM is admittedly the world's most famous 
playground device. Thousands are in daily use 
from coast to coast. Why not give the children of 
your playground the advantages of a JUNGLEGYM 
. . . now? 

Write for Illustrated Bulletin On Porter's 

Streamlined Line That Will Save 

You Money . . . Time. 

PORTER can supply you with these fundamental playground units, too! 

No. 240 Merry-Go-Round 

Will iof*ly accommodote 30 children at 
on* time. Noitoleii, no wobble, no- 
way operation. An engineering mar. 
vel, and pretiiion made Guaranteed. 

No. 58 F Playground 
Basketball Backstop 
All.Steel fan. shaped bank 
rigidly mounted on tteel 
matt and braced for periwo 
nenterne Finithed to with- 
stand the weather Official. 

No. 1 36 Stratosphere See- Saw 

Seniationolly new. Givel "upi-a-dailv" 
rid* 33 1/3% higher than conventional 
lee tow, yet safer became of hoop 
handlei. taddle seats and level eol 

No. 38 Combination Set 

Offeri ti. different kinds of funful. 
healthful playground activity. A com. 
pact, economical unit that'* Ideal for 
limited ground areas. Ruggedly con- 

No. 109 S,,. Swing Set 
Built for safe, permanent lervic*. Sturdy 
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MAY, 1952 



Business Manager, ROSE JAY SCHWARTZ 


Recreation Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 

Vol. XLV1 

Price 35 Cents 

No. 2 

On the Cover 

Proof that fishing is good in Missouri is this catch 
of trout taken from Pigeon Creek, a minor tribu- 
tary to Current River's headwaters. Many Ozark 
streams are stocked from the hatchery in Montauk 
State Park. 

Next Month 

June RECREATION, the summer issue, is packed with 
ideas for summer programs, camping and play- 
ground leadership, besides good articles on adminis- 
tration, parks, community centers and sports. A 
random sampling of titles reveals "A Part of My 
Life" (camping seen through a blind boy's eyes), 
"The Authority to Hire and Fire Recreation Work- 
ers," "Lantern and Float Parade," "Tournament 
Tips," and the third in the series of photography 
articles. "How a Recreation Executive Appraises His 
Own Performance" pulls no punches. "Nature Trails 
in State Parks" tells how to make vandal-proof signs. 

Photo Credits 

Cover, Massie Missouri Resources Division; Pages 
77, 78, Elemore Morgan, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; 
79, Louisiana Art Commission; 80, 81, 82, Dow 
Chemical Company; 87 (top), Seattle Times, (bot- 
tom) King County Park Department; 89, Martin 
Kleinman, Brooklyn; 91, Robert Nickles and James 
Hetherington, (right) Clyde Hare; 92 % 93, "Official 
photo UJiAF, by AF Training Command"; 84, Black- 
stone; 98, Long Beach, California, Recreation De- 
partment; 100, The Milwaukee Journal: 102, Harry 
Berger, Boston; 103, Boston Board of Recreation; 
104, Hickory Community Center, North Carolina; 
105 (left), Inglewood News photo, (right) Ben 
Schiff; 106, Dayton, Ohio, Department of Public 
Welfare; 112, The New York Times; 115, Pennsyl- 
vania State Department of Commerce, Harrisburg. 

RECREATION is published monthly except July 
and August by the National Recreation Association, 
a service organization supported by voluntary con- 
tributions, at 315 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, 
New York; is on file in public libraries and is 
indexed in the Readers' Guide. Subscriptions $3.00 
a year. Canadian agency, G. R. Welch Company, 
Ltd., 1149 King Street West, Toronto 1, Ontario; 
Canadian subscription rate $3.85. Re-entered as 
sr, matter April 25, 1950, at the Post 
Office in New York, New York, under Act of 
March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special 
rah- of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act 
of October 3, 1917, authorized May 1, 1924. 
Advertising and Production Office: Tones Press, 
Fifth and Fifth South, Minneapolis 15, Minnesota. 
Space Representatives: H. Thayer Ileaton, 415 
Lexington Avenue, New York 17, New York; 
Mark Minahan, 168 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago, Illinois; Keith H. Evans, 3757 Wilshire 
Boulevard, Los Angeles 5, California. 
Copyright, 1952, by the 

National Recreation Association, Incorporated 
Printed in the U.S.A. 3^j. 2 

Trade mark registered in the U. S. Patent Office. 


MAY 1952 

General Features 

Recreation The Fulfillment of Human Needs (Editorial), 

Dr. S. R. Laycock 69 

Recreation Personnel Changes 79 

Richard Montgomery Tobin 84 

Walk With Nature, James H. Hamilton, Jr 85 

Cooperation is King in King County, 

Robert C. Stephens 86 

Sunday Painters 

America Alerts Her Senior Citizens, Charles E. Reed 97 

Heading for Seattle io'l 

Campus Grass Gets Chance 108 


Cooperation in Aquatics 

Swimming Pool Operation, Martin Nading and 

Sam Basan 83 

Maryland to Develop River Valley Park 88 

Let Folks Know 96 

Golf Administration 109 

A Study of Public Golf Course Operation 115 

Program Activities 

Recreation Through Art, Edward Kerr 77 

We Make Our Own Music, Bob McKellar 80 

It's Garden Time! Barbara Shaluca , 90 

The Airforce Takes to the Farm, 

Corporal Connie Alexander 92 

The Photographic Group (Second in Series), 

Irma Webber 94 

Honoring Joseph Lee 102 

Boy and Girl Anglers by the Million 104 

"The Dearest Wish," Daniel E. Wagner 106 

Baseball Softball Skill Contests, Sterling Geesman 110 

Recipes for Fun Skits and Stunts 113 

Regular Features 

Letters -. 70 

Things You Should Know 72 

Editorially Speaking 74 

A Reporter's Notebook 112 

Recreation Market News 117 

Personnel Why Do Recreation Executives Fail? 118 

Books Received 119 

New Publications : 120 

Recreation Leadership Courses Inside Back Cover 



A Service Organization Supported by Ko/un/ary Contributions 
JOSEPH PRENUERGAST, Executive Director 


C>TTO T. MAI i t BY .................. Chairtnm of the Board 

PALI Mooif. JR ...................... Fine Vice-Preiident 

Mi*. OcDCN 1 . MM 1 1 ............... Second Vice-Pretidrnt 

SUSAN M. Lie. .Third Vice-I'reiident jnd Secretary of the Board 
ADRIAN M. MASIII ............................ Treuurer 

GUITAVUI T. KIRIY .................... Trciiurer Emcritui 

JotiPH PRENDERGAiT ........................... Secretary 


F. V. H. AfMni New York, N. Y. 

F. GREGG BEMIS Boaton. Mm 

Mas. ROBERT w*ooo* Bi in Vaihington, D. C. 

MRS. ARTHUR G. CLMMIX Jacksonville. Fla. 


HAtRT P. DAVIION New York, N. Y. 


Mil. PAUL GAI IAOHII Omaha, Nebr. 

RORIRT GAMUT Baltimore, Md. 

AUSTIN E. Giirrtrm Seattle, Va*h. 

Mai. XCMMAM HARROWIR Fitchburg. Man. 

Mat. CHARHI V. Hicsox Michigan City. Ind. 

Mas. JOHN D. JAMESON Bellpori, N. Y. 

SUIAH M. LEE New York, N. Y. 

OTTO T. MAIUEY Philadelphia. Pa. 

CAUL F. MiiiiKrs Auguita, Me. 

Ml*. OCOEN L. MILLS Voodbury. N. Y. 

PAUL MOORE, Ji Jrwy City, N. J. 


Mil. SICMUND STERN San Franciico. Calif. 

GRANT TITSWORTH N'oroton. Conn. 

MRS. VILLIAU VAN ALSN Philadelphia. Pa. 

J. C. VALSH Yonkcri. N. Y. 


Executive Director's Omce 


Correspondence nd Contultatio* 




Retrcatioa Maf*iin* 


Special Publication! 


Pr*oal Srvic 



Rtrcb Department 


Work wick Voluatert 


Field Dep*riBent 




Srriitv to S/^/rt ROBERT R. GAMBLE 

Artfi imJ Fifititiri Hemming tml S*rtc>i 

H. C. HUTCHINI ALAN B. iii in 

1 i M it LYNCH 

Ktlbfrimt F. RurkfT Mtmorttl 
Sfctfttry for Vomtm **4 Girh 


I*J*ttrt*I RnrttHom C. E. BtEWER 

RtfTutio* LttJenbip Ttumtmi Conrui 



New EgUd DUtrict 
(PnetM add r . . . New York) 

Middle AtUalic Dittr.ct 
JOHN V. FAUST ...... Eaat Orange. N. J. 

A. NEIBITT ---- New York. N. Y. 


Souther* Dutriit 

Misi MARION PREECE Alexandria, Va. 

RALPH VAN FLEET CIcarwater, Ha, 

VrLLUM M. HAT Nashville. Tenn. 

GrMC Lke Diitrict 
JOHN J. COLLIER .......... Toledo. Ohio 

RoeiRT L. HoeNET ....... Midiwn . Vii. 

Midw M i Diatricl 

ARTHUR TOPO Kaaiai City. Mo. 

HAIOI o LATHIO* Denver, Colo. Diitnct 

Pacific Nrthwe*t Dtatm t 
VIIIABD H. SHUMABD Seattle. Vaak. 

Pacific Soutkweit DiiCrict 
LTNN 5. ROONET l-oi Angelet. Calif 

Affiliate Membership 

AmJiate membership in ike National 
Recreation Aaeociation is open to all non- 

wheee f*a>cii* it wholly or primarily the 
provinon or promotion of recreat oo Kr- 
icee or which include recreation 
port MI peri of their total prof 
koee cooperation in the work of 
cittion wweJd, In ike opinion of 
nation's Board of Directors, fur her the 
recreation movement. 

Active Associate Membership 

Active aiKKiate memberakip ia the 
National Recreation Atiociation it open to 
alt individuals who art actively engaged 
on a full-time or part-time employed bant 
or ai volunteer* in a nonprofit private or 
pnblic recreatio* organisation and wbo*e 
cooperation in the work of the aa*ociation 
would, in the opinion of the association'* 
Board of Directors, further the endi of the 

i untributors 

The continuation of the work of the 
National Recreation Association from year 
to year is made poetible by the iplendid 
cooperation of several hundred volunteer 
tpooKKi throughout the country, and the 
njMrwM contributions of (hnuitndi of sup- 
porters of this movement to bring health, 
hapfiineii and creative living to the boyi 
and girli and the men and wnmiei of 
America. If you would like to iom in eke 
tupport of ihii movement, you mar **nd 
your contribution direct to the ueociatiofi 

The National Rrcrralion An*oriation ia a nation- 
wnlr, nonprofit, nonpolitiral and nonsrctarian rivir 
orcanization. mtabli*hrd in 1906 and aupportnt by 
voluntary rontrihiilidn*. and tlrdiratrd to the TV 
ice of all recreation rxrrtiti\r. leaden and agen- 

.!lir and private, to tbr end that rvrry child 
in Amrrira nhall have a place to play in ufrty and 
that rv in Amrrira. young and old, shall 

have an opportunity for the bet and mni *atify- 
ing ute of hi rxpanding lriurr titnr. 

For further information reforming lh* association'* srrvicts and membership, please urite to the 
OtVertor. National Rfrrtttion Auoriation. 315 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, New York. 

i \i i*'\ 

TODAY WE KNOW that play and rec- 
reation are vital elements in hu- 
man growth and adjustment. We 
haven't, however, been doing a very 
good job in meeting children's needs 
in a healthful way. The National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene says if the 
present trend continues, four or five 
of every hundred children in our 
schools will sometime in their lives be 
patients in mental hospitals; others 
will suffer from mental illness, but be 
treated at home or in a general hospi- 
tal; from thirty to fifty will suffer from 
crippling mental traits, such as bad 
tempers, sullenness, sulkiness. shyness, 
self-pity, oversensitiveness, and the 
tendency to rely on minor ailments like 
sick headaches as a way out of difficul- 

Let us take a look at the personality 
needs of boys and girls, and adults, 
which must find adequate channels of 
expression if human beings are to lead 
mentally healthy lives: 

The Need for Affection 

Psychologists these days are very 
fussy about the fulfillment of the need 
to be loved and to matter. They think 
that, next to a reasonable amount of 
food, it is the most important human 
need, from the cradle to the grave. 
Certainly this is true of infants and the 
pre-school child, but it is also true of 
the older folks. Small children need 
to be talked with a form of play with 
their parents as an important part of 
their development and as a fulfillment 
of their need for affection. Indeed, one 
of the chief contributions of our own 
adult friends is that of companionship, 
of sharing our interests and recreation. 
When we turn our attention to our 
senior citizens, they greatly need the 
sense of mattering which comes from 
shared recreation not only with those 
of their own age but with those of 
other ages as well. 

Even adolescents, who seem so 
anxious to break away from their 
parents, need to feel secure in their 
affection. This security often results 
from the comradeship of doing things 
together so long as this does not 

* From an address delivered by Dr. S. R. 
Laycock, Dean of Education, University of 
Saskatchewan, at Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 

MAY 1952 


The Fulfillment of Human Needs* 

A Guest Editorial 

hinder them from comradeship with 
their own age-mates. 

The Need for Belonging 

Closely allied to the human hunger 
for affection is the need for belonging, 
to feel that one is a desired and de- 
sirable member of a group. The fami- 
ly is the first and most important of 
these groups. Few things give a child 
such a sense of belonging as participa- 
tion in family recreation family 
games, picnics, music, auto trips, and 
even the occasional family visit to the 

Next to feeling that they really be- 
long in the family circle, children need 
to feel accepted by their play group. 
To feel rejected is a tremendous blow 
to them. For adolescents, it is nothing 
short of catastrophe, for they have an 
especially strong social hunger. 

The Need for Independence 

In our industrial society, many jobs 
are of a routine nature. Only a limited 
number of persons have jobs which 
are synonymous with play something 
which they prefer doing to anything 
else. Play and recreation provide that 
sense of freedom which finds satisfac- 
tion in doing what one wants to do. 

The Need for Achievement 

As our life becomes more complex 
and specialized, fewer and fewer hu- 
man beings can find the thrill of 
achievement through their work. Rec- 
reation is one of the chief ways in 
which adults can find creative satisfac- 
tion and a sense of achievement. So 
far as children are concerned, play and 
recreation often have to supply the 
achievement which in pioneer days 
would have come from participation in 
family work and chores. 

by Dr. S. R. Laycock 

The Need for Recognition 

In pre-school days, play is the child's 
chief legitimate source of winning 
recognition. Even after, he goes to 
school it may still be his chief method 
of gaining approval. 

Adults during their active work-life, 
receive a great deal of their recogni- 
tion from their work. This is apt to be 
cut off by their retirement, however, 
and as a result, they must lean heavily 
on recreation in order to find the 
recognition which will keep them men- 
tally healthy. 

The Need for Self-Esteem 

Feelings of inadequacy or inferiori- 
ty, real or fancied, are apt to result in 
all sorts of defense mechanisms 
boasting, bullying, bossiness, lying and 
stealing, or else in withdrawing me- 
chanisms like shyness, seclusiveness, 
daydreaming and phantasy. Success in 
recreational activities brings to many 
a youngster and adolescent the antidote 
to such feelings. 

Many psychiatrists today feel that 
if we want to get anywhere in improv- 
ing community, national and interna- 
tional life, we are going to have to do 
a better job in the mental hygiene of 
early life. 

It is the business of all good citizens 
through their homes, their schools and 
community facilities to see that chil- 
dren and adults find satisfying outlets 
-in work, recreation, human relation- 
ships and community service. If this 
doesn't happen, be assured, then, they 
will find outlets in other ways which 
are anti-social or which lead to much 
unhappiness and suffering. No com- 
munity can neglect the provision of 
abundant recreational facilities and ex- 
pect not to suffer for it. 


I h< Sth Annual 


at Lookout Mountain, war Denver. Colo. 

June 29- Aug. 2 

Kiumls. folk <1 mg, etc. 

for (It-t.iiK wntr r.uil K i 
Rt. 3, Golden. Colo. 

Ill '! 

TOOll lUmif 

||CCA * AH 

U93U for ALL 


new address at least thirty days before 
the date of the issue with which it is 
to take effect. Address: Recreation Mag- 
azine, Circulation Department, 421 Fifth 
Awnur South, Minneapolis 15, Minn. 
Send old address with the new, enclos- 
ing if possible your address label. The 
post office will not forward copies un- 
less you provide extra postage. Dupli- 
cate copies cannot be sent. 

or a 


Gymnasium Equipment 
Teletcopic Gym Seot 
Basketball Scoreboard* 
Basketball Backstop* 

Steel Locker*, Locke/robe* 
and Grade-Rob** 


IS66 01 K All ST. ST. LOUIS II, MO. 

for 78 r**ori 
The Standard Of Quality 



The February issue of RECREATION 
ill--* ribed the new leaflet entitled "Rec- 
reation, a New Profession in a Chang- 
ing World." I was especially pleased 
to receive this leaflet recently, and be- 
lieve that this type of thing will do 
much to enhance the recruiting and 
interpretive phases of hospital rec- 
i ration as well as the various other 
specialties within the field of recrea- 
tion. I would like very much to uti- 
li/e this leaflet in some of our local 
high schools as well as at our forth- 
coming conference- ami f;,ir-. 

I! M.IMI ROSSEN, Acting Commission- 
er, Mental Health: Superintendent 

of Hinting Sinlf Honfiiltil: Si. I'nul. 

I ililoi 


We appreciate very much Mr. 
Faust's editorial in the February i m- 
of HK< KKVTION. Somehow or other that 
-reins to put into words what I have 
felt for ijuite some time. I would like 
\n\ iiiiii-li to mimeograph that article 
f..i i .11 li one of m\ workers and for 
. MI h one who makes application for 
work .-it our iei ri-alion eenter. 

I ha\e discussed the article with Mi. 
Jo-c|i|i Mailman. Su|>crmtenilent of 

>i I I-. .mil al-o with Jai k Stoeher 

of Thiel College. Coach has 
ili-i ii-scd it with hi- I.ei-nie (''duration 
i l.i-- and feel* that it i- the 
that ve iii-i-d to if wr .tie to 

I -III i e--flll re< n-.ltion (itof ' 

|)l MUM V. Itf.lNH.. l>n,; In,. (.,,; 
iillf. 1'rnna. l\'i,i,;ili,in I \.\n. 

Mr. I au-i' eiiiiorial present* a n-.d 
i luillenue to .ill |>eo|i|e .1 -ociated with 
llie recreation movement. The article 
is reallv inspiring and -li-nM l-e read 
|i\ I-M r\ ti-i te.ilioii lender. I in. nlc it 
coni|iiil-or\ reading for nil of our de- 
partment employee*. l.oMll^-kil 

is something we need today and it is 
the simple answer to all the v.-orld's 

After reading your editorial every 
recreation worker should re-dedicate 
himself to seek, from time to time, 
a classification of purpose; and a sim- 
plification of means becomes a prime 
need of the individual and of the 

GEORGE H. BAUER, Supervisor of 
Recreation, Milburn, New Jersey. 

Hook (lull 


I have been in the field of recrea- 
tion for only three years and my per- 
sonal library of good recreation ma- 
terial is rather meager. Since others 
m.t\ have the same problem, I have a 
suggestion that I thought I would pass 
mi for what it is worth. 

1 would like to -ee ,l liei leatioll 

Book of the Month Chili -tarted. Ex- 
I" it- in the profession could select 
books or pamphlets and make them 
available to c-lub members each month. 
In thi- wa\ metnliers could build a 
well-roiin<lcil library without having 
to -|>end a large amount at an\ one 
time. The selection period could be 
In-monthly or quarterly. 
J. C. CARTK.K. /..IH/.M /'//. k<-nin<-l.\. 


I have for quite some time been a 
regular reader of your magazine ami I 

alw.n- find it contain- much valuable 
information. I espe< iali\ enjoxed Mr. 
HI .\\sct'- article on "(lame- for Hotiph- 
:..k-" in the JatiuaiN i--nc. Some- 
thing like tbi- can onl\ In- a|i|.ie i.itcd 
when it i- |iul into pr:ulne. I am con- 
nected with the local IION-" c lull win-re 
we IKIM- .1 few roiighnei k-. I read Mr. 
|low-et' .itliilc inn- il.iv anil tried mil 
In- -upge-tion-. Helie\e me. thc\ 


( lltliilin \. KlN.. (.Hini-M illr. HII. 
Kl i lUMIiiv 

>$> BATS V 3 



MAY 1952 

vvv VKI>S. of the American Hecreation 
u. in\ilcs nominations fur the 
1952 presentation*. These should be 
submitted before June first, and may 
be sent to am one of the following 
i-oiiiniittif members: Robert W. Craw- 
ford. lleputv Coinniissioner of Recrea- 
tion. (.in Hall Annex, Room 432, Phil- 
adelphia. Pemiv Ivania: Milo F. Chris- 
tiansen. Superintendent of Recreation, 
'-I \'>- Kith Street. Y\\.. \\a-hinglon 
10, D.C. : George Hjelte. General Man- 
ager. Department of Recreation and 
('.irk-. ::, Cilv Hall. !...> Angeles. 
('.alifornia: Harold I). Meyer. Rei HM- 
tion Consultant. North Carolina Recrc- 
alion Commission. Box II.'! 1 ). Chapel 
Hill. North Carolina: Charles H. Eng- 
li-h. R.K.I). 1. Wakeman. Ohio: I 
1 .mlkins. Chairman. Superintend 
cut of Recreation. \Vc-lche-tcr Coun- 
ts l!c< ri-ation ( '.mimis-ion. Itooin 212. 
Coiintv OHirc Building. White Plain-. 
New ^ork. Candidates mav l>e nomi- 
nated for a special citation in recogni- 
tion of some outstanding professional 
achievement or for election a- "fcl- 
IVWR" of the American l!ci realion So- 

\ll pertinent fad- regarding the 

I of the candidate -honld |>c sub- 
mitted in duphi ale with the nomina- 

> Tllf HH.I.MVMM. MlvM.hs are leing 

made in thr pei-..mie| of the special 

p.irlmi-nl of tin- anm : Brig- 

iiilii-r (>eneral rv . Chief ,if 

1 1 >ervi(cs. has been named Dep- 

ul\ Chief of SlalT of (he I ighlh \rinv 

in Kore.i. l.ii-iitciianl I o|.. M el Hndolf 

Hcgdahl succeeded Colonel Davenport. 

April I'.. IT. 2. C"lon,.| Ravmond 

Monr. Jr.. Micceeded ( hn-i.-i, 
l-rrv on the ainr d.i' 

* u-iii i..ifs. \uihor of 'Declaration 
of Hrother." on pagr eleven of RM 

UK vi ION. April 1952, is Willard Ksp\ . 
Board of Editors, Reader's Digest- 
and not Otto T. Mallery, as announced. 
The poem was written by Mr. Espy 
after reading a declaration of inter- 
dependence by Mr. Mallery. 


conducted by National Recreation As- 
sociation. is scheduled to appear in the 
September 1952 issue of RECREATION. 
However, pre-prints of the material 
will l>e available from the association 
by June first. 

* A yi i siiuNwiKK. to obtain informa- 
tion about camp programs of public 
ni ication departments, was recent!) 
to recreation directors of fifty- 
\\isi, insin communities, foils - 
one of which have directors who are 
memliers of the Wisconsin Recreation 
Association. Of the thirt\-four reports 
ir.fiM-d. Iwents -si-\en were returned 
lis \\ RA members and seven by non- 
memlK-rs. Many directors indicated 
that a camp program is desirable and 
expressed .1 desire to develop one; -i\ 
reported that programs under direc- 
tion of Bo\ Si outs, (iirl Scouts. ^ .\V. 
C.A., Salvation Anm. and so on, serve 
rcpecti\c communities adequately; 
-e\en departments ho|H- to 
in I' 1 

> THK s U , , u 12.Mi< ).')>:! Ill MINI. 
1. 1< i NSI - ilnring the fiscal year ending 
June .Hd. |')",1. has lirmight. nceorfling 
to Sports Age for March 1952, thr 
forts ciirlil stales to an all time high 
grow revenue, from lhi s'.m, 


* IN MllKt < IIHs I Mini Hit r m 

Near-round rr<-rration departmenls. the 
d'-p.itlmrnt i ailminislrreil li\ a policv- 
making board or coinnnv-ion rather 

than by an executive without such a 
board. Two out of three of these cities 
without a policy -making board have the 
benefit of an advisors citi/en recreation 
group. Although city managers, gen- 
erally, look with disfavor upon the ad- 
ministration of recreation departments 
li\ policy-making citizen boards, and 
favor an executive appointed by the 
city manager and responsible to him. 
several instances have come to the at- 
tention of tbe association recently where 
a city manager supported a proposal 
before the city council for the appoint- 
ment of a board to administer the 
recreation department. 


CROWING CITIES is a procedure for con- 
trolling the development of land ad- 
jacent to the city limits. Grand Rapids. 
Michigan, has entered into an agree- 
ment with the four townships which 
completely surround it, to assure such 
control. The city will supply water, 
sewer and fire protection service on 
the condition that the governing bod- 
ies of the townships adopt the same 
land use policy as that adopted bv the 

Jobs in Korea 

There is immediate need for rec- 
reation penooad in Korea, although 
vacancies also exist in Japan. Oki- 
nawa. Guam and the Philippines. 
A new request just received from 
Headquarters. Kar Kast Air Forces. 
advises ,,f unparalleled opportuni- 
ties f,>r recieation personnel wish- 
ing to serve with the I niled Male- 
Air Koree in Korea. The indent 
need is for special service pei-mi 
net in manual arts, library and serv- 
ice (lull piograius. i Men arc pre- 
ferred for the manual arts posi- 
tions, i 

( .ollege giaduales between twcnlv 
four and forlv vears of age. with 
training and expencnic in r 
lion, arc picfciied. \pplii .ilnui- on 
f-oim <7. available at am post of- 
fice, should l>e sent to the Ovei-e.i- 
Kinplov men! ( ooidmalion (Mine. 
l>iictor of Civilian Personnel. 
lldi|l- I 5, VI . \\righl-Pall.i-.n 
Vir l-'orci- Ba-e. Davlon. Ohio. 


b'l ( KEVTION 










Considers the progressive ac- 
quiring of democratic con- 
cepts and attitudes from 
childhood through early and 
late adolescence, and adult- 
hood. Applies to the fields of 
health education, physical ed- 
ucation, and recreation, re- 
cent research on methods and 
techniques in group dynam- 
ics, sociometry, social group 
work, and general education. 

562 pp. 




American Association for 
Health, Physical Education 
and Recreation 

1201 16)h St. N.W., Wash., D.C. 

Please send me copies of the 

AAHPER Yearbook. 

d] Check enclosed 

D Bill me 


Zone State 




In a feature by feature comparison, BURKE- Bui It 
Equipment definitely offers outstanding value. 
Approval by park and playground officials from 
coast to coast is an authoritative support for its 
superiority. Special fittings and scientific design 
offer functional advantages that really contribute 
to safety, durability and economy in the highest 

Equipment by BURKE is built on constant research 
and is unconditionally guaranteed against de- 
fects in workmanship and materials. Choose 
BURKE the choice of men who know outstanding 

THE J. E. BURKE CO., Fond du lac, wu. 

Factory Branch, Box 986, New Brunswick, N.J. 


Free Planning Assistance 

by Burke engineers. 

Complete catalog and price list. 

Address Dept. A 

Here's Help You Need 

for Successful Recreation 

Become a monthly reader of PARK MAINTENANCE. Its articles will give 
you expert aid for more efficient and economical operation of your fa- 
cilities. Each October you receive a complete Buyer's Guide, listing more 
than 500 sources of equipment and supplies. 

$3.00 Per Year 








MAY 1952 



For Professional Workers 


In varinii- ->-i eimi- I >. \. Tnlli p- nV- 
liiin-il. l.rmip or camp Ica.l'-r-liip 
r\|irrirnrr il>-iral>l<-. Ii. -)... n-ilik- for 
working with adult volunteers in pro- 

\iilinc Camp Fire program for 
In-i-niee training. 

Opportunity for Ad\ r ancement 

\\riir: I'l-i-oiiiii-l anil Training llrpt. 

Camp Kir.- (iirl-. Inr. 
IKih >li.-ei. V Wk 17, N.Y. 




Rubber Isn't 

\kron. the Hulilx-r (lit\. is 
some important pioneering in the field 
of rubberized surfaces for school pla\- 


With attention focused national!) on 
lia/ards of the playgrounds, this ( i|\ 
can be proud that it is a step or two 
iihead of the rest of the country in pro- 
filing a softer and safer surface for 
children to play on. 

We hope that the technical details 
may be ironed out rapidly so that play- 
grounds all over Akron and in other 
cities may be rubberized. 

However, we hasten to point out 
that even latex cushions a foot deep 
wouldn't be enough to keep some 
youngsters from getting hurt. They'll 
continue to bump into each other and 
into fixed objects like walls and they'll 
go on beaning each other with balls 

.in<l kit-. 

l-'ur iiiori- iinjiinlnnl llnin nn\ .\iulm-f 
ii/iic/i run In' put on a playground is 
llic suiMTi-isiun uhich the area acts. 

\Uo indispensable is preparation to 
;ji\e lirsl aid promptly and to call for 
professional medical help when it is 

Considerable help can and should 
l>e given by parent-teacher organi/.a- 
tions in checking on playground con- 
ditions and in giving financial as-i^l- 
ance where iiece~-ar\. 

But the prinian responsibililv lies 
in the hands of the principals who 
iniisl sec to it that proper super\ ision 
is assigned when children are on the 

Accidents to youngsters probably 
can never be stopped, but they can be 
lr--ened in frequency and in intciiMU 
by alert supervisors. Akron Beacon 



to teat* . . . S 


With these Square Dance Records with Progressive 
Oral Instructions and Calls by ID D'JRLACHfK. 

Mere is the easy and economical way to meet tlic 
ever-growing demand for square dancing in your 
community ... the HONOR YOUR PARTNER 
scries of square dance records. 

6 * <r 

K.uh record in albums 1 to 4 starts with simpli- 
fied progressive oral instructions by Ed Durlacni'r 
init!uetn>ii> easily understood by dancers of all 
ages. Following a brief pause, giving the dancers 
time to square tlieir sets, the music and calls ocgin. The TOP HANDS, directed 
by FRANK NOVAK, otfcr the best in scintillating and foot tapping square dance 
music. The calls are delivered by one of the nation's most outstanding square 
d.uiee authorities. ED DURLACHER. 

The lilili album in the scries contains music only, without calls or instructions 

Squ.irc D.uiee C. liter's Delight". 

A A * 

"The .ii/uarr ilnni r ullntni 'llnnur ) mir I'nrlnrr' ii all thai you rlnimtd il lo be we 
lnr,l mil ihr rrriinlt nn a group of eighth grade ttuitrnlt and they picked up the 
in\tru< i tin\ uilhniil iliffirult*. In thr V"" r "' thirty minutes, thn group. U'hica bad 
never tquare danced be/ore, were doing the figures in an expert fashion. The record} 
urtr al.w a hit at the ailnlt square danir uhirh ue held last night." 

\lhc.l I II, ..ii 

Ki i re .Hi. .11 Dm i I. .1 

(.1.1 IH\IK.,|. 

All records guaranteed 
againtl breakage, 
in normal use. 


Irarn more about the 


Writ* for a deieriptive folder. 


DIPT. - 



lit ( KKATION 


Lookout Mountain near Denver, Colo. 

August 3-9, 1952 

Recreative workshop with fellow artists in 

a relaxed sociable setting. 

For details write Paul Kermiet, 

Rt. 3, Golden, Colo. 

Second Annual 


Central Michigan College of 

August 18-23 


with College Staff 

Instruction in: Elementary and Advanced 
Dancing: Folk Singing & Balladry,- and 
Square Dance Calling. 

Miss Grace Ryan, author of "Dances of 
Our Pioneers", will be the Director. 

For information, write to the Director 
of Field Services, Central Michigan 
College of Education, Mt. Pleasant, 

For a trairdoad of thrills 
iritli the 


.1 lieu- J-reel Ifimm sound movie 


SEE a fabulous model railroad system, 
complete to the last spike! 

MEET a real railroader who gives the 
lowdown on the "big ones"! 

THRIll to "riding the cab" through 
tunnels, 'round bends, along the 

SEND FOR-Our new FREE folder, 
"Free Films for Recreation Pro- 
grams", and start your Summer Movie 

Recreation Division 

Association Films, Inc. 

347 Madison Avenue 
New York 17, N.Y. 

Branches in: Chicago, San Francisco. 

The magazine of 
Social Exploration 

Carries news of: 

. . . the Family . . . Community 
Life . . . Social Work . . . Educa- 
tion . . . Health . . . Recreation 
. . . Housing . . . Race and In- 
dustrial Relations . . . Crime 
Prevention . . . International 

Brings you: 

The substance of social devel- 
opment in one monthly publi- 

High Points 
She Acts It Out, 

Marion Robinson 

A profile of Grace Walker, an 
actress who became a Recrea- 
tion Leader; new techniques 
she has developed and the ex- 
citing results obtained. 


Social Welfare In India a spe- 
cial section 

The Villages Dorothy Moses 
Health Dr. K.C.K.E. Raja 

Child Welfare Dr. K.H. Cama 


Far East Series on Social Wel- 
fare will move on to Indonesia, 
Ceylon and other eastern ports 
in coming issues. 

Special Introductory 
Subscriptions to 
new subscribers 


Single copies 50c 
Send orders to 


112 East 19th Street 
New York 3, N.Y. 

Congress Day 
at Yellowstone 

September 26, 1952 will be Na- 
tional Recreation Congress Day in 
Yellowstone National Park. Its a 
very special and exciting day, when 
Yellowstone's historic Gardiner Gate 
swings wide to welcome officers and 
delegates traveling to the Seattle 

For more than eighty years, Yel- 
lowstone has closed officially for rail 
visitors about September 10. This 
will happen again in 1952, when the 
"Savage" Co-eds, who make the beds 
and feed the people, and the "Gear 
Jammers", who drive the buses, will 
hurry back home to their colleges 
and other duties. 

Yellowstone Park then becomes a 
quiet, magnificent wonderland. No 
"Savages". No "Dudes". No nice ho- 
tel rooms. But wild animals galore. 
They come out of the woods in 
great numbers: elk, antelope, buf- 
falo, moose, deer, bighorn sheep. 
Scenes and thrills to be remembered! 

"Can we see Yellowstone in Au- 
tumn, on the way to the Seattle Con- 
gress?" the National Recreation As- 
sociation representatives asked Na- 
tional Park Service. The answer is 
"yes" so here we go! 

The Northern Pacific Railway is 

arranging the trip, with official bless- 
ing of the Congress. Leave Chicago 
September 24. Conferences, good 
fellowship and Yellowstone enroute. 
Square and folk dancing in a Mon- 
tana barn one evening. Arrive Se- 
attle 7:30 A.M. September 28. Con- 
vention until October 3 then home- 
ward bound as you please, or con- 
tinue with the Congress Tour to 
California and Grand Canyon. 

An illustrated Congress trip folder 
has been printed. Write for it to the 

National Recreation Association 
315 Fourth Avenue, 
New York 10, N.Y. 

MAY 1952 



is one of the fields in which 

has been serving the schools of America 
for twenty years. Under the editorship of 
Dr. Harry C. McKown, well-known au- 
thority on extracurricular activities, this 
monthly magazine promotes the following 

ACTIVITY PROGRAMS - Current thought of leaders iu the field of democratic group activities. 

SCHOOL ASSEMBLIES An assembly program for each week of the school year. 

CLASS PLAYS Help in selecting and staging dramatic productions. 

CLASS ORGANIZATIONS - Directions for the successful guidance of school groups. 

FINANCING ACTIVITIES - Suggestions for financing student functions. 

ATHLETICS News and ideas on late developments in intra-mural and interscholastic sports. 

DEBATE Both sides of the current high school debate question. 

DEPARTMENT CLUBS - Instructions and aids in the directing of school clubs of all types. 

HOME ROOMS Ideas and plans for educative home room projects. 

PEP ORGANIZATIONS - Devices for stimulating loyalty and school spirit. 

STUDENT PUBLICATIONS Guidance in the production of school newspaper and yearbook. 

PARTIES AND BANQUETS - Suggestions for educative and wholesome social aitivitus 

STUDENT GOVERNMENT - Sound direction in development of student sense of responsibility. 

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES - Music, commencement, point systems, etc. 

Subscription Price O.?)l) Subscribe Now 

School Activities Publishing Co* 




The Louisiana Art Commission Leads the Way 


Mrs. Hal Porter's "The Circus," on exhibition in the Old State Capitol gal- 
leries, Baton Rouge, during show. She is 77 years old, has been painting a year. 

by Edward Kerr 

rendered an invalid several years ago 
by arthritis, is one of the hundreds 
of Louisiana citizens who have found 
the advantages of using art as a source 
of recreation and relaxation in their 
daily lives, through the efforts of the 
Louisiana art commission. The only 
state-sponsored organization of this 
nature in the United States, it en- 
deavors to bring art's manifold thera- 
peutic and stimulating offerings to 
every citizen of the state. 

Helmrich is a member of the Tan- 
gipahoa Parish art association, which 
is one of twenty-one active art groups 
in the state, all but three of which are 
located in rural communities. Most of 
the groups meet once a week to paint 
together and offer criticism of each 

The painting might 
not have looked like 
much to an average 
art connoisseur. It was done in ama- 
teurish fashion on a piece of meat 
wrapping paper, using simple auto 
lacquers as the medium. But this 
painting, the first offering in Harry 
Helmrich 's art life, was chosen by the 
lecturer one night at a rural Louisiana 
art meeting as one of the best exam- 
ples of primitive painting yet seen in 
the state. 

Helmrich, a former auto mechanic 

MR. KERR has a distinguished combat 
record, is a former newspaper editor, 
now press representative for the Louis- 
iana forestry Commission. 

MAY 1952 



other's work. Six of the groups have 
regular instructors who come from 
nearby state colleges each meeting date 
and teach elementary principles. The 
objective with each group, as it is 
with the entire state organization, is to 
paint for the simple enjoyment of it, 
not necessarily to win prizes. 

Membership of the groups ranges 
from twenty-three to six hundred fifty- 
five at the present time but is steadily 
increasing as the members actively 
work to encourage individual artists in 
their areas. Each year these groups 
are given shows in the art commis- 
sion's galleries in the Old State Capi- 
tol building in Baton Rouge and they 
also exchange shows among them- 

An art group member might be a 
practicing woman lawyer, a retired 
businessman, or a housewife. He or 
she might be a seventeen-year-old 
freshman at college or an eighty-three- 
year-old mother like Mrs. Hal Porter 
of Amite. Mrs. Porter completes an 
average of at least one painting a 
month. Another example of an older 
lady who has just started painting for 
the fun of it is Mrs. Georgia Starkey 
of Hammond, who painted her first 
picture when she was well past sev- 


entv ! Shi- (muni that it is never too 
late in life to start painting, as she 
has captured several honorable men- 
tions in state -li..w-. inrluding tin- 
New Orleans Delgado Museum's .">nth 
Anniversary Show, which was a na- 
tional exhibition. Miss Frances Folse 
of Haceland. an invalid, organized an 
art group herself in Lafourche Parish. 
It now has seven!) -four member-. 

The Louisiana art commission was 
formed in 1938 by an act of the 
Louisiana legislature after many v.-.n- 
of insistence hy a group of women in 
Baton Rouge's art league. Its work 
wa- limited at the start by the lack of 
funds for a full-time director and be- 
cause of the ensuing war years. How- 
e\er in March of 1947 the artists' 
ilriMins began to materiali/c. Thev 
managed to serun- six thousand dol- 
lars from the legislature for the nr\l 
year's operations and selected a young, 
energetic, self-made artist by the name 
of Jay Broussard to lead the way as 
director. Broussard, who had been 
working in back-hn-aking jobs at tin- 
salt mines around his native New 
Iberia, -incc hi- discharge from the 
IN ice as a master sergeant, lost no 
time in swinging the waltz-timed art 
|'i'>:_'iam into ja// tempo. Hi- yearly 
appropriation, now close to eleven 
tli"ii-.ind dollars, is always two steps 
U-hind what is needed to keep pace 
with hi- expanding *chcdulc. 

PoMeniOg an energy which can 

piob.ihlv be lie-. lilieil be-l .1- llienuo- 

dvnamic. he ha- -iii i-i-eiled in lighting 

the wa\ for hiindieds of average cili- 

n finding a rewarding recreation 

through art. Alwav- operating with 

iiigenuilv than cash, hi- "-l.ilf." 

even now with a greallv expanded art 

program, ion-i-1- onlv of a -ciielaiv. 

nler .mil lavoul work for i-xlu- 

bilious, mimeograph work, unpacking 

and packing hundred- of exhibited 

p.iinling* all .lie done b\ Id 011 aid. 

nio-llv into the night. 

One of In- i i lir. iin-l. . i in- 

wan to olb-r the Im-al merchants' wel- 
come organization the -ervne. of tin- 
omniiioii to help newcomer- in 
hanging their painting-. "The com- 
II will -end a man out whenever 
it i rri| nested." the ..ITer read. A-k.-d 
by an ama/ed cili/.-n who in the 
world the .oinmiioii could send. 


\ junior member is Neil 
Jackson, painting in one 
of the Saturday morning 
classes. None are too 
young or too old to take 
part in the art programs. 

Kelovv. one of Louisiana's 
l>ml(liim amateur artists. 
Harry Hi-lmrich. works in 
liis "studio ' at his home. 
He recrutlv sold a paint- 
ing, his first, to a church. 

Broussard said, "Whv. me. of coui-e!" 

In addition to hi- regular work ami 

painting on a self-imposed, rigid 

-. hedllle. the all dire. t..| ic-eivi - -olllc 

of hi- lime foi experimenting with art 
llieiapv nmiing members of an "ex- 
ceptional < hildicn" . la in ltaln 
Itouge. lie even has IHVH successful in 
getting spa-lii children to do finger 


line of Itrou ard'- i MHI gel in (In- 
habit f -.i\mg Broussard when MHI 

mean art coimni ion main project- 
i- tin- traveling cxhibilion-. which 
now numlxT Iwcntv -eight. These 
-how-, which include original drawing* 
from the \--..i i. iled \mcrican \ili-l- 
ialletie. in New Viik and document- 
ed panel -how- fiom the Mii-eum of 
Modem \il. i. 1 " I" ."iv school, gimip 
or lihriirv which i- en::a^cd in an .11! 
nn. for onlv n small charge i,, 
, .,vi r co*l of Iran-poilahoii. 

\nolhcr fealuie of the conimiion'- 


l!t i lit VTION 

"Old Man of the Delta," by H. C. Fultz 
of New Orleans. "Best print in the show." 

program to stimulate interest in art 
among amateurs is the annual amateur 
artists' exhibition, in which the com- 
mission offers prizes of $100, $75 and 
$25 out of its pinched resources for 
the first, second and third place win- 
ners. Last April, the ninth annual ex- 
hibition was held. Amateur photog- 

raphers of the state vie each year for 
honors in its annual amateur photog- 
raphers' exhibition, the third of which 
will be held this February. Another 
big event is the annual art students' 
exhibition, entries for which are di- 
vided into four categories: adult 
amateur part-time students, college 
art students, high school art students, 
and children in the elementary schools. 
No prizes are given, but the show is 
documented and filed with the state 
library for future reference on art 
progress in Louisana. 

Broussard's latest precedent-setting 
project is the First Louisiana Forestry 
Art Exhibition, which was hung in the 
commission's galleries during Novem- 
ber. It was sponsored jointly by the 
Louisiana forestry commission and the 
art commission. The exhibition, which 

drew two hundred fifty entries from 
throughout the state, was open to adult 
amateurs, professionals, college art 
students, high school students, and 
elementary children for the purpose 
of stimulating interest in forestry 
through art. The project has been so 
successful in demonstrating the use 
of art to further interest in other 
fields that other agencies of the state 
now want an exhibition, too! 

Louisiana definitely has led the way 
in proving that art should not be 
forgotten in any recreational program 
of a city, state or nation. Its proof 
lies within the cities and on the bayous 
of this southern state, where countless 
hundreds of everyday folks have found 
the recreational, and sometimes life- 
saving qualities available in the world 
of amateur art. 

"Emphasis in the encouragement of local art courses 
is upon the recreational value of art. The art groups 
appeal to all ages, and include many older people, 
and people who are incapacitated, in addition to the 
young. This program is outstanding!"-- BILL HAY, 
\at!oal Recreation Association Field Department. 

Recreation Personnel Changes 

Joseph Owens, Superintendent of 
Recreation in Caldwell, New Jersey, 
has resigned to accept the position of 
National Director of Athletics and 
Recreation for the Veterans of For- 
eign Wars, with headquarters in Kan- 
sas City, Missouri. 

Frank Evans, Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Recreation in East Orange, 
New Jersey, succeeds Mr. Owens as the 
newly appointed executive in Cald- 
well, New Jersey. 

Warren Pfost, Superintendent of 
Recreation in Webster City. Iowa, has 
been succeeded by Robert Eld ridge. 
Mr. Pfost returns east for community 
center work in Trenton. New Jersey. 

Syl Fulwiler is the new superin- 
tendent in Puyallup. Washington, and 
Leo Fondacaro succeeds Jack Hans 

as the executive in Amarillo, Texas. 

Pennell Eustis has reported to Lewis- 
ton, Maine, as the new executive. 

Nice things continue to happen to 
recreation executives. This time it is 
Carl Soden, superintendent of recrea- 
tion in Great Bend, Kansas, who has 
been selected for contributing most 
to the community in the preceding 
year. He received the Distinguished 
Service Award from the Junior Cham- 
ber of Commerce as the "Young Man 
of the Year." 

William P. Witt, Superintendent of 
Recreation in Corpus Christi. Texas, 
has been promoted to the combined 
responsibility for parks and recreation. 
His assistant. Robert Moorman, has 
been advanced to the position of su- 
perintendent of recreation, and other 

members of the staff have moved up 
the ladder. Promotion from within has 
made for a career service for the rec- 
reation staff in Corpus Christi. 

John M. Stephens, Jr., Director of 
Parks and Recreation, Salem, Virginia, 
has transferred to a similar position 
in Coral Gables, Florida. 

Edwin ]. Moses, Director of Parks 
and Recreation, Urbana, Illinois, has 
been called back to service in Korea. 

Don T. Neer, formerly superintend- 
ent of recreation in Zanesville, Ohio, 
has accepted a position with the United 
States Junior Chamber of Commerce 
as sports director. 

Gus H. Haycock, Superintendent of 
Parks in Corpus Christi, Texas, is now 
Superintendent of Parks and Recrea- 
tion in San Antonio. 

MAY 1952 


Sunday recital group, Midland String Quartet, all symphony orchestra members. 

We Make Our Own 

in sir 

Bob McKellar 

IF IT I- mi K, as some say, that the 
American people are a nation of 

-!>. l.ilnr-. then those who deplore the 
iendeii<\ In -it and' h someone 
.-!* (H-rform would no doiilit find sol- 
.! iri ihi- arlivilie- of tin- people df 
Midland, Michigan, in tin !>., Cherni- 
cal Company music organizations. 

Midland in a rclali\c|\ -mall i ilv 
about M.IMXI inhabitant* .IIH- ill- 
from tin- . enter- of population 
atnl indutr\ ii-ualK a" -iali-d with 
,i i '.m|i. m\ a* large as how. IVrhap* 
that's one reason win tin- i-iiiniiiunil\ 
such an active part in ii- 

Not that goo.l profe--i,.nal enter 
l.iinriiriil i- unattainable; in the.e .1 i\- 
.111 ixi.i-ion.d trip lo Dclt'.it. .-ne linn 

KrprinlrH from Mitur Journal. January 

dred twentv miles away, to attend 
a concert or a play certainly is not 

cult of the iple-lioll. Hut. -"inell.iw. we 

find il much more satisfying to make 
our own mu-ic. 

\rnl make our own we do. I .1-1 
\t-ar the Dow inii-ic organizations gave 
-exenlcen i omerl-. thirli-en in Midland 
anil four out of town, Concerts during 
the la-l -even vear- hil\e ineluileil -ml] 

major works as Elijah. The M,--\inli. 

I In- (.rrnliiili. I III' (hili-lin:; i'i l//ie\ 
* ff'nlilinp ti-n\l. ( nrnn-n. 
from Mnillin and Tnlr.i i>f Hoff- 
man. 1 In- Wil.iiiln. I'nlf-rii f. \nii/ihl\ 
Marii-ltn. Iteelhoven'- >'w;i/i/irii'rt \.i. 
I and N" ::. M>. /art's Haffncr >,m- 

i>hi>m. MendriMoba'i I mlm <mi.i-ii,> 

111 I \lllliil. Iteelholen'- Tlijlli 

Inr I ;//'). (.rlli, nnil I'innn. and 

mam other major ami -ni.ill. i w..ik- 

^oii might -a\ that llu- Dow IMII-H 

program wa- tlie result of spontaneous 
combustion. The first (lames were 
kindled back in 1936, when a group of 
men at the plant organized a male 
chorus and petitioned the company for 
a little assistance in the form of some 
music, programs, a piano, and the -al- 
ary for a part-time director. 

This arrangement a faiilv -m- 
cc.--.ful: the chorus provided the out- 
lei for self-expression which music of- 
fers, hut the musical standards of the 
finnip were probably no better than 
those of any comparable unit from 
Maine to California. And part-time di- 
rectors came and went, although the 
(horns had grown to a membership 
of seventy-six men by the beginning 
of the war. 

The memlwrs of the chorus were 
just people who loved to sing. It was 
a fairly good cros- -ection of tin- 
plant a scattering of white collar 
workers mixed with some in overall-. 
But in addition to their lo\c of sing- 
ing they posses-ed the understandable 
desire for professional competence. 
I'drtunateh . the\ were able to do some- 
thing about it. In I'H.'! the group 
asked the company for a full-time 
mu-ic director. Thus it was that the 
employees them-el\e-. through their 
great enthusiasm for music and with 
the cooperation of the Dow Chemical 
Company, created their own musii de- 
partment. Dr. Theodore Vosburgh, 

former associate profe f music at 

Albion College, \lbion. Michigan, wa- 
i hi.-err 1>\ the chorus a- director of 
the new project in the summer of I'M '. 

The purpose of the Dow ('heroin] 
t'ompam in setting up and financing 
a musii department wa- not publicity. 
The i ompanv had long pm-iicd a poll- 
iv of a i-tamc in impioxing the cul- 
tural and recreational facilities of the 
entire commuiiiu. and il Iwlieved that 
mu-ic i oiild IN; a vital factor in em- 
ploye morale, would provide an .Mill. I 
for mn-ii al inlcie-l. and would he a 
medium for |H"\iding whole-nine en- 
tcitainmenl holh for ernp|o\ees and 
for the general public. 

I li, -i \n - n-itainh ha\c been jus- 
tilled In ihe -in i e ,.f the program. 
I nder the diiection of Dr. \osbingh. 
the rnii-ii al pio|e, I ha- gained Ire 
mendou- rmpelir- until l".l.i\ we have 
.1 well l.alani eil program ihe ! 


industrial music organization in the 

The backbone of the Dow program 
is a trio of musical groups; the male 
chorus, the girls' chorus, and the Dow 
symphony orchestra. The pattern for 
each season has been fairly well es- 
tablished. From November to May the 
public may hear, free of charge, a 
concert every four weeks, a schedule 
culminating each spring in a two- or 
llim'-day festival. The vocal organi- 
zations give their own memorized con- 
certs, then combine for one oratorio 
in December. One mixed choral and 
instrumental concert is produced dur- 
ing each season, and a major choral 
work is included in the festival. For 
those who hanker for a little grease 
paint and the glamor of the footlights, 
either an operetta or operatic acts are 
given each season. 

The orchestra presents two concerts 
a year and joins the vocal groups in 
the concerts already mentioned. On 
an occasional Sunday afternoon the 
public may enjoy a chamber music 
program : small ensembles, such as girl 
sextets, male quartets, trios, woodwind 
and brass groups, and string quartets 
organized mostly from the large 

On three occasions each season the 
church choirs and many others join 
the Dow music groups: for the ora- 
torio in December, the choral program 
of the festival and the annual operetta. 

To those with creative talents every 

encouragement is given, with the idea 
always in mind of producing original 
works. One of the most popular per- 
formances of the program's history 
was an original variety show in six 
acts called, appropriately, "Chemic 
Capers." It was written, directed and 
produced by the cooperative efforts of 
a great number of Dow and other 
Midland people. Included was a ballet 
with original music and dances. 

To avoid giving the impression that 
the Dow music groups are composed 
entirely of Dow people, we should like 
to point out that, with one exception, 
the community at large is welcome 
to participate. Because of the excep- 
tional popularity of the male chorus, 
a limit of one hundred Dow employees 
has reluctantly been set, and there is 
usually a waiting list. The girls' chorus 
of one hunderd ten voices and the or- 
chestra of sixty members are open to 
everyone in the community. Inciden- 
tally, our symphony orchestra is com- 
posed entirely of local persons, none 
coming from outside the Midland area. 

All productions of the Dow music 
organizations are open and free to the 
public. Freewill offerings are taken 
at all main concerts and, since 1945, 
the Midland Music Foundation has 
been the beneficiary of funds accruing 
from this source. 

The Midland Music Foundation was 
conceived to stimulate interest in music 
and to assist in the musical education 
of the children of Midland County. 

Once each year the foundation spon- 
sors a contest. The winners receive 
music scholarships and private les- 
sons. Last spring one hundred twenty- 
five students competed; four students 
were awarded eight weeks each at In- 
terlochen, and two students were giv- 
en two weeks at that well-known music 
camp. Twelve more winning contest- 
ants received cash awards to be used 
for private lessons with local teachers. 
The foundation also has a scholarship 
fund which is used to provide needy 
talented students with means to con- 
tinue their lessons. 

The children benefiting from the 
foundation range from eight years old 
through high school age. They are di- 
vided into three groups for purposes 
of competition. This year the founda- 
tion is helping to pay the salary of a 
full-time music instructor for the Mid- 
land County schools. 

The board which administers the 
funds of the foundation is composed 
of two representatives of each major 
Dow group, Dr. Vosburgh, and one 
other member of his staff. For the 
contest, impartial judges, usually from 
college music departments, choose the 
best performances. 

Since one of the main purposes of 
the Dow music program is to provide 
self-expression for the individual, local 
talent is given every opportunity to do 
solo work. Such a policy has been jus- 
tified by the many excellent perform- 
ances which have been given. How- 

One of combined Dow groups' first major productions is usual- 
ly oratorio in December. "The Messiah" was presented in 1944. 

Members of choruses and symphony orchestra join forces to pre- 
sent "The Red Mill" as one of the major productions of 1950. 

MAY 1952 


f\rr. one or more nationally known 
aiti-S .i|i|>e-,ir mi aheuit two-thirds of 
our The-..- .nli-ls arc not 
hreiughl in to in. ira-i- atle-nelancc: 
rather. thev supph an eviting -liniii- 
lu- tn tin- pe-rfm .ning group from both 
a musical and a personal point of 
\i<-w. The artist usuallx performs a 
work of some length xxilh the group 
and then oilers some shorter pieres. 
Informal get-teige-the-rs are he-Id after 
lomrrls. vii that the loeal people have 
an opportunity to meet and chat with 
the artist. 

Among the well-known vocalists who 
have appeared with our groups are 
Winifried Heidt, contralto; Conrad 
III il'. mil. baritone: Donald Dame, 
tenor: and Josephine Antoine, so- 
prano. Instrumentalists include Whitte- 
more and Lowe, pianists: Percy 
Grainger, pianist; Yella Pessl, harpsi- 
chordist; and Lois Bannerman, harp- 

I ntil last year, rehearsals of the 
music groups were held more or less 
whe-re-veT space could l>c found. I sual- 
K the |).w auditorium or the plant 
cafeteria was available. When thr-.- 
two places were in use, space was Imr- 
mwe-el from local churches. 

Last year the department, with all 
its activities, settled into its own 
building, contributed by the Dow 
Company- -with no strings 

attached. It has an auditorium large 
enough to accommodate re-he-ar-als nf 
the largest groups, practie-c rooms, ami 
eillices for Dr. \nslniigli ami his thre-c 
aislanl~. I'erforinance-s arc gi\en. as 
before-, in tin- community'! largest au- 
ditorium, that of Midland High 

Dr. Vosburgh is a graduate of the' 
l.astman School of Musie . anil wa- 
granted a Ph.D. in music from the 
Detroit Institute of Musical Art in 
1941. In adelition. he studied conduct- 
ing with F. Melius Christiansen. John 
Finley Williamson, and Fred Waring, 
and coached with Edward Harris. He- 
has appeared in main recitals, radio 
programs, oratorios and opera per- 
formances. Before coming to Midland 
he headed the voice department of 
Newberry College in South Carolina 
and for six years was associate pro- 
fessor of music and director of vocal 
organizations at Albion College, Al- 
bion, Michigan. 

One of his assistants is his wife-, 
a musician in her own right. She, also, 
is a graduate of the Eastman School 
of Music, having specialized in \nio- 
and piano. She became an official 
member of the Dow staff this year, 
having served in one capacity or 
another in practically every produc- 
tion of the project. 

Kohcrt Moss, pianist, joined the 

Cooperation in Aquatics 

^rrviK Hole- of Survival Aquatics in 
-I- the National Emergency" was 
he nubjcr t under <\i-i u -inn at a Hirel- 
ing held at Yale I nm-r-iu. November 
26 and 27. under the au*pie-e* of the 
I .nf.-r.-rn i- for National I ...(..-ration 
in Aquatics. This (..iif.-i.-nir include* 
in it* iiii-inU-rship n-prcx-nlativr* from 
national organizations and individuals 
win. have particular abiliti.- or inter- 
e -I in aquatics. The National Kccrra- 
tion Association is onr of the e ..operat- 
ing groups. 

The purpose of the- November im-e-1 
ing was to devise- effective mctlmds and 
ti-i Imnpji - to stimulate and guide |.. 
cal groups to work togelhe-r in 
ing. developing and conducting aquat- 
ic programs designed t.. i.-ae-h the 

aqiiali. -kilK. a- de-ve-|n(ied b\ the- 
department of ele-fenc. ami ..llier ap- 
preiprinte a-).< . I- -( a.pi.ih.- 
I In- eonfi-riM'r ^ urging the- nn-.l (! 
greater awareness among rommunilx 
,-ige-ne if* of the- need for expanding 

Dow inusie department in l ( )-U>. afte -r 
lhre-e- \e-ar- in the- navv and teaching 
at the- I nixcrsitx of Te-\as. He-, also, 
is an East man graduate-. 

I'eirtia The-eli- is the- foiirlli ine-nihe-r 
eif the- stall. She- received a Bachelor 
of Science degree in physics anil a 
Mae -he-leu- of \Iu-ii ill izn-t- at Michigan 

Stale- (!o||e-ge. where- she- studied unele-r 
.\le-\ander Schuste-r. I In ~|>e-cialt\ is 
tilt- ( -e-llei. \\lliell she- |ila\e-el in \arieilis 

symphonies throughout the- state- !- 
foil- i-oniing to Midland in I'M:'.. 

It is hard te> evaluate the true worth 
e)f a program such a< the- eme- at Dow. 
altheiugh there- is no doiilit in the- mind 
eif anyone whe> lias attended e-ve-n eme 
pe-rfetrmane-e- that il i- of i le-stiinable- 
value-. I'l-iliap- (be- figure's tell the real 
stein. Ill the last -e-xe-n seasons the- 
thre-e- major organisations have give-n 
ninetv-six full cemcerts in Midland be- 
fore about one hunelre-el twenty thou- 
sand people- in a hall seating onlx e mi- 
thousand two hundre-d liftx. Free tick- 
ets are distributed for each perform- 
ance in an effeirt lei control the size of 
the- e-rowel-. 'I IH--I- tirki-ts are given out 
at three distrihutie>n [loinls. and even 
xxhi-ii lliirr thousand scxe-n hundred 
liflx tie-kets are given exit for thre-e- 
nights lhe-x an- e.ften gone in an hour. 
Can the-ri- be- anx doubt that Midland 
is getting her share- of the- salisfae-timi 
that music can bring? 

-w miming and survival 
Creat e-mphasis is he-ing placed upon 
l>ii-|i.ii.ilinn of the- eixilian population 
.1- r|| a- nf xoiini; pe-ise>n. faring inili- 
I.IM -e-rxie-.-. sine e- moil- than half of 
the- total populatiem e.f tin- I'nite-d 
M.itr- |..niii i|i.ii>-- in swimming and 
either ae|UHlie- ailixiln-. 

I In- i onfe-te-ne r is Urging the- ele-vel 
opine-nt eif .....(.. i .it u .- artion in lo- 

calilie-s. to the- . ml that aquatics may 
eoniribiile te. the- national ele-fe-n-e- ef- 

foll lei the- fllllel e-\lrn|. 



1 I 

I I 

THE ACCOMPANYING statement is a 
summary of the discussion and 
recommendations of the Swimming 
Pool Section at a midwest recreation 
executive conference held in Spring- 
field, Illinois. Chauncey Hyatt, swim- 
ming pool consultant, contributed much 
to its development. 

It seems fairly clear that the prob- 
lem of swimming pool operation is 
sanitation. This problem involves the 
preparation of the bathers before they 
enter the pool, housekeeping in the 
pool and around the pool area, and 
prevention of the transmission of di- 
sease during epidemics. 

Preparation of Bathers before 

All bathers, in all walks of life, 
all ages and both sexes, should be re- 
quired to take a bath prior to entering 
a pool. The pool management should 
provide for adequate and proper in- 
spection of all bathers to make sure 
they have bathed before entering the 
pool. This inspection should be cour- 
teous, and done by personnel who will 
not embarrass the bathers. 

Facilities should be provided which 
will permit all bathers to take a nude 
warm water shower with liquid soap 
before entering the pool. Liquid soap 
is preferred to bar soap for various 
reasons. In progressive communities 
the tendency is toward open-type 
showers for both sexes. Where there 
is a demand for privacy, some man- 
agers resort to the device of a canvas 
wall hung from a cable stretched 
across the room. The most recommend- 
ed footbath was the shallow floor de- 
pression, supplied with a flow of clean 
water. If the footbath is of the chemi- 
cal type, it is recommended that the 

MAY 1952 

Martin Nading and Sam Basan 

chemicals be renewed every hour. It 
was pointed out that the use of some 
footbath chemicals caused excessive 
irritation, and that the problem of 
foot infections is diminishing. 

It was recommended that wherever 
possible a nurse be employed to in- 
spect patrons for skin troubles, nose, 
throat and ear infections. Patrons 
should be required to have dry suits 
and towels before entering the pool 

The problem of pool sanitation is, 
in the main, essentially a matter of 
good housekeeping. The public should 
be well informed through advance pub- 
licity of those rules and regulations 
aimed toward better housekeeping and 
more sanitary pool conditions. 

Transmission of Diseases 

It was pointed out that the human 
being is not essentially an amphi- 
bious animal, and thus not accus- 
tomed to living in a water environment. 
His nose is not protected to shut out 
the water as in a seal or other aquatic 
animal. In swimming and diving, the 
person is subjected to pressures which 
flush the protective coatings in the 
nasal passages into the sinuses, carry- 
ing up potentially infected organisms, 
thereby causing sinus infections. Also, 
sneezing or coughing by the swimmer 
causes droplets of possible infectious 
material to adhere to the water briefly 
and other swimmers nearby may take 
in this material which may result in 
a respiratory infection. 

Regarding the transmission of polio, 
advice was sought from Alex J. Steig- 

man, M.D., consultant in clinical epi- 
demiology, National Foundation for 
Infantile Paralysis, who wrote as fol- 

"Present day information would sug- 
gest that swimming pools which are 
well managed from the sanitary point 
of view, do not directly constitute a 
hazard from the standpoint of polio- 
myelitis. Two outstanding features of 
poliomyelitis are : ( 1 ) that it is spread 
by personal contact, and (2) that ex- 
haustion and fatigue, as well as chill- 
ing, render individuals more suscepti- 
ble to the severe effects of the disease. 
It is probably for these two reasons 
that swimming pools have for a long 
time been held under suspicion, not 
because of the water, but because a 
swimming pool is a place of assembly. 

"At the national conference on Rec- 
ommended Practices for the Control 
of Poliomyelitis, held in Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, in June 1949, it was rec- 
ommended that health officers do not 
take action to close or prevent opera- 
tion of places of recreation or amuse- 
ment, since such measures were inef- 
fective, as a rule, in controlling polio- 
myelitis epidemics. 

"I think you are quite right in in- 
dicating that when you do not have 
control over the length of time the 
children spend in the water, such a 
situation is not good. The chief things 
in operating a swimming pool of the 
type you referred to in your letter 
are: (1) to see that the children are 
not permitted to remain in until they 
are exhausted and chilled, and (2) to 
see that crowding, either in the water 


or on the adjacent beach or platform-. 
i- not |>frniitti-(l." 

I!. i. lei ial h-l -ample* should !>< tak- 
in daring period- \\li.-n llii- swimming 
IMIO! i- in use. in order thai a true 
picture of tin- water i oiiilitiini can be 
n|. I, mini, lii the state of Illinois. both 
chlorine and bromine are approved as 
pool disinfectants. It w .is pointed out 
that in chlorinating pools free chlorine 
i- much more effective than combined 


In consideration of the hygienic 

aspect of wading | I.-, it was pointed 

out that spray pools are to be rec- 
ommended over wading pools. 

Some Management Problems 
Recommended compensation for 
pn.,1 personnel is as follows: 

M.inagers $2.">H.IM) |>rr month 
Lifeguards .T."i per hour 

In-lrui im- 1.00 per hour 

Lifeguard?. Head 50.IM) per week 
Maximum work day 7 hours 

Maximum work week 6 days 

It is recommended that lifeguanU 
have qualification! which are e.|uiv- 
alent of ill:- senior Keel (iins- cerlifi- 
i ale. lii enforce good discipline, the 
guard- -houlil lie assigned to their 
po-l- mi .1 rotating hasi-. 

To reduce the number of public be- 
havior problems it is recommended 
that the rules and regulations of the 
pool be clearlv posted in conspicuous 
place- around the pool area. In the 
light of good citizenship, pools should 
adopt a policy of non-discrimination 
as far as the racial question is con- 
ceriied. although it should be left 
to the local community to work this 
problem out thoughtfully through a 
program of public education. 

Every community should offer free 
swimming instructions to all age 
groups. When local conditions permit, 
such as the size of the pool, operating 
hours, and so forth, swimming classes 
should be separated from "open" or 

ii -i i' -alional -w immiiig. The swimming 
classes or other leader-led [tool uetivi- 
lie- might be climaxed with such 
events a- -wimming meets, pageant-, 
waler carnivals and other events wliieli 
will serve to create -Dimming intcic-t 
and confidence in the swimming pro- 
gram. Some pools capitalize on the 
-peetator interest in swimming by 
providing a spectators' area, which 
should be in the shade and should he 
provided \\iih -eating facilitic-. 

Pools should be open -even days a 
week, opening at one p.m. on Sunday. 
While it is most desirable to operate 
the poo] free of charges, or to pro- 
vide certain free swim period:-, all 
aspects of this decision should be left 
to the local community. The pi ii < - 
of tickets or issuance of season tick- 
el-, arc -trictly local piohlem-. Tool- 
designed and planned to operate on 
a self-supporting basis should draw 
sufficient revenue to meet operating 
and maintenance costs. 

Milliard llmiipiiirn inliiii 

| In the death early this year of the 
Hon. Milliard \Iontgomerv Tobin. the 
National l!ei te.iliini Association lo-l 
one of it- moot valued sponsors. 

Hichard M. Tobin passed on in tii- 
nalive citv of San Francisco on Jan- 
uary 23, iy.">2. at the age of eighty- 
five. For more than si\tv vcar-. be 
ai lively nupporicd tin- cultural and 
i iv ii organizations of hi- itv. Known 
mtcrnalionallv for hi- -i\ v.-ars as 
I nil.-d Slate- Mini-Id to the Nelb.-r 
lands from l')2'> to ]')_"). |,,- ,-,,.! 
himself in counlle w.i\- In hi- fel- 
low citi/.-no nt home. 

He Ix-licvcd oir.inglv in vouth guid- 
.line and was. for rnanv vear-. the 
v .m I -ponoor of the National 

llloll \-O.H I. III. .11. 

I be ] of the human race." hr 
said, "lie- in -t.irling our children 
right." To him thai meant lining 
thing about pmviding the bent po- 
oiblc recreational ami edm .ilmna! fa- 
i ihlie for the i ommiinitv . 

His was not a philosophy of merelv 
"talking about" recreation, for he 
gained a reputation as a sportsman. 
along with his manv other activilie-. 
playing competitive polo until he wa- 
ncarlv fiflv. 

In his business life Mr. Tobin was 
pre-ident of the Hibernia Bank, of 
which he first became a director at 
the age of twenty -three. 

He supported manv art and rnu-H 
enterprises and was a sponsor of the 

During hi- wars in The Nelher- 
l.i-id- In- -Imbed ihe art of thai coun- 
Irv and later wrote a wideU ,M . cpted 
book on the l>iileh -, li,...|. He was 
the first American ever granted mem- 
ber-hip in the I Irechl Provincial As- 
-: i.iiinii for Arts and -. one 

of the highest hiirmr- in l.urope. 

survived bv hi- widow, hio brother 
and two -i-iei-. Mr. 'fobin ha-> left 
behind loving uii-mories in many 
I... HI- Hi- w.i- lli.- kind of 

lluli. ml M. Tobin 

iiim/>/r in which good will w.i- 
fortified bv good work-. 

This resolution was passed at a 
Februarv meeting: 

"That ill. lioard of Hue. |.,r- of the 
Nation. il l!ci ic. ill. .11 \--. i.ilmn le 
<<ird- with di-ep -miow the death "f 
Huliard M. 'fobin. who fm neailv 
tMentv vear- -civi-d i.ilinn 

-ponoor in San ri.imi-io. and for 
five vear- a- lioiim.irv mi-mlH-r of the 
a 01 ialion. 

"lli- I e.nler-liip. his gem-rosilv. his 
willingne i,, rai-e monev for the 
association, have all helped -trenglhen 
the rei rcalion movemenl in Arneriia." 



Above: A picnic area 
beckons beneath cool 
trees of a wooded glen. 

Children see live, but 
a bit sleepy, screech 
owls for the first time. 

Racky, the raccoon 
great show-off, al- 
ways draws a mob 

Baby red foxes, to 
be trusted now, but 
probably not later. 

Left: a boy, a girl, 
, - a brook, a bridge 
) i ^^ happy spring scene. 

James H. Hamilton, Jr. 

ON SUNDAY AFTERNOONS almost a thousand people visit 
Athens, Georgia's Trailside Museum. Its ten enclosures 
containing foxes, raccoons, opossums, screech owls, squir- 
rels, rabbits and a skunk are fascinating to adults as 
well as children. Its snake pit, surrounded by a moat, 
enclosing a variety of snakes, alligators and turtles is 
always encircled by a crowd of wide-eyed visitors. 

The enclosures are large. The frames have been built 
of small trees and covered with wire that is almost in- 
visible from a short distance. The animals are content 
and unafraid. Once the door of the opossums' pen was 
left open for several days, but the animals, captured only 
three weeks before, remained inside. 

Along the many trails, the different varieties of trees 
and shrubs are identified by small name plates, which in- 
clude their common names and other information con- 
cerning their origin and peculiarities. Bird-feeding stations 
have been placed beside the trails, and already the birds 
have begun to make the park their permanent home. 

The Trailside Museum was begun early in 1950 by the 
Athens parks and recreation department, and was first 
opened to the public last spring. A wide well-worn path 
through the woods was chosen and the undergrowth was 
cleared a few feet back from each side. The enclosures 
were placed wherever the trail proved level enough. Ani- 
mals have been contributed by interested amateur natural- 
ists and the Georgia wildlife commission. 

New animals are added almost weekly. For these more 
enclosures must be built. The museum's expansion is a 
continuous process, yet all this costs the public nothing. 
The only expense has been for a few yards of concrete and 

There are no guides or time limits, and the people may 
feed the animals. Parents have no cause to worry about 
their children. They may wander safely where they please. 

Only in idea is the museum modern. Trails worn long 
ago have been left unchanged. An informal theme is car- 
ried throughout the park, even to the unfinished signs 
which mark the many trails. 

These wonders of nature may be small and simple. The 
woods hold countless numbers of the very animals in the 
museum now, but few people have the opportunity to 
watch them work and play in their own enviroment as they 
do in the Trailside Museum. 

AUTHOR 1*05 Publicity Director, Recreation and Parks. 



Every park and recreation system begins with a recog- 
nition of a basic human need the need for relaxation, 
for play and for a satisfacory social life. The King County 
park and recreation system was no exception. Community 
leaders knew that there is true community living only 
when people come together as neighbors. This spirit of 
cooperation between the people and King County officials 
in the late 1930's was the beginning of the first county 
park system in the state of Washington. 

Twelve counties have acquired areas for parks, all of 
which gained a needed stimulus from the 1937 state legis- 
lature, which authorized counties to acquire by purchase, 
donation, gift or dedication, camping, scenic views, recrea- 
tion sites and parks for public use and enjoyment. Follow- 
ing the passing of the state law, the 1938 King Count \ 
Board of Commissioners passed a resolution setting up 
the department of public works, parks and playground*. 
The resolution authorized the acquisition of appropriate 
sites, the construction of community buildings and rec- 
reational facilities, and the maintenance and operation of 
an adequate system of community recreational areas 
throughout the county, within the limits of the money 
prn\ ided. 

In contrast to most county park systems in other states, 
thr areas selected were not be to scenic parks, but 
rather, areas for development a- community centers and 
as aids in a rhar.H l>-i building program, designed |> i 
ticularly for the younger and unemployed members of 
tin- . ominunitx. \t thi- time, coimminitx i-lub acti\ilie* 
nere highly developed and this development has iml 
leMened. At present there are more than one hundred 
ten aclixe . .umnmiil\ i lull- in rural King (.minlx. 

Light mapil lielillinll-e. ami commiinilx lenl.-l- We|c 

built in I'J.'W-.'W. Approximatelx tw.-nu l>\. per eeni uf 
the coM wa* borne by King < mmlx. while the kilan. was 
|irn\i|r<l h\ |ln NV.I'.A. as labor on the project*. Material* 
and -iipphc* wen- fiirni'he.l i-iih.-i |i\ King Coimlx. emu- 
iminilx <lul or other inlcrc-ied grup*. Uf the land 
acquire'). ..nix ivto a. re- mil of a total of about two 


hundred fifty acres were purchased. Most of the county 
appropriations since have gone for park development. 

I ntil 1943, it was possible for the department to meet 
the needs intended with an annual budget of sixty-six 
thousand dollars. From 1943 to 1947, the budget climbed 
to one hundred forty-five thousand dollars. Further 
progress was made in park legislation in the state when 
a bill was passed in the 1949 legislature which enabled 
county commissioners to appoint a county park board. 
King County's first park board was appointed in February, 
1950. Under its leadership, and the increased intere-t 
in park facilities and leadership, the park-minded counlv 
commissioners recently approved the 1952 budget of 
$270,700.95, with fifty thousand dollars allocated for land 

Recreation Councils 

The cooperative effort between the people and the King 
County park and recreation department has persisted in 
the provision of recreation leadership. Oxer lifl\ per cent 
of the total budget is for salaries and wages, with a 

Recreation councils, cmniminit> clubs. i;xcriitm-iit of- 
ficials, private and public rrrrealion agencies '""k for- 
ward eagerly to the opening day of the 1952 Congress 
in Seattle. A t\pical western xxelc.nne will be offered 
to all who attend. During the short, liusv week. ex CM .me 
will have a chance to see the recreation opportunities in 
King County. 

v rt i-m N- hm l>rrn lltr ^iifn'rinli-nilfnl <>/ 
rrcrratinn, Kinf, (.<>unl\. Washington, tinct March I, 


major portion of this for playground personnel, swim- 
ing in-truetors. *pe< iali-ls and full-time direetors. The 
latter are assigned to the oiillxinf; area-. These profe- 
-nuial ie, leation leader- w,, r k t lonely with the local ; 
reation council to pnnide H. M.ilion progiiims in tin- 
available facilities. At present, llli-ie .lie -iUecn .icli\e 
i. , r, -at!. m in King <<HJM|\. and all ilepaitmenl 
pei-onncl are alerted to the need* of the eommiinitx 
through recreation council meet. 

\ rn'-nt -tii.K nf all such>. < ondii. led bx the 
> oiineil of ><M-ial agencies and the King Onmlx park and 
i.-. leation department, i.-x.-al.-.l tin need fm .1 

l.'i . id XII.IN 


Robert C. Stephens * 

Enumclaw Park. Reservoir pool, typical King County fieldhouse. 

wide recreation council, to coordinate the efforts of all 
recreation agencies; and members of local councils have 
recently organized one, so that problems of one council are 
shared and discussed by the entire group. Private and 
public agencies also attend these meetings. From them, 
representatives take information which they could obtain 
in no other way to their local community councils. 
Monthly meetings are democracy in action, and the "seed" 
must be planted here if it is to play a successful role 
in the community. 


King County is blessed with many natural swimming 
beaches and lakes, and without exception the best and 
most outstanding summer activity is swimming. The 
King County chapter of the American Red Cross and the 
King County park and recreation department annually 
hire a staff of roving water safety instructors who move 
into the communities for concentrated programs of swim- 
ming instruction. County school districts provide bus 
transportation to county beaches or private resorts, and 
beach supervision is provided by local recreation coun- 
cils and P.T.A. groups. 

During the summer of 1951, seventy-two thousand chil- 
dren and adults took part in the swimming instruction 
program. Local Red Cross authorities report that this 
program is one of the best attended in the country. 

All sports activities are organized in the many sports- 
minded suburban and rural communities and coordinated 
into leagues by a full-time county athletic supervisor. 
Jamborees and county-wide tournaments and play-offs pro- 
vide the incentive necessary for the novice recreation 
sports participant. Plays, field days, dance festivals and 
square dance groups are organized in a similar manner. 

Specialists in camping and arts and crafts are sent into 
the various communities upon request for in-service 
training to local groups. 

Realizing that full-time year-round recreation leadership 
is critically needed in the more populated rural areas, 
the King County park and recreation department has em- 
barked on a joint program with the local community and 
its recreation council to hire a full-time community rec- 
reation director. This cooperation has operated success- 

Des Moines baseball field, grandstand is a popular facility. 

fully in two communities during the last two years, and 
a new program is beginning this year. The director is re- 
sponsible directly to the two agencies, each paying one- 
half of the director's salary, and to the school adminis- 
trators who are in charge of the facilities which are used 
for after school and evening activities. All parties con- 
cerned in the three programs agree wholeheartedly that 
the recreation dollar is well spent in this program of 
joint participation. 

King County park and recreation department services 
and activities are made known to the agencies, volunteers, 
and participants through the local weekly newspapers and 
a mimeographed monthly Recreation Bulletin edited by 
King County park and recreation department personnel. 

The present King County park facilities were planned 
and developed by men who had active recreation pro- 
grams in mind. They were designed so that t'hey might 
serve a wide variety of recreational purposes for people 
of all ages and still be operated economically. Enumclaw 
Park, the largest of King County parks, with more than 
ninety acres, is an active recreation facility, with a nine 
hole golf course, fieldhouse. rifle range, baseball and 
football fields with grandstand and an outdoor swimming 

Seven other fieldhouses. all constructed by W.P.A. 
labor, are staffed the year-round by trained recreation 
directors and leaders. In addition, five county beaches 

MAY 1952 


are staffed seven days a week during the summer months. 
All county parks and c -MINTS are maintained jointly 
by a permanent custodian and a roving maintenance 
crew. Community clubs and recreation councils also assist 
the departniMit in work projects supervised by park 
department personnel. 

Planning for the Future 

I In- past fifteen years hu\r ><-MI little or no progress in 
planning bevond tin- <-it\ limits of Seattle. Iti Mav. \'>~->l, a 
group of men and women interested in the preservation of 
public waterfront and park sites in King Count) met to 
see what could be done before all the opportunities had 
vanished. This group called itself the Puget Sound Park 
Study Group and bi-weekly meetings throughout the sum- 
mer gained momentum and support from every community 
organization in King County. 

\\i-.-kly reconnaissance tours by study group committees 
revealed that the people were fast losing public access to 
brach and park sites. 

A preliminary brochure entitled "Too Little Too Late" 
was published and distributed to public officials, community 
clubs and civic organizations in Seattle and rural King 
County. To continue the study further, the board of county 

commissioners allocated three thousand dollars toward a 
park -Hid) which is to be completed in \'>'i'2 h\ the King 
County Planning Commission and the Puget Sound Park 
Study Group. 

King Count), with more than seven hundred fifty 
thousand people, will continue to "spill over" in the areas 
surrounding the Queen City, Seattle. Increased demand* 
for the acquisition and development of recreational facili- 
ties and the establishment of recreation programs in the 
suburban and rural areas are inevitable. 

The King County park and recreation department will 
continue to share with other public agencies the responsi- 
bility of furnishing recreation facilities and leadership to 
all the people, so that the greatest possible opportunity for 
beneficial and satisfying recreation may be extended to 
all where it is most needed right in their own home 

Recreation services from the King County park and 
recreation department to the citizens of King Countv will 
be increased, as long as the public recreation dollar is used 
efficiently. Community cooperation will insure this growth. 
as it has since the inception of county responsibility for 
parks and recreaton in King County, Washington. 

Maryland In Develop River Valley Park 

Dr- \KI.III-\II.M of I'atapsco River Valley as a Maryland 
state park became assured through the approval by the 
legislature of a S'XX),000 bond issue for this pmpo-c. I .,i 
six years a committee has IK-MI studying the possibilities 
of this great recreation project, and its report issued in 
I '.Tin bv tin- Maryland Stale Planning Commission provides 
the basis for carrying forward the project. The following 
description of the proposed park i- ba-ed upon or quoted 
from the development plan.* 

"l^rnd proposed for acquisition and development com- 
prises principally well-wooded slopes, but it also include- 
river bottom land, swamps, and a limited acreage in farm-. 
'I he vallev i- rich in hi-lorv. varied in mineral deposit-. 
and replete with animal life. The river and its Iributarie- 
will serve as good fishing streams, once pollution is re- 

!li. t..i.i| area [commended will add 6,071 acres to 
the piesenl \.~<<>\ KIM m I'atap-... ->late I'aik. This land 
he- within \rine \ruridel. Mallimore, Carroll, and llowai.l 

-.lies and loin he- all the urban enters f|,,m Maltir 
< itv t.. >vke,villc. The Park will he 2<>.\~> mile- long and 
have an average width of one-half mile. On the Norlli 
Brarn h of the Palaps. ., it will omiei I with lire new l.rberlv 

rvoir proper!) and on lln- South Mraneh it will termi- 
nate at the ilugg-Thom.i- \\ildlife I lemonstralion A' 
which is adrniniiN ied bv tin- Mnlr (.nine and Inland Kih 


i'-r the I)fve|opmenl Plan, about d.nxi a. re- ,,( tin- 
park will br of forest charai let and will U- given lo ion 

"Oftflopmrnl flan fnr Patap>rn Hnrr 1'nrl MiryUnd Sutr Plan- 
nine Cmmi.k>n. October I 1 ' " lllii>lratr.l. mil pUnv 


servation practices, hiking, fishing, horseback riding, pic- 
nicking in -mall groups, and nature -ttnlv. The remaining 
L'.'ilK) odd acres are recommended for large-scale picnick- 
ing, camping, and urban and semi-urban-type park unit-. 

"The facilities proposed for the urban and semi-urban 
centers include baseball, Softball and soccer field:-, swim- 
ming pool-, \aried game court-, picnic centers, shelter 
buildings, day camps, fishing,, canoeing and boating cen- 
Icis. food concessions, and .-uch revenue-producing fa- 
cilities as bicM-lc path-, golf-driving range-, archer \. 
(lancing pavilions, and outdoor howling alle\. The mud 
Hals are to be transformed into a large lagoon MM Mutinied 
I'v a par k ami pla) field. 

"When fully developed, the park will include fixe .amp 
ing i enter-, eight swimming pools and pond-. seventy -five 
miles of bridle path-, and -i\t\ mile- of hiking trails, taing 

sections of eighteen sliearn vallev- an- IIH o| poi aled ill the 
proposed development. Moating and canoeing are recom- 
mended in the slack waN-i aho\c tin- -cvcral dams. 

"The estimated col of the land required for a< (pti-ition 
with existing improvement- is >,'i(MI.(HH) or >-ll"> an aiie. 
< o.| of tin- development and con-li in lion program, to be over a Ivvelve-v e.u per mil. i- e-hmaled al approxi- 
mate! v Mi.IMMI.IMMI. \\lieri fnllv developed the park iseX- 
pei led lo attract an estimated annual patronage of more 
than l.KH).(HX) persons ex. lii-ive ,.f m..l..ri-|s driving 
through it. \nniial operating i o-l-. after dedin ting income 
from revenue-producing unit-, an- e-limaled al >(><l.,".n< i. 

\- -lale.l m tin- foreword. 'I In- i- rmt a timid plan, ll 
ii ambition- but in keeping wild tin- need- and interest, of 
the area surrounding greater and of the -I .,- 

Ill i in vims 

THE RECENT announcement that the Amateur Artists As- 
sociation is being organized under the aegis of the very 
professional "American Artist" magazine serves to focus 
attention on the burgeoning interest in art, evident from 
increased museum attendance, sales of paintings and enroll- 
ment in art schools. Both rural and urban residents have 
been experiencing what Winston Churchill once called 
"a joy-ride in a paint-box," and have become "Sunday 
painters" with boundless enthusiasm. These countless ama- 
teurs who pursue "art for art's sake" on their day off make 
their living as dentists, machinists, truck drivers, carpen- 
ters, housewives and in a wide variety of other occupations. 
Many of these novices paint purely for diversion and 
have no ambition to become professional artists. Others 
have been advised by their physicians to take up some kind 
of a hobby to obtain a release from the tensions and 
anxieties of this atomic age. Some have forsaken the 
psychiatrist's couch for the artist's easel and stool. Others 
hope to become professionals when they have had sufficient 
training and experience. A few have been inspired to daub 
paint on canvas because celebrities of the stage and screen 
have turned out creditable pictures. 

Can Anybody Paint? 

The professional artists who watch the ever-growing 
number of enthusiastic amateurs must have mixed feelings 
of apprehension and delight apprehension lest the public 
purchase technically inferior paintings by tyros, and de- 
light that so many of that public are becoming "art con- 
scious." The understanding of the professional painter ap- 
pears to be greater than his antagonism, and many of them 
encourage amateurs and also supplement their own incomes 
by teaching. With awareness and knowledge, they believe 
that the public will ultimately purchase judiciously. 

A recent radio interview with five charter members of 
the newly formed Amateur Artists Association revealed 
that three of the five had been painting for ten years, and 
two had been at it for thirty years. A dentist and a clergy- 
man were the seniors, or "advanced amateurs." while an 
advertising copy writer, a housewife and a restaurant 
owner were the comparative newcomers. All of them, when 
they spoke over the municipal radio station, admitted that 
their appreciation of art had developed over the years and 
that now, instead of merely admiring a painting, they 
purchased it whenever the price was within their means. 
The great satisfaction in being an amateur painter, most of 
them agreed, is that a dauber can paint any subject he 
pleases, and with no obligation. 

The Carefree Dabbler 

IVrhaps -once in a blue moon his work is so good 
that hi- sells it but that eventuality is "somewhere over 
I lie rainbow." Yet he paints on. Sunday after Sunday, and 
on Saturdays, too, if he has the day off, content to paint 
for pleasure. Not so the professional, who must paint to 

MAY 1952 

"Sunday Artist," snapped by a fourteen-year old in the park. 

Sunday Painters 

eat, to pay his rent, to educate his children and, of course, 
because of his stronger inner compulsion. 

To the new association of carefree amateurs we wish 
happiness rather than prosperity, and sunlight rather than 
success. If no Rembrandt or Titian, Matisse or Picasso 
emerges from the membership, at least these diligent dilet- 
tantes are doubtless better dentists, machinists, truck driv- 
ers, carpenters, housewives, et al because they are "Sunday 

But if these happy amateurs would stay happy and 
would continue to enjoy a sense of personal gratification 
through projecting their inner disturbances and frustra- 
tions onto paper, canvas, copper plates, clay or wood 
blocks, they would do well to read Rudyard Kipling's poem, 
"When Earth's Last Picture Is Painted," which ends with 
this happy thought: 
"And no one shall work for money, 

And no one shall work for fame, 

But each for the joy of the working,. 

And each in his separate star 

Shall draw the thing as he sees it 

For the God of things as they are!" 

Commenting on the therapeutic aspect of the art boom 
among amateurs, officials of the Museum of Modern Art 
pointed out that "ordinarily one judges the value of art 
by the quality of the product, but here the condition is 
reversed. One evaluates the product by its effect upon the 
creator. It is what happens to the painter that counts, not 
the quality of the result." 

Reprinted from "Topics of The Times," January 1952, through the 
courtesy of The New York Times. 




Barbara Shuluca 

l- I- I(K\I.M Bill'- -lorx. for our "big gaiden" l..-gan 
when he told of his adventures as a city farmer rais- 
ing crops on a pile of ashes and about the pumpkin har- 
\ in the fall, which helped make one Thanksgiving 
l).i\ >-\lra special. When the de eit wa- -ervcd. his mother, 
looking straight at Bill, said to the guest-. "Thi- pi w i- 
inade from a pumpkin Bill grew this surnmci ! 

Today, boys and girls of Bloomington know that then- i- 
a plot of good earth for them in the "big garden," which 
stands on a hill ju-l l>e\ond tin- Im-llc l.u-lle of the side- 
walks . . . one which -pdl- green magic for them and for 
their annual crop of garden teat her-. It grew from a Held 
of alfalfa into an mildoor da--r....iii known a- the Junior 
I. -n Uork-hop. ,111 integral unit of the course in hor- 
ticulture, offered l>\ the botany department of Indiana 
I m\cr-il\ l. > it- -Indent-, demonstrating that (here is a 
i. I. ill.-.. |..iu,,i, li-aiiiing and lixini.-. 

I ..i ih. p.i-i f.,iir V..IT- lln- lei-ni. lime -< ienci- pro 
gmm hi- "Ifei.-d our -Indent- main enriching i \pciienCCS. 
\.ti\. p. iiln ipntion in it ha ilc\,-|..|M-d an awarene of 
the fail that thinking < ili/en- of communities, large and 

Dli. MIMM\. /(<//!> lli-iMirlmrnt. Collfff of Arl.l anil 

Intlinnn I nnrrMi\. M thr author of "A (iartirn 

n,:,,r,l." IIM-I! //> llir \tinlrnt* in thr ftinior C,nt,l,-n 

Wttrk*h<>i>. ( ";< nr>- in nilnlilr li"i lirr /nr Ci 


small, are seeking ways to provide their children with 
experiences which will lead to useful living. In his garden, 
no matter how small, Bill is "king of a green kingdom." 
line In- MKI\ begin to understand, for the first time. how 
all the things around him work in helping him to produce 
a bumper crop. 

This community project, jointly sponsored by the city 
department of recreation, Indiana University and the 
Bloomington Garden Club, provides a leisure-time pro- 
gram for the city's children and a working laboratmx 
for the university students who may assume similar re- 
sponsibilities in their vocations. Some may be training 
for recreation leadership and others for the teaching pro- 
fession or social work. All are keenly aware of the chil- 
dren of the sidewalks and the need for programs to keep 
their minds and bodies busy in pleasant and construct i\c 
occupations when out of school. 

Our present pattern is simple and flexible, affording 
the student a chance to see how it can be readily tailored 
to a community's needs. Every activity in the garden pro- 
vides boys and girls with opportunities for the development 
of responsibility and an appreciation of work. The leader 
must know his subject and must enjoy working with young 
people. To assume major leadership in a community 
project of this kind, who is more eminently qualified than 
the gardener? Hasn't he discovered a way of life . . . one 
worth living, as it is shaped by the hours spent at work 
with fingers reaching deep into the good earth, drawing 
harmony and refreshment for tomorrow'* decision-.' 
Wherever there are children'- j-ardeii*. tin-re he knows 
he will find boys and girls in a program with a purpose, 
providing for the building of sound hodie- and healths 

The gardening season is announced l.\ the recreation 
director in late March. Boys and girls between nine and 
iwd\c years of age who enjoy the out-of-doors are eligible 
for membership. Radio and lclc\i-ion programs s|-ciall\ 
designed for young people offer rich channels for publiciu . 
But. it is Saturday's junior citizen who is the most influ- 
ential salesman for our program. Scores of veterans have 
sold it to a buddy in numerou- wa\- throughout the sum- 

The student garden teachei reeem- in-cnice training. 
Once a week we meet a- group to di-. it-- wax- and 
means of instructing young pople in an outdoor cdm .1 
lional program. OIK- Saturday morning i- enough to show 
lliex- young leaders that without a well-thought-out met I 
ing there is little inti-ic-t -h..wn |.\ tin- \omig-tci-. 

In laic April, tin- \oiinj; gardener- arc readx I" lian-fci 
llieir plan- on paper to their garden plot-, no bigger than 
ten feet square. I'l.inting day ha- I.e. 11-day for the 
1 1 immunity. 

I here is pleasant work at all time- f..r exerxhodx in 
the "big garden." Thus, di- iphne i- x-ldom a problem. 
Outdoor learning, e-pe. lallx dining lln- i luld'- pl.iv time. 
demands careful examination of teaching way*, and one 
liniN that the \oung gardener respond- happdx and pleas- 
.inllx t.. -implc. well-planned le--on- niid has time to 
share in the pood fun excrxone i- c\|M-r iencing. 

l!i i HI \nu\ 

The sun does not always shine on Saturdays once the 
outdoor program has begun, but the indoor lessons are 
continued and are just as interesting as those on the hill, 
for the leaders are taught to show the young gardeners 
how important it is to gain "know-how," to help produce 
a bumper crop for the family. 

When school is out, the program swings into action with 
gardening twice a week and nature exploration trips every 
Saturday morning. Under the able direction of four stu- 
dent supervisors, guided by those responsible for the 
workshop, our garden assumes a significant role in the 
child's life. The garden periods are devoted to the care 
of their vegetable plots or to the fulfillment of require- 
ments in the honor work plan. At the end of the season the 
flower garden is a special spot, for it represents many 
things beautiful to him, now and in years to come. In the 
herb garden he has discovered plants which have helped 
flavor his mother's cooking, and he has found that it 
is fun to help weed other people's gardens, and that there 
are many such jobs available when his friends go on 

Saturday mornings are spent exploring, in and out of 
town. It is at this time that the young people begin to 
understand how their community is related to the world 
outside . . . here they discover for themselves the large 
variety of trees, the wildflowers and where they grow in 
the fields and woods, insects of all kinds and sizes, and 
the animals about which they have talked in school but 
have never seen in their natural habitats. All this they 
carefully record in a garden book, which is later studied 
with their teacher and classmates in the classroom. The 
garden season is concluded with the awarding of honors 
at a special program planned by the garden club women. 

With the garden gate closed for the summer, our boys 
and girls leave with sun tanned faces, new friendships 
and new skills to use next year when word goes around 
that "It's garden time!" But more important are the 
seeds of healthy attitudes which Bill sowed for himself 

in the garden, as he worked and played with other boys 
and girls. 

The older students have had a summer full of hard work 
in a classroom where they were the teachers . . . here, 
lessons in horticulture, in group action and human be- 
havior were relearned. They have had a chance to draw 
their own conclusions as to the effectiveness of such a tool 
when on the job. They leave prepared to strengthen existing 
gardening frontiers, with much-needed trained leadership, 
or to introduce new ones wherever there are boys and 

Children, filled with boundless energy during their play 
time, are also human beings who seek activities rich in 
work as well as in fun. Gardening promises fulfillment 
of both work and fun in the open air and sunshine. Just 
listen to Bill as his crop is weighed and carefully recorded. 
"I worked hard on that head of cabbage . . worth it! Look 
at the size!" 

Today one finds many crowded classrooms and many 
teachers with little time and energy to bring the living 
world into the classroom. Communities might well as- 
sume the role of providing trained leadership to continue 
these lessons during play time. This leisure-time program 
opens up infinite possibilities for unlocking latent interests 
in science which would otherwise remain undiscovered. It 
provides everyone with a chance to express his natural 
curiosity to explore things for himself. One discovery, 
competently explained, leads to another, and in time, per- 
haps a life work opens up for a boy or girl. Children have 
a deep desire to work with living things. 

Communities, wake up! Harness your local talent and 
offer gardening to all juniors, tomorrow's citizens. Watch 
them share in this unique life experience and develop 
into happy people for their tomorrow. 

ON PAPER, Junior gardeners eagerly plan their vegetable gardens well 
ahead of planting time, with aid of a pencil and their garden teacher. 

MAY 1952 

FROM A SINGLE SEED: Abundance and a sense 
of achievement in providing food for the family. 


I10MHS AWAY!" Baled 
li.iv from the loft! Farm 
i linn . .in- a part f the 
fun, at well a< helpful. 


SQUARE I>\M I ' Apcl 
family and (he xueiti 


..firn tlaxr their own. 

Informality i* the rule. 

"SHADES OF THANKS(.I\ I\{.! HM Don I'it-ree of Harlingei 
Texas, as Mrs. Apvl displays the (.'liristmas turkey. Me K mr 
the Apels' son-in-law, and may be allowed to help stuff the bin 

\.\. \ WANT to do is milk a cow and cat a <jood 'fai in' 
meal." These words, spoken h\ Kcilli Kenngott of 
New York three years ago, slartrd a chain of happy tiim-s 

for many airmen from the Vanee \u I l!a-e. I nid, 

Oklahoma, one of the air force's advanced multi-engine 
pilot training centers. 

Corporal Kenngott had been suffering ficnn llial \ieiou* 
enemy of the services, loneliness, when he presented him- 
self at the one hundred sixty acre farm of Mr. ami Mi-. 
Henry Apel, two miles cast of Vance and five miles 
southeast nf I'.nid. and asked In help out with the ilime-. 
\D hired help was m-i-ded. l.iil when Keith asked fur just 
enough Woik to .-am a good farm meal. Mr. \\><-\ -aid, 
'\ii\liine \..n uaul a Imme-i -imketi meal, jn-l i nine on 
in. \nd if \n In. \oii i an milk the in\\-. I...,." 

Keith -|M-nl mam luuir^ at the \pel home, and llie\ in 
jnvid hi- \i-it- so mill li the\ dei ided In invite olhei air 
men (.. then faun The Apels allow the lad- to do a- the 
wi-h. a- if llie\ wi-re ill llieil own liome-. I he\ m.i\ him 
i.ihliil-. diiM- the li.nliii. help milk the iow>. feed the 
(tin k-n-. and -" !!. I ew mealtime- |ia at tin- \]-\ farrt 
w ithoiit -..m.- \ am e \ oini|>-(er Mowing away a hoine-cookw 

111. lio\- aren't the onK om-- who ha\e ( -njo\ed il -< 
have the nine ApcU (father, mother and e\en daughter 

TIME OUT! Cpls. Leal and Mallow accept a "smoke" from Mr. 
\pel as they take a break during one of the many hunting trips 
iround the Apel farm. Life on a farm is not all work and no play. 

THE "LOW-DOWN" is given to Sgt. Joe Locke (down low) or 
how to apply oil to the return elevator of a combine. Mr. Ape 
points to vital spot as Sgt. Pierce (background) greases sprocket 

fo t&e 

Corporal Connie Alexander 

aged eleven to twenty-three). One airman who has been 
an Apel guest often, Sergeant Don Pierce of Harlingen, 
Texas, became a son-in-law in the family last June, mar- 
rying daughter Bernice. 

The Apels have received many gifts from former Vance 
lirrnen who have been sent overseas and to other stations. 
^Typical is the Japanese fishing rod and kit given to Mr. 
Lpel by Corporal Don Talecki of Bridgeport, Pennsylvania, 
on has also sent paintings and other presents from Japan. 

Shortly after Don received orders to report to the Far 

ist, he learned that his brother, Ed, also in the air force, 
was in Oklahoma City on a routine flight and would be 
there overnight. After several vain attempts to reach Ed 
by telephone, Mr. and Mrs. Apel took Don to Oklahoma 
City in their car. Since the two boys had no favorable 
place to be together there, the Apels invited them to stay 
overnight at their farm, giving them a few happy hours 
with each other before Don went overseas. 

The Apels have also given farewell parties and receptions 
for boys from the air base. 

Whether they know it or not, they are doing a great 
service to their country by entertaining these youths per- 
haps your son, or brother, or the boy from around the 
block who are in the air force, giving time, effort, and 
risking their lives, to help defend our freedom. 

SUNDAY DINNER at the Apels' means stowing away a heart; 
home-cooked farm meal with "only" sixteen at the table. Below 
Mrs. Apel gets an able assist from the air force. 




The second in a series of three articles 
on photography in the recreation program. 

Irma Webber 

< mnrru club* gft * frrling ol IK 

riven an opportune 

Drtroit U.grd a "fair." camera 



MI. I IIMIII: iirrtlril lien llicv af* 
. \\li.-n Drill" Illliti SctliHil ill 
led ami had i\\ own booth, loo. 

T AST MONTH, ill discussing tin' role 
*-* of photography in the recreation 
program, it was stated tlmt mam 
highly -ucce ful photographic proj- 
ects get their start by capitalizing on 
existing interest. It seems, in fact, that 
most photographic group- u-iialK de- 
velop as the result of such mutual 
objectives and interests. But what if 
you have the kernel of such a photo- 
graphic group in your own organiza- 
tion? What if the "interest" is already 
there? What do you do next:' Where 
do you go from there? 

Well, by any standard, the leader 
is the vital factor. That indi\ idual may 
or may not be an accomplished pho- 
tographer, for, actually, photographic 
ability is not as important as the fact 
that the leader should be creative and 
enthusiastic. Choose as your leader 
a person who can express ideas and 
thoughts to others in term* that they 
will understand. Furthermore, since 
photography is a means of communi- 
cation, select as your group manager, 
the kind of person who is -M-iti\e to 
the interests and needs of others. Re- 
gardless of his photographic "know- 
how." if that person possesses a high 
-ensc of values in group and eommu- 
iiit\ living, he will always get along. 
How much organization is neces- 
sary? Sometimes very little, some- 
times a great deal. Tlii- depends to 
some degree on the si/e of the group. 
If the group is small, little formal or- 
ganization may be required. On the 
other hand, if the group is large, for- 
mal organization can !>< used to hold 
and hind its member- together. Tlii- 
ma\ inxoUe a president, tiea-urcr. - 
retary. and main coininitlee-. Such 
label* often pa\ big dividend- !. aii-c 
lhi-\ make gloiip membi-is feel mote 
important and "needed." As a result. 
thee mcmliei- ate m.m- likclx I" 
want to see the group -in ' e fill, and 
thu- put f"illi elfotl. 

Committees are a fine de\ ire for 
group work. Therefore, get as many 
started as po ihlc. >ome of tlie p. 
-ibilitie- are: a rommillei- f..r Jilan- 
nitig field trip-, iiicliiiling plai e. time, 
and transpfirtalinn: another f..t 

KM in \ii<>\ 

print collecting and hanging exhibits 
in the recreation center; still another 
for judging prints; one for exchanging 
with and circulating prints among 
other photographic groups; a commit- 
tee for the display of work in neigh- 
borhood stores and theatres; one for 
new membership; one for color slides: 
and definitely one to help new mem- 
bers in their struggles. 

One recreational camera group with 
which we're well acquainted solves the 
"instruction" problem with the help 
of two boys who consider themselves 
advanced amateurs. These boys offer 
their time and darkroom twice a 
month to anyone in the club. This 

Curlicues of paper and glass beads were 
used for this "photogram" by Denny club. 

gives the beginners a lot of fun, since 
they can explore and experiment with 
equipment different from their own, 
while it is of equal value to the two 
boys, because it gives them the ex- 
perience of leadership and recognition 
for their ability. 

Speaking of equipment plan on 
having a committee for that, too. 
Equipment in itself isn't so important, 
but a committee will look for things 
to do and supply your needs a bit 

In my own situation, we have the 
bare essentials. Until a few weeks ago. 
we owned one safe light with two 
filters, which we changed constantly. 
The yellow-green one was cracked. 
We had patched it together in many 
places with tape, and put wire around 
the glass, light and stand to keep it 
intact. Then, one young boy who had 
been around for weeks, but had never 
come up with a picture, recognized 

our need. He picked up discarded 
wooden crates from a grocery store 
for the frame, begged some scrap 
metal from a shop for wall brackets, 
and where he got the rest of ma- 
terial I'll never know, but bless his 
heart, his safe light is wonderful. So 
you see, every individual is needed and 
can be important. 

Last month, I suggested many 
places, in this recreational program, 
where groups could get together for 
regular meetings. But "just where" 
really doesn't matter as long as space 
for a darkroom is available. One group 
uses a church basement. Another 
group which is fairly large has a 
darkroom in one corner of a fruit 
cellar, and turns out some very fine 
work, notwithstanding the fact that 
to wash prints they have to run from 
the fruit cellar to the laundry tubs 
and back again. 

When you're organizing your photo 
group keep an eye out for a friendly 
photographic store in your neighbor- 
hood. Photo stores are often more than 
happy to open their doors to you and 
your group and to provide regular 
headquarters. If you have such an 
opportunity, make the most of it. Both 
your group and the store will profit. 

Our darkroom was at one time a 
janitor's broom closet. Even now our 
equipment consists of only a small 
sink, a table for three eight by ten 
trays, one contact printer, two safe 
lights, one thermometer, and one very 
old enlarger. The bellows of this en- 
larger have patches on top of patches, 
and when we have to make prints be- 
yond the usual eight by ten inches, 
we have to borrow trays and an extra 
timer unless one of the clan pops up 
with an illuminated watch having a 
sweep hand. But no matter what the 
problem, we always seem to have 
friends who are glad to help. Of all 
the hobbies in which I have partici- 
pated, photography has undoubtedly 
been outstanding, as one in which peo- 
ple really enjoy sharing. 

But let's become practical and start 
a successful program. Let's assume 
that we have a group with the same 

Surrealist art? No, just a photo from but- 
tons, a pull chain, and few odds and ends. 

interests and needs. The leader enjoys 
people, and has something of himself 
to give, and we have decided on a 
meeting place. Various members of 
the group have brought equipment to 
help us get started. Now, the job is 
to make this first exploration a suc- 
cess for everyone. 

For a feeling of immediate accom- 
plishment and satisfaction there is no 
better way of starting than to make a 
shadow print or "photogram." This 
can be done by placing a few objects 
on a sheet of enlarging paper, exposing 
the paper and objects to light from a 
flashlight, and developing the paper 
to produce a shadow print. Paper and 
flashlight can, of course, be any size. 
However, the objects placed on the 
paper should be rather small, if the 
paper is not at least eight by ten 
inches. My experience suggests that for 
interest and creative reasons, the se- 
lection of material to be used in this 
work should vary in size, shape, and 
density. Some of the objects should be 
transparent, others translucent and 
a few opaque. Bits of cellophane, cut 
and twisted into spirals, and old plastic 
perfume containers are excellent, since 
some light is blocked by the objects 
while some passes through and still 
other light rays bounce off in another 
direction. This produces patterns in 
various tones and values. Opaque ob- 
jects should be used, also, but it is 
best if they are small and interesting 
in shape, since opaque objects leave 
the paper pure white and tend to over- 
balance the gray and black tones in 
the composition. 

"Composition" as such is, of course. 

Miss WEBBER is photography instruc- 
tor at Denby High School in Detroit. 

MAY 1952 


too involved a subject to get into im- 
mediately with any beginning group, 
but without talking composition you 
can often suggest and employ the 
principle? involved by approaching the 
problem in the following manner 
especially if the group is a young one. 

Say something like this: "Look, 
fellow-. I have an old piece of plastic 
from my purse handle; its shape is 
oblong with a few curves on one side 
for variations. What have you got 
in your pockets that looks different 
and interesting? 

"All right. Now, let's pretend we 
have characters in a show, and this 
object which is large and important 
will be the leading lady. Since the 
leading lady is the star of the pro- 
duction, we'll place her in a very 
prominent place on the paper. Now, 
most good shows have a leading man 
who is near the star, but not quite 
so important, so we'll select this 
portion of an old tooth brush and put 
it in here, not too far from the lead- 
ing lady. Next, we need some strong 
"character" players. For those let's use 
a few glass buttons, or cut paper de- 
signs. That pretty well takes care of 

things, but remember in any play 
even the ''bit" players must lake their 
places, too. So let's scatter some very- 
small objects in and around the whole 
scene, to round out our production and 
complete our composition." 

Among other objects which can be 
n- .! advantageously in making photo- 
grains, chains are good because you 
can use them to demonstrate the use 
of a curved line running through the 
pattern. Such lines can be shown com- 
ing o\rr tin- top of some objects and 
running underneath or around other*. 
These lines help "tie up" the whole 
design or pattern. However, any small 
objects will be usable for the first 

After members of your group have 
made their arrangements on the paper, 
let them beam the flashlight at the 
paper. Hold it low, hold it high, 
move in close, step back at a dis- 
tance, shoot it in at an angle from 
the sides and from directly above. 
Then you can let the fun start! As 
you dunk each print in the developer, 
voii'll see all the eyes peer down into 
the tray, as this strange and fasci- 
nating abstract picture begins to pop 

up at them. And when it'- there, give 
it a quick wash in water or ''short 
stop," then pop it into the hvpo tray. 

No one can or should be permitted 
to fail with this first en-alive effort, 
because with it you can gain ihe 
group's interest and prove that each 
individual can produce a successful 
picture. This is a much more satisfv ing 
and effective approach to photography 
than 1>\ <tarting with "theor\ " or ihe 
development of film! Remember, such 
an experiment is personal real. In it, 
each individual is creating, with the 
odds and ends boys and girls earn in 
iheir pockets. Such objects, as you 
know, have little value, but they are 
cherished by their owners, and thus 
the pictures made from them will have 
value, too. 

I like to consider such an approach 
the same as playing a game with the 
young fry. In this fasl-moving world 
of ours such simplicilies all too often 
seem to have become extinct. 

As a reminder, I'd like to refer 
again to how important it is that a 
group as a whole be given something 
to do. If all share in responsibility 
it is true democracy at work. 

Let Fol 

Several media of publicizing the public recreation fa- 
cilities, and recommended improvements, are being used 
effr< tivelv in Houston, Texas. A sixty-page, attractively 
printed brochure titled, "Recreation for Everyone," pub- 
lihed last year," outlines the importance of recreation and 
informal education, and set- forth detailed recommenda- 
tion- for the improvement of facilities and services for 
every age and interest group in the community. Also availa- 
!)'. is a short movie" with the same title, dramatizing the 
need for and po il>lc fulfillment of a recreation program. 

Ihe brochure presents a very thorough analysis of the 
. iiv'- -p.-. id* i in -. stressing throughout that 
II. Mi-ton i- at Ihe bottom of the list of cities in the -ame 
class as to per capita expenditure for recreation. <' neral 
recommendation* for publi. i. j. .cli..n development, eon- 
den-ed from the bro< luue are: appropriate local 
rnmcntal units acquire land for park ami plav ground 
development, aiming for .1 five to -even .11 re park within 
a half mile radius of every home, pro|K-rly Mailed and 
offering the following: la I recreation building. ibl 
lighted multiple-use athletic field, (e) lighted plavground 
apparatuv <di pirnic area with table?, benches and grills: 
a large pi. iv held of fifteen t,, tuetilv ,nre. within a mile 
radius <>f evcrv borne, offering: lai large building with 

\tiiUhk from CM 


formation on morie. 

< of Hou'ton and fhrrit County, 
2. Text*. 11.00 pit ropy. Wril<- for in- 

ks Know 

gymnasium-auditorium, club and craft rooms, kitchen 
and rest rooms, (b) outdoor swimming pool with lockers 
and showers, (c) lighted hard surface play areas for 
tennis, basketball and volleyball, idi lighted baseball and 
Softball fields with bleachers, (e) automobile parking 
areas; the preparation of a detailed plan of public recrea- 
tion development; an increase in ihe operating budget: 
full departmental status of the parks and recreation de- 
partment; reactivation of the parks and recreation board; 
(he hiring of full-time personnel to staff centers and plav- 
grounds; giving due regard to cultural pursuits within the 
recreation program: the development of facilities to 
equally the needs of Negro, I-atin \meiican and Anglo 
i.--ident-: maximum use of existing school f.n ihiie-: tin- 
acquiring of new playgrounds adj.ic cut to new school sites; 

the development of scenic p.irkw.iv-: the development of 
park anil p.nkway acreage around the proposed -MM Ja- 
i into Ifiver dam and ic-ervoir: cooperation with othei unil- to develop a metropolitan park s\-lem 
within a radius of ten to tvvenlv -five mile- of Houston to 
provide large reservations for camping, hiking, n.itm. 
-ludv. pniiio. hoating and fishing. 

This report if the work of four hundred , ih/.-n-. bring- 
ing to more than n half million fellow resident- ihe facts 
about thrir nwn cmmimit\. Thi- comimmitv council be- 
lieve, when Voii let folk- know vvh;il i- needed. ihev will 

' It I- done 

III.) HI Ml. IN 

An Address* 

America Alerts 
i (er Senior Citizens 

Charles E. Reed 

THE EXTENT TO which the public 
concern is now centered on our 
senior citizens, and the rapidity with 
which it has spread within the past 
half decade, is little short of phenome- 
nal. Probably no age group has aroused 
as much nationwide attention within so 
brief a period. Some of the manifesta- 
tions of this interest and the basic 
factors that prompt them have real 
significance for professional recreation 

First, the rapid increase of older 
population in relation to our national 
problem of leisure time arrests atten- 
tion immediately. The recent report 
of the Bureau of the Census for the past 
decade showed that the nation's popu- 
lation of citizens sixty-five years of 
age and over in 1940 was nine million. 
By July 1950, the number within this 
group had increased to eleven million 
six hundred thousand. Some authori- 
ties estimate that by 1960 it will be 
fifteen million and by 1976 possibly 
twenty million. Actuarial calculations 
show the average length of life in 1850 
was forty years; in 1900 forty-nine 
years; and in 1950, sixty-seven years. 
It is expected by 1960 there will be 
thirty-five million people in the United 
States who have passed the forty-five 
year mark. For recreation planners 
and administrators this means that by 
another decade approximately one- 

Hi'lurn-cl li\ Mr. Reed at Southern Con- 
frrriin- on (HTontoIogy. University of Flori- 
'U. <;aini--\illr. January 1952. 

MAY 1952 

fourth of the potential participants in 
their community programs will be 
older adults. In his thought-provoking 
book entitled, "The Best Years," 
Walter B. Pitkin, earlier known as 
the author of "Life Begins at Forty," 
recounts the phenomenal scientific 
achievements which are contributing 
to prolonged life, and more important, 
the new opportunities that can make 
these added years more fruitful and 

Another factor of real significance 
and promise for the future is the 
change in the public attitude toward 
the aging and their problems. No 
longer do we hold that people get 
only what they deserve and that it is 
their own fault if they cannot care 
for themselves. We now know that 
economic security will not enable older 
people to solve all their problems. Our 
present day social consciousness rec- 
ognizes that older persons are more 
frustrated and more discouraged than 
they have ever been before, because 
they are without enough interesting 
things to do and lack status in their 
families and in their communities. 

At the National Recreation Congress 
in 1948, Dr. William C. Menninger, 
the well known psychiatrist, stated, 
"In civilian life every physician, both 
knowingly and unknowingly, treats pa- 
tients who are emotionally ill. It is 
estimated that fifty per cent of all 
patients who consult all physicians, 
general practitioners and specialists, 
become ill from the stress and strain 

of life on their personalities rather 
than from invasion of bacteria, injury 
or cancer. 

"Recreation has not only played an 
important part in the treatment pro- 
gram of many mental illnesses, but 
it has been a considerable factor in 
enabling former patients to remain 

"It is my firm conviction that if 
we could encourage and watch and 
guide more people to more effective 
recreative activity, we could and would 
make a major contribution to our na- 
tional and international peace of 

In his book, "The Second Forty 
Years," Dr. Edward J. Steiglitz says 
"Success or failure in the second forty 
years, measured in terms of happiness, 
is determined more by how we use 
our leisure time than by any other 

The National Conference on Aging 
held at the request of the President 
in Washington during 1950, gave 
prominent recognition nationally to the 
various problems of this age group. 
Health, education, recreation, hous- 
ing, employment and community or- 
ganization were important considera- 
tions. A special section on recreation 
brought together about eighty indi- 
viduals representing rural and urban 
areas, local, state and federal govern- 
ment agencies, well known private 
agencies, churches, labor, industry and 
a number of other community groups. 

Prior to this national gathering, 


there had been a number of commis- 
sions and committees, sonic federal, 
some state, which dealt with segment* 
of the overall problem. such .1- mental 
hygiene rad employment. Mre recent 
steps by a number of states have spe- 
cial significance just now. In I'M,. 
New York State set up a Joint Legis- 
l.iti\e Committee on Problems of the 
Aging, to study and develop a com- 
prehensive plan for attacking these 
problems, including recreation. North 
Carolina soon established a legisla- 
tive committee to work along similar 
inn-,. Illinois and Michigan created 
governors' committees on the aging, 
the latter in Florida launched 
a program through the Stale Improve- 
ment Commission. By unanimous vote 
of both houses, Wisconsin last \.-.H 
directed a joint legislative council 
l<> -imlv all problems of the aging, 
including recreation, and voted an 
appropriation In meet tin- co,|. Rhode 
Island established in 1950 a legisla- 
tive committee l<> -I Hi I \ discrimination 
against older workers in imluslry, and 
Connecticut created a stale commission 
on care of the chronicallv ill. aged 
and infirm, which is oriented mainly 
though not CM lusivelv on the medical 
mid rehabilitation aspects of the aged. 
The special governors' conferences on 
problems of the aging held in Califor- 
nia and in North Carolina, both in 
I ''.I I. gave prominent attention to n- ( 

n. In I Tin. the Ohio Citi/en- 
Council for Health and Welfare, in 
cooperation with the Mate department 
of public welfare, issued its report 
of a study of recreation for Ohio's old 

N.ile .mil local departments of pub- 
lic welfare are im r.-.i,mgl\ active in 
promoting re. i. .il i.,n a- ,i in. ..f 
i>-li.iliililating and keeping .,- m ..| . iti 
ten* out of mental hospitals. \ full- 
lime coriMillanl mi older age recrea- 
tion group, ha- |.i-.-ii working out of 
the department of -... ..-. urilv in 
the Male of Washington foi the |MH| 
Iwo vcarv Hi- re.pon.ibihlv is to 
cm mir.ige the- establishment of older 

ulis under lh> -hip of |o- 

r\ recreation department, < 
iniiiiilv -rvicc group,. lhi sei\iie 

Was inilinted I'V the department "f 

o< inl -.-, univ partialK an an 

niv IITII, ..( of iiieiln .1 

which the state was subsidizing for 

many older age persons was extremelv 
high. There was ample evidence to in- 
dicate that some of this illness ,i, M ,,t 
phvsical but the result of feelings of 
loneliness and rejection. A sound rec- 
reation program for this age group 
wa found to be a positive factor in 
reducing the need for medical care. 
The state division of social welfare 
of Minnesota has employed an occu- 
pationalist to introduce leisure time 
activities in homes for the aged. State 
park, conservation and recreation bod- 
ies, responsible for planning state 
parks and forest areas for public use, 
are giving more consideration to dis- 
tances between parking sites and rec- 
reation attractions to accommodate the 
phvsical limitations of senior citizens. 
I'lanners of local school structures 
should include suitable indoor rccn-.i- 
lion facilities for this group, especially 
hohhv and quiet game rooms. 

Doling the past three or four \>MI- 
in particular, the recreation needs ..f 
ihis group have had a prominent place 
in the programs of many state recrea- 
tion conferences, the vearlv district 
conferences of the National Recreation 
Association and in the annual meetings 
of the National Recreation C.mui.---. 
In the last decade a considerable num- 
ber of articles on recreation for the 
aging appealed ill the maga/.ine l!l'- 

Much of tin- interest and initiative 
ami planning for the recreation need, 
of the nation's senior citizens have 
also come from private agencies and 
groups. In November P'.~>U. Communi- 
tv Ch.-,|, and Councils of \mcin.i 
--ill a i|iiestjonnaire. on local conimu- 
nilv planning to meet the needs of the 
aging, to each of it, four hundred and 
(iflv member council,. Of the one hull- 
died and i\tv-foiir replies, eightv- 
tine.- i "HIM i|, reported local commit- 
"iking on some .i-|... I ..f the 
problem. Uv far the largest number 
>.f conimunilie, u.i. ionicme.1 wilh 

I', le.lliiiu. 

Forward looking ediical"i- have also 
I loncern. Formal i onidei.ilion 
of the ,|||.|ci I w,i In, I given bv the 
National Idmalioii \-o,ialion in 
I 1 ' l'> when il Commit dm a 

lion foi \n \ging Population met and 
urged all adult education agcm ic !.. 

work toward the following objectives: 

1. Revision of the attitudes of all 
communitv groups in order to achieve 
recognition of the usefulness, the 
dignitv and the needs of older people. 

2. Creation of educational activitic, 
that will prepare all people for the 
second half of life and that will meet 
their needs as alert, functioning mem- 
bers of socielv. 

3. Re-training older workers for 
employment in occupations suited to 
their changing capacities and for 
eventual retirement. 

4. Giving professional workers in 
all fields the new knowledge they need 
for successful work with older people. 

A noteworthy recreational-educa- 
tional experiment in the form of a 
course for older |x-op|e. designed to 
a,-i,| them in making adjustment, to 
old age, was conducted in 1948 by 
the t'niversitv of Michigan Fxtension 
Service and the Institute for Human 
Adjustment. From il grew the Ann 

Kumilv croup tout'llicr. weaving reccK in 
recreation priiurain of I. OUR Brach. Calif. 

\rboi |>i"L!i.iin of activities for old- 
,|.-i> of the communilv. Participation 
in the coiii>e and in the communilv 
program thai ic,nllcd wa. and still 
i,. bv the senior cili/cn- themselves. 

The stake of the church in lhi na 
tional problem i, high becaii-e those 
of older age have an increased sen..- 
of the importance of spiritual values. 

Tin- National Council of Churches of 
t hiisi in \mcriia carries on a train- 
ing program for pastors and pan,|i 
workets |o help them wilh the health. 
.lion and spiritual needs of 
church mcndx-rs. racihli.-, and pro- 
giam- in i him li-spon-Mied ,ocial and 

.1 il i enter, aie Ix-ing prov id- 

ed in. rcasinglv bv all of the leading 
religion, faiths. 

'I In- pn-sciil leni) f icliiemcnl and 

00 -v.lein. involving ihnus.ind- 


Kl . Ill \ I IIIN 

of employees has stimulated a number 
of business and industrial companies 
to formulate plans designed to help 
workers to make their "graduation" 
from active employment a satisfying 
experience. These concerns see the 
great importance of their recreation 

The prevailing method is a counsel- 
ing or interviewing plan with guidance 
on how the employee can best serve 
himself, his family and his community. 
The Esso Standard Oil Company pro- 
vides an excellent plan of counseling 
and help by conducting a seminar or 
discussion group for its employees 
to be retired. The group discussions, 
carried on by small groups of people 
(ten to fifteen), last about one hour 
each, and are held at various times. 
A series of five meetings is held for 
the group, whose retirement is about 
one year off. 

The objectives of the program are: 

1. To give each person in the group 
an understanding of the problems he 
is apt to face when he retires. 

2. To stimulate organized thinking 
toward suitable post-retirement inter- 
ests and activities. 

3. To generate some action on plans 
before actual retirement. 

The General Electric Company, 
Bridgeport, Connecticut, starts its pro- 
gram for persons to be retired five 
years in advance of the retirement 
date. The personnel manager discusses 
with the employee what he plans to do 
when he retires. If he plans an ac- 
tive retirement, a physical examina- 
tion is given. If the worker plans to 
set up a business, the employee is 
given advice on the many problems 
connected with the conduct of a busi- 
ness. Following his retirement, com- 
pany representatives visit the retired 
employee periodically to see how he 
is progressing. Similar counseling and 
guidance plans are functioning in 
the Ford Company, General Motors 
Corporation. Bell Telephone Company 
and probably some others. 

In other concerns, the employee 
about to be retired is encouraged to 
join one of the hobby groups of the 
company's employee recreation pro- 
gram or to acquire a hobby having 
a carry-over value. 

Generally recognized, too, is the 

MAY 1952 

active interest of the major labor 
groups of the country, not only in 
the extension of pension and retire- 
ment privileges for employees but, 
also, in the provision of recreation 
and other community services that 
will help working people to face the 
older years with confidence and antici- 

It was the original intention to 
enumerate in this review the commu- 
nities over the country which now 
have functioning clubs, daytime cen- 
ters and other types of noteworthy pro- 
grams of recreation for senior citizens. 
So great is the number, however, it 
has seemed better, within the limita- 
tions imposed, to highlight some of the 
varieties of sponsorship and organiza- 
tion which may suggest present trends 
and the prospects of further progress. 
According to the Recreation and Park 
Yearbook, issued this year by the Na- 
tional Recreation Association, three 
hundred and ninety-two cities of the 
total of two thousand two hundred re- 
porting, indicated they were providing 
recreation activities for older persons. 
One hundred ninety-one of these re- 
ported ninety-four thousand seven 
hundred and three participants of this 
age group. These represent public 
agency sponsors of large cities, me- 
dium sized and small communities and 
counties. This number does not in- 
clude the many similar programs op- 
erated by private organizations. The 
annual reports of the field staff of the 
National Recreation Association for 
the year just closed, uniformly testify 
to the popularity and success of these 
programs and to the considerable num- 
ber of new programs started during 
the year by municipal recreation au- 
thorities throughout the country. Most 
of these are club programs. Some 
were started among older pensioners, 
and these have not seemed to attract 
many outside of this group, although 
membership is open. This has raised 
the question of the advisability of 
starting in this way. As with other 
age ranges, grouping by ages is not 
considered by many to be the sole and 
complete solution to recreation needs. 
Oldsters, they say, like to be among 
younger persons, to watch children 
play, and to participate in activities 
that they enjoy purely on the basis 

Purposeful activity gives oldsters feeling 
of usefulness, and fly-tying is just that. 

of personal interest or skill. In Mem- 
phis and elsewhere, older citizens 
square dance with other age groups 
and participate in the community sings 
and family night programs of the pub- 
lic recreation department. There is 
an obvious tendency, as with teen 
centers which started as separate units, 
for more older age club activities to 
become a part of the public recreation 
department's regular programs, con- 
ducted at regular neighborhood cen- 

Since 1941, when the public recrea- 
tion department of Milwaukee organ- 
ized its first club for oldsters, the 
number has grown to thirty-three. The 
membership is now more than fifteen 
hundred men and women. All but four 
of the clubs meet weekly in the social 
centers of the recreation department. 
One full-time recreation director and 
two full-time instructors devote them- 
selves to the promotion, organization 
and supervision of these programs. 
Much of the original interest and ini- 
tiative came from local welfare 
agencies and civic groups. Other lead- 
ers point to the desire of this age 
group, also, to want and need associa- 
tion with those of like age who under- 
stand their problems and can give 
them the kind of social recognition and 
satisfaction that they crave. The unor- 
ganized active and passive recreation 
opportunities afforded by public parks, 
playgrounds and school facilities con- 
stitute a substantial contribution to 
the recreation and enjoyment of senior 



Not to be overlooked, too, are the 
important contributions of pioneering 
private agencies, such as the clubs 
for oldsters in Philadelphia, the day 
.enter- f"i aged in New iork. home 
v i-itation services or others, all of 
which gave national impetus to the 
urtit. Si-lf initiated and operated 
-orial and recreational organizations 
li\ old-ter- themselves have arisen and 
prospered. One of interest, for men. 
is the Old Guard, which was estab- 
lished in Summit. New Jersey in 1930 
and now has twenty-three chapters in 
eight states. 

Beginnings have been made by a 
limited number of public and private 
agencies to provide visitation and rec- 
reation services to shut-ins and the 
home-bound. It is reported that nearly 
eighty percent of our senior citizens 
live in their own establishments and 
that one fourth of the persons re- 
reiving old age assistance in Cook 
< I'linty, Chicago, cannot get out of 
llirir homes. This needy group oilers 
I., recreation agencies unlimited op- 
portunities for servirc. 

It has been well said that "to know 
how to grow old is the master work 
of wisdom, and one of the most diffi- 
cult chapters in the great art of liv- 
ing." Much work lies ahead to bring 
about tlie u-eful and important chang- 
es that will give older people the vital 
place in modern life which they de- 
serve and of which they are capable. 
1 1 will take research in a number of 
areas, not the least essential aspect 
of which i- in the field of recreation. 
What can older people d..' \\hat do 
thcv want to do? What opportunilie- 
for recreation are available to them.' 
! what kind- of recreational arlivi- 
ties and interests do the\ m-t . .,-. iK 
,d? What l\|K-5 of comnmnitv 
participation will give them -tain- 
.inil new i oiifidcm -I-'.' Limited but sig- 
nificant ,in-' .in.- of these 
M. -ii'.n- arc already at hand in the 
remarkable annual hol>b\ how f..i 
older people in Washington. lU . 
Chicai: ... V \% 'l ..rk and Cleveland, 
which has had its fifth: camping pro 
grams for senior citizen* which have 
been provided bv thr public and pri- 
vate agencies cooperating in Durham. 
North Carolina. Chicago and |*-rhap 

a few other cities: and the Confer- 
ence of Older People sponsored by 
the Chicago Recreation Commission in 
which (ifl\ per cent of the planning 
committee rcprescnteil older age 
group-. Nowhere have we tapped the 
great resources for leadership among 
-enior adult- themsclve-. 

The high level objective of the rec- 
reation program for America's senior 
cili/cn- was voiced at the recent meet- 
ing of the National Recreation Con- 
gress. It held that the recreation move- 
ment can do much to emphasize the 
idea of older people continuing to con- 
tribute to society rather than society 
taking care of them: and that recre- 
ation for older people should convince 
them they are needed and ir-perted 
by the members of the community, in 
the help they give to make the com- 
munity a better place in which to 


The way Richmond, Virginia, ap- 
proached the recreation problem of its 
aged citizens, to cite one city of moder- 
ate -ize. suggests a constructive pro- 
cedure which the responsible public 
and private recreation agencies of any 
community may well follow. Last year 
this city made a study of recreation 
for people sixty years of age and over. 
The report on home visits made as 
u part of the study shows "that about 
half of the older persons interviewed 
say that they generally have nothing 
to do all day." Of nineteen general 
medical practitioners who replied to a 
questionnaire, fifteen said the men 
and women over sixty in their practii .- 
U lonelv and have too much leisure. 
Kightecn c>f them said a handbook of 

ition and leisure time scrv n c- 
"iild be helpful to them in their pi.i' 
tiic. \ccordingly. the committee on 

iti. .n which made the r. 
ommended "that the department of 

ilion and park- a ign a staff 
worker, not onlv to develop depart- 
ment program- for tin- aged in both 
and white coinmiinitic-. but 

al-o I" .I--1-I tin- chnrclie-. the home- 

f..r the aged and other cominuiiilv 

gionp. 111 the development of the-c lei- 

iime activities." It ie< onimcinlr.l 
,ilo that the lit. Inn. .ml area communi- 

l\ i oiiiii d provide a hnndl k 01 

on- and faciliti. 
Hi. Imioiid available to lhoe -i\l\ 

Milwaukee Cnlclon AKITI meet weekly in 
local centers and take their c-liesx 

veai- of age and over, for use by 
doctor-, nurses, ministers, social work- 
ers and others who work with this 
age group: also, that all local organ- 
i/.iiions which use volunteers give 
Consideration to fuller use of retired 
people as volunteers. Too. students of 

ich in recreation, as well as ad- 
ministrators and other recreation 
workers will profit bv the result- of 
current -Indies of -lull problem- as 
housing, health, education and cm- 
|)lo\ nii-iil of the aged. Many valuable 1 
nil project- in thc-c field- have 
been made and others will be undei 
taken bv well-known foundation-, edu- 
cational in-titiitions. governmental and 
private agencies and other profe ional 
group-, -in li .1- the \nierican I'-vchi- 
atric Association, the \meriean I'-v- 
chological \-ociation. tin- ( ieriatric 
>o< ietv arid the ( terontologieal Societv 
organized in 1944. 

It is recognized that no substantial 
improvement of -civ ice- for older peo- 
ple can be achieved if the i ommunitv 
doc- not miiler-land their needs and 
\\i-li to meet them. The obligation 
of lav -iippoiled ie. iration ag-iu ic- 

vc all age groups in the com- 
munilv ha- long -ince lccn accepted, 
al lea-l in principle. Recreation -hoiild 
lc one of the vcrv vital fmce- to alert 

..III -Clllol i Ill/en- t|iein-e|ve. 8 Well 

immiiiilv leader- generallv. to 

a realization of their abilitic-. their 

capacitv for ...nimuing growth and 

i- fulness as well as |>ers<nal 



111 III VIH'N 


National Recreation Congress 
September 29 - October 3 

By the time this issue of RECREATION appears, the out- 
line of the program for the 1952 National Recreation 
Congress will have been published. If your copy has not 
yet reached you, be sure to let the Congress Committee 
know, and it will be sent to you immediately. Address the 
committee at 315 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, New York. 

The Congress will open in Seattle on Monday morning, 
September 29, with sessions for chief executives of recrea- 
tion programs, for recreation supervisors, for those in- 
terested in recreation in rural areas, recreation for indus- 
trial and business employees, and recreation for those 
in hospitals. New this year will be a session for playground 
directors, in answer to popular demand for a special meet- 
ing for this important group, more and more of whom 
are attending the Congress each year. 

Another innovation this year will be a special meeting 
on Monday for the wives of recreation workers. The 1951 
Congress at Boston gave special recognition to wives by 
means of the "Certificate for Wives," which proved so 
popular that the limited supply went very quickly. This 
year plans are being made for the wives to have a meeting 
of their own to get acquainted and to discuss the possi- 
bilities of their week in Seattle and to make plans. Results 
of this meeting will be watched by the Congress Committee, 
and by husbands, with a great deal of interest. 

Preparations for the Congress are always two-way the 
Congress committees work hard to develop the best possi- 
ble program, and the delegates have to do their planning 
for getting to the Congress. This year the recreation leaders 
in the Pacific Northwest, who have so loyally attended 
congresses in every other section of the country for many- 
years, are having somewhat the better of the planning. 
Leaders in other sections of the country must make an 
extra effort in order to attend. 

MAY 1952 

But the additional planning will be well worth the effort. 
The trip itself is one which many people dream of taking 
some day. Many a delegate is making it this year as part 
of his vacation and in the company of his family. Inci- 
dentally, valuable help in planning this trip can be obtained 
from. the new Summer Vacations U.S.A.* which carries 
information on the various interesting routes into Seattle, 
maps, a listing of special events throughout the country, 
travel tips and facts not generally known about visiting 
state and national parks. 

The surpassing beauties of the Seattle environs cannot 
be exaggerated. And the recreation programs of Seattle, 
King County and the state of Washington are well worth 
a visit and study. The extra effort made in getting to the 
Seattle Congress, on the part of those some distance away, 
will be repaid many times over in experiences which will 
be remembered for years. 

The program is being planned this year to be of the 
most possible help to all kinds of recreation leaders from 
board and commission members to playground workers, 
from executives to volunteers, from veterans to students. 

Special attention is being given to such subjects as the 
problems of smaller cities, particularly appropriate this 
year; finances, always appropriate; problems of parks; 
resources for water recreation; regional recreation plan- 
ning; family recreation; community centers. In addition 
there will be meetings on public relations, pet ideas, ath- 
letics, camping, church recreation, volunteers, research, 
surfacing, national defense implications and many other 
subjects. (For the full list see the program outline.) Several 
general addresses already have been scheduled, and next 
month's RECREATION will carry a fuller statement about 
this aspect of the Congress program. 

An important function of the Congress is annual re- 
newal of inspiration for the important work for which rec- 
reation leaders are responsible. The messages of the general 
speakers bring a lift, an increased enthusiasm to take home 
and use in making our work more effective. More and 
more recreation leaders 'are seeing the importance of at- 
tending the Congress each year. New trends and develop- 
ments, which occur during each twelve months, are re- 
viewed. Young and old recreation workers periodically 
need renewal of spirit and of dedication. Board and staff 
members have a chance to rotate from year to year, so 
that eventually all will have had the opportunity to attend 
the Congress. 

It will assist the Congress Committee considerably if 
you will let them know whether or not you will be able 
to attend the Seattle meeting. A post card will suffice, and 
it will be sincerely appreciated. 

Next Month 

RECREATION will carry next month a complete outline of 
the Congress program and pictures of many of the Seattle, 
King County and state of Washington recreation leaders 
who are doing so much to make the 1952 Congress one 
of the finest ever held. 

* Published by the National Recreation Association, April 1952. 
Order through your local hook store. One dollar. 





just having jun . . . In memory of a man 
who believed in play for everyone. 


THE ANNUAL CELEBRATION OF JOSEPH LEE DAY, On the last Friday of July, on mam o[ 

America's playgrounds ranks second only to the Fourth of July. Remembered as " I he 
("(father of Play," Mr. Lee began in 1894 his lifetime work of establishing playground?* 
and fostering play, for children and adults, when, as a young lawyer in Boston, he was 
shocked to witness the arrest of some boys for playing in the streets. In order to do 
justice to this day, start planning now. 

In Readers Digest for December, 1937, Susan Lee wrote: "Don't let my father prow 
into a department store Santa Glaus, with nothing but a white beard and a reputation 
fin U-nevolence to recommend him, or yet into a cherry tree type of childish hero. He 
liked people who were 'fierce' or 'sassy,' pictures and dances that had 'zip' and joke- that 
caught you under the fifth rib and woke you up laughing in the middle of the night. 
I have never known anybody farther from the traditional stereotype of the 'dear old 
pcntleman.' One of my father's favorite e\pic ion> about a speech, conversation and 
ilu likr, was 'a song and dance.' It seems to me somehow symbolic of his altitude 
toward life." 

IN l''.)l. MVM < INKS carried out ef- 
feihve memorial celebrations -aoine 
f..i mil- bin '' ilx - ""i" 1 ' through week- 
lng programs. Tin- "I'lavpround 
Founder mill Donor's Week" program 
r minion. < iimiri li< lit. was one of 
tin- oio. t incccuful, receiving *%nli- 
recognition in the newpapcr in that 
- mi Imlcd a junior Olympic 
track inert for bov* and girls, carni- 
n wheel.* parade with awards, 
-tn telling. iil\ I.IIM! roneert, Ilink 
hli derbv. wdd wrt play day 
and an amateur hour 'nlrM. l,ocal 


donors of recreation areas and other 
gifts in support of playgrounds re- 
ceived special honors. Recreation Di- 
re, lor (iarl Koxenski was esjM-i iallv 
proud of an unsolicited editorial which 
appeared in the August '>. l'."il. Wa- 
Irrliitri Snntlin Rrjuililii-iin. which 
-.ii.l in part: "Torringtoii's . . . pro- 
grams have IM-I-II vti-ll )il.iniii-il and 
well carried out . . . several special 
rwnt* have lirrn arranged in a man- 
ner which has attrached national rec- 

The Joseph Lee Day celebration in 

(Charleston. \Vcsl Virginia, a citywide 
program on all playgrotin<l-. developed 
into an elaborate and gala affair. 
I .i' li playground chose u llicine i 
plan of action to be carried through 
the Fiidav i clrlnation. \l one plav- 
groiinil a life-like figure of Jo-epli 
rim-lriiclrd li\ the <-)iildren and lead- 
ers, greeted visitor?- at the pate. I'.nli 
i ip.inl- v\nii- (,.i\ 'n' i n>,|iiiiii-. cvi-n 
-|Hilinp bustles or handle bar nnis- 
I. it tir-s. Aiintlier adopted tin- "Spirit 
of I'l.iv" theme, and included an "Old 
Folks Corner" to extend a welcome 


to visitors from eight to eighty. Other 
playground themes were "Alice in 
Wonderland;" "Carnival Spirit;" 
"Progressive Party," featuring relay- 
races and competitive contests; a fairy- 
land, decorated with bright balloons 
and crepe paper; a circus, with side 
shows, dancers and barkers; and in 
many places one found peep shows, 
folk games, dances, contests and com- 
munity singing. Several picnics we-re 

It is not easy to plan special events 
which are different, and though the 
following activities are not new, they 
may give leaders a few ideas for which 
they can develop a new twist. 

Joseph Lee Mask Contest 

Use the old paper bag mask stunt, 1 
and hold a "portrait" contest to see 
who can most nearly reproduce a 
Joseph Lee likeness. 


There are many ways in which stilts 
can add to the fun with stilt races 
for experts, beginners' contests for 
those who have never before been on 
stilts, for circus "giants." A lorog- 
range project might combine arts and 
crafts with playground stunts by giv- 
ing awards for the best looking and/or 
best constructed pair of stilts made in 
the workshop.- 


Although it might grow into too 
elaborate an affair, one way to bring 
parents into the spirit of Joseph Lee 
Day would be to enlist their aid and 
participation in a full-fledged parade, 
from a chosen starting point, through 
the streets to the playground. This 
would make the whole town part of 
the celebration, as such an undertaking 
would entail police permission and 
supervision, and merchants might con- 
tribute toward floats developed on cars 

Boston's Mayor John B. Hynes holding a copy of the late Joseph Lee's monumental 
work, "Play in Education." In the fall of 1950, he accepted, on behalf of the city's 
recreation board, what was probably the first library on recreation in America, ac- 
cumulated by Mr. Lee, NRA founder, "Father of American Playground." Presentation 
was made by President Mayo Adams Shattuck (r.), Massachusetts Civic League, also 
founded by Mr. Lee. Books are authoritative, by pioneers of recreation movement. 

and small trucks, not to mention the 
crowds who always "love a parade." 
Story book or sports themes can pro- 
vide endless ideas for floats/' 

Friendly Nations Picnic 

Come in costumes of other lands, 
and plan picnic food of native delica- 
cies of the land chosen. It could be 
arranged to have different groups 
choose certain countries and give 
prizes for the cleverest costumes and 
most authentic foods. This lends it- 
self to whole-family participation. Aft- 
er the picnic there might be a series of 
"acts" in which each group would 
demonstrate, for the others to watch, 

l'..|)cr Bag Masks, M.B. 510. 
2 Stills (building instructions), M.B. 1138. 

MAY 1952 

"So You're Planning a Parade (float con- 
struction on cars), F 14. 
Other Provocative Bulletins: 

Novelty Games for Your Track Meet, F 16. 

A Chinese Picnic, M.B. 1993. 

A Model Parachute Contest, M.B. 1591. 

Order from Bulletin Service, National Rec- 
reation Association, 315 Fourth Avenue, New 
York 10. All bulletins ten cents each. 

games and dances of "their" country. 

Any number of variations could be 
developed on this idea a historical 
periods picnic, fairy tales picnic, oc- 
cupations picnic (farmers, fishermen, 
woodsmen, ranchers, and so forth). 
In many cases costumes could be in- 
dicated simply, such as overalls and 
bandana for a farmer, and thus entail 
no extra cost or effort for mothers. 

Once you begin to explore ideas 
already used by others, original stunts 
begin to form in your own mind. By 
trying to celebrate Joseph Lee Day 
in a "more fun than usual" manner, 
you'll find yourself and your groups 
doing some creative thinking. That is 
the kind of living memorial with which 
Mr. Lee himself would be most pleased. 

"Play is synonymous with growth. The 
child . . . follows the ball each day into 
the unexplored regions of potential 
character, and comes back each evening 
a larger moral being." Joseph Lee 


llov ami 4pirl Anglers 

I Islll I!\M)MI N I islnni: inlni;iir Ihrrr wrimis 
l>.iiln i|i.mi- in rixlm ni spoils. mil t>\ in ii .ilinn 
.. .mini, M.. ii in. I wildlife (liiti in llnL..i* N < 


YOUNGSTERS, fishing poles, lures, bait, excited cries of 
"I pot a hite!", sudden dunkings, proud fathers, sun- 
liurncd noses and ravenous appetites mix all this with 
fresh air and fun and you ha\e tin- ingredients for the 
growing following of small fry fishing derhies. 

Tin- nuinlier of i hildren olliciully participating in super- 
vised fishing reached the four million mark in I').T!. All 
over the United States, more and more reereation depart- 
ments ;ire spon-oi ing fishing derliies. Tom >aw\ei and 
Becky Thatcher costume contests, and dad anil son (or 
(laughter l nuting-. 

In Milwaukee l.i-i \ear the department of municipal 
in reation conducted its fust fishing trip for l>o\s and theii 
fathers. "The expedition went fifl\-!i\e miles to Kettle 
Motaiin- Slate Kme-i. at a round trip cost of sl.lo per 
per-on. The n-i ii-alion chili leader- hail dc\ eloped ihis 
projei I at i lull nir.-linr- illi di- u--ii'ii on li-hing pai.i- 
pln i n.di.i. the kind- of h-li and distin^iiislmg marks and 
-liapi--. fei-ilini; lialiit- of fi-h. lm\\ to hail a hook. ln. 
lo pi, -p. HI- .1 li-li. -,ifel\ fail.'is and :j..,.d -pmt-man-llip. 
"llo\- wi-ie in-lnii led In hring a jointed cane pole <n 
li-liin^- i. nl. li-h line and curk. -nellcd j:ul hook-, garden 
worm- in night <ia\\li-i-. a fi-h -Iringer. old i loth 
and III|I|M-I. The li-li that were hiting at ihi- lime wiir 
lilmgill-. i lappies and luillhead-. l.aih l"i\ wa- ti-.|iiin-d 
to -iilniiil a -ignrd parental peimi ion -lip for ihe liip. 
Tin- l.ii- in. nli pi. kup- al eight in tin- mornng and relumed 
all IMIV- lo thi-ir homr- li\ -i\ in the evening. 

"III. i, .i- .1 ^,.,,il n-pii--i-nl.ilioii of fathers on the trip, 
hilt llir award- fm ihc hra\ n-l li-li and the |onge-l li-li 
wi-lr Won |i\ ihi- l'\. \lllong llir i-\pelieliri'- -ll.ind 

were I'Uldoi.r king, tangled fish line-, wet fret and a 

d.i\ ..f h.ipp\ i iiiiip.inionslnp with ihi-ir dad-. 


GOOD CATCH. Two proud Alondra Park fisher- 
men display fish on Huck Finn Day, Los Angeles. 

BIG CITY FISHERMEN. Believe it or not, this is scene in Brooklyn's 
Prospect Park, where youthful anglers gathered for a fishing contest. 

One recreation leader received proof of the success of 
the venture when he later encountered a father who asked. 
"When do we go on the next fishing trip? My son and 
I had a wonderful time and he still talks about it." 1 

Out in Los Angeles, California, the idea of a vacation 
fishing project for children, last summer, "originated with 
the sportsman fathers who belonged to rod and reel clubs; 
and, tri-sponsored by the Los Angeles recreation and 
park commission, the California state fish and game com- 
mission, and the Los Angeles Junior Chamber of Com- 
merce, thousands of boys and girls had the opportunity 
of whipping the waters of three city park lakes. Echo, 
Reseda and Lincoln Park city lakes were chosen because 
all have shallow water near the shore. There were various 
rules: no bathing suits, thus removing the temptation to 
slip into the water for a swim, no fishing from docks or 
boats, and no overhead casting because of the danger 
from flying hooks. Conspicuously posted signs on the 
trunks of palm trees gave the rules. 

"On opening day, approximately fifteen hundred chil- 
dren packed themselves along the shore of Echo Park 
Lake to catch the bluegill, catfish and carp with which 
the water had been previously stocked. They were equipped 
with gear ranging from mop handles which dangled bent 
pins from a length of cordstring, to dad's super-fancy 
fly rod. double-tapered line and automatic reel. And to 
say that the fish were surprised would be the under-state- 
ment of the year. Never in all their citified existence had 
they beheld such a bewildering choice of bait: dough, sal- 
mon eggs, bugs, worms, grasshoppers, bits of salami, 
chunks of raw liver and they turned up their noses at all 
of them. But bread? What city park fish hasn't snapped at 

bread cast upon the waters by picnickers? And, with no 
competition from the skeptical ducks, the fish swallowed 
the bread, and alas! also the hook ..." 

Regular police and lifeguard patrols kept a watchful 
eye on the youngsters, to pull a few from the water when 
a careless step too near the edge resulted in a wet tumble, 
or to bandage the minor scratches and bruises which were 
the day's only casualties. The catches ranged from strings 
of carp to a tiny goldfish, and rewards came mainly in 
the fun of the fishing and praise from mothers who 
brought picnic lunches. 

Sponsored by service clubs and civic groups, city fish- 
ing for youngsters has become the top junior sports- 
participation event of the country. Since holding the first 
of the Boy and Girl National Better Fishing programs in 
1948. the officials of Better Fishing. Incorporated a not- 
for-profit Illinois membership corporation with national 
headquarters in Chicago (See RECREATION, September 
1950, page 214.) report that at least ten million boys 
and girls have enjoyed guided fishing fun. Annual muni- 
cipal champion boy and girl anglers are chosen to be 
junior national Better Fishing kings and queens by reason 
of having hooked and landed, without physical assistance 
from an adult, the heaviest game fish from representative 
sport fish families. 

One purpose of this program is to raise a whole genera- 
tion of wildlife conservationists, who, as adults, will 
desire and demand preservation of our wildlife resources. 
But the immediate purpose being served is that millions 
of boys and girls are getting a chance to understand and 
practice an outdoor sport which offers inherent qualities 
of challenge, peace and patience, amid beautiful natural 

' Excerpts from article by 1). li. Dyer, Assistant Superintendent, Ki < 
reation and AHult Education, Milwaukee Public Schools. 

MAY 1952 

~ Excerpts from article by Charlotte B. Norris, Los Angeles, Cali- 


Public Re la tic us 

The fancy castle, where the little girl's wish was granted, was centered in a hedge of flowers. 

TMK ABOVE THREE CON) Kli\- formed 
a simple statement of recreation ob- 
!' iiu;s in Dayton. Ohio, in the spring 
<>f I Til. First of all. we wanted to 
produce a pageant with little or no 
funds. Seciind. we wished to get good 
puhliciu for tin- recreation program 
ami Letter public relations 
in the community. Third, we wiilied to 
1-iiilil participation in certain age 
l>rai kct-i and encourage volunteer as- 
-i-l.mir. Tlic \chicle chosen to ac- 
complish these nhji-clives is described 
below \<\ ihr three specialists em- 
plnM-il on the dni-ion -taff. The re- 
sult- achieied i-\i ceded l.\ far our 

fond) -I r\|n-i l.lti.,11-. 

As a climax lo tin- \'>~>l |.|.i\ jji..iiinl 
D, .1 ilv-widr -lorxlelling pageant 

"Tin- |l.-ati--l \\i-li" was presented 
-t If), at the I.csli>- Diehl Hand ^}\<-\\ in |-|aml Park. 
Many of the playground .1- ti\ itir- v\. M 
i omhincd into this one biu- production 
in order lo di-nionlr.ili- to the public 
the \.iri.-iv .Hid l\|ie of 
o|fiorliiiiilic which Keen olfen-d 
luring tin- sinnincr. 

At the lirgiiining of the pla\xri>und 
WHOIi. '|M> -IIOMII.II h-lr ilnilcil 

Mil. U M.NMI. ^iifH-nnlrnilrnl <>< 

"i. Dmliin. Ohio, n ill !> /i'1/i/M 
<//j-<M jur infnrniatinii. 


to our forty playgrounds and the di- 
rectors held try-outs for the best talent. 
After a two-week cit\-wide search, the 
leading characters and special groups 
were chosen for the production. 

A nine-week period for classes was 
scheduled by the three specialists 
in dramatics, dance and crafts. De- 
spite vacations, day camps and sum- 
mer schools, attendance was remark- 
ably good. Because the children were 
enthusiastic and the playground di- 
rectors cooperative, a great deal was 
accomplished in a relative!) short 
period of time. The director- of the 
various playground- assisted the spe- 
cialists with costumes, and taking 
charge of their groups backstage at 
ili)- dress rehearsal and the final per- 

foi iii. nice. 

'||D- llirinr was 1'iiill around the 
-l"i\ of a little girl who wandered into 
fair\l.uid. I hep- -he was panted three 
wi-hrs h\ lli)- fairs queen. The wi-hr- 
were lho-c "dearest lo IDT heart": lo 

ll-|rn lo .lolirs. |o h.l\r lot- of ),md\ 
.llnl lo |>l.l\. 

\lllsil .111(1 DillKfS 

I In- h.iUmi Junior Philharmonic 
' >D he-li.1. nii)l)-i lh)- ilir)-i lion of Mar- 

j-.ii)- Kline, a npaiiird the ilam >- 

ami main of the panloinini) with a 
\.r\ l-.nilifiil nni-i'.il IOOre> I he n- 
)if g)p)l iiin-M wa a definite awet to 

the entire performance. Among the 
works presented were: "The Four 
Swans" from the Sunn /.<;/,< llnllct 
and "Serenade for Strings." both 1>> 
Tschaikovsk\ : "Children'- Man h" l>\ 
l'nik)ifi)-(f : "(iavotte" from the opera 
Mi/tnon by Amboise Thomas: "Morn- 
ing Song" from Peer Gynl Snitr h\ 
Grieg, and man\ otln-rs. Variet\ in 
I \|D-S of music and in the manner of 
presentation helped give color to the 
|M-rfni in.inr > . The drama and susprnse. 
in return. hel|n-il effe<-li\)-l\ to popu- 
larize good music. For the childn :i i! 
il)-\i-lo|M-<l rlnllmi. created the mood 
for In-tter interpretalin. em miraged 
iR'tler concentration, taught leanmrk. 
)l)-\)-|)>ped grace, and li>-l|-d stimulate 
lh)-ir a|i|ir)-i ialion of good music. 

In creating the dam >-. it w.i- no 
I--.IM In k)-)-|> in mind the fact that 
most of tin- children were untrained. 
ise of this. an>! l-i.iu-r it was a 
n.iliM- t\|M' of production uilli 
fairies, butterflies, -iinheani-. and so 
on. )reali\e inlcrpii-liic dam )- W)-|i- 
iis)-)|. HW)-\)-I. a few children had 
had pri-M..ii- li. lining in ballet. For 
example, ih)- fnirv >|iiccn' dance, 
which was tin- onl\ -"I", "a* a lieau- 
tiflll loc dame, and wa- |-i formed b\ 
one of these children. Ml other ' 
done in groups. 

On those p|a\groiin)l- when- no 
l<l i iii Minx 

"The Dearest Wish" 

Daniel E. Wagner 

piano or phonograph was available, 
the dances had to be rehearsed to 
counts and handclaps. On others, we 
were fortunate to be located near 
a school or community center where 
facilities for accompaniment could be 
found. All dances were choreographed 
according to the age and ability of 
the children and to the types of char- 
acters they were portraying. For ex- 
ample, the elves' and gnomes' dance 
was sprightly with many jumps and 
hops, while the sunbeams' dance was 
quiet and smooth, with a stealthy feel- 
ing like the morning light as it creeps 
over the land. 

The dance groups, in order of their 
appearance, were as follows: butter 
flies and young fairies, five- and six- 
year-olds; older fairies, six- to ten- 
year-olds; elves and gnomes, fairy 
queen's court (pages, trumpeters, jest- 
ers, and ladies-in-waiting). King 
Sweetmeat and candy subjects, older 
square dance group, twelve- to four- 
teen-year-olds; younger square dance 
group, five-year-olds; folk dance and 


In presenting the dramatic side of 
the pageant, the action was kept as 
natural and creative as possible. The 
formal type of drama, with memorized 
speeches, was, of course, necessary to 
tie the whole program together and 
present the plot. The lines were taken 
from the original pageant, by Pauline 
Oak, which may be found in Silver 
Bells and Cockle Shells published by 
the National Recreation Association. 

MAY 1952 

Creative dramatics and pantomime 
were used primarily in the storytelling 
episode. Mother Goose rhymes and 
stories were narrated by the story lady, 
while the children created the appro- 
priate pantomime. The action and 
characterizations were created entirely 
by the children through their own 
ideas, feelings and imaginations, with 
the exception of a few stage directions 
to give the best effect. It was a delight- 
ful experience to see the freedom and 
enjoyment displayed in rehearsals and 
in the performance, as a result of 
using informal drama created by the 
players themselves. Instead of the 
frightened five-year-old trying to re- 
call the action she had been drilled to 
remember, it was Little Miss Muffet, 
herself, remembering all the panto- 
mime which was her creation from the 
very beginning. 

Throughout the summer, the play- 
ground leaders were instructed and en- 
couraged to use this enviable oppor- 
tunity to share the world's greatest 
treasure of stories with the children. 
In the final project, the importance of 
storytelling the oldest of all arts 
was again pointed up as a must in the 
recreation program. The main theme 
of the whole pageant was summed up 
in the story lady's final speech, "It is 
over all but the stories, which shall 
go on as long as there are children in 
the world." The story book episode 
was indeed the highlight of the pageant 
and the little girl's dearest wish come 

Adaptations of games enjoyed on the 
playgrounds were used to illustrate 

the little girl's third wish, which was 
to play. Creative dramatics were again 
used in the singing game. ''Fair Rosa." 
Other singing games used were "Looby 
Loo" and "Swinging in the Lane." 
A speaking jester introduced each new 
game group, with a short poem clev- 
erly accompanied by pantomime. 

Puppetry is increasing more and 
more in popularity, as a recreation 
activity, and therefore should not be 
overlooked on the playgrounds. How- 
ever, since puppetry is best given for 
a small audience, it was not presented 
in the pageant, but was used in con- 
nection with the publicity. As an ex- 
ample of one of the stories to be re- 
vealed in the pageant, "Hansel and 
Gretel," a marionette play, was done 
on television by a group of children. 

Two weeks before the pageant an ex- 
tensive program of publicity began. 
Three hundred and fifty posters were 
distributed about the city. Some of 
these were made by the children on the 
playgrounds, for a city-wide poster 
contest. The rest were contributed by 
a printing press in exchange for a 
small advertisement of their service 
in the corner of the poster. Other 
private concerns contributed gener- 
ously. Four television shows were giv- 
en, to interview the specialists and 
leading players and to present the 
marionette play and special groups 
who would appear in the pageant. Day- 
ton's two newspapers carried a fea- 
ture story and announcements. All four 
radio stations made spot announce- 
ments, and one did a fifteen-minute 
broadcast. Dayton's leading depart- 


... the universal comment of the 
Recreation Directors at the Nat'l 
Recreation Association Conven- 
tion in Boston . . . when they taw 
and heard ... 

Rek-O-Kut's All-Speed, Portable, 
Indoor-Outdoor Phonograph 

! because: 

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your 33Vi, 45 and 78 R.P.M. record! at their 
normal speeds, Is the enl phenoiraph avail- 
able that illewi you te play ANY record at 
ANT speed which best meeti the eiact re- 
quirements of teacher and pupil! 

By pluuini a microphone Into Input pro- 
vided the recreation director can super- 
lupoil his voice over the selection belnf 
ptayed and accent the record with personal 

\ and instructions. 

INDOORS: Powerful amplifier and speaker 
accommodates 1000 people In auditorium, 
lymnaslum, ballroom, etc. 

OUTDOORS: Simply plu| your trumpet speak- 
ers directly Into the RHYTHMASTER for use 
on athletic fields, etc. 


1 A lull ranf* M-fl 
a * r. A. lyifcm ( 

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ir COJH if ss ro iur KIK-O-KUU 

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RCK-0-KUT RNTTNMMTM will serve you faith- 
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Hi and day-out. It will pay you well to invest 
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Write fer new IISI tatalef ef MK-O-KUT 

mttrgmenti fer the eeacit.onal MM. 


3.1-19 OurrntlUd.,longllondCity,N.Y. 


nil-lit store featured a huge story book 
and storx lunik character- in a \er\ 
effective window display. 

Scenery and Costumes 

The bandshell was a natural setting 
for the -cenerx a castle upstage cen- 
li-r with a high hedge at the sides. 
In front of the hedge, clumps of 
sunflowers and hollyhocks, flowering 
vini-s. tulips and jonquils, logs and 
groups of toadstools were arranged to 
give the effect of a fairy ring for our 

The color scheme was, of course, 
worked out first and carried out in 
both scenery and costumes. The lat- 
ter were made for the most part by 
tin- iiKitlu-rs. and in some cases by 
older sisters. Some of the scenerx . 
-inh as thf castle, tin- slor\ liook. 
toadstools and the fain wings-, were 
made at playgrounds where a work- 
shop was available. All playground- 
made paper How IT-. 

Realizing that there had been im 
provision made in the budget for an 
elaborate production, every effort was 
made to economize. Some of the fram- 
ing for the castle and the garden gates 
was made from scrap lumln-r destined 
to become kindling. Some old cos- 
tume- left from past pageants were re- 
modeled, bleached and dyed the de- 
-ired colors, or used as foundations 
for crepe paper creations. The hedge 
was made of artificial gra--. borrowed 
from the cemeteries and hung over a 
chicken wire fence. The entire bill 
for the Ham. --proof crepe pa|x-r. paint, 
wallhoard. chicken wire and miscel- 
laneoii- item- came to alioiit -exenlx- 
hxe doll. ii-. Additional personal scrv- 
ii-e- co-l another -i\l\-li\e dollai-. 
making a totnl of one hundred fort\ 
dollar- in expenditures. 

The final rehearsal w.i- held at 
the h.ind-licll the da\ bef,.n- the pi-i - 
forniaiice. Din-. Im- with their grmip- 

i|\enl\ yiollp. altogelherl 

the wr-i -I. in- of lli'- -hell when- tlie\ 
HI-II- iiigned dre ing room -|u. 
\pprn\imatel\ Iwo hundred children 
(i.irtic ip.iied in the It was im- 
po ible |o |.l.i. them .ill 111 the di. -- 
ing room- in the |ia-enienl. " pace 
\s.l- mped nil III the rear nf the -hell 

fnr half of them. Chair- were placed 
in circle;, and each group wa - 

signed to a definite section, where cos- 
tumes and lunches were deposited. 
The groups, with their park director-, 
took seats in the audience and waited 
until called upon to perform. Imme- 
diately following the run-through, tin- 
entire cast ate a picnic lunch in the 
park. \t -even, everyuie returned to 
his assigned place and the make-up 
crew, which con.-isted of twenty park 
directors, went to work. After make-up 
was applied and the children were co-- 
tumed. the directors told stories and 
conducted quiet games. This kept the 
children entertained and together while 
they waited for the cue girl to lake 
them backstage for their entrance. 
This procedure, u-ed for dre-s reheai-- 
al. was followed for the final produc- 
tion and resulted in a smooth and 
well-organized performance. 

O\rr four thousand people packed 
the grounds at Island Park to see tin- 
first city pageant presented in ten 
\ears. A thrilling "Ohhhhhh" arose 
from the audience as the lights came 
up full upon the setting. The audience 
was an appreciative one, which en- 
couraged the players immensely. The 
use of dancing and dramatics ga\e the 
players a sense of freedom whirli 
helped them to thorough enj,.\ the 
whole production. It also gave them 
a feeling of accomplishment and sati- 
faction to have been part of a projci t 
from beginning to end. 

Campus Grass Gets Chance 

\\hen il wa- nere ar\ to obtain the 
cooperation of the students to preserve 
the landscaping improvement- on the 
I imi -i-il\ of Cincinnati campu-. tlie 
authorilie- held a slogan cmitc-t. gi\ 
ing prizes to winners, to elicit from the 
-Indent- ihcm-clxc- the l>c-l "keep off 
the gra " pi-r-uadei-. 

Winner-, which pi.m-d \.-n .-Hi-cti\i- 
when put In actual u-e. wen- : 

Hetour. weds at work! 

N,,|,! I am not lawn fm llii- wild. 

Don't IK- a schmo. let it grow. 

I . t - h.ive the 'new |..ok." the laWII- 
er the IH-HI-I." 

Don't tread on me or nix name will 
! mud. 

(iixe the gax xoiing blade- a i e 
Don't gel li"-ex xxilh that loe-x 

,e the blade- and keep the cam- 

pu sharp! 

i ,,,,,|rn" .1 (mm I'ark Maintenance. 

Ill Ml xrniN 

Golf Administration 

Golj Reservations 

In an administrative bulletin, the department of rec- 
reation and parks in Los Angeles has set up the following 
regulations covering the department's golfing activities: 

1. On Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, 
reservations will be taken between the hours of 9:00 a.m. 
and 4:00 p.m. On Mondays, reservations will be taken be- 
tween the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. When a legal 
holiday occurs on Monday, reservations will be taken on 
Tuesday from 6:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. When a legal holiday 
occurs on Friday, the latest time a cancellation will be 
received is 4:00 p.m. on Thursday. 

2. AH reservations for starting times for any day of 
the week on the Rancho 18-hole course and on the Griffith 
Park's Wilson, Harding, and Roosevelt courses will be 
made by telephone only. 

3. Reservations will be taken only on the department 
switchboard, except on the day of play, when a telephoned 
reservation may be made direct to the golf course. 

4. Reservations may be made for only one week in ad- 
vance, that is on Monday, for days through the following 
Monday; on Tuesday, for days through the following 
Tuesday; and so on. The reservation office will be open 
only on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and 
Friday of each week, except when a legal holiday occurs 
on one of these days, in which event reservations may be 
made for an extra day in advance. 

5. A reservation may be cancelled by calling the same 
number up to 4:00 p.m. of the last day, excluding Sat- 
urdays, Sundays and holidays, prior to the day of play. 
Reservations for Sunday may be cancelled by calling the 
golf course direct on Saturday. Reservations may be made 
for singles, twosomes, threesomes, or foursomes. It is 
not necessary to give the names of all members of the 
party at that time. The department reserves the right to 
complete all foursomes where a reservation is made for less 
than four players, either by reservation or from the daily 
call sheet. Only one starting time may be secured for 
any weekend. 

6. The registered player who made the advance reserva- 
tion will pick up the tickets on the day of play, at least 
fifteen minutes prior to the starting time, by identifying 
himself and by payment of the greens fees and regis- 
tration fees for the entire party, giving their names. In 
the event that the person who made the reservation is 
incapacitated or delayed, he may call the golf course at 
least fifteen minutes before his starting time and authorize 

MAY 1952 

any other member of his party to pick up the tickets 
by paying the reservation fee for the entire party and 
giving the original reservee's registration number. 
Registration of Golfers 

1. All golfers desiring to make advance reservations 
for starting times must be registered with the department 
of recreation and parks. 

2. A numbered registration card will be issued free 
upon application. 

3. Applications are available at all golf courses, or 
may be secured in person, or by writing to the Los An- 
geles Department of Recreation and Parks, Room 305, 
City Hall. 

4. It is not necessary for other members of a party to 
be registered players, but reservations may be made only 
by a registered player. 

5. The player who makes an advance reservation for a 
starting time must appear in person at least fifteen min- 
utes prior to the reserved time on the day of play to pick 
up the tickets and identify himself, show his registration 
card, and give the names of all members of his party. 

6. A registered player who fails to take up his tickets 
after having made a reservation will forfeit the privilege 
of making further reservations until he has paid the entire 
reservation fees for his party, if he has not given proper 
notice of cancellation. 

7. This payment may be made at any of the municipal 
golf courses or to the office of the department of recreation 
and parks, Room 305, City Hall. 

8. Monthly ticket holders may make advance reserva- 
tions on weekdays only, but must pay the regular reser- 
vation fees. 

9. Registration cards are not transferable. The person 
having a number should treat it confidentially. When 
reservations are taken on the phone, the registered player 
must give the number of his card. 

10. In the event that bad weather causes the closing 
of any course, making the use of said course hazardous 
and detrimental to the course, all reservations will be 
automatically cancelled and no penalty shall attach to 
anyone having made a reservation. 

11. It will be the golfer's responsibility in case of 
bad weather to call the course in order to determine if 
the course has been officially closed. 

12. Rain checks or refund will not be granted to any 
player if his ticket has been punched or play has been 


ev.sKIIXI.I. \M) silMIIVI.I. are -poll- of 
moderate activity that arc perfectly 
;iilii|>ii-d in tin- physical education or 
alhlclii- program during the spring 

I .. nicitivatc learning and pn>\ iilr op- 
portunities for practicing and develop- 
ing tin- l>a.-ic tcchniipie-. the instructor, 
leader or coach may resort to any 
numhei "f excellent skill c -onte-t- re- 
\ol\ing around throwing. ratehing. 
lieliliiig. hatting and base running. 

The instructor may organize these 
cnnte-t- in the form of a field day, or 
he max use them in his classwork to 
mea-nie individual ability. In both 
cases. ihe\ will piomote interest in 
the sport and furnish an incentive for 

'I he coach may employ them as prac- 
tice media, since competition in game 
skills is much more exciting than 
"ju-i practicing." 

I he conlc-t- may be conducted be- 
tween indix iduals or between teams. 
\Vhcn conductfd on a team basis, they 
may l>e scored by totaling the distances 
of throws or hits, or by totaling the 
numlHT >f points, with the team scor- 
ing the greatest total being declared 
tin- winner. 

Standards may \>e worked out to in- 
, i. a-.- the interest and incentive, and 
the re-nils can easily be measured by 
the participant- tln-m-elx e-. 

A good program of skill conte-t- 
may IM- worked out as follow-: 

I'itc-h for Accuracy. Draw on a 
wall a rectangular target eighteen 
in- he- w ii l> an< I lhirt\-i\ inches high, 
-o that the bottom edge is twenty 
ini he- al...\e the ground. The target 
rcprrscnl- the -Irik.- ana ..\ci home 


Mlow each plaxer ten pitches from 
the regular pitching ditame. One 
fun) inii-t IH- on or ill contact with the 
pili lung line when the ball is re- 
leaned. Balls* striking in or on the 
outer edge i.f the target -core one 
point. The player' M-I.P- i- tin- -nm 
of the (Kiinl-i made on tin- ten pili he-. 

Throw for Accuracy, Draw on a 

wall a target ioni>lmg of three i "ii 
crnlrii iinle- eighteen. ihirlx -ix and 
hft\-foiir ini he- in dinnn-ter. o that 
the bnllnrii line of tin- oiil-iil.- m le i- 
-i\ mchrj* altoxe the ground. Draw a 
throwing line on (lie ground, at a 


Skill Contests 

distance from the target commensurate 
with the age and skill of the players. 

Allow each player ten throws from 
the throwing line. One foot must be 
In-hind or in contact with the line 
when the ball is released. The circles 
score three, two and one points from 
the center out. Throws hitting a divid- 
ing line are given the higher value 
of the two. The player's score is the 
sum of the points made on the ten 

Variation : 

1. Using the target as a pivot, draw 
a semicircle on the ground. Mark five 
point- on this semicircle, equidistant 
from each other. Allow each player to 
attempt two throws from each of these 
points. Score the same as in tin- 
original test. 

2. Draw throwing lines on the 
Around thitty. forty, fifty, sixty and 
seventy feel from the target. Allow each 
player two throws from back of eai h 
line. The play ei'- score \s the sum of 
Ihe point- made on the ten throws. 

H. Draw on a wall a target scventy- 
twn inches wide and forty -eight IIM In-- 
high, so that the bottom edge is 
lwenl\-fiiur ini he- alio\i- the ground. 
l>i\ide the target ml.. -i\ eijual parts, 
ns shown in Diagram 1. Draw a 
throwing line on the ground, the di-- 
l.inic from the target \ar\ing an-ord 
ing to the age and skill of tin- plaxer-. 
Allow each player ten throw- from 
the throwing line, with fi\e throw* 
Ix-ing of Ihe player'- ihoo-ing. and 
li\<- U-ing pre-i rilied |i\ the teacher. 

Throws* have the following values: 
lal A ball hilling -ei lion- \. I! ,,. 
1 ihrce point*: i h i a ball hit- 

by Sterling Geesman 

ting sections D, E or F scores four 
points; (c) a ball hitting the section 
called by the teacher scores a bonus 
of two extra points. The player's 
score is the sum of the points made 
on the ten throws. 







Distance Throw for Accuracy. The 

play ei- -land hi-him! a restraining 
line in center field and attempt to 
throw the ball so that it will strike tin- 
ground as near home plate as possible. 

Draw a line from home plale. bi- 
secting the base line between fir-l and 
-einiid. and another which bisects the 
base line between second and third. 
I -ing home plate as a pivot, draw an 
arc ten feet from home plale. inter - 
-ecting the (ir-t and third base lines: 
draw another arc. twenlx feet from 
home plale. C.i\<- a point value to 
these -ci II..M- .1- indicated in Diagram 

Mlow each player five throws. The 
pla\er'- -ion- i- the -nm of the poinl- 
niade on the fixe throw-. 

Ihe diagram -how- the -coring 
\.iluc- for throw- from center held. If 
the throws are from left or right held, 
the lane- to that field woidd yield the 
live and three point \alues and the 
adjacent lanes would yield tin- I..WM 

Initiation: I -ing home plate as a 
pivot, draw live ii.inenlric circles of 
three. -i\. nine. Iwelw- and fifteen 



feet in diameter. The circles score 
five, four, three, two and one points 
frrwii the center out. Allow each player 
five throws. The player's score is 
the sum of the points made on the 
five throws. 

Throw for Distance. The player 
stands behind a restraining line and 
throws the ball as far as he can. The 
distance is measured from the restrain- 
ing line to the spot where the ball 
first hits the ground. Stepping on or 
over the restraining line counts as a 
foul. Each player is allowed three 
trials and is credited with his best 

Variation: Mark the field with elev- 
en lines creating ten zones, each five 

yards wide. In this skill test the 
player stands behind a restraining line 
fifty yards from the first line and 
throws five balls as far as he can. 

Points are scored according to the 
zone in which the ball falls: one point 
for zone one, two points for zone two, 
three points for zone three, and so on. 
The player's score is the sum of the 
points made on the five throws. 

Catcher's Throw to Second Base 
for Accuracy. A barrel, open at one 
end, or a bushel basket, is placed on 
its side on second base, with the open 
end toward home plate. Blocks of 
wood should be placed under the bar 
rel or basket to prevent it from rolling 
and to elevate the open end three or 
four inches. 

Allow each player five throws from 
home plate. One foot must be on the 
plate at the moment the ball is re- 
leased. Each ball that goes into the 
barrel or basket on the fly scores three 
points; on the first bounce, two points; 
and on the second bounce, one point. 
The player's score is the sum of the 
points made on the five throws. 

Bat for Distance. Mark the dia- 
mond with lines into three zones. Ex- 
tend the first line from the midway 
point between home plate and first base 
to the pitcher's plate, and from there, 
to the midway point between home 
plate and third base; the second line 
connects first, second and third base. 
(See Diagram 3.) 

Allow each player ten trials to hit 
a pitched ball. Only pitches that would 
be counted as strikes should be in- 
cludel in the ten trials. Batted balls 
that first hit the ground in zone 
one score one point; in zone two, two 
points; and in zone three, three points. 
Missed strikes and foul balls score 
no points. The player's score is the 
sum of the points made on the ten 

Throw and Catch. A player stand- 
ing at home plate catches the ball 
thrown to him by the pitcher, then 
throws the ball to first baseman, re- 
ceives it back from him, and in order 
throws to and receives a throw from 
the second baseman and the third 
baseman. The player is thus required 
to catch four throws and make three 
throws for a total of seven chances. 

A throw is considered good if the 
player catching it can place both hands 
on the ball by stretching, still keeping 
one foot on the base. If the throw 
to the player at home is bad, the 



throw is repeated. The player's score 
is seven minus the number of errors. 

Fungo Hit for Distance. The play- 
er stands behind a restraining line, 
tosses the ball into the air, and bats 
it as far as possible. The distance is 
measured as in the Throw for Dis- 

Fungo Hit for Accuracy. The play- 
er stands behind a restraining line in 
center field, tosses the ball into the 

air, and bats it so that it will strike 
the ground as near home plate as pos- 

Using home plate as a pivot, draw 
five concentric circles of five, ten, fif- 
teen, twenty and twenty-five yards 
in diameter. The circles score five, 
four, three, two and one points from 
the center out. Allow each player five 
hits. The player's score is the sum of 
the points made on the five hits. 

Catching Fly Balls. Draw a throw- 
ing line on the ground twenty feet 
from a brick wall or other smooth 
surface. Place a mark on the wall at 
a height of fifteen feet. Place the 
player behind the throwing line, and 
at the starting signal, allow him to 
throw the ball against the wall and 
catch the rebound as rapidly as he can 
for a period of thirty seconds. 

The player's score is the number of 
times the ball is successfully caught 
on the rebound from above the fifteen- 
foot mark. 

Fielding Ground Balls. Draw two 
parallel lines, one six feet and the 
other twenty feet from a brick wall or 
other smooth surface from which the 
ball will rebound. Place the player 
between these two lines and allow him 
to throw the ball as rapidly as he 
can against the wall for a period of 
thirty seconds, so that the ball will re- 
bound as a ground ball. Each ball 
that is successfully fielded scores one 

Base Running for Speed. The run- 
ner takes a crouching position with one 
foot against home plate. At the start- 
ing signal, he runs the circuit of the 
bases, touching each base in order. 
The stopwatch is started on the start- 
ing signal and stopped when the run- 
ner touches home plate. 

Variation: The runner stands in the 
batter's box and hits a pitched ball, 
then makes a circuit of the bases, 
touching each. He is required to hit 
only pitched balls that would be 
counted as strikes and run on any 
ball hit, fair or foul. The stopwatch 
is started with the crack of the bat 
and stopped when the runner touches 

Reprinted from Scholastic Coach. 

AY 1952 


('.iniiinuiition of "Here, and There" section of former MRA 

Playground and Recreation liiillelin Serricf. 


The free tennis clinic for boys and 
girl- iindci -i\teen. held last summer 
at the Boulevard Gardens Tennis 
Court-. Woodside, Long Island, drew 
participants from all areas of New 
V.ik City. Free weekly lessons will be 
given again thi- \ear, and youngsters 
who fail I" rrgi-tcr at tin- first ses- 
-ion will l>e welcome to attend the re- 
maining lessons. 


The boys sixteen. -.-\rntrcn and 
eighteen years old are often referred 
to as the "forgotten age" in baseball. 

a- thev art- I !! for the local leagues 

and too voung for the semi-pros. In 
Oakland. California. ihe\ hu\r been 
doing -..riii-lliin- alxuit it. organizing 
a >undav morning hard ball league 
fur tlii- group. 


Twentv-ninr Amrrii an lied Cross 

national ai|uali> - I I- have been 

< heduled for ibis -umnier, |o provide 
le.idrr-hip .iinl ni-liin I'M training in 

winmnng. lifeMiving. first .11. 1 ami 
mall craft. Applicant- an- eligible fur 
enrollment if they are eighteen 

of age or older, in ound pin -i' .il i ><\\- plan I" ii->- tlieir training to 
leach itber, and hould \u r 

iibK -Irong *Hiriiincr-. >mall . r.i(l -In 
dent- IMII-I Imld a current Bed ' 
. rrtili-.iie an a water safdv in-ii u. t..t. 
i lifeojiver or iwimrner. or the 
equivalent. \ilililionnl inforinnlion and 
application* may U- obtained from 

1 -- i hapl'-r- IT ap 
Been. ClMM* begin in June 


DRA M \ 

The Town Park Players of Char- 
lotte, North Carolina, have been pro- 
vided with a new workshop by tin- 
park and recreation commission. In 
I hi- setting, gay with new paint and 
bright curtains and a fine new re- 
hearsal room, several excellent plays 
have been produced this year. The 
majority of players have been from 
six to seventeen years old, with a 
mama, papa, uncle or aunt stepping 
into the mature adult roles. There i~ 
no fee of any sort for the budding 
actor or crew member. The shop and 
plays are open to all who wish to par- 


We are slipping in this suggestion. 
from now on, as often as we find a 
little space to ask all recreation lead- 
ei- throughout the rmintn to please 
put the name of the city and the state 
on all reports, bulletins, programs or 
other printed material concerning com- 
munity recreation activities. Everyone 
in Columhii- or Watcrtown or Pine 
Junction ma\ know where they are, 
but it i- -nun-times hard for an eilil..i 
to gin- within a thousand miles, 
-nine i il\ n. inn-- occurring in many 
-I. ilc-. 

>\llli\lll VI. 

In June Miss Itillh Mclnlire. e\- 
ten-ion -]M-I iali-l in lecrcation. on sab- 
batical leave from tin- I imn-iu of 
Ma*sacliu-rii-. will travel abroad to 
-linl\ facilities and organi/ed m i- i 
lion program- of home anil communiU 
l_-t"ii|i- in the >i ainlin.iv ian and low 
loiinlur- of \"i.i\. Sweden. Finland, 
Denmark. Holland and Belgium. This 

-link will be imaged il pera- 

lion with the Sweili-h In-lilule .in. I 
the \ "-wnli-li New- l.xchange 
anil tin- l.iiii-h ami Norwegian Infor- 
m.iliiin >n\ ii 

IN-I K\M i 

In r^M Baton Kougc Pan-li. Louisi- 
ana, tin- oflball pl.ixrr- are organic- 
ink- mi" a < itv aMociation to provide 

softball insurance for all players. This 
will cover everyone, not just those for 
whom sponsors might carry insurance. 


This past winter a junior fonMr\ 
program \vas carried on in twelve pub- 
lic schools in Omaha, Nebraska. Ten 
fort\ -minute discussions were conduct- 
ed even IVMI \M-rk- in each of the 
schools by a circulating teacher of the 


Cincinnati, Ohio is fortunate in hav- 
ing the local service- of a natural- 
i-t. Mr. Herbert Heger. who ha- also 
had many years of experience as chief 
photographer for the National Park 
Serv ice. Camera fans in the Hamilton 
County Park District, with Mr. Heger 
leading the field trips. enjo\ the ad- 
vantage of his knowledge of both wild- 
life and photography. Trips were made 
everv Saturday right through this past 


A memorial gate and ornamental 
fence for the new children's play- 
ground in New York City's Central 

Park i- linn;: dedicated in honor of 
William Church Osborn. Lawyer and director, the laic Mi. O- 
born w.i- president of the MetTOpoli- 
tan Mil-rum of Art for mam vcar-. 
and was a benefactor of the New 'l.'ik 
Nicietv for the Belief of the Ruptured 
anil Crippled and the Children's Aid 
>"iietv. It i- parlii ulaiU lilting that 
llu- memorial -hoiild be an archwax I" 
a plavgroimd. a- Mi. < Miorn U-li.vnl 
thai the mo -I important thing in the 
world i- helping children. 






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Vacation Valley golf, near Stroudsburg, Pa. 

The department of recreation in Bridgeport, Connecticut, 
submitted a questionnaire to authorities operating public 
golf courses in 1951, requesting information as to re- 
ceipts, operating costs, fees and other items relating to the 
operation of the courses. The purpose of the study was to 
determine whether or not the fees charged in Bridgeport 
should be changed in view of rising operation and main- 
tenance costs. Replies to the questionnaire were submitted 
by 56 authorities. On the basis of the information sub- 
mitted Bridgeport increased its golf course rates for the 
1952 season to the following: 

Season Tickets Area residents only $20.00 

Season Tickets Women, weekdays only 10.00 

18 Holes 1.00 

9 Holes weekdays only 50 

Lockers (season) 6.00 

The golf course data were summarized as follows: 
1. Of the 56 cities reporting, 33 operated their golf 
courses on a self-supporting basis; 23 did not. In some 
cases the profits from concessions and refectories are in- 

A Study 

Of Public Golf Course 


eluded in the course income; in others it is not. 

2. The cost of operation per player varies from $.31 to 
$1.81, the average being around 65 cents. Many factors 
must be considered, mainly the type of maintenance and 
condition of the course. A properly maintained course will 
attract all golf enthusiasts. 

3. Season ticket policy and charges vary quite a bit, 
with several attractive reductions for women and juniors. 
The cost of daily tickets for 9 or 18 holes also varies. The 
average greens fee for 18 holes is $1.00 and for 9 holes, 
$.60. Many courses have discontinued a 9 hole ticket, but 
others have substituted a twilight reduced rate after 5:00 
p.m. About half the courses increase the daily ticket rate 
on Saturday, Sunday and holidays. 

4. Where concessions or refectories are in operation, 31 
are let out on contract; 16 are operated by the city itself; 
eight are run by the pro, usually as a part of his com- 
pensation; one by a caretaker and one by a steward. 
Seventeen serve complete meals; twenty serve beer, and 
only three serve liquor. The income to the city from this 
source varies greatly. 

6. Most of the cities listed are in the northern half of 
the United States, but even in this territory, weather condi- 
tions vary quite a bit. Of the 56 cities, 21 keep their 
courses open during the winter, although a few make no 
charge during this period. 








18 HOLE 















Rec. Commission 






17.00 I .40 










Park Department 







.25 I .60 



No ! No 




Rec. Board 








Cat. I Yes 























I 18 



.45 | .90 




I 10.00 




Park Commission 






30.00 | .50 
25.-R 1 









Department of Parks and 















I'wrk Department 

2 18 


105.000 I 48.500 













1'itrk Commission 















Park Department 

1 18 
















Park Department 

1 18 




1.50 25.453 


No | No 




MAY 1952 




iM 1 MO.I.I.I-, 


























Prk .nil k 

1 11 Ho 




.- Vi 


1 ,KI 
1 5(1 X 

15.000 Cat. 




J.OO No ' 



Bjaat. of Public Works 

1 11 Ho 



492 10.00 



36.153 Cat, 




340 Ho 

BUFFALO NFW YORK 29 No 100.000 67.000 

irk. 2 18 





160400 Cat. 




340 No 


Division <>f Parks 

3 11 

No 44.645 






101,471 Cat. 




Department of Parks 








25.035 Cat. 






W. f^l HI--.1 KK , ,. . N. Y. 
Park ( it-mi 


To. 175.200 323400 




1 .'5 194.000 





40 Ho 


hssKX .. N. 1. 
Park Commission 

1 9 
1 18 






.73 1.23 

1.25X 2.50X 
.7SX I.25X 










Park Commission 







3 SOX 



Park 1 Ho Ho 




W | .3 

Bureau of Parka 

3 18 









on one 






Depaitmenl Parks snd Rec 

1 18 




10.- R 


1 MX 

Ho 1 Ho 





Rec. Committee 

2 11 







1 2SX 


CKj 1 Ha Boor 





Division of Rec. 

2 36 







1 25X 







Division of Parks 

1 36 

















mi mo. OHIO 

Division of Park. 















Park Commission 

1 11 
















Park Commission 


To* ! 10.180 2I.OJ6 .401 2040 1 JO 



Pro. No 





Park Board 

1 11 




1 ( 












< lllfAl.o. ILLINOIS 
Park II,.' 











2 11 
















Park Diauict 

3 11 







109.384 Cat. To* 



N Yr. 



P.rk II,,- 

1 9 Yea 







OB, 110 Cnt. To* 

Ho 2400 



Park Department 
Depl. Parks and Rec. 

1 9 
1 11 









33.001 N 

H Ye. 



1 9 
5 11 








272.940 Cite Ml 


1000 Ha 

Park Board 

JACKSON. Mlrllll.AN 
Park Board 

2 9 
2 II 


55.319 41.004 




90 I 96.451 Otf HO 



..'5 N., 


1 11 


12.000 10,000 




In, N., 






Park Board 











( ni 







Park Conmiaatoa 

2 II 








1 00 



( nt 








Park Department 


n of Parka and Rec 

1 II 




832 18 00 


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Bird nesting time is here, and the 
W. R. Vermillion Company, 2205 
Grand Avenue, Kansas City 8, Mis- 
souri, is offering a wren house which 
can be assembled easily by anyone. 
Designed on dimensions recommended 
by the United States Department of 

Interior, it consists of seven pieces of 
Masonite tempered Duolux, cut to in- 
terlock without the use of glue, nails 
or screws. Each house is packaged flat 
in an envelope on which are printed 
pictorial directions for assembling. 
Retail price, $1.50. 

Projection Chart 

Want to quit "guessing" where to 
set your movie or slide projector to 
get the right size and focus on your 
screen? This chart, in simple, easy- 
to-read tables and diagrams, supplies 
information on correct screen sizes 
and models, lens focal lengths and 
projection distances for all types of 
projectors. If you know the projector 
and projection distances, the chart 
tells the proper screen size. If the 
screen size is established, the chart 
shows the proper projection distance. 
Diagrams on seating arrangements and 
audience size are also included. For a 

free chart, write to Radiant Manufac- 
turing Corporation, 1221 South Tal- 
man Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

Phonograph-P.A. System 

A phonograph combined with a pub- 
lic address system, and radio receiver, 
can be your best buy if you need an 
instrument to use on the playground 
this summer, and then want to take it 
indoors in the fall to use for dances 
and other community center activities. 
The Rek-0-Kut Company, 38-03A 
Queens Boulevard. Long Island City 1. 
New York, makes a variety of models 
and combination models for profes- 
sional and educational use. In several 
of their phonographs, a combination 
public address system makes it possible 
for the recreation leader to make an- 
nouncements or give instructions at 
the same time a record is playing, the 
machine amplifying both at the de- 
sired volume. For detailed catalog and 
prices, write to the manufacturer. 

Portable Proscenium 

A portable stage front, Pla-ade, 
large enough for children to use, is not 
merely a miniature theatre for pup- 
pets. When set up, it requires a space 
ten feet wide, six feet high and at 
least four or five feet deep. It has 
draw curtains, and lends itself to 
modest dramatic productions, as a 
frame for movies or to display exhibits. 
Address inquiries to Walter L. Lukens, 
301 New Jersey Avenue, S. E., Wash- 
ington 3, D.C. 

Fluorescent Accessories 

Especially adaptable for use in ex- 
hibits, displays, lectures and charts, 
these new fluorescent accessories in- 
clude marking pens and stamp pads 
for use with invisible inks, yarn, rib- 
bon, crayons, invisible tracer pastes 
and powders, fabrics, papers, card- 
boards and assorted colored sands that 

are intensely brilliant under the Blak- 
Ray light. Also available are water 
color and bulletin paints the "visi- 
ble" daylight colors which grow more 
brilliant in Blak-Ray light, and the 
"invisible" paints which appear white 
until under this special light. Another 
paint may be used on window glass, 
mirrors and other glossy surfaces and 
can be wiped off when desired. For 
complete catalog listings and price data 
write Ultra-Violet Products, Incor- 
porated, 145 Pasadena Avenue, South 
Pasadena, California. 


Childplay, 203 West 14th Street; 
New York 11, New York, is offering 
a price list for a complete line of 
games and creative crafts for nursery 
schools, community centers, camps and 


Leathercraft kits, in which preci- 
sion die cut leather for specified ar- 
ticles, all hardware and accessories 
needed for assembling are included, 
can be obtained from Wilder and Com- 
pany, Leathercraft Hobby Headquar- 
ters, 1038 North Crosby Street, Chi- 
cago 10, Illinois. This company also 
handles all tools for leather work. 


A brand new floor patching material 
called Permamix, claimed to incorpo- 
rate many features not included in 
other similar products, is now on the 
market. Laboratory tested for three 
years, it can be used on any present 
type flooring, indoors or out. There 
is nothing to add, nothing to mix, 
and it will not freeze. It sets instantly, 
and traffic can be resumed immediate- 
ly. It comes in fifty-pound net weight 
drums. Address inquiries to Permamix 
Corporation, 228 North LaSalle Street, 


A very durable shuttlecock made of 
plastic, which stands up much better 
than the feather type, has been tested 
by some of the directors of the Los 
Angeles recreation and parks depart- 
ment and has been found to be highly 
satisfactory. Known as the Penn Carl- 
ton plastic badminton shuttlecock, it 
is made by Pennsylvania Rubber Com- 
pany, Jeanette, Pennsylvania. 

MAV 1Q59 


P E 

s o \ \ i : L 

Why Do Recreation Executives Fail? 

This question was asked Charles K. 
Brightbill, director of the professional 
recreation educational curriculum at 
Illinois University. Based on his ex- 
tensive recreation experience, includ- 
ing service with the National Recrea- 
tion Association and with the Presi- 
dent's Committee on Recreation, it is 
his opinion that recreation executives 
fail hecause they 

1. Don't understand the fundamen- 
tal principles of community organiza- 
tion for recreation. 

2. Haven't learned that what is done 
by people is more important than what 
is done for them. 

3. Try to sell activities rather than 
the objectives at which those activities 
are aimed and the values which re- 

4. Forget that recreation is a team 
jcil) among tin' policy maker, the exec- 
utive, the leader and the public. 

5. Overlook the fact that even the 
smallest of details must he handled ac- 
curately, because the sum total of how 
well thr detail- .in- taki-n can- of adds 
mi In MifH-rinrity. 

6. Delegate responsibility to sub- 
ordinate* but do not delegate the nec- 
essary authority to go with it. 

7. Do not take enough time to eval- 
uate their programs, to refine llu-m 
and belter them. 

8. Do not keep in mind that recrea- 
tion i* not a philosophy of govern- 
inrnl, but rnthrr a way of life. 

9. Ncglei I to recognize the inter- 
lelation-hip of recreation, housing, 
lii-allh. welfaic, safely nnil education. 

I". Do not appreciate thi- impor- 
tanrr of functional design and tin- 
part i" ! ih" n piny* in total, com- 
prchciiMvr coiiiuiunity planning. 

1 1. >CI-IM in IK- allergic ! ih.- .-f 
tii i. -lit administration of finance* and 
tin- budgetary aspect* of tin- jb. 

12. Lack understanding of the legis- 
lative processes in a democracy and 
..f pr..prr, dependable strategy in e- 
Miring paMge ol needed legislation. 


13. Dismiss the importance of being 
the perpetual student, neglecting to 
read and keep abreast of fast-moving 
developments in the field. 

14. Are found wanting in the tech- 
niques of creating and sustaining the 
interest of the people getting them 
to work for themselves. 

15. Pass over lightly the essential- 
ity of being good administrators and 
multiplying their efforts through mak- 
ing the best use of subordinates. 

16. Refuse to adjust themselves to 
existing traditions, customs and ways. 

17. Lack the qualities of good teach- 
ers and successful salesmen. 

18. Won't look ahead and build for 
ihi- future as well as meet the needs 
of the immediate present. 

I'). >iile-step tin- need for building 
a solid foundation of lay support and 
won't linger long enough to educate 
their boards and committees, give 
them problems which are within reach 
of solving and "take time" to under- 
stand and appreciate the other fel- 
low's point of view. 

20. Think they can make a large 
part of community recreation self-sup- 

21. Helicxc ill. 1 1 MII "I C-- ilcpcmls 11) loll 

the quantit\ of areas and facilities 
they have at their disposal, and acquire 
more in the way of physical plant 
than tlieir community ran ever nope 
to maintain. 

22. Criticize other professionals and 
K n leaders whose ambitions and 
abilities lln-\ fear will make them 
change from lln- status quo. 

Pill their sales story eggs in 
the basket of juvenile delinquency and 
then cannot make it slick. 

Don't know the i 'immunity in 
which they work, much less the think- 
ing and desires of the people llic\ 

n't acquainted with the con- 
tent of ilieir own enabling legislation 
and similar laws related to their work. 

26. Get all mixed up in professional 
terminology, semantics and gobbledy- 
gook so that the average man on the 

sireel doesn't know what they're talk- 
ing about. 

27. Won't stand firm on basic prin- 
ciples when politics interfere with 

28. Lack imagination. 

Investigations by the National Rec- 
reation Association, through its field 
workers and personnel services, and 
reports from employing agencies over 
a period of many years confirm the 
truth of Mr. Brightbill's observations. 
I siially it is a combination of several 
of the factors listed which causes a 
condition serious enough to bring 
about a dismissal. 

The weaknesses in present day pro- 
fessional education, as pointed out 
recentlv by a group of prominent rec- 
reation executives, has considerable 
lelationship to the above list of items. 
I In \ include the following: 

lai Had si-|,-i ii,,n of students; (b) 
students misjudge conditions as thev 
a.-tually exist, and arc disappointed 
and confused; (c) ineffective field 
experience and supcrv isimi : id I lack 
of training in business administra- 
tion. budgeting and finances; (e) lack 
nf UM. In -t. Hilling in maintenance of 

iiioii properties and facilities; 
if) lack of ability in public relations, 
communication*, public ipecking ami 
writing; igt lack of understanding of 

ition legislation, political struc- 
ture, community organization and 
-iiin tun- of municipal government. 

1 he association has been reasonablv 
i |.ie 1. 1 mo-l executive placements 

through the M.H-. and bell that lln 
situation is improving in part, be ill'- pif'---i"tial education pro- 
- f..i in n-.iti'Hi leadership are 

Ming iiion- adequate. College rec- 
ie. iimn -din .ii"is and professional 
leader* in the field are cooperating 
mi leasingly in an effort to relate, 
MIMIC realistn ,ill\ . professional prep- 
aration to leai|c|s||ip ||i . ,U. 



Crowell, New York. $5.75. 

HOMESPUN CRAFTS, E. Kenneth Baillie. The Bruce Publish- 
ing Company, Milwaukee. $3.00. 

OF, Caroline Horowitz. Hart Publishing Company, New 
York. $1.50 each. 

PROFESSIONAL PERSPECTIVE, Report of Triennial Confer- 
ence of the Association of Secretaries of YMCA's. Asso- 
ciation Press, New York. $4.00. 

Drew. John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, New York. 
Paper, $4.50. 

SCRATCHBOARD DRAWING, C. W. Bacon. The Studio Publi- 
cations, 432 Fourth Avenue, New York 16. $5.00. 

SIMPLE BRACELETS, J. W. Bellinger. The Bruce Publishing 
Company, Milwaukee. $2.50. 

E. P. Dutton and Company, Incorporated, New York. 

STARS, Herbert S. Zim and Robert H. Baker. Simon and 
Schuster, New York. $1.00. 

WHOLE WORLD SINGING, THE, Edith Lovell Thomas. The 
Friendship Press, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York. $2.75. 

and Tom B. Leonard. Hart Publishing Company, 114 
East 32nd Street, New York 16. $2.50. 


linen In th. World 
For The World'l 
Greafeir Athltlrs 

Designed for the Playground 

Priced for the Playground 


tool of play 




Rolla-Hoop! The body builder and exerciser. Sturdily 
constructed of %" round solid steel. Hoop 24" in 
diameter and it's Zincrome Plated. The handle is 
permanently attached which propels and guides 

Price per Doz. $9.60 (F.O.B. Steelton, Pa.) 


P. O. Box 30, Steelton, Pa. 

Designed for the Playground Priced for the Playground 






Complete Stock 

Prompt Shipment 

Leathercraft is our only business, and our stock is the 
largest and most complete in America. That is why you 
can always depend upon immediate and complete ship- 
ment of orders sent to us. Whether your requirements 
are for beginners' kits needing no tools or experience, for 
very young boys and girls, or tooling leathers, supplies 
and tools for older, more advanced students or hobbyists, 
be sure to check the LARSON LEATHERCRAFT CATA- 
LOG first. Write today for your FREE copy of our big il- 
lustrated Catalog and Guide to latest Leathercraft projects. 


The Foremost Name in Leathercraft 
820 S. Tripp Ave., Dept. 1607, Chicago 24, III. 

J. C. LARSON CO., Dept. 1607 
820 5. Tripp Ave., Chicago 24, III. 

Please send me a FREE copy of your latest 
Illustrated Catalog and Guide to Leathercraft. 







Covering the Leisure-time Field 

School Camping 

George W. Donaldson, Associated 

Press, New York. 1952. $2.25. 

Mr. l)onald-on is the director of 

outdoor education for the public 

M (mills of Tyler. Texas, and former 

director of the Kellogg Foundation 

.iin|i-. His analysis of the needs of 
children in the present-day world, and 
his plea for authentic outdoor, out-of- 
citv experiences for children is one 
with which we would all concur. Some 
of us might feel that he occasionally 
assumes too much carry-over value in 
i .imp acti\ itii-s. Certain general as- 
-uinption-. also, might l>e argued, such 
.1- ihr statement, "The view that there 
.in- certain areas of the growing up 
process to which camps can make 
definite contributions implies that (lie 
-chool i- the best overall organiza- 
tion to select the things to be done 
in camp. lli.ii might be 
advanced 1,\ man\ other organizations 
equally as interested in the welfare 
i>f liililrm. and equal!) willing to 
meet the \<-i\ highest -landards of 


We believe tirnilx that -< liool i ,mi|> 
ing i- an iin|iorlanl part of edit' ation. 
but He would tiol aign i .iiii|iing 
I'M k -i... k and barrel to an\ one 
.ig'-niv. |.ik<- religion, il i an live under 
man) different roof* and main differ- 
ent name* and Mill function. 

The chapter on recreation i vcrs 
-liorl and lomlen-id. 'Hie g. 
philoiophv i- -oimd. lnil e wih ilu. 
i h.ipler li nl Ix't-ii more del.iileil. 

We are not urc we would agree thai 

craft* 'Mould Ix- hunted to thing* 
to use. wlm li can )H> made with a jack- 
knife, nxe or -HH. using native materi- 
nl. C.jin't thr\ .oinrtmiro |x- jii.t for 

fun? Or just for beauty? 

The last half of the book, dealing 
in detail with Camp Tyler, will be 
valuable to any school s\slem con- 
sidering school camping. Its factual 
information is detailed, well organized 
and very complete. Virginia Mus- 
sel-nan. Correspondence and Consul- 
tation Service. National Recreation 

Selected Papers in Group Work 
and Community Organization 

Selected Paper in Case Work 

National Conference of Social Work. 
Health Publications Institute, Incor- 
porated. Raleigh. North Carolina. 
SI. 7."> each, i |ia|>er) 
In addition to publishing the Pro- 
<-i-i'ilinii.\ of their I^.">1 conference, the 
officers and stufT of the National Con- 
ference of Social Work, have brought 
out the two above volumes of paper-, 
which were carefully selected l>\ a 
committee, for this purpose, on the 
of agencies especially looking 
foi material for in-service training 
programs, staff discussion and -indent 
li l!c< icalioii leaders will IM- 
pailicularlx inlcie-ted in the Selected 
I'.iper- in l.roup Work and Communi- 
/> (htinni:nlin which covers, among 
"llier-. -iii li lopii - a- "I tilizing New 
Knowledge About Individual Beliaxi..r 
in Work with (.n.iip. in the Ix-i-uri 
Time Selling." \<\ Mcxandcr H. Mar- 
tin. "Special Vcd- of ' 
Communilic.." bx (Jiarle. Oilell. 
cial Tension in V " \<\ l>r 

\\.irren Maiinei. I \> .. IV.ngcd Ap- 
1 uminil\ I'lnnning." b\ 
Kdward I). I.Mide. "KalKing Commu- 
nilv Forces in Planning for the \ging." 
l>\ I, in 1.1 King. 

Travel Games 

Kdmund Heaver. Order from author. 

Clifton. Te\a. 2.">i-. 

Traveling with the small fr\ this 
iimmcr;' Tin- Beaxers did and 
worked out a little booklet of conte-t- 
and games to keep the children hap- 
px . Its attractixe in it- hriglit xellow 
pages, and is pocket-sized. It worked 
MI well with their four children that 
lliex'xe printed it, so other parents 
can use il with restless xoung travelers. 
Very clever, Mr. Beaver! Can't we 
giown-ups use it, too? 

Dances, Games and Songs 
Looking for new, authentic folk 
songs, games and dances? The Coop- 
erative Recreation Sen-ice, Delaware. 
Ohio, has just issued two new book- 

1. Let's Be Merry v Linksmi Bukimi. 
I'\ Vytautas F. Beliajus, one of the 
great folk leaders and authorities. Mr. 
Beliajus is in a sanitarium at the 
present time, and the Cooperative Rec- 
reation Service has donated several 
thousand copies of his booklet of 
Lithuanian folk material to be sold, 
the money going to cover his hospital 

2. Kit/ut- Ran. games and songs of 
South American children, collected 
and tran-laled In Marx I.. Goodwin 
and Ldith L. Powell. 

Order from publisher. 25c each. 

Prisoners are People 

Kcnxon |. Scudder. Doubleday and 
Company, Incorporated, New York, 
l''.->2. $3.00. 

I In- author of tin- account of the 
. imaging California Institution for 
Men at (hum. has been superintend 
cut of that institution for the past 
eleven xear- and is parllx responsible 
for a revolution. in experiment in 

IIM-OII reform. He relates the trials 
and eii.'i- from it- beginnings and 
Iii- dilliciillie- in selecting the first 
members of hi- -I. ill. gives fascinat- 
ing anecdotes and case historic-. 

\i ( hino. inmates may decorate 
llicir living quarter-, picnic with their 
families ,,n Sundaxs. These men run 
the twcntx six hundred acre ranch of 
the institution, organize and run the 
ilertainnient program, share 
in il* educational and vocational 

I!) i HI UlilN 

Recreation Leadership Courses 

Sponsored jointly by the National Recreation Association 

Local Recreation Agencies 

Social Recreation 

Social Recreation 

Social Recreation 


Creative Recreation 


Arts and Crafts 

Petaluma, California 
May 5-8 

Palo Alto, California 
May 12-15 

Whittier, California 
May 19-22 

Huntington Beach, California 
June 2-5 

Provo, Utah 
June 16-20 

Flint, Michigan 
June 23-26 

Huntington, West Virginia 
May 5-8 

Atlanta, Georgia 
May 12-15 

Lancaster, South Carolina 
June 3-6 

Reading, Pennsylvania 
June 10, 11 and 12 

White Plains, New York 
June 25-26 

Hattiesburg, Mississippi 
May 5-8 

West Point, Georgia 
May 12-15 

Austin, Minnesota 
June 2 and 3 

Faribault, Minnesota 
June 4 

Faribault, Minnesota 
June 5 

Mankato, Minnesota 
June 6 

Toledo, Ohio 
June 9-12 

Youngstown, Ohio 
June 13 

Sheboygan, Wisconsin 
June 16-19 

Pittsfield, Massachusetts 
June 23-26 

Lafayette, Indiana 
May 9-10 

Merom, Indiana 
May 12-17 

Columbus, Ohio 
May 19-22 

Reading, Pennsylvania 
June 10 and 11 

Allentown, Pennsylvania 
June 12 and 13 

Wilmington, Delaware 
June 16, 17 and 18 

Durham, New Hampshire 
June 23 and 24 

Glens Falls, New York 
June 26 

May and June, 1952 

Steven A. Mezzera, Director, Recreation, Parks and Music 

Edward E. Bignell, Superintendent of Recreation, Community 
Center, 1305 Middlefield Road 

R. Walter Cammack, Superintendent of Recreation 

William Proctor, Director of Recreation, 17th and Orange Streets 

Harold Glen Clark, Director Extension Division, Brigham Young 

Miss Lina W. Tyler, Director, Recreation and Park Board, 3300 
North Saginaw Street 

Marvin A. Lewis, Managing Director, Cabell County Recreation 
Board, Administration Office, Field House 

Miss Virginia Carmichael, Director of Recreation, Department 
of Parks, City Hall 

Tom McConnell, The Buford Consolidated Schools, Route 5 

Lloyd H. Miller, Director, Recreation Board of Berks County, 
Court House 

Miss Vivian O. Wills, Westchester County Recreation Commission, 
County Office Building 

Dr. Pete Davis, Professor of Recreation, Mississippi Southern Col- 
lege, Station A 

Robert A. Turner, Coordinator, Department of Community Rec- 
reation, West Point Manufacturing Company 

Harry Strong, Director, Department of Recreation, Post Office 
Box 246 

Milton Hustad, Director, State School and Colony 

Joe Grunz, Director, Recreation Department 

Edward Johnson, Director of Recreation 

Arthur G. Morse, Supervisor of Recreation, 214 Safety Building 

Oliver S. Ellis, Director-Treasurer, The Youngstown Playground 
Association, 318 Dollar Bank Building 

Howard R. Rich, Director of Public Recreation, 837 Jefferson 

Vincent Hebert, Superintendent, Parks and Recreation, 52 School 

Jackson M. Anderson, Assistant Professor of Recreation, Purdue 

John L. Marks, Assistant in Rural Youth Work, Indiana Farm 
Bureau, Inc., 130 East Washington Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

N. J. Barack, Superintendent, Department of Public Recreation, 
Room 124, City Hall 

Stewart L. Moyer, Superintendent of Recreation, City Hall 

Alfred L. Geschel, Superintendent of Recreation, City Hall, Room 

W. Frank Newlin, Recreation Director, Room 377, City Hall 

C. B. Wadleigh, State 4-H Club Leader, University of New Hamp- 

Daniel L. Reardon, Recreation Superintendent 

Attendance at training courses conducted by National Recreation Association leaders is usually open to all who wish to attend. 
For details as to location of the institute, contents of course, registration procedure, and the like, communicate with the sponsors 
of the course as listed above. 


It's New! 

It's Fun! 

It's Full of Good Ideas! 

Same size 12 weekly issues 

Same time Beginning 

April 25, 1952 

Same Price . . $ 1.50 



For Every Playground - For Every Playground Leader 

USEFUL? Ask the subscribers! 
Ask these communities how many subscriptions they used. . . 

Auburn. Me. 
Palo Allo, ( ..I. 
Greenwich, Conn. 

R.hw.y, N.J 12 

I nion. N.J. 
Auburn. N.V. 

Linden. N.J. 13 

Jackson, Mich. 14 

Davenport, Iowa and Salina, Kansas 15 

Evanston, 111. IS 

Salisbury, N.C. and Jackson, Miss. 20 

Charlotte, N.C. 30 


00 80RKEI 


unmatched safety unequa/ed durability 
unrivaled low cost maintenance 


make Burke Equipment the best 

The youngsters depend on 
you for the exercise and fun 
of their childhood. Meet this 
obligation with the finest and 
safest . . . Burke Built equip- 

Before you buy let us furnish you 
with all the facts on Burke Equip- 
ment: complete specifications, 
special literature, free planning 
assistance, catalog. Let us show 
you WHY Burke gives you and 
youngsters more for the money. 
Write Dept. H. 

Rely on Burke's reputation . . . built on 
service and dependability: 25 years of 
constant improvement in building 
playground equipment; first to intro- 
duce new safety features (unmatched 
for safety); quality materials plus 
distinguished craftsmanship and de- 
sign tailored to meet all require- 
ments; trouble-free equipment for 
decades of most economical service; 
fine business relations and conscien- 
tious attention to detail to make 
America's playgrounds more enjoy- 
able, more economical and safer! 

Examine the inter-locking construction 

Exclusive Burke designed fittings prevent 
sagging, twisting, and misalignment . . . 
the positive method of accomplishing com- 
plete inflexibility. 

THE J. E. BURKE CO., Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Factory Branch Box 986, New Brunswick, N.J. 

25th year equipping and servicing America's playgrounds 
Approved by Park and Recreation Officials Everywhere 

Note the superior strength 

Compare Burke fittings hot dipped gal- 
vanized iron, massive, heavily ribbed great- 
er length and weight with any other. 
Burke fittings are designed to carry the 




"Watt csMttete lbte in t&e tvottd, 

for play capacity and SAFETY . . . choose 

Reg. U. S. Pol. Off. 

Climbing structure 

No other playground device provides so 
much play capacity per square foot of ground 
area and per dollar of cost as JUNGLEGYM! 
That plus JUNGLEGYM'S safety record 
of more than one hundred million child-play- 
hours without one single serious accident 
are two reasons why you should give 
the children of your playground the advantage 

Write for Illustrated Bulletin on PORTER'S Streamlined Line that will Save You Money . . . Time 

You can rely on PORTER for the basic units you need 
for your playground ... 

No. 136 Stratosphere See-Saw 

Sensationally new. Gives "ups-a-daisy" 

ride 33V3% higher than conventional 

see-saw, but with greater safety. 

No. 38 Combination Set 
Compact, economical unit that's ideal 
for limited ground areas. Six varieties 
of funful, healthful activity. 

No. 105 Six-Swing Set 
Sturdy 12-ft. frame held rigidly togeth- 
er with exclusive Porter fittings make 
this a permanent, safe unit. 

No. S8-F Playground Basketball Backstop 
All-steel fan-shaped bank rigidly mount- 
ed on steel mast and braced for per- 
manent service. 

No. 240 Merry-Go-Round 

Will safely accommodate 30 children at 
one time. Noiseless, no-wobble, no- 
sway operation. An 
gineering marvel. 







Reg. U. S. Pot. Off. 


JUNE 1952 



To start planning your summer 

Tired of going to the same 

Want to get MORE-for LESS? 

Whether you plan to travel, or 
stay at home 


New Mexico Slate Tourist Bureau 



IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT According to a new agreement, this special publication is 
being distributed by Rand McNally & Company, publishers, through their bookstore outlets. 
Format and content have undergone considerable change. Sixteen new pages of text, ac- 
cented with color, have been added, and the book will have a cover in color. Because of 
these improvements, it must now retail for $1.00. 

ADVANCE ORDERS for Summe* 1/4<M&0A - It S. /4.. which were postmarked 
before April 15, will be filled at the 50-cent price, as originally announced. The offer of 
a free copy with a new subscription, or renewal of a subscription to RECREATION magazine, 
terminates May first. 

Spring 1952 



U. S. Fornt Service 

Delegates traveling to the National 
Recreation Congress in Seattle, per- 
haps planning their vacations along 
the way, will find this book particu- 
larly helpful in determining how to 
go, things to do and see. 


315 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, N.Y. 

JUNE, 1952 



Business Manager, ROSE JAY SCHWARTZ 


Recreation Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 

Vol. XLV1 

Price 35 Cents 

No. 3 

On the Cover 

This canoeist finds placid water for his favorite rec- 
reation in idyllic setting in Missouri's central Ozarks 
region. Photo by Massie, Missouri Resources Divi- 

In September 

Look for new ideas and plenty of enthusiasm, to 
match the back-to-school and harvest-tang- vigor of 
fall. There will be some "How to" articles on Hallo- 
ween parties; pre-vues on the Congress, being held 
in Seattle, September 29 through October 3; admin- 
istration articles full of facts and concrete help; 
the salary study which is available after June 15, 
as a special preprint; personalities in recreation; 
an article on an extensive industrial recreation pro- 
gram; ideas for enlarging the scope of activities 
in your community center, variations on basketball 
and accounts of "shot in the arm" methods of in- 
creasing participation. 

Photo Credits 

Page 132, (center right) Kemmell Ellis, Seattle, 
(lower rijiliM James Lee. Seattle; 135, 136, Herald 
and Review and Playground and Recreation Board, 
Decatur; 143, 144, Board of Park Commissioners, 
Minneapolis; 148, Stockton Record, California: 
152, 153, (top) C. G. Rosenberg, Stockholm, Swed.-n. 
(bottom) Maynard L. Parker, Los Angeles; 155, 
156, 157, Palisades Interstate Park Boland; 171, 
Municipal Recreation Commission, Syracuse; 172, 
Windy Drum, courtesy of News-Tribune, Waco; 173, 
lioh Ponden, Waco. 

RECREATION is published monthly except July 
and August by the National Recreation Association, 
;i srt\Kc organization supported by voluntary con- 
trihuticms, at 315 Fourth Avenue, New Yorlc 10, 
New York; is oil file in public libraries and is 
indexed in the Readers' Guide. Subscriptions $3.00 
a year. Canadian agency, G. R. Welch Company, 
Ltd., 1149 King Street West, Toronto 1, Ontario; 
Canadian subscription rate $3.85. Re-entered as 
srcoinl-rlass matter April 25, 1950, at the Post 
Office in New York, New York, under Act of 
March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special 
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act 
of October 3, 1917, authorized May 1, 1924. 
Advertising and Production Office: Jones Press, 
Fifth and Fifth South, Minneapolis 15, Minnesota. 
Space Representatives: H. Thayer Heaton, 415 
Lexington Avenue, New York 17, New York; 
Mark Minaban. 168 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago. Illinois; Keith H. Evans, 3757 Wilshire 
Boulevard, Los Angeles 5, California. 
Copyright, 1952, by the 

N.itinnul Recreation Association, Incorporated 
Printed in the U.S.A. 3<r.@J l - 2 

Trade mark registered in the U. S. Patent Office. 



General Features 

The Place of Supervision in a Recreation Program 

(Editorial), Gertrude Wilson 129 

Seattle Plans 132 

A Part of My Life, Jacob Twersky 137 

Organized Camping 138 

The Act Nobody Can Buy, Herbert Dalmas 140 

Thinking of Sending Junior to Camp? 142 

Leisure Leaders Leisure Lodge, Marion C. Sparrow 145 

Holly woodland Camp for Girls, Minnette B. Spector .... 146 

Swenson Park 148 

How to Keep Children in Their Own Back Yard, 

Dr. Joseph E. Howland 152 

A Tree, Ernest V. Blohm 157 

Paddle Volleyball 179 

On the Campus 181 


National Recreation Association Services 1951 124 

District Advisory Committees 125 

Relationship of Parks and Recreation, 

Charles E. Doell 143 

Nature Trails in State Parks, John C. Orth 154 

Surfacing Under Fixed Apparatus 164 

Rubber Bases 165 

The Authority to Hire and Fire Recreation Workers .... 169 

Their Own Center, Margaret R. Conger 172 


Lantern and Float Parade, Freda Combs 135 

On the Trail, Therese Myers 139 

Objectives for the Photo Group, Irma Webber 149 

Sailing the "Sailfish," Harold S. DeGroat and 

Robert G. DeGroat 158 

Seven Steps to Easy Camp Cookery, John A. MacPhee .... 162 
How To Do It! Nut Cup from a Tin Can Top, 

Frank A. Staples 166 

Uncle Elmer's Star Ball, Elmer E. Heft 167 

Tournament Tips, Morty Morris 177 

Regular Features 

Letters ' 127 

Things You Should Know 131 

Personnel The National Advisory Committee 126 

Recreation Training Leadership Programs 1952 170 

A Reporter's Notebook 171 

Recipes for Fun Sports, Swimming Meet 175 

Recreation Market News 180 

Books Received 182 

Pamphlets 182 

Magazines - 183 

New Publications 184 

Recreation Leadership Courses .. Inside Back Cover 

JUNE 1952 


min\ ii, \\mmm INMIII uin\ 

A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 

2,174 cities were registered with the Association for field service and 1,776 field visits \\cn 

made by District Representatives during the year. 

10 appraisals of recreation administration, personnel and facilities of coimnunit\ recrea- 

tion agencies in 7 states were made. 

28 cities in 13 states received the personal assistance of the Association's Planning 

Specialists on Recreation Areas and Facilities and Recreation Buildings. 

39 cities in 10 states were visited in connection with the development of adequate recrea- 

tion programs for minority groups. 

59 cities in 12 states and Canada were assisted through personal visits by the Katherine 

F. Barker Memorial Field Secretary for Women and Girls. 

65 cities in 20 states and Canada received special service with reference to their arts 

and crafts programs. 

14,532 employed and volunteer recreation leaders in 151 cities in 34 states were given 

special training in recreation skills, methods and programs. 

1,319 recreation positions were handled: 920 personal interviews were held; and 1,018 sets 

of personnel credentials weie submitted at the request of employing recreation agen- 
cies and candidates in 44 states. 

2,500 recreation leaders from all 48 states and Canada attended one or more of the 11 dis- 

trict conferences held during 1951. 

1,250 recreation leaders from H states and 7 foreign countries attended the 33rd National 

l!ci reation Congress in Boston, Massachusetts. 

170 state agencies concerned with recreation in 36 states .mil l(> federal agencies were 

assisted with their recreation problems and s<-i\i.,-~. 

1,200 companies recci\cd (.criodical bulletins on indu-liial recreation problems and develop- 

ment: 1<H> industrial plants in <>U cities in Id slates were \isited h\ a special worker to 
help industries and municipal recreation departments meet the recreation needs of 

2,500 plax^round Iradei. iin-m-il llir Bummer Playground Notebook. 

3,200 lilies pa 1 1 n ipalcd in lln J.'ltli annual .!-. i \ .in. . ..f National and Inter-American 

MM-L \\.-ck. 

9,022 recreation lender* received Hi c in \ i m\. tin- mntlil\ magazine of the recreation 


7.016 cities m all I including |(l| i ilics in I .5, I cr r ilm ies and 22."> cities in fm 

cipn counlric- > M..I\C C | help and .nlvin- mi their recreation problems through the 
liol < ..irespoiidcnic and ( c.iiMjIt.ilimi -SCMIII l!i .pic-l- for help (dialed 


District Advisory Committees 

DISTRICT ADVISORY committees are being set up by the 
National Recreation Association to strengthen the joint 

cooperation of the association and local recreation execu- 
tives. Already there is evidence that this step is creating 

more alertness to the problems within each district and to 

the most effective uses of the association's resources in 

meeting them. Committee membership has been accepted 

by the following: 

Pacific Northwest District 

Ben Evans, Director of Recreation, Seattle. Washington. 

Kenneth Fowell, Director of Recreation, Great Falls. Montana. 

Thomas W. Lantz, Superintendent of Public Recreation, Tacoma, 

Miss Dorothea Lensch, Director of Recreation, Portland. Oregon. 

Carl S. Munson, Director of Recreation. Moscow. Idaho. 

Mrs. Irene Squires, Superintendent, Williamalane Park and Rec- 
reation District, Springfield. Oregon. 

S. G. Witter, Recreation Director, Spokane. Washington. 
Pacific Southwest District 

Cedric Austin, Superintendent of Recreation. Phoenix, Arizona. 

C. C. Christiansen, Director of Recreation, Santa Barbara, Cali- 

Loveless N. Gardner, Director of Recreation, Tucson, Arizona. 

W. C. Higgins, Superintendent of Parks and Recreation, Reno, 

George Hjelte, General Manager, Department of Recreation and 
Parks. Los Angeles, California. 

Paul S. Rose, Superintendent, Salt Lake County Recreation Com- 
mission, Murray, Utah. 

Walter L. Scott, Director of School and Municipal Recreation, 
Long Beach, California. 

Glen Worthington, Superintendent of Recreation. Logan. Utah. 

Southwest District 

William K. Amo, Superintendent of Parks and Recreation, Little 
Rock, Arkansas. 

Vernon Chambers, Director of Colored Recreation. Houston, Texas. 

Albert A. Dominque, Superintendent of Playgrounds and Parks, 
Lafayette, Louisiana. 

Alvin R. Eggeling, Superintendent of Recreation. Oklahoma City, 

Miss Margaret Ford, Director of Recreation, Roswell, New Mexico. 

A. C. Hamilton, Superintendent of Recreation, Lubhock, Texas. 

Morris X. F. Jeff, Shakespeare Center, New Orleans, Louisiana. 

O. D. Johnson, Superintendent of Recreation, Lake Charles, Louisi- 

Beverly S. Sheffield, Director of Recreation, Austin, Texas. 

William P. Witt, Superintendent of Recreation, Corpus Christi, 

0. A. Ziegler, General Superintendent, Board of Park Commission- 
ers, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Midwest District 

Edmun A. Ash, Superintendent of Recreation, Kansas City, Kansas. 

Lawrence J. Heeb, Superintendent of Recreation. Lawrence, Kansas. 

Miss Kathryn E. Krieg, Superintendent of Recreation, Des Moines, 

Kenneth M. Kurtz, director of Recreation, Casper, Wyoming. 

James C. Lewis, Director of Recreation, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

John N. Nichols, Superintendent of Recreation, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Ben C. Porter, Director of Parks and Recreation, Jefferson City, 

Mrs. Verna Rensvold, Superintendent of Public Recreation, Kansas 
City, Missouri. 

liranch Russell, Recreation Department, St. Louis, Missouri. 

J. Earl Schlupp, Director of Recreation, Denver, Colorado. 

Duane Shefte, Director of Recreation. Huron, South Dakota. 
Great Lakes District 

Charles T. Byrnes, Superintendent of Recreation. Evanston, Illinois. 

Donald B. Dyer, Director of Recreation, Milwaukee. Wisconsin. 

Jerome T. Femal, Director of Recreation. Bloomington. Indiana. 

A. R. Flannery, Director of Recreation, Parks and Buildings, Battle 
Creek, Michigan. 

E. P. Hartl, Superintendent. Division of Municipal Recreation and 
School Extension, La Crosse, Wisconsin. 

John N. Higgins, Director of Recreation. Board of Parks and Rec- 
reation, Hammond, Indiana. 

Ernest W. Johnson, Superintendent of Playgrounds, St. Paul, Min- 

JUNE 1952 

Arthur G. Morse, Supervisor of Recreation, Toledo, Ohio. 
Harold G. Myron, Director of Recreation. Highland Park, Michigan. 
John Niles, Director of Recreation, South St. Paul, Minnesota. 
C. W. Schnake, Recreation Director, Recreation Department, Can- 
ton, Ohio. 

William A. Smith, Director, Frederick Douglass Community Associ- 
ation, Toledo, Ohio. 

Francis Shuster, Superintendent, Playgrounds and Recreation Com- 
mission, Springfield. Illinois. 

Southern District 

Joseph Austin, Director, Nineteenth Street Community Center, Gulf- 
port, Mississippi. 

T. A. Belser, Superintendent of Recreation, Montgomery, Alabama. 
R. Foster Blaisdell, Superintendent of Recreation, Charlotte, North 


Miss Nan B. Crow, Director of Recreation, Charlottesville, Virginia. 
Marian Hale, Director of Recreation, Memphis, Tennessee. 
W. H. Harth, Director, Park and Recreation Department, Columbia, 

South Carolina. 
Mrs. C. Paul Heavener, Director of Recreation. Charleston, West 


Cliff Kerby, Recreation Supervisor, Callaway Mills Company, La- 
Grange, Georgia. 

George T. Kurts, Director of Recreation, Jackson. Mississippi. 
T. B. McPherson, Supervisor. Church Street Recreation Center, 

Gainesville, Florida. 
Julian O. Olsen, Superintendent. Recreation Department. Pensacola, 

Miss Anna S. Pherigo, Superintendent of Parks and Recreation, 

Lexington, Kentucky. 

D. C. Wingo. Superintendent, Smith Street Community Center, Nor- 
folk. Virginia. 

Middle Atlantic District 
Myron N. Hendrick. Director of Recreation. Niagara Falls. New 

David M. Langkammer, Superintendent of Recreation. Altoona, 

Philip LeBoutillier, Superintendent of Recreation, Irvington, New 

Peter J. Mayers. Superintendent of Recreation, New Rocnelle, 

New York. 
Mrs. Ruby M. Payne, Director, Crispus Attucks Center, Lancaster, 

Lome Rickert, Superintendent of Recreation, Wicomico County, 


Frank M. Sabino, Superintendent of Recreation, Leonia, New Jer- 

George T. Sargisson, Executive Director, Recreation Executive Di- 
rector, Recreation Promotion and Service, Inc., Wilmington, 

Hubert I. Snyder, Director, Baltimore County Recreation Depart- 
ment, Towson, Maryland. 

Miss Ruth Swezey, Executive Director, Playground Recreation As- 
sociation, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. 

Frank Wood, Dunbar Association. Incorporated. Syracuse, New 

New England District 

Britton F. Boughner, Superintendent, Park and Recreation Com- 
mission, Wellesley, Massachusetts. 
John P. Cronin, Director, Department of Recreation, Providence, 

Rhode Island. 
James H. Grooms, Superintendent of Recreation and Parks, Auburn, 

William V. Haskell, Director, Community Center, Presque Isle, 


James F. Herdic, Jr., Superintendent of Recreation, Rutland, Ver- 

Edward J. Hunt, Director of Recreation. Stamford. Connecticut. 
Francis Malloy, Director of Recreation, Portsmouth. New Hamp- 

Edward N. Powell, Executive Director. West Main Street Com- 
munity Center, Incorporated, Stamford, Connecticut. 

Paul H. Rhodes, Director, Community Recreation Association, Dai- 
ton, Massachusetts. 

Robert M. Schultz, Superintendent of Recreation, Bridgeport, Con- 

Richard A. Tapply, Director of Recreation, Bristol, New Hamp- 

W. Norman Watts, Director, Dixwell Community House, New 
Haven, Connecticut. 




PLACES) 1 \l 

ilii 1 \iiliiiiiiil liliisnn I'niiiiiiillrr 

Si \ HIM. MONTHS AGO the National 
Recreation Association's National 
Advisory Committee on Defense Re- 
lated Services reported that one of 
the most serious problems facing the 
country's recreation movement during 
the present emergency and for the 
years ahead is the recruitment, train- 
ing and placement of recreation work- 

The association's board of directors 
had also been concerned with this 
problem for some time and certain 
-tep.. including the appointment of an 
a i-lant dim tor of the ao< iation"> 
recreation personnel service, had been 
taken to improve and increase the 
association's work in the personnel 


Last summer a number of the out- 
standing leader- in (lie area of under- 
graduate and graduate re< rcalion cdu- 
i.ili"ii were eon-ulleil b\ llie a--m ia- 

tinn. through oormpondmce, as to 

ill*- iiil\ i-ahilitx of the association - 
a|i|>oinlnient of a nationwide ad\i-oi\ 
i ominittee to survey and rex iew ilii- 
entire |>rol>|eni and make appropriate 
fei-oinnicndalioii- "i -iiggelion. I lie 
replies so favored such a procedure 
that an informal meeting was held .11 
ihe I ''."! Congress in I5oton to dis- 
cus* the scope of Mich a eommillee'- 

I inlli. i eon-nlei.illoii of (lie m.ik. 
HP of the National Advisor) Commit- 
I- ! d to a plan of ninnlx-r-liip for 
MOII ami |>.irk e\ei nli\e, and 
Iradrr*. traeher- i if professional if 
(ration leadership al both iln under 
graduate and graduate eollrge IrxcU. 
dent* and deun- ( i o||rge and 
universities. and other pcron who 
wi>uM have genet. d inlere-i in ..i . .,n 

with the professional preparation 
and development of recreation person- 

Dr. Paul F. Douglass, president 
of American University. Washington. 
D.C., has accepted the chairmanship 
of the National Advisory Committee, 
as announced in the March issue of 
RECREATION (page 479). Dr. Douglass 
is well known to the recreation move- 
ment. During his administration, 
American University's enrollment has 
ri-en from less than two thousand 
student- to mure than six thousand, it- 
annual budget has increased four and 
a half times, and there has been a deal of expansion in other ways. 

Dr. John I.. Hutchinson, who is as- 
sociate professor of education and 
chief advisor of the interdivisional 
program of recreation at Teacher's 
(College, Columbia I ni\ci-ii\. has ac- 
cepted the \ i( e-clia i rmarish ip. Dr. 
Hutchinson is pte-ident of the College 
Recreation Association and author of 
a recently published hook. "Pi in< iple- 
of Recreation." W. C. Sutherland, di- of the recreation |>ersoiinel -erx - 
ice of the National Rei reation Asso- 
ciation, will serve as <!. -tar\ to the 
coinmilli -i . 

I IK- association. wh>.-c headipiar- 
ters and field staff will provide as- 
sistance I" the coitmiillc. li.i- been 
acli\e in tin- recruitment, training and 
j.l.K . inenl of rcc realion |M-rsonnel -ince 
I'XKi. Die groiinduork foi lat.-i d( 
\elopmenls was laid by a committee 
.ippointed at tin fu-1 national i 
lion con^n-oi in I'XlT. \ program for 
the re< ruilment of ici ic.itimi [M-I-CHI 
nel and a placement -<r\i>e to asuist 
the growing number of i ilie. in-iitui 
ing eommunit >i -\tem<> wa- 

c-tahlished by the association shortly 

With the present rapid expansion of 
recreation programs and facilities, the 
increased recognition of the need for 
recreation in modern high-tension liv- 
ing, the increased responsibilit) f 
recreation executives for larger budg- 
ets and more comprehensive pro- 
grams, the trend toward specializa- 
tion of recreation leadership in new 
as well as traditional areas, and the 
increased demand for professionally 
qualified workers, it is now imperative 
that the whole area of recruiting, train- 
ing and placing recreation per-onnel 
be rc--tudied. Thi- will lie the function 
of the National Advisor) Committee. 

Outstanding rcprc-cnt.ilixes of all 
the broad areas of recreation -ci\i.c 
have lieen invited to sene on ihe ad- 
\i-"i\ committee, and have re-ponded 
to the imitation \\liolchcailcdK. The 
pcr-nniicl of the committee will IK- 
announced in the near future. \lrcad\. 
it ha> receited historical information 
and is considering appropriate .H. .1- 
and priorilie* of iiiNc-ligalon l>\ -nli 
i innmittei's. The n-soi i.itimi '- profo- 
-i. .nal slat! is preparing additional 
dm umentai\ material and making b.i- 
-i- -Indie- fnr n-c b\ the i oinmit- 
i lire -in li -ui\c\ loM-iing ( ur 
rent ( ompeii-.ilion and ( ondition- of 
emploN inent will be reported in the 

->cplemlHT i lie of l!l I 111 M \\.' Oth- 
er ipie-lion- .ind stiggc-tiiins from the 
profeion will be welcome, and -hoiild 
ldre--cd to the -< i.-t.iM of the 


l'f|.rinl- atllUlilr aflrr Junr l.'i. 1'*."^'. 
National Rrcrration \--oriation. Pri' 


RH Ht \ii(i\ 

ii in.- < lull* 


I have noticed some recent corre- 
spondence in RECREATION in regard to 
Rifle Clubs for boys. We have spon- 
sored a Junior Rifle Club, affiliated 
with the National Rifle Association, 
for two years. 

Our own club is composed of fifty 
hoys, ages twelve to eighteen. We use 
the police range in the City Hall and 
have obtained some excellent instruc- 
tors among men who have fired in 
state and national competitions. Most 
of the boys use their own guns, but 
guns are made available for those who 
have none. 

Our instructors, who are with the 
boys on the firing line at all times, 
continually stress safety in the use of 
firearms. Each boy's target is scored 
and recorded. When he has qualified 
for a certain medal, it is ordered 
through the National Rifle Association. 
The police have helped with the pro- 
gram and in so doing have gained the 
respect and confidence of the boys. 

We have stressed individual accom- 
plishment to date rather than compe- 
tition and have found that this has 
been especially helpful to those who 
were not well adjusted socially. They 
have learned self-reliance and have im- 
proved in their attitude toward the 
group. When we feel that they have 
just about reached the maximum of 
their ability, they will be divided into 
teams for competitive shooting in order 
that there will be no Interest lag. 

The restlessness which comes from 
wailing turns to shoot has been over- 
come by inaugurating checker tourna- 
ments and domino games, and the ten- 
dency toward boisterousness and 
roughhouse has disappeared. 

The majority of the members of our 
dub are boys who have shown very 
little interest in competitive sports and 

Ji \i 1952 

we feel that it gives this group an ex- 
cellent hobby. 

WAYNE BLY, Superintendent of Rec- 

reation, Atchison, Kansas. 

s of Maiorial 


I have just read Mr. Prendergast's 
article "Sources of Material for Cul- 
tural Recreation Programs", in the 
February number of RECREATION. 

There are many parts in this article 
that I could quote, to which I would 
shout Amen, but it is all good. His 
reference to some of our giants of the 
past was the tenor of the plea I tried 
to make in the Literature Division of 
the Boston Congress. Our youth do not 
know the past, therefore, how can they 
re-live it, recreationally speaking? 

I don't think any of our leaders in 
the field should be representing our 
great movement who have not read 
L. P. Jacks or Joseph Lee, and the 
many others referred to in the article. 
No other leading profession would 
place their stamp of approval on such 
ignorance of their background. I'll 
grant you, we are a leadership of 
doers, but we must have some dreamers 
and thinkers to give reason for our 
many activities. 

A quotation from article, seems to 
sum up the whole matter, "Feeding the 
spirit is much more important than 
training the body." 

(in ANT D. BRANDON, Director of Rec- 

nmlion, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

t. it lit- I -;iuii<- 


I have read your report of the sur- 
vey, on "Competitive Athletics for Boys 
Under Twelve" in the February issue 
of the magazine RECREATION, with in- 
terest. As a strong advocate of Little 
League baseball, I wish to compliment 
the association's fair presentation of 

the problem on competitive sports for 
this age group. I might suggest, how- 
ever, that many of the objections raised 
against such a program are very nicely 
covered in the booklet issued by Lit- 
tle League headquarters, entitled, "This 
Is Little League."* 

DANIEL J. MCFADDEN, Superinten- 
dent of Parks and Recreation, Ar- 
lington, Massachusetts. 

*Available from Little League Baseball, In- 
corporated, 348 William Street, Williamsport, 

Tin- Magazine 


I have served in recreation work 
from community recreation through 
university campus recreation, the Army 
Special Service program to the Veterans 
Administration, and I am truly sur- 
prised with the excellent coverage of 
every phase of recreation that appears 
monthly in RECREATION. 

This magazine serves as a tool to 
keep me alert with material and ideas 
which keep me alive in my profession. 
Particularly in my work with domi- 
ciled veterans there is a great chal- 
lenge in meeting the recreation needs 
of the older age groups. 

By constantly receiving "fuel for 
thought" I experience a greater reward 
of growth and happiness in my work. 
The article, "Sources of Material For 
Cultural and Recreational Programs" 
by Joseph Prendergast, in the February- 
issue, was excellent. 

ALYCE E. HUSA, Recreation Director 
For the Veterans Administration 
Special Service Division, Iowa City, 

The April issue of RECREATION is 
the best issue ever published for use 
by general staff members and we want 
to furnish a copy to each of our sum- 
mer supervisors. 

W. A. MOORE, Superintendent, De- 
partment of Public Parks and Rec- 
reation, Louisville, Kentucky. 


"A Safe Swing Seat" 
Order Today-$3.95 F.O.B. Factory 


P.O. 474-Highland Park, III. 



A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 
JOSEPH PRENDERGAST, Executive Director 


Ono T. MALLEI Y .................. Chairman of the Board 

PAUL MOORE, Jm ...................... Fine Vice-Prcsident 

Mis. OCDIN L. MILLS ............... Second Vice-President 

SUSAN M. LIE. .Third Vice-President and Secretary of the Hoard 
AMIAN M. MASIIE ............................ Trcaturer 

GUSTATUS T. KIIRY .................... Treasurer Emeritut 



F. W. H. ADAMI New York. N Y 

B hi MI% Boston, Mass. 

MB*. ROBERT WOOD* BLISS Washington, D. C. 

MR*. ARIIIIR G. CUMMER Jacksonville, Hi 

W u HAM H. DATM New York, N 1 



MRS. PAL-L GAII A<.HIR Omaha, Nehr, 

RI-BI i (.ARRITT Baltimore, Md. 

AL*TI* E. GRIFFITH* Seattle. Wash. 


Mil. CHARLES V. HICKOX Michigan City, Ind. 

MR*. JOHN D. JAMESON Bcllport. N. Y. 

SUSAN M, Ur New York, N. Y. 

OTTO T. MALLUT Philadelphia, Pa. 

CARI F. Mn i nr N Augutta, Me. 

MR*. OCDEN L. MUM New York, N. Y. 

PAUI MOORE, J J*r*ey Ci: 


MRS. SK.MUND STERN San Francitco. Calif. 

GRANT I i r s * OUT n Noroion, Conn. 

MRS. WILLIAM VAN AIEN Philadelphia. Pa. 

J. C. WAMH Yonkeri. N. Y. 

PUBwaUCI M. * ARILRC New York. N V 

Executive Director's Offict 


Correipontlence and Consultation 



Recreation Magazine 


Special Publications 


Personnel Service 



Research Department 


Work with Volunteers 


Field Department 




Servict to Stttrt ROBERT R. GAMBLB 

Are tt **J Facilities Fltnminn *mJ Swnoi 



Kitbrrtme F, Barker Mrmorifl 
Sfcrtitry for Womrm **J Cirlt 


ImJmitntl Rscrfitiom C. E. BREWER 

Kremlin* LriJrnbip Tnimtmi Comrttt 



N*w EaigUad District 


(Present address . . . New York) 

Middle Atlantic District 

JOHN W. FAUST East Orange, N. J. 

GIMCE A. Nisarrr New York. N. Y 

(.real Lakes District 

JOHN J. COLLIU Toledo, Ohio 

RoetRT L. HOCNIT Madison, Wis. 


Southern District 

Miss MARION Purer Alexandria, Va. 

RALPH VAN FLEET Clearwater, Fla. 

WILLIAM M. HAT Nashville. Tenn. 

M.dwet District 

ARTHVR Tooo Kansas City, Mo. 


Southwest District 

Pacific Northwest District 
WUXARD H. SMI MARD Seattle. Wash. 

Pacific Southwest District 
LYNN S. RODNBT Los Angelci, Calif. 

Affiliate Membership 

AaUiste cnembership in the National 
Recreation Aitociatioo is open to all non- 
profit private and public org snitittoni 
whoee fvnctioM U wholly or primanlv the 
pewvisiw* or prosssotioa of recreation scr*- 
tcea or which isscUde recreation as an im- 
poetaat part of their total program and 
whose cooperation in th work of the s**- 
cution would, la the opinion of the **** 
ciation's Board of Directors, further the 
end. of the national recreation movement 

Active Associate Membership 

Active associate membership in the 
National Recreation Atsociation is open to 
all individuals who art active!? engaged 
on s full-time or part-time employed basil 
or ai volunteers in a nonprofit private or 
public recreation organiiation and whose 
cooperation in the work of the association 
would, in the opinion of the association** 
Bosrd of Directors, further the ends of the 
national recreation movement 


Toe continuation of the work of the 
National Recreation Association from year 
to fear is made possible bv the splendid 
cooperation of several hundred volunteer 
sponsors throughout the country, and thr 
attributions of thousands of sup 

itaWOM contributions of thousands of tup- 
porters of this movement to bring health. 
hippinot and creative living to the bovi 
and girls and the men and women of 
America If you would tike to run in the 
support of this movement. vo may send 
your contribution direct to tne astociatmn 

Thr National Krcmtion Asftociatton i a nation- 
whir, nonprofit, nnnpnlitical and nontcctarian civic 
nrgani/aimn. r*uhh-h*-.| in 1906 and tupported by 
voluntary contribution^, and dediralrd to the terv* 
irr of all rrcrraiton *-\r<-uti\ra. Irader* and agen- 

cies, public and private, to the end that every child 
in America shall have a place to play in *afeiy and 
that every person in America, young and old, shall 
have an opportunity for the best and nm-i satisfy- 
ing use of his expanding lri*urr time. 

For further information regarding the tutociation't service?* and membership, p/rosr u-nie to the 
Executive Director. Nation** Recreation Atsociation, 3IS Fourth Avenue. New York 10. New York, 


Tin 1 Plan 1 of Supervision 
in a l!i i i iTiiiinii Program 

A Guest Editorial 

Supervision is a process through 
which the work of an organization 
"gets done." In a recreation bureau or 
department the responsibility for su- 
pervision is delegated to the superin- 
tendent by the recreation commission 
and in turn is further delegated to 
some members of the staff, in accord- 
ance with the functional distribution 
of the work of the organization. The 
supervisors are the "middle men" in 
the organizational structure. It is the 
supervisors who help the superintend- 
ent and, through him, the commis- 
sioners to adjust the structure of the 
organization to the changing needs of 
the community. It is the supervisors 
who help the superintendents to es- 
tablish channels of communication 
through which recreation workers par- 
ticipate in the planning and policy 
making aspects of the program. It is 
the supervisors who help the workers 
to understand the organizational struc- 
ture through which the program 
achieves unity. The supervisors, work- 
ing with the superintendent on one 
hand and with the workers on the 
other, are the key people in the de- 
velopment of a social climate in which 
not only each worker, but also the 
participating public, find satisfying so- 
cial experience. 

Supervision is a relationship be- 
tween employees of an organization 
through which those staff members 
designated as supervisors have the ob- 
ligation to help the workers respon- 
sible to them to perform their func- 
tions effectively. In recreation, these 
workers may be paid or volunteer, 
part-time or full-time. They may be 
recreation workers or workers with as- 

AUTIIOR, professor of social welfare, 
University of California, is a well- 
known leader in group work field. 

JUNE 1952 

signments in clerical or maintenance 
work. They may be specialists, such 
as umpires or referees, engineers or 

It is the responsibility of the staff 
of a recreation bureau to develop the 
organizational structure, under the 
leadership of the superintendent and 
the supervisors, in which each worker 
participates in the process through 
which policies and procedures are 
determined and overall program plan- 
ning is achieved. 

Workers are able to participate ef- 
fectively in planning and administer- 
ing a recreation bureau when: (1) 
they have knowledge, aptitude and 
temperament to do the work assigned; 
(2) they are introduced to their jobs 
through a well-planned and skillfully 
taught orientation course; (3) they 
clearly understand their duties and 
responsibilities and how their work 
is related to that of other members 
of the staff; (4) they know to whom 
they are responsible and to whom 
they can go for help (wherever pos- 
sililr. no worker should be responsible 
to more than one supervisor) ; (5) 
they feel appreciated, receive recogni- 
tion for work well done and construc- 
tive criticism for their failures, trust 
their supervisors and identify their 
work with that of the whole organiza- 
tion in which they have a reasonable 
degree of pride.* 

The above description of the condi- 
tions which enable workers to partici- 
pate effectively on the staff of a rec- 
reation bureau clearly indicates the 
skill and functions of a recreation 
supervisor. He must have: 

1. Ability to recruit and select work- 
ers with knowledge, skill and person- 

* Adapted from George D. Halsey, Hand- 
book of Personnel Management. New York: 
Harper & Brothers, 1947. 

by Gertrude Wilson 

ality for performing work to be done. 

2. Skill in planning and teaching 
orientation courses. 

3. Skill in development of organiza- 
tional structure based on specific job 
descriptions and clear cut lines of re- 

4. Skill in helping (teaching, guid- 
ing and directing) workers to in- 
crease their quality of performance. 

5. Skill in helping workers to eval- 
uate their own work, enjoy success 
and profit from failure. 

6. Capacity to establish relationships 
from which workers develop a sense 
of trust. 

7. Ability to share his own pride 
in and identification with the recrea- 
tion bureau with other workers. 

Discussion of the above functions 
and skills of a supervisor with a group 
of recreation workers, consisting of 
twenty-five supervisors, nine superin- 
tendents, one member of a state rec- 
reation commission and one staff mem- 
ber of the commission, brought out 
the following questions which may be 
typical of questions in the minds of 
many recreation workers: 

1. What support should a super- 
visor expect from a superintendent in 
carrying out these functions? 

2. Should a supervisor expect to 
receive this type of supervision from 
the superintendent? 

3. Does a worker ever achieve suf- 
ficient competence to function with- 
out supervision? If so, by what criteria 
may such competence be achieved? 

4. To what extent do supervisors 
recruit and select workers in a civil 
service system? 

5. How can multiple supervision be 
avoided in a department where super- 
visory positions are defined in terms 
of program specializations? 

6. How can a supervisor help to 
develop a democratic administrative 


(lose Vour Train Room 
linn r and Say Tnrlrr. 
II nk r mi 1 n |i in Seal llr" 

Congress City Seattle. Washington 
Dates - September 28 to October 3 
Official Train Northern Pacific 

There's nothing like a transcon- 
tinental train for rest, and good 
fellowship during any hours you 
want to be awake. There may even 
be conferences, arguments, talk. 
noise, fun as the official NBA con- 
vention train rolls along. Delegates 
can be busy when not sleeping. But 
sleep everybody who's tired will. 
The N.P. roadbed puts you to sleep. 

OhPThwe'l one wild night on this 

trip! It's a Barn Dancr in Montana, 

.it (.hico Springs the folk-dance- 

s<|nare-dance capital of Paradise Val- 

v.vmg your partners"! 

And there's an extra-special stop 
to see Yellowstone 1'ark. Yellow- 
stone is officially closed hut \l;\ 
|)riel the place o|>en-jiist for us. 

There's .i Coii\ention Trip folder 
printed, with pictures. Send for it. 
if there's the slightest chance that 
von can o to Seattle next Septem- 
her I'lease address 

National Recreation Association 
315 Fourth Avenue, 
New York K> \ 1 

structure in a department to whiih 
-in-li a concept is foreign? 

7. What t\|M- of content should be 
included in an orientation coni-e.' 
How does a supervisor evaluate his 
trarhing methods? How improve them? 

8. How can a supervisor teach a 
worker to carry out his work respon- 

9. How can a supervisor maintain 
hi- position as a "supervisor" and at 
the same time have friendly relation- 
ships with his fellow workers? 

10. How much time should a su- 
pervisor spend with each supervisee? 
Can o'ne supervisor be responsible for 
as many as forty-five or fifty workers? 

These questions reflect the serious 
thinking of a group of recreation lead- 
ers struggling to emerge as competent 
professional workers. The questions 
raised are those which are perplexing 
many workers in all of the professions. 
They indicate areas for study and re- 
search. The questions also clearly in- 
dicate what supervision, in many rec- 
reation departments (and in other 
areas of work) actually is in < n- 
trast to the previous statement of what 
supervision should be when considered 
in the light of personnel management 
principles based on understanding hu- 
man relationships. 

During recent years the attention 
of socially minded scholars in many 
fields has been directed to studies in 
human relations with the result that 
it is now recognized that one of the 
great needs of human beings is to be- 
long to a group in which there is 
an opportunity to participate in il- 
management and program. The public 
awareness of (In- value of self-govern- 
ing groups has created a demand fi 
.1 different type of service from rec- 
n-.ilion worker- a- well as from other 
-01 worker-, teaeher-. pin -i' ian-. 
clerfiv. and those in all other profes- 
-ioii- who work with |H-o|)le. Th. 

re, ill. .n Woiki'I who i ' lie-. Irarhe-. 

leads or advises a team. da, ii < 
group or i-luli need- two Ivjie* of 
kill: I 1 I skill in under-landing the 
d\ n. mm, of hum, in l.cli. i\ lot anil in 
il-inp under-lending a he deter 
mine, hi- own l>eliii\ior Us lie e...u he-. 

. lead* or advim-n. and <2i -kill 
iti the program content he IIM- when 

he . ...II hi-., ||i-v I, .id- "1 .!' 

One type of skill without the other 
is a job half done. 

Recreation worker- need help from 
their -uper\ i.-or- in n n ile r-ta ml i n } 
themselves and their relation-hip* to 
the groups and individuals with whom 
thcv work. They need help in learning 
how to work with one another as -tall 
members. They need help in learning 
how to think about and participate 
in the recreation bureau as a whole. 
They need help in relating the pro- 
gram of the recreation bureau to the 
community as a whole. These are the 
elements of professional growth which 
the supervisor seeks to stimulate. 

While a great deal of the success 
which a supervisor achieves in this 
large responsibility is dependent upon 
his own understanding of himself, and 
of the behavior of others, individually 
and in groups, as well as upon his 
knowledge and skill in recreational 
activities the skill he may possess 
will be negated in an organization 
where administrative structure and 
procedures are not in harmony with 
the nature of the relationships which 
the supervisor is trying to help the 
workers to e-tabli-h with their groups. 
Recreation is not a commodity, it is 
a powerful force through which peo- 
ple relate to one another to achieve a 
variety of purposes. Public support of 
recreational programs is predic ated 
upon a belief that it enhance- po-itivc 
human relations and provides oppor- 
tunity for mam people to experiem e 
deinocrnc) through participation on 
manv levels. The aehie\ement of this 
goal is determined as much hv the 
i|ualit\ of the relationship l>etween 
eommi ioneis. -iiperinlendent-. super- 
si-.. i- and workei-. .1- \<\ the knowl- 
edge and skill of the worker- who 
work direct U with the participating 

(Jelling the work of an agem v done 
is a large cooperative undertaking in 

which commis-ionei-. raperinteodmti 

-upervi-ors and worker- p.irlii ip.ile. 
Ih. . hallenge to achieve a real -o. 
experiem e through thi- endeavor is 
one which niii-t be .u < epled in -piril. 
and fortified In -tudv .unl ri--e.mli. 
to identifv the nature of .in ideal situa- 
tion Ion. ml whii h to -Irive and to de- 
ve|op method- of work through which 
to reach it. 

Ill i 1:1 MliiN 

REATION CONGRESS in Seattle will be 
interested to know that the "official 
route" for transcontinental travel is 
being sponsored by the Northern Paci- 
fic Railway. (See pages 130 and 133 in 
this issue of RECREATION.) September 
26, 1952 will be National Recreation 
Congress Day in Yellowstone National 

li\ (lie National Recreation Association 
with the National Park Service to 
make : ( 1 ) a survey to determine the 
extra-urban recreation needs, interests, 
preferences and opportunities of typi- 
cal urban areas within the New Eng- 
land-New York region, and (2) a sur- 
vey of Alaska to (a) determine the 
adequacy of community park and 
recreation programs and formulate 
general recommendations for expand- 
ing and improving such programs, and 
(b I determine for Alaska, as a whole, 
both urban and extra-urban recreation 
needs, interests and preferences and 
the need for expanding existing pro- 
grams and initiating new ones. 
TION EXPENDITURES, which has recently 
appeared in newspapers throughout 
tin- country, has carried a statement 
relating to, in each instance, the local 
expenditures for community recrea- 
tion. Figures quoted have obviously 
been drawn from the 1950 Recreation 
and Park Yearbook. The news release, 
however, was not issued by the Na- 
tional Recreation Association, nor did 
the association have any knowledge 
that such a story was being circulated. 
It is unfortunate that some of the state- 
ments were based upon incomplete re- 
turns, as submitted by the agencies re- 
porting for the Yearbook, and were 
therefore misleading as to the total 
picture in each locality. 

This experience illustrates the im- 
portance of submitting accurate and 
complete reports for the Yearbook. 

If you are interested in comparing 
the 1950 non-capital recreation and 
park expenditures of your city with 
ilio-c of other cities of similar size, 
you will find in the March 1952 issue 
of UECREATION tables analyzing these 
expenditures in terms of per capita 
amounts spent by cities in various 
population groups. 

described by experts as being bad for 
children below the ninth grade both 
physically and mentally at the an- 
nual convention of the American Asso- 
ciation for Health. Physical Education 
and Recreation, in Los Angeles in 
April 1952. The opinions of the two 
hundred twenty physicians, including 
specialists in pediatrics, cardiology and 
orthopedics, were presented, and the 
overwhelming views expressed were 
against ''little bowl" contests and pub- 
licity or "p e P talks" which induce 
superhuman efforts by the youngsters. 
It was agreed that all youngsters need 
sports for moral as well as physical 
development. Broader athletic pro- 
grams were stressed which would in- 
clude all youngsters with concern for 
health coming before interests in a 
winning team. 

THORITY ORDER, to be in affect as of 
July first, permits construction of 
swimming pools and other Table I fa- 
cilities; and major community recrea- 
tion buildings can be constructed after 
October 5, 1952. Commercial construc- 
tion and community recreation build- 
ings are permitted to use up to five 
tons of carbon steel including not 
more than two tons of structural steel 
and two hundred pounds of copper 
and two hundred and fifty pounds of 
aluminum per quarter. This material 
may be self-authorized by the agency 
undertaking the construction. Larger 
facilities may be constructed by com- 
bining the self-authorized allotments 
for two quarters. 


determine the needs of service men 
and women stationed at camps through- 
out the country, was announced by the 
USO in March. The survey will be 
conducted by USO's Program Advisory 
Committee, under the chairmanship of 
Dean Kenneth Johnson of the New 
York School of Social Work, Colum- 
bia University. Executive administra- 
tor for the study will be Dr. David 
DeMarche, director of group work and 
community organization at Springfield 
College, Springfield, Massachusetts. 
(population 247,408), on April first, 
voted to retain their public recreation 
commission. This was the third suc- 

cessful result from similar attempts to 
abolish all local administering boards 
or commissions in that city. The vote 
was 42,496 to 29,007. 
* TACOMA, WASHINGTON (population 
142,975) On March 11 the voters 
approved two recreation bond issues 
by a three to one majority. This in- 
cludes four and one-half mills for 
operation and five mills for new im- 

TION DISTRICT, Springfield, Oregon 
(population 10,771) At the same time 
and by a large majority, a $72,000 
bond issue passed for recreation build- 
ing and operation. 

4.965) On April 8 the voters of this 
community were successful in their 
efforts, through a referendum, in es- 
tablishing a park district. 
FOR CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, was success- 
fully passed on April 8. This means 
that the school board will have an op- 
portunity to offer community center 
recreation programs in many new sec- 

California civil service class of recrea- 
tion therapist have been liberalized to 
allow additional men and women to 
enter state service, according to the 
California State Personnel Board. Now 
college graduates who have majored in 
recreation or recreation therapy are 
eligible, providing their major has in- 
cluded supervised field work. Gradu- 
ates with minors in recreation or rec- 
reation therapy, certain types of ma- 
jors and a year of group recreation 
work experience may also apply, as 
may applicants who have completed 
graduate work in a school of social 
work. Detailed information and appli- 
cation forms may be obtained from 
State Personnel Board offices in Sacra- 
mento, San Francisco and Los Ange- 
les, or any local department of em- 


Custom Built 

A body building fun device 

Unequalled in the c'imber field. 

Write for catalog. 


P.O. 474 -Highland Park, III. 



3. 1952 



Paul V. Brown 

Ben Evans 

John R. Vanderiicht 

BUI Pond 

Robert C. S*ph*nt 

/ ntlQClUC.ltiy ., (,. among tin- iiiiinx 
v.ho in- looking forward !< HC|. inning n-i t.-.ihon leaders 
I" the grral Norlln\'-l lhi fnll. ami who will act a* hosts 


F'ul V. Hrown. s ii|.'Tinlrn<lrnt nf Sfltlr l'rk: Brn Kvan*. 

Dirrrior <il R., rnliiin, Srilllr Park lr|>rtmrnl : John R. Vn- 

-hi. |)ir><i>.[ Niitr I'irk* mi'- ' "ill 

'ni. Km. 'Ulr l'rk ml Rrrrriion 

I. i -. pdri - i p. rintrnilrnl K . ' MBt] 

l'rk mil ReuBBtbu Detriment. 


Discussion Will Flourish 

With the helpful cooperation of the several Congress 
committees for particular aspects of this year's Congress 
in Seattle, the Recreation Congress Committee has now ilr- 
trrmined the topir> which will be covered in the group 
discussions of the meeting. Discussion always has heen 
the very heart of the Congress, and this war will see im 
exception. Thirty-five different meetings are planned, at 
present, not including those especially scheduled on the 
opening day of the Congress. At that time, recreation 
executives, recreation supervisors and worker*, town and 

Seated. I. to '.. Nita Upmeyer. Fieldhouie Supervitor and 
George D Wyie, Athletic Supervitor, King County Parkt and 
Playfleldi; Ruth I. Pike, Recreation Specialitt, State Pork, and 
Recreation Commiuion; Pearl Powell, Recreation Supervitor, 
Seattle Park Department. Standing, I. to r., Ralph Wilton, Rec- 
reation Specialitt, State Parkt and Recreation Committion; Lou 
Evant, Attittant Director of Recreation, Seattle Park Depart- 
ment; Rutted Porter, Community Recreation Supervisor, King 
County Porki and Playfleldt. 

Kl 10 UlnN 

country recreation workers (formerly called "rural"), hos- 
pital recreation workers and industrial recreation leaders 
will hold their special sessions. Still another special group 
of guests will meet on Monday, but members are not plan- 
ning to waste the whole day in meeting. They are the 
wives of Congress delegates. Once they have decided on 
an interesting program for the day and the week, the 
chances are that they will promptly go about executing 
a course of action. 

The Recreation Congress Committee is busily engaged 
now at finding the best possible people to assist with the 
development of the discussion topics. Suggestions, if they 
can be sent in very soon, will be gratefully received. Study 
the topics listed and begin to collect your own questions to 
throw into the hopper for those meetings in which you 
are especially interested. 

The Congress Preliminary Pamphlet has been published 
and mailed to several thousand recreation leaders. If for 
any reason your copy has not reached you, please write 
for one and it will be sent promptly. 

In the following list of topics, key words are italicized. 
They cover an unusually wide range of problems this year. 
As much care as possible is being taken to schedule these 
meetings so that a minimum of conflicts will result. 

Discussion Topics 

Building the Recreation Program Arts and Crafts For Board 
Members Only 

How Arc Municipalities Providing Camping Opportunities? 

Building a Well-Rounded Program in Indoor Recreation Centers 

Organizing and Leading Church Recreation Programs 

Why Civil Defense Needs Recreation 

The Role of County Government in Recreation 

Employee Recreation in a Defense Setting 

Building the Recreation Program Dramatics 

Strengthening the Family through Recreation 

Developing Programs for Girls and Women 

Highly Organized Midget Athletics Are Harmful Fact or Fancy? 

Where to Get More Money for More Service 

Doing Our Best with What Money We Get 

Building the Recreation Program Music 

Idea." That Work for Off-Post Recreation 

\< ii\ily Programs for Oldsters 

Doubling in Brass The One-Man Department 

Recreation in I'ai/.s and Forests National. Stale and Local 

Recreation Personnel Problems 

I'rl Ideas 

Do Others See You as You See Yourself? Are Your Public Rela- 
tions Showing? 

Recreation and Park Department Relationships 

Appraising 1952's Recreation Research Development. - 

Ki-ginnal Recreation Planning At Work Puget Sound Park Study 

Regional Recreation Planning At Work Alaska, River Basin Stud- 
ir -, New York-New England, Southern Regional Study 

Getting in on the Recreation Planning of New Schools 

De-ign and Construction of Special Recreation Facilities 

Principles of State Recreation Services to Communities 

Major Current Surfacing Problems 

College and Graduate Training for Recreation 

In-Ser\ice Training Programs That Work 

How Creative Are You in Using Volunteers? 

Developing and Conserving Water Recreation Resource^ 

What I Want to Know Is 

Getting to Seattle 

. How would you like to combine a trip to the Congress 
with a visit to Yellowstone National Park? This question 
so challenged the Congress Committee that after careful 
investigation arrangements were finally concluded with the 
Northern Pacific Railway Company for such a special trip, 
for all interested Congress delegates. Beginning in Chicago 
on September 24 the trip will include a whole day, Septem- 
ber 26. in Yellowstone, and then continue to Seattle, arriv- 
ing on Sunday, September 28. 

Traveling to the Congress this year may be almost as 
much of a special event for some of the delegates as the 
actual Congress itself. Westerners are old hands at showing 
the thousands of natural wonders that fill their section of 
our country. Easterners, however they travel west, are 
sure to be moved by what there is to see if they keep 
their eyes open. 

The majesties of nature are all the more interesting to 

For Seattle Routes Consult 

Summer Vacations -U. S. A. 

In this publication, travelers to the Congress will find 
travel tips, information on routes, scenic wonders, what 
to see in the state of Washington, special events to con- 
sider when planning the trip, and vacation ideas for 
every section of the country. 

Inform yourself about the important or enjoyable 
things to be seen between your home and Seattle. Don't 
miss that wonderful place a few miles off your main 
route, just because you didn't know it was there. Let 
SUMMER VACATIONS-U.S.A. help you plan. See de- 
tailed announcement, page 122. 


Order from your local book store or 
National Recreation Association. 

Price $1.00 

recreation leaders. Many of the finest western sights have 
been saved for all the people to enjoy through the action of 
state and federal governments in establishing state and na- 
tional parks. 

This natural interest of recreation leaders is what led 
the Congress Committee to give such careful consideration 
to the opportunity to include a visit to Yellowstone in the 
Congress program for those who wish to take it. There 
are many ways to get to Seattle. Many will want to fly, 
because of special preferences or to save time. Many will 
want to go by train but will not have time to include a 
whole day in Yellowstone enroute. Many are already plan- 
ning family trips by car to Seattle and will combine some 
vacation with the important business of attending the 
Congress. There is talk in one southern city of chartering 
a bus to take a load of delegates to the Pacific Northwest. 
Whatever the mode of travel, whatever the route, some of 
the finest scenery in the world lies between Seattle and 
every prospective delegate to the 1952 National Recreation 

For those to whom there is appeal in the idea of travel- 

JUNE 1952 


ing to the Congress and home again with other Con- 
gress delegates, and for those who are desirous of seeing 
Yellowstone, the "official" tour may have a great deal of 
intere-l. The trip originates in Chicago, but delegates can 
join it eriroute where the itinerary comes within reach. 

Tlii- particular Congress delegation will leave Chicago 
"ti the Burlington at 1 I :IMI p.m.. \\ ednesday. September 
_'l. Tin- next morning at St. Paul the Northern Pacific will 
take over and head west to Livingston, Montana, arriving 
there at 7:4.5 a.m. on Friday, September 26. All day Fri- 
dax will he spent in a tour by special bus of the wonders 
of Yellowstone, including lovely Paradise Valley, Mam- 
moth Hot Springs, Golden Gate. Klrrtrii- Peak. Firehole 
Canyon, Yellowstone Rixer. Kagle's Nest Rock. Gibbon 
Falls, the Paint Pots, Old Faithful Geyser, of course, and 
H ore- of miglilx. arlixe springs and erupting geysers. 

Knowing that Congress delegates enjoy square dancing, 
the planners of this itinerary have ended this day with a 
row box -how and dinner dance at Chico Hot Springs, a 
hotbed of Montana square dancing. 

After National Recreation Congress Day in Yellowstone, 
and a mighty full dax at thai, our weary delegates will 
board the sleepers again at Livingston, and early the next 
morning another Northern Pacific train will stop just long 
enough to pick up the special cars and start them mi the 
last lap of the trip to Seattle. 

Knd of the line, going west, is reached at Seattle, Sunday 
morning. September 2!!. 7:.'?0 a.m. 

h.r tho-c x\ho want to return home in a group, several 
alternate itinerarie- liaxe hern worked out. The most ex- 
ten-ixe one includes xi-ils to Portland, San Francisco, 
^oscmite. I.o- \ngeles. Grand Canyon, and arrives in 
Chicago the afternoon of October 16. Other mules return 
via Portland, Salt Lake City and Denver, or via Victoria, 
Vancouver and the Canadian Rockies, or direct. 

Lassen Volcanic National Park. Mineral. California 
Olxmpie National Park. Port Angeles. Washington 
Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park-. Three llixei-. 


Yellowstone National 1'aik. V-llnu-tone Park. \\xoming 
N o-emite National Park, Cot eminent Outer, i osemite 

National Park. California 

>perial attention is called to National Recreation Connie- 
Day in Yellowstone National Park on Friday, Septeml>er 
26, when a tour of Yellowstone will be made by all Con- 
gress delegate- who wish to take the "oHicial" mule to 

Recreation Facilities 

In addition, delegates will want to visit at least one of 
the fifty state parks in Washington, where fi-hing and 
ramping are especially good. 

In the cities enroute to Seattle, and in Seattle itself, the 
municipal parks and other recreation facilities are out- 
standing. Spokane has one of the oldest recreation pro- 
grams in the state, with an activities program developed 
through its park system. At Knumrlaw, there are camping 
facilitir-. and xoii ran \i-it the King County park and field 
house which serves that communilx. Also distineli\e for 
its park and recreation facilities i- Longview, a modern 
ril\ planned by the Long Bell Lumber Companx. Between 
Tacoma and Seattle, on I'. S. Highway 'W. xou pass the 
Boeing Airplane Companx. xxhirh operate- -nrli an out- 
-landing industrial recreation program. And, of rom-e. 
\ou will want to visit both the King Countx and city of 
>eallle in-lallation- to -ce their programs in action. 

Seattlc-Via National Parks 

l)e|cgates lo tin- National Recreation Congre-- .n --e 
lie may want to ron-ider \i-iting one or more of the na- 
tional parks in connection with the trip to ihc Pacific 
Northwe-l thi- -ummer. Some of the larger national park-. 
which may be vi-lte.l enroute to that city depending 
upon whether xou are traveling a northern or southern 
mule .tie li-led below. The season, in some of tin- nm-t 
norlherlx of thc-e. end- a- earlx ,1- tin- middle of Seplem- 
U-r. but the roadg may lie used until blinked by snow, 
which u-uallx i- not until the middle of October. The 
other national parks, CM ept (hone in the extreme north. 
re open all xear. For |M-< id. information about any "f 
thi-M- park-, nddrrss inquiries to the local -uperinlendent 
at the addrt- given here. 
Rig Brnd National Park. Marathon. Texas 

: Lake Nntional Park. Crater Ijike. Oregon 
I < niton National Park, '.rand Canyon. Arizona 
Mount II. i ! i National I'.uk. l.ongmire. Wa-hinglon 


Congress hcadquartcrt will be at the Olympic Hotel in 
Seattle, where matt of the meeting! will be held. A number 
of other hotels in the city are cooperating, and a liit of theie, 
with the range of prices for rooms and suites, follows. Delegates 
ore reminded that always there ore only a very few rooms 
available at the minimum rates. So, please make your reser- 
vations early and correspond directly with the hotel of your 
choice. The Congress Committee is not handling hotel reserva- 



Olympic Hotel 
Benjamin Franklin Hotel 
Earl Hotel 
Hungerford Hotel 
Moore Hotel 
Mayflower Hotel 
New Washington Hotel 
Roosevelt Hotel 
Stratford Hotel 
Stewart Hotel 
Vance Hotel 

$600 $1050 
So 00 $ 800 

$s oa$ 7.00 

$500$ 6.00 

(and Twins) 
$B.OO$U.OO < 
$500$ 6.00 
$5.50$ 7.00 
$6.50 $ 8.50 
$8 00$ 9.00 

$7.00$ 9.00' 
$6.75$ 8.00 

Suites also available. 

lor further information on gelling to Seattle plea-e 
mittee at fl"> r"iirlli Vxrniic. Nex\ Vnk I' 1 . New ^..I^,. 


to ll- lie. lealion ( (ingress Com- 
. -e. .Si/r/i'mv I < (//lorn I .>. /. 


III I III Xl|o\ 

Floats on lake present beautiful spectacle. Greatest number of 
points are awarded to craft producing most striking reflection. 

A Unique 

Freda Combs 


A HILL and across a bridge, the lanterns sway gent- 
ly back and forth with the motion of the marchers. Over 
nine hundred children are carrying these in the annual 
parade which weaves over a large unwooded area of Fair- 
view Park, in Decatur, Illinois. The route is lined with 
thousands of spectators. This event a lantern and float 
parade has been one of the highlights of the local recre- 
ation department summer program for the last seventeen 
years, and closely ties in with the local playground pro- 

The children finish their parade at the lake, where space 
has been reserved for them to sit on the banks, or to stand 
on the bridge, with their lighted lanterns reflecting in the 
water. As soon as the last child has settled into place, the 
launching of the floats begins. A microphone, manned by 
a master of ceremonies, is used to announce the events; 
and as each float is launched, the name of the playground 
responsible for it is given. 

The park police, as well as those of the city, cooperate 
with the recreation department in making this big event a 
successful one. Park police handle the traffic and parking 
of cars. One of the city police squad cars, with two officers, 
is stationed nearby to help if needed and to be the spot 
where lost children and parents can be re-united. 

Children of all ages, from four or five years old and up, 
take part in the lantern parade, and make and decorate the 
lanterns which they proudly carry. 

These are constructed on the city playgrounds from 
cardboard and boxes of all sizes, including ice cream 
containers and hatboxes, which neighborhood merchants 
save for the children. Designs are either traced or drawn 
on them, and cut out with scissors and one-edged razor 
blades. (No small child is allowed to use the razor blades.) 
A local kite factory donates large quantities of red. blue, 
green and white paper, which is used to back the cut out 
designs. Some of the more ambitious and artistic of the 
children color the white paper with water colors, produc- 

AITHOR, recreation supervisor and director oj play- 
grounds for Decatur, is in charge of special activities. 

ing rich and beautiful effects. 

Special precaution is taken to make handles for the 
lanterns, which will eliminate the danger of a child being 
burned; and careful spacing of participants in the parade 
is rigidly enforced to avoid injury. If a lantern should 
catch fire, the child is instructed to drop it and leave it. 
Never, never should he attempt to blow out a burning 
lantern. Each playground group must have at least one 
leader in charge, assisted by several parents^ With careful 
planning, this activity can be a very beautiful spectacle, 
devoid of any hazards. 

The children are assembled in a large, open area, where 
placards bearing the names of the playgrounds have been 
firmly staked in the ground. No lanterns are lighted until 
a signal is given by the leader in charge of the parade. As 
soon as all are glowing, it starts moving. A leader with a 
red flashlight torch sets the pace and acts as guide over a 
winding course previously decided upon, while the munici- 
pal band of Decatur furnishes a musical accompaniment. 

The floats also are made on the playgrounds by the chil- 
dren, with some assistance from their parents. Each sum- 
mer the department selects a theme for the summer play- 
ground program, and the floats depict this theme as much 
as is possible. The children participate in the planning and 
construction of their floats with much zest. A great deal of 
secrecy surrounds the actual operation, for each play- 
ground attempts to keep its design a surprise until the big 
night arrives. It becomes quite a game when the children 
try to get information about the kind of float being con- 
structed on another playground. 

Discarded or inexpensive materials are used for the 
most part. Some of the floats are very elaborate while 
others are very simple. The twenty-four by thirty-six inch 
bases, made by the recreation department, are delivered 
about three weeks before the event. They are uniform in 
size and weight, and are salvaged after the parade and 
stored for the next year. For the top construction, kite 
sticks (from the kite factory), cardboard, wire, paint, glue, 
string, wood, and so forth, are used. 

A minimum of solid construction is most desirable, since 

Jl NE l<r>2 


l.auiuliiim Hunt requires serviees of several men. Hope attached 
to llu- front is pulled at signal by man on other side of lake. 

the more transparency there is the more reflection there 
will In- on the water. Lighting is either by candies or bat- 
teries and small bulbs. Of course, the battery type of light- 
ing is preferred, since there is less danger of fire. 

Each playground is requested to take its float to some 
body of water, before the final event, to test its balance. 
Top-heavy construction or uneven distribution of weight 
will make a float capsize. 

Ml floats are assembled at least one hour before the 
time set for the parade. The area is barricaded and a 
leader placed in charge to assure safekeeping. 

Three judges from the community are selected to rate 
the floats on construction, theme and reflection. They are 
(M-rsons not directly connected with the playgrounds, and 
therefore are impartial. The first judging is done on land, 
f>r construction and theme. The greatest number of poinl- 


33rd edition. 997 pp., $8.00 

A coni|il<-t-l> ir\i-i-il ..lit inn nf ihr -taiularil annual Di- 
r.i Inn. CiiiiialK .l.-i ril.r- anil rla ilii- I'muti N-hool-. 
l'rimar\. s,., ,,,,,|,,, v sp,., j^lj/,.,1 I'manlinc anil Day Srhool-. 
anil Junior < !ollri:i-. Mam m-w fi-alui<-> liav In i-n aililnl. 
"Thr .t.'fnl lliinilhiKil. i\ ihi- lirit unr juit mil !/." "/ find 
ilinl \i>mr nl ihr iii-u triiinrrt. in thr tun ul li\lin/i schools 
unit \ihitnl mrml>rnhit>\. iirr imrliiiiliirl\ helpful." "H 
frnliilnlr MIU fur \nitr finr nlilnrinl 1,11 \unr Inlhrr anil ihr 
i in ma \ inifirmrmrn/.t." 


A Report- 1951 
132 pp.. red ii/fc cloth, $2.00 

f ll.ll II..I- III llirnu lll'lll Mil I illlll IM|>I>I.II\ ll'llil- .Hill ,\ 

li ml our pi r-| i tin- \ nn -mortal \iilmm In I'urti-r I 
lii-ni. lio for lliiit\ nliiril ami pulili-lu-il thr 

Mainllxuik. I -In. Dm i lion-" ii,. luili-- in HIV tnliiiii- 
in In- lon([ anil rornlrm ii\< i iirrrr. 

(.1 IDI TO rim \TI: ii'Mon < 01. i EGES 

AM' MT( I M I/I I) s< llnol s \\n 

( oi LEGES 

224 po 9 .t. red tilk, (loth $2.20; paper $1.10 
Writ* lor firtulort ol above and other publication!. 

I 1)1 i \llu\\l < ill \>H |\(. HiH IMHKM- 
MiimlrnU of l.imili'-- ar- |II'||M-I| in fimlinii ihr riiil'l 
imp- fnt tin if i liililn n (!atilo|i ami n 
UN. -!..| information -ii|>|iliii| U nl> latinn p.irlii ular*. 

1-oiili.i; s \iu.i M 

Beocen Street teilon I, Moi 

ati 1 giM'ti for rt-llerlioii. IIOWCMT. MI the judge- inu-t 
wait until the last float is in the \\;iter to eomplete their 

I 1 or ihr launi hiiifj. a length of rope i- .inchoreil on both 
>iilr- of the lake with a surplus equal to that needed to 
-I i etch across the lake. On each end of the float base is 
a hook. The rope is attached to the front, pulled under 
the float and honked on the IMC k end. At a signal, given 
h\ flashlight, an operator on the other side of the lake 
pulls tin- rope until ngnaied to stop. Three or four floats 
are attached in like manner to one rope, placed about ten 
or twel\e feet apart. Five such ropes are used, -o that 
the floats an- placed far enough apart to make a distinct 
pattern with their reflections. The launching requires the 
services of one man on the opposite side of the lake, and 
three or four men handling the float itself. 

The children on the pla\ grounds have been asked to find 
as many old candles as possible and to make floating can- 
dles. These are placed around the edge of the lake, except 
on the launching side, where they make a beautiful border. 

Winners are announced over the loud speaker, and rib- 
bons awarded. Local merchants donate window -pace to 
display the first, second and third place winning floats. 
This not only publicizes the playground program but gives 
the public a better chance to stud\ the construction. 

Maybe we are tempting the weather man when we an- 
nounce the date for this event in advance, but we are 
willing to take that risk, trusting he will forget this mo- 
mentous August night. Actually, we haven't been rained 
out oi a single lantern parade since it was stalled. 


&tA&&c Equipment 



Memories of camping experiences, showing how 
much they can mean to a blind boy, or any boy. 

A Part of My Life 

JL ERHAPS it's because I was a city 
boy, tired of the smells of coal and 
human crowds, despising the city's 
endless pavements and noisy loneli- 
ness; but whatever the reason, each 
time I think back to the summers that 
I spent at camp, the sweeter the 
breezes smell, the warmer the sun feels, 
the friendlier and gayer seem my fel- 
low campers, and the more buoyant 
and exuberant the freedom that I ex- 
perienced in those days. 

For ten summers I had this freedom. 
Most of these I spent at Camp Light- 
house on Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. 
This camp for blind children, run by 
the New York Association for the 
Blind, was reserved for the girls in 
July and boys in August, and was like 
any other camp, with its playgrounds, 
lawns, recreation hall, mess hall and 

It had an excellent staff, headed by 
Clyde Lytle, professor of English at 
Kutztown, Pennsylvania State Teach- 
ers College. "Chief Prof," as he was 
affectionately called, was a jovial, un- 
derstanding, efficient man. He always 
had a ready anecdote or riddle, and 
often in the evenings he would present 
Hamlet, The Merchant of Venice, or 
other Shakespearean plays all one- 
man performances. He took every part, 
changing his voice to fit the melan- 
choly Hamlet or the distraught Shy- 
lock. He also sang selections from Gil- 
bert and Sullivan and folk ballads. Be- 
fore taps, when we were getting into 

MR. TWERSKY, now an instructor in 
history at City College in New York 
City, has been blind since childhood. 

JUNE 1952 

Jacob Twersky 

bed, he would make the rounds of all 
the cabins, joking with us or consol- 
ing a homesick boy. He maintained 
discipline, but he did not drive us. He 
led us. 

To me Chief Prof was wonderful. 
There seemed to be no limit to his 
fund of interesting information. It was 
he who encouraged me to recite poetry 
before the assembled camp and to be a 
good athlete. 

Students from Kutztown Teachers 
College, whom Chief Prof brought 
with him, made up most of the corps 
of the counselors. Some of them, com- 
ing from the Pennsylvania Dutch sec- 
tion, impressed us with their German 
accents, and by their quaint use of 
German idiomatic expressions trans- 
lated into English. 

Much of our activity centered around 
the bay. We swam poor swimmers 
near the dock and the better swimmers 
around a raft in deep water and we 
rowed. In both cases we guided our- 
selves by sounds: vocal directions from 
partially sighted campers or fully 
sighted counselors, and the general 
sounds from the raft, dock or shore. 
Fishing from the dock or a boat, we 
caught crabs, sea bass and eels. The 
crabs we scooped out of the water with 
a net, after they had grabbed the bait 
at the end of a line. On some evenings 
we would huddle around a driftwood 
fire crackling on the beach, listening 
to the lapping of the bay, the rustling 
of the grass in the swamp, and smell- 
ing the wood smoke and salt air while 
we told stories and sang. 

I can easily understand why primi- 
tive man considered inanimate matter, 

especially water, as having spirits. 
When I was a boy, I did the same. I 
could see, for instance, that Barnegat 
Bay had a personality, that it was 
definitely alive. The evidence was suf- 
ficient, for it had motion, a voice and 
many moods. At night it often slept 
quietly, or crooned peacefully to itself. 
Sometimes it would sigh, and the rus- 
tling grass on the shore would answer. 
In the morning, it often felt young and 
frisky and would run playfully back 
and forth at the edge of the beach. 
Sometimes it was depressed and beat 
itself sorrowfully against the sand. 
Surely, it had a great spirit. 

We had our own ways of studying 
plant and animal life. A tree was identi- 
fied by touching its leaf or bark. We 
knew well the glove-shaped elm leaf 
and the cork-like oak bark. Flowers 
were recognized by their smells: the 
Indian paint brush smelling like a 
piece of perfumed soap wrapped in 
hay, the sweet pea's discreet scent like 
that of a woman who knows how to 
use good perfume in moderation. We 
became familiar with the fishing-rod- 
smooth gartersnake, the pimply toad, 
the gulping frog and the hairy squirm- 
ing bat. With our jackknives we opened 
clams, crabs and tortoises to touch 
their muscles. We knew the flat, mo- 
notonous call of the catbird, the shrew- 
ish bawling of the crow, the flute-like 
solos of the thrush. With life bubbling 
around us, there could be no loneli- 

My closest friend was Al Caracciolo, 
a totally blind boy like myself. On Sun- 
days, his family and relatives, a size- 
able Italian clan, would descend upon 
the camp. They liked clams; so Al and 
I would wade out into the bay, feel for 
a clam with our toes and then duck 
under the water to retrieve it. Encour- 
aged by the clan, we frequently came 
up with seven or eight dozen. These 
would go back with Al's folks, while in 
exchange we would be given spiced 
sandwiches and other delicacies on 
which to feast during the week. 

In my last two seasons at Camp 


Lighthouse, when physical exercise was 
my great interest. I would rise an hour 
beforr tin- ri-l of the camp even morn- 
ing, get into a pair of sneakers anil 
shorts, and walk to the quarter-mile 
long boardwalk. There. I would run 
its length sixteen times, occasionally 
touching one of tin- handrails to make 
sure I was moving along the center. 
Intruding upon the general silence of 
the morning would be the sounds of 
my sneakers on the wood as 1 ran, the 
croaking of a bullfrog in the swamp, 
or the crowing of a rooster on the 
nearby farm. As I approached the bay, 
the breeze would refresh me, and I 
would hear the water as it broke 
against the shore and the weird cries 
of the seabirds. As I ran in the other 
direction, toward camp, I would smell 
the woodsmoke from Anna's and John's 
breakfast fire. Finally, when the four 
miles had been completed religiously, 
I would head for the washroom and 
shower; and when passing the cabins, 
would hear the first faint stirrings of 
the waking camp. 

Although memories of Camp Light- 
house dominate my recollections of 
summer camping, I did spend several 
seasons, as a camper and then as an 
assistant counselor, at Camp Wapa- 
nacki in I lard wick, Vermont. Wapa- 
nacki was run by the New York Insti- 
tute for the Education of the Blind, 
and was located beside a lake in the 

Vermont hills. 

\t Wapanacki. 1 enjoyed overnight 
hiking. Small groups of boys, each 
with a counselor, would set off for a 
point Mime fifteen milrs away, carry- 
ing pup tents, poncho-, blankets, mess 
kits, and food to be cooked. Cooking 
w a- fun. even though it was messy and 
unpalatable at times. Somehow, the 
concoction which I tried in my pan, of 
potatoes, bread, bacon and sliced ap- 
ples, lacked a pleasing flavor. At the 
time, however, I dared not admit it, 
for all of us had been boasting about 
our prowess as cooks. Sleeping in a 
pup tent in a cow pasture had its dis- 
advantages, including a restless night 
upon the lumpy ground, tussling with 
a tentmate for possession of the blan- 
ket, and being startled awake in the 
early morning by the loud moo of 
cows that had decided to have an early- 

I shall never forget the last time I 
went down to the lake. I walked along 
the path that was strewn with pine 
needles. The springy feeling of the 
ground underfoot had always appealed 
to me. In the pine and spruce forest 
along the lake, the last sounds of day- 
were dwindling away. The lingering 
notes of a woodthrush mingled with 
the muted and monotonous song of the 
crickets. Chirrupy katydids carried on 
their gossip at cither side of my feet. 

I stopped at the edge of the lake. 

listening to the coarse croaking of 
frogs above the soft, washing sound of 
the water as it gentK -lid up and down 
the bank. In tin- distance tinkled the 
bells of stra\ row.- returning home 
late. Just then a breeze sprang up and 
stirred the ancient spruce- until the 
twisted limbs moaned with subdued 
sorrow, voicing m\ mood. From across 
the water came the strange hooting of 
a lonely owl, and near at hand another 
owl answered. 

I breathed in deeply. I knew it 
would be a long time before I had a 
chance to return, and I wanted to re- 
member it all. A lilac bush in full 
bloom poured its perfume into the air; 
and so strong was the smell of the 
forest's evergreens that it was like 
background music. 

I do not know how long I sat there. 
1 know that hours must have passed 
and night must have closed in, because 
dew descended upon grass and plants: 
and the smooth surface of the granite 
diunk on which 1 sat became colder 
and seemingly harder. The breeze had 
grown into a brisk wind, penetrating 
and chilly, and I shivered. 

It seemed to me then that the woods 
anticipated something, as though the 
air carried with it a premonition of 
rain. I started back along the path, 
for the last time. I had outgrown it, I 
knew. A part of my life had come to 
an end. 

Statement prepared by Committee on Camping, 
Education-Recreation Division, National Social 
Welfare Assembly. 

Organized camping is a creative, educational HE- 
pcrience in coopcrati\r group living in the out-of- 
doors. It ulili/r- the resources of the natural sur- 
roundings to ' onirilniii- xipnifirnntly to physical. 
menial, spiritual and social growth. It is a sustained 
experience iiniler the supervision of trained leader 
-hip When -|..,ii-,,r.-,l by a national youth organ- 
ization, it is an integral part of its program. 

Camping contribute* to good health through 
-u|icrviicd ucti\ii\. Miflicient real, good food and 
healthful companionship. 

Camping aid* in -piritual development by In Ip 

ing campers to recognize and appreciate the handi- 
work of God in nature. 

Camping contributes to social development by 
providing experience in which campers learn how- 
to deal practically and effect i\ el \ with living situa- 

Camping i- an experience in i ili/en-hip training. 
providing through its community of campers the 
medium for democratic participation in decision 
making, planning and carrying out of activity at 
their own level. 

Camping contributes to the dr\elo|>mcnt of self- 
rrliatu c nml resourcefulness l'\ providing experi- 
and instruction in which camper- ai quite 
knowledge mid skill* essential to their wrll-hHng. 


111 i III ATION 

Therese Myers 

d VERY SUNDAY morning, in spring, 
summer, autumn and winter, while 
most city dwellers are still asleep, in- 
dividuals and groups can be spotted 
hurrying to catch an eight o'clock 
ferry or a nine o'clock train. Who are 
these people and where are they go- 

They are of every age and of every 
occupation businessmen, housewives, 
office workers, sales people, doctors, 
lawyers, teachers, school boys and 
girls. And they are bound for the open 

In spite of automobiles, radio, mov- 
ies and television, there are still many 
people who have not forgotten and 
some who are just discovering the 
thrill of taking to the road afoot. Clad 
in garments appropriate to the weath- 
er, knapsacks over their shoulders, they 
travel independently, in groups, or as 
members of organized hiking clubs. 

What are they seeking? They want 
to see more of the sky, more of the 
trees, more of nature's colors. They 
want to breathe clean air and the 
odors of pine, clover, burning wood 
and new-cut hay. They want to experi- 
ence the joy of walking, not on pave- 
ments but on country roads, across 
bridges, through meadows and over 
mountains; of walking with people 
who like to walk; of walking at a 
steady pace and feeling every muscle 
tingle as it is set into motion. 

They enjoy the element of surprise 
in these walks. A little wooden bridge 
will pop up around the bend; a path 
will lead them up or down steps carved 
out of rocks long ago loosened from 
a mountain slope; a row of scalloped 
hills will be revealed against the sky; 
or a sudden, thick carpet of orange- 
colored leaves will make them stop 
and gasp. 

And the roads where will the roads 

take them? Away from books and pa- 
pers and the noise of city streets, it 
will lead to the Palisades and the 
Alpine Circular along the Hudson 
River; to the Ramapos; to Silver Lake, 
Byram River Gorge or Algonquin 
Woods in Westchester. It will take 
them to the rusty, grass covered Cro- 
ton Aqueduct; to the stream in Pine 
Meadow Woods, where one listens to 
the sound of the water dancing over 
rocks, and can hear the splashing of 
the falls farther on. 

These people like to walk under a 
shower of autumn leaves, and listen to 
their crackle underfoot; to hear the 
thud of falling apples as they are 
loosened from their branches by the 
rain; to walk in the cold, crisp air of 
a winter day. through a snow white 

Sometimes there are unpleasant sur- 
prises, particularly for new hikers 
such as having to pass through slush 
and mud to reach a destination, get- 
ting caught in the rain, crossing a 
meadow full of briars. But all of this, 
with the proper clothes and the right 
frame of mind, can be laughed at. Ex- 
perienced hikers usually prepare for 
all kinds of weather and often deliber- 
ately go out in the rain and snow. 

Among hiking clubs there are dif- 
ferent grades of hikes, which vary in 
the different groups. A "C" hike may 
be three miles to some people, in an- 
other group it is five miles, and in 
still another ten miles might be con- 
sidered easy. "A" hikes usually include 
some climbing. In such cases it is not 
only the distance which matters, but 
the height and steepness of the moun- 
tain or of the hills to be crossed. 

Very often, hiking groups spend 
their vacations walking and mountain 
climbing. There are many shelters 
along the Adirondack Trail for stop- 

overs. The Appalachian Mountain Club 
in New Hampshire has sixteen shelters 
and eight huts throughout the White 
Mountains, which are a hiker's para- 
dise. The American Youth Hostel 
maintains hostels in various sections 
of the country fo,r hikers and bicyclers. 
(See Summer Vacations U.S.A., for 
specific hosteling trails. Ed.) 

Many people travel to the top of a 
mountain by ca"r or railway, and think 
they have seen everything because they 
enjoy the view from the summit. But 
they miss the thrill of climbing 
through the forest of birch, balsam or 
spruce, of having the landscape slowly 
unfold before them, of stopping to 
drink from a cool spring and perhaps 
letting the water trickle over their feet. 
They do not know what a wonderful 
moment it is to stand before the moun- 
tain about to be ascended. Mount 
Washington in New Hampshire is high- 
est in the Presidential Range sixty- 
two hundred feet above sea level. How 
quiet, dignified and majestic it is. Oh, 
to learn the secret of its imperturbabili- 
ty! And then to climb, slowly and 
steadfastly, through the forest, past 
the timber line and gaze down at deep 
ravines, revealed through mist; to 
climb higher and higher, until you 
reach the top and walk through the 
clouds to see the earth and heavens for 
miles in every direction! Here is the 
prize which lures the hiker to . such 
great effort the sense of achievement, 
of having won the right to this beauty. 

Condensed from Newark News, June 1950. 

JUNE 1952 



NK OF THE unfriendlicst audiences 
in the history of show business 
assembled on the evening of July 17, 
l')")l. in the tent cit> of Finthen, near 
Mainz, in the American Zone of occu- 
pied Germany. It was also small less 
than fiflv of the three hundred fifty GI 
population. I- inthen had just tiecu bv- 
passed by tin- most spectacular act on 
the circuit: Boyd Bachmairs Band, a 
superior organization boasting the four 
O'keefe -i-ier-. I intlien was in no 
mood for the Buffalo Bills a male 

Surprisingly, the applause for the 
Mill-' lii -I iiumlirr was audible. A phe- 
nomenon even more astonishing, how- 
excr. was that the final chord of tln-ii 
I song merged into a high shout, 
unmistakahlx from llir audience. When 
tin- was repeated a couple of minule- 
i. iii i uilh cxen cniliu-iasiii. Gl's 

H I" drift along the rompany 
street* to see what was going on. 

I hex saw four men in grav slacks 
ami blue coals mi .in improvised stage 
of planks aet between the tail gate* of 
two truck- from left lo right, a sin. it. 
-lighlU professori-h-looking guv in 
glasses; a somewhat taller <li.ii,i>i<i 
with dark, curly hair and a map nf 
Id-land fur a face; a still taller kid 
will) light i urlx b.iii who looki-il ratlin 
like a Imhx-faicd pn/i- fighter: and 
kjT, medium -i/ed jr. -MI with thin- 
ning hair and an incrasahlc grin. 'I IH-S 

MK. DAI.MA-. formn ninn-mit Eng- 
lish Inn In- r. ntafazinr Hrilrr. nun u 
jiroilurrr of inilinlrial anil \ilnxil nut- 
turn fiirlutfi, .l'nfl anil in <i \l\un <>. 


stood with their heads together, ex- 
incisions of pure bliss on their faces. 
harmonizing. Every kid watching had 
probably tried the same thing back 
home, but the audience knew they had 
never achieved harmony like that: it 
was genuine, one hundred proof, bond- 
ed barbershop, and until the Buffalo 
Bills became the International Cham- 
pion Barbershop Quartet in 1950 noth- 
ing like it had been heard in this 

Two hours later the Bills were still 
singing encores. They had done two 
shows that day and had another that 
night, but were apparently having 
such a good time thex couldn't bear to 
leave. They finally organized an im- 
promptu quartet of officer-, instructing 
them in barbershop harmony and en- 
couraging the men to make whatever 
irreverent comments which came to 
their minds. When this was going well, 
lliex -limited piodhvc ami ducked out. 

'I lie Bills averaged ilnee -hows a 
day for the thirty-five davs of their 
EnrOpMfl lour, and ibex ncxer failed 
to have their audience- cheering by 
the end of the second numlier. In thi- 
respect the Gl's were evidlx lik. . i 
vilian audiences at home. 

Counting the I uio|ie.m ( 'mnma.ld 
trip, the quartet traveled 7.">.("MI mile- 
in I'>5I and sang licfore audience* 
lol.ilmg .HlHl.tKH). This does not include 
a fifteen w k i.idm -hclch and llnee 

.i|ijiearances on telex iion. 

These figures are made mme im 
ie bx the fact lhal the Hullalo 

Hills rei i -ixe c\|ien-. - but no 

member m.ike. In- living at a regular 

job. Vern Reed, first tenor, is an in- 
surance salesman; Al Shea, lead, i- .1 
cop: Dick Grapes, baritone, represents 
a paper-products companv : and Bill 
Spangenburg, bass, is a truck driver. 
They are members of the Buffalo chap- 
ter of the Societv for the Preservation 
and Encouragement of BarlM-rslio|i 
Quartet Singing in America. Incorpor- 
ated. The Society was founded in 1938 
by Owen C. Cash, a Tulsa, Oklahoma 
oilman, and its slogan is "Keep Ameri- 
ca Singing." 

It has six hundred chapters in the 
I niled Stales. Alaska. Hawaii, the 
Philippines and Canada, with a total 
of more than 30,000 members. Once 
a vear it holds a contest in which a 
board of fifteen tough judges picks a 
champion from fortv i|uartel- who have 
won regional contest-. 

The Buffalo Bills won in !<>.-,( I. after 
Ixxo unsuccessful trie-, -ii.ijng a rec- 
ord T.I !.">(! points out of a poible 
KUKK). Quartets are judged on har- 
mony nccuracv. balance and blend of 
voices, voiie expression, arrangements 
and -lage prc-rncc. Once a quartet ha- 
i. ..11 .1 championship it can never com- 
pete again. Ever MM..- winning the 
1950 nigh honor, the Hills have been 
in mipr<veH< nted demand to -in;/ for 
philanthropic and civic causes. 

I first heard them -in^: on a "pa- 

I.I.I, -l.iyed bv till' \\e-llleld. New 

ler-.-v. , hapter of the M'l H>l,l-> A. A 
parade is a yearly function at e\erv 
chapter a -how in which thcv pre-cnl 
the Iw-st cjuartel- from other chapter-. 

The Hill- were to spectacularly g I 

ili. it I a-keil an old epic-lion. \\ b\ 

lit! Ill VI I"N 

Herbert Dalmas 


don't they turn professional? 

The Bills have had plenty of chances. 
Last year, for example, they turned 
down six night club offers and a con- 
tract to tour the cocktail lounges and 
supper rooms in a national chain of 
hotels. Even the hottest attractions in 
show business cool off, and hardly any 
last as long as the Bills plan to be 

They enjoy being amateurs. Dick 
Grapes told me, "If we turned pro 
we'd have to sing at certain times and 
certain places, and at no others. We 
wouldn't be able to sing whenever 
and wherever we want to." 

In Buffalo, the Bills are a city in- 
stitution. In June 1950 the city council 
passed a resolution commending them 
for the credit they reflected on the city. 
Three hundred and fifty admirers gave 
them a banquet before they took off 
on their European tour. They are on 
first-name terms with more high-eche- 
lon business and professional people 
than any other four men in Buffalo. 

How the wives feel as quartet widows 
is an interesting point. Probably there 
is no greater strain on marital felicity 
than the male tendency to withdraw to 
the kitchen, about the time the party 
is drawing to a close, to assay barber- 
shop harmony. To wives who have hi:d 
to wait, while their spouses were hav- 
ing one more try at "You Tell Me Your 
Dream." it may seem incredible that 
four wives exist who make a positive 
effort to get together three times a 
week to hear their husbands do rvirl- 
l\ Unit. 

When the original Buffalo Bills lost 

Secret of Buffalo Bills' popularity is unmistakable enjoyment of own singing. Audi- 
ence can't resist them. L. to r. Vernon Reed, Al Shea, Bill Spangenburg, Dick Grapes. 

their baritone in 1950, and Dick 
Grapes was chosen after a considera- 
tion of some forty possibilities, Jerry 
Shea. Peg Spangenburg and Mary 
Reed invited his wife to a little party 
and gave her a vivid picture of what 
she had to expect. Not until she was 
sure she could take it was Dick formal- 
ly accepted. 

On the other hand, the Bills are 
feted wherever they go. Their wives, 
who are always invited, too, share in 
the enthusiastic attention which they 
receive. This makes for an exciting 
social life. 

They are always on hand for com- 
munity chest dinners, defense bond 
rallies, and other occasions where 
crowds have to be put into a relaxed 
and generous mood. In their home 
town and towns nearby, they sing 
about twenty-five times a year in hos- 
pitals, orphanges and other institu- 
tions. When they arrive in a city for 
an engagement, they are invariably 
asked to sing at one or more local hos- 
pitals. They never refuse. They sing 
for as many ambulatory patients as 
can get into the assembly hall, then 
make the rounds of the wards and the 
single rooms. Hospital directors say 
there is no morale builder to compare 
with barbershop harmony. 

Like most spectacular successes, the 
Buffalo Bills are a happy combination 
of factors and circumstances. They all 
have superb voices. Each has studied 
music; they all grew up singing in 
church choirs, and they are relentless 
critics of themselves. Also, they look 
well together; they aren't handsome, 
but they radiate vitality without hav- 
ing to turn it on. Besides, they are all 
instinctive showmen. They have never 
had professional advice; they operate 
by reflex and their reflexes seem to 
be flawless. 

Their slogan is "Pitch 'em high and 
hit 'em hard"; and whether they are 
singing in a hospital room or, as 
they did once, for 78,000 people in the 
Cleveland stadium they hit 'em hard. 
Audiences love it. 

They have sung in just about every 
place a quartet can sing in theaters, 
opera houses, churches, hotel lobbies, 
school auditoriums and airplanes. 
They have sung on top of a peak in 
the Bavarian Alps, on a San Francisco 
cable car, in a 1908 Oldsmobile under 
police escort on their way from the 
Milwaukee airport to their hotel, and 
in a Pennsylvania coal mine. 

When they arrive for a parade, they 
are met at the airport by a welcoming 
committee, whose first request is that 

Ji NK 1952 


the Bills "bust one." This often results 
in a slight disruption of air schedules, 
because when the Bills really bust one, 
nothing coming over a p.a. system can 
be heard. At El Paso last winter one 
plane's departure was delayed because 
the pilot had disappeared. He was lo- 
cated in a state of hypnosis, his ear 
cocked at Bill Spangenburg's shoulder, 
absorbed in what Bill was doing with 
his part of "I Want a Girl." Seems he 
was a bass himself. 

Another reason for the Bills' popu- 
larity is their uninhibited and un- 
mistakable enjoyment of their own 
singing. The expressions of sheer rap- 
ture on their faces when they hit a 
particularly satisfying chord are not 
the prop smiles of professional enter- 
tainers. And when they finally punch 

home the last chord, their half-aston- 
ished delight is so genuine that audi- 
ences can't resist them. 

They are famous for their song ar- 
rangements. They start out by buying 
them, but no arrangement ever reaches 
their repertoire as they bought it. They 
tear it to pieces and put it back to- 
gether again as they rehearse it, put- 
ting in the "swipes" so dear to the 
hearts of barbershoppers. A swipe is a 
chord change and can be anything 
from corn to an inspiring display of 
musical virtuosity. 

Barbershop harmony is distin- 
guished from straight harmony on one 
hand and from modern harmony on 
the other. Straight harmony uses three 
notes to a chord with the fourth voice 
"doubling" one of the others that is. 

repeating the same note an octave 
higher or lower. Sometimes straight 
harmony doubles two notes in a chord, 
and sometimes all four voices sing the 
same note. Barbershop never has all 
four voices on one note. It uses a chord 
on every note, and whenever possible 
adds a fourth note to the chord. 

The Buffalo Bills don't have time 
to analyze their effect on people, but 
Peg Spangenburg has a theory. She 
says that every man who sees the Bills 
pictures himself up there participating, 
that every man in the world has a 
longing to sing not merely in the 
bath but with three other men. And 
she thinks that if all the men were di- 
vided up into barbershop quartets a 
lot of the world's troubles would cease 
to exist. 


of Sending 


to Camp? 

D According to an article by Kate Thompson in the Toledo, Ohio Blade, parents 
who plan to send their children to summer camp should visit several to determine 
what best suits their youngster's needs. Officials of the American Camping Associa- 
tion warn not to send Junior away for the summer, unless he really wants to go to 
camp. There are many types of camps, and it is up to the parent to determine in what 
kind his child will be happic-t. 

Diverse Camps 

Camps stress handcrafts, outdoor living, sports, competitive games, education, and 
so forth. Some follow rigid schedules to which the child niii.-t conform; while others 
|i'-nuit a free choice of activity by the caui|M-r. Sonic put tin- emphasis on group 
activity and living together lemo< ratii allv . while -lre*s the individual and 
his needs. Some do both. 

The article goes on to say. "Parents should talk with the camp director and find 
out if he is emotionally mature, really enj<>\ working with children and seem- to 
display the traits of patience. understanding and kindne-- needed to lead them, in a 
friendly atmosphere. 


"'I he camp ground* should l>e examined l>\ the parents to check -anitary facilities. 
the National Recreation Association ad\Uc-. Id -me that there are adequate screens* 
throughout the camp, that -Icepinj.- ipiailei* .ire well ventilated and lighted, that gas 
for cooking or heating is not used in the children'* rooms, that drinking water is safe 
and approved l>\ health authorities, that swimming i- propcrlx upcr\ icd. that there 
i- one set of liathing and washing facilities for e\er\ twrnt\-li\c children and one 
I'.d.t for every fiftrrn children. Food should \- nutrition- and fresh. |,ut not neces- 
sarily elaborate. Proper r. ft i;-. i.ilion and a good garbage <li-|i..-al -\Mcrn are im- 

Id. -IIMIIM.-I . .Hop need ti. i| IM- luxurious lull il -li.'iilil havr all luiildinps in pood 
repair, comfortable lx-d. rlrnn. atit.utne ..tii,' and large, airv indoor areas 

for plav in had weather." 


111 i Kt MH>N 


Charles E. Doell 

E ART of encouraging people to 
engage in various forms of recre- 
ation is relatively new. Only recently 
has it aspired to the status of a pro- 
fession. For the most part, it is still 
unnamed, although its administrators 
and advocates are variously referred to 
as "recreation leaders," "recreation- 
ists," or simply "recreation people"- 
but a precise acceptable term is still to 
be found. 

The nebulous beginnings of this art 
appear to come mainly from two 
sources social welfare and physical 
education. The carry-over from the an- 
cient art of gardening to present day 
recreation has been lost sight of 
through the years. This constitutes a 
third possible source, and, at least in 
public administration, is the thread we 
need to recapture, if the administra- 
tion of combined park and recreation 
systems is to be wise. 

"Social welfare" is probably the 
most descriptive term to be used for 
that motivation which prompted the 
establishment of our first playgrounds. 
Recognition of the right of the child 
to an opportunity to play, where, in 
the crowded portions of our large 
cities, there was no such opportunity, 

MR. DOELL has been engaged in park 
work for mart; than forty years, is a 
past president of the American Insti- 
tute of Park Executives and has been 
superintendent of parks in Minneapo- 
lis, Minnesota, since August of 7945. 

Golf has gone a long way toward satisfying the appetite for the rural landscape. Spec- 
tators as well as players enjoy it. Above, scene on Columbia Golf Course, Minneapolis. 

gradually led to the acceptance of this 
general idea. 

The teaching of skills or the playing 
of games was a natural process for the 
physical education people. To those of 
us who were the street urchins and 
alley kids of fifty years ago, it seemed 
ridiculous to have to be taught how to 
play. Nevertheless, our introduction in- 
to the newfangled gymnasiums, and 
later the first playgrounds, disclosed to 
us how meager were the skills we pos- 
sessed. The ordinary ball games, ice 
skating, shinny, can can, and rough 
and tumble fighting were well-known. 
Boxing and wrestling, according to 
rules, were something else again. 
Tumbling and gymnastic work and 
many of the field sports were known 
only to the few. To have instructors 

for such things as foot-racing was in- 
deed the height of luxury. The teach- 
ing of these skills came within the 
province of the graduates of colleges 
of physical education. They were our 
first playground instructors. 

For the most part, recreation courses 
at the universities and colleges have 
been part and parcel of the physical 
education department. Only in recent 
years has there been an inclination to 
distinguish between recreation and 
physical education. In many universi- 
ties the division of recreation is still 
a part of the physical education de- 
partment, but today's recreation em- 
bodies a great many things in addition 
to the teaching of physical skills and 
the guidance of play. It is considered 
to include all activities, sensations and 

Ji M: 1952 


II possible, neighborhood parks should be larur eiiniiuli to provide green grass, trees 
and shrubbcrv, as well as the paved or well-worn areas for active play. Loring Park. 

impulses which tend to renew the en- 
thusiasm of the mind and body to per- 
form its daily functions. 

In this enlarged concept, we have 
discovered that environment is an im- 
portant stimulus to the process of re- 
juvenation or recreation. Green grass, 
trees, shrubbery, those things called 
"verduousness" by the senior Olm- 
sied. i-ciiipli-d with pleasing patterns, 
-wcet mii-ic. pleasant conversation and 
-i lal intercourse, beautiful scenery, 
fine pieces of architecture, sculptures, 
paintings, cilhcr alone or skillfully 
bli-ndcil and placi-d in projier environ- 
mi-ill, are of fundamental importance 
in keeping minds and bodies healthy. 
We have included as admirable forms 
of recreation a li-il to tin- /no. camp- 
ing, and eating out-of-doors. 

\\ lii-n son 11- <>f these activities and 
settings are noogni/ed ami .i.K." ,H. .1 
In recreation leaders as part of the 
tools which the\ inii-l u-c in their 
profe-siiui. we linn- iiiili-cd mine full 
cirrle. >ome of our earliet parks an<l 
gardens included hunting, places of 
it. beautiful -icncri i that i-. 
,i|M-d -ccnerii. hiking, f.r.mliful 
p.illcrn- I. till -lit in g.irdcns .mil in palaces ami (inr n -idem . 
dia. hippodronm, i. n-.-. me- 
nageries, theaters all fnund tin ir 
in nual ganlcn- .il oni- linn- or 
another in our p.isi liisimi. During 

the seicnl 'luri. there li- 

fe* (raidcri- m i. made pinpi-cK 
to proiide fiif-i|iiir f.,i leil.iin ailiii 
including of oliln 

games, such as bowling on the green 
and a form of croquet which preceded 
our present version of that game. Fa- 
cilities for playing tennis are of an- 
cient vintage. However, it would be 
improper to say these were the main 
features of those gardens. They were 
simply adjuncts, and we cite them here 
only to point out that they were a part 
of the gardening art. 

While the roots of both parks and 
recreation are to be found in foreign 
countries, parks and recreation, as we 
know them today, are strictly Ameri- 
can. There were European and espe- 
cially F.nglish influences, to lie -(n<-. 
but the development occurred in this 
country and. since, has spread its in- 
fluence to others. Recalling these inllii- 
ences may help us to understand the 
close relationship between parks and 
iei icalion which is needed today. 

It was during the nineleenlh <en- 
lm\ in Kngland that a distinct I.M. 
lion against the formali/cd type of 
garden in Kurnpc uci lined. The Kng- 
li-h developed the informal or land 
garden at the time thai the com- 
mon (M-ople all over the world were 
beginning to assert and assume their 
right- ih/ens. || w.iidd appeal 

thai llie lAlicinc change of the garden- 
ing art in Kngland was a part of this 
-i ial reioliilion. and inhercnlli it 
found a fertile held in that imintti. 
where hiking was much more popular 
than on the mainland. 

Tile pMlk- ill the I lilted Male- Were 

conceived ami rofutnwtod mi ihr pat- 

tern of the Knglish landscape-iipe gar- 
den. Central Park in New ^ oil ua- 
the first large park in the I'nitcd 
States, and it was designed to provide 
a rural landscape in the heart of a 
glowing city. It was a form of escape 
from citi to countri. and proi idcd the 
elements of recreation which one gets 
from such a transition. Facilities for 
some forms of recreation including. 
of course, hiking, carriage-ways, bri- 
dle trails, a parade ground. Like- for 
boating land on these, ice skating fir-t 
took its real hold in the I nitcd Stall - 
a small playground, and settings for 
one or two important buildings wen- 
created. Anything that would interfere 
with the effect of a rural landscape, 
the designers fought off with zeal and 

The designers of Central Park influ- 
enced the layout of a high percentage 
of the large park areas and si-tcm- 
established in this country between 
1860 and 1900. If they did not do the 
designing themselves, their contempo- 
raries and students followed the same 
general pattern and philosophv. The\ 
passed on to their successors this con- 
ccpt. so thoroughly, thai when the de- 
mand for facilities for actiie recrea- 
tion arose in the cities, park men ie- 
sishd the encroachment with the same 
vigor as their predecessors had resiste, I 
encroachments in Central Park. Ves- 
tiges of this conflict are still apparent 
in certain localities toda\. 

llowcicr. even the designers of Cen- 
tral Park recognized the desirabilil\ 
of many of these facilities ball 
grounds, tennis courts, and so on for 
public use. In their minds Central 
I '.irk not to be the only park in 
the citi of New ^ ork. but one of main . 
Tliev CM-II had in mind a system of 
parkwais. which was neiei i.inied 
out. They full\ agreed that ball fields, 
outdoor gimnasiums. running track-, 
lemii- court-, anil the like, were de-ir- 
able but insisted that lhe\ should be mi 
scpaiale plot- of ground, or di-ii-ed o 
a- n. it |o interfere with the opportuni- 
ties for recreation which one nun gel 
through enjoiing the rural scene as an 
antidote for dailv life in a crowded 

Hut.. i- piMioii-li -aid. we ha\e now 
i nine full ' iri Ic. The well-informed rec- 
te.itii.n leader understands the great 



therapeutic value of attractive, park- 
like settings. Nature study has become 
an important part of the recreation 
program. Day-camping as well as over- 
night camping constitute opportunities 
for municipal recreation. At the same 
time, the well-informed park planner 
recognizes the difficulty of now acquir- 
ing, in most municipalities of the coun- 
try, the large park areas that are neces- 
sary for establishing the rural scene. 
For the most part, these are the res- 
ervations which are established in the 
proximity of metropolitan areas, rath- 
er than in the center of them. How- 
ever, where these park areas have been 
provided in the cities, their value is 
well enough established so that only in 
a few cases are there still attempts 
made to convert them into play areas. 

Park and recreation people alike advo- 
cate the establishment of numerous 
play areas throughout a municipality, 
to give ample opportunity for recrea- 
tion for all people. Even in the park- 
like reservations of state and regional 
systems, the occasional small area is 
developed for active recreation. 

What is needed today in the public 
park and recreation field is a full ap- 
preciation of the basic purposes of 
park and recreation service and the 
historical background of each. The 
unity of purpose of the two then be- 
comes apparent. Unfortunately, the 
study of landscape architecture and 
college courses leading to degrees in 
recreation each cover broad fields, so 
that the application of public service 
is seldom sufficiently emphasized. Per- 

haps within the space of four years 
there isn't time to teach all these 
things. Nevertheless, this mutual un- 
derstanding of the other's immediate 
objective in providing recreational op- 
portunities for the people must be well 
established if we are to have wise ad- 
ministration. Fortunately, there seems 
to be a trend towards the consolida- 
tion of the functions of parks and rec- 
reation in municipal government, and 
whenever and wherever that occurs, 
certainly those who have this sort of 
knowledge will prove to be the more 
capable administrators, assuming that 
the other qualities of executive ability 
are present. 

Leisure Leaders Leisure Lodge 

THE RECREATION DIRECTORS of the San Fernando Valley 
district of the Los Angeles recreation and park de- 
partment believe they have the most unique professional 
recreation organization in the country. It all started eleven 
years ago, when a group of valley directors were planning 
a Christmas party for themselves. The suggestion was made 
that a Christmas breakfast be held each year and that a 
fun club be organized. Result? The Leisure Leaders 
Leisure Lodge. 

Committees were formed to work on a constitution and 
a general plan of organization. They functioned well, keep- 
ing the rules and regulations very simple, in order to 
derive the maximum amount of pleasure from the club. 
At that time, the San Fernando Valley had many wide 
open spaces, so the full title of the lodge was known as the 
Leisure Leaders Leisure Lodge of Prairie Dog Valley. 
Capitulo Numero Lino (Chapter Number One). Everything 
about the organization is in keeping with the title. The pre- 
amble to the (-(institution is as follows: 

"We are leaders, and try with our might. 
The finest of all leaders to be 
But there are no leaders on this earth, 
That enjoy a siesta like we." 

Their motto is "Take It Easy" and their aim is a "Daily- 
Siesta." Section one of the constitution reads: "The ob- 
jectives of this lodge are to develop a spirit of fellowship 
and fun among professional recreation directors of the 
valley district of the Los Angeles recreation park depart- 
ment." Section number two: "Honorary memberships are 
presented by the lodge to lay citizens of San Fernando 
Valley for outstanding contributions in the field of rec- 

MAKION C. SPARROW is the district director of Los Angeles 
lifi rcalion and I'ark Department in San Fernando Valley. 

Mrs. Prudence Harding is receiving 
a certificate from George Hjelte. 

Marion C. Sparrow 

In all communities 
there are many people 
who give a great 
amount of time to pub- 
lic recreation. Recog- 
nizing their efforts cer- 
tainly is in line with 
good planning and co- 
operation for better 
community programming. 

The officers of the lodge are as follows: the president 
is known as "Lost Motion," the vice-president as "Losing 
Motion." the secretary as "Slow Motion," the treasurer 
as "Frozen Motion," the sergeant at arms as "Commotion" 
and the general membership as "Locomotion." 

Two very outstanding figures in recreation have never 
missed a meeting in the eleven years the lodge has been 
organized. They are Mrs. Rollin Brown, president of the 
California recreation commission and a member of the 
Los Angeles recreation and park commission for the past 
twelve years, and Mr. George Hjelte, general manager of 
the Los Angeles recreation and park department. 

Capitulo Numero Dos (Chapter Number Two) was re- 
cently organized in the Glendale recreation department, 
known as the "Casa Vedugo" chapter. Their officers Were 
installed and a charter presented to them by Lost Motion 
of Prairie Dog Valley Chapter. 

The lodge has been an inspiring organization for the 
recreation directors of the valley district, and they have 
lots of fun with their Leisure Leaders Leisure Lodge. 

JUNE 1952 


Lawn adjacent to beautiful administration building, housing din- 
ing room and other facilities, is used fur games and dramatics. 

Two inlrrrMing features of the attractive dining room 
are the hanging fireplace and UMIM im-ni l.i/\ 

The modern functional cabins of iln camp provide the utinci\l 
for healthful, outdmir living; nettle against canxmi .i!K 



Minnette B. Spector 

Located deep in the quiet canyons of Griffith Park, the 
new Hollywoodland Girls Camp is breathtakingly beauti- 
ful. Although it is but a short distance from any part 
of Los Angeles, rising hills isolate it completely from 
the everyday world. Expansive use of glass blends the 
indoors with the out-of-doors. Traditionally, though lo- 
cated in scenic outdoor areas, camp buildings have had 
too few and too small windows, thus denying to campers 
full appreciation of the scenery. 

Operated by the recreation and park department of 
Los Angeles, Hollywoodland Camp, with its modern archi- 
tecture, is functional in every detail. The recreation lodge 
contains a large lobby with floor-to-ceiling windows on 
three sides, shelves of books, and a hanging fireplace. 
Adjoining this is the dining room which seats two hun- 
dred and fifty at round tables, each equipped with a lazy 
Susan to hold the serving dishes. The stainless steel kitch- 
en is completely modern and electrically equipped. The 
camp has its own large swimming pool, an arts and crafts 
workshop, an outdoor cooking area, sports and play fa- 
cilities, and a special campfire area backed by a rock hill. 
The sleeping cabins are nestled against upjutting canyon 


walls, and large picture windows in each cabin give an 
excellent view of nearby hills. 

The cabin arrangement lends itself to the unit system 
of operation. The camp is divided into three units: one 
for the younger girls, another for the intermediates, and 
one for the older girls. Each unit has a supervising coun- 
selor, and each cabin is staffed with a senior and junior 
counselor. This gives "around-the-clock" leadership. In 
charge of the entire camp is the camp director, who car- 
ries twenty-four-hour-a-day responsibility for every girl. 

Great attention is given to safety, and hazards are elimi- 
nated wherever possible. The recreation and park depart- 
ment has taken full advantage of the cooperation, coun- 
sel and services provided by the municipal fire and health 
departments. The health department inspects all sanitary 
facilities, and provides the services of a registered nurse, 
who checks the physical condition of the girls as they 
enter camp. In addition to this, last summer two regis- 
tered nurses were so interested in the camp that they 

MRS. SPECTOR is Supervisor of Recreation, Department of 
Recreation and Parks, City of Los Angeles, California. 

took up residence there and volunteered their services for 
the whole summer. The health of the entire camp staff, 
including counselors and cooks, is carefully checked. A 
special health feature is the modern first aid room to care 
for emergencies. The fire department frequently inspects 
the facilities and surroundings to eliminate possible fire 

The new girls' camp has experienced one full summer 
of operation with extraordinary success. During the three 
vacation months, twenty-one hundred girls spent one or 
two weeks there. The camp's success is, in large measure, 
the result of the consideration given to each camper. Each 
girl is treated as an individual. The boast that every girl 
in camp is personally known to the director from the mo- 
ment she registers is not an idle one. No single camper is 
lost in the large number who attend each week. This is 
one reason for the vast number of repeat campers. From 
these repeaters stems a fine camp tradition, which es- 
tablishes a valuable long-term relationship with each girl. 

The camp is organized as a laboratory for living and 
supplies rich experiences in the life of a growing girl. 
It provides opportunity for emotional as well as physical 
growth, for learning and acquiring skills in camp activi- 
ties and for the experience of sharing with other girls. 
Through these opportunities, girls develop poise and se- 
renity. At camp, girls find room to be quiet and room to 
shout. Good morale and camp tradition are substituted 
for the "don't" type of rule. Cultural, economic and ra- 
cial differences are submerged in the common enjoyment 
of activities and comradeship, and lasting friendships have 
their beginnings here. 

Leadership based upon consideration for others mani- 
fests itself even among the very young campers. They are 
given responsibilities as kitchen aides, table hostesses, 
leaders of games, librarians, custodians of play equipment 
and program aides. This opportunity to serve and receive 
recognition challenges each girl's ability. 

A further challenge exists in the special leadership train- 
ing given teen-agers. For a period of two weeks, thirty 
girls live in the pioneer area. Pioneers-in-training are 
apprenticed to counselors to receive guidance and inten- 
sive experience in many -phases of camping, including 
sleeping outdoors. As these girls mature, they become 
junior counselors, and many of them eventually become 
senior counselors. 

Good citizenship is fostered by opportunity for all to 
participate fully in camp affairs. Everyone has a part in 
patriotic ceremonies, in making decisions, in using the sug- 
gestion box, and in selecting representatives to determine 
camp procedures. 

The democratic process is implicit in the choosing of 
activities by each camper. The program includes nature 
activities; swimming; arts and camp crafts: hiking; sports; 
archery; dramatics; creative, modern, folk and square 
dancing; sketching; outdoor cooking: singing; nightly 
campfire entertainment; and horseback riding. Special 

JUNE 1952 


event- include iwimming, play-days, 
carnivals, dame recital-, masquerade 
|>;ulic-. festival*, publishing the raiii|> 
new-pa|>ei. trip- lo the (iriflilh I'ark 
/'" .UK! Planetarium, ramp craft ex- 
hibits and special field outings. The-e 
activities arc so conducted that girls 
engaged in tlicm arc free from worn. 
.-train, hum and envv. Satisfaction 
come- from a worlhw hile activity well 
dmie. rather than from a desire to excel 
at the expense of another. No girl feels 
that she is in the "dull" class. Life-long 
hobble- result from interests aroused 
in camp. 

Hollywoodland is a singing ramp. 
Nothing is more effective than singing 
in making the new as well as the re- 
peat camper- feel a oneness with their 
fellow campers. Not only do girls sing 
.it meal- ami around the campfire but 
lhe\ -inj; ;l - thcv hike on the trails, 
during the (raft activities, at outdoor 
cooking, .ii just a- ihcv -it on the grass 
relaxing. The fine quality of singing 

acquired in so short a time will never cease to be a won- 

\n air of high, jovoii- -eriousni s- |>ervades the camp. 
Campers are free from self-consciousness, which often 
find, i-xpression in "smart-alecky" or sophisticated con- 
duct. In even thing about the camp there i- adventure iu 
the line art. and fun. of living. 

I In- oiit-tanding "rightncss" of the buildings in this 
i amp wa- n-i iiu'iii/ed recently when Hollv woodland wa- 
awardcd the top Distinguished \'>>\ llonoi \ward from 
the \mericaii Institute of Architects. Snithern California 
chapter. The report of the jurv of architects said, in part: 

"Tin- light in the main building has a fine qualilv which 
l.ei.iii-.- of tin- manv -< mrces. and there i no glare. 

Expansive use of uhiss, unique sliiliim doors, provide fresh air and sunshine. Kach 
cabin, stuffed with senior and junior counselor, tins round-the-clock leadership. 

The simple light fixture- an- beautiful in themselvc-. a- 
their shape echoes the structure and. with their floating 
quality, add to the gaietv of the building. 

"The craft building, the bathroom buildings, ami the 
.-mall dormitorv buildings all einpha-i/e human scale and 
dwell on the individual. A reallv great triumph for the 
use of many children." 

Camping i- a "must" in a good recreation program. The 
summer camp i- .1- American a- -quare dancing. The idea 
originated ami grew in the I nitcil Slate-. Ldmatoi-. so- 
cial wmkei-. psychologists. psv< -tnati i-t-. and iei icalion- 
isls advocale ju-t a- eveiv child ha- opporlimilv to 
learn to lead and write -o should he have fir-lhand e\ 
perieni-r' with trees. in-.-c|. .mil binl-. and the open -k\. 

mm rtitk 

In I chin. in of tbi- ie. ii. the i ii\ i OIIIK il of Stockton. California, 
\o|ed unanimou-lv to name the new municipal golf ionise and il- -m 
rouniling .in-.i >i/erM I'nik. hoiioiing Bert and N.-ll.i 
for thirlv of -er. 

I In- onlv iibjei-liiin lame from the chairman of the iccie.ilion com 
mi ion. who i onlended il -honld In- the li^ht of the conimi ion In 
'i.-nd the honor. The mavor declared. "\\e have ju-l honoied 
the inn-t iinere. ha rd w ork ing husband and wife learn in Mm klon. 
(whoi . . . hnve devoted their whole live, |,, the children of (hi- com- 
miinilv . . v h.ivi- |x-rfoiniei| .in act which will pie-erve their pl.u e 

folf-ver III ill. 'ill . lli/eni \ . 

'I heir w..ik li.t in< luilcd ('.amp Fire (Jirlv Bov --,.,111-. < ..mmunitv 
->dver Lake Camp founded b\ Mi- "swen-on. and Mr >weM.oii'. 
v year* as <> reirenlion din-it. .1 

I u; 

liill .mil Slrll.i Sunisiiii h.lM- impressive 
mi-id \s 11 lenm. Ihcv h.ive unrked lo- 
grllHT (or iiimr Ih. HI Ihirlv five M-.HS. 
I MiiMiiil husband-wife honor paid h) lilv. 

Ill ' IU \-\\n\ 

Third and last in the series on photography as recreation 

Irma Webber 

IN ANY SUCCESSFUL photographic 
program the direction in which 
you and your group are heading and 
what you hope to accomplish when 
you get there are far more impor- 
tant to that success than most people 

Having an objective gives you a 
"reason for being." It presents a con- 
crete goal toward which individual 
and group efforts may be directed, and 

Objectives for the 

Photo Group 

that there is no objective or definite 
program. But this is not necessarily 
so. What may appear to be an aimless 
and disorganized effort may be only 
the instructor's method of reaching a 
desired goal. 

In my own classes, for instance, I 

Experiment! How would the lowly dandelion look to a worm? Your camera can find out! 

against which accomplishments may be 
measured; and it ties a group together 
in a way that nothing else will do. 

Siiniclimcs. however, the activities 
of a photographic group may be de- 
eepiive to outsiders. To these il may 
appear, after a superficial examination. 

IUMA WKHHKK is photography instruc- 
tor nl Di-nliy Ili'^li School in Detroit. 

Ji M, 1952 

have heard via the grapevine that 
several of my beginners have said to 
their friends. "Get into the photogra- 
phy class, it's fun. no work at all; we 
just wander around taking pictures." 
Getting that kind of a reputation for 
leaching, or the lack of it, would wor- 
i\ some: but I like it. It's proof, to 
m\ \\a\ of thinking, that the students 
are absorbing the instruction without 

being particularly conscious of the fact 
that they are very definitely being 
taught something. Such teaching, as 
you know, is often more beneficial and 
lasting than a more formal and appar- 
ent approach. 

In my class, we wander over the 
school grounds looking at the way 
mud has dried and broken into pat- 
terns of lines and textures. I point to 
a lowly dandelion and wonder how it 
would look to a worm. We become 
worms stretch out flat and snap a 
picture. We wonder how it would look 
to a bird climb a tree and snap a 
picture. We wander near the tennis 
courts, hockey field and football prac- 
tice groups, taking pictures and more 

All such activity may seem aimless, 
and yet from this so-called fun and 
obvious wandering, some photogra- 
phers will develop. They will learn 
to use the camera, become aware of 
things around them and someday learn 
to tell a photographic story that will 
be both real and artistic. I, also, 
hope that some will become interested 
enough in our sports program to ask 
for an assignment to cover our swim 
and track meets, the football games, 
school dances or auditorium programs. 
Such student photographers through 
their cameras can make a real con- 
tribution to the school paper. 

Notice that I said I hope some 
would ask to be permitted to cover 
such activities. That's a very impor- 
tant point, because I've discovered that 
you can block progress by doing too 
much yourself. Let the youngsters hold 
the reins and you'll get quite an emo- 


tional jolt. In fact it will become a 
'|ue.-tion of who's entertaining whom. 
They can do a bang-up job of it. 

It's an artful device, in that connec- 
tion, to appear to be helpless in lots of 
ways, because that gets people to 
thinking and puts them to work. 

For example, I often pretend I can't 
see a thing in focusing on the ground 
glass of <>ur old camera without a 
hood. I whip <>ut a magnifying glass. 
peer doubtfully at tin- image, and have 
always hoped that someone would make 
a black viewing box. But I wanted it 
to be their idea. I'd almost given up 
hope of getting one when last week the 
chap who made our safelighl ambled 
over and said, "You remind me of 
>herlock Holme.. \\ hv don't we make 
a tube of sorts to put over the gla '.'" 
The next day he came in with one that 
fitted to a "t". That's what I call get- 
ting "third dimension" from a group. 

In our class we try to keep the pro- 
gram planning flexible enough so that 
we can drop what we are doing if we 
hear a cry for help. We heard one re- 
cently from the library, and learned 
a lot from it. The librarian needed a 
new set of slides to orient all new 
pupil- on the uses and procedures of 
l!l>rar\ work. 

In tlii- in-lance the entire class went 
In the library. Some acted a. nmdi-l-: 
other- arranged floodlight.: .excial 
look I'i'Im.-. .o that the librarian 
would have a -election from which to 
ehoo-e. All gained through ihe ex- 

\- i f -nil ..)' lln-. .111 I n-li-li I. MI h- 

er raw the |>hoto and bought a set of 
the -lide- for ii-c in an illustrated lei-- 
lure. The .iudi-\ ami eon- teach- 
er* heard of this and arranged for pie- 
lure- taking to ilhi-lralr their i la-. loom 
i<-li\ itie-t anil xaiioii- field trips. These 
piilute-. in turn, were Iran-ferred to 
film -tup- .mil bi-i .inn- a permanent 
I in their file., ,'rom thi- work, 
one box m particular, learned In ii-e 
hi -mall camera r>-.ili\el\ and made 
.1 fin.inrial gain an well. 

I imi-l il-o. ineiition another young- 

ler in Ix ginning photograph* who 

want.* i" I- - oine a photo journaliM. 

\lr.i I-\|M i inn e and good down- 

th training. I n igned Jor to at- 

|i-?id mother - i lul> meeting- in our 

school and take candid shots of their 
activities. Thi. give- him good practice 
in .hooting pictures in a hurry and in 
working with large group:-. It', teach- 
ing him to be a good businessman. 
too, because the club is buying his 
pictures for their record book, and 
he's watching his e\|icn-c. carefully. 
There's more than one way to teach a 
math lesson, isn't there? 

Lypwood is another hoy in our 
group who has put his camera to work 
for the school and community. His 
pictures became so popular he was 
made picture editor of our school pa- 
per and recently editor-in-chief of the 
vcarhook. \ou lie . being, called to tin- 
grade schools in the neighborhood to 
record special activities. I Such a mem- 
ber of a recreation department group 
can take the pictures of your program 
that will intrigue the local newspapers 
into running a story about it. Kd. t 
The bug, in Lyn' ea-e. bit so deeply 
and thoroughly that he gave up a won- 
derful summer vacation to do summer 
school work, so that during the school 
year he could devote more time to his 
\earbook duties. In addition he work. 
for a community newspaper. Thi. 
work, for both the school and new-- 
paper, has taught him to meet dead- 
lines and has made him more depend- 
able and alert in main wax-. 

O f Ihe mo. I interesting thing. 

to come out of I.MIW I', wink ha. 

l>een his SCUM- of values in good com- 
munity living, lor .ome while MOW 
he's given his lime without pax to the 
Home Owner's \..ociation. anil the 
picture, he ha. taken of muddv. 
poorly paved alley wav-. unkempt lawn. 
and niglcctcd garbage i .in- are di-- 

pl.m-il downtown in our city hall. 

To tin wav of thinking, l.vnwood 
is a box who is u-inj.- In. camera to 
help create bellei eveivdax liv ing. and 
-ince he ha leached llii- | i .pc. tix e 
at an earlv age. I feel .mite pioiiil !> 
call him one of our clan. Ib - an c\ 
i client i \arnple of what max I 
i oinpli'lii-d in tin < .).< of an indix 
who i- working toward a definile oh- 
! lixe. 

M...I of tin. article ha- been dire. I,, I 

toward the .1 I I i.ilher than the 

i amp. d.ix i la.- or lomnnmilx renter 
or plavground (hat is win i. 

most of my experience lies. However. 
I can see no difference between a plm- 
tographic program in these and one 
in a school. 

Ix>t your camera radiate in evcrx 
direction from the arts and craft ac- 
tivities to music, swimming meet. .dra- 
matics, nature lore, sport., trips, and 
even the work of the camp dm tor. 
nurse and dietician. What you do with 
your beginner... and the amount of 
planning you do. will coordinate fun 
and real camera achievement. 

The pinhole camera is an excellent 
means of beginning a program related 
to picture takitig when fcx\ have cam- 
era, of their own. Have a sample 
leadv to show the group before you 
begin the making of one. There will 
be a few skeptics who will think thi. 
cardboard box. with a pinhole in the 
front and film at the back, cannot take 
a picture. Keep a few pictures on hand, 
too. that you have taken with this 
camera and pass them around for in- 

Supply yourself with a lot of .till 
cardboard (railroad board i- excel 
lent), some number ten -ewing needles. 
metal brad- or round headed paper 
fasteners, thin black paper, gummed 
tape. glue, cutting tools, ruler.. 'I hen 
go to work. C..n. hud three .eparale 
pail- for llii. camera: an inner .eclion 
open al both end. and txxo oulci ... 
lion-, both o|M-n at one end and cln-ed 
al till' other. The.e two sections be- 
come the front and the back of the 
camera. The inner section slips into 
the front of the camera and is glued 
in place. The back of the camera is 
not attached, but will be removable 
from the innci -eclion each time film 
i. in-cited or removed. 

l-rl'x make the innei -eclion III. I 
With a ruler MUM-IIIC a -tiip of card- 
bo.ird fifteen inches long and .">' . 
inches wide: divide into four parts. 
the fir. I and third being I 1 | inche- 
.iml the -ecoml anil fourth Ix-ing .'{' i 
nielli--, \\lien llie-e -ei lions have U-eil 
foldi-d and brought together, gin. 
n-infoiie with gummed tape. 
Ibex now form an oblong or O|M-M n-i 
tangle. ( it" end i- later glued to tin 
flout .eclion of the i ami i.i : the olhei 
end left |n in-i-tl into the |,,i, k of the 
i.imeia. Tin- end of tin- -hell will 

l<i i in uiiix 

also carry the film, which will be 
3% by 4 1 / 4-inch cut film. 

For a ledge or resting place to hold 
the film, cut several pieces of card- 
board about % inch wide and glue 
them together, one on top of the other. 
Glue these into the shell about ^/ inch 
from the end. 

Now, for the front of your camera 

measures 4Vi> by 3^/4 inches, as do the 
two corresponding slides. These two 
4 1 /-; and two S^-inch sides are folded 
in toward the oblong, glued and re- 
inforced with tape. 

On the front of this section, draw 
diago'nals or bisect from corner to 
corner to find the exact center. Now, 
cut out a small square opening about 






fold on lines and glu 

Black Paper 

Pin hole 
where lints 






3 H" 



cut" 2w 


Seal off all \iM 

h - 

corners fold-gloa wjth ^^ ^ mm ^ tape 

using cardboard 9% inches by 8% 
inches, measure off the four sides that 
will be cut away. Each of these will 
be 2-9/16 inches. The center oblong 

one-half inch or so. Over this, paste 
a thin sheet of black paper. When 
this is done, draw the diagonal lines 
on through or over this black paper. 

and where they intersect, you have the 
center. This is where you make the 
lens opening or pinhole. Use care if 
you do not want uneven, ragged edges, 
which will give excessive diffusion if 
you are not exact with this operation 
of the needle. 

The placing of the shutter on the 
front of the camera finishes this sec- 
tion, and this can be made with an 
inch strip of cardboard held in place 
with a brad. Keep it loose enough to 
move over the pinhole without jarring 
the camera. 

The back of the camera is construct- 
ed in the same manner as the front of 
the camera, and the interior of the 
whole should be painted black with 
India ink or dull poster paint. You 
have sealed off all possible light leaks 
with tape, your film is in the camera 
now for a picture. 

Make sure the camera is placed on 
a solid support and not hand-held dur- 
ing exposure, since even very fast film 
on a bright, sunny day requires from 
six to ten seconds to take a picture. 
If a model is used in the set up, place 
her seated and leaning against some 
back support. 




Amateurs and Professionals alike agree that Pitching Horse- 
shoes is great sport. Another thing they agree on is that 
pitching courts by "DIAMOND" are the best. Diamond 
pitching courts are ready to install, built to conform exactly 
to official requirements. Sturdily constructed of 2"xlO" 
planks to give you many years of enjoyment. 

"There's Nothing Finer Than A Diamond" 


4616 Grand Avenue 

Duluth, Minnesota 

JUNE 1952 


How lii keep children in iliei 

''nKil i liililirn like lii c linili unde-r. 
over unil tliroiiKli tiling. ""' > I'.u k <"' 
is imlliiiiL.ililr liir Minim ctiiliU-rn u ilium! 
tandpilr; but llir older t Inlilrrn ijuic k 
\\ lire nl tiich actmlicx. *>" invest in .mil IHIM v nr uw up tree-trunks 
.is lln-y do in park* in Slncklinliii. Sweden. 
K.vcn simple play r(|iiipmcnt i .in In- K<HK! 
in farm and drtixn oiili-mril In tin- 

Itii trunk |iini;lr ,ili<i\r anil >. Ilio* at 

n.;lil VulliKxIi-ls n.itlit.illi line lii .ii' 1 

'In 1,1 lii il I In v i I In i v|ii i li-il 

lo krrp limits tidied up ,d\s.i\s. so insl.ill 
ttranx eroiiml pattern that kn ps tin- rye 
tmni unlit-ing mattered tins I' \.inU 
mutt hr ray lo convert lo adult tat. the 
Mndrxix I.. , inning flower hrd. for narnplr 

CIIIIUKIN VKK iiMM'iK>l wlim tlii-v an- 
-nini-tliing. They like to run. jump. -win}:. 
slide, climb, balance or hang. But tlic\ tin- <|iii. IK 
of repeating the saim- ai-tion. 'l'hi> i> wh> filling llu- 
yard \\ith mci lianiral pla\ i-i|iiipmi-iit i> nn 
tee they'll be happy. Better to stimulate x-lf-aeti\ il\ . 
So gi\e them things their imagination can \\mk 
mi. Sand and water and stuff eas\ to IIIUM-. -urli -i~ 
hoards, boxes, barrels, ladders and saw-hoi >. an- 
suggestive and easily adapted to am ima^inai \ 
situation by am ajzc. Thr\ make the bark \anl .1 
wonderful land of maki--lielii-\e and children nexcr 
run out of "something new to do." 

|AI-I\ pla\ \anl neeiU ~nnie kind of pla\ IIOIIM-. 
The !-implet are best. Imagination conxcil* tin-in 
into just what the child wunl- nnt at the iimment. 

Mn HI xin>\ 

back yard 

Dr. Joseph E. Rowland 

This may be a house, store, robber's den or fairy- 

Boys also want pirate ships. A simple affair of 
old boards, bright paint and a bedsheet sail will 
do. They would also be excited to get a discarded 
automobile or airplane. You can screen either off 
in a corner, and count on years of fun. Girls want 
a place maybe just a secluded spot in the shade, 
under a tree, where they can talk to fairies, stable 
imaginary horses or just dream. They find some- 
thing new to do here each day. 

Both boys and girls like adult things. These let 
them imagine themselves doing grown-up work. 
Give them a bucket of water and a paint brush 
and they will "paint" for hours fence, garage or 
a favorite toy. 

Children, in the world of make-believe, forget safety 
rules. Fence the play yard from automobile movement. 

Mother should be able to view the entire play yard 
without leaving household duties. Seat-wall serves 
dual purpose extra seating and protection for flow- 
ers. A small slide (about $100) is good investment. 


1. A paved bike run. 

2. Something to climb on, preferably trees. 

3. Lawn space for tumbling and wrestling. 

4. A place to dig. 

5. Water to play in. 

fi. Convenient toilet and wash facilities. 

7. Sturdy seating that doesn't have to be pampered 
or brought indoors when it rains. 

8. Dining facilities, preferably including a portable 
barbecue for easy cooking outdoors. 

9. Covered, weatherproofed rainy-day play space. 

Ji M: 

10. An outdoor dance floor. 

11. Raised plant beds so plants are up out of the way. 

12. Resilient plants that can withstand accidents. 

13. Fences rather than hedges. 

14. Scuff-proof paths. 

15. An easy way to store play equipment. 

16. Complete isolation of play area from automo- 

17. Sun and shade, cooling breezes, and protection 
against insects and dust. 

From House Beautiful's I'rariirttl Gardener, 1951. 


John C:. Orth 

A \\nilM. I hat ten. I- In rcfre-h man'- mind from the 
Acrwla) pursuit nf a living. un> thing that encourages 
people i,, oli-erve with uniler-landing and to enjov their 
perio i|- of leisure anil recreation inlclligcntl). is of im- 
measurable value. On nature trails, much can be learned 
In make the out-of-doors more enjoyable and understand- 
able to the xi.itor. With the increased interest in the 
preservation of our natural resources, as shown by con- 
servation socielie-. \iiilulion .ocietie. and other wildlife 
group-, it em. oiiK riphl that a part of a state park 
budget hould l-e set aside to build and maintain nature 
trails and trailsidc mii-cum unit-. 

ll .boiild ! the purpose of these "live institutions" to 
call ! the vi.iior'. alienlion the animal, plant and geo- 
logical Morv of the park and its relationship to everyday 
living. Thi> mean. going '" nature hei..-lf rather than 
in book.. i-lii..inoiii. i,r inanimate mu.eum exhibit., i 

ilion. a inn. )i di.< u-. <! national problem, cannot be 
pi.mled out l belter advantage than on a nature trail. 

In planning and building -in b an area, man) fa. |..r- 
rini.l IK- taken inli. . on.ideralion. \n elaborate and well 
planned (mil onl\ cheat.* a large \-t< -enlace of lite public 
from mini) enjovincnl and knowledge of the ..ill of -il... i - 

Hide.. j| in i-.i-ilv .1. .. .-il.le. \\|n|e the .1. <epled defllll 

IIIIIN ( Olirn /< I'nrk \nliiinlnl / ihr /'n/rn/./- Inlri- 
ilalr I'ark ( t<niinit<inn ill lirni \lnnnliiin. \.-n ),tik \lnh-. 

tion of a nature trail is "an informal path through field 
and wood, nature providing the illustration-, man the 
slor\." this path should be -n ile.jgned that young and 
old. and e\en the |ih\sicall\ han<lica|)|K-(l. ean use it. In 
other words, a nature trail in a public park should be 
ili--igned for all the \isilm- .md not jii-l a -elerl few with 
the agilit) of mountain goats or the endurance of -ea-oneil 
hikers. Nor should it be too long for the average visitor, 
who is not accii-lomed in e\|en-j\e walking. 

By far. the be-l situation for a nature trail area is one 
that is separated from the swimming, picnicking and 
athletic areas, either In natural or man-made harrier - 
such as streams, lake-, rock formation, m mail-. ilb -uf 
ficierit plant growth to - i.-.-n other lene.ilional area- it 
lln-\ are nearbv. >m li In-almenl will pre.erxe the proper 
almo.pliere. \n\ area of lwenl\-h\e to one hundrc<l .n-ie. 
that meet, llie-e reijiiir emenl- ami i- adjacent to parking 
areas, bu- -lop-, and .o on. i. ideal. 

l!<-fori- lavinp out the trail-, planner, -liould careful!) 
map the area, not <mK for topography, but al-o for in 
i' n -imp trailside material, (iomnion -i-n-e ,li. i,it. - dial 
inlere.tinp n.ilural fc-aliirc-- cannot Ix- brought to the trail. 
H the trail must be made to pass them. Perhaps an ev cl- 
ient -land of fern., a line old tree, an orili -topping of r"'k 
or a \i'-w will put main i urve- in a trail, but curves arc 
dehnileh an advantage, ll -h..iild ne\c-i be a straight line- 
between two point-, but should miMnder through an ana 


l!i c 1:1 \nc.\ 

and never be unadventurously in view too far ahead. The 
points where these curves occur should be carefully se- 
lected. In this day and age of rush and hurry, the visitor 
will soon try to make a trail of his own, constantly striv- 
ing to create that straight line between two points. Heavy 
undergrowth, blackberry, catbrier, rock formations or 
even boulders placed at these points, will tend to keep him 
on the trail, since that will be the path of least resistance. 
In the overall planning, erosion should be kept constantly 
in mind. Whenever possible, trails should follow the con- 
tour of the hills. Occasionally, existing trails can be used, 
but the foliage and general natural features are often so 
worn by use that new trails prove more practical in the 
long run. 

A trail usually goes through two stages. (1) Construc- 
tion consisting of clearing it to a width of two to three 
feet, with all grass clumps, stumps, rocks and other ob- 
structions removed to make walking easy, and the placing 
(if posts and labels where advisable. (2) The initial period 
of use and study of its popularity. Depending upon popu- 
larity, it will have to be widened and improved to handle 
the increased traffic, or it may need only occasional main- 

It is fallacy to assume that maintenance is not necessary 
on this type of trail, that everything should be left to 
nature. Experience has shown that if a nature trail cannot 
be properly maintained, it is far better to abandon the 
idea. Bridges or wooden walk-ways over streams or marshy 
areas are not objectionable, but the use of blacktop or 
other surfacing material on a trail is. When and where 
necessary, the application of an inch or two of sandy 
soil on the surface takes little away from the naturalness of 
the trail, and often helps to level rough spots. The purist 
would undoubtedly frown on such practices, but a nature 
trail in a state park is for the public, and one aim should 
be to make the trails as usable as possible. 

It has been said that people should be able to feel and 
hear the rustle of dead leaves under their feet in the fall of 
the year. Undoubtedly, this adds naturalness to the trail, 
but it creates a fire hazard which can be very much les- 
sened by the thorough raking of all trails to create fire 
breaks in the event of public carelessness with cigarettes, 
cigars and matches. 

Nature trails relating to plants, animals and geology 
can be planned for any state park, for regardless of where 
or how they are situated, interesting facts regarding these 
phases of natural history can be called to the attention of 
the visitor. 

Ecology, a thought provoking subject, cannot be pre- 
sented to better advantage than on a nature trail. Here are 
the settings, and the actors are going through their parts. 
Where better could relationships between the soil, water, 
plant life and animal life be shown? Directly coupled with 
this subject is that of conservation, showing how the de- 
struction or depletion of any one of these basic factors can 
be the weak link which will eventually break the chain. 

A nature trail is as good as its labels, for it is along the 
trail that nature provides the illustrations, man the story, 
the latter being told by means of the labels. The purpose 

of a label should be not only to tell the names of things, 
but to furnish an additional story of interest to the visitor. 
This should be told in as few words as possible, as it has 
been found through experience that long, dry statements 
will not be read. If a story cannot be told in a few words, 
it is best to continue it on several labels. The one im- 
portant fact, to be kept in mind at all times, is that each 
label must be understandable. 

In the overall planning of trails and labels, the neces- 
sity for protecting the property against the minority of 
vandals requires: (1) Constructing labels so tough that 
they are practically vandalproof: (2) Where this is not 
practical, building cheaply and with a minimum of effort 
so that duplicate labels can be kept on hand to immedi- 
ately replace defaced or stolen ones; and, (3) Posting 
warning signs. 

School groups, without proper supervision, are probably 
the worst offenders. The labels have a definite fascination, 
for thoughtless boys habitually remove all signs, from 
"Full Stop" to "Ladies." These are hung on the walls of 

Under new system, two colored leaf outlines, squares, circles, 
or other designs are repeated on trees and shrubs of species. 

their rooms, much as a big game hunter would hang his 

Apart from this deliberate vandalism, there is the 
thoughtless variety. It is here that much good, regarding 
proper park use, can be accomplished. To educate the 
public in the preservation of all native animal and plant 
life should be one of the aims of a nature trail. This policy 
will tend to correct many types of injurious park behavior 
and will teach people to think along lines of conservation. 

Labels, if thoughtlessly written, can encourage vandal- 
ism. An example might be, "The spice bush is also known 
as fever bush and wild allspice. It can be identified by the 
odor of the leaves when crushed." This type of label is 
virtually an invitation to people to tear off leaves, crush 
and smell them. 

Three simple and inexpensive types of labels have been 

Ji M: 1952 


found In In- -ali-fai lory on nature trails in Rear Mountain 
Male I'ark near New V>tk Cil\. Ml label- .in- kept -mall. 
I- or out-of-lhc.wa\ place-, where \andali-m is hard to 
(ifl. -ci. -beet in>n plate-, one-eighth inrh thick or thicker. 
are lai:-cicwi-d to I.MII-I po-t- .mil i oncn-leil into the 
ground. The-e are painted with a metal primer and then 
ri ,i < n, il or two of outside [Mint of whatever culm i- 
mo-t suitable, onto which the letleriii<; is painted, and then 
fini-hed with several coats of spar varnish. To date, not 
one of tin -e -iMn- ha- IM-I-II liroken or stolen, and e\cn 
the weather has had little or no elTect upon them. 

I he labels are fastened by means of either two-inch No. 




Above, view of the 
building, I i.iiKidr MIIM-IMH. 
Palisades Inter tin to Park. 
Bear Mciinilaiii. New York. 

l.elt. UK- Snake I'll. In .111 
area where snakes are lairK 
i .-11111111111. tin's ran lie made 
an outslaiulinu aflrai linn. 

Snake Pit 

.'I I'.iinil head bra-- -crew- or three-eighth inch carriage 
holt- to the lhrei--iiicli face of two- l.\ three-inch roiifzli 
cut lo< ii-l po>ts. which are concreted into tin- j-round. 
I lu-e pi, -|. .in- .1 peinianenl pail of the trail and are <>n|\ 
used to mark specimens or area-, which do not eh HIM,. 
from \ear In w.u '-hruh-. lice-, roik formations, and 

n > . I In- la I >i-l- .in f.n i-d u ith 01 ie- foil rtli in, 1 1 tempered 

pi, -cd wood reinforced on the top and hollom of the hack 
In ihree-fniiilli*. inrh |.\ two-inch fir 01 pine -trip-. The 

pi,- ed w I i nailed to llie wo,| -Inp- with one and 

one-half imli ",iK.mi/,rl iron nail>. which are \ti\\)- enough 

lo !>,- , Imi hcd into the wood -Inp-. I w iN of light grav 

dei k enamel are applied, and after dr\ni". llie lahel i- 
Mllded. One or lw<> , of Hat paint are then applied, 
on which the let I. done with |M-n and \\.llelproof 
Imli. i ink. Tin- hni-lied lalx-l i- then p\en Iw .il- ,,f 

a \arni-h. \- the-e lal.el- an- eight inehe- Imij: 
.mil -iv mehe- hl"h. M-| \ little lexeragc ran \><- excited |o 
up them i ,-,-. although a m-lriimrnl could m.ii the 

il with llii- -Inn lion, one i- ...,.,-,.. n.ilK 

toli-n. : ren .1 fi-w po-i- npi mnl, m .l all. \ 
I, ItenuM liru-h and paint i CM ellenl but lake- n,..i, 
lime than the |M-II .mil ink. Il ha- l>ren found a " I i 

lice alwav- to ha\e a f<-w do/en blank label- on hand 
ready to be lettered in case one m more are destroyed "i 

The le\l of each label i- l\ped on a tll<- caul, -o if 
a label i- -lolen. it will not ha\e to \- icwiitlen. I ,n li 
label po-|. label and llie i.ud beai- llie -.line number. 

For temporary label-, small unifm m -i/ed piei ,-- ,.| 
hanlboaid are kepi on hand, with a coat or two of Hal 
paint on the face- 'I he-,- an- f.i-lened to wooden -lake- 
and can be lettered and placed when- necessan . 'llii- t\ pi- 
is ii-ed mo-ll\ to point out annual downing plant-, mii-h- 
loom-. and so forth. 

I In color of (he label -hollld al all lime- be in keeping 
uilb the -m loimdings and shoulil be b-bi -.. lli, 
l.lleiinr will stand mil. but at no lime -hoiild il i.-iv. tin 
appearance of an ad\ erli-emenl. 

llie pi. i< ni); of the label po-l- i- of impoil. -. for if 

lhe\ are pl.n rd -o me di-lame .,H the trail, tin \i-ilm will .in indixidunl path leading from (he nature trail lo 
them. \l lie. n M.. nut. mi. pi. i, iriM the po-l . i"lit<-, n un In - 
flom the trail make- tin label lianl ! if appioaelied 
an\ i |o-er and lend- In keep the public ,,n the tiail. 

Ill n new -\-lem al Me.u Mount. tin. each label ha- two. 

Ill i lit \llnN 

n *ooo * vjrr He mut 
IT a ust 




colored leaf outlines, colored squares, circles or other de- 
signs flanking the label heading. These same colored 
designs are printed on small labels ihree inches by five 
inches in size and loosely wired lo trees and shrubs of 
ihe same species. All of ihese are wilhin easy sight of the 
lettered trail label. Thus, interesting material not formerly 
pointed out is now called to the attention of ihe visilor. 
The firsl year this system was tried, the markers were 
wired to small posts driven into the ground, but the loss 
lo souvenir hunters was so great, lhal last year only those 
thai could nol be loosely wired lo ihe specimens were 
fastened to stakes. The loose wiring of ihese markers lo 
the trees and shrubs does no damage, as each fall the 
markers are removed, the Iree and shrub growlh not be- 
ing sufficient lo be affected by ihe wire. The loss ihrough 
thefl was negligible. 

Kvery several hundred feel along the trail, signs painted 
on flat rocks weighing about sixty pounds read, "PLEASE 
STAY ON mi: TUMLS." Coupled with these are trail labels 
telling why it is important for ihe public to stay on the 
trail. The various reasons given include poison ivy, com- 
pacting of the soil, danger to life and limb, trampling. 

A trailsidc museum is an indispensable parl of a nature 
trail and might well be referred lo as a covered Irail. It is 
here that material needing protection can be exhibited, 
and where the story of widely dispersed trail specimens 
can be brought lo a definite and permanent conclusion. It 
is here, too, that specimens of the small animal life found 
along the trail can be exhibited and properly cared for. 
Only local material should be used. This building should 
he ihe focal point of the area bul, al ihe same time, should 
he of such construction as 16 fit into a natural selling. Il 
should contain an office for the naturalisl and possibly a 
small auditorium where groups can galher for classes, 
lectures and other programs during inclement weather, 
('lose li\. but carefully screened, should be the rest rooms. 

Near this building can be placed rustic cages of suitable 
si/es In house some of ihe larger local mammals, birds and 
reptiles. In placing cages, it must be remembered that no 
animal can stand a full day in the summer sun or a loca- 
tion that is dark and damp without some sunlight. If cages 

Nature provides the illustrations, man the story. The nature 
trail is as good as its labels. These must be understandable. 

are to be constructed, they should be planned with ample 
room and good waler supply. In an area where snakes are 
fairly common, a snake pit is an outstanding attraction. If 
poisonous snakes are found in ihe region, ihis should be 
pointed out, and. if possible, some exhibited in the mu- 
seum so that all may learn to recognize them. An effort 
should, of course, be made to exterminate them from the 
park for the safety of the public. 

Poisonous species of plants, such as poison ivy, and 
poison sumac, should never be left on the edges of the 
trail. However, efforls should be made to have such planls 
in sight of the trail with appropriate labels pointing them 
out, so that people can learn their characteristics. 

To operate a good nature trail, there should be a nalu- 
ralisl in charge al all times, and a large staff to care prop- 
erly for the area and the public. A program of lectures, 
guided Irips and wildlife demonslralions adds much lo 
ihe interesl in ihe area, and in natural history in general. 


Ernest V. Blohm 

Consider a tree. Standing obedient to nature's code it 
portrays images, too, of people's recreation . . . spirilual 
strength in its graceful posture ... in silence imbuing a 
deep reverence . . . living harmoniously in a quiet glory 
with olhers of ils own of olher kinds . . . relaxation is 
expressed in ihe sofl, cool green of ils color. . . . 

In ihe shade of Irees is found recreation in meditation 
. . . solitude, dreams . . . and inspired enjoyment in simple 
beauty . . . wildflowers, sunrises and sunsels, ihe evening 
and ihe morning slars . . . finger-painted cloud formations 
. . . awe in the thunderheads, cleanness in ihe rains . . . 

Trees respond in a whisper to the wind, echoing the 
\oices of birds, ihe hunter's baying hound . . . ihe rasp of 
swifl skis and vigorous crunch of snow shoes, tinkling 
Chrislmas bells, ihe nation's lighthearted singing . . . pack- 
saddles creaking. . . . 

The coals of many campfires are visionary in the lacy 
patterns of a tree's shadow, the glowing of warm hospilali- 
ty and camaraderie ... of busy adventure, pioneering and 
trail blazing . . . exploralion . . . boyhood, willow whislles, 
fun . . . manhood . . . peace. . . . 

Intimately allied wilh trees are sunny days out-of-doors 
. . . family oulings . . . lunch baskels and picnics . . . sun- 
lans . . . swimming and bathing . . . clean, ruslling waters 
. . . boating . . . bent pin hooks and sunfish . . . tight lines 
and splashing fish. . . . 

Trees symbolically express the complex responsibility of 
administrators and superintendent of forest preserves, 
parks, refuges, and similar areas. Their undertaking is to 
perpetuate and preserve the nalural fealures of ihese areas 
and to make them available for the enjoymenl of people. 
Their work is noteworthy as they keep sacred the public 
Irusl beslowed upon them, by thwarting repealed altempts 
of encroachment resulling from commercial, private or 
unsound economic molives. 

ERNEST BLOHM is Group Camp Supervisor oj the Parks 
and Recreation Division, Michigan Department of Con- 
servation. Above poem is excerpt from Mr. Blohnis longer 
work, "Of a Ball and a Tree, An Ode to Recreation." 

JIM: 1952 


A Fast Developing Sport for Camps and Summer Resorts. 

"Iliilf the lure of sailing is adventure. Divide the rest 
between two other universal human qualities the desirr 
for freedom, and the urge to create and you have the 
unshakable architecture that is sometimes puzzling to lay- 
men: a sailor's love of sailing. 

"Freedom it begins the minute you cast loose from 
the dock or mooring. It is freedom not only in the sense 
that the visible world is >oiir-. ll is escape from the dust. 
noix-. worr\ and confinement of the city: freedom from 
the continual complexity and pressure of our life oti shore, 
ll puts to rights a great man\ things that seem ><> often 
wrong with us by restoring peace, perspective and di- 
rectness to our occupation."* 

There are many rewards gained from this sport of sail- 
ing, such .1- self-discipline, resourcefulness and confidence. 
They develop as natural complements to the adventure of 
sailing and not from arduous < ullivation. 

The nrwly projected sailfish is a bathing suit craft be- 
it i- lon-lniiled like a surf board, with no cockpit. 
Vtu.ilK. it is a surfboard outfitted with a "dip-up" rud- 
der, a center-board, called a "daggarboard." .ind a de- 
mountable in, l-l. \\li.-ri sailing it there i- little likelihood 
of remaining dr\. The hull, weighing but scvenl\ -eight 
pounds ran readily ! tran-poried on a ear-top earner: 
and it <an ! rigged and launched at am beach i dm k. 
In thi last feature it -ur passes any other t\|- of sailing 
'i.ifl in its usefulness and adaptahililv to ihi- need- and 
wihe of the owner. It < .in e.ur\ two pei-on-. 

The ailfih \- plaeing the fun of sailing within the 
grap of thousand- of viiiiiigsler- in amps .in. I -iiinmer 
resorts Ix-caune of it- IOH ei.-t. I I,.- UK leaned cost of sueh 
rraft an the "ni|x-." the "eomrl" and others, has placed 
a limit on the prrad of the -port in te. cut \ear-. The new 

From // In s>iimii>-l ( ;i r i,. r HI. ]<m, I . i-iirr 

of Amrrira, 30 Rockrirllrr PU/a. V ^ nrk liiiv 



Harold S. DeGroat and Robert G. DeGroat 

sailfish. therefore, costing well under two hundred dollars. 
and even less than that if the would-be sailor w i-he- to 
purchase the read\ -to-pul-together boxed materials, is fast 
catching the attention of camp and resort owners and 

Techniques Applicable to Sailfish Sailing 

Main Slu-i-i Kixifing After tr\ing out the new craft on 
New York state's Moss Lake, which is nearly oval in 
shape, three quarters of a mile long and one half mill- 
wide. with gentle winds prevailing but often coming in 
very changeable gusts, the main sheet rigging was changed 
from the anchor end at the aft end of the tiller and up 
through the t\\o pulle\s on the boom. Thi> ie\ei-ed the 
rourse of the sheet-ro|>c by changing the anchor end l 
(lie outer end of the boom and running it diieitK iloun- 
ward to a swivel pulley on the top of the ruddei end of 
the tiller, thus making a direct pull downward, or inward 
and doVBWard, .1' 'oiding to the position of the -ail. I In- 
gave a chance to datten the sail more readiK and also al- 
lowed more maneim-rahilit). It al-o required a special 
tci Imique of holding the sheet-rope along the tiller uilh 
one hand, with tin- thumb pressing the sheet-rope against 
the end of the tiller, thus lea\ ing the olhei hand free to 
grasp the guard rail <-r to pull in on the -beet when 

Strrrini: l'<niiiii>n -As our campers became nci ii-lomed to 
-ailing tin -ailli-h lhe\ tended to .1 lime two natural 

Oii.imvT. former director of alhletir\ </ 

r. M tin- diici-ttir nj I, inn nrnl S,-hintl Hrnllh. 

rilin (limn nnil Hfin-iilinn. \,-itl<nin.(.iinnrfli<iil. 
nnil ln\ w>. HiuilKr. former tir r'tirrr pilot, n nthlelir 
ilirrclor ami Inifhcr ill Titncr Hill Xi'lionl in If iltnirtftlon. 
l),-liiii,:ir. Until in,- ,-\iirrirm-i;l in in/iiiitn i nml 

lln KKMIdN 

RUNNING FREE. Boat is almost ready to go "on the step." 

positions aboard the hull of the craft. One, when light 
breezes prevailed, was that of sitting on the outboard hip 
with the knees bent and feet toward the stern, thus forming 
a triangle made by the hip, under knee and ankle. This 
position seemed to be comfortable and allowed easy body 
shifting when "coming about." 

However, when the wind was fresh we found that the 
sailor should sit as far to the windward as possible, with 
the knees bent slightly and the legs extended diagonally 
forward. This position allowed the greatest use of body 
leverage while still keeping the feet inboard so as not to 
create drag. On gusty days the same seat on the extreme 
windward edge was retained, and the weight changes 
necessary owing to puffs and lulls in the wind were made 
entirely with the upper part of the body. The sensitive 
sailfish requires, under such conditions, a change from a 
position with the chin tucked between the knees as the 
wind dies to a full hard lean in the next gust, all in the 
space of a second or two. 

Adjustment of weight fore and aft is also important. 
We found that a clearance of about six inches between 
the windward handrail and the forward hip kept the hull 
in good planing trim. 

Care of Craft and Launching The manufacturers of this 
new craft advise that the sailfish be taken from the water 
and not left exposed to the direct rays of the sun. How- 

ever, dragging it upon the beach or onto a dock can 
quickly scar the under surface. Many canvas covered 
canoes are ruined by the sandpaper effect of beaching 
them on sandy beaches. It is true of this craft, also. 

At Moss Lake Camp we devised two racks that took care 
of four sailfish each and solved the problem of being out 
of the water but not exposed to the sun. The rack that 
proved to be the best was placed in shallow water near 
the canoe or main camp dock. During the day the sailfish 
could be taken from the rack, floated to the dock and tied 
while the mast was stepped and the sail prepared for 
raising. The sail was left on the deck of the hull when not 
in use. The mast and sails with booms were stored on top 
of each hull as it was lifted into place on the extended 
arms of the rack. To keep the sails from mildewing, they 
were dried before being stowed away. 

The rack was placed out of the way of canoe and dock 
activities. The craft were tied in the lee of the dock, 
shielded from the prevailing wind. The spaces between 
each were set to prevent their bumping into one another. 
Mounting or Starting Off We found that the following 
way of mounting the sailfish preparatory to sailing is the 
best. First, raise the sail and arrange the sheet and rudder. 
Second, untie the craft. Third, walk out with the craft 
headed into the wind to knee-depth, or better yet, to where 
the daggarboard can be pushed down. Fourth, hold the 
hull so that it is pointed directly into the wind by grasping 
one guard rail with one hand and the tiller plus the sheet 
in the other hand. Fifth, when ready to mount, turn the 


The diagrams, Nos. 1, 2 
and 3, show relationship 
of tiller to sail in the 
turning maneuvers. 

Diagram No. 1 

t Tiller 

bow of the boat a degree or so down-wind so that the 
sail moves slightly away from you and leaves the deck 
of the craft clear for placing your knee upon it. Now, 
shove off with your rear foot; assume your sailing posi- 
tion and gradually pull in your sail and you are under- 
way. (See Diagram No. 1.) 

Dismounting When returning to the area for dismount- 
ing, we advise the following procedure. As you approach 
the area of knee-depth water, be prepared to turn the craft 
directly into the wind and then slide off, keeping the craft 
pointed toward the wind, so that the sail settles over the 
center of the hull. Now, back or guide the boat into an- 
choring position but keep it headed so that the sail main- 
tains its center position. If the water becomes too shallow, 
pull up the daggarboard or remove it and place it diago- 
nally between the guardrails, where it will wedge itself. 

Teaching Sailboat Techniques 

Safety Element Every prospective sailor must be a capa- 
ble swimmer. Experience in righting canoes and paddling 
them ashore and other safety instruction is advisable. It 

JUNE 1952 


- oii-idercd a good procedure I" haxe life-hell- worn h\ 
lho-e .if ipie-limiahle water ahilitx. 

Coming-Aboul Alwax- f.n > the -ail when -ailing, \\lii-n 
read\ In come-about, do ihe-e thing-: fir-l. push the tiller 
toward tin- -ail: second, mine xmn lin<l\ aim-- In the 
ntln i -ide of llic craft, ami a- xmi dn it third, change 
xmir hands mi the tiller and sheet, hut !>< -ure not to 
change the tiller position, (-'mirth, let the sail and doom 
pa mi r xour head and /;// un I lie <>i>i>osilf ..;</<. Fifth. 
IIOM. and onlx now. MIOU- ill. tiller .mil -leer on xmir new 
course. Caution, do not move the tiller liefore this time 
"i xu an- likelx to fail and get into liouMe. Sixth, pull 
in on the -heel and il will .-tart xmj oil i|uiekl\ on the 
new tack. 

Manx new sailor- make a mi-take of Iti/jiiii; n/i or turn- 
ing |(MI close to the wind as the\ approach the shore, and 
then wlidi thex wish to come ulxnit. tliex do not haxe the 
hcadw.ix to execute it. Thex seem to think tliat hecailse 
the -liorc i-iiixe-. llicx a lo mu.-t dine their course to 




I )|. 1141. UN No. 2 

match il. The> mii-l lie laughl to fin direcllx toward ihe 
-lime withdiil dining and come ahoiil when danger of 
running aground iM-cmne- likelx. 

lid in-i-teiice that the tiller he moxed toward the 

-ail not away from it pi..i.. i- tin- beginner ag.iin-i tin- 

d.ingerou- maneuxer called "jibbing." lie inu-l learn to 
"jili" and know the dilference helween maneiixer and 
the u-iial lacking or coiiiing-ahout maneiixer. 

am No. J .how- the Iwn maneiixei-. 

lililimi: Wr teach hnlh ihe "controlled jili" .in. I lli. 

-ig jih" vi that the beginner krmw- the dilfeieme and 

|ililj.'iiielll .1- I" which In ll-e. Ihe controlled Jill 

I- ll-cd III heaxiei dree/e- while the hailg jili I .III he ll-ed 

in light hrrr/e-. when the "train on the rigging i not 
likelx to IM- oxerlninlcM-ome. 

'r,,ll,;l Jil, Mnnriiiii II iilrnlleil |il. reipine- that 

the -ail !< pulled in gradunllx ax the luin i- in.ule with 
lh< -lern pointed upwind, while (lie lacking maneuver is 
made with the IMIW toward the Hind. In jihhing. the 
idler i mmrd nway from thr ail. \ the i- pulled 
in wlol. the i.ifl i- liirning. it Mill i oinr hack oxer the 

stern of the hoat until it reache- a -pot where the wind 
coining oxer the -lern will shift lo the oppo-ite side of the 
-ail and -larl to moxe it forward mi the other side of the 
craft. If the sail i> let mil giaduall). the hoat will continue 
turning to it- new course without danger of heing knocked 
clown, \fter the turn IKI- heen made, the sailor should 
moxe to the other side of the craft, change hand- on the 
tiller and dress the sail and tiller to fit the cour-e de-in-ii. 
I/if llnrifi Ji/> \\ e leach this in a lifiht hrce/e with em- 
phasis lii'ing centered upon // m-linn oj I/if tiller, the kex 
In -uccess or failure. Failure in thi- i-a-e max lie one of 
-exeial things, such as oxerturning. or loss of control of 


Course of boom 
Swinging from A.lo B 


Diagram No. 3 



the lioai. with either (hi- tiller llop|>ing ahoiit or cxi-n 
circling the craft conipldcK around one or more tiinc- 
at high speed. 

Diagram No. 3 shows that as the hang jilt is started 

held there until I/if iiitunl MVOHI/ when the wind will 
can-e the sail to flulter ju-t hefore it will swiii" sharplx 
acio oxerhead from "V to "M". This is the dangerous 
-ccond. when the lioom lifts and swings ai-io with a IHIIII;. 

If (tie tiller i- moxcd (piicklx to "li" or the center of 
the craft, as the sail xxhips aero. the "hang jil>" will he 
-in i e--fiill\ executed and the power of the wind and tin- 
sail will be eX|M-nded upon the ligging and cause onlx the 
how of the Itoat to dip forward. Now the tiller is inoxcd 
hack to "a" and the turn completed. The sailor can MOW 
moxc aim and face the sail as he dre es the sail and 
tiller on the new cmuse. ( fii/f/in^ <>/ ill,- lillft is the kex 
to -Hi i ess. 

If. howexer. the tiller i- left .it ".i" .1- the -ail whips 
.uio--. the power of the wind and sail will ! expended 
upon ihe -ide. in long axi-. of the daft and IK- likelx to 
i .ip-i/e it 01 lluow il out of control. 

f/i/iMirii -liinii It, >, I.. MIIIIIIII^ <n ItiMiiinitiliiifi >'/'"' Tlii- 
inanelixei i- xeix nei essary if the licgiimci i- to lie tin-led 
to handle a craft. 

I'.iiipli.i-i/e (In following xxhcn teaching .i|>pi.i< h 

1. \lw.i\- I, mil on Ihe In- */c linn up into the wind. 

2. If pii il-le. approach mi tin -ide of the iiiooiing. dm k 
1. 1 -put ..( di-in. .iinlin^ .11 i milin^ In ihe pn-ilion of (he If the -ail i- on the right, appmaih mi the right: if 
mi the left, i ..... e in on thai side. 

V' nling In the -lienglh of xmii (me/. -lax uiir 
unit i>'ii--hnlj to Inn Icniitln of MUM iiafl aw.ix fimn the 
-ide of the dock or mooring a- xmi appi ..... h for a hind- 
ing. lln- i- imp.. 1 1. ml in .illnwm^ -afelx inai^iii in m.iiicii 



4. To save damage to your craft, dock or yourselves, go 
the same distance behind the dock or mooring (lee side) 
before turning upwind, and drift into place. No matter 
how stiff or light the breeze the craft will slow down and 
reach the desired spot. Turn the tiller until the sail flutters 
over the center of the boat and then center it and steer to 
your point of approach. 

5. If there is a choice, the corner of the dock is pre- 
ferred, so if the craft comes in too fast, a slight moving 
nf the tiller can guide it alongside the dock or mooring 
with no harm to the craft. 

Notes for the Advanced Sailfish Sailor As a position of 
running free is approached and the wind begins to come 
more over the stern, the sailor should move his weight 
farther to the rear to counteract the leverage exerted for- 
ward on the mast, which tends to dig the bow in. However, 
too much weight to the rear sinks the stern too low, 
destroying the planing properties and causing a greatly in- 
creased suction drag at the stern. We found that a constant 
heel to the sailfish. sufficient to raise the windward corner 
of the stern free of the water even in the lightest breeze, 
paid dividends by breaking the suction caused by the flat 
stern design. 

The usual procedure of completely raising the center- 
board when running free should be modified when sailing 
the sailfish, as the lack of draft to the hull will allow a 
strong breeze to cause a crabbing action. For this reason 
and for generally greater stability, the daggarboard should 
be left down about six inches. 

The sailfish will get "on the step" in a good breeze. 
That is, the 'fish will actually plane on top of the water 
when the conditions are right. Once up, the heel may be 
reduced and a true down-wind course taken if desired, but 
this is a very delicate situation and all moves must be 
sensitive and gentle, or the sailfish will drop back off the 

Teaching Suggestions 

Position of Instructor The preferred position of the 
instructor in teaching sailing is always upwind. From here 
the voice carries readily by megaphone. From here, wheth- 
er on the dock, in a canoe or boat or another sailing craft, 
it is easy to reach the down-windward craft quickly if it 
is in need of help. Choose the area or course that gives 
the very best safety factor during the teaching sessions. 
Order of hems To Be Taught The following is the sug- 
gested order of instruction to be given to sailfish sailors. 

1. Terms of sailing, parts of the craft, and a short his- 
tory of sailing, including the theory of sailing. 

2. Launching and rigging the sailfish. 

3. Mounting and the take-off what to do if capsized. 

4. Short run across wind, "come-about" and return 
over shallow water if possible. 

5. Proper return to dismount area and dismount, sail 
lowering, and anchoring properly and storing upon rack. 
The dismounting or making dock approaches can be com- 
bined with item number four. 

6. Tacking Lesson After learning to steer a straight 
crosswind course and return over the shallow water, a 

SAILFISH TRIPPING. New sport rivals winter ski trips. 

course should be set that will require tacking upwind two 
or three times to a buoy and return down-wind or on-a- 
reach. This lesson should cover the proper dressing of the 
sail at close-haul and the pointing of the craft into the 
wind for the best speed attainable, how to make the turn 
at the buoy, and the proper dressing of the sail and use of 
the daggarboard when running down-wind. 

7. Triangular Course After sufficient practice in tack- 
ing and steering, the more advanced beginner may be sent 
on a triangular course with the usual legs, requiring sail- 
ing on a reach, tacking and corning in on the wind. 

8. Practice Racing Starts Teaching of the hitting of 
the starting line at the end of three or five minute periods 
is required next. More advanced sailors can race to a 
crosswind buoy and' back as part of the lesson. The racing 
rules need to be explained here. 

9. Racing over a Triangular Course This begins to 
give the sailor the real fun of sailing and also stimulates 
the desire to learn. 

Common sense is the way to interpret the theory of sail- 
ing; the rules and theory are quite simple. There will be 
features about your sailing area that will be peculiar to it 
alone. Varying types of breezes will allow different tactics 
on different days. Breezes coming down the lake one day 
will allow good sailing of certain courses. Breezes coming 
out of notches made by nearby hills or mountain peaks may 
alter things entirely on another day. Breezes bouncing off a 
woody side hill or a huge rock will set up rules of proce- 
dure that must be taught when sailing near them. The 
bounce-back of such breezes will cause changes in the 
dressing of the sails. These must be understood by the sail- 
ors, as well as the fault of sailing too close in the lee of 
an inland and being becalmed. 

This sport of sailing is now within the reach of many 
more young people. Its thrills and opportunities for ''free- 
dom" are there to be tasted. 

Ji M. 1952 



John A. MacPhee 


Camp cookery can be fun. 
y ne nove lty { a newly ac- 

quired skill, the satisfaction of having 
created something yourself, and the 
"provin' in the eatin' " all combine 
to make camp cookery an enjoyable 

None of these cooking procedures 
are difficult if they are taught in 
proper sequence. Why not try them 
yourself, and be at least a few steps 
ahead of the campers? Confer with 
the home economics teacher at school, 
or the camp cook, for ideas on mixing 
ingredients, greasing pans, testing to 
see if food is cooked, fast cooking or 
slow cooking, and so on. You can even 
practice some of the steps in the 
kitchen. Be careful with the flapjacks, 
though, many an enthusiastic flip has 
flapjacked right onto the ceiling! 
When the actual instruction is going 
on, you will not have time to do any 
""iking. Remember the following 
points in teaching camp cookery: 

It is most fun (o cook without uten- 
sils. One gets the self-sufficient, pio- 
neer feeling. 

And, of course, part of the fun is 
in the eatin'. Hither do not have the 
sessions too close to regular meal 
time, or have them a/ meal time. 

^me of ihe mutts in teaching 
young campers to cook: 

a. First and tail a projter fire / 
tenlial. Skill must be developed in firr- 

\irmiH. in n; mil inn ilnmon ,if 
l'nin-r.Mi\ <>f \.-i, ) ,,rk Trach- 
lli-s:f. Cnrlland. has been rnm/i- 

niil ,lir,;l,n. Cninjt K'innrlmi;,,. \l,. 

making. This includes selection of 
proper tinder, finger-thick kindling, 
and hard or softwoods, according to 
what is being cooked. And never for- 
get what the wise old Indian said. 
"White man keep warm by running 
out and getting heap much wood for 
big fire. Indian make small fire and 
sit close." The same rule applie.- to 

b. Every camper cooks. Keep the 
number of campers, per fire, down to 
two or three. Four is the maximum. 

c. Have cooking fires in a rough 
circle, in a pasture, or grassy area to 
minimize fire hazard. Supervision is 
pimplified if you, the instructor, stay 
in the middle with all the supplie-. 

d. Never cook without eating. Do 
this at the very first session, even if it 
is only toast and margarine. 

e. Cook close to camp. There is no 
need to make drudgery of the food 
transportation. Also, if you are cook- 
ing a meal, and something goe- wronj:. 
the camp kit< -hen is handy for extra 
vittles to make up for the stew that 
dumped inlii the (ire. or tin- -leak- 
that were squashed in the du-t when a 
beginner was looking for the salt. or 
the dough (hat was dropped. 

f. Make a fame of it. \ little in- 
formal coinjK-tition -omelime- adds 

/r-t ami now-|t\ a- Well a- -periling ll|l 

the learning proees* and also 
-uperinr ramprrs recognition. At ap- 
propriate lime. ii/irr the ha-ir fire 

anil cooking skill- .in .1 npli-heil. 

oiniM-iiiinii might I M i ondiii led. -iii h 
i- \\ Imilil ihe tir-l (in .' \\ ho 
i an I'i'il water lit-l .' \\lio < leaned up 

the fire place best? Pop this now and 
then unannounced and observe the im- 
proved tidiness. Did each put some 
green leaves, fern, or long grass over 
the site of the fire to prove the com- 
plete absence of embers or any fire? 
Who cooked with the least amount of 

g. Rainy days are not lazy days. 
I H em! Here are some rainy day 

Wet-day fire building practice and 
i ompetition. 

Reflector baking at the indoor fire- 

"Rev" Carlson cooks, indoors, with 
a No. 10 tin can, by using a "buddy 
Imnicr." Hull old elolh about three to 
four inches wide, like a gauze bandage. 
Place the roll with the edge up in a 
an. and fill the can with waste fat. 
\\hen tin- i loth i- -alurated. \ou have 
the equivalent of a small burner. Now, 
\oiir tin can cookery may go on re- 
f-ardle of weather, indoor- or out. 

Preparation of trip menus, empha- 
sizing proper quantities. Every ounce 
heroine- a pound after the lir-t few 

hi-i ii \aiiou- wa\- of food preser- 
\alioii. i are of peri-hahles when there 
i- MI. ne. ami do not o\erlook teadx 
mixes and dehydrated fond-. 

|)i-euss and analyze a balanced 
menu. On the trail. e\er\ meal can- 
no! l>r balanced, hut the daily food 
intake -hoirld lx* balanced. 

Listlx. whv not make the whole 

c oiir-e part of a build-up lo the first 

overnight Inkr. I n<"inar_'e eamper- ! 

and prarlire rnni|M raft skill", 


in \riuN 

such as tent pitching and ditching or 
bough-bed construction, so that the 
first overnight experience becomes a 
happy climax, composed of the inte- 
gration of the numerous campcraft 
skills which have been learned previ- 
ously. How many times is this first 
overnight experience an ordeal of na- 
ture against living instead of living 
with nature. Improperly cooked food, 
uncomfortable sleeping, burned fin- 
gers, knife or axe cuts, insect bites, 
and many other things that happen to 
the poorly prepared youngster, put a 
damper on the novice camper. There 
is no need for this to happen! 

So much for the philosophizin'. 
Here are the seven steps to easy camp 

1. Kabobs. Cook, and eat from a 
stick, kabobs made of meat, onion and 
bacon. Cut a green stick (thick-as- 
your-finger) and sharpen the thinner 
end. Cut your meat (lamb, ham steak 
or round steak) into pieces roughly 
one inch square and one-fourth inch 
thick. Slice the onion about one-eighth 
inch thick so the rings look like a 
cross-section of a tree. Cut the bacon 
in pieces about one inch long. Is the 
fire ready? Any fire will do for this, 
as long as you can get close to it. Put 
a piece of meat on the pointed end of 
the stick, and push it down about eight 
inches. Add a piece of bacon the same 
way, and a piece of onion, pushing 
them toward the meat. Leave a slight 
space (about one-fourth inch) between 
all pieces, to permit even cooking. 
Continue adding meat, bacon, and 
onion until the stick has about six or 
seven inches of meat, bacon and 
onion. Now, hold over the fire and 
cook. To eat, merely place two pieces 
of bread edge to edge, flat on the 
palm like the covers of an open book, 
sandwich the bread around the meat 
by closing it over the kabob, compress 
securely, and while rotating the stick, 
pull it out. Salt to taste. Finish with 
some local fruit or berries, picked, if 
possible, by the campers. 

2. Flapjacks. Now for some culinary 
acrobatics. Encourage the campers to 
flip 'em. The main trick in the flip, as- 
suming you have a light frying pan, is 
to keep the wrist flexible. Emphasize 
the downward dip of the pan, which is 
the essential preparatory movement 

for the upward flip. Make the first pan- 
cakes small, so that the loss of a few 
flopped flapjacks will not detract from 
the fun of flipping. Try greasing the 
pan with a strip of bacon doubled and 
slipped between the split ends of a 
green finger-thick stick about fifteen 
inches long. The pan is hot enough 
when drops of water jump around on 
it. The ready-mix batter should have 
the consistency of heavy cream. When 
you see bubbles appearing on the bat- 
ter in the frying pan, "Let 'er flip." 

3. One-Pot Meal. There are Irish 
stews, Mulligan stews, and so on, ad 
infinitum. We will not suggest any 
particular one. You cannot go wrong 
if you fry the meat in fat with season- 
ing first, and then add cold water and 
bring to a boil, simmer for an hour or 
more until tender, then add diced po- 
tatoes, onions and vegetables. While 
waiting, why not add some pan biscuit 
bread? Use a ready-mix, spread the 
dough on a greased pan, bake by put- 
ting the pan close to the fire at an 
angle to the ground to bake by the 
reflected heat. 

4. Hobo Stove. Much has been writ- 
ten about using the big No. 10 tin 
can. After the door has been cut (with 
tin snips) in your little stove, addi- 
tional holes must be made opposite it 
and near the top for a draft. Try mak- 
ing the holes with a beer can opener, 
the kind that punches triangular open- 
ings. A nail may also be used. Try 
fried bacon and eggs on this stove, 
bacon first to grease the pan. For a real 
novelty, cut out the center of a slice 
of bread, making a two-inch opening. 
Place the bread on the greased heating 
surface, and drop a raw egg into the 
opening in the bread. Fry as usual, 
turning when one side is cooked. 

5. Plank Steak or Fish. The food is 
nailed or pegged (hardwood peg into 
softwood plank) flat on a plank. The 
fire must be hot and high. Use soft- 
woods. Reflect the heat, from a stone 
or bank of green logs opposite, onto 
the planked meat or fish. Place the 
plank at a forty-five degree angle to 
the ground, close to the fire, opposite 
the reflector. The reflected heat does 
the cooking. A pot of tea, or a kettle 
of vegetables above the fire direct 
more heat toward the planked food, 
and will supplement the main course. 

6. Reflector Baking. Now, we are out 
of the tenderfoot and burned-finger 
class. What type of reflector shall we 
use? That depends on your pocket- 
book, your skill with tools, or both. 
Kinds you can make range from alu- 
minum foil on a light wire frame for 
lightness on pack trips, to a gallon tin 
can, cut to expose two adjacent sides 
to the fire. You can also purchase one 
from a sporting goods company. The 
proper distance to place the reflector 
baker is under the spot where the fire 
starts to "cook" the back of your hand 
in three to four seconds. Blacken the 
baking pan (black absorbs heat), but 
keep the inside of the reflector bright 
and shiny (shiny surfaces reflect heat). 
Adjust the reflector, close or away, 
according to the heat of the fire and 
the progress of the cooking. What 
should we cook? Why most anything, 
from toast to T-bone. Why not try 
berry muffins? Pick the berries (blue- 
berries, blackberries, raspberries, and 
so on) and toss 'em in the batter as 
you finish stirring it. If you want to 
get real fancy, use two reflectors; cook 
the muffins on one side of the hot, high 
softwood fire, and reflect the heat over 
to a second reflector baker on the op- 
posite side. Both will cook at once. 

7. Roast. The roast, of three to eight 
pounds, is the last step. If you are in 
doubt about the cut of meat, get a 
cheap cut for the first attempt. Skewer 
the meat with a wire that extends for 
about two and one-half feet above the 
meat. Secure a stout, wet string about 
three or four feet long to the top end 
of the wire. Sear the meat to keep in 
the juices, by holding it close to the 
hardwood fire. Skewer some fat 
through the wire at the top, and hang 
the roast close to the fire, using the 
full length of wire and string to sus- 
pend it. Turn the roast frequently, or 
wind up the string and the roast will 
rotate by itself. Catch the drippings in 
a green bark trough or a pan and 
baste occasionally with the drippings. 
Start the roast early. It takes about 
an hour of cooking time per pound. 

Vary the time of the meals: the 
kabobs at lunch, flapjacks at breakfast, 
one-pot meal for supper, and keep the 
reflector meal to use in case of rain. 
What better motivation is there to 
good cookery, than eating the results. 

JUNE 1952 


I\ \ i.i i i -IIONNAIRK sent tn recreation and park author!- 
tie- l>) the Committee on Surfacing Recreation Areas, 
a portion was devoted to surfacing under fixed apparatus. 
It included several questions relating to the playground 
apparatus area, special types of surfaces under fixed ap- 
paratus and opinions as to surfaces that have proved ex- 
ceptionally good or quite unsatisfactory. 

A large majority of the executives reporting have ap- 
paratus concentrated in one section of their playgrounds. 
One hundred sixty-six indicated such an arrangement; 
twenty-eight did not. One-third, on the other hand, have 
set off the apparatus section from the rest of the play- 
ground by a fence, hedge or curb. Sixty-four reported such 
an arrangement; one hundred twenU-two did not. Two- 
thirds of the cases reported the same surfacing under the 
apparatus as on other sections of the playground. Onl\ 
seventy-three out of one hundred eighty-four executives re- 
porting on this item have a different type of surfacing 
under the apparatus. 

Types of Surfacing in Use 

The information submitted with reference to the t\pes 
of surfaces under the various kinds of apparatus affords 
no i oN-i-teiit pattern of use. Many different materials. 
either alone or in combination, are used under apparatus, 
\aryinp from concrete to sand and sawdust. Most of tin- 
apparatus types have been erected on all kinds of surfaces. 
Man\ cities report the same type of surface under all their 
apparatus, as might l>c expected from the fact that the 
-urfticing is the same as that on the rest of the playground. 
Several cities have made special provision for surfacing 
under specific apparatus types. For example, one with as- 
phalt under its swings and merry-go-round may have sand 
or tanbark under its slide or horizontal bar. Taken as a 
whole, the information submitted does not afford the 
basis for recommended procedure. 


Number of Recreation anil I'ark .Ifrnrirs Reporlinp 
mi Specific Surfaces 

Type of Surfacing 

TXJ- S 1 i 1 1 SJJg ; . 

\ pi 





i ( Swing* 











1 liniliiiiK Slrui lurr 











(I nulling Tree* 










(iiant Slrnl. 


I 1 ' 









High Sli.l. 











Il>.ii/Miital liar 










Kin.lrrKart.-ii >lnl> 











M. IM I... K.nin.l 











See) Sew* 











Siamlar.l >WIIIK- 










Travrling Ring 


















ToUl 484 370 2S7 219 209 77 76 47 2.1 176-.' 

' Inrlmlr. our rork |>hll anil mi'- rnlilwr a>phall imxinf 

' inixlurr. of -jn.l iili loam, having-, ilirt. gra\rl. 

-awilu.l. lanliark. tt.mii. . rtr. 

1 Inrlurlr* rruh""l -! ing. *lag. lon>- 'lui 

' lnrluHr haing> rrporlnl in two rilir. 


Surfacing I 

Table I is a summary of the replies, indicating the fre 
queue) with which various types of surfaces were reported 
under several popular apparatus types. It shows a wide 
variation in practice. The see saw is more often reported 
on dirt, loam or cla\ than an\ other t\pe of apparatus; 
the high slide on sand: chair swings on turf: standard 
swings on asphalt, sand mixtures or stone surfaces. Rela- 
tivel) few cities report the merry-go-round ami Me -aw on 
a sand surface or the giant stride or slides on asphalt. 
Standard swings more than any other piece of apparatu- 
are consistent!) reported on all t\|> of surfaces. 

Other conclusions with reference to surfaces now in use 

1. Natural surfaces dirt. loam, clay with no special 
type of surfacing are reported most frepicnll\ . 

'2. Sand, or sand in combination with other materials 
Mich a.- loam, shavings, gravel, sawdust, tanbark. is the 
special type of surface most frequently reported. 

3. Turf or grass ranks third and is reported more fre- 
quently under chair swings, slides and climbing structure 
than under other apparatus t\pe-. 

4. Asphalt is used more frequently under standard and 
chair swings and climbing structure than under other 


Ruling Hi Snrlmr* I n,lrr Fixed Awiaratu* 

\> i.. A to \- i" 

Safety Mainlonano- Suitalnlil* 

i I K.i.l < I 

< I li.i.l 


Ilirt. Clay 





















i ; 






Sanil MiM 





1. -ion. . . i. 













-.iw.ln-t \ ^li.i\ing- 





( rlllrnr 






H'l M 


43 111 


In. In.l-- I . "ik an.l 1 nilil"! .i-pliall ;iinl .mr L-III. l"l 


In. In. I.- 1 ."ik aphall an. I mir .'inni.-iu i.-ln. l.-.l I" -int!- 
.in.l rr MW. 
' I rnl,l-r 
and w aw. 

Ill . Ill MM'N 

Fixed Apparatus 

5. Tanhark, infrequently used, is reported most often 
under chair swings and the kindergarten slide, suggesting 
it is used most frequently in areas for young children. 

6. Concrete, seldom used, is most often reported under 
standard swings and merry-go-round, but also under climb- 
ing apparatus. 

Appraisal of Surfaces 

Many comments were received as to the merits of various 
types of surfacing under apparatus from the point of view 
of safety, maintenance and suitability for play. It was clear 
that in commenting on such suitability, a number of 
executives did not restrict their comments to areas under 
fixed apparatus. 

Table II rates the various major types of surfacing ma- 
terials from the point of view of safety, maintenance and 
suitability for play. It indicates that in general the sur- 
faces, ranked according to safety, are as follows: sand, dirt, 
sand mixtures, tanbark, turf, sawdust, gravel, asphalt, 
cement. The rank order changes appreciably when sur- 
faces are rated according to ease of maintenance, as fol- 
lows: asphalt, concrete, tanbark, sand mixtures, turf, 
gravel, sawdust, sand, dirt. 

The following observations are based upon the figures 
in Table II: 

1. More than three times as many good as bad surfaces 
were indicated, which implies reasonable satisfaction with 
existing surfaces. 

2. The only two types of surface not generally approved. 
;is to safety, are asphalt and cement. 

3. The two types most highly rated for safety sand 
and dirt, are most frequently rated as bad from the point 
of view of maintenance. 

4. The two types given the lowest rating for safety 
asphalt and concrete, are considered most satisfactory as 
to maintenance. 

5. In spite of the bad safety rating given asphalt and 
concrete, very few cities consider them not suitable for 
play. In fact, more cities rated asphalt "good" than gave 
this rating to any other surfacing material. 


Many valuable comments with reference to experience in 

JUNK 1952 

the use of specific surfaces were made by the executives 
reporting. As Table II indicates, there is considerable 
agreement with reference to certain types of surfaces. For 
example, many workers felt that a sand, clay, loam mixture 
i.s best. Opinions differ widely, however, with respect to 
other materials. 

A number of- replies stressed the importance of leader- 
ship as a factor in reducing apparatus accidents. Others 
pointed out that instruction in the proper use of apparatus 
is more important than the surfacing under it. Still others 
believe that the types and heights of apparatus are of 
primary importance. Several recommend the installation 
of curbs around individual pieces of apparatus, or of 
groups of apparatus, especially where a material such as 
sand, tanbark, or sand and sawdust is used. A few, on the 
other hand, believe curbing is unsatisfactory and hazardous. 
One or more cities are anchoring their apparatus below 
the ground level to eliminate danger of accidents caused by 
the footing. 

The preceding article records in summary form in- 
formation in questionnaire replies submitted by recreation 
and park departments to the Committee on Surfacing Rec- 
reation Areas. Information relating to the surfacing of 
multiple-use areas and dust elimination, also secured 
through the questionnaire inquiry, will be summarized and 
published in a later issue of RECREATION. This article is 
published as a preliminary statement of findings and not 
as a committee report. 


Surfacing Playground Areas 

Newly Revised! $.35 

In view of the current interest in surfacing, a revision 
of this supplement is now being made available. New 
bibliography included. 

315 Fourth Avenue New York 10, New York 

IK u liber 

From James A. Sharp, director of recreation in James- 
town, New York, has come a recommendation, based on 
his department's experience with blacktop areas on play- 
grounds. They are successfully using a set of all-white 
baseball bases, consisting of a home plate, three bases and 
a pitching rubber. Heavy, and made just a little under the 
regulation size, these were designed especially for play- 
ground and gymnasium use. They are easy to move, and 
if left outside, do not seem to suffer from rain. The rec- 
reation department has ordered another ten sets, and the 
school physical education administrators are considering 
sets for indoor winter baseball games. 

This solution to the problem of finding a suitable base 
for blacktop surfacing was worked out with the aid of the 
Mohawk Rubber Company of Akron, Ohio. 


how To Do IT ! 

Nut Cup from a fin can 

All you need is 

I. Tin can fop 
. Tin snips 
3. Pencil and ruler 
4: Steel u/ool 
5. Hammer 

1. Mark off tin can top as shown in the diaqrarn. 

2. Cut tin on dotted lines. 

3. Bend up "the four strips. 

4-. Rub all cuf edges with steel wool. / 

77/? Can Top 

Cut here 



5. Roll the four strips to make the feet . 
6.Cut outside edqes of tin can top into desired shape and sleelwool 
all cut edqes. 5ome suggested cuts shown below 


Th/s cuf" is about" 

7. Bend and roll the four sides into position 
Nofe: If hammered or lined or scratched 
surface desired do fhis before cutting ftn . 

Side benf 
into place 


111 ' UKATION 

Baseball Ballet It's new. It's colorful. It's exciting! 

/ T WOULD BE impossible to estimate 
the total number of man hours spent 
in playing "catch" since the turn of 
the century. What makes this pastime 
so interesting and popular? The light 
exercise is beneficial, and there is a 
thrill in developing accuracy in throw- 
ing and effortless ease in catching. 
Sometimes ball passing is done con- 
sistently with a definite purpose in 
mind, as in the case of the late Mr. 
Feller who coached his son Robert to 
become one of baseball's greats. Many 
times it is done to escape boredom or 
to while away an hour or so. Whatever 
the reasons, the benefits and pleasure 
derived are immeasurable. 

Even with its widespread and last- 
ing popularity, however, merely pass- 
ing a ball back and forth does not hold 
interest very long. In summer camps, 
playgrounds, rehabilitation centers, 
isolated military bases and on board 
navy ships, there is a great need for a 
ball game that is adjustable to the 
space available and which accommo- 
dates varying numbers of players. Star 
ball fills that need and is a game both 
children and grown-ups find fascinat- 
ing. Five players form a circle and 
throw five balls simultaneously, each 
player throwing to the second player 
on his left. Since a player throws 
to the same catcher each time, the 
routine is very easy to perform though 
it looks complicated. "It's a very fasci- 
nating game! Why, it can even be 
played in wheelchairs at rehabilitation 
hospitals," was the comment of Mr. 
Harvey Holmes, sports specialist of a 
New York daily newspaper. 

Deviations of star ball routines from 
the very amusing close range juggling 
act to the seemingly impossible feat 
of twenty-seven, thirty-six or forty-five 
men throwing as many balls over the 

ELMER E. HEFT, in engineering work 
since 1926, is active in many sports, 
and hopes that star ball which he has 
originated -- may benefit organized 
recreation. At present he is the owner 
of a restaurant in Daytona Beach, Fla. 


same area at the same time, provide a 
new source of entertainment for spec- 
tators and participants. The colorful 
spectacle of a baseball ballet can be 
produced with the use of painted base- 
balls or colored tennis balls for pre- 
game exhibitions. If you want to have 
more fun than a barrel of monkeys 
in a banana patch, get five people to 
toss a tennis ball, a volley ball, a soft 
ball, a golf ball and a football across 
a circle to five points of a star. 

Star ball requires any odd number 
of players, five or more, positioned as 
shown in Figures 1 and 2. The arrows 
indicate the flight course of each ball. 
When five play, each player throws to 
the second on his left. When seven 
play, each player throws to the third 
on his left. When nine play, each 
player throws to the fourth on his left, 
and so on. Positions can be set at 
random for any throwing distance. A 
blueprint showing methods of easily 
locating players in relation to bases on 
baseball and Softball fields can be ob- 
tained by writing to Uncle Elmer's. 

Elmer E. Heft 

The blueprint also gives directions for 
laying out playgrounds and gymnasi- 
ums and a table of dimensions for 
locating positions for varying num- 
bers of players at different throwing 
distances, to suit different age groups. 
For playgrounds, gymnasiums, service 
camps and on board ship, discarded 
tennis balls can be used. Some of the 
star ball routines can be performed 
by twenty-seven players grouped in 
three circles, as shown in Figure 3. 

The Warm Up. A simple routine, 
and excellent for slow warm up for 
baseball players, is for nine players to 
start with three baseballs. Players No. 
1, No. 4 and No. 7 each have a ball 
to start. Each ball not only will cross 
to the points of the star but will also 
move around the circle. As the arms 
limber up, more baseballs are added 
by the coach, who can thus control 
the throwing pace. Any number of 
balls from one up to the limit of the 
ability of the group can be used. By 
lofting the throws and increasing the 
distance, nine players can keep eight- 

FIG. 3 

JUNE 1952 


i-i-n l>a-f|i.ill crossing and carding 
the star. <'..nir-i- can he staged and 

ir. ..liU r-lahlNheil of llir j:riill|i (IT 
i lull which ran keep tllr in. .-I halls in 
|ila\ for a jjivcn nuinlMT of tlin.u-. 
H.IM- our I '.ill iKed or painted n-cl. 
I'l.ui-i N<>. I -i. ill- uilh this hall and 
when it is returned to him \ ia player 
No. 6 the routine is eornpleted. 

Tlif Kniinil ('IL Nine men ron\ri^f 
from all around the outer limits of the 
field. At a dNtunce of two hundred 
fret "i more thrs start throwing hut 
keep closing up the size of the circle 
until the players are only a few feet 
apart. \- llir\ get closer, they loft the 
throws for a super juggling act. The 
players can then back away, as they 
throw. -i\t\ to ninelx feet apart, throw 
the halls hriskly for a few throws, and 
at a given signal reach into their 
pockets for red hasehalls, and on the 
nr\t throw all red halls suddenly ap- 
pear. Switch back to the white. Slow 
tin- throwing pace slightly and nine 
plaxrr- <-an easily use the eighteen 
hall-, alternating the color on every 

throw. 'I hi- differ- from the above 
routine in that the alternate ball is 
held in the throwing hand until the 
cptlici i- caught. Fifteen plaxn- can 
he u-ril for llii- routine, or a< -laird 
hef ore, any odd number. 

The Spiral. A few amusing twists 
will add to the entertainment aspect. 
Have a tenth man with a supply of 
ha-rhalls crouch hr-idr plaxer No. 1 
and hand the balk to him as fast as 
In- can throw to player No. .">. or as 
fast as No. 5 can catch and throxv to 
player No. 9. Start with one red ball 
and when the tenth man sees this ball 
coming back to No. 1, he stops sup- 
plying the balls and heads for cover. 
When the red ball is returned to player 
No. I the second lime, the routine is 
complete, or, at this point, player 
No. 1 can "unload" the star by de- 
flecting the balls off his glove into a 
receptacle on the ground or held by 
the tenth man. who wears a mask and 
chest protector. For comic relief, put 
two masks and two chest protectors 
on him. Protected in this manner, the 

tenth man can stay alongside 

No. 1 for the spiral technicolor rou- 


Spiral Technicolor Kiniline. I'laxri 
No. 1 loads the star with red baseballs. 
When these are returned to him he 
drops them in a container and im- 
mediately replaces each red ball with 
a white one which he grabs from the 
tenth man. Follow llir -amr procedure 
with blue ba-rhall-. hack to the white, 
and then use the red ones again. I'se 
nine baseballs of each color for this 
routine, and all players throw simulta- 
neously. Most accurate thrower should 
be player No. 6 who throws to player 
No. 1. To avoid collision of balls in 
the air, players No. 1, No. 4 and No. 
7 throw to waist level or lower, play- 
ers No. 2, No. 5, and No. 8 throw to 
chest level, and players No. 3, No. 6 
and No. 9 throw to top of head or a 
bit higher. 

For further information, write to 
Mr. Heft, t'ncle Klmer's Restaurant, 
South Atlantic on Ocean Front, Day- 
toiia Hrach. Florida. 


Showi many caiy to make camp project! 
ready to put together, luch at beautiful 
1 belli, bagi, punei, cigarette coiei and 
hundredi of other items. 


Genuine leather with competi- 
tion tolev All tizet for oil oget. 
Ideal for the beach, in the 
woodi, along palhi and for 

Per Pair - $3.9} 
($333 in 12 pair loll) 

*68-PAGI LSATHERCRAFT SUPPLY CATALOG - ONLY 2S< M typei of HMXiTMtot and leether Itenu of In- 
trrrtt el iiimmrr campt, mod*Ua| tool*. l*cte(>, (nilnirtion 
book* far iMadknft purpoeei. etc. No n|ni>ee)i< needed. 



31) W. Jotbton II. d Chicago 6 III. 

Cel*lo lot which I endow Me to calm. 






Windsor Hotel 


September 15 to 18, inc., 1952 

Annual meeting of Outstanding anil 
Park and lirrrr.ition Kxccutives of the Tinted 
States and Canada. discussions and 
pa|x-rs mi all phases <>! public- park work. 

Special Tours Exhibits 

Includes annual meeting of Ami-Mean \ssiu-iation 
nt /iH.|nui( al Parks and \i|uariimis. 

information write the K\e(iiti\e S.cnt.nv 
30 North La Salle Street Chu-auo 2. Illinois m 
i -insiilt Parks & Recreation, the Institute's month- 
Is m.ii;a/ine 

KM HI \iniN 

Summary of the findings of a questionnaire study made 
at the request of recreation executives attending an 
NRA district recreation conference. 

The Authority 

to Hire and Fire Recreation Workers 

TN 1951 the National Recreation As- 
* sociation conducted a questionnaire 
study of the authority to hire and fire 
full-time, year-round workers in pub- 
lic recreation departments. The pur- 
poses of the study were to determine 
who has the authority to hire and fire 
workers, the restrictions on their pow- 
ers and the legal basis upon which 
the authority rests; also, to reveal any 
local attempts to circumvent the con- 
stituted authority. 

Of the 303 replies, 264 came from 
agencies which administer recreation, 
either as a separate function or in 
connection with park services. These 
are the agencies that represent ap- 
proximately ninety per cent of all the 
year-round recreation departments, ac- 
cording to the Recreation and Park 
Yearbook for 1950. The other reports 
came from school departments and 
other types of recreation authorities. 
One hundred ninety of the 264 recrea- 
lion and/or park departments that re- 
sponded are operated by boards; sev- 
enty-four are not. 

The information submitted by the 
264 departments indicates that: 

1. In a great majority of cases, 
hoards have unqualified authority to 
hire recreation executives. 

2. Most boards have unqualified au- 
thority to hire all full-time workers, 
but many reported that their superin- 
tendents have such authority. 

3. The superintendent is more fre- 
quently granted the authority to hire 
and fire other recreation workers in 
non-board departments than in depart- 
ments managed by a board. 

4. A city ordinance most frequently 
provides the authority for boards to 
hire or fire; a city charter commonly 
;J\c> such authority to other officials. 

5. In most cities the authority to 
fire is vested with the individual or 
group having the right to hire. 

JUNE 1952 

6. Residence restrictions in hiring 
workers are reported by a greater per- 
centage of departments without boards 
than of departments operated by 
boards. Only fifteen per cent report 
such restrictions on hiring the execu- 
tive; eighteen per cent, as applied to 
other full-time workers. 

7. Few attempts have been made by 
an individual or group, in violation 
of the constituted authority, to inter- 
fere with the hiring or firing of the 
executive or other full-time workers. 

Who Has the Authority? 

Separate questions were asked con- 
cerning the authority to hire and fire 
the executive and other full-time work- 
ers. Analyses were also made for de- 
partments under a policy-making board 
and for those without a board, as well 
as of the allocation of power to ap- 
point and to dismiss workers. 

The Executive. Among the depart- 
ments administered by official policy- 
making boards, 143, or seventy-five 
per cent of these boards, appoint their 
executives without approval of any 
other individual or group. Forty-eight 
of these departments report that un- 
qualified authority to appoint the rec- 
reation executive rests with another 
individual or group, such as the city 
manager, mayor, city council or de- 
partment executive (in the case of 
recreation and park departments). In 
the others, the authority to hire is con- 
tingent upon the approval of another 
individual or group. For instance, the 
mayor, the mayor and city council 
or the city manager must approve the 
action of the board or commission, 
or these appointing officials act on the 
recommendation of the recreation 

In more than one-third of the de- 
partments not administered by an of- 
ficial policy-making board, the city 

manager has unqualified authority to 
hire the recreation executive. The city 
council has similar authority in about 
fifteen per cent of the departments; 
other officials in about ten per cent. 
In the other forty-seven per cent of 
the departments, the concurrence of 
another group or individual is re- 
quired; a common pattern calls for 
approval of the appointment by the 
city council. The many variations re- 
ported include one instance where 
four parties are involved in the ap- 

Other Full-Time Workers. Eighty of 
the one hundred ninety boards have 
the unqualified authority to employ 
full-time workers other than the rec- 
reation executive. In one-fourth of the 
departments administered by boards, 
the superintendent has the authority 
to hire, subject to the approval of the 
board. In recreation departments with- 
out boards, three out of four super- 
intendents are authorized to hire other 
workers, either with or without the 
approval of the managing authority. 
The recreation executive has unquali- 
fied authority to hire full-time work- 
,ers in about one-fourth of all depart- 
ments reporting. 

In only a few instances the indi- 
vidual or group having the right to 
hire does not have the right to fire, 
and the authority for both actions is 
usually vested in the same individual 
or group. All of the variations occur 
in cases where appointments are sub- 
ject to the approval of another indi- 
vidual or group. For instance, an ex- 
ecutive might be hired by a board or 
city council, subject to the approval 
of the mayor, but might be fired with- 
out reference to the ma\oi. 

In some instances, the hiring and 
firing authority holds informal conver- 
sations concerning appointments \\illi 
key municipal and civic leaders, even 


though concurrence is not required by 

Legal Basis for this Authority 

The wide variety of answers ghen 
to this question, and the failure of 
many recreation executives to make 
am comment, indicates a lack of clear 
understanding as to the legal basis 
for the appointing power. Some an- "none," others referred to civil 
service regulations and department 
regulations. Authority to hire and fire 
is usually assigned in a city ordinance 
or in the local charter. 

I he legal lia-i-i for hiring and firing 
full-time workers, in board and non- 
board departments, was reported as 

Legal Basis \umli<-r nf 

Di-partim-nt- Reporting 

\\ n!! I'. tardi \\ nil.. in l! 
City Ordinance 130 (68%) 13 UK-; i 

City Charter 

23 H2%> 22 (30%) 


32 (17%) 7 (10%) 

No Reply 

5 ( 3%) 

i u- ; i 


I In- local ie>idence ici|iiirement is 

the only major restriction on the hir- 
ing of applicants qualified by reason 
of education and experience. About 
fifteen per cent of the departments re- 
port residence requirements for the 
hiring of the executive, and eighteen 
per cent report similar requirements 
in the hiring of other full-time work- 
ers. Time of residence necessary varies 
from six months to three years. 

The above figures include depart- 
ments where these restrictions are 
either ignored or waived if no quali- 
fied candidates are available in the 
community. Other departments, not in- 
cluded above, indicated that although 
there were no legal restrictions, the 
informal policy was to give first con- 
sideration to local candidate-. 

The only other instance reported as 
a restriction in the hiring of the rec- 
reation executive was in a large park 
and recreation system, which permits 
only recreation supervisors within the 
department to take the civil -er\ice ex- 
amination for the position of director 
of recreation. 

Attempts to Interfere 
Mthough several instances were cited 

where pressures were exerted in the 
the interest of the hiring or firing of 
individuals, only three cases were re- 
ported of definite attempts to circum- 
vent legal procedure. 

In one case, a mayor attempted to 
fire the executive, when the authority 
to do so rested with the board. When 
he discovered this was not possible, 
he tried to force the executive to re- 
sign by persuading the city council to 
cut the executive's salary. 

In another instance, the mayor as- 
sumed he had the power to hire and 
fire employees of the recreation board. 
I (mil taking office he attempted to 
"clean house." but abandoned his plan 
when he learned that he lacked the au- 
thority to carry it out. 

A city manager, in the third case, 
tried without sin cc to hire subordi- 
nate full-time workers, although the 
cil\ charter specifically granted this 
authority to the department head. 

Freedom to make appointments and 
to dismiss workers for cause, under 
I lowers granted by law and without in- 
terference from unauthorized officials, 
generally prevails, according l<> the in- 
formation submitted in the stmK. 


Continued from M\n<ir KM KKATION, page 578. 

June 20-24 

July 27- 
August 9 
August 3-9 

AuguM 9-23 
Augu-e 10-30 
August 11-21 

\lliMI-l I .">- 
>-|.lrmbi-r 11 

Augu.l 17-23 
AURIUI 17-30 

\ut[ilt 26- 
,bef 1 

!-ibrr 21-27 
October 8 I , 




Annual Two-State YMCA Aquatic School, 

Springfield College 
Annual Institute of Folk and Square Dancing, 

Association Camp, Colorado 
Wisconsin Recreation I-eadcrs Laboratory, 

Kinharrass, Wiscon*in 

Ilium Major ami (.li.-.-rl.-a.l.-i- ('.amp, Oglebay 

Park, Wheeling, West Virginia 
Opera Workshop, Oglebay Park, Wheeling, 

Wi-t Virginia 
l!.-lii!i..ii- Drama Workshop, 

i .!> n I .ik.-. \\ 1-1 i.ii-in 

National Camp i I'roii-tanl) . 

Port Ji-ni-, N. H ork 
Iowa MfihiHli.i li. -creation laboratory School. 

( I. .n I ak. . Inwa 
Eastern Cooperative Recreation School 

New York Stair In-iitui. nf Agriculture and 

Hi. in.- K.i. mi. inn -. I ..I. hi.-- kill 
nl r'lilk (lamp. Cm-. -late Park, 

Mi--.. mi 
Folk Danre Camp. Oglebay Park. 

Win i linn. W r-t \ irninia 
(ireal !.* ..n W..ik-lm|i. 

Trai. i ( in . Mn liigan 
Illark Hill. Rrrrration I.ea.1. 

II.. \ f M. r (.amp. N.-IIIM. ^..ulli Dakota 
Ki>lk Dan. . \Vi.ik-hop, 

I . xitiiclim, Krntin k> It.-.realion Conference. 

I'ur.lii- t nn.-r-iu 
r ..r tl.r h-e n( training course* conducted by NRA 

For Further In/ormaliun 
Ray Corbin. (.'hairnian. > \!C \. 

32 City Square, Charleslown 29, Massachusetts 
D. V,l I inegar. .1012 Maple Avenue, 

I'all.i-. I'A.i- 
liiiii-i- \\ C.nti.r. Secretary, 

-,l I \^n. ultiire Hall, College of Agrirultun . 

Mi-. Kli/alii-ili S. Faris, 

Oglebay Institute. WhediB| 
Mi-. Kli/.ili.tli S. Faris, 

Oglebay Institute, Wheeling 
Amy Ixxniii-, 

Route 2, I ...ll. Michigan 
Di nominational Headquarters 

Kn.r.-u.l C. Omlle Slrnhl. hl."> T.-nlti 9b 

!><- Moinrs 14, Iowa 
Miss Marcia Dippel. 488 Flint 9B 

Rochester, New York 

James F. Cam).!'-. Dip-rtnr, 608 Cratii.i x i 

-: I J. Ml mill 

MI- i:ii/ai..iii - i 

Ovli-bav In.litiil'-. \\li.< lin^. \\.--t \ ir^mi.i 
\I.|.-M 1'. I. i-iin. Mat.- ( i. lit K, . 

I ..iii-ini:. Michigan 
M.u> .- l\l. . < '..II. ai Malion 

Brookiiu--. Snub Dakota 

Jim.- >. llr.iHii. Rural Socinlngy Department, 
I m\rril> nf Kenlurkv. I xinglnn. Knilin kv 
Jarkxm M \n.|-i-..n. \--.uiale Professor. 

1' I i:i>.i-ii\. I .if, n. n.. Indiana 
staff, trr ini.|r |. 


1!) ( UK \TION 

Continuation of "Here and There" section of former NRA Playground and 
Recreation Bulletin Service. 


The San Francisco Municipal Chil- 
dren's Theatre has brought "Circus 
Day" to twenty-seven elementary 
schools. Over twelve thousand children 
have seen the play, depicting such 
characters as Jacko. the clown, and 
his little fat pig, Dinkie Dootle. Most 
exciting of all to these young audi- 
ences is the mock duel between two 
clowns, with huge oriental swords 
cardboard, of course. One of the clowns 
falls "dead," and when he suddenly 
comes back to life, the youngsters 
burst into cheers and laughter. 

To parents and teachers it has of- 
fered an opportunity to share a new 
experience with the children, and in 
the classes, has afforded themes for 
art work and English compositions, as 
well as subjects for oral recitations. 

From "Circus Comes to School" by Dore 


"We urge a more careful selection 
of only the best playground personnel 
for the full summer season and also a 
longer and more thorough training 
period. The National Recreation Asso- 
ciation will provide, upon request, a 
course of training which has been 
used with success throughout the coun- 
try. We recommend that each of these 
persons employed in the playgrounds 
be supplied with the 'Playground 
Summer Notebook. 7 (Published week- 
l\. Ivvelve issues, beginning April 25. 
by NRA. Ed.) This is a dynamic 
and useful tool for every playground 
worker. It is impossible to overtrain 
a playground instructor it is tragic 

to have one without training or inade- 
quate training." 

From Annual Report of the Board of Edu- 
cation, City of Boston, for 1951. 


At last! A well-organized list of 16 
mm films! It's called Motion Pictures 
on Child Life and is published by The 
Children's Bureau. Federal Security 
Agency, Washington, D. C. Price: for- 
ty cents. Sections on Recreation and 
Play. Juvenile Delinquency, Commu- 
nity Life, Safety, and so forth, will 
be of special interest to recreation de- 
partments. The list is well-annotated, 
with full information. 


A mayor's Fourth of July commit- 
tee planned last year's celebration in 
Butler, Pennsylvania. Leading clubs, 
businesses and individual citizens com- 
bined efforts to offer exhibitions, pa- 
rades and contests. Everything free 
except the baseball game and stock 
ear races. Fun and fireworks, without 
accidents, were the happy result. 

Leaders in camping, conservation, na- 
ture and outdoor recreation and educa- 
tion will want to study Conservation in 
Cain/ling, booklet resulting from a 
conservation workshop, sponsored by 
the American Camping Association, 
conducted at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, 
in 1951. Available from Soil Conser- 
vation Service, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

The recreation profession had its 
responsibility highlighted in a report 
for 1951 of the Committee for the Con- 
trol and Prevention of Juvenile De- 
linquency of the International Asso- 
ciation of Chiefs of Police. Rather 
than the police undertaking to provide 
social advantages, the report stressed 
the importance of "getting the exist- 
ing agencies to help that youngster." 

Development of western Maryland 
as a vacationland is proposed by the 
state's planning commission. A seven 
year 82,800,000 expenditure is pro- 
jected for land acquisition, develop- 
ment and construction of recreation 
facilities. It is expected that a major 

project of the program will be to 
broaden the region's economic base 
and increase employment. 


Growing out of last year's golf school 
for adults, sponsored by the munici- 
pal recreation commission in conjunc- 
tion with the parks department, Syra- 
cuse, New York, is following an en- 
larged program of instruction. Eighty 
per cent of last year's enthusiasts were 
beginners, the women outnumbering 

the men by 99 to 42. This year, en- 
rollment was 214 women and 64 men. 
The department of parks furnishes 
their pro, and the recreation commis- 
sion furnishes a helper and golf clubs, 
plastic balls and a golf target. 

Six lessons are given free, to groups 
of four in thirty minute periods. 


Enrollment in Oakland, California's 
"swim to live" classes, where boys and 
girls eight through fourteen years of 
age receive free instruction, reached 
an all-time high last year, topping the 
previous year by twenty-seven per 



The film, "Recreation for Every- 
one." (see May RECREATION, page 88. 
Ed.) made by local talent and tech- 
nicians, as part of Houston's survey 
and campaign to improve recreation 
facilities, stresses neighborhood needs, 
showing existing conditions in con- 
trast to what they might be. Since this 
"grass roots" survey was begun, the 
people have responded so heartily that 
the recreation budget has increased 
thirty-nine per cent. An NRA repre- 
sentative who recently saw this movie 
highly recommends it. 

.It M; IT>1> 


On five-acre plot ill a grove of trees. oldsters' center is gay 
xrllow stucco walls, bright green trim and red tile roof. 

\ story of the older folks in Waco. Texas. 
Margaret R. Conger 




nil/i me! 
Tin- /./>/ is yet to be, 
Tlif last oj lift, for nliicli the first was matte . . ." 

Summing the field of possible activities as social di- 
reiior fur the recreation department, of Waco. Texas, 
upon assuming her joli in early 1T>O. \ngela Peterson 
c .inn- to the com lusion that what v\a- mo-t needed was a 
center for the older |>eople of the communilx the lonelx 
in- with little or no incentive or intere-l in life. 

Fortunately, at that lime. -exeral groups of eaine-i 
women had the same idea. Church women were becoming 
aware that I he needs of the elderl) were not being satisfied 
localls. The American Association of I 'ni\er.-it\ \\om.-n 
h ..I ,i|>|>oinled a eoininiltee to look into the mallei. 

Tho-e interested turned to Mrs. Peterson for leadership. 
reasoning that am thin;: done for the aped, should IK- 
along the lines of aclixilies. From ihe begin- 
ning. Mi. Peterson and her eapahle aides had the idea 
of providing, for those of adxanced xeais. a plai e of 
their HMD where ibex eoiilil talk together of olhei dax. 
pin together, and woik logelhei on piojei|s which ap- 
[M-aled to them projects whieh the\ inighl originate if 
lllex so iiY-m-d. 

There was assurance from the start that (he \ \l \\ . the 

( .oiineil of riiurch \\oinen ami the Hiiiness ami l'|..fc- 
-I'.nal \\ omen's I lnl> to mention onlx three <d mam 
' i\ ii group- would stand hx wilh excix possible help in 
tin launching of -IP li a plan. 

Ihe eoinmiller was able lo gain the inlerel id "all and i onilitiiin- of men." from the one who could 
hand out a ehe. k for In. (linn-anil dollais |,, (hose who 
lonlil not gi\. so miii h .1- a |x'iim hut would help lo the 
limit of (heir \.n\ ing .ip.n 

Ifc-fori- the iiig.ini/.ili"ii and I'leilion of ollirer-. -omeone 
.11!> did gixe h\e ihoii-.ind dollars, the M.I'.NX ' 
liflx doll. il- and tin- (ioiimil of Chnnh \Xonu-n 

MRS I MM. MI. lii-rirlf in ill: M-I ,-nln-\. mill 11 l>n\i> 
ninnnn. ;< mltrr in lirr iil\ \ ilinrili nml iiii, >///m/v 

a book review, netting sixty dollars, which the) turned 
over to the fund. 

With courage inspired \>\ this material -iippnit. Mi-. 
I'eterson called a meeting for organization. Repraentattva 
from all agencies were invited; and thirl) -eight elults and 
orders sent representatives. 

The Waco newspaper cooperated full) from the hcgin- 
ning and gave such excellent public il\ to the project that 
the entire community became interested, l-.ntliiisiastic sup- 
port resulted in th<' fact that the hoard of directors of the 
I.nuey Migel Center for Old People now consists of leading 
businessmen, doctors, professors from Havlor lni\eisit\. 
local ministers, society and club women. 

The (imposition placed lief ore the (list meeting wa- thai 
the Waco recreation department would maintain and 
operate -IK h a center if the communilx would provide tin- 
building and equipment. As the consensus of opinion wa- 
faxoiahle. there was nothing to dclav action. 

One of ihe first committees, the location committee. > 

found an unused building on the old (lotion Palace grounds 

a building which l.oiiex Migel had gixen mam xeai- 
ago lo the retired firemen of the i itx for a ciuhhoiis,-. \|,,| 
of the old firemen had died, but those left, or their rcprc 
senlalixes. gladly deeded the place lo (he citx ici icalion 
i|e(iarlmenl for the newlx organi/ed icnlei. 

\\ilh fixe ihoii-and dollars on hand, plus a few contri- 
butions from clubs, plans f cll making oxer ihe building 
went forward. One wing will house the adixilx program. 

arts, craft-, w (working, greenhouse and game-. I lie 

existing central portion will IM- the focu of opcialioii. wilh 
lounge, kitchen, toilets and showcfs. .Image, olln e and a 
. .in-lak. i - |...,m. while the other wing will conlain the 
.in. lit. ii inn. and |ilio|ogra|ihic .l.nk mom. which will be 
-bared wilh the communilx .There will IM- a -lage. dressing 
rooms and an auditorium seating two hundred people. 
with a moxable paililion so that more than one aclixilx 
i an In- undertaken al a lime. The diama. lei line, inoxie 
and music programs will be condui led here, a- well a- 

I k ie\ lew- and similar piojei I- 

\n immense amount of behind. the si ,-nes work has 1,,-i-n 


done: conferences, phone calls, letters, other cities con- 
sulted and research undertaken. Mrs. Peterson says of the 
project. "This wonderful adjunct to our city could not 
have grown beyond the dream stage had it not been for 
the marvelous cooperation and very real effort of the 
many fine men and women, from all corners of Waco, 
who have seen the need and so unselfishly have shouldered 
the responsibility of meeting it." 

The young people of Waco have undertaken to supply 
transportation, help with parties, games, tours, group sing- 
ing, act as hosts and hostesses, prepare refreshments, teach 
any skill they may possess and volunteer their services in 
any need that may arise. 

Everything was asked for furniture, cooking equip- 
ment, light fixtures, radios, rugs, draperies, books, office 
equipment, tools, sewing machines, and so on, and the re- 
sponse to this call was truly wonderful. The center is 
beautiful now. The interior painting, largely done by 
young cadets from JCAFB, the flying field just out of 
Waco, matches the draperies gift of the Business and 
Professional Women's Club. 

Membership of the center cuts across cultural and eco- 
nomic lines. The financially secure widow or retired busi- 

Opening ceremony drew over 500 visitors despite the heat 103. 

nessman is just as lonely and has just as much idle time 
as the man or woman living on old age assistance. 

Centers should be open daily. Special activities should 
be scheduled time for companionship and activities of 
the individual's choosing, with the means at hand to carry 
out individual or small group projects. 

Older people move at a slower pace, and this should be 
a haven geared to their gait. Therefore, such a center 
should be separate from those planned for youth. The 
pride of the older folks in a place of their own is inordi- 
nate. Their center even its rooms should not be shared 
with a lodge or school club. 

The Waco center, not far from the heart of the city, is 
easily accessible by bus or car. It is all on the ground 
floor level and has at present three or four rooms in readi- 
ness for use. With the small funds at their disposal, Mrs. 
Peterson and her committees have done a magic bit of 
transformation; and the original plans are being held in 
readiness for completion, as money is available. 

The opening or dedication of the Louey Migel Center 
for Old People, on July 18, 1951. was a memorable event. 
Johnny Morrow, the director of Waco's recreation depart- 
ment, who has been actively cooperative in every phase 
of the undertaking, and without whose capable help it 
could not have been achieved, made the arrangements. 

In front of the center building there are huge trees, 
and in their shade he had placed three hundred chairs, 
approximately the number of guests he expected hope- 
fully. Long before the appointed time these were filled, and 
Mr. Morrow was frantically sending for more, which, for- 
tunately, appeared before it was too late. Speeches were 
made to and by the old people, and refreshments were 
served. All were urged to make a complete tour of the 
premises, and to register at desk inside. Later reports 
showed that at least five hundred had attended, and that 
practically all of these were really older people. 

Upon being asked what she had in mind for activities 
for elderly people, Mrs. Peterson answered, "Visiting, 
reading, card and table games, listening to the radio or 
television, group singing, lectures, birthday parties, tours 
and outings, shows, crafts, active outdoor games such as 
shuffleboard, horseshoe pitching, quoits, bowling; dancing, 
devotions, drama, camera clubs, quilting parties and, most 
of all, the sharing with others of the special skills which 
all of them have." 

What has been done with loving-kindness in this city, 
can be done anywhere if good leadership is available. A 
great deal has been and is being provided for youth, and 
that is well, for in youth lies our future; but those who 
have borne the heat and the burden of the day, and whose 
footsteps are slowing, need the care and thoughtfulness of 
their community more than do the youngsters who have 
so many interests and diversions. For this reason, it is 
most imperative that notice be taken of their needs and 
such centers as this one provided wherever possible, to re- 
store their personal pride and lift their morale. 

The Waco recreation department guarantees mainte- 
nance and operation for our center, with the help of volun- 
teer leaders under the direction of one paid employee. It 
will be open daily, and fhe only ticket of admission re- 
quired will be an age of fifty-five or over, and a desire to 
live while alive! 

Writing a month or more after the center opened, Mrs. 
Peterson said: "The success of the center is amazing and 
touching. We have averaged better than fifty members 
daily, and at our old-fashioned fiddle jam session last 
Thursday night the three hundred fifty who attended had 
to move into the yard, as they overran the building. It is 
Christmas every day, for gifts continue to arrive. The 
women are busy with plans for a fall bazaar and a Santa 
workshop. They are beginning to spot good voices, as we 
sing, and plan a mixed chorus of 'over sixties' to serve 
the community and entertain themselves." 

This is the tragedy of civilization that the end of all 
our labor and sacrifice has been, for so many men and 
women, the defeat of that inner life which it was our whole 
object to preserve. Joseph Lee 

JUNE 1952 











Considers the progressive ac- 
quiring of democratic con- 
cepts and attitudes from 
childhood through early and 
late adolescence, and adult- 
hood. Applies to the fields of 
health education, physical ed- 
ucation, and recreation, re- 
cent research on methods and 
techniques in group dynam- 
ics, sociometry, social group 
work, and general education. 

J6J pp. 



American Association for 
Health, Physical Education 
and Recreation 

1701 16th SI. N.W., Waih.. D.C. 


Picas* >nd me . 
AAHPER Yearbook. 

Check .iKk.d 




copiet of the 

O Ml <" 

Zoit* Slot* 

new ad<lre-> at lra-t thirty days before 
llic dulf f tin- I--IL- with which it is 
lo take effect. Address: Recreation Mag- 
azine, Circulation Department, 421 Fifth 
Avenue South, Minneapolis 15, Minn. 
Send old address with the new, enclos- 
ing if possible your address label. The 
post office will not forward copies un- 
less you provide extra postage. Dupli- 
cate copies cannot be sent. 





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Morty Morris 

I ii ii i' ii a 111 e ii I tips 

ONE OF THE greatest stimulants to any recreation or ath- 
letic program is a well organized, smoothly-run tourna- 
ment. Unfortunately, too many directors of intramural 
and recreational programs constantly hold loosely organ- 
ized, generally unsatisfactory tournaments, without ever 
realizing that their own lack of good administration has 
been the chief cause of failure. 

In analyzing the steps essential in running a good 
tournament, we can easily divide the tournament into the 
three phases of before, during and after, with the added 
important factor of publicity. We. therefore, can plan our 
entire tournament under four basic headings. 

1. Planning and Organization 

2. Period of Competition 

3. Post Tournament Period 

4. Publicity 

Under step one, we survey the area from which we will 
draw our participants. It is important that the competitors 
be equally balanced if possible. Nothing kills a tournament 
faster than unequal competition. This can be controlled 
through the tournament rules, which will vary according 
to local conditions. 

Next, all dates involved must be checked and cleared. 
Not only must playing areas be free, but the time selected 
must fit the participants' schedule. A bowling tournament 
for professional men would hardly be appropriate for a 
morning hour, nor would a basketball tournament for high 
school boys be sensible for nights during exam week. 

Entry blanks, team list sheets, rules and whatever other 
paper forms are needed must be prepared well in advance 
of the first announcement. By the time the contests are 
first publicized, everything should be ready to slide into a 
smooth, well-directed pattern. 

It is important that all rules be definite and clearly 
stated. Most important, no concessions should be made at 
any time. The tournament rules must be simple and con- 
cise, yet so complete that they present neither special con- 
ditions nor compromise. If a compromise becomes neces- 
sary, it proves that the rules drawn up were inadequate. 

To emphasize the importance of the no concession rule, 

AUTHOR is director of recreation, Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y. 
JUNE 1952 

let me cite two instances where tournament managers tried 
to be good fellows by giving a team or an individual a 
break through some concession. 

In a Westchester community a recreation director made 
two mistakes. First, he permitted one team to enter a 
basketball tournament a day after entries were scheduled 
to close. It seemed a good idea to give the youngsters a 
break, and it also gave him two full brackets, eliminating 
any byes. Second, he failed to collect entry fees from all 
teams at the set date, before the beginning of play. 

Unfortunately, the late registering team won the tour- 
nament, and in no time at all the entire community was 
in an uproar. The losing finalist team protested, tempers 
grew hot, the director was accused of showing favoritism, 
all teams defeated by the winners joined in protest and 
everyone remotely concerned took one side or the other. 
Antipathies were created, and all the youngsters in the 
city had box seats at a violent session of poor sportsman- 
ship. Morale took a definite nosedive. 

Error number two found three of the eliminated teams 
delinquent in paying their fees, and finally, the director 
had to dig into his own pocket to make up the difference, 
so that the expense of tournament trophies could be met. 

All in all, the recreation group was put in an embar- 
rassing situation and given a black eye for their well- 
intentioned work. Community dissension was created, 
friendships dissolved, weeks of work with youngsters were 
lost, and the next tournament was overshadowed by gloom 
of the fiasco. 

Another case concerned an honest effort to bolster a 
weak team in a round robin tournament in a small New 
Jersey community. To stop the point slaughter, the league 
director allowed a team that was definitely out of the 
running to use a boy over the age limit. The boy was not 
good enough to play in the next age group, and the direc- 
tor figured he could kill two birds with one stone, strength- 
ening a weak team and getting into action a lad that 
would otherwise be left out. Within hours he was deluged 
with pestering boys who were in the same position. Each 
team in the tournament, except the club benefitted, pro- 
tested bitterly, and even parents entered the controversy. 
Finally, hiding behind a disciplinary upheaval of his own 


creation, the director cancelled all play, while confused 
and amazed at the boys' apparent lack of -porl-manship. 

It is wise, therefore, to be -me \..ur rule- cover all 
emergencies, and then be sure you are man enough to 
-land l>x your guns. 

Tournament Tips 

In lining up the tournament, it i- wise. a l-o. to prepare 
a general schedule sheet and several daily schedule shed--, 
with hours, locations and other pertinent data included, 
leaving only team names to IK- added after the draw has 
been completed. Naturally, all areas to lie used are re- 
served, and all officials, plus a few -uh.-ti lutes to cover 
emergencies, are definitely assigned. These finished sched- 
ule- should be distributed to all person- involved and 
advertised through even publicity media. The draw itself 
should be made as puhlidx a- po ible. 

Finally, all score sheets and rule books should be ready 
for use. Awards should be obtained and displayed as osten- 
tatiously as possible. 

I'ublicilx throughout all three phases of the tournament 
is essential. Often tournaments are made, or broken, 
through the am. .mil of elToii. or laek of it. expended in 
the ilireeiion of effective propaganda. There are main 
outlets for a good puhlicil) campaign radio. TV, speak- 
ing engagements, newspapers I local, area and ichool), hub 
lelin board-, fixers, personal contact bx mail and phone 
and. best of all, enthusiastic word of mouth. 

'.oo.l publicilx include, advertising ihrougli all the 
above media. I'iduie,. lioil, ,,, liullelin board- ami on iln 
printed page, are hard to ln-al. Mimeographed -eh.-dul.-. 
enlr\ blanks, and aniioum emeni- distributed x\ell in ad- of final d.ile. are .ill a part of g I publieitx. I'a-l 

hi.|..iies of other loiirii.-x- provide good background ma- 
terial, ami there i- nothing l-tier than a growing tradition 
I-. keep up interest in ;i mo x ing adixilx. 

\\hile the louiii.inii-nt i- in actual progrc . I.,- -in,- that 
the plax ing field- ale in the l.c-1 po i|,|,. -hape. with the 
lining and polishing done as though for 
li,impi..n-lii|)s. It i amazing h.. .. piof, -,j,,,ial looking 
plax ing area can improve bold il,, plax and t | l( . attitude 
of a box who i.s used In a roekx. unkempt -andlol. all ofheiiil. re.idv ami prompt. Like the field or 
gxni. In- -me tb.-x are dressed for the job. \\halexer pap. I 
work or checking riiuit he done should l- handled a- 
.pn.llx and elfoil|.--K a- pos-ible. \h..\c all. n\oid irii- 
l.ilmg d.-|.i\. K'-ep the whole -how on -. hcdulc and 

At the clow of each ..i.le-l. cheek all hook- ami Turing 
I" min ' and reporting. Cheek all 

the equipment and get readx for things x el |,. nine. 

Make full use of publicity. (let the facts spread through 
each available media. If possible, picture-, picture- and 
more pictures should be used to tell the storx. 

Finally, when all play has been finished, put out new-x 
bulletins of everything that happened. Make the award 
presentations and photograph your winners and record 
breakers. You will find men coming back fifteen years later 
to proudly point out their championship team picture dis- 
played in your recreation club rooms. This is part of the 
aforementioned tradition that can be built up further bx 
keeping individual and team records. For each tournament 
or league, a separate record of each xear'- plax and an 
overall record book should be kept, to build up and earrx 
on this tradition. 

I-astlx. the tvpe of tournament to hold is dependent on 
sexeral factors the number of entrants, txpc of activity, 
amount of time for conducting the tournament, the plax ing 
area, the season, and the age, sex and abilities of the par- 
tieipaiits. There are three categories round robin, elimi- 
nation and challenge tournament-. 

The round robin type tournex is handled much like a 
league. Each team plaxs exerx oilier team, giving each 
club the same number of games. At the end of the round 
robin, the team w ith the best average is declared champion. 

In elimination tournaments, an impartial drawing can 
be made, or if team strengths are known, teams max be 
seeded to avoid the strongest team- eliminating each other 
in the early rounds. With an eight team tournament, like 
the one listed lielow. -ceded team- xxould l>e placed in the 
following slots: the two l>est team- would be one and 
fiiilii. The next two teams would get slots four and /n e. 
Tin- in-iire- close matches for both the -emi-finals and the 
final round. In a single elimination tournament, one defeat 
finishes a team. 

Should the entrants numlx-i fewer than four or fewer 
than an e\en multiple of four, il i- necessary to have bx. -. 
The-e must all come in the first round, With more than 
four but less than eight teams, bxe- should IK? placed in 
the following slots in the order listed: Slot /no. -lot vcren, 
-lot ill iff. slot six. With a tournament of manx brackets 
I four teams constitute a bracket I. byes and seeded plaxci- 
are divided equallx throughout all IH.H kd-. 

Die consolation tournament i- a txpe of elimination 
tournament in which lo-.-r- plax on for the consolation 
championship and are not eliminated until they liaxe IH-CII 
twice defeated. Seeding- and live- aie handled as in regu- 
lar single eliminations. On the plax ing cli.ul will 
iioli.e that winnei- moxe to the right and loser- moxe to 
I he left. \l the semi-final or held-of-foiir Icxcl. the lo-ei- 
nol .mix mine to the left bul are -hiflcd to anothei bracket. 
I hi- help- in prevent the -aim- two meeting again and hav- 
ing one man U-aten twice and lliu- eliminated bx the 
opponent. Tin- unbeaten plaxci t learn, a- in the -ingle 
elimination, i- declared champion, and the once* ' 
linab-l to the left i- . on-o|alioii .bampion or runner-up. 
\ double elimination is handled in the -ame wax. except 
that the runner-up i- given a rhancr I., plax the unbeaten 
man Iwn e. while another lo will eliminate him from the 


Challenge tournaments are of two major types, pyramid 
and ladder. These are especially well adapted to individual 
activity games and will practically run themselves once 
organized. In the ladder tournament, names are placed 
vertically in any order on a peg board. Challenges made 
to either of the two people above must be accepted. Follow- 
ing the match the winner and loser exchange places on 
the board with the winner taking or keeping the higher of 
the two positions. Two places is the highest one can chal- 

In the pyramid tournament, challenges can be made only 
to the row above. Therefore, the one in row seven on the 
peg board must challenge and defeat the one on row six 
before getting another chance to move higher. Anyone not 
on the board, in either type of challenge play, may get on 
the board by challenging and defeating the person or per- 
sons on the bottom rung. 

Paddle Volleyball 

Grace Arnold, women's director of the Ypsilanti, Michi- 
gan, recreation department, writes that the following game 
has been used successfully by a group of adult women for 
the past two years, and that it will be tried on the play- 
grounds this summer. 
Equipment: Wooden paddles for all players (paddle tennis paddles 

may be used), one tennis ball and net. 

Court: Twenty-five by thirty feet with three-foot net across center. 
Players: Any number may play, nine to a side is good. Players ar- 
range themselves in rows, as for volleyball. 

Serve: Ball is served from right-hand corner, but may be returned 
by any player on the opposing team. One "net" ball is allowed on 
the first serve. Thereafter a "net" ball is "side out." One assist 
is allowed on the serve. 

Points: Score when serving. Game is twenty-one points. 
Play: After the ball is in play, it may be hit once by as many as 
three players on a side before it goes over the net. "Let" balls are 
played as good balls. Ball may be hit before it bounces, or after 
having bounced once. 

Side Out: A side is out when it fails to return a ball, knocks it out 
of bounds, when more than three players on a side have hit it, or 
when one player hits it more than once. Players rotate. 


A Y 

summer notebook 

Twelve weekly issues, beginning April 
25. You can receive all of the back 
numbers, plus the remaining issues 
each week. 

on i) 1:11 >m 


National Recreation Association 
315 Fourth Ave. New York 10, N.Y. 


If It's 



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mation on methods 
of application, quan- 
tities required and 
other details, send 
for free hook "END 
DUST with Solvay 
Calcium Chloride". 
Contains important 
infor>.iation on the 
dust prohlem, a s 
well as helpful in- 
structions. Mail cou- 
pon today ... no 


Allied Chemical & Dye Corporation 
40 Rector Street, New York 6, N.Y. 

Please send me, without obligation, your free book "END DUST 
with Solvay Calcium Chloride." 







. 2-652 

Jl ME 1952 



The 1952 "Famous Slugger Year 
Book" and "Official Softball Rul.-." 
publi-hed annually by Hillerirh and 
Hra.l-bx. are available from \<>ur 
sporting goods dealer. The former is 
made up of sixty-four pages of base- 
ball pictures of 1951's outstanding 
sluggers, records, hints on how to bat 
and other highlights of the past sea- 
son. Included is an article entitled 
"Hatting Fundamental" l>\ Ix-u Fon- 
foriner American league batting 


Radiant Manufacturing Corpora- 
tion. _V>27 West Roosevelt Road. Chi- 
cago 8, Illinois, has announced a new 
pro - f.>i proji . lion -, recns i. 
tains the whiteness and brilliant ri- 
ll., live qualities of glass-bra.' 
fabrics, for a guaranteed ten-year 
I or longer. The manufacliiin 
claims "Perma- White" is washable, 
flame and mildew proof, adaptable to 
any climate. 


II,,- I'hatex \|,,|,| K,,|,|,,. r Kit. ,,ut 
"Ul b\ >. ulplurr lloii-r. :<'l \\,.., 
12nd ,,,.,., \,. w \ llllk , |U .,11,^, 

even lli.- inrxi i,, make Ihrir 

own rubber m..|,U a MI-M 
MM- kit eontains a half |>int bottle ( ,f 
I' x in. .|.| rubber. pa-l.-. filler. . a-l 
ing pl.i-i. .t..r llui.l. dividing 

hra. a Huron pla-ti< modeling |,,,.|. 
applicator briili ami bru-li I. 
and a i-oni|ilele illii-lral.-d in-lru. li..n 
b....k. I.I.I prier. >.' 

Vifclx Walk 

\ a miner. n . ...,!.. I 

fabrii lr. than one --ixl. .-nlli ..( an 
null in llin km-.-, devrliiprd for the 
In be uvd on wcalhrr dr. 

*hips. The material is waterproof and 
provides excellent non-slip footing un- 
iler the wet or soapy conditions of 
how IT rooms, around pools and on 
diving boards. It is usually applied in 
six by twenty-foot inch pieces spaced 
not more than two inches apart, or it 
can be installed in roll form. For de- 
lail-. write Minnesota Mining and 
Manufacturing Company. 900 Fau- 
<|iiier Avenue. Saint Paul 6. Minnesota. 

Hip B<Hits 

Hip-length stockingfoot-type boots 
that a fisherman can wear all day with- 
out fatigue, with form-fitted feet to be 
worn boe. are made by Seal- 
Dri Sportswear Companx. 2.~>1 t Kil 
burn Avenue. Rm-kfonl. Illinoi-. M.nlc 
of tough Vinylite plastic, resistant to 
abrasion and 
mould, mil- 
dew and 
mo is t u r e . 
they are avail- 
able in small. 
in. -ilium and 
large si/. -. 
I h.-\ are sus- 
j)ended from 
the wearer's 
licit b\ trap-. 

or fold compactly to fit into a po< k.-t 
or tarkle \>\. \p|iroxima(e priee. 


Here i a pt.--ibiliu for \mir arts 
ami eraft- ela!M-?>. Tinlex ha |irint'-(] 

.1 fir. I kli-i of detailed iiitnn tion>. 

"How |o M.ik. I...M-K |-'|ower and 
i-e from ( ..-il \\|..ii Mo. k 

ing." The col i lulling. Needed arc 
ii|ed n\|on>. a few II..M-- .{ mlor 
*rr and all-fabrir dvr iat fifteen 

ami twenty cents each), porcelain or 
an. lie pans and a wooden spoon for 
the color-removing and tintcxing oper- 
ations, ordinary .upper M-reeninj;. llor- 
al tape, scissors and corsage pins. In- 
quire for booklets at any dye counter 
in department, drug or dime -ton--, or 
write Tintex Home r.eonoinics Hureau, 
485 Fifth \\enue. New York 17. 


Ansco has developed a versatile, 
medium high-speed, chloro-bromide 
projection paper called "(!\kora." It 
has a wai in image tone, and is avail- 
able in a new glossy surface, double- 
weight paper, in contrast grades 1, 2 
and 3, in the following standard pack- 

aes: '. x 7 2.Vs. 100's, 500's; 8x10 

- IIHU. 2:,ns: 11x14 10's, 50's. 
Hie illustration shows the clarity of 

detail obtained with ("ykora GL I)W. 


If \ou still need to order plaques 
for \our awards at the end of the sum- 
mer playground season, you may want 
to investigate the products of Greene- 
Williams. 7 Kast 42nd Street. New 
17. \, x ork. Their plaques 
in composition, wood, metal, 
hardboard. glass or plastic, and range 
from 2u cents per unit to $8.00, and 
up. \\iite a description of \oiir needs 
to the company and thev will -ubmil 


\\ ati-i I'iil-up Machine 
~. nibbing of large floor areas .an 
be made ea-iei bx u-ing a water pick- 
up machine. The \mericaii Floor >ui 
fa. inp Machine ('.unpanx. Toledo. 
Obi... make- .in eleitti. machine dr- 

I foi ilii- pulp..-.-, r'oi price an 1 1 
ilnaiion-. write manufacturer. 


Members of the Student Recreation 
Association of Minnesota University. 
a lively group, are busily engaged in 
carrying out their own student or- 
ganization program. Activities planned 
for the spring quarter appeared in the 
first issue of their new news sheet, and 
are presented briefly below: 

Sandstone State Hospital, April 26-27. 
This trip will provide an i.'xrrllent oppor- 
tunity for those students who are considering 
the field of state hospital recreation as well 
as getting rid of some of our incorrect be- 
liefs concerning mental hospitals. You will be 
impressed by the fine staff which this hos- 
pital has. The hospital provides free lodging 
and food for the two days. For further in- 
formation, see Lois Lindstrom or Jim Gilbert. 

Gillette Children's Hospital, Date to be 
announced. The recreation director is our 
own Bud Wennell, who graduated in June, 
1948. Bud is running a very fine program, 
and you will certainly get a kick out of 
working with the kids. 

Campus Carnival, May 2. This is the first 
time the S.R.A. has had a booth in the show. 
This year we are putting it on in conjunc- 
tion with the "M" Club. There will be three 
acts, of which we think one will be "Little 
Nell," another a chorus line (naturally), 
and the "M" Club is keeping their's a secret. 

Senior Banquet, May 21, 6:30 p.m., 307, 
308, 309 Coffman Memorial Union. This is 
another "first time" affair for the S.R.A. and 
we would like to make it an annual affair. 

Canoe Trip, May 24-25. This year we are 
going to drive up to Taylors' Falls and canoe 
from there to Stillwater. If we can get 
enough tents, we will use them this year. 

Ramsey County Old Folks Home, Date to 
be announced. We're invited back for a re- 
turn engagement. This kind of recreation 
isn't work, it's fun. 

Operation Blood Donation. By all means, 
don't give that pint of blood until we set 
the date for us all to go down together to 
the Minneapolis Red Cross. We probably 
will go down on a Wednesday, during Field 
Work Class. 

Alexandria mid Hibbing Workshops, May. 
John Leslie, Field Consultant of the Youth 
Conservation Commission will be in Cooke 
Hall Monday, April 21 and Wednesday, 
April 24, to interview those people who are 
interested in handling the two workshops in 
this area on program planning. These phases 
should be covered operation and adminis- 
tration, low organized games, crafts. 

lintter Up! All you Joe DiMaggios and 
Ralph Kinrr.s, join our intramural softball 

At Indiana University, students do 
the detail work for the annual Poka- 
};<>ii State Park Conference, such as 
taking the minutes of meetings and 
writing summaries of addresses. 

Note: If enough neivs is received 
from student groups, me shall be glad 
to establish such a column in RECREA- 
TION. Ed. 

JUNE 1952 

Lookout Mountain near Denver, Colo. 

August 3-9, 1952 
'Recreative workshop with fellow artists in 

a relaxed sociable setting. 

For details write Paul Kermiet, 

Rt. 3, Golden, Colo. 


imnattJS! for ALL 



MSSD HMMCWt SUPPLIES Depl. RO ?IS S Spfin[, Lot Unitln It. 

The furore about hard- 
surfaced playgrounds 

... is answered in PARK MAINTENANCE for May "Bruised Kiddies 
Lead to Rubber Research." In this issue also: "Urge to Destroy Is Tre- 
mendous Cost Factor." 

Be sure to read these two typical examples of the constant flow of 
ideas and methods for better recreation with better maintenance. 
This issue free with subscription starting in June. 

$3.00 Per Year 


P.O. BOX 409 





to le&itt . . . So etuy to 

With these Square Dance Records with Progressive 
Oral Instructions and Calls by ED DUR1ACHER. 

Here is the easy and economical way to meet the 
ever-growing demand for square dancing in your 
community ... the HONOR YOUR PARTNER 
series of square dance records. 

& 6 

Each record in albums 1 to 4 starts with simpli- 
fied progressive oral instructions by Ed Durlacher 
instructions easily understood by dancers of all 
ages. Following a brief pause, giving the dancers 
time to square their sets, the music and calls Degin. The TOP HANDS, directed 
by FRANK NOVAK, offer the best in scintillating and > foot tapping square dance 
music. The calls are delivered by one of the nation's most outstanding square 
dance authorities, ED DURLACHER. 

The fifth album in the series contains music only, without calls or instructions 

"The Square Dance Caller's Delight". 


"The square dance album 'Honor Your Partner' is all that you claimed it to be we 
tried out the records on a group of eighth grade students and they picked up the 
instructions without difficulty. In the space of thirty minutes, this group, which had 
never square danced before, were doing the figures in an expert fashion. The records 
were also a hit at the adult square dance which we held last night." 

Alfred Elliott 
Recreation Director 
Greenwood, Mississippi 

All records guaranteed 
against breakage, 
in normal use. 


Learn more about the 


Write for a descriptive folder. 


DEPT. R-9 



Books Received 

DI u l'i (MM IKY. John Wright. Charles 
A. Benin-It Com|.an\. Incorporali-d. 
Peoria. Illinois. >2.7.">. 

Vi.i. THROUGH THK YI:\K. Florence 

i i'k.-ane Whelan. Hall and McCreary 

Company, Chicago. (Song Colla- 

tion) $i..".n. 

-mini B, 1052, edited by- 
Irving T. Marsh and Edward Eh re. 
E. P. Dutton and Company, Incor- 
porated, New York. $3.50. 


W. Oakley. Greenberg: Publisher, 

New York. >7r,. 
C\\IIMM; FOR \i.i. I I's WORTH, Wil- 

liam E. Swanson. The Macmillan 

Company, New York. $2.95. 
Do IT YOURSELF! Bernice Wells Carl- 

son, Abingdon Cokesbury Press, 

Na-lnille. $2.00. 

Werner. Simon and Schuster, New 

York. $3.95. 

BIRDS, C. Russell Mason. Houghton 

\lilllin Company. Boston. $2.50. 

Little Child's Busybook of, The Lit- 

ilr Girl's Busybook of, Caroline 

Horowitz. Hart Publishing Com- 

pany, New York. 81.50 each. 
M)MKiii)\', PONY. Nancy Caffrey. E. 

I'. Dutton and Company, Incorp" 

rated. New York. $2.00. 

Travers. Simon and Schuster, New 

York. $1.50. 

SCHOOLS, Edgar G. Johnston and 

Roland C. Faunce. The Ronald Press 

Company, New York. $4.50. 

- . . . lln\\ in MEET YOUR PROB- 

1.1 si-. John and Dorathca Crawford. 

Woman's Press, New York. $3.00. 
TIM \XD Hi* HKMUV. \n>. I .leaner 

Ronnei, Joan and Max Porter. Dodd. 

Mead anil Company, New V.ik 


TOW MID NKW |M\\XS I. .11 \MIIIH \. 

Clarence S. Stein. The Univer~ii\ 
I't, ..f l.i\ei|i,.i.l. Liverpool, I 

I. mil \\i-litu l|.-inis|iheie a^i-nl. 
I'uhlii \ili.imi-li. it'n MI -,-MI. .-. Chi- 
cago. $5.1X1. 

\\ 111 111 in -I I I IIXM.I KM IV l>"l'.lh\ 

<,l.i/>-i. Ch.uli- I. Com- 
I..IMS. H..-I..M. P,i|M-r. ?1..~>0. 
\\lll. \\l~l -MMW. J.u k H. Ciawfonl. 
Hart l'iil>liliin Ciii|>.in\. New 

>.| III) >i VMIOKK. Ja. .(in 
lyn H'-rrill. Dodd. and Corn 

r , Ne* s:,-,n. 

\\i.||ll. -inns \xn> MI 
lUsniM i . I 111 . Li ..... nl Buchanan. 

I I' Diilt'.ri \ Com|.aii\ . Ini "T|... 
rat ->...k. II. 1 



Office of Community Ser\ii-i>. Spe- 
cial distribution by Headquarters 

STORY. The American National I!r<l 
Cross, Washington, D.C. 

SUCCESSFUL. Bicycle Institute of 
America, Incorporated, 122 East 
42nd Street, New York. 

CAMP, A. Sponsored by Department 
of Public Instruction. Department 
of Conservation, W. K. Kellogg 
Foundation and Ann Arbor, Bay 
City and Dearborn Public Schools. 
Lee M. Thurston, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Lansing. Michi- 
gan. Available upon request l.\ 
school administrators and leaders 
in youth activities. 

INGS OF THE. Adrien J. Falk, Con- 
ference Chairman, Sacramento, Cali- 

L. Danzig. Federation of the Handi- 
capped, Incorporated, 241 West 
23rd Street, New York 11. S.">" 

HI-IOHY OF SPORTS. Compiled by The 
Municipal Athletic OHic c. Depart- 
ment of Municipal Recreation, Mil- 
waukee Public Schools, 461 North 
.r>th Street, Milwaukee 8. $.25. 

LEISURE HOURS. Luther Johnson and 
John C. ".ill. Bureau of I' \.l 
ministration. University of Tcmic- 
see, Kni.\\ illc, Tennessee. 

MoBll.l/ M'M)N CONKI 111 xi l I MI; 

Hi M.rn EDUCATION, I'm-n M. Ki>- 

UCATION, AND lU:c KIM IMN. repoil. 
\ini-in.iii Win ialion for Health. 
l'h\M. .1! I ilu. ation .mil liei-n-alioii. 
\\a-h.nxlon. D. C. SI.IHI. 
\ MIMNM ^ \|( \ I III -\MM. \M> \\ \ 

1 1 H SAPITI s n in M 11 vM.r.i.MK. 

\--..i'i,itiiin I'ress. N,- Vnk. 
Ni \\ Im \v FDH I. MM; ^ i MI>. The I i 

Ml-ll\ ..( (.t.illM.I. Dl\i-lc.|l '.f (,1-n 

Oral I'. \len-ion. \lln-n-. (iemgia. 
<ll ii N UIMN \l. Ill Ml n I'IKIIII I M. lie- 

Mran-h ' !oiirn II for I . ..M..H.I. 

. urit\ . Ill \\ . -I l.i. k-..ii It. .iili \.ii.l. 

( III. 
PARK Di I-MII\II M. I MI . lUU-ri M.. 

SW, ('onimi-ioiirt. 'I he i i(\ ..f Ni 


SVIKTY. Tin. National Education 
\>-oi -ialimi. 1201 Sixteenth Street, 
N. W., Washington (,. I). C. $.50. 

CHILD'S DAY. Simon A. McNeely 
and KUa Schneider. Superintendent 
of Documents, I nitcd States Govern- 
ment Printing Oflice. Washington 
2:>. D.C. 8.30. 

I'l \1- VMi K \TERTAINMENTS, Cata- 
logue, lildiidge Publishing Com- 
pany. Franklin, Ohio. 

l'i o-. SI.I.K< T 1952. Catalogue. The 
Heuer Publishing Company, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. 

Y Commission. Association Press, 
291 Broadway, New York 7. $.80. 

YOUTH, prepared by Interdepart- 
mental Committee on Children and 
Youth. Superintendent of Docu- 
ments. I nited States Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D.C. $.55. 

tion Development Project, Commu- 
nity Council. 12091/2 Capitol, Hous- 
ton 2, Texas. 1.00. 

CALIFORNIA, edited by Gladys Sny- 
der. Printing Division, Documents 
Section, Eleventh and O Streets, 
Sacramento I I. California. $.50. 

son. Department of Agriculture, 
Province of Manitoba, Canada. 

Programmes Branch, Department of 
I .duration, 206 Huron Street, Toron- 
to, Ontario, Canada. 

Hi I'OKT FOR Till. Mini KNTURY Will IK 

\MI ^ in in. \\ilh discussion guide. 
I'lax > -In.ol- .Wociation, 119 West 
Fift\ M-Miilh Slirct, New V.rk l'. 
New York. $.35. 


|)| I I I I- IX \l-lli\l MX Cllll.l.lil X. 

( ommoiiu callh Department of 

Health. Canheiia. Australia. 
Hi i;\i. Hi i KI Minx I'uoi.U A M I M M 

Ml l is i HI Ni in. Hiilletin numl'.-i 

125. I \lcn-ion Division, Charlntte- 

\ille, Virginia. 
>\i i n I inn l.i i MI xrvin M n x. i . 

National I dm ation Association, 

\\a-hinjilon (.. D ' 

-I i MMI HIIKI/IIN. Tin- \\clfaic I -eilelil- 

li..n ,,f Ni-M.nk. 1004 Broad Sin. i 
\.-aik .'. \ v. $.50. 

>M(\ii i DIKIIIMI^ 111 NUIIIXM. OR- 


-MI MUD \\n n 1 111. N \IIMX \i 

MM \\ I I.I Mil \^-l Mill V l''"il. N.l >oi ial \\ \".nil>K. In- 
, ,.i|...i.ii.-d. I7'HI Hioailway, New 
York 19, New York. $1 


ley W. Stocker, Berkshire Industrial 
Farm, Canaan, New York. 

ican National Red Cross, Washing- 
ton 13, B.C. 

Youth Service, Incorporated, Put- 
nam Valley, New York. $1.00. 

Holden, 835 Erie Avenue, San An- 
tonio 2, Texas. $1.50. 

Council of New York City, 44 East 
Twenty-third Street, New York 10. 
New York. 

POPULATION. Metropolitan Life In- 
surance Company, 1 Madison Ave- 
nue, New York 10. 

mer. New York State College of Ag- 
riculture, Cornell University, Itha- 
ca, New York. 

TECHNIQUES. Higgins Ink Company, 
Incorporated, Brooklyn, New York. 

leaders' guide for conducting a com- 
munity program, Ann G. Wolfe. The 
American Jewish Committee, 386 
Fourth Avenue, New York 16, New 
York. $.10. 

Council for Social Planning, 30 
Third Avenue, Brooklyn 17, New 
York. $.50. 

tion Press, 291 Broadway, New 
York 7. $2.50. 

CLASSES. Music Educators National 
Conference, 64 East Jackson Boule- 
vard, Chicago 4. $.50. 

Baseball Congress, Youth Building, 
Battle Creek, Michigan. $.50. 

VAGRANT CHILDREN, Problems in Ed- 
ucation Series, UNESCO publica- 
tion number 644. Columbia Univer- 
sity Press, New York 27, New York. 

Phillips. Veterans Administration, 
Recreation Service, Washington 25, 
1). C. Free. 

TORY OF. Compiled by William Hoe- 
ferlin. Walking News, 556 Fairview 
Avenue, Brooklyn 37. $.25. 
G. Neisser. Science Research Asso- 

ciates, 57 West Grand Avenue. Chi- 
cago 10. $.40. 

You CAN'T WIN, Ernest E. Blanche. 
Public Affairs Press, Washington. 


BEACH AND POOL, January 1952 

Advantages of the "Water Level 
Deck" Pool, A. R. Matheis. 

Red Cross Adopts New Method of 
Artificial Respiration. 
February 1952 

Check List of Recommended Prac- 
tices in Pool Operation. 

The Value of Swimming in Reha- 
bilitation. Harold Hemming, Jr. 
March 1952 

Supervising the Indoor Pool 

California City Plans Unusual In- 
door-Outdoor Pool, Ralph S. 

Getting Ready to Paint, K. T. Fezer 

A Good Basis for Counselor Evalu- 
ation, Reverend John E. Ransom 

A Basic Camp Maintenance Calen- 

February 1952 

Twenty-one Ideas on Camp Promo- 
tion, Merrill J. Durdan 

How to Operate a Camp Bicycle 

The Art of Leisurely Camping. Jose- 
phine W. Hubbell 

Basic Craft Principles, Eugene E. 

March 1952 

Aged in the Woods, Forty Years of 
Girl Scout Camping, Catherine T. 

Licking Those Weed and Brush 
Problems, Dr. A. E. Carlson 

Try Hiking Sticks, Sylvia Cassell 

Family Camping Twenty Year Suc- 
cess Story, Lou H. Smith 

THE GROUP, January 1952 

A Place in the Sun for the Aged. 

Florence E. Vickery. 
How Do You Feel? J. B. Kirk- 


January 1952 

At Home in the Snow, Gunnar Pe- 
The School Camp in Winter, Leslie 


Developing Democratic Human Re- 
lations Through Recreation, 

George Hjelte 

Service to Music, Evelyn K. Dillon 
Why Not "Recreation Education?" 

A. E. Weatherford, II 
How We Do It 

February 1952 
Trampolining, Our Newest Activity, 

Newton C. Lokern 
A Ski School in Action, Nanette 

Recreation Education, Harlan G. 

Everybody Joins in the Fun. Frank 

J. Anneberg and Darline G. Can- 
How We Do It, Indian Dodge Ball 

March 1952 

Backboard Tennis, Paul C. Wilson 
Opening Doors Through Dance, 

Marian Chace 
Recreation in Today's Schools, 

Karl Kauffman, Jr. 
Land Planning for Park Use, Allyn 

P. Bursley 
Layout of Baseball and Softball 

Diamonds, Lawrence P. Moser 
Tennis Court Design, Rhodell E. 

"Pitch-and-Putt" Golf Courses, 

Philip B. Stroyan 
More "Pitch-and-Putt," Paul V. 


Show Wagon, R. B. McClintock 
The Maintenance Mart 






JUNE 1952 



Covering the Leisure-time Field 

Community Planning for Human 

Bradley Buell and Associates. Colum- 
bia University Press. $5.50. 
This volume deals with four basic 
community "problems" dependency, 
ill health, maladjustment and recrea- 
tional need and suggests procedures 
for solving them. The thesis is ad- 
vanced "that the vast networks of 
health, welfare and recreation serv- 
ices can and should be more effec- 
tively planned and organized to pre- 
\riit and reduce these community-wide 
problems." In the section on recrea- 
tion needs, four community-supported 
recreation systems are listed; munici- 
pal recreation, voluntary youth and 
ilion. federal rural youth and the 
federal and slate parks. HO\M-\. i. onl\ 
I In- In-t two are considered in detail. 
Id.- author- estimate national public 
ition expenditures total SHO.IKM).- 
IHHI u> $40,000,000 annually, and that 
id.- total-* for voluntary youth and 
ilion agencies "prohabU exceed 
'MNI.OOOannualU." i r.xpendilure- 
reported in the Rn-rration and I'nrk 
).;,,l>ook for /950 totaled $269,000,- 

The authors discuss the transition 
from private to public r.-pon-ihilit\ 
ami from philanthropy to H-I n-alion 
for rvrrioiii-. >oim- of th.-ir -talemenl- 
repinlmn reasons for this tran-iiion 
to be made without awareness 
of widely accepted f;i 

The book, and especially the section 
on recreation neeiU. merit' careful 
-lij'K. A fundamental <|u>-tin may IN* 
raised as ! whether < r.-.ili'.n ne.-d- 
liould be considered in tin- same cate- 
with dependents, ill health and 

maladjustment. Protection and preven- 
tion are central themes. Recreation 
needs should, rather, be considered 
as normal, in the same category as 
education. The major emphasis in the 
book is revealed by the fact that in 
the comprehensive ten-page bibliogra- 
phy only a dozen recreation references 
are listed. George Butler, Director of 
Research, National Recreation Asso- 

Growing with Art 

Maud Ellsworth and Michael F. An- 
drews. Benjamin H. Sanborn and 
Company, Chicago. 
In a new series of elementary art 

books, eight designed for use by the 

children, plus a teacher's book, titles 

are priced as follows: 

Book One Fun to Begin 
Book Two Learning to 

Talk on Her Way 
Book Three Seeing anil Doing 
Book Four l)irovrrin|! Surprises 
Book Kiv- Kxiilniiiic anil Making 
B.>..k -ix \n \\li.-r. \\' 1 i%.- 
I'.,... k "-.i-n VUriiiiire at Your 

Bonk Kighi Kit-Mindly'* BII-IIH-- 

'I'lll-'ll'T- Bixik 

I i' I] booklet is around sixty-four 
pages, bound in bright colors, profuse- 
ly illustrated in both color and black 
and white. While prepared with the 
eight elementary school grail.- in 
linn. I. they can be used H.-xihK. d.- 
pending upon tin- Individual child's 
ini.-i.-st and ability. 

In ||II-M- booklets, "art" ceases to 

be mysterious, and opportunities arc 

i to experiment in all sorts of 

Micclia crayons, fingerpainls. water- 

. olors, oils, paper, papn-i-mai lie. <l.i\. 
..,.!. wood- all in terms of pn>|., I- 
that arc fun and that grow out of 
tin- chilli's interest in his environment. 




\- he learns to understand the ele- 
ments of design and color, he enjoys, 
1'i-c-aiisi- tin- project- result in finished 
products for his own use or pleasure. 
The material in these booklet- i- 
nol theoretical. It came from real chil- 
dren in real classes in Lawrence. 
Kansas. We recommend that any rec- 
icalion department intonated in \i- 
talizing its art- and crafts program 
would do well to .;i\e a set of the-e 
booklet! to il- l.-adei- in llii- activi- 
ty. I irtiinin MusM'Initin, Correspond- 
ence and Consultation Service, Na- 
tional Recreation Association. 

Recreation Through Music 
Charles Leonhard. A. S. Barnes and 

Company, New York. $3.00. 

Addressed to musical laymen in gen- 
eral, and to recreation leaders in par- 
ticular, this book discusses the sig- 
nificance of musical activity in the 
modern concept of recreation, de- 
scribes the instruments of the orches- 
tra, types of compo-iiion and song 
forms. It gives specific guidance for 
the recreation leader, how to select a 
musical program, how to conduct it. 
how to start a listening program and 
build up appreciation classes, how to 
arrange for concerts and recitals, how 
to assemble a record library with com- 
prehensive and well clus-itied lisi> of 
imi-ie these and other problems, even 
how to choose and care for phono- 
graph needles, are covered. All types 
of group singing are discussed, with 
ideas for increasing interest and at- 
tendance. There are full, carefully se- 
lected li-ts of song sh.-ct-. song books 
and choral collections. \ lueKe-page 
list of repertory suggestions includes 
action songs, art songs, and folk songs, 
combined son;:- oi "\ocal combats," 
liMiins, chorales, popular songs, songs 
\\itli de-<. ml-, spirituals and \\.>rk 
songs: al-.> included are a dozen or so 
-l.ind.ird song books in uhich mo-t of 
the title- li-i.-d may be found. 

I IM> chapters are devoted to piano 
and instruments of orchestra and 
hand. The author c.nil.-nd- that the 
in-trinnenlal pmgrani can be self-sup- 
porting, and that it can be handled to 
-,ili-f\ bulb the Ix-pinncrs and tho-c 
uilh private and classroom instruction 
in iini-i. . (-crlrude Borchard, Cor- 
respondence and Consultation ^.- 
National Recreation \ i.ition. 



Social Recreation 

Recreation Leadership Courses 

Sponsored jointly by the National Recreation Association 

Local Recreation Agencies 

June, July, August and September, 1952 

William Proctor, Director of Recreation, 17th and Orange Streets* 

Social Recreation 

Social Recreation 

Creative Recreation 

Arts and Crafts 

Huntington Beach, California 
June 2-5 
Weber County, Utah 
June 9-12 

Provo, Utah 

June 16-20 

Flint, Michigan 

June 23-27 

Shepherdstown, West Virginia 

July 28-31 

Lancaster, South Carolina 

June 3-6 

Berks County, Pennsylvania 

June 10-12 

Watertown, New York 

June 16-19 

Waterbury, Connecticut 

June 23-24 

Westchester County, New York 

June 25-26 

Bear Mountain, New York 

July 7-10 

Austin, Minnesota 

June 2-3 

Faribault, Minnesota 

June 4 

Camp Pa Hu Ca, Minnesota 

June 5 

Mankato, Minnesota 

June 6 

Toledo, Ohio 

June 9-12 

Youngstown, Ohio 

June 13 

Slieboygan, Wisconsin 

June 16-19 

1'ittsfield, Massachusetts 

Carl Taylor, Director, Recreation Board, 712 City County Build- 
ing, Ogden 

Harold Glen Clark, Director of Extension Division, Brigham 
Young University 

Miss Lina Tyler, Director, Flint Recreation and Park Board, 3300 
North Saginaw Street 
Dr. Oliver S. Ikenberry, Shepherd College 

Tom Connell, The Buford Consolidated Schools, Route 5 

Lloyd H. Miller, Director, Recreation Board of Berks County, 

Reading, Pennsylvania 

John H. Patterson, Director of Recreation 

Miss Marion Hunt, Community Council, 35 Field Street 

Miss Vivian O. Wills, Westchester County Recreation Commission, 
White Plains, New York 

Joseph K. McManus, Superintendent, Camp Department, Palisades 
Interstate Park Commission 

Harry Strong, Director of Department of Recreation 

Milton Hustad, Director State School and Colony 

Joe Grunz, Director Recreation Department, Faribault, Minnesota 

Edward Johnson, Director of Recreation 

Arthur G. Morse, Supervisor of Recreation, 214 Safety Building 

Oliver S. Ellis, Director-Treasurer, The Youngstown Playground 
Association, 318 Dollar Bank Building 
Howard R. Rich, Director of Public Recreation 

Vincent Hebert, Superintendent, Parks and Recreation, 52 School 

June 23-26 

University of Colorado Miss Clare Small, Department of Physical Education for Women, 

July 24-August 26 University of Colorado, Boulder 

(Miss Scanlon is tentatively scheduled to conduct leadership training courses in the Midwest 
District, September 8-25. If you are interested in sponsoring a week of training or if you want 
further information, please correspond directly with Arthur Todd, NRA District Representative, 
Parkville, Missouri.) 

Ames, Iowa Miss Julia M. Faltinson, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Leader, 

June 2-5 Extension Service, Iowa State College of Agriculture 

Bowie, Maryland Paul E. Huffington, State Supervisor of Colored Schools, State 

June 16-19 Department of Education, 2 West Redwood Street, Baltimore, 


Sawyer, Michigan The Reverend Stanley B. Hyde, Director of Christian Education, 

July 19-26 The Congregational and Christian Conference of Illinois, 815 

South Sixth Avenue, Maywood, Illinois 
Mrs. Viola J. Comegys, St. Clair High School 

Cambridge, Maryland 
September 15 

Reading, Pennsylvania 

June 10-11 

Allentown, Pennsylvania 

June 12-13 

Wilmington, Delaware 

June 16-18 

Durham, New Hampshire 

(late June date to be determined) 

Glens Falls, New York 

June 26 

University of Massachusetts 

July 7-17 

Stewart L. Moyer, Superintendent of Recreation, City Hall 
Alfred L. Geschel, Superintendent of Recreation, City Hall 
W. Frank Newlin, Recreation Director, 377 City Hall 

C. B. Wadleigh, State Club Leader, University of New Hamp- 
Daniel L. Reardon, Recreation Superintendent 

Dean William L. Machmer, South College, University of Massa- 
chusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 

Attendance at training courses conducted by National Recreation Association leaders is usually open to all who wish to attend. 
For details as to location of the institute, contents of course, registration procedure, and the like, communicate with the sponsors 
of the courses as listed above. 

Lieutenant Hudner was Hying a Korean combat 
mission alongside another plane piloted by 
Ensign Jesse Brown. A burst of flak caught 
the ensign's plane and he went spinning down, 

aflame. Despite 
the presence of 
enemy ground 
troops. Lieuten- 
ant Hudner then 
deli berately 
crash landed 
near his flame-trapped shipmate. He radioed 
for help, after which he fought to keep the 
fire away from the fatally injured ensign until 
a rescue helicopter arrived. Today Lieutenant 
Hudner has something to say to you: 

"Maybe if America had been strong enough 
to discourage aggression two years ago, my 
friend, Jesse Brown, might be alive right now. 

S<> mi^ht lhnu>aii(U ino:e >( <>ur Korea dead. 

"For it's only too sadly true today, in our 
world, weakness invites attack. And peace is 
only JOT the strong. 

"Our present armed forces are strong and 
growing stronger. But don't turn back the 
clock! Do your part toward keeping America's 
guard up by buying more . . . and more . . . and 
more United States Defense Bonds now! Back 
us up. And together we'll build the strong peace 
that all Americans desire!" Peace is JOT the 
strung! Buy U. S. Defense Bonds now! 

Remember that when you're buying bonds for defense, 
you're also building a reserve of savings. Remember, 
too, thai if you don't save rtgularlj, you generally don't 
save at all. So sign up today in the Payroll Savings Plan 
ohi-rr you work, or thr liond-A-Monlh Plan where you 
bank. For your country's security, and your own, buy 
V. S. Defense Bonds now! 

Lieutenant (jg) 
Thomas Hudner, Jr. 

of Honor 



'-.' , 

Here are the guiding principles, practices 
and policies for recreation in America 

Top authorities in every field of recreation 
labor, military, fraternal, commercial, in- 
stitutional, governmental . , . have pooled their 
vast experience and know-how to bring you 
this complete and valuable book 
on the guiding principles of recreation 
in America. Never before has there 
been anything like it for the 
first time, a full set of principles covering 
every aspect of total community 
recreation established and printed 
in one volume. Complete from his- 
torical background and its place in 
American life to what recre- 
ation offers the individual, the 
family, the group and the 
community including 
principles, practices 
and policies for 
the guidance of all 
interested in 

This new book, the 
result of anothet National 
Conference held by the 
Athletic Institute, offers you valuable 
assistance in your recreational work. 
Priced at $1.25 each. Order your copy today 
from the Athletic Institute, 209 S. State Sc, 
Chicago 4, Illinois 


Below are the organizations, which, through their financial support, 
make possible the non-profit programs of the Athletic Institute. 

Aalco Manufacturing Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Ace Carton Co., Chicago, III. 

Acushnet Process Sales Co., New Bedford, Mass. 

Albany Felt Co., Albany, N. Y. 

American Box Board Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

American Felt Co., Glenville, Conn. 

American Gut String Mfg. Co., Chicago, III. 

American Playground Device Co., Anderson, Ind. 

American Thread Co., Chicago, III. 

Ashaway Line & Twine Mfg. Co., Ashaway, R. I. 

The Athletic Journal, Chicago, Ml. 

Athletic Shoe Co., Spot-Bilt, Inc., Chicago, III. 

Atlas Athletic Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Bancroft Racket Co., Pawtucket, R. I. 

A. S. Barnes & Co., New York, N. Y. 
The Bike Web Co., Chicago, III. 
Boys' Life, New York, N. Y. 

Brooks Shoe Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co., Chicago, III. 
Burton Manufacturing Co., Jasper, Ala. 

Calnap Tanning Company, Napa, Calif. 
Caron Spinning Co., Rochelle, III. 
Carron Net Company, Two Rivers, Wis. 
Central States Thread Corp., Cincinnati, Ohio 
Champion Knitwear Co. Inc., Rochester, New York 
Chicago Tanning Co., Chicago, III. 
Charles F. Clark, Inc., Chicago, III. 
Samuel Coane, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Converse Rubber Co., Chicago, III. 

B. A. Corbin & Son Co., Marlboro, Mass. 
Cornell Forge Co., Chicago, III. 
Cortland Line Co., Cortland, N. Y. 
Charles O. Cox Corp., Memphis, Tenn. 
Cramer Chemical Co., Gardner, Kansas 
Crown Fastener Corp., New York, N. Y. 

\. Y. 

Davega-City Radio, Inc., New York, N 
John B. Davidson Woolen Mills, Eaton 


Dayton Racquet Co., Arcanum, Ohio 
J. dcBccr & Son, Albany, N. Y. 
Des Moines Glove & Mfg. Co., Inc., Des Moines 


Dexter-Wayne Co., Lansdale, Pa. 
Dixie Mercerizing Co., Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Dodge, Inc., Chicago, III. 

J. A. Dubow Manufacturing Co., Chicago, III. 
Dunlop Tire & Rubber Corp., New York, N. Y. 

R. J. Ederer Co., Chicago, III. 

Endicott Johnson Corp., Endicott, N. Y. 

Everlast, New York, N. Y. 

F. C. Feise Co., Norberth, Pa. 

Felco Athletic Wear Co., New York, N. Y. 

Field and Flint Co., Brockton, Moss. 

The Fish Net & Twine Co., Jersey City, N. J. 

Fred Medart Products, Inc., St. Louis, Mo. 

Game-Time, Inc., Litchfield, Mich. 

Gem Leather Goods Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 

The General Athletic Prods. Co., Greenville, Ohio 

General Fibre Box Co., West Springfield, Mass. 

General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn. 

General Sportcraft Co. Ltd., New York, N. Y. 

Golfcraft, Inc., Chicago, III. 

Golfdom, Chicago, III. 

The B. F Goodrich Co., Akron, Ohio 

J. H. Grody Mfg. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Gunnison Bros., Inc., Girard, Pa. 

Haartz-Moson, Inc., Watertown, Mass. 
Hanna Manufacturing Co., Athens, Ga. 
Harvard Specialty Manufacturing Corp., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
H. Norwood & Sons, Natick, Mass. 
James Heddon's Sons, Dowagiac, Mich. 
Hillerich & Bradsby Co., Louisville, Ky. 
Hilts-Willard Glove Corp., Gloversville, New York 
Hirsch Fabrics Corp., New York, N. Y. 
Hoffmann-Stafford Tanning Co., Chicago, III. 
Alan Howard, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
The J. L. Hudson Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Hughes-Consolidated, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
Hutchinson Bros. Leather Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 
Hyde Athletic Shoe Co., Cambridge, Moss. 

Illinois Mechanical Leather Co., Chicago, III. 
Industrial Sports Journal, Chicago, III. 
Ivory System, Peabody, Mass. 

The Johnstown Knitting Mill Co., Johnstown, 

N. Y. 

Jones & Naudin, Inc., Gloversville, N. Y. 
E. P. Juneman Corp., Chicago, III. 

Arthur Kahn Co., New York, N. Y. 

Knox Reeves Advertising, Inc., Minneapolis, 


Joseph G. Krcn, Syracuse, N. Y. 
The Kroydon Co., Maplewood, N. J. 

Lamkin Leather Co., Chicago, III. 

A. C. Lawrence Leather Co., Peabody, Mass. 

The Linen Thread Co., New York, N. Y. 



National Baseball Congress, Wichita, Kans. 
National Bowling Council, Toledo, Ohio 
National Electrical Mfg. Assn., New York, N. Y. 
National Sporting Goods Association, Chicago, 

III., representing all its sporting goods dealer 

National Sports Equipment Co., Fond du Lac, 


Notional Vulcanized Fibre Co., Wilmington, Del. 
F. H. Noble & Company, Chicago, III. 
Nocona Leather Goods Co., Nocona, Texas 
Nonpariel Manufacturing Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

The Ohio-Kentucky Mfg. Co., Ada, Ohio 

Palm, Fechteler & Co., Weehawken, N. J. 
Ben Pearson Inc., Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Pedersen Manufacturing Co., Wilton, Conn. 
Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Jeannette, Pa. 
F. C. Phillips, Inc., Stoughton, Mass. 
Powers Manufacturing Co., Waterloo, Iowa 
A. H. Pugh Printing Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Rowlings Manufacturing Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Geo. A. Reach Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Red Fox Mfg. Co., < Division of Cullum & Boren 

Co.), Dallas, Texas 
Hans Rees' Sons, New York, N. Y. 
Charles A. Richardson, Inc., West Mansfield, 


John T. Riddell, Inc., Chicago, III. 
A. H. Ross & Sons Co., Chicago, III. 

Sand Knitting Mills Co., Chicago, III. 
Sawyer Tanning Co., Napa, Calif. 
Scholastic Corporation, New York, N. Y. 
The Seamless Rubber Co., New Haven, Conn. 
Sears, Roebuck & Co., Chicago, III. 
Sells Aerial Tennis Co., Kansas City, Kansas 
R. S. L. Shuttlecocks Co., Altoona, Pa. 
Siegmund Werner, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
Ed. W. Simon Co., New York, N. Y. 
Slazengers, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
William Skinner & Sons, New York, N. Y. 
Southern Manufacturing Co., Alexander City, 


A. G. Spalding & Bros., Inc., New York, N. Y. 
The Sporting Goods Dealer, St. Louis, Mo. 
The Sporting News, St. Louis, Mo. 
Sports Age, New York, N. Y. 
Stall & Dean Mfg. Co., Brockton, Mass. 
Stewart Iron Works Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 
Stowe- Woodward, Inc., Newton Upper Falls, 

H. Swoboda & Son, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Textile Yarn Co., Chicago, III. 
Tobcr Baseball Mfg. Co., Manchester, Conn. 
True Temper Corp., Cleveland, Ohio 
Tucker-Bramc Athletic Mfg. Co., Botesville, Miss. 

Union Welt Corp., Chicago, III. 

United States Rubber Co., New York, N. Y. 

Universal Bleacher Co., Champaign, III. 

Victor Sports, Inc., Chicago, III. 
Virginia Rubatex Div. Great American Indus- 
tries, Inc., Bedford, Va. 
W. J. Voit Rubber Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. 

H. Wagner & Adler Co., New York, N. Y. 
Western Auto Supply Co., Kansas City, Mo. 
Wilson Sporting Goods Co., Chicago, III. 
Worthington Ball Co., Elyria, Ohio 

C. W. Zumbicl Co., Norwood, Ohio 

Besides the above. The Athletic Institute has an 
associate membership comprised of a considerable 
number of sporting goods dealers, geographically 
spread throughout the United Slates. Space does not 
allow listing of these dealers individually. 










Recreation Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program Activities, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 

Vol. XLVI 

Price 35 Cents 

No. 4 

On the Cover 

Cool September evenings enhance the recreation 
value of friendly gatherings around a fireplace, as 
evidenced by the contented expressions of these 
young people toasting marshmallows. Fields and 
woods now carry the promise of Fall, and boys and 
girls take their last fling in the out-of-doors before 
settling down to their studies. Photo by courtesy of 
Department of Conservation, State of Tennessee. 

Next Month 

With the crisp air of "bright blue" October comes 
new vigor and the desire to bring zip to our recrea- 
tion programs with new ideas and new activities. 
Watch for this issue of RECREATION, for just the 
right suggestions. Among the program articles, "Reci- 
pes for Fun" will offer specific games for an inter- 
national party on United Nations Day (October 24) ; 
"Radio for Amateurs" will explain how a recreation 
department revived a lagging program with a new 
idea; and "Reading Is Recreation" will carry sug- 
gestions for Book Week (November 16 to 22) . Hal- 
loween will receive further attention, and even 
Christmas planning enters the picture. 

Photo Credits 

Page 191, (top) Davis, Rocky Mountain News; 195, 
196, Santa Barbara News-Press; 197, Gazette and 
Daily, York, Pennsylvania; 199, (top, left) Row- 
land, Seattle, (bottom, left) Fabian Bachrach; 201. 
(right) Spokane Daily Chronicle; 202, 204, F. S. 
Lincoln, New York City; 206, Milwaukee Sentinel; 
207, State Department of Recreation, Montpelier, 
Vermont; 209, United States Army Bobick; 213, 
LaCrosse, Wisconsin, Division of Municipal and 
School Extension; 216, 217, Miller-Martin Studio, 
Torrington, Connecticut. 

RECREATION is published monthly except July 
and August by the National Recreation Association, 
a service organization supported by voluntary con- 
tributions, at 315 Fourth Avenue, New York 10, 
New York; is on file in public libraries and is 
indexed in the Readers' Guide. Subscriptions $3.00 
a year. Canadian agency, G. R. Welch Company, 
Ltd., 1149 King Street West, Toronto 1, Ontario; 
Canadian subscription rate $3.85. Re-entered as 
M-coiid-cluss mutter April 25, 1950, at the Post 
Office in New York, New York, under act of 
Murch 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special 
nHr M| pi.stajir provided for in section 1103, Act 
nl October 3, 1917, authorized May 1, 1924. 
Advertising and Production Office: Jones Press, 
Kil!h and Filth South, Minneapolis 15, Minnesota. 
S|>:ic,- Hcprcscntatives: H. Thayer Heaton, 141 
I i I M Strret, New York 17, New York; Mark 
Minali.m. 168 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 
Illinois; Keith H. Evans, 593 Market Street, Suite 
304, San Francisco 5, California. 

Copyright, 1952, by the IV< n ,ilion Association, Incorporated 
Printed in the U.S.A. 3<^j|<. 2 

"Trade mark registered in the U. S. Patent Office. 


General Features 

Sports and War (Editorial) , S. L. A. Marshall 

Sports of Presidents 196 

34th National Congress 

Evening Speakers 

At Your Service 200 

New Congress Arrangements 201 

A Country Club with Your Job 202 

Dorothy Enderis "Leutselig" 206 

The Square Dance Crosses the Sea 

Square and Folk Dancing in Japan, Dorothea B. Munro 209 

Letters to the NRA 210 

NRA Discounts 211 

United Nations Day ,.. 224 

The Value of Play in Children's Homes, Helen Dauncey 227 
People and Events 


Leisure-Time Interests and Activities 205 

How the Recreation Executive Appraises 

His Own Performance 219 

Notes for the Administrator 220 

Public Opinion Aids Park Officials .. 

Asphalt and Concrete Surfaces 230 


A Youth Council, R. J. MacDonald 195 

Educational and Cultural Activities in 

Community Centers 197 

Let's Check Up on Square Dancing, Persis Leger 207 

Rules Five-Man Football, James J. Rafferty ... 208 
Make Your Plans for Goblin Time 

Trick or Treat, Sibyl Leah Templeton 

Operation Pumpkin Head, Ann Brenner 213 

Community-wide Halloween Planning Establishing 

New Customs 214 

Who Is "Mr. Jack-o-Lantern?" Carl Bozenski 215 

Teen- Age Rhythms, Anne Livingston 222 

Basketball The Game Way 225 

How To Do It! Make a Magazine Rack, Frank E. Staples 244 

Regular Features 

Things You Should Know 189 

Letters 190 

Personnel 233 

Recipes for Fun Leaf Printing 235 

Personnel Recreation Salaries (A Study) .... 237 

Training Course Information 243 

Recreation Market News 245 

Books Received 246 

Magazines 246 

Pamphlets 247 

New Publications 248 

Recreation Leadership Courses Inside Back Cover 




A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contribution* 
JOSEPH PRENDERGAST. Executive Director 


OTTO T. MAI i IKY , Chairman of the Board 

PAI'I Mooir , Ja Firtt Vice-President 

Mat. OCOIN L. Mutt Second Vice-President 

SUIAN M. LEI. .Third Vice-President and Secretary of the Hoard 

AoaiAH M. Miut Treuurer 

GLSTAVLI T. KiftlY Treasurer Emcritui 

]o*t PH PacsneacAtT Secretary 


F. W. H. ADAM* New York, N. Y. 

DIMM Boston, Matt. 

Mat. RoaiRT Tooos BLIS Washington, D. C. 

Mat. Aunt G. CiMMia Jacksonville. Fla. 

wriuiAW H. DATII Nw York, N. Y. 

HAIRY P. DAVHOW New York. N. Y. 

GATLOU> DOKNCU.IV Chicago. 111. 

Mai. PAL i GALI ACHE* Omaha, Ncbr. 

RouaT GAaaiTT Baltimore. Md. 

Mai. NOCMAN HA MOVER ritchburg. Mass. 

MM. CHARIES V. HICEOK Michiftn City, Ind. 

FatDEaici M. VAtacac. . . 

Ma*. JOHN D. JAMISON Bellport, N ^ 

M I i r New York, N- Y. 

OTTO T. MALIUT Philadelphia, Pi. 

( AH I Mn i IKIN Augusta, Me. 

MR* O.I.IN I Mm* New York, N Y. 

PAL i MOORE, Ja Jersey City, N. J- 

Jottrit Par NDI:*GA*T New York. X. Y 

Ma*. StcMl NO Sfias San Francisco, Calif. 

ii* \NT TiuwotTH Noroton. Conn. 

Mm. tt'ii i IAM VAN \i i s Philadelphia. PJ 

J. C. WALSH Yonkers. N. Y. 

New York. N 1 

Kietutive Director 1 ! Otiice 


Airaio H. WILION 
Correspondence and Coniultation 


Glirauoc DOICHARD 

Recreation Magaiine 


Special Publications 


Pnonnl Srvic 


Research Department 


Work with Voluntecri 


FitM Department 




S/rrtrr to Sttttt Roaear R. GAMHI 

.Arcji **4 Ftciltlift Fttmmimt **i Smrrf\t 



Ktlbrrtrnf F, Rttktr Mtmoritl 
Srcrrtsry for Vomrm tmj Cirlt 


l*J*iirul Hetrtftiom C. E. BREWER 

Recmttom LfiJtrtbifi Trsimmg Comntt 



New England District 


(Prewnt iddrcii . . . Nw Y-irk i 

MiddU Atlantic D. 
JOHN V. FAUIT ...... East Or*afc. N. J. 

A. Nitsrrr ---- New York, N. Y. 


Southern District 

Milt MARION PRIICI Atciandria, Va. 

RAIPH VAN FIEBT Clearwattr. Fla. 

VIIIIAM M. HAT \.ih-,lle. Tenn. 

Gnat Lakee Diitricl 
JOHN J. ( on iRa .......... Toledo. Ohio 

RCMIBT L. HmMIT ....... Madison, Wit. 

MidwMl DittHct 

\im R Tooo Kansas City, Mo. 


Soutkweit Dittrict 
HAROIO VAN AasDAir Dallas. Tex. 

Paciic Northwest Diitrict 
VIIIARD H. SHI MAID Seattle, Vuli. 

Pacific Southwest District 
LYNN S. RODNET Lot Angeles. Calif. 

Affiliate Membership 

Aafliate membership in ike Nit ton *l 
Rt<r*stion Aociiiio it opea to all non- 
profit privitt and pvblic orfsniEatiofli 
whoM f*ction it wholly of primarily the 
na)tfcrio r poeiicn of recreation serv- 
ice* Of wkicfc laclwle rtcreatioo at in in* 
wrtMSl part W laWir total profram tad 
whow c**peratii I* UM work of ibt at*o- 
citHW wold. ( tW opin.o. of the atto- 
(lion's Board W Directors, farther the 
ds of the n.t.on.l recreation movenwnt 

Active A SHOT i ate Membership 

Active tssocitte membership in the 
National Recreation Association it open to 
all individual i who art actively engaged 
on a full-time or part-time employed bant 
or as volunteers in nonprofit private or 
public recreation organ nation and whote 
cooperation in eke work of the association 
wouldi in the opinion of the aitociation'i 
Board of Directors, further the eads of the 
national recreation movement. 


The continuation of the work of the 
National Recreation Association from year 
so year it mtdc possible by the splendid 
cooperation of tfvcrsl hundred volunteer 
iponsort throughout the country, and the 
generous contributions of thousands of iup- 
portert of this movement to bring health, 
happiness and creative living to the boys 
and girls and the men and women of 
America. If you would like to join in the 
support of this movement, you may tend 
your contribution direct to the association. 

The National Recreation Aanocialion U a nation 
wnJr. nonprofit. ftOOpoliticft] and nonrctarian civic 
organization. **tat>li*hr<] in 1906 and supported by 
voluntary contribution*, and dedicated to the *enr< 
ire of all recreation nmjtnra, leaden and agen- 

For further information retarding the association t 
Director. National Recreation Association, 

rir*. puMir and private, to the end that every child 
in America nhall have a place to play in afety ami 
that every person in America, young and old. shall 
have an opportunity for (he l>r*i and mnt Mtify- 
ing utr of hi* expanding leiure time. 

services and membership, please write to the 
.1/5 Fourth Avenue, New York 10. New York. 


SURFACING for playground areas has 
been won by the city of Los Angeles. 
The case grew out of two recent deaths 
which occurred after falls on hard- 
surfaced areas. The evidence seemed to 
point to the fact that . . . how you land 
is more significant than what you fall 
on, in determining the severity of in- 
jury . . . 

the subjects discussed at one-day in- 
stitutes on municipal planning con- 
ducted in five Wisconsin cities during 
March by the League of Wisconsin 
Municipalities in cooperation with the 
State Planning Division. 

TION, Community Recreation for De- 
fense Workers, is now available free 
from the National Recreation Associ- 
ation. This is the third in a series, and 
a companion piece to Emergency Rec- 
reation Services in Civil Defense and 
Off-Post Recreation for the Armed 

> ERRATA. In the article, "Blacktop 
for Apparatus Areas," on page 19 of 
the April 1952 issue of RECREATION, 
the following correction should be 
made in the table under point number 
9: heading of last column of figures 
should be changed to read "Number 
Not Installed on Blacktop." This cor- 
rection will be made on reprints. Our 

Philadelphia has recently been com- 
pleted by the National Recreation As- 

of the Recreation Division of the 
American Association for Health. 
Physical Education and Recreation, 
was organized at the April 1952 con- 
vention of that organization, "to pro- 
vide additional opportunities for recre- 
ation personnel at public and private 
hospitals, training and boarding schools 
for the exceptional and the mentally 
retarded, rehabilitation centers and 
camps, to become and remain well- 
informed on trends and developments 


in the field of recreation therapy." 

RECREATION became assured for the 
immediate future when the Michigan 
Legislature, at its regular session, 
voted the council an appropriation of 
$11,498 for the fiscal year ending June 
1953. The Inter-Agency Council for 
Recreation was originally experimen- 
tal, designed to coordinate the services 
of all state agencies having an interest 
in recreation, and was supported by 
funds made available from the W. K. 
Kellogg Foundation. There are inter- 
agency committees and councils in a 
number of states, but Michigan be- 
comes the first state to appropriate 
funds specifically for an interagency 

comes the news that Johnstown, Penn- 
sylvania, recently rejected a proposal 
to sell a park tract as a site for a new 

"A Study of Public Golf Course Oper- 
ation," from the May 1952 issue of 
RECREATION, explaining the chart in 
that article, is now available from the 
National Recreation Association. 

AQUATICS is scheduled for October 30 
to November 1, at Yale University. Its 
theme will be Leadership in Aquatics. 
The program will include work group 
discussions, pool demonstrations and 
general sessions. One of the work 
groups will consider principles in plan- 
ning and constructing swimming pools. 

SAFETY COUNCIL, to be held on Oc- 
tober 19 in Chicago, there will be a 
panel discussion of the subject, Play- 
ground Surfacing. This topic will also 
be discussed at the conference of the 
American Institute of Park Executives, 
to be held in Montreal. September 15 
to 18. 

been appointed and will hold its first 

meeting at the National Recreation 
Congress in Seattle. 

nounced the early fall publication of a 
booklet entitled : "Recreation for Com- 
munity Living," which was developed 
at the National Workshop on Recrea- 
tion held in May. Some thirty or so 
outstanding recreation leaders, includ- 
ing a representative of the NRA, par- 
ticipated in the workshop. 

sions and Suggested Principles, has 
been prepared by the Committee on 
Highly Organized Competitive Sports 
and Athletics for Boys Twelve and 
Under. This has been sent to recreation 
and park executives for study, and will 
be presented for discussion at the 
meeting on Midget Athletics, at the 
Seattle National Recreation Congress. 

STATE PARKS, to be held in Rapid 
City, South Dakota, September 14 to 
18, an address will be delivered by 
Joseph Prendergast, executive director 
of the NRA, on the subject of Off-Post 
Recreation in State Parks. 

CONGRESS OF JAPAN was attended in 
August by Tom Rivers, Assistant Ex- 
ecutive Director of the NRA, as a rep- 
resentative of the association. 

Position Open 

The Civil Service Commission of 
Los Angeles County, California, 
will soon announce a nation-wide, 
open competitive examination for 
the position of Recreation Superin- 
tendent for the Los Angeles County 
Department of Parks and Recrea- 
tion. It is hoped that candidates 
with administrative experience in 
the recreation field will be attracted 
to this position, which heads all rec- 
reation activities of the department. 
Salary at present is $545 a month. 

The examination will be both 
written and oral, with three dis- 
tinguished recreation specialists par- 
ticipating in the selection. It has 
been planned to schedule interviews 
in Los Angeles and in Seattle be- 
fore, during, and after the National 
Recreation Congress. 

The commission has stressed that 
it will not be necessary to come to 
Los Angeles for the written portion 
of the examination and urges all 
those interested in securing further 
information to write to the Los 
Angeles County Civil Service Com- 
mission, 501 North Main Street, Los 
Angeles 12, California. 




I have had some very pleasant cor- 
respondence with Mr. A. Wilson Lloxd 
of the Association of American Flay- 
ing Card Manufacturers. After receiv- 
ing a trick book from Mr. Lloyd, we 
had so much "fun" with it. that the 
idea occurred to mr thai a- I here are 
so many special days celebrated na- 
tionally why not a "funday?" That is 
what these card games are. 

I wrote to Mr. Lloyd, jotting down 
my suggestion and, to my surprise, I 
received a letter from him, saying that 
he had read the letter to his associa- 
tion and my suggestion had been re- 
ceived with interest. He then wrote 
that it would be better for your com- 
pany to develop the idea, since you 
develop an interest in other activities 
besides cards. 


Stream, New York. 

I Am A Mr.mi;.-! 


Hello! I am a stranger to you, so I 
am a Hobo-Vagabond. You are a 
stranger to me, BO you are a Hobo to 
me. I have been a Hobo for forty years 
out of fiftx -five and I suppose I will 
roritinue being a Holm - Vagabond, 
whi.h i- all mx own fault. I cannot 
blame anyone else Not the folks, 
*< h', I. ( hur< li nr (ionimiinity for it's 
all my own Plnting in rnx youth. Il 
is life I love to live free from Care 
of Someone else. I don't have many 


Friends and I don't need many. Just 
twenty-five friends is all I have, and 
they supply me with all the faults 
about myself. I couldn't trust anyone 
not even my own Folks or relations, 
church or anyone in the Local Com- 
munity, I Dought if anyone in the 
Slate 01 I nited States. When you can't 
trust your own, how can you trust any- 
one else? I'sury. Thief and Conspiracy 
work against you. Sports, Entertain- 
ment and Amusement! Will that solve 
the difficulty? I will try it out this year 
and see what results. 


City, Kansas. 

The above letter is reproduced ex- 
artly as received. Perhaps our hobo 
friend will visit your town. Id. 

Armv l(-i|ii<-si 


Captain Mills, of the \nn\ Speeial 
Services at Guam Hall, asked if it 
might be possible i,, j.,.| ,, nr thousand 
reprints of two article- in the Man h 
i*Mie of HK< HKATION: "Some Thoughts 
on Being a Recreation Leader." l.\ 
Helen Maiiniev (page 543) and "Com- 
munity Leaders Use Your Initiative. 
by Sherwood Gates (page 553). lie 

would like ),, us<- them in < oiinei II..M 
with tin- training of leader., m ~-|ccial 
X| i\ ice*. 

GEOII..I I . hi. KII . r\,-,i,i: 

tary, Federal Inter-Af -mil- 

ti-r nn !{ rralinn. Washinpliin. l> < 

These requested reprint* have been 
upplied. Ed. 


I would like to make the following 
suggestions as added features to the 
wonderful service rendered I>\ the Na- 
tional Recreation Association to all its 

1. Leather binders that will hold 
twelve issues of the RECREATION maga- 
zine, with the last issue carrying an 
index of the contents of the pre\ ion- 
magazines for that year. 

2. A calendar of future events for 
all recreation directors, that will in- 
clude all holidays, as well as reminder- 
to start work on various actixitie- 
scheduled, and one that would have at 
least one special event per month or a 
speeial event for each age group per 
month, with the events to fit into the 
season as the baseball league for the 
baseball season and softball for soft- 
ball season, and so on. This could be 
sold to the recreation workers at a 
profit to the National Recreation Asso- 

3. I would like to see you continue 

sending out the nine by five and - 

half inch bulletins that are suitable 
for filing. I have always found them 
chock-full of good information that 
makes a ready reference for our di- 

BEN YORK, Director of Recreation. 
West Palm Beach, Florida. 

Prices for leather binders are being 
investigated. Our last issue of our fiscal 
year March always carries an index 
for the year. We would like to remind 
readers, here, of the Calendar of Holi- 
days and Special Days (MP 412) 
available from the association for 
t \\entx -live cents. Ed. 

Hi'i-r-;ir ion 


Many times, when appearing as 
-jieakers before civic groups, parent- 
teacher associations and other organi- 
/ati"ii-. reeieatiini -ii|ierintendenl-. di- 
rectors or staff suiHTvisors have l>e<-n 
.i-ked the follouing: "What thought- 
aie ll|>|>eim,i-| in tin- mm. I of a I 
alion leader in preparing a reerealion 
program?" or "How -hall we. as an 
organization, and the pul'lie. define ih.- 

word Rei-iealion'?" Heeentlv. when 

preparing nole-> for such an .T|I|-.H 
anee. thi-M- thought- w.-re foremost in 
nix- mind, and in end. .\\ mmp to mm 

RECHI xrniN 

bine the two questions and present a 

clear definition, the following method 

was used: 

H Resolve to develop a sound pro- 

E Evaluate the needs of your com- 
munity carefully. 

C Create hobbies and fun for the 
entire family. 

R Relax and use your leisure time 
for your own pleasure. 

E Enjoy the pleasant programs in 
your community. 

A Ask others to participate with 

T Tell your community of your rec- 
reation plans. 

I Instill civic spirit in all persons 
you meet. 

O Older groups as well as young 
people need recreation. Don't for- 
get them. 

M New ideas are always needed. Use 

them whenever it is possible. 
AL HILEMAN, Director, Proctor 
Recreation Center, Peoria, Illinois. 

School Planning 


The article on this subject which 
appeared in your January, 1952, issue 
is timely and interesting. 

I would like to add the name of 
Birmingham high school of Birming- 
ham, Michigan, as one of the new 
schools which was planned for meeting 
community and recreation needs as 
well as those which are traditional in 
nature. In addition to class and special 
activity sections, a native woods, four 
hundred-car parking lot, little theatre, 
patio, greenhouse, athletic area, li- 
brary, cafeteria, physical education 
unit and lobby are included in the 
over-all design. This is one way in 
which a small city (under 20,000) is 
attempting to meet the needs of a 
modern community. Although the three 
and one-half million dollar structure 
will not be completed until the na- 
tatorium and auditorium units are pro- 
vided, some sections of the building 
are now available. 

FRANK WHITNEY, Recreation Direc- 
tor, Birmingham, Michigan. 

W Take 


We read with a great deal of inter- 


Authenticity is major factor in selecting children best depicting Twain's characters. 

est the article, "Young Anglers," ap- 
pearing in the April, 1952, issue of 
RECREATION. We, here in Denver, Col- 
orado, wish to congratulate the people 
of San Jose who had a part in their 
juvenile fishing rodeo, but we do take 
issue with them for the photograph of 
the prize winner for the best Becky 
Thatcher outfit. 

Since 1948, the municipal recrea- 
tion department, City and County of 
Denver, has been conducting a Huckle- 
berry Finn Day, which each year is 
co-sponsored by the Veterans of For- 
eign Wars and the Rocky Mountain 
News. Huckleberry Finn Day is in- 
corporated under the provisions of the 
Colorado statutes; and its object is 
instituting, furthering, fostering, pro- 
tecting, improving and promoting the 
interests, ideals and education of boys 
and girls through the observance of 
an annual celebration commemorating 
Huckleberry Finn, Becky Thatcher, 
Tom Sawyer and other fictional char- 
acters appearing in Mark Twain's 

We have done a great deal of re- 
search and study of all characters, as 
portrayed 'by Mark Twain. To quote 
a few facts about Becky Thatcher, we 
find she was a lady in all manners and 
mannerisms. Becky is pictured as a 
blonde, pudgy, blue-eyed, little girl 
with yellow hair in pigtails and bangs. 
In that day, little girls' skirts were 
long and full and they wore pantalettes 
and sunbonnets. Above all else, Becky 
Thatcher was afraid of fish and fish- 
worms, and being a lady would 
never so much as touch a fish pole, let 
alone be seen barefooted, wearing 
pants and a straw hat, as portrayed by 
the prize winner for the best Becky- 
Thatcher outfit. 

Denver's little Becky Thatcher "ladies. 

Denver, Colorado, is justly proud of 
its annual Huckleberry Finn Day, 
which attracts four to five thousand 
participants and many thousands more 
of spectators each year. All boy and 
girl contestants are urged to read the 
writings of Mark Twain, in order to 
be familiar with the points upon which 
the judges select the most authentic 
Huck Finn and Becky Thatcher. We do 
have a responsibility for authenticity 
in any promotion, don't we? Not wish- 
ing the beloved Mark Twain to turn 
over in his grave because of the way 
his Becky has been portrayed, we are 
enclosing photographs of Denver s 
Becky Thatcher, authentic in details. 
J. EARL SCHLUPP, Director of Rec- 
reation, City and County of Denver. 

Pla-ade Portable Stagefront 
... for Junior Dramatics 

Makes a real stage, not a puppet show-ap- 
peals to children who like to dress up and 
give little plays encourages good play habits, 
in and out-of-doors entertains many at one 
time; as actors, curtain puller, property man, 

Sturdily built, easy to set-up (without tools) 
attractively decorated, curtain pulls easily. 
AssembIed-8 feet wide by 6 high by Hi 
deep, stores in 5 x 1 x % feet. Shipping 
weight 31 Ibs. 

Price $25.00, less 20% discount to Rec- 
reation Departments. Allow 1/3 ship- 
ping cost up to $6.00. 

3611 S. Wakefield Street, Arlington, Va. 


SOME \VK.KKS AGO I was asked if (lur- 
ing my years of research into 
what happened among the active ele- 
ments in our fighting lines in the Pa- 
it'n . Europe and Korea, I had found 
any correlation between the extent of 
tlu- individual's participation in sport 
and his readiness to give fully of him- 
self when the last chips were down. 

Bv the measuring stick which should 
apply within the armed services, the 
fault in us is not that we have too 
much organized sport but too little. A 
large and continuing sampling of this 
question was made at Fort Knox about 
four years ago. It was found that 
among American voulh getting into 
adulthood, fifty-six per cent had never 
participated in a team game! Yet. war. 
as Field Marshall Sir Archibald Wavell 
wrote in his Leaders and Leadership, 
can only be compared to a "rough and 
brutal team game." 

How do men generate unity of ac- 
tion? We yak-yak in baseball and slap 
the other guy in football to let him 
know we are with him. And so his 
strength grows apace. It is no different 
in war. Silence betokens fear, and its 
grip can only be broken when someone 
regains his voice and thereby stimu- 
lates others to sound off. 

At Burton Island, during the inva- 
sion of the Marshall*, we saw a com- 
pany go to pieces under Japanese fire 
until one man, Sergeant Dcini. sudden- 
ly realized that his outfit was dying 
from paralvMs of tin- \ rlionl-. Id- 
began yelling, kept it up for one and 
one-half hours, and pulled the company 
out of it. Deini had been a semipro 
ballplayer in San Francisco. 

This one graphic example set many 
of iis thinking. In World War I. out 
1 1..'. I is had been a noisy gang, tin \ 
yelled a if full of the old college 
hustle. But tin- qualitv had di-.i|.i 
in between war*. The restraint seemed 
unnatural in our World War II fighl- 
ing, and it scrrned plain that it was 
tapping our power. 

So a change was made, and "-m\\< 
thing nrw," vet M-I\ old. was added. 
Our men were taught to veil again in 
the spirit of a tram; M-ll anvlliing. 
, ..||ege i heer. Contanchc war whoop*, 
wolf howlv or Chinese prof.milv but 
\ell. In m\ judgment, nothing has paid 
off more prenth during the fighting in 


Korea. There are even -oine actions of 
record which our troops have won 
more hv their pandemonic yelling than 
hv the killing effect of their weapons. 

Sports, War Both Stress Team Play 

In some degree, every person who 
comes to admire the quality in sport 
which enables a group of highly- 
skilled individuals to subordinate them- 
selves to the need for smooth, collected 
action, becomes receptive to the same 
controlling idea in his participation 
with others. He has accepted the be- 
lief that being a member of a team is 
I letter than achieving as an individual. 

But team play is something which 
must be taught in an army, as on the 
ball field. Men do not come by it natu- 
rallv. Its basic technique is voluntary 
cooperation and submission to the in- 
leic-ts of the group. 

When we mobilize, whence come the 
men who are able, by their leading, 
to convert into dynamic force the stat- 
ic interest of the great majority? 

To a far greater extent than college 
presidents appreciate, or even the gen- 
erals understand, not having measured 
it. thev come from the playing fields of 
this nation. There are not enough old 
sergeants to spread around, and be- 
sides, they specialize mainly in the 
mechanic-. ,,f their trade. 

War's small picture is a series of 
cud i MM-, off-tackle bucks and center 
rushes, and if the team does not hold 
together during each play, it loses 
vardage and the ball changes hands. 

One major difference between in- 
fantry fighting and any other team 
game is that the contest almost invari- 
.il'K Ix-gins with a withering, or evapo- 
ration, of the team spirit and action. 
It is 1 10 ii ml to be so when men's live- 
.in direciK in danger. 

Engcndcri'iiu Team Spirit 

I lie prevailing problem in the ln-i 
quarter is to shake men loose from 
their somber personal thoughts and re- 
v ii.ih/i- tin ii i--' bmid- nf unity. 
That is an hour which call- f.n -limi^ 
individualism, directed, however. ! 
.nd the re.loialinn of team piny. One 
man I. ike- p.i.ilive action: hi- example 
hrrak I he .prll of frar. and because 
of it. manv others srr that action i- 
iheir salvation. In this way. the tram 

A Guest Editorial 


finds itself, and out of chaos comes 

As a military matter, probably not 
the least of the values inherent in or- 
ganized sport's accent on team play is 
that the individual, once won to the 
principle, becomes more capable of 
high personal initiative when the cir- 
cumstances require it. 

Sports That Teach Throwing 
Are Priceless 

During the crisis of last \\inter'- 
campaign against the Chinese in Korea, 
the youngsters in our infantry line 
had to become strong grenadiers al- 
most overnight. In the earlier fighting 
the North Koreans made indifferent 
use of the grenade. So it didn't matter 
much that our troops lacked thorough 
training with that weapon, and that we 
had proceeded somewhat on the theory 
that any American \oungster can 
heave a rock or a snowball, and, there- 
fore, converting him to a grenadier 
was a- ca-v .1- rolling off a log. 

When the Chinese entered the war. 
thi-v published a secret training paper. 
-;i\ing that all \incrn.iii- wen- tcrrm 
ixed by grenades and could alwax- he 
whipped if the grenade was made tin- 
main weapon in the assault line. 

That was a pipe-dream, but this hand- 
n ,i|i didn't keep them from proceed- 
ing with the idea. When thcv In-l 
charged us in Korea, their assault 
\s.i\es ueie loaded w ith grenade* of the 

"potato m.l-hcl" tvpe. which thev 

might IH- able to throw as far as fifteen 

What thev lacked in range, howevet. 

iln-x compensated for in numl>cr- 

- man was carrying from five to 

eight of these miiles. and in the -itu 

Kl I Ml \IION 

and WAR 

By S. L. A. Marshall 

ation, our troops either had to set up 
an effective grenade counter in a 
hurry, or be blown out of Korea. 

But if a man hasn't been a strong 
"thrower" during several years of his 
life, he can't be made into one just 
because the army wills it. He might 
acquire that knack in baseball, or as 
a forward-passer in football, or even 
from long play in basketball or with a 
discus. But he has to get it from some- 
where, or he will lack range, his arm 
won't stand up and he has no confi- 
dence that he can hit the target. 

So it was interesting to see how the 
infantry of the Eighth Army met this 
need empirically. 

As soon as the issue permitted it, 
all of the men began to carry grenades 
usually two, sometimes three; but in 
any action where strong grenading was 
needed, the work of the group came to 
revolve around one man the best arm 
in the crowd, made so by experience, 
either in baseball or football. He would 
do the "bombing." The others acted as 
a bucket line, passing their grenades 
to him, and cheering while he heaved. 

A loaded grenade weighs between 
sixteen and twenty-two ounces, depend- 
ing upon the type. Any green hand can 
lob it twenty yards or so and maybe 
get within five yards of what he wants 
to hit, if his arm isn't shaking. But a 
man accustomed to the ball field can 
usually get it out thirty-five yards, and 
practically peg it home. 

Those few extra yards, which the 
seasoned thrower has over the non- 
athlete, could mean the difference be- 
tween a dead center heave which 
knocks the Chinese from the crest of a 
hill position and a short throw which 


rolls back upon one's own people. And 
the extra yardage is only one among 
many advantages. When it's almost sec- 
ond nature to you to pick up something 
and heave it, you'll do it instinctively 
with less counting of the risk. 

Take the action of Cpl. Don Craw- 
ford and Pfc. James C. Curcio, Jr., 
Baker Company, Ninth Infantry Regi- 
ment. In the battle of the Chongchon 
one year ago, they were with nine 
other men of the mortar platoon who 
became surrounded by two hundred 
Chinese. The eleven men were on a 
knoll not more than twenty feet across. 

For two hours, the Chinese kept 
grenading the knoll from a distance of 
thirty feet. In that time, sixty grenades 
fell within the group. Crawford and 
Curcio, both of them ballplayers, ap- 
pointed themselves a committee of two 
to keep the position cleared. During 
the two hours, they caught or fielded 
approximately forty of the "hot" gren- 
ades and pitched them back into the 

are each a part of it. 
Hitting the Dirt 

There is one thing else in baseball 
and football, particularly, a man must 
learn how to hit the dirt, and he spends 
many of his most worthwhile moments 
in hard contact with the unyielding 
face of Mother Earth. There is some- 
thing very fundamental about this. All 
of us walk the earth, but few of us 
learn to grovel in it, hit it and slide 
into it, without finding the experience 

A frontline fighter has to do all of 
these things. Earth is his final protec- 
tor. When he bounds forward to a new 
position under fire, his life rests on his 
ability to keep low, like a halfback 
hitting a line, and to close the last few 
yards with a headlong slide. 

Knowing how to fall, how to roll and 
how to hug earth is as essential to a 
fighter as knowing how to run when 
it's suicide to walk. He will not get a 
final conviction of these things on the 

S. L. A. MARSHALL, military critic of The Detroit News, was recently 
described by the Combat Forces Journal of the United States Army as "the 
greatest living reporter of combat." He has a broader experience with a greater 
variety of battle situations than any contemporary, and holds the rank of 
brigadier-general. He is a former sports writer, editor and polo expert. 

Chinese lines. That's the kind of stuff 
I'm talking about; you can't beat it. 

Everything Done on Field of 
Sport Conditions a Soldier 

Your average team player possibly 
never devotes a moment to thinking of 
the special values which come of play- 
ing the game, and wherein these values 
facilitate his adjustment when he en- 
ters a life-and-death contest. But nearly 
everything he has done on the sport 
field has conditioned him in one way 
or another to meet the final test a little 
more easily than the man who never 
got beyond the sidelines. 

I have seen hundreds of American 
youngsters so badly smeared during 
combat that they had good reason to 
quit the fight, but didn't even know 
the meaning of the word. The great 
majority of these diehards got that 
way in sports. Too, there is an ele- 
mentary know-how which comes of 
passing a ball around, swinging a bat 
or wielding a mallet. Muscular coor- 
dination, strengthening of the hands, 
quickness of eye and conquest of fear 

playing field, because combat is a 
trifle more urgent. But there is no bet- 
ter preparatory school than the way 
of the team player who starts on the 
sandlots and stays with the game 
through early manhood. 

Our Legs Need Work 

On the whole, however, we have not 
done very well by ourselves. The ma- 
jority of American young men are not 
physically fit. Our main weakness is in 
the legs, because as a nation we have 
almost forgotten how to use them. 

Our colleges, schools generally, and 
the rest of our institutions, have held 
all too lightly what organized sport 
can do for a people and how mass 
physical fitness relates to national sur- 
vival. In team play, a man learns 
to play the game for its own sake, and 
not for personal vainglory. Finally, it 
is this same spirit which holds together 
an infantry company in the face of the 
enemy. Real contending power comes 
of each man's love for his comrades, 
and not of his hate for the other side. 

* Condensed from series in The Detroit News, 
January, 1952. 


no playground is complete without a 

Reg. U. S. Pal. Off. 

climbing structure 

Safely, no maintenance, biggeit play capacity per 
square foot of ground area and per dollar of 
cost these ore juit a few of the reasons why 
JUNGLEGYM is admittedly the world's most famous 
playground device. Thousands are in daily use 
from coast to coast. Why not give the children of 
your playground the advantages of a JUNGLEGYM 
. . . now? 

Write for Illustrated Bulletin On Porter's 

1952 Streamlined Lin* That Will Save 

You Money . . . I/me. 

PORTER can supply you with these fundamental playground units, too! 

No. 240 Merry-Go-Round 

Will occom modolo 30 children at 
on* time. Noisoloii, no-wobblo. no- 
sway operation. An engineering mar. 
vol. and precision-mode. Guaranteed. 

No. SI F Playground 

Basketball Backstop 
All. Steel Ion i hoped bonk 
rigidly mounted on ireel 
molt and braced for permo 
eeet service FlniiHed to with- 
ilond the weoih.r Official. 

No. 1 36 Stratosphere See-Saw 

Soniotlonally new. Civet "upt a doily" 
red. 33 I '3% high.r than conv.nt.onal 
see-low, yet lofer became of hoop 
handles, ioddl teats and level seat 

No. 3B Combination Sel 

Offers ll> d:tf...M kindi ol funful, 
healthful playground activity. A com. 
pact, economical unit that's Ideal for 
limited ground areas. Ruggedly <on 

No. 109 Sin-Swing Set 

Built for tafm. prmann1 icrvic*. Sturdy 
10 fl from* Kld rigidly Iogfhf by 
Tnd MoM#ohl Iron fitting of v 
iiv Port** boll through" di>gn 

THE J. E. 







. U. S fel OK. 




How one California city put vitality 
into its program for young people. . . 

Revue members take off for a two-day trip 
during which they played to 3000 persons. 

What things do teen-age boys and girls want to do? 
How can they be helped to fulfill their desires? 

Teen-age leadership is Santa Barbara's answer to how 
to develop the richest recreation program for this age 

In official capacities, coordinated with the city recrea- 
tion commission, a youth council plans and administers 
projects and parties for the young people. The Santa Bar- 
bara Recreation Department Youth Council, made up of 
nine members, is elected for one year by popular vote 
from teen-agers still in high school. Both public high and 
parochial schools are represented. Those wishing to be 
nominated on the election ballot must first secure the 
names of fifty other teen-agers in the community who are 
membership card holders in the recreation department. 

Duties of a youth council officer include a weekly meet- 
ing to plan and organize activities desired and approved 
by both the youth and adult supervisors, and to consider 
the conduc^ of teen-agers at youth council sponsored ac- 
tivities and take any necessary action deemed advisable. 
These meetings always take into consideration the pro- 
grams of other youth groups, local junior and senior high 
schools, churches, and other youth serving agencies. A 
social calendar of all local events assists the council in 
planning mass youth activities. Included in the meeting 
each week is discussion on the management of the youth 
lounge and fountain, which is operated by members of the 
council assisted by the two adult advisors of the city rec- 
reation department. 

Membership in the "Rec" is open to any teen-ager with- 
out cost. However, in order to qualify for a card, the ap- 
plicant must read and discuss with the adult advisors 
what is expected of him or her. A registration book and 
membership card are then signed in the presence of the 

MR. MAcDoNALD is youth council advisor in Santa Bar- 
bara, and manager of the city's annual battle of teen bands. 
See page 401 of the December 1951 issue of RECREATION. 

R. J. MacDonald 

Youth Council girls seem to enjoy planning annual Tri Counties 
Teen Conference to be held at Santa Barbara recreation center. 

advisor, giving name, address, phone number and age. The 
only regulation covering all activities is adherence to the 
basic principles of democracy. 

Projects range from fun to finance, and include service 
activities. Over a period of three years the youth council 
has honored, at monthly dinners, outstanding citizens or 
organizations who have contributed to the welfare of youth 
or of the community. The guests listen to the meeting 
conducted by the young people, and then are invited to 
speak. It has promoted good public relations. Each new 
council, also, entertains members' parents at dinner, which 
has helped to create greater understanding. 

Dances are held weekly or twice weekly. During the 
football season the weekly after-game dances bring a peak 
attendance approaching six hundred, which fills the audi- 
torium. By maintaining a "tight door," well-defined stand- 
ards of behavior and adequate supervision, the dances are 



Parties ar among projects planned and administered by Youth 
Council members. Above, preparations for Friday-the-13th dance. 

considered an asset by the schools, police and parents, 
and are thoroughly enjoyed by the young people. The dis- 
trict P. T. A., through its recreation chairman, provides 
couples who give splendid assistance in supervision. On 
the infrequent occasions when a youth is out of line, his 
"Rec" membership card is taken up, and the youth coun- 
cil deprives him of privileges for a period of time. 

The Rec Revue is produced annually, and has been "on 
the road" to other towns in the country and to nearby 
Camp Cooke. The entire cast of thirty odd has attended 
the Southern California Teen Conference, and parts of the 
show have been played for service clubs, news boys' din- 
ners, and so on. 

A mainstay of the revue is the fifteen-piece band, the 
Music Maker>. which plays for the dances, too. It is rated 
"top" by teen-agers wherever heard. The band broad- 

casts over local radio stations, and announcements of com- 
ing events are made on these programs. By special agree- 
ment with the iiiiiMciaii-' union, the Music Makers are 
allowed to pla\ in the center auditorium, which is a union 
hall, and to fill other requests from schools. 

Sport.- e\enl- and tournaments are .-ponsored as part of 
the gymnasium program. \n<l nvently. an annual "Mr. 
Santa Barbara mnte-t. a- part of an A. \. I . program, 
has been held, featuring weight lifting and body building. 
On the distaff side, a "Miss Typical Teen-Age" competi- 
tion is held. Last summer, ten girls were screened from 
a number of Southern California teen centers. They mod- 
eled clothes furnished by a local firm, and were judged on 
poise, personal!!), voice and modeling ability. 

The teen-agers also assume more serious responsibili- 
ties The youth council maintains its own bank account, 
though checks require two signatures, those of the youth 
council treasurer and of the adult supervisor. Besides a 
weekly financial report to the council, a report is made 
each month to the recreation commission. 

The main sources of revenue are the dances and the 
less frequent shows. Twenty-five cents is the top price 
charged. From this income, the youth lounge is kept up 
and contributions made to service projects. The lounge 
has a soda fountain, television set, juke box and maga- 
zines, and the budget covers upkeep, such as repainting, 
new furniture, and so on. Youth council members run 
the fountain in the afternoons after school, and college 
boys are paid to run it in the evenings. 

Service projects have included five hundred dollars in 
scholarships, given to the local branch of the University 
of California and earmarked for graduates of local schools, 
and one hundred dollars given to the city for remodeling 
the auditorium stage. "Can-can" dances are given each 
Christmas, with cans of food used as admission, to be 
distributed by the Christinas Cheer Committee. Proceeds 
of other dances are given to charitable causes from time 
to time during national fund-raising campaigns. 

Reganllc-- of the importance of the e\ent or the project, 
it is planned and carried out for the youth by the youth, 
and everyone benefit- from the program. 

In a presidential year it is> interesting to look through the eyes of Grantland 
Rice, well known sports writer, at the sports enjoyed by past presidents: 

1 \\ .>..! 

horse racing, hunting and Woodrow Wilson 


Andrew Jackson hornc racing, marksmanship, 

hunting, duelling, horsrmanhi|> 

Abraham Lincoln wrestling, rail splitting 

William H. Taft 
Warrrn Harding 
Herbert Hoover 
Franklin Riw>c\eli 

football, golf 





Teddy Roowvdt 

boxing, wild game hunting. Icnni-. exploring 


"Many recreational activities are educational, and vice versa." 

Educational and Cultural Activities 

in Community Centers 

Floydelh Anderson 

IT IS MOST gratifying to note the efforts of workers 
in community centers to offer a program that 
transcends purely physical and social activities. 
These efforts probably can be attributed to several 

(1) Entrance, into the field, of an increasing 
number of highly qualified workers. 

(2) The increasing unpopularity of the idea that 
the community center fulfills its purpose when it 

only furnishes shelter during their leisure hours to boys 
and girls who might otherwise be roaming the streets. 

(3) Recognition of the idea, as a fallacy, that participa- 
tion in sports is a "cure-all" for social maladjustment. 

(4) Recognition of the possibilities of the community 
center when working in cooperation with the school, the 
church and other community organizations. 

The worker who is fortunate enough to be able to travel 
can observe at firsthand the many fine things being done 
with the educational and cultural program of the com- 
munity center. The average worker, however, must feel 
his way through the dark, because those persons success- 
fully conducting such programs seldom take the time to 
write about their work. This fact impressed me in a force- 
ful manner when, in 1947, I was brought to the Crispus 
Attucks Center of York, Pennsylvania, to build and direct 
a program of educational and cultural activities. Being 
freshly out of the university, I was confident that the li- 
braries of the area would offer interesting suggestions. 
True, I found some helpful information, but most of it 
concerned music and dramatics. Since those early days, I 
think that I have discovered more avenues to an expanded 
program, and in sharing them with readers, I am hopeful 
of inspiring other leaders in the field to write about their 

FLOYDELH ANDERSON, who was the director of education, 
Crispus Attucks Association, York, Pennsylvania, is now 
executive director of Nepperham Center, Yonkers, N. Y. 


The Script Club planning a monthly issue of the C. A. Herald. A house 
newspaper can be one of the most effective tools in building a program. 

work. In such a manner can we build a helpful library. 

During the early months at Crispus Attucks, I worked 
with the idea of bringing prominent speakers to the com- 
munity, of sponsoring such clubs as the Carter G. Wood- 
son Historical Society and of staging a light opera. It was 
soon evident, however, that a good speaker was expensive, 
and the historical society folded after two or three poorly 
attended meetings. The mere name was enough to scare 
away the people. As for light opera, there was not enough 
talent to carry through. At this point it was all too clear 
that I had to rethink my program. The problems of the 
community had to be considered, and a program planned 
that would serve to make conditions better. As the teen- 
agers frequented the center in greater numbers' than other 
groups, it seemed best to build my program around them. 

The common meeting ground for these teen-agers and 
myself was music. We gathered a large group, some with 
fair voices others with none at all. Our first reherasals 
were not strenuous. We sang for the love of singing and 
to become acquainted. At these meetings, it was possible 
to get some idea of the abilities of individual participants. 
The nucleus of a club dedicated to a program of educa- 
tional and cultural activities was formed. 

Our first problem was to find a suitable name for the 
group. We felt that this should be informal and bear no 
resemblance to the type of program we wanted to pat 
over. The final choice was "Pre-Frats." Instead of the 
traditional officers president, vice-president, and so on 


we chose the glorifying titles of supreme commissioner, 
associate commissioner, commissioner of records and the 
commissioner of finance. Persons desiring to become mem- 
bers of the club were required to undergo a period of pro- 
bation and initiation. When the news got around about 
the mysterious new club for teen-agers, we were swamped 
with applications for membership. 

We next were faced with the problem of providing a 
program that would be enjoyable, educational, and that 
would serve some useful purpose in the community. The 
first project along this line was the sponsoring of educa- 
tional movies, open to all members of the center. These 
dealt with the everyday problems faced by boys and girls 
in our society. Later came group discussions, the topics 
centered around community problems, proper boy and girl 
relationships, dating and family problems. In these, we 
tere careful not to invite so-called "authorities" of the 
community, for we found that with such persons in tin' 
room, the boys and girls were not free in expressing their 
own opinions. These free discussions demonstrated that 
boys and girls, on their own, can frequently reach the same 
conclusions as those reached by experts. All discussions 
were limited to thirty minutes. Too much stress cannot 
be placed on making each meeting short and to the point. 

Another interesting project for the educational program 
of a community recreation center is a boys' and girls' 
debate. Each year at Crispus Attucks a timely subject is 
chosen for this purpose, and the club sponsor holds audi- 
tions for participants. Two boys are selected to compete 


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against two girls. Judges are selected from the ranks of 
the professional men and women of the city. 

As for dramatir-. we have organized a group known 
as the Ki-Yi Club which operates on the same principle as 
the Pre-Frats. Its main objective is to encourage talent in 
the community. This does nut mean dramatic talent alone. 
The club is interested in all types of talents that contribute 
to widening the interests of the patrons of the center. The 
club itself creates committees to sponsor an art show. .1 
play, an oratorical contest, a talent show. A healthy spirit 
of competition exists between the Pre-Frats and Kl-^ii-. 

Most of the work in guidance and citizenship here has 
been done through our house newspaper, The C. A. Her- 
ald, published monthly by the Script Club. The Herald is 
a mimeographed publication running from four to eight 
pags in length. All members of the center are in\ ited 
to contribute articles, cartoons, jokes and other ncw- 
itcms. The monthly editorials are written by the club 
sponsor, who tries to give useful information in a down- 
to-earth manner, covering subjects that range from per- 
sonal health to job finding and job holding. A house news- 
paper can be a most effective tool in building a program. 

I have been told that a community center takes in too 
much territory when it attempts to give vocational and 
educational guidance; further, that it is the place of the 
school to give guidance to the school youth, and of agen- 
cies of the federal government to guide out-of-town youth. 
Even so, our schools are so crowded that at best the coun- 
selor can do only a very impersonal type of guidance. 
For example, one school of two thousand students has only 
one counselor. By comparison, the community center is 
small, and it thus gives the staff worker the opportunity to 
become intimately acquainted with each client and his 
family. The ideal set-up, then, is a cooperative program 
of guidance between the school and the community ecu 
ter. The school can furnish information concerning tin- 
interests and aptitudes of the students, while the com- 
munily center can do a good jol> of encouragement, of 
pointing out avenues to useful life experiences, and of 
giving pointers as to how one should go about finding 
a job, choosing a college or becoming adjusted to some 
problem in the home. In advocating that the communiu 
renter should do some guidance work, however, it is 
.1 umed that the renter possesses qualified leadership. 

The club sponsor, who should be a paid Maff worker. 
can be the chief reason for success or failure of an edin .1 
'I.. iinl and cultural program. If he would ha\e a -n. . ful 
program, he cannot afford to be lazy. He mu-t be willing to 
|int in extra hours of planning. He must II.IM- > oiindencc in 
his abilities and must ]< iihle to tran-fcr tlii- confidence to 
the meiiilxTA <>f hi' ui"ii|>-. He -hmild lead wideh and IN- 
i\er i. n the alert for new idea-. He should lie a constant 
source of cm ouragemciit |,. the ln.\- and girl* under hi- 
-U|M-M i-iun. He -horrid l- mi-led 1>\ the dream thai 
boys and girl* will accc|i| full re-|>on-il>ilil\ f"t the |>i 
gram of a club. lt..\- ami pirl- will work, help wilh ill. 
planning, but it i n|> t.i the -tall worker to din-el their 
work into chaimeU that will ]>i\<- IM..-I U-m-trcial t" them 
and to the program. 

Id ( ui uii\ 

Evening Speakers 

The Congress will be opened officially on Monday night when Joseph 
Prendergast, Executive Director of the National Recreation Association 
and Chairman of the Congress, welcomes all delegates in the name of the 
association and turns over the meeting to its chairman. Otto T. Mallery, 
Chairman of the Board of Directors of the NRA. Greetings will be extend- 
ed by the Honorable Arthur B. Langlie, Governor of Washington. Gov- 
ernor Langlie's interest in recreation is already widely known. Lieutenant 
General Robert W. Harper, Commanding General, Air Training Com- 
mand, United States Air Force, and George Hjelte, General Manager of 
Recreation and Parks in Los Angeles and Chairman of the National Ad- 
visory Committee on Defense Related Services of the National Recreation 
Association, will address the Congress on the important defense aspects of 
recreation in this critical year. 

Tuesday evening will feature messages from Henrietta A. R. Anderson, 
of Victoria, British Columbia, and Paul Douglass. Mrs. Anderson is one 
of the most popular and charming public speakers in the northwest area, 
and she will have as her topic, "Recreation and the Good Life." Dr. Doug- 
lass, well known for the parts he played in the Cleveland and Boston 
congresses, will apply his famed wit and inspiration to the challenges 
which confront our movement to recruit, train and place the leaders who 
are so essential to our continued growth and development. 

Wednesday night's speaker will be the Right Reverend Stephen F. Bayne, 
Jr., Bishop of Olympia, one of the outstanding clergymen, not only of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, but of the whole country. T. E. Rivers, 
Assistant Executive Director of the National Recreation Association, will 
conclude, just before the Congress, a trip around the world. He will re- 
port to the Congress on recreation developments as he observed them in 
Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Egypt, Lebanon, Pakistan, India, Thailand, 
the Philippines and Japan, with special attention to the National Recrea- 
tion Congress of Japan. 

In addition to these general evening sessions, there will also be general 
sessions on Thursday and Friday mornings. Thursday morning's session 
will feature Joseph Prendergast. who will present a "state of the nation" 
talk in terms of recreation services. Plans for the closing session of the 
Congress on Friday morning are not final enough to announce at the 
time this article is being prepared, but it is safe to say that the closing 
session will match the high level of information and inspiration which 
characterizes the other general sessions of the Congress. 

The Right 

Reverend Stephen 

F. Bayne, jr. 

Arthur B. Langlie 

Lieutenant Genera] 
Robert W. Harper 

Joseph Prendergast 




THE EXHIBITORS of the commercial products nec- 
essary to a successful recreation program are 
an important part of every congress; and the privi- 
lege of examining their materials at firsthand has 
always been greatly appreciated by delegates. Each 
the exhibitors' coo]>eration has been most help- 
ful: and they again stand ready, in 1952, to help 
recreation leaders with suggestions as to what can 
best fill individual needs. Don't fail to allow time 
in your schedule for browsing among the gay and 
colorful displays of brand-new, rignl-off-thc-gridillc 
equipment and ideas. Your old friends among the 
company representatives will be looking forward 
to greeting you, and the newcomers to meeting you. 
The exhibits will be set up in the spacious Spanish 
Lounge of the Olympic Hotel, and will be opened 
officially at 9:30 on Monday morning. Representa- 
tives of the exhibiting organizations will be in the 
booths daily throughout the Congress. As was done 
last year, the Official Program of the Congress will 
include the names of the representatives of each or- 
ganization; and upon registering, delegates will re 
reive a pamphlet describing each exhibit. 

Seattle, King County and the state of Washing- 
ton are working on a display depicting some of 
the reasons people like to li\r in the Pacific North- 
west. Thr Ixx-al Information Booth will le in the 
.\liibit area and it will In- Matted at all reasonable 
hours to provide answers lo tin- mam i|iiction- 
uhidi delegates are sure to have about -..iiile and 
viiinilv. 'Hi' American He< reatim nil! 

have its customary booth again tlii- for the 
convenience of old and new mrmlx-rs. 

As we go to press, those companies who have 
signed up to be with us this year are: 

Dudley Sports Company, 

New York City 
Game-Time, Incorporated, 

Litchfield, Michigan 
Frost-Woven Wire, 

Washington, D. C. 

MacGregor Goldsmith, Incorporated, 

Cincinnati 32, Ohio 

> Takapart Products Company, 

Freeport, New York 
i Miracle Whirl Sales Company, 

Grinnel, Iowa 
i Rec-O-Kut Company, 

Long Island City 1, New York 
i Wilson Sporting Goods Company, 

Chicago, Illinois 
i Jamison Manufacturing Company, 

Los Angeles 3, California 

> Square Dance Associates, 

Freeport, New York 

> American Bitumuls and Asphalt Company, 

Seattle, Washington 

> American Playground Device Company 

Anderson, Indiana 

> Coca Cola Company, 

New York City 

J. E. Burke Company, 

Fond du Lac, Wisconsin 

General Electric Company 

Schenectady, New York 
i Cleveland Crafts, 

Cleveland 15, Ohio 

National Bowling Council, 

Washington, D. C. 
i U. S. Rubber, 

New York City 
W. J. Voit Rubber Corporation, 

Los Angeles 11, California 

> Rowlings Manufacturing Company, 

St. Louis, Missouri 

Pennsylvania Rubber Company, 

Akron 9, Ohio 
Berlin Chapman Company, 

Berlin, Wisconsin 
i W. R. Moody Gold Stamping, 

Burbank, California 

Southern Chemicals, Incorporated, 

Los Angeles, California 

Hillerich and Bradsby Company, Inc., 

Louisville 2, Kentucky 
i The Rex Corporation, 

Cambridge 37, Massachusetts 

Donald F. Duncan, Incorporated (Yo-Yo), 

Chicago 22, Illinois 



THE SEATTLE Local Arrangements Committee has many 
surprises in store for delegates. This statement should 
not come as news to recreation leaders who already know 
the reputation of Seattle and of Seattle recreation officials 
for entertaining visitors. Without question, the serious 
work of the Congress will be interspersed liberally with 
opportunities for delegates to indulge their flair for recre- 

The only mystery about Congress Wednesday is the 
exact line of march through Seattle and King County. 
There is no secret about the fact that there is going to be a 
tour, a tour which promises so much of interest that the 
Recreation Congress Committee broke with tradition to 
devote a full day to it and then disappointed the local 
committee which had made plans for still more hours. 

But other special features including at least one im- 
ported from California must not be divulged until they 

To refer again to broken tradition, still another long- 
established Congress institution has undergone a change 
for this year partly because of the importance of a thor- 
ough tour of the Seattle and King County areas and fa- 
cilities on Wednesday. There will be no general summary 
sessions at this year's congress. Summary sessions have 
constituted a kind of trade mark for congresses for many 
years, and they have proved a valuable part of each but 
not this year. Reactions will be followed with interest. 

Since it is impossible for any delegates to attend all the 
Congress discussion meetings, there will be an attempt to 
provide everyone with brief reports of all meetings, re- 
ports which will be more fully published in the official pro- 
ceedings. Summarizers will, therefore, have to write their 
summaries this year, instead of giving them orally as pre- 
viously. And editors and mimeographers will be busy be- 
hind the scenes putting together the material for distribu- 
tion before the close of the Congress on Friday. 


* When Tom Rivers, Secretary of the Congress, first went to Seattle 
to see about this year's big meeting, he told his hosts that the Con- 
gress would not come to their city unless he caught a salmon. There- 
fore, on one memorable morning, he was escorted to Puget Sound 
long before it was touched by the first pink flush of the rising sun. 
For result, see below. Left to right: Tom Rivers, Tom Lantz, Tacoma 
recreation executive, and Bill Shumard, NRA district representative, 
who proudly displays the deciding factor in the final Congress ar- 


Above: This spring, at the Pacific Northwest 
NRA District Conference, Bill (left) and Char- 
lie Reed, manager of the NRA Field Depart- 
ment (right), got their heads together over the 
coming event in Seattle. Their expressions 
would indicate a favorable prognosis for the 
September meeting fish or no fish. Perhaps, 
however, some of you are going early to try 
your own hand in the salmon country. We hope, 
in any case, you have read the article, "Take 
the Trail to Washington State," by Ruth Peeler, 
in Summer Vacations U.S.A.* 

Si ITEMBER 1952 

* Published by National Recreation Association. Avail- 
able at local bookstores. $1.00. 


HowlinK alleys are probably most popular of sports facilities. 
Thirt\ (i\r\ art- enrolled in Ainrru-;in Him tins C'i>iii;rr\s. 

The IBM country club. Endicott, New York, is governed and operated by the company's employees, for themselves and their families. 

Wm\ v\ KMiM.mKr: of International Business Ma- 
chines states. "I In-long to the largest countrv club 
in the world.'' he is referring to the IBM Countrv Club 
at Kndicott. Mew ^ ork. a -ports and social organization 
governed and operated bv emplovees and offering to them, 
their families and children, twentv -seven forms of indoor 
and outdoor recreation and the opportunity for numerous 
social and cultural activities. Also, at Poughkeepsie, New 
York, and Toronto. Canada, similar facilities are enjoyed 
by employees, and ll!\l i lul>- are found in branch offices 
throughout the world. 

Krorn the manv guest- who visit the IBM Countrv Club, 
one hears the question frequently a-ked. "Why doc- the 
company give all this to employees?" Officials answer that 
lli\I doe- not "give" anvlhing to its employees. Through 
the investment of capital, the corporation makes facilities 
and tools available to the employee at work: a similar in- 
velment of capital in recreational facilities open- to the 
employee at play the means to live a fuller life. 

These two phases of employe interests are clo-el\ H 
lated. A worker does not check his personality at the dom 
of the plant. It goes with him into the -hop. The quanlilv 
and quality of his productive work aie dependent upon 
hi- attitudes and )>crsonalitv trail- fullv a- mm h a- upon 
his skills. These arc developed outside his working hours 
more than while he is at work. \i woik. he seldom has 
i omplete freedom of action in regard to hi- inleie-t-: din- 
ing hi- lei-uie lime, he exercises more freedom of < hoi. e 
in tln-<- mailers. The recreational life of the \ 
workei and hi- working experience are interde|>cndenl. 

However, the \ i-itor nmv inquire. "Then vmi have the 
iiion program in order to gel l>rtter production?" 
\^.iin. lln- explanation i loo simple. The modern , ,.r 
;.! iiion has a slake in the welfare of (he commiinitv. I h. 
health of the commiinilv .iHi-i I- the health of the indii-trie- 
in it. The qunlilv .>f production i- < ondilioncd b\ the 
qualilv of i iv i< life, and the qualilv of civic life i- 

dilionrd |i\ the -ali-fin lion of worker- in thrir productive 
>f their log c-ahin , ... . , . , , 

,,,,,, work. I be harmoniou- relation of pro,|,,.lne work e\- 

Wherein the recreation facilities and program 
are governed and operated by employees. 

A Country Club With Your Job 

perience and the recreational experience is as important 
in an industrial family as in the individual family. People 
who can play together can work together. 

The club at Endicott is operated hy a board of governors 
elected from the plant by employees. Managers, supervisors 
and executives cannot be on the board. One member of 
the board is elected from each of the twenty-four zones in 
the plant. These representatives elect a president, vice- 
president, secretary and treasurer. Each of the remaining 
members accepts responsibility as chairman of one or more 
of the various club activities. The officers of each previous 
year act as an advisory committee to the new board. 

The list of activities includes bowling, pool, billiards, 
baseball and softball, tennis, horseshoes, quoits, swimming, 
archery, skeet and trapshooting, field trials, outdoor and 
indoor rifle and pistol practice, golf, ping-pong, basket- 
ball, gymnastics, badminton, and so on. Participants of 
all ages from children to grandparents take advantage 
of the wide variety of activities available. Folk and ball- 
room dances are held each month. A supervised indoor 
nursery and a playground are provided for small children 
while parents enjoy the other facilities. 

Annual membership dues for employees, and for wives 
as associate members, are one dollar. The fee for junior 
members is fifty cents, and for the Children's Club twenty- 
five cents. 

The policy of bringing children into partnership sug- 
gested a junior board of governors, which was set up in 
1950. This affords the young people an opportunity to con- 
duct their own program, and helps them to promote leader- 
ership and build morale. 

The election of the junior board is held once a year 
under the supervision of each senior activity chairman, 
who calls a meeting of the junior members of his or her 
activity and has them elect a chairman to represent that 
activity on the junior board of governors. These repre- 
sentatives elect their junior officers in the same manner as 
the senior board. 

The Children's Club serves the four to seven year group. 
Their clubhouse is a log cabin, in the midst of the 725-acre 

scenic tract. A trained director supervises their activities, 
which include handcrafts, gardening, story periods, group 
games, nature study and outdoor sports. The mothers have 
organized a mothers' auxiliary to the Children's Club to 
help with the program. Mothers help with the junior choir 
and orchestra. The drama and dancing groups are assisted 
in matters of costumes and rehearsals. 

Activities of special interest to children, such as swim- 
ming and movies, are scheduled at hours during the day 
when children would be likely to visit less desirable places 
in the community. The pool room has little success com- 
peting for a youth's time when a trip to the club is in the 
offing. Round and square dancing every other week pro- 
vide pleasant outlets for social development. 

There is nothing stereotyped in the program. The initia- 
tive for every phase of club activity stems from the em- 
ployees themselves. The many activities have resulted from 
the almost unlimited number of interests in which indi- 
viduals desire expression. 

Most popular are those activities in which all members 
of the family young and old may participate. Special 
times during the week are set aside for mixed bowling and 
golf, so that the family may play together free of the com- 
petitive atmosphere of league participation. The emergence 
of junior chapters of the National Riflemen's Association 
and of the Junior Hunter's Club encourages fathers to 
teach their children how to handle firearms. 

Located in the basement of the clubhouse, the rifle range 
is one of the finest in the eastern states. The room is so well 
sound-proofed that a rifle shot sounds like a popgun. A 
skilled instructor is available. Junior members have their 
own marksmanship classes, where attention is given to 
teaching them safe handling of firearms. The range is 
twenty-five yards long and has eleven turning targets. Ac- 
commodations are provided for one hundred spectators, 
and a separate room is used for storing and reloading 
ammunition. The average weekly attendance includes twen- 
ty rifle members, thirty pistol members, and sixty junior 
rifle members. One junior member, a fourteen-year-old 
girl, scored a perfect 300 on the rifle range. 



Dramatic C.'lub group in rehearsal. Club offers voice and speech 
tr.iiiiinn. opportunity to try all phases <il dramatic presentation. 

At the Endicott Club the bowling alleys are probably 
tin- most popular sports facilities, with an average yearly- 
figure of 167,000 games bowled. There are thirty-five 
leagues registered with the American Bowling Congress. 
Fee* are fifteen cents a game for members. 

Stretched across the rolling hills are two golf courses, 
an eighteen-hole championship course and a nine-hole 
course. Two pros furnish free instruction to members. 
Greens fees are thirty-five cents a day, all clubs and balls 
are furnished by the members. A complete line of golf 
i-i|iii|. mi-lit is available for purchase at a discount or rental. 
More than thirty thousand games are played each year, and 
ulmiil two thousand individual golf lessons are given in a 
period of a year. To date, there have been twenty holes-in- 
one. In wintertime, inside golf practice is possible through 
the use of driving nets. One member won the New York 
-i iir championship match in 1951. 

The swimming pool is always attended by competent in- 
-iruitore. Underwater lighting gives a beautiful effect at 
night. Nearby is a wading pool for chililn-n. 

The country club recreation room includes two billiard, 
six pool and two ping-pong tal>l>--. and facilities for 

Attended by a college graduate in -hild study, the MIM- 
rr\ in the field house is available to small children of par- 
ent* who wi-li to -pend their day enjoying the activities of 
tin- dub. An average of .'{..Mm > -hildn -n ,m- i.^i-im-il here 
each year. The children's playground offers outdoor recrc- 
.iiK.n fur voungsters during tin- good weather months. As 
in the mir-T\. there is an attendant in charge at all time*. 

Watson Athletic I n M misisU of one baseball and two 
ftofthall ili.iiiniMil-. fiuir I' inn- i i. ml-, four quoits uml four 
hor*eh'M- courts. Leagues an- fnnneil from among the 
ineinlier* for iiilr.i-< OMI|I.III\ i.i ..iiNiili- i-om|M-liiinti. The 
i lull ha* placed a girl tennis duUOpiofl in the Hroome 
(.ouiitv matches. 

An average of one linniln-il hfl\ parlii ijuile in .11. li. i\ 
ra'h wi-.-k One indoor .n,.! -|\ ,.ui,|,,,,i target- provide 
: round fin ilitiro for the -port. 

Ill'- |{IM| .Illil (,llll (.lull l,.||.j| of IWM -ket-l field". OIIP 

trap Arid, a log cabin, an outdoor rifle and piMol range. 
and a krnnrl for ux- during field tri.i i|>elenl in- 

-Inn lor i- provided. The onlv co-,1 is the price of am- 
munition. Six times a vear some of the best hunting dogs 
in the region are placed in open competition, and twice a 
\ear beagle trials are held. 

A conservation program feed- and -lurk- wild game on 
I lie club property. Rabbits and pheasants are set out and 
fox hunts are held regular!) to protei -I the game. 

Other areas of specialized interest- for which groups or 
c lulis have been organized include a children's theater 
and drama group, which affords an opportunity to receive 
training in voice and speech for the stage, personality de- 
velopment, and to participate in every phase of dramatic 
presentation; a chess club which meets weekly and has an 
average attendance of fifty: a photo forum, through which 
amateurs meet and discuss photographic techniques, hear 
lectun> l>v leading professionals, and compete with each 
other and with other photographic groups; a rod and reel 
club, which features skish instructions and exhibitions 
given by skish experts; and variety players, who present 
each year an outstanding production for the purpose of 
raising funds for orphans and handicapped children. 

A library, located on the second floor of the clubhouse, 
offers pleasant reading accommodations and a supply of 
reference books, current fiction and non-fiction, and peri- 

Twice a year, in the spring and in the fall, a Watson 
Trophy Dinner is given at the club. Winners in sports com- 
petition for the past season receive approximately four 
hundred trophies, presented by Thomas J. Watson, IBM 

A new field has been I HI ill recently at Endicott, provid- 
ing a gymnasium, nursery and auditorium space. Similar 
facilities have been added at the Poughkeepsie club: and 
at the dedication, Mr. J. G. Phillips, vice-chairman of the 
board of directors, said: "The habits of clean sport and 
cooperation which the IBM Country Club builds in its 
young people pay off in good citizenship and world friend- 
-liip for decades to come. The benefits of wholesome play 
and family recreation which llii- club brings to our com- 
pany and community go far to make IBM a superior place 
in which to work, and Poughkeepsie a fine place in which 
to live. 

" Mihough the building is tin- pli\-iral thing we dedi- 
i .id-, the real dedication is In the inrr\tmcnt in j>t-oplt an 
investment in health for all. well -pent leisure time, family 
-olnl.irilv. i-oo|H-ralion in team plav and neighborlineso, 
pood fellowship and education of youth." 

'I lie IMM familv i- convinced that these facililic- npi. 
-i-nl -till greater opporlunilv for personal development. 
Heller human relations, alcrlne . pliv-iral efficiency, self 
le-prd. re.pnn-ihililv. pride, and loyalty in the organiu- 
tion are all qualities which people will develop w ilhin them- 
--Ke- a- ihev re-pond to the opporlunitie- represented in 
this n-i n-.ilioii piograin. I pon a inning the pre-idcni v in 
I'M I. Mr. Wut-on -laled. "If vmi want to build a Ini-inrM, 
MM! mii-t tn -I Imild men." 

inve-lnii-nl whirli ha- IMTII made will return many 
fold lu the i-ompanv. to the i-ommnnitv. Iml more im- 
portanllv. to the people lliem-elves. 


A Survey in Madison, Wisconsin 

Leisure Time Interests 
and Activities 

THE USE OF LEISURE time by the people of Madison, 
Wisconsin, was the subject of a survey conducted for 
the Community Welfare Council by Professor Marvin Rife, 
formerly of the University of Wisconsin. The report, issued 
recently enough to still be of value, is entitled "A Survey 
of Recreation in Metropolitan Madison, Wisconsin," and 
contains much valuable information as to the recreational 
habits, interests and resources of the residents. 

A major feature of the survey consisted of personal 
interviews based upon a carefully prepared schedule, de- 
signed to reveal the recreational resources of families and 
the leisure-time interests of individuals and families. The 
data gathered in visits to 536 dwelling units in a master 
sample of the population are summarized in the report. 
Because these data reveal conditions and interests which 
are closely related to leisure-time planning by the com- 
munity, and because they are fairly representative of the 
situation in other comparable cities, they merit study by 
recreation authorities. 

Here are a few of the facts disclosed. Of the homes in- 
terviewed : 

Twenty-eight per cent have a recreation room or work- 

Sixty-five per cent have yard play space. 

Almost one hundred per cent have at least one radio. 

The average home has two radio sets. 

Seventeen per cent have FM radio sets. 

Forty-nine per cent have record players. 

Twenty-six per cent have pianos. 

Seventy-two per cent own automobiles. 

Fifty-nine per cent use library facilities. 

The figures naturally varied for different sections of the 
city, and the following are a few of the conclusions based 
upon them: 

Dwelling units in the central part of the city (of lower 
socio-economic status with many multiple dwelling units) 
have fewer indoor facilities specifically designed for recre- 
ation than do the newer sections. 

There is a much more critical shortage of play space 
under home ownership in the central area. 

The ownership of two radio sets per family provides 
some possibility for variation and discrimination in listen- 
ing by more than one member of the family. 

Record playing and listening as a potential resource for 

N.I'TUMHER 1952 

family recreation is reasonably extensive, though the data 
do not reveal the extent to which such records are so used. 

Non-ownership of automobiles by many families in the 
central area presents difficulties in getting out into the 
more spacious park areas of the city. 

Three out of five families indicate one or more members 
use library facilities provided by the city, schools and uni- 
versity. Many families use more than one of these facili- 

Favorite Family Pastimes 

Responses to the question, "What are the favorite pas- 
times which are enjoyed by most of the members of your 
family as a group?" indicate the recreational interests of 
the families. Space was left for indicating three most fa- 
vorite outdoor pastimes. The activities, ranked in the order 
of their frequency of choice, follow: 

Outdoor Pastimes Reporting 

1. Picnicking 17.1 

2. Touring Sightseeing 15.3 

3. Fishing 

4. Swimming 10.1 

5. Watching sports 9.6 

6. Hiking 7.3 

7. Gardening 5.6 

8. Hunting 5.5 

9. Ice skating 4.0 

10. Golfing 3.7 

11. Outdoor hobbies 2.3 

12. Boating 2.1 

13. Sledding Tobogganing 1.9 

14. Informal games 1.6 

15. Tennis 1.3 

16. Photography 0.7 

It is of interest that the first five outdoor pastimes cited 
most frequently require the use of the family automobile, 
normally, in order to reach the locale of the pastime. One 
observation noted in the choices recorded in different sec- 
tions of the city was that the highest percentage of pref- 
erence was sometimes expressed for an activity- -for ex- 
ample, swimming or gardening in the section where op- 
portunities for engaging in it were most available. It is 
significant that only the first eight activities were listed 
by more than five per cent of the families interviewed. 

A comparable inquiry as to favorite family indoor pas- 
times revealed the following frequency of choice: 


Indoor Pastime 

1. Playing cards 

2. Radio listening 

3. Reading 

4. Attending movies 
">. Rowling 

6. Informal games 

7. Family entertaining 

8. Hobbi. - 
'>. Dancing 

10. Watching sports 

1 1. Record playing 

12. Arts and crafts 

13. Attending concerts 

14. Group singing 

15. Attending plays 

16. Playing musical instruments 

17. Church activities 




















Pas-six r forms of re-creation stand i>ut in all areas, with 
l>la\ing t-anl.\. radio litlrning. reading and attending 
moi-if.i ranking in the first four places, in that order. The 
more active and creative types of family activities, such as 
in/ormul ^<nn<-.t. hobbies, arl\ ami rrajts. group sinping. 
rank much farther down the li-l. 'I his i- consistent with 
other general studies made in other parts of the country, 
pointing out the dependence of the family upon ready- 
made forms of entertainment. 

The implications of these results, for education for 
family recreation within the home by public and mm- 
publie recreation agencies, are considerable. The objectixr 
of attaining a balance between active and /KI.V.M'M- forms of 
recreation for the family group is an ideal for which tn 

Dorothy Enderis 


People throughout the nation were saddened by (lie 
death, on July 11, 1952. of the widely known and beloved 
Dorothy Lnderi-. 

Miss Enderis, who retired from the Milwaukee Munici- 
pal Recreation Department in 1948. at the age of -i\tv. 
eight, had been a kind but firm guiding hand in the recrea- 
tion program in her city for thirty -six years. She w,i- 
mstiumcntal in gaining for Milwaukee the reputation of 
'The City of Lighted Schoolhouses" the city where the 
doors of the schools were opened wide, after the academic 
day was over, and people of all ages were invited to enter- 
anil "lixe" their |ei-ure hours. Through her vision, and 
ceuelew e!forl. the n -. re.ilion facilities of Milwaukee ex- 
panded from two e\|M-r imental s,,, i,i| centers to thiitv-tw" 
d 'enter*. -i\iv-two organized playgrounds and a year- 
round athletic program. 

M',re important, however, than the buddings and aclivi 
lies she effected. was the- c onlribution of her philosophy of 
le.nlcr-hip and belief in the worth of eveiv human being. 
One of her often repealed statement- to her i>'i,-.ilion 
personnel was, "A play leader who pcrfum loiilv carries on 
activities and guards his plaxground against pbv-i, d mi- 
hap has a job. He who .id, I- -kill and I.-, limmi. - (.. the-. 

duties create* a profession. Rut. In who , I..WM- In- pi-- 
frrwion with consecration and dexotion |>rrforms a mi--i,.ii 
nd the children. v.,iith and adult* who come to him for 


play and sport carry away deeper values and greater riches 
than the- mere memory of a happy dav. and the community 
which has intrusted to him the sacred leisure hours of its 
citizenry shall call him blessed." 

She received innumerable honors and "distinguished 
-civile citations during her long arrd memorable career. 
\rnong those she- pri/ed most highlx xvere her appointment 
.1- .1 delegate- to President l!oo-cv elt'- \\hitc House Con- 
ference on Children in a Democracy, her honorary degrees 
,,f Master of Arts conferred l>v Lawrence College and Doc- 
tor of Id-creation conferred bx Carroll College, the- c.-rliti 
,ilc- for civic service from Mai c|uelle I niversilv. the dis- 
tinguished -civil.- medal of the Cosmopolitan Club of 
Milwaukee- (awarded to the individual (H-rformirrg scrv n , 
most beneficial to (he coininunilv i. and the first Theodora 
^ oilman award for distinguished -civ ice in c ili/enship pic 
-cnlc-cl bv the \\is.on-in I'edcialion of \\ omen'- Clubs. 

Doiolhx Lnderi- wi,,|e." "I hen- i- .1 (,,-iman word thai 
I h.ive never been able I,, put into l.ngli-h. Il i- the- word 
lriil.\i-lig. I .cut is ill,- I .ci in. in word for |M-oplc-. .mil srlig 
is holy and, to me. the line-l attribute with which von 
could credit a recreation worker i- to sax that he is 
/i//w/it. meaning that |x-c,pli- an- holx to him." 

Aboxe all. Dorothv I nderis was If ul - 

MII..H.I- hai"l in I!' ' "I uiov 

K. i I949. 


Veteran caller expresses hope for har- 
mony and uniformity in square dancing. 

Let's Check Up on Spare Dancing 

Persis Leger 

ff fJQUARE DANCING is going to the 

\J dogs," proclaimed Chuck Hruska. 
veteran dance instructor from Ohio, 
who is in constant demand as a square 
dance caller. We were discussing tradi- 
tional square dancing. 

"I try to teach youngsters in the way 
I was taught when I was a boy. I be- 
lieve this is the only way to hand down 
old-time dances and keep them intact 
for posterity. We have no right to de- 
stroy their historical value by altering 
them until they become unrecogniz- 

Then, he explained how he carefully 
leaches the young people how to ap- 
proach each other and take the posi- 

MRS. LEGER, formerly an instructor in 
journalism and physical education, has 
conducted her own dancing studios in 
California. She is a graduate of the 
Louis Chalif School of the Dance. 

tions for the swing and other figures, 
in a graceful, courteous manner. 

"But do they do as I say?" he asked, 
in a slightly warmer tone. "Oh, no 
they haven't time. The boys make a 
grab and lunge at their partners, then 
whirl them around, as in an Apache 
dance. The girls are lifted off the floor. 
Their feet fly in the air. It just takes 
one show-off he-man to ruin a set." 

Perhaps the youngsters are not to 
blame. It may be the system of teach- 
ing square dancing to beginners that 
is at fault. When teachers themselves 
are not informed as to the origin and 
history of the dances they attempt to 
teach, we cannot expect the pupils to 
have any respect for the ancient forms 
which have come down to us in the 
square dance. A historic dance is not 
a toy or bauble to be destroyed at will. 
It is Americana something which we 
should treasure and protect. 

All ages dance at the Vermont Country Dance Festival. Note these expressive faces. 
Sr.l'TKMBER 1952 

Any teacher's greatest responsibility 
is to teach the truth. It is an educa- 
tional sin to teach an error, and to 
force a pupil to learn something which 
he must later unlearn. Yet, there are 
bombastic directors who put their own 
ego ahead of their pupils' welfare, who 
act as if they are infallible and won't 
admit their mistakes. 

One type of square dance leader en- 
ters the hall in which a new class 
awaits him, and without a moment's 
hesitation he shouts, "Form sets! All 
take places!" 

The newcomers do not know what a 
"set" is. They do not know why this 
kind of dancing is called "square" 
dancing. They do not know which way 
the first couple is supposed to face. 
They do not know on which side of a 
partner to stand. They do not know 
anything about dance positions with 
partners. They do not know what to do 
with their hands or feet. And some of 
these beginners in square dancing may 
never learn, if they are not taught these 
things right at the beginning of the 
new course. 

If their teacher is the kind who as- 
sumes that even an infant should know 
these elements of square dancing, and 
if he brushes aside each question, and 
if he causes each confused pupil to be- 
come afraid to ask any more questions, 
then this untrained teacher will do ac- 
tual harm. The poor start may deny to 
such an unfortunate group, for all time, 
the pleasure of square dancing. 

As a contrast, a far different type 
of teacher taught a new class in square 
dancing a few years ago at the con- 
vention of the Chicago National Asso- 
ciation of Dancing Masters. All of the 
members of this class were experienced 
dance instructors. But the fine teacher, 
Mr. Guy Colby, did not assume that all 
of these teachers knew exactly how to 
perform the elements of square danc- 


ing as he, himself, felt they should be 
performed after his years of research 
in this subject. 

He did not tell the group to form 
squares. Instead he told them to form 
two straight lines, men in one line fac- 
ing ladies in the other line. The oppo- 
site lines were about six feet apart. He 
went into the details of moving for- 
ward and back. In five minutes the 
group had a fuller understanding of 
how to go forward to meet a partner, 
and then return, than many dancers 
have learned in forty years of square 
dancing. Such details are never learned 
if there is no one to teach them cor- 

The members of the group, still in 
their working formation, continued 
their rehearsal of details in the per- 
formance of the various elements of 
square dancing. They experimented 
with different ways of doing the bal- 
ance, swinging and do-si-do. Even 
though one member of the group said. 
"This is the way we do it in Ken- 
tucky," and another said, "But this i- 
the way we do it in Oklahoma," the 
group, as a whole, tried to erase geo- 
graphical variations and find a com- 

mean which might be acceptable 
to dancers from every state. 

\fti-r Mr. Colin s txpe of spade 
work prior to actual formation of sets, 
the dancers performed with real har- 
mony and uniformity. His method of a 
preliminary workout is in keeping with 
the rule in teaching, of proceeding 
from the simple to the complex. 

The winning characteristic of square 
dancing is "togetherness." It is a truly 
-< actixity. To maintain pleasant 
relations, courtesy must he shown by 
the dancers. The men should demon- 
strate manliness and gallantry while 
they dance. The girls should demon- 
strate feminine grace and charm. This 
valuable friend-making dance should 
not be allowed to degenerate into row- 
dyism. Each dancer must play the role 
of host or hostess and see to it that 
everyone in the set has a good time. 

The Ohio caller is disturbed over the 
confusion, and sometimes bedlam, 
which he sees from his caller's plat- 
form at square dance partie-. 

"No two dancers seem to do any of 
the steps and figures in the same way. 
Tliex do not seem to care whether or 
not they are performing correctly. 

They forget that it is just as easx to 
do it right as to do it wrong." 

He concluded our chat with this con- 
viction, "The time has now arrixed 
when we should stop trying to recon- 
cile the square dance stxles of various 
states, and develop a standardized all- 
\merican square dance style." 

Check List 
Memo to square dance teacher: 

1. Forward and back 

Do they all do it in the same 

2. Balance All 

Which kind of balance are they 

3. Swing Partners 

Do they begin on Count 1, on 
pivot feet: are hands, arms o.k.? 

4. Grand Right and Ix*ft 

Any mix-ups? 

5. Circle to left 8 counts 

\n\ stop-step on Count 8? 

6. Promenade 

Are positions uniform? 

7. Travel step 

Do thex use Southern shuflie 01 
Western jog? 

itul<>s Five Man Football 


' Fiv Man Football" It regulation football played with five 
players on a tide. Iti purpose is to make football available to 
more boyt and young men and to moke it a later game. It ii 
not the purpose of five man football to displace eleven man foot- 
boll where that ipori it being ployed satisfactorily, but rather, 
to provide a game suited to the needs of groups, or schools, 
that ore not playing regular football. 

Official Rules 

The official rules of the National Federation Interacho- 
I iiiitball Hnl<- I .oininittrc shall gn- in fixe man foot- 
ball, except when thc\ i onfliet with tile fixe man rulev 

When tin- eleven man rule- conflict with the fixe man rule... 
the five man rule* shall apph . 

Rulr 1. r.nch tram shall ! < ompo-d of fixe p 

name* of the plnxrr |w>Mlion .hall l-e .1- follow-: I eft F.nd. 

r. Night Knd. Quarterback. Kullhark. 

Rulr 2. The plaving field h.ill be a smooth |. \. I rci tangle, 
onr hundred yards from goal to goal, and twentx fixe 


wide; the end zones at each end of the field shall be ten 
yards long and twenty-five yards wide. The field of play 
shall be marked at intervals of ten yards with while line- 
parallel to the goal lines, and each of the*- lines shall IM- 
intersected at right angle- l.\ short lines, eight yards in 
from the siile lino, to imlii ate the inbound line-. 
Hulc 3. On the kickoff. the receiving team must IK- behind 
their restraining line, and at least two players must remain 
within five yards of this line until the ball is kicked. 
Rule 4. The offensive team must have three players on I In- 
line of scrimmage when the ball is snapped from center. 
Rulr 5. The two ends shall be the miU plavcr- of tin- of- 
fen-ixe team eligible to receixe a forward pass. 
Rnl<- <>. I'laxing time shall consist of four quarters of: (11 
grade school six minute- cadi: i 2 1 junior high eight 
minute- each: I .'< I high school ten minute- each. 

I ix e man football is making rapid progress: during the 
game's first season in ITiH. four teams. . omprising M\I\ 
|>laxei-. participated in eighleen game*. 

During the I'i'il -. .I-..M. fourteen team-. < omprising 190 
plaxei-. p.ulii ipalcil in a total of fottx-sexen gaiie 

Highlight- f -exi-ial game- were telex i-eil |.\ film on thr 
n.iugh Vnllev News Program ox.-i \\JAC TV. 

liillinr ] \MV- l!uili;M WM.-V i/v ill,- li-tictir tiirrrtitr of 
thr (irraltr Johmtotrn Parochial >'. /ion/%. 

REI ui \Ti(>\ 



Square and Folk Dancing in Japan 

Dorothea B. Munro 

JAPAN is RIDING on the crest of a 
square dancing wave as widespread 
and fast moving as that in the Lnited 
States. Square dancing was introduced 
into Japan in 1946 by Winfield Niblo, 
a military government education offi- 
cer in Nagasaki Prefecture. A veteran 
caller from Colorado, now home again, 
he had called all over Denver and the 
surrounding countryside, while his sis- 
ter played the dance tunes on her ac- 
cordion. Mr. Niblo saw the square 
dance as a means of promoting democ- 
racy and bringing couples together as 
partners. Its popularity soon mush- 
roomed throughout all of the Nagasaki 
Prefecture and thence into the other 
prefectures of Kyushu Island (the 
southernmost island of the Japanese 
group). Square dance festivals and 
conferences were held continuously by 
popular demand. 

By the time Mr. Niblo moved on to 
the northernmost island, Hokkaido, 
and at length to GHQ in Tokyo, liter- 
ally hundreds of thousands throughout 
Japan had caught the square dance 
spirit. Dances were held in citizens' 
public halls, in schools, in parks and 
in the streets. An enormous festival 
was scheduled for March of 1952, in 
the Imperial Plaza of Tokyo. 

Also by popular demand, square 
dancing has become an extracurricular 
activity at Yokohama's SCAP Civil In- 
formation and Education Center for 
the past two years. It is the conviction 
of the director that dancing and music 

DOROTHEA MUNRO is director of SCAP 
CIE Information Center, in Yokohama. 

Kimona and zori (Japanese shoes) prove to 
be no enjoyment or proficiency deterrent. 

create an emotional feeling that helps 
to solidify the intellectual democracy 
of the center, where many thousands 
of books and periodicals have intro- 
duced new technological and sociologi- 
cal ways. The staff members themselves 
have grown closer in their ties of 
friendship since they have joined the 

One of the most enthusiastic square 
dancing groups in Yokohama is that of 
the Pen Pals, sponsored by the infor- 
mation center. The Pals caught the at- 
tention of Mr. Suisei Matsui, famous 
radio humorist, when he came to the 
center to emcee the first anniversary 
performance. Since that time, Mr. Mat- 
sui, an ardent supporter of occupation 

democracy, has been talking and work- 
ing with the Pals as a hobby. Their 
big moment came when they were 
asked to introduce square dancing over 
his hour, The Happy Tea Shop, broad- 
cast over JOAK every Tuesday evening 
at 8:30. 

In The Happy Tea Shop, Mr. Matsui 
teams up with another actor and guest 
star to present half an hour of dialogue 
and singing. It is about the most popu- 
lar radio offering on the air, here. Mr. 
Matsui, a veteran of stage and screen, 
has visited Hollywood many times, and 
he often lays his radio stories in the 
United States. The Pals appeared on 
his program about Arizona, and 
danced The Texas Star and Divide the 
Ring. The calling, like the rest of the 
program, was done in Japanese, the 
calls having been worked out by a 
group in Hokkaido. 

On October 30, 1951, the Pals were 
asked to appear again. This time, the 
center director did the calling in Eng- 
lish, and the dances were The Route 
and The Wagon Wheel. 

The dances, taught by Mr. and Mrs. 
Larry Keithley (of Colorado and Cali- 
fornia) in a Tokyo occupation group, 
have been brought to Yokohama and 
introduced by the center director and 
by two talented members of the Yoko- 
hama center staff, Mrs. Toshie Saito 
and Mr. Kazutaka Kurosaki. A new 
spurt of enthusiasm has begun in Yo- 
kohama, spearheaded by the fact that 
the army's huge gymnasium, Fryar 
Gym, has been made available for 
monthly dances. Twenty-five hundred 
people attended the last dance, held on 
January 26, 1952. 

^l ITEMBER 1952 




Letters to the U I 

from New Zealand 


You may be aware that here in New 
Zealand a section of our government. 
the Department of Internal Affairs, 
Physical Welfare and Recreation 
Branch, has introduced American 
square dancing to the people. They 
first presented it in March 1951, and 
it has proved wonderfully popular 
with approximately six hundred danc- 
ers attending the square dances held in 
the Wellington Town Hall. During the 
winter, the Physical Welfare and Rec- 
reation Department officers chose peo- 
ple to train as square dance teachers 
and callers. I was one of their trainees. 
We have been taught square dancing. 
not as a full-time job, but during our 
leisure time we arrange square dances 
all over the Wellington Province. This 
we do voluntarily, so that people can 
enjoy square dancing just as much as 
we enjoy the calling. 

My object in writing to you is to see 
if \u can possibly help us in securing 
ari\ literature to assist us with the 
American square dancing. Physical 
Welfare and Recreation have done 
their best to help us by letting us have 
' opirn of some of their dances and 
music, but we must now get along by 
ourselves. I have applied to the govern- 
inr-nt for funds to enable me to write 
t" publishers for dances, but. because 
of the extreme scarcity of dollars in 
.ur country, I have been refused even 
the sum of five pound*. Twenty mem- 
bers of thr Wellington Square Dance 
! I'li-r-' and Callers' Association, all 
non-riiumiercial cllrr. n>-\ together l<> 
"pool" thi-ir dances to trv and makr 
tin-in go round: and anything thai MHI 
may be able to wild u would In- used 
by all of us. 

A. KIT/I. mu i>. Snirinn. Wrllinp- 
Ion Squnrr Danrr Trarhrrs' and 

from Australia 


In common with other Australian 
recreation executives and leader-. I 
have been interested in the controversy 
about the future of western square 
dancing in your country. Out here, 
in a country where this form of danc- 
ing is not traditional in any region, 
yet has been introduced, we are con- 
sidering similar problems. The articles 
in RECREATION have been, therefore, 
most helpful. 

Square dancing has been introduced 
to the state of New South Wales, and 
to my home town, the small country 
city of Tamworth (population 17,000), 
which is on the southern fringe of our 
new England region. Two years ago, 
the average dancer had not seen a 
square dance, nor did he know any- 
thing of its basic steps or of its calling 
techniques. The nearest thing would 
have been the quadrilles of his parent-. 
as danced over forty years ago. Knowl- 
edge of simple square dances was re- 
st rirted to American residents, recre- 
ation leaders and physical education 
teachers in state schools. 

Recreation leaders, like myself, used 
the NRA book, Simple Square Dances 
and Musical Mixers, and from this 
taught simple popular dances, such as 
Little Brown Jug, Spanish Cavalier, 
Parlez Vous, Nelly Grey and the circle 
dance, () Susanna. These dame- wen- 
popular as supplementary activities to 
our traditional ballroom dances. Rec- 
reation and camp leader- used them at 
\niith camps, youth get-togethers and 

If this quiet development i* main- 
tained, square dancing will firmly con- 
solidate a position in our - life out 
liere in Australia. Those small group. 
of Australian youth liked square danc- 
es, but there was no univrrvil knowl- 
edge of uch dancing. It was fostered 

wherever a recreation leader or teacher 
knew the steps and the figures. 

Nobody went c ra/\ over them "be- 
cause square dances were fashionable," 
nobody burned the midnight oil in or- 
der to compose fancy calls, and nobody 
sported new cowboy clothes and riding 
boots. Before the craze, we just liked 
square dances, in our isolated groups. 

With the winter of 1950, however, 
came signs of the approaching fad. 
Disc jockeys began to push a "pop" 
song called The Hollywood Square 
Dance. Did your readers suffer with 
that same song? Played over the radio 
networks throughout the country, this 
song publicized the name of square 
dancing and ushered in a regrettable 
fad that was to pass on in twelve 

By dint of much labor, one caller 
even composed a dance known as the 
Hollywood Square Dance a sorry imi- 
tation of the simple delightful patlern- 
of the traditional square dances. To 
many dancers, this dance was to be the 
means of their first introduction to Un- 
social pleasure of these dances from 
your country. I, myself, saw this inon 
strosity of a dance at a traveling side- 
show in the local district rural show 
lour kind of county fair). It was not 
to be wondered that many dancers. 
after \iewing this commercial venture. 
decided then and there that square 
dancing was not their t>pe of social 

Meanwhile, thr crae was being 
I ..... -ted 1'v national magazines with 
\outli circulations, the radio and the 
daily newspapers. Two American call- 
ers armed to give teaching exhibitions 
in thr capital cities of tin- Australian 
states. These two men. Ix-miard llni-l 
and Joe l-rwis. proxrd capable and 
keen leai her-, thr former conducting a 


RK< KI un>\ 

weekly radio class over the government 
radio network for about one year. 

However, as you can imagine, there 
was almost an overnight growth of 
square dance callers with various de- 
grees of experience and training. Many 
of these proved to be poor teachers. 
This trivial point did not deter some 
from turning "professional" and de- 
manding about sixteen dollars per 
night for their services. This growth 
was unhealthy, and the poor teaching 
in so many communities resulted in a 
quick loss of interest by many dancers. 

As pointed out in RECREATION, May 
1951, by Lawrence Loy of Massachu- 
setts, many of these amateur callers 
tried to command attention by con- 
tinually composing fancier calls and 
routines, thereby neglecting the render- 
ing of clear and concise teaching calls. 

Wayne Ely of Atchison, Kansas, 
writing in your October 1951 issue, 
might well have been describing some 
of the Australian square dances when 
he mentioned the growth of fancy and 
almost unintelligible calls. 

But the craze was not really under 
way until big business joined the band- 
wagon. Then, special shirts, skirts, 
blouses, scarves and shoes were mass- 
advertised as essential for well-dressed 
square dancers. Your blue jeans made 
their first general appearance on our 
sales market. Technicolor advertise- 
ments with dance routines sold the 
usual worldwide brands of toilet soaps 
and toothpastes. Dance instructions 
even appeared on the cartons of our 
breakfast cereals. 

Gramophone discs appeared in com- 
pany with textbooks and pamphlets on 
the steps. Unfortunately, the early disc 
releases did not have "practice sides," 
which made instruction harder. 

Several callers issued dances of Aus- 
tralian origin, as the usual variations 
on the basic steps. The most popular 
was of short life but was called The 
Square Dance by the Billabong. 

To top it all, a national women's 
magazine ran a contest, offering about 
$4,000 in prize money, for selection of 
the star square dance set in the Com- 

The craze showed the power of 
abundant publicity. And all the time, 
what was happening in a typical coun- 
try city, such as my own community? 


Naturally, recreation leaders stepped 
up their instruction in square dancing, 
and found that the most popular in 
youth recreation were Red River Val- 
ley, Johnny. Sioux City Sue, Cindy 
Lou, Captain Jinks and Sugar Foot 
Rag. These, now that the craze has 
passed, are still popular. 

However, the country communities 
were to be rich financial pickings for 
professional callers from the city. 
These "experts," with or without a 
string band, then toured the country 
towns on one night stands, in a blaze 
of publicity. They called to crowded 
halls for the first few months. Then, 
the results of poor teaching became 
apparent, as attendance dwindled in 
the country communities. 

A criticism of many of these callers 
would be that they were impatient to 
attempt fresh dances and to leave the 
easy routines too quickly. One would 
add the obvious point that many call- 
ers were almost unintelligible to ele- 
mentary dancers, and many were inter- 
ested only in making money. 

There had never been a professional 
caller in Tamworth, so I'd like to de- 
scribe his first visit. Coupled with the 
fact that the evening was billed as The 
Hollywood Square Dance Night, it was 
no wonder that the city hall was packed 
with noisy excited dancers, keen to 
learn the new American dances. A 
couple of us from the recreation field 
went along to appraise the calling of 
the professional. It was a night ne'er 
to be forgotten. 

Heralded by a drum roll and a 
heavy "spot," a sombrero-ed cowboy 
caller, thumbs in his belt, drawled in a 
pseudo-American accent that he was 
"mighty pleased to show you folks 
some real dancing." The crowd stood 
open-eyed but silent. 

Then, with a wave of his sombrero, 
he called on us all to remove our shoes, 
for all the men to roll up their trousers 
to shin height and then, backed by a 
few bars of music, he concluded this 
introductory patter with "Now young 
fellar, grab your gal. like ole Jake at 
the cracker barrel." 

The spell was broken the crowd 
roared with laughter. After several rou- 
tines by the demonstration set. they 
proceeded to try the dances. The call- 
ing was fancy and quick to the un- 

initiated, with the result than an esti- 
mated fifty per cent of the crowd made 
a circus of the evening. This group 
did not learn anything more than 
"partner swing" and "circle eight" and 
had a glorious time unravelling "grand 

It was no wonder that by April, 
1951, public square dancing in the 
city was no longer supported, for the 
visiting callers attempted to organize 
more and more routines for poorly 
qualified dancers. The average dancer 
considered it a passing craze because 
of its overnight growth and publicity. 
The square dance is not a traditional 
form in our dance halls in Australia, 
for we dance mainly modern ballroom 
dances. Hence, it could not hope to 
gain an immediate place in local rec- 

And what of its future in Australian 
recreation? Leave that to our youth 
camps, club parties and physical edu- 
cation programmes in our state schools, 
where simple teaching is available to 
all youth. Simple square dances are 
popular in these spheres. Herein may 
lie the future development of square 
dancing towards a place in the adult 
recreation of the communities. Time 
may assimilate square dancing into our 

G. W. WALKER, Regional Physical 

Education Officer, Tamworth, Aus. 

Ml A Discounts 

In answer to inquiries about Na- 
tional Recreation Association policy 
in regard to discounts on association 
publications, we are offering the fol- 
lowing revised schedule. This became 
effective on July first: 

Bookdealers: 30% on quantities from 
1 to 50; 33%% on quantities of 50 
or over. 

All others: 30% on quantities of 25 or 
more of any one title. 
Publications sent on consignment 
only when order amounts to $10.00 
or more. 

Students: Will be permitted to sub- 
scribe to RECREATION magazine for 
one-half year. This would consist of 
five issues for $1.65. It is advised 
that, wherever possible, such sub- 
scriptions be ordered on a class 



TriHi or Treat 

Sibyl Lelah Templeton 

PM^iiKKt: HAD BEEN a concentrated <(- 
I- fort on the part of the community 
to divert Halloween pranksters from 
destructive activities. School authori- 
ties and parents, assisted by Boy 
Scouts, united in a campaign to substi- 
tute harmless fun for unlawful acts. 
A leading newspaper had offered tick- 
eta to a movie theater, with special 
attractions promised, in return for 
pledges that youngsters would refrain 
from annoying tricks. Unfortunately, 
this resurrected the old Hallow c . 
game of "Trick or Treat." House* in- 
filled their cooky jars in readiness to 
treat, so they might rest assured that 
windows, gates and clotheslines would 
remain unmolested. 

The children did not wait for the 
eventful eve, when elves and hobgob- 
lins are supposed to make their ap- 
pearance, but began festivities several 
evening* earlier, ringing doorbells and 
.houiing, "Trick or Treat." All per- 
sons con. .1 md. for tin- mo-t part, were 
good-natured. The boys and girls were 
-.iii-ln ! with a frw applet or cooki. -. 
..r whatever might be handed lln-ni. 
On.- little girl i..iiiil.-.| vl.-cfiilK. "I 
had MI nun li that I took home " 
Hut by the tirnr Halloween arrived, the 
patience of homemakcrs wa >rc|\ 
mil . uplxmrds were ax em|ii\ .1- 

Old Mother Hubbard's. 

On the morning of All Saints' Day, I 
was walking in the crisp November 
air. That hobgoblins and elves had held 
sway the evening before was apparent 
by gruesome warnings and markings 
on windowpanes. By these markings 
one could easily surmise where trick- 
sters had been repulsed. Childish voices 
interrupted my thoughts, and my at- 
tention was drawn to the conversation 
of two little boys, about five and three 
years of age. 

"I wish I li.i.ln' lost that dime," the 
older of the two was saying pcnsiw-K. 
"What dime?" queried the sm;illei 
one indifferently; he was husilv en- 
grossed in manipulating a toy automo- 
liile. "\\h\. ilou't Mill remember? The 
dime the dame handed us when we told 
In-t 'Trick nr Treat.' If we had it. \\c 
could Imv wmie (and)." The boy's face 
brightened with in-|iir.ilii>n. "I'll tell 
Mm what." he exclaimed, "let's go 
llieie again tonight an' tell her 'Trick 
or Treat!' Then -he'll have to give u- 
nnother dime." 

\\ wen- ih. pi..! .---(> nf thought 
going ..ii in the active mind uf the live 

Ill bo\. wh". |i\ till- -illlple lie 

v ii e of warning "Trick or Treat." had 

leieiv.-d .1 -hiiiing dime with all it- 
(mi h.itiiig power? Ili- determination 

to repeat the experience shows the kind 
of seed that had been planted in his 
consciousness. A knock at the door, a 
challenge to produce a dime or its 
equal or suffer the consequence a 
nice beginning in blackmail and our 
very young friend was on the road to 
an unhappy career. 

Where were the parents of these 
small but active-minded youngsters? 
The "Trick or Treat" way out seemed, 
to them, to solve their problem. "The 
children must have their fun!" I'crhaps 
1 1. id .mil Mother were entertaining at 
dinner or were planning to go out fm 
the evening. At any rate, five-year-old 
Johnnie had been permitted to go out 
into the alluring darkness and had pro- 
eiiied ea>\ money. Klaled by his suc- 
cess, he had conceived the idea of re- 
pealing the performance. 

Wisdom and watchfulness arc neces- 
sary for the proper guidance of little 
children. Their manner of thinking lo- 
gins to develop verv eallv. I.el II- iml 

allow the mental attitude- of 0111 ho\- 
and giil- to heroine w.uped liv i ham e 
unfortunate influence*, an unqur-lion 
ahlv llicv ma\ !> if -uch inlluence- .in- 
iinnliM-iii-il |.\ ii- and not counlrr- 

II, IC,I. 

IIH .1 !> ili. \.itn .ii.-il Kinili-inrl<-n AMO- 
rialinn. H U'r-l UHli NII..I. V ^i.ik. I il. 




Ann Brenner 

Cooperation means a 
successful city-wide 

OBLINS of assorted sizes and shapes descend upon the 
city of La Crosse, Wisconsin, every Halloween 
completely equipped with appropriate shrieks, costumes. 
appetites, and enough unleashed energy to run a light and 
power plant for weeks. But instead of whisking away back 
porches or upending their dignified elders, these gob- 
lins cut loose in gymnasiums, playrooms and transformed 
classrooms all over the city. Every school, public and paro- 
chial, holds a party, with teachers, janitors and parents 
volunteering their services. 

It all began ten years ago when the traditional window 
soaping was beginning to get out of hand. People were in- 
jured and property destroyed as a result of youngsters cele- 
brating their Halloween night in utter abandon and with 
youthful thoughtlessness. Complete abolishment of Hallow- 
een in our city was not the answer, of course. With all its 
mystery and magic, its ghosts and ghouls, haunts and 
hoots, HaHoween is a youngster's time to howl. The only 
answer seemed to lie in closer supervision, with this special 
holiday spirit still prevailing and the boundless energy 
expended, but guided into less violent channels. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Ben Franke. then president of 
the board of education, a committee was organized to 
solicit funds from merchants; and school teachers and 
janitors staged the parties. When the Division of Municipal 
Recreation and School Extension was organized seven years 
ago, this problem was given to the department. Thus, the 
division of recreation plunged into action. E. P. Hartl, 
superintendent of the department, drew up a plan for city- 
wide school parties every Halloween, and presented it to 
the common council. Funds were appropriated by the city 
instead of solicited from merchants enough to supply- 
each parochial and public school principal with eight cents 
per grade school child, ten cents for each junior high 
school youngster and twelve cents for every high school 
boy and girl. This money was to be used to help buy the 
necessary mountain of soft drinks, ice cream, hot dogs, 
doughnuts, or whatever refreshments were decided upon. 

Miss BRENNER, supervisor of women's and girls' activities, 
Division of Municipal Recreation and School Extension, 
was most active in organizing last year's parties in La 

Refreshment time in Washington school. All over city goblins 
revel in gymnasiums, playrooms and transformed classrooms. 

Parent-teacher associations pitched in with additional 
funds and personal work. This money provided exciting 

At the division of recreation office, furious preparations 
begin every year about three weeks before October 31, 
with a session on the mimeograph machine yielding 
enough copies of a game-and-idea manual to supply each 
school principal and committee chairman. The booklet 
contains many suggestions for decorating a classroom for 
Halloween, describes both active and quiet Halloween 
games, stunts and novelties. The material is mailed to each 
school with an explanatory letter and a return-addressed 
post card upon which the principal fills in the number of 
youngsters in the school, costs according to age level, and 
the total amount to be paid the school by the recreation 

And in every grade school, the annual and tremendous 
costume parade is held. How many mamas spend how 
many hours rigging up how many little ones to look like 
Gravel Gertie's maiden aunt, two-gun What's-his-name, or 
the late somebody's skeleton? The look of pride on the 
faces of the parents (because they often come to the par- 
ties, too) when their own youngster marches before the 
judges is something to behold. 

Each year, the program has experienced ever greater 



success, until last year the test of tests was given it. The 
annual Wisconsin Teachers' Convention was scheduled for 
November 1. in Milwaukee. In order to attend the first 
day's session, La Crosse teachers would have to leave the 
i it\ October 31, Halloween afternoon. In the recreation 
department, faces fell to a new low. We knew the program 
had proved itself in past years police reports showed al- 
most no vandalism Halloween nights. But what would 
happen if the school parties were held the day before Hal- 
loween ? 

On party night, every school was activity from top 
to bottom, from end to end. from principal to small fr\ . 
There was young laughter and singing and shouting of 
ten thousand health) citizens, while they played scores of 
games, watched dozens of movies, and consumed breath- 
taking amounts of food in classrooms all over the city. 

The three La Crosse high schools held dances from 8:00 
to 11:30 p.m. in school gymnasiums. Mu-ic was by juke 
box. and in the case of Central High School, the music 
.is played by our recreation swing band, made up of 
inemlK-rs of the Swing Shanty Youth Center, who beat out 
smooth, danceable rhythms. The gyms were crowded with 
dancers, and other rooms bulged with boys and girls play- 
ing checkers, shuffieboard. cards or table tennis. A movie 
thriller had been shown earlier in the evening. CoBtinaoai 
cafeteria service provided hot dogs, ice cream, soft drink- 
and doughnuts, doled out by a man or woman who, six 

hours before, had perhaps handed out a test paper, or 
corrected the day's lesson. 

As far as school personnel was concerned, Halloween '.51 
was officially over when the last little goblin had been 
awakened from exhausted sleep beside her witch cap and 
pumpkin, and when the school custodian had closed the 
door behind the last high school students as they started 
toward home at the stroke of midnight. 

But we in the recreation department wouldn t know how 
-IK rcsful our program was for another twenty -four hours. 
until October 31 had shed black hat and cape and become 

And so we waited for the morning of November 1. until 
we received the police department report, which told us 
that Halloween 1951 was one of the most quiet on record! 
Quiet? Well, not in twenty -six schools the night of Octo- 
ber 30, and not for 10,238 happy, healthy young Ameri- 
cans, but quiet where it counted most on the streets and 
in the back yards of La Crosse, in the damage and in- 
juries that didn't happen, and in the records of the di\i- 
sion of municipal recreation where all you will find are the 
few words, "Halloween 1951 a rousing, shouting suc- 

We expect our 1952 parties to be better than ever, pat- 
terned along these same lines; and with the continued 
splendid cooperation of school personnel, it is certain they 
will be! 

Community-wide Halloween Planning Establishing \PW Customs 

Because community leaders have 
"done something" about the formerly 
accepted vandalism of Halloween, a 
new attitude toward how to celebrate 
llii- traditional holiday is being devel- 
oped among children and young peo- 
ple. Local groups in widely separated 
cities have arrived at similar solutions, 
making 1951 a banner year for happy 
and harmless celebrations. 

In Ix-avenworth. Kansas, the first 
neighborhood Halloween program was 
organized through the joint efforts of 
the chamber of commerce. the Jaycees 
and the < it\ recreation commission. 
They called a meeting of all the organ- 
i/. 'I irroiipn in \\,,- riu. and out of this 
grew plan for indoor parties in each 
neighborhood. The former cilv-wide 
outdoor celebration had become too ex- 
pensive. and one big party was not 
er\ing a large enough numb- 
rhildrrn. Their objective became. 
rv school and every church in the 
inminiitv lighted on Halloween night 
and a children'* or vouth part* cn- 

ducted in each.'' Each party was spon- 
sored by a committee, but central com- 
mittees for fund raising, program and 
recognition were formed. A demonstra- 
tion party for local committee mem- 
bers was conducted on the evening of 
October 29; the neighborhood parties 
for the children were given on the 
afternoon or evening of Octolx-r 31. 
Publicity in newspaper and radio, and 
money for refreshments and pri/es 
came from the central committee, re- 
lieving local groups of these chores. 
One hundred jack-pot prizes and thir- 
ty-two costume pri/c- were pn>\ nli-il. 
distributed among the forty neighbor- 
hood par tie-. Thirtv minutes after 9:00 
p.m.. the time set for partie- t" ili- 
the ' nmrnittee drew names from 
each party group and phoned their 
child owner*. I All name* of those at- 
ti-niling had been li-t.-d for this pur- 
pose.) If the child was at home, he or 
he received a jack-pot prize. Names 
and addresses of winmr- NVJN pub- 
lished in the p.i|>er the following day. 
The jHilice deportment icn.rdcd l'>">l 

Halloween as one of the quietest in 
Leavenworth's history. 

The recreation department of Ypsi- 
lanti. Michigan, tried something dif- 
ferent. They called a meeting of ci\i< 
firoup- in September and planned cit\- 
wide parties for elementary student- in 
the schools and junior high boys and 
iiirl- in the communitv centers, but for 
high school age young people no par- 
ties were planned. Instead, stress was 
plai eil on home parties, and step- wi-n- 
taken to publicise the idea and pi\e 
help to home party planners. A leaflet. 
partly paid for by the American Le- 
gion, outlining decorations, games and 
-ted menu, was written by the 
department and distributed by local 
merchants. \ r.nlio program was pro- 
duced, giving similar information. 
Demonstration parties were given, u- 
ing the plans in the leaflet. It wasn't 
until Halloween was over and th- 
ord showed a "quiet" night that recrr- 
.ition leaders were able to know their 
planning had been successful. 


TEN DAYS BEFORE Halloween, a special radio program an- 
nounces to the 28.000 citizens of Torrington, Connecti- 
cut, the beginning of their annual Halloween community 
celebration. The complete schedule is broadcast, and radios 
in practically every home in the city are tuned to reveal 
what is in store for the children. The program is sponsored 
by the city recreation commission's special events depart- 
ment, helped by local businessmen, newspapers, radio sta- 
tions and many organizations and individuals. 

Some of the features are a radio mystery voice contest, 
store window guessing contests, store window painting 
contests, a homemade, pumpkin jack-o'-lantern contest, cos- 
tume parade, community party on Halloween night, enter- 
tainment and a dance for teen-agers. 

The Torrington Broadcasting Company conducts a radio 
mystery voice contest, "Who is Mr. Jack-o'-Lantern?" The 
recorded voice of a well-known Torrington personality is 
played four times daily, giving dues as to the identity of 
the mystery voice. New clues are given each day. This 
contest is open to all grammar school children. Parents 
may help the youngsters with their guesses, which -are 
mailed to contest officials on a postcard. Children are al- 
lowed one guess each day of the contest, and the winner 
is the first child who correctly identifies the mystery voice. 
The lucky child receives a list of prizes donated by city 

Hundreds of entries are received during the ten-day 
guessing period, and Mr. Jack-o'-Lantern makes his ap- 
pearance on Halloween night at the community celebra- 
tion held at the local ball park under the lights. 

He arrives in his gigantic pumpkin float, escorted by 
the police and fire chiefs. All the contest entrants are at 
the park waiting for his arrival. 

The store window guessing contests, conducted by sev- 
eral local store owners, are open to all grammar school 
children. Some of the contests are: How many seeds in the 
pumpkin? How much does Mr. Jack-o'-Lantern weigh? 
How many straws in the witches' broom? And dozens of 

MR. BOZKNSKI has been for the past five years program 
director of Torrington' s park and recreation commission. 

"Mr. Jack-o'-lantern"? 

Carl Bozenski 

Store owners usually arrange an attractive window dis- 
play, using a Halloween theme for decorations. Here, 
again, parents can be seen making the rounds of the stores, 
helping the children with their guesses. Each store awards 
a prize to the winner, and all winners are announced at 
the park Halloween celebration. Thousands of entries are 

A third feature of the celebration is the Halloween win- 
dow painting contest. The city's junior artists take over for 
the weekend before Halloween and paint almost every store 
window in the city. This event is open to all grammar and 
high school students. Entry blanks are distributed at the 
schools, and window space is assigned to all entrants. 
Bon-Ami, or a similar medium, is used, and this can be 
mixed with dry colors. It is very easy to wash off, and there 
is no danger of discoloring any of the store fronts. Chil- 
dren practice for days, using their home windows, and 
receiving a little coaching from their proud parents. Many 
of the paintings attract the attention of motorists passing 
through the city, and hundreds of residents enjoy walking 
from window to window to see the various efforts. Judges 
work in teams to select the outstanding paintings. All 
winners, who receive gold loving cups and paint sets, are 
announced at the park celebration. 

The climax, at the outdoor party at Fuessenich Park on 
Halloween night, finds almost every child in the city, and 
thousands of adults, on hand to take part in the festivities. 
A program, jam-packed with activities, starts at seven 
o'clock and lasts for two and one-half hours. All contest 
winners are announced at intervals during the evening. 

The park party opens with a homemade jack-o'-lantern 
contest. Prizes are awarded for the biggest and best pump- 




Local artists take painting seriously, practice on home windows in .ul\. 

Merchants conduct "Store Window <. 
ing Contest," for grammar school children. 

"Broormtick K*cr." one of most popular chil- 
dren's games at park party, Halloween night. 

Recreation dim (or Rozenski, radio announc- 
er Kilhouni. during local broadcast of party. 

"Balloon Blowing ' " 
It-si" sure takes a lot of 
wind! Clowns supers isr 


tlir limiir :n.i<l<' 
li.irtv ( liildrrn start modcuttf 
Pumpkins hrc IMIIC scarce as f< 


aint" of Bon Ami and dry colors easily washes off, is unaffected by rain. 

in contest which opens the park 
l advance. Hundreds are entered, 
fearsome or jovial countenances. 


"Rec" clowns, mostly local merchants inter- 
ested in children, entertain under lights. 

Even the littlest ones march in parade with 
their parents, for this is a family affair. 

Thousands of adults at- 
tend and enjoy affair. 
Many volunteer to help. 

Witches, ghosts, gypsies, many that defy de- 
scription, follow band around ball park. 


kin lantern-. Hundreds are entered, and children start 
modeling their lanterns days in advance. Pumpkins be- 
come a scarcity in the city. Most of the entries show that 
the children spent much time and thought in their prep- 
aration. Jack-o'-lanterns of all sizes, shapes and facial ex- 
pressions are entered, and the judges have a difficult time 
selecting the winners. 

While the judging is in progress, the recreation depart- 
ment's clown band and clown troupe entertain the crowd. 
The clown troupe consists of several of the local merchants 
and volunteer adults who assist with the program. 

Children's games are then conducted for a half-hour 
period. These include broomstick races, balloon blowing 
contests, shoe scramble, and 
many other exciting events. 

The "Rec" clowns race along 
with the kul-. keeping the 
crowd amused with their anti< -. 
The spectators join in with the 
pirit of the occasion, cheering 
for their favorite. 

Immediately following the game session, a community 
sing and entertainment program starts, with professional 
talent featured. The master of ceremonies leads the entire 
crowd in the singing of old-time melodies. 

The hip ios| inn.- parade is next on the program. The 
route of march is around the quarter-mile track circling 
the ball park. Hundred- of children and their part-Mis 
march in the parade, which is led 1>\ the clown hand. Thc\ 

wear a fantastic variety of costumes. There are witches, 
ghosts, gypsies, clowns, patriotic figures, hoboes, and many 
that defy description. The paraders march in different age 
groups, and several prizes are awarded for the best CM- 
tumes in each group. Everyone has a royal time singing, 
shouting, laughing, and the marchers present a wonderful 
sight in their costumes which bring out rounds of ap- 
plause and howls of laughter as thcv pass the spectators" 
stands. The folks really enjoy it! 

Just as the parade i- o\er and the final prize presenta- 
tions are being made, the wail of a siren can be heard. 
This is the signal that the mystery voice, in the person of 
Mr. Jack-o'-Lantern, is entering the park in his pumpkin 
coach. The crowd is awed at the size of the coach, and a 
great roar conies up from the children, as the float reaches 
the judges' stand and Mr. Jack-o'-Lantern steps out. The 
winner of the ni\ster\ \oice contest is then announced, and 
prizes awarded to the happy child. 

Every year a surprise feature closes the celebration. Last 
year, it was a beautiful display of aerial firewotk-. 

Teen-agers are not forgotten on Halloween night. Their 
HaHoween party and dance is held at the spacious Tor- 
rington armory, with the best dance band in the city pro- 
viding the music. This is open to all teen-agers, and no 
admission is charged. 

Residents of Torrington no longer dread the Hallow- 
een season. Instead. they look forward to the annual cele- 
hration which brings such happiness to the \oiingsters. 
Why not plan a community celebration for your < it\ '.' 

Showi many eaiy-to moke camp project* 
ready lo put together, tuch at beautiful 
belli, bogi, punet, cigarette caie* and 
hundrvdi of other item. 

Genuine leather with compoti 
lion tolet. All titei for all age*. 
Ideal for the beach, in the 
wood*, along pothi and for 

Per Pair $3.95 
3 55 In 12 pair lott 


niuiiram all type* of mecCTrtoi tad leather itenu of In- 
al mmrnrr oy^n. odelin. tooU. Udy. butnKtlon 
lor hup rlh i in pufpoiit>, ir. No ripvrivnc* n<ia. 



121 W.>en live 1 . Chicoeo 6 III. 

Fteeje nun H Free HlllUltiJ SPPtr PeUei 
.1 W-peflp t^atbrrcfmn Mpptt 
Calalof tet which I enrloee 25c to coin. 





TO APPRAISE his own performance 
on the job. the recreation execu- 
tive must (1) have adequate firsthand 
information about how his organiza- 
tion is functioning in order to deter- 
mine in his own mind what kind of 
job he is doing, and (2) have adequate 
sources of information to ascertain 
public opinion on what kind of job he 
is doing. 

The successful executive knows and 
is satisfied with what his organization 
is doing and, at the same time, has his 
ear close enough to the ground to know 
that the public is with him on at least 
eighty per cent of his work at any 
given time. The executive needs to give 
first consideration to sounding out 
public opinion, at the same time, try- 
ing not to lose sight of the related im- 
portance of devising and reading de- 
partmental reports and studies and 
delving into other means for measuring 
internal administrative performance. 

Some of the things helpful in ap- 
praising work from within are: 

1. Staff meetings only when there 
is something definite to talk about. 

2. Departmental reports prepared 
in such a way that trends and per- 
formance can be evaluated. Regular re- 
ports should be kept to a minimum, 
with more emphasis on one-time or 
special reports, as needed. 

3. Personal inspections and con- 
tacts with the various segments of the 
organization. There is no substitute 
for observing operations firsthand. 

4. Use of a research assistant 
whether someone is employed for such 
a purpose or whether the duty is as- 
signed to a regular employee, such as 
the department clerk. 

5. Use of "standards" or "yard- 


sticks" lor measuring departmental 
performance. Yardsticks can be ob- 
tained from visiting other cities, spend- 
ing several hours or a day observing 
operations, asking questions about 
costs, and so on. Make a point of visit- 
ing several cities each year to observe 
their various operations. Yardsticks 
can be obtained from numerous publi- 
cations, including The Recreation and 
Park Yearbook and the Schedule for 
the Appraisal of Community Recrea- 
tion. And last but not least, meetings, 
such as the National Recreation Con- 
gress, furnish much valuable informa- 
tion that can be used by an executive 
to compare and evaluate his own and 
his organization's performance. 

Techniques in appraising work from 
without include: 

1. Talking to the "man on the 
street" Take time regularly to drop 
into the bank, the corner drug store 
and the luncheon club, and spend a 
few minutes talking about what's going 
on in the city. The executive should 
try to maintain relations with his "op- 
position" as well as with his "boost- 

2. Making use of reporters' ears and 
eyes It is helpful if the executive's 
relations with the press and radio are 
such that he can get their frank opin- 
ion of various department programs 
and learn what they hear on the street. 

3. Maintaining informal commission 
relations The executive should sup- 
plement his meetings with frequent in- 
dividual conversations with his chair- 
man and the members on the topic of 
"What do you hear?" or "What do 
you think the public's reaction would 
be to so and so?" Care must be exer- 
cised in this connection, however, to 

safeguard the executive's responsibility 
for independent thinking and action. 

4. Using department employees as 
public opinion surveyors In a small 
city the executive should know the 
names of all of his workers, and in a 
large city the executive should know 
the supervisors and directors in his 
department. If so. he can effectively 
stop and chat with them on what the 
public thinks about the new city plan 
for recreation areas, or the proposed 
schedule of fees and charges, or the 
need for more indoor centers. If your 
secretary rides the bus to work, she 
can furnish you invaluable information 
on what the public is saying about 
your work. 

5. Knowing the neighborhood "may- 
ors" An executive should be ac- 
quainted with the "natural-born" poli- 
ticians in the several sections of the 
city, so that he can and does spend a 
few minutes with them wherever he 
happens to meet them whether it be 
in the barber shop, the court house, at 
the ball game or on the street corner. 
These men, often without formal edu- 
cation or training, can tell you more 
in five minutes about what the public 
is thinking than Dr. Gallup could in 
five hours. They may be the court 
clerk, a used-car dealer, an insurance 
agent, a neighborhood store owner, a 
judge or the retired mayor but who- 
ever they are, the executive should 
spend a few minutes with them each 
week, talking about the community 
news of the day. 

'Adapted with permission from "How the 
Manager Appraises His Own Performance" 
by Kent Mathewson, City Manager, Martins- 
ville, Virginia. Public Management, Decem- 
ber 1951. 


Building Costs 

* The mounting cost of building con- 
struction is illustrated l>v the following 
statement that appeared in the Decem- 
UT ITil i.-ue of tin- \EA Journal. 

"From 1939 to September of 1951, 
the overall cost of school construe linn 
had more than doubled. In just one 
year's time from 1950 to Septeml>er 
1951 construction costs rose by near- 
ly eight per cent. A classroom with re- 
lated facilities which would have cost 
$13,000 in 1935-1939 cost 828,000 in 
1950, and would cost an average of 
$30,000 today. As a result, the I nit.,1 
States Office of Education's estimated 
minimum need of 600.000 new class- 
rooms by 1957-58 would cost S18 bil- 
lion as against S7.8 billion for equiva- 
lent construction in 1939." 

Trends and Forecasts in Planning* 

In an article under this title Hugh 
I!. I'.-meiov. Director, Department of 
(Manning. Westchester County, New 
Virk, points out that we are in the 
midst of a revolution in planning, aris- 
ing principally from the effects of the 
automobile and the changing character- 
istics of building and land-area design. 
A iiiiinlii-r of hi- comments have special 
significant- i., recreation workers. 

"The old measures of planning, 
brought right up to date, will still not 
be enough in manv cities. A play- 
ground may counteract the forces fos- 
lering juvenile delinquency, but it can- 
not correct bad housing conditions 

I observe only that if we must err in 
redevelopment and we shall lei u- 
err in the direction of tomorrow, and 
in this I mean in the direction .f spa- 
cioiuneM and low densitv 

"What do we need to know in i nl.-r 
I" plan? . . . Above all, we need to 
know what we don't know. A slide rule 
or i -imp!-.;: :, i. r . .m't make ft mistake, 
lull the Inner who operates it can. 

"I am eon-erncd with the desire of 
i liilil for it i-l.i. - in play, as against 
a drciion |iv the iity that it can't 
afford to provide it. I am < ni .-me,! 
vtiih the long-term interest* of the . ..m 
munity as set againM. for in.tancr. the 
preMUm of short inter, -i land -level 
or 1,-Mid |H-ddlers. 

from PMir \lanagr 

"Remember, too, that ... it isn't 
prai tical to skimp on land and space. 
Fverv thing that v ou build will some- 
day be obsolete except perhaps some 
great work of civic art hut space 
never liecome- o|i-oletc. \\ e are Iniild- 
ing streets, neighborhoods, and public 
buildings that should be good beyond 
the end of this half century. \Ve inu-t 
certainly do more than partly catch up 
with the needs of vesterduv. 


Provisions in 1949 amendment* t- 
an act passed in the slate of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1947. empowering township 
commissioners to adopt land subdivi- 
sion regulations, have been declared 
uin on.-titutional in an opinion handed 
down liv the Court of Quarter Sessions 
in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. 
The 1949 law states that the owner of 
land to I--- subdivided "may designate 
on the plan whether streets, parks and 
other improvements are offered for 
dedication," and also, "the street-. 
parks and other improvements shall ! 
deemed to he a private street, park or 
other improvement until the same shall 
have been accepted by the township by 
ordinance or resolution or l>een con- 
demned for public use." 

The court decided that insofar as the 
act grants to commissioners of town- 
ships of the first class the power to re- 
quire sulnlividers to designate a por- 
tion of the land subdivided for parks. 
pljrground- and recreation -pace-, it 
is "unreasonable, con-iituli-s a taking 
of private projHTtv for public purposes 
without eon-ideration and is therefore 
unconstitutional and void." 

The court pointed out that since land 
may lie idle for years before the town- 
ship decides to accept it or to con- 
demn it fni park purposes, the areas 
dc-ignatcd for park and recreation 
purposes "will Ix-come oversown with 

WeeiU and llUshe-. thev will IM- pl.n e- 

for tin- -iirreplitiou- dumping of trash 
.mil garbage and a haven for immoral 
i on, lint. In-tcad of promoting public 
welfare thcv mav advei-.-lv affect the 
public health, safelv and morals." 

n \tllilllill l'liin\. i lied hv the 
-I. ile planning b-ianl. i --mnient. on the 
.|e-ii-in: "One of the factors which 
might have -npp.nted a different -I--- i 

ion i that these dedication require 

ments generally conform to an overall 
master plan and. as such, repre-ent 
v itally needed recreational areas thai 
the commissioners would not reque-l if 
thev did not plan to further develop 
and maintain them." 

A Better Place to Live 

"What Recreation Means to M\ 
Communitv was the topic of a panel 
of mayors at a New Jersey league of 
Municipalities convention. Following 
the discourse by the mayors, a spirited 
discussion among the people attending, 
took place. Persons from the floor 
a-ked several questions. The fir-l \\.i-. 
"Mow could recreation help stal>ili/- 
the tax rate?" Mayor Scott of Bloom- 
field stated that recreation helped sta- 
bilize the population by making the 
community a desirable place to live 
It also encourages permanent busi- 
ness and industry to settle in the 
area. People moving into a community 
ask what opportunities are available 
for the children, to aid their growth 
and development. Mayor Biertuempiel 
reported that many people moving into 
1'nioii want to know how close their 
pio|.eitv i- to the nearest playground 
and other recreational facilities. As an 
additional comment, Chairman Mitch- 
ell said that in planning the develop- 
ment of town-, ten to twelve per cent 
of the total acreage should be reset ve, I 
for open space, which should include 
m le.ilional facilitie-. 

In replv to the que-tion. "What . an 
be done about congested city areas 
where -pai-e i- at a premium'.''" the 
mav 01- advi-ed the recreation commit- 
tee* to <oo|>cralc wholchearteillv with 
oilier organizations, such as the board 
of education, chur In -. "^ '-." and so 
forth. They also reported that in con- 
idering the welfare of the people, the 
e\|M-nr involved in condemning areas 

RH nr*Tio\ 

and reclaiming lost land would justify 
the expenditures. 

In response to the last question. 
"Should recreation departments have 
Sunday activities?" the group felt that 
action should be based on the local 
mores and traditions of that particular 
community. ROBERT D. Sisco, Treas- 
urer, Public Recreation Association. 

A Survey of Recreation 
Departments in Wisconsin 

The Wisconsin Recreation Associa- 
tion has been one of the most active 
among state recreation groups in the 
gathering of information for the bene- 
fit of its members. One example of its 
activities is a report issued late in 1950 
by its research committee I Mr. Pat 
Dawson of Janesville, chairman), re- 
lating to various phases of the service 
of recreation departments in Wiscon- 
sin. Reports were received from twen- 
ty-eight cities, and the replies were 
summarized in three separate sections, 
each dealing with cities in a population 
group. These reports covered three 
classes: "A" cities of 50.000 and over, 
fifteen class 'B" cities between 15.000 
and 50,000 and ten class "C" cities 
with population under 15,000. Most of 
the cities submitted information on all 
the questions covered in the inquiry, 
and the report gives an excellent pic- 
ture of procedure in Wisconsin cities. 
From the many items covered in the 
report the following have been selected 
as being of wide interest: 
Car Allowance All of the class "A" 
and "B" cities reporting provide a 
car allowance, and a majority of the 
Has* "C" cities do likewise. 
Conference Allowance An allowance 
for attendance at conferences is grant- 
ed in all but one of the cities submit- 
ting information. 
Woman Assistant The two class "A" 

cities reported a woman assistant to 
the executive, but only three of the 
smaller cities report such a worker ex- 
cept during the summer months. 
Man Assistant Ten of the cities re- 
porting employed a man assistant, pre- 
sumably on a full-time basis. 
Budget Increases In 1950, fourteen 
cities had a larger budget than in 
1949, five had the same budget and five 
showed a slight decrease. The figures 
do not include maintenance. 
Playgrounds A major portion of the 
report related to summer playground 
operation and the following are a num- 
ber of major items relating to this part 
of the program. 

A total of 294 playgrounds were re- 
ported, seventy-six of which, in eight 
cities, were lighted for night use. The 
length of the playground season varied 
from six weeks in one city to twelve 
weeks in another city, with eight-week 
and ten-week seasons reported most 
frequently. A five-day week is most 
common, but a few cities reported their 
playgrounds open five and a half days. 
Milwaukee reports some of its play- 
grounds open, with limited leadership, 
seven days per week. 

Considerable variation is recorded 
in the hours during which the play- 
grounds are open, but in most cities 
the program is carried on morning, 
afternoon and evening. Morning hours 
are usually from 9:00 to 12:00, after- 
noon hours from 1:00 to 5:00 and eve- 
ning hours from 6:30 until dark. In a 
large majority of the cities, play- 
grounds are closed for an hour or more 
at noon; a smaller number close the 
playgrounds during the dinner hour. 

Both a man and a woman are em- 
ployed as leaders in a majority of 
cities; two such leaders were reported 
at 201 playgrounds. At forty-three 
playgrounds in eleven cities a woman 

leader only was reported, and at thirty- 
four playgrounds in twelve cities the 
only worker was a man. The hours per 
day served by the leaders vary from six 
to ten, but in a majority of cities, 
working hours vary from seven to nine 
daily. Specialists or supervisors are 
employed in most of the cities above 
15.000, with the class "B" cities aver- 
aging four such workers per city. Only 
three cities under 15,000 report special 
workers, but these average about three 
per city. 

Apparatus Detailed information was 
assembled with reference to the num- 
ber and types of apparatus and equip- 
ment provided on the playgrounds. 
The following is a summary of the re- 
sults. Madison was the only class "A" 
city which reported on the number of 
apparatus units. The figures in paren- 
theses represent the number of cities 
reporting the number of units. 


of Cities Number 

Types of Apparatus Reporting of Units 


Sand Boxes 24 101 (13) 

Swings 23 223 (13) 

Slides 20 55 (12) 

Horizontal Bars 19 66 (13) 

Horizontal Ladders 18 55 ( 9) 

Teeters 18 144 (11) 

Jungle Gyms 16 68 (10) 

Traveling Rings 16 16 (4) 

Merry-Go-Rounds 13 34 ( 9) 

Climbing Ladders 9 22 ( 5) 

Climbing Poles 8 12(4) 

Tree Climbs 2 1 (1) 

Balance Beams 2 1 ( 1) 

Basketball Goals 24 133 (12) 

Bean Bag Boards 19 112 (9) 

Permanent Volleyball Posts 16 45 ( 8) 

Other sections of the report contained 
detailed information as to salary scales 
for the playground workers, athletic 
officials and other personnel, entry or 
per session fees for activities and 
maintenance costs. 

"That the boy will play is inevitable. 
Where, what, and how he plays should be 
the serious concern of those who are inter- 
ested in his future." From Boys Cluhs. 

Sl.l'TEMBER 1952 


as popular with teen-agers these 
days as jive and television. The fun 
i- in the challenge of having to be 
alert and ever precise. Besides, being 
"hep" to rhythmic games has proved 
good training for swinging and sway- 
ing on the dance floor. 

The following offer a few sugges- 
tions for recreation with rhythm: 

Snap-3/4 Rhythm 
formation Leader, who is "It," faces 
group. Flayers number off and sit 
in line or semi-circle. 
Action The leader begins by prac- 
ticing the following rhythmic mo- 
II..M-: slap own thighs (count 1); 
clap own hands I count 2 1 ; snap fin- 
gers (count 3). The rh>llim must be 
-moolh and even. On the snap. "It 
rail* a number and the person whose 
number is named must call another 
mimlM-r on the next snap. This person 
. all- another, and so the action con- 
tinues. Only numbers are used which 
include the group. If anyone fail- I" 
call a number on thr next snap after hi- 
number has been called, he goes to 
the foot of thr linr and all players 
mini- up one place, changing their 
numliers as they do so. The ol-|c. I 
of the game is to reach and May in 
the numlx-r otic chair. 
Note: After thr group has played this 
game, it i a challengr to see if mem- 
lierx can continue while -..mronc pl.i\- 
a wall/. >ime thr heavy beat of thr 
walls in it* first, and thr game "snap" 

MRS. ANNE |J\IM.-I"N 1.1 a leaderthip 
traininf spertalut on thr itaff of Na- 
linnal Rrrrration Aiiocialton. 

R H Y T H M S 

Anne Livingston 

accents the third beat, it is difficult to 

Variation 4/4 rhythm 
In this, clap own thighs (count 1) ; 
clap own hands (count 2): snap 
thumb and third finger of left hand 
(count 3) ; snap thumb and third fin- 
ger of right hand I count 4 1 . 
Action A player calls his own num- 
ber on .the first snap and another per- 
son's number on the second snap. 
That player then calls his own num- 
ber on the following snap and an- 
other player's number on the fourth. 
Each player repeats the action when 
his number is called. 
Variation 4/4 rhythm 
This is fun foi ilio-e who like to con- 
centrate and think fast. The action is 
the same as in the above variation, 
but players do not call their own num- 
ber. On the first snap, the player calls 
another numlier and on the next snap, 
names a city. The person whose num- 
ber was called, calls a number on one 
snap and. on the next, names a cit\ 
which IfCgins with the last Idler of the 
city just named. 

Example: Slap, clap. 3. Chicago 
Slap. clap. <>. Omaha 
Slap. clap. ::. Atlanta. 

Double Fatty-Cake Folku 

l/ini. "Litllr Brown Jug" or any- 
thing in polka rhuhm. I In- i- thr 
simple and popular mixer, with a 
douhlr patU-cake. 

Formation - -Couples face each other, 
with both hanil- joir 

Action Man starts with left foot and 
lady with right. Heel-toe-heel-toe 
(touching to left side); slide-slide- 
slide-slide (hold), moving to man's 
left. Repeat above, alternating feet and 
moving to right. Clap own hands tw ice. 
partners right hand with your right 
twice, your own hands twice, partners 
left hand with your left hand twice. 
\our own hands twice, your partner's 
two hands twice, your own hands twice, 
\our own knees twice. All join el- 
bows with own partner and turn once 
around, returning to original position: 
then all move to own left to face new 
partner. Repeat several times. The 
rhythm sounds like this: Heel, toe, 
heel, toe and slide, slide, slide, slide: 
heel, toe, heel, toe, and slide, slide, 
slide, slide: clap clap, right right, clap 
clap, left left, clap clap, both both, 
clap clap, knees knees; turn and 
move to the left 

Peas Porridge-4/4 Rhythm 

formation Four or six person- -r.itf.l 
in a circle. There can be more, hut 
ihrrr must be an even number. (This 
is the "old" version changed to the 
"teen" version.) 

{linn (1) Peat porridge hot (All 
clap tlu^li- OM< e. own hands together 
once. <lap hand, once each, of persons 
on either side); (2l /'raj porridge cold 
( Repeat above, t : i .'< i I'ra.i porridge in 
the pot (All clap thighs once, own 
hands once, clap h.nnl- i ro-sing girl 
using left hand, clapping right hand of 
boy to right. This is on words, in the. 



All clap own hands once on pot.) ; (4) 
Nine days old (All clap hands, cross- 
ing girl using right hand, clapping 
left hand of boy to left on word, nine. 
All clap own hands together once, all 
clap hands with persons on bath sides 
on word, old.) 

Repeat all indefinitely, going faster 
and faster. If a person breaks the 
rhythm after this is played a few times, 
he sometimes is made to pay a forfeit. 
Note: This can be played in couples 
four couples number off, with 1-5, 2-6, 
3-7, 4-8, as partners. If a person misses 
the rhythm, he and his partner leave 
the circle. 

Suggestion: Whether there is a large 
or small circle, it is helpful to num- 
ber off, one-two, around the circle and 
have all "one's" cross with left hands 
while "two's" cross with right hands. 
(See 3 and 4 above.) 

Square Dance Has Rhythm 

"All American Promenade" (Sug- 
gested by "Doc" Alumbaugh of Alta- 
dena, California.) 

Record: Windsor 605. or any good 
lively march tempo. 
Formation Double circle facing coun- 
terclockwise around the room. Part- 
ners join hands. Start on outside feet. 
Action Walk forward four steps, 
turning on the last step to face op- 
posite direction ( turning in toward 
partner) and joining opposite hands. 
Walk backward four steps, turning on 
the last step to face original position, 
join inside hands. Repeat the step. 
Walk forward four steps, clockwise, 

turning on last step to face opposite 
direction; join opposite hands. Walk 
backward four steps, clockwise, turn 
ing to face opposite direction on fourth 

For the second part, starting on out- 
side feet, step (balance) away from 
each other (inside hands are still 
joined), close inside foot to outside 
foot, step toward each other on inside 
feet, close outside foot to inside foot. 
Partners exchange sides by having 
lady cross in front of partner with 
four steps. Lady starts with right foot 
and makes one complete turn, counter- 
clockwise, as she crosses over. End 
"with inside hands joined and stand- 
ing away from partner. 

For the next step, repeat last move- 
ment, but begin by balancing towards, 
instead of away from, partners. 

Now, using four counts and four 
steps (man, left foot; lady, right), the 
man leads his partner across in front 
of him and over toward his right side, 
with his left hand held at chest height. 
The lady makes a complete right turn, 
clockwise. Gentleman releases lady's 
hand as she goes into turn and steps 
diagonally forward to his left to meet 
a new partner. His original partner 
may turn again while she progresses 
towards new partner. 

Repeat the complete routine indefi- 
nitely. The count is: forward 2-3-4 
turn; back 2-3-4 turn (counterclock- 
wise) ; forward 2-3-4 turn; back 2-3-4 
turn (clockwise) ; away and together; 
roll the girl to the center: together 
and away; roll girl across and back. 

Coffee Grows on White Oak Trees- 
3/4 rhythm, increased to 2/4 

Formation Couples form a ring, fac- 
ing the center, which is occupied by 
another couple who swing each other 
during the first two lines of the song, 
as those of the ring join hands and 

Action At the beginning of the third 
line, the circle halts, and the couple 
in center choose two other persons to 
make four for a do-si-do swing. 
Coffee grows on white oak trees; 
Rivers flow with brandy-oh! 
Go choose you one to roam with you 
As sweet as 'lasses candy-oh! 
2/4 rhythm Chorus: 
Four in the middle and you better get 

Four in the middle and you better get 

Four in the middle and you better get 

And roam the earth all 'round-oh! 

The do-si-do figure ends with cho- 
rus; the couple last chosen remain in 
the ring, and the game begins again. 
This is a very lively number, its ap- 
peal coming from the contrasting po- 
sitions of activitity and waiting of the 
players any moment one may be 
chosen to do-si-do next! 

Another verse is: 

Pepper grows where sneezes don't; 
'Taters all taste dandy-oh! 
Go choose you one to roam with you, 
As sweet as 'lasses candy-oh! 

A citizen army . . . two million strong . . . goes into action in October to 
insure the nation's health and welfare for the year to come. 

Volunteers in a united campaign to raise money for some 17,000 RED 
FEATHER services, these men and women will solicit their fellow citizens 
for contributions to home town agencies and national health and welfare 
programs such as those made necessary by the defense effort. 

This once-a-year campaign by the country's Community Chests and the 
United Defense Fund insures the health and welfare services so vital to the 
entire community. 

Volunteer YOUR time now to your town's 



So eaty fo tear* . . . So etuy to 

With these Square Dance Records with Progressive 
Oral /nsfrucfions and Calls by ED DURIACHER 

Here is the easy and economical way to meet the 
ever-growing demand for square dancing in your 
community ... the HONOR YOUR PARTNER 
series of square dance records. 

Each record in albums 1 to 4 starts with simpli- 
fied progressive oral instructions by Ed Durlacner 
instructions easily understood by dancers of all 

_ ages. Following a brief pause, giving the dancers 

time to square their sets, the music and calls begin. The TOP HANDS, directed 
by FRANK NOVAK, offer the best in scintillating and foot tapping square dance 
music. The calls are delivered by one of the nation's most outstanding square 
dance authorities, ED DURLACHER. 

The fifth album in the series contains music only, without calls or instructions- 
"The Square Dance Caller's Delight". 

It -ti H 

"The square dance album 'Honor Your Partner' is all that you. claimed it to be ice 
tried out the records on a group of eighth grade students and they picked up the 
instructions without difficulty. In the space of thirty minutes, this group, which had 
never tqiiare danced before, were doing the figures in an expert fashion. The records 
were also a hit at the adult square dance which we held last night." 

\lfrril Elliott, Recreation Director, Greenwood, Mississippi 

All records guaranteed 
against breakage, 



Learn more about the 


Write for a descriptive folder. 

DEPT. R-10 




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719 Superior Street Toledo 4, Ohio 

( ) Pteote tend free tompl* of Sof T Klni 
( ) PUow tend quantity price*. 






The seventh anniversary of the day 
mi which the I'nited Nations Charter 
came into exi-lcncc will lie observed 
on Oi-liilier tueiilv -fourth "Ilii i.illx 
designated a> 1 niteil Nation- Da\. 

As an aid in planning a celebration 
fr this day, a booklet, l/A Hirlhila\ 
I'arlies. and a packet of other mall-ri- 
al* ma\ IK; obtained free of charge 
from the National Citizens' Committee. 
!!I6 Twentx-lirsl Street NW, Washini:- 
ton 6, D.C. Order your cof>\ n<m-'. 

The books listed below are a few of 
the many publications, available from 
\our public library or the publishers. 
which will lie helpful in developing a 
liro-:ram promoting international un- 
iln ^landing. 


Hunt and Ethel Cain. A. S. Barne- 
and Company, New York. $3.50. 

Nina Millen. Friendship Press, New 
York. $2.00. 

Lovell Thomas. (See "New Publica- 
tions," page 312.) 

\itiuM) THK WORLD IN SONG and 
Si\r, IT YOURSELF, Dorothy Gor- 
don. E. P. Dulton and Companx. 
New York. $2.75 each. 

Selilen. I'nivcrsity of North Caroli- 
na Press. $5.00. 

H. Haire. A. S. Barnes and Com- 
pany. New York. Out of Print. 

THK CdsriMK BOOK, Joseph Leeminp. 
Frederick A. Stoke- Company, New 
V.ik. -2.7V 

DVM i \\ BE MKRKY. Finadar Vytau- 
tas Beliajus. Clayton F. Summ\ 
Compan\. Chicago. Volume one. 
$1.5(1. Volume two, $2.00. 

I II) \l(l ill ('.HIM M I'M'HI I nl HIV.. 

M.IMII^ Harrourt. Brace and 

Coinpam. New 'l mk. S2.">ll. 

lloMf \l Mil Mm I - IN Fnlll H. N Hill H, 
Nina R. Jordan. Hari-ourt. Brace 
and Company, New V.ik. $3.00. 

- in \i i N \IKI\S. CleM-land II. 
Sniilh a n<l fietlrnde 1!. Tnvlor. 
I lioma* Y. CtoMell ( 'ompam. New 

1.,rk. 83.50. 

IMMH.IMM (.if i* m \\u IIH \N I. in . 
Mien II. Kalon. Knell Sage Foun- 
.l.ilion. New ^ ..ik. dill of Print. 


the Game Way * 

SIMPLE GAMES with a basketball 
help players learn basketball skills 
ease in handling the ball, dribbling, 
shooting, passing, guarding, and their 
combinations. In addition, such games 
can provide fun when the number of 
players is either too small or too large 
for a regular basketball game. Many 
of them can be used for local con- 

No Goal Basketball 

Players Any even number. Field 
Any size field may be used, with boun- 
daries on both ends and sides. A line 
6 feet past each end is drawn. This 
constitutes the end goal zone. Forma- 
tion Players assume any positions de- 

Game Regular basketball rules will 
be observed, except that no baskets 
are used. Scoring is done by players 
receiving passes over the opponents' 
goal line. Two points are scored for 
each successfully caught pass over the 
goal line. The ball must be caught 
in the goal zone. The players may be 
guarded in this zone, observing regu- 
lar basketball guarding rules. 

Fifty Baskets or Lose 

Players Any even number. Field 
One basket, or, if available, two bas- 
kets may be used. Formation Players 
line up behind a starting line twenty 
feet from the basket. Two teams are 

Game Each player in each team in 
succession takes a shot from the start- 
ing line. The objective of each team 
is to score fifty baskets to win. 

1. Instead of each player having to 


recover the ball after he has shot, the 
player next in turn may retrieve it, and 
shoot from the spot of recovery. The 
game continues until fifty baskets have 
been made. 

2. The game may be played by two 
persons, and, if desired, shots may be 
taken from any point at which the ball 
is retrieved. 

Shoot and Dribble 

Players One or more. Field One 
basket is needed. Formation Players 
line up at forty-five degree angle to 
the basket, either left or right side. 

Game Three attempts are given 
each man to dribble in from the side 
of the basket and shoot with the right 
hand. The ball may be balanced with 
the left hand, but the impetus to the 
shot must be with the right hand. 
Three such dribbling shots are taken 
from the left side of the basket. One 
point is scored for each goal made. 

One Goal Basketball or 
Half Court Basketball 

Basketball played by two to eight 
players on a side can afford much ex- 
citement and one is more apt to learn 
such fundamentals as pivoting, faking 
and guarding. Rules are the same as 
in a regular basketball game, with the 
exception that each side tries for the 
same basket and game is started by 
one of the players tossing the ball be- 
tween two opposing players. Instead 
df tapping the ball, players wait until 
the ball touches floor and try to re- 
cover it on the rebound. The ball is 
tossed up in this manner on all "jump 
balls." An out-of-bound line should be 

made approximately thirty feet in from 
the end zone. After a basket is made, 
player on opposing team puts ball in 
play from out-of-bound line. 

Line Captain Ball 

Players Any even number up to 
twenty. Field A space no larger than 
an area forty feet by forty feet will 
be satisfactory. Formation Two teams 
are formed, each of which is placed 
in a straight line, parallel to, and fac- 
ing at a distance of forty feet. Midway 
between the two lines, and equidistant 
from each end, two three-foot circles 
are drawn, each nine feet apart. A re- 
straining line also is drawn for each 
team, over which they may not step. 
A captain and guard are chosen from 
each team. Each captain takes his place 
in one of the circles. Each guard takes 
his place near the opposing captain. 

Game The object of the game is 
for one team to get the ball into the 
hands of its captain. A point is scored 
for each successful catch the captain 
makes. Fifteen points constitute a game. 

To start the game, the ball is given 
to the team winning the toss of a coin. 
This team will attempt to pass the ball 
to its captain. Captains must keep one 
foot in the circle, and team members 
may not pass over the restraining line 
which has been drawn. Guards are at 
liberty to rove anywhere within the re- 
straining lines, but they may not tres- 
pass within the circles of the captains, 
nor may they interfere with the cap- 

When a guard intercepts the ball, 
he passes it back to his team. Guards 
may not pass to their captains. After 
every two points of scoring, the cap- 
tains and guards exchange places. 

Two In and Drop Out 

Players Any number. Field One 
basket. Formation Players form in 
a straight line, approaching basket at 
an angle. 

Game Leading man dribbles in for 
a short shot. Player next in line re- 
covers ball and shoots a short shot. 
When two successive baskets are made, 
each player who misses thereafter re- 
tires to side lines. Game continues 
until all have been eliminated. 

* From The Game Way to Sports. Copyright 
1937 by H. A. Rrynolds. A. S. Barnes and 
Company. (Out of print.) 


NOW boys and girls of all ages find 
good reading is good fun! 


CHILDREN'S DIGEST-The best of the old and new- 

in children's literature for boys and girls from 5 to 12 

CHILDREN'S DIGEST is a must in every children's libraryl Each issue brings 132 
colorfully illustrated pages with reprints of the welt loved classics Dickens, Stevenson, 
Kipling, Milne, and stories of present day authors, like Bianco, Dr. Suess, Mitchell, 
Bourn, as well as pages of good comics, puzzles, things to do. Widely acclaimed by 
librarians, teachers, parents and boys and girls themselves, it is a delightful, 
instructive magazine that makes good reading good funl 

1 year (10 issues) $3 2 years (20 issues) $5 

HUMPTY DUMPTY'S MAGAZINE for little children 3 to 7 

Here, at last, is a sparkling magazine to delight, instruct and enlertain little children. 
Designed for the child from 3 to 7, every story and activity in the 132 colorful digest- 
size pages will give the child the joy of doing things, and instill a love for good 
reading. Each issue will bring Tell-Me Stories, Read-Aloud Stories, Stories for Begin- 
ners, all by leading children's "authors, plus ingenious pages of coloring, drawing, 
cutouts, puzzles, games, stimulating things to do. A treasure for busy little hands 
. . . for active little minds! 

Special 'CHARTER Subscription Rate 
1 year (10 issues) $2.50 (Regular Rate $3.00) 

until September 30, 1931 

COMPACT The Pocket Magazine for Young People 
Now published monthly and available by subscriptions! 

Each 164 page lively issue will include two condensations of the best books for young 
people, a selection of the best articles, features, fiction, romance, adventure; a 
monthly fashion report and departments on movies, personalities, careers, everything 
that will moke COMPACT the counsellor and companion of teen-age boys and girls. 

1 year (10 issues) $3 

2 years (20 issues) $5 

Published by the Publishers of Parents' Magazines 

PARENTS' MAGAZINE -the indispensable reference | 

for every group worker 



family relotlens 

community living 

family deportments 
en feeds. Hem. !< 

Today, thousands of group workers everywhere use and refer to this practical, 
authoritative reference on child care and training. PARENTS' MAGAZINE is the only 
publication that cove's the newest trends, the up-to-date thoughts on the everyday 
problems of rearing children from crib to college. Croup workers find so much help 
In the important article!; the reviews of new books for children and parents; the free 
study programs for parents groups. The departments on movies, recreation, family fun, 
moke it an invaluable guide for everyone interested in children of any oge. 

ikMd ic.. 


Mfc**l d|ustm>nts 


teen of refclvms 


ll'l I Id UHIN 

The Value of Flay 
in Children's Homes 

Helen Dauncey 

We live in a con- 
fusing world. Its in- 
consistencies trouble 
adults, but by virtue of our years of 
living and our varied experiences 
we can view our problems with a 
sense of perspective. Children have 
their anxieties, fears and tensions, too 
but to the child they may seem 
monstrous. The fortunate child who 
conies from a good home and a family 
where he is loved, and where he feels 
secure, gets a "connectedness" with his 
world, and the world beyond. This is 
basic to his happiness and in this situa- 
tion his fears and worries may be but 
fleeting things. 

The child who is pushed out into a 
frightening, unknown enviroment is 
the one who most needs the help of 
all adults in preserving his individu- 
ality, in giving him the best equipment 
with which to face the world, and in 
minimizing his doubts and tensions. 
Many children who come from broken 
homes or from ones in which llic 
situation is detrimental to growth and 
development must live in institutions. 

Miss DAUNCEY, Katherine F. Barker 
Memorial Field Secretary for Worni'n 
and Girls, is NRA training specialist. 


either publicy or privately supported, 
for varying periods of time. 

The play experience there, if proper- 
ly supervised, can contribute much to 
health and happiness, now and in the 
future. If his background has been 
very bad and many times it is his 
physical needs must be checked be- 
fore he can participate in vigorous 
physical activity. If his history reveals 
no discernible defects or handicaps, 
but his spirit has been bruised, then he 
needs much help in learning to get 
along with others in order to be com- 
fortable and happy in his play. 

When ne nrst has a chance to play 
with equipment or with friends, his 
shyness, loneliness and fear may be 
covered up by aggressive actions which 
antagonize others. Careful guidance is 
called for here, understanding patience 
rather than hurried decision to take 
away his privilege of playing with 
others until he can "learn to behave." 
His emotional needs should be of far 
greater concern than his ability to 

Although play activities must never 
be regimented, they should be guided. 
so that each child is helped to develop 
l>h\ sir-ally, to change social attitudes. 

and to grow in emotional control. 
Adults should consider it a privilege 
to have some part in this guiding 
process, through which the child may 
find himself and learn one of the fun- 
damental lessons for successful living 
the ability to get on with others. 

Alas ! Too many adult staff members 
in homes or institutions think of play 
periods as added chores. They con- 
sider their job in terms of food, cloth- 
ing, shelter and the daily routine, and 
the other things can wait. 

Since the present trend is to keep 
the child in an institution for as short 
a time as possible, and to place him 
in a foster home, or remedy conditions 
so that he may return to his own home, 
the time is short at best, and his so- 
cial needs are not postponable. 

The coined word used by the New 
York State Youth Commission is one 
which every staff member in a home 
should say daily. The word is same. 
It stands for security, affection, rec- 
ognition and new experiences. These 
will be achieved by good planning 
and personal effort, rather than merely 
by large expenditures of money. 

For the day-by-day play some per- 
manent equipment and facilities are 
needed, for it is through the use of 

227's for a 

Gymnasium Equipment 

Teleicopie Gym Seats 
\ Basketball Scoreboard* 

Basketball Backstops 

Steel Lockers, Lockerobes 
and Grade-Robes 


3566 DE KAll ST. ST LOUIS 18, MO. 

For 78 Veors 
The Standard Of Qualify 

A Loud Voice 
for Playground 



Weighs only 

12 IBs. 'including 

I i|iii|)|-cl wjlli trumpet speaker. this 
powerful set will fxtt-iiil Minr \im<- 
'i mi. Triiniprt operate* 100 (I. friiin 
< M.|IHIII| ( ,i\r s|>c.ik<T r.i\ilx 
heard in 100x100 Ft. Auditorium 
< 'imp. i<l. \hircl>. sliix kproof. < rx* 
tal mike, l.unlr<l, long-laiting dry 

Only $89.50 

With Irump.t $119.50 
CKMl mik. 17 .30 ..Ira 

REX Equipment Co. 

2014 Co A**. Wo.hmj.on D.C. 

these that physical skills and the abilitx 
to give and take are developed. 

Qunbing apparatus. swings, slide-. 
basketball goals, hard surface areas 
for roller skating and games, level 
outdoor play areas, attractive indoor 
play rooms, all supply activity for a 
wide range of ages and intere-t-. 

Supplies (the expendable items i 
should be chosen with thr needs of 
the children in mind, but in general 
should include balls of many sizes, 
bean bags, box hockey, table tennis. 
quoits, arts and crafts supplies, rec- 
ords and a record player, game r<>imi 
supplies i checkers, dominoes. pu//le-. 
parchesi. and so on I dolls and doll 
houses, stuffed animals, books, build- 
ing blocks. to\s with which to play 
house or store, tables and benches 
built for children, a bulletin board, 
sand table, pictures, skill game-, a 
trunk of old clothes for dress up. and 
a place for their collections. It is m>l 
enough to supply these things and then 
sit back. There must be leadership 
with skill and imagination to encour- 
age their use and enjoyment. 

The very young children will love 
pull toys, a packing box house, sand 
box and sand toys, a drain pipe to 
crawl through, steps to climb or an 
im liin-il board to run down: and for 
indoors cigar box building blocks, 
milk bottle caps, paper containers, 
spools and many other everyday arti- 
cles which imaginative children or 
leaders can put to a variety of uses. 

As one visits institutions, the first 
step over the threshold gives the clue 
as to the kind of place it is. It has to 
lie more than clean and orderly. Some 
places, although they may be clean, 
arc so barren that your heart sinks. 
while others have used color every- 
where; there are plants and flowers in 
ex idencc anil the places look home\ 
not like a limnr. The visages of tho-c 
in charge n-n.ilK match the scenrr\ 

If ihctc i- one thing above all 
others that an institution child need-. 
it is an atmosphere of warmth and .it 
tr.i< tixciie-s. hull) in hi- phx-ical our- 
rounding* and in the pmOM&iei 
of (how who work with him. 

I nforlunalelx. -on,.- -uff people, ju-t 

IIH? teachers, see their job a- mn- 

of div iplinc and order r.ilhcr than one 

of friendliness and a chance to be of 

service. Some have great limitations 
when it conies to entering into physical 
activities but they may have skill in 
helping to plan social programs a 
holidax observance, a birthday party. 
a picnic or getting up a show. These 
are just as important as the games. 

Some have the good sense to secure 
leaders in the community, to do the 
tilings they know are needed but 
which they feel inadequate to do them- 
selves. If their interest and support of 
,in\ activity is known by the children. 
it matters not who actually does it. 

Too many community organizations 
and individuals have a twinge of con- 
science at Christmas and Easter, with 
the result that children's homes are 
usually surfeited with gifts and food 
on these two days. A weekly date to 
work with the children telling stone-. 
leaching rhythms, playing games, do- 
ing crafts or just being with them 
would be much more lasting and in- 
finitelx more helpful. 

I here are potential volunteers in 
every community who. if approached 
in the right wax. would be glad to 
help with the program. The pleasure 
of the youngster- would more than 
repax them for the time and effort 
given. It is their time and interest, not 
money, that is so greatly needed. 

The role of a house-parent in an in- 
stitution is not an easy one, any more 
than being the mother of a family is 
a simple task. It is a round-the-clock 
job. with many little emotionally dis- 
turbed souls coming and going. 

Some of them have had to cope with 
problems that would floor an adult. 
For them, the institution is home and 
-'curilx. for a short period at lea-t. 
I xi r\ bit of fun and laughter and 
good times that it is possible to ar- 
range should lie theirs. 

It is mx belief that the plax ami '' 
reation program can IM- of inestimable 
value for all children, if it is varied 
enough, if it is done with a spirit 
of enjoxment on the part of the lead, i. 

and if it has a deeper aim than juM 


I mil such time as trained leader 
-hip is available, mo-l of the actixilx 
must be handled In the -taff. assisted 
bx xolunti-rr-. The results are too far 
n .11 hmg and Ion important to allow 

it to be a hit or miss proposition. 

b'l < Ml XII'.N 

Public Opinion liils Park Officials 

1951 Peoria Park 
District Survey 

RECREATION and park depart- 
ments give the public an opportu- 
nity to share in the development of 
plans for facilities and programs, al- 
though the public relations value of 
such participation is widely recog- 
nized. Therefore, a public survey spon- 
sored in June 1951, by the Pleasure 
Driveway and Park District in Peoria, 
Illinois, is of unusual interest. Its pur- 
pose was twofold to make a quali- 
tative analysis of the district parks and 
park facilities and to secure informa- 
tion that would enable the park trus- 
tees to plan intelligently a program to 
encourage the better use of park facili- 
ties by more Peoria people. 

Using professional resident inter- 
viewers, under the direction of Mid- 
west Opinion Associates, Peoria offi- 
cials presented questionnaires to the 
heads of nine hundred homes scattered 
throughout twenty districts of the city 
and park district extending into the 
county. The interviewers, and other 
personnel involved in compiling the 
survey and report, donated their time. 
Every effort was made to insure com- 
plete accuracy in the results, and only 
proven and accepted techniques were 
used in developing the data. 

Nearly ninety-five per cent of all re- 
spondents indicated that they, or a 
member of the family, visited Peoria 
parks during the preceding year, and 
three-fourths of them go to the parks 
weekly, or oftener. More than forty 
per cent visit the parks to use the play- 

grounds. Baseball, picnics and going 
to the zoo, in that order, are the next 
most popular attractions. Swimming 
was mentioned by only fifteen per cent 
of the respondents, but this may be 
due to the fact that the interviewing 
was done in June before the very hot 
weather set in. More than ten per cent 
of the families mentioned band con- 
certs and floral displays as reasons for 
visiting the parks. 

Active sports, such as golf, tennis, 
swimming and baseball are twice as 
popular with the frequent as they are 
with the infrequent visitors. This would 
seem to indicate that facilities for ac- 
tive games encourage regular use of 
the parks. Other activities did not show 
a significant difference on the part of 
those who visit frequently as opposed 
to those who do not. 

More than three-fourths of the re- 
spondents indicated that they consider 
the parks excellent or fair, the higher 
percentage of satisfied park users 
being those who go frequently. 

On the matter of improvements, one- 
half of the frequent visitors could sug- 
gest at least one definite improvement, 
but only one-eighth of the infrequent 
visitors were able to offer suggestions. 
Nearly forty per cent of those inter- 
viewed suggested improved playground 
equipment or picnic areas. Only one- 
fourth of the respondents requested an 
improved zoo. A miniature golf course 
was among the facilities requested on 
some of the questionnaires. 

Three-fourths of the people go to the 
parks by private automobile, the rest 
by bus or other transportation. 

Only one-half of the people indi- 
cated they would definitely go to Det- 
weiller Park to visit a zoo or small 
animal farm. Among the wild animals 
Peorians would like to see at the zoo. 
bears are most popular, followed by 
lions, tigers and elephants. Horses are 
the most popular of tame animals, fol- 

lowed by cows and pigs. Monkeys are 
the favorite small animal, and pea- 
cocks and parrots are the most popular 
birds. Only two per cent showed no 
special choice of animals, and more 
than twenty-five per cent would like 
to see all kinds of small animals. 

Peoria people are not sure in their 
own minds whether the playground 
and recreation board is part of the 
park system: one-half of the respond- 
ents believe it is, twenty per cent feel 
that it is not, and the remaining thirty 
per cent admit they do not know. 

In making decisions, based on this 
survey, the importance of the cost in- 
volved in the development and promo- 
tion of an activity must be carefully 
weighed. Recommendations offered are : 

1. Careful analysis of the play- 
ground facilities should be made. 
Where feasible, new and improved 
equipment should be added and the 
number of playgrounds increased. 

2. Picnic areas should be carefully 
checked as to number and facilities 
now available. Addition of picnic areas 
in the less popular parks should be 
given special consideration. 

3. The miniature golf course men- 
tioned as an improvement should be 
checked into further, and if there is 
enough interest, one should be devel- 
oped, provided space is available in a 
good location. This is especialy im- 
portant from a cost standpoint be- 
cause, with sufficient interest, such a 
project would probably be self-sup- 
porting or even profitable. 

4. The present zoo should be en- 
larged and improved, if funds are 
available. This can probably be done 
at a relatively reasonable cost because 
of the high degree of interest in small- 
er, more common animals. Any ex- 
pansion here should be thoroughly ad- 
vertised and promoted. 

5. Band concerts should be more 
highly advertised and promoted. 



ami r<m<T<>t<> S 

Many specific questions relating to the surfacing of recreation areas wen- sub- 
inittecl to a nalional commitlee ou surfacing recrealion areas, in response to a <|in--- 
tionnaire sent out early in 1951. A number of these, which related to asphalt surface-. 
were referred to the Asphalt Institute in New York Citv : those relating to concn-i.. 
to the 1'ortland Cement Association of Chicago, Colonel Walter F. \\ inter-, chief 
engineer of the institute and Joseph N. Bell, manager, public relations bureau of 
the association, provided answers which are reproduced below . 

Q. "Is it more rx/ienxire to resurface liadly cracked 
and deteriorated paved surfaces or to replace them com- 

A. Il is \cry dilln ult to define the condition of a surface 
which would be more economical to replace than to re- 
-tirface. Kor example, on a badly cracked concrete surface 
which i broken into comparatively small pieces and is 
badly distorted, it would likelv not be economical to re- 
-urface. since the distortion of the concrete might con- 
tinue and be reflected through the asphaltic resurfacing. 
However, material of (his type can be salvaged as a base. 
It can It- broken and jammed into the grade with pneu- 
matic hammers, capped by approximate!) four inches of 
good granular material and an asphaltic resurface, alum! 
two inches in thickne . placed on the granular lift with 
excellent re-nit-. In general, it can IK* said that it is less 
expensive to re-urfare than it is to replace a recreational 

<.). U hni M //ii- Itest ivay to resurface clay courts uitli 
asphalt? tt'hat kiml. fiiuniliitinn, aggregate, and so mi?" 

A. The ( lav -oil- should lw removed, if possible, to a 
depth of five to M-VCII inches if a clone tvjN- of l.a-c i- I.. 
be uvd. A plastic clav. -IP Ii .1- i- ued in tennis court-. 
will eonlaminate a lone base \<\ pulling in and holding 
moi'lure which lend- t" ->ofl-ii the ham- material* and 
ilf..r.l- .upporl to the surfacing. \ 
inch of tcrernings or sand worked into the toil in tin- 
bottom of the excavation will tend to seal out the ground 
water*, hour to i\ inchc* of granular hac. coniting ( 
riihe.| Monr. slag or gravel, .hoiilil then be lopped |.\ 
neveral inchr* of anphalti* It is always adviublc 

i.. provide adequate drainage for an inMallation of thi 


Q. "We have been in tin- jirai-ti<-f uf using sheet asphnll 
similar to that u-sed on stii'fts Inil linil it It-nils to rni'-k. 
It is felt that the reason for such cncUng is because IK-IU \ 
traffic is lacking. Our surface hecomes brittle and con\i'- 
i/urnll\ splits. Would rubberized surfacing be our answer?" 

A. A heavier penetration asphalt is normal!) used in 
sheet asphalt construction than in asphaltie concrete. If 
'.IK- i- M"t n-i-d in preparing the sand mi\c. the |M-IH-- 
tralion of the asphalt may again !>< lowered by excessive 
temperatures. I 'hee conditions may be the cause of ci.n k- 
ing in your sheet asphalt. An asphaltic concrete, usin^ 
slone or gravel, lia- le teiidein \ to crack than the >hi-i-l 
asphalt mixes, and if a high sand content is carried in the 
asphaltic concrete mix. a dene. -niooih >urface can In- 
provided which i- verv similar in appearance to the -heel 
asphalts. In addition we should never lose sijjhl of the 
fad that maintenance of >ome tvpr i- ncic.n\ from time 
to time to reduce the 'racking condition. The time I 
an asphaltic surface i ,m be determined onlv liv in-pei-lion. 
llowevet. in -.01 1 l.x.ilions it ma\ !>< advisable to seal a' within live to eight vear* after it- original instal- 

. "U i- - it liliH-klitp nrrti lor nn nc rink and 
nr Inn i- \iinif i racking of the asphalt. l>n 
t'-)nnt ilamaiii- I mm it r rink cunslruiliiin.''" 

A. It i- doubtful if the fact the area is used .1- an ice 
rink would have anv particular, effect on the 
.i-pli.illii -in (,nc. Il i- poible that some (racking mav 
..nut in the -urfacing. If these cracks are scaled and r"ii- 
line maintenance pt..vided. it should serve satisfai |.>iilv 
as an icr skating rink, provided tin- original con-Inn lion 
was adequate. 

lUl lit UI"N 

Q. "Is there any way one can limit the seepage of water 
jrom a flooded blacktop area, to better facilitate ice freez- 
ing for skating?" 

A. Apparently the area referred to is either a porous 
mi\ or it is cracked to some extent. In either case, a seal 
constructed b\ spraying the entire surface with about 0.2 
gallons per square yard of an RC-4 or 5 and covered with 
coarse sand or stone chips will solve the problem of seep- 

Q. "We have a new asphalt multiple-use area, two hun- 
dred feet by one hundred eighty-nine feet, with a spray 
painted surface. The paint gives a good surface for shuffle- 
board, roller skating, or dancing, but tennis and basket- 
ball players say it is too slick. The winter freezing chips 
I/if paint some. Can you get a smooth surface without 
slickness? Is there a way to eliminate repainting? Is 
there an engineering minimum on subsurface drainage? 
(We went to considerable expense on this.)" 

A. A number of multiple-use areas have been constructed 
in the country on new asphaltic concrete, using the plastic 
hpe of paints. These paints are often applied with a 
squeegee in a multiple course of application. The first 
coals are normally filler coats which tend to fill up the 
small voids in the surfacing. Color coats are then applied 
followed by several clear coats of plastic paint. This 
method of finishing a multi-use area seems to be quite 
satisfactory, and provides a surface, if dry and not waxed, 
which can be used for tennis and basketball. A periodical 
repainting with a clear coat of paint will likely be nec- 

It is virtually impossible to say what the minimum 
amount of subdrainage installation would be on any par- 
ticular construction. The type of soil is usually the govern- 
ing factor. In an open, free draining soil, little or no sub- 
drainage installations are necessary. 

Q. "What is the best method of retarding the melting 
of ice on asphalt courts flooded for use as skating rinks?" 

A. The application of sand is probably as effective as 
any other material. However, portland cement can be ap- 
plied, or a thin wash of either lime or cement. If sand 
is used, it need not be applied to a thickness of greater 
than one to one and one-half inches. The depth of the 
water over this sand should be maintained at not less 
than two inches at the crown of the court. 


Q. "Is it more expensive to resurface badly cracked and 
deteriorated paved surfaces, or to replace them com- 

A. It will probably be more expensive to replace the 
concrete, but you will almost certainly get greater returns 
from the money invested. If the pavement is badly cracked, 
as described, then the subbase is probably to blame. Re- 
surfacing does not correct a bad subbase, and the crack- 
ing may eventually occur in the new surface in approxi- 
mately the same locations. While the initial cost will be 
greater to remove the cracked pavement, correct faults in 

the subgrade and place new concrete, in the long run it 
will pay off in longer service life and reduced maintenance 
and repair bills. 

Q. "We would like to use tin- concrete areas for roller 
skating but have not solved the problem of the expansion 
joints interfering with the skates." 

A. Normally expansion joints are not recommended in 
roller skating rinks, as this type of joint usually creates 
a bump, or the sealing material adheres to the wheels of 
the skates. Brass dividing strips, to allow for contraction 
only, are recommended. 

But where existing concrete built for other purposes is 
employed for roller skating, it is recommended that this 
be done: remove all joint sealing tar or asphaltic material 
to a depth that will permit bond between the concrete and 
new sealing material; following recommendations of the 
manufacturers* of asphalt-rubber composition, thoroughly 
clean the crevice of foreign matter and fill with the new 
material to surface level; make sure that the joint is water- 
light and that the composition is not extruded. 

Q. "Interested in concrete tennis court construction with 
curb built around the courts so they can be flooded to pro- 
vide ice skating in winter." 

A. It is hardly necessary to say that repeated cycles of 
freezing and thawing are severely punishing to any type 
of pavement, and surface scaling sometimes results. It 
has been only in recent years that an answer to this prob- 
lem has been developed by the portland cement industry. 
Air-entraining portland cement is now used by nearly all 
northern states in building concrete pavement resistant to 
"frost action" or repeated cycles of freezing and thawing, 
and to the action of chemicals used to melt pavement ice. 

But this in itself is not a recommendation that a tennis 
court pavement be intentionally subjected to such punish- 
ment. A tennis court with a true surface costs a good deal 
of money, and should be well protected, not endangered. 
Without sermonizing, making such courts into double-duty 
pavement may well be a case of "penny wise and pound 
foolish". The added winter income may be largely ex- 
pended in spring and summer repairs, and by loss of in- 
come during resurfacing or replacement operations. 

However, if the primary purpose of the court is for ice 
skating, and the tennis court of secondary importance, 
then air-entraining portland cement should by all means 
be used to make the concrete. Where air-entraining port- 
land cement is not available, an air-entraining admixture 
should be used. In addition, all joints should be thoroughly 
caulked before flooding. A marshy subgrade is a serious 
hazard to pavement of all types, even concrete, which has