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Full text of "Recreation"

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ATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION . JANUARY I960 . 5Oc 



on U.S. Savings Bonds 

The Treasury explains why the new ones you buy and the ones 
you own now are better than ever 



Q: How does the new 3 % % interest rate benefit me? 

A: With Series E Bonds, the rate turns $18.75 into 
$25.00 fourteen months faster than the old 
rate. Your savings increase faster, because your 
Bonds mature in just 7 years, 9 months. 

With Series H Bonds, the 10-year maturity 
period stays the same but more interest is paid 
you each six months. With both E and H 
Bonds the new rate works out to 2^% for the 
first year and a half; then a guaranteed 4% 
each year to maturity. 

Q: When did the new rate become effective? 
A: June 1, 1959. 

Q: Does the new rate change the Bonds I bought be- 
fore June 1, 1959? 

A: All older E and H Bonds pay more now an 
extra J/2 % from now on, when held to maturity. 
The increase takes effect in the first full interest 
period after June 1. 

Q: Will the Bonds I own automatically earn their 
new rate? 

A: Yes. You don't need to do a thing just hold 
on to your Bonds. 

Q: When my E Bonds mature, will they keep on 
earning interest? 



A: Yes. An automatic 10-year extension privilege 
went into effect along with the new interest 
rate. This means your E Bonds will automati- 
cally keep earning interest after maturity. 

Q: With the new interest rate, should I cash in my 
old Bonds and buy new ones? 

A: No. The automatic ?2% increase makes it 
unnecessary and in almost every case it is to 
your advantage to retain your present Bonds. 

Q: How safe are U. S. Savings Bonds? 

A: Savings Bonds are an absolutely riskless way 
to save. The United States Government guar- 
antees the cash value of your Bonds will not 
drop, that it can only grow. 

Q: What if my Bonds should be lost, stolen or de- 
stroyed? 

A: You can't lose. Every Bond purchased is re- 
corded by the Treasury. If anything happens to 
your Bonds they are replaced free. 

Q: How do I help strengthen America's peace power 
when I buy I . S. Savings Bonds? 

A: Peace costs money money for military strength 
and for science. And money saved by individu- 
als helps keep our economy sound. 



YOU SAVE MORE THAN MONEY WITH 

U.S. SAVINGS BONDS 



The U.S. Government does not pay for this advertising. The Treasury Department thanks 
The Advertising Council and this magazine for their patriotic donation. 





MACGREGOR 



for good sports everywhere! 



Whatever your in-season sports program, MacGregor athletic 
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Lt^ A Iruniwi'ck 

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Here's one sure solution . . . install 
a Sentinel Coin-and-Key Locker 
System and do away with your old- 
fashioned bag or basket checking. 

Customers like the security and 
the serve-self convenience. You 
eliminate checkroom payrolls and 
liability risks. 

Patrons are happy to pay for the 
better service these beautiful lock- 
ers provide . . . you retire the locker 
costs quickly, out of the increased 
revenue. 

The proof? Hundreds of pools and 
beaches will confirm all these ad- 
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COIN-AND-KEY 
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Readers! You are invited to send letters for this page 
to Editor, RECREATION, 8 West Eighth Street, New 
York 11 so that your ideas, opinions and attitudes 
may be exchanged with others on the wide range of 
subjects of concern to us all. Here is your chance to 
agree or disagree with the authors of our articles. 
Keep letters brief not more than 250 words. 

The Editors. 



Friend to Friend 

Sirs: 

As a regular reader of your esteemed 
magazine at the United States Informa- 
tion Service Library in Colombo [Cey- 
lon], I am writing with the fervent hope 
that our society and its members could 
come in contact with youth clubs and 
the youth of America in general. 

About a year ago our society, known 
as the Ceylon America Youth Society, 
was formed, its chief aim being to pro- 
mote better understanding between the 
youth of America and Ceylon. The So- 
ciety has a mixed membership of over 
three hundred members between the 
ages of fifteen to thirty years. We 
believe that our aims could be achieved 
not only by personal contact [but] by 
means of correspondence with each 
other. We therefore invite youth clubs 
and young Americans to write to us on 
a people-to-people basis, thus creating 
a closer bond between our two nations 
and further to make this world a better 
place to live on. 

On behalf of the members of the Cey- 
lon America Youth Society, I assure 
you that we Ceylonese are eager to cor- 
respond with you all and every one of 
you will find many friends among us. 
WINSTON L. MALAWANA, Honorary 
Secretary, Ceylon America Youth 
Society, G 14, Mangala Road, Man- 
ning Town, Colombo 8, Ceylon. 

Don't Turn Art into a Circus! 

Sirs: 

I am disturbed by the reporting in 
your November issue of an art fair in 
New Jersey under the title "Art Comes 
to Main Street." The cause of my dis- 
tress is epitomized by one of your pic- 
ture captions (of people looking at 
paintings) , which reads, in part, "don't 
be influenced by the experts." 

What is good recreation and I am 
sure this art fair was is not neces- 
sarily good art. And, judging from 
your illustrations, this was not; yet 
your "booster" approach implies that 
they are the same thing. Now I do not 



expect your magazine to provide art 
criticism, and I agree that everyone has 
a right to his own tastes: but I regret 
your completely undiscriminating atti- 
tude, as exemplified by the aforemen- 
tioned quotation, as well as the contents 
of most of the rest of the article. 

The point may seem trivial. I rise 
to it, however, because a similar trans- 
formation of art exhibits into virtual 
circuses in my city has been bad for art. 
in my opinion, and in the opinion of 
many working artists (as distinct from 
suburban housewives who enamel cuff- 
links). Don't get me wrong: amateur 
art fairs can be good recreation, but the 
implication that what's good for recre- 
ation is good for art ("don't be influ- 
enced by the experts": don't learn; 
don't think; have fun) can lead only to 
further mediocrity in intellectual and 
artistic expression, of which we already 
have more than enough. 
WILLIAM FRIEDLANDER. Associate 
Executive Secretary. Division on 
Recreation and Informal Education, 
Metropolitan Council of Metropoli- 
tan Chicago, Chicago 2. Illinois. 

Rotating Specialist 

Sirs: 

We must consider how we can have 
"children's recreation planned by peo- 
ple of training and vision, even profes- 
sional training and broad vision" (as 
envisioned by Karla V . Parker in 
"These I Would Like. . ." RECREATION, 
October). Specialization within the 
field of recreation would be the answer. 
... In the urban complex of today in- 
stead of having a few children interested 
in a given program you might have a 
few thousand all over the city. A rec- 
reation leader at a given area may be 
able to fill this need at his area but at 
other areas around the city the interest 
of the leaders may differ: hence the 
need will go unmet. Thus we see that 
the recreation department should struc- 
ture itself around needs; and, as those 
needs become larger and more specific, 
so should the structure put around that 



4 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



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need. The final outcome would be that 
supervision of all personnel in the city 
concerned with arts and crafts would be 
under one person and the same for ath- 
letics, dances, trips, and so on. This way 
we could have "a program to fit their 
needs in a world day by day growing 
more complicated, built on knowledge 
that is increasingly difficult for each one 
of us, children and adults alike, to find 
himself, his skills, his capacity for indi- 
vidual expression." 

The supervisor in the recreation de- 
partment should be specialized in a 
given program, such as tiny tots or the 
like. He should not be confined to a 
district within the city but should be 
confined to an interest group within the 
city (or a need group). Recreation 
leaders will be specialized and will ro- 
tate from area to area daily with their 
special talent. 

Needs or program are the work unit 
of recreation, much the same as the nut 
and bolt in the factory are the work 
unit. You should structure your depart- 
ment around the work unit and the most 
efficient way to get it produced. 

F. THOMAS, Senior Recreation Lead- 
er, San Diego, California, Recreation 
Department, Cabrillo Community 
Center. 

Clear Concept 

Sirs : 

The editorial "Concepts of Recrea- 
tion" by C. Frank Brockman [October] 
is the briefest, clearest statement on the 
nature of recreation that I have read 
or heard in some time. Mr. Brockman's 
observations reminded me of some bits 
of philosophy I picked up as a young 
man when exposed to the late Lebert 
Weir in the early twenties. He cata- 
logued the great leisure-time interests in 
a most logical fashion and then con- 
cluded : 

"If an all-wise Creator endowed each 
of us with interests that impel us to 
constructive activity, the least man can 
do is provide the facilities and leader- 
ship for these activities." 

Mr. Brockman has expressed this 
basic idea in most eloquent and con- 
vincing fashion. 

NATHAN L. MALLISON, Superinten- 
dent of Recreation, Jacksonville, Flo- 
rida. 

Valuable 

Sirs: 

RECREATION Magazine has so im- 
proved in its content in recent years 
that I must write you and say how valu- 
able we find it in this department. The 
articles which have been selected bear 
nearly always upon interests and prob- 
lems of professional recreation person- 
nel, and are exceedingly valuable in 
improving the quality of community 
recreation service. It seems to me that 
one could base an in-service training 



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JANUARY 1960 



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STORIES, CRAFTS AND SONGS 

Recreational ideas for boys and girls in schools, 
camps, playground, and recreational programs. 
Send $1 for five different original stories with crafts 
and song materials. 

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Box 567 Ottawa, Illinois 


EXACT SHE 


New, improved Golden Age Club Pin. 
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50c each, including federal tax and 
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Minimum order 10 pins 
Available only to authentic clubs. 
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22 N. 6th Strati Philadelphia 6, Pa. 








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program for department staff upon the 
material which appears periodically in 
RECREATION Magazine. 

GEORGE HJELTE, General Manager, 
Department of Recreation and Parks, 
Los Angeles, California. 




George Hjelte (above) is receiving 
his thirty-year pin from Mrs. Kay Bo- 
gendorfer, president of the Civil 
Service Commission, in recognition 
of his thirty years' hard-working serv- 
ice to the City of Los Angeles, Calif. 



Any New Ideas? 

Sirs: 

I am commencing a study on "New 
Ideas in Recreational Sports." This 
study. I hope, will furnish material for 
class lectures in recreation leadership, 
possibly some activity course research 
in physical education, a class project 
paper, and perhaps, if all goes well, 
some sort of paper to share with other 
recreation leaders over the country. 

On hand I have about twenty new 
ideas which have been gathered by 
checking personally or by mail with 
commercial concerns and recreation de- 
partments over the United States. I 
would like more, if possible. Therefore, 
this is a plea to any public department, 
private recreation agency, industrial 
recreation department, service recrea- 
tion department, hospital recreation de- 
partment, or commercial concern (in 
business to sell only) to send me details, 
rules, pictures, etcetera of any new 
game they have devised or used. If the 
games are slanted toward use by the 
handicapped, send those along also, as 
I plan a follow-up later on this phase of 
"gamery." 

My report will, of course, give full 
credit to the persons or organization 
sending me the data. I will endeavor to 
send all who wish a copy of my report 
once it is finished. 
ROBERT L. LOEFFELBEIN. Physical 
Education Department. University of 
Southern California, 3518 Univer- 
sity Avenue, Los Angeles. 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



Editorial 



WHICH 
SYSTEM 
SHALL 
PREVAIL? 



Frank Pace, Jr. 




We have but to think back over the major changes that 
have occurred in the world over the past ten years and to pon- 
der on the swiftness of change today to realize how much of it 
is before us as we look to the next ten years. 

To mention only one aspect of our changing world, we 
should remember that scarcely more than ten years ago our 
country held unquestioned economic and military leadership 
in the world. Red China was only just born, and our power as against that 
of the Soviet was clearly preponderant. 

The change that has occurred in this comfortable balance of power is 
easy to perceive. Mr. Khrushchev's confident activities, Russian photographs 
of the other side of the moon, and Mao's mobilization of China's millions 
speak for themselves. They promise a future that will require the best that 
is in us if we are to live on as a rich and powerful nation dedicated to the 
ideals of freedom. 

Thus we will have to be at our best if we are to survive. This means that 
whether at work or at leisure we must occupy ourselves with worthy pursuits, 
those that strengthen and refresh. An ancient Greek leader once said that a 
man could be judged by the type of thing that captured his intent. In a period 
of remarkable leisure our strength can be sapped by the lushness of our mate- 
rial privileges and our abundance of leisure. 

Our competitors for world leadership have made tremendous strides 
through a system that budgets and closely supervises not only the productive 
activities of their citizenry, but also their recreation pursuits and their private 
thoughts. To me it seems apparent that the world of tomorrow will be an in- 
finitely more complex place in which to live; a world that will place an in- 
creasing premium on the knowledgeable man of subtle understanding. 

In such an atmosphere, the free inquiring mind, of its nature, is clearly 
superior to the product of any system of regimentation, provided its fullest 
potential is realized. The abundant leisure provided by our brilliantly suc- 
cessful economic system provides the people of the West with the greatest store 
of means for individual self-improvement in the history of civilized man. 

The next ten years will be the testing period in which it will be decided 
which system will prevail. Our adversaries have already made sobering gains. 
But the culture of the West, based on human desires and human dignity, can 
lead the world to a new golden age of peace and prosperity if we use our re- 
sources of time and wealth vigorously and wisely. # 

MR. PACE is a former Secretary of the Army and former director of the Bureau of the 
Budget. He is currently, among other things, a member of the executive board, Greater 
New York Council of the Boy Scouts of America; a member of the President's Council 
on Youth Fitness; a member of the national board of the Boys' Clubs of America; presi- 
dent of the National Institute of Social Sciences. Mr. Pace is chairman of the board of 
directors and chief executive officer of General Dynamics Corporation, New York City. 



UNUARY 1960 




Coming Up! The 1960 Congress 

Get your suggestions for the 1960 National Recrea- 
tion Congress Program in now! The recently appointed 
Program Planning Committee includes: Thomas W. 
Lantz, chairman, R. Foster Blaisdell, Milo F. Christian- 
sen, Anne L. New, Lillian Summers, and Willard B. 
Stone, secretary. You can send your suggestions di- 
rectly to Mr. Stone at the National Recreation Congress, 
8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, or give them to 
anyone you know on the committee. 

The recent meeting of the Congress Policy Committee in Washington, 
D. C., approved the appointment of the Program Planning Committee mem- 
bers and adopted the Congress theme: "Recreation in America Today and 
Tomorrow." 

Also approved was the idea of setting up an advisory committee to the 
Program Planning Committee. Members of this committee will be an- 
nounced soon. 

Meanwhile, reserve the date: September 26-30, 1960, the Shoreham Ho- 
tel. Washington, D. C. 



-VVI iri-l-: I K > 




More About the White House 
Conference on Children and Youth 

The accompanying symbol for the 
Golden Anniversary White House Con- 
ference on Child- 
ren and Youth was 

designed by one of 
the world's largest 
advertising agen- 
cies, J. Walter 
Thompson, in New 
York City. Use of 
the symbol indi- 
cates that "we are participating in the 
Golden Anniversary White House Con- 
ference on Children and Youth, March 
27 to April 2, 1960. 

Mrs. Rollin Brown, National Recre- 
ation Association board member and 
chairman of the President's National 
Committee for the Conference, an- 
nounced that the seven thousand invi- 
tations to participate in the conference 
will be issued by President Eisenhower 
on January 10, 1960. 

Organized labor is supporting the 
conference to the tune of a ten-thou- 
sand-dollar gift from the AFL-CIO. The 
presentation was made by AFL-CIO 
vice-president Peter T. Schoemann, a 
member of the President's National 



8 



Committee of the conference, and Wil- 
liam F. Schnitzler, AFL-CIO secretary- 
treasurer, on behalf of George Meany 
(see Page 14). Ephraim Gomberg, 
conference executive director, accepted 
the check in a brief Washington cere- 
mony. 

> NEW YORK CITY'S MAMMOTH COLI- 
SEUM was the setting for the December 
meeting of the National Swimming 
Pool Institute. It was claimed to be 
"the most comprehensive display of 
swimming pools, equipment, and acces- 
sories ever assembled." In addition, 
the NSPI presented six seminars for 
persons whose work brings them in di- 
rect contact with swimming pools. One 
seminar was conducted under the aus- 
pices of the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation and run by Al Cukierski, direc- 
tor of recreation in Garden City, New 
York. 

> THE 1960 WINTER OLYMPICS will 
take place in Squaw Valley, Lake Ta- 
hoe, California, February 18-28. You 
can obtain a complete guide to the 
games including a map, housing ap- 
plication, ticket application, and vari- 
ous kinds of useful information from 
the 1960 Olympic Winter Games, 333 
Market Street, San Francisco 5. 



> WANTED: play wagons, show- wagons, 
playmobiles, roving playgrounds, play- 
go-rounds, rambling theaters, stagemo- 
biles, zoomobiles. If you have any of 
these facilities and are using them, 
please send pictures, specifications, and 
descriptions of their use. We would 
like to have up-to-date information. 
Send all information to Siebolt Fries- 
wyk, Program Service, National Rec- 
reation Association, 8 West Eighth 
Street, New York 11. 

> RECREATION RESEARCH PROJECTS 
completed or published in 1959 can be 
included in the National Recreation As- 
sociation's annual listing only if we 
know about them. So. please, any in- 
dividual or organization who completed 
any such research, send word to George 
Butler at the Association, 8 West Eighth 
Street, New York 11. Forms for sub- 
mitting such information on projects 
are available on request from the As- 
sociation. 

^ A SERIES OF ARTICLES describing the 
work of the NRA Consulting Service on 
Recreation for the 111 and Handicapped 
in nursing homes for the aged and the 
aged infirm has been running in the 
New York Journal American in the 
"Life Begins at Forty" column. Author 
Robert Peterson describes the spirit- 
sapping conditions existing in most of 
these homes and what the Consulting 
Service is doing and plans to do about 
them. He gives the NRA a big hand 
and full credit right down the line. 

> THE CONSULTING SERVICE, in con- 
junction with the School of Education 
of New York University, is holding an 
institute January 21-22. Subject is 
"Recreation: a Dynamic in Rehabilita- 
tion." For further information, write 
to: Mrs. Beatrice Hill, director, Con- 
sulting Service on Recreation for the 111 
and Handicapped, National Recreation 
Association, 8 West Eighth Street, "Vu 
York 11, or to Dr. Edith Ball, School 
of Education. New York University. 
Washington Square East, New York 3. 

> THE CONSULTING SERVICE also has its 
fingers in another seminar, this one at 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 
New York City, where Dr. Elizabeth! 
Rosen will give one on recreation fur 
the emotionally disturbed, in coopera- 
tion with the Consulting Service. It i> 
particularly aimed at teachers, iiroiip 
workers, and recreation leaders work-3 
inj; with the mentally ill in hospitals. 
special schools, and institutions. For! 
all information about costs, credits, reg- 
istration dates, and so on, write Dr. 
Rosen. Box 70, Department of Health. 
Physical Education, and Recreatior 
Teachers College. Columbia I'niversil 
New York 27, New York. # 

RECREATIOr 



FEDERAL ACTION AND LEGISLATION 



The 86th Congress during its first 
session passed a number of bills affect- 
ing recreation. Among the more signi- 
ficant legislation were bills to: 

Amend Section I of the June 14, 1926, 
Act, which authorizes acquisition or 
use of public lands by states, counties, 
or municipalities for recreation pur- 
poses, to provide that that such convey- 
ances shall not be subject to the 640- 
acre limitation if the land is to be used 
for public recreation purposes. P.L. 
86-292, 9/21/59 (S-1436) 

Authorize exchange of certain lands 
in the vicinity of Everglades City, Flor- 
ida, to permit development of Ever- 
glades National Park and provide for 
addition of certain donated lands to the 
park. P.L. 86-269, 9/14/59 (S-2390) 

Authorize the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior to carry on comprehensive study of 
migratory marine fish of value to rec- 
reation fishermen to develop sound 
management and conservation pro- 
grams. The measure authorizes an an- 
nual appropriation of a whopping $2,- 
700.000 for research investigations. 
P.L. 86-359. 9/22/59 (H.R. 5004) 

Amend the so-called Pesticide Re- 
search Act. passed in 1958, to increase 
from $280.000 to $2,565,000 annually 
the amount spent on studies of effects 
of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, 
and other pesticides upon fish and wild- 
life. P.L. 86-279, 9/16/59 (S-1575) 

Inter-Agency Recreation 
Conference 

The 8th Annual Conference of the 
State Inter-Agency Committees on Rec- 
reation will be held in Washington, 
B.C., May 25-27. William M. Hay, 
Southern district representative of the 
National Recreation Association, will 
act as secretary. Mr. Hay will also act 
as assistant executive secretary of the 
Federal Inter-Agency Committee on 
Recreation during the leave of absence 
of George Dickie from January to 
March. 



Access to Public Lands 

The Bureau of Land Management is 
conducting a survey to determine to 
what extent "cut-offs" by private land 
owners interfere with the access to pub- 
lic recreation lands in the West. This 
augments efforts of the Forest Service 
which has been trying to solve the ac- 
cess problem for several years. In many 
Western areas, ranchers and other pri- 
vate enterprises staked out land claims 
long before the government acquired 
large holdings of public land. 

The government is seeking agree- 
ments with the private owners to as- 
sure access to these large blocks of rec- 
reation lands. If necessary, according 
to Edward Woozley, director of the Bu- 
reau of Land Management, "The Gov- 
ernment can institute condemnation 
proceedings to obtain access routes 
across private land." In a policy state- 
ment, the Interior Department said 
such condemnation would be used, 
"but only after" the bureau had been 
frustrated in obtaining rights-of-way 
"through more acceptable methods of 
negotiation and cooperation." 

Recreation in Forest Lands 

The Forest Service's recently organ- 
ized research center at Warren, Penn- 
sylvania, will study outdoor recreation 
in the Northeast as well as wildlife hab- 
itat, forest management, and multiple 
use of forest land. The center, first of 
its kind in the nation, was created be- 
cause of rapidly growing demands for 
recreation use of forest lands, both pub- 
lic and private. Such recreation re- 
search is especially pressing in the 
Northeast where every day more people 
with more leisure time are turning to 
outdoor activities. 

Researchers at Warren and in nearby 
Pennsylvania and New York areas will 
tackle the many problems involved in 
forest recreation. They will try to find 
out how camping, hiking, picnicking, 
hunting, and fishing, and other outdoor 
activities fit into the concept of mul- 
tiple use of forest lands and how one 
activity can harmonize with another. $: 




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JANUARY 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



Editorially Speaking 



Dorothy Donaldson 



Things to Stress in the New Decade 

America, if it is not to lag behind 
other world powers in today's race for 
a place in the sun, must help its children 
develop into well-balanced and strong 
citizens the leaders of tomorrow. In 
this situation, recreation leaders are be- 
ing called upon to play a vital part. 
Among the many things, therefore, that 
recreation departments must stress in 
the new decade are: 

Good Leadership -This comes first of 
all, for it is the key to good recreation, 
something we cannot do without. You 
can have a good program without fa- 
cilities if you have good leadership; but 
even with the most beautiful facilities 
in the world you can't have a really 
good program if you don't have good 
leadership. 

Constructive Leisure The present clar- 
ion call from our halls of learning is 
for more emphasis on technical and 
scientific subjects. In the demand for 
technical specialists, educators are, in 
some measure, overlooking the need for 
architects, designers, artists, and so on 
to work with the mathematicians and 
engineers. 

This leaves the challenge of educa- 
tion-for-leisure squarely on the door- 
step of our leisure-time leaders. From 
them must come the stimulation of in- 
terest for creative activities and the arts 
activities for the soul, the mind, the 
spirit of man and those activities re- 
lated to health and character building, 
all so necessary for balanced living. 

We will need, therefore, the best and 
finest recreation leaders we can get. 
leaders with training, sensitivity, initia- 
tive, and vision. Such leaders will not 
be afraid to plan, will have the heart 
and the courage to put their plans into 
effect. We must stress the very best 
training for recreation leadership; we 
must adhere to the highest standards. 

Education for Leisure We must edu- 
cate the general public to the impor- 



tance of constructive recreation in our 
rapidly expanding leisure time; and of 
the importance of recreation literacy, 
so that this leisure can enrich individual 
lives and through these our society and 
our nation. 

For there is bad recreation, too, and 
people must be educated to tell the dif- 
ference between the good and the bad. 
They must be given standards to mea- 
sure recreation by ; they must recognize 
good recreation and know why it is 
good and what its value are. There is 
a great need for an ethics of leisure. 

The public must realize that, by par- 
ticipating in constructive leisure activ- 
ities, they are not "fiddling while Rome 
burns," that recreation is not a frill. 
People must be more knowledgeable 
about recreation, if this great new lei- 
sure is to mean anything and who is 
to make them so? 

Development of Individuals We must 
also keep our eyes open for potential 
leaders among our young, and for the 
gifted, and help them develop their tal- 
ents and gifts. Sherwood Gates wrote 
in RECREATION, in June 1958,* "Where, 
I ask you, can the creative aptitudes 
and abilities, and the leadership pro- 
clivities of children be discovered, en- 
couraged, and exercised more readily 
and effectively than in their freely chos- 
en recreation activities? If freedom and 
democracy are to prevail, we must find 
and use talents and skills of all kinds 
in the decades ahead." 

In the light of all of this, we must 
stress the great importance of individ- 
ual recreation and plan our programs 
with the individual, and the individual's 
needs, interests, growth, and develop- 
ment ever in mind. There, perhaps, has 
been too much stress on "togetherness" 
and not enough on what the individual, 
the non joiner can accomplish, create, 
contribute to today's society. 

* Mr. Gates is chief of education, Libraries 
and Community Services Branch, U. S. De- 
partment of the Air Force. 



A Plea for Apartness* 

Drugged with the togetherness hap- 
piness pill, are we losing track of the 
important fact that each human being 
inhabits a separate world of his own? 
And if he is to inhabit that world suc- 
cessfully, there are many thing he must 
do alone and on his own? . . . 

One can and does see . . . charm- 
ing youngsters planning a picnic or en- 
joying a barbecue, or looking at TV, or 
going to the movies, or swimming at 
the beach, sun-tanned and carefree. But 
one cannot, by any stretch of an elastic 
imagination, think of them apart, as 
separate and distinct individuals, going 
their separate ways to read a book, 
paint a picture, invent a gadget, write 
a poem or even just to sulk. . . . 

The solitude demanded for creative 
and intellectual effort, the search for 
self, needed for real emotional and spir- 
itual growth, obviously just isn't in the 
cards for this amiable group of "look- 
alike" youngsters. . . . 

Even a young child needs to sit back 
from life now and then and let his ex- 
periences soak in. to judge their value 
and his reactions to them. How can he 
ever do this if he is constantly plucked 
and snatched from one activity to an- 
other? How can anyone who is never 
alone learn to evaluate himself and to 
continue the evaluation in the light of 
new living? . . . 

This nation was born, let us not for- 
get, in rebellion and revolution, con- 
ceived by men of independent mind and 
adventurous spirit who questioned old 
ideas and attitudes, thought boldly and 
acted boldly. . . . We need to provide 
our children with opportunities for 
growth and independence so that they 
too can become individuals in their own 
right. That's what constructive apart- 
ness means to me. 

Something to Think Ahout 

In 1956, there were four times as 
many children killed in streets or on 
highways than by all the leading child- 
hood diseases put together. In 1957, 
there were 410 children killed and 15,- 
560 injured; in 1958, there were 530 
killed and 19,910 injured while plininf. 
in the street (Metropolitan Life Insur- 
ance Company statistics) . 

* Dorothy K. While, in Even-woman's, Feb- 
ruary 1958. 



10 



RECREATION 




Five of the courts at Memorial Park 
Tennis Center. Note night lighting. 



Memorial Park Swimmirig Pool. Houston has scheduled five major 
swimming pools for completion in next two years to meet growing need. 




A 
PATTERN 

FOR 
ACTION 




Telecast at the zoo. Lively commentary on various animals is 
periodically worked into one of Houston's morning TV shows. 



Gus H. Haycock 



HOUSTON'S EXTRAORDINARY GROWTH in population and 
area the past few years has created an almost over- 
whelming demand for expanded recreation facilities 
and programs. Each city has its complexities directly af- 
fecting the complicated job of providing the most suitable 
municipal recreation program under the conditions existing 
in each specific city and with funds made available for this 
purpose. Houston is expanding vigorously as are many 
other cities on the Gulf Coast, with new industries continu- 
ing to locate here, in addition to the cotton, cattle, and oil 
business already here. Its deep-water port is second in ton- 
nage in the United States, naturally accelerating all facets 
and functions of the city and its responsibilities. 

Perhaps a few comparisons of Houston today with Hou- 
ston five years ago will point up some of these complexities. 
Although a 135 percent increase in land area and a 33 per- 
cent increase in population in the last five years is consider- 
able and has placed a heavy burden on the city, the parks 
and recreation department has been able to secure an 88 per- 
cent increase in total budget. The recreation division has 
had a 29 percent budget increase. The budget includes only 
operating expenditures for the department. Capital im- 

MR. HAYCOCK is director of the parks and recreation de- 
partment in Houston, Texas. 

JANUARY 1960 



provements are made from park improvement bond funds, 
$9,000,000 of which have been approved and allocated for 
this purpose in the past five years, half already spent. 

Influenced by a setting that contains many natural bar- 
riers that interrupt traffic flow, and located near large nat- 
ural recreation areas and resources (within forty miles of 
the Gulf of Mexico), Houston's most pressing needs have 
been best satisfied by concentrating on the acquisition and 
development of neighborhood park sites of from five to fif- 
teen acres. 

An analysis of the accompanying statistics will show some 
of the progress Houston has made in this direction. Al- 
though park acreage increased by 57 percent, the number of 
parks increased by 47 percent. Newly acquired parks are 
partially developed very quickly after acquisition. Picnic 
tables, barbecue pits, playground equipment, and ball fields 
are immediately placed on the park site after the completion 
of such preliminary work as is required (clearing and grad- 
ing) . Thus, the number of major ball fields has increased 
51 percent while the number of lighted ball fields has in- 
creased by 86 percent. Picnic tables and barbecue pits for 
these new areas have increased by 90 percent, playground 
equipment by 52 percent, and landscaped parks by 48 per- 
cent. 

The development of major facilities has been primarily 

11 



FIVE YEARS IN HOUSTON 




1954 


1959 


Population 


714,000 


950,000 


Total Department Budget 
(Parks, Recreation, Zoo, Golf Courses) 


$1,108,596 


$2,082,025 


Recreation Division Budget 


$440,215 


$569,249 


Land Area in City Limits 


150 sq. mi. 


325 sq. mi. 


Number of Parks 


87 


128 


Total Park Acreage 


2,753 


4,330 


Neighborhood Recreation-Center Buildings 
with year-round program 


28 


36 


Swimming Pools 


11 (incl. 2 school pools) 


35 (incl. 16 school pools) 


Ball Fields (Major) 


59 


89 


Lighted Ball Fields 


29 


54 


Schools used full-time during summer months 


17 


26 


Recreation Staff (complete) 


312 


331 


Recreation Staff (full-time) 


60 


74 



confined to construction of neighborhood recreation-center 
buildings, eight of which were constructed and placed in 
operation last year, all air-conditioned. A 25 percent in- 
crease in this type of facility gives Houston a neighborhood 
recreation center building for each twenty-nine thousand 
residents. In addition to these, ground-breaking ceremonies 
were held on November 20, 1959, for the construction of a 
half-million dollar downtown recreation-center building, 
which will be completely air-conditioned, with a seating 
capacity for 1,800, and which will serve as a district or re- 
gional center in our program. This building will include 
two major gymnasiums in addition to rooms for arts and 
crafts, golden-age groups, and social recreation. All rec- 
reation-center buildings are used for a full-time, year-round, 
supervised recreation program and are designed to meet the 
needs of a well-rounded and balanced recreation program 
for the entire community and for all age groups. 

A typical program in one of the neighborhood recreation 
center buildings during this time of year would be as fol- 
lows: preschool (for children four to six years of age) two 
mornings each week; cake decorating one morning each 
week; garden-club meeting one morning each week; one 
baton-twirling class for preteens and one for teen-agers each 
week; a square dance, round dance, or couple dance for 
preteens, for teen-agers, and for adults each week; three 
league basketball games each week; one civic-club meeting 
each week ; a Boy Scout and Girl Scout meeting each week. 
The remainder of the time would be utilized by free play. 



During the summer the department operates a recreation 
program in twenty-six schools in addition to the programs 
at its own thirty-six year-round centers. This program is 
in operation from 8 A.M. until 5 P.M. during weekdays for 
three months. The program is similar to that of the neigh- 
borhood centers. Schools are chosen so they fit into the 
geographical pattern with the neighborhood recreation cen- 
ters. In this manner it is possible to cover the entire city 
with a well-balanced summer program. 

In order that this program be continued. Houston has 
tentatively allocated funds (from park-improvement bond 
funds approved by vote in September) for the construction 
of the following: five neighborhood recreation-center build- 
ings; two regional recreation-center buildings: five major 
swimming pools; thirty tennis courts and two tennis cen- 
ters; ten neighborhood shelter buildings; thirty lighted ball 
fields; and ten concrete outdoor basketball courts. These 
are scheduled for completion within the next two years. 

The above statistics reflect none of the major improve- 
ments made in the golf or zoo division during the past five 
years, nor the proposed projects for the next two years. 
However, they do reflect the type and scope of program to 
which the recreation division devotes much of its time. As 
we enter the new decade the challenge is to keep up this 
pace and provide a well-rounded recreation program with 
proper, adequate personnel and facilities that will be an asset 
to the community and mold our citizens into happier and 
better adjusted individuals. # 



M 



unicipal planning is often condemned by the uninformed as visionary and impractical. It is 
confused with starry-eyed dreaming. Planning, on the contrary, is merely facing facts. It is 
advance thinking which recognizes that conditions seldom remain static for long. Change is 
inevitable, and he is wisest who anticipates the trends of the times and prepares for them to 
the best of his ability. Intelligent foresight is employed by business organizations in working 
out successful programs. Methods which have proved effective for the individual components 
of urban society should also be turned to advantage of those individuals acting collectively 
as a city. CLAUDE J. DAVIS in Municipal Planning in West Virginia (Bureau for Govern- 
ment Research, West Virginia University.) 



12 



RECREATION 



This is the type of neigh- 
borhood recreation 
center built in 1940' s. 




,Mfr' 



This is a neighborhood 
center constructed 
in the early 1950' s. 



'^ggf ,;M ^^^^J^MJ^^,^^ 'STiif 




Garden Villas Park center 

finished in 1959 

shows modern transition. 




Another 1959 center has 
Quonset roof, slatted 
ends, is open on sides. 




JANUARY 1960 



13 



WHAT IS EXPECTEE 



.BY LABOR 




George Meany 



Seldom has any segment of the American social-welfare 
field been presented with challenges as profound as those 
now facing organized recreation. The solutions to many of 
our most crucial social problems are currently being sought 
in that area. 

The spotlight of public attention is on recreation services 
and facilities, paving the way to greater public understand- 
ing of the aims of recreation and opening an avenue to in- 
creased support for sweeping changes and experimental ap- 
proaches. The manner in which recreation measures up to 
these challenges and opportunities may well make the next 
ten years the most significant decade in the history of the 
recreation movement. 

MR. MEANY is president of the AFL-CIO and has been a un- 
ion man all his life, starting as the son of a trade unionist. 
On August 9, 1957, President Eisenhower nominated him 
as a U.S. delegate to the United Nations General Assembly, 
the first time a labor leader has been so honored. 



BY MANAGEMENT 




Rudolph F. Bannow 



14 



Management is counting heavily upon recreation activi- 
ties to adjust to the changes that are taking place in the 
American way of life, and the ways in which Americans 
earn their livings. Nothing is more important to the physi- 
cal and emotional health of the men and women of industry 
than proper recreation activities. 

So important is this considered that few modern com- 
panies would consider locating a new plant or facility in a 
community without first surveying its recreation possibili- 
ties. Management knows that, in seeking competent and 
gifted personnel, its ability to attract and hold the men and 
women it wants often is decided by the little theater, the park 
system, or the Little League. The intelligent person indus- 
try desires as an employee is certain to insist upon living 
in a comhiunity worthy of his family. 

Industry now spends over eight hundred million dollars 
each yeat on recreation in and out of its plants. Many 

MR. BANNOW is national president of the National As- 
sociation of Manufacturers and president of the Bridgeport 
Machine Company. He is currently, among other activities, 
trustee of the Bridgeport YMCA, a director of the Crippled 
Children's Bureau and of the United Fund of Bridgeport. 

RECREATION 



In The Next Ten Years 



OF RECREATION 



The labor movement, as a pioneer in, and a supporter of, 
social welfare, would like to suggest three areas on which 
recreation must concentrate to meet the challenge of the 
times. First is the need for recreation for the growing num- 
bers of older citizens. The increase in our aging population, 
the shift from a predominantly rural to an urban society, 
and the ability of many millions of mass-production workers 
to retire because of pension programs all these factors de- 
mand the time and attention of organized recreation. Just 
as the AFL-CIO Community Service Activities have made 
retirement planning a priority program this year, recrea- 
tion, too, must consider this nation's older people as top pri- 
ority in the next decade. 

At the other end of the scale is the youth of America, who 
should also be a prime focus of the recreation movement. 
It is evident from today's headlines that the special needs 
of our young people are not being adequately met. Organ- 
ized recreation must initiate bold, new programs and re- 



shape its existing services if it is to play an important part 
in the prevention of juvenile delinquency. In addition, rec- 
reation can help to improve the physical fitness of our youth, 
a subject receiving national attention through the work of 
the President's Council on Youth Fitness. 

Finally, we must consider the increase in leisure time 
for the American worker that will result from the shorter 
workweek that is sure to come. Part of this leisure time will 
fall within the province of recreation. 

It is the hope of the American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations that labor can work 
side by side with recreation in these areas and others as 
well. It is our hope also that through the facilities of the 
AFL-CIO Community Services Activities, cooperative pro- 
grams can be developed at the community level. For it is 
in the community that recreation programs are most likely 
to succeed recreation that is wanted, provided, and sup- 
ported by the people themselves. :$: 



companies offer a wide variety of after-hour activities and 
some even provide programs for lunchtime and piped-in 
music during working hours. Besides supporting recreation 
activities for employees, industry heavily supports com- 
munity activities open to all. 

But yesterday's plans will not cover tomorrow's needs. 
The decentralization of cities and the changing nature of 
work and of the work force will present new problems. The 
migration from the cities, for example, confronts us with 
a need to offer recreation to replace the commercial kinds 
of recreation left behind in the metropolis. If this is not 
done, the employees who leave the cities for smaller com- 
munities may feel that they have lost heavily in the move. 
Some familiar kinds of recreation theater, big-league 
baseball, four-channel TV may not be transplanted, but 
other forms of recreation can be substituted, and many who 
move may find themselves happier as participants than they 
were as spectators. 

Progress in our factories has eliminated much hard labor, 
and has "upgraded" millions of the work force by employ- 
ing their minds rather than their muscles. It also has en- 
abled us to shorten the workday and the workweek, afford- 

IANUARY 1960 



ing more time for outside activity. The result has been that 
Americans have become more active, physically and men- 
tally, in their play. The ever-rising level of education is 
causing a great growth of the cultural forms of recreation. 

I would expect to see rapid growth of amateur music and 
drama groups, art and photography clubs, literary and phil- 
osophical societies, and other such activities, which have 
shown rapid growth in recent years. There is a definite 
trend to study as recreation, and established recreation in- 
stitutions are providing the necessary space and instructors 
in many localities. 

Those in recreation fields may find that their jobs will 
call for catering to a wider variety of individual tastes be- 
cause we are abandoning the illusion of a "mass culture" 
and recognizing that creative individuality is to be encour- 
aged. 

Thus, American recreation will serve the opposite from 
the mass gymnastic program of our Communist rivals. Our 
emphasis will be upon individual development and competi- 
tiveness in all forms of recreation; characteristics that will 
allow each citizen to realize his greatest possibilities and 
allow our society to be best served by its members. # 

15 



Wherem the author takes a highly controversial 
position . . . What do you, the reader, think? 
Careful reading will help you know how to 
strengthen your art activities. 



Howard Conant 



CREATIVE ART TEACHING 

IN RECREATION PROGRAMS 



The author began his art teaching 
career in the public recreation pro- 
gram in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 
subsequent years he has developed a 
deep and abiding interest in the teach- 
ing of art in many types of recreation 
centers. In a very real sense, there- 
fore, the criticisms made here are 
"within the family" of recreation 
workers, and are in no way intended 
as snobbish. The author has decided 
to lay his professional cards on the 
table, honestly and forthrightly. He 
believes that such a confrontation, with 
possibly displeasing statements, is 
made imperative by many factors, 
among which one of the most impor- 
tant is the rapidly increasing threat 
of conformism and cultural mediocrity 
with which individuals are faced in 
contemporary society. 

THE CASCADE of books and maga- 
zines being published today has 
caused many professionals to 
feel frustrated and overwhelmed. How- 
ever, it is possible that teachers of art 
(including arts-and-crafts leaders) are 
unusually deficient in their familiarity 
with the literature of art, art educa- 
tion, and education. This is caused 



by many factors: among them the 
great amout of time necessitated by 



DR. CONANT is professor and chairman, 
Department of Art Education, New 
York University, and former director 
of The Children's Creative Art Founda- 
tion, New York City. 

16 




such day-to-day duties as supply order- 
ing and clean-up; the tendency to read 
only in one's extremely specific field 
of interest, as enameling, for instance; 
a lack of knowledge of art education 
philosophy and psychology; and a re- 
grettable absence of the desire to read 
continually, which only a few high 
schools and liberal arts colleges have 
been able to develop in their graduates. 
Many who offer guidance in art ac- 
tivities in recreation programs have 
not had college-level preparation in 
teaching or in art, but have developed 
an avocational interest in some realm 
of the arts through an adult education 



program, or a friend said, "Why don't 
you try it?", as a result of past ex- 
perience in some art activity in school 
or camp. A few art-activity leaders 
learned their "subject" by reading a 
how-to-do-it book or article. With 
rare exception, people who have come 
into positions of art-activity leader- 
ship by one of these or related means 
are, by the standards of professional 
art education, not well qualified for 
such work. They may, indeed, be do- 
ing more harm than good by passing 
on to others their recipes for making 
various "art" objects. 

Art is a strange, even bewildering, 
subject. Nearly everyone knows that 
what he likes he believes to be art; 
and nearly everyone is offended when 
a professional artist or art educator 
tel's him that such preferences are 
usually outside the hard-to-define 
realm of the arts. As Andre Malraux 
has asked: "What is it. then, that is 
shared by the communion whose medi- 
eval half-darkness fills the cathedral 
naves and by the seal that the Egyp- 
tian groupings stamped upon immen- 
sity? What is it that is common to all 
forms that, in their turn, have cap- 
tured some portion of the inapprehen- 
sible? They impose or insinuate the 
presence of another world. Not nec- 
essarily an inferno or a paradise, not 
even a world after death, but a present 
beyond. For all of them, to different 
degrees, the real is appearance: and 

RECREATION 



something else exists which is not ap- 
pearance." 

Somewhat related to the presumptu- 
ous, but often naively innocent, know- 
what-I-like attitude toward art is the 
belief, unfortunately supported by end- 
less pieces of pseudoprofessional lit- 
erature, which asserts that "anyone 
can draw," "y u > too, can be an art- 
ist," and so on. It is perfectly under- 
standable, therefore, that adults even 
might go one step further in faulty 
logic, by thinking that "anyone can 
teach art," at least to children in rec- 
reation programs where it matters less 
if you don't know all the answers be- 
cause it's "not a real school." 

To clarify any misunderstandings in 
the light of the above, let us state a 
few principles which are more or less 
widely accepted by leading profession- 
als in the closely related fields of art, 
art education, and education: 

Most people do not know anything 
about art, but know what they like; 
and what they like is seldom art. They 
could learn to understand the arts 
through education. 

Not everyone can be an artist, not 
anybody can paint (or draw, or model 
in clay), unless by these terms one 
means "do something in paint, or 
clay," with little reference to quality. 

Many people (youngsters and 
adults) can develop considerable artis- 
tic proficiency. A few can develop pro- 
fessional or near-professional skill; 



but in both cases, considerable time and 
patience, coupled with the finest crea- 
tive teaching is necessary. And the 
fact still remains that art is much more 




than mere fun, and learning to pro- 
duce this very rare commodity is nei- 
ther quick nor easy. 

One does not learn to teach art crea- 
tively and effectively, merely by read- 
ing a book, taking a course, "profes- 
sionalizing" a hobby. Four years of 
full-time, intensive college study, with 
a major in art and art education, is 
considered minimal. 

Creative art teaching is not just let- 
ting participants do what they please. 
It is a special kind of highly skilled 
teaching which requires at least five 
or six years of professional prepara- 
tion and experience. It is infinitely 



more complex, time requiring, and 
arduous than the usual kind of con- 
ventional teaching with which most of 
us are familiar. 

Art is a type of experience and the 
product of such experience which is 
unique and extremely high in quality. 
It is unusally rare, on a level of human 
expression seldom achieved. It con- 
tributes richly to our culture and is 
essential to the continuance of civiliza- 
tion. 

The experiences and products of 
such experiences resulting from how- 
to-do-it, short-cut, and pseudo-art ac- 
tivities (such as predesigned mosaic 
kits, numbered painting sets, assemble- 
your-own precut belt kits, and imitate- 
the-teacher-or-his-patterns) are decid- 
edly not art, since they are neither 
unique nor high in quality. Stereotyped, 
pseudo-art experiences and products 
do nothing to improve our culture or 
strengthen our civilization. In fact, 
they probably weaken our culture by 
diluting it. 

The "art" experiences and resulting 
products in most recreation groups 
(and adult education) classes in draw- 
ing, ceramics, painting, jewelry, enam- 
eling, woodworking, sculpture, weav- 
ing, leatherwork, and photography 
are little better than the experience of 
assembling the parts of a jig-saw puz- 
zle. Also unfortunate is the fact that 
most participants are led to believe 
that the amateurish products of their 



SLOW ME DOWN, LORD 



VFIVE ME, amidst the confusion of my day, the 
calmness of the everlasting hills. Break the tension 
of my nerves and muscles with the soothing music of 
the singing streams that live in my memory. Help me 
to know the restorative power of sleep. Teach me the 
art of taking minute vacations of slowing down to 
look at a flower, to chat with a friend, to pat a dog, to 
read a few lines from a good book. 

J\EMIND ME each day of the fable of the hare and 



the tortoise, that I may know the race is not always 
to the swift; that there is more in life than increasing 
its speed. Let me look upward to the branches of 
the towering oak, and know that it grew strong be- 
cause it grew slowly and well. 



LOW ME DOWN, Lord, and inspire me to send my 
roots deep into the soil of life's enduring values, that 

1 may grow toward the stars of my greater destiny. 
Amen. DR. WILLIAM H. ANDERSON. 



JANUARY 1960 



17 



classwork can be regarded as art. They 
(particularly adults) are encouraged 
to display it in their homes, enter it in 
art exhibitions, even sell it to fellow 
classmates or unsuspecting "laymen." 
With a few exceptions, participants 
in the type of pseudo-art classes de- 
scribed above would be well-advised to 
re-enroll in an activity in which they 
might gain really worthwhile informa- 
tion or practical skills, such as: the 
study of the subject of art (modern, 
Renaissance, 19th Century, Greek, and 
Roman) ; the study of interior design, 
community planning, industrial de- 
sign, and so forth, aimed at improved 
consumer knowledge ; and such courses 
as home management, child care, cook- 
ing, sewing, electricity in the home, the 
use of simple tools, and other practical 
activities. 

The foregoing principles are stated 
honestly, as a warning against cultural 
decay and increased individual super- 
ficiality. They are presented straight- 
forwardly, in the manner of a physi- 
cian who points out the dangers of 
certain home medical practices or by 
a scientist who warns us of the dangers 
of amateur rocketry or the making of 
explosives. These principles do more 
or less represent the thinking of lead- 
ing professional artists, art educators, 
and general educators of many years' 
experience. 



Strengthen Your Art Activities 

First there is no pat or simple an- 
swer to this. 

Some elements of the answer are 
contained in the foregoing portions of 
this article. A significant, and possibly 
not widely known, fact is that many ele- 
mentary- and secondary -school and col- 
lege art teachers are interested in part- 
time employment, not only to increase 
their incomes but to offer much-needed 
professional service to the field of rec- 
reation. 

A nucleus of the most significant lit- 
erature (see list at end of article) of 
art, art education, and education 
should be read by art-activity leaders 
and program directors of recreation 
programs. 

Stop the purchase and use of these 
kits, patterns, and related materials, 
which are not only harmful to partici- 
pants' creative growth and are further 
diluting our already watered-down 
culture, but which are also more ex- 
pensive than the art materials used in 
creative teaching. 

Replace, rather than try to convert, 
art-activity leaders who rely upon 
stereotyped teaching methods, kits, or 
manuals. Secure the part-time services 
of school or college art teachers or, if 
funds permit, secure a full-time art 
educator as teacher-director. 

Realize that creative art activities 



include tangible, useful, take-home 
products just as extensively as those 
abounding in old-fashioned, stereo- 
typed arts and crafts activities. As a 
matter of historic fact, tangible, useful 
art products originated in the legiti- 
mate arts. Only in recent decades have 
they been standardized and made into 
projects by arts-and-crafts teachers and 
kit manufacturers. 

It is likely that a careful examina- 
tion of the highest aims of the recrea- 
tion profession would show a philoso- 
phic kinship with the highest aims of 
art education which, in brief, are 
centered about a theory of esthetically 
oriented creative-art teaching. Like 
the field of recreation as a whole, art 
education strives for the best possible 
quality of performance, not in super- 
ficial skills or by means of sure-fire 
short cuts, but through patience, under- 
standing, continuing study, and in- 
creasingly capable leadership. Just as 
art educators should heed the advice of 
recreation specialists who tell them a 
life of all work and no play is ill-advised 
and of the need for recreation to be con- 
structive as well as entertaining, so in 
turn, recreation leaders and program 
executives should give careful attention 
to the suggestions of responsible art 
educators who evaluate the weaknesses, 
strengths, dangers, and values of art ele- 
ments of recreation programs. # 



Suggested for Reference 



ESTHETICS AND CRITICISM : 

Beam, Philip C., The Language of Art. Ronald Press: New York 

(1958). 

Faure, Elie, The Spirit of the Forms. Harper: New York (1930). 
Focillon, Henri, The Li/e of Forms in Art. Yale University Press: 

New Haven (1942). 
Gardner, Helen, Understanding the Arts. Harcourt, Brace: New 

York (1932). 

ART EDUCATION: 

Bland, Jane Cooper, Art of the Young Child. Museum of Modern 
Art: New York (1957). 

Conant, Howard and Randall, Arne, Art in Education. Charles Ben- 
nett: Peoria, 111. (1959). 

D'Amico, Victor, Creative Teaching in Art (rev. ed) . International 
Textbook: Scranton, Pa. (1954). 

Faulkner, Ray; Ziegfeld, Edwin; Hill, Gerald, Art Today (3rd ed). 
Henry Holt: New York (1956). 

DESIGN : 

Bassett, Kendall T., and Thurman, Arthur B. (in collaboration with 

Victor D'Amico), How to Make Objects with Wood. Museum of 

Modern Art: New York (1951). 
Duncan, Julia Hamlin and D'Amico, Victor, How to Make Pottery 

and Ceramic Sculpture. International Textbook: Scranton, Pa. 

(1947). 
Emerson, Sybil, Design: A Creative Approach. International Text- 



book: Scranton, Pa. (1953). 
Johnson, Pauline, Creating with Paper. University of Washington 

Press: Seattle (1958). 
Kaufmann, Edgar Jr., What Is Modern Design? Museum of Modern 

Art: New York (1950). 
'Long, Lois Culver, Ceramic Decoration. American Art Clay Co.: 

Indianapolis (1958). 
Lord, Lois, Collage and Construction. Davis Publications: Worcester. 

Mass. (1958). 
'Mattil, Edward L., Meaning in Crafts. Prentice-Hall: Englewood 

Cliffs, New Jersey (1959). 
Nelson, George, Editor, Chairs. Whitney Publications: New York 

(1953). 
Newhall, Beaumont and Nancy, Masters of Photography. George 

Braziller: New York (1958). 

Riley, Olive L., Masks and Magic. Studio Crowell : New York ( 1955) . 
Winebrenner, D. Kenneth, Jewelry Making as an Art Express/an. 

International Textbook: Scranton, Pa. (1953). 

DRAWING AND GRAPHIC ARTS: 

Heller, Jules, Print Making Today. Henry Holt: New York (1958). 
Nicolaides, Kimon, The Natural Way to Draw. Houghton Milllin: 

Boston (1941). 
Sachs, Paul J., Modern Prints and Drawings. Alfred Knopf: New 

York (1953). 



*Available from National Recreation Association Recreation Book 
Center, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11. 



18 



RECREATION 



YOUTH'S 

No. 1 
NEED 



... in Kentucky 
year-round recreation. 

Joe Creason 

FIFTEEN HUNDRED KfiNTUCKIANS 
from throughout the state have 
decided almost unanimously that 
the most pressing need for Kentucky 
children today is year-round organized 
recreation in all sections of the Com- 
monwealth. They rate this need as 
greater than the need for modernized 
schools, more and better trained teach- 
ers, and expanded health and welfare 
programs. 

These 1,500 Kentuckians have stud- 
ied their communities and submitted 
separate reports that have been sum- 
marized and were released at the Ken- 
tucky White House Conference For 
Children and Youth in Louisville in 
October. 

Recreation is one of five areas per- 
taining to children that have been sur- 
veyed. Other areas studied include 
moral and spiritual values, education, 
health and welfare. 

The recreation report, which was 
made over a period of six months, 
reveals what the summary calls "a 
deplorable lack of year-round public 
programs of recreation" and "a tremen- 
dous amount of recreational frustra- 
tion" in Kentucky. 

It also points to the lack of supervised 
recreational outlets as being a major 
contributor to juvenile delinquency by 
"driving our boys and girls out of town 

Reprinted with permission from the 
Louisville (Kentucky) Courier-Journal. 
on which Mr. Creason is a staff reporter. 




to questionable places. . . ." 

Among many others, these four facts 
emerged from the study to indicate 
the critical need for recreation. 

Only nine full-time professional rec- 
reation directors are employed in Ken- 
tucky, and only five of these outside 
Jefferson and Fayette Counties, where 
two each are employed to direct separ- 
ate city and county programs. 

Only twenty-one counties have pro- 
grams which even vaguely measure up 
to being organized, and which offer 
more than summertime activities for 
both boys and girls. 

Fifty-two counties have what they 
call recreation programs, but which 
consist only of athletics almost al- 
ways Little League baseball a sea- 
sonal activity which affords no oppor- 
tunity for girls; twenty-eight counties 
supplement athletics with swimming at 
pools or beaches; fifteen counties have 
no kind of organized recreation. 

In fewer than a dozen counties are 
school buildings kept open for after- 
hour or summer recreation purposes. 
Some schools even refuse to allow out- 
door playgrounds to be used during 
summer months. 

Full-time, professional recreation di- 
rectors are employed in Louisville and 
Jefferson County, in Lexington and 
Fayette County and in Bowling Green, 
Elizabethtown, Frankfort, Glasgow, and 
Mayfield. 

The Jefferson County plan, whereby 
local communities cooperate with the 



playground and recreation board, long 
has been regarded as a model and has 
been copied all over the country. 

In other counties or cities where an 
effort has been made to set up planned 
recreation, a director, usually a high- 
school coach, is hired to conduct a lim- 
ited June-through-late-August program. 

Civic clubs often conduct the summer 
athletic program, which constitutes the 
only kind of planned recreation avail- 
able in so many counties. Until Little 
League baseball caught on in the last 
ten years or so, most counties which 
now point to that as their one recreation 
activity had no program at all. 

In a very real sense, many of those 
participating in the report say Little 
League baseball can hardly fit into com- 
munity recreation. That's because only 
the more skillful boys make the teams, 
leaving the younger and less talented 
boys and girls without any activity. 

In addition to pointing up the short- 
comings of recreation in Kentucky, the 
report recommends: 

that Kentucky employ a state recrea- 
tion consultant to advise and assist local 
communities in setting up programs; 

that the state provide $1,000,000 an- 
nually to assist on a dollar-for-dollar 
basis up to $10,000 counties and ci- 
ties willing to help themselves financial- 
ly with recreation; 

that candidates for public office at all 
levels be asked to state their attitudes 
toward organized recreation. 

One of the first duties of a state rec- 
reation consultant would be to explain 
to local communities that Kentucky has 
one of the nation's best and most work- 
able enabling laws for the development, 
acquisition, and operation of public 
recreation programs. Under the law, it 
is possible for either a city or county 
government to set up separate or joint 
recreation boards, or for cities and 
counties to join with boards of educa- 
tion in creating playground and rec- 
reation boards. 

Since it is so easy for a program to 
be initiated in Kentucky, the report 
assumes that two factors explain why 
so few areas have taken action a lack 
of know-how and a lack of money. The 
state consultant would provide the 
know-how; the $1,000,000 would sup- 
plement locally raised funds. $: 



JANUARY 1960 



19 



In The Next Ten Years 



CURRICULUM STRATEGY 



W. C. Sutherland 




NEW YEAR and a new decade con- 
stitute the psychological moment 
for a backward look at profes- 
sional preparation for recreation leader- 
ship and the strategic time to plan for the 
future. Most of the major recreation cur- 
ricula developed during and since World 
War II. In 1940 there were five schools, on record, that of- 
fered recreation programs. The number increased to thirty- 
five by 1948, and at present sixty-five colleges and universi- 
ties report major recreation curricula. Thirty-five of these 
confer both undergraduate and graduate degrees. 

Present Status. The majority of schools reporting a ma- 
jor recreation curriculum today have an adequate recre- 
ation faculty, in terms of quantity or quality, based on 
standards agreed upcn by National Training Conferences on 
Professional Preparation of Recreation Personnel. Schools 
are uneven in faculty make-up and some have very few first- 
class instructors. In many schools the recreation curriculum 
lacks status in comparison wlih other disciplines and, all 
too often, also lacks status with the employing agencies and 
the recreation profession in general. 

Nationally, the schools are operating at about fifty per- 
cent under capacity and a number of institutions with a 
major recreation curriculum are graduating no students 
with recreation degrees. Many schools have not yet mobil- 
ized important resources they have on the campus, and the 
prevailing atmosphere does not inspire a creative approach 
to professional recreation education. Neither are they util- 
izing, effectively, community, agency, and professional re- 
sources that could help enrich their programs and enhance 
their status. 

Fortunately, some new developments will force curricu- 
lum changes and may relegate the weaker schools further to 
the sidelines and the stronger ones to the forefront. Parents 
are demanding, increasingly, that recreation for their chil- 
dren be planned by qualified leaders with broad vision. 
Adults, increasingly, are determined to live on the higher 
level of their natures and are becoming more discriminat- 
ing, thus challenging the quality of professional recreation 
leadership. Pressures from operating agencies and profes- 
sional groups are forcing the development of specialized 
curriculums. For example, agencies providing service and 
recreation leadership for the ill and handicapped, industrial 
groups, park administration, community recreation, and 
camping are claiming, with increasing evidence, that they 
possess a special body of generic knowledge. Such special- 

MR. SUTHERLAND is director of the National Recreation As- 
sociation Recreation Personnel Service. 



izations are demanding not only additional, but also differ- 
ent, types of facilities and faculty members. 

TNCREASING POPULATION, more leisure, more money, better 
- traveling, urbanization, and other complex changes in 
American and world society are placing recreation in a 
prominent position. This places new demands on leadership 
and raises questions as to the qualifications and quality of 
recreation leaders. 

The National Cultural Center proposed for Washington, 
D. C., is destined to stand as a monument to America's cul- 
tural maturity and may well speed the demand for special- 
ists on the staffs of both public and private recreation 
agencies. In any event, future executives, supervisors, and 
program people will have to keep abreast of these new de- 
velopments or accept a minor role in community leadership 
as more progressive leaders and agencies establish them- 
selves in the forefront of indispensable community services. 
The 1961 White House Conference on the Aging is fo- 
cusing the spotlight on another emerging specialization and 
capturing the attention of politicians, civic clubs, and re- 
ligious groups, as well as professional recreation leaders. 
The schools will have to take this important segment of our 
growing population into consideration as they plan future 
recreation curriculums and concern themselves with the 
special needs of this important group. 

The Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission 
also has implications for our training centers, especially for i 
leadership at the state, regional, and national levels. The 
vast scope of this act, to determine the types and locations j 
of outdoor resources of land and water, will undoubtedly 
turn up a need for trained leadership oriented in such fa- ! 
ciiities and resources. 

Likewise, the 1960 White House Conference on Children , 
and Youth should bring to light new needs, new methods, i 
new information, and new emphasis as we attempt to serve 
more adequately this important part of our nation's popu- 
lation. Recreation and youth leaders serving in highly 
delinquent neighborhoods are finding that they must draw 
on disciplines related to but outside the present recreation I 
curriculum. Here, again, the builders of future recreation I 
curriculums must be concerned with the special needs of I 
these leaders and cut across department lines when neces- 1 
sary. 

The 1960 Survey of Social Welfare Manpower, which in- 
cludes recreation personnel, will be of special interest to I 
the recreation educators. For one thing, it will give the rec-l 
reation profession its first national personnel inventory. For! 
the first time in our history, we will learn the national status 
of our profession: the number of leaders, their salaries, 



20 



RECREATION 



the job levels, educational preparation, experience and spe- 
cialization, together with certain basic information on work- 
ing conditions. Such information will be valuable in plan- 
ning for the future: for recruitment purposes, improving 
personnel practices and standards, for raising the quality 
of personnel, and for planning education programs. 

OTHER INFLUENCES on the recreation curriculum, which 
will result in curriculum changes, include the accelera- 
tion of activities and forces represented by such issues as 
accreditation, voluntary registration, certification, self- 
evaluation of curriculums and standards imposed by pro- 
fessional groups. National training conferences, composed 
of both educators and recreation agency personnel, are be- 
ing held more frequently and are resulting in curriculum 
improvement. 

How can we as recreation leaders fit effectively into an 
orbiting future? We can't afford to coast and hide behind 
a lot of "ifs" and "it all depends." To be sure, our future 
strategy may be influenced by, and to some extent, depend 
upon what labor and management may demand or expect 
of recreation ; whether we are stuck with a cold war or get 
into a hot one; whether we have a depression or continue 
to expand our economy. 

We are going to continue to hear a lot about automation. 
We are also going to hear more and more about human- 
ization, regardless of what happens nationally or interna- 
tionally. This opinion is supported by recent research con- 
firming new concepts of leadership and by the modern and 
progressive concepts of management with emphasis on per- 
sonal development, leadership communication, and human 
relations. 

Our future strategy must be one of action, beginning now, 
today, as we begin another decade in planning programs 
for the professional preparation of recreation leadership. 
For this forward strategy consideration should be given 
to the following additional concerns and observations: 

# We need to produce lay leaders for the recreation move- 
ment as weM as professional leaders. 

# Education for policy-making at a high level is impera- 
tive, as federal, national, regional, state, and metropolitan 
agencies and services expand in an increasingly complex 
society, undergoing constant change. 

# The identification of recreation with other related move- 
ments and community forces is blurred and needs clarifica- 
tion. 

# Representatives of various agencies must get away from 
vested interests, narrow agency lines and structures, and 
get down to a personal basis with one another if they are 
to represent the larger citizenship. 

# Goals and objectives must be defined and redefined as 
the recreation movement reaches outward, upward, and on- 
ward. 

# There are vast, unrealized powers and resources still to 
be discovered and developed in facilities and personnel. 

# There is need for greater intellectual emphasis. Mental 
laziness and superficial offerings must be replaced by more 
vigorous and creative effort. 

# The recreation movement must produce its share of 

JANUARY 1960 



scholars to write the books, conduct research, and occupy 
academic and professional offices so our destiny may be 
guided wisely. 

# The future will demand more of board members, not 
just to set policy, but also to interpret, together with pro- 
fessional leaders, both policy and philosophy. 

# Conferences, meetings, and training programs will be 
vitalized by more visual resources, careful planning, and 
attention to both short and long-range goals. 

# There will be unlimited opportunity for the alert rec- 
reation leaders to relate their programs to industry, civic 
clubs, and cultural centers. 

# Opportunities are now wasting away for recreation pro- 
grams to tie into such technical subjects as electronics, avia- 
tion, space, chemistry, mechanics, automation, and other 
branches of science. 

# Imaginative, creative, and intellectual action must keep 
pace with our expanding structural and organizational ac- 
tivities. 

# Not only the large percentage of noncollege graduates 
now holding positions, but others, are in dire need of im- 
proved on-the-job training programs. 

# Future training programs, both academic and on the 
job, will stress more the importance of communication in 
all its many forms : speaking, reading, writing, graphic arts, 
counseling, interviews, and the philosophy and art of dis- 
cussion. 

# Future administrators will come out of training back- 
grounds steeped in the humanities, and such subjects as lit- 
erature, history, art, and philosophy. They will not consider 
administration as just a matter of techniques. 

# The transition from academic training to independent 
job responsibility will be bridged in part by more intern- 
ships, with close cooperative relationships between school 
and agency. 

# There must be a continuous, never-ending training ex- 
perience from the time the individual enters the professional 
curriculum until he retires, in at least three broad areas: 
functional skills and ability; leadership and human rela- 
tions; and comprehensive understanding. The latter is be- 
ing neglected, yet is fast becoming one of the most important 
areas of learning as the recreation executive attempts to 
understand the various political, economic, social, and spir- 
itual forces constituting the total matrix of which he is 
only a part. 

# There will be more critical evaluations of what is being 
done. 

# There will be more research to validate existing philoso- 
phies, concepts, and principles. 

# There will be a more strict adherence to high standards. 

# Curriculum patterns will be kept flexible, and the bal- 
ance between general education and specialized professional 
education will be maintained. 

The recreation movement and its profession depend upon 
leadership. Professional preparation, therefore, is the heart 
of our concern. Can the schools meet the challenge? I 
think they can, provided they, along with the operating 
agencies and professional workers, all team up together in 
one common and cooperative task. $: 

21 




A REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK 



People in the News 

The appointment of Robert A. Lob- 
dell as general manager of the parks 
and recreation bureau of St. Paul, Min- 
nesota, was approved by that city's city 
council in November 1959. The ap- 
pointment followed consolidation of the 
three bureaus of parks, playgrounds, 
and refectories into one parks and 
recreation. RECREATION readers will be 
hearing more from Bob Lobdell as he 
is writing an article for the magazine 
about recreation in St. Paul, where the 
Great Lakes District recreation con- 
ference will be held the first week of 
April 1960. 

National Recreation Association 
member Arvid Olson is the new editor 
of American Squares, the magazine of 
American folk dancing. Until recently 
American Squares had been published 
in Newark, New Jersey. Its new ad- 
dress is 2514 Sixteenth Street, Moline, 
Illinois. Send all dance dates, unpub- 
lished dances, news of general interest, 
and other items there. 

More news from the square- and 
folk-dance field concerns Rickey Hoi- 
den's worldwide tour. Reputed to be 
the most widely traveled professional 
caller in the world, Rickey leaves in 
mid-January on a tour to include coun- 
tries in Asia, Africa, and Europe, where 
he plans to teach square and other 
dances. 

The city of Wilmington, Delaware, 
became the richer, recreationally, by 
an eighteen-hole golf course, later aug- 
mented by adjoining undeveloped land, 
all donated by Mr. and Mrs. William 
du Pont, Jr. Both gifts were designated 
to be used exclusively for public use. 
(See RECREATION, April 1959, Page 
149.) In appreciation of this, Recrea- 
tion Promotion and Service (executive 
secretary, George Sargisson) presented 
the du Fonts with a testimonial certifi- 

22 



cate, thanking them for this and the 
many other donations of time and 
money they have made during the four- 
teen years of RPS's existence. 

At a joint meeting of the Missouri 
Recreation Association and the Mis- 
souri Parks and Recreation Society in 
November, these two organizations de- 
cided to consolidate and become a new 
agency, henceforth to be known as the 
Missouri Parks and Recreation Asso- 
ciation. 

The most recent news from Texas is 
of the appointment of Beverly S. Shef- 
field, Austin's director of recreation, to 
a three-year term, both as a member 
and chairman of the NRA's National 
Advisory Committee on Recreation Ad- 
ministration. He succeeds Robert W. 
Crawford, Philadelphia's commissioner 
of recreation. 

Youth Appreciation Week in Mem- 
phis, Tennessee, was climaxed with the 
presentation, to Marion Hale, of a 
plaque honoring him for his outstand- 
ing youth work. The plaque was award- 
ed to Memphis's superintendent of rec- 
reation by that city's Optimist Clubs 
on November 19, 1959. Upon receiving 
his award, Mr. Hale said, "In the rec- 
reation department, we work on the ba- 
sis that the kids of today are the adults 
of tomorrow. . . ." 

It Pays to Advertise 

The Provident Bank of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, thinks so highly of its recreation 
commission's drop-in centers for older 
people that it has taken out ads in 
the Cincinnati Inquirer to tell about 
them. One such ad, with a large photo- 
graph of activities in one of the cen- 
ters, appeared in the November 2llli 
edition. In addition, at the bottom of 
the ad, the following invitation is ap- 
pended: "Know someone who would 
like to join the fun? Call the Recrea- 
tion Commission, GArfield 1-1652." 



More About Mr. Bannow 

A write-up in The New York Times 
about Rudolph Bannow, RECREATION 
magazine author (see Page 14 this is- 
sue) and new president of the National 
Association of Manufacturers, provides 
some information about what he does 
with his spare time. As an ex-pattern 
maker for metals, he still keeps his 
hand in by developing new patterns for 
his Bridgeport, Connecticut, company. 
For further relaxation, Mr. Bannow has 
been a member of the all-male North 
Star Singers for twenty-six years, with 
whom, every Wednesday night, he 
raises his bass voice in song. At one 
time he played soccer for the Swedish 
Athletic Club (Mr. Bannow was born 
in Goeteborg, Sweden) in Bridgeport, 
but has now, as he says, "degenerated 
to golf." 

Pennies, Nickels, and Dimes 

During the early part of last sum- 
mer the children on the playgrounds of 
Charleston, West Virginia, some of 
them from very poor areas, collected 
$109.58 to contribute to the Joseph Lee 
Recreation Leadership Training Fund. 







For the second year each playground 
made a tremendous effort to amass the 
pennies, nickels, and dimes as their 
share of the contribution. Charleston's 
superintendent of parks and recreation. 
Bob Kresge, said, "We are still hoping 
that this idea will catch on in other cit- 
ii -. It seems to have every merit." 



New Camping Council Formed 

Campers and outdoor enthusiast! ill 
soon be hearing much news about the 
activities of the just formed Camping 
Council for Travel and Wilderness 
Campers. One of the council's main 
aims is that of binding together more' 

RECREATION 



closely the interests of both campers 
and the camping industry, for the bene- 
fit of both. 

According to its founder and direc- 
tor, Rea Agnew, a director of Ameri- 
can Youth Hostels and an experienced 
camper, the council will assist campers 
as an information agency responsive to 
their needs. It will also promote camp- 
ing, with planned programs designed to 
foster the growth of more and better 
campsites, wider government develop- 
ment of camping areas, continuing im- 
provement of camping equipment, and 
the education of camping enthusiasts. 

With the help of manufacturers, the 
council intends to make the public more 
camping conscious by carrying its pro- 
gram directly into federal, state, and 
local government channels. 

Mr. Agnew was a speaker at the 41st 
National Recreation Congress in Chi- 
cago. This last summer he completed 
a thirteen-state tour of national and 
state campgrounds, found, among other 
things, that campsites are growing far 
more slowly than camping and that 
there is a great need for better adminis- 
tration of camping areas. Recreation 
departments wishing to get in touch 
with the Camping Council can write to 
it at 17 East 48th Street, New York 17. 

Special Services News 

Dallas girl Dorothy J. Schmid has 
been named First U. S. Army Craft Di- 
rector at Governors Island, New York. 
In her new assignment. Miss Schmid 
will supervise craft shop programs at all 
army installations in New England, New 
York, and New Jersey. She was previ- 
ously stationed in Germany and Japan. 

Upon completion of four years' out- 
standing service in USAREUR Miss 
Jean Tague, Northern Area Command's 
assistant service club director, was hon- 
ored with a citation, early in October, 
in Nurnberg, Germany, home of Special 
Services Branch of Special Activities 
Division, Hq USAREUR. Before her 
promotion to assistant command direc- 
tor in NACOM, she was a service club 
director in Berlin, Nurnberg, and Mu- 
nich. Her future plans included work 
for her recreation doctorate at UCLA. 



and honorary member, Dr. Tully C. 
Leon Knoles, died November 30 at his 
home in Stockton, California. He was 
eighty-three. He is survived by his 
widow Emily, three daughters, and five 



Jin fHrmortam 

National Recreation Association 
sponsor for thirty-four years (1925-59) 

IANUARY 1960 



sons. 

Mrs. John Mills, eighty, died Decem- 
ber 17 in Greenwich, Connecticut. Long 
active in civic affairs, she was on the 
Greenwich Recreation Board of which 
she was elected an honorary life mem- 
ber when she retired. 

Mrs. Bella Printz, one of the Nation- 
al Recreation Association's many de- 
voted sponsors, died in October on her 
eighty-fourth birthday in Youngstown, 
Ohio. Mrs. Printz, in addition to her 
work for NRA, had also been active in 
many civic enterprises, one of them in- 
dulging her lifelong love of music. This 
was the Monday Musical Club. 

Montgomery B. Angell, seventy, died 
November 26 in Peekskill, New York. 
His many activities included Princeton 
University's alumni affairs, member- 
ship in the Century Association, vari- 
ous memberships in associations con- 
nected with the legal profession, and as 
a commissioner in the Taconic State 
Park Commission. 

Julian Reiss, the businessman who 
each Christmas played Santa Claus to 
needy children throughout the North- 
east United States and eastern Canada, 
died December 13 in Lake Placid, 
New York. His Operation Toylift 
(written up in the December 1956 
RECREATION, Page 472) this year deliv- 
ered fifteen tons of toys by plane to 
sixty-four thousand orphans and needy 
children in thirty-eight communities. 
His other activities on behalf of chil- 
dren included the founding of the Pius 
X Youth Camp for Needy Children at 
Lake Placid. 

Ralph Warner Harbison, former 
president of the Young Men's Christian 
Association and an active YMCA work- 
er for more than thirty-two years, died 
December 12 in Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, after a long illness. He was 
eighty-three. As a young man he 
worked in his father's company, of 
which he later became a director, then 
retired from active responsibility be- 
cause of the increasing pressure of his 



Y work. He served that association in 
many capacities, ultimately becoming 
president, which post he resigned in 
1941. 

Frank S. Land, founder of the Order 
of DeMolay and its director for forty 
years, died in Kansas City, Missouri, 
November 9. He was sixty-nine. Mr. 
Land became interested in youth work 
right after World War I when he be- 
came aware of the plight of the many 
boys left fatherless by the war. He or- 
ganized his group in 1919 with a nu- 
cleus of nine boys, and lived to see it 
grow into a worldwide fraternal organ- 
ization for youths from fourteen to 
twenty-one, with more than two thou- 
sand chapters in the fifty states and 
twelve foreign nations. The Order of 
DeMolay is connected with the Shriners. 
J. Alfred LeConey, former Olympic 
track star died recently at the age of 
fifty-eight. He was the ICAAAA 100- 
yard-dash and 220-yard champion in 
1922 and set the ICAAAA 100-yard- 
dash record of 9.7 seconds which stood 
for nine years. In the 1924 Olympic 
games, held in Paris, Mr. LeConey was 
anchor man on the victorious 400-meter 
relay team that set a record of forty- 
one seconds. Because of his many out- 
standing contributions to the Olym- 
pics, his picture appeared on a United 
States Olympic commemorative post- 
age stamp. Last year he received a 
plaque honoring his twelve years' serv- 
ice to the Plainfield, New Jersey, Rec- 
reation Commission of which he had 
been president three times. 
Elizabeth Burchenal, founder of the 
American Folk Dance Society and the 
Folk Arts Center, author of many fine 
collections of folk dances from many 
lands, died on November 22 in Brook- 
lyn, New York. She was among the 
first to bring the idea of folk dancing 
into the physical education programs 
of the New York City public schools, 
and was the first to organize the big 
folk-dance festivals still conducted an- 
nually in New York City's parks. 

Many recreation leaders will remem- 
ber Miss Burchenal's workshops at sev- 
eral National Recreation Congresses 
and will recall with affection and re- 
spect her boundless energy and enthusi- 
asm that placed folk dancing among 
the programing arts. The recreation 
movement owes her a debt of gratitude. 

23 







Shelters were partially assembled in the reserve training center. Reservists on the floor in the left foreground are assem- 
bling part of the shelter. In the background men are sawing wood for the shelters. On the right, two privates are discuss- 
ing next step in the operation; behind them a staff sergeant and captain drop in to survey the project, see hou it's going. 



A 

COMMUNITY 
COOPERATIVE 
PROJECT 



Army reserves join the local recreation 

board in building shelters 

for youngsters in Greensburg, Pennsylvania. 




Here, the reservists begin building one of the bridges 
carry pedestrian traffic to Lynch Field without having to 
use heavily traveled Route 119. Rights-of-wav were secured 
from a railroad, an oil company, and a private individu 



Wallace J. Kallaugher 




24 



Greensburg recreation director Wallace Kallau^hrr < in 
civvies) and personnel from the Army Reserves look oven 
the site of some of the buildings. The property off toi 
the right was the donation of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

RECREATION! 



LIKE MANY RECREATION departments throughout the 
country, Greensburg is ever faced with the problem 
of stretching the budget dollar. We have millions of 
dollars worth of ideas but not the money to make them a 
reality. Most of the money goes for leadership, which is as 
it should be, and the rest for maintenance and program. 
Capital improvement was something needed and talked 
about but out of the question, until a benefactor left the 
Greensburg Recreation Board a yearly income, which im- 
mediately was earmarked for capital improvement. In spite 
of the income, there wasn't enough to do what had to be 
done the building of new shelters, bridges, masonry work. 
Sharpening our pencils, we found that we had enough to 
buy the material, but the high cost of labor was something 
else again. How did we meet this problem? 

In the fall of 1958, I went to see Major Tex Meyers, 
Senior Unit Advisor of the Greensburg Area Army Reserves 
to inquire about the possibility of using the Army Engineer 

MR. KALLAUGHER is director of recreation in Greensburg. 



Reserve in a joint community project. They could help in 
the building of structures needed for the normal function- 
ing of our department. Our request was approved and a 
meeting was set up with the officers and men of Company A 
of the 326th Engineering Battalion under the command of 
Captain Koloney. 

An agreement was reached that all material and equip- 
ment would be furnished by the recreation board ; the army 
would supply the manpower and professional staff. Two 
drills were scheduled a month for these projects; one on 
Wednesday evening in which rafters and other features were 
assembled and the following Sunday for putting the struc- 
tures together. In addition to the shelters, bridges were 
built at points crossing Jack Run, thus allowing pedestrian 
traffic access to our Lynch Field Park without using heavily 
traveled Route 119. 

New plans for new projects have recently been discussed 
with the army and Greensburg will further benefit by the 
cooperation and community spirit shown to us by this 
branch of the armed services. # 




A shelter goes up! Here, the reservists assemble one of 
the shelters. One group tackles putting on the roof while 
another group works on the lower part of the building. 
The result is fine array of new shelters for the community. 




One of the bridges nears completion as reservists tighten 
guard rails and finish off approaches with gravel. At the 
far end of the bridge some of the men are cleaning up; on 
the near side others load gravel for approach to bridge. 




Reservists begin to lay the foundations for another bridge 
to the park. All material and equipment were furnished 
by recreation board. Army supplied manpower and pro- 
fessional staff. New cooperative projects are in offing. 

JANUARY 1960 




Here is a completed shelter at Northmont. Reservists 
were all members of Company A 326th Construction Bat~ 
talion, stationed at Greensburg. The project began in 
1958, was finished in time for use in summer of 1959, 

25 



RECREATION 

FOR THE ILL AND HANDICAPPED 



Beatrice H. Hill 

IN TEN YEARS time fewer than half 
the recreation personnel working 
with the ill and handicapped will 
have hospital jobs. This may seem like 
rank defeatism on the part of a person 
who has devoted more than twenty 
years to promoting hospital recreation, 
but it is just the opposite. 

What I mean by my prediction is 
that modern concepts of comprehensive 
rehabilitation are creating a growing 
demand for professional recreation 
services for the ill and handicapped 
wherever they may be. The broad 
world of medicine is beginning to rec- 
ognize the fact that patients in nursing 
homes, homes for the aged, home-bound 
programs, and rehabilitation programs 
need recreation services. Some of us 
even venture to predict the day isn't far 
off when more and more of the commu- 
nities and industries where the handi- 
capped live and work will look for help 
in providing handicapped persons with 
opportunities to live more fully and be 
more productive. 

So when I say that fewer than half 
of today's hospital recreation workers 
will be working in the hospital setting 
ten years from now, it isn't because hos- 
pital recreation is on the way out, but 
because new career opportunities in 
recreation for the ill and handicapped 
are on the way in. First, let's take a 
look at what's been happening in recre- 
ation for the ill and handicapped aged. 

Government statistics show that there 
are some twenty-five thousand propri- 
etary nursing homes in this country. 
These nursing homes house approxi- 
mately four hundred and fifty thousand 

MRS. HILL is director, National Rec- 
reation Association Consulting Service 
on Recreation for the III and Handi- 
capped. 

26 



so-called guests. Two years ago, the 
National Recreation Association's Con- 
sulting Service on Recreation for the 
111 and Handicapped found that less 
than one percent of these nursing 
homes offered their patients a regularly 
scheduled recreation program. The 
Consulting Service knew recreation was 
a vital necessity to these patients, and 
many of the nursing home proprietors 
knew it, too. But they said they just 
couldn't afford professional help in pro- 
viding recreation services to their pa- 
tients. "After all," they argued, "with 
the average home housing only eight- 
een patients, it just isn't economically 
feasible." 

The staff of the Consulting Service 
chewed on this bitter pill, swallowed it, 
and digested it. Then it set up a series 
of pilot projects to demonstrate the eco- 
nomic feasibility of coordinated rec- 
reation programs for nursing homes. 
These pilot projects were carried out 
in New York City; Westchester County, 
New York; and Connecticut. 

In each of these localities, Consulting 
Service staff members prevailed on four 
to six nursing home proprietors to 
share the cost of (1) "heavy equip- 
ment," such as phonographs, records, 
movie projectors, screens, and the like, 
to be used in each of the homes on a 
rotating basis; and (2) the salary of 
a professional recreation worker to re- 
cruit, screen, train, and supervise the 
work of volunteers in each of the par- 
ticipating homes. 

At the end of the year, detailed re- 
ports of these pilot projects were pub- 
lished in several national professional 
nursing home journals. Results were 
phenomenal. Requests for assistance in 
setting up similar programs poured in 
to the Consulting Service from all over 



the country. Since then it has helped set 
up projects in numerous states through- 
out the country, and is in the process 
of responding to additional requests for 
help in getting coordinated recreation 
programs under way in hundreds of 
nursing homes. 

For example, the New Jersey Associ- 
ation of Nursing Homes asked for help 
in establishing coordinated recreation 
programs in all one hundred and twen- 
ty-five of its member homes. To date, 
the Consulting Service has placed four 
professional workers among thirty of 
these homes. Their salaries range from 
fifty-two hundred to six thousand dol- 
lars. 

In Philadelphia, where the Consult- 
ing Service is developing coordinated 
programs for twenty-two nursing 
homes, the recreation director has been 
engaged at sixty-five hundred dollars. 
Approximately forty-five hundred dol- 
lars is in the budget for each of the 
two assistants who will join the project 
shortly. 

In other words, the new era in rec- 
reation for the ill and handicapped in- 
cludes aiming for better salaries for 
recreation workers. Already the nurs- 
ing homes are competing for the serv- 
ices of specialists in this huge new field 
of recreation; the competition will 
grow. Think what this means in term* 
of salary levels! 

NOT SATISFIED with the success of its 
coordinated recreation program 
idea in relation to nursing homes, the 
Consulting Service has several other 
demonstration projects working. These 
are designed to bring recreation serv- 
ices to the ill and handicapped in many 
places besides hospitals and nursing 
homes. Such projects as those that fol- 

RECREATION 



In The Next Ten Years 



low will open up career opportunities 
galore. 

The Sussex County Project. Because 
many rural communities have too few 
private nursing homes to make sharing 
of costs practical, the Consulting Serv- 
ice has set up a demonstration project 
involving a community general hospi- 
tal, the county welfare home, and four 
proprietary nursing homes in Sussex 
County, New Jersey. (See "Recreation 
jor the III, Handicapped, and Aged" 
RECREATION, October 1959, Page 334.) 
The director of this project will soon 
engage an assistant, whose job it will 
be to develop recreation services for the 
home-bound and the boarding-home 
residents of this rural area. 

The Monroe County Project. The 
Consulting Service is currently work- 
ing with the city of Rochester, New 
York, to develop a program with a large 
professional staff, to service all the hos- 
pitals and nursing homes in Monroe 
County. A similar program in Albany. 
New York, is in the planning stage. 
The Rochester project is attempting to 
limit each worker to about six institu- 
tions within reasonable distance of 
each other. Since the worker should 
not be responsible for more than three 
hundred patients, each is assigned to a 
number of institutions with a total cen- 
sus of three hundred or less. The Con- 
sulting Service tackled this project to 
demonstrate the practicability of setting 
up coordinated recreation programs for 
small towns and cities as well as for 
rural communities and groups of pro- 
prietary nursing homes. 

The Home-bound Project. Under a 
grant from the Office of Vocational Re- 
habilitation in Washington, D. C., the 
Consulting Service will demonstrate 
ways in which recreation personnel can 
collaborate with a visiting nurse service 
and a hospital with a home-care pro- 
gram to bring recreation to the home- 
bound ill and handicapped. It hopes 
also to show how the home-bound can 
be brought into participation in com- 
munity recreation programs. This 
three-year project is scheduled to begin 
some time in the next few months. 



The Sheltered Workshop Project. 
This study, to determine the need for 
recreation services among clients of 
sheltered workshops, began in August 
1959 under another grant from the Of- 
fice of Vocational Rehabilitation. The 
objective is to arrive at some practical, 
down-to-earth recommendations for us- 
ing recreation as a force in enriching 
the lives, and perhaps increasing the 
productivity of, handicapped workers 
in sheltered industry. The Consulting 
Service then hopes to carry out these 
recommendations to actually prove 
their value. So far, findings indicate 
that recreation services in this area 
should be mainly on an advisory or 
counseling level, to help clients take 
advantage of opportunities for social 
rehabilitation through available com- 
munity resources. 

TN ADDITION to these projects, the Con- 
* suiting Service is keeping an eye on 
other areas where opportunities for ca- 
reers in recreation for the ill and handi- 
capped may be expected to arise. For 
example, playground leaders want to 
know how to set up programs for handi- 
capped children. Many want to know 
where to find professional recreation 
workers skilled in working with the 
handicapped. The Consulting Service 
has been gathering data in playgrounds 
and camps throughout the country, 
and finds that an increasing number of 
them include handicapped children in 
their programs. At present, three hun- 
dred camps and one hundred and twen- 
ty-eight playgrounds offer this service. 
There is evidence that this trend will 
continue and that career opportunities 
in this area will increase. 

The much publicized Bill for Inde- 
pendent Living (H.R. 3465) indicates 
a broadening interest in meeting the re- 
habilitation needs of handicapped per- 
sons not potentially employable. When 
this bill becomes law, persons who are 
not now capable of realizing benefits 
from occupational and vocational ther- 
apy will undoubtedly be entitled to re- 
ceive activity therapy. 

A congressional committee (of which 
the author is a member) will explore 
unmet needs in the areas of the handi- 



capped and chronically ill of all ages 
and develop ways and means for the 
government to help to meet these needs. 
It goes without saying that, here again, 
are unexplored career opportunities. 

The work being done at Fountain 
House, New York City, and in the mu- 
nicipal recreation department of Kan- 
sas City, points the way for social re- 
habilitation of the physically and the 
mentally ill. With increased emphasis 
on recreation counseling for patients 
before and after discharge from hospi- 
tals, new positions are opening up for 
recreation specialists in rehabilitation 
centers, half-way houses, and the like. 
Workshops and schools for the mental- 
ly retarded and the emotionally dis- 
turbed are asking for help in providing 
recreation services to meet the special 
needs of their clients. 

You must agree that the present and 
future career opportunities are wonder- 
fully promising and challenging. The 
new era is here ! The tragedy is that we 
are not quite ready for it. Even now, 
there are not enough qualified recrea- 
tion people to fill the positions that 
exist. How, then, are we to produce 
enough recreation workers for the new 
era? 

A T THIS POINT the crystal ball grows 
*"* cloudy. Peering through the murk. 
I see that our first and foremost profes- 
sional responsibility is to find an an- 
swer to this question by taking three 
basic steps: (1) we must join forces in 
a single determined movement dedi- 
cated to the formulation of a working 
philosophy embracing present and fu- 
ture meanings of recreation for the ill 
and handicapped; (2) we must develop 
a unified concept of education for the 
recreation specialist of the future; and 
(3) we must design an effective recruit- 
ment campaign to attract well-qualified 
young people to the profession. 

We must also come to terms with our- 
selves and with each other to solidly 
establish recreation for the ill and hand- 
icapped as a recognized professional 
discipline. If we do not chart our own 
course, others will do it for us. lead- 
ing us into heaven knows what dark 
waters. 



JANUARY 1960 



2? 



VETS WITH VOLUNTEERS 



William M. Hay 




American Legion Auxiliary volunteers 
assist in education therapy. Here, they 
are teaching typing and geography. 



THE STAFF OF THE Veterans Ad- 
ministration Hospital at Salis- 
bury. North Carolina, are suc- 
cessful and seasoned veterans in the 
meaningful use of volunteers. This 
story tells how, through a carefully 
worked at and worked out system, vol- 
unteers can be used to distinct advan- 
tage, to both themselves and the pa- 

MR. HAY represents the National Rec- 
reation Association in the Southern 
District. 



tients. Awards for meritorious service 
go to the former; rewards of a life- 
worth-living go to the patient, some- 
times a volunteer himself. 

Citizens of the Salisbury area, 
through various groups not the least 
of which is the city recreation depart- 
ment work closely with the hospital. 
Volunteers come from several counties 
and a number of cities within a radius 
of over sixty miles. As a result, total 
number of volunteers is approximately 
five thousand. 

Five thousand volunteers in a year's 
time sounds like a dream or a tall tale. 
To top this is the news that they all 
work and make real and lasting contri- 
butions. Much is due, in part, to the 
fine way this program is handled. The 
recruitment, training, and handling of 
volunteers giving them a real job to 
do that is rewarding in itself goes a 
long way. The hospital's method of 
awards, by means of an annual recog- 
nition program, adds stimulation to 
this outstanding volunteer effort as well 
as the personal touch that means suc- 
cess. Some individual volunteers have 
given hundreds of hours, some several 



thousand hours, and at least one, more 
than ten thousand hours. Organiza- 
tions have given a minimum of four, 
eight, and twelve annual programs in 
special activities for which they receive 
special certificates of recognition. 

The story of the value of volunteers 
in the recreation program has been 
expounded over and over. Sometimes it 
is accompanied by a sigh of misgiving 
and a look of doubt, but at the Salis- 
bury Veterans Hospital positive use of 
volunteers reaches a peak through the 
Veterans Administration Volunteer 
Service. 

"They do things the regular staff 
cannot do. Without the staff for the 
core program, however, volunteers 
would be fairly useless. With a good 
staff, the volunteers can provide em- 
bellishments to the core program that 
are like icing on the cake, or spice in 
the pudding, so to speak." These are 
the enthusiastic words of M. R. Brown- 
lee, chief of special service. 

Like any fruitful effort, the use of 
volunteers does not come easily or 
without careful planning, good public 
relations, training and assisting the 



Volunteer Service Committee representatives gather for meeting. Volunteers must be trained for most effective use. 




28 



RECREATION 




Volunteers receive certificates and pins at recognition ceremony. 



volunteers, and recognition. Personal 
recognition and appreciation are pri- 
mary requisites, and the keys to the 
success of any volunteer program. 

Mr. Brownlee explained some of the 
mechanics that make the machinery go 
at Salisbury. He emphasized the im- 
portance of first having a well-trained 
professional staff to work with the 
volunteers: "This program could not 
have got off the ground without them." 
The staff must be prepared to use the 
volunteers, and the volunteers trained 
to work with the staff, on specific as- 
signments for which they are recruited. 
This is done through special training 
for both, a continuing process by 
means of special institutes and staff 
meetings. After the orientation course, 
applicants are screened to see if they 
fit into one of the established categor- 
ies. The first ten hours of service pro- 
vide a probationary period to see if 
the volunteer can do this important 
job. 

In order to attract people of special 
talents for specific jobs, a carefully 
prepared booklet Assignment Guide 
for Recruitment of Volunteer Workers 
is in use. Contained therein are more 
than thirty assigment guides. Each 
sets out the nature of the job, skills 
needed, duties, personal character- 
istics, and person to whom the volun- 
teer is responsible. This booklet is 
first distributed to the VAVS commit- 
tee, composed of representatives from 
the various civic, service, church, and 
fraternal organizations. Each commit- 
tee member takes the Guide for Re- 
cruitment to his organization for help 



in securing volunteers. Member or- 
ganizations send people from their 
own ranks to serve, while the organi- 
zation operates as a volunteer group. 
The VAVS committee meets eight 
times each year regularly and on spe- 
cial occasions. Its work is accomplished 
through subcommittees, which are as 
follows: program and publicity, social 
activities, Christmas gift wrapping, 
flower, reviewing, patient gifts, carni- 
val, hospital day, Veterans Day, volun- 
teer awards, and recruitment. 

These various committees work on 
special assignments the year round, or 
at the time indicated by seasonal pro- 
grams. Some of these major events 
call for additional volunteers and 
considerable time. Then, the various 
organizations will provide an outing, 
picnic, party, trip, or an activity of 
some sort for which it is solely respon- 
sible in planning, executing, and fi- 
nancing. The volunteer working in the 
ward gives an afternoon or evening 
once a week, while the organization 
helps several times during the year. 

The individual volunteers who come 
to the hospital for special assignments 
work closely with the staff. The values 
are not limited to an activity such as 
crafts, or sports, or dancing. The per- 
sonal association of the volunteer with 
the patient is very worthwhile. An 
outside person not regular staff 
with a fresh approach gets a greater 
response. "This is part of the job the 
volunteer does that a staff person can- 
not do," Mr. Brownlee explains. 

The volunteers working the wards 
on individual assignments are invited 



to attend medical staff meetings. Here, 
they learn more about various types of 
patients. In turn, the professional staff 
gains first-hand information from the 
volunteer, benefiting from his some- 
times intimate person-to-person con- 
tact with the various patients. Dona- 
tions provide canteen books for pa- 
tients without funds. 

Volunteer service opportunities are 
not limited to nonpatients, but are 
open to some "open-ward patients" as 
well. They can, and do, serve through 
the hospital's "Helping Hand Society." 
These volunteers go even further with 
the person-to-person aspect of the 
volunteers than any others. They are 
able to get closer to other patients and 
secure a response more readily. This 
is particularly true with the "continu- 
ous treatment" patient. The society 
chose its own name and drew up its 
own constitution. It contains ten to 
twenty members, who remain members 
even after discharge from the hospital. 

Patient Sam Smith (fictitious names 
for patients are used throughout) be- 
came a member-employee and worked 
in the recreation service where he 
supervised volunteers. Later, through 
a volunteer, he became a supervisor of 
a playground in the city. He is now 
attached to a college physical educa- 
tion staff. Bob Jones, through volun- 
teers, worked in a supervisory capa- 
city for a local hatchery. He now 
operates his own service station. 

These two stories reveal, to some ex- 
tent, the manner in which the total 
volunteer program bridges the gap 
from hospital to community life. 
Volunteers in the surrounding com- 
munity are invariably willing to as- 
sist the discharged patient in his social 
and economic adjustment to home life. 

This method has much to offer any 
organization, public or private. More 
effective and fuller use of volunteers 
can be realized. If you are not using 
them, then find out more about this 
excellent method of the Veterans Ad- 
ministration Hospital at Salisbury, 
North Carolina. # 



JANUARY 1960 



29 



RECREATION AN! 



A PROTESTANT VIEW 




Earl R. Barr 



CHANGING PATTERNS OF work and leisure will require 
changes in the traditional programs of the church. 
With leisure time increasing, many persons will de- 
mand more and different activities in the church. The use 
of leisure time calls for skills that many persons have not 
developed. To call forth these skills will be the task of the 
church and the recreation specialists. In the creation of 
such programs and skills, churches may need to re-examine 
their use of staff and time. 

Traditionally, the Protestant church relies on its clergy- 
man to serve as preacher, pastor, administrator, and pro- 
gram director. Continuously the clergyman discovers that, 
while the first two portions of his responsibility receive 
less of his time, his training has centered on these activities. 
The individual clergyman may be able to coach basketball, 
teach photography, or guide golden-age activities, but rarely 
can he do all three. This means the church can meet the 
challenge by adding to its staff a recreation-trained person 
or by accepting partial responsibility for a community pro- 
gram. 

Since many churches lack sufficient financial resources 
for a program and do not have enough persons in any one 
age level for adequate grouping, recreation leaders may be 
asked to develop programs for different ages, using total 
resources of several churches. For example, in one com- 
munity several churches have worked together to set up a 
program for each age group in the community. One church 
operates an after-school program for children from eight 
to twelve years; a second church staffs a center for teen- 
agers, and the third has developed a program for older peo- 
ple. In a situation such as this a trained worker could help 
and supervise church volunteers in programs for the vary- 
ing age groups. 

In the church or in the community, the recreation di- 
rector will play a more meaningful role. The passage of 
needed laws against child labor, the increase in employed 
women, and growing urbanization make it difficult for teen- 
agers to find part-time work. Tasks or chores around the 

MR. BARR is executive secretary, Department of Christian 
Education, The Protestant Council of the City of New York. 



house have decreased rapidly in this era of appliances. This 
places a responsibility upon recreation as a learning ex- 
perience, for in his play a youth learns how to relate to 
others. In his hobby-shop activity, he learns how to work 
for the pleasure of the task. In planning activities in rec- 
reation, he learns to plan, to make a realistic budget, and 
to evaluate a program's effectiveness. Here, the recreation 
director in the community or on a church staff will serve 
as guide, teacher, and friend as youth learns these aspects 
of adult life. 

Coupled to the need for staff is the challenge of "shift" 
and weekend work. Churches tend to center religious ac- 
tivities on Sunday mornings. The need for worship services 
at varied times may force the clergyman to limit his role 
to the first two parts of his function. In addition to the 
change in worship scheduling, the varied work patterns may 
mean that recreation staff persons and facilities should be 
available at different hours. Adults might enjoy recreation 
opportunities in the morning or late at night. Programs for 
parents may be possible during the school hours if the father 
works the four to twelve shift. Church and recreation lead- 
ers will need to think through the possibilities in the chang- 
ing work hours. 

Another church recreation custom has been to design 
programs for age groups. Some churches have instituted 
family nights, but these programs mean that the family 
comes to the church and is separated into age-level activi- 
ties. Possibly the church contributes to family life dis- 
ruption through this type of program. Juvenile delinquency 
serves as a violent indicator that family life in our society 
needs strengthening; one explanation offered for delinquent 
behavior stresses the failure of parents to provide adequate 
"images" for juvenile identification. The urban society, 
the commuting society, and the age-level recreation rein- 
force the pattern of individual activity. Children and adults 
need activities to permit interaction. Children and parents 
rarely work or learn together, but the church can provide 
opportunities for other experiences for families. Worship 
for families has become a part of many churches, but rec- 
reation for a family has not. 

Family recreation could provide an opportunity for chil- 
dren and parents to discover each other as persons. Ir 
today's culture children rarely see how parents relate to 
adults, how parents solve problems, how working togethe 
strengthens family ties. Last summer the writer participat 
in a family folk game. Children over five years joined wit 
adults over seventy to play. For both, this game provide 
a meaningful opportunity to know more about each other 
In this particular group the adults remained adults relating 
to children. Our families need many opportunities to play 



30 



RECREATION 



In The Next Ten Years 



HURCH GROUPS 



together, but the church and the recreation leaders have 
not provided such. During the next decade, the church will 
need the help of recreation leaders to provide programs for 
family unit leisure time. 

Finally, the church will need more lay leadership to guide 
and to aid these new activities. One of the basic problems 
in any local church is leadership. Hopefully, recreation 
workers could aid the church in training leaders by helping 
adults and teen-agers learn the skills of committee work, 



the planning and administering of programs in recreation. 
Skills learned in this process would enlarge the church's 
pool of leaders. 

The church will need help in the next ten years to con- 
tinue its total ministry, in the name of God, to all men. 
Man's use of his leisure time may well indicate what im- 
pact the church has upon our society. To make this impact 
a creative one, the church will call upon persons trained in 
recreation. 




A CATHOLIC VIEW 

laurice M. Hartmann, Ph.D. 



In attempting to speculate upon the theme of this sym- 
osium from the point of view of Catholics, it is helpful 

base our predictions upon the Catholic attitude towards 
eisure time and recreation. This attitude was touched upon 
y His Holiness Pope John XXIII in a letter written in 
eptember 1959: "According to the Christian vision of 
fe, all time working and leisure time is a value en- 
rusted by God to the freedom of man, who must utilize 
t to the glory of God Himself and for the greater perfec- 
lon of his own person. . . ." 

The Catholic bishops of the United States in 1932 stated 
lat "leisure time should be used only for wholesome en- 
oyment and entertainment, such as one may look back to 
rith a good conscience and a satisfied heart. To our own 
>eople we appeal that they should further resolve to use 
art, at least, of their leisure time in attendance at daily 
Mass; in frequenting the other services of the church and 
ndeavoring to acquaint themselves with the meaning and 
he message to them of the liturgical year." 

The Catholic views leisure time as an occasion for whole- 
some recreation not merely in the narrow sense of the word 
jut also in its broadest sense as an opportunity for a 
uller family life, for worship, for cultural, social, and spir- 
tual growth, for the development of the whole man. 

The concept of Recreation permeates all Catholic rec- 
eation Catholic Youth Councils, CYO's, Catholic Young 
Vdult Clubs, day and summer camps, recreation programs 

)R. HARTMANN is director of program for the National 
'atholic Community Service, Washington, D. C. 

\NIIARV IQfifl 



of schools, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, parish 
and diocesan social activities, and so on. 

During the next few years, we can look forward confi- 
dently to a continued growth of these activities and organ- 
izations. Programs for youth will increase in number, vari- 
ety, and participation. There will be an even more greatly 
accelerated development of recreation for adults, including 
those in the golden years of their lives. During the next 
decade there will also probably be a noteworthy increase in 
activities engaged in by family groups, both inside and 
away from their homes. 

It is expected that the members of the armed forces of 
the United States and dependent members of their families 
will be numbered in the millions during the foreseeable fu- 
ture. No doubt, therefore, the National Catholic Commu- 
nity Service, as a member agency of USO, will continue to 
employ a large number of professional workers to help meet 
the leisure-time needs of the military. 

Certainly, the overall increase in leisure time will result 
in an increased use of trained and experienced recreation 
workers in church-related activities. There will be more 
diocesan directors of recreation, coaches, playground su- 
pervisors, camp counselors. Also more volunteers will do- 
nate their time to recreation. 

Catholic youth councils and other Catholic groups, or- 
ganized locally and nationally under the National Council 
of Catholic Youth, will undoubtedly increase in number. 
The Right Reverend Monsignor Joseph E. Schieder, director 
of the Youth Department of the National Catholic Welfare 
Conference, in which the National Council of Catholic 
Youth is based, recently stated that in the last two years 
there has been an explosive increase in the number of dio- 
cesan youth councils and an even greater increase in the 
number of parish youth councils. 

"The NCCY program, executed on the diocesan and paro- 
chial levels, encourages a highly Christian use of leisure, 
not only among the youth on which it focuses primarily, 
but also among those professional persons and adult ad- 
visers which it engages," said Monsignor Schieder to this 

31 



writer. "The proper use of leisure time must be understood 
as a formative process for young people. Thus the fourfold 
program covering the youth's spiritual, cultural, social, and 
physical activities relates integrally to his development as 
a competent and mature Christian, whose adult use of his 
leisure will reflect the good patterns of his youth. This 
concept, plus our recent experience, permits us to project 
validly that the next three to five years will see an almost 
maximum introduction of the council plan." 

There will be other changes, of course. But, during the 



next ten years, it is likely that they will be quantitative and 
qualitative rather than related to essentialities or basic 
structure. In recreation there will still be an emphasis upon 
wholesomeness, moderation, morality. There will be an un- 
derstanding that increased leisure time provides opportuni- 
ties not only for rec-reation but also for re-creation mental 
and spiritual, as well as physical and social. Above all, 
primary emphasis will be directed, as always, towards the 
direct or indirect objective of the sanctification of souls 
in recreation as in every Catholic activity. 




A JEWISH VIEW 

Sanford Solentler 



Few problems today are more perplexing than the all- 
pervasive crises in values. Social philosophers decry the 
lack of a sense of purpose in our social and political organ- 
ization. People hesitate, in doubt about the values with 
which to guide their actions. Youth is left bewildered by 
the inability of adults to resolve this dilemma. 

Perhaps it is a fortuitous circumstance that this condi- 
tion emerges at the same time that man's leisure is on the 
increase. Expanding recreation programs to fill this new 
leisure can be vehicles for helping people to find answers to 
their search for values. 

As people play together in physical education, cultural, 
or social activities, leaders have an incomparable oppor- 
tunity to deal with these sensitive points of urgent need. 
Doubts and confusions about values can be brought to the 
fore and considered where they have a direct impact upon 
daily living. Skillful leadership has the chance here to in- 
fluence substantially the judgments of people in small and 
large areas of concern. 

All recreation whatever its auspices can deal impor- 
tantly with this problem. Recreation programs under sec- 
tarian sponsorship have an additional impetus and a vital 
resource for attacking this need. The moral and social 

MR. SOLENDER is director of the Jewish Community Center 
Division, National Jewish Welfare Board, New York City. 



goals animating the establishment of their programs pro- 
vide the motive power for their concern here. The rich 
value reservoir inherent in the way of life they aim to com- 
municate can have enormous relevance and meaning for 
participants. It is for the leaders of such programs to find 
the consummate skill which will enable them to convey this 
effectively to participants. Given a profound respect for 
human diversity, a commitment to the right of each person 
to find his own way, and keen insight into the aspirations 
and needs of the human personality, leaders of sectarian 
recreation programs can make a telling contribution to this 
great need of our times. 

Jewish community centers and Young Men's and Young 
Women's Hebrew Associations exemplify the translation of . 
these purposes into action. These organizations afford op- 
portunities for persons of all ages to make creative use of I 
their leisure through rewarding group associations. Com- 
petent leadership enables members to derive enjoyment 
from varied recreation pursuits, along with the rich moral 
and social learnings inherent in these experiences. 

These centers and YM and YWHA's employ leisure-time ' 
programs to further their members' well-rounded develop- 
ment. Members are aided to find fulfillment as Americans 
and as Jews through identification, knowledge, and partici- 
pation in respect to both of these integral facets of their 
lives. Activities based upon civic concerns and community i 
living further their sense of the meaning of democracy. 
Programs drawing upon their Jewish heritage enable them \ 
to comprehend the vital ethical and social values inherent 
in their religion, history, art forms, and experience as a| 
people. Combined with appreciation of the harmony ofj 
these values with the American democratic tradition, this 
understanding of their Jewishness significantly strengthens! 
the capacity of Jews to meet the pressing challenges of lifej 
today. # 



Looking ahead ten years, I believe that, apart 
from the ever-present danger of war, we stand on 
the threshold of the 1960 's aware that leisure will 
be one of the major problems and one of the perti- 
nent questions in the Western World. I think you 
had better be ready for the challenge that will be 
imposed on you. HOMER C. WADSWORTH, chairman, 
President's Advisory Committee on the Fitness of 
American Youth. 



32 



RECREATIOJ 



LOCAL 

AND 

STATE 

DEVELOPMENTS 



, Elvira Delany 



CALIFORNIA. Under a triparty interagency agreement 
335 acres of brushland have been cleared to provide a 
"browseway" for propagation of deer in the Sierra Pelona 
region of Angeles National Forest. "Browseway" is a newly 
coined word among foresters and game wardens to denote 
an area established especially for wildlife habitat feeding. 
The U. S. Forest Service, the Los Angeles County Fish and 
Game Commission, and the Los Angeles County Department 
of Parks and Recreation have joined forces to provide bet- 
ter foraging areas for deer. The commission is providing 
funds for the three-year development program. With the 
first year's allotment of $6,500 the Forest Service cleared 
125 acres of brush in checkerboard pattern and 50 miles of 
strip (the equivalent of 200 acres) and mashed ten acres 
of brush for burning. This cleared area will be seeded to 
provide a feeding area. 



additional appropriation from the general fund helped with 
the latter) . Burl Gillette, director of parks and recreation, 
and his staff are now developing fifty acres of parkland and 
installing lighted fields. Plans for 1960 call for additional 
land acquisition and lighting another field. All development 
at the present time will be neighborhood areas, no large 
parks. Later, attention will turn to a large outlying area as 
a major development. 

The park and recreation department is proud of its new 
128'-by-114', laminated-truss gym which can accommodate 
anything from a basketball game to club conventions. The 
gym has two full-size basketball courts plus the main court. 
It also has a self-supporting health club complete with mas- 
seur and steam bath. 

The department's teen club program is also virtually self- 
supporting except for supervision. The teen-agers were 
able to pay for their own equipment with money from con- 
cessions and fees from pool-table charges and record rental, 
as well as to donate a hundred-dollar scholarship to the high 
school. Teen activities go on every day and on Friday and 
Saturday nights. The original bowling area was given a 
smooth-trowel finish for skating and dancing parties. A 
rifle range will be set up adjacent to the teen area, with an 
archery range to come. Plexiglas windows will separate 
the areas. 

The Wilson department also boasts a seven-acre day camp 
occupying the last wooded area left inside the city. Lest 
anybody has any designs on this precious area he had better 
be prepared to run Mr. Gillette out of town. (He seems 
firmly entrenched, having just been elected president of the 
North Carolina Recreation Society.) 



HAWAII. The Honolulu Zoo has a new memorial drinking 
fountain, set up as a unit with masonry picnic tables and 
benches, financed by funds willed by Mrs. Clara Moore 
Tower, at one time a storyteller for the recreation division. 
Mrs. Tower left funds for a fountain for dogs and people 
in Kapiolani Park. Since dogs are not encouraged to come 
in the park it was decided to set up the fountain in the zoo. 
Waipahu Field, in Honolulu, now has a completely por- 
celain-enameled comfort station, first of its kind in the is- 
lands. The parks and recreation department hopes that this 
type of structure will withstand vandalism. According to 
DeLos A. Seeley, director of planning and construction, the 
building, with its roof and walls of porcelainized enameled 
steel panels, should be practically indestructible. Since the 
color is fused into the enamel no painting is necessary and 
there will be no fading; maintenance is also simplified. The 
lightweight structure is particularly suitable for unstable 
ground conditions such as exist at the Waipahu park site. 



NORTH CAROLINA. With funds from $550,000 general- 
obligation bond issue passed in 1955, Wilson now has a new 
forty-thousand-square-foot community center; was able to 
improve a recreation building dating from WPA days, add- 
ing twenty-five thousand square feet to it; and built a 
i.OOO fan-shaped swimming pool. 68'-by-45'-by-105' (an 



TEXAS. W. Cecil Winters, superintendent of parks and 
recreation in Garland feels his city needs a park-and-rec- 
reation bond issue every two years "to keep up, not 
catch up" with a steadily growing population and increasing 
demand for areas and facilities. In the past year Garland 
has developed five neighborhood park and playground 
areas, exhausting funds from a $460,000 general-obligation 
bond issue which also provided a recreation building, a 
fifty-meter swimming pool and a major park site of approx- 
imately 125 acres. The department has a staff of twelve 
full-time and forty-five part-time personnel. 

A new bird island is being developed on Copano Bay near 
Bay side through the efforts of the Copano Sportsman's Club. 
The area covers about two hundred acres of shell bank near 
the mouth of Mission Bay and is covered with scrub oak 
and cactus. The club has asked that the land belonging to 
the state be turned over to the National Audubon Society 
as a sanctuary. 

The Houston Parks and Recreation Department has taken 
over on the responsibility for recreation activities on Lake 
Houston. The lake covers 12,600 acres and is about four- 
teen miles long. The department operates a lake-patrol boat, 
manned by the park patrol. The boat is equipped with a 
two-way radio operating through the Houston Police dis- 
patcher frequency. (For further news of Houston's rapid 
expansion and future program see Page 11.) $ 



JANUARY- 1960 



33 



GAMES OF THE HANDS 



'These are old as human play itself . . ' 



Glenn G. Dahlem 



Frequently a small party or other in- 
formal recreation gathering drags for 
lack of planned, competitive amuse- 
ment; or the setting may preclude ac- 
tivities requiring special equipment or 
facilities. There exists, however, a 
family of games that requires little or 
no equipment nor previous experience. 

"Games of the Hands," activities 



played solely with the hands, are as old 
as human play itself. Impromptu skill 
contests of various sorts involving hand 
movements are found in the culture of 
many ethnic groups, their origins lost 
in antiquity. In the United States, the 
intermingling of various races and na- 
tionalities has created a treasury of 
games of many kinds. Five such games 



of the hands, all of an informal and 
spontaneous nature, are listed here. 

MR. DAHLEM completed his master's 
degree at Winona (Minnesota) State 
College in 1959, now teaches social 
studies and assists in coaching sports 
at a Yakima, Washington, senior high 
school. He is writing a cultural anthro- 
pology of athletics and recreation. 



The Slapping Game. The Slapping 
Game is a hilarious skill contest, involv- 
ing strategy, reaction time, and the 
guess factor. It is playable only in 
pairs, members of the group matched in 
any way desired. Each pair decides 
who shall be on "offense" first. The 
two combatants face each other, hands 
and arms extended, elbows somewhat 
bent. Hands are placed in a horizontal 
plane at chest height, about one foot 
to eighteen inches apart, with the fin- 
gers relaxed, but extended. 

The player first on defense places 
his hands palms down, at the height, 
width, and degree of extension he de- 
sires; thus assuming the "on-guard" 
position. The offensive player brings 
his hands palms up to a point immedi- 



ately below those of the defender, close, 
but not touching. 

The defender signals "ready," and 
the offensive player attempts to slap 
either or both backs of the defender's 
hands, whichever and whenever he feels 
success likely. The defender is allowed 
to withdraw his hands quickly at any 
time, to avoid being slapped, but must 
return them to "on-guard" position 
within a reasonable time. 

Score is kept by the offensive player, 
who counts aloud cumulatively, one 
point for each slap, including two 
points for a "double" (both hands si- 
multaneously) until he slaps and misses. 
A miss ends his turn on offense, and 
roles are reversed, the former defender 
now doing the slapping, the previous 



offensive player assuming the palms 
down "on-guard" position. 

After the second player has missed 
in a slapping attempt, the totals of each 
are compared, the highest declared win- 
ner, and a new game commences. After 
several games, such as two out of three 
or four out of seven, winners of differ- 
ent contests may be matched. 

The Slapping Game becomes very 
strategic; the offensive player has a 
choice of right, left, double, or right 
and left cross-slaps in his arsenal. Turn- 
ing of the head and variations in timing 
are also important strategic consider- 
ations. The defender may withdraw his 
hands in different directions or planes. 
and at different times, to confuse the 
offensive player. 



Rock-Scissors-Paper. Rock-Scissors- 
Paper may be played in pairs or trios. 
Three hand positions are involved: 
Rock, symbolized by clenched fists; 
Scissors, represented by the index and 
second fingers only, extended in the 
shape of a scissors; and Paper, both 
hands held flat with all fingers extended. 
Three rules of precedence determine 
victory, loss, or draw: Rock smashes 



Scissors, Scissors cuts Paper, Paper 
covers Rock; in other words, each hand 
position defeats and loses to one of the 
other two, and draws with itself. 

The players sit facing each other, 
and, when ready, the hands are placed 
and withdrawn twice simultaneously 
from the table or floor. The third si- 
multaneous placing is a "showdown," 
and hands are left in the center of the 



playing area, in one of the three play- 
ing positions. The winner becomes ap- 
parent, and exacts a penalty from the 
loser or losers with a two-fingered slap 
on fleshy forearm, or on the forehead. 
Rock-Scissors-Paper may be played in 
regular fashion, with both hands show- 
ing the same symbol or "splits." in 
which two dilTcrciil combinations may 
be given in the same game. 



34 



RECREATION 



Button-Button. "Button, button, 
who's got the button?" is a group 
guessing game involving deception and 
alertness. It is best played in a group 
of ten to fifteen participants. The game 
is of German origin. 

Equipment used in this game is a 
long thread, string, or cord, tied at the 
ends; and a button, small spool, or 
other object with a hole in the center 
through which the cord passes. The 
object must slide freely along the cord 
and be easily concealed in a fist. 

To organize play, a Leader and an 



It are chosen. The players sit on the 
floor in a circle, with the It in the cen- 
ter. The Leader is also a member of 
the circle. The string or cord passes 
through the laps of the members of the 
circle, who hold it in their fists. The 
Leader is in possession of the button. 

The activity commences when the 
Leader passes the button from his fist 
into that of the player on either side. 
The button is then transferred from 
player to player, with its location kept 
secret from the It if possible. Faking 
of passing and possession is permissi- 



ble. When the Leader feels the It is 
thoroughly confused, he calls out, "But- 
ton, button, who's got the button?" Af- 
ter this, all movement and faking of the 
button ceases, and the It is compelled 
lo guess the button's location. He 
chooses a likely player, who must show 
the button if in his possession. If the 
It has guessed correctly, he changes 
places and roles with the player whom 
he has caught. In event of a wrong 
guess, It remains in the center; and the 
player holding the button becomes a 
new Leader. 



Indian. Indian is a memory activity 
played by means of signs made with 
hands and fingers. It is suited to groups 
of from six to fifteen. Members stand 
in a circle, and each, in turn, demon- 
strates and explains his or her Indian 
Sign. The Indian Signs are hand-and- 
finger portrayals of some phase of In- 
dian life, such as a bow-shooting posi- 
tion, wearing of feathered headdress, 
delivering a war whoop, making the 
sign of peace, waving a tomahawk, and 
so on. Each member of the group is 
given a chance to show his own sign 



and to observe that of every other. 

To begin, one member of the group 
is chosen Chief. When all are ready, 
the Chief gives his own sign, followed 
by that of one other player. The player 
whose sign was given immediately re- 
peats his own sign and gives that of any 
other player, except that of the Chief, 
who preceded him. The third player 
immediately repeats his sign, and gives 
that of a fourth player, who must like- 
wise repeat and give a new sign, and 
so on, until the last player is reached. 
The last player repeats his sign and 



gives that of the Chief, and the game, 
or round, is completed. 

Very rarely does play go all the way 
around in this manner, as someone in- 
variably forgets the remaining signs or 
gives one that has already been used. 
In this event, the person breaking the 
continuity is declared Goat, and after 
being "scalped," or penalized in some 
manner, becomes Chief for the next 
game. Players should be encouraged 
to speed up play, as the faster the signs 
are given the more pressure is put on 
the memory. 



Pease Porridge Hot. Pease Porridge 
Hot is a hand-clapping activity involv- 
ing memory and reaction time. It is 
played in pairs. This game requires 
recitation of the old familiar nursery 
rhyme at an accelerating tempo, prefer- 
ably by a third party. 

To organize play, the group is di- 
vided into pairs, in any manner desired. 
If an odd number is present, a particu- 
lar individual is designated Caller; if 
the group is even-numbered, different 
members alternate as Caller. Members 



of each pair stand or sit facing each 
other about three feet apart. 

The game is played by means of a 
series of clapping actions, synchronized 
with the words of the rhyme. The se- 
quence of claps and words is boxed. 

To begin a game, the Caller recites 
the rhyme at a slow pace, and all pairs 
execute the prescribed claps in cadence. 
Succeeding repetitions of the rhyme be- 
come faster and faster, until the Caller 
can no longer say the words at an in- 
creasing rate of speed. When this oc- 



curs, he becomes silent, and the pairs 
increase the speed of their clapping, if 
this is possible, at their own rate. 

Victory is determined, within indi- 
vidual pairs, when a player misses, or 
executes a wrong clap. The offender 
must drop out of that game, and admit 
defeat. The winner within the pair that 
lasts the longest is the champion of the 
entire group. After several games, it is 
desirable to swap opponents with a 
nearby pair. This game is an excellent 
icebreaker for a mixer, using couples. 



Sequence of Words and Claps for Pease, Porridge, Hot. 


WORDS: Pease 


porridge 


hot, 


CLAPS: (1) own hands on 


(2) own hands together, 


(3) both hands to opponent's, 


own thighs 


chest height 


chest height 


Pease 


porridge 


cold, 


(4) own hands on 


(5) own hands together, 


(6) both hands to opponent's, 


own thighs 


chest height 


chest height 


Pease porridge 


in the pot nine 


days old, 


(7) thighs (8) together 


(9) own right to (10) together 


(11) own (12) both 




opponent's 


left to to 




right 


opponent's both 






left 


Some 


like it 


hot, 


(13) thighs 


(14) together 


(15) both to both 


Some 


like it 


cold, 


(16) thighs 


(17) togther 


(18) both to both 


Some like it 


in the pot nine 


days old. 


(19) thighs (20) together 


(21) rights (22) together 


(23) lefts (24) both 
to both 



JANUARY 1960 



35 



Paul Opperman 



THE 

COMPETITION 
FOR LAND.., 

How It Affects 
Recreation 



Exploding Cities and Regions 

WE ARE ACCUSTOMED these days to dramatic phrases 
and startling statistics affecting our communities. 
I hope we do not become insensitive to their mean- 
ing simply because they are repeated so often and so vigor- 
ously, at all times and on all occasions. 

A friend who visited Chicago recently left a report with 
me on recreation that included some of the most startling 
population forecasts I have seen. In the report's quoted 
United States Census population forecast for 1975 is a high 
national figure of 228,500,000. The high forecast for the 
year 2000 is 300,000,000, the low is 245,000,000. A fore- 
cast for the year 2050 has a low of 300,000,000, a mean of 
375,000,000, and a high forecast of 450,000,000 inhabitants. 

This report also contained a table on recreation use of 
California's national parks and forests, with projections into 
the year 2050. In 1946 there were 23,000,000 actual visitor 
days; in 1955, 35,500,000. The estimate for 1975 is 109,- 
000,000 visitor days. All figures included highway users. 
The 1975 estimated figure cited is, of course, three times 
the 1955 figure. The projection to the year 2050 is 450,- 
000,000 visitor days! 

Taking Stock 

Some of you will remember that students and practition- 
ers of both recreation and planning benefited from the fact- 
gathering and analysis that went on during the days of the 
depression in the mid-1930's. That was a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago. The picture of recreation in the United States 
was very sobering by today's standards and so was that of 
city planning. Measured against the conditions today, it 
can be truly said that the record of those earlier years jus- 
tifies the queries: Did we then have a recreation program? 
Did we have any city planning in those days? 

There are some heartening signs at the present time in 

MR. OPPERMAN is executive director of the Northeastern 
Illinois Metropolitan Area Planning Commission, Chicago. 
The article is a condensation of a paper he presented at the 
41st National Recreation Congress held in Chicago, 1959. 

36 




Metropolitan areas mean high concentrations of people 
and high concentrations of land-and-improvement values. 

the growth and acceptance of your field and mine, even if 
we admit to one another that today the tasks assigned rec- 
reation people, and to planners as well, seem almost over- 
whelming. All these years the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation and its affiliated persons and organizations have 
been at work developing the concepts of today's far-flung 
recreation "empire" (forgive the word). The Association 
has been developing a strong corps of professional and lay 
leadership; it has been formulating principles and stand- 
ards and testing them in countless operating programs. Very 
distinguished performances have been turned in by indi- 
viduals, by communities, by many recreation departments. 
and, of course, some are not up to par. Generally there is I 
real sophistication in recreation today in knowing the 
problems, in tackling the "market demand," a demand that 
is tremendous and one growing without any signs of letup. I 

The resources and conservation people support planning 
and recreation objectives and programs. They have been 
loyal allies over the years and have been coming closer as 
the country and time and distance have been shrinking. The 
work of the Resources for the Future organization is a case 
in point. 

The recent establishment of the National Outdoor Rec- 
reation Resources Review Commission, under the chairman- 
ship of Laurance Rockefeller, following Congressional ac- 
tion in the fall of 1958 is, in the words of Marion Clawson: 
"An encouraging sign of a human nationwide concern, and 
of a comprehensive new approach to the recreation prob- 
lem." There are other significant developments. 

A valuable report entitled A User Resource Recreation 
Planning Method, first of several reports of the Nations 
Advisory Council on Regional Recreation Planning, wa 
issued last summer. A state report, published in 1956 bj 
the California Committee on Planning for Recreation, Par 
Areas and Facilities, is entitled Guide for Planning Recrea- 
tion Parks in California: a Basis for Determining Local Rec 
reation Space Standards. 

The recreation publication to which I referred earlier, 
and from which I took the estimates (Appendix A) to 
year 2050. is the consultants' report to the California 

RECREATIOP 





ii 




In these places the struggle over who is to acquire what 
land for what purposes reaches its most explosive form. 

partment of Water Resources, concerning investigations of 
the Upper Feather River Basin Development. The study's 
full title is : Recreational Benefits from Upper Feather River 
Basin Development. Time does not permit detailed refer- 
ence to any of these publications. 

Planning 

Accompanying urbanization, the rapid growth of urban 
populations especially during the last decade the field 
of physical or area planning, official planning of cities and 
of entire metropolitan regions (to a more limited extent, 
state planning also) has shown tremendous expansion, and 
some marked changes in technique and program emphasis. 
The working relationships of planning agencies and recre- 
ation agencies also seem, happily, to have progressed. I 
cite my personal experience as city planner of San Francisco 
from 1949 to 1958 and what I observed in California as at 
least partial evidence and support of this view. 

Competition for Land 

The competition for land is universally evident on the 
part of all governments, federal and state, throughout our 
metropolitan areas, in our counties, among the tens of thou- 
sands of incorporated municipalities, not to mention the 
very substantial number of special district governments. 
Conspicuous examples of this are lands required by the 
federal interregional highway program supposedly equal in 
land area to all the currently occupied urban areas of the 
country today. There are civil airport requirements, greatly 
augmented by the advent of the Jet Age. 

So far I have not mentioned recreation. No reference 
has been made to a vastly expanding urban population, on 
which the spotlight is placed more and more frequently to- 
day in reference to nearly 180 metropolitan areas, the con- 
stellations of American cities in which practically all pop- 
ulation growth and urban expansion is currently taking 
place and is expected to continue occurring. 

Let us focus on these, where the land competition is more 
intense than anywhere else. Here are the high concentra- 
tions of people and the high concentrations of land-and- 



improvement values. In these places the struggle over who 
is to use what land for what purpose reaches its most intense 
form. 

Planning and the Recreation Program 

I see community planning figuring prominently among 
the approaches to the problem of managing and regulating 
competition for land that exists everywhere in our com- 
munities. The land requirements of all federal government 
agencies and of all the agencies and departments of the 
state governments are met and are served "on the ground," 
in one of the counties of these same states. In perhaps the 
overwhelming majority of cases, likewise within an in- 
corporated municipality those of the largest population 
and area down to some very small units indeed the federal 
and state government have no other place to go to acquire 
land for their purposes. 

This being a readily established fact, each of the local 
units of government should have an official plan to guide 
any growth, development, or land-use changes; as a device 
to enable it to have a basis upon which to negotiate, or 
arbitrate with an "outside public agency." Or it can simply 
be used as an aid in refereeing the question of how the 
city's land, over which the city or the county government 
has jurisdiction, representing its citizens, is to be used. The 
bulk of a community's land is, of course, privately owned 
land. The local government regulates its use and is charged 
with ensuring its continued usefulness and value, and its 
planning powers are for this purpose. 

Most of the metropolitan areas of the United States con- 
sist of a single county, one central city, plus a number of 
cities, towns, and villages of lesser importance. Metropoli- 
tan areas of the largest dimensions may comprise hundreds 
of local governments and thousands of square miles of 
land. Such an area is the Northeastern Illinois area. It 
can supply many suitable illustrations of the competition 
for land, which is fairly general, and which has its familiar 
aspects, locally. Chicago is the central city of the six-county 
Northeastern Illinois metropolitan area, now containing 
nearly six million people. It measures thirty-seven hundred 
square miles, or about a third the size of Holland, a country 
with twice this area's present population. 

In twenty years or less it is expected that three million 
people will be added to the present population of these six 
counties the equivalent of the population of Detroit and 
Cleveland. This new population will need a lot of housing; 
to go with the homes, we must build a lot of schools and 
hospitals; three millions more will take a lot of recreation 
area. The expanded metropolitan area will bring some ad- 
ditional heavy concentrations of traffic. 

A crude and oversimple way of graphically highlighting 
the competition for land ahead, in meeting the needs of an 
additional three million people, expected to be added in 
twenty years, might be so stated. Estimate the amount of 
land needed for: 
industrial expansion, likewise for commercial districts; 



JANUARY 1960 



37 



housing, and for community facilities that go with hous- 
ing such as schools, parks, recreation areas; 

municipal, county, state, and federal administrative serv- 
ices and institutional needs, found in all jurisdictions; 

all transportation needs, including freight railroads, com- 
muting services, highways, local streets, airports major 
and minor rights of way and easements for all utilities, 
waterways, all sorts of terminals, and parking; 

flood control and drainage, for water supply and waste 
disposal. 

Then add up these estimates, on the basis of measures 
and standards of land use applicable to each category of 
land, and allocate them to the total vacant land remaining 
in the metropolitan area. 

Crude and over-simple estimating and allocating of land 
by land-use categories or functions and in relation to time 
periods is, however, not the same thing as comprehensive 
planning for communities or metropolitan areas. It will 
not suffice to identify clearly and correctly the needs of 
groups of land users competitors for land including that 
representing recreation. Fortunately, the last quarter cen- 
tury, perhaps especially the last decade of it, has seen the 
development of improved ways of doing business in your 
field and mine and others. The changes have brought meas- 
ureable advances in public understanding and support both 
of the need to plan and program city and regional develop- 
ment, including recreation planning, from the local levels 
to the national ones, whichever level you start from. 

I should like to undertake to discuss, in somewhat more 
specific terms, some uses of the physical planning programs 
designated city planning and metropolitan planning. I will 
attempt to relate this general planning to recreation plan- 
ning at the municipal and metropolitan levels, adding a 
footnote or two on the planning of the resource-area type, 
which is becoming increasingly important to the broad na- 
tional picture of recreation. 

Making the Plans and Implementing Them 

City and recreation planning in San Francisco is a good 
example of city planning and one with which I am familiar 
because I was director of planning. The following good 
definition appears in Guide for Planning Recreation Parks 
in California : 

Master Plan or General Plan. A unified, long-range, com- 
prehensive, general (rather than detailed) scheme to guide 
the future physical development of a city, county, planning 
area, or metropolitan region. The plan designates official 
policy concerning the proposed general distribution and 
general location and extent of the uses of the land for hous- 
ing, business, industry, recreation, education, public build- 
ings and grounds, and other categories of public and private 
uses of land; it relates to the designated uses of the land, 
the general location and extent of existing and proposed ma- 
jor thoroughfares, transportation routes, terminals, and other 
major public utilities and facilities; and it establishes stand- 
ards of population density and building intensity for the 
various areas included in the territory covered by the plan. 
Integral with the plan are the maps, diagrams, charts, and 
descriptive matter necessary for its proper understanding. 

Working with the recreation and park department of 
San Francisco, the city-planning department first prepared 



a report on a plan for the location of parks and recreation 
areas in San Francisco. This report was the research basis 
of the adopted citywide recreation -park plan, an element of 
the city's master plan, directed toward the fulfillment of 
two major objectives: (1) the provision of areas for active 
and passive recreation for all age groups, equitably distrib- 
uted throughout the city; and (2) the protection, provision, 
and enhancement of areas of natural scenic beauty, and the 
provision of open landscaped areas equitably distributed 
throughout the city. The plan was adopted after public 
hearings and is being carried out. 

Implementation of the plan is aided by the six-year capi- 
tal improvement program, long in operation in that city. 
This provides that city departments annually submit their 
programs for six years ahead. Each project included is 
reported by the planning department as in conformity or 
not in conformity with the city plan. The city council relies 
upon these reports and rarely takes an action in opposition. 

Some Concluding Thoughts 

Recreation is very hard pressed in the present and con- 
tinuing competition for land. The recreation movement 
has millions upon millions of supporters. In the years and 
decades ahead recreation, like planning, must have clear 
objectives and effective leadership. The pros can be counted 
upon to work away as a dedicated group, to try hard to 
perform their technical and administrative functions and 
work assignments to the satisfaction of the public we serve. 
Far more important in meeting the challenge of the com- 
petition for land than those of us who have full-time ca- 
reers at these tasks is a well-informed citizenry, a strong, 
informed, and courageous lay leadership. This leadership 
should have specific programs to work for. Recreation pro- 
grams can be very tangible, can be made to lend themselves 
effectively to concerted campaigns to establish recreation's 
claims in this competition if official plans of the various 
jurisdictions have been competently prepared, officially 
adopted by their governments. Through such administra- 
tive leverage as is provided in the land-use plans, zoning, 
firm policies, and land-subdivision dedications or cash con- 
tributions, specified in state law and local ordinance, in 
capital improvement programing, through the use of public 
powers of acquisition (including excess condemnation), 
acquisition of easements and developments rights, the rec- 
reation program featured in such plans is kept clearly in 
public view and is integrated with official plans and annual 
appropriations of the public jurisdictions. 

The recreation program of the country, like the planning 
program, is moving steadily toward a more comprehensive 
approach now emerging in national, state, county, and mu- 
nicipal administration because it has everywhere a "related- 
ness" to all other aspects of city and regional development. 
There are abundant signs that this type of thinking is in- 
creasing its popular appeal, is widening its support, and 
is finding its way into program and into administration. 

Somewhat as an aside may I conclude by saying that \ our 
group and the one I have attempted to represent in these 
remarks should hang together, so that in the conipi-lition 
for land our competitors do not hang us separately. # 



38 



RECREATION 




There is always excitement at the monthly birthday party in the children's pavilion. 

Recreation Comes to Warm Springs 



OUTDOOR songfests, square 
dancing, Sunday afternoon band 
concerts, parties and other interesting 
activities are now a part of the fare for 
patients at the Georgia Warm Springs 
Foundation, for a recreation depart- 
ment was added to its medical services 
in January 1957. 

According to Clara S. Simon, recrea- 
tion director, individual bedside activi- 
ties are scheduled during the day to 
dovetail with the patient's treatment 
periods, and group activities in after- 
treatment hours evenings, weekends, 
and holidays. The program is designed 



to bring a normal atmosphere to an ab- 
normal situation. 

Staff and volunteers presenting the 
program have the use of a modern thea- 
ter, recreation room, outdoor facilities, 
and portable equipment. All activities 
are, of course, adapted to meet indi- 
vidual or group limitations. At the 
present, there is a marked increase in 
referrals from the medical staff for in- 
dividual, specialized recreation needs. 
These special needs stem from the fact 
that Warm Springs patients have a 
longer than average hospitalization 
(more than fifty-nine days) and/or 



some degree of emotional disturbance. 

In order to provide varied diversion 
for the patients and staff of this rather 
isolated foundation, the recreation de- 
partment sometimes schedules perform- 
ances of professional entertainment in 
the theater or, when weather permits, 
on the outdoor "campus," and sched- 
ules movies as well. 

After dismissal, nostalgic notes of 
appreciation are received from patients 
and parents; and there seems to be no 
doubt that the addition of this to the 
other services offered at Warm Springs 
has been more than justified. $: 



HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN 



MANY CHILDREN with handicaps 
are perplexed when they are 
rejected from participating in 
community recreation and social pro- 
grams provided for the nonhandicap- 
ped. They are rejected by leaders and 
''normal" youngsters, either because of 
iheir handicap or inability to partici- 
pate in existing programs. 

The Baltimore Hearing Society be- 
came particularly concerned about the 
need for accepting hearing-impaired 
children in camp, Scout, and recrea- 
tion programs. In April 1955, after 
approval of the need by a Baltimore 
Council of Social Agencies' study and 
with the financial support of the Com- 
munity Chest, the society began a five- 
year demonstration recreation project 
for the purpose of integrating deaf, 
hard-of-hearing, and aphasic children 
with hearing youngsters, in camping, 

JANUARY 1960 



scouting, and recreation activities. 

The demonstration project has just 
completed its third year; at present 
more than one hundred children are 
participating with hearing youngsters. 
Camp, Scout, and recreation personnel, 
once informed of the important need 
for these children who have severe au- 
ditory and language disorders to be- 
come part of the hearing world, have 
performed an outstanding service by 
including them in existing programs. 

For many of these one hundred chil- 
dren, the recreation therapist of the 
society has established "readiness" pro- 
grams that were conducted in the heallli 
agency setting. These programs were 
designed to teach children basic rec- 
reation and related communication 
skills, either individually or in a group. 
Once these skills were learned and the 
society staff had a thorough knowledge 



of the children's capabilities, they were 
placed in existing community recre- 
ation and camping activities. 

The society, at this time, believes 
strongly that the project should become 
a community program, which would 
serve not only the hearing-impaired, 
but all children with handicaps. It is 
convinced, however, that a recreation 
therapist should become a permanent 
member of the society staff. Such a staff 
member should also be included in other 
health agencies to provide the neces- 
sary "readiness" programs so children 
with handicaps will be afforded the nec- 
cessary preparation before moving into 
their respective communities to parti- 
cipate with the nonhandicapped. 
RALPH DOMBRO, of the Baltimore Hear- 
ing Society in the third annual report, 
Hearing-Impaired Children in Recrea- 
tion and Camping Programs. 

39 



RESEARCH 




REVIEWS AND ABSTRACTS 



Assistance Needed for Research Project 

As every recreation professional person knows, there are 
no instruments now available that can predict an indivi- 
dual's potential in recreation leadership. It is the purpose 
of this research project to identify traits of successful rec- 
reation leaders and to develop instruments useful to rec- 
reation administrators in hiring personnel, to colleges and 
universities, which are training leaders, to directors of 
in-service training programs, in better diagnosing the needs 
of their employees, and to guidance counselors in helping 
youth to decide whether the recreation profession is for 
them. The help of the entire profession is needed to under- 
take successfully a research project to develop these pre- 
dictive measurement instruments. 

To develop job applicant screening tests, municipal de- 
partments are needed, willing to administer a short-form 
test to job applicants and then, later, rate on a scale pro- 
vided, the quality of work of the applicants employed and 
indicate why others were not employed. 

Hospital recreation departments may help by conducting 
an exploratory aptitude inventory among their employees 
and rating the quality of leadership of each. After analysis 
of the exploratory form to determine traits significant for 
success, additional aid will be needed as described for 
municipal departments. 

To make possible a longitudinal study designed to deter- 
mine traits of potentially successful recreation leaders at 
various stages in their preparation, colleges and universi- 
ties with major programs are needed to minister a battery 
of tests to their freshmen and secure high-school informa- 
tion ; administer in the senior year the same battery to these 
same majors and secure college academic and extracurricu- 
lar information; and aid in follow-up of such majors after 
they have been on the job several years, administering the 
same battery, securing information on community activities, 
and obtaining a quality rating of their work. 

To work on keys for present vocational tests and explore 
other possibilities, persons interested in research and in 
undertaking other phases of the study are needed; there 
are some good thesis and dissertation topics available. Self- 
attitude tests, Q-technique, forced-choice tests, and other 
methods of success determination need to be explored for 
the recreation field. Perhaps you are already working in 
this field; we would be happy to hear about it. 

To finance the costs of printing, mailing, and statistical 
analysis, foundations and persons interested in the advance- 
ment of the profession through research are also encour- 
eged to participate in this project. 

Anyone interested in helping or who has suggestions 



about this project is encouraged to write codirectors Dr. 
Shirley Kammeyer, Sacramento State College, Sacramento, 
California, or Dr. Betty van der Smissen, State University 
of Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa. 

Citizens Advisory Committees Useful 

A study of practices of Citizens Advisory Committees 
in Public Recreation was conducted by Laura J. Weckwerth 
as a partial requirement for a master's degree at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. The study was confined to recreation 
committees in school and recreation departments in the 
New York Metropolitan region. One of the major findings 
was that, in spite of the difficulties encountered in their 
relationships with the committees, almost all recreation ex- 
ecutives and committee chairmen said they anticipated con- 
tinued use of the citizens advisory committees. 

The major recommendations that grew out of the study 
follow : 

1. An adequate written policy statement should be es- 
tablished for the committee, reviewed frequently, and agreed 
upon and clearly understood by all concerned. 

2. The board's responsibility ought also to be clearly 
understood. The board should either accept the advice of 
the committee and act upon it or explain why it has not. 

3. New members should be formally oriented to the com- 
mittee. 

4. The committee's work should be periodically evaluated 
in terms of its objectives. 

5. More time could profitably be spent in committee 
meetings on policy discussion so the committee could give 
careful and valuable counsel, recommendations, and infor- 
mation to the appointive board and the executive. 

6. The recreation executive interested in having an ef- 
fective citizens advisory committee must devote the nec- 
essary amount of time and effort to doing his part and ought 
to familiarize himself with the principles and practices of 
effective committee operation. 

National Forests and Their Recreation Resources 

The United States Forest Service has published a \vork 
plan for its survey of the outdoor recreation resources of 
national forests. The survey is directed toward obtaining 
the information needed in planning the recreation aspects 
of its own program, but much of the information obtained 
will also be useful to the Outdoor Recreation Resources 
Review Commission. 

Five separate tasks are to be accomplished in making the 
study : 

1. Projections of future demand for recreation on the 



40 



RECREATION 



national forests will be developed for the base years 1966, 
1976, and 2000. 

2. Converting factors will be developed so that recrea- 
tion demand in visits and visitor-days can be expressed in 
acres, sites, areas, or resource requirements needed to ac- 
commodate satisfactorily the projected demand for recre- 
ation on the national forests. , 

3. An inventory will be made to determine the amount, 
kind, quality, and location of available and suitable recre- 
ation lands administered by the Forest Service and usable 
waters related thereto. 

4. National forest recreation resources and opportunities 
located and described by the inventory will be compared 
with projected demands to determine how the suitable and 
available lands can be best utilized to serve anticipated 
needs by the years 1976 and 2000; also to what extent the 
recreation resources can provide for the different kinds of 
recreation demands in those years. 

5. Present policies and programs will be reviewed in the 
light of the study findings and recommendations will be 
made for a recreation program to include : ( 1 ) modification 
of present policies or adoption of new policies for the pro- 
tection and administration of the outdoor recreation re- 
sources; (2) developments and services needed, with es- 
timated costs, to meet the projected recreation demands in 
1976 and 2000; (3) research needs in the recreation field; 
and (4) procedure for keeping the recreation view current 
in the future. Work Plan for National Forest Recreation 
Study, August 1959. 

Use of Schools for Community Recreation 

In the report A Study of Recreation in Kentucky, pre- 
pared by Charlie Vettiner, the reluctance of some school 
principals to permit school buildings to be used for recrea- 
tion by community groups is discussed. Mr. Vettiner re- 
ports that a survey made by the principals of 23 schools in 
Jefferson County, following the close of the winter program, 
revealed that 164,098 men, women, and children had used 
the buildings and that damage amounted to $82.50 or an 
average of $3.44 per center. This damage was not paid for 
by the school board but by the community recreation com- 
mittees. 

New Center for Urban Studies 

A Joint Center for Urban Studies has been established 
by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard 
University through a grant of $675,000 from the Ford 
Foundation for the initial financing of the center's program. 
The aim of the project, according to President Stratton of 
MIT, is "to establish an international center for advanced 
research, for documentation, and for stimulating interuni- 
versity efforts and collaboration in the urban field." It is 
designed to serve as a center with extensive research op- 
portunities for eminent scholars on the faculties of the two 
institutions. 

Among the problems of initial interest to the Joint Center 
are comparative analyses of cities; urban growth and struc- 
ture; methods of public and private control over urban 
change; social values and the community; urban design; 



and decision making and the planning process in metropoli- 
tan communities. The principal responsibility of the center 
will be basic research, the findings of which will be made 
available through published materials. Professor Martin 
Meyerson, Williams Professor of City Planning and Urban 
Research, and director of Harvard's present Center for Ur- 
ban Studies, has been appointed director of the joint center. 
Another project, involving a $900,000 grant by the Ford 
Foundation, is making possible the preparation of a com- 
prehensive development program for eleven counties in 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Parks and rec- 
reation comprise one of the aspects of the survey project, 
which is known as Penjerdel. 

Physical Education Facilities in Schools 

A bulletin entitled Physical Education in Early Elemen- 
tary Schools, issued in 1959 by the United States Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, reports on the 
status of physical education for elementary-school-age chil- 
dren in city school systems. This information is based upon 
replies received from 532 school systems, representing a 
total of 12,217 schools. In view of the increasing use of 
the school plant for community recreation, the following 
findings are of special interest. 

Of the 12,217 elementary school buildings, 6,584, or 54 
percent, are reported to have excellent or adequate gym- 
nasiums or playrooms. Of this number 34 percent are gym- 
nasiums and 20 percent playrooms. Indoor swimming pools 
are found in 110 of the schools, or less than one percent of 
the total; 50 percent of these are located in schools in the 
eastern district. 

Five thousand nine hundred school sites, or 48 percent 
of the total, provide excellent or adequate all-weather play 
area; 47 percent have a basketball court, 14 percent a 
baseball field, 53 percent a Softball field, 24 percent a soccer 
field, 44 percent a volleyball court. Only four percent, or 
466 schools, include tennis courts. Less than 25 percent 
of the school sites have such developmental equipment as 
horizontal bars and ladders. 

Forty-nine percent of the school systems reporting in- 
dicated that community facilities are used to obtain more 
adequate space for physical education; 84 percent of them 
state that physical education facilities are used by the com- 
munity in out-of-school hours during the school year and 
63 percent that school physical education facilities are used 
by the community during vacation periods. 

Copies of the bulletin are available from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, United States Government Printing 
Office, Washington 25, D. C., for forty-five cents each. 

On the Ball 

According to a release from the National Golf Founda- 
tion, golf courses of all types increased in number from 
4,901 in 1948 to 5,745 in 1958. During this ten-year period 
the population of the United States increased by 19 percent 
whereas the total number of golfers playing at least ten 
rounds a year increased by nearly 45 percent. Total golf 
equipment sales, based on factory selling prices, increased 
by 98.5 percent during this ten-year period. The Golf 
Beat, Julv 1959. 



JANUARY 1960 



41 



NOTES 



for the 
Administrator 



Maintenance of Community Quality 

Some two hundred public officials and citizens represent- 
ing communities in Westchester County, New York, met 
with the county executive to discuss "Local and County 
Responsibilities for Public Recreation." Dr. Sal J. Prezi- 
oso, superintendent of the County Recreation Commission, 
set the tone for the meeting when he said: 

Here in Westchester County neither county gov- 
ernment nor any of the local communities can af- 
ford to go it alone on matters pertaining to recrea- 
tion planning and administration. Neither can we 
in this day and age properly and effectively do our 
work via the long-distance lines of communica- 
tion. 

Commenting on the need for acquiring and planning 
areas Hugh R. Pomeroy, county planning director, stated: 
Provision of land for parks and recreation has 
an importance to the community well beyond the 
value of the land for the particular park or recrea- 
tion function to which it is assigned, in that this 
land constitutes part of the open space of the com- 
munity. The maintenance of community quality 
and the protection of property values depend in 
substantial degree, and in increasing measure, on 
the provision of ample areas of open space. 
To repeat something that we have often said, it 
is the land that is off the tax rolls for community 
purposes that is responsible for most of the values 
that are on the tax rolls. Open space as such, 
where it contributes to the maintenance of com- 
munity quality, in accordance with comprehensive 
community planning, falls in this category. 
County population is outstripping park acquisition in 
Westchester County as in many other metropolitan areas. 
Charles E. Pound, county park superintendent, stated that 
between 1922 and 1932 approximately seventeen thousand 
acres of land were acquired for county park and parkway 
purposes, or an average of 18.6 acres per 1,000 population. 
Today this acreage represents only 12.6 acres per one 
thousand persons. Constant increase, however, was reported 
in the park attendance and in the use of special facilities, 
such as golf courses. 

William L. Foley, president of the County Recreation 
Executives Association, commented on the degree to which 
localities have fallen behind in their capital projects. He 
added: 

It may very well be that if recreation on the local 
level continues to find itself on the bottom of the 
priority list we will have to look to the county gov- 
ernment for the facilities we need. 

Edward Michaelian, county executive, outlined the fol- 
lowing pressing problems in the county that he considered 
resulted from a lack of continuing communication between 

42 



county and local officials responsible for recreation plan- 
ning and policy making: 

Development of better coordination between 
county and local park, planning, and recreation 
officials; realization that local and county govern- 
ment retain present park and recreation lands as 
well as acquire additional lands for future devel- 
opment, as indicated by growth factors; a need 
for officials to set aside sufficient funds for capital 
projects required to meet future plans and to make 
budgetary provision therefor; a reappraisal of our 
overall recreation policies relating to the responsi- 
bilities of local and county government: collab- 
oration in developing an overall recreation master 
plan in each of the communities and for the 
county, including the integration of local plans 
into the master plan ; finally, adoption of a sound 
policy of public relations. 

In conclusion, he strongly urged that local and county 
officials concerned with recreation continue to meet fre- 
quently and understand mutual recreation interests. 

Golf Courses in Subdivisions 

The recreation, esthetic, and economic values resulting 
from a golf course planned as a part of a large residential 
development are pointed out as follows in a bulletin pub- 
lished by the Urban Land Institute of Washington, D. C.: 
The golf course is an asset to the real estate sub- 
division in many ways. Its aesthetic qualities not 
only heighten the initial value of the land immedi- 
ately adjacent to and in the general vicinity of the 
course, but also tend to maintain heightened prop- 
erty values and to stabilize them over a long pe- 
riod of time. Because of this linkage between resi- 
dential lots and a golf course, the course creates 
additional value for such lots and increases their 
marketability. This increased value has been esti- 
mated at approximately $2,000 for an average lot. 

How to Obtain Additional Revenue 

Park and recreation authorities are continually seeking 
additional sources of revenue in order to meet increasing 
demand for recreation facilities and services. Hialeah, Flor- 
ida, for example, has approved capital improvements for 
parks and playgrounds to cover a four-year period, the ex- 
pense to be met through a five percent utility tax. Sanford. 
Florida, has completed two new facilities: a new civic center 
with youth wing and a Negro swimming pool paid for 
through a bond issue to be retired from power franchise 
receipts (see RECREATION, December 1959, Page 436, for 
photograph and further information regarding the cine 
center) . Among the many facilities recently constructed in 
Fort Lauderdale. Florida, are two contemporary apparatus 
areas installed with the help of two local civic groups. 

A small community near Yakima. Washington, has an 
unusual method of raising funds to help meet the cost of 
operating a community building. All of the farmers in the 
area agreed to donate the apples from one of their trees: 
the people pick and sell the apples and turn the money over 
to the building fund. # 

RECREATION 



LISTENINQ AND VIEWINQ 

A Group Picture Program 
for Neuropsychiatric Patients 



Most hospital libraries sponsor group 
programs for neuropsychiatric patients 
with the aim of stimulating use of the 
library and thus aiding the resocializa- 
tion of patients. Various programs have 
been developed, such as discussions, 
reading aloud, contests, and showing of 
films, filmstrips. and slides. 

When such a program was initiated 
at the Veterans Administration Hospi- 
tal. Leech Farm Road, Pittsburgh, in 
February 1956, the use of filmstrips 
and slides was decided upon as best 
suited to the needs of the patients, and 
most adaptable to the schedule. Sixteen 
groups of closed-ward patients made a 
weekly visit to the library, for a one- 
hour period. Some liked all such pro- 
grams and took seats near the screen as 
soon as they entered the library ; others 
participated only in those of interest to 
them. 

In order not to disturb readers, the 
program was held in one corner of the 
library where blinds are drawn and 
lights turned out. A librarian operated 
the projector, commented on the pic- 
tures, and asked questions. At first, a 
comprehensive coverage of the subject 
was attempted, but comments pertain- 
ing to each individual picture proved 
more effective. Whenever the subject of 
a program is a geographic area, the 
librarian inquired whether anyone pres- 
ent was familiar with it and invited him 
to participate. 

Books on the subject under discus- 
sion were first displayed on a peg board 
near the screen. However, as patients 
seemed reluctant to disturb displays, 
even when urged to do so, such material 
was then displayed on a library table 
and thus used more freely. Books on 
display during this period were avail- 
able for loan the succeeding week. 

Each program was held for one week 
for all wards, but comments were modi- 
fied to meet patients' needs. They were 
simplified for regressed patients and 
made more complex for the ones in 
good contact. 

Most patients spoke up whenever one 



aspect of the program interested them. 
During a showing of the filmstrip Moby 
Dick, patients asked about the length 
of time a whale can stay under water, 
whether it is true that a whale can de- 
stroy a wooden ship, and whether there 
is international cooperation in the whal- 
ing industry. A patient seeing slides of 
government buildings in Washington, 
D. C., became interested in Greek archi- 
tecture and spent a library period read- 
ing about it. During a showing of the 
filmstrip Japan Today, the librarian 
stated that Japan ranks next to Great 
Britain as the world's largest shipbuild- 
er. A patient who had, until then, re- 
mained silent, questioned this statement 
and was induced to consult reference 
books. Another patient did not react 
to a filmstrip about the national forests 
until he saw a picture of a ranger using 
a surveying instrument to determine the 
exact location of a forest fire. He re- 
marked that he had used a similar in- 
strument as a member of a tank crew. 
He then read up on surveying instru- 
ments for two succeeding library peri- 
ods. One who had never previously 
participated in a program, volunteered 
to identify American and foreign states- 
men during a showing of The U.S. and 
Its Alliances. 

Two programs utilizing slides and 
filmstrips of animals were among the 
most successful. Many patients partici- 
pated for the first time, identifying ani- 
mals, making comments, and asking 
questions. One patient displayed an 
amazing knowledge of birds and was 
complimented on it. Since then he has 
been persuaded to borrow books on the 
outdoors occasionally. During a pro- 
gram about New York, the discussion 
became so lively that the librarian 
found it best not to speak at all and 
limited himself to operating the pro- 
jector. 

A good many filmstrips are produced 
for use in schools, and manuals are 
supplied with them so some of the facts 
needed for presenting a program are 



easily available. However, it takes some 
effort to formulate comments that will 
arouse interest and also to decide on 
the proper time to make them. 

During a showing of a filmstrip Port 
of New York, the best chance to men- 
tion the Dutch origin of some street 
names occurred when a photo of a 
Dutch engraving of New Amsterdam 
was shown. The librarian remarked 
that New York was already quite large 
at that time and then explained how 
Broadway and Wall Street were named. 
When a picture of a crane operator at 
one of the wharves was shown, it was 
mentioned that one out of eight persons 
living in New York earns his livelihood 
in shipping or allied occupations. When 
a picture of an ocean liner was on the 
screen, the librarian stated that every 
twenty-two minutes a ship leaves or en- 
ters New York harbor. 

It is essential to avoid a schoolroom 
atmosphere, as many neuropsychiatric 
patients are oversensitive and tend to 
resent anyone not treating them as in- 
telligent adults. Therefore, the librarian 
must be very careful making comments 
and go out of his way in showing a will- 
ingness to be contradicted or corrected. 

Once the projector, screen, and a 
small stock of filmstrips and slides had 
been purchased, the cost of the program 
proved slight as the bulk of the material 
used is lent, free of charge, by the Penn- 
sylvania State Library. The New York 
Times filmstrips on current affairs are 
purchased on a subscription basis, and 
a small number of newly published film- 
strips are bought occasionally. While 
the service given by the Pennsylvania 
State Library is excellent and could not 
be improved upon, it is necessary to 
own a small stock of material and not 
depend entirely on loans. There are 
occasional obstacles, such as ordering 
an unsuitable filmstrip, based on an un- 
clear title, or a shipment may be delayed 
in the mail. 

While group programs have not 
greatly augmented circulation, they 
have led to a considerable increase in 
use of library books. They have stimu- 
lated interest, induced many patients to 
speak up in a group situation, and 
helped them in their resocialization. 
HENRY DREIFUSS, chief librarian, Vet- 
erans Administration Hospital, 408 
First Avenue, New York 10. 



JANUARY 1960 



43 



MARKET 




NEWS 



For further information regarding 
any of these products, write directly 
to the manufacturer. Please mention 
that you saw it in RECREATION. 

Jean Wachtel 





A small, silent, automatic 
night electronic watchman has 
been developed by Energy Kon- 
trols to protect buildings and 
property from vandals and 
prowlers at night. The Protect- 
0-Lite is an automatic light- 
control switch activated by the 
presence or absence of light, 

turning on electric power or lights at night and off at dawn. 
Requiring no installation or maintenance, it is almost ideal 
for guarding recreation buildings and installations, com- 
munity centers, and the like. You simply plug into a power 
outlet with the photoelectric eye facing the outside natural 
light. Weighing less than twelve ounces, the Protect-0-Lite 
is 3"-by-2 1 /2 / '-by-l", comes with 6-foot cord and plug, uti- 
lizes 110-125 volts AC with 600-watt capacity. Direct all 
inquiries to Vernon Wiberg, Energy Kontrols, Inc., 11 
South First Street, Geneva, Illinois. 

A tamperproof, vandalproof 
lighting fixture for public build- 
ings and areas has been devel- 
oped to accommodate up to two 
100-watt A lamps in its double 
14-gauge steel housing. Theft 
and vandalism are prevented by 
steel mesh welded to the outer 
housing to protect the Corning 
fresnel lens and by spanner-head 

screws requiring a special screwdriver for access to the 
lamps. Other safety features include seating the lens in a 
shock-absorbing foam-rubber gasket, a fiberglass insulation 
between fixture and ceiling, and a safety chain to hold the 
outer steel housing to the inner housing to facilitate re- 
lamping. For further details write Light & Power Utilities 
Corporation. 1035 Firestone Boulevard, Memphis, Tennes- 
see. 

The flow of new plastic materials continues virtually un- 
abated one of the newer ones being Plastic Mastic, which 
can perform practically any repair job. This epoxy-poly- 
amide compound has proved practical and economical for 
repairing floors, walls, ceilings, driveways, curbs, masonry, 
bricks, machinery, fixtures, tanks, pipes, plumbing, furni- 
ture. It also fills leaks, breaks, holes, and cracks ; is perman- 
ently effective with almost every known material: concrete, 
metals, wood, ceramics, glass, rubber, cloth, paper products, 
and most plastics. Application is easy and curing time de- 
pends on room heat. At room temperature, cured Plastic- 
Mastic is hard to the touch in four hours, can be walked on 
in eight. This reaction time can be speeded by applying 
heat. The compound is nonflammable, contains no volatile 
solvents, and has almost no irritation potential. For com- 
plete information about the Plastic Mastic General Repair 
Kit, which comes in several sizes, write Williamson Adhe- 




sives. Inc., 8220 Kimball Avenue, Skokie, Illinois. 

Slipping and falling on stairs are always a hazard in large 
public buildings, such as recreation and community centers, 
school buildings used for recreation, and the like. A slip- 
proof stair tread has been designed having a flat, abrasive 
surface that provides a sure grip when the foot touches each 
step. The Super Stairmaster, made of heavy-duty aluminum 
with a special abrasive formula bonded in, has passed oil 
and grease tests more severe than those encountered in most 
factories and packing plants. Treads are nine inches wide 
with beveled back and fit all steps up to thirteen inches wide, 
length to twelve feet as required. A deep l^s" nose of heavy 
aluminum extends over the edge of the step to protect the 
face. Treads are simply fastened down with screws on wood 
steps or on masonry steps with screws and lead expansion 
shields. For bulletin containing complete information on 
these treads and the repair of worn stairs, write Wooster 
Products, Inc.. M-R Division, 1000 Spruce Street, Wooster, 
Ohio. 

The Castello Fencing Equipment Company, long known 
for its fencing equipment, has recently been appointed ex- 
clusive agent and distributor in the United States for Pigeon- 
brand Judo uniforms. These uniforms are recommended by 
Kodokan. the officially recognized organization supervising 
Judo activities in Japan. Castello will stock them in five 
sizes I by weight) and by color (color signifying degree of 
experience). They are of championship weight with coats 
made of double-hollow weave (reinforced) cotton and the 
pants and belts of single drill fabric. Write Castello Judo 
Equipment Company, 30 East 10th Street, New York 3. 

The versatility of wall-hung 
fixtures is now available in a 
water cooler, to accommodate 
various age-group heights and 
to keep floors free of clutter 
where desired or required. Tin- 
compact On-A-Wall Oasis \sa- 
ter cooler is mounted directly 
on the wall, comes in seven- 
and thirteen-gallon capacities. 
Among its features are a plas- 
tic vinyl laminate finish on 20- 
gauge steel, removable front 
panel and grille, mirror-poli-li- \ 
ed stainless steel top, with anti- 
splash ridge; wall protector 
back extending 8^2" above! 
bottom of basin; Dial-A-Drink bubbler and provision for 
glass filler. Mounting bracket and template are provided 
Accessories include glass fillers, special masonry wall liaiiii- 
er, and special bracket for framed construction. Further 
details can be had from The Ebco Manufacturing Company. 
265 North Hamilton Road. Columbus 13. Ohio. 




44 



RECREATION 



INDEX OF ADVERTISERS 



American Playground Device Company 



Page 



Baltimore, Maryland, Board of Recreation 
and Parks Inside Back Cover 

Chicago Roller Skates Back Cover 

Exposition Press _ 45 

The FLXIBLE Company _ 4 

Gold Medal Products Company 6 
Harper & Brothers ... _ Inside Back Cover 

Institutional Cinema Service, Inc. _ _ 9 

James Spencer & Company 6 

Jaytro Athletic Supply Company 5 

Kabat Art & Crafts, Inc. . 9 



MacGregor Company 
Mason Candies, Inc. 
Monroe Company 



National Sports .. 45 

National Studios 5 

Story, Craft and Song Service 6 

Stroblite Company .45 

Superior Industries Corporation 

Inside Back Cover 

T. F. Twardiik & Company 4 

U. S. Defense Bonds ... _ Inside Front Cover 

U. S. Table Tennis Association 5 

Wenger Music Equipment Company 6 



iMATj 

BASI 

A 



AL 




AM 



370 NORTH MARQUETTE, FOND DU LAC, WIS J 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 



RATES: Words in regular type $.15 each 
Words in boldface type $.25 each 
Minimum ad accepted .... $3.00 



DEADLINES: Copy must be received by 
the fifth of the month preceding date of 
the issue in which ad is desired. 



COPY: Type or clearly print your message and the address to which you wish 
replies sent. Underline any words you want to appear in boldface type. 

Send copy with remittance to: 
RECREATION Classified Advertising, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 



HELP WANTED 

Recreation Therapists 

for California State Hospi- 
tals. Opportunity to plan 
and conduct individual pa- 
tient recreation as well as 
special group activities; 

The publisher assumes 



modern equipment and fa- 
cilities available. Positions 
open to college graduates 
with major in recreation or 
recreation therapy, which 
included supervised field 
work. No experience re- 
no responsibility for services or 



quired. Starting salary 
$415.00 per month; promo- 
tional opportunities; liber- 
al employment benefits. 
Write State Personnel 
Board, 801 Capitol Avenue, 
Sacramento, California. 

items advertised here. 



Free to WRITERS 

seeking a book publisher 

Two fact-filled, illustrated brochures tell how 
1 to publish your book, get 40% royalties, na- 
tional advertising, publicity and promotion. 
Free editorial appraisal. Write Dept. R-l 

Exposition Press / 386 4th Ave, N..Y. 16 



Eliminate Gate-Crashers 

"Invisible" HAND STAMPING INKS 
seen only under BLACKLIGHT Lamps 

The modern RE-ADMISSION system. Foolproof tow- 
cost Simple For fairs, dance-halls, beaches, etc. 
Complete Kits from $29. 
Send for Free Catalog. 

STROBLITE CO. Dept. R, 75 W. 45th St., N.Y.C. 36 



Congress Proceedings will be ready in 

January, I960, price $3.50. 
Order your copy immediately. 




BINDERS 



Heavy simulated leather 
Gold stamped 



Opens flat for changes 

Holds one year's issues 



New Price 
$3.50 each 

(Includes 12 blades) 

[Extra sets of looped rods available 
separately for $.65 per set] 



RECREATION MAGAZINE 

8 West Eighth Street 

New York 11, N. Y. 1959 

This is my order for copies 196 

of the RECREATION magazine binder. undated 



PLEASE FILL IN 
Year Number of Copies 



Name 

Address.. 

City 

Bill 



.; or enclosed.. 



571 



ANUARY 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



.J 
45 



Periodicals 



FOLK Music GUIDE USA, 110 MacDougal St., 
New York 12. Ten issues annually, $.15 per 
copy, $1.00 per year. 

IDEAS UNLIMITED ("Odds-N-Ends" Projects). 
Shulman-Graff Inc., 5865 N. Lincoln Ave., 
Chicago 45. Ten issues annually; $.25 per 
copy, $2.00 per year. 



Books & Pamphlets 
Received 



Magazine Articles 



THE AMERICAN CHILD, November 1959. 

Industry Programs for Youth. 
ARTS AND ACTIVITIES, November 1959. 

Special Crafts Issue. 
CHALLENGE, November 1959. 

Leisure, an Economic Fact of Life, Ray- 
mond D. Buteux. 
PARENTS', December 1959. 

Telling the Christmas Story, Harriet D. 

Pennington. 
Ground Rules for Teenage Parties, Eric W . 

Johnson. 

Holiday Crafts for the Very Young, Wini- 
fred Bryan Homer. 
SAFETY EDUCATION, December 1959. 

It's All in the Game, Helen Manley. 
SWIMMING POOL ACE, November 1959. 
Two Municipal Pools, George T. Bell. 
Tacoma's "Grading System" Turns Out 

Skilled Swimmers, Thomas W. Lantz. 
TODAY'S HEALTH, December 1959. 

Everybody's Square Dancing, James C. G. 
Conniff. 



Recordings 



Activity Book-Record Sets: 

LET'S LOOK AT GREAT PAINTINGS (10-inch 
33 1/3-rpm record, eight full-color paint- 
ings, and manual) ; AN INTRODUCTION TO 
BALLET (two 10-inch 33 1/3-rpm records, 
and manual), narrated by Katherine Ser- 
gava; LET'S PUT ON A PLAY (10-inch 
33 1/3-rpm record, manual, and script for 
seven plays). $4.95 each. Ottenheimer: 
Publishers, 4805 Nelson Ave., Baltimore 
15, Md. 

Honor Your Partner: 

Albums 14 and 15 of square dance series 
by Ed Durlacher. Each album contains 
four 12-inch, 78-rpm records. $12.00 per 
album. Square Dance Associates, 33 S. 
Grove St., Freeport, New York. 

Tradition Records: 

CHILDREN'S SONGS, Ed McCurdy (TLP 
1027), $4.98; ODETTA SINGS BALLADS AND 
BLUES (TLP 1010), $4.98; TRADITION FOLK 
SAMPLER (TSP-1), $2.00. All 12-inch, 
33 1/3-rpm. Tradition Records, Box 72, 
Village Station, New York 14. 



Administration, Personnel 

ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY, Daniel E. Griffith. 
Appleton-Century-Crofts, 35 W. 32nd St., 
New York 1. Pp. 123. Paper, $1.95. 

ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS MADE EASY, John 
Donald Peel. Chilton Co., 56th & Chestnut 
Sts., Philadelphia 39. Pp. 318. $5.00. 

AUTOMATION: Its Impact on Business and 
Labor, John Diebold. National Planning 
Association, 1606 New Hampshire, N.W., 
Washington 9, D. C., Pp. 64. Paper, $1.00. 

CITY EXPENDITURES IN THE UNITED STATES, 
Harvey E. Brazer. National Bureau of Eco- 
nomic Research, 261 Madison Ave., New 
York 16. Pp. 82. Paper, $1.50. 

COMMUNITY FACILITIES PLAN for Lakeland, 
Florida, Parks & Recreation. Planning & 
Zoning Department, Lakeland, Fla. Pp. 36. 
Paper, $1.10. 

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION IN ACTION, Ernest 
B. Harper & Arthur Dunham, Editors. As- 
sociation Press, 291 Broadway, New York 7. 
Pp. 543. $7.50. 

EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES, Alida H. Hisle, 
Editor. Association for Childhood Educa- 
tion International, 1200 5th St., N.W., Wash- 
ington 5, D. C. Pp. 93. Paper, $1.50. 

GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 
The Quest for Responsible Performance. 
John D. Millett. McGraw-Hill. 330 W. 42nd 
St., New York 36. Pp. 484. $7.95. 

INTRODUCTION TO GROUP DYNAMICS, Malcolm 
& 1 1 ul. la Knowles. Association Press, 291 
Broadway, New York 7. Pp. 95. $2.50. 

LEARNING TO WORK IN GROUPS, Matthew B. 
Miles. Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York 27. Pp. 285. $5.00. 

MANAGEMENT OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING (Pro- 
ceedings of Institute of Training Officers 
Conference). Benjamin J. Ludwig, 2113 
Conover PI., Alexandria, Va. Pp. 46. Pa- 
per, $1.00. 

MANAGEMENT'S MISSION IN A NEW SOCIETY, 
Dan H. Fenn, Editor. McGraw-Hill, 330 W. 
42nd St., New York 36. Pp. 345. $6.00. 

PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION: Evaluation and 
Executive Control, James H. Taylor. Mc- 
Graw-Hill, 330 W. 42nd St., New York 36. 
Pp.326. $7.00. 

PUBI.IC PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION, Felix A. 
Nigro. Henry Holt, 383 Madison Ave., New 
York 17. Pp. 499. $7.00. 

REVENUE BONDS FOR STATE PARK AND REC- 
REATION AREA DEVELOPMENT, 1959, Ernest 
E. Allen. National Conference on State 
Parks, 901 Union Trust Bldg., Washington 
5, D.C. Pp.93. Paper, $1.00. 

SUMMARY OF PUBLIC USE AND PROJECT DATA: 
Civil Works. Corps of Engineers, Dept. of 
the Army, Washington 25, D.C. Pp. 4. Free. 

USER-RESOURCE RECREATION PLANNING METH- 
OD, A. National Advisory Council on Re- 
gional Recreation Planning, Hidden Valley, 
Loomis, Calif. Pp. 80. Paper, $2.00. 

TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT 1958-1959. State 
Division of Recreation, Department of Na- 
tural Resources, 722 Capitol Ave., Room 
3076, Sacramento 14, Calif. Pp. 70. Free. 

Audio-Visual 

ADMINISTERING AUDIO-VISUAL SERVICES, Arl- 



ton W. H. Erickson. Macmillan Co., 60 5th 
Ave., New York 11. Pp. 477. $6.95. 

A-V INSTRUCTION: Materials and Methods, 
James W. Brown, Richard B. Lewis and 
Fred F. Harcleroad. McGraw-Hill, 330 W. 
42nd St., New York 36. Pp. 554. $7.95. 

DO-!T- YOURSELF FLANNELCRAPH LESSONS, Syl- 
via M. Mattson. Zondervan Publishing, 
1415 Lake Dr., S.E., Grand Rapids 6, Mich. 
Pp.31. $.50. 

EDUCATORS GUIDE TO FREE FILMS. 19th An- 
nual Ed. 1959, Mary Foley Horkheimer and 
John W. Diffor, Editors. Educators Prog- 
ress Service, Randolph, Wis. Pp. 639. Pa- 
per, $7.00. 

GUIDE TO FREE FILMSTRIPS, 1959, Mary Foley 
Horkheimer and John W. Diffor, Editors. 
Educators Progress Service, Randolph, Wis. 
Pp. 190. Paper, $6.00. 

PICTORIAL HISTORY OF TELEVISION, A, Daniel 
Blum. Chilton Company, 56th & Chestnut 
Sts., Philadelphia 39. Pp. 288. $10.00. 

TAPE RECORDER IN THE CLASSROOM, THE, Julia 
Mellenbruch, Editor. Visual Instruction 
Bureau, University of Texas, Austin 12. Pp. 1 
67. Paper, $2.00. 

Sports, Physical Education 

EDUCATION THROUGH PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES 
(3rd ed.), Pattric R. O'Keefe and Anita] 
Aldrich. C. V. Mosby, 3207 Washington 
Blvd., St. Louis 3. Pp. 377. $4.50. 

FOOTBALL MADE EASY, George Young. Sport- 
shelf, P. 0. Box 634, New Rochelle, N.Y.J 
Pp. 124. $3.75. 

GLORY OF SAIL, THE. Frank and Keith Beken. 
John deGraff, 31 E. 10th St., New York 3.J 
Pp.183. $10.00. 

HANDBOOK OF BASEBALL DRILLS, Archie P. 
Allen. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.i 
Pp.212. $4.95. 

NEW INVITATION TO SKIING, Fred Iselin and 
A. C. Spectorsky. Simon and Schuster. 630 
5th Ave., New York 20. Pp. 243. $4.95. 

PHYSIOLOGY OF EXERCISE (3rd ed.) , Laurence] 
E. Morehouse and Augustus T. Miller, Jr.j 
C. V. Mosby, 3207 Washington Blvd., St. 
Louis 3, Mo. Pp. 349. $4.75. 

TABLE TENNIS A New Approach, Ken Stan- 
ley. Sportshelf, P. 0. Box 634, New Ro-j 
chelle, N.Y. Pp. 108. $3.25. 

TACKLE LAWN TENNIS THIS WAY, Angela Bux-j 
ton. Sportshelf, P. O. Box 634, New Ro 
chelle, N.Y. Pp. 132. $3.25. 

TACKLE SOCCER THIS WAY, Duncan Edwa 
Sportshelf, Box 634, New Rochelle, N.l 
Pp. 111. $3.25. 

TEACH YOURSELF BADMINTON, Fred Brumi 
Sportshelf, P. 0. Box 634, New Rochell 
N.Y. Pp. 173. $2.00. 

TEXTBOOK OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (5 
ed.), Catherine Parker Anthony. C. V. Mo 
by, 3207 Washington Blvd., St. Louis 3. 
574. $5.35. 

TRACK AND FIELD FOR COACH AND ATHLE 
Jesse P. Mortensen and John M. Coop 
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 
246. $4.95. 

WOMAN'S BOWLING GUIDE, THE, Sylvia We 
David McKay. 119 W. 40th St., New Y 
18. Pp. 113. $2.95. 

YOUTH AND FITNESS (National Confer 
1958). AAPHER, 1201 16th St., 
Washington 6, D.C. Pp. 80. Paper, $1.8 

\ I KWCT OF THK Sc OHEIIO Mill Irollrp' ;llll-\ 
letid), \ile Clii i-lrnson. \ineilran Press,:! 
4895th Ave.. New York 17. Pp. I'M). S.'UX). I 



46 



RKCREATKH! 




PUBLICATIONS 



Covering the Leisure-time Field 



Community Theatre Idea and 
Achievement, Robert E. Card and Ger- 
trude S. Burley. Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 
124 East 30th Street, New York 16. 
Pp. 182. $3.75. 

Robert Card is well-known as the di- 
rector of the Wisconsin Idea Theatre 
at the University of Wisconsin. He is 
a member of the National Recreation 
Association's National Advisory Com- 
mittee on Drama. Gertrude Burley, his 
assistant, has developed a notable series 
of theater classes for children and is a 
firm believer in drama education for 
the young. Their combined efforts have 
produced a book of real significance. 

Those interested in knowing more 
about community theater, its objectives, 
its varying types of sponsorship, its 
policies, and so on find this book well 
worth careful study, as well as inter- 
esting reading. It throws the search- 
light of experience on every aspect of 
community theater, and answers key 
questions about professionalism, ori- 
ginal plays, leadership, management, 
and community relations. 

Over half of this book consists of 
conversations with drama directors of 
community theaters in various cities 
representing every section in the United 
States except New England and the 
Northwest. It is through these conver- 
sations that the problems and the an- 
swers ( when there are answers) are dis- 
cussed. This is the meat of the book. 

An excellent bibliography and a rep- 
resentative list of American community 
theaters, listed by states, add to the 
value of the book. Highly recommended. 

The Playground as Music Teacher, 

Madeline Carabo-Cone. Harper & 
Brothers, 49 East 33rd Street, New 
York 16. Pp. 247. $5.00. 

Here is how to teach the rudiments 
of music through the use of musical 
games. More than one hundred games 
are described and can be played on a 
music staff marked on a playground. 
Recreation leaders, as well as children, 
will find this book an easy and pleasant 
introduction to the single, basic ele- 
ments of music. Directions are detailed, 
clear, and accompanied with appropri- 

JANUARY 1960 



ate diagrams and musical illustrations. 
Those who are already acquainted with 
the symbols of music will also enjoy 
these games. 



Fifty Years with Music, Sigmund 
Spaeth. Fleet Publishing, 70 East 45th 
Street, New York 17. Pp. 288. $4.95. 

This entertaining and informative 
book is a treasure chest of photographs 
and writings from the pen of Sigmund 
Spaeth, one of the most significant and 
influential musical figures of our time. 
Dr. Spaeth treats of everything from 
the poet Milton to the facts of life in 
popular song. He writes of music ap- 
preciation for the uninitiated, grand 
opera, rock V roll, and barbershop with 
equal enthusiasm and soundness of 
judgment. 

Here is a book that will be read with 
joy by laymen and sophisticates alike, 
for it is replete with the vitality and 
enthusiasm which have characterized 
Dr. Spaeth's long career and faithful 
service to the musical world. 



Creating a Climate for Adult Learn- 
ing. Adult Education Association, 743 
North Wabash Avenue, Chicago 11. 
Pp. 116. $1.00. 

This is a report of the Conference on 
Architecture for Adult Education, held 
in Lafayette, Indiana, in December 
1958, in connection with the formal 
opening of the adult education facilities 
in Purdue's new Memorial Center build- 
ing. The idea for the conference was 
conceived by the Commission on Arch- 
itecture for Adult Education of the 
Adult Education Association. Except 
for a brief report of a discussion group 
session on community centers, there is 
little specific reference to recreation in 
the volume. However, much of the ma- 
terial can be directly applied to recrea- 
tion programs, especially for adults. 
Many valuable suggestions for the plan- 
ning of recreation buildings appear in 
reports relating to design, equipment, 
research, planning, and environment, 
as well as reports of significant adult 
education program trends affecting ar- 



chitecture. Of special interest is an 
analysis of over two hundred replies 
submitted by administrators and pro- 
gram personnel to a questionnaire re- 
questing opinions with reference to the 
physical facilities now provided for 
their programs. 

Public Personnel Administration, Fe- 
lix A. Nigro. Henry Holt & Company, 
383 Madison Avenue, New York 17. 
Pp. 499. $7.00. 

This publication deals with the vari- 
ous phases of public personnel admin- 
istration. The basic problems in each 
personnel area are considered in the 
light of the latest developments. The 
book is written quite as much for the 
layman as for the personnel specialist 
and gives quite a clear picture of the 
planning involved in carrying out an 
effective personnel program. For com- 
parison and contrast, frequent refer- 
ences are made to personnel develop- 
ments in industry. 

Readings in Human Relations, ed- 
ited by Keith Davis and William G. 
Scott. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
330 West 42nd Street, New York 36. 
Pp. 473. $6.50. 

The authors have attempted to pre- 
sent the integrated social science ap- 
proach that recognizes that human rela- 
tions uses ideas from many disciplines. 
Although the material is management 
oriented, it draws from the fields of psy- 
chology, sociology, economics, labor re- 
lations, and ethics. 

There is considerable treatment of 
such subjects as the philosophy of hu- 
man relations, employee morale and 
motivation, leadership and supervision; 
and. in general, it deals with the trends 
in human relations. This book should 
be helpful to those interested in semi- 
nars and discussions in human relations 
and it could be good personal reading 
for executives and students. 



The Study of Leadership, Dr. C. G. 

Browne and Thomas C. Cohn. Inter- 
state Printers and Publishers, 19-27 
North Jackson Street, Danville, Illinois. 
Pp. 487. $5.75. 

This book contains selected material 
concerning the major current thinking 
by psychologists and sociologists on 
the subject of personnel. It is the re- 
sult of the broad survey of leadership 
literature in the attempt to select pub- 
lished studies that have some signifi- 
cant contribution to the various aspects 
of leadership. 

The book attempts to analyze leader- 
ship and leadership behavior and also 

47 



deals with the training and the dynam- 
ics of leadership. It is a very helpful 
volume for those who want to keep up 
with current concepts and philosophy 
of leadership. 



Growth Through Play, Albert M. 
Farina, Sol H. Furth, and Joseph M. 
Smith. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 
New Jersey. Pp. 246, illustrated. Spi- 
ral bound, $5.75. 

This very attractive book is a com- 
prehensive source of play activities for 
kindergarten and elementary school 
children. Its opening chapters contain 
excellent discussions of the value and 
meaning of play, selection of games, 
and leadership techniques. 

The remainder of the book is devoted 
to characteristics and activities of chil- 
dren from four through twelve. Each 
age-group section includes classroom 
games, creative play, action games^ 
song play, self-testing activities, folk 
dancing, party games, pencil-and-paper 
games, ball games, and the like. 

Music is given whenever needed. 
Game formations or layouts are illus- 
trated. A bibliography, sources of rec- 
ords, and an index are further aids that 
make this a very well-planned and use- 
ful book. 



Pictures Tell Your Story, Daniel J. 
Ransohoff. National Publicity Council, 
257 Park Avenue South, New York 10. 
Unpaged. Paper, $1.75 (plus $.09 
postage). 

Even if you feel you know all there 
is to know about taking, buying, or us- 
ing photographs, this book may still 
give you some information you don't 
have or some ideas you can use. On 
the other hand, if you feel you need a 
good deal of help and advice this book 
is an easy-to-follow guide. Unlike many 
books on photographs, it also includes 
some discussion of the way photo- 
graphs are reproduced, as well as sec- 
tions on controlling the use of photo- 
graphs, their care, and credits. 

The book is lavishly illustrated with 
pictures that make the point, including 
some that deal with such hard-to-photo- 
graph subjects as the physically and 
mentally handicapped. Not just any 
picture but the right picture in the right 
place can help to get better understand- 
ing for the job you are doing and the 
support you need. 

Amazingly low in cost, this book is 
inexpensive enough to make it easy to 
add to your personal as well as your 
office library. Anne New, National 
Recreation Association Public Infor- 
mation and Education Department. 

48 



RESOURCES AND REFERENCES 
Pamphlets and other aids for the recre- 
ation leader: 

Spectator Control at Inter scholastic 
Basketball Games by Glenn C. Leach of 
the athletic department at Rider Col- 
lege, Trenton, New Jersey, covers a 
topic and situation only too prevalent 
in basketball and other sport events, 
whether under school or other auspices. 
The number-one factor causing prob- 
lems, according to Mr. Leach, is the 
crowd's reaction to officiating. "This is 
usually the result of poor knowledge of 
the game and the rules on the part of 
the spectators." Anyone responsible 
for the administration of atheletics will 
be interested in the solutions offered in 
this booklet. Available for one dollar 
from Sportshelf, P.O. Box 634, New 
Rochelle, New York. 

A Planning Report on Zoos is one of 
a series of workmanlike reports being 
issued by the Metropolitan Planning 
Department of Marion County, Indi- 
ana. While its immediate purpose was 
to analyze and evaluate George Wash- 
ington Park as a possible site for a zoo 
for the city of Indianapolis, it presents 
general planning guides and principles 
for zoo-site analysis in any locality. It 
was edited and compiled by Carl B. 
Generich, Jr., administrative assistant, 
and is available for fifty cents from the 
department, Room 405, City Hall, In- 
dianapolis, Indiana. (Ask also for a 
list of the department's other reports.) 

Everglades The Park Story by Wil- 
liam B. Robertson, Jr. is the before-and- 
after report of an unusual and timeless 
area. It is illustrated with striking 
black-and-white and color photographs 
by Dade W. Thornton and others. The 
author is a field research biologist of 
the National Park Service. This excel- 
lent presentation of a national park is 
available for one dollar from the Uni- 
versity of Miami Press, Coral Gables 
46, Florida. 

Social Changes & Sports is the report 
of the National Conference on Social 
Changes and Implications for Physical 
Education and Sports Programs, held 
in Estes Park, Colorado, in 1958. Over 
two hundred college educators and na- 
tional authorities in women's sports and 
athletics attended this meeting along 
with some of the country's top econo- 
mists, psychologists, and anthropolo- 
gists. Among other interesting material 
are an address by Mrs. Rollin Brown, 
chairman of the White House Confer- 
ence on Children and Youth, on the 
"Challenges of Today" ; a discussion by 
Margaret Brown Clark of the Univer- 
sity of California School of Health, on 



"Play and Cultural Values"; and an- 
other by Margaret Lantis of the U. S. 
Public Health Service on "Foreseeing 
Women's Recreation in the 1960 r s." 
The report is available for two dollars 
from AAHPER. 1201 16th St.. N.W., 
Washington 6. D. C. 

Know Your Congress is published 
every session of Congress for ready ref- 
erence and contains over one hundred 
pages of pertinent information about 
the current Congress, its members and 
committees, as well as useful facts about 
jurisdictions, powers, and functions. 
Next issue will appear January 3. 1960. 
Available for two dollars from Capital 
Publishers. 1006 National Press Build- 
ing, Washington 4. D. C. (Also avail- 
able for fifty cents is a digest of mate- 
rial on our individual states and capital 
city, entitled Know Your Country.) 

How to Keep Fit and Like It (2nd ed. 
rev.) is by Dr. Arthur H. Steinhaus, 
professor of physiology at George Wil- 
liams College, Chicago, and one of the 
session speakers at the 41st National 
Recreation Congress. This covers every 
aspect of fitness, from sleep and how to 
get it, to dancing, to growing old grace- 
fully, and certainly has many implica- 
tions for the recreation program. Avail- 
able for fifty cents from the Dartnell 
Corporation. 4660 North Ravenswood, 
Chicago 40. 

The Calendar of Musical Activities in 
the United States for 1959-60, issued 
by the President's Music Committee of 
the People-to-People Program, is four 
times bigger than the committee's initial 
effort last year. Information from fifty 
states covers over six thousand music 
performances in 580 cities and includes 
symphony, choral, band, and jazz con- 
certs ; ballet, dance, and chamber music 
performances; recitals; folk festivals; 
and various music workshops. Each 
event is defined as to date, conductor, 
soloist, and sponsoring organization. 
The 168-page calendar is available for 
one dollar postpaid from the committee 
at 734 Jackson Place, N.W.. Washing- 
ton 6. D. C. 



Troubled People on the Job offers 
good advice to those of us who super- 
vise other people and may have to han- 
dle difficult employees and situations. 
The pamphlet was prepared by the 
Committee on Occupational Psychiatry 
of the American Psychiatric Associa- 
tion and is intended for supervisory 
personnel in almost every setting. Avail- 
able for fifty cents from the Mental 
Health Materials Center. 104 East 25th 
Street, New York 10. 

RECREATION 



c? 

with I IdturcLi ^rce 

CONSTRUCTION 

MAINTENANCE 

OPERATION 

CONSTRUCTING THE RINK: Selecting the Site, Pre- 
paring the Area, Building the Rink by Flooding, 
Building the Rink by Spraying. 

MAINTAINING THE RINK 

OPERATING THE RINK: Providing for All Types of 
Skaters, Safety Measures, Protecting the Rink, 
Services at the Rink. 



P264 



Price SO cents 



A Publication of the 



National Recreation Association 

A Service Organization Supported by Voluntary Contributions 

8 West Eighth Street New York 1 1 , New York 



DIRECTOR OF RECREATION AND PARKS 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

APPLICATIONS: WILL BE RECEIVED FOR THE ABOVE POSITION 
NOW VACANT 

SALARY RANGE: $11,664. to $14,160. 

QUALIFICATIONS: Must be a person familiar with sound, modern 
practices of community recreation and park operations and of high 
professional standing in this field. 

MAIL: Complete details of personal background and experience to: 
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 
BOARD OF RECREATION AND PARKS 
DRUID HILL PARK 
BALTIMORE 17, MD. 



CHANGE OF ADDRESS 

If you are planning to move, notify us at least thirty 
days before the date of the issue with which it is to take 
effect, if possible, in order to receive your magazines 
without interruption. Send both your old and new ad- 
dresses by letter, card or post office form 22S to: 

SUBSCRIPTION DEPARTMENT 

RECREATION MAGAZINE 

8 WEST EIGHTH STREET 

NEW YORK 11, N. Y. 

The post office will not forward copies unless you pro- 
vide extra postage. Duplicate copies cannot be sent. 



A unique and easy-to-teach 
method of music education 
for children 



THE ^ 

PLAYGROUND 
AS MUSIC TEACHER 

An Introduction to Music Through Games 
By MADELEINE CARABO-CONE 

Co-author of How to Help Children Learn Music 

In terms of the games children love best Blindman's 
Bluff, Follow the Leader, Drop the Handkerchief, etc. 
Madeleine Carabo-Cone has dramatized the written 
language of music the bass clef, the treble clef, notes, 
the lines and spaces of the grand staff. 
Through these games, played on either an indoor or out- 
door field, the children absorb a working knowledge of 
the whole music staff. This original and creative method 
of making music a part of childhood experience will be 
valuable to teachers (who need no previous musical 
training to use the book) from kindergarten through 
junior high school, to playground directors and to par- 
ents. Illustrated with over 100 line drawings. 

$5.00 at your bookstore or from 
HARPER & BROTHERS, N. Y. 16 



SAVES SPACE . . . FOLDS FACE TO FACE! 



Easi-Fold Rolling 

TABLE TENNIS TABLE 




Easy as 1-2-3 ... for busy institutional worker or harried house- 
wife. Folds automatically! Has large wheels on steel chassis; 
solid-edge protected steel frame; built-in, metal-end net; granite- 
hard Formium playing surface. Write today for color catalog. 



SUPERIOR INDUSTRIES CORPORATION 

520 Coster Street, New York 59, N. Y. DAyton 9-5100 



\Vhen writinff to our advertisers nlr;me mention RETRFATTON 







a profitable 
-recreftt-ion that entertains more people 

-. I L 




Roller skating is a sport enjoyed by the 
young in heart. A gym, hall or any other 
smooth surface makes a fine skating area, 
and there is no damage to the floor if 
proper skates are used. Little equipment is 
needed . . . little supervision is required. 
That's why more and more schools and 
churches have roller skating programs 
and many of them make money by charging a 
nominal fee for skating. Write today for 
free information. 




New Rubber-Plastic Wheels are kind to gym floors 

Not only do these new Duryte rubber-plastic wheels 
outwear others, they give the skater more traction 
and smoother rolling. They are guaranteed not to 
mar or scratch the floors. Write for free details on 
roller skating programs and skating equipment. 



CHICAGO 



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When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



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fourteen months quicker 
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WITH NEW SERIES E BONDS 



Here are three new reasons why today's 
Savings Bonds are the best ones in history: 

1. Every Bond bought since June 1,1959, 
earns 3%% interest irhen held the full 
term. Series E Bonds note mature in 7 
years, 9 months fourteen months 
faster than ever before. 

2. Your older Bonds now earn more an 
extra %% from June 1 on, until ma- 
turity. 

3. All Series E Bonds, old and new, carry 
an automatic extension privilege note. 
This means they'll automatically keep 
earninf! liberal interest for 10 years 
beyond maturity. 

You get these new advantages, plus com- 
plete safety, guaranteed return, and pro- 
tection against loss or theft when you save 
with Bonds. And there's no easier way to 
save. You can buy Bonds automatically 
through the Payroll Savings Plan at work, 
or from any bank. Plan to start saving with 
U.S. Savings Bonds they're the best ever. 



YOU SAVE MORE THAN MONEY 

with U.S. Savings Bonds 



The U.S. Government does not pay for this adrertising. The Treasury Department thanks 
The Advertising Council and this magazine for their patriotic donation. 




You could buy three 

competitive balls and not get the 

value you'll be getting with 

one new Voit Icosahedron ball. 

When you buy balls, what you're really buying is bounces. 

Recently, when a completely reliable and impartial 

expert, United States Testing Company, tested Voit and 

competitive balls to failure in a bounce machine, 

their report showed Voit balls tested outlasted the nearest 

of four competitive brands tested by more than 3 to 1. 

We thought their test results were a clear and 

convincing reason to buy Voit. Don't you think so, too? 

Voit Icosahedron Average bounces before failure 268,145 

Brand A average 86,187 
Brand B average 79,104 
Brand C average 53,497 
Brand D average 34,660 




W. J. VOIT RUBBER CORP. 

New York 11 Chicago 11 -Los Angeles 11 

A Subsidiary of American Machine i Foundry Company 



(Report #51093 
March 25, 1959) 




FEBRUARY 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



49 



WHEREVER . 
CHILDREN PLAY 



Recreation equipment with 
engineered safety to meet 
the most rigid requirements. 

"" Playground Equipment 

Indoor Basketball Backstops 
_ Swimming Pool Equipment 

Literature for each line avail- 
able on request please specify. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

RECREATION 
EQUIPMENT CORP 

Dcpt. R160 724 W. 8th St. 
Anderson, Indiana 



Eliminate old fashioned 
basket checking 

REDUCE PAYROLLS 



Modern, serve-self Sentinel Lockers 
do away with old-style bags and 
baskets, prevent pilfering and rid 
you of the risk of custody liability. 

Patrons like the improved serv- 
ice, too. No standing in line, more 
privacy and higher security for 
clothes and other personal pos- 
sessions. 

Coin-and-key operated lockers 
mean a big increase in your rev- 
enue as well as payroll savings . . . 
enough to pay for the investment 
over and over again. 

Now is the time to get the com- 
plete Sentinel story . . . there's no 

obligation. Write . . . 



COIN-AND-KEY 
OPERATED CHECKING SYSTEMS 

THE FLXIBLE COMPANY 

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Readers! You are invited to send letters for this page 
to Editor, RECREATION, 8 West Eighth Street, New 
York 11 so that your ideas, opinions and attitudes 
may be exchanged with others on the wide range of 
subjects of concern to us all. Here is your chance to 
agree or disagree with the authors of our articles. 
Keep letters brief not more than 250 words. 

The Editors. 



International Exchange Recreation 

Sirs: 

I have recently received this year's 
appeal from the International Recrea- 
tion Association asking us to assume the 
host role for an exchange recreation 
leader from another country, for a pe- 
riod of one to four weeks duration. In 
1958, while serving in Provincetown, 
Massachusetts, it was my good fortune 
to host an exchange leader. Mr. Juergan 
Palm, from Germany. 

I consider this one of the richest and 
most rewarding experiences of my ca- 
reer and strongly urge all who have not 
had this opportunity, to take advantage 
of the program this year and support 
IRA. Besides helping your guest spread 
the message of recreation throughout 
the world, you will be amazed at the 
number of ideas and impressions you 
will gain from him. 

I have always found my fellow recre- 
ators to be the most friendly and helpful 
group of professional people there are. 
By hosting an exchange, you not only 
solidify this position, but you will find 
that our "foreign" recreators are just 
as warm and just as dedicated a group. 
PETER A. DEIMEL, Assistant Super- 
intendent of Recreation. Greenwich, 
Connecticut. 

Florida's Irish Fair 

Sirs: 

Our Hollywood Irish Fair [see "Re- 
porter's Notebook," RECREATION, June 
1958 and February 1957] grew into a 
Broward County event in 1959, and 
recreation directors from Dania. Fort 
Lauderdale, Pompano Beach, and Hal- 
landale participated and directed many 
of the activities. Six thousand young- 
sters registered in sixty-four events 
from tennis, swimming, sailing, golf, 
field events, kick-ball, weightlifting, vol- 
leyball, tug-of-war, and cake bakes, 
freckle contest, doll show to arts, crafts, 
music and dancing, including an Irish 
Musical, with a cast of 160. The musi- 
cal revue was directed by Eileen Wall, 
who helped so ably with the Gold Coast 



motorcycle corps program, that you 
presented in the September [1958] REC- 
REATION Magazine. 

The opening ceremonies were at- 
tended by city officials of the twelve 
towns of Broward County, representa- 
tives of one hundred civic organizations. 
visiting dignitaries, and celebrities. In- 
vitations were extended to John Hearne, 
ambassador of Ireland. Governor Col- 
lins. and Bat Masterson I especially for 
the youngsters) . All day was booked 
solid with games, competitions, band 
concerts, exhibitions, scout encamp- 
ments, picnics, displays, and entertain- 
ments. Green Shoe Rollers competed 
at the local skating arena and sailing, 
swimming, golf, and tennis tournaments 
took place in their respective areas. 

Climax of the fair, on the seventeenth, 
was the running of the Invitational In- 
ternational Mile and Quarter-Mile. The 
events included special high-school and 
university dashes and relays. Peter 
Close, Lazlo Tabori. Tom O'Riordan, 
Eddie Southern. Tom Murphy, and Jim 
Casteel are among those who accepted. 
Our physical fitness program is well 
organized and successful all year; and 
quick-witted youngsters vied for points 
against their physically fit counterparts 
in "fun competitions" during Irish Fair. 
Our own version of "mind and muscle" 
had an added attraction a Liberty ! 
Stinger missile that roars and spouts 
was on display with two air-force men 
in attendance. 

The civic organizations set up dis- 
plays of their particular youth projects 
that included sports, scholarship. ;irt. 
drama, and assistance in employment i 
and guidance throughout the year. The 
sports natural to this area, such as swim- I 
ming, sailing, tennis and golf, always I 
have tremendous registrations and ex- I 
citing tournaments. We even grew our 
own shamrocks, right in the recreation 
office. 

Of course, you did not have to be I 
Irish to be in the Irish Fair. 



PATRICK J. HENEGHAN, 
Superintendent. Holh i< on,f. Florida. 



50 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



FEBRUARY 1960 





THE MAGAZINE OF THE RECREATION MOVEMENT 



Editor in Chief, JOSEPH PRENDERCAST 
Editor, DOROTHY DONALDSON 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 
JEAN WACHTEL ELVIRA DELANY 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 



VOL. LIII. 



Price 50 Cents 



No. 2 



On the Cover 

IN THE DEPTHS. During an unprecedented sixty- 
day underwater cruise by the U.S. Navy's second 
atomic submarine, the USS Seawolf, one of the 
greatest problems turned out to he what to do with 
off-duty hours. Here Torpedoman F'irst Class Rich- 
ard Champagne works on a model ship. For the 
whole story of submarine recreation, read Edmund 
Waller's "Recreation Forty Fathoms Down" on Page 
56. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. 

Next Month 

The March issue will be bulging with good, solid 
camping material of all kinds including articles 
about various day camp programs, an excellent arti- 
cle on the philosophy of camping by Julian Salo- 
mon, Stan Stocker's article on what public lands are 
available for camping, family camping, a progres- 
sive camping setup in California, and Catherine 
Hammett's "Don't Take the Playground to Camp." 
\ou'll also read Part II of Skip Winans' article on 
youth in Asia and a study report on maintenance 
problems. 

Photo Credits 

Page 52, Anne Turner (13), Dillon, South Carolina, 
1959 Kodak High School Photo Contest Winner; 
60-61 and 66-67. YMCA World Service Photos; 64-65, 
British Information Services; 68, Don Knight, Abi- 
lene, Texas; 69. (left) Gerald R. Massie, Missouri 
Resources Division, Jefferson City; (right) Ralph 
Norman Studio, Boston; 86, Sunland-Tujunga Re- 
cord Ledger; 87. Jimmy Godown (15), Memphis, 
Tennessee, 1959 Kodak High School Photo Contest 
Winner; 88 and 91, cartoons, Copyright 1949, Curtis 
Publishing Company. 



RECREATION is published monthly except July and 
August by the National Recreation Association, a service 
organization supported by voluntary contributions, at 8 
West Eighth Street, New York 11. New York, a on 
file in public libraries and is indexed in the Rtadtrt' 
Guide. Subscriptions $4.00 a year. Canadian and for- 
eign subscription rate $4.50. Re-entered as second-class 
matter April 25, 1950, at the Post Office in New York, 
New York under Act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance 
for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in 
Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized May 
1, 1924. Microfilms of current issues available Uni- 
versity Microfilms, 313 N. First Street, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 

Space Representatives: Mark Minahan, 185 North Wa- 
bash Avenue, Chicago 1, Illinois. 

Copyright, I960, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 

Printed in the U.S.A. 

* Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 



CONTENTS 

GENERAL FEATURES 

The Dream (Editorial) Thomas Griffith 52 

Recreation Forty Fathoms Down Edmund M. Waller 56 

Strong Constitution Needed Samuel E. Vickers 58 

Fun Travels North H. Gordon McFarlane 59 

Accent on Youth in Asia (Part I) Sterling S. Winans 60 

Recreation in Outer Mongolia Harrison S. Salisbury 63 

The Politics of Leisure 54 

Just for the Fun of It .66 

American Teen-Agers in Japan Sgt. Jerry S. Ray 70 

Good Sports Good Friends Harold F. Moor 72 

ADMINISTRATION 

Floodlighting Outdoor Recreation Areas . . Wallace W. Weld 74 

Local and State Developments 77 

Airhouses Don Shingler 78 

School-City Cooperation in Recreation 80 

Research Reviews and Abstracts 85 

Personnel: Voluntary Registration in New York State 

Sal J. Prezioso 90 

PROGRAM 

Winter Camping Stanley W. Stacker 68 

Have You Tried 

A Happiness Fund? Arthur E. Westnall 73 

A Fairy Tale Festival? 91 

Winter Comfort Out-of-Doors 82 

Leisure-Time Pursuits in College Agnes M. Hooley 83 

Having Fun with Spanish Marion C. Sparrow 86 

Hospital Fish J ean Jackson 87 

Hero Month 96 

REGULAR FEATURES 

Letters 59 

Things You Should Know 54 

A Reporter's Notebook 88 

Market News 92 

Classified Advertising 93 

Index of Advertisers 93 

Books and Pamphlets Received, Magazine Articles 94 

New Publications 95 




IDUCATIONAL 
IRESS 

ISSOCIATION 
OF 

^AMERICA 



The articles herein printed are the expres- 
sion of the writers and not a statement of 
policy of the Notional Recreation Association. 



'EBRUARY 1960 



51 



Ed i torial 



THE 
DREAM 




S 



OMETIMES I dream of a land where patriotism is not considered a superi- 
ority to others but a pride in being the hospitable center of the best from 
everywhere; where differences in color and race are not falsely denied but 
make a competition in being the best; where justice inhabits the courts, wis- 
dom the legislatures, and honor the markets; where duty is followed but in 
no dull way and pleasures are lighthearted ; where the last is not least and 
the highest is not proud; where grab is despised and giving prized; where 
trust is unfeigned, knowing it will not be disappointed ; where tranquillity is 
to be found, but not torpor, and raucous variety also has its place; where 
weaknesses are not denied but excellences are exalted; where diversity roams 
free, and the unity of the dour and the carefree, the homely and the favored, 
the comfortable and the restless is in their unafraid belief in each other's 
freedom; where men are not angels but do not make a business of being dev- 
ils; where nobility is not mere respectability and virtue does not produce a 
snigger; where the clang of work and the clamor of play attest to the common 
health; where enemies cannot reach us because our merit, and not our guns 
or our propaganda, has won the world to our side. . . It is a very disturbing 
dream. 

From The Waist-High Culture by Thomas Griffith, published by Harper and Brothers, 
New York City. Mr. Griffith is senior editor of Time magazine. 



52 



RECREATION 



QUOTABLE* 



Thoughts on Leisure 



. . . Now we stand on the threshold of 
an age that will bring leisure to all of 
us. more leisure than all the aristocra- 
cies of history, all the patrons of art, 
all the captains of industry, and kings 
of industry ever had at their disposal. 
With this leisure the opportunity to 
educate ourselves up to the limits of 
our own individual capacities will be 
brought within the range of all of us. 

What shall we do with this great op- 
portunity? In the answers that we give 
to this question the fate of our Ameri- 
can civilization will unfold. A. WHIT- 
NEY GRISWOLD (Life, December 28, 
1959) . 



One of the greatest problems of mod- 
ern civilization is loneliness. Loneliness 
is partly due to the fact that leisure is 
not used creatively, that the leisure time 
becomes a period of lostness. . . . Lei- 
sure we have we need to learn to use 
it creatively. For it can be destructive 
or it can be a means of building phys- 
ical, mental stamina, of generating 
power and inspiration. GEORGE DE 
HUSZAR, in Practical Applications of 
Democracy. 



Leisure used to be something you 
earned after working hard and coming 
home exhausted. And the function of 
leisure, play, recreation was restorative 
to help a person come back to his job 
with new vigor. Since work is no longer 
exhausting, recreation has a different 
function. Its function is to restore a 
meaning to one's life through creative 
activity of the person's own choosing. 
Da. EDWARD J. STAINBROOK, chair- 
man. Department of Psychiatry, School 
of Medicine, University of California. 


It is to be hoped that the spare time 
resulting from the forty-hour week will 
not be devoted wholly to baseball and 
sports, but that we shall see the enjoy- 
ment of beauty spread over into the 
common affairs of daily life. WILLIAM 
CHURCH OSBORNE (Think). 



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FEBRUARY 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



53 




"my grandfather makes the best play- 
ground equipment in the whole world 

. . . because he loves little people like me! 
he makes slides and swings and see-saws 
and all kinds of things, they're real strong 
and they're very safe, if you're goingto buy 
playground things you better talk to my 
grandfather or my father first, they're both 
named mr. burke." 

J. E. BURKE COMPANY 



P. 0. Box 986 Oept. 55 

New Brunswick, 

New Jersey OR 



P. 0. Box 549 Dept. 55 

Fond du Lac, 

Wisconsin 



Name:. 
Street:_ 
City: 



State: 



> JOINT EFFORT is urged by the U. S. 
Department of the Interior to save 
America's historical heritage. In a bro- 
chure on the history program of the 
National Park Service, it suggests a 
joint venture in which federal, state, 
and local agencies, patriotic organiza- 
tions or individuals work as partners 
to save as much as possible for our 
children and future generations. The 
dramatic "reawakening of history" in 
the National Park System, under Mis- 
sion 66, is described in the illustrated 
booklet, entitled That the Past Shall 
Live. Copies of the publication are be- 
ing placed in major libraries, sent to 
conservation leaders, and various edu- 
cational institutions, and will be avail- 
able in most Park Service field offices. 
An overseas distribution is being made 
by the U. S. Information Agency. 

The Mission 66 program has com- 
pleted a total of 708 projects, worth 
$36,616,000, and placed under con- 
struction or committed for construction, 
an additional 710 projects, involving 
investment of $59,083,000, during fis- 
cal year 1959, according to National 
Park Service Director Conrad L. Wirth. 

^ INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE is the pur- 
pose of a Christmas vacation project 
started in December at the Rockefeller 
Institute, New York City, where an an- 
nual series of lectures on science was 
established for teen-agers. This is to be 
given for the youngsters at Christmas- 
time by some of the world's foremost 
scientists. Object: inspiration rather 
than instruction. 

> NRA AFFILIATES are invited to join 
in a search for an American family who 
best typifies wholesome family life. 
This search is being conducted by the 
Grolier Society with the cooperation of 
the National Recreation Association 
and other national organizations. For 
details about how to make nominations 
write to NRA for a flyer if you have not 
received one. 

^ A BRIEF, concise brochure, a Code 
for Teen-Agers, by teen-agers, has been 
recently published by the Memphis and 
Shelby County (Tennessee) Youth 
Guidance Commission. Copies are avail- 
able from the commission. 



> FOR YOUR CAMP: an amusing and ef- 
fective set of camp safety posters, from 
the Continental Casualty Company, 
Summer Camp Department. 310 South 
Michigan Avenue. Chicago. Illinois, are 
available for the asking. 

> DISPLAY KIT OF READING MATERIALS: 
Colorful materials to promote children's 
reading on vacation have been prepared 
by the Children's Book Council, 175 
Fifth Avenue, New York 10. This kit 
sells for $1.50, which includes postage. 

> INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS ARE NOW 
spending an estimated one billion dol- 
lars yearly for recreational programs." 
states the 9/11/59 issue of Sportscope, 
"These programs are growing tremen- 
dously and include the family as well as 
the worker." There is plenty of room in 
these programs for the professional rec- 
reation leader. 

> AT ITS RECENT ANNUAL MEETING at 

the Hotel Biltmore, in New York City. 
the National Social Welfare Assembly, 
a central planning and coordinating 
body, elected Stanley C. Allyn its presi- 
dent. Among other people re-elected 
to their same posts was vice-president 
Mrs. Rollin Brown of Los Angeles. 
NRA board member, and, as mentioned 
previously, chairman of the President's 
National Committee for the Conference 
(on Children and Youth). 

> A TEN-POINT DEFINITION of what 

makes a good community has been is- 
sued by the American Council to Im- 
prove Our Neighborhoods makes two 
special references to recreation. Ac- 
cording to ACTION, a good community 
must offer "easy access to places of 
work, shopping, and recreation," and 
"a variety of public and private facili- 
ties and services for the pleasurable use 
of leisure time." 

^ AN ESTIMATE of new swimming pools 
for 195 ( ). as reported in a recent issue 
of Sportscope, issued by the Athletic In- 
stitute, is 70.000 pools, bringing the 
number of private and public pools in 
the United States to 250.000 com- 
pared to less than 11.000 a decade ago. 



54 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



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Days, Weeks, and Months 

NATIONAL LIBRARY WEEK will fall on 
April 3 to 9 this year. Cooperate with 
your local library; gear your program 
to emphasize the place of reading, and 
of books, in recreation. Reading en- 
riches our leisure, forms a background 
for dramatic productions, sparks cre- 
ative activities and interest in the cul- 
tural arts, conveys know-how and back- 
ground information, contributes to all 
recreation activities. 

FEBRUARY 8, 1960 marks the begin- 
ning of the Boy Scouts of America 
Golden Jubilee Year. This will be 
marked by many national as well as lo- 
cal celebrations. (The sixth edition of 
the Boy Scout Handbook was published 
on December 15.) 

MARCH 5 to 12 is National 4-H Club 
Week, "To inform more people espe- 
cially youth and parents about 4-H 
educational aims and methods, and op- 
portunities." 

MARCH 6-12, Girl Scout Week. 

MARCH 17, St. Patrick's Day. 

MARCH 17 is also Camp Fire Girls 
Founders Day. This year it marks the 
fiftieth anniversary of the founding of 
this youth organization. Its Golden 
Jubilee will be celebrated November 1, 
1960 to March 31, 1961. 

MARCH 20 to 26 marks National 
Wildlife Week and is an excellent time 
to initiate good conservation programs. 

MARCH 21, 1960 has been designated 
as National Teen-Agers' Day, "to foster 
better relations between teen-ager and 
adult." Write to M. J. Mamakos, execu- 
tive director, National Teen-Agers' Day 
Committee, 8582 Sunset Boulevard, Los 
Angeles, for further information. 

AND DON'T FORGET that April is Na- 
tional Hobby Month. We would like to 
have reports about what you are plan- 
ning in observation of this or what you 
did last year. Will you write us, by re- 
turn mail if possible? 

HAVE YOU STARTED PLANNING for 

National Recreation Month in June? 
Last year's theme, "Find New Worlds 
Though Recreation," will be continued 
this year. Special emphasis of each 
week of the month: June 1-7, Youth 
Fitness; June 8-14, Family Recreation; 
June 15-21, Recreation-and-the-Arts; 
June 22-30, Recreation-Through-Serv- 
ice. The National Recreation Month kit 
will be ready in March. There will be a 
poster this year. 



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FEBRUARY 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



55 



RECREATION 
FORTY 
FATHOMS 
DOWN 




Four crew members of the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) test emergency breath- 
ing apparatus in the crew's mess compartment prior to transiting the polar 
ice cap. They while away the interval playing cards, a popular pastime 
anywhere, but which also meets the peculiar restrictions of sub activity. 




A chief petty officer works on tran- 
sistor radio he built in off-duty time 
during the sixty-day underwater cruise 
of the nuclear-powered USS Sea\volf. 




The crew's mess aboard the USS Skate 
(SSN-578) is crammed but shipshape. 
Here some men off-duty settle down for 
backgammon, card game, reading, Java. 



THROUGH EXPERIENCE GAINED from Operation Deep 
Freeze and extended cruises of such ships as our 
weather ships, the U. S. Navy has picked up some 
know-how about recreation aboard submarines designed to 
stay submerged for long periods of time. 

Our submarine personnel are a carefully selected group 
of volunteers, proud of their dolphins. They, as a group, 
were the least concerned about a "problem" existing regard- 
ing their off-duty time while submerged; however, no one 
really knows what effect routine submergence for an ex- 
tended time has on the human being. In order to combat 
possible dulling of the senses, retarding of reaction times, 
and other bad effects, a study was undertaken of recreation 
at forty fathoms. 

The author is not a psychologist, physiologist, or any 
other 'gist, but from past experience and through conversa- 
tions with officers and crews of several of our nuclear sub- 
marines, some observations were made, which are not con- 
clusive. 

Let's set the stage: there are three basic limitations that 
make recreation forty fathoms down "different": (1) Space 
for activities is critical, (2) excessive noise cannot be tol- 
erated, (3) ventilation is nonexistent. 

// there is space, it is soon occupied by another gadget, 



MR. WALLER is head of the Recreation and Physical Fitness 
Branch of the U. S. Department of Navy, Washington, D. C. 



gimmick, or whatever all necessary. One of the doctors 
was looking for space for his small black medical bag. He 
thought he had found the spot, but it was necessary to put 
an instrument panel there. The enlisted men's mess is in 
use over sixty percent of the time for meals; the rest of the 
time it is used for movies, navigator's charts, and emer- 
gency operations, writing letters, table games, and so forth. 
Compact? The galley is so small the cooks can stand in one 
spot and prepare meals for one hundred people. 

Excessive noise cannot be tolerated. Within a good 
boarding-house reach of any activity someone is asleep. 
There is no day or night in a nuclear submarine, and -hi- 
lions must be manned twenty-four hours a day, seven days 
a week. So somebody is always eating, sleeping, or on duty. 

Keeping the air fit for human consumption is no small 
problem. You just cannot "open a port or two for ventila- 
tion." So extreme care must be exercised not to contaminate 
the atmosphere. Therefore, certain hobby crafts are ruled 
out. Conventional submarines usually surface daily to re- 
plenish batteries and air supply. Nuclear submarines are 
designed to stay submerged, so please bear this in mind 
when we talk about off-duty activities. 

Here are some of the meat and potatoes of sub recreation 
as tried out, and some of the problems arising therefrom: 

MOTION PICTURES. Both training films and current 
entertainment features are furnished. Two sidelights are 
that a possible one out of five turns out to be a real "stinker." 



56 



RECREATION 



Parti- 

The Navy's 

experience with recreation 

in the atomic submarine. 



Edmund M. Waller 




IBi 




Crew members aboard the USS Nautilus watch TV. There is no 
day or night when you're down in a nuclear submarine and no 
time "out." Stations must be manned twenty-four hours a day, 
seven days a week. Someone is always eating, asleep, or on duty. 



An interior communications electrician pursues 
his hobby of leathercraft during his off-duty 
hours aboard the USS Seawolf during her his- 
toric underwater cruise lasting sixty days in 1958. 



Does that occasional stinker (a really bad movie) have a 
good psychological effect? Help let off steam? Should we 
have all color pictures? This last was a significant ob- 
servation, for the men seemed actually to miss color. It 
led to exploring the need for lively vivid colors, not just 
pastels. After sixty days of exposure to these, all believed 
to be scientifically proper for home or shop, would we pre- 
fer a shocking pink? A brilliant red? Or what? If color 
should prove advantageous, could it be done with a com- 
bination of geometrical and free-form splotches of color 
on cardboard that could be changed from place to place? 
Or should it be done with slides or a stereopticon type of 
device? Or was it essential at all? 

Here are some other things that needed determining: If 
individuals are constantly exposed to the same colors for 
weeks, is their color perception dimmed? If so, how long 
does it take to readjust when exposed to natural sunlight? 
We have all heard of snow blindness. Would we have a sub- 
mergence blindness? 

By this time you must realize how involved one simple 
portion of one activity can become. 

TABLE GAMES. One of the large game manufacturers 
has agreed to work with us to perfect a game kit, with the 
emphasis not on getting a bargain but on saving space. 
Game manufacturers normally package games so that they 
will have sales appeal, one game to a box. A variety of 
games has been purchased and distributed. If six are found 



to be continually popular, we plan to place the components 
of these six games in one box of the same size normally 
containing one game. 

COMBINATION MESS TABLES. A combination mess table 
and shuffleboard has been developed in cooperation with a 
shuffleboard manufacturer. A tailored shuffleboard has a 
mess-table top with several games boards imprinted on the 
surface, so one can eat or play chess, checkers, etcetera. 
Then, off with the top and, presto, three-bank shuffleboard ! 
One particular submarine had space for a nine-foot shuffle- 
board, but before it could be put on board it had to be as- 
sembled, cut in half, finished, disassembeld and then put 
aboard and reassembled, simply because there is no other 
way unless it is built in when the submarine is still on the 
ways. 

The following will give an idea of the hazards of craft 
work aboard a sub: 

WOODCARVING. Submarines are designed to remain 
hidden from the enemy. Wood floats, so disposition of the 
shavings could be embarrasing. 

COPPER ENAMELING. Will the fusion process necessary 
generate too much heat? Will the air be contaminated ? Be 
sure not to use steel wool to clean the copper; metals cleaned 
with steel wool leave particles in the air. Steel wool also 
burns with a hot flame and can be ignited with a match. 
Is this a fire hazard? 

MOSAIC TILE. Certain adhesives normally used present 



FEBRUARY 1960 



57 




Crewmen on the USS Albacore (AGSS 569) read, study, and 
write letters to background music push-buttoned from a juke- 
box. But the men claim that "there's nothing like a dame." 




As the L SS Nautilus passes under the Arctic ice, member 
of its crew watch one of the two movies shown daily. Boil 
training films and current Hollywood releases are shown 



two major problems, fire hazard and air contamination. 

Sujl WIRE. Not presently believed to be satisfying 
enough, and again the adhesive problem. 

PAINT BY NUMBERS. Oil paints are taboo, so water- 
colors must be used. Are watercolors as effective? Are they 
satisfactory? 

LEATHERCRAFT. Adhesives and dyes are out for the 
present, but work is being done on these. 

It is fundamental in all craftwork that short-term pro- 



jects be selected. All individuals interviewed wanted thei 
product completed prior to returning to home base. Thi 
rules out many crafts. 

There are many facets to this study of possible submarhi 
recreation activities and facilities, and which space lim 
itations allow the highlighting of only a few. Perhaps, later 
we may be able to go into specifics. ^ 

Part II, regarding the results obtained from furthe 
checking, will appear in an early issue of RECREATION 



Strong Constitution Needed 



Samuel E. Vickers 

In coping with the manifold problems 
and complexities of the modern city, 
the city manager finds that he is not 
on the top but in the center of this 
vortex, this whirlwind of interests and 
forces, many of which are conflicting 
in nature. In a very real sense, he is 
in the center, not only in community 
affairs but also as a member of his ad- 
ministrative team. 

He must often depend on his asso- 
ciates for advice, criticism, and healthy 
opposition, if they feel the need to op- 
pose an idea before a decision is made. 
The manager is in a much better posi- 
tion to secure this kind of help from 
his staff if they see him at the center, 
not on top, able and willing to give and 
take. 

The manager must also of course be 

Excerpted with permission, from "Avoid 
Stress at the Center," in the January 
1958 Public Management, MR. VICKERS 
is city manager, Long Beach, California. 



This applies equally to the city superintend 
ent or director of recreation who discover 
that he is at the center of things . . . 



a good executive, sometimes a hard 
driver, and a good leader of men. He 
must have great stamina to stand up to 
the strain of overwork. He must have 
good sense and good judgment. He 
must have probity and reliability. And 
he must be willing to accept and earn 
great responsibility. He must maintain 
a high batting average for making the 
right decisions quickly, remembering, 
however, that even Babe Ruth struck 
out now and then. A good sense of 
humor is essential to the demands of 
his job. 

It is essential that he be able to build 
and maintain an organization of hu- 
man beings. He must be able to choose 
capable assistants who will develop 
well, and then he must know how to del- 
egate authority to them. He must in- 
spire his staff to generate new ideas 
and procedures. He must hold down 
his enthusiasm by sober judgment. He 
must not be personally sensitive to criti- 



cism. Furthermore, he must exercisi 
foresight in anticipating the problem 
that will arise and bold imagination ii 
developing solutions. 

Work at the center creates a situa 
lion in which tension and stress are th< 
normal climate. The gales of conflic 
and controversy are never very far ii 
the past or in the future. If thing: 
sometimes seem quiet, it is often th< 
quiet of the hurricane's eye. 

Given this climate in which he works 
the manager needs a strong constitu 
tion and good health. He should have j 
stable nervous system which will not hi 
unduly disturbed when he is attacked 
He should be able to get along for 
liing time with little sleep and still re 
tain his cheerfulness anil creativity. Dis 
appointment should not drive him intc 
depression. He must bounce back. H< 
must be philosophical enough to b< 
polite to people who do foolish things 
He must be patient, even with fanatics 



58 



RECREATION 



FUN TRAVELS NORTH 



What recreation activities can 
mean to isolated northern stations 
of the Royal Canadian Air Force. 



H. Gordon McFarlane 




WHEN THE Mid-Canada Radar 
Line was built, recreation was 
given a paramount place in the 
total planning. The main stations were 
equipped with recreation hal s complete 
with gymnasiums, shower and locker 
rooms, libraries, photography dark- 
rooms, woodworking rooms, and gen- 
eral crafts rooms. Even small sites with 
two men were not overlooked. A rec- 
reation kit designed for two men was 
put on these sites. These kits included 
crafts materials; small games, such as 
darts, checkers, and so on; outdoor 
games, such as horseshoes, baseballs 
and gloves; as well as a small library, 
which included a cookbook. This equip- 
ment was placed in a cabinet so con- 
structed that it opened out into a work- 
bench. 

Like the song from the musical South 
Pacific the men had everything but 
"dames." So the Trans-Canada Tele- 
phone system decided to give the men 
a spectacle and "dames." Thus, the 
Bell Variety Show for isolated RCAF 
stations and the Mid-Canada Line was 
born. 

First step in organizing the show was 
to place announcements on the 430 no- 
tice boards of the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany in Montreal, inviting employees 
to auditions. From these we put a two- 
hour show together, which included a 
chorus line, male and female vocalists, 
a magician, and novelty acts. Over sixty 
hours of rehearsal on weekday nights 
and Saturdays were invested to make 
this as professional a show as possible. 

MR. McFARLANE, a former recreation 
supervisor for the Trans-Canada Tele- 
phone system, is currently executive di- 
rector of the recently opened Daivson 
Boy's Club in Montreal. 

FEBRUARY 1960 



Money for costumes was raised with 
the cooperation of the Telephone Pio- 
neers of America (people with over 
twenty-one years of service in the Bell 
system). The Pioneers sold the tickets 
for two performances given by the Bell 
show in Montreal. They received forty 
percent of the profits and the money 
went towards fostering programs for 
retired employees. The other sixty per- 
cent was adequate to pay for the cos- 
tumes. 

From these performances we knew 
we had a hit on our hands, and we were 
now ready to approach the RCAF for 
an aircraft. After talking with the rec- 
reation officers at Air Defense Com- 
mand, we had to prove the show was 
worthwhile; the best way to do this was 
by putting on a show for headquarters. 
A month later we had our aircraft. 

Planning for the tour was also going 
on at the Mid-Canada Line stations. We 
asked all sites to erect a stage at least 
twenty-five feet wide, fifteen feet deep, 
and three feet high. Back and side cur- 
tains were a must, front curtains op- 
tional. When we arrived, most sites 
had erected stages of forty feet wide 
and twenty-five feet deep. All stages 
had front, back, and side curtains. The 
sewing sessions that had gone into mak- 
ing the curtains at these all-male sta- 
tions is a story in itself. 

A complete program of the show was 
sent to each site. This enabled hi-fi 
clubs to make arrangements to tape re- 
cord all musical numbers with each 
number timed to the second. The photo 
clubs not only wanted the performance 
program but also a program of all ac- 
tivities while the troupe was at the sta- 
tion so the complete visit could be made 
into movies and an album for the mess. 



This naturally led to many other 
committees being formed, such as a 
program committee (each station put 
out a newspaper giving the menus for 
the special dinner, estimated time of 
arrival and departure, and a complete 
list of the girls' names, and special ac- 
tivities that had been arranged). By 
the time the show arrived, each man 
had served on at least one committee. A 
month of planning and fun went into a 
twenty-four hour visit of the Bell Show. 

What happened after the show left? 
Naturally there was an immediate let- 
down. However, in a few weeks, sta- 
tions had produced their own variety 
show (before the stages were disman- 
tled) . The hi-fi clubs had extra tape 
recordings of the show made and dis- 
tributed to the small isolated two-man 
stations, so men on these lonely radar 
stations could also share in the activi- 
ties to some extent. The men are still 
enjoying the photo album and movies 
which are being interchanged with 
other stations. 

The Bell show, in the last few months, 
has been doing good work close to 
home. The Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police were invited whenever possible 
to our performances on the Line. When 
we arrived back in Montreal we were 
invited to do a performance for the 
RCMP mess dinner. Our next per- 
formance was for inmates of St. Vin- 
cent de Paul Penitentiary. 

Many more performances for the iso- 
lated RCAF stations and veterans hos- 
pitals are still on the agenda, and we 
sincerely hope that the people in charge 
will make our visit more than a per- 
formance. We hope they will use our 
visit to get people to work together for 
enjoyment of life through recreation. # 

59 




As in many countries, the YMCA 
pioneered camping in Burma. 
The country's present military 
government has turned its 
attention to the construction of 
youth center buildings. 



ACCENT ON YOUT 



Part I of this fascinating story of recreation in the Far East 

was timed especially for Brotherhood Week, when our thoughts 

turn to friends in other lands. Part II will appear in a later issue. 



THE DOWNBEAT IS on youth in the Asian countries of 
Burma, Pakistan and Thailand, in the new state of 
Singapore, and in the Colony of Hong Kong. Visits 
to many youth clubs in these countries leave one with the 
satisfaction that re-creative experience for youngsters not 
only have official sanction but the accent of encouragement. 
You find unsuspected opportunities on Hong Kong roof- 
tops for boys and girls to make a sampan, kick a miniature 
soccer ball, learn to read and write a language or play a 
Cantonese musical instrument. In a Singapore village hall, 
be ready to listen to a debate or the beat of a drum, strum 
of a guitar, and the click of a wood block, and to see an 
earnest group engaged in sewing or doll making. In a Paki- 
stani village, following the reading of the Koran in a bam- 
boo youth hut, youngsters may bat a shuttlecock, play chin- 
Ion, or execute a tumbling feat. At a Thailand rural school, 
you may find boy and girl 4-H-Club members discussing 
how to market fish, playing in a bamboo instrument band, 
and closing the meeting with a Buddhist ceremony and the 
national anthem. Eager singers, weightlifters, and young 
journalists greet you in a Burmese youth group, and you 
would have trouble synchronizing your feet and a small 
rattan ball in a game of lackraw. 

One word of caution. In all of these countries, be ready 
for the folk dance, table-tennis game, talent show, athletic 
meet, instrumental combo, picnic, and inevitable bottled 
soft drink at the canteen. These items probably constitute 
an international language for the youth of the world. 

MR. WINANS, known to his friends in the recreation field as 
"Skip," has been a recreation consultant in the Far East 
since 1958 for the Asia Foundation, a private nonprofit 
American organization with headquarters in San Francisco. 
From 1947-58 he was California State Director of Recrea- 
tion. For the next six months he will be working in Malaya 
at Kuala Lumpur as honorary recreation advisor to the 
government. 

60 



Hong Kong Rooftops 

Boys and girls overflow the British Crown Colony of 
Hong Kong including the Kowloon Peninsula and the New 
Territories but hundreds of them are bubbling members 
of the 190 boys' and girls' clubs, with a variety of agencies 
serving as channels for youthful expression. The birds and 
the radio waves have plenty of interference on the rooftops 
of the colony's multistoried public housing buildings from 
the ball batting and kicking, singing, reading, and food- 
consuming activities of attractive youngsters. Small, one- 
room shelters, constructed at either end of a flat rooftop, 
300'-by-30', and a six-foot, chain-link fence are sufficient to 
keep future citizens and movable equipment from going 
overboard. As always, the real security of a thirty-five- 
member boys', girls', or mixed club comes from the young 
man or woman club leader. This full-time worker may be 
the tutor, recreation leader, food dispenser, and caseworker 
for a morning club and an afternoon or evening club com- 
posed of different children aged eight to fifteen. Most mem- 
bers are from the lower economic levels of a refugee com- 
munity. About fifty to sixty thousand of these hungry 
children are not yet in school although educational author- 
ities have made progress in trying to meet the need for 
schooling. 

The ingenuity of government and voluntary organizations 
is demonstrated in the number and variety of premises for 
182 junior clubs serving nine thousand boy and girl mem-^ 
bers. Temporary buildings in resettlement areas, social wel- 
fare centers, community buildings operated by a children's 
playground association on public playgrounds, YMCA 
and YWCA properties, or even a private residence may be 
the bustling hub of a youth club. With so many youngsters 
to serve and more coming all the time several agencies 
can have their fingers in the club pie without getting them 
burned. Their clients are not particularly concerned about 

RECREATION 



Parti 



Sterling S. Winans 



ASIA 



Square dancing is popular 

at the Y in Bangkok. 

The Thailand government actively 

sponsors the 4-H pattern. 




who does what as long as there is something to belong to 
where they can read, draw pictures, try their feet on a soc- 
cer ball, blow harmonicas, and be on deck for excursions 
or maybe a week at camp. Expansion of club opportunities 
for the sixteen-to-twenty-one-age group has been recom- 
mended by the Standing Conference on Youth Organiza- 
tions. 

A partnership among youth clubs and their sponsors is 
represented by a boys' and girls' clubs association, to which 
all clubs are affiliated. The significance of the association 
is indicated by the hum of activities in a new five-story 
headquarters building with some of its permanent equip- 
ment provided through an Asia Foundation grant. The as- 
sociation is the largest single operator of clubs 115 clubs 
and employs seventy-five full-time leaders. It is the fastest 
and one of the most efficient producer of noodles. Yes, 
noodles! Flour and milk powder available to the colony 
through American aid programs are converted into noodles 
and distributed to refugee families through boys' and girls' 
clubs. 

The government's confidence in the long-term value of 
youth clubs is portrayed by its annual grant of fifty-three 
thousand dollars to the association and in its partial sub- 
sidy of other voluntary organizations engaged in the same 
sffort. Assistance is also provided by the government's so- 
cial welfare department that operates twenty-two clubs. 
Families of club members can and should be partners, too, 
in the club movement, and so welfare officers frequently visit 
homes of members so that everyone concerned understands 
the program and especially the individual youngster. 

Heads, Hearts, Hands, and Health of Thai Youth 

The friendly and happy youth of Thailand are not to be 
outdone by their counterparts in fifty-five other countries 

the world where the 4-H Club program is a byword with 
boys and girls who live close to the land. Thailand has 




A game of checkers in Rangoon, Burma, complete with kibit- 
zer. The Burmese love amusements and sports, and particu- 
larly to dance (though there is opposition to Western forms) . 




A handcraft class on a Hong Kong rooftop. This is taught 
not only as recreation but to help women augment meager 
incomes. Many agencies, local and international, take part. 



FEBRUARY 1960 



61 



plenty of agricultural land, with rice production account- 
ing for over a half of the national income. Its rich central 
plain enables it to support a heavy population of twenty- 
three million people at a living level well above that of 
Southeast Asian countries. At least forty-six hundred boys 
and girls are enough concerned about their four H's head, 
heart, hands, and health to conduct their own monthly 
meetings. In between times they catch up with fish, poultry, 
and pigs or try to keep them out of their cherished rice 
plots, mushroom patches, and vegetable gardens. 

The 4-H pattern, adopted by the Thailand government, 
under Premier Field Marshall Sarit Dhanarat, fits in with 
the government's community development program in rural 
areas. Using a team approach, officials of agriculture, fish- 
eries, cooperatives, health, education, and local government 
join in helping a village to help itself. Although the agri- 
culture department takes the lead in advising Thailand's 
one hundred and forty 4-H Clubs, representatives of other 
departments may assist. Advisory service has been given 
to this youth program, and in other fields, by able American 
agricultural extension personnel through the U. S. Opera- 
tions Mission. 

Thai proudly call their country "Muang Thai" or "Land 
of the Free." In keeping with this concept, 4-H clubbers 
conduct their own meeting in a formalized style, opening 
with a Buddhist ceremony and closing with the national 
anthem. At the opening meeting of a new club, a primary 
school assembly hall would bulge with onlookers, but the 
youthful officers would not be overawed even if the provin- 
cial governor were in attendance. 

Getting lost is not an infrequent experience for village 
youth who go up to the big city for college or university 
education. Even young people who have always lived in the 
big city can get lost at a university. Bangkok, "The City 
of the Angels," is an interesting city and a big one. Like 
other cities of the world, it has several universities with 
too many students. The Bangkok Youth Cultural Service, 
organized with the assistance of the Asia Foundation in 
1958, has smoothed the way for some of these men and 
women undergraduates. Hard work, long hours, two young 
Chinese workers with mainland China experience and a 
"staying in the background sense" plus a converted three- 
unit residence help to make an interesting center for the 
serious Thai students. 

These young people like to discuss literature, write and 
criticize compositions, learn elementary music theory, try 
the guitar or accordion, and sing. The small library loans 
books to avid readers and provides a place for scholars to 
study, which may not be available in or near their home 
quarters. A basketball can make a lot of satisfying bounces 
on a hard-surfaced outdoor area, even though the court is 
not Olympic in size, and the space can double for volley- 
ball and folk dancing for both men and women. Friday and 
Saturday night parties usually take first place over badmin- 
ton and table tennis, which are accommodated indoors in 
a warehouse type of building. Student applications for 
membership in the Cultural Service must be approved but 
members do not pay a fee ; however, participants must hold 
permit cards for the privilege of borrowing library books 



or for participation in special music, dancing, or art in- 
struction. Activities are scheduled between 10:00 AM and 
9:00 PM five days per week. 

Burma the Golden Land 

The highlight of a tourist's visit to the Golden Land of 
Burma would certainly be the reflection of the sun or the 
moon from Kipling's "winking wonder," the gold-encrusted 
Shwe Dagon Pagoda. This stupa is the largest of its kind 
in the world and is encircled by landscaped boulevards and 
two lakes in the heart of the beautiful capital city of Ran- 
goon. Here, the visitor would soon become aware that 
Burmese life, culture, and economy are inextricably bound 
up with the Buddhist religion. While you enjoy a dish of 
rice and curry, you would cast approving glances at the 
traditional costume for both men and women a loose-fit- 
ting white or colored jacket and the lungyi. which is a shirt 
of silk or cotton resembling a sarong. 

If you were more fortunate, you would discover other 
highlights about the Burmans who love amusements and 
sports. To keep up with them, you would sit up most of the 
night watching pwe a theatrical show and singing or en- 
joying Burmese music. Musical instruments bear some re- 
semblance to the Java or Balinese gamelan. Although there 
is some opposition to Western forms of dancing, Burmese 
love to dance. There is interest in many sports other than 
boxing with the bare fists weightlifting, swimming, and 
chinlon, a game played by kicking a cane ball. For reasons 
of feminine modesty, there is some reluctance to the partici- 
pation of women in sports. 

To perpetuate these traditions in sport, music, art. and 
drama for Burmese youth, the present military government, 
under General Ne Win, has given consideration to the con- 
struction of youth center buildings in Rangoon. The com- 
missioner of police, U Khin Maung Maung, established the 
first club in September 1959. He found that some of the 
boys between the ages of ten to fifteen, living in the heart 
of a business area, needed a club and that a two-story build- 
ing, formerly used as a home for dependent children, could 
be used as premises. About seventy-five boys jumped at the 
chance to use the reading room, saw wood, hammer nails, 
and decorate boats; lift some weights, sheet a basket, and 
wear out the table tennis nets. At the request of the com- 
missioner's advisory committee for the new club, he has 
assigned two nonuniformed policemen to work full time as 
club leaders. With one eye on the need of the boys, the 
committee has turned to other agencies who may step in 
and establish several clubs. 

If one of these eager boy clubbers has good fortune, he 
may sometime become one of the eight thousand men and 
women students at the University of Rangoon. There, he 
will not And a boys' club, but he will be using the student 
center building now under construction with financing from 
the Asia Foundation. To the boy or the girl the new 
i:\iimasium. assembly hall, library, and. certainly, the food 
service will be real attractions. And it will be difficult for 
the I ni\ri>ilv Sports Council to keep him out of it> >e\rn- 
teen-sport internal! and interdepartment programs which 
serve over ten percent of the student population e;u It \ear. 



62 



RECREATION 




THE BIG PERSONAL and social holi- 
day of the year is New Year's 
Day. But not the New Year of 
the Christian calendar. It is the New 
Year of the ancient Mongol calendar, 
which usually falls in February. This 
is the one occasion when the people ex- 
change gifts and when they greet each 
other by stretching out their arms 
slightly and giving a small bow. 

This is the season of the national 
holiday, the "Naadam." In literal 
translation this means "games." In the 
day of Genghis Khan the Naadam 
lasted a month. It occurred in July, 
traditionally a time of relaxation for the 
nomad people. By July the herds were 
safely in the upper valley pastures. The 
shearing of wool was well behind. The 
foaling and the lambing were over. It 
is a season of plenty, a good time to 
relax and prepare for the campaigns of 
fall and the trials of winter. 

In ancient days the Naadam was de- 
voted to what the Mongols still call 
"the three games of men": horse rac- 
ing, archery, and Mongolian wrestling. 
By the time of the autonomous Mongol 
regime of 1911-21, the Naadam had 
been reduced to a week. Today it lasts 
only three days. 

But today, as it was seven hundred 

Reprinted, with permission,, from The 
New York Times. MR. SALISBURY is a 
special Times correspondent. 



RECREATION IN 
OUTER MONGOLIA 



Leisure-time activities 
in the ancient domain 
of Mongol emperors. 



years ago, the Naadam is basically the 
same three games of men. True, the 
Communist regime has added a full 
program of track and field sports. 
There are parades and pageants by the 
inevitable physical culture societies. 
Ulan Bator has a great new stadium 
with fifteen thousand seats in which 
spectators may watch the Naadam, in 
place of the grassy lawns between the 
ceremonial tents of ancient days. 

But none of the modern innovations 
has materially altered the character of 
the Naadam. In the week before the 
festival, cavalcades of horsemen begin 
to descend upon Ulan Bator from all 
the ends of Outer Mongolia. They 
come as families and as tribes. They 
pack their yurts on wooden wheeled 
carts or on camels. In the encampments 
outside the city, white yurts spring up 
like enormous mushrooms after a rain. 

When the great holiday finally dawns, 
it is not the grandiose ballet of the gym- 
nasts that draws the spectators. It is 
the archers, sometimes men of seventy, 
sometimes boys of seventeen, whom the 
crowds watch as they compete to the 
keening chant of the old men. The 
chant rises and falls. It rises when an 
arrow topples the target of earthen pots. 
It falls when the winged shaft fails short 
of the mark. 

The largest stadium crowd is at- 
tracted by the wrestlers, who present 
themselves to the audience in an arm- 
flapping pirouette that is said to be 
modeled on the walk of the eagle. The 
wrestling, too, is conventionalized on 



Harrison E. Salisbury 



ancient formula. If an elbow or knee 
touches the ground the contestant loses. 
This year's champion was twenty-nine- 
year-old Damdin, a four-time winner, 
nicknamed "the Lion." He won over 
opponents bearing the titles "the Ele- 
phant," "the Eagle," "Great Mongol," 
and "Titan." 

But the greatest competition of all is 
that of the horsemen. They are not nec- 
essarily men. Many are children both 
boys and girls. The biggest race this 
year was that for boys and girls six to 
fourteen years old. 

Four hundred forty youngsters com- 
peted, wearing the strange crusader's 
helmet of cloth that Mongol racers have 
worn for centuries. Only a handful 
failed to finish. This was not a sprint 
race over the turf but a gallop of forty- 
five kilometers (about twenty-eight 
miles) over cattle trails in the open 
grass plains. There was nothing about 
the scene that Genghis Khan would 
have had difficulty in recognizing ex- 
cept the dozen automobiles of the dip- 
lomatic corps that raced alongside the 
young riders. # 



We are the mediating nation of the 
world, ' ive are compounded of the na- 
tions of the world; we mediate their 
blood, we mediate their traditions, we 
mediate their sentiments, their tastes, 
/heir passions: we are o'irselves com- 
pounded of these things. We are, there- 
fore, able to understand all nations. 
WOODROW WILSON. 



FEBRUARY 1960 



63 



Before the recent general election in England both the 
Conservative and Labour Parties issued policy statements 
regarding the compelling social and economic problems 
created by an era of ever-increasing leisure. The Labour 
Party's statement, issued as a fifty-two-page pamphlet en- 
titled Leisure for Living,* was approved by its National 
Executive Committee for consideration by the party's An- 
nual Conference. The Conservative statement, in a smaller, 
twenty-three-page pamphlet, entitled The Challenge of Lei- 
sure,** prepared by a nine-man committee, including four 
members of Parliament, is a "contribution to discussion 
and not an official party pronouncement." (The report was 
published by the Conservative Political Centre, which is 
the party's board of strategy.) We here give their highlights. 



The Politics of 
LEISURE 



Conservative and Labour views on recreation 
and culture in Great Britain. 







Start of a model yacht rod 




Hertfordshire County Camp was set up by government to 
teach school children camping skills and new pursuits. 
They come during the summer for courses of about a week. 



LEISURE FOR LIVING -The Labour Party 



EVERYONE HAS THE right to a decent job. But work 
is not the chief end of man. 

"In the past we have been preoccupied be- 
cause we have had to be with the struggle against unem- 
ployment and insecurity. The postwar Labour Government 
proved that, in a properly planned society, it is possible to 
guarantee full employment; and, as automation spreads, it 
will also become possible, while maintaining full employ- 
ment, steadily to lessen the number of hours that most peo- 
ple have to work. 

"These two great advances will mean a drastic shift in 
our social thinking. Once full employment is again secured, 
the emphasis will increasingly be not on jobs for all but 
on leisure for all leisure and how to use it. . . . 

"This does not mean that we want to be state nannies and 
run everybody's private lives for them. But the principle 
that public money ought to be spent in encouraging the arts, 
and in providing for many kinds of recreation, is universal- 
ly accepted; indeed, its acceptance is one test of civilisation. 
It is the application of the principle, and the extent to which 
it is applied, that should now be worked out more coher- 
ently, imaginatively, and generously. . . . 

". . . in most areas facilities for recreation are lacking. 
Where they do exist they are often inadequate and uneco- 



*Available for two shillings ($.22) from the Labour Party, Trans- 
port House, Smith Square, London SW1, England. 

**Availahle for ninepence ($.11) from The Conservative Political 
Centre, 32 Smith Square, London SW1, England. 



nomically used. Many business firms, for example, have 
playing fields or swimming pools which are used only at 
weekends. Many schools do not use theirs in the evenings 
or during the holidays. Local sports committees could help 
to enlist the co-operation of those concerned in making 
these largely wasted assets available to many who would 
like to use them. . . . 

"It is in the preservation of the natural beauty of our 
country and in its opening up for enjoyment by more and 
more people that there is probably the greatest scope for 
meeting leisure-time needs and, at the same time, contrib- 
uting to the general well-being. In a recent survey, it \\as 
estimated that only about half of the people of Britain take 
their annual holidays away from home. This fact alone 
well illustrates the need both for greatly increased facilities 
for inexpensive family holidays, and for opportunities to 
enjoy recreation in the open air in places easily accessible 
at weekends and for day outings. . . . 

". . . we have quoted figures to show the approximate 
sums needed for the purposes that we have in mind. These 
sums represent a much larger national expenditure on the 
arts, and on sport, than has hitherto been incurred. It is 
remarkable, therefore, that the average total expenditure 
that they would involve, through the Exchequer, would be 
less than one penny a week per head of the population. It is 
clear that so modest an amount though it would, cum- 
ulatively, provide all that is reasonably required would 
mean no increase, at all, in the level of taxation. . . ." 



64 



RECREATION 



it Highgate Ponds in London. 




From June to September some 13,000 to 14,000 miners and 
their families visit Derby Miner's Welfare Holiday Center 
at Skegness on Britain's east coast for an annual holiday. 



Boys from a youth hostel pause to take in the view on 
a hike in Yorkshire. Mountain walking is popular. The 
country has set up national recreation training centers. 



THE CHALLENGE OF LEISURE-Conservative Party 



r IHERE ARE TWO main reasons why the use of lei- 
I sure has become a question of national impor- 
tance since the war. 

"The first of these is the emancipation of the adolescent, 
happening so suddenly that it has taken everybody by sur- 
prise. Young people nowadays have more spare time, more 
money and more surplus energy than they have ever had 
before and all within the space of a decade. What all too 
many of them lack, however, is a corresponding sense of 
purpose and of personal responsibility. . . . 

"The second is the scientific revolution with its promise 
of increasingly more leisure. Rising productivity and grow- 
ing 'automation' (in the home as well as in the factory and 
office) have already made for shorter working hours and 
higher living standards, and this welcome process will ac- 
celerate. The leisured class, it might be said, has made way 
for the age of leisure. 

"We expect the end of National Service 'call-up' and the 
'bulge' emerging from the schools to make this a com- 
pelling issue in the early 1960's. . . ." 

The party called for an expenditure of $19,600,000 to 
$28,000,000 a year to assure a "creative use of leisure." 
Among the projects suggested were a national theater and 
a national theater company, an increase in the national 
grant for the Arts Council, which subsidizes artistic enter- 
prises, and an expansion of facilities and services for youth. 

"The youth service used to be maintained by voluntary 
organisations for young people of poor circumstances or in 



actual need. For the last twenty years, provision has been 
made on a basis of partnership between both voluntary and 
statutory organisations. 

"Today, the concept ought to be a service catering for 
children still at school as well as for the fifteen- to twenty- 
one-year-olds who, as an age group, have more surp'us en- 
ergy, time, and spending power than almost any other sec- 
tion of the community. . . . 

"This change of role, from need to the creative use of 
leisure, has not yet been fully understood. The public un- 
awareness of this change, together with economic pressures, 
accounts for the lack of support for a service, which should 
be expanding rather than contracting. . . . 

"Above all, leisure makes a challenge to the human 
spirit. Athens, in her Golden Age, displayed a genius for 
the creative use of leisure in athletics, for example, and 
the arts which can be seen as complementary, and indeed 
superior, to her genius for military and commercial ven- 
tures. There have also been such periods of all-pervasive 
inspiration in the history of other peoples. . . . 

"This challenge to the human spirit is the key to our 
proposals. Since the war, we have succeeded in recouping 
a substantial part of our material resources, but our moral 
resources still appear in disarray. Again, the doubling of 
our standard of living will present a growing challenge 
to the human spirit and produce the graver consequences 
should we fail to meet it. We neglect the proper use of 
leisure at our peril." 



FEBRUARY 1960 



65 



It's as old as the first game 

and the first laugh the happy, 

human inclination to do a thing- 



JUST FOR THE FUN OF IT 




Learning the finer points of basketball in Hong Kong. 



EVER SINCE SOME desperate cave- 
man discovered that he could 
keep the kids quiet by clacking 
a couple of dinosaur bones together, 
the human family has searched for 
ways to amuse itself and been notably 
successful in finding them. The ancient 
Egyptians were indulgent parents who 
cherished their children, and family 
games resembling checkers and par- 
cheesi were popular along the Nile. The 
Greeks attached great importance to 

Reprinted with permission, from Aram- 
co World, July 1959, published by 
Arabian American Oil Company, New 
York City. 

66 



physical development and while mother 
was home teaching sister how to pirou- 
ette gracefully, likely as not father was 
at the local gymnasium, demonstrating 
a new wrestling hold to junior. 

Amusements were even rougher in 
the gamey days of medieval England, 
when men and women played a mus- 
cular version of blindman's buff. The 
object was to swat the unlucky It as 
hard as possible without pelting caught. 
If the small fry joined in, they had to be 
prepared to defend themselves. 

Today, things are a little different, 
but not much. TV and automobiles not- 
withstanding, children and adults the 



world over apparently have the same 
ancestral urge to jump, to climb, to run. 
to throw, to hide, and to find. 

Consider the Burmese. It doesn't 
take much coaxing to get the family 
embroiled in a sizzling game of chlnlon. 
Dad folds up and tucks in his lonp, \ /'.< 
I skirt) to make improvised but effective 
"shorts," then joins the gang to form a 
small circle. The chinlon ball is a woven 
hollow rattan sphere about three inches 
in diameter and weighing about fi\e 
ounces. It is tossed into the air and 
from then on is hit with feet, kn-->. 
shoulders, head, or any parts of the 
body except the hands. A player may 
keep it aloft for several minutes by him- 
self, then pass it on to his companion! 
or it may pass quickly from one to an- 
other, across or around the circle. First 
one to drop the ball loses and, if agreed 
beforehand, pays a forfeit helping 
prepare supper is a favorite penalty. 

The Japanese, who prefer their play 
after meals, often decide who will help 
with the dishes in this novel way: while 
they are still seated, each is called upon 
to tell a story, in one breath. It ma\ 
be a fable, an adventure story, a tall 
tale, anything. First one to pause for 
breath is handed the dish towel. 

In Africa, where the business of liv- 
ing is intimately connected with getting 
along with nature, fun is necessaril) 
practical and favorite family games em- 
phasize manual dexterity. Almost .1- 
soon as they can walk. Ethiopian boys 
an- introduced by their father to duty- 
atya, a spear-throwing contest. The 

RECREATION 



boys line up, weapons in hand, while 
fifty feet away Pop starts a hoop rolling 
across a field. Spears whiz through the 
air toward the rolling hoop, which 
rarely moves far before someone's spear 
hits it and brings it to a stop. 

Occasionally, a Congo family still 
has to take to a tree to get away from 
some rampaging cat, so bokwele is 
played early and often. The bark of a 
stick is peeled in such a way that alter- 
nating dark and white rings are left. 
With thumb and forefinger, as if climb- 
ing up the stick, participants follow one 
finger with the other, space by space, 
saying as fast as their fingers move, 
bokwele, bokwele, bokwele. The point 
is to see how many spaces can be cov- 
ered before taking a new breath. Older 
children and adults play the game on a 
grander scale, using a real tree, strong 
arms and legs. 

Just about every culture admires 
physical skill. The Spaniard takes his 
brood to see the weekly bullfight. Ca- 
nadians are notorious hockey buffs. 
German families root themselves hoarse 
over a spirited soccer game. And it's 
been said that the only time an English- 
man loses his legendary composure is 
during a cricket match. 

But for sheer physical demands on 
participants, you would have to go some 
to beat the spectacular Tinikling Dance 
of the Philippines. 

The tinikling is a bird with storklike 
legs and a long neck. The Tinikling 
Dance imitates the bird's movements as 
it walks between grass stems or runs 
over tree branches. The performers 
just about everybody, since the Tini- 
sling Dance is to the Philippines what 
the waltz used to be to Vienna dance 
between two bamboo poles, about nine 
Feet long, which are placed horizontally 
on the ground. Two bamboo players 
sit opposite each other on the ground 
and strike the poles together in time to 
the music. A subtle refinement is to 
raise the poles an inch or two higher 
each time they're struck. The longer 
the tune, the higher the dancers have to 
jump. 

Skill is demonstrated in dancing be- 
tween the bamboos and in keeping the 
feet from being caught when the poles 
are slammed shut. Sometimes adults 



dance while two children are in charge 
of the poles, sometimes vice-versa. It's 
not at all unusual to see an ankle-band- 
aged gentleman limping to work in the 
Philippines after a particularly rough 
dance session. A simple explanation to 
curious friends suffices: "Tinikling." 

Rough-housing has risen to a fine art 
among today's Pitcairn Islanders, de- 
scendants of the Bounty mutineers and 
local Polynesians. For amusement, vil- 
lage families regularly conduct a mam- 
moth tug of war, males against females, 
that frequently lasts from noon till sun- 
down. Birth, death, and marriage are 
universal reasons for a gathering of the 
clan. Wakes are common and unruly 



No one must laugh or speak; anyone 
who does must drop out of the game. 
Winner is the last dead pan. 

Very popular, too, is The Coffee Cup 
Game. Two teams, A and B, are each 
supplied with six coffee cups. One 
player on each team provides a ring. 
Team A hides its ring under one of its 
cups while Team B is out of the room. 
Team A calls them in when ready and 
Team B selects one player to guess. If 
he guesses correctly, his team has the 
privilege of hiding its ring under one 
of its cups and someone from Team A 
has to guess where it is. If he guesses 
wrongly, he must, as a forfeit, perform 
a stunt as directed by members of Team 




Children like same simple games the world round, whether in Brooklyn or Burma. 



from Togoland to Ireland. In pre- 
Communist China, every tenth year of 
a person's life was supposed to have 
special significance. A family might 
spend the equivalent of a thousand dol- 
lars on one of these "important" birth- 
day parties, inviting not only the whole 
huge network of cousins and in-laws, 
but neighboring families as well. 

One favorite can best be translated 
as "Solemnity." The players sit on the 
floor in a circle and choose one to start. 
He makes some gesture, such as tickling 
his neighbor on the right, under the 
chin, or grimacing. Each player repeats 
the gesture with the person to his right. 



A anything from singing a song to 
imitating an animal. 

Although the ingenuity of every cul- 
ture in devising games is staggering, 
even more amazing is the number of 
identical games that seem to have 
developed independently in different 
lands. Follow-the-leader, hide-and- 
seek, and leapfrog, for example, are 
played by Eskimos and Englishmen, 
Fiji Islanders and Frenchmen, Zulus 
and Zealanders. Anthropologists have 
never been able to explain satisfactorily 
how the same game somehow appeared 
in so many places. The players them- 
selves don't care it's fun! # 



FEBRUARY 1960 



67 




Most of us prefer to do our winter "camping" in 

comfort, venturing forth from a lodge. 

This is Badger Pass Ski Lodge, Yosemite National Park. 



Winter 
Camping 



A new area of program . . . 



Stanley W. Stocker 



NESTLED BESIDE A snowbound lake are a group of five 
young adults. Through the ice, they have caught 
five beautiful bass, scaled and cleaned them, and, 
amidst laughter and tomfoolery, fried them to a delicate, 
golden brown. Baked potatoes, peas, fruit, and coffee have 
assuaged their appetites and so they sit quietly by the fire, 
cheeks glowing, eyes bright. They have learned the art of 
living in the out-of-doors in the wintertime. 

However, for a large number of otherwise active young 
people, our culture has erected a barrier of fear and dis- 
taste for winter camping. We prefer to regulate the thermo- 
stat, check for storm warnings, and hibernate. Prejudiced 
by our folkways, we do not stop to count the cost of joys 
unattained, conquests unmade, sights unseen ; we do realize 
that winter camping can be done in many ways and at many 
levels. 

Winter snow camping is a graduated experience, ranging 
from living in well-heated cabins to the ultimate test ex- 
periencing a night in the open, in subzero temperatures, 
and discovering that such an experience is a pleasant one. 
Many of us prefer to do our "camping" in a comfortable 
lodge or cabin, well protected from wind and snow. We 
make expeditions to ski, to fish through the ice, to laugh 
with the children as they slide down the hills and to do 
a little sliding ourselves! Cabin experiences have their 
place; sleeping in the out-of-doors in the middle of winter 
is the end point of the experience, not the beginning. 

Winter camping activities are many. It may be said 
that skiing is to winter camping what swimming is to sum- 
mer camping. Many of the large mass-type games used in 
the summer can be modified for winter use. Snow tracking, 
skating, skate sailing, darkhouse ice fishing and spearing, 
tobogganning and snow shoeing are only a few program 
possibilities. 

A large number of resident camps in this country are 
partially or completely winterized, and are often available 
for recreation department or agency use. School vacations 
offer valuable opportunities for the development of winter 
camping programs. It is also true that trip programs can 
certainly be continued on a year-round basis. Over one 
hundred youth hostels are available in the United States 
and Canada to provide low-cost accommodations for such 
groups. 

Many city recreation departments operate day camps and 
summer camping programs. In many cases, these programs 
close with the first cold snap. Considering the great interest 
in skiing, ice skating, and other forms of out-of-door winter 

MR. STOCKER is executive director, Metropolitan New 
Council, American Youth Hostels, New York City. 



68 



RECREATION 



recreation, such terminations are difficult to justify. 

Winter camping needs more detailed planning than does 
summer camping. In the summer, one can take off for the 
woods with minimum clothing and equipment. Not so in 
winter! A little know-how will solve the problem, but it 
is important fer the participants to learn the basics before 
heading out. (At the end of this article are listed some good 
sources of information that are readily available in most 
parts of the country.) 

The really enthusiastic camper will accept the challenge 
of winter camping. The thrill of coping with the winter 
elements, relying on your own resources, will be long re- 
membered. Today's teen-agers, looking for new and differ- 
ent experiences, might be introduced to winter camping's 
more rugged elements; other folk may prefer to spend the 
days in the out-of-doors, sleeping and eating in a warm area. 

The McGill University Outing Club has been winter 
camping for over fifteen years. These experiences have 
proven so pleasant that it is reported to be a common ex- 
perience for small groups of club members to spend the 
night in a sleeping bag in the snow, rather than staying in- 
doors in a club shelter. The McGill Outing Club limits 
their group to four or five, with an experienced leader. 

The present trend toward year-round camping and the 
prevailing enthusiasm for skiing have combined to increase 
rapidly the amount of winter camping in this country. As 
each of the many variations in winter camping can appeal 



to "all sorts and conditions of people," there is every reason 
to believe in the potential growth of and interest in this 
type of program. (See also Page 82.) # 

Program Aids 

Snow-Survey Safety Guide. U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, Soil Conservation Service, Agriculture Handbook 
#137, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

$.40. 

A key reference for winter camping leaders. Easy to read, it is valu- 
able for all persons interested in winter camping. A few topics cov- 
ered are : preparing for travel, rules for oversnow travel, and the like. 

Winter Camping, Hiking, and Sports (Cat. #6-92), Boy 
Scouts of America, New Brunswick, New Jersey. $.15. 
Well-illustrated booklet of reprints from Boys' Life Magazine. It 
should be read by all before they try any variations of winter camp- 
ing. Contains how-to-do-it articles on skate sailing, snow-shoeing, 
ski trips, and ice fishing. 

The Adirondack Winter Mountaineering Manual, Winter 
Activities Committee of the Adirondack Mountain Club, 
Inc., Gabriels, New York. $.50. 

A real leadership manual developed as the text for the Adirondack 
Winter Mountaineering School. While its contents are developed 
specifically for the Adirondack region, much of its wealth of prac- 
tical, factual information can be modified to meet the needs of all 
parts of the country. 

Ski Patrol Manual (2nd ed.) , National Ski Patrol System, 
Headquarters, 1130 16th Street, Denver 2, Colorado. 
$1.00. 

A good general coverage of ski equipment, safety, first aid, and full 
information about the formation of a ski patrol. 




Many people hesitate to venture forth into the winter 
world because of prejudice, fear, and lack of know-how. 

FEBRUARY 1960 




Proper clothing and an experienced leader are impor- 
tant elements in making a winter outing a happy event. 

69 



AMERICAN 
TEEN-AGERS IN 
JAPAN 




Climbing Fuji! These youngsters greet a neic day from the top of the ivorld. 




Bill Bcede, 15, buys fruit before the 
climb from a Japanese salesgirl in the 
market place of town of Fuji-Yoshida. 



Lore Gonzalez (right), 18, and Lisa 
Beasley, 16, turn in tickets for the 
bus ride to the Number One station. 



Young climbers unload gear from truck 
at the base of Mount Fuji. They took 
along sufficient food for three meals. 




With gear strapped on his back, this At each station the teen-age group had Silhouetted against a ,-loud joimation. 
young climber gets set to travel by their "Fuji sticks" stamped for a fee 7/><w'.sr guidr /crc/.v /m earnem .< 
horseback to station Number Seven, of ten yen as a souvenir of the trip. In- trie.', to ear/me shot oi horizon. 



ui \ini\ 



he young Fuchu group walks through 

sacred Sengen Shrine, 
leaded for the Japanese bus station. 



S/Sgt. Jerry S. Ray 
Photos: T Sgt. O. A. "Chieo" Garcia 



AMERICAN TEEN-AGERS IN Japan, 
sons and daughters of air force 
personnel, spend their summer 
vacation mountain climbing. These 
youngsters don't scale just any old 
mountain; they tackle the highest and 
most famed in the country Fuji. 

At one time the most feared volcano 
in Japan but today a climber's para- 
dise, Fuji recently yielded to thirty- 
three novice adventurers from Fuchu 
Air Station near Tokyo. The young 
group reached the 12,397-foot peak in 
two stages of five and two hours and 
watched the sunrise come up over one 
of the most beautiful volcanoes in the 
world, a lava-covered mountain, which 
last erupted in 1707. To reach Fuji the 
young climbers started their outing 
from Fuchu some eighty miles distant 
early in the morning in order to be- 
gin their trek up the same afternoon. 

The trip by bus consumed four hours 
of slow driving over rough, winding 
roads, which led far up into the scenic 
countryside of central Japan. Packed 
in with the American teen-agers was 
necessary gear. 

Arriving at the air-force operated 
Fuji New Grand Hotel around one PM, 



the climbing party secured rooms for 
their return trip from the mountain the 
following day, ate lunch, and made 
preparations to spend the night on 
Mount Fuji. 

As a rule, the weather plays a big 
part in scaling this ancient volcano. 
Snow never disappears from its summit 
even in the height of summer. The 
middle of the year, especially during 
July and August, is usually the best time 
to climb. 

Leaving the hotel the youngsters rode 
by bus to the town of Fuji-Yoshida, site 
of the sacred Sengen Shrine and nearest 
starting point from the Fuji New Grand. 
They had a choice of six popular routes 
up the mountain the Gotemba, Suba- 
shiri. Funatsu, Shoji, Fujinomiya, and 
Yoshida paths. Most foreign climbers 
use the Yoshida path since uphill travel 
is much easier and distance from the 
hotel is only fifteen miles. This path, 
like other routes up Mount Fuji, is di- 
vided into ten sections, or stations, all 
of unequal distances. 

At each section overnight accommo- 
dation in stone shelter huts is offered 
for a fee of 350 yen (about one dollar) . 
The Fuchu group walked through the 



sacred Sengen Shrine grounds from the 
town of Fuji-Yoshida, paid eighty-five 
yen each to travel by Japanese bus to 
the number one section, and at six PM 
began the climb up the mountain. Total 
time required to climb Mount Fuji is 
from seven to nine hours. 

Many climbers rent horses at the 
first section for fourteen hundred yen 
(about four dollars) and ride as far as 
the seventh station, over nine thousand 
feet up. Each section offers "Fuji 
sticks" for sale which are purchased, 
not as climbing aids, but as souvenirs 
since they may be stamped at each level 
for a fee of ten yen. 

Reaching the eighth section at eleven 
PM these young climbers bedded down 
for the night in one of the stone huts. 
Then, arising early, around four AM, 
they took another two-hour climb to the 
top in time for sunrise. 

As "Goraiko," Japanese word for the 
honorable coming of the sunlight, set- 
tled above the huge crater, the teen- 
agers watched the shadows crawl across 
one of the most magnificent cone-shaped 
volcanos in existence. Such adventure 
will be deeply imbedded in their minds 
forever. 




Even in the height of summer, snow is 
still found atop Mount Fuji. July and 
August are the best times for the climb. 

FEBRUARY 1960 



Japanese guide leads a group of teen- 
agers down a "lava slide." Mountain 
route is divided into ten stations. 



Young Mark Edwards had to go half 
way back up the mountain to retrieve a 
camera left behind at route station. 



71 



GOOD SPORTS GOOD FRIENDS 



As we observe Brotherhood Week, February 
21-28, it is heartwarming to see how the ball 
bounced in a Pan American basketball tour. 



Harold F. Moor 



~W f WE ARE going to ta ke advan- 
tage of the assumption that all 
people want peace, then the 
problem is for people to get together 
and to leap governments if necessary 
evade governments to work out not 
one method but thousands of methods 
by which people can gradually learn a 
little bit more of each other." This is 
the challenge President Eisenhower has 
flung at the American people. This is 
the challenge the members of the Peo- 
ple-to-People Sports Committee, the 
National Recreation Association, and 
various municipal recreation depart- 
ments accepted when they played hosts 
to an amateur basketball team from 
Ecuador for thirty days. 

It all began when the U. S. ambassa- 
dor to Ecuador, cognizant of the fact 
that when good sportsmen get together 
the resulting friendship is usually gen- 
uine, suggested that the People-to-Peo- 
ple Sports Committee invite an all-star 
team from Ecuadorian universities to 
visit the United States and play a series 
of games here. The committee found 
itself financially able to comply with 
the ambassador's wishes, and the invi- 
tation was extended, accepted, and the 
programing wheels put into gear. 

Seven recreation departments were 
chosen, and the stops on the tour be- 
came Jacksonville, Florida; Washing- 
ton, D. C.; Livingston, New Jersey; 
Worcester, Massachusetts; Niagara 
Falls, New York; Cincinnati, Ohio; and 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana. As was to be 
expected, programing varied from com- 
munity to community, but in each case 

MR. MOOR is executive director oj 
the People-to-People Sports Committee. 



the sixteen visitors were greeted offi- 
cially, visited colleges and universities, 
attended a basketball clinic, and played 
one or two games, winning their share. 
Knowing little about the calibre of 
game played by the visitors, it was sur- 
prising how closely contested most of 
the games were. 

All departments were excellent hosts, 
but because of subsequent develop- 
ments in the suburban community of 
Livingston, it is significant to give the 
details of the program developed there. 
The Lions, Kiwanis, Rotary, and wom- 
en's clubs cosponsored the visit. The 
group was housed in private homes. On 
the evening of their arrival they were 
feted at a banquet and officially greeted. 
Since Nathan Mallison of Jacksonville 
had passed the word along to the other 
departments that the group was quite 
lackadaisical about keeping appoint- 
ments, each of the visitors was presented 
with a traveling alarm clock, and the 
leader with an embossed scrapbook. 

The following day was reserved for 
sightseeing in New York City, with the 
group traveling to the city in a char- 
tered bus. It began with a visit to 
the Empire State Building observation 
tower and ended with supper in an 
Automat. In between was lunch at the 
Yale Club, movies of the 1956 Olympic 
Games, a tour of the United Nations, 
the Radio City Music Hall, a subway 
ride, and, of course, shopping. The 
next day's program included attending 
a high-school assembly, some ice skat- 
ing, a visit to a local university, and 
spectating at a local high-school basket- 
ball game. 

Playing an overtime game with an 



all-star team from the senior recreation 
league and watching a college game 
were chief items on the following day's 
agenda. Mass and a special breakfast 
at a local church concluded the team's 
program in Livingston, but not its con- 
tact with friends made there. For ex- 
ample, on the day the team was sched- 
uled to return to its native land, a group 
of Livingston friends arranged to get 
in touch with the team in Miami, so as 
to bid them bon voyage; letters have 
flown back and forth freely ever since. 

Other interesting sidelights include 
the reprinting, in Ecuador, of a sports 
cartoon which appeared in a Worcester 
paper, depicting a local basketball play- 
er in uniform telling an Ecuadorian 
outfitter in a fur coat, "It's just the 
weather that's cold, not the people.'' 
Another souvenir from Worcester was 
a statement in an editorial appearing in 
a local college paper: "Without a donl>t 
these fine athletes accomplished more 
for international relations than a whole 
regiment of professional ambassadors." 

The visit of the Ecuadorians took 
place in January 1959 and. except for 



The People-to-People Sports 
Committee is a membership cor- 
poration dedicated to the promo- 
tion of international sports ex- 
changes on the premise that \\lu-n 
good sportsmen get together mu- 
tual understanding and friend-hip 
are broadened. Its chairman is 
Edward P. F. Eagan of Olympic 
fame. For further information 
write the committee at 20 Ex- 
change Place, New York 5. 



72 



RECREATION 



Two of the visitors from Ecuador join in a song 

fest at the home of one of the families 

in Livingston, New Jersey. Letters have flown 

back and forth freely ever since. 




the exchanges of letters that followed 
between the visitors and new American 
friends, might well have been the be- 
ginning and end of this international 
sports exchange. However, early in 
June, the Sports Committee received an 
invitation from the president of the Di- 
rectory of the University Sports League 
in Quito for an American basketball 
team to participate in a tourney to be 
held at Central University in July. Any 
of the teams the Ecuadorians played 
while on their tour would be acceptable, 
but particularly the team from Livings- 
ton. All expenses would be paid from 
Miami on. 

Robert Sisco, superintendent of rec- 



reation and parks in Livingston, imme- 
diately replied, "Sure, our boys will be 
glad to go, and we'll raise the money 
for new uniforms and transportation to 
Miami somehow." This information 
was relayed in a formal invitation to 
Bob, reading in part: "We hope that 
this invitation will be accepted and that 
you understand that by it we are at- 
tempting to show our appreciation to 
the people of Livingston and to all the 
American families there for the recep- 
tion given our team during its visit to 
the United States." 

The team departed on schedule, re- 
turning ten days later with many fond 
memories and additional friends, not 



only in Ecuador, but in Panama and 
Peru, which also had representatives in 
the tournament. Handicapped by the 
high altitude and unaccustomed food 
as well as rules, officiating, and even 
court markings which were new to them, 
they managed to win only one of five 
games played, but that made no differ- 
ence. As one of the boys explained : 

"Time means nothing in Quito. The 
people were always willing to stay and 
talk or do us a favor. They were ex- 
tremely friendly. Before every game we 
were besieged by autograph seekers. Al- 
though we didn't come out ahead in the 
tournament, we were way out front as 
far as friendship and good will go." $: 



Have You Tried . . . 

A HAPPINESS FUND? 



Many individuals and organizations 
are willing to render financial support 
to recreation projects for the less fortu- 
nate if they are assured their donations 
will bring a maximum of happiness. 
The Montana State Training School at 
Boulder is an institution for the men- 
tally retarded of all chronological and 
mental ages and, like many others, must 
rely upon donated funds to enrich its 
recreation program. 

A good example of wise use of do- 
nated dollars is the school's recently 
completed merry-go-round which, if 
purchased, would have cost twenty-five 
thousand dollars. But with dedicated 
personnel and access to a well-equipped 
machine shop, the cost was approxi- 



mately three thousand. This device, 
with a capacity for fifty, has two areas 
specially designed for wheelchairs, is 
equipped with safety belts and a simu- 
lated pipe organ, contains speakers that 
broadcast traditional carousel music. 
Since this type of Wild-West horseman- 
ship proves exciting, adequate toilet fa- 
cilities have been erected on the site. 
Nearby, a railroad operates on a quar- 
ter-mile course. 

The horses for the merry-go-round 
were cast in the school shop from three 
thousand pounds of aluminum donated 
by the Anaconda Company. They were 
cast in sections, had to be electrowelded 
together, were then painted by the boys. 
This, in itself, was a high recreation 



venture. This device brings more hap- 
piness to more boys and girls than any- 
thing else we have. 

We were fortunate in getting the pure 
aluminum donation; but prior to that, 
aluminum scrap pots, pans, and so on 
were collected and melted down. The 
furnace was fire brick piled on the shop 
floor: the heat, a kerosene weed burner 
which produced the necessary twelve 
hundred degrees needed to melt alumi- 
num. 

In the past few years, over twenty-six 
thousand dollars have been collected 
and expended solely for recreation pur- 
poses by various methods. These meth- 
ods are a story in themselves, and range 
from the wishing well, which greets the 
visitor, to an increasing number of me- 
morial donations. Arthur E. Westwell. 
Superintendent, Montana State Train- 
ing School, Boulder. 



FEBRUARY 1960 



73 




Floodlighting can be planned for areas encompassing a 
single activity or for multiple-use using one installation. 



Wallace W. Weld 



FLOODLIGHTING 
OUTDOOR 
RECREATION 
AREAS 



In which basic techniques are 

discussed and pointed up by 

photographs and diagrams. 



THE MOST IMPORTANT feature of floodlighting is in 
the extended use of area and equipment it permits. 
In this way a land area enjoys a greater usage and 
thus becomes more worthwhile. In some areas, because of 
high daytime temperatures, evening play is desirable and 
thus floodlights are essential. 

Floodlighting a recreation area is relatively quite sim- 
ple. Single areas may be laid out or overall plans can be 
made to encompass several activities. It is good practice 
to include multiple-use areas in a lighting system; in llii- 
way, several different activities may be taken care of by 
one installation. If a park district or recreation department 
is considering illuminating a Softball field, it is possible to 
light such other activities as Little League, Pony League, 
baseball, or football. Sports covered will largely be deter- 
mined by available area. Study the situation and allow for 
safety zones outside of the play area, so facilities will not 
create a hazard. Pole equipment on which the floodlights 
are mounted is usually placed at the edge of the safety 
zones and thus will not create a hazard to the players. In 
ball diamonds of various sizes it has been found that a safe 
margin, outside baselines, of one-third the width of the dia- 
mond, is sufficient to enable the players to field foul balls. 
(Some authorities recommend a greater distance. Ed) 
If a softball diamond with a sixty-foot baseline is being 
lighted, then the safety zone outside of the diamond should 
be at least twenty feet (see Figure 1, Page 76). In base- 
ball, where the baselines are ninety feet, a thirty-foot safety 
zone is necessary. 

The Illuminating Engineering Society has determined 
the amount of light required for all sports areas. In deter- 
mining these values they have considered the active usage 
of the area. Where play is quite intensive and there is 
large attendance, higher intensities will be required than 

MR. WELD is chief application engineer for the Revere Elec- 
tric Manufacturing Company, Chicago, and chairman. Il- 
luminating Engineering Society Sports Lighting Commilii;-. 
This article tvas specially prepared for RECREATION Magazine. 

74 



for an area used for neighborhood play. In softball, stand- 
ards have been set up for four classes of play, ranging from 
professional and championship, down through semiprofes- 
sional, industrial, and recreation play. The latter, of course, 
requiring the lowest values. The accompanying table 



TTPI 


PHOTOMETRIC 

"hSICNATIiPl 


JPEI OR 
OiCLOSED 


BEAN SPMAO 
IN HfOUtS 


1 


Vorjr Narrow 

8.M 


Encloaod 


10 to la than U 


2 


Narrow BMB 


feeloMd 


-fSTl* to ! than 

~- - . w 


J 


-'-.- . 


bwloMd 


r ^29 to ! than 
^^-^^ 46 


a 


NxJlOB kid* 

B*M 


Eneloaad 
or Opi 


-X- l>t> to ! than 
\ 


5 


Md BMB 


tncloaod 
or Opan 


<fi to !* than 
100* 


6 


V.ty Wttf* 
BMB 


Incloaod 
or Opan 


-e 100 and * 



2-A 




MINIMUM MJW UTICIWCY - PERCBfT 




WCLOSU) 

WAVY wrr 

CUSS HD 


BKL03CD 
MOWD-ARW AND 
-AKUvU. - POWOSl 

CUSS OP 


on* 

-H V-^.-J 

CUSS or 01 


TTPE 


" Than 
17 - Inch 
DlnMtcr 


17 - Inch 

DlHMtar 
nd vr 


Li Than 
17 - Inch 
Diantar 


17 - inch 

Dlacwtar 

and Orr 


UM 

Innrt 



lth 
Inatit 

Claaa 01 


1 


30 


35 


3k 


35 


- 


. 


2 


34 


to 


36 


36 


_ 


m 


' 


10 


II 


39 


45 


- 


- 


d 


u 


VP 


kl 


50 


- 


35 


5 





5J 


a 


50 


- 


40 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


55 


60 



III . Hf I It'N 



8 -FOLK LAYOUT 



CLASS 


IES CURRENT RECOMMENDED 
PRACTICE - FOOTCANDLES 
MAINTAINED IN SERVICE 


OUTFIELD 
SIZE 
(feet) 


FLOODLIGHTS (ALTERNATE INSTALLATIONS) 


MINIMUM MOUNTING 
HEIGHT TO BOTTOM 
FLOODLIGHT CHOSSARM 

(feet) 


TYPES 3, 4 or 5 
CLASS GP 


TYPE 6, CLASS 01 


TYPfc 6, CLASS 


Ko. per Pole 


No. per Pole 


No. per Pole 


Infield 


Outfield 


A 


B 


c 


A 


B 


C 


A 


B 


C 
























A & B Poles 


C Poles 


Professional 
Championship 


50 


30 


280 


14 


30 


18 














50 


60 


240 


14 


20 


13 














50 


55 


Semi- 
Professional 


30 


20 


280 


8 


18 


14 


10 


28 


18 








40 


55 


240 


8 


14 


10 


10 


22 


12 








40 


50 


Industrial 

League 


20 


10 


280 


6 


u 


10 


8 


18 


12 


10 


24 


15 


35 


50 


240 


6 


10 


7 


8 


12 


9 


10 


15 


11 


35 


45 


200 


5 


7 


5 


7 


9 


7 


9 


12 


9 


35 


40 



6-POLE LAYOUT 



Recreational 


10 


5 


200 


3 


4 


5 


4 


5 


6 


5 


7 


8 


35 


40 



LAMPS: 1500-watt clear general lighting service operated at 10*. over rated voltage. 
POLLS: 6 for Recreational, 8 for other classes. 

TABLE I 



intensities required for various classes in regard to the 
outfield dimensions, along with the types of floodlights, 
quantities, lamp size, and minimum mounting heights. 

The layout in Figure 1 shows an eight-pole setup. This 
arrangement is used for the three lop classes of Softball, 
whereas a six-pole layout may be used for the recreation 
classification. The eight-pole layout provides the best pos- 
sible locations for the floodlights specified. 

The six-pole layout for recreation softball is a compro- 
mise. It is understandable that illumination from four 
points will be of a better quality than that from only for 
two banks of floodlights. This is the only class of ball in 
which the Illuminating Engineering Society recommends 
the use of two outfield poles. For other types of play, such 
as Little League, Pony League, and so on, four poles are 
definitely specified. 

The society has studied the situation carefully in recom- 
mending footcandles for championship or professional play, 
where there is unusually large attendance. Since spectators 
may be at considerable distance from the playing area, it 
is necessary to provide sufficient illumination so that they 
may follow the play. In professional play the action is a 
great deal faster than in other classes. For that reason 
higher intensities are required than ordinarily. From these 
factors it was determined that fifty footcandles would be 
required on the infield and thirty footcandles on the out- 
field. It was felt in regard to the recreation class, that the 
game could be carried on with only ten footcandles on the 
infield and seven and a half footcandles on the outfield. 
These values are the lowest in which a neighborhood game 
may be played in safety. Lower values would increase the 
hazards by reducing visibility. 

In Table 1 the quantity of floodlights required at each 
location is given for the various classes along with the type 
of floodlights. In Tables 2 and 2A the characteristics of 
these floodlights are given, including the beam spread of 
the various types and the minimum beam efficiency of the 
three classes. For recreation softball a Type 5 or 6 flood- 



light is most generally used, as the poles are located near 
the playing area. These are wide-beam units. As only a 
few floodlights will be required, a wide-beam type is neces- 
sary to cover the field and to produce good overlapping pat- 
terns. In some cases, floodlights may have to be mounted 
at a greater distance from the field. Then a narrower beam 
spread, Type 3 or 4, will produce the coverage required. 

The class numbers of floodlights provide quick reference 
as to the general construction of the floodlights. Class GP 
refers to an enclosed floodlight with an aluminum reflector. 
Class is an open porcelain-enameled reflector and Class 
01 is, again, an open porcelain-enameled reflector with alu- 
minum insert. It is usually good practice to use a glass cover 
for the aluminum unit, as it protects the reflector surface 
as well as keeping it clean. 

An aluminum unit usually provides better light control. 
Fewer floodlights will be required, reducing the kilowatts 
necessary to illuminate the field. The 1500-watt PS-52 clear 
lamp is the most economical lamp size as it provides the 
best light output at the most economical cost. 

For recreation softball areas ( Table 1 ) , there are specified 
twenty-four Type-5, Class-GP floodlights: three at the two 
"A" locations, four at the two "B" locations, and five at the 
two "C" locations. If a Type-6, Class-0 floodlight is used, 
then forty floodlights are necessary to provide the same in- 
tensity. This means the monthly charge for electricity will 
be almost double. The economics of the situation will have 
to be studied to decide which floodlight to install, as the 
open porcelain unit is usually less expensive than are en- 
closed aluminum floodlights. However, the difference in 
cost undoubtedly will be counterbalanced by the saving in 
energy consumed. 

In the next higher classification, known as industrial 
league, there are three different outfield dimensions. The 
240-foot outfield is the one most generally used. This out- 
field will take care of Little League as well as softball and 
is almost large enough for Pony League. In this manner, 
three different classes of sports may be taken care of on the 



FEBRUARY 1960 



75 



RECOMMENDED 8-POLE LAYOUT FOR SOFTBALL 



C2 



C3 




FIG. I 



'BASEBALL VIEWING DIRECTIONS 




FIG Z 



SPECTATORS 
PLAYERS 

CRITICAL VIEWING 
DIRECTIONS 




160 FT 



TO MAINTAIN THE SAME BEAM PATTERN WITH TY PE 
VARYING DISTANCES FROM THE AREA TO BE 30 

LIGHTED THE SEAM SPREAD MUST BE REDUCED 

MOUNTING HEIGHT-AS RECOMMENDED BY I E S FOR FOOTBALL 



TYPE 2 
20 



140 FT 



same area. Industrial league requires sixty Type-5, Group- 
GP units: six at the two "A" locations, ten at the two "B" 
locations and seven at each of the four "C" locations, to 
produce twenty footcandles on the infield and fifteen foot- 
candles on the outfield. In all cases the lamps specified are 
1500-watt. To produce the intensities specified, the units 
have to be used at a ten percent over voltage condition. 
Used in this manner, the light output of the lamps is in- 
creased thirty-five percent with only a sixteen percent in- 
crease in wattage. However, the expected lamp life is only 
three hundred hours, but this normally provides a full sea- 
son's use. 

In the two last columns of Table 1 the minimum mount- 
ing heights are given for each pole location. These mount- 
ing heights are based on producing the highest possible 
illumination on the field and keeping glare to a minimum. 
Where the poles have to be set back at a greater distance 
from the field then the mounting height has to be increased. 
Although we have covered only ball areas, the same informa- 
tion may be secured for other areas from Recommended 
Sports Lighting Practice, published by the Illuminating En- 
gineering Society. Practically all sports areas are included. 

After the areas and sports along with the floodlights have 
been determined, it is advisable to get in touch with your 
local utility company as it undoubtedly has men capable to 
give further advice. It may call in a local contractor or 
architect or may contact a floodlight manufacturer. Manu- 
facturers can provide additional information and give exact 
quantities required, along with mounting heights. They can 
also provide a positioning chart so floodlights may be prop- 
erly set and the field have the best possible illumination. 
Such an installation will provide many happy hours for the 
people who use your recreation area. # 



NEW LEVELS 

Growing leisure is accompanied both by more time for 
new pursuits and the awakening of new yearnings and in- 
terests in the minds of people. Their inherently social im- 
pulses move them to desire to fill much of this new vacuum 
with fruitful human associations. They search for con- 
structive and satisfying relationships with others that pro- 
vide warmth, security, and stimulation. They aspire to 
associations which can illuminate new horizons, cultivate 
new understandings, and pave the way for new avenues of 
constructive activity. 

Recreation programs have an incomparable opportunit\ 
in this situation. Naturally suited to people's leisure be- 
cause they are informal and voluntary, they can meel peo- 
ple's need for both association and substance. But to do so 
those concerned with the recreation field must prepare the 
ground better. The importance of qualified profession;]! 
leadership must be re-emphasized and more and better rec- 
reation workers secured. The vital place of the volunteer 
leader must be reasserted. Program approaches must be 
broadened and enriched creatively. Above all, a new Irvrl 
of public understanding and support must be achieved. 
PAUL OPPERMAN, executive director, Northeastern 
Metropolitan Area Planning Commission, Chicago. 



76 



RECREATION 



STATE 

AND 

LOCAL 

DEVELOPMENTS 



, Elvira Delany 



ARIZONA. The U. S. Department of the Interior revoked 
an order which would have opened up a portion of Tucson 
Mountain Park to mining as of February 15, 1960. The 
33,000-acre park, administered by Pima County, includes 
approximately 26,500 acres of federal land and is presently 
closed to mining. Assistant Secretary of the Interior Roger 
Ernst announced the revocation after reviewing the tran- 
script of a public hearing held in Tucson last October. Mr. 
Ernst declares, "The hearing record shows . . . recreation 
... to be the highest and most important use." 

COLORADO. The North Jeffco Recreation District suc- 
ceeded in passing a $300,000 bond issue for future parks 
and recreation development. The Denver City Council 
agreed to sell the Denver County Poor Farm to Adams 
County for an eighteen-hole golf course and family park. 

ILLINOIS. The board of trustees of the Pleasure Drive- 
way and Park District of Springfield has approved plans and 
specifications for a cast bell carillon to be installed in Wash- 
ington Park's Thomas Rees Memorial Carillon. The caril- 
lon, of concrete and masonry construction, will include from 
seventy-six to eighty bells. Funds for the project are a be- 
quest left the park board for this purpose by Thomas Rees, 
a former editor of the Illinois State Register. 

A functional exchange between the city of Chicago and 
the Chicago Park District resulted in the latter's taking over 
almost all city parks, beaches, and other recreation areas, 
along with 283 employees, mostly recreation workers and 
laborers. Land acquisition in this transaction totals 425 
acres, and facilities affected include fourteen public bath- 
houses and six swimming pools (three of which are under 
construction). The city, for its part, took over the park 
district police force of 1948, as well as 97 school-crossing 
guards and 116 boulevard workers. The city also acquired 
jurisdiction over more than two hundred miles of park dis- 
trict boulevards. 

The Memorial Park District (Cook County) passed a 
$552,000 bond issue by a 3-to-l vote. Plans call for pur- 
chase and development of a new fifteen-acre park site and 
improvement to present parks and facilities, according to 
Alan B. Domer, superintendent of parks and recreation. 
The Joliet Park District (Will County) has received ap- 
proval of a $700,000 bond issue for its Inwood Recreation 
'Center (ice-skating rink, swimming pool, youth center) and 



renovation of East Side Playgrounds (including walk-to 
swimming pools.) Highland Park passed a referendum to 
issue $195,000 in general obligation bonds for park im- 
provements; of this, $125,000 will be spent on a swimming 
pool and $70,000 for beach and park improvement and land 
acquisition. The Highland Park Lions Club has pledged an 
additional $30,000 for the pool. The Peoria Park District 
is constructing a fifty-acre marina and playground on the 
Illinois River with a $300,000 allocation. 

MINNESOTA. A new village recreation building will go 
up in Hoyt Lakes using lumber from the old Mesaba build- 
ing now being torn down. In St. Louis Park the city coun- 
cil and Westwood Hills Golf Course reached an agreement 
whereby the city will pay $215,298 for part of the course for 
use as a city park. The village of Aitkin has been given a 
tract along the Mississippi River to be used as a park in the 
memory of Gustav Berglund. In Deephaven, the village 
council has purchased approximately ten acres on Corsen's 
Bay for $15,500. This adjoins village-owned property and 
will provide a twenty-five-acre park and recreation area. 

Garden City (pop. 300) recently dedicated its $250,000 
Wellcome Memorial, a combination recreation center, li- 
brary, and civic center. The village received a $400,000 be- 
quest from a local boy who went out into the world to become 
an English lord and head of a vast British pharmaceutical 
concern. Sir Henry Wellcome was born in a log cabin in Al- 
mond, Wisconsin, but spent his boyhood in Garden City 
where he met Dr. William W. Mayo, father of the famous 
Mayo Brothers, who encouraged him to become a pharma- 
cist. The remaining $150,000 was turned over for an en- 
dowment fund. 

OREGON. The Oregon Fish Commission and the Weyer- 
haeuser Timber Company are cooperating to build an ex- 
perimental natural fish farm on the east fork of the Milli- 
coma River in Coos County to supplement and establish 
fish runs in coastal streams. A ten-acre pond, holding five 
hundred thousand salmon fingerlings, is intended to lower 
costs of raising fish in hatcheries by placing the fingerlings in 
impounded water with a natural food supply. Weyerhaeuser 
installed culverts and other modifications at a cost of $5,000 
and is giving up an acre of tree-growing land. In addition, 
the company voluntarily spent approximately $8,000 to 
modify the new channel bed as a fisheries protection mea- 
sure. (For further information about Weyerhaeuser's rec- 
reation policy see "Public Lands on Private Property," 
RECREATION, November 1956, Page 418.) Similar coopera- 
tion between industry and government is increasing through- 
out the country. 

The Lane County Parks and Recreation Commission has 
a new $100,000 budget. The past year saw the jamming of 
all facilities beyond capacity, despite the expansion of three 
picnic areas, the addition of a twenty-two-unit campground 
on the coast, and improved boat launching and moorage fa- 
cilities. The new budget will allow such improvements as 
a watering system, twenty-four more campsites in three 
parks, seventeen picnic sites, a beach access, a wayside park, 
and a completely new facility on Fernridge Reservoir, the 
second most popular boating area in the state. 



FEBRUARY 1960 



77 



AIRHOUSES 



A frank discussion of the advantages 
and the disadvantages of new, 
air-supported structures. 



UNLESS IT BE a haunted house, 
nothing looks as empty as a de- 
serted playfield or a dry swim- 
ming pool. And nothing is quite so 
wasteful as the many millions of play 
hours lost on recreation facilities every 
year because of weather. Until recent- 
ly, such lost recreation has had to be 
accepted as inevitable in all but the 



Don Shingler 



erage about a dollar per square foot of 
ground space covered. This is much less 
than the cost of a permanent building. 

Translucency. Fabric used admits so 
much light that no other daytime il- 
lumination is needed. 

High ceiling height. Since structures 
must be spherical in shape, the height 
of a circular airhouse is normally equal 



tion, is 371/6' by 90' with 20-foot "bub- 
ble" at one end. The bubble covers an 
offset section at the shallow end, used 
for instruction of youngest children. 

Fabric used here is twelve-ounce 
vinyl-coated nylon. Colors are white 
with blue-and-white end stripes. Air 
pressure is supplied by a 2.000 CFM 
blower. The house is secured to the 
concrete decking by metal ring ballast. 
At one side, the airhouse is secured to 
the small permanent building that is 
used for office, lobby, and locker room. 
Access is provided from the inside of 
this house to the airhouse. Total cost 
of this installation was less than five 
thousand dollars. 

Despite all these obvious advantages, 
it must be recognized that airhouses 
are still in an early stage of develop- 
ment. For instance, we do not yet know- 
just how long certain materials may 
last. The vinyl-coated nylon, which we 







most southern parts of the country. 
Now, however, air-supported structures, 
known as airhouses, reclaim this lost 
potential for many different types of 
outdoor recreation activities. 

These structures are made of heavy- 
duty fabrics supported solely by gentle 
air pressure blown into them by fan. 
Major advantages of such an installa- 
tion are: 

Year-round use of costly installations 
such as swimming pools. In many parts 
of the country these can be used four 
or at most five months of the year. The 
airhouses are equally well suited to 
weatherproof such activities as tennis, 
badminton, volleyball, and others. 

Extremely low cost of installation. 
On larger installations, the cost will av- 



MR. SHINGLER is industrial manager of 
the Seattle Tent and Awning Company, 
Seattle, Washington, manufacturers of 
AIR:SEAL airhouses. 



to half its diameter. A 65-foot diame- 
ter house has a ceiling 32 1 /o-feet high. 
This gives all the height needed for any 
activity. 

Quick and easy erection and removal. 
When weather permits, it is best to use 
these facilities with no covering what- 
ever. When a permanent building is 
erected, the facilities become indoor 
recreation from that time on. Not so 
with an airhouse your swimming pool 
becomes an open-air pool again in 
April, May, or June. Air-supported 
structures can also cover an outdoor 
ice-skating arena, thus greatly reducing 
the cost of such an installation, while 
giving it the advantages of an indoor 
rink. 

Use of airhouses over swimming 
pools has increased greatly in the last 
year or two in the Pacific Northwest. 
Widest use so far is for home swimming 
pools, but there have been several pub- 
lic installations as well. A typical ex- 
ample, used in a commercial installa- 



This overall view of a commer- 
cial pool covered ivith an 
airhouse was taken from a bluff 
overlooking the pool. 



consider the best, should last a very 
minimum of five years, and may even 
last ten years or longer. Much depends 
on usage and care taken by the owner. 
Clearly, it cannot last as long as a well- 
constructed permanent building. 

In considering material used in your 
airhouse, certain points should be kept 
firmly in mind. Some minor advan- 
tages may bring major disadvantages. 
For instance, just how important is it 
that the material be transparent? This 
is hardly a major advantage, since par- 
ticipants in any recreation activity will 
be concentrating on that activity, not 
on the wintry scene outside. 

In a search for better materials. c 
have thoroughly tested transparent ones 
and find they are lacking in certain 
strength requirements. Material used 
in an airhouse should have great impact 
strength and tear strength as well. It 
may have great impact strength, a- 
some transparent materials have. \H 
tear easily once a gash has bivn made. 



78 



RECREATION 



Interior of an airhouse of vinyl- 
coated nylon. Air-supported 
structures can cover a variety of 
outdoor recreation areas. 



A good grade of vinyl-coated nylon, on 
the other hand, has both impact 
strength and tear strength. A small hole 
or cut will not enlarge itself and can be 
easily repaired. A temporary patch can 
be easily installed during use, to be re- 
placed by a permanent repair when the 
airhouse is put away for storage in the 
summer. 

It is important that the material be 
translucent so it can be used in daytime 
and provide shadowless daytime illumi- 
nation. Light will not filter through in 
adequate intensity, however, if the 
house is not cleaned thoroughly at least 
once a year. This job is the responsi- 
bility of the user, since the airhouse can 
only be cleaned properly when it is in- 
flated. A good detergent, a long-han- 
dled brush, and a hose are the indicated 
tools for this. The must time to do it is 
shortly before the house is to be deflated 
and stored for the summer. 

A problem you will be sure to en- 
counter with an airhouse over a heated 
pool is moisture condensation. If no 
heat whatever is mixed with the cold air 
being blown into the house, a dense fog 
of condensation will form inside the 
bubble. In the pool installation men- 
tioned above, for instance, the fog was 




so dense that it was impossible to see 
from one end of the pool to the other. 
Unless your swimmers like steam baths, 
you will not want this condition. 

It is easy to correct by installing a 
space heater or convector to heat the 
air blown into the airhouse. The air 
is still humid, but that is inevitable in 
any indoor pool installation. Water 
temperature is kept at eighty-five de- 
grees. With the heating unit, air tem- 
perature is about seventy-five degrees. 
This additional heat actually does not 
cost much extra money. Having heated 
air above the water greatly reduces heat 
loss from the pool. 

In planning dimensions of your air- 
house, you should also make sure there 
is adequate space around the sides. For 
a swimming pool installation, a width 
of seven to eight feet is the very mini- 
mum and even more is desirable. 

Properly constructed airhouses can 
withstand heavy loads of snow. The 
heat, of course, will also melt the snow 
quite rapidly. Method of anchoring 
the airhouse is important, especially if 
there are winds of high velocity in your 
area. Sand or water ballast used in the 
first air structures was not satisfactory, 
for once the ballast starts to shift, the 



O oon the spreading metropolitan areas will engulf ninety per- 
cent of our population. This is not in itself an evil. I believe that 
open and accessible cities can offer a variety of goods, serv- 
ices, and facilities that no suburban centers no matter how 
numerous and well-stocked can match. 

The growth of the cities will not be an evil if we make them 
once again a pleasant place to stroll, eat, shop, sightsee, enjoy 
cultural activities, and live. Only then will our leisure time be 
worth living. Otherwise, we will spend our precious, hard- 
earned leisure within our own four walls, cut off from society 
by the foes we have created: murderous traffic, smog, disorder, 
blight, and ugliness. We will be trapped in our suburban or 
city homes, all dressed up with no place to go. Victor Gruen, 
city planner and architect, in Life, December 28, 1959. 



house is due for an early collapse. Lift- 
ing power of an airhouse is so great 
that it is almost impossible to anchor 
properly by this method. 

Greater security is afforded by a 
method that anchors the base into the 
ground or concrete apron on which the 
house is erected. Airhouses anchored 
properly in this manner have withstood 
winds up to gale force without budging. 
For anchoring to the ground, embed 
spear points three to four feet deep. 

Any kind of structure, of course, is 
susceptible to vandalism. Airhouses are 
no exception. In such event, the dam- 
age can normally be repaired by stitch- 
room procedures and the house be re- 
erected in only a few hours. In one 
case, a large (almost three-foot-long) 
hole was torn accidentally in an air- 
house at Larson Air Force Base. The 
tear was repaired by hand sewing with- 
out interrupting usage. An airhouse, 
like any valuable piece of property, 
could become damaged either accident- 
ally or intentionally. Like other prop- 
erty, airhouses are insurable by many 
companies. And in any case, the temp- 
tation to vandalism seems to be strong- 
est in the case of old, vacant houses 
rather than with new, well-used build- 
ings. 

For an average pool, the job takes a 
full day's work for four to five men for 
either operation. When the fan is cut 
off, the house will deflate in about thirty 
minutes. When the fan is turned on, it 
will inflate to normal size in about half 
that time. 

The National Institute of Govern- 
mental Purchasing reports that Minne- 
apolis will store school supplies and 
equipment in an 9,000-foot air struc- 
ture. This will be the first "blow-Hp" 
building in the city. # 



r EBRUARY 1960 



79 



SCHOOL-CITY 
COOPERATION IN 
RECREATION 




A STUDY OF school-city cooperation in the joint use of 
recreation areas and facilities showed that, although 
practically all of the twenty-two cities studied indi- 
cated good relationships between school and recreation au- 
thorities, only ten reported formal agreements covering all 
or a major portion of those relationships. A surprising 
number relied on informal machinery, including verbal 
agreements, to bring about and continue the established 
relationships. 

This study of school-city cooperation in the acquisition, 
planning, development, and maintenance of recreation areas 
and facilities was undertaken by the National Recreation 
Association's National Advisory Committee on Recreation 
Administration. Committee members at the time of the study 
included chairman Jay M. Ver Lee, superintendent of rec- 
reation, Oakland, California; Milo Christiansen, superin- 
tendent of recreation, Washington, D. C.; Charles Doell, 
superintendent of parks, Minneapolis (now retired) ; Ben 
Evans, director of recreation, Seattle, Washington ; William 
Keeling, superintendent of recreation, Dallas; Vernon 
Ridgewell, superintendent of recreation, Norfolk, Virginia; 
Walter Scott, director of municipal and school recreation, 
Long Beach, California; and Beverly Sheffield, director of 
recreation, Austin, Texas, and new chairman of the National 
Recreation Association's National Advisory Committee on 
Recreation Administration. 

The cities selected ranged from small communities to 
some of the largest cities in the country. Twenty of the 
twenty-two cities studied had developed above average pol- 
icies for joint use of city and school facilities. In fifteen 
of the selected cities, recreation is administered under agen- 
cies that combine park and recreation functions; seven 
have separate recreation departments. Ten cities have pol- 
icy-making boards; ten, advisory boards; two have no 
boards. In nine of the selected cities school-board members 
or school-staff members serve on the recreation park board, 
which, in six of the nine communities, is an advisory board. 

One of the outstanding detailed agreements is found in 
San Diego, California, between the unified school district 
and the city park and recreation department. It describes 
how sites are selected, details what facilities will be included 
in each instance, delineates the use of recreation facilities 
by the school agency, details responsibility for supervision 
of facilities, and sets forth the relationship between the 
school administrators and recreation staff at particular sites. 

80 



Maintenance responsibilities of both parties are spelled out, 
with a detailed list of the equipment and basic improve- 
ments for various types of areas. 

Austin, Texas, has developed a set of policies to guide 
the school and the city administrations in the joint use and 
development of school and recreation facilities. This out- 
lines the basic policy of the two agencies in acquiring ad- 
jacent facilities and developing these on an integrated basis. 
It states the responsibility of the two agencies with respect 
to planning the facilities, and the principles to be followed 
in developing school buildings, places the responsibility for 
the development of all grounds around buildings, and spells 
out responsibility for the planning and design functions. 
The policy sets forth how the buildings will be used by the 
two authorities, establishes responsibility for custodial serv- 
ices and groundskeeping services on joint facilities, and 
includes reference to certain specialized facilities that are 
used jointly by both school and recreation. 

An interesting cooperative agreement is in effect in Los 
Angeles, where separate programs under supervised leader- 
ship are conducted both by the school agency and by the 
recreation and park agency. The agreement gives both pol- 
icy and procedure whereby the construction and develop- 
ment of facilities by the two separate agencies will not result 
in duplication, but will complement each other in providing 
a well-rounded program for all neighborhoods of the i-itv. 

Oakland, California, relies on a number of separate 
agreements to govern relationships between the recreation 
agency and the school body. A joint statement, developed 
by staffs of the two agencies, describes a detailed program 
for the joint development of neighborhood recreation -ite 
in conjunction with elementary schools. This agreement 
provides for a one-third and two-thirds sharing of eo-N of 
purchase and preliminary site development, such as grad- 
ing, uti'ities, and street work with the schools assuming the 
larger portion of the agreed-upon costs. 

The agreement governing purchase and development of 
sites is supplemented by leases for separate sites through 
which school land is made available to the recreation de- 
partment on a forty-year term basis without cost. Anotliet 
agreement details the conditions under which the eit\ o\\ mil 
municipal swimming pools will be used by the schools dur- 
ing the school year, and provides for a method of sharing 
costs and staffing. Another separate agreement po\einc the 
way in which school properties will be used by the recrea- 

RECREATION 



tion department. Other agreements clarify the responsi- 
bility of the school and the recreation department in the 
maintenance of jointly used facilities and the operation of 
evening gymnasiums for recreation purposes. 

A LARGE number of the cities studied have developed joint 
projects in which schools and municipal areas or parks 
have been located adjacent to each other with arrangements 
for joint use. Choosing sites is accomplished in different 
ways. In practically all instances, the preliminary selection 
is made cooperatively by the school and recreation staffs. 
In many communities, the city-planning-agency staff is 
brought in at this stage. Five of the cities studied complete 
the selection process by staff agreement only; seven carry 
the staff decisions on to the respective boards; four inject 
a third step between the staff and the boards by having a 
special coordinating committee pass on site selection before 
final approval of the boards concerned. In one city the site 
selection is accomplished by each agency working through 
the planning commission. 

In twelve of the cities studied, purchase is, in most cases, 
accomplished by having each agency appraise and purchase 
its own share. There are some instances, however, where 
a slightly different procedure is followed for a specific site. 
Six of the communities reported that one of the agencies, 
either recreation or school, appraised the overall site and 
purchased the land, separate deeds being taken by school 
and city either in or after the closing of escrow. 

Very few cities indicated any stated ratio of cost sharing 
for joint-site purchase. Austin, Texas, establishes in its 
agreement a fifty-fifty division of costs between the school 
and city. In four other communities, indicating purchase 
by a single agency, it appears that distribution of costs is 
made on the basis of individual agreements for each site. 
Alameda, California, shares the costs of a joint site on the 
basis of a use formula in which the expected use for physical 
education and for recreation is mutually agreed upon in ad- 
vance. Some cities studied report a procedure whereby land 
is traded between the two agencies after a joint site is pur- 
chased. 

Where one of the agencies already owns land needed by 
the other agencies, some interesting and unusual legal ar- 
rangements have been worked out. Fort Lauderdale, Flor- 
ida, has worked out an arrangement whereby school land 
is leased for a twenty-year period with an option to renew 
for another twenty years, if conditions set forth in the lease 
are met. This arrangement provides a recapture clause in 
which the schools may have land returned to them when 
needed for building purposes. The schools agree to a pen- 
alty, however. In the event of taking over permanent im- 
provements, methods have been devised to reimburse the 
recreation agency. Glenview, Illinois, has a lease arrange- 
ment by which the park district obtains the use of school 
land, the consideration for the lease being the agreement 
of the park agency to do certain maintenance work around 
the school building involved in the joint site. This particu- 



lar lease arrangement has a ninety-day recapture clause in 
the event the school needs the land for buildings. 

In Seattle the park agency has arranged ninety-nine-year 
leases under which the lessee assumes any assessments 
against the property during the period covered. Leases in 
other communities have been obtained on a thirty-year and 
on a forty-year basis. 

/~VNE OF the problems faced in developing a joint site is 
^-* designing the site so it serves both agencies equally 
well and provides a coordinated plan. Nine cities studied 
met this problem by hiring a single landscape architect or 
architect to design the entire area as a unit. In four other 
cities a unified design is achieved by joint staff planning, 
but separate architects are hired to draw up detailed plans 
and specifications before going to bid. Seven cities reported 
that each agency designed its portion of the joint areas. 
Most cities followed the policy of letting separate contracts 
for their own portion. Only two agencies reported letting 
a single contract with a division of agreed-upon costs. 

In planning new facilities to be used by both recreation 
and schools, the idea of joint approval of plans for the out- 
door areas by both agencies than for indoor areas is more 
readily accepted. Only five cities have a definite procedure 
whereby the recreation agency reviews the indoor plans in 
school buildings to be used for recreation purposes; in three 
other cities, it is consulted. In two communities the recrea- 
tion agency lists its needs, but the final decision is left up 
to the school planning office. In two cities a coordinating 
committee is utilized to see that the indoor facilities meet 
certain standards for recreation use. 

Advantages of Joint Use 

Economy (saves tax dollars) 10 cities 

More efficient use of public land 9 " 

Avoids duplication 7 " 

Develops mutually cooperative understanding 4 " 

More adequate areas made possible 4 " 

Meets with public approval 2 " 

Enhances appearance of areas 2 " 

Drawbacks of Joint Use 

Possessive attitude of school staff hinders 

complete cooperative use 5 cities 

Changes in personnel bring about 

different staff attitudes 5 " 

School facilities not geared to a varied 

recreation program 4 ' 

Process of planning together is a slow one 2 " 

Joint use makes it difficult to provide time 

for necessary maintenance and custodial care 
School staffs resent extra work 
School staff cancels out recreation use at 

last minute for own use 

Although using school building to advantage, fifteen 
cities indicated the need for a separate building. Three 
cities felt a separate building was not needed if the school 
facilities were properly designed 

An attempt was made to find out how various cities di- 



FEBRUARY 1960 



81 



vided the responsibility and costs for jointly used facilities. 
In connection with outdoor areas, eight cities reported that 
responsibility and cost for maintenance were handled by 
each agency on its own land; six recreation agencies pro- 
vide all maintenance on outdoor areas; in four other cities, 
maintenance is provided by either the schools or recreation 
with a complete charge-back of the expenses incurred by 
either agency on behalf of the other. 

The assumption of responsibility and costs for the main- 
tenance of indoor facilities follows a more consistent pat- 



tern: in thirteen communities the school agency provides 
all maintenance for indoor facilities used for recreation 
purposes; in five others the schools make a charge for all 
or a portion of the extra cost of opening up the indoor fa- 
cilities as follows: (a) schools reimbursed for heat, light, 
and janitorial supplies; (b) charge-back for some custodial 
services and some utilities; (c) recreation charged for all 
janitorial services (two cities) ; and (d) semiannual ex- 
change of cost statements which involve both indoor and 
outdoor facilities. # 



WINTER COMFORT OUT-OF-DOORS-*- 



THE BASIC element of dressing for winter camping is 
keeping comfortably cool. Perspiration must be 
avoided at all costs, for it sharply decreases the insulating 
value of the clothing. One should dress in many layers 
rather than in one thick layer. 

It might be said that there are three basic principles in- 
volved. First, dress in many layers of loosely knit clothing 
to trap insulating air. Second, cover these layers with a 
windproof outer cover to minimize body heat loss, and, 
third, take off or add layers as needed to keep cool and avoid 
perspiration. 

A two-piece pair of wool long Johns, wool ski trousers 
that do not bind at the knees and are of a smooth finish 
that will not hold the snow, one light and one medium wool 
shirt, a good grade windbreaker of tightly woven material 
(cut generously to avoid pressure resulting in decreased in- 
sulation), two pairs of wool socks (one heavy, one medi- 
um), a warm ski cap with ear covers, and ski gloves with 
an inner wool layer covered with waterproof leather or ny- 
lon this is the basic minimum outfit. Boots must be se- 
lected for the particular type of winter camping. If you 
will be using skis, be sure you have an extra pair of boots to 
keep your feet warm while in camp. Shoe-packs or other 
similar shoes are wise as you will be moving about. These 
are rubber-soled, leather-topped shoes they may be called 
Maine Guide Boots, Thermal boots, or Korean boots and 
are often more comfortable for walking than ski boots. 
There are many opinions about what, if any, clothing should 
be worn inside a sleeping bag. Whatever you wear, it must 
be dry or the insulating value of the bag will be decreased. 
Just before climbing in, clothing should be changed. Damp 
clothing may be dried before the fire. All other clothing 
can be taken into the bag and used under you for added in- 
sulation, and it will be prewarmed for use next morning. 
If you are camping in extremely cold areas, it will be nec- 
essary to prevent your boots from freezing. Usually, this 
necessitates your taking them into the bag with you, or 
insulating them in some other way. This is one value of the 
insulated thermal boot. They can be banged against a tree 

82 



in the morning, and any moisture that has frozen in them 
will fall out. 

Sleeping bags must be carefully selected for winter use. 
Generally, the down-filled bags are the best, as they give 
maximum warmth for minimum weight and volume. Down- 
and-feather bags would be the second-best choice. Two bags 
are better than one since added insulation is obtained from 
the trapped air between the bags. Dacron bags are quite 
heavy, and have a much greater volume than either the 
down or the down-and-feather mixtures. 

Cooking and eating in the out-of-doors is more difficult 
than it is in the summer, but a little thought and ingenuity 
can overcome the problems. Water supplies are not always 
available, but if the snow is clean, it can be melted. Try 
to start the melting with some water in the pot to speed llie 
process. Stir frequently, for it is very easy to burn out the 
pot. Allow plenty of time to melt the snow if many people 
are involved; it is not a fast process. In the winter, it is 
imperative for each person to drink at least one and a half 
pints of water daily. Survival researchers have found that 
without this minimum water intake, there is a sharp loss of 
vitality and a relaxed "to heck with everything" attitude 
develops, often proving fatal. This may be the reason ue 
so often hear of people throwing away essential equipment 
in winter emergency situations. This warning appear- in 
all government survival publications, and should not be 
overlooked. 

Fire building on snow can present quite a problem. An 
effective way is to tramp the snow down well and build a 
good foundation of green hardwood logs. Ultimately, the 
fire will melt the snow around as well as under it. If you 
are going to be in camp for a while, you will have a di-:ir 
melted area, which eventually will be big enough to an 0111- 
modate your whole party. 

These are only a few points, but if you read widely, pre- i 
pare yourself well, take at least the minimum equipment, 
use common sense, and, if at all possible, gn with an ex- 
perienced person, your winter camping experience should 
be enjoyable and enlighten inu. i >>< Page 68.) # 

RECREATIO* 



LEISURE-TIME 



PURSUITS IN COLLEGE 



We become increasingly aware, every day, of the 
need for more research in the field of recreation. 
This study was made recently in a university. 




Agnes M. Hooley 



CONSIDERABLE CONCERN is expressed through many me- 
dia, and by many people, over "leisure time." A few 
years ago the phrase was taken casually, and certainly 
considered far too unimportant to warrant serious research. 
It is a paradox that the leisure time for which men of note 
have fought since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution 
has now become a problem in itself. 

Unfortunately, the so-called average man has not kept 
pace. Recently the management of a California factory ex- 
perimented with a schedule change enabling each worker 
to have a three-day weekend every second week. The ex- 
periment, generally, was a failure, and the plant is now re- 
stored to its conventional workweek. 

Interviewed workers gave many reasons for their dislike 
of the plan, including inflexibility within themselves, lack 
of skill in pursuits that would have made the extra day en- 
joyable, and complaints by several wives that husbands at 
home had nothing to do and caused disturbance in the week- 
day routine. A few of those interviewed had enjoyed the 
experience, and had profited from it by learning new skills, 
by pursuing hobbies without the tension induced by lack of 
time, and by increasing communication among the members 
of the family. 

Despite the general agreement on the importance of rec- 
reation in modern society, surprisingly little is known 
about the use to which men put their leisure time. And 
even less is known, in a factual way, concerning the uses 
to which men would put it if opportunities were unlimited. 

To clarify this situation, at least in part, the author un- 
dertook to discover the desired leisure-time pursuits of one 
segment of our American population the students and 
faculty of a representative Midwestern university. Here is 
a group being provided with many opportunities; however, 
these are limited by value judgments made by taxpayers, 
concerning what is essential and desirable for the education 
of future leaders. 

Conduct of the Study 

It was decided that a percent of the faculty and students 
would be canvassed for their three favorite recreation ac- 
tivities and their least preferred ones. 

Miss HOOLEY is an associate professor at Bowling Green 
State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. The above article 
grew out of a research study by the author on this subject. 

FEBRUARY 1960 



Data were recorded for 804 subjects, and represent each 
segment of the population as follows: 

15 percent of the men students for a total of 395 subjects; 
15 percent of the women students for a total of 328 subjects; 
24 percent of the men faculty for a total of 53 subjects; 
50 percent of the women faculty for a total of 28 subjects. 
Interviewers were trained in survey techniques by the 
author, and data was gathered between December, 1957, 
and March, 1959. Here are some of the details: 

Interviewers (upperclassmen or graduate students en- 
rolled in the author's courses in recreation education) were 
instructed to record answers to two questions: 

1) What are your three favorite recreation activities? 

2) What are your least preferred recreation activities? 
Subjects were given no clues concerning activities and 

no list to choose from. 

Interviewers were instructed to interview people at ran- 
dom and to include their fields and initials on the sheet on 
which answers were recorded. Whenever a subject was 
found to have participated in the survey with more than one 
interviewer, only the first set of answers was included. 

Most of the interviews were conducted in halls, offices, 
residence units, and in the public meeting rooms of various 
campus buildings. In general, subjects were cooperative, 
interested, and pleased to have been included. In a few 
cases, there was extreme surprise upon being questioned. 
One person interviewed angrily told the interviewer that 
such a survey was "an invasion of privacy." Only three re- 
fused outright to answer. 

Favorite Recreation Activities 

Male Students. The following twenty-six items represent 
the rank order listing of preferred leisure-time activities as 
reported for ten or more men students (.03 of the sample) : 



Basketball 30 of the sample 

Swimming 26 

Football 23 

Baseball 22 

Golf 19 

Bowling 15 

Tennis 12 

Social dance, 
cards, hunting .08 



Handball, fishing 07 

Reading, pool, movies 06 

Softball 05 

Sports spectator, socialize, 

music in general 04 

Track, see TV and hear 
radio, music, water ski, 
wrestle, participate in 
sports, drive cars 03. 



Fifty-three additional activities were named by less than 
ten of the 395 males questioned. 

Female Students. The following twenty-five items were 



for ten or more women students (.03 of the sample) : 



Swimming: .53 of the sample 

Tennis: .28 

Social dance: .27 

Bowling: .16 

Reading, basketball: .12 

Golf: .11 

Volleyball:. 08 



Cards, horseback riding: .07 
Music in general, badminton: .06 
Socialize: .05 
Bridge, hiking, baseball, 

modern dancing, Softball, 

singing: .04 

Spectator sports, participate 
in 'sports, field hockey, square dancing, sailing, ice skating: .03 

Some fifty-two additional activities were named by less 
than ten subjects of the 328 women questioned. 

Male Faculty. The following seventeen items represent 
the order listing of preferred leisure-time activities as re- 
ported for two or more men faculty members : 

Golf: .47 of the sample Cards, basketball: .09 

Swimming, fishing: .20 Hunting: .07 

Reading: .17 Bridge, football: .05 

Gardening, baseball, bowling: .13 Writing, skiing, spectator sports, 
Tennis: .11 travel: .03 

Female Faculty. The following fourteen items are listed 
in the same order as for men (.07 of the sample). 

Reading: .42 of the sample Research, golf, travel: .10 

Music in general: .21 Spectator sports, ice skating, 

Swimming, drama, gardening: .17 bicycling, hiking, attend con 

certs, painting (art) : .07 

Observations 

In studying the lists, one recognizes both active and pas- 
sive pursuits. However, male students seem to favor active 
ones and women faculty prefer semiactive or passive ac- 
tivities. It is also interesting to notice the sharp decline in 
interest expressed from first to second activity choices. For 
example, women students favored swimming twice as often 
as its nearest competitor, tennis. 

Only four activities appear as preferred among all sub- 
jects: golf, reading, watching sports, and swimming. Stu- 
dents share fourteen preferred activities as follows: base- 
ball, basketball, bowling, cards, golf, music in general, 
participation in sports, reading, social dancing, socializing, 
Softball, spectator sports, swimming, and tennis. Faculty 
share six as follows: gardening, golf, reading, spectator 
sports, swimming, and travel. Men, including both students 
and faculty, share twelve preferred activities : baseball, bas- 
ketball, bowling, cards, fishing, football, golf, hunting, read- 
ing, spectator sports, swimming, and tennis. Women, in- 
cluding both students and faculty, share seven preferred 
pursuits : golf, hiking, ice skating, music in general, reading, 
spectator sports, and swimming. 

Activities that may be individually enjoyed hold an im- 
portant place among those favored by adult subjects, while 
both individual and group activities are found among stu- 
dent subjects. No doubt this reflects the needs of each age 
group, and their corresponding social aspirations. 

Least Preferred Activities 

Although subjects were not limited in the number of least 
preferred activities they might name, they listed few in com- 
parison to the preferred activities. 

Male Students. The following four represent the rank 
order listing of least preferred leisure-time activities as re- 
ported for ten or more men students (.03 of the sample) : 



cards, .06 of the sample; track, .04 of the sample; tumbling, 
baseball, .03. 

Some fifty-one additional activities were named by less 
than ten subjects of the 395 men questioned. 

Female Students. The following six items represent the 
order listing of least preferred leisure time activities for 
ten or more women students (.03 of the sample) : baseball, 
.06 of the sample; swimming and cards, .04; basketball, 
field hockey, and golf, .03. 

Forty-three additional activities were named by less than 
ten subjects of the 328 women questioned. They included 
all active sports. 

Male Faculty. The following four items represent the 
order listing of least preferred leisure time activities as re- 
ported for two or more men faculty (.03 of the sample) : 
cards, .11 of the sample; sitting and listening, fishing, all 
active sports, .03. 

Female Faculty. The following four items represent the 
order listing of least preferred leisure time activities as re- 
ported for two or more women faculty (.07 of the sample) : 
cards, all active sports, watching TV, .10 of the sample; 
baseball, .07. 

Conclusions 

From the facts presented, the following conclusions can 
be drawn for the population studied: 

1. Preferred activities among subject categories ap- 
proximate one another in quantity when one allows for the 
variation in sample size from category to category. 

2. Generally there is a sharp difference between the 
percentages of subjects expressing a liking for the first and 
second activities listed. 

3. People enjoy both active and passive activities. 

4. There are few activities appearing as preferred lei- 
sure-time pursuits among all groups. 

5. Preferred student pursuits tend to be more active and 
more numerous than those preferred by adults. 

6. Adults tend to choose activities that can be enjoyed 
either alone, or in groups. Students favor group activities. 

7. Leisure-time pursuits chosen by men tend to be of a 
more active nature than those chosen by women. 

8. Disliked activities among the four subject categories 
approximate one another, quantitatively, when you allow 
for the variation in the size of the sample within each cate- 
gory. 

9. Generally there is a sharp difference between the per- 
cent of subjects expressing a dislike for the first and second 
nonpreferred activities listed. 

10. There is little unanimity of opinion concerning dis- 
likes. Only one cards appeared in all categories. 

11. Preferred leisure-time pursuits far outnumber dis- 
liked ones, especially among adults. 

A good recreation program is a vital, constructive, and 
motivating force on a campus. Institutions everywhere 
should answer one question honestly : Do we have the kind 
of program which can be described in those terms? If not, 
there is a second question : When do we start to build such 
a program? # 



84 



RECREATION 



RESEARCH 




REVIEWS AND ABSTRACTS 



Need for Year-Round Swimming Programs 

After a careful study of the advantages and disadvantages 
of different types of swimming pools the Utah State Ex- 
tension Service and Utah Recreation and Parks Associa- 
tion came to the following conclusions: 

Weighing cost against usability, the outdoor-indoor com- 
bination pool seems to be the most practical type for the 
intermountain area. This pool allows year-round use with- 
out losing the appeal of outdoor swimming during warm 
weather. 

Whenever feasible, the school and the community ought 
to share construction and operating costs in order to insure 
a cooperative school-community swimming program, mak- 
ing maximum use of the facility. 

The pool should be located as conveniently as possible 
for both school and community use. 

The swimming program should include required swim- 
ming instruction for junior-high- and/or senior-high-school 
students, instruction classes for adults and young children, 
competitive swimming, and a reasonable amount of time 
each day for recreation swimming. Specialized phases such 
as synchronized swimming and fancy diving should be 
added when feasible. From "Utah Needs Year Around 
School-Community Swimming Programs" byClayne Jensen. 



Constant Vigilance Needed 

The preservation of open space is one of the two activi- 
ties requiring the closest attention of authorities concerned 
with the development of metropolitan areas, in the opinion 
of William H. Wilcox, executive director of the Greater 
Philadelphia Movement. In commenting on highway de- 
velopment he stated: 

When highways preempt parkland the state high- 
way department and the Federal Bureau of Public 
Roads should reimburse the governmental body 
for the parkland surrendered for highways in the 
same way a private owner is reimbursed. I am 
reliably informed that the Fairmount Park Com- 
mission of Philadelphia received not one red cent 
for the land taken by the Pennsylvania Depart- 
ment of Highways for the Schuykill Expressway. 
I am also reliably informed that this is the general 
practice. 

This practice should be altered. Governmental 
bodies which lose parklands to highways shou'.d 
be reimbursed with federal and state highway 
funds so that new park areas can be acquired to 
help offset the land used by the highway system. 



Ingredients of Effectiveness 

The reaction of the people of a community when a rec- 
reation executive departs to take a job elsewhere affords 
a clear indication as to the effectiveness of his service and 
the value of specfic qualifications, professional attitudes, 
and abilities. The following comments by the chairman 
of a local recreation commission, a successful business 
executive, at a reception for a superintendent of recreation 
leaving for work in another community, clearly indicates 
the high regard in which he was held: 

To paraphrase one of Shakespeare's famous 
lines, but in reverse we have come not to bury 
Frank, but to praise him our Little Caesar of rec- 
reation. In 1946, when we accepted our respective 
duties, I saw him pick up a small acorn and de- 
velop it into a tree of substantial proportions with 
branches representing various facets of recreation 
facilities and activities. While he was bringing 
the tree to maturity he was slowly but surely en- 
dearing himself to the . . . heart of our community. 
Why do we honor him so? The basic reasons, in 
my opinion, are these: 

1. Because of his sterling character one any 
youth would like to have and any youngster emu- 
late an attribute befitting a person dealing with 
people, especially children and youth. 

2. Because of his quiet, rugged personality, which 
enabled him to acquire in his soft-spoken, diplo- 
matic way the things he felt necessary to accom- 
plish his ends. 

3. His fabulous capacity for work. Ten, twelve 
or even sixteen hours have been his normal work- 
day. Why did he do this? For sheer love of his 
chosen profession a truly happy man. To you 
who don't already know this, I say you are honor- 
ing today a most unusual public servant. 

4. His ability to conceive and carry out recreation 
programs that tend to contribute to human better- 
ment. This phase of his character is chiefly re- 
sponsible for the broad range and quality of the 
program we offer people of all ages in this bor- 
ough. 

5. Ability to carry out these programs economic- 
ally, by utilizing available facilities and enlisting 
volunteer help. We have been able to get for free 
what many communities pay for. I can say with- 
out fear of contradiction that for every dollar 
spent for recreation in this borough it has received 
a dollar's worth plus a substantial dividend. 



85 



Mexican Hat Dance enlivens Fiesta de Bellas Artes 

given by recreation Spanish classes. 

In background are paintings by class members. 



HAVING FUN 
WITH SPANISH 



Marion C. Sparrow 




HAVING "Fun with Spanish" is the 
theme of five recreation Spanish 
classes in the Los Angeles Rec- 
reation and Park Department's East 
Valley District. To make these classes 
self-sustaining, a small fee is charged, 
which covers the cost of instructor, 
maintenance, and incidentals. 

In order to obtain real value from 
these classes, it is very necessary to have 
someone not only qualified to teach 
Spanish but with an appreciation of 
recreation and leisure-time activities. 
Los Angeles was fortunate in obtaining 
the services of Grace E. Reeves. Miss 
Reeves has her BA from Pomona Col- 
lege and her MA from Claremont Col- 
lege; and is also a graduate student of 
the University of California, the Uni- 
versity of Mexico, and the National 
Conservatory of Music, Mexico City. 

Her wide experience in lecturing, 
song recitals, radio and television pres- 
entations in Spanish, about places and 
things in Mexico and the Americas, 
makes her an authority in her field. 
Miss Reeves teaches her classes to speak 
Spanish, using recreation methods, 
thereby creating an atmosphere of fun 
and relaxation from the outset. 

The first lesson is important, espe- 
cially since this is "recreation" Spanish. 
Social activities play a big part as les- 
sons progress. Learning how to greet 
each other is socially important. So, 
immediately, the phrases "How do you 
do?" and "How are you?" are taught 
to the class. This is followed by how 
to tell time, learning numbers, and so 

MR. SPARROW is district director, De- 
partment of Recreation and Parks, City 
of Los Angeles, East Valley District, 
North Hollywood, California. 



on. The classes are divided into pairs, 
and the class subject for the day is dis- 
cussed within this framework. Each 
student also makes a notebook and cop- 
ies sentences and words for further 
practice and use. 

If you were to travel in Mexico or 
the Americas, it would be important for 
you to know how to ask directions, how 
to order a meal, how to buy souvenirs, 
names of places, dates of special events, 
and what could be more important than 
how to give proper instructions? How 
to inquire about lodging is vital too. 

As the classes progress, Miss Reeves 
leaches her pupils how to make grocery 
lists, the names of colors, seasons of the 
year, and how to converse about the 
weather. Current events, business and 
political situations are also a part of 
recreation Spanish learning. Miss 
Reeves says singing tunes up the ear, 
which is so essential in language train- 
ing, so singing of Spanish songs has its 
place also. 

All recreation leaders know that the 
periodic special event gives spice and 
zest to any recreation program, so many 
fiestas, teas, and luncheons are planned 
where costuming is the order of the 
day. At these special events, on holi- 



Brotherhood is one of the most 
demanding and most rewarding 
principles in our lives. Its applica- 
tion is not limited to our home or to 
our homeland. The responsibilitcs 
of brotherhood stretch around the 
world; and wherever men dwell, 
their needs and their successes are 
for all to share. 

DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER. 



days, birthdays, and so on, visual aid* 
are used, with color slides of Spain. 
Mexico, and the Americas being shown. 
The food, of course, is typical of the 
occasion. At these parties and special 
holiday celebrations words and sen- 
tences are related to the event. As the 
party or event goes on, Miss Rec\ <- 
enunciates the words and sentences, 
followed by the class. 

These are several examples of special 
events: 

Manana, 12 (doce) Febrero, sera 
el cumpleanos de un gran presidente 
de los Estados Unidos de America, 
Abraham Lincoln. (Tomorrow, the 
12th of Febraury, will be the birth- 
day of a great president of the Vniti'd 
States, Abraham Lincoln.) 
El viernes 14 (catorce) sera el Dia 
de San Valentin. (Friday, Feb. 1-llh. 
will be Valentine's Day.) 
Here are a few rules Miss Reeves has 
utilized in teaching recreation Spanish: 

Speak only in Spanish during class. 

Speak only to your partner in class 
during the practice speaking session. 

If you cannot understand your part- 
ner say: "Otra vez, por favor." (Again, 
please.) 

If you still cannot understand: "Mas 
despacio, por favor." (More slowly, 
jilcuse.) 

If you wish to say something in 
Spanish and do not know how, do not 
say it. Change your mind instantly and 
s;:\ something you do know. 

Give your partner an opportunity to 
ask questions by saying, "Preguntas, 
por favor." (Question. pJMM.) 

The number of classes has increased 
each year, proving "Fun with Spanish" 
is popular in tin- in real ion field. 



86 



RKCREATION 



Careful planning and a thorough 

knowledge of photography 

went into "catching" this angelfish. 



HOSPITAL 
FISH 

Jean Jackson 



j 



Pets and their care enrich many 
leisure hours. The National Rec- 
reation Association's Consulting 
Service en Recreation for the 111 
and Handicapped has long recom- 
mended that institutions try to in- 
clude pets in their recreation pro- 
grams. Fish are simple and easy 
to care for and create interest and 
excitement for children and adults 
alike. Tanks can be set up so that 
nonambulant patients can feed 
and watch the fish. Long-term 
patients who remain in an insti- 
tution receive much satisfaction 
in assuming responsibility for an 
aquarium. Within its four glass 
walls there is birth and death, an 
endless world of adventure in 
flashing colors that draws the at- 
tention and creates new vistas. 



FOUR FASCINATED CHILDREN bent 
over the fish tank watching the 
mating process of the betta fish. 
Six months ago most of these children 
did not know that such a thing as a 
tropical fish existed, nor would most of 
them have cared. I would like now to 
enter their names as ardent fish fans. 
This is a very unusual group; its mem- 
bers are all patients at the Children's 
Psychiatric Hospital in Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. These children are emotion- 
Miss JACKSON is on the staff of Chil- 
dren's Psychiatric Hospital, Ann Ar- 
bor, Michigan. Condensed and reprint- 
ed with permission, from The Aquar- 
ium, July 1959. 




ally disturbed and under the care of a 
psychiatrist. That they should be able 
to rise above their many problems and 
give the tropicals the fussy care needed 
was startling. 

Our project began in the school at 
the Children's Hospital. Classrooms are 
small and compact, accommodating 
anywhere from four to seven children 
at a time. Because of our children's 
emotional problems, it is often difficult 
to interest them in activities dealing 
with school. For this reason, a project 
such as tropicals must be planned care- 
fully. 

One of the first operations was to 
interest the children in the activity 
which I had planned. To do this I 
brought in one of my already stocked 
personal aquariums. Color was impor- 
tant in catching the children's eyes. For 
this I used a pair of red velvet sword- 
tails, two pair of platys, one pair black 
and one blue, and several pairs of gup- 
pies. I set the aquarium on a table in 
plain sight and waited for their reac- 
tions. 

After the aquarium had been in the 
room for a week, the children began 
asking questions about the fish and 
their habits. Then someone asked if it 
would be possible to get a tank some- 
where and set up his own aquarium. I 
answered that there were tanks enough 
for all if the children would be willing 
to fix them up themselves. (We were 
very fortunate that the University of 
Michigan fisheries supplied us with dis- 
carded tanks the children could repair.) 

The aquariums came to us in a bat- 



tered condition. Most were rusted, 
without glass, and all leaked. We pur- 
chased some aquarium cement, mea- 
sured and ordered double-strength 
glass, purchased paint, turpentine, a 
stiff wire brush, some sandpaper, and 
went to work. 

The first job was removing broken 
glass and old aquarium cement. In 
some cases this involved chiseling out 
the old glass. The rims were brushed 
with the wire brush and then sanded 
carefully to remove as much rust as pos- 
sib'e. Rims were then given two coats 
of paint to prevent further rusting. 
When this was done, the children fitted 
the glass to their tanks, cementing it in 
place with the aquarium cement. To 
make a background for their fish, they 
then painted the back of one piece of 
glass. 

During this time some interesting 
things were occurring in the group. 
Most of our children have a difficult 
t'me getting along with each other and 
other people. As we worked together, 
the children began to help each other. 
The I-can-do-it-myself-with-no-help- 
from-you-or-anybody-else attitude was 
gradually melting away and a more 
friendly, reasonable attitude was re- 
placing it. Their relationship with me 
began to improve as well. This seemed 
to be the first stirrings of a real group 
spirit. 

When the work on the tanks was fin- 
ished, we were ready for gravel, plants, 
and fish. Because of the importance of 
color to the children, some colored 
gravel was purchased in addition to the 
regular gravel. Our budget necessitated 
using regular gravel primarily, with the 
colored gravel as lagniappe. The child- 
ren became quite ingenious at hiding 
the regular gravel under a layer of col- 
ored gravel. They planted the plants 
and gathered rocks which were care- 
fully boiled before being placed in the 
tanks. 

We used the book Exotic Aquarium 
Fishes as a guide for selecting the fish. 
After having selected the fish, the child- 
ren and I made a buying trip. The ma- 
jority of our purchases were live-bear- 
ers, because I thought our children 
might not have the patience to work 
with the egg-layers. We did, however, 
purchase some angel fish and a pair of 
bettas, the latter for their unique breed- 



FEBRUARY 1960 



87 



ing habits and coloring. It would now 
seem that our tanks were complete, but 
I had reckoned without the determina- 
tion of my children. 

They now demanded a pump and 
filters. Busy minds set to work to con- 
struct a breeding tank, tables for dis- 
play purposes, and an elaborate light- 
ing system to display the tanks to their 
best advantage. Another schoolroom 
has begun to breed the fish for commer- 
cial purposes, using the hospital staff as 
clientele. The money they take in is used 
to improve the equipment or buy more 
fish. They are trying to refine several 
strains of platys and guppies. 

About the time things seemed to be 
going well, we observed a peculiar dot- 
ting on the fins of several of the fish. 
Our fish had developed Ichthyophthi- 
rius, or the "Ich." We were unaware, 
in the beginning, that this disease was 
serious. This error in judgment cost 
us ten fish and came close to eradicat- 
ing our entire stock. We set up one tank 
as a hospital tank and treated it with 
salt, a five-percent solution of methy- 
lene blue and raised the temperature of 
the water to eighty-five degrees. After 
an anxious three weeks the majority of 
the fish recovered. 

All this, of course, took many months 
of hard work, but the result was ex- 
tremely satisfactory. Because of the 
personality problems of our children, 
we would not have expected that this 
project would have been received so 
warmly. The hobby offers endless pos- 
sibilities for the future and should con- 
tinue to be a useful tool in helping 
children back on the road to mental 
health. If anyone would like to know 
more about our project or would like 
to share ideas with us, please write and 
I will be very happy to answer. # 




Reprinted with special permission 
from The Saturday Evening Post. 

"How can we start a club with only four 
members?" 



A REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK 




International Recreation Notes 

The planning fame of Westchester 
County, New York, has reached as far as 
Salisbury, Rhodesia, South Africa. The 
County Recreation Commission received 
a formal request from the Amenities 
Department of that community for a 
copy of Dr. Sal Prezioso's talk, given in 
Philadelphia last fall, at the annual con- 
ference of the American Institute of 
Park Executives. (Dr. Prezioso is coun- 
ty recreation superintendent.) Salis- 
bury, with a population of 61,760, has 
been having difficulty planning parks 
for recreation use. Though most of the 
inhabitants are natives, they know of 
Western ways since the British estab- 
lished a settlement there in 1890. 

Unions representing five million out 
of the more than eight million unionized 
British workers are starting an inten- 
sive drive for a shorter workweek. The 
General Council of the Trades Union 
Congress, with which nearly all the un- 
ions are affiliated, put its full weight be- 
hind this proposal. Britain has a longer 
workweek than the United States, with 
the average for men around forty-eight 
hours, for women and apprentices, 
about 46.3. But these figures do include 
overtime. The TUC goal is a forty-hour 
week, such as France's, Canada's, and 
Australia's. 

The General Council said, "Work is 
not an end in itself. It is the means to 
the enjoyment of a higher standard of 
living and more leisure for rest, recrea- 
tion, and personal development leading 
to a fuller and more exciting life." 

An Italian resort has built a ski jump 
of a spaghettilike plastic for use in year- 
round competition. In the town of Ponte 
di Legno, the plastic brushes are laid on 
the slope in very much the same way a 
thatched roof is put on. To ensure its 
slipperiness, the jump is soaked with 
water. According to The New York 



Times, skiers have found the slope ex- 
cellent. 

This idea sounds like a dandy for 
those areas of the United States that 
never see a snowdrop, but yet would 
like to have skiing. 

Russian children are children, just 
like any other: they play dodge ball, 
hopscotch, and jump rope in the streets 
and parks. In their athletic fields, how- 
ever, they do calisthenics, seeming to 
prefer this form of exercise much more 
than American children. The foregoing 
notes are from "Russian Children and 
Their World," in Child Study, Winter. 
1958-59, by Milton J. E. Senn, MD. as 
told to Anna W. M. Wolf. 

Dr. Senn reported further that he 
never saw a toy gun and learned that no 
war toys were sold in the stores. The 
avid pursuit of culture, he says, is ob- 
vious at all age and economic le\rl~ 
Russians read widely, have many thea- 
ters (including four just for children 
in Moscow), for ballet, opera, and dra 
ma, as well as movie theaters. And. 
naturally, folk music and dancing are 
very popnlar. 

One of Canada's most popular small 
boy sports last winter was minor hockr\ 
in Hamilton, Ontario. The four arti- 
ficial outdoor ice rinks swarm with 
youngsters whamming a puck around 
weekday nights and mornings, coached 
by their fathers. Program supervisor 
Earle Johnson, of the Hamilton Recrea- * 
tion Department, is in charge of ii-- 
time allotments and works with varioii- 
service clubs, which play a large part 
in Canada's recreation programs, ar 
ranging time schedules. 

All boys get a chance to play, regard- ( 
less of ability, and each boy is charged 
a dime a game, but none has ever been 
turned away if he didn't have it. Last 
year, all told, there were about 1,600 
boys competing on some sixty teams in 



88 



RECREATION 



the Hamilton Recreation Department's 
setup. The teams comprise four divi- 
sions peewee, bantam, midget, and 
atom or squirt. 

The motto of this program is "Keep 
a boy on ice and you'll keep him out 
of hot water." 

Human Encroachment 

Things are getting so crowded, a wad- 
ing bird can't find a nice, squishy marsh- 
land to wade or eat in. National Audu- 
bon Society research director Robert P. 
Allen reported at the society's recent an- 
nual convention that such birds as the 
egret, heron, spoonbill, and flamingo 
are threatened with depletion and possi- 
ble extinction by human encroachment 
on their feeding grounds. They are 
particularly endangered by the recent 
growth of housing, industrial, and, yes, 
recreation, development in former feed- 
ing grounds in Florida. Texas, and Cal- 
ifornia. Outboard motorboats also scare 
them away. 

Mr. Allen said the birds might be 
saved, not by sweeping national meas- 
ures, but protective procedures worked 
out according to local conditions and 
with the cooperation of local authorities. 
There is food here for thought, if not 
for the birds. 

Meet the People 

The seismographs may not have 
caught the tremors, but there has been 
a minor retirement earthquake in Chi- 
cago Park District recreation personnel 
since Terry Rose recently retired. As 
of January 1, George 
T. Donoghue also re- 
tired as general su- 
perintendent, as he 
said, "due to the 
rigors of adminis- 
tration and the ten- 
der age of seventy-five years." He hopes, 
however, to continue in a consulting 
capacity. 

The highlight of his career was the 
creation of the Chicago Park District 
during the dreary depression years. The 
district at that time was known for its 
advanced administration methods, high- 
ly competent engineering, and an ex- 
tremely extensive and progressive pub- 
lic recreation program. 

Replacing Mr. Donoghue will be Dan- 
iel L. Flaherty, who had been his assist- 

FEBRUARY I960 






ant since 1946. Mr. 
Flaherty has labored 
in many different 
sections of the dis- 
trict, having started 
as a junior clerk of 
the old South Park 
system. During the war Mr. Flaherty 
was "loaned" to the Chicago Service 
Men's Centers, the hospitality project 
that attracted worldwide acclaim. After 
the war, he was promoted to assistant 
general superintendent. 

Meet the new president of the Ama- 
teur Athletic Union of the United States, 
Nick Barack. Born 
in Yugoslavia, he 
emigrated to the 
States in his early 
teens, where he set- 
tled in Columbus, 
Ohio. He attended 
local high schools, followed by law study 
at Ohio State University. For the past 
sixteen years he has been recreation di- 
rector in Columbus. 

Mr. Barack has been active in the 
AAU for a number of years in various 
capacities. Among his interests is box- 
ing, which is reflected as his election as 
chairman of the national AAU boxing 
committee from 1954 to 1959 and mem- 
bership on the United States Olympic 
Boxing Committee, among others. He 
is also a past president of the Amateur 
Softball Association. 

Celebration 

Up and down the length and breadth 
of New York State this last year, vari- 
ous kinds of celebrations have been tak- 
ing place, commemorating the 350th 
anniversary of the Hudson-Champlain 
discovery. One such climactic celebra- 
tion took place at year's end Decem- 
ber 2, to be exact in Westchester Coun- 
ty, New York, with an art exhibition, an 
exhibit of selected Americana from the 
collections of Westchester's historians 
and restorations, and, the icing on the 
cake, "Inheritors of the Dream," a pag- 
eant depicting the history of the county. 

These events were presented by the 
county recreation commission, in coop- 
ration with the Westchester Year of 
History, other public and private or- 
ganizations, and many, many West- 
chester citizens. A souvenir journal was 
prepared, with the usual acknowledg- 



ments, lists of committee members, and, 
containing as well, a capsule report on 
what various Westchester towns had 
done as their particular part of the cele- 




AN OLD ILLUSTRATION OF THE HALF MOON 

bration during the year, bits of West- 
chester and Hudson River history, pro- 
grams of events, the pageant cast. The 
cover is reproduced here. 



Jin fBpmnrtam 

Mrs. Isabella Osgood, eighty-six, 
died December 27 of a heart attack at 
her home in Princeton, New Jersey. 
She was a past president of the Prince- 
ton Garden Club, the Present Day Club, 
a former National Recreation Associa- 
tion sponsor and contributor for thirty 
years. 

Dr. Eleanor Anderson Campbell, 
eighty-two, founder and director for 
many years of the Judson Health Cen- 
ter on Spring Street, just a few blocks 
south of NRA headquarters, died De- 
cember 30, after a long illness. In ad- 
dition to her medical service at Judson. 
she founded, at Deering, New Hamp- 
shire, where she spent her vacations, 
the Deering Community Center, for 
nonsectarian Protestant conferences for 
young people. 

W. Vernon Gilmore, director of 
physical education, health, and recre- 
ation for the Salem (Oregon) School 
District and the City of Salem, died 
suddenly of a heart attack on December 
22. He was fifty-two. Mr. Gilmore 
served the Salem schools for twenty- 
nine years, and was city recreation di- 
rector from 1935 on except during the 
war years. In 1958, he was named act- 
ing park director for the city, filling that 
position until last fall. He belonged to 
many professional education and recre- 
ation associations. $: 

89 



N N 



Voluntary Recreation Registration 



How the profession is achieving status in New York State. 



Over a long period it had become increasingly evident 
that, if recreation were to achieve status as a profession in 
the Empire State, it would be necessary for the profession 
itself to adopt personnel standards and to institute a system 
to appraise and classify the experience and qualifications of 
those who were participating in it. In 1957, the New York 
State Recreation Society took a positive step in this direc- 
tion when it adopted a voluntary registration plan and ap- 
pointed a five-man board of examiners to organize and ad- 
minister this plan. 

Board members are chairman Dr. Sal J. Prezioso, super- 
intendent of recreation, Westchester County Recreation 
Commission; James R. Crugnale, chief of Special Services, 
Veterans Administration, Albany; Sidney G. Lutzin, re- 
gional director, New York State Youth Commission; Peter 
Mayers, superintendent of recreation, New Rochelle; and 
Dr. Harlan G. Metcalf, chairman, Department of Recreation 
Education, Cortland State University. Dr. Edith Ball, as- 
sociate professor of recreation at New York University, has 
recently been appointed to a five-year term, replacing Dr. 
Metcalf. Board members are appointed on overlapping five- 
year terms with the intention of always having appropriate 
representation of the Youth Commission, the National Rec- 
reation Association, State Education Department, State De- 
partment of Civil Service, state college or university with 
a professional program in recreation, and the American 
Recreation Society. 

The administrative plan of procedure outlined and 
adopted by the board of examiners has met with favor 
among members of the state recreation society. It was pub- 
lished as part of the recreation personnel standards booklet 
mailed to all members of the state society. The plan called 
for three classifications: recreation administrator, recrea- 
tion supervisor, and recreation leader. It was decided to 
issue certificates of registration to each applicant who met 
the qualifications in any of these classifications. Hereafter, 
he would be a registered member of the recreation profes- 
sion in New York State. 

The Board of Examiners interpreted their classifications 
as follows: A recreation administrator is one who is quali- 
fied and certified to direct, control, and manage all recrea- 
tion affairs of an agency. A recreation supervisor is one who 
is qualified and certified to assume appropriate supervisory 
functions under the general direction of the recreation ad- 
ministrator. A recreation leader is one who is qualified and 
certified to assume appropriate leadership functions under 
the immediate direction of either the supervisor or the ad- 
ministrator, or both. 

Standards of knowledge, abilities, education, and experi- 



ence were set forth for each classification. Reasons for de- 
nying or revoking certificates were also enumerated. Reg- 
istration fees of five dollars for administrators and three 
dollars for supervisors or leaders were established to finance 
the plan. Provision was made for applicants to have the 
privilege of appealing the decision of the board of examiners 
to the executive committee of the state society. Certificates 
would remain in effect continuously, except where the holder 
failed to be actively employed in recreation for a period of 
five years. 

A "blanketing-in" period was established to allow all 
personnel employed full time, year round, in recreation, to 
register, without examination, by submitting an application 
and a registration fee. The application form requested for- 
mal education background, paid experience in the nvi ca- 
tion field, membership in professional and service organ i/a- 
tions, and references. A photograph is also required for 
identification purposes. Board members itm -liualcd the 
applicants and made recommendations to the entire board 
which took official action on each application. 

The plan has been enthusiastically received by the n 
ation profession, and. to date. 482 applications have been 
received and processed as follows: 



Classification 


\ppn.\ed 


|)i-appro\ed 


Total Applicants 


Administrator 


152 


III., 


!':>:; 


Supervisor 


91 


11 


102 


Leader 


117 


5 


122 


Totals 


360 


122 


182 






Fees received have proved ample to cover printing and in- 
cidental expenses involved in the plan. 

The board of examiners is aware that some dissatisfaction 
exists, either because of disapproval of applications or lie- 
cause a number of persons "blanketed- in" do not meet the 
minimum personnel standards of the New York State lie. - 
reation Society. This was inevitable, in order not to exclude 
those valuable members of the recreation j)rofe--ion who 
were educated in the "school of experience." but who-e for- 
mal education would not qualify them by toda\'- staiidaul- 
for positions they now hold. However, the result- adnc\cd 
have exceeded all expectations. 

The "blanketing-in" period (one year's grace! In- now 
been closed and the state board is in the process of arrang- 
ing unassembled examinations for others who might be in- 
terested. Some applicants who did not qualify for registra- 
tion because tbc\ were not emploxed full time. \eat loum 



90 



RECRKATIC 



in the field of recreation, will now become eligible for reg- 
istration through examination, and many others are also 
applying. Applicants previously disapproved will not be 
required to pay an additional fee for reapplication. The 
proposal to make the registration certificate a prerequisite 
for civil service examination in the recreation field is now 
being investigated with the New York State Civil Service 
Commission. Future plans include publication of a direc- 
tory listing all registered recreation personnel in the state 
and a plan for certification. 

The New York State Recreation Society is now ready to 
establish reciprocal agreements with other states having 



state voluntary registration plans. Four states have already 
indicated their interest in such reciprocity and the board 
of examiners of the state society invites others who might 
be interested. Perhaps the day will come when all fifty states 
will have established registration plans so a national bureau 
for registration of recreation personnel will become practi- 
cal that could absorb all the state registration plans with a 
"blanketing-in" period. When this dream becomes a real- 
ity, the recreation field will truly have achieved the status 
of a profession. DR. SAL J. PREZIOSO, chairman of Na- 
tional Advisory Committee on Recruitment, Training, and 
Placement of the National Recreation Association. 



Have You Tried . 



A FAIRY TALE FESTIVAL? 



An idea, usable any time of year 



To many Americans Hans Christian 
Andersen fairy tales are an integral part 
of Christmas. "The Little Match Girl," 
"The Little Fir Tree," and "The Stal- 
wart Tin Soldier" are all part of the 
Yuletide season. Bringing the charm 
and the international flavor of these 
tales to the children of the country was 
a Christmas project of the Arlington, 
Virginia, County Department of Recre- 
ation and Parks, assisted by the public 
library and the Danish Embassy in near- 
by Washington, D. C. 

One of the department's art instruc- 
tors, vitally interested in creative art for 
children, had long dreamed of arrang- 
ing a series of art exhibits and demon- 
strations. When she learned of a collec- 
tion of children's illustrations for the 
Andersen stories, in Washington, D. C., 
awaiting shipment home to Denmark, 
she acted immediately. Collected 
through the International Union for 
Child Welfare by the Danish Save the 
Children organization, the collection 
was first shown in that country under 
the patronage of the queen of Denmark. 
In the United States, the paintings had 
been on tour for almost two years un- 
der the sponsorship of the Smithsonian 
Institution and the Danish Embassy. 
The Arlington showing was their final 
appearance in this country. 

Gaily colored and highly imaginative. 



the paintings were the work of children 
in some forty countries, some only five 
years old when their works were chosen 
to become part of this exhibition. The 
art instructor selected some seventy-five 
illustrations, which were hung in the 
upper hall of the main recreation center 
and in one large upstairs room. 

Billed as a "Fairy Tale Festival," the 
exhibition opened the Sunday before 
Christmas. Guest of honor was the cul- 
tural attache of the Danish Embassy, 
who spoke on the history of the col- 
lection and its importance as a means of 
cultural exchange among the children 



RECREATION 



- 10 - 

BOWLING 

ALLEYS 




Reprinted with special permission. 



"Well, anyway, 

we didn't lose any of the balls." 



of many nations. Staff members of the 
public library told the children some of 
the more colorful Andersen stories; 
then the young guests were invited to 
another room to try their skill at paint- 
ing their own illustrations. 

Crayons and large sheets of news- 
print paper were waiting. Some artists 
sat demurely at low tables; others 
sprawled on the floor. There were so 
many embryo artists that they had to 
work in relays, some listening to new 
stories while others drew. To round out 
a joyous preholiday festival, the recre- 
ation department served punch and 
cookies. During the two-week exhibi- 
tion, the story hour was repeated twice, 
each time with great success. 

Despite the season of the year, al- 
ways crowded with festivities, the com- 
bination of art exhibit, storytelling, and 
do-it-yourself participation proved to 
be a happy one the department plans to 
repeat at intervals throughout the year. 

While international collections are 
not frequently available to most recrea- 
tion departments, local art groups and 
instructors are usually delighted to set 
up an exhibit or to arrange for demon- 
strations of their specialties. Arranging 
the exhibit or demonstration for maxi- 
mum audience participation is a big 
step toward success, especially when the 
audience is quite young. $: 



FEBRUARY 1960 



91 



MARKET 




NEWS 



For further information regarding 
any of these products, write directly 
to the manufacturer. Please mention 
that you saw it in RECREATION. 

Jean Wachtel 



Refreshments and recreation activities belong together. 
And, according to Gold Medal Products, makers of conces- 
sion equipment and supplies, refreshment sales can bring 
profits equal to ten percent of operating expenses. The com- 
pany is offering a free, 32-page-booklet, Refreshments Be- 
long, which offers detailed information for the beginner 
and tells how to make a success of refreshment concessions. 
Topics covered are why sell refreshments, how to operate 
the concession, what is needed, how to pay for it, and very 
important, how to justify the venture to any possible critics. 
Available from Recreation Supply Division, Gold Medal 
Products Company, 307-11 E. Third Street, Cincinnati 2, 
Ohio. 

Noise control is a difficult problem to overcome in most 
large enclosed areas, such as gymnasiums, arenas, audi- 
toriums, large club rooms, and the 
like. One of the more effective 
sound insulation materials is a 
glass fiber insulation blanket. The 
particular product shown in the 
photograph here of the Foster Jun- 
ior High School gymnasium, Seat- 
tle, Washington, is Gustin-Bacon 
Ultralite, selected because of its 
combination of flexibility, light 
weight, strength, and noise-reduc- 
tion properties. The material was 
hung in a crisscross grid pattern, 
visually and acoustically effective. 

The openings permit natural light to come through trans- 
lucent roof panels. The company also makes molded glass 
fiber pipe insulation. For complete information, write 
Gustin-Bacon Manufacturing Company, 210 West Tenth 
Street, Kansas City, Missouri. 

There is a great wealth of literature, most of it free, of- 
fered by companies not only about their products, but how 
to use them, construction details, dimensions and specifica- 
tions, and, very often, background information. For your 
convenience, we are listing several, with a capsule descrip- 
tion. Do not, however, be limited by these. You can write 
to the public relations departments of most companies ask- 
ing for literature. 

The Berlin Chapman Company, Berlin, Wisconsin, offers a 
16-page fully illustrated catalog on Berlin Bleachers, cover- 
ing EZ-A-Way mechanical folding bleachers and folding 
chair stands, electrically operated mechanical folding 
bleachers, and folding wall seats. They also describe their 
ALL STEEL and aluminum portable bleachers, ALL STEEL 
hydraulic movable portable bleachers, steel deck, standard 
permanent and deluxe permanent grandstands, basketball 
backstops, electrically operated backstops, automatic com- 
bination basketball and golf practice cages. Copy upon re- 
quest from Bleacher Division. 

The American Air Filler Company, Louisville 8, Kentucky, 
offers a number of bulletins of varying lengths about their 

92 




numerous products. A good one with which to start would 
be their 16-page composite product bulletin describing their 
complete line. Bulletin No. 518 illustrates and describes 
products for air filtering, cooling, heating, cleaning Icon- 
trolling process dust), moving, exhausting, humidifying 
and dehumidifying air for the benefit of men, machines, 
and profits. Also included are descriptions of products man- 
ufactured by AAF's Kennard, Herman Nelson. Illinois En- 
gineering, and American Air divisions. The bulletin is 
available on request from Dept. PD, American Air Filter 
Company, 215 Central Avenue, Louisville 8, Kentucky . 
Other bulletins will be described at a later date. 
The Maple Flooring Manufacturers Association has made 
available a new Specifications Manual for Northern hard 
maple, beech, and birch flooring. Single copies of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects file-size booklet can be obtained 
free from the MFMA, 35 East Wacker Drive, Chicago 1. 

The dead of winter is here, bringing with it thoughts ol 
building refurbishment. A product that could make \our 
various types of recreation buildings cooler this coming 
summer is a new aluminum roof coating that's said to im- 
prove with age. Allied Chemicals' Barrett Division devel- 
oped this product fundamentally for renovating old com- 
position roofs, to cover cracks and small holes, revitalize 
and protect the dried-out felt base, but in the process found 
that it had excellent heat insulating properties because it 
grew brighter with the passage of time. In this manner, the 
roof reflects back more and more heat in the summer months 
and, during the winter, turns inside heat back toward the 
house. The asphalt-based aluminum coating is available 
fibrated or unfibrated in five-gallon cans. For complete in- 
formation write Allied Chemicals, Barrett Division. 10 Rev- 
tor Street, New York 6, New York. 

A new game in the field of recreation and recreation ther- 
apy is Table Soccer. Sturdily constructed of good main i -I-. 




the game is available in several dilTerent models. \> m;ri\ 
as eight people can play at one time in an area approximate!] 
seven by five feet. The setup is pleasanllv ill-signed, m.ii i- 
lenance negligible. Several model- have been designed ! i 
coin operation where so desired. Write Table Soiver Lim- 
ited. P.O. Box OJ'il. Madi-on I. \\i-ron-in. 

lil ( lil M ll>\ 



INDEX OF ADVERTISERS 

Page 
American Playground Device Company .. 55 

Brinktun, Inc. .. Inside Back Cover 

Castello Judo Equipment Company 93 

Champion Recreation Equipment Company 

Inside Back Cover 

Chicago Roller Skate Company Back Cover 

rxposition Press 93 

: lxible Company 50 

Sold Medal Products Company 53 

nstitutional Cinema Service, Inc. _ 55 

lames Spencer and Company 93 

I. E. Burke Company 54 

Monroe Company 93 

National Sports Company 55 

tecreation Equipment Company 50 

Mieem Califone Corporation 53 

Story, Craft and Song Service 93 

f. F. Twardzik 55 
U. S. Defense Bonds Inside Front Cover 



Voit 



49 



Vogel-Peterson Company _ 55 

Wenger Music Equipment Company 93 



* Writers * 

for RECREATION! 

Please double-space all 

manuscripts, leave wide 

margins, and send the 

original copy, not a 

carbon. 




JUDO UNIFORMS of Championship Weight 
"Pigeon" Brand Kodokan Recommended 
COAT: Double-Hollow Weave (Reinforced) 
PANTS and BELT: Single Drill 



Immediate Delivery 

F -r CASTELLO 

New York City EQUIPMENT COMPANY ^r 
30 EAST TENTH STREET, NEW YORK 3, NEW YORK 





DIRECT PRICES 
DISCOUNTS & TERMS 



FOLDING TABLE LINE 

Kilfhcn committees, social groups, atten- 
tion! Factory prices & discounts up to W'b 
to Churches. Schools. Clubs, etc. Mi'tnoc 
;ill-nc\v IOI.D-KING Banquet h.hles. 
with exclusive IK-M .miom.mc folding und 

^'"BIG'N'IW' i960 "CATALOG "FREE 

Color pic-lure's. Fuil line l;ih!cs, chairs. I;ihlc iind chiiir trucks, plat- 
tiirm-risc-rs. |.rl.ihlc- parlilions. tiulkcin hoards. Our .Vnd yaa. 

^ THE MONROE CO., 181 Church St., Colfax, Iowa 



Free to WRITERS 

seeking a book publisher 

Two fact-filled, illustrated brochures tell how 
1 to publish your book, get 40% royalties, na- 
tional advertising, publicity and promotion. 
Free editorial appraisal. Write Dept. R-2 

Exposition Press / 386 4th Ave, NY. 16 




XACTSI?E 



New, improved Golden Age Club Pin. 
Now in real gold plate with tree in 
green jewelers' enamel. Safety catch. 
50c each, including federal tax and 
postage. 

Minimum order 10 pins 
Available only to authentic clubs. 

JAMES SPENCER & CO. 
22 N. 6th Street Philadelphia 6, Pa. 



with the portable 

SHOW WAGON 

you can GO where 
the events take place 
...and be heard 
MUSIC 
EQUIPMENT 

CO. 
walonna, Minn. 





STORIES, CRAFTS AND SONGS 

Recreational ideas for boys and girls in schools, 
camps, playground, and recreational programs. 
Send $1 for five different original stories with crafts 
and song materials. 

Story, Craft and Song Service 

Box 567 Ottawa, Illinois 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 



RATES: Words in regular type $.15 each 
Words in boldface type $.25 each 
Minimum ad accepted .... $3.00 



DEADLINES: Copy must be received by 
the fifth of the month preceding date of 
the issue in which ad is desired. 



COPY: Type or clearly print your message and the address to which you wish 
replies sent. Underline any words you want to appear in boldface type. 

Send copy with remittance to: 
RECREATION Classified Advertising, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 



HELP WANTED 

Recreation Therapists 

for California State Hospi- 
tals. Opportunity to plan 
and conduct individual pa- 
tient recreation as well as 
special group activities; 
modern equipment and fa- 
cilities available. Positions 
open to college graduates 
with major in recreation or 
recreation therapy, which 
included supervised field 
work. No experience re- 
quired. Starting salary 

The publisher assumes 



$415.00 per month; promo- 
tional opportunities; liber- 
al employment benefits. 
Write State Personnel 
Board, 801 Capitol Avenue, 
Sacramento, California. 

Recreation Supervisor 
opening in Denver, Colo- 
rado, for college graduate 
with recreation or related 
major, plus five years' ex- 
perience in a planned rec- 
reation program, including 
three years in a supervisory 
capacity. Duties involve 



administration, year-round 
golf program, and/or sum- 
mer waterfront activities. 
Monthly salary range: $525- 
657. Apply Career Service 
Authority, Room 180, City 
and County Building, Den- 
ver, Colorado. 

SERVICES 
AVAILABLE 

Square Dance Caller, col- 
lege, club, or convention. 
Piute Pete, 55 West Eighth 
Street, New York 11, New 
York. 



no responsibility for services or items advertised here. 



I960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



93 



Magazine Articles 



ADULT LEADERSHIP, December 1959 

A Look at "Creative Thinking," James S. 

Winston. 
AMERICAN FORESTS, December 1959 

How Much Is Enough? (Glacier Peak 

Wilderness Area) . 
ARTS AND ACTIVITIES, January 1960 

What Shall We Do About Contests? Bur- 
ton Wasserman. 
What To Do with Old License Plates, 

Yvonne Parks Hunt. 
A Way to Quick-Print, Margaret Winston 

Stone and Eleanor Ashbough. 
CAMPING MAGAZINE, December 1959 

Decentralization Forward Step to Better 

Camping, Lois Goodrich. 
Established Camps Can Decentralize, Vern 

0. Harper. 
Music JOURNAL, January 1960 

Music's Place in Recreation, Siebolt H. 

Frieswyk. 
RECREATION MANAGEMENT, December 1959 

18th Annual Conference Proceedings. 
SENIOR CITIZEN, January 1960 

The Inevitable Four-day Week, Edward W . 

Ziegler. 

Who Goes to White House Conference? 
SWIMMING POOL ACE, December 1959 

3rd Annual Awards Design Competition 

Winners. 
TODAY'S HEALTH, December 1959 

Everybody's Square Dancing, James C. G. 
Connijj. 



Books & Pamphlets 
Received 



Education 

AMERICAN DECREE MILLS, Robert H. Reid. 
American Council on Education, 1785 Mas- 
sachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington 6, D.C. 
Pp.100. Paper, $1.00. 

ARTS AND LETTERS: A National Program 
Needed? Center for Information on Amer- 
ica, Washington, Conn. Pp. 4. $.35. 

DISAPPEARING PLAYROOM, THE (reprint), Eu- 
nice E. Bigelow and Rowena M. Shoemaker. 
Play Schools Association, 41 W. 57th St., 
N. Y. 19. Pp. 4. Free. 

FIT FOR COLLEGE. AAHPER, 1201 16th St., 
N.W., Washington 6, D.C. Pp. 24. $.50. 

GROWTH OF THE MIND, A. K. Koffka. Little- 
field, Adams, 128 Oliver St., Paterson 1, 
N.J. Pp. 427. Paper, $1.95. 

How GOOD Is OUR KINDERGARTEN? Lorraine 
Sherer. Association for Childhood Educa- 
tional International, 1200 15th St., N.W., 
Washington 5, D.C. Pp. 35. $.75. 

How TO HELP YOUR CHILD IN READING, WRIT- 
ING AND ARITHMETIC, Frieda E. Van Atta. 
Random House, 457 Madison Ave., New 
York 22. Pp. 374. $4.95. 

How TO HAVE WHAT You WANT IN YOUR FU- 
TURE, Lena Y. deGrummond, Ph.D. and 
Minns S. Robertson, Ph.D. Pageant Press, 
101 5th Ave., New York 3. Pp. 77. $2.50. 

INTEGRATED CLASSROOM, THE, H. Harry Giles. 
Basic Books, 59 4th Ave., New York 3. Pp 
338. $5.00. 



ISSUES IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, Marvin 

D. Alcorn and James M. Linley, Editors. 
World Book Co., 313 Park Hill Ave., Yon- 
kers, N.Y. Pp. 420. $5.00. 

JUNIOR COLLEGES AND SPECIALIZED SCHOOLS 
AND COLLEGES (3rd ed., 1959) . Porter Sar- 
gent, 11 Beacon St., Boston. Pp. 448. $5.00. 

KNOWLEDGE Is NOT ENOUGH, Samuel B. 
Gould. Antioch Press, Yellow Springs, 
Ohio. Pp. 232. $3.50. 

PRIVATE INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS, 1959 Year- 
book. Bunting & Lyon, Wallingford, Conn. 
Pp. 1059. $7.50. 

SPURS TO CREATIVE TEACHING, Laura Zirbes. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 210 Madison Ave., 
New York 16. Pp. 354. $5.75. 

Ill and Handicapped 

ADVANCES IN PSYCHIATRY, Mabel Blake Co- 
hen, MD, Editor. W. W. Norton, 55 5th 
Ave., New York 3. Pp. 314. $4.95. 

ALCOHOLISM: The Nutritional Approach, Ro- 
ger J. Williams. University of Texas Press, 
Austin. Pp. 118. $2.50. 

CAPE TO CAPE BY WHEEL-CHAIR, Ernest M. 
Gutman. William-Frederick Press, 391 E. 
149th St., New York 55. Pp. 225. $4.75. 

EFFECTS OF EARLY BLINDNESS, Seymour Axel- 
rod, PhD. American Foundation for the 
Blind, 15 W. 16th St., New York 11. Pp. 
83. Paper, $1.00. 

EMPLOYABILITY OF THE MULTIPLE-HANDI- 
CAPPED (Reprint DR-21), William Usdane, 
PhD. Nat'l Soc. for Crippled Children and 
Adults, 2023 W. Ogden Ave., Chicago 12. 
Pp.6. $.25. 

GIVE Us THE TOOLS, Henry Viscardi, Jr. 
Eriksson-Taplinger, 119 W. 57th St., New 
York 19. Pp. 266. $3.95. 

GROUP METHODS IN THERAPY, Jerome D. 
Frank, MD. Public Affairs Committee, 22 

E. 38th St., New York 16. Pp. 28. $.25. 
HANDICAPPED, THE, Adolph A. Apton, MD. 

Citadel Press, 222 4th Ave., New York 3. 
Pp. 126. $3.00. 

HEARING: a Handbook for Laymen, Norton 
Canfield, MD. Doubleday, 575 Madison 
Ave., New York 22. Pp. 214. $3.50. 

HEARING Loss, Greydon G. Boyd, MD. J. B. 
Lippincott, E. Washington Sq., Philadel- 
phia. Pp. 190. Paper, $1.45. 

HELEN KELLER STORY, THE, Catherine Owens 
Peare. Thomas Y. Crowell, 432 4th Ave., 
New York 16. Pp. 183. $2.75. 

HELP FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED THROUGH 
VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION, Nat'l Assoc. 
for Retarded Children, 386 Park Ave., S., 
New York 16. Pp. 24. $.25. 

HOME CARE OF THE HEMOPHILIC CHILD, Doro- 
thy W. White. Nat'l Hemophilia Founda- 
tion, 175 5th Ave., New York 10. Pp. 14. 
$.25. 

HOME NURSING HANDBOOK. Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Co., 1 Madison Ave., New York 
10. Pp. 29. Free. 

How RETARDED CHIIDRF.N CAN BE HELPED, 
Evelyn Hart. Public Affairs Committee, 22 
E. 38th St., New York 16. Pp. 28. $.25. 

How TO SECURE HELP FOR THOSE WHO NEED 
IT. Community Council of Greater N. Y., 
345 E. 45th St., New York 17. Pp. 32. Free. 

I RECLAIMED MY CHILD, Lucille Stout. Chil- 
ton Co., 56th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia 
39. Pp. 89. $2.75. 

IT'S GOOD To BE ALIVE, Roy Campanella. Lit- 
tle, Brown, 64 Beacon St., Boston 6. Pp. 
306. $4.50. 

ON THE MYSTERIOUS LEAP FROM THE MIND TO 



THE BODY, Felix Deutsch, MD, Editor. In- 
ternational Universities Press, 227 W. 13th 
St., New York 11. Pp. 273. $5.00. 

PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR MOTOR DISORDERS RE- 
SULTING FROM BRAIN DAMAGE (Reprint 
DR-22), Sarah Semans. Nat'l Soc. for Crip- 
pled Children and Adults, 2023 W. Ogden 
Ave., Chicago 12. Pp. 11. $.25. 

PSYCHOTHERAPY AND SOCIETY, W. G. Elias- 
berg, MD. Philosophical Library, 15 E. 
40th St., New York 16. Pp. 223. $6.00. 

PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH CHILDREN, Clark E. 
Moustakas. Harper & Bros., 49 E. 33rd St., 
New York 16. Pp. 324. $5.00. 

RECREATION FOR THE MENTALLY ILL, B. E. 
Phillips, Editor. AAHPER, 1201 16th St., 
N.W., Washington 6, D. C. Pp.77. $2.00. 

SPEECH THERAPY, William T. Daley and E. 
Milo Pritchett, Editors. Catholic Univer- 
sity Press, 620 Michigan Ave., N.E., Wash- 
ington 17, D. C. Pp. 166. $3.25. 

TRUTH ABOUT YOUR EYES, THE (2nd ed.), 
Derrick Vail, MD. Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 
101 5th Ave., New York 3. Pp. 180. $3.50. 

TOWARD UNDERSTANDING STUTTERING, Wen- 
dell Johnson. Nat'l Soc. for Crippled Child- 
ren and Adults, 2023 W. Ogden Ave., Chi- 
cago 12. Pp. 36. $.25. 

WELFARE & HEALTH IN NEW YORK CITY, 1959. 
Community Council of Greater N. Y., 345 
E. 45th St., New York 17. Pp. 64. Free. 

WHAT'S IN YOUR FUTURE A CAREER IN 
HEALTH? Herbert Yahraes. Public Affairs 
Committee, 22 E. 38th St., New York 16. 
Pp. 28. $.25. 

WHEN A FAMILY FACES CANCER, Elizabeth 
Ogg. Public Affairs Committee, 22 E. 38th 
St., New York 16. Pp. 28. $.25. 

WHERF. SOMEBODY CARES, Motbrr M. Berna- 
dette de Lourdes & others, G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, 210 Madison Ave., New York 16. Pp. 
252. $5.00. 

Music 

ANGLO-AMERICAN FOLKSONG SCHOLARSHIP. 
D. K. Wilgus. Rutgers University Press, 
30 College Ave., New Brunswick, N. J. Pp. 
466. $7.50. 

ART OF JAZZ, THE, Martin T. Williams, Editor. 
Oxford University Press. 417 5th Ave., New 
York 16. Pp. 248. $5.00. 

COLE PORTER SONG BOOK, THE. Simon & 
Schuster, 630 5th Ave., New York 20. Pp. 
215. $12.50. 

COMPLETE BOOK OF 20TH CENTURY Mi ~n . 
THE (rev. ed.). Prentice-Hall, Enplewood 
Cliffs, N. J. Pp. 527. $7.50. 

FAVORITE TUNES (for 2- & 3-part treble 
voices), compiled by Harry W. Seitz. Har- 
old Flammer. 251 W. 19th St., New York 

II. Pp. 30. $1.50. 

READ 'M AND WEEP (rev. ed.), Sipmund 

Spaeth. Arco, 480 Lexington Ave,, New 

York 17. Pp. 248. Paper, $1.25. 
SONGS FOR FUN (for 2-part voices), Jerry 

Weseley Harris. Harold Flammer, 251 W. 

19th St., New York 11. Pp. 62. Paper, 

$1.25. 
SONG WITHOUT END, Hilda While. E. P. Dut- 

ton. 300 4th Ave.. New York 10. Pp. 300. 

$3.95. 
WHY Do LITTLE CHILDREN SING? E. Hortenoe 

Lindorff. Augustana Press. Rook Island, 

III. Pp. 15. $.10. 

Sports, Physical Education 

BASEBALL PLAY AND STRATEGY, Ethan Alien. 
Ronald Press, 15 E. 26th St., New York 10. 
Pp.361. $5.50. 



94 



RF.CRKATION 



BASEBALL STORIES, Parke Cummings, Editor. 
Hill & Wang, 104 5th Ave., New York 11. 
Pp.210. $3.00. 

BASKETBALL GUIDE Sept. 1959-Sept. 1960, Ir- 
ma Schalk, Editor. AAHPER, 1201 16th 
St., N.W., Washington 6, D.C. Pp. 160. Pa- 
per, $.75. 

BASKETBALL Individual Offensive, "Hot Rod" 
Hundley. Gainsford Publishing, P. 0. Box 
2414, Delray Beach, Fla. Unpaged. $1.10. 

BEST SPORTS STORIES 1959, Irving T. Marsh 
and Edward Ehre, Editors. E. P. Button, 
300 4th Ave., New York 10. Pp. 336. $3.95. 

BETTER BOXING, Edie LaFond and Julie Men- 
endez. Ronald Press, 15 E. 26th St., New 
York 10. Pp. 118. $2.95. 

Boating: 

1960 OBC STANDARDS MANUAL. Outboard 
Boating Club of America, 370 N. Michigan 
Ave., Chicago 1. Pp. 64. Free. 
OBC DIGEST OF STATE BOAT TRAILER LAWS 
(chart). Outboard Boating Club of Amer- 
ica, 307 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago 1. Free. 
CATAMARANS, John Fisher, pp. 64; START- 
ING TO RACE, John Fisher, pp. 64; YACHT 
RACING RULES, Simplified, Hugh Somerville, 
pp. 49; COASTAL NAVIGATION WRINKLES, M. 
J. Rantzen, pp. 61; OCEAN CRUISING, Guy 
Cole, pp. 64. John deGraff, 31 E. 10th St., 
New York 3. $1.25 each. 

EASY STEPS TO SAFE SWIMMING, Evelyn Ditton 
McAllister. Vantage Press, 120 W. 31st St., 
New York 1. Pp. 83. $2.95. 

How TO MAKE FISHING LURES, Vlad Evanoff. 
Ronald Press, 15 E. 26th St., New York 10. 
Pp. 108. $3.50. 

How TO PLAY SHUFFLEBOARD, Col. P. C. Bul- 
lard. 414 Lealman Trailer Ct., 3301 Lealman 
Ave., N., St. Petersburg, Fla. Pp. 99. $1.43 
(add $.04 to Fla. addresses). 

INSTRUCTIONS IN SAILING, Hilary Tunstall- 
Behrens. Sportshelf, P. O. Box 634, New 
Rochelle, N.Y. Pp. 144. $3.75. 

IT'S EASY TO WATER SKI. Northland Ski Mfg. 
Co., 2325 Endicott St., St. Paul 14, Minn. 
Unpaged. Free. 

JUMPING SIMPLIFIED, Margaret Cabell Self. 
Ronald Press, 15 E. 26th St., New York 10. 
Pp.80. $2.95. 

MODERN ADVENTURES UNDER THE SEA, Patrick 
Pringle. Franklin Watts, 575 Lexington 
Ave., New York 22. Pp.240. $3.95. 

MODERN SHORT PUNT, THE, Lou Thorn How- 
ard. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 
Pp. 181. $4.95. 

Music AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION, R. M. 
Thackray. Sportshelf, P. O. Box 634, New 
Rochelle, N.Y. Pp. 133. $3.50. 

POPULAR JUDO, Pat Butler. Associated Book- 
seller, E. State St., & Maple Ave., Westport, 
Conn. Pp. 78. $2.50. 

RECORDS AND CHAMPIONS, Sportshelf, P. 0. 
Box 634, New Rochelle, N. Y. Pp. 96. Paper, 
$2.00. 

ROWING TO WIN, Colin Porter. Sportshelf, 
P. 0. Box 634, New Rochelle, N.Y. Pp. 155. 
$4.25. 

'SADDLE UP," Lt. Col. Frank C. Hitchcock. 
Sportshelf, P. 0. Box 634, New Rochelle, 
N.Y. Pp. 286. $6.75. 

SAILING. Sportshelf, Box 634, New Rochelle, 
N.Y. Pp. 32. $.75. 

SAILING PRIMER, W. D. Park. Sportshelf, 
P. 0. Box 634, New Rochelle, N.Y. Pp. 109. 
$3.25. 

SOFTBALL WITH OFFICIAL RULES (3rd ed.), 
Arthur T. Noren. Ronald Press, 15 E. 26th 
St., New York 10. Pp. 139. $2.95. 




PUBLICATIONS 



Covering the Leisure-time Field 



The Little Naturalist, Frances Frost. 
Whittlesey House, 330 W. 42nd St., 
New York 36. Pp. 47, illustrated. 
$2.50. 

The appeal this book of verses will 
have for children lies in the poet's sensi- 
tive approach to nature rather than in 
any startling use of word patterns. Em- 
ploying conventional verse forms, Miss 
Frost caught nature by surprise in the 
small lives of baby foxes, chipmunks, 
rabbits, frogs, birds, and insects, and 
related it all to experiences which are 
familiar to the human young. 

Kurt Werth's generous double-page 
illustrations, in color and black-and- 
white, extend the attractiveness of a sat- 
isfying format throughout the book and 
illuminate the imaginative stretch be- 
tween its covers. Elizabeth Culbert, 
National Recreation Association Li- 
brary. 

Pantomimes, Charades and Skits, 

Vernon Howard. Sterling Publishing, 
4'19 Fourth Avenue, New York 16. Pp. 
124, illustrated. $2.50. 

This little volume contains sugges- 
tions for, and examples of, the three 
types of dramatic activities mentioned 
in its title. As an aid to a camp or com- 
munity center leader, a teacher in 
church or school, or a rural leader in- 
terested in starting a teen-age group in 
drama, it will be very helpful. The ma- 
terial is well presented, interesting, and 
in good taste. 

Adventures in Making The Ro- 
mance of Crafts Around the World, 
Seon Manley. Vanguard Press, 424 
Madison Avenue, New York 17. Pp. 
180, illustrated. $4.95. 

Before the hands can create anything 
beautiful, the heart must be ready. This 
book is for the heart. Beautifully illus- 
trated, beautifully printed, it tells of the 
romance of crafts how they started, 
why they started, where they started. 



As the author says, "From the cloaks of 
the ancient Hawaiian kings to Paul Re- 
vere's Liberty Bowl, to the clay jug of 
a young craftsman today, imagination 
and craftsmanship are found every- 
where, at all times, among all people 
of the world. 

The romance of each craft is devel- 
oped through the use of a short tale 
about young boys and girls of many 
lands and many ages, and leads smooth- 
ly into authentic information about the 
craft itself. Its charm, sympathy, and 
enthusiasm will help any youngster 
from around nine to fourteen develop 
new respect for the work of his hands, 
and a new interest in the two thousand 
years of crafts covered here. 

The illustrations are gorgeous. They 
were selected from more than fifty mu- 
seums and other agencies, and cover 
the best examples of crafts of the world 
down the ages a truly lovely and re- 
markable book. Craft leaders should 
find it valuable in developing interest 
in the program. Storytellers will find 
fascinating tales in it. No one starting 
it, regardless of age, will be able to put 
it down without reading it. 

Gemcraft How to Cut and Polish 
Gemstones. Lelande Quick and Hugh 
Leiper. Chilton Company, 56th & 
Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia 39. Pp. 
182, illustrated. $7.50. 

Did you know that gemcutting has 
been one of the fastest growing hob- 
bies? It is estimated that some three 
million people follow some phase of 
"rockology." Some two thousand deal- 
ers cater to these hobbyists by supply- 
ing such machines, supplies, books, and 
other needs. 

Why such popularity? Because it 
can be a family hobby, can be followed 
at some time every day, is not seasonal, 
requires no expensive gear, and pro- 
vides a real, creative outlet resulting in 
something beautiful. 

This book, beautifully i lustrated, 



FEBRUARY 1960 



95 



will be welcomed by all "rockhounds" 
who wish to do more than merely col- 
lect specimens. To agencies and de- 
partments interested in organizing such 
a hobby club, it gives valuable informa- 
tion techniques, supplies, and equip- 
ment on all phases of gemcutting, from 
the simple to the most elaborate. Ex- 
pensive, yes, but worth it. 

Be Your Own Judge, M. Emett Wil- 
son. Abelard-Schuman, 404 Park Av- 
enue, South, New York 16. Pp. 192. 
$3.95. 

Dr. Wilson, professor of music his- 
tory and literature at Ohio State Uni- 
versity, has written a provocative little 
book on the various arts. He makes 
the safe assumption that art is for peo- 
ple, and that people should feel free to 
enjoy the arts to the best of their ability. 
His book contains many fine clues to 
the enjoyment of the arts. It makes no 
pretense of being a complete guide. 
However, the reader will at least feel 
encouraged to believe that he does not 
need a complete technical comprehen- 
sion of the arts before making his own 
judgments or his own criticism of art. 
Be Your Own Judge provides him with 
the first steps in assuming the role of 
critic. 



Alcoa's Book of Decorations. Gold- 
en Press, 630 Fifth Avenue, New York 
20. Pp. 94, illustrated. $1.95. Paper, 
$1.00. 

This little book, every page filled 
with gay, colorful photographs and 
sketches, shows how to use aluminum 
foil in an amazing number of ways to 
decorate for parties, special holidays, 
such as Easter, Halloween, and Christ- 
mas, and special occasions, such as 
Mother's and Father's Day. showers, 
anniversaries, Valentine's Day. and the 
like. 

It also instructs in foil sculpturing, 
masks, puppets, and special-theme party 
decorations. The projects are clever, 
original, and clearly described. 

The Joy of Music, Leonard Bernstein. 
Simon and Schuster, 630 Fifth Avenue, 
New York 20. Pp. 303, ill. $5.95. 

The Joy of Music contains the scripts 
of seven Omnibus telecasts millions of 
Americans enjoyed. This will give the 
readers who viewed these lucid and fas- 
cinating performances an opportunity 
to recall and review the fine presenta- 
tions on "The World of Jazz." "Ameri- 
can Musical Comedy." "What Makes 
Opera Grand?," and other subjects. 




HERO MONTH 



The story hour needs no justification 
other than the enjoyment it affords both 
storyteller and listeners. Though there 
are times in the year propitious for in- 
troducing special stories or groups of 
stories, we must be alert to the danger 
of allowing a theme to take precedence 
over the stories themselves. 

With this warning about overempha- 
sis on theme, we suggest February as 
a perfect time for adventuring through 
history with heroes. It is truly a hero 
month, with Lincoln's and Washing- 
ton's birthdays setting the pace, and 
Brotherhood Week opening out into 
every age and corner of world litera- 
ture. It is a good time to invite those 
older boys and girls who may have be- 
gun to feel a bit self-conscious about at- 
tending folk- and fairy-tale story hours. 

It is a challenge to the storyteller to 
compare the many fine versions of the 
classic myths and legends that have 
been prepared for young people and. 



drawing upon his own background of 
reading, to adapt them for telling. The 
collections listed here are sources that 
have been tapped many times. The 
storyteller preparing a program for 
"hero month" will find riches in them 
all. ELIZABETH CULBERT. librarian, 
National Recreation Association. 

Begin with Poetry 

Book of Americans, Rosemary and 
Stephen V. Benet (Rinehart. $3.00) . 

A Way of Knowing (a collection of 
poems for boys) , compiled by Gerald 
D. McDonald (Crowell, $3.00). 

Gods and Heroes 

Thunder of the Gods, Dorothy G. Hos- 
ford (Holt, $2.50). 

Book of Myths: Selections from Bui- 
finch's Age of Fable, Helen Sewell 
(Macmillan, $3.50). 

Mythology, Edith Hamilton (Little, 
Brown. $5.00). 



All of Leonard Bernstein's comments 
and music are sound and authoritative 
as one would expect from the famous 
conductor of the New York Philhar- 
monic. 

Most of the commentary is under- 
standable to the layman, and he will 
feel he is being given a conducted tour 
of music by a man who not only under- 
stands music but understands people as 
well. 

Hearing Gateway to Music, Adele 
T. Katz and Ruth Halle Rowen. Summy- 
Birchard Publishing Company, 1834 
Ridqe Avenue, Evanston, Illinois. Pp. 
172. $5.00. Paper, $3.00. 

Here is a thorough and detailed man- 
ual on the rudiments of musical prac- 
tices, based on hearing the elements of 
music melody, harmony, rhythm. The 
book contains 250 examples, many of 
them complete songs, and numerous 
additional suggestions. This is both a 
teacher's and a student's workbook, but 
in most cases the student will need the 
help of a good teacher. It is well organ- 
ized, basic, and will equip the student 
to come to grips with those changes the 
twentieth century has effected, as well 
as increase understanding of mu*ic <>f 
all the ai_ r < >. 



Story of King Arthur ami His Knights. 
Howard Pyle (Scribner's, $3.75). 

Merry Adventures of Robin Hooil. Ho- 
ward Pyle (Scribner's. $3.75). 

Golden Fleece and the Heroes Who 
Lived Before Achilles, Padraic Co- 
lum (Macmillan. $3.50). 

The Golden Treasury oj Myths and 
Legends (adapted from the world's 
great classics). Anne Terry \\hite 
(Golden Tress. S4.<>5 I . 

Children 's Homer: Adventure of Odys- 
seus and the Tale of Troy. Padriac 
Colum I Macmillan. $3.50). 

American Legendary < .i.mi- 

Yanhee Doodle's Cousins. Anne Mai- 

colmson (Houghton. $3.50). 
Pecos Bill, the Greatest Cowboy of All 

Time, James Cloyd Bowman (\\liit- 

inan. $3.00). 
()!' I'anl. ill,- \liiiht\ Lopiirr. Glen 

Rounds (Holidax House. $2.50). 



96 



RECREATION 



REQUEST PRICES 

FREE LITERATURE & SPECIFICATIONS 

* Playground Equipment & Playground Plans 

* Basketball Backstops 
Indoor & Outdoor Type 

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* Trampolins 
Choice of 14 models 

* Score Boards For Every Sport 

CHAMPION RECREATION EQUIP. INC. 

HIGHLAND PARK, ILLINOIS 



CHANGE OF ADDRESS 

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days before the date of the issue with which it is to takr 
effect, if possible, in order to receive your magazines 
without interruption. Send both your old and new ad- 
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talk about 

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NOTHING is protected like 
the playing surface on the 
ALL NEW Fold'n Roll for 1960! 

(just one of many new BRINKTUN features) 




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TEN 


TATI VE 




1960 

DISTRICT 


National Recreation Association District Conference 


Schedule 

HOTEL 


DATES 


LOCATION 


California and Pacific 
Southwest 


February 14-17 


San Jose, California 


St. Claire 


Middle Atlantic 


March 23-25 


Pocono Manor, Pa. 


Pocono Manor Inn 


Southwest 


March 30-31 -Apr. 1-2 


Shreveport, La. 


Washington Youree and 
Capt. Shreve Hotels 
(connected by arcade) 


Great Lakes 


April 4-8 


St. Paul, Minn. 


St. Paul 


Midwest 


April 6-8 


Kansas City, Mo. 


President 


Southeast 


April 18-20 


Edgewater Park, Miss. 


Edgewater Gulf 


Pacific Northwest 


April 10-13 


Sun Valley, Idaho 


The Lodge 


New England 


May 15-18 


Swampscott, Mass. 


New Ocean House 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



Space for 10 or 210? 





EXPAND ACTIVITIES IN YOUR GYM 

Everyone can participate in roller skating, and it's more fun 
than a barrel of monkeys. Roller skating entertains and 

exercises more people in less space than any other sport. 
That's why more schools, churches and recreation centers have 
roller skating as an integral part of their programs. 






NEW RUBBER-PLASTIC WHEELS ARE KIND TO GYM FLOORS 



These new Duryte rubber-plastic wheels outwear others and 
are guaranteed not to mar or scratch the floors. "Chicago" 
has a skate designed for any type of floor surface or finish. 
Wn'fe today for free details on roller skating programs and 
skating equipment. 





Chicago Roller Skate Co., 4490-B W. Lake Street, Chicago 24, III. 

When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 




NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION MARCH 19^ !i SOc 



HAVE YOU BEEN LOOKING FOR... 




Books on Camping? 



1 52. THE CAMP PROGRAM BOOK. 
Catherine T. Hammett and Vir- 
ginia Mussel man. 

A one-volume camping encyclo- 
pedia covering program planning, 
outdoor living, sports, arts and 
crafts, specific programs, pageants. 
380 pp. 5.00 



827. ABC's OF CAMP Music. 

Janet E. Tobitt. 

A reference book for counselors of 
songs suitable for campers of all 
ages as well as dramatized ballads 
and folk dances. 46 pp. 

Paper .75* 



145. ADMINISTRATION OF THE 
MODERN CAMP. Hedley S. Di- 
mock, Ed. 

Outlines functions, principles, and 
procedures of camp management 
for the director and staff. Articles 
from 1 1 contributors. 283 pp. 

5.00* 



1198. THE COMPLETE BOOK OF 
CAMPFIRE PROGRAMS. LaRue 
A. Thurston. 

Contains all aspects of a successful 
campfire adaptable to any camp: 
the circle of friendship, program 
activities, attitudes of the leader, 
and leadership techniques. Illustra- 
tions. 3 1 8 pp. 5.95 

564. FOR THE STORYTELLER. 

National Recreation Assn. 

How to select stories and how to 
tell them effectively. With a bibli- 
ography. 36 pp. Paper .85 

1209. YOUR OWN BOOK OF 
CAMPCRAFT. Catherine T. Ham- 
mett. 

Describes the skills that make a 
good camper. Packing food and 
equipment; knot-tying; fire-build- 
ing; cooking; preparing a bedroll, 
etc. For picnicker, camper or 
scout group. Illustrated. 197 pp. 
Paper .35* 



783. CREATIVE CRAFTS FOR 
CAMPERS. Catherine T. Ham- 
mett and Carol M. Horrocks. 

An emphasis on outdoor arts and 
crafts in organized camps and for 
handcrafters of all ages. 175 proj- 
ects using nature's designs and ma- 
terials. 431 pp. 7.95 

149. CAMP COUNSELING. (2nd 
ed.) A. Viola Mitchell and Ida 
B. Crawford. 

Complete, up-to-date guide to 
camping how to handle problem 
campers, instructions for teaching 
crafts, music, sports, etc. 406 pp. 

4.75* 

1395. HANDBOOK OF CAMP 
MAINTENANCE. Alan A. Na- 
thans. 

Presents procedures in mainte- 
nance of camps that need not he 
done by skilled artisans. Guide to 
basic maintenance programs and 
procedures for equipment, build- 
ings, and grounds. Glossary. Il- 
lustrated. 240 pp. 7.95 



1491. CREATIVE NATURE 
CRAFTS. Robert O. Bale. 

Directions for projects made out of 
materials from nature such as 
rocks, horn, bones, bark, etc. In- 
cludes dried flowers, nature jewelry 
and prints, straw crafts, and many 
more. Bibliography. Illustrated. 
Spiral-bound. 120pp. Paper 2.50 



1416. OUTDOOR RAMBLES. Stu- 
art L. Thompson. 

An invitation to enjoy fully the 
world around us by acquiring "the 



Books on Nature? 

hearing ear and the seeing eye." 
Sights and sounds on rambles 
through the woods and down the 
river. Illustrated. 147pp. 3.50 



1290. THE TREE IDENTIFICA- 
TION BOOK. George W. D. Sy- 
monds. 

1539 pictures to help identify 130 
different trees. In two sections: 
Pictorial Keys, showing fruit, bark, 
flowers, etc.; Master Pages, show- 
ing member of the family. Side- 
edge indexed. 272 pp. 10.00 



481. ADVENTURING IN NATURE. 

Betty Price. 

A booklet of ideas for nature activ- 
ities for all seasons. 95 pp. 

Paper 1.25 

a 

\ 




For your convenience order by number from the Recreation Book Center 
National Kec-SEtioc Association 8 West 8th Street N> w York 11, New York 




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97 



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handing out balls and paying top prices for low 
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RESOURCES AND 
REFERENCES 

A Guide to Organizing Family 
Camps was prepared to help anyone in- 
terested in using camp facilities for or- 
ganized family camping. The informa- 
tion and suggestions came from groups 
and individuals who have used family 
camps in Illinois. The 24-page pam- 
phlet gives details of family "camptiv- 
ity," from organization and setup to 
programs and activities for family par- 
ticipation as well as individual partici- 
pation. Available for five cents from 
College of Agriculture. University of 
Illinois. Urbana. 

The Crisis in Open Lain! i* a \alu- 
able contribution to the literature set- 
ting forth the need for open space in 
America. In addition to pointing out 
the need, however, the committee that 
prepared this publication urges a pro- 
gram of action and suggests steps that 
should be taken in order to meet the 
situation. This profusely illustrated 
pumph'et merits careful study and is 
available from the American Institute 
of Park Executives. \Vlieelini:. \\ e>t 
Virginia, for one dollar. 

Educational Dix/ilm* nnd Exhibitt is 
an attractive, 47-page pamphlet full of 
suggestions and techniques for hettei 
planned displays and exhibits, so im- 
portant in publicizing your agency and 
program. Often recreation leaders and 
directors fail to communicate effective!] 
illi their community and the public 
heeaii-e lliey lack good public-relations 
materials. Here an- procedures and 
ideas for preparing bulletin-board <lis- 
|ila\s. exhibits, and diorama-. \s the 
booklet explains. "In evaluating the ef- 
fectiveness of a display or an exhibit. 
I lie most important questions to con- 
sider are: Does it attract attention? 
I >ocs it arouse and hold interest? The 
exhibitor, through careful planning, 
must satisfy these requirements. Tliis 
he does through the elements of design, 
line, texture, space, pattern, ami color. 
He may use lhe-e elements to achieve, 
movement, balance, emphasis or con- 
trast, and unity of the overall plan." 
Available for $2.00 from Visual In- 
struction Bureau. University of Texas, 
Austin 12. 



98 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECURSION 



MARCH 1960 





THE MAGAZINE OF THE RECREATION MOVEMENT 



Editor in Chief, JOSEPH PRENDERCAST 
Editor, DOROTHY DONALDSON 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 
JEAN WACHTEL ELVIRA DELANY 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 



VOL. LIII. 



Price 50 Cents 



No. 3 



On I ho Cover 

Concentrating as only children can, these young- 
sters go after water bug or fish as part of their camp 
nature program an activity not found on the city 
playground. Photo courtesy Drew Morton, from the 
National Audubon Society. 

Next Month 

Pixies, pirates, and puppets you name it, you'll 
find it, in April's Playground Issue. Here is mate- 
rial ready at hand for playground planning and 
leadership training. Included are "Uniform Outfits 
for Leaders?"; "Patterns for Playgrounds"; "A Nau- 
tical Play Community," illustrating the importance 
of careful planning and placing of equipment; and 
many other useful articles. "Playgrounds Abroad" 
is a picture story of play areas and facilities in hous- 
ing projects in Switzerland, Germany, Denmark. 
Right out of the headlines are recreation trends in 
today's play areas in America's motels, trailer parks, 
and housing developments, an article on recreation 
and delinquency, and the story of a successful com- 
munity art council in Richmond, Virginia. 

Photo Credits 

Page 106, Hal H. Harrison, National Audubon So- 
ciety; 107, William Z. Harmon, Sarasota, Florida; 
112 Heft) and 113. C. Greenberg, New City, New 
York; 116-7, Edward H. Goldberger, St. Louis, Mis- 
souri; 122, Florida Park Service, Tallahassee; 124-5, 
James Madison, National Recreation Association; 
129 (top). Harry C. Asbury, Brattleboro, Vermont. 



RECREATION is published monthly except July and 
August by the National Recreation Association, a service 
organization supported by voluntary contributions, at 8 
West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York, is on 
file in public libraries and is indexed in the Readers' 
Guide. Subscriptions J4.00 a year. Canadian and for- 
eign subscription rate $4.50. Re-entered as second-class 
matter April 25. 1950, at the Post Office in New York, 
New York under Act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance 
for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in 
Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized May 
1, 1924. Microfilms of current issues available Uni- 
versity Microfilms, 313 N. First Street, Ann Arbor. 
Michigan. 

Space Representative!-. Mark Minahan, 185 North Wa- 
bash Avenue, Chicago 1, Illinois. 

Copyright, I960, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 

Printed in the U.S.A. 



Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 



CONTENTS 

GENERAL FEATURES 

Camps or Channel 9? (Editorial) . . . .Elizabeth B. Spear 100 

The Four "F's" of Camping Julian H. Salomon 106 

St. Paul Revitalized /,'/,, A. Lobdell 110 

Daniel Boone Roams Again Dorothy Spear 116 

Accent on Youth in Asia (Part II) ... .Sterling S. Winans 124 

Protection Against Lightning During Storms 128 

ADMINISTRATION 

Notes for the Administrator 131 

Are You Looking for Camp Land? . . .Stanley W. Stacker 132 

A Study Report of Maintenance Problems 134 

Contracting for Recreation Leadership 

Charles F. Wecknerth 135 

State and Local Developments 136 

PROGRAM 

Campfire Programs Lois Goodrich 109 

Day Camp Patterns 112 

Keep the Campfires Burning Joseph W. Halper 119 

The Family Outdoors 

Camps and Camping 122 

A Family Vacation Night 123 

Suggested Camp Swimming Regulations 123 

Fun with Nature 126 

A Progressive Camping Program Diane Link 127 

Don't Take the Playground to Camp 

Catherine T. Hammett 129 

Recreation Afloat William H. Radke 130 

Successful Boating Education 134 

REGULAR FEATURES 

Resources and References 98 

Letters 102 

Things You Should Know 104 

A Reporter's Notebook 120 

Market News 138 

Classified Advertising 139 

Index of Advertisers 139 

Listening and Viewing 140 

Recreation for the 111 and Handicapped 142 

Magazine Articles, Recordings, Books and 

Pamphlets Received 143 

New Publications 144 

IDUCATIONAL 

IRESS 

ISSOCIATION ^ e ort ' c ' es herein printed are the expres- 

> OF sion of the writers and not a statement of 

AMERICA policy of the National Recreation Association. 



MARCH 1960 



99 



o 



Editorial 



CAMPS 
OR 
CHANNEL 9? 

Elizabeth B. Spear 



'RGANIZED CAMPING has proved its value in its first century. It proved 
itself in its early years in a world relatively ordered and peaceful and, 
even more convincingly, in later troubled decades. How much more vital 
is its potential contribution today in a world grown suddenly smaller, a 
world of tension, of cold war, crime, and confusion. 

The American Camping Association is observing its golden jubilee in 
1960. And the year 1961 will mark the one hundredth anniversary of the 
establishment of probably the first organized camp in the United States. 

What has happened in these hundred years that is worthy of commemo- 
ration? Revealing answers could be found in the experiences of millions 
of boys and girls and, in the past few decades, also of families and older 
people, who have camped under private and public agency and individual 
auspices. 

What can a summer, or even a week or two, in a good camp give to a 
girl or boy? Camp days can be more or less routine, a continuation of 
activities campers have been experiencing; or they can open up whole new 
fields of adventure, exciting interests and skills. It will be a sorry day for 
camping if the cartoon depicting several campers complaining, "They 
might at least have told us before they got us up here that they can't get 
Channel 9," should ever actually reflect camp program patterns. 

Friendships, learning of skills, adventure, healthful living, and fun are 
normal expectations for a camping experience, and perhaps as far as many 
campers go in anticipation. A children's camp is a child's world into which 
he goes from an adult world. It is a world that exists solely for him, based 
on his interests and geared to his needs. He has a part in planning what 
goes on in his world a growing experience in itself. 

In this world he is a person in his own right; his individual interests, 
needs, abilities, aspirations count; he isn't forced into the same mold as 
all of his tent mates. In camp he can develop a measure of independence 
and self-reliance, with understanding guidance, and yet not be confused 
by undisciplined liberty. 

The camper lives in a setting that provides a favorable climate for re- 
ducing differences to a common denominator. Differences in background, 
whether of color or creed, clothes or the number of cars in the family ga- 
rage, are of comparatively little consequence an individual is accepted 
and respected for himself. 

Instead of the clatter, the confusion, and, often, drabness of urban sur- 
roundings, he is living in a world of sunshine, bird songs, green trees, blue 
waters, of timid little animals a world of beauty and friendliness. Dr. 
Harry Emerson Fosdick tells the story of a little girl who on seeing her 
first rainbow, exclaimed excitedly, "Oh, mother, what's that advertising?" 

What better place than camp to counteract this alarmingly increasing 
emphasis on the material? What better place to encourage the idealism, too 
often latent, but still there, in children? Spiritual eyes and ears can be 
opened in the midst of God's handiwork. 

Someone has said, "Camp provides good growing weather but we 
haven't always been good gardeners." The values of camp for a chile 
will depend on the skills, the convictions, and the vision of the camp-staf 
"gardeners." # 



100 



MRS. SPEAR is director of camping, Division of Program Services, Camp Fire Girls. It 

RECREATION 



Physical Fitness is 

FUN 

WITH SAFE-T-PLAY EQUIPMENT 



VARIED ACTIVITIES, not monotony, are needed 
to develop and hold the interest and enthusiasm of 
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education program. 

DOZENS OF ENJOYABLE GAMES can be played 
indoors with Safe-T-Play equipment: new adaptations 
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other well liked games that avoid the lethargy of 
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THE SHORTER FLIGHT AND GREATER SAFETY 
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Safe, puncture-proof Fun Football is ideal for touch 
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MARCH 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



101 



How-to' instruction Rules 
Advice of the experts 




RONALD 
SPORTS BOOKS 

From the publishers of 
THE RONALD SPORTS LIBRARY 

Basebci//-SofffoaM- 

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Baseball Techniques Illustrated, 

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How to Pitch, Bob Feller 2.95 

Baseball, Dan Jessee 2.95 

Softball, 3rd Ed., 

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Basketball Fundamentals 

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Basketball Techniques Illustrated, 

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Touch Football, 

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Football Techniques Illustrated, 

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Six-Man Football, Rev. Ed., 

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Modern Bowling Techniques, 
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Riding Simplified, 

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Jumping Simplified, 

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Golf Illustrated, 

Patty Berg & Mark Cox 2.95 
Archery, Natalie Reichart & 

Gilman Keasey 2.95 

Selected Recreation Titles 
Recreation Activities for the 
Handicapped, Frederick M. 

Chapman 5.75 
Social Games for Recreation, 
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Write for complete list of books in the 
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THE RONALD PRESS COMPANY 
15 East 26th Street, New York 10 




Readers! You are invited to send letters for this page 
to Editor, RECREATION, 8 West Eighth Street, Neu 
York 11 so that your ideas, opinions and attitudes 
nnn he exchanged with others on the wide range of 
subjects of concern to us all. Here is your chance to 
agree or disagree with the authors of our articles. 
Keep letters brief not more than 250 words. 

The Editor* 



My Child Was Robbed! 

Open letter to all camp directors: 

I sent my child to camp last summer, 
and he was robbed blind! My young- 
ster is an ordinary fellow except to his 
mother and me. 

Like most small boys, his packing 
would have consisted of a fishing rod, 
a supply of bent pins, a hunting knife, 
two or three marbles, and my old army 
kit bag. His mother naturally managed 
to insert a few nonessentials like clean 
socks and underwear, dry shoes. He 
thought poorly of them all. 

"I'm gonna live in the water all day," 
he stated firmly. "Waddya think I need 
clean socks and shoes for?" 

He had such high hopes for that 
camp. He was going to fish whenever 
he wanted, with his bent pins. He was 
going to whittle a birdhouse and maybe 
a pipe rack for me. He was going to 
build a raft and a treehouse, and have 
a secret club. He was going to learn 
to ride horseback and swing a rope, 
like a real cowboy. He was going to 
cook his dinner in a billy can and sleep 
on a rock. He was even going to swim 
across the lake if he felt like it. He'd 
learn to use a bow and arrow like Robin 
Hood, and his trusty band would be the 
scourge of Sherwood. . . . 

We assured him that we would not 
consider him dead if we didn't hear 
from him, but I know his mother 
felt a little tearful. Not me, I was 
thrilled. Now, for once, the boy was 
going to be on his own away from his 
parents who naturally were prejudiced 
in his favour away from TV and the 
predigested books, away from the radio 
and incessant canned music away 
from everything that was turning him 
into a little vegetable. 

What happened? We aren't too sure. 
The director doesn't seem aware that 
there was anything unusual about Jim's 
summer. He looks wonderful tanned, 
strong, and an inch taller. His appetite 
is lugger than one would believe possi- 
ble. Who knows what happened? 



"Did you get to play Robin Hood?" 
we asked. 

"Well, yeah, but there was this coun- 
selor, see, who was in charge of archery 
and he said we always had to be very 
careful when we were shooting, so we 
did it all to numbers. Then he arranged 
a big tournament and made a lot of lists 
and put them on the bulletin board, but 
I dunno. we didn't seem to want to 
much. I think he was mad, sort of. 
Then the counselors put on a demon- 
stration of how you should shoot, but 
me and Skinny went fishing. And heck, 
was there ever a row! Mac said we 
weren't cooperating." 

"Did you make your birdhouse and 
the pipe rack?" we asked again. 

"Yeah, they had a dandy craft shop 
with a whole lot of power tools. Course, 
they were pretty dangerous, so the coun- 
selors used them. When we wanted 
something cut we took it to the guy in 
charge of crafts and he did it for u<. 
They had a lot of leatherburning stuff. 
too, with a little kit with pictures al- 
ready on the stuff." 

"How about the tripping?" we ai-knl 
a little tentatively. "Good food, I bet." 

"Yeah, it was all right, but the second 
day out it started to rain and Mac came 
and got us in the truck. The first night 
out me and Skinny caught some fish ami 
wanted to eat them but the counselor 
said we were having some of the jilh- 
pack stuff you add water to and that 
we'd better not cook the fish. I kept 
mine for awhile but it started to stink, 
so I threw it out." 

"\\hal iliil you like best at camp?" 
we tried again. 

"The swimming, you bet. Really got 
my dive good and they passed im le>t. 
Skinny couldn't dive so good but tlie\ 
passed him too 'cause he wanted to go 
on the trip and he couldn't without his 
swimming test. Kinda corny, after I'd 
worked so hard on mine." 

"Did you manage to build \<>ur raft 
and your treehouse?" 

"Yeah, well, see, the raft wouldn't 
work cause the swim area was all rojx-d 



102 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



off and that was the only safe place to 
have it. But we built a dandy treehouse. 
The counselor did all the hard parts like 
the roof and around the windows, but 
we carried the boards and sent them up 
to him on a rope thing he'd rigged up. 
But we didn't play in it much. . . ." 

Faint, but pursuing, we tried once 
more, "The riding was a big success, 
though, wasn't it?" 

"Oh gosh, that was real good fun. 
We had to get up early when we were 
on stable duty and turn the horses out 
for water. Then we mucked out the 
stables and put clean bedding down. 
Then we fed the horses and cleaned 
them and cleaned tack. Say, did you 
know there were twenty-two parts to a 
bridle and they all had to come to 
pieces? We had to know all about feed- 
ing and care of horses, too. Bill made 
us take notes, and. at the end, we had 
a quiz and I came second. Those of us 
who got highest marks got to groom 
the horses for the big show the last 
Saturday." 

"Weren't you riding in the show?" 
we inquired. 

"Heck no, I wasn't good enough for 
that. But I sure learned a lot about 
horses and I want a book for my birth- 
day on care and feeding of horses." 

"Any wild animals up there?" we 
asked. 

"Well, I dunno. We saw a couple 
of tracks and wanted to follow them, 
but our bunk was supposed to be at 
canoeing so we couldn't. I looked them 
up in a book and the guy started telling 
me all about them, but when I went back 
to find them they were gone. We saw 
a deer once, but we were on our way 
to flag raising so we had to hurry. Us 
kids had been late three times in a 
row. and if we'd been late again we 
wouldn't have got to the movies. . . ." 
"Movies?" we asked faintly. 
"Yeah, you know, Westerns and stuff 
like that there. They were keen. We 
had 'em every Saturday and whenever 
it rained. And speaking of rain, feel 
my muscle. I got that building a wall 
down near the beach. We had this great 
flood one day, see, and half the bank 
started washing away, so some of us got 
out there in our bathing suits and 
started tossing rocks into the holes. 
We were having a good time, but of 
course we could only do the rock part. 
Mac got some guys from the village and 
they resodded and planted trees and 
filled in the rocks with cement." 

The director phoned this spring to 
see if Jim was going back to camp. We 
asked Jim and he looked doubtful. 

"I dunno," he said slowly, "I think 
I'd like to go to a ranch this summer 
where they have a horse for every kid 
and you do all your own work and look 
after the horses and clean stables, and 



mend fences and all that kind of thing." 
"It's pretty hard work," we count- 
ered, "and they don't have all the other 
things you have at camp. No water- 
skiing, no sailing, crafts, or riflery." 

"Yeah, I know," he answered thought- 
fully, "but I think you might really get 
to learn something. Do you think I 
could, Dad? Skinny wants to, too." 

Perhaps, I thought. Perhaps here, 
too, they might rob him blind. But it 
was surely worth a try. JOYCE BER- 
TRAM, director, Camp Quareau, Quebec. 
Condensed with permission, from Cana- 
dian Camping, June 1959. 

Outdoor Nature Classrooms 

Sirs: 

Your magazine is doing a fine job, 
but I would like to see more articles on 
"outdoor nature classrooms." Our 
county is just embarking into the field 
of buying land for forest preserves. Our 
little grade school just built a new 
school on a virgin twenty acres, and we 
intend to landscape the grounds and 
create an outdoor nature classroom as 
we have natural logs and can acquire all 
the trees, shrubs, wildflowers, and 
mosses native to this area. We have al- 
ready started a community landscaping 
project and planted some shrubs and 
bulbs so as to have spring flowers. If 
any of your readers have started an out- 
door nature classroom we would like 
to know just what they have done or are 
doing to create more interest in our 
natural surroundings. 

I was born in Chicago, in 1886, and 
enjoyed the woods around Chicago as 
a boy before Chicago and Cook County 
acquired their now famous forest pre- 
serves. I know the value of forest pre- 
serves as recreational areas. As a 4-H 
leader and Boy Scout counselor in 
forestry, I realize that if more state and 
communities do not plan on buying up 
our native woods soon, they will for- 
ever lose what God gave us to conserve. 

Thousands of nature lovers travel 
miles to visit the Morton Arboretum 
at Lisle, Illinois, or Whitnall Park at 
Hales Corner, Wisconsin, made avail- 
able by folks who had foresight enough 
to save these wonderful spots so our 
citizens can enjoy them. 

WILLIAM R. LAECHELT, R. R. 2, Box 

42, Mundelein, Illinois. 



iseo 

I I I 1 I 1 l< ' * 




You can raise $ 500 

or more in 6 days 

this easy way 




Sell famous Mason 
Candies and in 4 to 15 days 
your group can make 
$300 to $2,500 

For complete information fill in and mail 
us the coupon shown. If you decide to go 
ahead you don't risk a cent, you pay noth- 
ing in advance. We supply on consignment 
your choice of FOUR VARIETIES of famous 
Mason Candy. At no extra charge each 
package is wrapped with a hand printed 
with your organization's name and picture. 
You pay after you have sold the candy and 
return what you don't sell. Candy is sold 
at less than regular retail price. You make 
$12.00 on every 30 sales of our $1.00 box 
(66%% profit to you on cost). There's no 
risk! You can't lose. Mail in coupon today 
f(ir information about MASON'S PROTECTED 
FUND RAISING DRIVES. 



Mr. KDVVIN STOYE, Dept. RM-3 
Mason, Box 549, Mineola, N.Y. 
Gentlemen: Please send me, without 
obligation, information on your Fund 
Raising Plan. 

Name 

Age if under 21 

Address 



Organization 

Phone_ 

City_ 



_State_ 



Mason Candies, Inc., Mineola, L. I., N.Y. 



MARCH 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



103 



WHEREVER 
CHILDREN PLAY 



Recreation equipment with 
engineered safety to meet 
the most rigid requirements. 

> Playground Equipment 
Indoor Basketball Backstops 

> Swimming Pool Equipment 

Literature for each line avail- 
able on request please specify. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

RECREATION 
EQUIPMENT CORP 

Dept. R160 724 W. 8th St. 
Anderson, Indiana 



Eliminate old fashioned 
basket checking 

REDUCE PAYROLLS 



Modern, serve-self Sentinel Lockers 
do away with old-style bags and 
baskets, prevent pilfering and rid 
you of the risk of custody liability. 

Patrons like the improved serv- 
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privacy and higher security for 
clothes and other personal pos- 
sessions. 

Coin-and-key operated lockers 
mean a big increase in your rev- 
enue as well as payroll savings . . . 
enough to pay for the investment 
over and over again. 

Now is the time to get the com- 
plete Sentinel story ... there's no 
obligation. Write . . . 



SENTINEL 



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OPERATED CHECKING SYSTEMS 

THE FLXIBLE COMPANY 

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IMPORTANT 

READERS ARE ASKED to answer the 
following important questions: (a) 
What is your thinking in regard to 
the most useful type of publications 
workshop for our National Congress 
in Washington? Would you attend 
an editors' problem clinic? A train- 
ing session? (b) Do you publish 
any kind of printed material? An- 
nual report? Promotion fliers? Bul- 
letins? Programs? If so, please 
send us the name of publications, 
name of editor and length of his 
term in this capacity, and address. 
We are making up a mailing list so 
that people working on publications 
can exchange information, sample 
products, get help. 
Please send your answer to Dorothy 
Donaldson, Secretary, National Ad- 
visory Committee on Publication of 
Recreation Materials. 



> COMING NEXT MONTH! Your annual 
Playground Issue of RECREATION, with 
new playground ideas "bustin out all 
over." See that all members of your 
staff have their own copy, if they don't 
now subscribe. ORDER NOW. Use as a re- 
source in your playground planning 
and in training playground leaders. 
Supplement with your playground is- 
sues of last year and the year before 
that. They are still good. 

I NEW ATLAS WILL LIST CAMPGROUNDS. 

Initial printing of a new publication to 
be called Campground Atlas, said to be 
the first of its kind to include all fifty 
states, as well as the provinces of Can- 
ada, is scheduled to come off press on 
April 1, 1960. One hundred and sixty 
information-packed pages will cover 
over 5,500 campgrounds, including fed- 
eral, state, county, municipal, and pri- 
vately owned; numbered and keyed to 
index of states and provinces; gives 
detailed directions for reaching each 
campground. 

Coauthors are staff members of a 
well-known state university. Price will 
be $3.50 and includes all shipping costs. 
Order by sending cash, check, or money 
order to Alpine Geographical Press, 



Pre-Order Department 21, Station A, 
Champaign, Illinois. 

> LOOKING AHEAD to Library Week in 
April, are your plans for observations 
completed? Do you promote reading 
as recreation, use it as background or 
springboard to program? Well-known 
educator Hughes Mearns, points out in 
his book Creative Poiver, The Educa- 
tion of Youth in the Creative Arts," 
"Reading, including the dramatization 
that goes with reading, silent or openly 
played, is one of the important foods of 
the creative life." 

> THE CONFERENCE FOR NATIONAL CO- 
OPERATION IN AQUATICS, of which the 
National Recreation Association is a 
member, is conducting a Study of Suc- 
cessfully Revived Water Cases (per- 
sons recovered from the water who are 
unconscious and not breathing and are 
ultimately revived). The objective: to 
gather information (a) on the efficacy 
of various methods of artificial respira- 
tion, (b) a more effective way of rescue, 
(c) that could be utilized for mass safe- 
ty education. 

Carefully prepared questionnaires 
have been developed for use in the 
study. One is intended for the rescued 
drowning victim; the other is to be used 
by the rescuer. An attempt will he made 
to secure information on a worldwide 
basis. Readers of RECREATION or NRA 
members who have any knowledge of 
instances of successfully revived water 
cases are requested to participate. Ad- 
ditional information about the study 
and questionnaire forms may be ob- 
tained from Richard L. Brown, Amer- 
ican National Red Cross, 18th and E 
Streets, N.W., Washington 13, D. C. 

> TlIE 14TH ANNUAL SHORT COURSE for 

editors is announced for state commis- 
sioners, directors, editors, by Oklahoma 
State University, from March 21 to 26, 
1960. A separate section will be main- 
tained for conservation editors. The 
conservation section includes intensive 
study of problems peculiar to the edit- 
ing of conservation magazines. It will 
be headed by Bruce Kilgore, editor of 

* Dover Publications, (Rev. ed.), paper, 
tl.50. 



104 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



National Parks Magazine and assistant 
o the executive secretary of the Na- 
ional Parks Association, Washington, 
). C. 

WANTED: News and stories about any 
mique or "different" program gimmick 
r equipment that you used in your 
Halloween program last year or are 
banning to use this year. Deadlines: 
klay 1 or June 1 our deadlines for the 
September and October issues of REC- 
tEATiON. Please be sure to enclose 
;ood, clear, glossy photographs illus- 
rating your story. Good pictures liven 
ip an article or news note. 

' NEW EXECUTIVE VICE-PRESIDENT of 

Ceep America Beautiful is Al'en H. 
Seed, Jr., assistant director of the Na- 
ional Municipal League for the past ten 
fears, and former president of the Na- 
ional Association of Civic Secretaries. 

A REMINDER THAT the White House 
Conference on Children and Youth 
neets at the invitation of President Ei- 
senhower March 27 to Anril 2. 1960. 
Vn entire section will be devoted to the 
iroblems of "youth in conflict." 

> IN SESSION THIS MONTH: American 
Damping Association National Conven- 
ion, California Masonic Temple, San 
Francisco, March 2 to 5, 1960. This 
narks the fiftieth anniversary of service 
3y the American Camping Association. 
Congratulations ACA! 

> PLEASE SEND A COPY of your annual 
report to the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation every year. We look forward to 
seeing these. We use them! Do you 
remember us? 

> MANUSCRIPTS FOR RECREATION MAG- 
VZINE : Please send us the original typed 
;opy of your article, not a carbon ; and 
ion't forget to enclose a stamped, self- 
addressed envelope if you want it re- 
turned in case it is not used. 

> DID YOU KNOW THAT your camp- 
counselor training can earn college 
credit? Would you be interested in 
having a college faculty man act as a 
resource person at your training ses- 
sions? If so, read Robert W. Harlan's 
article in the January 1960 Camping 
Magazine. 



ARE YOU ONE OF THE PEOPLE who 

has picked up Bob Kresge's splendid 
idea of having your playground con- 
tribute to the Joseph Lee Fund? If 
so, congratulations! This is the time 
of year to be thinking about it again, 
for 1960. ( For details see RECREA- 
TION, April 1958, Page 109) . 



How to Play 
and Teach 
VOLLEYBALL 

J. EDMUND WELCH, 
Editor 



World's third most pop- 
ular team sport fully 
explained with illustrations by 12 top ex- 
perts. Will help both experienced and tyro 
leaders to teach and officiate the game. De- 
tails exact patterns of play: the serve; the 
pass; the setup; the spike; the block; re- 
covery shots; offense; defense. Fully illus- 
trated. $3.75 




CAMP 

WATERFRONT 
PROGRAMS and 
MANAGEMENT 

RICHARD H. 
POHNDORF 

A complete aquatic pro- 
gram tor any waterfront, covering: organi- 
zation, administration; layout; health, 
safety ; boats, canoes, etc. ; programs ; sea- 
manship; sailing; artificial lakes and 
ponds. Including material not found in 
similar books, the information is practical, 
adaptable. Illustrated, Large Format. $7.50 




STAGING 

SUCCESSFUL 

TOURNAMENTS 

E. DOUGLAS 
BOYDEN & ROGER 
G. BURTON 

' How to select, plan and 
conduct all kinds of 
tournaments in all sports. ... A practical 
loose-leaf handbook containing actual draw 
sheets, easy to remove and use or copy. 
Workable methods that simplify and solve 
all the usual tournament headaches, such as 
late entries and double challenges. $4.75 



STAGING 

SUCCESSFUL 

TOURNAMENTS 





269 

acts and 

stunts! 

CLOWN 

ACT 

OMNIBUS 



WES McVICAR 



An old hand at clowning pre- 
sents complete plans for 269 
acts and stunts explaining 
make-up, costumes, equip- 
ment, props, role of the 
MC or ringmaster, program 
planning and organization. 
Acts and stunts are classi- 
fied according to ability re- 
quired. Includes elements 
of clowning and sample pro- 
grams. A unique compre- 
hensive guide to one of the 
oldest and most popular 
forms of group entertain- 
ment. Illustrated. $4.95 

I 



The 




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Science j ,* 

f flit ' f ||*t 
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SCUBA DIVING 

The complete, official guide to 
skin and scuba diving, devel- 
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National Co-operation in Aqua- 
tics. Among major subjects 
treated in detail are: safety; 
first aid; physical require- 
ments; equipment; skills; 
planning a dive; organizing a 
club. For professional and ad- 
vanced divers, beginning stu- 
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$3.95 



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MARCH 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



105 



What are camper hopes and 

dreams? Do our camp programs 

fulfill them adequately? 



THE FOUR TV 
OF CAMPING 



Julian H. Salomon 

IN CAMPING WE are trying to accomplish two basic aims : 
to give boys and girls a chance to do some of the things 
they like to do in ways they like to do them; and, 
through these activities, to instill qualities and awaken new 
interests in our campers to help them lead happier and more 
abundant lives. We need to remember that, while these are 
compatible, they represent camping from the points of view 
of the child and of the adult which are, of course, quite 
different. As a Boy Scout camper is said to have remarked, 
"Gee, chief, I didn't come to camp to have my character 
built." 

Camping has such a strong appeal to youth that some 
adults have taken advantage of it and have used the name 
as a sort of bait to attract boys and girls to programs, 
which, while they may have worthy motives, having noth- 
ing in common with learning how to live simply in the out- 
of-doors. We have lost some of our older campers because 
they did not find in the camps they first attended the things 
they expected, among which are opportunities for freedom 
and challenging adventure. In altogether too many cases, 
these so-called camps are far removed from what children 
have been promised and hope to find in places called by the 
magic name of camp. 

All too often we forget that boys or girls who have never 
been to camp have some pretty clear ideas as to what a real 
camp is like and what they want to do when they get there. 
Fortunately, these things are not difficult or expensive to 
provide. They do, however, require a director with a love 
of young people, who is gifted with a lively imagination. 

What are some of the things a camper expects of the 
camp and why do we think it worth while to provide them? 
First of all, there are the basic experiences; the desire for 
which grows out of our American historical background. 
Tales of Indians and pioneers and their adventuresome and 
romantic ways of life are heard at an early age and make 
a strong appeal to the child's imagination. These people 
lived in the out-of-doors and in camps. The children hear 

MR. SALOMON is a landscape architect, camp consultant, and 
planner, and a member oj both the American Camping As- 
sociation and the American Society of Landscape Architects. 

106 




stories about them when they are very young and look for- 
ward to doing likewise as they grow older. What they want 
to do when they get to camp is to build a fire, cook a meal 
over it, and sleep out in a tent or in the open. Unfortu- 
nately, many children go to places called camps where op- 
portunities to do these things never occur. 

Now, beyond these simple basic experiences, there are 
other things the campers expect of a camp, but which they 
may never directly mention. These camper hopes and de- 
sires may be called the four "Ps." They are: fun and 
adventure, freedom, fellowship, and food for the spirit. 
Outdoor fun and adventure come first because the camper 
expects to find opportunities for a number of new and joy- 
ful experiences in camp. He wants to be a part of nature 
and to pit himself against the elements. He wants, as far 
as it is possible to do so today, to relive the life of the 
Indian and pioneer. He would like the camp to give him 
the opportunity to become an expert woodsman. He wants 
his experiences to be real, and this becomes particularly 
important as he gets older. It is the director's and the 
counselor's job to discover ways of giving him his chance 
to have real adventures and to have them safely. 

Now, there are always some parents and board members 
who will question the value of such things as woodcraft and 
camping skills. They will say, "How can such activities 
possibly prepare a camper for the urban civilisation in 
which he will have to live? Are you not, in your camp- 
craft, Indian lore, and nature study, providing an environ- 
ment that belongs to the primitive past and an escape from 
the realities of present-day life?" 

One of the most valid objectives of camping is education 
for leisure time. As industrial progress provides more and 
more free time, and when the increasing demand for self- 
directed activity during leisure is raising a multitude of 
problems, the kind of education a real camp can give is 
most urgently needed. 

Family camping is now one of the most popular \aration 
forms for our young adults and even older ones. The case 
of automobile travel is turning so many people to the out- 
of-doors that national and state parks and forests aiv lia\ ing 
a hard time keeping up with demand for camping facili- 

RECREATION 



ties. Perhaps a minor, but certainly not unimportant, value 
of these activities is the training they give in survival skills 
we hope we will never need. 

While practical values like these are easy to understand, 
it is the hidden ones that lie in learning to swim, building 
campfires, hiking through the woods, learning to know 
birds, flowers, and trees that develop the power of the 
imagination. For the child who has had these experiences, 
life has been broadened and enriched. 

School and camp are both concerned with a child's edu- 
cation, but there is a difference in the way they work to- 
ward their objectives. The education he receives in school 
is largely a matter of books, formal instruction, and class- 
rooms. Camping, on the other hand, has to do with living 
out-of-doors and physical activity. Schooling takes place 
indoors and is, or should be, mostly hard work. While 
there is, or should be, hard work in camp, it is part of the 
fun of living and learning to live in the open. Efforts to 
combine the two types of education have failed so far to 
obtain broad acceptance or success. 

Though camping is different from formal schooling, it 
is not less important, and this is a fact we need continually 
to impress upon the American parent. He has given his 
children great freedom from responsibility and a great 
amount of leisure. He then worries about how they are 
going to spend it. Camp is one of the places where children 
can learn to make wise use of leisure and have a lot of fun 
in the learning process. Education for the use of leisure 
time is one of the most important services the camp can 
perform. 

Freedom is something else the camper wants, needs, and 
should have freedom from worry, hurry, and envy. This 
freedom should be granted in broad degree. Freedom, of 
course, does not imply anarchy. The freedom we want for 
ourselves, others also want, so freedom in camp implies and 
demands a respect for the rights of others. So, in camp, 
freedom will be granted within broad limits; it will be well 
regulated but it will be real. 

The camper should be free to select activities and to do 
what he wants without explaining why. He should have 
opportunities to participate in large and small group ac- 
tivities, but he should also have a chance to do things with 



one or two other campers or by himself. He should also 
have time just to "do nothing." This freedom to exercise 
the power of choice is essential to character building. 

Campers should have freedom to participate in program 
planning and in camp government. A preplanned program, 
devised entirely by grownups, is generally not good for the 
campers. Certainly it is not, if campers are directed from 
one activity to another in which they need do no thinking 
and get no opportunity to exercise choice or judgment. 
Camper participation in planning should begin in the tent 
or cabin group and continue, both in the unit or section 
and the entire camp, through camper representation on a 
camp council or similar program planning group. Further 
opportunities for choice and planning should be given in 
daily section assemblies or similar meetings. 

The camp that operates in an atmosphere of freedom will 
not need coercion to get a good response from the campers. 
The campers will readily respond to a program that is 
really based on their own interests. These interests, in 
turn, will be aroused and expanded by a campsite that pre- 
sents a rich and stimulating environment. The fact that 
the camper comes into a place differing sharply from city 
and home is bound to evoke a great number of new interests. 
There should be a time and place where these may be al- 
lowed to develop, but this cannot be if the program is so 
regimented that every moment has been planned for in 
advance. 

We also need to provide more freedom from the city 
its games and sports, TV, and spectator amusements. Over- 
emphasis on city sports unwisely limits the development of 
of new camping interests, such as campcraft. nature, canoe- 
ing, mountain climbing, archery, sailing, fishing, tracking, 
and scouting games. Such formal games and sports as we 
have should be aimed at helping the beginner become pro- 
ficient enough to enjoy participation on a par with his fel- 
low campers. Those sports the camper can carry over into 
later life are the ones to be developed. Camps should not 
attempt to develop stars or teams whose main purpose is to 
defeat other camps. Such devices as "color wars," that de- 
velop tensions and intense competition, have no place in 
a well-run camp. 

We know from Sanders' famous study that a camp's 



Two important "F's" the camper wants are fellowship and food for the spirit. 



? 



4TV 





Campers should have freedom to help plan their own pro- 
gram, freedom from hurry. There should be no need for 
haste in the woods. Camp provides scope for self-direction. 



greatest failure lies in the possibility of overstrain and 
overfatigue. The parent whose first concern on sending 
his child to camp is health and safety may not realize that 
he is defeating that basic concern by demanding competi- 
tive emphasis and the artificial stimulation that goes with 
the awareness of many prizes. Freedom from worry about 
not making the grade, freedom from hurry to keep up with 
the schedule, and freedom from envy of the champion and 
prize winner these are the freedoms campers want and 
need. 

Really, the third "F" would be first, had I not been con- 
sidering these questions from the camper's point of view. 
For the fellowship the camper is asking us to provide is not 
only that with his fellow campers, but that with the staff. 
This, of course, implies good leadership, which we all rec- 
ognize as the most important ingredient in the camping 
recipe. Without the right kind of leadership, opportunities 
for the development of new and continuing interests would 
never occur. Unless there are leaders truly and lovingly 
interested in children and with enthusiasm for the out-of- 
doors, the whole effort fails. If, when the camper asks 
questions, there is not a counselor or director present who 
has a keen interest in trees and trails, and who can help 
him find the answers, it is only natural that he will turn 
away to basketball or baseball as a time killer. 

We get a pretty good picture of the kind of adult leader- 
ship the camper wants from the Study of Adolescent Boys 
made by the University of Michigan for the Boy Scouts of 
America. Although the leaders came from various walks 
of life, had different degrees of education, and were of 
varied trades, professions, and ages, they all possessed four 
traits the boys admired. They said (1) "He's a nice guy," 
(2) "He understands us," (3) "He can do things," and (4) 
"He has good character." 

Both director and counselor should be enthusiastic out- 
doorsmen who get a sense of adventure from their camping 
experience. They need to be healthy in mind and body and 
possessed of the abundant energy camp life demands. Un- 
derstanding the physical and emotional needs of the camp- 
ers, they will provide ample opportunities for boys to use 



their own initiative and carry out their own plans. The 
camp leaders will try to understand the child's inner drives 
and be prepared to guide them. 

The possibilities for real fellowship between staff and 
camper depend partly on the size of the camp and its liv- 
ing units or sections. Effectiveness diminishes when any 
one counselor is given the responsibility for more than 
eight campers, and when the camp staff is so big that the 
director has little or no personal contact with the campers. 
The influence of the director pervades the whole camp and 
is more important than any other kind of education. 

As the camper seeks and desires the fellowship and ap- 
proval of his counselor and director, so does he also want 
that of his fellow campers. Camp is an ideal place to learn 
how to establish satisfactory relationships with one's fel- 
lows, and the small tent group is the ideal "class" for teach- 
ing the subject. Here, the camper finds out that the business 
of living is chiefly a matter of getting along with other 
people. Here, he soon realizes that social techniques can 
be learned and that one way to learn them is to do his job 
in such a way that it wins the approval of his group. Thus, 
the group molds and forms a boy's way of reacting te so- 
cial situations. 

The boy from the city apartment or from a small family 
does not have the same opportunity for learning these les- 
sons of unselfishness, fair play, and good sportsmanship as 
did his grandfather, who may have been from a large old- 
fashioned, country-dwelling family. He may also miss the 
lessons that are taught by older and younger brothers and 
sisters. This, by the way, points to an advantage earlier 
camps possessed, which we might once again provide. That 
was the practice of having older and younger boys in the 
same section, because they have so much to contribute to 
each other in the matter of social adjustment. 

The counselor's job is helping campers establish the 
right relationship to other campers, to teach them high 
standards of honesty, and develop in them the spirit of 
cooperation with others. One of the best ways to develop 
cooperation is through sharing in the work of maintaining 
the camp. Each camper should have regular chores or other- 
wise participate in the necessary work of the camp. This 
is most important as a means of developing self-respect and 
self-reliance, based on a person's real worth to the com- 
munity. 

There is no doubt that most boys prefer play to work, 
but it is the business of the camp to keep their interests 
balanced. In many camps, everything is done to keep the 
campers excited over athletics, but very little is done to get i 
them to assume their share of the work. We must reco^ni/e 
that the camper needs to learn to take responsibility and to 
become independent, through doing his share, just as much 
as he needs team play. 

With the introduction of modern machines and methods, 
we have done away with many of the jobs, such as dishwash- 
ing, that were once shared by the campers. It is, I suppose, 
all a part of the softening process that stems from the \in.-i i 
can parent's desire to make a child's life easier than his <>\\n 
has been. But in so doing, he weakens rather than strength 
ens the ability to withstand life's bufferings. As is \\oll 



108 



RECREATION 



tnown, in every biological process, "too much may be as 
Fatal to life's prosperity as too little." 

The camper looks to the camp to provide food for the 
spirit, too ; and here we have one of our finest opportunities. 
The good camp stresses not only the physical but, perhaps 
even more emphatically, moral, esthetic, and spiritual train- 
ng. In camp we have endless opportunities to develop ap- 
weciation for all that is noble, fine, and beautiful through 
quiet hours around the campfire, upon the mountain tops, 
under the stars, and on still waters. There are opportunities, 
oo, to develop a deepened appreciation for good music, 
>ooks, and the other arts. 

Yet we find camps that assume a hard-boiled attitude 
oward the lover of the beautiful as a sissy, where cultural 
appreciation is looked upon as a form of intellectual snob- 
wry. In these places, there is hesitancy in providing beauty 
and food for the spirit. In such places, we are apt to find 
ugly buildings, tents or cabins lined up in martial array. 
It is the site and structures, as well as the leaders, that 
reate the atmosphere and spirit of the camp. The physical 
urroundings have a more profound effect on the formation 
f a camper's attitudes and culture than we might at first 
ssume. We need, therefore, to create camp environment 
lat will enrich spiritual values. Certainly, sensitiveness 
o beauty, in all its forms, will develop more easily where 
lere is a sense of order, spaciousness, and simplicity. 
The manner in which campers live and carry on their 



activities also has much to do with the growth of the spirit. 
Mass activities, crowded dining halls, and constant com- 
petition create tension. Though everyone may seem to be 
quite happy, the real test is in the raised voices, the con- 
stant fidgetings and bickerings. 

We have spoken of the camp as a community and the 
values of living in the small groups that comprise it, but 
now we need, again, to consider the individual. The group 
and the team are important, but we have come to realize 
that they are made up of individuals, and that the group 
possesses no strengths or virtues that are not inherent in 
its individual members. In camp, every individual is en- 
titled to a sense of privacy and the freedom to grow in his 
own way. We already have too many other influences 
that are pushing today's youth to achieve safety, security, 
and conformity as the basic values of life. 

Henry David Thoreau, who is one of our great prophets 
of simple outdoor life, says in Walden or Life in the Woods : 

"Why should we be in such desperate haste to succeed, 
and in such desperate enterprises? If a man does not keep 
pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a 
different drummer. Let him step to the music which he 
hears, however measured or far away." 

Youth is asking camping to provide for his needs and to 
fulfill his dreams. It is a challenge that camping has suc- 
cessfully met in its past, and one that should be the guide 
to an ever-growing and greater future. # 



CAMPFIRE PROGRAMS 



~\NE OR TWO campfires per week is 
*-^ the recommendation for all camps 
nd an everynight campfire for the 
mall group. These should be carefully 

banned, with aims clearly in mind. 

Campfire time is the most precious 

noment of the day, an ideal time for 

;etting across the major goals of the 

amp, and the little objectives or spe- 

al emphasis for the day. At it we aim 
or joy, a new experience, a widening 

: interests, growth of character, in- 

)iration, the unleashing of the shy, 
losed-up camper. It can spark the 
reative urge, bring about relaxation 
nd a readiness for sleep, a peace of 

ind. 

The fire should be laid in advance 
never with trash) and covered with a 
iece of canvas to keep it dry. There 

lould be room for each camper to sit, 
nd extra firewood stacked nearby. 

his is true for the overnight trip camp- 
re as well. Never have a bonfire nor 
*rve food at the all-camp campfire. Go 

ARCH 1960 



to it quietly and with respect. Always 
begin the same way. 

Start, perhaps, with a ceremony or 
special song; have games and noisy 
things near the beginning; and end 
with soft songs, lullabies, perhaps a 
prayer, a special hand squeeze. Go 
quietly to bed with only whispers, no 
talking. 

The small group campfire should be 
located very near sleeping quarters and 
children attend in night clothes, all 
ready for bed. In the small group (one 
tent or one bunk), each camper feels 
the warmth of the fire, and has a chance 
to contribute. Often the camper will 
open up as never before. The autobio- 
graphical night for the small group 
campfire is excellent. Each tells what 
home is like and "who I am," and this 
includes the counselors, too. 

One night you might have a special 
event: a guest to talk to teen-agers on 
their own vocation (for example, the 
nurse) . Another campfire might be held 



after the counselor had collected written 
questions for a week from the campers, 
about things they want discussed. And 
then, on the appointed time, the coun- 
selor draws one question out of the jar, 
reads it and answers it; then another 
question, and another; perhaps on dat- 
ing or sex, or "what's wrong with my 
parents?" Or the counselor might dis- 
cuss problems of the group itself. One 
evening the teen-agers might, if the 
leader is tops, try to evaluate them- 
selves. 

Campfires form a large part of the 
campers' memory of the summer. It has 
been recommended that this not be a 
time for awarding honors, but for en- 
couraging the feeling of togetherness. 

A closing quotation : "To his fireside 
he brought his friends, and friendships 
grew, and understanding. So hearth be- 
came home, and it has little changed 
over the centuries. What deeper under- 
standing is there than that which stands 
back to hearth, and faces outer cold and 
darkness?" Presented by Lois GOOD- 
RICH, 1959 American Camping Associa- 
tion Region II Convention. 

109 




ST. PAU 



Not very large but very tasty are the fish caught at one 
of the St. Paul Bureau of Parks and Recreation day camps. 

Robert A. Lobdell 

THE "TwiN CITIES" of Minnesota Minneapolis and 
St. Paul form the nucleus of a large metropolitan 
area, including a number of suburbs, with a total pop- 
ulation of some million and a half persons. These cities have 
produced many outstanding leaders in the field of parks 
and recreation, names that have found their way into the 
history of our movement: Theodore Wirth, Charles Doell, 
Karl Raymond, Ernest Johnson, and W. LaMont Kaufman. 
In St. Paul, recreation was developed by two separate 
bureaus one, parks, and one, playgrounds. From 1919 
to 1955, Ernest W. Johnson served as guiding hand of the 
playground bureau. His sound concepts and knowledge of 
recreation brought St. Paul to a position of prominence in 
the Midwest. His constant hammering on basic principles, 
without succumbing to internal pressures, paved the way 
for public support in the 1953 bond program. 

St. Paul is a city with an estimated population of 330,000. 
It has a commission form of government, with a city coun- 
cil of six elected members presided over by a mayor. A 
comptroller is elected to handle the financial aspects of the 
municipal operation. All elected officials serve a two-year 
term. The city council meets each day, Tuesday through 
Friday. Each elected council member is appointed by the 
mayor as the commissioner of a department of city govern- 
ment. It is a full-time job, and the elected officials consider 
it as such. 

The tax structure of the city is unique; some critics even 
label it archaic. It is categorized as a per capita limitation 
type. The municipal charter provides two basic limitations 
in financial operation. First, there is a limitation in the 
amount that can be levied for taxes, based on the total popu- 
lation or per capita basis. Second, there is the limitation 

MR. LOBDELL is general manager of the Bureau of Parks and 
Recreation in St. Paul, Minnesota. The general manager's 
job, recently established by city ordinance, is to coordinate 
all activities of the newly consolidated bureau. 



110 



that all municipal expenditures cannot exceed so many dol- 
lars per capita. The first limitation, of course, is lower, 
and the difference must be made up from revenues such as 
license and permit fees. To change the limitation figures, 
requires a charter amendment submitted to the voters. In 
1959. the state legislature amended the city charter (don't 
forget the city is only a creature of the state) . This changed 
the required percentage of yes votes for charter amendment 
from sixty percent to fifty-five percent. 

On the other hand, it merely takes a simple majority to 
pass a bond issue. The irony of this situation was demon- 
strated at a special election in November 1959. Two issues 
were proposed to the voters: one for a $23,500,000 bond 
issue for school capital improvement, needing only a simple 
majority. The second proposal was a charter amendment 
that would have increased the current operation budget by 
about $1,750.000. This amendment needed fifty-five per- 
cent of the yes votes to pass. What happened? The bond 
issue for $23,500,000 received fifty-five percent of the yes 
votes and the charter amendment for $1,750,000 received 
50.3 percent of the yes votes. The bond issue passed; the 
charter amendment failed. 

Immediate financing for capital school improvements and 
current operation costs was submitted to the electorate 
following the war. As in all cities, increased financing does 
not come easily. The dire need for public school expansion 
and upgrading was sold to the voting public. This was just 
the beginning. By 1953, a united improvement committee 
had surveyed the needs of all municipal operations and pro- 
posed a $39,000,000 capital-outlay program. After an out- 
standing job of public salesmanship by all leading organ- 
izations in the citv. it was successfully passed bv the voting 

public. 

Progress and accomplishment have been the theme of the 
recreation movement in St. Paul's recent history. The bone 
issue of 1953 helped provide a means for renovating ok 
areas and the development of new to meet the new challenge 
of the 1950's. The bond program played a secondary rol< 
in the overall capital improvement program for recreatiot 
facilities. The real contributing factor to our program cam. 
from an unforeseen windfall. 

At the end of World War II, as in all cities, the nee 
for veterans' housing was acute. Through tho foro-iiilit 
people like Commissioner Holland and Superintended o 
Recreation Ernie Johnson, lands that reverted back t.. tin 
state because of tax delinquency and that were suitabl.- i- 
recreation purposes, were acquired by the playground bu 
reau as tax-forfeited properties. Officials kn.-w fund- w.-i 
not available for development in the fon-.val.l.- futuro. bn 
the old axiom that real estate was a good im^tmont pei 
suaded them to take advantage of llu- -imation. 

When sites were needed immediately for veterans' hous 

RECRKATIO: 



^VITALIZED 



The challenge of the 50' s provided 
a firm foundation for the 60' s. 



ing, the playground bureau said: "Have sites, will build." 
Result: seven veterans' housing areas constructed and op- 
erated by the bureau until, by 1956, there was no longer 
any need for the project. The state legislature enacted a 
statute providing that all profits from the veterans' housing 
operation should be used to develop the sites into recreation 
areas, and that additional funds could be used for capital 
improvement throughout the playground system. Approx- 
imately one million dollars were forthcoming from this 
source. 

Facts and figures are boring but sometimes necessary 
to illustrate accomplishment. The following is a cold, hard 
list of projects completed from the combined bond funds 



to help in the operation of the new recreation center. 

Another windfall came from the public housing author- 
ity's urban renewal program. Two park and playground 
areas will be financed and developed and turned over to 
our bureau at no cost. There is a tremendous future in this 
area of development as the urban renewal program gains 
headway. 

Perhaps the most significant development of the past few 
years is the new thinking as to use of school buildings for 
community recreation. Since 1950, the school board has 
established an "open door" policy for the recreation bu- 
reau to use public school facilities. The bureau uses these 
schools in three different categories: to supplement regular 



This is one of the eleven seasonal 
recreation shelter buildings 
recently constructed with bond 
issue funds. Cooperative agree- 
ments have created other facilities. 




and veterans' housing project profits for the playground 
bureau (which does not include the park bureau) : four 
year-round recreation center buildings; eleven seasonal 
recreation shelter buildings; nine new playground areas, 
including excavating, landscaping, apparatus, and fields; 
thirty new hard-surface tennis courts; twenty new lighted 
hockey rinks (making a total of forty-five) ; eighty new 
baseball and Softball backstops; fifteen old recreation center 
buildings and grounds renovated; and an eight-battery 
shuffleboard court with lights. 

An interesting innovation in the construction of year- 
round recreation centers came about as the result of an 
agreement between the recreation bureau and the St. Paul 
Public Housing Authority. The authority wanted to de- 
velop a low-rent housing area in one of the blighted dis- 
tricts near the downtown loop. The bureau had an old 
dilapidated recreation center and grounds directly across 
from the proposed housing area. After much negotiating, 
a formal agreement was reached whereby the housing au- 
thority would construct a new recreation center on its prop- 
erty, with the bureau paying half the cost. In turn, the 
bureau received a long-term lease on the completed struc- 
ture at a dollar a year. The most unusual part of the pact 
was that the housing authority would reimburse the bureau 
for one-third the cost of utilities in the operation of the 
building. In Minnesota, with long, cold winters, heat is 
a big budget item ; hence this was a very lucrative contract 



year-round centers; to serve as recreation centers in areas 
where the bureau does not have facilities; and for the op- 
eration of the indoor municipal athletics program. During 
1959, the bureau used thirty-six public school buildings in 
these three categories. The bureau operates twenty-five 
year-round, full-time centers, and fourteen seasonal centers, 
thirty-one weeks a year, in addition to the thirty-six school 
buildings. 

St. Paul's final effort to meet the new challenge has been 
the consolidation of the three separate bureaus of parks, 
playgrounds, and refectories into a single St. Paul Bureau 
of Parks and Recreation. This became effective last Octo- 
ber. Such a combined operation will give more service for 
the tax dollar. Why don't you come to St. Paul and see how 
we are meeting the challenge? # 



St. Paul will serve as host to the Great Lakes Dis- 
trict Recreation Conference conducted jointly by the 
National Recreation Association, the Bureau of Parks 
and Recreation of the city of St. Paul, and the Minne- 
sota Recreation Association, on April 4-7 this year. 
Bernard T. Holland, commissioner of parks and rec- 
reation, extends a warm invitation to delegates. 



MARCH 1960 



111 



DAY CAMP PATTERNS 



This roundup of current activity in the day camp field 
throughout the country shows what's new in program, facil- 
ities, standards, and, above all, ideas new ways of looking 
at day camping and what it can do for the child who par- 
ticipates. 

Day camping has steadily grown since its inception dur- 
ing the early days of the Works Progress Administration 
(remember the WPA?). Development was fragmentary, 
standards almost nonexistent, program elementary, but, 
year by year, day camping has improved in facilities, 
standards, and program. It would be naive to suggest that 
improvement is still not needed; in many instances, stand- 
ards are still minimal and programs too simple-minded, but 
maturity is on its way. 

Among varying emphases in the notes that follow, each 
adds a new dimension in day camping. Note: An outstand- 
ingly popular facet of all these day camps was the presence 
of animals of all kinds. For your convenience, we are also 
including a digest of American Camping Association stand- 
ards for day camps. Happy camping! 



AT THE Farm and Country Day Camp, near Albany, 
New York, location and conditions practically dic- 
tate the program. First of all, it is an operating farm 
of 150 acres, with fields tilled, animals pastured and cared 
for, and also contains a forty-acre woodlot where timber 
and firewood are taken out. In addition, two streams pro- 



vide swimming holes, paddle pools, and campsites; and 
birds abound in six-foot tall ferns in a marshland where 
beaver also build their dams. There are springs, berry 
patches, and a "sugar bush" of maple trees. Nearby are 
limestone caves to explore and mountains to climb. 

The problem was to organize the program without spoil- 
ing the spirit of adventure and also to allow time for relax- 
ation. A solution has been made along the following lines: 
swimming is the only regimented activity, conducted under 
strict Red Cross rules and under Red Cross-trained instruc- 
tors. For the rest of the program, each of the five camp- 
site groups (arranged by approximate ages) is assigned a 
day to participate in the following activities: 

Farming. Chickens fed, watered, eggs collected. Sheep, 
horses, and other animals given needed attention. Horse- 
manship, too, is taught on this day. 

Shop. Use of tools to make campsites more habitable or 
to benefit the whole camp with such projects as bridges, 
flagpoles, weather vanes, birdhouses, garden stakes, and 
scarecrows. 

Naturecraft. A shop, where native clay, rocks, flowers, 
grasses, nuts, or other natural materials are worked with 
for pleasure. 

Campcrajt. Shelter building, fire building, cooking. Use 
of axes and crosscut saws. 

Exploration. Berry patches, marshlands, streams, woods. 



Candy Mountain Day Camp in Leonia, New Jersey, has had 
horseback riding as part of its program for the last ten 
years without any casualties refuting insurance experts. 



Farm and Country Day Camp near Albany, New York, is 
an operating farm with fielils to till and animals to pas- 
ture. Every moment is filled with "a .. l tin- earth. 




112 



RECREATION 




Campers and counselors traditionally join in carving 

an authentic totem pole from a log felled in the 

woods at Knights Camp, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 



Trips to caves, to climb nearby mountains, or a day at an 
outpost camp. 

Problems are quite different from those confronting resi- 
dent camps. Leadership for most day camps has to be 
found locally since the camp does not usually house the 
staff. Then, too, this leadership needs to be especially camp- 
minded so as to give every moment of the day a "sense of 
the earth" and its elements. 

The counselor-in-training program may prove a help here. 
After three seasons of trial, the counselors here are enthusi- 
astic over the freshness and sparkle these teen-agers con- 
tribute. MAUDE L. DRYDEN, Farm and Country Day Camp, 
Feura Bush, New York. 

Work Camp for Teen-Age Boys 

A fine spirit of interagency cooperation between Fuld 
Neighborhood House, Newark, New Jersey, and the Essex 

MARCH 1960 



County Park Commission produced the Work Camp for 
Teen-Age Boys. The work camp was developed out of ex- 
periences with participants at Fuld House in a year-round 
teen-age program. It had become evident to many staff 
people that much irresponsible, near-delinquent, or delin- 
quent behavior at this age level is rooted not only in the 
basic insecurity of home environments, but also in the 
youngsters' general feeling of being unwanted, unappreci- 
ated, with a resulting inability to develop self-esteem and 
positive orientation. 

It seemed in order to offer them a program providing 
warm but strong leadership, an occupation from which the 
community would benefit, the self-esteem arising from such 
an occupation, and an honestly earned income. Once Fuld 
House evolved this policy, it approached the Essex County 
Park Commission to help implement it, which the commis- 
sion did with understanding and generosity. Fuld House, 
it was decided, would be responsible for selecting partici- 
pants, educational supervision, and transportation. The 
commission would provide the location for the project, 
work assignments, a foreman, tools, and wages for the young 
camper-workers, approximating two thousand dollars. 

The program ran during the summers of 1957 and 1958, 
but was discontinued last summer because the commission 
had to cut its budget. Both Fuld House and the commission 
hope to get it going again in time for summer 1960. It 
would be a particularly appropriate move in view of the 
Youth Conservation Act of 1959, passed the end of last year 
by Congress. The act "authorizes establishment of a Youth 
Conservation Corps to provide healthful outdoor training 
and employment for young men and to advance the con- 
servation, development and management of national re- 
sources of timber, soil, and range, and of recreational 
areas." 

For complete details about the work camp, write Dr. 
Antoinette Fried, former executive director of Fuld Neigh- 
borhood House, now director of Group Work and Recrea- 
tion, James Weldon Johnson Community Center, 1820 Lex- 
ington Avenue, New York 29. Martin Livenstein, at Fuld 
House, 71 Boyd Street, Newark 3, New Jersey, can tell you 
what the camp's future plans are. 

Horseback Riding at Candy Mountain 

Candy Mountain Day Camp has had horseback riding 
for the last ten years without a single serious casualty, de- 
spite the admonitions from brokers and insurance com- 
panies; it is the camp's most popular activity. The children 
ride each day in a fully enclosed corral and become remark - 

113 



ably proficient within a few weeks. The stable is the most 
popular place in camp on rainy days, the children vying 
with each other to curry animals, fix bridles, repair halters, 
polish saddles, and, yes, even muck out the stalls. 

The program is successful only because of a rigid series 
of rules which receive strict compliance. All riding is done 
in the enclosed corral under the constant and demanding 
supervision of a mature horsewoman with many years of 
experience. Nor are the animals plugs purchased the day 
before camp. They belong to the riding master and have 
been with her at least a year before they are permitted to 
come to Candy Mountain. During that year they are "child- 
broken" and the ornery and cantankerous weeded out. 

In the corral the mounting section is separate from the 
riding corral proper. There is no confusion between those 
who are riding and those who are mounting. For the be- 
ginners, mounting is done on a specially built mounting 
block to which the horses have been accustomed before 
camp opens. For the more advanced, the riding master 
teaches proper approach and mounting in another section 
of the corral. Specially mimeographed sheets are distrib- 
uted through the camp paper, detailing each part of the 
horse's anatomy, names of each piece of equipment, and 
other miscellaneous terminology. 

For really advanced riders there is a riding clinic during 
hobby periods, when they are taught advanced riding seat, 
posting, animal care, and so on. These are the only chil- 
dren permitted outside the corral on the many lovely trails 
through the woods. 

One of the largest problems has been with the insurance 
companies, who charge an excessively high, almost pro- 
hibitive, rate despite an excellent safety record. However, 
we intend continuing the riding program at Candy Moun- 
tain. B. DREXLER, Candy Mountain Day Camp, Leonia, 
New Jersey. 

Camping Briefs 

Ten years ago Camp J.C.C., in Stepney, Connecticut, 
had about 100 campers; last year, 550, with approximately 
110 counselors. Several factors have promoted this growth: 
(1) the high ratio of counselors to campers; (2) excellent 
facilities, plus plenty of wide, open spaces, wooded areas, 
hills, and gulleys to explore, a brook for frog hunting 
and catching crawdads; and (3) the most recent innova- 
tion, a work-recreation program for the twelve-to-thirteen- 
year-olds who, after several years of camp, have become 
pretty blase about the same old activities. Mornings, they 
are put to work on projects; afternoons, they are free to 
pursue any form of recreation they wish. The girls, for 
example, were assigned as counselors' aides to work with 
the younger children. The boys' work projects included 
clearing a large wooded hillside area, which was then con- 
verted into a shaded amphitheater. The boys also built 
bridges across brooks, graded the path up the hill lead- 
ing to new cabins, decorated the camp barn with murals, 
among other activities. The satisfaction of seeing the 
results of their own handiwork has exceeded anything we 
dreamed of, and this project approach has also developed 

114 



in our campers a wonderful sense of responsibility and 
identification with the camp, the latter qualities very neces- 
sary at this age level. ABE RABINOWITZ, director, Camp 
J.C.C., owned and maintained by Bridgeport Children's 
Camp, Inc., operated by Jewish Community Center of 
Bridgeport. 

Campers and counselors traditionally join in carving an 
authentic totem pole from a log felled in the woods be- 
longing to The Knights Day Camp. It is carved, painted, 
and raised with much ceremony. Among other different 
projects initiated for the fourteen-year-old boys was the 
rehabilitation of an old Chevrolet truck. So beat up it 
had to be towed to camp, it was not long, with the guid- 
ance of an enthusiastic counselor, before the motor was 
taken down, cleaned, put back together again. And, what's 
more, it ran! The young campers also built themselves 
a miniature golf course, which gave them an overall sense 
of accomplishment, both in the actual building as well as 
the use of it after it was finished. We found it an excellent 
"quiet" activity for hot days or as an extension of the 
rest period. We utilize no kits in our crafts program, 
preferring basic materials. The youngsters use scraps: 
when they weave baskets they first soak the reeds in the 
stream. MAURICE STERNBERG, director, The Knights Day 
Camp, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, and chairman, 
Day Camp Committee, American Camping Association, 
New York Section. 

Two years ago the Chicago Park District held an un- 
usual one-day camp institute for its 150 recreation em- 
ployees, in Columbus Park. The institute was organized 
along the lines of an eighteen-hole golf course, utilizing 
the gymnasium, all clubrooms, the grounds, and the la- 
goon, with a different activity presented at each "green." 
Each small group was led around by a "caddy," a staff 
member wearing a red cap, who escorted each group from 
green to green and kept it on schedule. Canvas caddy 
bags, made for the occasion, contained mimeoed material 
and project samples. A committee conducted twenty- 
minute sessions on the specialty featured at each green. 
Naturally, there were breaks for snacks and meals. The 
method was not used so much for its novelty, but to add 
variety and more intimate contact with lecturers and spec- 
ialists assigned to each subject. It also provided an or- 
derly, organized way of handling a large number of people, 
where everyone had an opportunity to ask questions and 
inspect samples of handcrafts, photographs, posters, and 
various other camp projects. JOHN R. DALENBERC, area 
supervisor, Chicago Park District. 

Day Camp Standards 

The following are among those standards planned to 
assure a creative, educational camping experience for 
every participant, as set up for organized day camping 
by the American Camping Association. 

PROGRAM 

The camp program should afford an opportunity for the 
campers to participate in a creative outdoor group ex- 

RECREATION 




Camp] .C.C., in Stepney, Connecticut, offers a work-recreation 
program to appeal to those blase twehe-to-thirteen-year-olds. 



perience in a democratic setting, and should provide for 
the development of each individual. 

A. The camp should develop objectives in the following 



areas: 



1. Outdoor living. 

2. Fun and adventure. 

3. Social adjustment for example, the development 
of independence and reliability, ability to get 
along with others, and values in group living. 

4. An understanding of individuals and groups of 
varied backgrounds. 

5. Improvement of health. 

6. Skills and appreciation, particularly as related to 
the out-of-doors. 

7. Spiritual values. 

B. The program should be so planned, administered, 
and supervised as to lead to the achievement of the general 
objectives of camping and the special objectives of the 
particular camp. It is recommended that these objectives 
be stated in writing. Essentially, the program should be 
related to the central theme of living together in a natural 
environment and learning to enjoy the out-of-doors. 

C. Within the general framework of the program there 
should be opportunity for cooperative planning of activi- 
ties by campers and camp staff and an opportunity for 
some choice of activities by individual campers. 

D. Program activities should be geared to the ages, 
abilities, and interests of the campers. 

E. The program should provide opportunity for indivi- 
dual activity, for rest and quiet, for small group activity 
and for occasions involving the whole camp. 

F. The pace, pressure, and intensity of the program 
should be regulated so that campers will have time for 
leisure and can participate in activities of their own will 
and at their own tempo. 

G. The program should include occasional parent-par- 
ticipation activities and/or other techniques to strengthen 



family relationships and parent understanding of program 
objectives. 

H. Camps designed to offer a general program in camp- 
ing should include a variety of situations in which the 
camper will have an opportunity: 

1. To acquire a feeling of competence and to enjoy 
himself in the natural outdoor setting through 
camp skills and other activities common in camp 
life. 

2. To participate in group projects, special events 
and ceremonies, and social activities. 

3. To share in the care of and improvement of the 
camp. 

4. To increase his knowledge and appreciation of 
the world in which he lives. 

5. To learn his relationship to his environment 
through such media as nature crafts, using native 
materials, etcetera. 

CAMPSITE, FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT 

A. The campsite should provide a maximum of privacy 
and wherever possible be located away from densely popu- 
lated areas and undesirable resorts. It should be free 
from unnecessary hazards and be properly drained. It 
should be located within a reasonable distance from the 
campers' homes depending upon the transportation avail- 
able. 

B. The site should provide natural resources that will 
make possible an outdoor living experience. 

C. Buildings or other structures should be constructed 
safely and in accordance with any building code applicable 
to a given locality and maintained in safe condition. 

D. There should be sufficient equipment and facilities 
kept in safe operating condition, to carry out stated ob- 
jectives and program. 

E. Adequate provision should be made for shelter of 
campers during inclement weather. 
ADMINISTRATION 

A. All published statements, such as brochures, public- 
ity, etcetera, should be accurate and complete. 

B. The camp should have the following records: 

1. Budget, financial statement, food records, and 
inventories. 

2. All permits required by local and state authorities. 

3. Written consent of parents for camper's attend- 
ance and participation in activities. 

4. Registration card for each camper providing the 
important information. 

5. Record of health examination and a statement by 
the camper's parent indicating the child's good 
health and including the disclosure of any limita- 
tions which would affect activities. 

6. Record of first aid and medical treatment of 
campers, staff, or other persons. 

7. Written agreements with all camp staff receiving 
salaries or wages. 

8. Statement of insurance coverage. 

9. Other records of the individual camper during the 
camp season or period, as deemed desirable by 
the camp administration. # 



MARCH 1960 



115 




Transportation to camp is not just a ride 
but a get-acquainted adventure. 



Handicapped children have the same 
needs and desires as all children, and 
they too respond happily to the friend- 
ships, adventures, and new experiences 
even, a brief sample of camping offers. 

SINCE 1937, the St. Louis Society 
for Crippled Children has been 
sponsoring handicapped children 
in several residential camps in this 
area. We have been fortunate in that 
Camps Wyman, Sherwood Forest, Der- 
ricotte, and River Cliff have been in- 



DANIEL BOONE ROAMS AGA 

when the severely handicapped go day camping. 



Dorothy Spear, MSW 




Swimming and water fun, a healthy 

activity for all, requires 

careful supervision. From small 

pool some are promoted to larger one. 



116 




terested in helping integrate the handi- 
capped child into regular camps. Over 
this period of time, we found a number 
of children who could not and should 
not go to a regular camp. These chil- 
dren had a degree of disability so se- 
vere that they could not handle them- 
selves in regular camps and, in some 
instances, were too immature or had 
the kind of disabilities that automatic- 
ally ruled them out. 

In 1957, we received a grant to start 
plans for these children so that they, 



too, might have a camping experience. 
We purchased thirty-eight acres in St. 
Charles County, twenty-five miles from 
the heart of St. Louis. Since this camp 
is near Daniel Boone's home, and near 
the Daniel Boone Highway, the chil- 
dren voted to give the camp his name. 
We continued to use city and agency 
camping facilities, reserving Daniel 
Boone Camp for the severely involved. 
We accept all orthopedic diagnoses 
and have no limitations on the number 
of children in wheelchairs for a ses- 



sion. We accept children with such 
diagnoses as spinal bifida, Legg- 
Perthes, hydrocephalus, postpolio, 
postencephalitis, post brain-tumor op- 
eration, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and 
blindness. 

We believe that handicapped chil- 
dren are, first and foremost, children. 
When we plan day camping for them, 
we want camping personnel, not spe- 
cialists in the field of the handicapped. 
Our children so often have relation- 
ships with adults on the basis of ther- 



Daniel Boone still proves to be a good 

shot in the wilderness. Infirmities 

are quickly forgotten at camp. Here, 

the handicapped child learns to get 

along with others and with himself. 



handicapped, too, have their hopes 
dreams which can be fulfilled 
strengthened when living close to 
beauties of nature. Their 
ronment is often too restricted. 



The creative urge ignores handicaps, 

brings individual purpose and 

satisfaction to everyone alike. In 

addition to creative arts, there 

is also singing and storytelling. 




MARCH 1960 



117 



apy, through which the child is sup- 
posed to achieve. This means the chil- 
dren are being asked to do things. We 
feel that the youngsters will benefit by 
good camper-counselor relationships, 
and this has turned out to be true. Our 
children relate well to their counsel- 
ors; here is someone who is paying at- 
tention to them just for fun. We have 
been fortunate in drawing counselors 
of high calibre ; these are young people 
who, for the most part, are in college, 
specializing in the humanities. They 
accept our children wholeheartedly, 
and there have been no morbid reac- 
tions. 

Out of this good counselor relation- 
ship, and the opportunity for our chil- 
dren to be in an out-of-doors setting 
and in a group situation, have come 
some specific physical and emotional 
benefits. Most important is the height- 
ened morale in child and parent. For 
example, one youngster, involved in all 
extremities, without much hope of 
walking, got tired of crawling across 
gravel and grass, got up in a walker 
and the next year, on crutches. Some 
youngsters, used to being carried 
around, saw other children walking 
and became more motivated in their 
attempts to walk. 

/CHILDREN have an ingrown growth 
^-^ factor; they grow and learn by 
play. Recreation to them is truly re- 
creating. A child utilizes his growth in 
exploring his environment. A handi- 
capped child's environment is often re- 
stricted. We found camping a good ve- 
hicle for this growth, providing a nat- 
ural way for the child to learn about it. 
In facilitating and fostering play op- 
portunities, we are at the same time 
helping the child to learn to get along 
with others and with himself. So often, 
handicapped children are left stranded 
as others run away. 

The camp program for these children 
is the same as for any others, with some 
slowing down, but with modifications 
kept to a minimum. Since our staff is 
camping-oriented, we provide the basic 
activities and conduct our program as 
in a residential camp, except that the 
children do not stay overnight. We 
have nature lore, swimming, hikes, rifle 
shooting, archery, and large mobile 
toys. We have singing, storytelling, and 



skits, as well as creative arts. All of this 
is done out-of-doors. The children rest 
on pallets on the ground, which the 
Missouri summer climate makes possi- 
ble. 

We have a small swimming pool, bath- 
house, and farmhouse with screened-in 
side porch, which we use as a dining 
hall. In addition to our small pool, we 
use plastic tools for the more handi- 
capped or timid children, some of whom 
graduate to the larger pool while attend- 
ing camp. There is a log cabin on the 
premises with a fireplace and an over- 
hanging roof under which we conduct 
craft activities. We do not plan for such 
sedentary activities as TV or movies. 
When the children are resting, they 
either rest, read, or have a counselor 
read to them. 

Many of our children come from the 
center of town ; so nature lore is some- 
thing brand new and wonderful to them. 
In addition, our farm animals entrance 
them. We also have a pony and all 
children who wish to can ride the pony, 
long leg braces or not. Our ratio is two 
counselors to five children, but we also 
have specialists in nature and crafts. 



and staff meet at the re- 
habilitation center and forty-five 
minutes later are at camp. This is not 
just travel time, for the children learn 
songs and riddles and have a chance to 
become acquainted with the counselors 
and each other. 

Before camp opens, we arrange an 
orientation meeting with staff, discuss- 
ing each child and his condition. We 
also provide the camp staff with a de- 
tailed medical-social record. However, 
we find that those with good camping 
background go ahead, do not need the 
record nor detailed medical infor- 
mation. Emergency medical care is 
planned for in case the family doctor 
cannot be reached, but in three years 
no medical care has been necessary. 

At present, we plan three sessions of 
two weeks, each of which permits some 
age grouping. Our first session is for 
the younger children, from about six 
to eight years of age; the second, for 
those around nine to eleven years: and 
the third, for teen-agers. We enroll 
twenty-five children per session. 

Campers are accepted only after med- 



ical clearance and evaluation of the doc- 
tor's recommendations in terms of the 
child's ability to benefit from camping. 
In addition to the children in our own 
rehabilitation program, we accept chil- 
dren who are referred to us from outside 
sources. One social worker, who has 
worked for a number of years on camp 
placements, is assigned to handle all 
camp applications from outside refer- 
rals. She, with the doctor, the family 
and child, work out camping plans 
either for regular camp or Daniel 
Boone. Our experience in integrating 
children with many different diagnoses, 
including blind and epileptic children, 
has demonstrated that this can be done 
successfully in a camping program as 
long as groups are small, program flex- 
ible, and staff adequately prepared. 

WE EXPECT to graduate some chil- 
dren from day camp to regular 
camp next year. There are some who 
have been overprotected by parents and 
others, to the extent that they do not 
achieve a degree of physically possible 
independence. These, through Camp 
Daniel Boone, demonstrate what they 
can do, to parents and other adults 
taking care of them. This, in turn, lays 
the groundwork for both child and par- 
ent to face separation next year when 
the child attends a sleep-away camp. 

Handicapped children should not be 
denied the many interesting facets of 
nature, which we attempt to provide in 
our own camp planning. These children 
go to camp like other children they 
know they have something to talk 
about they have had a full day and 
are no trouble to put to bed. 

At Daniel Boone, we have tried to 
provide a setting to foster emotional 
and physical growth and a love of out- 
doors. We do not want to baby-sit out- 
doors. We believe there is a difference 
between camping and baby-sitting out- 
doors, and it is our policy to stress 
camping by hiring counselors equipped 
to do just that. Handicapped children 
desperately need this experience; the 
greater the handicap, the greater tin 
need. # 

MRS. SPEAR is a casrifrker for the St. 
Louis (Missouri) Society for Crippled 
Children, affiliated tcith the \ational So- 
ciety for Crippled Children and Adults. 



118 



RECREATION 



A community's effort to 
stimulate camping in an era of 
shrinking "open spaces." 



KEEP THE CAMPFIRES 
BURNING 




Making camp on above-tidewater sandbar. 



Joseph W. Halper 




Campers depart from school demonstra- 
tion area for two-mile hike to 
waterfront and takeoff by launch 
for adventure on Pearsall's Hassock. 



ATTEMPTS by suburban communi- 
ties to establish camping pro- 
grams have been thwarted con- 
stantly by the increasing lack of 
suitable and easily accessible land. The 
remnants of local wildernesses desired 
by camping enthusiasts are yielding 
to housing developments and disap- 
pearing from the scene. This problem 
of vanishing open areas, which com- 
pels long trips to reach suitable loca- 
tions, has been one of the major deter- 
rents to good camping programs in 
many of the more crowded areas of 
our country. 

In the spring of 1958, the commu- 
nity of Oceanside, New York, moved 
to solve this problem and develop its 
own community camping project. 
Oceanside is a heavily developed, unin- 
corporated suburban community loca- 
ted on the south shore of Long Island, 
with a population of approximately 

MR. HALPER is director of recreation, 
Oceanside, New York, Public Schools. 



32,000. The community recreation de- 
partment, which is five years old, is 
under the auspices of the board of 
education and is financed from the pub- 
lic appropriation for education. 

Upon consultation with the Long 
Island Park Commission, the commu- 
nity was informed, unhappily, that be- 
cause of the increasing pressure of 
population growth, Long Island state 
parks could no longer support such 
activities as group camping. 

Oceanside then turned to its own 
resources. After careful investigation, 
two particular areas were selected with 
specific purposes in mind; the first, 
for its particular suitability as an area 
of camping demonstration and educa- 
tion; the second, for its appropriate- 
ness as an adventure campsite. 

The demonstration site, a plot of 
eight thousand square feet, is situated 
in a corner of the high-school athletic 
field where several good-sized shade 
trees stand. This area was developed 
as a joint community project by the 
Kiwanis Club and the Girl Scouts, who 
shared the expense. Other community 
scout agencies assisted the recreation 
department in planning facilities, 
which included a fifteen-foot-diameter 
teepee, an Adirondack leanto, a work 
shelter, weather station, an ax yard 
with chopping blocks, park-type fire- 
places, several picnic tables, and a 
handpump well. The area is enclosed 
by a stockadelike rustic fence. 

This facility was planned for the 
handling of troop- or class-size groups, 
one of its main functions being to 
teach camping skills, such as fire 
building, outdoor cooking, axmanship, 
meal planning, weather prediction, and 
other camp crafts in a camplike sur- 
rounding. The camp was also intended 
as a leadership training facility and 



an outdoor education teaching station 
for the school system. 

After the basic skills are taught in 
this demonstration area, the recreation 
department utilizes an above-tidewater 
sand bar, two hundred yards off the 
shore of the community, for the adven- 
ture phase of its camping program. 
This gives campers an opportunity to 
use the skills and knowledge learned 
at the demonstration area in practical 
living experiences. 

It was a familiar sight this past sum- 
mer for residents of Oceanside to see 
groups of twenty to thirty campers de- 
parting from the demonstration area 
in the high-school grounds, to hike two 
miles with pack and gear to the water- 
front. Here a waiting motor launch 
transported the groups to Pearsall's 
Hassock, situated in the middle of 
Hewlett Channel, where they would 
spend two days camping in natural 
surroundings. 

The Oceanside School District Rec- 
reation Department met with gratify- 
ing success in this two-phase camping 
program and plans to expand the pro- 
gram in seasons to come. The areas 
are also being reserved by community 
scouting groups. The camp demonstra- 
tion area is under the Oceanside Board 
of Education for control and mainte- 
nance. Reservation for its use is made 
through the school district office in the 
same manner as other school facilities. 

Most communities have plots at least 
this size, on school grounds or other 
public lands, that can be developed at 
costs of less than fifteen hundred dol- 
lars, if the talents of the community 
are properly organized and utilized. 
Thus, the problem of securing suitable 
land need not be as great a setback in 
developing a community camping pro- 
ject as may at first appear. # 



MARCH 1960 



119 




A REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK 




A-Boating They Do Go 

Americans owned 7,800,778 pleasure 
boats of all kinds at the close of 1959, 
according to the Mobil Oil Company. 
Of this total, 4,804,000 were boats spe- 
cifically designed to use power. This 
includes inboard gasoline- and diesel- 
engine boats and those having transoms 
for outboard motors. The company's 
latest survey showed 6,709,000 boat 
motors of all types in the U.S. and its 
principal territories. By far the largest 
part of these, 5.845,000 were outboard 
motors. In addition to 
boats specifically de- 
signed to use power, 
the survey reported 2,- 
500,000 rowboats and 
dinghies and 496,000 
sailboats. Many of 
these craft use motors 
at times. 

New York State con- 
tinued to lead in the total number of 
power-designed boats with 457,000 
(9.52% of the nationwide total) . Other 
states with more than 200,000 power- 
designed boats each, with their percen- 
tage of the national total, were: Calif- 
ornia, 340,292 (7.08%); Minnesota, 
332,467 (6.92%); Illinois, 263,473 
(5.48%) ; Florida, 251,287 (5.23%) ; 
Ohio, 250,382 (5.21%); and Texas, 
241,090, (5.02%). 

Water-borne "hot-rodders" have be- 
come a major headache to waterfront 
communities across the nation. The 
New York City Police Department's 
Harbor Precinct, with a thirteen-launch 
fleet, has clamped down on violators of 
the state navigation law: operators of 
inboard or outboard motorboats who 
drop refuse in the water or use boats 
with noisy mufflers or cutouts ; speeders 
and cutups; reckless water skiers and 
rash surfboard riders. In Fairfield 
County, Connecticut, police depart- 



ments have taken to sending their men 
to classes in waterfront activities to 
cope with the rise in pleasure boating. 
Their duties range from preventing ju- 
venile vandalism and rounding up "joy- 
riders" who abscond with boats to res- 
cuing becalmed Sunday sailors. They 
are also taking skin-diving lessons for 
rescue work. 

Spotlight on Youth 

Juvenile delinquency cases in Ramsey 
County, Minnesota, have decreased for 
the first time in five years and the chief 
probation officer has commended Ber- 
nard T. Holland, commissioner of the 
St. Paul Bureau of Parks and Recrea- 
tion, for his help in this area. Proba- 
tion officer John K. Donahue stated, 
"Good playground administration does 
much to reduce delinquency." The 
county's juvenile delinquency caseload 
dropped from 1499 in 1958 to 1308 in 
1959. (For other news of St. Paul, see 
Page 110.) 

There are tens of thousands of chil- 
dren who literally have never seen a 
green hillside, and at the rate the coun- 
tryside is receding, perhaps they never 
will. Nature Centers for Young Amer- 
ica (formerly the National Foundation 
for Junior Museums) is now conduct- 
ing programs in some dozen states to 
aid the establishment of "Green Islands 
of Nature," before subdivision and de- 
velopment close the gates forever. The 
organization offers professional advice 
on how to set up nature centers and or- 
ganize educational and recreation pro- 
grams for nature study. 

In a recent New York State Regents 
examination a student referred to 
"people bearing the grunt of heavy tax- 
ation." 

Authorities in Prince Georges Coun- 
ty, Maryland, report that juvenile of- 
fenders while away their time in jail 
reading fan mail from teen-age girls. 




People in the News 

Howard C. Hites has joined the Los 
Angeles County Department of Parks 
and Recreation as social and cultural 
activities director. Un- 
til recently Mr. Hites 
was general manager of 
the Southeast Recrea- 
tion and Park District, 
with headquarters at 
Norwalk. Previously he held executive 
recreation and managerial positions in 
San Marino, with the Welfare Federa- 
tion of Los Angeles, the city of Beverly 
Hills, Beverly Hills Youth Center, and 
Volunteers of America, Los Angeles. 

After more than thirty-six years of 
service as a city of Los Angeles em- 
ployee, Ernest M. Reeves, senior park 
foreman, recently retired. Mr. Reeves, 
who had reached the compulsory re- 
tirement age of seventy, entered city 
service on September 2, 1924, as a la- 
borer in the former park department. 
He was appointed senior park foreman 
in 1945. 

Los Angeles reports that Edgar C. 
Lindgren, Los Angeles City Recreation 
and Park Depart- 
ment senior garden- 
er, hasn't used a sin- 
gle day of his sick 
leave in thirty-two 
years ! Congratula- 
tions are in order 
and best wishes for another thirty-two 
sickfree years. 

Nuclear chemist Glenn Theodore Sea- 
borg knows the difference between an 
atom and a golf ball but finds them 
both pesky. When he isn't busy being 
the chancellor of the University of Cal- 
ifornia in Berkeley and winning inter- 
national awards (Nobel Prize in chem- 
istry, 1951, and the fifty-thousand-dol- 
lar Enrico Fermi Award, 1959), Dr. 
Seaborg joins his four sons (he also has 
two daughters) and neighborhood kids 
in the large lot next to his home in 
Lafayette. He has converted this into a 
playground with a baseball diamond 
and a tennis court that doubles as bas- 
ketball and volleyball court. A discov- 
erer of the plutonium used in atomic 
bombs. Dr. Seaborg also tries to be 
scientific about his golf game. 

Mrs. Maurine Evans is the new su- 
perintendent of recreation in Spring- 
(Continued on Page 121) 




120 



RECREATION 



I960 




IZS GENUINE AUTOGRAPHED LOUISVILLE SLUGGER POWERIZED. Natural ash white finish. Turned from choice, open-air-seasoned white ash. 
Genuine autographed models of the twenty sluggers listed below comprise the No. (25 line. An assortment of not fewer than six different models is 
guaranteed to each carton of one dozen. Packed 4/33", 5/34", and 3/35" bats in each carton. Shipping weight, 27 pounds Each $4.60 



MODELS: 

Henry Aaron 
Richie Ashburn 
Ernie Banks 
Yogi Berra 



Orlando Cepeda 
Bob Cerv 
Rocky Colavito 
Joe Cunningham 



Nelson Fox 
Al Kaline 
Harmon Killebrew 
Ted Kluszewski 



Harvey Kuenn 
Mickey Manfle 
Ed Mathews 
Jackie Robinson 



Duke Snider 
Frank Thomas 
Gus Triandos 
Ted Williams 



IMS SPECIAL AUTOGRAPHED LOUISVILLE SLUGGER POWERIZED. (Nor illustrated). Quality and finish identical to No. 125 above, but turned to 
slightly smaller dimensions for the particular requirements of High School, Prep School, Babe Ruth League, Pony Baseball, and other teen-age players. 
Listed below are the autographed models in the I25S group. An assortment of not fewer than six different models is guaranteed to each carton of one 
dozen. Packed 4/32", 5/33", and 3/34" bats in each carton. Shipping weight, 24 pounds Each $4.60 

MODELS: 

Henry Aaron Rocky Colavito Harvey Kuenn Jackie Robinson 

Richie Ashburn Al Kaline Mickey Mantle Duke Snider 

Yogi Berra Harmon Killebrew Ed Mathews Ted Williams 

43 ASH FUNGO. GENUINE LOUISVILLE SLUGGER POWERIZED. (Not illustrated). Quality and finish identical to No. 125 above. Each carton of 
one dozen contains three (34") infield and nine (37" and 38") outfield fungoes. Shipping weight, 20 pounds Each $4.60 




'25 EBONY FINISH GENUINE AUTOGRAPHED LOUISVILLE SLUGGER POWERIZED. Turned from choice, open-air-seasoned timber. Rich ebony 
finish with gold branding. Six different models are guaranteed to each carton of one dozen. Packed 4/33", 5/34", and 3/35" bats in each carton. Shipping 
weight, 27 pounds Each $4.60 



/ 



QxnsuiSlam, 

(1*11 lll'i HOtfL 






' GRAND SLAM Natural white finish. Turned from select northern white ash timber. Patterned after the original models of the famous sluggers 
whose names they bear. Six different models guaranteed to each carton of one dozen. Lengths 4/33", 5/34", and 3/35" bats in each carton. Shipping 
weight, 26 pounds 



ppmg 
Each $3.60 



150$ SPECIAL GRAND SLAM (Not illustrated). Quality and finish identical to No. 150 above, but turned to slightly smaller dimensions for the par- 
ticular requirements of High School, Prep School, Babe Ruth League, Pony Baseball, and other teen-age players. Six different models guaranteed to 
each carton of one dozen. Lengths 4/32", 5/33", and 3/34" bats in carton. Shipping weight, 24 pounds Each S3. 60 







EO MATWCW3 



140S SPECIAL POWER DRIVE. Natural white finish. Turned from fine whit; ash. Patterned after the original models of the famous sluggers whose 
names they bear, but turned to slightly smaller specifications for the particular reguirements of High School, Prep School, Babe Ruth League, Pony 
Baseball, and other teen-age players. Six different models guaranteed to each carton of one dozen. Assorted lengths 32" to 34"; shipping weight. 25 pounds. 

Each $3.10 



Bats for PONY BASEBALL. 

Numbers 125S, 150S, 140S. and 130S (also the Junior and 
Little League numbers) are approved for PONY BASEBALL 
play. These numbers are particularly suitable for players of 
this age group. 



Bats for BABE RUTH LEAGUE 

Any baseball bat in the Louisville Slugger line not longer than 
34" may be used in BABE RUTH LEAGUE play. However, the 
"specials" (125S, 150S, 140S, and 130S) are particularly suit- 
able for players of this age group. 



Tinted in U.S.A. 



HILLERICH & BRADSBV COMPANY, INC., LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY 

Also Makers of Grand Slam Golf Clubs 
Copyright l?&0 




H & B BASEBALL BATS 





HARVEY KUENN MODEL 



14W SAFE MIT. Finished In natural ash white and supplied in an assortment of famous sluggers' models In each carton of one dozen. Assorted lengths 
from 32" to 35"; shipping weight, 26 pounds _ Each $2.70 




V\ \ \ Y^TX I 

VVvV ix.Vvt 




11B BIG LEAGUER. Black finish with white tape grip. An assortment of famous sluggers' models in each carton of one dozen. Lengths range from 32" 
to 35"; shipping weight. 27 pounds Each $2.30 




130S SPECIAL SAFE HIT. Turned from ash with rich dark maroon finish. Patterned after original models of the famous sluggers whose names they bear, 
but turned to slightly smaller specifications for the particular requirements of High School, Prep School, Babe Ruth League, Pony Baseball, and other 
teen-age players. Six different models guaranteed to the carton of one dozen, assorted lengths 32" to 34"; shipping weight, 24 pounds Each $2.30 




* LEADER. Light brown finish. Assorted famous sluggers* models. Assorted lengths, from 32" to 35"; shipping weight, 27 pounds Each $1.80 



*T BATS , 

HIUERICHftBRAOSBYC 



AND JUNIOR 



Performance makes them Famous 







IITTU LtAGUC 
J&^-fO** 
lOUISYIUI SIU6GIS 






125LL GENUINE AUTOGRAPHED LITTLE LEAGUE LOUISVILLE SLUGGER. Large-size junior bat. Turned from select, open-air-seasoned white ash and 
hickory. Each carton of one dozen contains approximately half with natural white finish and half with antique finish. Autographs of Henry Aaron, Yogi 
ocky Colavito, Nelson Fox. Mickey Mantle, and Ted Williams. P.icked 3 29". 4 30". 3 31". and 2 32" bats in each carton. Shipping weight. 



. 

Berra. Ro 
21 pounds 



. 
Each S3. 50 




125BB GENUINE AUTOGRAPHED LITTLE LEAGUE LOUISVILLE SLUGGER EBONY FINISH. Large-size junior bat. Turned from select open-air-seasoned 
timber. Imprinted white tape grip. Autographs of Henry Aaron, Yogi Berra, Rocky Colavito, Nelson Fox, Mickey Mantle, and Ted Williams. Lengths. 
3/29", 4/30", 3/31", and 2/32" bats in each carton. Shipping weight, 22 pounds Each S3. 10 




115J GENUINE AUTOGRAPHED LITTLE LEAGUE LOUISVILLE SLUGGER. Medium-size junior bat. Turned from select open-air-seasoned ash. Approxi- 
mately half of the I25J bats have natural finish as shown above; the other half have an ebony finish. Autographs of Henry Aaron, Yogi Berra. Rocky 
Colavito, Nelson Fox. Mickey Mantle, and Ted Williams. Lengths 3 29". 4 30". 3 31". and 2 32". Shipping weight. 20 pounds Each ~ 



Rocky 
$2.70 




, . LITTLE LEAGUE "It's a Louisville." Large-size junior bat with two-tone black barrel and white handle 
of these famous hitters: Henry Aaron. Yogi Berra. Rocky Colavito, Nelson Fo. Mickey Mantle, and Ted 

weight, 21 pounds 



finish. Each bat contains the name of one 
Williams. Lengths 29" to 32". Shipp 



Shipping 
ach $2.30 




" LITTLE LEAGUE. Large-size junio, bat Light brown finish. Each bat branded with name of one of these famous hitters: Henry Aaron, Yogi 
Berra, Rocky Calavito, Nelson Fox. Mickey Mantle, and Ted Williams. Lengths 29" to 32". Shipping weight. 20 pounds Each $1.10 



LOUISVILLE SLUGGER 



Performance makes them Famous 




. -K 11 



125Y LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT MODEL 12. For the consistent hitter a small-barreled bat with gradual tai 
Antique finish. Finest selection of second-growth ash and/or hickory. One dozen to carton, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping weight, 24 pounds 





per to small grip. 
Each $3.60 






ittlUlRiCr 1 4 BRADS8Y C*}5 

I25SP LOUISVILLE SLUGGER "SLOW-PITCH" SOFTBALL BAT ASSORTED OFFICIAL MODELS. Designed for the rapidly expanding game of slow- 
pitch Softball and the more experienced player preferring a bat with more heft. Antique finish hickory. One dozen in carton, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping 



weight, 28 pounds 



Each S3. 25 




j 



125W LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT. Assortment of popular models packed in carton of one dozen. Turned from select ash and/or 
hickory, and Powerized. Finished in natural ash-white. Lengths, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping weight, 23 pounds Each 53.25 





125B LOUISVILLE SLUGGER "METEOR" OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT. A splendid assortment of models that will meet requirements of the various types 
of hitters. Red maroon finish. Turned from select ash and/or hickory, and Powerized. One dozen in carton, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping weight, 23 pounds. 



Each $3.25 




1Z5C LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT MODEL 8. "Fast-Swing" model for hitting fast pitching. Bottle-shaped large barrej. that 
tapers quickly to small grip. Natural white finish. Turned from select ash and/or hickory, and Powerized. One dozen to carton, 6/31" and 6/32"; ship- 
ping weight, 24 pounds Each '$3. 25 




250B LOUISVILLE SLUGGER "ROCKET" SOFTBALL BAT ASSORTED OFFICIAL MODELS. A splendid variety of models answers full team requirements. 
Ebony finish. Turned from select ash and/or hickory. One dozen in carton, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping weight, 24 pounds Each $3.25 




AVtXe Sluoytt 




12ST LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT MODEL 6. For heavy hitters a bottle-shaped model with large barrel, tapering quickly to a 
medium grip. Natural white finish. Turned from select ash and Powerized. One dozen to carton, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping weight, 24 pounds Each $3.25 




250C LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT MODEL 8. "Fast-Swing" model for hitting fast pitching. Bottle-shapedlarge barrel that 
quickly tapers to small handle. Ebony finish. Turned from select ash and/or hickory and Powerized. Each carton, 6/31" and 6/32". Shipping weight, 
25 pounds Each $3.25 




125L LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT MODEL 1. For girl hitters. A small-barreled bat with gradual taper to a small grip. Natural 
white finish ash and Powerized. One dozen in carton, 33" lengths. Shipping weight, 20 pounds .. Each $3.25 



LOUISVILLE SLUCGER and H & B SOFTBALL BATS 




ZOOA LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT. Supplied in assorted soft-ball models. Finished !rv brown antique and Powerized. Turned from 
high-quality ash and/or hickory. One doien to carton, 31" and 32" lengths; shipping weight, 22 pounds.. Each $2.90 



* 




101 LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT. Assorted popular Softball models of first quality ash and hickory. Oil Tempered and finished 
in saddle brown. Packed one dozen to carton, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping weight, 24 pounds Each $2.90 




100SP LOUISVILLE SLUGGER SLOW-PITCH OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT. Turned from high quality ash and/or hickory and finished in medium brown. 
One dozen in carton, 6/31" and 6/32"; shipping weight, 24 pounds . HVT. Each $2.90 




znnn 



Jpuisviuf JLUCCEB 



j 



1IOW LOUISVILLE SLUGGER OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT. Assorted popular softball models. Turned from high quality ash and/or hickory. Natural white 
finish and Oil Tempered. One dozen in carton, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping weight. 22 pounds Eoeh $2 90 




OFFICIAL 

Softball 



56 "It's a Louisville" OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT. Natural finish. Ash and/or hickory. Green zapon grip. On doztn assorted models in carton, 33" 
and 34 lengths; shipping weight, 23 pounds Each $2.20 




/H&B 



Off KIM. 

Softball 



54 "It's a Louisville" OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT. Assorted models turned from ash and hickory. Brown finish and black zapon grip. One dozen in 
carton, 6/33" and 6/34"; shipping weight, 23 pounds Each $2.20 



,v 







54C "/t's a Louisville" OFFICIAL SOFTBALL BAT Bottle-shaped "Fast Swing" model. Made of ash and hickory, with ebony brown finish. One dozen 
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field, Illinois, succeeding H. Francis 
Shuster, who has resigned. Mrs. Evans 
has been with the playground and rec- 
reation commission since 1928 and was 
recently elected vice-president of the 
recreation division of the Illinois Asso- 
ciation for Health, Physical Education, 
and Recreation. 

Howard R. Stagner has been named 
chief naturalist of the National Park 
Service. He had been assistant chief 
of the Mission 66 staff in the Washing- 
ton office of the Service. Mr. Stagner, 
who joined as a ranger-naturalist in 
Yellowstone National Park in 1933, 
succeeds John E. Doerr, now superin- 
tendent of Olympic National Park, 
Washington. 

As chief naturalist, Mr. Stagner's du- 
ties include direction of the service's 
development of naturalist's programs in 
park areas, wildlife, and other natural 
sciences. 

NRA Pacific Southwest district rep- 
resentative John J. Collier was honored 
recently by the Ari- 
zona Recreation As- 
sociation with its 
Fellow Award for his 
outstanding service 
to the association 
and the recreation 
movement in Arizona. Dennis McCar- 
thy, Awards Committee chairman and 
director of the Arizona State Park 
Board, said, "I can sincerely say that 
the stature which the Arizona Recrea- 
tion Association enjoys today to a great 
extent can be attributed to this man's 
great efforts and interest, his vigorous 
and zealous support for the aims and 
objectives of the association during the 
past five years." Well done, John ! 




Recreation USSR 

In a report on social welfare in the 
Soviet Union, the Social Welfare 
Forum, 1959, reports ". . . other broad 
areas of social services carried out by 
the Soviet government include sum- 
mer camps for children and youth and 
various recreation clubs (called "pio- 
neer clubs") in after-school hours that 
are in addition to normal recreational 
and cultural activities. Activities for 
adults are largely concentrated in facil- 
ities for recreation and education in 
individual business enterprises, and at 
so-called 'houses of culture' . . . estab- 
lished through funds collected by the 
trade unions. The latter provide group 
recreational activities that include gym- 
nasium and sport activities, libraries, 
game rooms, and facilities for develop- 
ing group talent in art, music, and 
drama. The houses of culture are gen- 
erally established by particular factory 
trade-union groups, although other 
people in the locality may attend. There 
are some special houses of culture for 
particular groups, such as the deaf and 
dumb." 



3n ffflrmnriam 

A. B. Graham died recently in Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, at the age of ninety-two, 
just fifty -eight years after he organized 
what became the world's first 4-H Club. 
The movement, which began in Spring- 
field, Ohio, on January 15, 1902, has 
spread over the world (see RECREATION, 
February 1960, Page 60). Mr. Gra- 
ham's group, a boys' and girls' agricul- 
tural club, joined with similar clubs 
under the 4-H name in 1930. Mr. Gra- 
ham was the last survivor of a com- 



mittee, which, in 1906, prepared the ini- 
tial plan for junior high schools in this 
country. 

Eric L. Madisen, Sr., of Appleton, 
Wisconsin, known in park and recrea- 
tion circles as the publisher of Park 
Maintenance and Parks and Recreation 
in Canada, died recently after being 
semiretired for about a year. He was- 
interested in furthering the cause of 
park improvement and was ever-ready 
with ideas and help to those who had 
plans or problems. 

Mrs. Amy Brighthurst Brown de- 
Forest of Plainfield, New Jersey, was 
killed in the recent plane crash in Ja- 
maica, the West Indies, at the age of 
eighty-two. Mrs. deForest and the late 
Mr. deForest had aided the National 
Recreation Association ever since 1913, 
Mr. deForest having served as a spon- 
sor for thirty-four years. 

Dr. Caleb Guyer Kelly known as the 
Methodist "baseball missionary," died 
in Casablanca, Morocco, in January, at 
the age of seventy-three. Dr. Kelly, 
who organized 160 ball clubs in Tu- 
nisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Libya, wa& 
also known by thousands of American 
seamen for whom he organized over 
two hundred international games. Dr. 
Kelly once said, "Baseball teaches good 
sportsmanship and give and take two 
qualities badly needed in the world to- 
day." 

Henry H. Tryon, a consulting fores- 
ter, and for twenty-two years director 
of the Black Rock Forest in New York's 
Bear Mountain area, died recently at 
the age of seventy-one. Most of his 
adult life had been spent in forestry. 
At one time he was extension forester 
for South Carolina. # 



Community Art Week in Middletown Township, New Jer- 
sey, was inaugurated in 1958, and packs a solid calendar 
of cultural activities into four very busy days. The festival 



uses the high school while it is vacated for a teachers' con- 
vention. The cafeteria is tranformed into an exhibition hall' 
for the display of paintings, sculpture, ceramics and mosaics. 




MARCH 1960 



121 




IB 








THE FAMILY OUTDOORS 



CAMPS AND CAMPING 



T?AMILY CAMPING is unique in the camping movement be- 
*- cause it takes the family as a whole unit and places 
it in a situation where members have a chance to observe 
each other in activities other than those of the normal home 
life. Each has an opportunity to see and appreciate the 
other's abilities. Family members get to know each other 
better through this exhibition of skills; the children see 
their parents take part in events they ordinarily don't en- 
gage in. The whole effect is one of increasing family sol- 
idarity, contributing to greater family activity as a unit. 
Thousands of Americans are enjoying this type of vacation 
every year, discovering for themselves the beauties of the 
open woodland and lake, mountains and sea. 

Family camping came into existence during the first dec- 
ade of the twentieth century. There is now a marked trend 
in the country, in state and national parks, and conservation 
departments to provide more facilities for family camping. 

Forms of Family Camping Family camping takes many 
forms. Individual families may camp out in state and na- 
tional parks. Family camps owned and operated by private 
or agency organizations may have each family living in 
cottages or other dwellings. Family camps may have a 
separate unit for children and another for parents. The 
latter should not be termed a "family camp." It is, at best, 
a camp for children and a vacation for parents. This, of 
course, might be the parents' reason for going to such 
a camp. There are camps that do not specialize in family 

122 



camping, but permit families to attend, along with their 
regular program. 

Objectives The objectives of organized family camping, 
as set up by the American Camping Association, are: (1) 
to help family members have fun together, (2) to provide 
the activities that enrich family living and relationships, 
(3) to help families develop knowledge and skills for their 
own, (4) to stimulate personal development through family 
group planning. National and state parks buzz with fam- 
ilies in summer, most of them tent campers, and a growing 
number of public recreation departments are helping com- 
munity families to learn more about the arts of camping. 
In New Hampshire, Wink Tapply, National Recreation 
Association district representative, conducts a "Family 
Camporee" in White Lake State Park after Labor Day. 
Last year, over sixty-five families, representing twenty- 
eight New Hampshire communities, attended this weekend 
of family recreation. In writing about it in Forest Notes, 
New Hampshire conservation magazine, editor Leslie S. 
Clark says, "I predict that the attendance next year will 
again increase greatly, with the danger of having no New 
Hampshire campground big enough to hold all the families 
that would like to participate. ... If educational programs 
were available in the various state camping areas, it would 
help develop good recreational use of the outdoors and con- 
tribute to a better understanding of our water, wildlife, and 
forest resources." The state operates eight canipgrnuniU. 

RECREATION 



A FAMILY VACATION NIGHT 



T7' VERY RECREATION director and supervisor hopes to reach 
*-* as many families in his community as possible. Time 
and effort devoted to this program are rewarding when large 
groups participate and return time after time. To achieve 
this means a constant search for new ideas with public ap- 
peal. "Family Vacation Night" is one of these. 

Devotees of family camping are numbered not in thou- 
sands but in millions. As knowledge spreads, numbers 
continue to increase. Many who have considered family 
camping have never put it into practice because they lack 
the opportunity to see how it is done and to appreciate its 
possibilities. A "Family Vacation Night," offering speak- 
ers, films, slides, exhibitions of equipment and seasoned 
campers to give first-hand information will kindle the spark 
for a lively evening. 

It is easy to get a stimulating speaker, either from your 
conservation department, natural history museum, or ranger 
station. Any scout executive office can furnish a number 
of individuals with practical experience. They are always 
willing to cooperate in every way. As an added feature 
find a shutterbug camper to show his skill with photography 
of camp subjects. Include films that are loaned or rented 
for a small sum by conservation departments, states, or 
regions that wish to advertise their recreation facilities. 

Each state will send you detailed information on its camp- 
ing areas. The National Park Service, U. S. Department 
of the Interior, and National Forest Service, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture (both Washington 25, D. C.), will 
supply you with maps and booklets and tell you where camp- 
ing is permitted. The National Campers and Hikers Asso- 
ciation, 1507 National Newark Building, Newark 2, New 
Jersey, will contribute copies of Tent and Trail. Manufac- 
turers will set up demonstrations of their wares, contribute 
piles of pamphlets, possibly donate prizes or samples of 
dehydrated foods. 

Undoubtedly, local merchants who handle camp equip- 
ment will find it advantageous to demonstrate the latest 
thing in tents, lanterns, stoves, and gadgets that make out- 



door living such an easy and delightful way of life. At a 
recent meeting one concern demonstrated its stove by serv- 
ing hot dogs and hamburgers "on the house." The Ford 
Motor Company has a loan exhibition of every conceivable 
type of equipment. The neighborhood library, always will- 
ing to participate in community activities, will be pleased 
to send a display of books and publications on camping. 
All these things furnish material for an unusual evening. 
Games for the evening should be suitable for camp use. 
Contests should be devised that illustrate camp skills and 
use of equipment. Can you imagine the laughter involved 
during a skit on how to put up a tent with novice and in- 
experienced campers as demonstrators? Or the hilarious 
antics of new camp cooks flipping flapjacks or flapping flip- 
jacks? How about the technique of undoing a bedroll and 
getting into a sleeping bag? 

Additional Activities -Where space permits, a complete 
campsite might be set up on a playground. Neighbors with 
experience are more willing to cooperate, exhibit their gear 
for admiring friends, and so on. 

It is not unheard of to plan an actual weekend of camp- 
ing as a practical demonstration, to further community un- 
derstanding. You will find more participants than you'd 
expect. Last year, in Connecticut, five hundred families 
spent such a weekend camping together. In May this year 
families from New England and other Eastern states camped 
in Pennsylvania under NCHA sponsorship. 

One vital factor that lends great appeal to family camp- 
ing is its economy. Lodging is the most expensive item of 
any vacation, yet a family of six usually pays no more 
than six dollars a week for a campsite, sometimes less, some- 
times nothing! Add the slogan "How to rent a summer 
home for six dollars a week" to your flyers about "Family 
Vacation Night," and you certainly extend an intriguing 
invitation! Better plan plenty of seating capacity for you 
will have a crowd and you will have fun! LOUISE MARTIN 
NESS, volunteer worker for the National Campers and 
Hikers Association, Newark, New Jersey. 



SUGGESTED CAMP SWIMMING REGULATIONS 



1. No one is to enter the swimming area without checking 
in and obtaining permission of a waterfront staff mem- 
ber or person in charge of the buddy board. 

2. All swimming to be done with a buddy of the same swim- 
ming ability. 

3. All signals must be immediately obeyed. 

4. All persons must check in and out of the waterfront by 
placing their buddy check on the proper board. 

5. All changing of buddies, swimming areas, etcetera, must 
be done at the board, each handling his own check. 

;6. No running, pushing, or horseplay on piers or raft. 



7. No one is to push, splash, or bother the lifeguards in any 
way. Instructions from any lifeguard must be immedi- 
ately obeyed. Any refusal to follow instructions while 
on the waterfront will result in the suspension of water- 
front privileges. 

8. No one is allowed to swim under the piers, raft, or on 
the far side of the rafts. 

9. Any person who makes a false cry for help will be im- 
mediately sent from the waterfront and have his water- 
front privileges suspended for a period to be determined 
by the waterfront director. 



MARCH 1960 



123 



Part II 



ACCENT ON YOUTH IN AS 



A continuation of the story about 
recreation in the Far East. 



Sterling S. Wi: 



ACHAND TARA club member in East Pakistan probably 
lives in one of the sixty-four thousand villages of a 
province that is one of the most heavily populated 
areas of the world. Unlike his countryman in West Paki- 
stan, from whom he is separated by a thousand miles or 
more, he eats and helps grow rice, whereas his counterpart 
is more interested in wheat. Both of these Pakistani have 
many things in common one of them is a craving for a 
chance to play and watch soccer football and field hockey. 
But the delta country of East Pakistan, which is similar to 
the state of Louisiana, does not always have a sport field 
at every population center. So the recreation chairman of 
a Chand Tara club, who could be either a boy or girl from 
seven to nineteen years of age, finds his ingenuity some- 
what stretched in leading activities for fifty to seventy com- 
panions in a one-room school or a bamboo-and-matting 
youth hut on a Saturday afternoon when everyone is full 
of go. 

At this point, he may turn for ideas to the village-aid 
worker, employed by government as its link with youth 
clubs, but primarily to help villages improve their economic 
level, increase agricultural production, and enhance the 
educational life of the people. The villagers know the worker 
because he lives in one of the five to ten villages he serves 
and makes his rounds by foot or sampan or, in the dry 
season, by bicycle. Besides some ideas about the Chand 
Tara club, the village elders may turn to the worker for 
advice on vaccinating cattle, preventing poultry disease, 
fertilizing rice fields, establishing a cooperative feed shop, 
sanitizing a water well, or marketing fish. The village-aid 
worker does not pretend to be a specialist in all of these 
matters, nor even an expert in the organization and pro- 
grams of youth clubs. But a government institute, set up 
by Field Marshall Ayub Khan, has given him a year's train- 
ing to be a "generalist" rather than a specialist in sev- 
eral fields of activity close to village life. 

Government envisions the extension of the village-aid 
program and an increasing amount of attention to Chand 
Tara clubs since only a portion of East Pakistan youth now 

MR. WINANS, known to his friends in the recreation field as 
"Skip," has been a recreation consultant in the Far East 
since 1958 for the Asia Foundation, a private nonprofit or- 
ganization with headquarters in San Francisco. At present, 
he is working in Malaya at Kuala Lumpur as honorary rec- 
reation advisor to the government. 

124 




Pakistani youth give a demonstration of "Kabodf at the 
Children's Aid Society Lahori Gate Playground in Lahore. 



have the opportunity to sew, knit, garden, raise poultry, 
and fish with the inspiration of "doing something together" 
with their peers. Chand Tara clubs are looked to by vil- 
lage-aid officials as a program of nation building and as a 
means of encouraging Muslim religious concepts, which are 
part and parcel of the culture, economy, and political life 
of Pakistan. 

Singapore Is Young 

The busy boulevards of the tropical island of Singapore 
are full of beauty and of young people half the population 
is under the age of twenty-one. You should be ready to talk 
to these youth in Malay, since this language has been adopt- 
ed officially by the new state government, but to really get ac- 
quainted with all of these fine youngsters, you would need 
to bring along your English, Tamil, Mandarin, or one of 
several Chinese dialects. The million and a half people 
living on the island's two hundred square miles, and on 
adjacent islands, represent many nationalities. But differ- 
ence in tongues does not keep boys and girls far apart in 
the recreation experience at youth clubs first established 
following World War II. 

Each of the forty-five youth clubs operating during 1958- 
59 was an autonomous body, with its own constitution ap- 
proved by the government's Registrar of Societies and a 
management committee made up of interested citizens. 
Government and voluntary agencies were partners in the 
plan. Club sponsorship, voluntary funds, and some leader- 
ship came from the management committees (upplomentod 

RECREATION 



by some funds for improvement of premises and equipment 
from the Ministry of Labor and Welfare (now named the 
Ministry of Labor and Law) and timely advice from a staff 
of men and women youth service officers. 

Where can we get trained club leaders? Who are quali- 
fied to instruct in sewing, folk dancing, woodworking, sing- 
ing, basketball, and kuntow (Chinese art of self-defense) ? 
Who will help us organize a new club? Will anyone lend 
our club a movie projector or a public address system for 
our Chinese New Year celebrations? Who will arrange an 
interclub athletic meet? To supply these needs, the federa- 
tions of Boys and Girls Clubs, organized several years ago, 
have displayed commendable initiative. Their training 
courses for volunteer leaders were so interesting that one 
hundred young English- and Chinese-speaking adults strug- 
gled through a three-month course of lectures and dem- 
onstrations and hurdled a qualifying examination. The 
government's annual financial grant of three thousand dol- 
lars and provision of a headquarters office for the Federa- 
tion of Boys Clubs helped strike a joint blow for youth and 
club programs. 

On almost any late afternoon or evening, you could find 
boys, girls, or mixed clubs meeting in village halls, com- 
munity centers, public housing buildings, or in rented 
premises. If you wanted to be an onlooker at a club on the 
evening of a talent show or an exhibition you had better 
postpone your last cup of tea if you want to find breathing 
space. Even the club leader's desk will be crowded. On a 
normal evening sixty members would be an average attend- 



ance. 



Through the Federation of Boys Clubs, leaders and ac- 
tivity instructors received a monthly honorarium from the 
government of about thirty-five to fifty dollars to cover 
transportation and incidental expenses. Activity special- 
ists were compensated on an hourly basis. To encourage 
young citizens in the idea that club membership is some- 
thing to be respected, the two hundred or more members of 
each club paid a minimal monthly membership fee of ten 
cents. 

This is not the whole story. During 1958-59, many of 
the clubs received guidance and some help in improvements 
and equipment from units of the British Royal Navy, Army, 
and Royal Air Force. From this interchange of experience, 
at a personal level, both club members and several men and 
their families seemed to profit. And so did the everyday 
policeman who made a monthly contribution to a fund for 
the support of specific clubs. Rotary Club, Junior Chamber 
of Commerce, and other civic organizations underlined their 
interest in youth clubs in a substantial way, as did the 
Asia Foundation. 

Small quarters for a youth club are not a significant de- 
terrent to intensive use, especially by youngsters who are 
not in school or who are unemployed. Although the stand- 
ard of living in Singapore is relatively high as compared 
to other Asian countries, the new state government, under 
its young premier, Lee Quan Yew, is striving to increase 
employment opportunities for both youth and adults. Vo- 
cational pursuits of youth clubs may be a cog in this con- 
structive effort of a new state struggling to find itself. 




Students at the Home Economics College for Women, Lahore, 
Pakistan, beat out some rhythm on improvised instruments. 

Voices in Unison 

Government and voluntary agencies are attuned to the 
value of recreation experiences for boys and girls as ex- 
pressed in the accent on youth in several Asian countries. 
Between recreation experience, on the one hand, and a 
scheme of recreation activities, on the other, the differential 
seems to hang on how much stress is levied on the prepara- 
tion and quality of leaders. Whatever may be the must 
qualifications of their leaders, clubs for youths between the 
ages of ten and twenty-one years spice their programs with 
much more than sports. Making things, putting on plays, 
singing, playing instrumental music, dancing, picnics and 
excursions, and, in some countries, camping together are 
prominent features of programs that vary from a once-a- 
month menu to a daily diet. 

The government's stress on youth is reflected in direct 
subsidies to clubs or grants to federations of clubs, pro- 
viding equipment or leadership or all of them for club 
premises. A striking observation is that most countries 
are now giving professional status to the club leader. If 
activities are to be merged into enriching experiences, 
guidance of clubs cannot rest wholly on the shifting avail- 
ability of volunteers, however dedicated. The stress on 
agricultural development in many communities has given 
a healthy and earthy tinge to youth club organization and 
program. Some clubs orient their programs to the voca- 
tional interests of their members and to language instruc- 
tion and informal education. In Hong Kong, for example, 
youth clubs serve as food distribution and relief centers. 

Spaciousness, esthetic appeal, and -functional design are 
sought by youth leaders for club premises in community 
buildings, social welfare centers, public housing estates, 
schools, rented quarters, and, sometimes, converted busi- 
ness or residential quarters. The minimum in facilities and 
equipment usually prevails, but from these Asian countries 
one can learn some lessons about the intensive use of lim- 
ited space and supplies. 

Wherever and however clubs are organized, youth has 
the magnetism to attract the interest and help of the very 
finest citizens. An accent on youth is inevitable in the voice 
of any people. $: 



MARCH 1960 



125 



FUN WITH NATURE 



Exploring the exciting miracles of 
nature is not only fun, but ex- 
poses eager young participants 
to the wonders of science and the de- 
lights of discovery. Many new doors of 
interest are thrown wide, and young 
eyes are opened. Curiosity is rewarded 
with a heightened awareness of the 
world around us. In fact, nature activi- 
ties have been known to lead to related 
careers in science, conservation, and 
other fields. 

How to Look Inside a Pond 

It is rather difficult to look inside a 
body of water because the water reflects 
light and makes it hard to see below the 
surface. Make a waterscope and use it 
to peer into the water without even get- 
ting your hair or face wet. The simplest 
waterscope is just a large glass jar that 
you submerge halfway in the water. 




^ 



Look down through the open top of the 
jar and perhaps you will see fish and 
other water animals. The glass bottom 
will magnify everything. 

If you have a stovepipe handy one 
about two feet long you can make a 
better waterscope, which will go deeper 
into the water. At the bottom end of 
the pipe attach a circular piece of plate 
glass with some putty. If you buy the 
glass in a hardware store, you might 
have it cut out for you there. Be sure 
to let the putty dry before you put your 
scope into the water. 

Also be sure to tape the top of the 
pipe so the sharp edges won't scratch 
you when you press your face against it. 

Reprinted with permission from 101 
Best Nature Games and Projects, by 
LILLIAN and GODFREY FRANKEL. (New 
York: Sterling Publishing, $2.50). Mr. 
Frankel is a director of the Jewish 
Community Center in Cleveland, Ohio. 

126 



Use your scope when you are in a row- 
boat or on a float or bank. 

Observation 

Here's another observation-type 
game to play on a hike. The group 
walks along in single file, with an adult 
or one of the players acting as leaders. 

The leader asks the first player in 
line (loud enough for all to hear) : 
"What is this?" pointing to an oak 
tree. If the player knows he gives the 
answer in a loud voice and remains at 
the head of the line. If he doesn't know 
the answer, he goes to the end of the 
line. The leader then asks the same 
question of the next player in line, and 
so on until he gets the right answer. 
Then he asks another nature question of 
the player who has answered correctly 
and has remained at the head. There are 
no points awarded in this game. The 
object is simply to stay at the head of 
the line as long as possible. 

Observation can also be played when 
your group is around a campfire or in 
a club room. The leader asks questions 
of each player in turn, but in this case 
a player receives a point for each right 
answer. The leader keeps asking a 
player nature questions until he misses, 
then he goes to the next player, etcetera. 

Often these games develop into stim- 
ulating discussions on some curious 
phase of nature activity. 

How to Keep from Getting Lost 
in the Woods 

1. Know the area where you are hik- 
ing. Draw a simple map showing groves 
of trees, clearings, streams, hills, large 
rocks, and lakes. Show the trails you 
will take. Mark off the spot you will use 
as headquarters for camping, resting, 
or just getting together. With your 
compass to guide you, mark off direc- 
tions north, south, east, and west. See 
that each member of the group has a 
copy of the map. Along with the map 
be sure to have some chalk, small slips 
of paper, tacks, safety matches, and, of 
course, a compass. These things will 
come in handy just in case you do get 
lost. 

2. There may be times when you hike 



in an area that is unfamiliar to you. 
If you have no map the first time you 
cover this territory, you can use another 
plan to get back to your meeting place. 
As you hike along, mark with chalk 
about every fifth tree in your line of 
walk. Draw a circle around the trunk. 

3. If you decide to leave the path 
and veer off in another direction, mark 
an arrow on a tree, rock, or stump, or 
make one out of stones on the ground. 
Point the arrow in the direction you 
have turned. If you don't have chalk, 
use your notepaper and tack it to vari- 
ous trees. 

4. In winter, when there is snow on 
the ground, you can simply retrace your 
own tracks in the snow. 

5. Watch the sun for directions. For 
example, if the sun is setting you can 
determine where west is. By facing west 
you will be able to ascertain all your 
directions, because then north would be 
at your right, south at your left, and 
east would be behind you. 

Froggie Ride 

If you and your friends would like 
to have some fun watching frogs in a 
pond go "boat riding," you can rig up 
a little contraption like this one. Get 
a small board about three by two feet. 
In the center set up a lighted candle. 




You can make it stand upright by let- 
ting some of the wax drip on the board 
and then sink the candle in its own 
drippings, or you can set the candle in 
some clay. Attach a string to a nail in 
the board. 

At night, set the board afloat, holding 
on to one end of the string. The light 
will attract the frogs and some may 
even hop on the board for a ride. You 
can pull slowly on the string and board 
and frogs will come toward you for a 
closer glimpse. # 

RECREATION 



A 

PROGRESSIVE 
CAMPING 
PROGRAM 



Where the lucky camper can graduate from 

a traveling day camp to eight days 

of overnight camping in the mountains. 



THE FINAL PHASE of a three-step 
progressive camping program 
was completed by the Torrance 
Recreation Department this past sum- 
mer with the realization of an eight-day 
established camping session at Big Bear 
Lake, California. This three-step pro- 
gram enables children to advance from 
the most elementary camping skills to 
advanced camping techniques. 

The first step is an introductory two- 
hour session known as the traveling day 
camp. The camp staff visits each school 
and park early in the summer, in hopes 



and all children above six years of age 
are welcome. 

The second phase is day camping, 
which is coed and limited to the seven- 
to-twelve-year-age group. The charge is 
five dollars. Four five-day camping ses- 
sions are held at various parks in Tor- 
rance during the summer. A session 
begins on Tuesday and concludes on 
the following Saturday after breakfast. 
The campers arrive at 10 AM and return 
home at 4 PM every day except Friday, 
when they stay overnight to try out 
their newly acquired camping skills. 




of stimulating interest and enthusiasm 
for the camping program. A simple 
craft item is made by each child, and 
flyers explaining both day and moun- 
tain camp are distributed. The children 
are exposed to camp life through craft 
display boards, lashing demonstrations, 
live animals borrowed from the city 
pound, survival techniques, nature 
games, animal traps, etcetera. There is 
no charge for the traveling day camp, 

Miss LINK is a recreation leader in the 
Torrance, California, recreation depart- 
ment. This city is an All- American City 
-award winner. 



These sessions include all basic camp- 
ing skills, survival techniques, crafts 
using native materials, cooking, and an 
all-day field trip. 

The final phase of this program, is 
an eight-day mountain camp-out at Big 
Bear Lake. Most of the children par- 
ticipating in the mountain camp pro- 
gram attend one or more of the day- 
camp sessions, and are ready for the 
experience of eight days in camp. 
Mountain camp is limited to the nine- 
to-thirteen-coed-age group. The thirty- 
dollar rate includes meals, housing, 
swimming and boating instruction, 



Diane Link craft items, horseback riding, classes in 
basic and advanced camping skills, and 
a well-trained and enthusiastic staff with 
an interest in developing the skills and 
integrity of the campers. 

Day Camp 

Early in July, after all the parks and 
playgrounds of Torrance had been in- 
troduced to camping by the traveling 
day camp, the camping staff began a 
series of four day-camp sessions. These 
sessions, lasting five days and one night, 
are designed to give the child as much 
camping experience as possible within 
a limited time and situation i.e. five 
days in a city environment. Regular 
classes in basic camping skills are in- 
terspersed with games related to the 
outdoors. At the end of the session 
campers spend the night in a real camp- 
ing situation to try out their new skills. 

Areas that seemed to attract interest 
and enthusiasm were the craft program, 
isolated games, and the overnight ex- 
perience. The craft program was de- 
signed, not around those crafts ordinar- 
ily available in the city, but around 
items that could easily be made in the 
mountains from natural materials. The 
staff spent one day in the mountains 
early in the summer collecting man- 
zanita, pine cones, and other materials 
which could be incorporated in the craft 
program. From these, the campers 
made candle holders, book ends, name 
pins, earrings, medallions, and tie rings. 
Candle holders were produced from a 
piece of manzanita approximately one 
foot long, having a three-inch diameter 
and an irregular shape. Three holes 
were drilled on the top for the candles. 
It was sanded, lacquered, and candles 
inserted. Book ends were made from 
uniform pieces of wood (V&" by 4" by 
5") gathered by the staff from homes 
being built around the area. Two pieces 
of wood are needed to produce one book 
end. They are sanded well and ham- 
mered together to form an L. A pine 
cone is glued to the bottom of the L, 
cone and wood are lacquered. For 
variety a small piece of manzanita is 
placed on the other half of the pair in- 
stead of the pine cone. Earrings, pins, 
name tags, and tie rings can be made 
from varied sizes of manzanita cut 



"MARCH 1960 



127 



against the grain. After these small 
round pieces of wood have been well 
sanded, they can be decorated with tiny 
delicate shells, macaroni, small bits of 
rope tied in interesting knots, India ink, 
paint, and so on. After decorating, ap- 
ply lacquer and pin backings, tie rings, 
or whatever is required for completion. 

Two games proved most popular in 
all four of the day-camp sessions, one 
of which involved using a compass. 
The day campers were divided into two 
teams and each was given a piece of 
paper with a trail on it to follow. Each 
team had the same distance to travel 
and same number of compass changes. 
The trail was laid ahead of time by the 
staff, and both teams ended at the same 
point. Compass use was thoroughly ex- 
plained beforehand. Each number on 
the trail list included a direction and 
the number of paces they should go. 
The campers sighted the given direction 
on their compasses and proceeded the 
correct number of steps in that direc- 
tion. If they miscalculated, they were 
forced to go back to the previous point. 

The results of a day-camp program 
of this type more than justify the time 
and effort of production. The campers 
took home with them not only a com- 
pletely new experience and many basic 
camping skills (survival techniques, 
compass and map reading, knowledge 
of various plants and trees, fire build- 
ing, care and use of knife and hatchet, 
craft ideas using native materials, bed 
rolling, cookery, trail blazing, and new 
songs), but, most important, they went 



home enthusiastic and with a better un- 
derstanding of the outdoors. 



the 



over to 
which was 



Mountain Camp 

The enthusiasm initiated by the day- 
camp program carried 
mountain-camp program 
held during the last week of August at 
Big Bear Lake, known as Camp Clat- 
awa. This program was geared to a 
slightly older group nine to thirteen 
years of age and more advanced skills 
were taught in scheduled morning and 
afternoon sessions. These were quite 
flexible classes, chosen by campers, and 
included signaling, compass work, ba- 
sic and advanced fire building, crafts, 
swimming and boating, horseback rid- 
ing, knife and hatchet, knots and lash- 
ing, first aid, and methods of wilderness 
survival. 

Again, crafts using native materials 
were greatly enjoyed. Special hikes 
were taken to gather small pine cones, 
bits of smooth driftwood, colored rocks, 
dainty ferns, etcetera, to be incorpo- 
rated in craft items. Transparent, glass- 
like coasters and bowls were created by 
putting an even film of lucite crystals 
over a metal mold in the desired shape. 
Metal cottage-cheese lids or jar covers 
make ideal molds. Bits of driftwood, 
small fern leaves, rocks, etcetera were 
then placed on the lucite and baked in 
a 400 oven for five minutes. 

Another popular program was the 
"Cat's Eye Hike." This novelty hike is 
held at night and creates enthusiasm 
and high spirits. The campers are di- 
vided into teams and start at intervals 



of ten minutes. Each team is timed. 
The team that follows the Cat's Eye trail 
to the end in the shortest period of time 
wins. The trail is marked by fluorescent 
tape on rocks, trees, and stumps. The 
gleam of the campers' flashlights picks 
up the tape and reveals a note directing 
them to the general area of the next 
piece of tape and clue note. 

At the concluding campfire, the staff 
asked the campers what activities they 
enjoyed most. The answers were quite 
amazing. They enjoyed having a camp 
council representative, which made 
them feel really part of program plan- 
ning. These representatives were elect- 
ed from the cabin groups and acted 
both as cabin leader and liaison with 
the staff. Each representative met with 
his own cabin group and made an ex- 
tensive list of activities wanted while at 
Camp Clatawa. The staff then met with 
the representatives and tempered the 
campers' desires into a well-balanced 
camp program. 

Staff 

The entire camping program was 
planned and operated by a staff of four 
this past summer: a school teacher and 
three college students, all of whom had 
extensive background in both camping 
techniques and leadership. When this 
staff was not visiting the various parks 
and playgrounds with the traveling 
day camp early in the summer, they 
were busily kneading out the lumps in 
their day-camp and mountain-camp 
program. # 



PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING DURING STORMS 



Lightning is a statistical phenomenon and its exact be- 
havior under any specific circumstance cannot be predicted. 
There are certain precautions that can be taken in case of 
a storm, however. 

1. Avoid a completely exposed location on top of hill or 
mountain. 

2. Avoid a location close to isolated trees since they are apt 
to be struck and sideflash. 

3. Locate the camp within or near a place where there are 
a number of trees, preferably smaller than the others, a 
short distance away. In this way the chances of a direct hit 
at the campsite are greatly reduced. If, however, a direct 
hit should occur, danger to life exists. 

There is only one way to make sure that the campsite it- 
self is not struck. String a #6 wire between the trees over 



the campsite. This wire should be at least twelve feet long, 
above the highest ground. It should hang down the trees to 
ground at both ends and trail ten to twenty feet along the 
ground, away from the campsite. This may sound fantastic. 
but it is the only safe way. The probability of lightning's 
striking any specific spot is so slight that, in general. \<T\ 
few persons want to carry a spool of wire along for this 
purpose. 

Use of an aluminum canoe in the woods does not create 
any special hazard. In case of storm, however, it is recom- 
mended that you pull up on shore, get out of tlic ranor. and 
camp in a grove of trees, if available, or lie prone if you are 
on open ground, until the storm has passed. J. H. 
GUTH, Pittsfield General Electric High Voltage 
Laboratory, Massachusetts. 



128 



RECREATION 



Water to wade in ; 
to camp beside. 



DON'T TAKE THE 
PLAYGROUND 
TO CAMP 



Catherine T. Hammett 




WHAT MAKES A camp a camp? 
No two people will say the 
same thing, even if both have 
been in the same camp, but most people 
will start with two words: people and 
the out-of-doors. Campers, staff mem- 
bers, committee members will make 
lists that include trees, turtles, swim- 
ming, campfires, hills, open spaces, fun, 
rocks, boating, adventures, singing, na- 
ture just to begin the list. Few will 
include apartment houses, fences, city 
parks, playgrounds, streets, schools, 
museums all of which do wonderfully 
for us all through most of the year, but 
somehow are to be left behind when we 
head for that place called camp, be it 
a day camp, a weekend camp, a two- 
week, or an all-summer camp. 

Miss HAMMETT is past-president of the 
American Camping Association; coau- 
thor, with Virginia Musselman, of The 
Camp Program Book (Association 
Press) and author of other camping 
books. She is currently on the national 
staff of the Girl Scouts of the USA. 




Camp is where all of nature is close 
at hand to give life a new dimension. 



Youngsters think mainly in terms of 
activities, of fun, of doing things that 
are "different" as well as those that are 
familiar, of doing things with other 
boys and girls. Adults add benefits that 
come from the living situation in an 
informal happy setting. Parents may 
think in terms of health, of skills for 
their children difficult for parents to 
give them, such as canoeing, mountain 
climbing, cooking out, and the like. 

About this time of year, camp direc- 
tors are busy selling camp to campers, 
parents, staff members, perhaps, to 
board members. We talk about camp 
as a place that is special, that adds 
something to the in-town, year-round, 
school, church, home, and club activity. 

We talk about taking advantage of 
the whole outdoors to experience new 
things, to enjoy those activities that 
cannot be experienced to the same de- 
gree, if at all, in town; we talk about 
the living situation in a camper-geared 
community where young America may 
practice democracy at his own experi- 
ence level. We say all this, but some- 
times when reports come back it seems 
all camps do not take advantage of the 
situation. Sometimes it seems that the 
playground (wonderful as it is for the 
stay-in-the-city boys and girls) has been 
transplanted to camp. 

Perhaps that is a black picture. Let's 
hope that your camp and mine really 
lake advantage of the uniqueness of 
the camping situation. For camps are 
unique: they aren't homes in the usual 
sense, they aren't playgrounds, they 
aren't schools, they aren't in-town cen- 
ters. They are camps, combining many 
elements to make a special place for 



special gains. Camps are places where 
the outdoors predominates (even sur- 
rounds) ; where the tempo is relaxed; 
where clothes are informal, easy to care 
for, easy to wear ; where the waterfront 
is just down the trail; where there are 
counselors close at hand to help, to 
guide, to teach, to be around all day, 
although they sometimes keep hands 
carefully off a project. Camp is where 
all of nature is close at hand, present- 
ing fascinating possibilities: snails or 
polliwogs or raccoons to watch; water 
lo swim in, to boat on, or to look 
through with a waterscope. Camp is 
where you build fires to cook over or 
to sit around; make shelters; have hills 
to climb ; find twigs for whistles or pins 
or towel racks. Camp has the Big Dip- 
per swinging overhead; rain to walk in 
or to combat; horizons or setting suns 
to scan all outdoors! 

Why call it a camp, if one doesn't 
camp there? Do we keep faith with our 
young people when we offer them 
chances to camp, and don't give them 
opportunities to experience the joys, the 
adventures, the wonder that comes of 
discovering how to live in and with the 
out-of-doors and how to love it? Do 
we keep faith with parents, with educa- 
tors, with our country if we do not make 
the most of the opportunities to give 
our campers experiences living with 
others? Do we give them the chance 
to grow in independence, to gain a 
knowledge of and respect for the na- 
tural resources of our land. 

Camping can offer situations for ex- 
ceptional experiences in growing, and 
in growing-up. Do we make the most 
of it? # 



MARCH 1960 



129 



RECREATION 
AFLOAT 



William H. Radke 




The phenomenal growth in popularity of small boating 
calls for water-safety education at the grass roots. 



OUTBOARD BOATING IN America 
has taken unbelievable postwar 
popularity strides to become a 
front-ranking recreation interest. Per- 
haps the greatest single factor in its 
favor is that boating is generally family 
recreation and we professionals have 
placed family recreation on the critical- 
need list. Also, outboarding is a par- 
ticipation sport. 

The Brookfield, Illinois, playground 
and recreation department has recog- 
nized this latent boating value. This vil- 
lage, without navigable waters, agreed 
that the recreation department should 
offer guidance in boating to enthusias- 
tic youngsters as a means of providing 
both recreation for the present and edu- 
cation for the future. 

A neighboring community had the 
navigable but small DesPlaines river. 
An enterprising boater had opened a 
nearby sales-and-service shop with a 
floating service dock. Contact with the 
new businessman found him enthusias- 
tically willing to conduct an eight-week 
course in outboarding. He offered his 
shop as a classroom and his dock and 
boat as a proving ground for the lessons 
and himself as the instructor all free. 
Together we drew up a program sched- 
ule of topics for inclusion in eight one- 
hour meetings. 

With a basic plan to teach rules of 
outboard operation safety, care, and 
maintenance the Outboard Boating 
Club of America was contacted for ad- 
Ma. RADKE is recreation superintend- 
ent of the playground and recreation 
department in Brookfield, Illinois. 



vice and assistance, and was quick to 
recognize the value of this course to 
boys and girls in the twelve- to sixteen- 
age bracket. OBC offered help with 
pamphlet material, films, consultation, 
and program presentation. 

This combination produced an in- 
formative and workable course cover- 
ing basic fundamentals of outboarding 
as well as experience on the water in a 
learning situation. Eight lessons were 
assigned the following general head- 
ings, which may be supplemented by 
free films from several sources: (1) 
history of outboarding, lecture plus 
film; (2) types of boat construction and 
discussion of advantages as to weight, 
durability, cost and maintenance; (3) 
what boat is best for an individual and 
a water-skiing demonstration; (4) nau- 
tical nomenclature and safety rules; 
(5) matching motors and boats, safety 
factors, on-the-water experience; (6) 
safety rules and equipment, on-the- 
water experience; (7) how to select, 
use, and maintain a boat trailer; and 
(8) summary review of general main- 
tenance and care of boats and motors. 

Classes were originally restricted to 
twenty-five members. In consideration 
of "attendance fallout" for vacations 
and so on, we added a few as the season 
progressed. Here, under close supervi- 
sion, members were afloat and operat- 
ing an outboard the first time for 
most of them. 

Members of our weekly classes en- 
dorsed the course by such comments as : 
"Gee, I hope I can get Dad interested in 
this," and "Gotta start saving for a 



boat!" The marine dealer supports the 
class wholeheartedly and is already 
planning to add a room to his establish- 
ment for meetings of groups such as 
this. He has agreed to do an adult class 
next spring, as well as a second summer 
program for the junior boaters. 

Brookfield's outboard boating class 
seems to be the first really landlocked 
recreation program to join forces with 
an enthusiastic marine dealer and OBC, 
seemingly the first to bring to the 
younger set information they will use 
and value as they become part of Amer- 
ica's nearly eight million boaters and 
this at no cost to the recreation depart- 
ment. (For further information on how 
Americans are taking to life afloat see 
Page 120.) 

Boating can be enjoyed at all finan- 
cial levels, from the simplest outboard- 
powered rowboat to the fancy family 
cruiser. The absence of local navigable 
waters has been circumvented by the 
development of safe and sturdy boat 
trailers that know the highway maps as 
their only limitations. Outboarding, a 
great relaxer for all ages, is also a step 
toward other equally absorbing recre- 
ation interests including cruising, water- 
skiing, swimming, fishing, and skin 
diving. Like camping, boating is an 
ideal activity for the family. 

Look over your community do you 
see boating enthusiasts? Is there some 
way of combining forces with a local 
know-how man? You can have a worth- 
uliilc activity on a minimum budget 
and meet the challenge of a growing 
public interest. # 



130 



RECREATION 



NOTES for the ADMINISTRATOR 



Land-Use Planning 

A number of resolutions relating to park and recreation 
problems were adopted at the 1959 Southeastern Park and 
Recreation Planning, Maintenance and Operations Work- 
shop, held at the North Carolina State College, cosponsored 
by six state recreation agencies. Following are excerpts of 
some of these resolutions: 

(In) city, regional, state, and Federal land-use planning, 
emphasis (should) be placed on the public acquisition of 
land so that adequate provision will be made in all such plan- 
ning to meet the great present and ever greater necessity of the 
future for public park and recreation areas, and further, that 
all proposals to divert park and recreation lands to other 
uses be impartially analyzed and studied to determine whether 
or not such proposals are, in fact, in the long-range public in- 
terest, and that diversion of park and recreation lands to other 
uses be permitted only if such diversion is found to be essen- 
tial in the long-range public interest, and only if land so di- 
verted to other uses is replaced by land of such quality and so 
located as to serve that population which is deprived of park 
and recreation services by diversion of park and recreation 
land to other uses. 

The group further resolved that the sponsors of the work- 
shop "make a seven-state study of vandalism, including the 
extent to which it exists, what facilities and/or equipment 
are subject to vandalism, practices effective in reducing 
vandalism, and an overall analysis." It further enunciated 
its support of the following policy: 

That there be established in every state of the Union an 
agency with legal authority and with its primary concern, on 
a full-time basis, services to the field of recreation. That where 
constitutionally possible, this state agency be established as a 
separate and independent agency. . . . 

That where existing agencies are now serving recreation in 
some special capacity these practices continue, and that a pro- 
gram of cooperation with the legal recreation authority be 
established through a recreation interagency committee de- 
signed to correlate and coordinate the various functions. 

The following resolution dealing with metropolitan and 
county planning for recreation was likewise adopted: 

Whereas if it is found to be more efficient and if it is dis- 
covered to provide greater present community services through 
cooperative use of recreation and education areas and facilities 
such should be promoted, but in no case is it agreed that joint 
operation of either recreation or education programs would be 
in the greatest common interest of the community, and 

Whereas it is further agreed, based on considerable experi- 
ence, that recreation program aspects which are held in or on 
school or other local government-owned areas and facilities 
can, only, be considered as supplementary, in a full recreation 
program, to that which is centered in those areas and facilities 
which are acquired, owned, developed and operated, specific- 
ally, for public recreation purposes and which are available at 
all times, as service resources, to the local government's rec- 
reation, agency, and 

Whereas it is agreed that one of our greatest local citizen- 
needs will be served, only, when municipal recreation and park 
programs are expanded into metropolitan and/or city-county 
combination plans of recreation finance, organization and ad- 
ministration in agencies whose primary purposes and basic 
reasons for existence are to serve the recreation needs of local 
citizens. . . . 

Coordinated Planning 

The importance of overall coordinated planning of Amer- 
ican cities and individual neighborhoods was pointed out 



in Forum (May 1959) in an article by James W. Rouse, 
president of ACTION (American Committee to Improve 
Our Neighborhoods). He stated: "A major consideration 
in every public improvement contemplated by the city 
should be its effect on the construction or destruction of 
neighborhoods." After referring to the significant high- 
way developments that are certain to be achieved in the 
next ten or fifteen years, he added: "Other public works 
schools, parks, playgrounds, hospitals must also be con- 
sidered for their effect upon neighborhood formation, not 
merely as isolated departmental projects in themselves." 

In commenting on the importance of the comprehensive 
plan, he added: "I am convinced that it is a far more prac- 
tical, achievable thing to plan for the whole city than it is 
to plan small and in pieces. . . . Consider the huge savings 
to local government if needs are properly projected and sites 
for schools, public buildings, parks, and highways are plot- 
ted and acquired well in advance of need, before land be- 
comes highly developed and prices become prohibitive." 

Local Children Get Pool Priority 

Through changes in fee schedules, children of local tax- 
payers are gaining some priority in the use of the municipal 
swimming pool at Monroe, Wisconsin. Nonresident ele- 
mentary-grade students pay single admissions of twenty 
cents and residents ten cents; those of high-school age 
pay twenty-five cents and fifteen cents, respectively; and 
adults, fifty and twenty-five cents. Season tickets for ele- 
mentary-school children also are higher for nonresidents. 
There are no season tickets available for other out-of-town 
age groups. Identification cards are issued to Monroe resi- 
dents who use the daily fee admissions. 

The increase in resident and nonresident charges resulted 
from higher operating costs as well as a growing number of 
complaints over children coming by busloads from out of 
town and crowding the pool to capacity while local children 
waited in line. A survey of thirty-five other pools in the 
state showed both fees and attendants' salaries were on the 
low side in Monroe. Park Maintenance, October 1959. 



REQUEST PRICES 

FREE LITERATURE & SPECIFICATIONS 

* Playground Equipment & Playground Plans 
* Basketball Backstops 

Indoor & Outdoor Type 

* Bleachers 

Gymnasium & Athletic Field 

* Trampolins 

Choice of 14 models 

* Score Boards For Every Sport 

CHAMPION RECREATION EQUIP. INC. 

HIGHLAND PARK, ILLINOIS 



MARCH 1960 



131 



ARE YOU 
LOOKING FOR 
CAMP LAND? 



Stanley W. Stocker 



MANY ADMINISTRATORS AND leaders in the recreation 
field have forgotten, or are unaware of, the poten- 
tial camp lands now in the hands of state and fed- 
eral government agencies that still can be had for the asking 
or very little more. In almost every state in the union areas 
are available that might be considered by town, city, and 
state recreation departments for community use. 

State and federal governments are apt to give group 
camping use of these lands a high priority, their interest in 
recreation use of lands going back as far as the founding 
of Yosemite Park and Mariposa Big Tree Grove, in 1864. 
This is especially true when the camp is to be operated by 
a recreation department and open to individual campers as 
well as to organized groups. 

As we all know, available lands for camping are rapidly 
decreasing, even at high prices. Therefore, the availability 
of public lands should be thoroughly explored before any 
other arrangements are made. As a general premise, tax- 
supported agencies will have first priority; nonprofit agen- 
cies and organizations may also obtain use of such lands, 
at a slightly lower priority. 

As of January 1, 1955, there were 308 group camps on 
public, state-owned lands reported, with a capacity of 
35,546. Current reports indicate that many of these camps 
are not used to capacity at present, and that open time ex- 
isted last summer. A total of 2,074,765 use days were re- 
ported in 1958. 

Some of the states have built new camps for group-camp 
use in the past few years, and many have new group sites 
in the planning stages to be activated when the demand 
arises. Any recreation department considering a camping 
program should certainly initiate early talks with various 
state park and forest officials in their home state as well as 
in surrounding states. 

The federal government agencies offering possible lands 
for organization camping are: the Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment, the Forest Service, the Corps of Engineers, the Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority, the Bureau of Reclamation, Fish 
and Wildlife Service, and the National Park Service. The 
policies and priorities for each of these agencies vary and 
require direct contact with their local or national offices 
for further information. 

MR. STOCKER, executive director of the Metropolitan New 
York Council, American Youth Hostels, recently completed 
the American Camping Association's national survey of 
youth camps. 

132 



Bureau of Land Management The lands involved with the 
Bureau of Land Management are primarily in the Western 
states. Recreation use of these lands may be requested by 
nonprofit corporations and associations and government 
agencies. No actual facilities are managed by the bureau 
for camping use. Application for information and proce- 
dures to obtain the special land-use permits should be made 
to the State Supervisor, Bureau of Land Management, in 
the Western states having such offices, or directly to the 
Eastern States Supervisor, Bureau of Land Management, 
Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C. 

Forest Service -The U. S. Forest Service owns some 71 
organization camps on Forest Service lands and had 644 
special-use permit holders operating organization camps in 
1958. Organizations are permitted to construct group 
camps at suitable locations in the national forests. These 
permits require construction of fairly substantial camps, 
adequate sanitation, and compliance with other standards 
deemed wise to protect the forest as well as the users. Sites 
available in the national forest regions are well situated and 
offer excellent campsites. The forest supervisor has the 
authority to issue special-use permits and can advise inter- 
ested parties as to the requirements and conditions for the 
issuance of a special-use permit. Full information about 
the available areas and sites can be obtained from the spe- 
cific supervisor of a forest or the regional forester at any 
of the ten regional offices. 

The land-use fees for nonprofit groups are at a minimum, 
often a dollar a year. All organization camp operators are 
expected to make full use of their camps or to allow other 
groups to use them for a charge commensurate with facili- 
ties provided. The general basis for action on special-use 
permits where more than one group is involved is to give 
the authorization to the group planning a program for the 
greatest number of persons. 

Corps of Engineers The Corps of Engineers manages only 
one campsite for organization use, but has two hundred 
organization camps located under lease or license agree- 
ments on these properties. These organization camps range 
from simple tent facilities to well-constructed and developed 
year-round campsites. The various district engineers can 
supply information on any site in their own areas and on 
the general conditions of licenses and leases. The fees in- 
volved are very nominal for nonprofit, youth-serving groups 
and others providing service to the general public. 

Tennessee Valley Authority The TVA's lands provide 
good potential areas for organization camping use. Thirty- 
six group camps were reported in 1958 on the areas under 
its control. These lands may be sold or leased to quasi- 
public groups and organizations for recreation use. The 
prevailing market values are used in the negotiations, but 
adjustments are made for the public service the group pro- 
vides or will provide. Information may be obtained by 
writing to the Division of Reservoir Properties, Tennessee 
Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee. 

Bureau of Reclamation In seventeen Western states, tin- 
bureau operates over one hundred reservoirs, which offer 

RECREATION 



excellent potential areas for organized camping. As a gen- 
eral rule, operation of recreation sites at these areas is 
transferred to the most appropriate state department. Lease 
arrangements on a limited basis are possible on the areas 
that have not been transferred from the jurisdiction of the 
bureau. However, full information can be obtained from 
the Regional Director of the Bureau of Reclamation for the 
areas involved. The National Park Service has the respon- 
sibility for developing a master plan for recreation for each 
of these reservoirs. The regional director of the National 
Park Service for the area involved may be contacted for 
information about these plans. 

Fish and Wildlife Service Organization camps are al- 
lowed, under permit, on national wildlife refuges, but less 
than thirty have been authorized to date. These areas cer- 
tainly should be considered by local groups and preliminary 
talks initiated with the refuge manager. Applications may 
be approved when the primary purpose for which the refuge 
was established will not be interfered with. The address of 
the refuge manager may be obtained from the regional of- 
fice that has jurisdiction over the one involved. 



National Park Service The service operates seven camps 
maintained for use by various nonprofit groups conducting 
group camping for children. Possibilities for the construc- 
tion of organization camps exist on the national recreation 
areas Lake Mead, Coulee Dam, and Shadow Mountain 
(in Rocky Mountain National Park). Groups interested 
should write the superintendents of these areas. 
* * * 

Additional information about these opportunities for the 
use of existing organization campsites, as well as special 
arrangements for the constructing of camps, should be ob- 
tained before deciding upon any new sites for camping 
programs. The addresses of the proper officials may be ob- 
tained by writing to the department indicated, Washington 
25, D. C., with a request for the proper address and name 
of the official in charge. Each federal agency has published 
material explaining these services in greater detail. With 
the ever-increasing land costs and operating budgets, the 
use of public lands should be fully explored by each com- 
munity agency before further expanding its camping areas 
for group use. # 



MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS 

Three-fourths of 126 replies in a study report indicate that 

municipal recreation departments have their own maintenance division. 



A STUDY OF THE cost of maintaining recreation and park 
areas facilities was made in 1958 by a subcommittee 
of the National Recreation Association's National 
Advisory Committee on Recreation Administration. Sub- 
committee chairman is Lome C. Rickert, superintendent of 
recreation in Wicomico County, Maryland. The subcom- 
mittee's report is based on replies received from 126 cities 
(many supplied only partial information). 

Respondent cities cover a population range from 4,000 
to more than 2,000,000; only three, however, have popula- 
tions under 25,000; more than half are over 50,000. All 
sections of the country are represented. Replies are equally 
divided between recreation agencies and park or combined 
recreation-and-park departments; eight reports were re- 
ceived from school authorities and a few returns from other 
community agencies. 

Three-fourths of the agencies indicated they have their 
own maintenance division. As might be expected, 82 per- 
cent of the park or combined reereation-and-park agencies 
have such a division, 70 percent of the recreation depart- 
ments, and 50 percent of the school authorities likewise 
have one. Maintenance work is usually handled by park or 
public works departments when the recreation agency is 
not equipped to handle it. Slightly less than half the cities 
stated they have an active preventive maintenance program. 



The impression given is that available manpower must be 
used to keep up with day-to-day tasks. 

Such minor betterments as installation of drinking foun- 
tains, new fencing, and small hard-surface areas are con- 
sidered maintenance items in most cities. The regular 
maintenance force usually takes care of them, although pri- 
vate contractors are called in occasionally. 

Duty hours of the maintenance crew coincide with hours 
of operation of recreation areas in about half the cities; 
the coincidence is more marked among recreation agencies 
(62%) than among park or combined departments (40%). 
When special programs are conducted outside regular hours 
of operation of the area, about three-fourths of the depart- 
ments supply maintenance personnel. Half the cities sup- 
ply such workers on a split-day basis. 

Such routine tasks as lining fields, installing light bulbs, 
and dragging baselines and infield are nearly always per- 
formed by maintenance workers; so usually is the setting 
up of chairs, though recreation leaders perform this task 
more often than the other three. Both maintenance workers 
and recreation leaders are responsible for removal of haz- 
ardous obstacles; this is primarily a maintenance duty, but 
if a recreation leader discovers such a condition, he is ex- 
pected to rectify it. 

In preparing a facility for immediate programing, rec- 



MARCH 1960 



133 



reation leaders have authority over the maintenance as- 
signee in only about a quarter of the cities. This authority 
is usually vested in the maintenance supervisor, a foreman, 
or department executive. On the other hand, in the absence 
of the recreation leader, maintenance workers have au- 
thority over the facility and its users in three-fourths of the 
cities, although it occasionally was stated this authority is 
limited. 

Less than half the reporting agencies keep performance 
records of individual maintenance men to ascertain how 
much time each spends on such operations as mowing grass, 
scarifying fields, lining ball diamonds, and so forth. Three- 
fourths indicated they do not record cost of such work as 
scarifying and matting an area or keep performance data, 
such as the number of diamonds scarified and matted per 
day. Likewise, very few agencies keep cost records of main- 
taining specific facilities. Where such figures were given, 
they varied widely from city to city; for example, the an- 
nual maintenance cost for a softball diamond with a skinned 
infield varied from $30 to $2,000. However, median an- 
nual maintenance cost of a baseball diamond appears to 
be slightly less than $300, regardless of whether the infield 
is turfed or skinned. 

Respondents were asked to estimate cost and number of 
man-hours per year necessary to maintain each of three 
hypothetical areas. The first area was described as a one- 
and-a-half-to-two-acre playground with a shelter building, 
softball field, two apparatus areas, a multipurpose, hard- 
surface area, and a paved spray area. The median estimate 
of maintenance time for this area was 720 man-hours per 
year, although the individual reports varied from 25 to 7.680 
man-hours. Maintenance costs per area varied from $60 
to $17,280, with a median of $1,456. 

For a three-to-four-acre neighborhood playground con- 
taining a recreation building, baseball field, two apparatus 
areas, a multipurpose hard-surface area, and a spray area, 
median time estimate was 1,2161/2 man-hours. Maintenance 
costs varied from $100 to $21,000, with a median of $2,706. 



The largest area, a nine-to-ten-acre playfield with a rec- 
reation building, baseball field, two softball fields, two ap- 
paratus areas, multipurpose hard-surface area, spray area, 
and six hard-surface tennis courts, would require mainte- 
nance time of some 2,180 man-hours per year, according 
to the estimates of recreation and park executives. Here 
again, individual cost estimates varied widely, from $250 
to $50,000, with a median of $4,848. 

Seventy-six agencies complied with maintenance expendi- 
tures for the years 1950 and 1958. All but two cities spent 
more in 1958; many reported budget increases of several 
hundred percent over the eight-year period. Median rate 
of increase was approximately one hundred percent, indi- 
cating appropriations for maintaining park and recreation 
properties have kept pace with rising costs and wages. 

The response to the subcommittee's questionnaire and 
nature of the information supplied by the cities seem to 
point to the following conclusions: 

Most recreation and park authorities keep few accurate 
records of maintenance costs or the performance of main- 
tenance personnel. A need for more adequate record-keep- 
ing procedures is therefore clearly indicated. 

Recreation and park authorities have widely different 
concepts as to the meaning of the term "maintenance" and 
the functions it covers, thus indicating need for clarifica- 
tion of terminology in this aspect of recreation. 

The fact that relatively few recreation and park authori- 
ties have an active preventive maintenance program sug- 
gests the need for more widespread advance planning for 
recurring maintenance tasks as an aid to budget prepara- 
tion and better care of recreation property. 

The limited degree to which personnel responsible for 
the program at recreation areas have direct authority over 
maintenance workers assigned to these areas raises a ques- 
tion as to the desirability of reviewing the criteria that 
should determine respective responsibilities and relation- 
ships of personnel assigned to recreation areas. # 



SUCCESSFUL BOATING EDUCATION 



Small-boat safety programs for 
youngsters have been inaugurated in 
many communities. In Westport, Con- 
necticut, for instance, a program started 
by Tom Hutson in 1959 was accredited 
by the American Red Cross. It was so 
successful that the Conference for Na- 
tional Cooperation in Aquatics is pro- 
moting similar programs across the 
country, in the interests of water safety. 
The Westport program was an experi- 
ment which grew out of the 1958 Con- 
ference, of which Tom was chairman. 

School Program A boating club, 
started in the local junior high school, 
attracted thirty boys ranging in age 
from thirteen to fifteen. Their attend- 

134 



ance at a course of about ten weeks of 
lectures was excellent and interest keen. 
This course was set up and sponsored 
by the Westport Recreation Commis- 
sion, the talks were supervised by a 
faculty advisor and given by members 
of the United States Power Squadron. 
Visual aids, demonstrations of knot ty- 
ing, of small boats and their equipment 
by the squadron and the American Red 
Cross enlivened the program consider- 
ably. 

On-thc-Water-Program On the basis 
of this experience, two other consecu- 
tive ten-lesson ARC "Basic Boating 
Courses" were set up in July and Au- 
gust under the direction of a town 



employee trained and qualified by the 
American Red Cross Small Craft School, 
for the younger eight-to-twelve-year- 
old group. The Saugatuck River Power 
Squadron organized the program, pro- 
vided the scholarship for training the 
town instructor. The boating lessons 
\\rrr held at the public beach and yacht 
basin. At first, beach officials, life- 
guards, and dock superintendents were 
MTV cool to the idea, but soon h<v;imr 
very cooperative as the local enthusiasm 
grew among parents and children. A 
-iiKill-lioat safety program will be in the 
ARC budget for 1960, and assistant 
qualified by them will again help the 
-lowing program at Westport. # 

RECREATION 



N N 



CONTRACTING FOR RECREATION LEADERSHIP 



T> ECRUITING THAT IS, inviting oth- 
'* ers to join your own chosen way 
of life is a universal and very old 
practice. Early Greece recruited only 
the sons of citizens to be educated; 
selection, however, played a key role. 
Early Athens recruited foreigners to 
take up residence in their fair city. 
Again, selection played its forceful 
role. 

Constantine the Great built Constan- 
tinople now Istanbul by recruiting 
only the best of ideas and of leadership, 
without which this famous city of cul- 
ture could not have ruled the East for 
a thousand years. Columbus had to re- 
cruit selectively only those who would 
dare to follow uncharted ways toward 
a new life. 

Today, we recruit people for politi- 
cal parties, for associations and affilia- 
tions, financial and social causes; we 
recruit teachers, lawyers, doctors, engi- 
neers, and nurses; likewise, in our own 
field of community services, we must 
recruit potential recreation leaders. 
Need is evident when value and validity 
are present; but, unless need is at the 
source of a new idea, a new problem, a 
new service, it is futile to waste human 
time, energy, money, and effort. There- 
fore, we, the incumbent recreation lead- 
ership, must see the need to select and 
recruit potential leaders dedicated 
and inspired with vision; or this effort 
too, will be futile, and our cause will 
be lost! 

How valid is our need for community 
recreation leadership then becomes our 
burden for proving. Let us look, first, 
at what has happened as a result of 
man's curiosity. Second, let us take 
note of the new facts of the day, all of 
which document our drastic need. 

Man has been experimenting with 

DR. WECKWERTH is director of recrea- 
tion, Youth Leadership and Community 
Services, Springfield College, Mass. 



ideas and things for a long time. For 
example, he invented the wheel which 
immediately created a need for power 
to run it. Power and the wheel, in turn, 
made possible other machines. These 
three together caused man to produce 
the factory; and people gathering to 
work in the factories contributed to the 
development of the city. Cities multi- 
plied, attracting streams of humans 
away from the rural countryside. To- 
day, urbanization demands recreation 
leadership. 

J. Frederic Dewhurst's Twentieth 
Century Fund report on our U.S.A. 
in New Dimensions identifies eight sets 
of facts to give validity to the need for 
community recreation leadership and 
services : the relationship between man, 
his animals, and his machines; our trek 
to the city; our great increase of pro- 
ductive power; our increasing income 
among all families; our rapid growth 
in population ; our new wealth in dwell- 
ings, in the mechanical slaves being 
used in our homes ; and, lastly, our new 
leisure. 

The National Recreation Associa- 
tion's Recreation and Park Yearbook 
Mid-Century Edition, 1900-1950, and 
George Butler's descriptive overview in 
The Social Work Yearbook 1957 iden- 
tified the values accumulated by pub- 
lic recreation leadership during the first 
half of the century. A NRA Personnel 
Service report on the highlights of 1957 
also documents the dire need for rec- 
reation leadership in today's and to- 
morrow's market of community serv- 
ices in America. 

What Can We Do 
About Recruiting? 

These are four things each one of us, 
as professional recreation people, must 
do not might do about recruiting. 

1. Get bitten by the bug better yet, 
bite yourself but see the need for re- 



Charles F. Weckwerth 

cruiting and generate the desire to do 
something about it. 

2. Spread the contagion. The best 
and simplest way is to be contagious. 

3. Be selective on all fronts using 
all sources of manpower. Pick men of 
potential influence, men with vision 
and a mission, men who appear as if 
they have something to say and seem 
willing to say it -and with gusto. Don't 
depend upon the colleges to meet more 
than twelve to fifteen percent of the 
need at least in the near future. 
Eighty-five percent of the task belongs 
to you men in the field. 

4. Demonstrate your belief to your- 
self and to others in action. The 
simplest and best way to do this is by 
the sweat of your own brow. Make a 
pact with yourself and to others selec- 
ted. Decide you will see one person, 
each week or month or quarter, about 
recreation as a career. See him any- 
where, but see him. Bring these selec- 
tees together regularly around your 
community recreation problems. Make 
them your unofficial advisors. Put the 
brainstorming method to work. Sign 
a contract on these two suggestions with 
yourself. Personally obligate yourself 
to be supervised by your National Rec- 
reation Association district representa- 
tives. $: 

Editor's Note 

At the 1959 New England District 
Recreation, at which Dr. Weckwerth 
delivered the above address, fifty-two 
contracts were signed by recreation 
directors and superintendents. Since 
then Dr. Weckwerth and Waldo Hains- 
worth, NRA district representative, 
have been keeping a cooperative rec- 
ord and promoting the efforts of all 
who signed these pledges. Records 
show that the New England adminis- 
trators followed through and made 
good on forty-one percent of the con- 
tracts at the close of 1959's first quar- 
ter. 



MARCH 1960 



135 



STATE 

AND 

LOCAL 

DEVELOPMENTS 



, Elvira Delany 



ALASKA. The new state has directed its department of 
natural resources to plan, acquire, develop, and administer 
a system of state parks and recreation facilities, to provide 
consulting service on local park and recreation programs, 
and clearinghouse services for other state agencies con- 
cerned with park and recreation matters. It authorized the 
establishment of a separate division within the department 
to perform these functions. 

ARKANSAS. Park development is steamrollering ahead 
in North Little Rock thanks to a $150,000 park improvement 
bond issue passed in December. C. E. Harrison, chairman 
of the parks and recreation commission, reports that the 
major development will be Burns Park and city planners 
are already mapping and laying out roads in this scenic 
area, which includes a historic graveyard and monument to 
the first settlers in the territory of Arkansas. The city also 
plans to enlarge its much-used nine-hole golf course to eigh- 
teen holes. The commission will develop seven small parks 
this summer and will start soon on an animal shelter with 
adjacent children's zoo. The commission was also successful 
in getting the city council to approve an ordinance giving it 
a maintenance supervisor and four laborers. 

IOWA. Pleasure craft facilities are expanding along the 
Mississippi. In Muscatine, the Levee Improvement Com- 
mission is supervising construction of a small boat harbor 
and marina approved by the U. S. Corps of Engineers. Nec- 
essary funds have already been appropriated by Congress 
and the local city council. Davenport has come to the aid 
of pleasure boaters who have been inconvenienced and 
handicapped by the shallowness of the harbor there at low 
stages. The city and the U. S. Corps of Engineers are con- 
structing Credit Island Harbor and improvements will make 
it one of the finest harbors on the upper Mississippi. Bet- 
tendorf has a new $175,000 youth center supplied by pub- 
lic subscription. 

LOUISIANA. Over 400,000 acres of privately owned for- 
est have been opened to public hunting, fishing, and other 
outdoor recreation, the first project in the new FAIR pro- 
gram (federation and industry recreation), under which 
the National Wildlife Federation will cooperate with in- 

136 



dustry in opening private lands to sportsmen. The Louisi- 
ana FAIR project involves forest holdings of the Olin 
Mathieson Chemical Corporation near Winnfield and Mon- 
roe in north central Louisiana. The 405,000-acre Olin For- 
est offers squirrel, waterfowl, deer, turkey, and quail hunt- 
ing, and fishing and boating on several water areas. A new 
14,000-acre lake, Lake D'Arbonne, will be built by the state 
in Union Parish and much of the lake will lie on Olin Forest 
lands. Sites of scenic and historic interest will be preserved 
wherever possible. 

James Ledbetter, president of the Louisiana Wildlife 
Federation, said the federation will "seek to promote and 
develop recreation facilities in the Olin Forest and other 
lands included in the FAIR program." This may include 
signs on the areas, preparation of maps, and development 
of picnic sites, boat launching sites, and other facilities. 

Mr. Ledbetter said, "There are millions of acres of pri- 
vate land in Louisiana that offer an immense potential for 
outdoor recreation. Any lands included in the FAIR pro- 
gram will be open to the public and not just to members 
of the Louisiana Wildlife Federation." The initial pro- 
gram will be directed by a coordinating committee of of- 
ficials of the Louisiana Wildlife Federation, Louisiana 
Forestry Association, Louisiana Forestry Commission, Lou- 
isiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission, and Olin Mathie- 
son Chemical Corporation. 

NEW JERSEY. A proposed 220,000,000 jet airport near 
Chatham in Morris County may well be jettisoned by some 
determined wildlife lovers who are taking legal steps to ac- 
quire the entire area as a public park. If the nature lovers 
get the land first and turn it into a wildlife preserve under 
county control, the Port of New York Authority could not 
proceed with its proposed airport. A 1941 law prohibits the 
authority from condemning public land without permission 
of the municipality or county. The land in question consists 
of picturesque countryside, including an area known as tin- 
Great Swamp (although much of it is not swampy at all). 
The swamp, of perhaps five to six thousand acres, extends 




This bandshell, designed for a Lambertrille. \cu~ . 

recreation field by Jules Gregory, is constructed from cin- 
der block, called "partition" block, 6"-by.8"-by-18". The 
red anthracite cinder gives it an oyster color. The con- 
crete platform is elliptical in shape, forming a concentric 
relationship to the wall used by the town and its schools 
for concerts, pageants, and graduations. The ten-acre 
field of this historic town has ball fields, tennis courts, 
and park area equipped with picnic tables and fireplaces. 

RECREATION 



into the townships of Harding and Chatham. The authority 
proposes to use the swamp acreage and peripheral land to 
construct a 10,000-acre jet airport with four runways, each 
12,000 feet long. 

The nature lovers are a well-organized group known as 
Wildlife Preserves, Inc., with membership centered in New 
York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, dedicated to acquiring 
land in the New York metropolitan area for wildlife conser- 
vation. The group hopes to acquire the best areas of the 
wetlands in the central Passaic Valley and already holds 
title to 450 acres in the Great Swamp and 1,400 acres in the 
Troy Meadows, both remains of ancient Lake Passaic, be- 
lieved formed in the last Glacial Age. 

NEW YORK. A twenty-acre estate overlooking the Hud- 
son River has been given to the New York City Department 
of Parks for an arboretum. The Perkins-Freeman estate 
has been at various times the residence of Theodore Roose- 
velt, Mark Twain, Arturo Toscanini, and British ambassa- 
dors to the United Nations. The parks department must ob- 
tain an amendment to the city's administrative code through 
an act of state legislature in order to accept the bequest be- 
cause of the specific nature of the proposed park to which 
access may be limited by a small admittance fee. The site 
lies in the Riverdale section of the Borough of the Bronx 
and is owned by Mrs. George Perkins, Sr. and her daughter 
and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Edward W. Freeman. George 
W. Perkins, Sr., a financier and partner in J. P. Morgan 
and Co., who died in 1920, was for many years president of 
the Palisades Interstate Park Commission (N.J.-N.Y.). 
George Perkins was president of the commission until his 
death on January 10, 1960. (His successor is Arthur R. 
Jube of Orange, New Jersey.) 

The New York State section of Palisades Interstate Park 
has indeed reached its saturation point, necessitating turn- 
ing away visitors because parking space and other facilities 
can hold no more. Further development of the area under 
a ten-year program calls for another 4,000 parking spaces 
and facilities for 25,000. The original aim of the ten-year 
program was to accommodate at least 125,000 visitors on a 
peak day, but the target may have to be upped to 140,000, 
with an eventual potential of 300,000. 

The town of Oyster Bay and the New York State Conser- 
vation Department are cooperating to develop five hundred 
acres of wetlands along the south shore of Long Island as "a 
conservation model and showpiece for the entire state and 
nation." The area to be developed is the town's existing 
Tobay Sanctuary between Jones Beach State Park and To- 
bay Beach on Great South Bay. The program is the first 
planned under a new state conservation measure providing 
financial backing for the preservation of wetlands. 

TENNESSEE. Labor unions, Exchange Clubs, the state 
restaurant association, and the Tennessee Easter Seal 
Society joined in the construction of a camp for handicap- 
ped children on Old Hickory Lake in Wilson County about 
thirty miles from Nashville. The camp will benefit between 
four hundred and five hundred children each summer. The 
thirty-acre site was made available by the U.S. Corps of 




This island in Lake Ontario, New York, complete with 150 
cabins, tents, recreation equipment, meeting hall, boats, 
and other facilities, including mainland installations, has 
been presented to the New York State YMCA by the 
General Electric Company. The island and facilities rep- 
resent an original cost of more than $1,000,000. It is 
located fifty-six miles north of Syracuse at Henderson 
Harbor. For over forty years GE used "Association Is- 
land" as a site for its summer workshops and executive 
training programs. The Y will use it for summer work 
with young adults and student groups, for leadership 
training camps, and as a site for YMCA conferences. 

Engineers and has thirty-eight hundred feet of shoreline 
and large level areas for ten buildings. Members of nine- 
teen labor unions volunteered labor, with much of the equip- 
ment donated or provided to the society at cost. Labor 
unions involved included the asbestos workers, boilermak- 
ers, bricklayers, carpenters, cement masons, electrical work- 
ers, glaziers, elevator constructors, iron workers, hod car- 
riers, lathers, operating engineers, painters, plasterers, 
plumbers, roofers, sheetmetal workers, steamfitters, and 
teamsters. 

UTAH. The state has launched a $1,000,000 land acquisi- 
tion program to remedy its dearth of recreation facilities. 
The Utah Park and Recreation Commission hopes to ac- 
quire woodland parks in the Wasatch Range adjacent to 
populous Salt Lake valley and establish camp-style facili- 
ties at Dead Horse Point and Goblin Valley in the Colorado 
River canyon region. The state park system is still very 
much in the planning stage, but state, county, and federal 
cooperation has resulted in the establishment of Rockport 
Lake State Park between the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains 
and of Dixie State Park in Snow Canyon. Rockport Lake, 
formed by the Bureau of Reclamation's Wanship Dam, 
offers boat docks, a store, and cluster of cabins. The state 
commission has also received as a gift a former resort area 
on Great Salt Lake, Saltair, a small-scale "Coney Island" 
with a Gay Nineties motif. 

With the help of some of the Western states, Utah was 
able to get an amendment to Federal Law 387 which had 
limited the amount of land a state could acquire from the 
Bureau of Land Management to 640 acres annually. The 
new amendment provides for raising the limitation to 6,400 
acres with a limitation of three areas per year ; and, in addi- 
tion, there is the limit for the years 1960, 1961, and 1962 
of 12,800 for each of the three years, plus six areas annually. 
Utah also received authority to purchase an unlimited num- 
ber of roadside parks, not exceeding ten acres, on land 
belonging to the Bureau of Land Management. The bureau 
administers over 24,000,000 acres of land in Utah (46.8% 
of the state) on which there is no recreation development. # 



MARCH 1960 



137 



MARKET 




NEWS 



For further information regarding 
any of these products, write directly 
to the manufacturer. Please mention 
that you saw it in RECREATION. 

Jean Wachtel 




This issue of RECREATION Magazine is devoted, almost 
exclusively, to camping in all its divers forms. Therefore, 
items for this column were selected with an eye for their 
utility in camping; the first three, for water safety. 

Three for Safety 

Naturally, swimming areas 
are never left unattended dur- 
ing regular swimming periods, 
but there is always the off- 
chance that some youngster 
might try a little aquatic ex- 
perimentation of his own when 
nobody's looking. In order to 
help circumvent any possible 
tragedies, the Minneapolis- 
Honeywell Regulator Com- 
pany has devised a highly sen- 
sitive electronic alarm that can 
be adjusted so finely is will de- 
tect a hand splashing in the 
water. The system includes a 
sensing element submerged ap- 
proximately a foot below the 
water surface and a remotely 
located alarm panel (shown 
next to each other in the pic- 
ture) . Whenever an object falls into the water, the sensing 
element detects the sound vibrations caused by the splash, 
then electronically relays a signal to the alarm panel, which 
can be located up to one hundred feet from the pool. An 
alarm horn is then sounded to summon aid. Detailed infor- 
mation on the swimming pool alarm system may be had by 
writing Minneapolis-Honeywell Home Products Division, 
2747 Fourth Avenue South, Minneapolis 8, Minnesota. 

Another safety device, complete but still portable, is the 
AMBU Rescue Breathing Equipment, which consists of both 

a hand-operated resuscitator 
and a foot-operated suction 
pump in a plastic carrying 
case. Lightweight and sturdy, 
this equipment can be used by 
virtually anyone, anywhere, 
without time-wasting setting 
up, use of electricity, or of 
compressed gases. Consisting 
of face mask, self-inflating bag, 
and nonrebreathing valve, the 
resuscitator delivers adequate 
volumes of air with the first 

squeeze of the bag. The foot-operated suction pump delivers 
intermittent partial vacuum for fast clearing of the airway, 
which so often is clogged with water, mucus, or other for- 
eign matter. AMBU is offered as a complete resuscitation- 

138 




suction unit, but either element may be bought separately. 
Formerly manufactured in Denmark, the unit has been en- 
dorsed by such European agencies as the Bavarian, Swiss, 
and Austrian alpine rescue organizations, the NATO armies 
medical corps, the Norwegian air force and merchant navy, 
and Danish civil defense. For all details, write Air-Shields, 
Inc., Hatboro, Pennsylvania. 

In the event that you have a near drowning on your 
hands, in either pool or natural body of water, either this 
or the preceding resuscitator could prove to be invaluable. 
The Mira tube, made of molded Tenite polyethylene plastic 
is a device designed to bring immediate, effective aid to 
nonbreathing victims of near drowning, asphyxiation, or 
electric shock, particularly for the rescuer reluctant to use 
mouth-to-mouth breathing. One end of the tube, which 
looks like an elongated S, is placed in the victim's mouth 
(once he has been placed on his back) until the flange rc-l- 
against his lips or teeth. The rescuer then breathes through 
the tube at the rate of fifteen to twenty times per minute, 
interrupting the artificial respiration to permit passive ex- 
halation by the victim. Available in sizes for children and 
adults, the Mira tube is resistant to most chemicals used in 
cold sterilization. For complete information, write the Mira 
Corporation, 2656 North Pasadena, Los Angeles 31. Cal- 
ifornia. 

e Power failure is always likely in relatively isolated areas 
such as camping grounds, in either state and national parks 
and forests or out in the country. In such instance-. >iand-by 

power is mandatory] 
A unit that fills die 
bill more than ade- 
quately is the \\ inco 
Lite Portable Fniiine 
Generator, which 
compact portable 
power plant delivers 
up to 3000 wall- \( . 
starting at its rated 
2500 watts. The 
Briggs & Stratlon 4- 
cycle aluminum en- 
gine has nationwide 
service facilities, thus doubling its usefulne--. Cnmiii 
equipped with its own carrying handle and weighing 123 
pounds, the Winco Lite offers many other advantages such 
as the exclusive AUTOMATIC coNSERV-er Idling Control 
and full power at either 115 or 230 volts, from one 
outlet and versatility. It can also be set up as an e\lra 
light source wherever you waul it. for whatever pin |>o-c \ on 
want, such as near the pool for a water show. It is aU,> 
available with stationan l-a.-e. a >peed\ Shift '2 -\\heel dolly. 
or carrying cradle. For complete information write the 
\\ ineharger Corporation, a subsidiary of /enith Radio, 
Sioux City 2, Iowa. 

RECREATION 




INDEX OF ADVERTISERS 

Page 

American Playground Device Inside Back Cover 

Association Press 105 

Bear's Head 141 

Champion Recreation Equipment . 131 

Cosom Industries 101 

Dimco-Gray 98 

Exposition Press . 139 

F. H. Noble Inside Back Cover 

FLXIBLE 1 105 

Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. (book) . 140 

Gold Medal Products 98 

Gymnastic Supply 140 

Hillerich & Bradsby Center Insert 

Institutional Cinema Service .141 

James Spencer 139 

Jayfro Athletic Supply .139 

Kalah Game 140 

MacGregor 97 

Mason Candies 103 

Monroe 140 

National Sports 140 

National Studios 141 

Jew York University 141 

Recreation Equipment 104 

Ronald Press .102 

T. F. Twardzik _ 98 

J. S. Defense Bonds _ Back Cover 

Voit . . 105 

Wenger Music Equipment _ 139 



New, improved Golden Age Club Pin. 
Now in real gold plate with tree in 
green jewelers' enamel. Safety catch. 
50c each, including federal tax and 
postage. 

Minimum order 10 pins 
Available only to authentic clubs. 

JAMES SPENCER & CO. 
22 N. 6th Street Philadelphia 6, Pa 





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Dept. R, Box 1065, NEW LONDON, CONN. 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 



RATES: Words in regular type $.15 each 
Words in boldface type $.25 each 
Minimum ad accepted $3.00 



DEADLINES: Copy must be received by 
the fifth of the month preceding date of 
the issue in which ad is desired. 



COPY: Type or clearly print your message and the address to which you wish 
replies sent. Underline any words you want to appear in boldface type. 

Send copy with remittance to: 
RECREATION Classified Advertising, 8 West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York. 



HELP WANTED 

Recreation Therapists 

for California State Hospi- 
tals. Opportunity to plan 
and conduct individual pa- 
tient recreation as well as 
special group activities; 
modern equipment and fa- 
cilities available. Positions 
open to college graduates 
with major in recreation or 
recreation therapy, which 
included supervised field 



work. No experience re- 
quired. Starting salary 
$415.00 per month; promo- 
tional opportunities; liber- 
al employment benefits. 
Write State Personnel 
Board, 801 Capitol Avenue, 
Sacramento, California. 



Group Workers, branch 
director and program as- 
sistant in decentralized 
countywide group-work 
agency. Salary dependent 



on experience. MSW re- 
quired. Efraim H. Gale, 
executive director, Greater 
Miami Jewish Community 
Center, 450 SW 16th Ave- 
nue, Miami 35, Florida. 

SERVICES 
AVAILABLE 

Square Dance Caller, col- 
lege, club, or convention. 
Piute Pete, 55 West Eighth 
Street, New York 11, New 
York. 



The publisher assumes no responsibility for services or items advertised here. 



Free to WRITERS 

seeking a book publisher 

Two fact-filled, illustrated brochures tell bow 
' to publish your book, get 40% royalties, na- 
tional advertising, publicity and promotion. 
Free editorial appraisal. Write Dept. R-3 

Exposition Press / 386 4th Ave., N.Y. 16 




with the portable 

SHOW WAGON 

you can GO where 
the events take place 
.and be heard 
MUSIC 
EQUIPMENT 

CO. 
watonna, Minn. 





BINDERS 



Heavy simulated leather 
Gold stamped 



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Holds one year's issues 



Price 

$3.50 each 

(Includes 12 blades) 

[Extra sets of looped rods available 
separately for $.65 per set] 



MAIL 
THIS 

COUPON 
NOW 



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New York 11, N. Y. 



PLEASE FIU. IN 
Year Number of Copies 

1958 

1959 



This is my order for REC- 196 

REATION Magazine binders. undated.. 



Name ...... 

Address- 



City 
Bill 



. ; or enclosed.. 



603 



MARCH I960 



139 



REVEILLE FOR CAMP BUILDERS 

Julian H. Salomon's Camp Site Devel- 
opment enlarged edition. Simplifies 
water supply, sewage, road and power 
systems; emphasizes camp planning. ///. 
Send $5 to Girl Scouts NES, Dept. B, 830 Third 
Avenue, New York 22. 



NATIONAL 




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FOLOKINC 



DIRECT PRICES 

OISCOUN 



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FOLDING TABLE LINE 

Kilchen committees, social group*, atten- 
tion! Factory prices & discounts lip In 400& 
to Churches, Schools, Clubs, etc. Monroe 
all-new FOLD-KING Banquet Tables, 
with exclusive new automatic folding and 
locking, super slrength, easy seating. 6K models and sixes. 

BIG NEW 1960 CATALOG FREE 

Color pictures. Full line tables, chairs, table and chair trikU. pl.il 
form-risers, portable partitions, bulletin bo.iaK Our 52d year 

THE MONROE CO., 181 Church St., Colfax, Iowa 




^** ' Jlfc W . GYM APPARATUS 

GYMNASTIC UNIFORMS COILING DOORS 

GRANDSTANDS PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT 

FOLDING BLEACHERS BASKETBALL BACKSTOPS 

REBOUND TUMBLING UNITS SCOREBOARDS 

WEIGHTLIFTING EQUIPMENT LOCKERS 

GYMNASTIC SUPPLY COMPANY 

250 Sixth Street San Pedro, California 




Recreation leaders from Boston to 
Los Angeles use this nrans of solv- 
ing many playground problems. 

THE MORALE BUILDER 

Ten Minutes of Special Coaching Can Pro- 
duce a Kalah Enthusiast. 

SEND FOR IEAFIET No. 12. Show, how one In- 
spired player can develop volunteer helpers who 
will itort a wove of sustained interest that may 
spread over a city. 
KAUH BOARD Jimp|e ^ ^ n ^ nM 

from UNICEF Recreation Man- 
ual supplied with each order. 

KAUH GAME CO. 
131 Slate St., Boston, Mass. 





LISTENING AND VIEWING 



Have You Heard This One? 

Jim Copp and Ed Brown have done 
it again, this time with their recording 
of Fable Forest, a reworking of fifteen 
Aesop fables. Copp narrates clearly 
and without flourishes, starting with 
"when the world was very young, and 
nobody knew how to act," and goes on 
from there, delightfully, spellbindingly. 
My seven-year-old assistant critic also 
got the moral inherent in each fable 
without feeling clobbered by the ob- 
vious. 

For example, consider the story of 
the lion and the mouse. The lion is 
about to gobble up the mouse, but de- 
sists when the mouse promises to help 
him some day. That day comes when 
he frees the lion from a trap by gnaw- 
ing its ropes. As his reward, which the 
lion says can be anything he wants, the 
mouse chooses to marry the lion's 
daughter. During the resulting, reluc- 
tant ceremony, the lioness trips and 
squashes her about-to-be bridegroom. 
The moral: "Don't overstep yourself." 
The slightly gory ending is softened by 
the lion's roaring, "Somebody sweep 
up that mouse . . . and let's all have a 
party; everybody dance, everybody 
sing." 

While more uneven in quality and 
less of a whole than their first record, 
Jim Copp Tales (reviewed September 
1959) , Fables is still an excellent re- 
cord. Both are suitable for recreation 
or camp story hour, rainy days, creative 
dramatics, the sick bay, quiet hour 
use limited only by imagination. Avail- 
able from Playhouse Records, Box 
36061, Los Angeles 36, California 
(Playhouse 202, 12", 33 1/3, $4.95). 

Another charming Caedmon story- 
telling record recently off the press is 
the one of Boris Karloff reading "The 
Ugly Duckling" and five other Hans 
Christian Andersen stories, some well 
known, others less so. Among the bet- 
ter known are "The Princess and the 
Pea" and "The Shepherdess and the 
Chimney Sweep." 

Mr. Karloff is an expert on children's 
literature, in addition to his acting, and 
reads with clarity, expression, and great 
warmth. He utilizes no sound effects 
nor outside voices, but the pint-sized 
audience still sits enthralled, ear glued 
to speaker, listening to every word. 
Available from Caedmon Records, 277 
Fifth Avenue, New York 16 (TC 1109, 
12", 33 1/3, $5.95). J.W. 



Recreation leaders who abhor pre- 
fabricated do-it-yourself hobby sets will 
find Elektra's Folk Song Kit a cat of 
quite another breed. This beginner's 
guitar instruction course includes man- 
ual, chart, and practice record. It 
should propel those teen-agers who 
have picked up a chord or two to settle 
down to something more; would be a 
fine pick-it-up for servicemen on iso- 
lated stations far from a teacher (and 
even for those in more accessible are- 
as) ; and a special boon for the hospital- 
ized, homebound, and people cut off 
from usual channels. One side of the 
record gives chord instruction by Billy 
Faier, professional folk singer, accom- 
panist, and editor-publisher of Caravan 
Folk Music Magazine; the other has 
twenty favorite folk songs played and 
sung by Milt Okun. teacher, arranger, 
conductor, and performer. The manual 
also includes a survey of American folk 
music by Lee Hays, veteran folk singer 
(The Weavers) and composer ("Kisses 
Sweeter than Wine"). Of course, the 
success of any such course as this is 
the seriousness of purpose (shown in 
the seriousness of play) evidenced by 
the practicer. Available from Elektra 
Records, 116 West 14th Street, New 
York 11 (EKL-KIT. 12", 33 1/3, treat- 
ed for heavy use, $5.95). E.D. 

Film Flashes 

For All the Children is a sensitive 
and moving film relating the story of 
the New York Herald Tribune Fresh 
Air Fund's experiment in integrated 
camping for handicapped and nonhand- 
icapped children at Camp Hidden Val- 
ley, Ridgefield, Connecticut. (See write- 



Keep 'em SINGING 

with these all-time favorite 

SONG SLIDES 

wonderful hours of fun for 
young and old alike 

2" x 2" slides 50</slide 

3'/4"x4"slides... 1.00/slide 

WRITE F0 CATOLOGUE S 

NATIONAL STUDIOS 

42 Wed 48th Street 
New York 36, N. Y. 



JUdion 7-1926 



140 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



up on this camp in June 1955 RECREA- 
TION, Page 260.) 

The film opens with a brief history 
of the Fresh Air Fund, illustrated by 
film clips, showing the dismal slum con- 
ditions that so shocked the Reverend 
Willard Parsons, of Sherman, Pennsyl- 
vania, that he decided to try to mitigate 
them in some manner. He founded the 
FAF in 1877 and served as its first di- 
rector. Ever since its inception, the 
Fund has operated under Dr. Parsons' 
credo: "What is done out of love can 
never die." 

The major part of the film is devoted 
to the Hidden Valley experiment: the 
original idea of integrating the handi- 
capped and nonhandicapped; would it 
work; and how could it be worked out. 
Ultimately the problems were resolved ; 
the children, previously screened by 
recognized social-service agencies, 
packed into buses, off to the country for 
the first time. 

The handicaps covered a wide vari- 
ety of disorders, but once they came 
upon the lush greenness of Camp Hid- 
den Valley, "the burdens of disability 
[were] forgotten." The counselors were 
regular college material, with some Jay 
Gees included. All were given a short 
orientation course to acquaint them 
with the special needs of the handi- 
capped. The entire experiment has 
been called "a new concept in social 
rehabilitation." 




Narrator Mary Martin and two young- 
ster actors of For All the Children. 

This film was chosen when the United 
States Information Agency and the 
National Broadcasting Company were 
looking for a representative social- 
service film to show at the American 
National Exhibit in Moscow, last July. 

Though running only eighteen min- 
utes, this 16mm, color film should be 
an eye-opener to any camp or recrea- 
tion department that has shied away 
from the very thought of having the 
handicapped and nonhandicapped 
children camping together, utilizing the 
same facilities. It was produced, direct- 
ed and coauthored by Leo Trachten- 
berg and Robert K. Merrick, photo- 
graphed by Ross Lowell. Available on 
free loan from Harvest Films, 90 River- 
side Drive, New York 24. J.W. 




New York University Camp, 

Lake Sebago, S /oats burg, N. Y. 

Undergraduate Camp, June 4 June 26 

Open to Undergraduate Students with a major 
in Physical Education, Camping or Recreation. 

Graduate Camp, July 4 August 12 

Graduate professional courses in Health, 
Physical Education, Dance, Camping, Recreation 



Washington Square, 

New York 3, New York 

Undergraduate and Graduate courses in 
Health, Physical Education, Physical Therapy 
and Recreation. 

Inter-session, June 6 July 1. 
Summer Session, July 5 August 72. 
Post Session, August 15 September 9. 

Courses lead to the B.S., M.S. and Doctorate Degrees. 



For further information write to: 

Department of Physical Education, 

Health and Recreation 

School of Education 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

Washington Square 
New York 3, New York 



INDIAN 




GAMES 

Full series of 
Indian contests 
and games, com- 
plete with finish- 
ed equipment and 
rules ready for 
play. Puts real In- 
dian Lore into your 
program. Fine hand- 
worked pieces, PLUS 
proper songs, cere- 
monies, useful infor- 
mation for authen- 
ticity. 
Write for free catalog: 

Bear's Head Indian 

Games & Specialties Co. 

213 Forbes Avenue 

Dept. 60R 

Phone: IAI 1282 

Tonawaiida, New York 



-MOVIES- 

For Every Occasion 

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Send for 64-page FREE CATALOG 

INSTITUTIONAL CINEMA SERVICE, INC. 

41 Union Square New York 3, N. Y. 



MARCH 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



141 



RECREATION For The 



III and Handicapped 



Since the field of recreation for the 
ill and handicapped Jias expanded far 
beyond the confines of hospitals, this 
regular column, formerly called "Hos- 
pital Capsules," is likewise expanding 
its title. 

4* The Consulting Service on Recrea- 
tion for the 111 and Handicapped of the 
National Recreation Association knows 
of a large number of unfilled positions 
for recreation workers with the ill and 
handicapped thoughout the country. It 
does not have the funds for recruitment, 
movies, literature, and staff, so it must 
have your help. The Consulting Service 
is initiating a nationwide recruiting 
contest. Prizes will be awarded to the 
three people who recruit the most per- 
sons to the field of recreation for the 
ill and handicapped. 

Send the Consulting Service your 
name if you are interested in becoming 
a contest participant. Please tell other 
recreation leaders. If the recruits are 
not already trained in recreation, per- 
suade them to go to a college or univ- 
ersity giving specialized courses in this 
area. If the recruits are trained in rec- 
reation, but not in work with the ill and 
handicapped the Consulting Service 
will help them find positions where 
they will be given careful supervision 
while working with the ill and handi- 
capped. Prizes, worth over $50 each, 
have been donated by a kind friend of 
the field. 

Make it a point to speak at the high 
schools and undergraduate colleges in 
your community and any other place 
where you think you are likely to find 
interest. Everyone of you can recruit 
at least one person to our field and 
surely there are many who can recruit 
more. How about it? 

f 1 Presidents of the three professional 
organizations working with the ill and 
handicapped are having several meet- 
ings this spring to develop feasible 

MRS. HILL is director, National Recrea- 
tion Association Consulting Service on 
Recreation for the III and Handicapped. 

142 



methods of forming one strong profes- 
sional organization. Let's hope they will 
find the answers so in 1961 we may 
forge ahead as one united force. At the 
end of February, the three chairmen of 
the three organizations met at the Na- 
tional Recreation Association and 
worked out a formal description of rec- 
reation for the ill and handicapped, 
which, in turn, will be sent to the mem- 
bers of their organizations for ap- 
proval. When this is accomplished, we 
will have one answer, not three, when 
asked, "What exactly is recreation in 
the medical setting?" 

4* An article in the October issue 
(Pages 334-335) discussed the Sussex 
County Project for a coordinated rec- 
reation program for the ill, handicap- 
ped, and aged in a rural county. At that 
time the Consulting Service was trying 
to find means to finance an on-going 
program after the project, supported by 
a foundation grant, had ended. Such 
means have now been developed and 
may be applicable in other areas of the 
country. 

The county welfare department has 
agreed to pay a share of one recreation 
worker's salary, providing service for 
three sessions a week in the welfare 
homes caring for patients. The small 
general hospital will pay for four ses- 
sions, and each of the four proprietary 
nursing homes will pay for one session 
a week. This equals thirty hours a week, 
with the remaining ten for recruiting, 
training volunteers, and other program 
responsibilities. The institutions will 
pay ten dollars for each session, total- 
ling $110 a week. Thus, the worker's 
salary will be $5200 a year. The auto- 
mobile allowance equals approximately 
another $500 a year. 

As the project continues this year, the 
Consulting Service hopes to expand the 
program to include the noninstitution- 
alized handicapped and older persons 
living in boarding homes. It is confi- 
dent that, once again, the community 
will come to the rescue and find the 
means to support this expansion of 



service. If you have a small hospital 
and a number of nursing homes in your 
part of the country, they may be inter- 
ested in knowing of this project, and 
how they, too, can provide recreation 
services. 

In another project in which the Con- 
sulting Service tried using the same 
methods found so successful in Sussex 
County and failed. It was impossible 
to coordinate six institutions in six dif- 
ferent towns, because each town, rather 
than cooperate with one another, com- 
peted. Cooperation is the keynote in 
any coordinated project. 

f 1 The NRA Consulting Service has 
been working with the U.S. Children's 
Bureau to develop plans for a three-year 
study of recreation for handicapped 
children throughout the country. By 
law, all handicapped children whether 
mentally or physically handicapped, 
get educational advantages, but then- 
is little ev idence that communities make 
much effort to include the handicapped 
child in recreation plans. 

Jf Another Consulting Service study 
concerns methods and techniques to 
help the professional successfully moti- 
vate the chronically ill aged person. 
The Consulting Service lias questioned 
many eminent authorities on this score. 
The majority seem to feel that a stncK 
in this area will reveal that the person- 
ality of the worker and his use of his 
own assets is the most important factor. 

i" The State of California provides an 
example of the power of legislation. To 
be eligible for licensure, it is now man- 
datory for nursing homes in California 
to offer some recreation to patient*. 

% The National Association for Re- 
tarded Children and the NRA Consult- 
ing Service are working on a plan to 
develop a demonstration of how a cen- 
ter geared to social rehabilitation ma) 
aid the mentally retarded. This \\ ill 
prove that many who are considered 
retardates with no job potential could 
develop such a potential, once self-run- 
fidence has been gained through educa- 
tion and recreation. A place to go and 
things to do under guidance every day 
can be a great help, not only to the re- 
t ai-date but also his family. # 

RKCRKVTION 



Magazine Articles 



THE AMERICAN CHILD, January 1960 

Problems Before the Golden Anniversary 
White House Conference on Children and 
Youth. 
AMERICAN FORESTS, January 1960 

Let's Go Trail Riding, Michael Frame. 

The Oregon Dunes, William B. Morse. 
CAMPING MAGAZINE, January 1960 

Have You Tried "Spelunking"? John See- 

ger. 
HARPER'S February 1960 

Exploring the Great Deeps (oceanography), 
Leonard Engel. 

Men to Match Japan's Mountains, (sumo 
wrestling), Allan R. Bosworth. 

The Rebirth of Jonny (childhood schizo- 
phrenia) , Mira Rothenberg. 

Housekeeping at the Big Museum (Metro- 
politan Museum of Art), Edith Iglauer. 
JOHPER, January 1960 

Education for Leisure A Must, Jay B. 
Nash. 

First Lessons in Figure Skating, Barbara 
Southward. 

NCATE Accredited Institutions Offering 
Degrees in Health, Physical Education, 
Recreation. 
NEA JOURNAL, January 1960 

What Is a Good Art Program? Mary Ade- 
line McKibbin. 

Subtle Learnings of Little Children, Paul 
N. Van Ness. 

HE OPTIMIST, January 1960 

Curling Hottest Project on Ice. 

Bike Safety Hits the Big City, Barney Sing- 

erman. 
'ARENTS', February 1960 

What Makes Teens Try Dope, Edward R. 
Bloomquist, MD. 

Friendships by Mail, Gunhild Gansing. 

ARKS AND RECREATION, January 1960 

How About a Par 3 Golf Course? Ben 
Chlevin. 

Night Needs Light, Stacy Standley. 

The Playground of Tomorrow, Frank Cap- 
Ian. 

Public Boating on Small Lakes, Norville 
Hall. 

A Sailing Program for the Public, Laura 
Slocombe. 

ARKS AND RECREATION IN CANADA, January 

1960 

Memorial Sports Centre (Oshawa), R. A. 
Stencel. 

Outstanding Sarnia Tree Program, William 

Palmer. 
[ECREATION FOR THE ILL AND HANDICAPPED, 

January I960 

Creative Dance. Mary London Brooks. 

How to Plan a Carnival, ha Hutchinson, Jr. 



Recordings 



)AVE VAN RONK Smcs BALLADS, BLUES AND 
A SPIRITUAL (FS3818). Folkways Records, 
117 West 46th Street, New York 36 (12", 
33 1/3, $5.95). 

lektra Records 



161), Theodore Bikel and Geula Gill; 
SONGS OF A RUSSIAN GYPSY (EKL-151), 
Theodore Bikel; THE LIMELITERS (EKL- 
180) ; GOLD COAST SATURDAY NIGHT (EKL- 
167), Saka Acquaye and His African En- 
semble from Ghana (all 33 1/3, 12", $4.98) . 
Elektra Records, 116 West 14th Street, New 
York 11. 



Books & Pamphlets 
Received 



MORSE CODE COURSE (CC-1) ; FOLK SONGS 
FROM JUST ABOUT EVERYWHERE (EKL- 



Arts and Crafts 

ADVENTURE IN STITCHES (rev. ed.), Mariska 
Karasz. Funk & Wagnalls, 153 E. 24th St., 
New York 10. Pp. 127. $7.50. 

BEGINNER'S BOOK OF WATERCOLOUR PAINT- 
ING, THE, Adrian Hill. Emerson Books, 251 
W. 19th St., New York 11. Pp. 77. $2.95. 

DEVELOPING, C. I. Jacobson. American Photo- 
graphic Book Publishing, 33 W. 60th St., 
New York 23. Pp. 327. $4.50. 

FUN WITH ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS, Joseph Leem- 
ing. J. B. Lippincott, E. Washington Sq., 
Philadelphia. Pp. 95. $3.00. 

HAND WEAVING, S. A. Zielinski. Funk & Wag- 
nails Co., 153 E. 24th St., New York 10. Pp. 
190. $8.50. 

MIRROR WITH A MEMORY (photography), 
Charles Michael Daugherty. Harcourt 
Brace, 750 3rd Ave., New York 17. Pp. 96. 
$3.25. 

MORE PLYWOOD PROJECTS, Robert Scharff. 
McGraw-Hill, 330 W. 42nd St., New York 
36. Pp. 184. $5.50. 

MOSAICS, Doris and Diane Lee Aller. Lane 
Publishing, Menlo Park, Calif. Pp.96. Pa- 
per, $1.95. 

1960 INTERNATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHY YEAR 
BOOK, Norman Hall, Editor. St. Martin's 
Press, 175 5th Ave., New York 10. Pp. 216. 
$6.95. 

ORIGAMI (Book Three), Florence Sakade. 
Charles E. Tuttle, 28-30 S. Main St., Rut- 
land, Vt. Pp. 32. Paper, $1.00. 

POPULAR STYLES OF JAPANESE FLOWER AR- 
RANGEMENT, Lida Webb. Hearthside Press, 
118 E. 28th St., New York 16. Pp. 124. 
$2.95. 

PRINTMAKING, Gabor Peterdi. Macmillan, 60 
5th Ave., New York 11. Pp. 303. $12.50. 

STONEWARE AND PORCELAIN, Daniel Rhodes. 
Chilton Co., 56th & Chestnut Sts., Philadel- 
phia 39. Pp. 217. $7.50. 

TIN CAN CRAFTING, Sylvia W. Howard. Ster- 
ling Publishing, 419 4th Ave., New York 16. 
Pp.64. $2.50. 

VANISHING CRAFTS AND THEIR CRAFTSMEN, 
Rollin C. Steinmetz and Charles S. Rice. 
Rutgers Univ. Press, 30 College Ave., New 
Brunswick, N. J. Pp. 160. $4.75. 

Camping, Nature 

CAMPING AND OUTDOOR FUN, Maj. Mauno A. 

Lindholm. Hart Publishing, 74 Fifth Ave., 

New York 11. Pp. 192. Paper, $1.50. 
CAMPING DIGEST, Kenneth Chasey. Box 6247, 

Lamar Park Sta., Corpus Christi, Tex. Pp. 

225. Paper, $2.00. 
CAMP SITE DEVELOPMENT, Julian H. Saloman. 

Girl Scouts of the USA, 830 3rd Ave., New 

York 22. Pp. 160. $5.00. 
CAMPSITE FINDER (Vol. 11959), Pacific 

Coast and Alaska, Richard and Jane Hartes- 



veldt. INaturegraph Publishing, Box 46, 
San Martin, Calif. Pp. 80. Paper, $1.00. 

CHILDREN'S ADVENTURE WITH NATURE AND 
PEOPLE, A. J. William Myers, PhD. Exposi- 
tion Press, 386 4th Ave., New York 16. Pp. 
108. $3.00. 

DEVELOPING CAMP SITES AND FACILITIES, John 
A. Ledlie, Editor. Association Press, 291 
Broadway, New York 7. Pp. 63. Paper, 
$3.50. 

ENDURING PATTERN, THE, Hal Borland. Simon 
& Schuster, 630 5th Ave., New York 20. Pp. 
247. $5.00. 

FIELD GUIDE TO AMERICAN WILDLIFE: East, 
Central & North, Henry Hill Collins, Jr. 
Harper & Brothers, 49 E. 33rd St., New 
York 16. Pp. 683. $6.95. 

How ANIMALS MOVE, James Gray. Cam- 
bridge Univ. Press, 32 E. 57th St., New 
York 22. Pp. 143. Paper, $1.75. 

How TO SELECT A SUMMER CAMP FOR YOUR 
CHILD, Irving Horowitz. Chilton Co., 56th 
& Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia 39. Pp. 84. 
$2.95 (paper, $1.95). 

LIVING EARTH, Peter Farb. Harper & Bros., 
49 E. 33rd St., New York 16. Pp. 172. $3.75. 

LIVING WITH OTHERS (teacher's manual plus 
junior camper's book), Carrie Lou God- 
dard. Abingdon Press, 201 8th Ave. S., 
Nashville 2, Tenn. Pp. 114. Paper, $1.25. 

MANUAL FOR OUTDOOR LABORATORIES, Rich- 
ard L. Weaver, Editor. Interstate Printers, 
19-29 N. Jackson St., Danville, 111. Pp. 81. 
Paper, $1.25. 

THE NATURAL THING: The Land and Its Cit- 
izens, Pieter W. Fosburgh. Macmillan, 60 
5th Ave., New York 11. Pp. 174. $3.75. 

NORTH AMERICAN WATERFOWL, Albert M. 
Day. Stackpole Co., Cameron & Kelker Sts., 
Harrisburg, Pa. Pp. 363. $5.75. 

101 WlLDFLOWERS OF CRATER LAKE NATIONAL 

PARK, Grant and Wenonah Sharpe. Univ. 
of Washington Press, Seattle 5. Pp. 40. 
Paper, $1.00. 

OUR GREAT OUTDOORS What Are We Doing 
About It? Center for Information on Amer- 
ica, Washington, Conn. Pp. 4. $.25. 

OUTDOOR REFERENCE GUIDE, Amelia R. Long. 
Stackpole Co., Cameron and Kelker Sts., 
Harrisburg, Pa. Pp. 288. $7.50. 

PACIFIC NORTHWEST, THE. Golden Press, 630 
5th Ave., New York 20. Pp. 160. $2.50. 

PLANTS THAT CHANCED THE WORLD, Bertha S. 
Dodge. Little, Brown, 34 Beacon St., Bos- 
ton 6. Pp. 183. $3.50. 

POCKET FIELD GUIDE TO NATURE Volume I. 
Stackpole Co., Cameron & Kelker Sts., Har- 
risburg, Pa. Pp. 96. Paper, $1.50. 

RANGE LAND ANIMAL TALES, Sabina Carlin 
Pratt. Exposition Press, 386 4th Ave., New 
York 16. Pp. 58. $2.50. 

SEA AND SHORE, THE, Marion B. Carr. Golden 
Press, 630 5th Ave., New York 20. Pp. 57. 
$1.50. 

SECRETS IN THE DUST, Raymond Holden. 
Dodd, Mead, 432 4th Ave., New York 16. 
Pp. 177. $2.75. 

SPRING FLOWERS OF THE LOWER COLUMBIA 
VALLEY, Clara C. Hill. Univ. of Washington 
Press, Seattle 5. Pp. 164. $3.00. 

STRANGE PARTNERS (cooperation among ani- 
mals) , Sigmund Lavine. Little, Brown, 34 
Beacon St., Boston 6. Pp. 106. $2.75. 

WORLD OF LIVING THINGS, Paul Griswold 
Howes. Duell. Sloan & Pearce. 124 E. 30th 
St., New York 16. Pp. 232. $4.50. 

WORLD OF PATTERN, A, Gwen White. Charles 
T. Branford. 69 Union St., Newton Centre 
59, Mass. Pp. 76. $3.95. 



IARCH 1960 



143 




PUBLICATIONS 



Camp Waterfront Programs and 
Management, Richard Pohndorf. Asso- 
ciation Press, 291 Broadway, New 
York 7. Pp. 256, illustrated. $7.50. 

This, the latest addition to the YMCA 
Aquatic Professional Series, provides 
long-needed coverage of the problems 
of waterfront program operation and 
administration. It is a key resource for 
almost any phase of aquatic program- 
ing in a resident or day-camp setting, 
whether run by recreation department 
or private agency. The book does not 
deal specifically with the YMCA opera- 
tion ; most of the material can be easily 
adapted to any program. The examples 
are well selected and provide breadth 
and scope for intelligent planning. 

The seamanship program and stand- 
ards of proficiency are excellent, espe- 
cially when the high interest in small- 
craft ownership and their use by the 
general public are considered. It is 
regrettable, however, that some refer- 
ence to the existing American Red 
Cross Small Craft Programs was not 
included. Some of this material can be 
applied to individual operation of small 
craft outside the usual camp operation, 
which is good or bad, depending on 
your viewpoint. 

The somewhat incomplete bibliogra- 
phy of up-to-date references does not 
detract from the book's overall value. 
Stanley Stacker, Metropolitan New 
York Council, American Youth Hostels. 
(See his article on camp lands, Page 
132.) 

Your Family Goes Camping, Doris 
Patterson. Abingdon Press, 201 Eighth 
Avenue, South, Nashville 2, Tennessee. 
Pp. 160, illustrated. $2.50. 

This summer you will be asked for 
advice on family camping, if the present 
trend continues and it will. Or you 
may wish to take the family on a cross- 
country jaunt, camping along the way. 
In either case, this book will provide 
answers to such questions as: Where 
shall I go? What shall I take? What 
about tents, sleeping bags, cooking, 
sanitation? It is based on the long 

144 



llir Lpisnrp-tinip Fip.li! 



camping experience of Mr. and Mrs. 
Patterson and their four children, all 
inveterate campers. The style is con- 
cise and enthusiastic. 

The only criticism of this book con- 
cerns two items. Mrs. Patterson does 
not use the modern mouth-to-mouth 
method of artificial respiration. She 
also fails to give sufficient warning 
about the removal of ticks, those car- 
riers of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. 
Never remove them by hand. Use tweez- 
ers; never touch ticks with fingers. 

Developing Camp Sites and Facili- 
ties, Association Press, 291 Broadway, 
New York 7. Pp. 63, illustrated. $3.50. 

This publication, prepared by the 
National Commission on YMCA Camp 
Layouts, Buildings, and Facilities, is 
another indication of the excellent ma- 
terial on camp design and development 
that is being issued by youth-serving 
agencies. Designed to assist those re- 
sponsible for planning and developing 
camps, it is largely the result of work 
done at the First National Consultation 
of YMCA Camping held in 1957. Many 
YMCA camp leaders served on commit- 
tees that prepared the various chapters. 

The handbook is profusely illustrated 
with sketches, photographs, and plans 
of camp structures and facilities. Of 
special interest to recreation workers 
are the sections relating to procedures 
in developing a camp project, water- 
front developments, and program facili- 
ties. Most of the information is pre- 
sented in the form of check lists that 
facilitate the ready use of the publica- 
tion. G. D. B. 

Light from a Thousand Campftres, 
Kenneth B. Webb, Editor. Association 
Press, 291 Broadway, New York 7. Pp. 
375, illustrated. $4.95. 

This compilation of camping mate- 
rial reflects the light from thousands of 
personalities and experiences that made 
up the first thirty-four years of Camp- 
ing Magazine and its predecessors. It 
is not a how-to-do-it book but rather 
a distillation of camping philosophy, 
insights, values, aims, objectives. The 



book covers four major areas: what is 
camping and why? the staff, the pro- 
gram, and the many kinds of camps. It 
certainly should be well thumbed by all 
camp directors and be available for the 
camp staff. The wealth of experience 
and inspiration of many of the pioneers 
of good camping make this a must for 
every professional recreation leader 
who is in any way concerned with day 
or resident camping. Publication of 
this volume marks the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the American Camping Associa- 
tion, to be celebrated at its convention 
in San Francisco this month. S. S. 

Curiosities of Animal Life, Maurice 
Burton, DSc, pp. 128, photographs 
and drawings, $3.95. A Butterfly Is 
Born, J. P. Vanden Eckhoudt, pp. 90, 
over 120 photographs, $2.50. A Bird 
Is Born, E. Bosiger and J. M. Guilcher, 
pp. 92, 111 photographs, $2.50. All 
from Sterling Publishing Company, 
4 1 9 Park Avenue, South, New York 1 6. 

How do animals find their way 
home? What animals have built-in 
weapons? Can animals talk to each 
other? In Curiosities of Animal Life 
Dr. Burton pinpoints the answers to 
these and many other questions. Each 
bit of information presented is related 
to other unusual farts and to the whole 
field of natural history so readers do 
not get just a miscellany of believe-it- 
or-not data, but a thorough understand- 
ing of animals. Did you know that a 
cuckoo from Africa migrates to Eng- 
land to breed, and the young birds re- 
turn to Africa, a land they have never ! 
seen? Why? Here is your chance to, 
find the answer. Accompanying the 
text are 105 black-and-white and six-] 
teen full-color photographs plus wash 
drawings by Anne Marie Jauss. 

The miracle of birth and life of a| 
bird is graphically told in A Bird ls\ 
Born through magnificent close-up and 
X-ray photographs. In its companion 
book, A Butterfly Is Born, the life of a 
butterflv is told in pictures. 

All three books are treasures, have] 
numerous, superb photographs, and 
will delight any nature leader. 

Verses from 1929 On, Ogden Nash. v 
Little, Brown, 34 Beacon Street, Bos- 
ton. Pp. 522. $5.95. 

This comprehensive anthology, se 
lecterl and revised from six previous 
Nash volumes, is chock full of wri 
gripes, unblushing puns, elastic (am 
snappy) rhymes, all quite gnashy but 
not nasty. Sample: 

Song of the Open Road 

I think that I shall never see 

A billboard lovely as a tree. 

Indeed, unless the billboards fall 

I'll never see a tree at all. 

RECREATION 





WHEREVER YOU ARE- 

You can't get along without your copy of 
THE 1960 PLAYGROUND SUMMER NOTEBOOK. 

Time: Around May 1. 

Price: $2.50 ($2 to NRA members). 

The 1959 edition was ALL sold out by June 15. Don't 
let it happen to you this year! 
National Recreation Association 8 W. 8th St., New York 11. 



FOR SUPERIOR DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION 
AND PERFORMANCE . . . FAR GREATER 
STRENGTH. .UNEQUALLED SAFETY. 



Writ* lor foljir 
On AMERICAN'S 

JIM PATTERSON 

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CUR 


RENT 




1960 

DISTRICT 


National Recreation Association District Conference 


Schedule 

HOTEL 


DATES 


LOCATION 


California and Pacific 
Southwest 


February 14-17 


San Jose, California 


St. Claire 


Middle Atlantic 


March 23-25 


Pocono Manor, Pa. 


Pocono Manor Inn 


Southwest 

/ 


March 30-31 -Apr. 1-2 


Shreveport, La. 


Washington Youree and 
Capt. Shreve Hotels 
(connected by arcade) 


Great Lakes 


April 4-7 


St. Paul, Minn. 


St. Paul 


Midwest 


April 6-8 


Kansas City, Mo. 


President 


Southeast 


April 18-20 


Edgewater Park, Miss. 


Edgewater Gulf 


Pacific Northwest 


April 10-12 


Sun Valley, Idaho 


The Lodge 


New England 


May 15-18 


Swampscott, Mass. 


New Ocean House 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION, 







You want her to grow up in a peaceful world. Bonds are one way to help make sure. 



You Save More than Money 
with U.S. Savings Bonds 



You can save automatically with the Payroll 
Savings Plan You now get 3 ;! \ ( ", interest at 
maturity You invest without risk under 
U.S. Gove, guarantee Your money 

will, never bt -lostroyed You can get 

your money, rest, any time you 



want it You can buy Bonds where you work 
or bank And remember, you save more 
than money. 



Thf I '.S. Con-rnmcnt tin -s not /tn\ for thi.- nilti-rtising. 

The 7'misnrv Department Ihtinks The Adii-rlist'tit; Council 

and this magazine /or their patriotic donation. 






/ . 



->**; f ' V v 



,* : ^ 



ISSUE 



SEND FOR THESE 

H & B ANNUALS 

FOR 1960 

THEY ARE READY NOW 
AND FREE FOR YOUR TEAMS 



FAMOUS SLUGGER 
YEARBOOK 




This book is o reody 
reference for mojor and 
minor league batting 
statistics. World Series 
data, photographs of 
famous sluggers and 
historical baseball 
highlights. Also con- 
tains an article "Base 
Hitting" written ex- 
pressly by Nelson 
Fox for this year's 
Yearbook. 



51- 




SOFTBALL 
RULE BOOK 

Contains complete 
official 1960 soflball 
rules, pictures of the 
1959 World's Soft- 
ball Champs and 
other valuable in- 
formation. 



SEND ALSO FOR THE LOUISVILLE 
SLUGGER BAT AND GRAND SLAM CATALOGS 

We will be glad lo send you copies of the 1960 

Louisville Slugger Bat and Grand Slam Golf Club 

Catalogs for your ready reference in ordering from 
your dealer. 






Write for this FREE material te 

Hillerich A Bradsby Co., Louisville 1, Ky. 

Box 506, Dept. R-O 




LOUISVILLE SLUGGER BATS 

Choke of the Champions 



PLAYGROUND 
SUMMER 
NOTEBOOK 



1960 EDITION 




THEME 
UOL 



When writing to our advert ivr- 



AVAILABLE On or around May I. 

Same as before ( how DO we do 
it!). $2.50 ($2 to NRA mem- 
bers). 

WHKKKVKR YOl ARE. 

Sourcebook for leadership 
training; new ideas for crafts, 
games, family nights, special 
events, the performing arts, na- 
ture, rainy ami hot da\-. 

USEFUL TO Playground leaders, ble^ Yin!, 

camp and day-camp counselor*. 
Daily Vacation Bible Schools, 
recreation leaders in institu- 
tions and public agencies. \ NY- 
body. ANYwherc doing summer 
recreation work with children. 

Place your order NO W with 

National Recreation Association, 8 W. 8lh St.. Now York 11. 
ilr;i-r mention IU.CKK VTtov. 




Play Outdoor Games Indoors 



PHYSICAL FITNESS programs succeed best when they 
make use of the natural tendencies of young people. Chan- 
nel their dominant tendency toward motor acts into vigor- 
ous, absorbing exercise with Safe-T-Play games designed 
for safe group play indoors and in confined areas. 



SAFE-T-PLAY GAMES are all based on the unique short 
flight ball that provides means for entire classes to take part 
in spite of limited room. Safe-T-Play equipment is precision 
molded to "Varsity" standards of light, resilient, unbreak- 
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SAFE-T-PLAY DOUBLES INDOOR SPACE 




Tell Your Sporting Goods Supplier to Show You the Complete Safe-T-Play Line 

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When writing to ' ir advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



145 









WHEREVER 
CHILDREN PLAY 



Recreation equipment with 
engineered safety to meet 
the most rigid requirements. 

Playground Equipment 
Indoor Basketball Backstops 
Swimming Pool Equipment 

Literature for each line avail- 
able on request please specify. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

RECREATION 
EQUIPMENT CORP 

Dcpt. R160 724 W. 8th St. 
Anderson, Indiana 




Stop wasting time recording inventory costs, 
handing out balls and paying top prices for low 
quality balls. Install this attractive, cost-cutting 
TFT Table Tennis Ball Meter NOW! 

Leased FREE to responsible agencies on $10.00 
deposit subject to refund. Trouble-free operation 
assured return machine for FREE repair. Attrac- 
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inches high. Easy to install. Holds 1 20 balls- 
dispenses each for 10. Choice of 3 grades of 
top quality balls. Use profit to maintain and re- 
place paddles, nets, etc. No risk guarantee. Send 
for free folder: "Stop Wasting Their Time." 



T. F. TWARDZIK 8, CO., 



SHENANDOAH, PENNA. 



> A NATIONWIDE TRACK-AND-FIELD pro- 
gram has been announced by the Office 
of Operation Fitness USA, as being 
initiated under the sponsorship of a 
Coordination-Implementation Commit- 
tee of Cooperating Organizations and 
Affiliates of the AAHPER-NEA. The 
National Recreation Association is one 
of the organizations cooperating with 
this program as a member of the com- 
mittee. The project, designed to con- 
tinue two years or longer, will deve'op 
track-and-field clinics for both chi'dren 
and teachers, stimulate interest in track- 
and-field activities, and open up in- 
creased participation opportunities for 
millions of children and youth through- 
out the country. Bulletins, posters, olli- 
cial forms, and other printed materials 
will be available to leaders without cost 
as soon as they are off press. For fur- 
ther information, address Operation 
Fitness USA, American Association 
for Health, Physical Education and Rec- 
reation, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W., 
Washington 6, D. C. 

\ A GRADUATE FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM 

was inaugurated for the education of 
mentally retarded ch'ldren. authorized 
by Public Law 85-926. in September 
1958. It will be administered by the 
U. S. Department of Health. Education 
and Welfare. Interested persons may 
apply (1) at the college or mm n-it\ 
they wish to attend to determ ; ne wheth- 
er it is a participating institution, or 
(2) at their state department of educa- 
tion. For further information, write to: 
Exceptional Children and Youth Sec- 
tion, Instruction. Organization, and 
Services Branch. Division of State and 
Local School Systems. Office of Edu- 
cation, U. S. Department of Health. 
Education and Welfare, Washington 
25, D. C. 

\ THE DEMAND FOR college and unixer 
sity graduates in recreation continue* 
to increase, according to Frnnk S. F.ndi- 
cott, Director of Placement, Nortliwc-l 
ern University. Evanston Illinois, in 
the report on his fourteenth annual sur- 
vey. Companies \\\\\ seeV ten percent 
more graduates from the ' *'<>() clae- 
than they employed from the classes of 
1959; forty-six (len-ent of these com- 



panies will visit more schools. Starting 
salaries will again increase in 1960: 
average for engineering will be $515 
per month; accountants $450 per 
month; sales $434 per month; general 
business $424 per month. 

\ Is YOUTH FITNESS A CONCERN of VOUr 

community? The week beginning May 
1, 1960. has been proclaimed by Presi- 
dent Eisenhower as National Physical 
Fitness Week. What are you doing to 
observe it? Also, what are you plan- 
ning to do for Physical Fitness Week in 
June (June 1 to 7) as a part of National 
Recreation Month? We would appre- 
ciate receiving a brief statement about 
your plans. 

> YOUR JUNE CALENDAR INCLUDES, in 
addition to National Recreation Month: 
Youth Fitness Week. June 1 to 7: Na- 
tional Circus Week, June 1 to 7; "I.etV 
Play Golf" Week, June 4 to 11; Family 
Recreation Week, June 8 to 14; Nation- 
al Flag Week, June 12 to 19; Recrea- 
tion-and-the-Arts Week. June 15 to 21 : 
Father's Day, June 19; Recreation- 
Through-Service Week. June 22 to 30. 
Summer begins June 21. 

\ AN INDIVIDUAL QUESTIONNAIRE is now 

being mailed to recreation leaders 1>\ 
the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistic. 
We join the National Social Welfare 
Wrinbh in urging everyone to fill it 
out <|iiickl\ and return promptly in ac- 
cordance with instructions. Not all 
workers will receive this, as it is a I 
sample survey, as such is the usual prae- 
tice of the U. S. Labor Department. All 
information is kept confidential and ap- 
pears only in broad summaries. 

> IF YOU HAVEN'T RECEIVED your /one, 
Is National Recreation Month Kit. as 
an associate or affiliate of the National 
Recreation Asocial ion. write for it at 
once. Sets were mailed eailx in March. 
April is the month in which in -rl up 
\our community-wide National Recrea- 
tion Month Committee-. 

IN RELATION TO SWIMMING SAKKTY 

the National Red Cross announce- ilia 

since the beginning of its safel\ -ei \ ii e 

(Continued on Page 148) 



146 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 

\ 



RKCRKATIOI 



APRIL 1960 




THE MAGAZINE OF THE RECREATION MOVEMENT 



Editor in Chief, JOSEPH PRENDERCAST 
Editor, DOROTHY DONALDSON 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 
JEAN WACHTEL ELVIRA DELANY 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 



VOL. LIII. 



Price 50 Cents 



No. 4 



On the Cover 

BLASTING OFF to another world is easy in a paper 
cutout rocket, with exhaust made of absorbent cot- 
ton, galaxies and stars of sugar. Are your 1960 play- 
ground plans ready for the launching pad or are you 
still tinkering with the fuel mixture? April count- 
down is right around the corner. We are indebted 
for our cover to Michael Kosinski, who did an arti- 
cle in November 1955 on how to make photograms, 
t which the cover was an illustrative sketch. 

Vext Month 

While the May emphasis is on the aging American- 
philosophy and program the other articles touch 
on many facets of recreation. The centerspread is a 
magnificent picture story of flower and garden festi- 
vals, conducted all over the United States. George 
lijelte writes about parks as a necessity or an amen- 
ity, and another piece presents new faces of recrea- 
tion as exemplified by recreation areas in trailer 
parks, supermarket parking lots, housing projects, 
and motels. You will want to read about how to 
stimulate your Softball program, both for youth and 
the not-quite-middle-aged man; how to get and keep 
your parks; and you will be fascinated to read of a 
trampolin program for blind children. Other arti- 
es cover quiet adult games, music and recreation, 
who s who at the forthcoming Congress in Wash- 
ington, D. C. this fall, and many other subjects. 

Photo Credits 

Page 153, Hugh Morton, Wilmington, North Caro- 
ma; Is 7, Globe Photos, New York City; 161, (low- 
r left) LaFayette Studio, San Francisco; 163, Wash- 
ngton Evening Star photo by Tom Hoy. 



KLCRKAT1ON is published monthly except July and 
August by the National Recreation Association, a service 
organization supported by voluntary contributions, at 8 
West n.ghth Street, New York 11. New York, is on 
BJetn public libraria and is indexed in the Rtadn,' 
Cmde. Subscriptions $4.00 a year. Canadian and for- 
e.gn subscription rate $4.50. Re-entered as second-class 
matter Apnl 25. 1950, at the Post Office in New York. 
New York under Act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance 

Section l"i ru 1 " i PeC '?U rate u f postage Provided for in 
Sect on 11 03 Act of October 3. 1917, authorized May 

il ', i>- M ' c , rofilm , s f current issues available Uni- 
Michi>a" ' 3 N ' Fir " StreCt> Ann Arbor - 

&'*"*%?' U "\ Minahan. 185 North Wa- 
bash Avenue, Chicago 1. Illinois. 

Copyright, I960, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 
Printed in the U.S.A. 



* Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 



CONTENTS 



GENERAL FEATURES 



A Legacy of Play (Editorial) j 53 

"Watch Me Climb the Mountain" 157 

Recreation and Delinquency . . Kenneth W. Kindehperger 159 

"Roving Leaders" Extend Our Reach . . Edward H. Thacker 162 

Cultural Coexistence in Richmond . . . Siebolt H. Frieswyk 164 

Playgrounds Abroad 

ADMINISTRATION 

Unique Spray Pool 155 

More Fun in Penn's Woods 159 

Institute of Personnel Administration . . W. C. Sutherland 161 

Federal Urban Planning Assistance 173 

Uniform Outfits for Leaders Virginia Musselman 175 

A Nautical Play Community 177 

A Three- Way Project for Recreation . . Frank D. McClelland 178 

A Cooperative Playground Plan John D. Dittmar 181 

Research Reviews and Abstracts 182 

PROGRAM 

Playgrounds in Action 1960 154 

"Wake Up and Read, Young America!" Iris Vinton 167 

Dungaree Daubers Joyce and John McGinn 170 

Pirates on the Playground Beatrice McAuliffe Stone 172 

Plants Children Like to Grow 174 

Dramatics on the Playground Nancy Eichsteadt 176 

REGULAR FEATURES 

Things You Should Know 145 

Letters 150 

In Memoriam J5j 

Resources and References 152 

Recreation for the III and Handicapped 187 

Market News jgg 

Index of Advertisers 189 

Classified Advertising 189 

Books and Pamphlets Received, Magazine Articles 190 

New Publications 




IDUCATIONAL 
IRESS 

ISSOCIATION 
OF 

rAMERICA 



The articles herein printed are the expres- 
on of the writers and not a statement of 
oolicy of the National Recreation Association 



PRIL 1960 



147 



EVERY RECREATION PROGRAM NEEDS THESE 



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I 960 REFERENCE BOOK FREE FOR THE ASKING 



(Continued from Page 146) 



in 1910, 38,000,000 certificates have 
been issued to persons completing for- 
mal courses 21.000.000 in first aid 
and 17.000,000 in water safety. During 
the past year. Safety Services spurred 
its efforts to teach Americans how 
to live safely. Certificates issued to 
persons completing Red Cross first-aid 
and water-safety courses numbered 
2,513.300. The past year, the mouth- 
to-mouth ( or mouth-to-nose I technique 
of artificial respiration was adopted by 
Red Cross, upon recommendation of 
the National Academy of Science. Na- 
tional Research Council, as the ona 
most practical for a single rescuer to 
use. The method was publici/.ed 
through issuance of a textbook supple- 
ment, which also presents modifica- 
tions of the two manual resuscitation 
methods. 

> THE HTH NATIONAL SCIKM i. I UK. 
dedicated to inspiring greater interest 
in science among students, will be held 
in Indianapolis. Indiana. May 11 to 14. 
1960. For brochure of facts, send to 
Science Service. 1719 N Street. \.\\.. 
\\ ashington 6. D. C. # 

t THE I960 NATIONAL CONFERENCE on 
Social Welfare will be held in Atlantic 
(!it\. June ."> to 10. according to Charl 
I. Schotland. conference pre-idi 
There are fifty-four national organi/a^ 
lions participating in the planning. 
formation and room reservation f 
max be si-cured from the National Con- 
ference at 22 West Gay Street. (, .Iam- 
bus 15. Ohio. 






llllC 

lies 
rill. J 

i/a- 

a 



> SXNIMMIM; rum. >IM>\M>I;^ -ri ;i lax 
break. The IRS rules that nonprofit! 
cm poralion- which build and operate ' 
communitx s\\ immiiii! pools and other.' 
recreation facilities, admitting the pun 
lie for a nominal fee. qualih a- tax 
exempt charitable organisations. 
reason: Such corporation* serve a i 
erally recognized public need and 
lessen the lull den on government unil 
to pro\ide similar tax-supported serv 
ice. the serv ice noted. 

^ PUBLICATIONS KEI.XTKM re the \\ hid 

Mouse Conference on Children and 
Youth are available for purchase fro 
the Conference. 330 Independei 
enue. S.\\ .. \\ashington J.x 1>. < :. 
live hooks avai'able are: The 
C.lnldri'ii. $6.00 I plus fifl\ cent* p.n 
and handling I : C.hildrcn in <i Clump 
World. $1.25 i plus lenlv-livc ceil 
postage and handling!: Slutr A'<7>or 
Diiifsl. >]..">(! i plus luentv live ecu 
postage and handling): \alional 
g<ini:(itioii.< Difii'xl. !?]..">0 t plu- l\\e 
five cents postage and handling)! 
Conicx-iic,' Proceedings. $'2.'2't ' p'4 

I \\enlv -live cents po-lage and handlingl 






148 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



Ul i Kl VTIOH 



buy safety 

Today, as always, the J. E. Burke Company 
continues to set the standard by manufac- 
turing the highest quality playground equip- 
ment. The Burke Better Built shield repre- 
sents the company's policy of maximum 
safety plus years of trouble free service. 
The same standards also apply to the com- 



playground 
equipment 

plete line of quality outdoor equipment in- 
cluding such items as: Horizontal Ladders, 
Sand Boxes, See-Saws, Swing Gates, Slides, 
Basketball Backstops and Goals, Bicycle 
Racks, Portable Platforms, Park Benches, 
Picnic Tables, Tennis and Volleyball Posts, 
Bleachers, ClimbingPoles, and Parallel Bars. 




KIDDIE GLIDER COMBINATION This four way com- 
bination features the self-propulsion Kiddie Glid- 
er. All moving parts are 24" from seat level, 
eliminating head bumping and pinched legs. Kid- 
die Gliders can be assembled with various swing 
units to meet any particular playground equip- 
ment requirement. Illustrated here are the Stand- 
ard Swing, the Kindergarten Swing, and the Hobby 
Horse Swing. 

Support pipes are 1%" o.d. galvanized steel pipe 
and cross bar is of 2%" o.d. galvanized steel 
pipe. Gliders are suspended by four %" x IVi" 
steel bars. Model 8-501 Combination 




HOBBY HORSE SWING Cast aluminum head, 
hardwood seat, steel tubing frame- 
Horse available on any frame. 






CLIMB-A-ROUND Designed for climbing, swinging, 
chinning, and sliding. A safe tip-proof conical 
series of climbing rungs provides diversified play 
for as many as 25 to 85 children (depending on 
size of unit). Requires little ground space, needs 
no concrete footings, and is easily assembled. 
Climb-A-Round offered In five sizes, all con- 
structed with heavy galvanized steel tubing all 
corners and joints rounded. 



SPACE SAVER SLIDE De- 
signed to give safe fun 
in V4 of the ground space 
required by standard 
slides. All metal (bright 
color over galvanized 
iron) construction with 
stainless steel bedway. 
Two lengths offered -8' 
and 12'. Dual safety rails 
at 14" and 28" surround 
top platform. 

Depth of slide chute 

Ladder steps (non-slip perforated).. 
Model 512-S 




6" 

..12 gauge steel 




REGULATION OFFSET BASKETBALL BACKSTOP The 

safest design available in outdoor backstops. 
Support posts are off the play area, 21/2 feet 
behind the backboard 6 feet apart. All steel 
construction, certified malleabe iron fittings. 
This backstop offers an exclusive set screw 
arrangement to eliminate backboard adjust- 
ment problems, makes It easy to keep 
backboard perfectly vertical at all times. 
Also fan and rectangle backstops single 
and double post. Model BB-15-OP 



HEAVY DUTY SWING Special rugged design with 
the highest safety standard of any comparable 
swing unit manufactured. Triangular end pipes 
plus a double set of interior pipe supports puts 
this model in a quality class that sets the pace 
in playground equipment design. 
Heavy Duty Swing offered in 2, 4, 6, and 8 swing 
units. Interlocking knob construction gives rigid 
assembly on all fittings. Swing seat hangs 18" 
from ground. 

Frame (galvanized steel pipe) top pipe-2%" o.d. 
support pipe-1%" o.d. 
Model C-400 



EXTRA HEAVY DUTY MERRY-GO-ROUND 

Highest quality materials combined with 
traditionally superior Burke construction make 
this model the leader of any merry-go-round 
manufactured. 4Vz" o.d. galvanized steel pipe 
support and the finest select hardwood are 
assembled into a rugged lifetime service 
unit of playground fun. 
Merry-Go-Rounds offered in 6', 10', 12', 
and 14' diameters with open face 
or enclosed center section. 
Model M3-E 




J. E. BURKE COMPANY 






PD Rrw QRfi Dpnt V NPW Rrnn<;wirk NPW .lersev 




Last Years Longer 

approved for 

tournament 

play! 



Dayton steel tennis, badminton 
and paddle tennis racquets are 
ideal for any school or play- 
ground program. Their "extra 
whip" improves every youngster's 
gome gives a speed and 
accuracy that cannot be 
matched by any other type 
of racquet. 

What's more, Dayton rac- 
quets are practically inde- 
structible. Their steel strings 
and tubular steel frames are 
not affected by climatic 
changes. No covers or 
presses are needed to 
protect them. They won't /4-U 
warp, splinter, rot or sag. 

Investigate them now. 
Ask your local dealer 
about them or write to- 
day for complete infer- ^H 
motion. 

DAYTON RACQUET COMPANY 

740 Albright St., Arcanum, Ohio I 



Dayton 
ere PI TPAr 1 



Rules and 
court layouts 
for tennis or 
badminton are 
yours for the 
asking. 



STEEL RACQUETS 




Shufflebonrd 

Fun For Everyone! 

From 8 to 80 here is exciting recrea- 
tion for all ages . . . keen enjoyment 
for players and spectators. 

Rugged, Dimco FreeGlide Shuffle- 
board sets are available for both out- 
door and indoor installation. 
Easy to install . . . low in upkeep! 

Write today for colorful folder. "Let's 
Play Shuffieboard," containing com- 
plete information on court layout and 
equipment. 

DIMCO-GRAY COMPANY 

205 EAST SIXTH STREET 
DAYTON 2, OHIO 




Readers! You are invited to send letters for this page 
to Editor, RECREATION, 8 West Eighth Street. Neu 
York 11 so that your ideas, opinions and attitudes 
may be exchanged with others on the wide range o) 
subjects of concern to us all. Here is your chance to 
agree or disagree with the authors of our articles. 
Keep letters brief not more than 250 words. 

The Editors. 



Proper Leadership 

Sirs: 

Youth leadership is in dire need of 
continuous training programs, both 
preservice and in-service, for paid and 
volunteer leaders. The objectives of a 
youth program should be set down be- 
fore the program is planned and before 
the mechanics are set up. Seldom do 
leaders take into consideration the im- 
portant objectives and outcomes of a 
properly planned program. 

The long-range outcomes of a pro- 
gram should be studied before a pro- 
gram is put into effect. One should al- 
ways keep in mind the total child; the 
entire growth of the child; his mental 
and social attitudes; the physical body 
development as well as the carry-over 
values for the years ahead. Too many 
leaders are concerned with the immedi- 
ate program and have little or no 
thought to the whole child or to the 
total effects of the program to the future 
of the child. Many leaders do not pos- 
sess a professional position they hold, 
nor do they possess a professional atti- 
tude to the child who benefits from 
their positive leadership or who suffers 
from their negative leadership. 

If continuous and proper preservice 
and in-service training program!- are 
carried on by competent trained lead- 
ers, an education system can be set up, 
and over the years, leadership objec- 
tives and techniques will improve to the 
point where our children will benefit 
from positive leadership, and very little 
negative leadership will appear in our 
youth programs. 

EDSEL B. MARTZ, Department of Rec- 
r en lion and Parks, Arlington, Vir- 
ginia. 

New Magazine for Handicapped 

Sirs: 

Congratulations to you for adding 
pages for articles and information per- 
taining to the field of recreation for the 
ill and handicapped. 

1 am enclosing a copy of Accent on 



Living circulation 7.000. in all states 
and forty-three foreign countries 
thinking that perhaps you might want 
to write a small note about it in REC- 
REATION Magazine. If you would like 
to mention it, I will be happy to send a 
free copy to anyone interested. 

RAYMOND C. CHEEVER, Publisher, 
and Editor, 802 Reinthaler. Bloom- 
ington, Illinois. 

Note: Accent on Living is a pocket- 
sized, national magazine, dedicated 
to serving all handicapped persons, 
and has an advisory board composed 
of medical and rehabilitation special- 
ists. 

"A Mi >-i Excellent February" 

Sirs: 

Congratulations on a most excel lent 
February 1960 issue of RECREATION 
with its international recreation flavor. 
I have asked my staff members and 
board members to give me their copies 
so I might send them to international 
friends who have visited m\ depart- 
ment over the years. Tlie\ are located 
in all parts of the world. 

Keep up the good M ork \ on are doing 
u illi the magazine! 

THOMVS W. LANT/. Supfi'inlcndrnt., 

Public Recreation, Mimnlnin Park 

District, Tacoma, 



Rave Notice 

Sirs: 

My December 1959 issue (of RECRE- 

ATION] is dog-eared already from the 

constant use it received by our part- 

time staff during the Christmas vaca- 

tion period! The variety of subject 

matter plus the pleasing o\eiall layout 

of the maga/ine continues to merit rave, 

nolices from our staff. 

HARRY B. VAN l!i:i 1 1 HIM. l> 

of Recreation, Torrancc. C.alii<nia,>> 

See March issue for article about I 
Torrance's excellent day camp pro-l 
gram. Ed. 



150 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECKI M u> 



3n Hfomnrtam 

. Dr. Nickolaus L. Engelhardt, well- 
known educational consultant and good 
friend to recreation, died February 24 
in New York City. He was seventy- 
seven years old. A senior partner in the 
educational consulting firm of Engel- 
hardt, Engelhardt. Leggett & Cornell, he 
was one of the country's leading author- 
ities on conditions in public schools. 

He cooperated with the National Rec- 
reation Association in many ways, and, 
when president of the American Asso- 
ciation of School Administrators, he 
prepared jointly with the Association a 
leaflet entitled Planning School Build- 
ings for Community Recreation Use. 
This received wide distribution. He also 
served as a member of the NRA Council 
on Research in Recreation and spoke 
at National Recreation Congresses. 

. Dr. George Louis Meylan, pioneer in 
youth camping and physical education 
and an early advocate of greater atten- 
tion to the health needs of American 
youth, died January 15 in New York 
City. He was eighty-six. During World 
War I he took a leave of absence as 
medical director of Columbia Univer- 
sity to serve as director of recreation 
for the French army. 

In 1892, Dr. Meylan organized a 
camp for underprivileged children in 
Bangor, Maine, one of the earliest 
camps in the state. This was followed 
five years later by a YMCA camp in 
New Hampshire. He also founded his 
own camps on Sebago Lake, Maine. 

. Ovid Butler, influential forest con- 
servationist, died February 20 in Wash- 
ington, D. C. at the age of seventy-nine. 
From 1922 to 1948, he was executive 
lirector of the American Forestry As- 
sociation. As American Forests maga- 
:ine said of him a few years ago, "As 
nuch as any man of our time, Ovid 
Sutler helped to make conservation a 
lousehold word. . . ." 

His career was marked by many con- 
ervation milestones, among them the 
ntroduction of a fact-finding survey to 
eveal to Americans the conditions of 
heir forest resources after the heavy 
imber strain of World War II. He also 
nitiated publication of a series of 
looks on conservation and forests. # 




Now you can 

GO 

where the events 

take place 
...and be heard! 



WENGER PORTABLE BANDWAGON 

The Mobile Combination Band Stand 

and Outdoor Stage 

Ideal for use at music events, rallies, acts, demonstra- 
tions, and for speakers, the Wenger Bandwagon pro- 
vides comfortable quarters for performers, plus assuring 
resonance and volume for the audience. At site, the 
Wenger Bandwagon opens in minutes into a generous 
stage or outdoor theater, or a complete, scientifically 
designed music shell for band, orchestra, or chorus. 
After event, it folds quickly into a handsome, completely 
enclosed road trailer with ample locked storage space for 
chairs, stands, instruments, or accessory equipment. May 
be used indoors, too! Every community will want one! 

Send for complete details and specifications, or ask for 
a free demonstration. No obligation, of course. 




MUSIC EQUIPMENT Co 



OW ATON N A 




MINNESOTA 



EffASO* POSTERS and CHARTS 



SAVE TIME, CfFORT, MONEY! 

Now used by over 10,000 Schools, Colleges, YMCA's 
Clubs, Recreation Depts., Camps, etc. 

Available for all Sports and activities. 



\,P>* 



. u.s> 



Paten) Office 



i Write for Catalog -Dept.: R _ 
THE PROGRAM AIDS COMPANY, INC. 

550 Fifth Avenue New York 36, N. Y. 



" 



Here! The NEW 

'SKELLY" 

A Variation of Board Billiards 

Camps Homes Schools Playgrounds 
Indoors Outdoors Table Floor 

Simple, Easy-To-Follow Rules 
Individually boxed Weighs 13 Ibs. 
Reinforced Construction 2 to 4 players 

Lively embedded rebound cushions 
3' x 3' hardboard playing area 

Comes with 4 assorted colored catalin 
discs, rules and 4 pushers. 

SPECIAL INSTITUTIONAL PRICE $11.00 

SEND FOR OUR LATEST COMPLETE TROPHY CATALOG 
SKELLY SALES CO. 89 MAIN ST. HEMPSTEAD N V 

F.O.B.Hempstead Terms: Net' 




1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



151 




SOUND APPROACH 

TO HEALTH AND 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION 



WITH 




califone 



PROMENADE 

MODEL 25V-8A 



COMPLETE SOUND SYSTEM 

deal for INDOORS, OUTDOORS, 
ATHLETIC FIELD or GYMNASIUM 

SINGLE UNIT CONSTRUCTION 

LIGHTWEIGHT, PORTABLE 

POWERFUL 

VARIABLE SPEED CONTROL for 
classes in rhythms, movement 
fundamentals. 

EXCELLENT P. A. SYSTEM for games 
and other physical education require- 
ments for up to 3500 persons. 

Califone's exclusive CUEMASTER 
providing instantaneous phrase 
selection. Optional on many Caiifone 
models. 

PROFESSIONAL NET ... $199.50 

With CUEMASTER . . . $12.50 additional 

Write for detailed information on this unique model and other 
models to fit your budget - Dept. R-4. 

CaMfOne CORPORAT.ON 

1020 NO. LA BREA AVENUE HOLLYWOOD 38, CALIFORNIA 



A t Stetsteifi' greatest name in 

fl4*\A fencing equipment. 

\ Jit mmMwwm C^~~\ 

J/'fWW 

/UNIFORMS of championship 
weight "Tiger" brand 
(odokan Recommended 






I Double-Hollow Weave (Reinforced) 
PANTS and BELT: Single Drill 



TIGER 



mediate Deliv 



from Slock in New York City 




the PLUS 
for your 
education program 

WHITE rot Fill CATALOG 
. . . includes valuable train- 
ing aids and equipment 
for club, <lo*ifoom in* 
BRAND itnielton. Odd vofi.fy 



FENCING EQUIPMENT COMPANY I M EMIIM ITKET 

. . . *\ NEW YORK 3. N. V. 



AMERICA'S FINESJ ATHLETIC BALLS 




FOR EVERY AGE GROUP, 
PRICE OR SKILL- 



GOES WITH THE GAME 



NEW YORK 11 
CHICAGO 11 
LOS ANGELES 11 



RESOURCES AND REFERENCES 

Behind the Headlines outlines a spe- 
cial program technique for studying 
intergroup relations through a more 
meaningful use of newspapers. It shows 
how a knowledge of the relevant facts 
about news events, plus supplementary 
reading and discussion, can help devel- 
op an understanding of the meanings 
behind the headlines. The 24-page 
pamphlet was designed for use by com- 
munity leaders and discussion groups 
in programing and conducting prac- 
tical workshops for adults on the prob- 
lems within our democracy. Available 
for fifteen cents from Anti-Defamation 
League. 515 Madison Avenue, New 
York 22. 



The Art of Shellcraft Instruction 
combines a beginner's manual with a 
complete summary of shellcraft and 
was written by Frank and Marjorie 
Pelosi who have written previous man- 
uals on this craft. Mrs. Pelosi is shell- 
craft instructor for the St. Lucie County, 
Florida, recreation department. This 
84-page manual is available for a dollar 
in a soft cover, in hard cover for $3.00, 
from the Sand Box Shell Shop. Box 112, 
Jensen Beach. Florida. 



Conservation, a manual issued by the 
Camp Fire Girls, is an excellent re- 
source for nature and science leaders 
in camps, schools, indoor centers and 
clubs in urban or rural areas. An ex- 
cellent conservation directory adds to 
its usefulness. Available for $1.50 from 
Supply Division. Camp Fire Girls. 450 
Avenue of the Americas. New York 1 1. 



Crouse-Hinds Bulletin 2714 is a 
pocket-sized edition of the company's 
floodlight catalog and is available free. 
Included is material on how to select 
floodlights of all description: general- 
purpose, heavy-duty, mercury \apor. 
special, and for hazardous locations; 
searchlights, underwater lighting, flood- 
light poles, accessories, installation sug^ 
pest ions, and lighting calculations. For 
your copy of this 183-paj:e bulletin 
write Crouse-Hinds Company. Syracuse 
1, New York. 



Remember. Folks! is a folder to re- 
mind people to use courtesy and com- 
mon sense afloat. This would be excel- 
lent for distribution at marinas and 
other family boating centers. (let a 
free suppU from the Outboard Healing 
Club of America. 307 North Mil -hiiian 
\\enue. Chicago 1. 



152 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



1)1 i HI U'l 



Editorial 



A 

LEGACY 

OF 

PLAY 




Airlie Oaks, Wilmington, North Carolina. 



''Thus do I devise and bequeath 



99 



In 1907 the year this magazine, 
then THE PLAYGROUND, was born the 
following legacy appeared in these 
pages. Every once in a while, since 
then, we have now and again exposed it 
to the light of day, for it should be eter- 
nal and read by all who love children. 

That year, Mr. Lawrence Veiller, 
chairman of the New York delegation 
to the Playground Convention in Chi- 
cago, called attention to the following 
will, as printed in the New York Times. 
Ed. 

I GIVE TO good fathers and mothers, 
in trust for their children, all good 
little words of praise, and encour- 
agement, and all quaint pet names and 
endearments, and I charge said parents 
to use them justly and generously, as 
the needs of their children may require. 
I leave to children, inclusively, but 
only for the term of their childhood, 
all and every, the flowers of the fields, 
and the blossoms of the woods, with the 
right to play among them freely, ac- 
cording to the customs of children, 
warning them at the same time against 
thistles and thorns. And I devise to 
children, the banks of the brooks, and 



the golden sands beneath the waters 
thereof and the odors of the willows 
that dip therein, and the white clouds 
that float high over the giant trees. And 
I leave the children the long, long days 
to be merry in, in a thousand ways, and 
the night and the moon and the train of 
the Milky Way to wonder at, but sub- 
ject nevertheless, to the rights herein- 
after given to lovers. 

I devise to boys, jointly, all the use- 
ful idle fields and commons where ball 
may be played; all pleasant waters 
where one may swim; all snow-clad hills 
where one may coast, and all streams 
and ponds where one may fish, or 
where, when grim winter comes, one 
may skate; to have and to hold the same 
for the period of their boyhood. And 
all meadows with the clover blossoms 
and butterflies thereof; the woods and 
their appurtenances; the squirrels and 
birds, and echoes and strange noises, 
and all distant places which may be vis- 
ited, together with the adventures there 
found. And I give to said boys each his 
own place at the fireside at night, with 
all pictures that may be seen in the 
burning wood, to enjoy without let or 
hindrance. . . . 



To lovers, I devise their imaginary 
world with whatever they may need : as 
the stars of the sky; the red roses by 
the wall; the bloom of the hawthorn; 
the sweet strains of music and aught 
else they may desire to figure to each 
other; the lastingness and beauty of 
their love. 

To young men, jointly, I devise and 
bequeath all boisterous, inspiring sports 
of rivalry, and I give to them the dis- 
dain of weakness and undaunted confi- 
dence in their own strength. Though 
they are rude, I give to them the power 
to make lasting friendships, and of pos- 
sessing companions, and to them exclu- 
sively I give all merry songs and brave 
choruses, to sing with lusty voices. 

And to those who are no longer 
children or youths or 'lovers, I leave 
memory, and I bequeath to them the 
volumes of the poems of Burns and 
Shakespeare and of other poets, if there 
be others, to the end that they may live 
over the old days again, freely and ful- 
ly, without tithe or diminution. 

To our loved ones with snowy crowns 
I bequeath the happiness of old age, the 
love and gratitude of their children un- 
til they fall asleep. # 



APRIL 1960 



153 




PLAYGROUNDS I 



Climber-slide by Creative Playthings. 

Let's increase our playgrounds! How many communi- 
ties can report new ones? Long ago, in the days of 
Joseph Lee, playgrounds were established to bring 
the children off the streets, and the slogan of the day was 
"Where shall they play?" If this was a great need in 1906. 
how much more pressing is that need today! 

With our exploding population, crowded living condi- 
tions, and vanishing play spaces, it is more important than 
ever to make sure our children find a bit of ground under 
the blue summer sky for outdoor play. And that they have 
careful guidance, by specially trained leaders. 

The National Recreation Association 1956 Recreation 
and Parks Yearbook* figures show that the 1,956 cities re- 
porting had 18,224 playgrounds that year, but today, al- 
though their numbers have increased, the need for more 
playgrounds becomes even more urgent. Let us, by all 
means, take care to allocate space for these in our commu- 
nities now for today and tomorrow before it is too late ! 

*A new Yearbook will be published in 1961. 




Norman Rockwell drawing by courtesy of 
Massachusetts Mutual life Insurance Company 







Creative adventure. Playground craft sessions should give 
children opportunities to explore, build, discover, and ex- 
press their feelings, fantasies, interests, and ideas. This 
appealing paper-strip dragon is an example of the animals, 
insects, birds, people, puppets, and masks children can cre- 
ate on the playground, using only scissors, paste, and 
paper. He is one of the many creatures to be found in 
Adventures with Scissors and Paper (review on Page 192). 



Sputniks and I i- 

Put on your space suits, fasten your helmets, and prepare 
for the countdown. It will soon be time to take off for a 
summer in outer space on the playgrounds. Spate i- <>ne 
of today's most prevalent themes for everything, and will 
continue to be so. Sputnik will become Fun-nik on hun- 
dreds of playgrounds in the next few months. Are \oiir 
plans ready for launching? 

Some of the playground rockets are coining down in Ha- 
waii, too, and. from there on out, activities will include 
ukelele playing, singing. Hawaiian dancing, games, mak- 
ing straw hula skirts, leis. and flower crowns and bracelet! 
in the craft groups. We hear, for instance, that all the play- 
grounds in Tacoma. Washington, are planning to carry I lie 
Hawaiian theme this year. Have you considered it? 



154 



RKCRF \TION 



CTION 1960 



Scooting 

In Hammond, Indiana, our summer schedule for each 
playground includes a penny carnival to be held some time 
during July or August. Over the past few years, our leaders 
have tried pony rides, pushcart rides, etcetera. Now, motor 
scooters have become popular and we purchased one that 
could be taken from playground to playground to be used 
at the carnivals. Needless to say, it was extremely popular. 
Each playground used the machine as a money maker for its 
carnival, charging ten cents a ride. 

In regard to controlling the rides, and the individuals 
driving, the car was geared so that it would go about ten 
miles per hour. It has a clutch that must be engaged at all 
times before the car will move, thus enabling children as 
young as eight to operate it without danger. Another ar- 
rangement that helps control the operation is that the car 
has seats for two, so if one child does not want to drive, he 
can ride with someone who does. It is surprising how well 
this works. 

It is against the law to operate scooters on the streets in 
our city, so we have arranged with the police to rope off an 
area for a given number of hours so that we may be free 
from traffic and police interference. This is important be- 
cause it lets the children know there are laws prohibiting 
scooters, and that they are complying with this law. We, 
as a department, have not sponsored any races, nor do we 
intend to do so. JOHN HIGGINS, Administrator, Board of 
Parks and Recreation, Hammond, Indiana. 

In Newington, Connecticut, Clem Lemire, superintendent 
of recreation, has just terminated a successful program 
along the above lines, called "Piston Poppers," in which the 
youngsters made their own motorized, four-wheeled carts 
from old power lawnmowers. The Connecticut Safety Com- 
mission went on record announcing opposition to miniature 
motor-vehicle contests and racing events for young children. 
The "safe-driving education" aspects of such an activity are 
being vigorously challenged. Mr. Lemire writes the Na- 
tional Recreation Association, "Although our program was 
never classified as a 'racing program,' we do not want to 
start a controversy. We will reluctantly curtail operation 
even though we have enjoyed two years of success." 

A number of other communities have found that, with 
one thing leading to another, the speed aspect of these pro- 
grams gathers momentum, so to speak, and becomes so in- 
triguing that the practice of safety measures becomes a 
real problem and the program hazardous in the long run. 
Some power-driven carts have been known to reach a speed 
of thirty-five miles an hour, or over too much for a child. 



Books on Summer Playgrounds 

Our storytelling program on the playgrounds of Spring- 
field, Missouri, needed to be strengthened. Therefore, Jim 
Ewing, director of parks and recreation, and Leroy Fox, 
city librarian, worked out a plan to make reading a part 
of the summer recreation program. 

A park board truck was rebuilt into a bookmobile, and 
the library supplied it with seven hundred volumes. A sec- 
tion of the bookmobile was devoted to books related to 
each week's playground theme. The children selected their 
books and reported on and reviewed them during story hour 
on the playground. They also handed in a written record 
if they wanted to participate in the summer reading club. 
If they reported on five books during the summer they re- 
ceived a reading club pin and certificate. These were given 
out at the Annual Park Day the final week of the program. 
Circulation of the books for the summer reached eighty-two 
hundred. Though the children were not registered, almost 
all the books were returned. 

A most unusual feature of the bookmobile was a 16mm 
movie projector installed in the front seat of the truck. This 
projected the movies into a mirror, which then reflected 
them onto a screen built on the back door of the truck. The 
children sat behind the truck to watch. The movies, both 
entertaining and educational, followed the week's theme, 
lasted ten to twenty minutes. 

A local library staff member was assigned to the park 
playground staff for the summer and was responsible for 
this program. The bookmobile visited twenty-two play- 
grounds weekly. This was definitely a plus in new activities 
added to the Springfield Playground Program during the 
summer of 1959. BETTY MILLER, Director of Recreation, 
Springfield, Missouri. 

The Human Touch in Playground Direction 

These suggestions are made by someone who cares for 
kids. They are a series of ideas, taken out of context, from 
letters sent by Mrs. Kay Brook to Wade Magrum, recrea- 
tion superintendent in Jasper Place, Alberta, Canada. Mrs. 
Brook served as a playground director and is obviously 
a keen observer sympathetic to the needs of the children. 

. . . Permanent equipment is a futile hope, but I should 
enjoy very much seeing every swing in our playground melt- 
ed down and made into horizontal and climbing bars. I feel 
very strongly about swings. They bear the same relation- 
ship to creative play that coloring books do to creative art 
that is, swings foster sterility of expression, repression of 
creativeness, and a passive, unimaginative attitude to play. 

... I should like to see at least four sets of jungle-gym 
or horizontal-bar sets, or climbing sets. I realize that these 
items are very expensive. However, effective substitutes can 
be worked out by using "junk" for example, old concrete 
sewer pipes, cemented in varying heights and connected 
with cemented old steel rods. 

. . . Tiny children would love some really huge blocks of 
wood, in various interesting shapes, sanded and painted, 
that could be hauled around, built, sat on, climbed on. and 
jumped over. A great, big concrete checkerboard, with 
pushable checkers, would probably add to the fun. *- 



APRIL 1960 



155 



.... The most popular art craft on our playground [last] 
year is mask-and-puppet making from asbestos mixed with 
stick-fast dry paste. We found that one hundred pounds is 
barely enough. . . . got ours for about three dollars from 
a wholesale roofing firm. It's quite common stuff, and is 
called "shorts." Even mixed with water, it's nice and clean. 
The children made some fabulous masks. 

. . . Twelve-year-old girls are so helpful, they nearly drive 
me nuts. I believe that other leaders have discovered this 
phenomenon. In addition, they have a tendency to get 
crushes on "teacher," and if two of them are present at the 
same time, Teacher is loved to pieces, and can't move for 
her eager and madly jealous little helpers. I've never had 
more than two at a time, thank heaven. 

... If a twelve-year-old boy is the only boy of his age 
on the playground, and the other children are small folk, 
this boy has a very good time doing action songs. If one 
other boy arrives, they sit up on the swing frames and make 



funny remarks at everybody. If more than two twelve-year- 
old boys are present, the gang wouldn't join in Rig-a-dig- 
jig "if you paid us a million, trillion dollars." 

. . . Safety rules: Too arbitrary. Telling a wide-awake 
eleven-year-old, who is bursting to set challenges for him- 
self, that he can't go up the slide backwards, that he can't 
climb the swing-frames, that he can't stand on his head on 
the swing-seat and swing, is asking for him to put his 
considerable powers of ingenuity for torture to make the 
leader's life for the next few hours hell-among-the-trees. Of 
course, children love rules the more and the more com- 
plicated, the happier they are to try and break them. Also, 
rules make them feel very secure. Then they know someone 
loves them. However, rules that strangle a dynamic child's 
own natural urges merely fill him with a gnawing ache to 
get back at the "old lady" who is squashing him. . . . Con- 
densed with permission from Leisure, October 1959. ^b 



UNIQUE SPRAY POOL 




In May 1958, the city of Stockton, California, dedicated 
a combination spray and wading pool in McKinley Park. 
Built by the South Stockton Lions Club and the city parks 
and recreation department, the pool represented an invest- 
ment of approximately $3,000 and actually cost the city 
about $800. Ten yards of concrete were given to the Lions 
Club by Stockton Building Materials and all other materials 
were donated by club members or secured by them. Thirty- 
two club members, working under the direction of president 
Allen Dexter and Hap Crowl, dug the hole, which might be 
considered shallow to all but those doing the digging. Men 
from the city crews, under direction of Emil Seifert, direc- 
tor of parks and recreation, built the forms and finished the 
concrete. 

The pool has a diameter of thirty feet, a minimum depth 
of five inches and a maximum depth of fourteen inches. The 
width of the deck, which slopes toward the pool, varies from 
eight feet to approximately ten feet. The pool is filled by a 
pipe leading from the main water supply at the spray and 
drinking fountain area into the side wall of the pool. Flow 
into the pool is controlled by a valve in a box located in the 
spray area. There is a sand trap at the center of the pool 



and a simple overflow outlet in the side wall. The pool it>olf 
has been painted a light blue and the walls in pastel shades. 

The pool is surrounded by a low wall, which acts as a 
divider between the pool and surrounding play areas and 
also provides a place for adults and youngsters to sit. It 
also gives the pool a certain amount of protection at niiilit. 
The wading pool is close enough to the swimming pool to 
allow for general supervision by the guards or other city 
personnel. When the weather is very hot, or the pool is 
crowded, the spray may be turned on. adding to the young- 
sters' enjoyment. As use of the pool slackens, or if the wind 
comes up, the spray is turned off. 

The pool was officially dedicated last May, with speeches 
and appropriate credit to those individuals who had made 
the pool possible. 

Accepting for the city were the metropolitan parks ;iiul 
recreation commissioner A. J. "Bart" Dentoni and the Hon- 
orable F. L. Bitterman, acting mayor. Within lln.v minutes 
after the pool was opened and the water turned on 1>\ Joe 
Seklecki of the park department, children of the area "ac- 
cepted" the pool joyously and moistly as befits a \\ailinii 
and spray pool. # 



156 



RECREATION 



Maze for wheelchairs provides a real challenge, 
but does not faze the children as they whiz by. 



This setup gives sense of security as youngsters 
can grasp bars below and above them at all times. 






Equipment must arouse a spirit of ad- 
venture, yet not be too frightening. 




I 



Fun house is spread out to prevent any 
feeling of being cramped or boxed in. 



Learning to navigate "bridges and tun- 
nels," a child loses fear of slopes. 



"WATCH ME 
CLIMB 
THE 
MOUNTAIN" 



"It's a house!" 

"I'm a bird!" 

Children's voices ripple happily over 
the playground at Rancho del Valle in 
California's San Fernando Valley. 
Their shouts express the special sense 
of joyous freedom they find on this 
playground, maintained by the Crippled 
Children's Society of Los Angeles Coun- 
ty, designed specifically to encourage 
imaginative and creative play. The 
layout offers broad play possibilities. 
Standard equipment has been reorgan- 
ized to give handicapped children a feel- 
ing of freedom bolstered with a sense of 
security while they explore new avenues 
of play. It also offers opportunities for 



normal and handicapped children to 
play together. The equipment is ar- 
ranged to accommodate wheelchairs, 
crutches, and braces. The playground 
is the happy brainchild of Jack Lear, 
executive director of the county's Center 
for Crippled Children and Adults. De- 
signer Dave Aaron did the site planning 
and arrangement of equipment and am- 
bulatory devices. 

With their exhilaration in grappling, 
clambering, and scrambling, through 
their successful play, the children 
achieve a new sense of self-esteem, de- 
velop a new attitude towards themselves, 
are motivated to attempt the untried, 
and glory in difficult attainment. d 



\PRIL 1960 



157 



RECREATION and 



DELINQUENCY 



Does organized recreation prevent juvenile misbehavior? 



NEXT TO THE international situation and the constant 
interest in the latest political developments, there is 
perhaps no other issue that attracts more discussion, 
more Sunday supplement stories, more editorials than the 
question of juvenile delinquency in the United States. 

While there may be a rare variation, the general picture 
these statements, editorials, television programs, and word- 
of-mouth discussions present is a discouraging, depressing 
image of the young people of America rapidly degenerating 
into a mob of unruly, violent, disorderly teen-agers. A 
peculiar emotion seems to develop whenever adults take to 
the soapbox or editorial page to discuss juvenile delin- 
quency. Nothing seems to irritate adults more than irrev- 
erent or disrespectful adolescents. Words like "teen-age 
mobsters," "hoodlums," "ferocious wolf packs," and other 
similarly endearing terms have become standard copy in 
most accounts of juvenile misbehavior. 

The role of recreation in preventing, or alleviating, ju- 
venile delinquency is and has been questionable. The pros 
and cons are violently opposed. There has been a general 
assumption that providing adequate recreation facilities for 
youth is, in its broadest sense, preventive in keeping young- 
sters out of trouble. Many community programs have been 
deliberately trying to "prevent juvenile delinquency." This 
has been a mistake. Recreation should be an end in itself. 
The entire community should have the opportunity for good 
recreation experiences for the joy and satisfaction they 
bring. These activities do not have to be coupled with a 
vague generalization that they might "prevent juvenile de- 
linquency." There is no objective evidence that a play- 
ground or recreation program in itself has prevented any 
great amount of juvenile misbehavior. But first let me sup- 
ply some background for this discussion. 

In the midst of all this barrage of statements about the 
present juvenile members of society, it is truly amazing how 

DR. KINDELSPERGER is executive officer of the Syracuse Uni- 
versity youth Development Center, New York. He was one 
of the speakers at the 41st National Recreation Congress 
in Chicago last year on this same subject. 



The people will not listen to the plea that the des- 
perate needs of youth be met with adequate services. 
It is easier to punish. One important requirement 
is supervised recreation (italics ours) sports pro- 
grams and clubhouses that would enable the young- 
sters to develop under the watchful eyes of trained 
personnel. The Reverend C. Kilmer Myers, vicar, 
for seven years, of the Lower East Side Mission of 
Trinity Episcopal Parish, New York City, after a 
serious outbreak of teen-age gang violence in that 
neighborhood last August. 



little is actually known about the real extent of the problem, 
the nature of its origin, or the ways in which it seems to 
persist in our society. Everyone seems to have an an>\\er 
to the problem of juvenile delinquency. The police "don't 
crack down enough," "the do-gooders" are too soft on 
"hoodlums" these and other statements flow from the lips 
of citizens in all walks of life. This is part of the problem: 
everyone has an opinion about the problem of delinquency 
but has very little concrete idea what's involved in doing 
something about it. 

A N INCREASING number of social scientists and oilier? 
^^ have studied or are studying the problem, and the in- 
formation gathered shows a certain degree of consistency. 
We know a great deal about this phenomenon, but we still 
do not have one single theory, which has been tested and 
proved, to explain satisfactorily all those types of juvenile 
behavior called delinquencies. 

The problem is made more complex because delinquency 
is a complex of both individual behavior on the part of 
young people' and the amount of community tolerance IT 
acceptance ori the part of adults in the community. The 
same act. such as breaking windows, may be tolerated in 
one coijwnunity, where the child's family will make restitu- 
tion. In another, this act might mean calling police and 
charging the child with juvenile delinquency. 

Most Scholars in the field who have studied the problem 
of juvenile behavior in recent years. generalU agree upon 



158 



RECREATION 



Action in a teen-league Softball game 

in Euclid, Ohio. Recreation should 

be an end in itself and not be coupled 

with the generalization that it 

might "prevent juvenile delinquency." 



Kenneth W. Kindelsperger 




certain facts. In the first place, there is a marked difference 
between boys and girls in the extent to which they get into 
difficulty with the law. Approximately five times as many 
boys as girls come to the attention of local police systems 
for various acts of misbehavior. We also know that, al- 
though some children begin to show delinquent behavior at 
an early age. it remains relatively rare until the ages of 
thirteen through seventeen. Several studies indicate the 
peak of behavior difficulties, in terms of apprehension by 
>olice, occurs somewhere between the fourteenth and fif- 
eenth year. Most offenders appearing before police officers 
seem to overcome their difficulties and do not reappear. 

We also know that there is a higher proportion of chil- 
dren living in cities or concentrated urban areas who get 
nto difficulty than those who come from suburban and rural 
settings. Some studies have indicated an increase in the 
suburban and rural types of delinquent behavior, but this 
s still only a small proportion of total youngsters in diffi- 
culty. There are also quite marked differences in the types 
of offenses committed by youngsters living in suburban or 
semirural areas than those living in concentrated urban 
areas. The city's size also seems to have some relationship, 
he larger cities having a higher concentration of organized 
gangs than medium-sized smaller cities. Not too many stud- 
ies have been made of delinquency rates in relation to city 
size, but there seems to be some evidence that the rate tends 
to diminish correspondingly to the decrease in city size. 

Even within the city itself, there are marked differences 
n certain areas. Some census tracts will have a rate ten or 
ifteen times higher in proportion to youth population than 
other tracts. Depressed areas consistently produce an in- 
ordinately higher rate of delinquency than areas of a higher 
socio-economic status. Whichever racial or nationality 
group occupies the lower socio-economic rung at any par- 
:icular time seems to produce a greater number of children 
who get into difficulty with the law. 

Even the above information suffers from the fact that 
it is based upon a system of reporting by various law en- 
forcement groups, with a consequent high degree of unreli- 
ability. Delinquency rates can be influenced by a number 



of factors, primarily the attitude of the community or of the 
police enforcement agencies. At any given time, when an 
order for a crackdown comes, juvenile delinquency rates 
increase. If there is more tolerance of deviant behavior, 
the rate goes down. 



TVTANY DEPARTMENTS of recreation have become increas- 
- ingly concerned about the role they might play in help- 
ing to reduce troublesome behavior in their community in 
a prescribed and organized fashion. This is not something 
to be entered into casually or with any assumption that 
mere extension of existing services will meet the particular 
needs of the more troublesome youth. Sometimes, the con- 
tinuation of traditional recreation activities in difficult areas 
can actually increase the opportunity for youngsters to par- 
ticipate in delinquent activities. In a great many ways de- 
linquency is recreation (the wrong kind), but certain other 
concrete procedures have to be adopted if a recreation pro- 
gram is to meet a particular community's need in reducing 
troublesome behavior. 

In the first place, any recreation program particularly 
geared to this type of area must be free to adapt its program 
to meet the needs of these youngsters. In a large urban 
center this implies working with street gangs in nontradi- 
tional settings (see Page 162). It calls for small group ac- 
tivities, with decreased emphasis on mass activities. It 
means experimental use of different types of recreation 
activities, such as programs involving automobiles and par- 
ticipation in work-camp experiences. Many of these activi- 
ties must be carried on away from the traditional commu- 
nity center or recreation facility. 

In the second place, there has to be distinct consideration 
given to special leadership. Workers going into high-delin- 
quency areas need additional training in understanding 
group process, handling aggressive behavior, and an ability 
to function in potentially dangerous situations. These abil- 
ities are more closely related to the kinds of training re- 
ceived by social workers. Training in itself, however, is not 
the whole answer. Personalities who can operate effectively 
in these settings must also be very carefully selected. *- 



APRIL 1960 



159 



Finally, this kind of recreation program has to be care- 
fully integrated into the total community services, on a 
planned basis. This involves frequent consultation with 
such groups as police officers, social workers, and neighbor- 
hood organizations. This also implies some conscious plan 
of interagency cooperation so that emergencies may be 
handled in a constructive way. A planned program of rec- 
reation services in a highly delinquent area must involve a 
large degree of this kind of cooperation. 

All this adds up to the rather blunt statement that if a 
recreation department or agency wants to get involved in a 
serious program related to the specific problem of reducing 
troublesome and delinquent behavior, it should do it with 
its eyes open and with a realization of the difficulties in- 
volved. A fuzzy-minded approach with rather general goals 
often does more harm than good. A recreation program 
does not have to be defended in terms of its ability to pre- 
vent delinquency. It has a legitimate and intrinsic function 
in its own right in the general welfare of the community. 
When it does specifically focus on high-delinquency areas, 
however, recreation can be a very significant part of the 



total community approach to this problem, if some of the 
safeguards mentioned above are built into the program. 

One final comment seems appropriate. Our knowledge 
about the forces that propel young people into deviant or 
delinquent behavior is rapidly increasing. There still is a 
lot we do not know. Any organized community program 
specifically geared to the reduction of delinquent behavior 
has a responsibility to build into its function a dedication 
to research and scientific inquiry. 

We can achieve this only through organized research in- 
volving the use of social scientists as participating team 
members in our efforts. Critical evaluation may prove dis- 
astrous to some of our traditional assumptions in the rec- 
reation field, particularly in this area of working with the 
more troublesome and delinquent youngsters. But in the 
long pull, careful programing, with honest appraisal of what 
we do while we are doing it, will give us a much firmer base 
from which to deal with future problems. We may never 
eliminate the problem of juvenile delinquency, but we can 
make some substantial strides in reducing the amount of 
delinquency. # 



MORE FUN IN PENN'S WOODS 



The following letter, in the Philadel- 
phia Evening Bulletin of January 9, 
1960, describes state action which might 
well be used as a pattern for other parts 
of the country. Contemplation of such 
expansion was first evidenced in 1958, 
when Pennsylvania commissioned the 
National Recreation Association to 
make a study of existing state recrea- 
tion areas. It is reprinted with permis- 
sion of the Bulletin. 

T WAS HIGHLY pleased to note the edi- 
torial entitled "An Appreciated As- 
set" . . . describing the skyrocketing use 
being made of Pennsylvania's State 
Park system. 

As you well know, the interest in out- 
door recreation has increased by leaps 
and bounds in the past decade. In Penn- 
sylvania, alone, it has more than tripled. 
One amazing statistic: In the first nine 
months of 1959, more people bought 
new boats in California than purchased 
new automobiles. 

To my mind, however, such statistics 
reflect more than the simple fact that 
Americans like to have a good time. 



For the first time in history, our society 
affords enough leisure, high enough 
wages, and good enough transportation 
to make it possible for everyone to en- 
joy the "good life." 

Today's Americans look for recrea- 
tional facilities, just as they look for 
good schools and transportation, before 
they choose the place they want to live. 
Industry, well aware of this, selects 
plant sites where its employees can find 
the parks they want. Parks have be- 
come, therefore, a very important part 
of the economic picture in Pennsyl- 
vania. We must provide these facilities 
if we want to remain competitive with 
other states for new industry and new 
growth. 

Particularly, we need recreational 
areas ringing our great metropolitan 
areas. I am extremely gratified, there- 
fore, that the legislature has appropri- 
ated $2,000,000 for the Department of 
Forests and Waters to acquire lands 
around Pittsburgh and Philadelphia for 
regional parks. This is the beginning 
of an important policy -a policy that 



has yet to be adopted in other states. 
That is. the policy of acquiring land for 
parks before it is swallowed up by sub- 
urban sprawl. If we do not meet this 
need now, the land will not be available 
a few years hence and people will look 
elsewhere for a place to live and indu-- 
tries will look West for a locality win-re 
lhe\ can expand. 

I am convinced that we are on our 
way to meeting the needs around Phil- 
adelphia. The plan proposed by my de- ' 
partment for the Brandywine lia^in in 
Chester County which will pro\ile. 
when constructed, three new stale park~ 
for the Philadelphia area, combined 
u iili the parks that will be built around 
reservoirs to be proposed sliortN by the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for the : 
Delaware River, will help. But we will 
need more. 

It is time that parks, along w illi main 
other needs, be made an integral part 
of planning for the future of the Phila-J 
delphia metropolitan region. Maurice 
K. Goddard. Stale Si'cn-tnr\ <>j Forests 
& Waters. Harrisburg. Pennsylvania, 



MAY IS SENIOR CITIZENS MONTH 



160 



RK< HI \TION 




INSTITUTE ON PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION 



T^OUR of the nation's foremost per- 
sonnel specialists will deal with the 
recreation executive's most important 
problem, "Personnel Administration," 
at the fifth Annual National Institute 
on Recreation Administration, Septem- 
ber 24-25 at the Shoreham Hotel, Wash- 
ington, D. C. This will be held the 
weekend prior to the 42nd National 
Recreation Congress so executives will 
have time to attend Congress sessions. 

Executives attending past institutes 
have chosen this year's theme wisely 
when we consider that three-fourths or 
more of the recreation budget may go 
for salaries and wages. The subject 
takes on serious, sobering and signifi- 
cant meaning when we realize some ex- 
ecutives claim that nine-tenths or more 
of their day-to-day problems deal with 
personnel. With one-third of the total 
tax dollar going to pay the cost of em- 
ployees at all government levels, the 
public is demanding increasingly that 
executives be trained in modern man- 
agement and be highly skilled in human 
relations and the high art of leadership. 

The Institute will deal with many 
important aspects of personnel includ- 
ing: 

LEADERSHIP New concepts of leader- 
ship, human relations, motivation, su- 
pervision, leadership development. 

JOB EVALUATION AND PAY ADMINISTRA- 
TION Job design, organization of 
work, job analysis, job descriptions, 
standards of performance, evaluations 
of pay plans. 

SELECTION AND PLACEMENT Recruit- 
ing, selection, placement, promotion, 
proper utilization of staff, merit system 
forms, other central systems, depart- 
mental systems. 

MR. SUTHERLAND is director of the Rec- 
reation Personnel Service of the Na- 
tional Recreation Association. 




STAFF DEVELOPMENTS On-the-job 
training, off-the-job education, coach- 
ing, performance standards, employee 
evaluation, appraisal and motivation 
counseling. 

KENNETH 0. WARNER will cover selec- 
tion, placement, and personnel systems. 
He is director of 
the Public Person- 
nel Association; 
editor of Public 
Personnel Review, 
Personnel News, 

and Personnel 

Man; vice-chairman of the public-serv- 
ice committee of the President's Com- 
mittee for Employment for the Physi- 
cally Handicapped ; and member of the 
American Committee on Inter-Munici- 
pal Cooperation, and the Conference on 
Public Service. His academic posts 
have included chairmanship of the De- 
partment of Political Science, Univer- 
sity of Tennessee; and lectureships at 
American University, Florida State 
University, University of Chicago, and 
Northwestern University. 

The session on job evaluation and 
pay administration will have Louis J. 
KROEGER, execu- 
tive vice-president 
of Griffenhagen- 
Kroeger, Inc., man- 
agement consult- 
ants, San Francis- 
co. His former po- 
sitions include those of consultant to 
the federal Bureau of the Budget and 
the U.S. Civil Service Commission; ex- 
ecutive officer of California State Per- 
sonnel Board; and personnel director, 
city of Berkeley. California. He has 
taught public administration and per- 
sonnel administration in the Graduate 
School, University of California; Grad- 
uate School, U.S. Department of Agri- 





W. C. Sutherland 

culture; and University of California 
Extension Division. 

CECIL E. GOODE will serve as instruc- 
tor for the session on leadership. Mr. 
Goode is interim 
executive director, 
National Civil 
Service League; 
author of Person- 
nel Research Fron- 
tiers ; and editor of 
Personnel Administration, bimonthly 
magazine of the Society for Personnel 
Administration. He was staff director 
of the Second Hoover Commission's 
Committee on Special Personnel Prob- 
lems of the Department of Defense. 

Staff development will be interpreted 
by 0. GLENN STAHL, director of the Bu- 
reau of Programs 
and Standards, 
U.S. Civil Service 
Commission ; pro- 
fessor of public 
administration at 
American Univer- 
sity; and author of Public Personnel 
Administration, a popular publication 
among personnel directors and leading 
textbook in its field. An outstanding 
speaker and leader in the personnel 
area, he taught government at New 
York University and has been a visiting 
lecturer at six other universities. 




The National Recreation Associa- 
tion's National Advisory Committee on 
Recruitment, Training, and Placement 
is sponsoring the Institute, to be held 
the weekend prior to the 42nd National 
Recreation Congress. Admission is by 
advance registration only; enrollment 
is limited. Inquiries about the Institute 
should be directed to W. C. Sutherland, 
director, NRA Recreation Personnel 
Service, 8 West 8th Street, New York 
11. # 



APRIL 1960 



161 




ROVING LEADERS 

EXTEND OUR REACH 



Interesting experimental program in the 
42nd National Recreation Congress city- 
Washington, D. C. The Congress will be 
held Sept. 25-29 at the Hotel Shoreham. 



Edward H. Thacker 



THE AGENCIES AND citizens of 
Washington, D. C., like those in 
most large cities, have been in- 
creasingly concerned with the problem 
of juvenile delinquency. Several pro- 
grams have been instituted in an effort 
to deal with this problem. In 1953 the 
district commissioners created the Com- 
missioners' Youth Council, an organ- 
ization of dedicated citizens, who, with 
the heads of district departments con- 
cerned with youth, sought to develop 
programs to reduce and control juve- 
nile delinquency in the area. Through 
use of area boards representing neigh- 
borhood volunteers and professional 
workers, this program reaches the grass 
roots of the community. 

Several private voluntary agencies, 
with the help of special grants, organ- 
ized pilot projects in critical areas us- 
ing the "detached worker" approach. 
Although helpful, these programs were 

MR. THACKER is a recreation analyst in 
the District of Columbia Recreation De- 
partment. (See his article "Research in 
Action," RECREATION, January 1958.) 

162 



abandoned for lack of funds. The youth 
council then turned to the district rec- 
reation department for assistance. The 
council wanted a detached worker for 
assignment in "Washington's wickedest 
precinct." After careful consideration, 
the department developed a program it 
believed fell legitimately into the realm 
of recreation service. 

A recreation leader with a thorough 
knowledge of the problems of youth in 
the neighborhood was assigned to this 
project on an experimental basis. He 
was instructed to use recreation activi- 
ties and leadership techniques as an op- 
ening wedge to acceptance by the 
groups in the area. The area board and 
all related agencies serving the neigh- 
borhood gave their support. It was soon 
evident that this approach was effective 
and the department sought and ob- 
tained funds to broaden the program 
into other neighborhoods. 

Washington's detached workers are 
called "roving leaders." The name im- 
plies their function : to rove, to seek out, 
to meet away from an organized center, 



to serve those youths who do not fre- 
quent the public or private recreation 
agencies in the city. Such a concept in- 
cludes not only the delinquent and pre- 
delinquent, but also the shy, retiring, 
introverted youths who are just as 
much in need of constructive activities. 

o FAR the roving leaders have con- 
centrated on the delinquent and po- 
tential delinquent. They have contacted 
most of the known groups or gangs in 
the city and have identified those which 
require more immediate action. As 
rapport is established and confidence 
gained, the leaders have often redirect- 
ed the activities and attitudes of these 
groups. 

In addition to direct contact with the 
youngsters, the roving leader frequent- 
ly visits parents, discussing home and 
family problems, and relating these 
problems to behavior. Referral of par- 
ents and children to agencies equipped 
to help solve these problems is a regu- 
lar occurence. 

Administratively, the roving leaders 
are under the supervision of the assist- 
ant director of the neighborhood cen- 
ters division. This is the program 
division which conducts recreation pro- 
grams at neighborhood playgrounds 
and recreation centers. Weekly staff 
meetings provide a forum for the ex- 
change of information and discussion 
of problems and techniques. A psychol- 
ogist is available for consultation on 
the technique of dealing with especially 
difficult behavior problems. 

The roving leader works very closely 
with regional and unit directors so they 
may know of his activities and ex- 
change information which may be of 
mutual help. Roving leaders have ac- 
cess to all playground facilities after 
regular hours for use by their groups. 
Generally, there is a minimum of inter- 
mixing between these groups and the 
regular participants in a recreation pro- 
gram. When these groups are rea.K. 
the roving leader and unit leader work 
together in the transition back into the 
regular playground program. 

One of the roving leader's principal 
responsibilities is to maintain close re- 
lationships with all community agen- 
cies concerned with youth. Since the 
area boards of the youth council rep- 
resent a reliable c-i o -ivlion of inter- 

RECREATION 




Narcia Allen (left) checks training 
schedule with Mrs. Kay Caul, direc- 
tor of neighborhood centers. Mrs. 
Allen is believed to be the coun- 
try's first woman roving gang leader. 



ests in youth, these boards are most 
helpful. Some boards have a "gangs 
committee" and gather useful informa- 
tion for the roving leaders. These con- 
tacts often provide special services for 
the groups and individuals with whom 
the roving leader is working: tickets for 
athletic events, movies, and so on. 
Sometimes access is provided to private 
organizations for use of their facilities, 
such as bowling or gymnasium, or these 
organizations donate supplies and 
equipment for use by the groups: a 
radio or record player for a dance, 
refreshments, bus transportation, uni- 
forms. 

The youth-aid division of the police 
department is also a willing ally. There 
is constant but confidential exchange of 
information related to identification of 
gangs, their leaders, hangouts, prob- 
lems, and possible solutions. Care is 
taken that problem youths do not asso- 
ciate the roving leader with the police 
to the extent that he is no longer ac- 
cepted by them as trustworthy. 

A similar relationship is maintained 
with social workers from the juvenile 
court, welfare department, and attend- 
ance officers from the public schools. 
Referrals are frequently made to ap- 
propriate offices of the public employ- 
ment service and clinics of the health 

APRIL 1960 



department. Although roving leaders 
are not fully trained counselors, they 
can frequently discover the basic prob- 
lems of their youths and refer them to 
the proper agency for solution. The 
employment problem is often encoun- 
tered and, at the request of the recrea- 
tion department, the local employment 
service has assigned a staff member to 
handle requests for tests and placement 
of persons referred by the roving 
leaders. 

SELECTION AND TRAINING of roving 
^ leaders is especially important. 
They must have strong character and 
possess those personal qualities that ap- 
peal to youth : they must be understand- 
ing, democratic, reliable, trustworthy, 
and friendly. It is necessary that a 
roving leader have a sound background 
in recreation leadership techniques. Ac- 
tual experience in working with youth 
is better than education alone. Educa- 
tion is important, however, with special 
emphasis on behavioral psychology, so- 
ciology, and group work. 

Once appointed, the roving leader 
gets a comprehensive training course 
in methods and techniques, his relation- 
ships with the department and other 
staff members, and with necessary re- 
sources in the community. Conferences 
with or visits to welfare, police, juvenile 
court, and other agencies are vital parts 
of this training. 

Since the initial experimental assign- 
ment of a roving leader in 1956, the 
program has become a topic of interest 
to all youth-serving agencies in the city. 
Many area boards have sought one for 
their neighborhoods. Public officials 
have recognized the value of this pro- 
gram and have actively supported the 
department's requests for additional 
funds. Congressional appropriations 



committees have indicated their en- 
dorsement by approving funds for ad- 
ditional leaders, so today there are 
seven roving leaders serving a broad 
segment of the city. 

Recently a female roving leader was 
appointed since some gangs have their 
female counterparts. It was thought 
that a female leader working with the 
male leader might be an effective team, 
so the department has added what it be- 
lieves to be the first such woman leader 
in the country. The department thus 
has a "roving" roving leader who 
moves from neighborhood to neighbor- 
hood as needed. This woman leader is 
also concerned with preventive mea- 
sures, hoping to uncover a girl's latent 
antisocial behavior before a pattern is 
established. This requires personal at- 
tention to each girl individually as well 
as to a group of which she may be a 
part. Time alone will judge the effec- 
tiveness of this plan. 

T> ESULTS ARE NOT easy to measure. 
There are too many factors to be 
considered, all interrelated, to permit 
an honest appraisal of success or fail- 
ure. Rather than claiming success for 
its own program, the department be- 
lieves that any reduction in delinquen- 
cy rate or gang incidents is the result 
of coordinated action of youth-serving 
agencies, both public and private, and 
the dedicated interest and concern of 
many citizens serving actively in many 
capacities. 

Just as delinquency has no single 
cause, neither has delinquency preven- 
tion any single solution. (See also 
"Recreation and Delinquency," Page 
158.) The success of a preventive pro- 
gram rests with a united approach with 
all forces in the community meeting the 
problem head on. # 



The efforts of adolescents to achieve maturity plus the 
effects of resistance they meet in themselves and others 
combine to produce great confusion for them. It is no 
wonder that they are mixed up and aimless. . . . They 
are eager for whatever adult privileges they can get, 
but are not so eager to accept the responsibilities that 
go with them. Young people are great seekers after 
pleasure but have strong aversions to work or anything 
that limits or disciplines their desires. REUEL L. HOWE 
in The Creative Years (Seabury Press, 1959). 



163 



Siebolt H. Frieswyk 



Cultural Coexistence in 



r 1O HELP THOSE who help themselves" has been for 
many years the basic philosophy of the Rich- 
mond, Virginia, Department of Recreation and 
Parks. The application of this philosophy has led to the 
development, expansion, and stability of its programs, pro- 
jects, and consultation services to organized groups. In 
particular, it has been demonstrated through the organiza- 
tion of and assistance to the Federated Arts of Richmond. 
All too often municipal recreation is baseball and basket- 
ball, games and crafts, folk dancing and social dancing. In 
Richmond, recreation services offered by the recreation de- 
partment include assistance by the department staff as well 
as lending materials to local organized nonprofit groups. 
Such assistance, given through the division of special serv- 
ices and events of the Richmond Department of Recreation 
and Parks since 1947, also led, in 1949, to the establishment 
of a Committee for the Coordination of Cultural Entertain- 
ment. This subsequently changed its name to the Federated 
Arts of Richmond and is recognized as the arts council for 
this metropolitan community of 385.000. 

Federated Arts is an organization composed of nonprofit 
organized groups in the Richmond area, working and in- 
terested in the cultural life of the city. Fields of activity at 
present include music, drama, art, dance, and literature. 
Active current membership consists of nine musical organ- 
izations, ranging from symphony to barbershop; four 
drama groups; three art organizations; two dance societies; 
and one literature group. AH are actively performing or 
exhibiting. In addition, there are eight associate member 
groups interested in furthering community cultural life. 

The major purpose of Federated Arts is to perpetuate and 
strengthen the arts in Richmond. Its methods are varied, 
and it maintains a strict policy of artistic neutrality in re- 
lation to its member groups, with a guarantee of no inter- 
ference in their internal operations. Plans are big and 
exciting and, based on the experiences of other communi- 
ties, should result in complete stabilization of the arts in 
the hands of the community's citizens. 

The Richmond Department of Recreation and Parks can 
take full credit as the parent of Federated Arts. In the latter 
stages of World War II two interest groups one in music 
and one in children's theater were reactivated and char- 

MR. FRIESWYK is consultant for the performing arts, Na- 
tional Recreation Association. 

164 



tered. Both organizations asked that the then Division of 
Parks and Recreation assist their programs by furnishing 
supervision and, often, direction. The division accepted 
the invitation because it felt that a vital, citywide interest 
in such creative fields is an important and necessary part 
of a communiu's heritage. 

After World War II more groups of similar nature or- 
ganized, and some of them turned to the parks and recrea- 
tion department for similar assistance. By 1949 scheduling 
conflicts were rampant and the eight staff members in the 
department's division of special services and events \\ere 
bearing a great deal of the burden. Effective service could 
not be given, for example, when two groups scheduled ma- 
jor production on consecutive nights. The department also 
discovered that members of some of the groups were heini: 
caught in a giant squeeze play. Competition for the time 
of some participants was great, and there was ill feelin 
regardless of the participant's choice of acti\ities. \inli- 
ences also were disturbed. A spate of cultural acti\iiic> 
one month and a drought the next month produced an un- 
balanced diet and strained pocketbooks. The economic pic- 
ture of local groups was indeed erratic for no one group 
could count on a sizable audience. Con-dpu nll\ . some 
smaller groups found it necessary to disband almost before 
they had started. 

Something had to be done, and the Department of l!r, 
reation and Parks took the initiative. It called together the 
presidents of music and drama groups schools, colleges. 
commercial and nonprofit and suggested that representa- 
tives of the groups meet together several time- a \car to li>t 
production dates and resolve possible conflicts. The depart- 
ment offered to mimeograph the schedule as a calendar of 
events so that groups could have the listings at their finger- 
tips as a guide when they wished to add or change dates of 
their productions. Groups were also encouraged to (all at 
any time to check the master schedule. Commercial inter- 
ests said that availability of artists controlled their pro- 
grams, hut that they would list their dates with the dep.nl- 
ment so that others might work around them. Schools and 
colleges felt that since their programs primarily concerned 
their institutions, they should not he included. 

Nonprofit groups readily agreed to the proposal and, 
looking to the future, suggest. -d that art and dance !>< in- 
cluded. They also selected the name of the Committee for 
the Coordination of Cultural Entertainment in Richmond, 

Hi i HI \i in\ 



Richmond 



How a recreation department 
can help community groups to 
help themselves in stabilizing the arts. 



and appointed a music critic of a local newspaper as chair- 
man. Scheduling continued, as it does today, but its effect 
has been much more far-reaching than solving the problem 
of conflict of dates. It did not happen all at once, however. 
The department of recreation realized that if the un- 
healthy competition, suspicion, and jealousy were overcome, 
the arts in Richmond could become a compelling influence. 
It also realized that this would be a long process; nothing 
could be forced; there must be a natural overcoming of 
these obstacles. 

T? ARLIER MEETINGS of the Committee for the Coordination 
--^ of Cultural Entertainment in Richmond were marked 
by a reserve and coolness on the part of some of the rep- 
resentatives. But by 1952 some of the suspicion had been 
overcome, and after a listing of dates one evening a casual 
conversation started about some of the groups' more obvi- 
ous problems. Before the meeting adjourned it had been 
agreed that a survey of member groups be made, that the 
committee become an organization with a charter and by- 
laws, and a temporary president and secretary were elected. 
The secretary was a staff member of the recreation depart- 
ment. The department was also requested to mimeograph 
the survey form and compile the results. 

This survey included such questions as program, expendi- 
tures including cost of professional leadership, clerical help 
and rentals, methods of financing, major problems, long- 
term plans and objectives, and whether or not the organiza- 
tion was solvent at the end of the previous season. Results 
indicated that nine out of twelve groups needed a place of 
some sort. Of the three groups which did not need a place, 
two were art museums. The third rented space on the third 
floor of a downtown store. The other nine groups needed 
workshops, rehearsal space, meeting places, and even per- 
formance space that would be available when the group 
needed it. 

A second common problem concerned finances. Groups 
were not presenting the programs they felt were needed and 
desired because they lacked sufficient funds. Some of the 
groups, because of the caliber and scale of their work, had 
no margin of profit to cover unexpected expenses. 

In 1953 the name of The Federated Arts of Richmond 
was selected, and each of the groups which had been meet- 
ing together was given the opportunity to join the new 
organization and elect a representative to the board of di- 

APRIL 1960 



rectors. The temporary president and secretary became two 
of the regular officers, and headquarters was established at 
the department of recreation and parks. Federated Arts also 
decided that a survey of existing and perhaps available fa- 
cilities in Richmond should be made to see if at least a part 
of the needs for space could be satisfied and rental costs 
reduced. 

The second survey showed that to renovate and adapt any 
existing available facility for use by Federated Arts groups 
would be as expensive as constructing an entirely new and 
more ideal facility. Thus, thoughts turned to fund raising. 
Several things happened, however, to postpone this for a 
while. 

The first was an announcement that the Virginia Museum 
of Fine Arts had received a bequest for the construction of 
a theater wing. The museum, quite active in Federated Arts, 
stated this wing would be used exclusively by the museum 
for a state program and would not be available for use by 
Richmond's groups as such. This was, of course, thoroughly 
understood by Federated Arts, but it was felt that Rich- 
mond's average citizens, who must necessarily be asked to 
contribute to the construction of a Federated Arts Center, 
would not understand until the museum's program was 
really in action. 

The second factor was the presence in Richmond at that 
time of a professional fund-raising organization which ad- 
vised that Federated Arts and its individual member groups 
needed a very full publicity program for at least one year 
so all citizens would become more aware of the organiza- 
tions, their programs, and needs. 

Again, sitting around the table in the recreation office, 
it was agreed that publicity was the first thing. Someone 
mentioned the "adventure days" of the thirties, and imagi- 
nation was fired. The first annual festival of arts was thus 
evolved to make the groups' programs known to the general 
public. A week of free programs, during which each per- 
forming group gave a forty-five-minute demonstration of 
its type of work, was coordinated, supervised, and stage- 
managed by the recreation and parks department. 

A FEW WEEKS later Richmond was asked to participate in 
a one-day regional arts council conference in Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina, and to describe how it had managed 
to coordinate the local groups into the festival of arts peace- 
fully. The secretary attended this conference and explained 

165 



that the municipal recreation department had been responsi- 
ble for coordinating the festival, and that there had been 
no problems. The Winston-Salem meeting opened greater 
doors to Federated Arts for it became aware of many other 
possible features and aims for its organization. 

For many years the recreation department had coordi- 
nated and directed a series of pop concerts at the Carillon, 
Virginia's World War I memorial. The State Department 
of Conservation and Economic Development had sponsored 
these concerts and the Recording Industry Trust Fund had 
presented one or two concerts in addition. The recreation 
department had also sponsored and produced a Sunday 
afternoon series of children's plays in an adjoining "ravine" 
called Dogwood Dell. The department looked forward to 
the day when an amphitheater would be constructed at the 
site. But the construction seemed to be a long way off, if the 
planning commission's recommendations were followed in 
sequence. 

The Richmond-Jamestown Festival Committee, with the 
support of Federated Arts, was instrumental in getting the 
amphitheater constructed by the city in time for the summer 
of the 1957 Jamestown Festival celebrated by all Virginia 
communities. When additional funds were made available 
through the committee, Federated Arts agreed to lend its 
Festival of Arts name to an eight-week summer program. 
Member groups performed on various nights and were 
joined in the festival by the pop concert and children's play 
series. The Recording Industry Trust Fund increased the 
number of its concerts and the State Department of Con- 
servation and Economic Development provided additional 
funds so that the bells of the carillon could be played each 
night. The entire festival was presented by Federated Arts. 
This pattern has continued each summer since 1957, with 
a local bank taking the place of the Richmond-Jamestown 
Festival Committee as sponsor. Attendance at the free pro- 
grams during the summer is estimated at about fifty thou- 
sand as compared to twenty-five hundred for the first festival 
presented indoors in the spring. 

Federated Arts uses the recreation department's mailing 
address. Its mimeographing is done by the department on 
stationery now happily furnished by the arts council. Until 
July 1959 a staff member, using the title of executive sec- 
retary, for convenience of communication, served officially 
on office time. July brought a reorganization of the depart- 
ment and a promotion to this staff member, so that she now 
is the volunteer executive secretary doing most of the work 
on her own time. This does not mean that the department 
has dropped its assistance to Federated Arts, for clerical 
services are still available as well as consultation services 
through the new division of central program services. 

The arts in the community are also growing, with more 
interest being shown on the part of citizens. Attendance 
figures are larger and member groups and possible partici- 
pants are more concerned now with stabilizing the picture 
than with organizing new groups which duplicate services. 
Federated Arts knows that it is closer to realizing some of 
its long-range plans, which will help its member groups to 
increase in stature and strength as the years go by. 



fT\nE DAY is rapidly approaching when Federated Arts will 
-- initiate fund raising and some type of building pro- 
gram. It is on the brink of a limited funds appeal to set up 
its own office and professional staff. When this is done, Fed- 
erated Arts can offer more vital and continuing services to 
its twenty-eight member groups and. depending upon the 
requests of the groups, will include central clerical and fil- 
ing services, mailing, and publicity as a start, in addition 
to the services mentioned earlier. When this day arrives, 
the recreation department expects to assume its place as a 
mere associate member, but will continue its interest and 
helpfulness and, if necessary, guidance. 

With an office of its own established, the next step for 
Federated Arts should be coordinated or united fund-raising 
campaigns to supply needed money to member groups and 
to finance the establishment of an arts center containing an 
auditorium, studios, rehearsal and meeting rooms, work- 
shops, and display area. But Federated Arts is also finding 
the time to help in the growth of the arts and of arts councils 
throughout the country. In September 1959 arts councils 
and about-to-be arts councils in the three-state area of North 
and South Carolina and Virginia met for a conference in 
Winston-Salem. The groups present, which included repre- 
sentatives of sixteen cities and towns, decided to form a 
tristate arts council. Subsequent committee meetings have 
led to some definite plans for the tristate, including a survey 
of the arts in each of the three states to determine what is 
already in existence. It is a known fact that industry, think- 
ing of moving into a new community, looks at the total 
picture of the community, and that arts activities are care- 
fully scrutinized. 

r | v !K DIE is already cast for Federated Arts. It knows 
that it is the only organized arts council in Virginia. 
It knows that at least three other communities in the state 
are thinking seriously of or are in the process of organizing 
arts councils. It definitely wants company from its own 
state just as the recreation and parks department wants 
company from other departments in the arts movement. 

But the tristate organization is only a part of the na- 
tional arts picture. The annual June convention of the 
American Symphony Orchestra League has for the past eight 
years included a simultaneous meeting of and for arts coun- 
cils. It is felt that in the not-too-distant future these coun- 
cils, with the blessing of the ASOL and several other national 
associations, will become a separate organization called the 
International Arts Council and will provide the means by 
which the movement will strengthen even more in Canada 
and the United States. 

Richmond feels that the arts are important in a commu- 
nity and it feels that the recreation profession should aovpt 
them as a part of its responsibility. It is proud it can say 
that it has contributed some stability to the arts in Rich- 
mond. It is convinced that recreation i> liax-hall and basket- 
ball, games and crafts, folk dancing and social dancing, and 
music, drama, art and other dance forms, for all apos in the 
community including those enthusiasts who have nri;;ini/i-(l 
to help themselves. # 



166 



KKCRKATION 



"WAKE UP 
AND READ, 
YOUNG 
AMERICA!" 




Promote reading along with sports. Start some new project 
to stimulate young people's reading during National 
Library Week, April 3-9, 1960. 



THE GREATEST NUMBER of drop-offs 
and drop-outs in reading occur 
during the teen years. At four- 
teen a boy no longer reads books of 
high adventure to which he had been 
devoted at ten or the stories of space 
travel and books of "plain facts" to 
which he had turned his attention at 
eleven, twelve, and thirteen. At four- 
teen he tells his Boys' Club librarian 
that he has no time to read. Oh, he 
reads, but only "for assignments." 

Why has he dropped his voluntary 
reading to only a few books a year? 
The disclination to read for the pure 
joy of it or for personal satisfaction in- 
fects far too many teen-agers. We know 
that lack of books in the home environ- 
ment, absence of an atmosphere condu- 
cive to reading, and want of positive 
attitudes toward books and reading, 
particularly among their peers, are fac- 
tors associated with teen-age drop-offs. 

For almost a hundred years now (the 
Boys' Club of America movement start- 
ed in New England in the 1860's) , indi- 
vidual Boys' Clubs have been encourag- 
ing boys from eight to eighteen to read 
by providing books they like in an at- 
mosphere where reading was an activity 
one of the things to do in free time. 

The clubs have utilized many money- 
raising schemes to buy books in the 
past, but last year a new project was 
inaugurated that could be utilized by 
any recreation department or club in- 
terested in building its library and in 
inspiring youngsters' desire to read. 

Miss VINTON is director of the Boys' 
Clubs of America Publications Service. 



Last year the Boys' Clubs of America 
were fortunate in having a group of 
people undertake a project aimed at 
inculcating teen-agers with a taste for 
reading. Called "Wake Up and Read, 
Young America," this project involved 
a large number of nationwide Boys' 
Clubs. A local sponsor was selected to 
make the gift presentation to a Boys' 
Club, on behalf of the group of donors 
of a basic library of fifty paperback 
books. These presentations were sched- 
uled to take place during National Li- 
brary Week or near that date. 

Each club alerted newspapers, radio, 
and TV stations to the gift, and to the 
intent of the project. In every instance, 
the club received wholehearted response 
from all mass media in the area. A 
ceremony was held the day the local 
sponsor presented the gift to the Boys' 
Club library, and the event was given 
all the fanfare accompanying an impor- 
tant local sports affair. Sponsors, club 
executives, and young readers (as 
though they were on varsity teams) got 
their pictures in the newspaper, heard 
their voices over the radio, and saw 
themselves on television. Some sixty of 
these events took place all over the coun- 
try during this period. 

What did these ceremonial events do 
for reading? They made books and 
reading important in each of those com- 
munities not important as culture or 
as something valuable ten years hence, 
but important to one's own peers right 
here and now. A reader was not some- 
one alone and apart; he was recognized 
as a participant. And nothing so ap- 
peals to the teen-ager as participation. 



Iris Vinton 

One result of this special project 
and its concomitant fanfare was the 
tremendous rise in reading interest, 
not of club books alone, either. Local 
libraries reported a rise in books bor- 
rowed by teen-age youngsters. Many 
clubs said the books from the project 
were loaned out almost immediately, 
and club leaders and directors were ap- 
pealing for more books any kind. 

The boys' general reaction may be 
summed up in this comment from a six- 
teen-year-old : "All of us were standing 
around looking through the books on 
the table in the library. Some of the 
boys started to read, and I did, too. I 
took the book home and finished it." 

It was a case of "me too," for that 
boy, and many another, who had often 
remarked that he was not much of a 
reader and could not get interested in 
books. The fact is that he, as well as 
many men and women, needs only to 
have others do something to want to do 
it too. As a teen-ager, however, he is 
much more influenced by the approval 
or disapproval of his peers than is an 
adult. 

Reports from clubs everywhere were 
enthusiastic about the project. If its 
success has any overall meaning what- 
soever, it is simply this : a gift of books 
made in an important manner to any 
youth center will capture their attention 
and arouse interest in reading. Donors 
might prove hard to get if the gift is 
thought of in terms of hundreds of dol- 
lars. But when prospective donors are 
told that for about twenty dollars they 
can purchase a whole library of books 
for their favorite youth group and have 
all the real enjoyment that goes with 
making an important gift, they are not 
at all scarce. Civic clubs and groups as 
well as individuals seldom have an op- 
portunity to give so much for so little. 
The average cost of the titles in the 
"Wake Up and Read, Young America" 
gift library, sent to Boys' Clubs last 
year, was forty cents; the highest priced 
book, seventy-five cents. # 

For the titles of the fifty paperbacks, 
together with their authors and pub- 
lishers, see Page 192. 



APRIL 1960 



167 




Today's European playgrounds 
sports, and muscle stretchinga 
grounds, wherein children used 
planned as "building sites" (II 
amazing technical skill. At Cop 
hundred small houses with 




PLAYGROUNDS ABROAD 





168 



Small spring lo< -ntcil on 
H it/i stones and made into n \ 
their sand castles. Logs and 
ground is hard surfaced for\ 
pavilion with seats serves 
ances. The coofx-rutifi' j>lm 
It'liile there is no unirerstil 
how twelve countries on four 
and locations in Iniiltline. tht 



RECREATION 



s creative and artistic activities as much as games, 
mark has progressed from its postwar "junk" play- 
rubble and debris for "constructing," to play areas 
nellegeplads). The children continue to display an 
gen-Emdrup (left) the children have built about one 
These are dismantled and stored during the winter. 



Wendy Houses (left), displayed at an 
exhibition playground in Sweden, were 
constructed at different levels over a 
sandpit and joined by wooden walks. 

This material is reproduced, with per- 
mission, from Creative Playgrounds and 
Recreation Centers (New York: Frederick 
A. Praeger) . Authors are Dr. Alfred Led- 
ermann of the Swiss Pro Juventute Foun- 
dation and Alfred Trachsel, Zurich city 
planner and architect. 



"All nations play and they 
play remarkably alike." 

JOHAN HUIZINGA. 





I housing project in Switzerland (left) was lined 
I pool from which the children carry water for 
Ipes are very popular. A large part of the play- 
Ugames, unobstructed by any equipment. An open 
tmer for mothers and has a stage for perform- 
mit-as constructed in 1951-55 by voluntary labor. 
<tv>luep r int for good playgrounds, the authors show 
itnts hive tackled the problem of different sites 
rliVe and imaginative play centers for all children. 



APRIL 1960 




A Zurich housing development, designed by the municipal 
building department, offers a large continuous green belt for 
recreation purposes. Its playground (above) is in a sunken 
area sheltered by the surrounding buildings. The sandpit con- 
tains a tree-airplane. A leading pool consists of eight circles. 



Indians and the Wild West excite the German children as much 
as their American counterparts. A stretch of wasteland in 
Mannheim, Germany, lent itself to a "Red Indian" playground 
(left). Contour and vegetation offer natural habitat for stalk- 
ing games. Large pond is surrounded by rows of stone seats. 



Walls of one of the "Red Indian" huts are covered with clay 
blocks (below) in which children incise designs. Their ideas 
of the American Indian are certainly free-wheeling and ivild. 





DUNGAREE DAUBERS 



"Creative expression knows no season" in this 
Long Island children's recreation art program. 



Joyce and John McGinn 




Dr. John R. Herman arrived one day 

to drop off his children, 

and remained to teach ceramics. 

He labels his own efforts 

in this medium "psychoceramics." 



170 



THE DUNGAREE DAUBERS are a free- 
swinging, wildly inventive group 
of elementary-school-age chil- 
dren in Hewlett, New York, interested 
in working in varied art media in a 
loosely controlled, creatively stimulat- 
ing atmosphere. The program evolved 
from Gramma Drama, a workshop in 
creative dramatics which flourishes in 
the fall and winter months in the rec- 
reation building. As a result of interest 
expressed by young participants, whose 
creative expression knew no season, 
this workshop simply became an art 
class utilizing the techniques of Gram- 
ma Drama and moved outdoors for the 
spring session. From the start, the pro- 
gram has been a success and the 
amount of effort put into such a pro- 
gram is insignificant compared to sat- 
isfactions derived and results produced. 
Initially, the program was aimed at 
first- and second-grade children, but as 
the program progressed, more and 
more young children were anxious to 
participate. On an ordinary Saturday 
morning, the size of the group will 
range from thirty to seventy-five. Moth- 
ers bring the children and end up hand- 
ing out supplies. Preschoolers come to 
watch or be watched and wind up as 
pint-sized Picassos. A local doctor ar- 
rived three years ago, chauffeuring his 
three children, and is still with us, 
teaching the techniques of ceramics to 
a vastly enlarged family. An interest- 
ing sidelight to Dr. John R. Herman's 
participation is that the public-address 
system in the recreation building is 
turned on, with the microphone placed 
next to the telephone, with a speaker by 
the window, to permit him to recri\r 
emergency phone calls. Once he had to 
remove the clay in order to scrub up for 
an operation. 

MR. McGlNN is director of the de\wrt- 
ment of recreation, Union Free School 
District No. 14, Hewlett, New York. He 
claims Dungaree Daubers are actually 
MRS. McGlNN's creation, "The tech- 
niques and teaching procedures . . . all 
stem from her and I serve mostly in an 
administrative function and . . . muscle 
man . . . ." The school district's recrea- 
tion formula appeared in a double- 
spreail article, Are Your School's Play 
Facilities Working Full Time?" in To- 
day's Living, Sunday supplement of The 
New York Herald Tribune, 5/24/59. 

RECREATION 



The program takes place on Saturday 
mornings at the recreation building, 
rain or shine, calm or windy, indoors or 
outdoors, occasionally both. Although 
the group started working in paint and 
clay, the children will take on any basic 
material and their inventiveness knows 
no bounds. Wire coat hangers, quanti- 
ties of colored paper, scissors, and 
string produced mobiles Calder never 
dreamed up. White tissue paper, scis- 
sors, and a folding and cutting session 
sprinkled every window in the building 
with snowflakes. Wet newsprint and 
colored chalks produced a brand-new 
dimension in impressionistic painting. 

No restrictions are placed upon the 
amount of work produced or time spent 
on a creative effort. Emphasis is placed 
on individuality and a relaxed atmos- 
phere. The two instructors act chiefly 
as consultants, thought provokers, idea 
encouragers, and general factotums, 
ather than as teachers. 

The children enjoy taking them- 
selves, their materials, and friends off 
:o a shady tree where they commune 
with art and nature to their hearts' con- 



tent. After early sessions, horizons 
broaden and the subject matter is liter- 
ally limitless. There have been epidem- 
ics of swarming butterflies, Zorros with 
and without horses, spatter designs bet- 
ter than Armstrong ever created, and 
many ships ocean, space, and other- 
wise. Although the program stresses 
the doing and not necessarily what is 
done, the child has the right to destroy, 
take home, or preserve his masterpiece. 
The young artists work with the sim- 
plest materials: 18"-by-24" sheets of 
newsprint attached to sheets of Ma- 
sonite with large triangle clips; muffin 
tins of poster paints in basic colors only 
red, blue, yellow, white, and black, 
with plenty of empty spaces for mixing; 
J^IO tin cans of water for cleaning the 
brushes; and large, long-handled 
brushes, with fairly stiff bristles. Small 
brushes tend to encourage small paint- 
ings and limit inspiration. An inexpen- 
sive clay is issued on hardboard with 
the ever-present tin of necessary water 
to assist in manipulating. Nontoxic 
glazes are applied after the bisque fir- 
ing with small camel's-hair brushes. 



Dungaree Daubers culminates in an 
outdoor art show on a sunny Saturday 
with paintings and sculptures mounted, 
titled, and displayed for everyone's en- 
joyment. On the morning of the show, 
all the children in the program arrive 
with picnic lunches and hang paintings 
on the fence with clip clothespins. Bal- 
loons are blown, and burst, and fly 
gaily away on what is invariably the 
windiest day in June. Parents and 
friends gather to view the collection 
with pride. The high-school jazz group 
contributes a jam session, everybody 
dances, lemonade is served, and a gala 
day with the arts is had by all. 

The many and varied paintings pro- 
duced by the children in the nine weeks 
of Dungaree Daubers present a colorful 
and delightful panorama as they stop, 
or at least slow down, traffic on one of 
the main thoroughfares. They are more 
than a collection of fascinating exam- 
ples of children's arts; they are the 
freely chosen, fun-filled exploratory 
steps into what could be a strong, af- 
firmative recreation pursuit for the rest 
of their lives. 



Federal Urban Planning Assistance 



As an aid to the planning of public recreation facilities 7960. 



THE PROGRAM OF FEDERAL grants-in- 
aid for urban planning was estab- 
ished by Section 701 of the Housing 
Act of 1954 and is generally known as 
'the 701 Program." It was substantial- 
y broadened by amendments adopted 
n 1959. 

Under this program, grants, not ex- 
ceeding one half the cost of the work, 
may be made to official planning agen- 
cies to aid them in preparing plans for 
various types of urban area. The grants 
must be matched by an equal amount of 
itate, local, or other nonfederal funds. 
As a general rule, grants for planning 
in cities, counties, and other localities 
of less than fifty thousand population 
are made to official state planning agen- 
cies that are authorized by their state 
aws to provide the localities with plan- 
ling assistance. 

Cities and counties of fifty thousand 
>r more are not eligible for grants ex- 
cept on a metropolitan or regional ba- 
is, in which case grants may be made 
o an official state, metropolitan, or 
egional planning agency having au- 
hority to undertake metropolitan or 



regional planning. 

The 1959 amendments stress the im- 
portance of planning for urban areas 
in their entirety and on a comprehen- 
sive basis. Comprehensive planning is 
defined to include general physical 
plans with respect to the character and 
intensity of land use, programs for the 
provision and financing of public im- 
provements, and coordination with the 
plans of other jurisdictions. 

THE PREPARATION of plans for the 
location of playgrounds, metro- 
politan park systems, and other public 
recreation facilities is considered to be 
an eligible type of planning work, pro- 
vided it is part of, or coordinated with, 
comprehensive plans for the develop- 
ment of the area. 

A planning agency seeking federal 
aid makes up a program of the work 
which it proposes to do and submits it 
for approval. Usually the program in- 
cludes a number of studies and plans 
incident to the preparation of a master 
plan, and plans for the location of rec- 
reation facilities are often included. 



However, an applicant may request a 
grant solely for the preparation of rec- 
reation plans if it can be shown that 
they fit in with general community 
plans already completed or anticipated. 

FEDERAL AID under this program is 
not available for the planning of 
specific public works, since provision 
for such planning is made under the 
Community Facilities Program of the 
Housing and Home Finance Agency. 
Also 701 funds may not be used for 
land acquisition or construction; they 
may be used solely for the purpose of 
planning. 

A city or county of less than fifty 
thousand, desiring to take part in the 
program, should submit a request to its 
state planning agency. If aid is desired 
on a metropolitan or regional basis, 
application may be made either to the 
state planning agency or directly to the 
Housing and Home Finance Agency. 
From a recent speech by TRACY B. AU- 
GUR, Assistant Commissioner for Urban 
Planning Assistance, V. S. Housing and 
Home Finance Agency. 



IPRIL 1960 



171 




The Jolly Roger 



Beatrice McAulifFe Stone 



PIRATES IN THE 
PLAYGROUND 



A program that gives scope 
to the child's creative talents. 



During Early Settlers Week the boys went all 
out in reconstruction of pioneer America. 




PLAYGROUND OPENING TIME W3S 
just around the corner in Bristol, 
New Hampshire. The Kelley 
Park playground staff, consisting of a 
director, and assistant, and a number 
of volunteer junior-high-school young 
people, had met several times for plan- 
ning and training. They realized that 
the playground program of other years, 
though well rounded and attractive to 
local youngsters, needed more color 
with an opportunity for growth through 
self-initiated activity. It was decided 
that this program could be aimed di- 
rectly at the nine-year-olds and under, 
three mornings a week, while their 
older brothers and sisters attended the 
recreation department's day camp. The 
other two weekday mornings would be 
devoted to baseball and other sports 
and activities for all ages on the play- 
ground. 

The staff agreed that too much of a 
youngster's time on the playground is 
planned for him. They felt that in his 
summer leisure time a child needs a 
climate for growth through play and a 
challenging opportunity in which he 
can completely express himself in 

MRS. STONE is playground director for 
the Bristol, New Hampshire Commu- 
nity Center. 

172 



group activities under supervision. A 
program must not rob the youngster of 
all or any of his creative talents, which 
might have developed in his own back- 
yard, self-initiated. With this in mind, 
the staff began to search for a plan to 
coordinate the many types of activities 
possible on a playground and at the 
same time foster every participant's 
growth. 

Two ideas emerged to stimulate the 
development of a "Play Town." In 
1950 McCall's Magazine sponsored a 
project in Minneapolis, a "dynamic 
new playground," where children were 
given tools, building supplies, and a 
fenced-in vacant lot, and set to building 
"The Yard," a town of shacks, forls. 
caves, treehouses, and so on. This pro- 
ject had appeal, but the staff looked still 
further for a method to coordinate the 
many activities common to playground 
programs. Disneyland's planned fan- 
tasy served as further stimulus, and the 
staff was on its way to devise a new 
program for Bristol's youngsters. This 
would allow boys and girls three days 
a week and equipped with the necessary 
tools and equipment to create appro- 
priate buildings and props in accord 
with a weekly theme chosen by the staff 
for its imagination appeal to children. 



In no time, waste lumber, cement 
blocks, culverts, old cars, poles, old 
blankets, and rugs became available. 
Concurrently, the local park board met 
;ni(l approved the plan for such use of 
its area. It was somewhat skeptical of 
possible adverse reactions of townspeo- 
ple to the inevitable mess that would 
occur in the town's only park. Because 
of weekend baseball games played at 
this park, it asked that all construction 
be taken down on Fridays and put 
away. This sounded like a real setback 
at the time. Because of this stipulation, 
though, only lumber, cement blocks, old 
curtains, blankets, and rugs were UM'C! 
in construction. A set of heav\ \<>llc\- 
ball standards also proved valuable. 

The first week of the eight-week pro- 
gram was designated as "Early Settlers 
Week." The first morning, after regis- 
tration, flag raising, and other opening 
ceremonies, a "New England Town 
Meeting" took place at which time a 
mayor and council were elected and 
plans made for the construction of a 
settlers' colony. The children worked 
in primary friendship groups of all ages 
while leaders helped those who were 
strange, shy, or unpopular find the !><>( 
working group to suit their needs. 

On that first day, all nails and a lini- 

RECREATION 



ited number of tools hammers, saws 
and rulers were provided by the play- 
ground. After the first morning it was 
evident the playground could no longer 
stand the cost of supplying nails at the 
rate they were disappearing. By the 
second day every eager young builder 
came armed with his own well-marked 
hammer, saw, can of nails, and, fre- 
quently, carpenter's apron. During 
"Early Settlers Week," while the young 
Loys constructed dwellings and places 
of business necessary to their settle- 
ment, the young ladies were busy sew- 
ing Priscilla caps and making other 
items of apparel for their play families 
under the supervision of the crafts 
leader. As soon as the buildings were 
ready, the girls tacked up curtains, and 
painted window boxes and house fronts. 
The girls, too, initiated Sunday school 
activities for all, long before the build- 
ings were completed. They felt that giv- 
ing thanks and Bible study were an im- 
portant part of early Colonial life. 

Youngsters were encouraged to dress 
up every day in costumes suitable to the 
theme in effect at the time; the leaders, 
of course, did likewise. Donations of 
several large boxes of discarded cloth- 
ing helped. This delighted many chil- 
dren who did not have this opportunity 
at home, and it kept many of the very 
youngest busy for hours. The young- 
sters brought antiques and antiquated 
household items for a midweek display 
and discussion. 

On Friday, final day of "Early Set- 
tlers Week," the children celebrated 
Thanksgiving. Mothers, grandmothers, 
and neighbors had been invited by cut- 
out paper invitations made earlier in 
the week simple old-fashioned figures 
whose aprons read "Come. Friday. 10 
A.M." Visitors, invited to be Indians, 
were presented with headdresses fash- 
ioned by the youngsters. Everyone 
enjoyed a program of old-fashioned 
games and guessing contests. The chil- 
dren demonstrated old-fashioned danc- 
ing and action songs learned during the 
week. Refreshments, cold drinks, and 
cookies, provided by the mothers, were 
served from the "general store." Just 
one-half hour before closing time, 
mothers assisted their children taking 
buildings apart. The lumber was piled 



against a nearby fence and covered 
with heavy rugs and sturdy craft tables. 

A FTER the first week the two paid and 
^* 1 five volunteer leaders held a pro- 
gram evaluation. They found this type 
of program was easy to conduct and su- 
pervise; their enthusiasm was tremen- 
dous; they felt a real answer had been 
found to stimulate their own enthusi- 
asm and that of the children. The par- 
ents, too, expressed unanimous approv- 
al and praise for the activities offered 
their children. The staff felt the possi- 
bilities for coordinating education with 
fun were unlimited. There just seemed 
to be no end to and never enough time 
for all the crafts, dramatics, games, and 
dance possibilities. The children were 
constantly coming up with wonderful 
ideas. 

"Pirate Week" was the theme for the 
second week, and probably the most 
popular of the entire summer. Early 
Monday morning a captain was chosen 
for the Jolly Roger to be. He delegated 
work areas: foredeck, afterdeck, poop- 
deck, gangplank, masts, treasure chest, 
figurehead, portholes, and lifeboat. By 
Friday, the ship was large enough for 
one hundred pirates and every inch of 
space was taken. Everyone came 
dressed appropriately for the Spanish 
Main (every scarf or sash from the cos- 
tume box) . Each youngster had made 
a black cardboard pirate hat, eye patch, 
and mustache. 

A pirate sports day was held mid- 
week, and all who were able to "walk 
the plank" (the horizontal ladder) were 
inducted into the Order of Skull and 
Crossbones in solemn ceremony. At the 
same time, a great deal of free play de- 
veloped around the theme. A Friday 
"Treasure Hunt," with a mysteriously 
found map as a guide, delighted all. 



This article confirms the belief 
that playground programs can be 
creative and challenging. It also 
confirms that success is depend- 
ent upon wise leadership that un- 
derstands the age characteristics 
of children and allows a maxi- 
mum of self-expression. 



"Storybook," "Indian," "Cowboy," 
and "Circus" weeks were also well re- 
ceived by the children and stimulated 
their imaginations. During "Storybook 
Week," Sleeping Beauty's castle, Tom 
Sawyer's raft, the Three Little Pigs' 
houses, Heidi's mountain hut, the Billy 
Goats Gruff bridge, Peter Rabbit's 
hutch, Jack's beanstalk went up. The 
week lent itself beautifully to creative 
dramatics and puppet plays, and several 
commendable shows were produced 
with the help of a number of mothers. 
A party was developed around a sugar- 
plum tree the upright of a tetherball 
game with dowels lashed to it, gaily dec- 
orated with ribbons and candy on the 
final day of the week. Every child at- 
tended, costumed after one of his favor- 
ite storybook characters, and had the 
chance to act out part of the story he 
represented. The Pied Piper led every- 
body in many rhythmic activities and 
marches. 

During "Indian Week," after braves 
and squaws had set up their tepees (cov- 
ered with blankets from home), totem 
pole, and ceremonial fire, they grouped 
into family craftsmen. Each tepee pro- 
duced a different product: tom-toms, 
macaroni beads (also used as wam- 
pum), peace pipes, shields, and so on, 
which were bartered when completed. 
The girls potato-printed dresses made 
from old sheets, later sewn up at home. 
The boys fashioned breechcloths of 
scrap leather during craft period, after 
they finished building their tepees. 
Novel headdresses were individually 
designed from corrugated cardboard 
and turkey feathers. Rhythmic Indian 
dancing, to music and Indian songs 
learned during the week, were part of 
the program given for parents on Fri- 
day morning. 

During "Cowboy Week" two corrals 
went up, each large enough for Pet the 
pony who came on Friday to give each 
child a ride. The children were not 
told that their corral was not really 
sturdy enough for Pet. They made 
bunkhouse and hitching-post and 
broomstick horses during craft time. A 
hotdog. chuckwagon roast highlighted 
the week. Many games and contests de- 
veloped out of this weekly theme, and 
no one needed to be shown how to play 



APRIL 1960 



173 



cowboys and rustlers during free-play 
time. 

The play area boasted a number of 
other typical attractions built with 
available materials. The "Magic Carpet 
to Faraway Places" proved very popu- 
lar. This consisted of a carpet spread 
on the ground, headed up by an eight- 
foot stake, with a sign nailed to it, and 
strings of flags, loaned by a local serv- 
ice station, stretched from top of stake 
to back of carpet. Here stories were 
read or told to small groups by the 
young volunteer leaders, or children 
could read books of their own choosing 
from the playground library whenever 
they wished. A puppet-and-song theater 
was easily built from boards and blocks 
with plenty of seating, and, frequently, 
groups of children would, on their own, 



dress up and produce plays here to eve- 
rybody's delight. The enthusiasm of 
parents and townspeople alike was en- 
couraging to the playground staff. At- 
tendance increased over the entire pe- 
riod, in spite of intense heat and the 
many attractions in this resort area. 

E YOUNGSTERS really have learned 
to share and cooperate, handle 
conflict, and real-life problems. Chil- 
dren who had trouble getting along 
with others soon learned to control their 
tempers, to give-and-take or be left out. 
With all the boys and girls busy fin- 
ishing their "jobs." and directing their 
own play, the leader actually had suffi- 
cient time to help those who needed as- 
sistance in learning to get along. What 
counted here was the ability to do one's 



share, to be fair, and to have consider- 
ation for others. The youngsters de- 
veloped muscular coordination, made 
decisions, and stuck with their "work" 
until completed. The projects remained 
free of vandalism throughout the sum- 
mer, and the only mishap was one 
scratched foot. 

One outgrowth was an upsurge in 
backyard building activity which only 
seemed to enhance and lend importance 
to the program. These activities were 
carried on during weekends and daily 
after the playground closed. 

The Bristol playground staff felt the 
splendid opportunity there is here for 
the integration of all the arts, for prac- 
tical education, and physical activities. 
It heartily recommends this type of pro- 
gram. # 



Plants Children Like to Qrow 

CHILDREN HAVE a natural curiosity about plants, particu- 
larly how a seed develops into a small plant which in 
turn develops into a large one. It is natural that their in- 
terest is held longer in plants with unique qualities. Speed 
and size are most important to remember in helping chil- 
dren to become more interested in plants. If they can mea- 
sure growth from day to day, they are happy. If a tiny seed 
grows into a six- or eight-foot giant, they will never for- 
get it. These are plants children like to grow: 

CASTORBEAN. This large, easy-to-handle seed germinates 
quickly and grows rapidly into a large (6-8 ft.) plant with 
some leaves 30 inches in diameter. 

SUNFLOWERS. These grow practically anywhere under all 
sorts of conditions. The Mammoth Russian variety is best 
for a huge flower head on a tall (8-10 ft.) stalk. The plump 
seeds are good to eat and good for bird food, too. The red 
varieties and the double sunflowers are smaller but they 
are spectacular nonetheless and attract yellow-feathered 
goldfinches in large numbers in late summer. 

MOONFLOWERS. The seed of this morning-glory-like vine 
is slow to germinate unless the coat is nicked with a knife 
or file (a grown-up job) , but the shouts of glee and expres- 
sions of amazement which accompany the unfolding of the 
first flower are not soon forgotten. The flowers actually un- 
furl within the lapse of two or three minutes in the early 
evening. Start these early so they will be sure to produce 
flowers before frost. 

PUMPKINS. Let the children grow their own jack-o-lanterns. 
Use such varieties as Genuine Mammoth, Connecticut Field, 
or a selection Burpee actually calls Jack-0-Lantern. The 
sugar varieties sold on most seed stands are small punip- 

174 




The ingredients for a successful summer playgnttutd are 
planning, program, and publicity. IMS! year the Colum- 
bus, Ohio, recreation department started its summer play- 
ground activities with an eye-catching announcement in the 
Columbus Citizen. Cartoons (see above) were tied in with 
special weeks and events and made an attractive calendar. 

kins more desirable for pies than Halloween. If the vines 
grow up on a fence, be sure to build platforms under the 
developing fruits, else they will become heavy and will be 
torn from the vine. A fifteen-inch square of plywood nailed 
on the end of a two-by-four of suitable length makes an 
ideal support. Fastened to the fence with a wire, this one- 
legged platform is an inconspicuous support for each fruit. 

GOURDS. In their endless variations, gourds are always at- x 
tractive to children, but be sure to include some of the 
large-fruited sorts: calabash, dipper, sugar-trough. 

OTHERS. Keep to large, brilliant flowers such as /imii;i-. 
marigolds, orange cosmos, cockscombs. In the vegetable 
department, radishes are the old standby for a quick, at- 
tractive crop. Wax beans and green beans produce give-^ 
away quantities, and carrots and beets are very easy to grow. 
Don't burden the interested child with too much, but try 
to include action and variety in his garden. # 

Reprinted from Kingwood Center Notes, 900 Park Avenue, 
West. Mansfield, Ohio. Vol. VI, No. 4, April 1959. 

RECREATION 



UNIFORM OUTFITS 
FOR LEADERS 



Virginia Musselman 



It is important that leaders be 
suitably dressed and easily identified. 



THE QUESTION OF whether or not 
recreation leaders should wear 
some sort of uniform clothing 
conies up some time every year. In 
some communities, leaders want uni- 
forms; in others, leaders object to 
them. A discussion of this problem is 
very timely at the beginning of the 
playground season. 

No one will argue the point that lead- 
ers should be dressed suitably for their 
work. This precludes at once the over- 
dressed leader in high heels, costume 
jewelry, and elaborate hair-do. Many 
professions are identifiable by their 
dress. It is a badge of office. 

For that reason, it might be well for 
a recreation department to pause and 
reflect when leaders object to any type 
of uniform. Is there any reason why the 
leaders do not wish, even subconscious- 
ly, to be identified as members of the 
department or the profession? Can it 
be that the leaders' attitudes reflect the 
general attitude of the community to- 
ward the recreation program? If so, 
the department needs to examine its 
public relations. 

The reason may be, and probably is, 
much simpler. Leaders may object to 
any type of uniform simply because 
they do not wish to wear the uniforms 
to and from work in public conveyances 
and on the streets. And in many com- 
munities, planners of recreation areas 
and facilities have given very little 
thought to the needs of leaders. Partic- 
ularly in playground work, that most 
visible of all types of recreation, leaders 
often have no safe place to store their 
handbags and street clothes, and no 
place to shower and change clothes. 

Active playground leadership is 
dusty, sweaty work. If a leader drives 
to the playground, he or she can go 
home to wash and change. Otherwise, 
the leader must change clothes without 

Miss MUSSELMAN is head of Program 
Service, National Recreation Associa- 
tion. 

APRIL 1960 



washing or must appear on the streets 
as is. Workers in other professions al- 
most always have an opportunity to 
change to street clothes when not on 
duty. Recreation departments would 
do well to give more thought to the 
physical needs of their leaders. 

Certain types of recreation activities 
suggest certain types of clothing. The 
swimming instructor prefers a bathing 
suit. The dance instructor can work 
better in a leotard. The tennis instruc- 
tor can be more active in shorts. To 
wear a bathing suit, leotard, or shorts 
on the street, however, would violate 




the standards of good taste in most 
communities. 

For much of the activity program 
arts, crafts, games, storytelling, music, 
and the like the physical requirements 
are not so stringent. Ease in movement, 
comfort, coolness, neatness, and clean- 
liness are primary requirements. 

Then comes the question of what 
types of clothing best meet the needs, 
and there is no one answer. Certainly 
the dress of the leaders, male and fe- 
male, should (1) reflect credit on the 
department, (2) identify the leader as 
part of the department, (3) identify the 
leader to the children and adults visit- 
ing the area, (4) be suitable to the type 
of work performed, and (5) be flatter- 
ing to everyone. 

Probably the most appropriate cloth- 
ing for the average woman leader is a 
simple one- or two-piece dress of drip- 
dry cotton, the skirt wide enough to 
provide freedom of movement. Short- 
sleeved sports shirts and slacks look 
well on most men. Some sort of identi- 
fying armband, insignia, badge, cap, or 



other identification should be plainly 
visible. 

By using a uniform insignia, a lee- 
way in color selection might be possible 
in many departments, or even choice of 
several colors might be permitted. Play- 
grounds are getting more and more col- 
orful. Leaders' dress might well follow 
suit. There is no reason, for example, 
that leaders of teen-age groups, leaders 
of preschool groups, storytellers, music 
leaders, craft leaders, etcetera might 
not each have an identifying color. For 
small departments with limited staff, a 
choice of a few pastel colors might be 
enough. 

One large department requires dark 
green uniforms for men and women, 
cotton in summer, wool in winter. An- 
other requires gray slacks and white or 
gray shirts for men, medium dark-blue 
one- or two-piece dresses, or white 
blouses and blue skirts for women. An- 
other uses an aqua coverall type of uni- 
form for women, with red insignia. 
Many use pastel colors. Some prohibit 
slacks and shorts for women. Some re- 
quire shirts and slacks for men. All 
mention the need for suitable, neat 
clothing, and low-heeled shoes. A large 
department might make arrangements 
with some department store or manu- 
facturing company to supply these rea- 
sonably. In a smaller community, the 
selection would have to be left to the 
availability of some suitable style. In 
any case, the type and cost of dress se- 
lected should not be a hardship on the 
leader. 

This whole question of uniform 
dress, in departments that have not yet 
developed a specific policy, should be 
worked out cooperatively with the staff, 
to consider, in a democratic manner, 
the best policy for the good of the de- 
partment and leader. Each has an ob- 
ligation to the other. The leaders are 
a visible symbol of the department, the 
line of communication between pro- 
gram and people. They should repre- 
sent the best of each. # 

175 



DRAMATICS ON THE PLAYGROUND 



Nancy Eichsteadt 

THE PREMIERE PERFORMANCE of 
The Three Billy Goats Gruff was 
about to begin on a sunny slope 
outside Lydell School in Whitefish Bay, 
a suburb of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
Six solemn little children bearing tree 
branches trooped around the corner of 
the building and took their assigned 
places; they were the trees. Then the 
troll, with a curly paper mask with nasty 
eyebrows and a fierce scowl, climbed 
under an old school table. One young 
man stood up importantly before the 
assembled audience. There were moth- 
ers with baby carriages and many chil- 
dren from all over the playground. 

"The name of our play is The Three 
Billy Goats Gruff," said the announcer 
in a loud, clear voice, full of confidence. 
"The scene takes place on two sides of 
a river and on the bridge in between." 
One by one, the little goats slapped 
their hands on the table, pretending 
they were trip-trapping across the 
bridge; for costumes they wore paper 
tufts tied onto their chins. The audi- 
ence was quiet, attentive in a story 
world. 

In the summer of 1958 the Whitefish 
Bay Department of Recreation and 
Adult Education ventured into the field 
of summer creative dramatics for the 
first time in a number of years. A dra- 
ma specialist was employed to train 
leaders and supervise a program of very 
simple creative dramatics. We wanted 
to involve many individuals who had 
come to the playground for a variety of 
experiences. We agreed a playground 
was not the place to introduce scripts, 
intricate rehearsal schedules, and elab- 
orate productions. We wanted a dra- 
matics program attuned to the more 
relaxed atmosphere of summer play- 
grounds. 

Whitefish Bay is a community with a 

MRS. EICHSTEADT, a member of the 
Whitefish Bay Department of Recrea- 
tion and Adult Education, is director of 
the department's Bay Teen Players (see 
RECREATION, May 1959, Page 197) and 
has had extensive theatrical experience. 

176 



population of twenty thousand. There 
are four public grade schools, and dur- 
ing the summer the recreation depart- 
ment conducts morning programs at 
each of them. Three full days were 
taken at the beginning of summer for 
training of staff members. The drama- 
tics specialist was given three sessions 
in which to describe her part of the pro- 
gram. The first period covered a defini- 
tion of creative dramatics, the aims of 
the program, and the scope such an ac- 
tivity could encompass. This took place 
before any people who had any connec- 
tion with the summer program, direc- 
tors of each playground and their staffs, 
volunteers of junior-high and high- 
school age, and supervisors of other 
special activities. 

The last two meetings were held with 
the staff member selected from each 
playground to do the dramatics; they 
were accompanied by a number of in- 
terested volunteers. In these two less 
formal sessions we tried to cover many 
phases of creative dramatics. We em- 
phasized that dramatics, in order to be 
creative, must result from the actions 
of the children regardless of whether 
the story is created by them or taken 
from a story book. 

We described simple puppet ideas, 
such as using paper bags with faces 
drawn on them and a rubber band to 
hold them to the wrist; we suggested 
a picnic table turned on its side for a 
stage. We tried to make simple cos- 
tumes available. We distributed lists of 
pantomime ideas to be used as warm- 
ups in the groups. We mentioned books 
that contain ideas along these lines. 

We discussed areas of the playground 
to use a shaded spot, a kindergarten 
room adjoining the playground, per- 
haps even an activity room with a stage 
in it. It was strongly suggested that the 
place used should be removed from the 
more vigorous and noisy games areas. 

It was agreed that the drama special- 
ist would come to each playground for 
one hour a week; it was obvious from 
this that there was no intention that she 
should conduct the program. It was un- 
derstood, however, that the program 



would not be considered complete if 
there was no development of the activity 
before her next visit. 

The program began with mixed feel- 
ings on the leaders' parts. Some stepped 
out with confidence and plunged into it 
with composure and self-assurance. 
Others were nervous and unsure of 
themselves, but they were soon swept 
ahead by the enthusiasm of the children. 
Each program took on its own individu- 
ality. One group found that they had 
a ready-made audience in the nursery- 
school program on their playground; 
they prepared a play a week for their 
young "captive" audience. We had pup- 
pets made out of a variety of materials, 
some even brought from home. We had 
more elaborate productions of The 
Princess Who Could Not Laugh, The 
Peddler and His Caps, even Till Eulen- 
spiegel and His Merry Pranks. Cos- 
tumes were contrived from almost noth- 
ing; the majority were invented by the 
children from bits of clothing brought 
from home. Records were volunteered 
and music played for atmosphere. Each 
group presented at least one play for its 
"Parents' Night," an evening of fun 
held on every playground. 

In evaluating a program such as this, 
it can be said that children learned to 
think on their feet, to create roles. Sec- 
ond, they came to realize getting up be- 
fore an audience (and ultimately before 
their classmate in -rhool) is not too 
painful an ordeal. They all learned the 
value of audience behavior, that you 
aid other people in their performances 
by being a willing listener. 

We, as leaders, learned too. We 
found it was not necessary to have a 
>l>ivKill\ trained person on each play- 
ground to introduce simple creative dra- 
matics. We realized that it icas necessary 
to help the children make up their stor- 
ir>. particularly in the earlier sessions. 

Our future plans are simple. We hope 
to involve a larger number of children. 
We do not plan for a summer activilv 
\\liich will take a dominant part, but 
rather we hope for one which will im- 
plement an ever-growing summer pro- 
gram. # 

RECREATION 



A NAUTICAL PLAY COMMUNITY 



The seashore theme is popular in 
play areas today. "But whatever the 
theme, the important thing about play 
apparatus on a playground is not what 
you put there, but how you place it," 
says Bob Cook of Belleville, New Jer- 
sey. "There should be thoughtful pur- 
pose behind the selection and placement 
of each piece. Each should give the 
child an opportunity to choose among 
several possibilities. . . ." 




A PLAY COMMUNITY with a nauti- 
cal theme* stirs young imagin- 
ations to thoughts of the high 
seas, buried treasure, and adventurous 
pirates. The area shown here combines 
improvised equipment with commer- 
cial apparatus. Units are so placed 
as to offer little adventurers constant 
choice, challenge, and energy outlet. A 
nautical play community, now being 
constructed for the Essex County Chil- 
dren's Shelter by the Belleville Chapter 
of Unico, a national service organiza- 
tion, was designed by Robert E. Cook, 
superintendent of recreation in Belle- 
ville, New Jersey. 

Normal approach to this area is via 



*For other playgrounds with a nautical 
theme, see April 1958 RECREATION, Pages 106 
and 118. 



piles (sawed-off telephone poles) lead- 
ing either to the boat's gangplank or to 
the slide chute. Should a child elect to 
climb the slide chute to the tower he 
may then slide down the rope to the 
deck, go on down the other slide chute, 
or return as he came. And so it goes 
throughout the whole area choosing, 
acting, emerging, and choosing again. 

The tower might suggest a lighthouse 
to children: the twenty-one-foot-long 
corrugated sewer pipe, a submarine, 
and the canvas of the "roly-poly," the 
sails of a square-rigger. The four-foot 
plank provides a harmless outlet for 
that little bit of sadism in every child. 
The cargo nets and the rope offer lots 
of climbing exercise. A little frustra- 
tion is built into the improvised roly- 
poly because the child's weight causes 



the canvas to bulge downward, thereby 
requiring a real effort to topple over 
into the next lower canvas. The four- 
foot vertical sewer pipes serve as refuge 
to youngsters who find the community 
play too intense. It is important these 
pipes have one foot of earth piled inside 
as a guarantee that the child who gets 
himself in can get himself out. The 
length of pipe is suggestive of a subma- 
rine. The bowsprit of the boat should 
be installed securely so it will be safe 
to swing on. Color should be used free- 
ly throughout. 

Many things can be done with the 
''play community theory," many themes 
can be used, many materials can be em- 
ployed. Improvisation on traditional 
play apparatus imparts a new vitality 
to children's play areas. # 



APRIL 1960 



177 



A THREE-WAY 
PROJECT 
FOR 
RECREATION 



City-county cooperation pays off 
in East Tennessee. 



Frank D. McClelland 

BLOUNT COUNTY, AN area of about 
575 square miles in East Tennes- 
see, lies in the upper Tennessee 
Valley ten miles southwest of Knoxville. 
Its western boundary traces TVA's Fort 
Loudon Reservoir; its southern border 
joins the Great Smoky Mountains Na- 
tional Park, a considerable portion of 
which was, in fact, taken from Blount 
County. 

The county's population is concen- 
trated in the adjoining cities of Mary- 
ville and Alcoa, which, with their 
immediate environs, form an urban- 
residential community of about twenty 

DEAN MCCLELLAND, of Maryville Col- 
lege, was chairman of the study com- 
mittee mentioned in this article and was 
chairman of the Blount County Recrea- 
tion Council during its first four years. 

178 



thousand. Total county population is 
nearly sixty thousand. The rural area 
is not entirely agricultural, since a sub- 
stantial portion of the rural as well as 
the urban population is employed in the 
three large Alcoa aluminum plants. 

Blount County is richly endowed with 
natural recreation resources. Fort Lou- 
don Lake provides abundant opportu- 
nities for boating, fishing, and other 
water sports; Great Smoky Mountains 
National Park offers unequaled facili- 
ties for hiking, camping, and fishing. 
Despite this favorable recreation en- 
vironment possibly because of it 
organized recreation in Blount County 
five years ago was limited to modest 
summer programs in Maryville and Al- 
coa and a basketball program in the 
winter months. These programs were 



conducted almost exclusively by school 
personnel, with voluntary supervision. 
They were financed in part by munici- 
pal appropriations and in part by the 
Blount County Community Chest; to- 
tal allotment for recreation from all 
sources was about eight thousand dol- 
lars annually. 

In 1953, on the initiative of local civic 
groups, a meeting of interested citizens, 
including representatives of civic clubs, 
schools, churches, and city and county 
officials, discussed the need for in- 
creased recreation opportunities. About 
thirty-five representative citizens gath- 
ered, and this group became the nucleus 
that established the present county pro- 
gram. A countywide federation of civic 
clubs, through which joint support of 
important civic projects has become 
readily available was a by-product of 
this group interest. 

First discussions revolved around the 
idea of a community center an elabo- 
rate, expensive recreation building. It 
-i it ni became apparent that, before de- 
termining the type of facilities and mus- 
tering the necessary public support, an 
organized recreation program under 
professional leadership should be devel- 
oped. It was evident, moreover, that a 
single center could not serve an area as 
large as the county. Finally, it was 
noted that many facilities in schools, 
churches, and clubs were not used to 
capacity. 

As a result, the group agreed that a 
well-organized recreation program us- 
ing existing facilities should precede 
any capital outlay. A committee was 
formed in May l')53 "to study the pos- 
slliilities of expanding the community 
recreation program of the Maryville- 
Alcoa area . . . and to make recommen- 
dations to the group." 

The committee spent a year at its 
task. It sought the counsel of the slate 
recreation consultant and the Southern 
district representative of the National 
Recreation Assoi-ialion. It studied rec- 
reation programs in other places and 
requested the slate planning coinmisfion 

RECREATION 



to make a recreation survey of the area. 

Progress reports were made to the 
group from time to time. The survey 
was completed in May 1954 and was 
published with funds furnished by 
Maryville and several civic clubs. In 
June 1954 the study committee made its 
report and recommendations and pre- 
sented the survey, Public Recreation 
a Plan for Community Action, as a sup- 
plement to the report. 

It showed clearly that although pub- 
lic and private recreation facilities in 
Blount County were by no means ade- 
quate, they could support a more ex- 
tensive program than was then in oper- 
ation. The survey also pointed out that, 
on the basis of standards published by 
the National Recreation Association, ex- 
penditures were considerably less than 
needed even for the summer programs, 
and only a fraction of that indicated for 
year-round programs in the urban ar- 
eas, with no provision at all for rural 
communities. It showed many geo- 
graphical areas and various age groups 
were without adequate recreation op- 
portunities. It made clear that a county- 
wide program was the only solution, 
since some of the areas most starved for 
recreation lay in pockets outside both 
cities but adjacent to them. In short, 
the survey, by means of an objective ap- 
praisal, established beyond doubt the 
need for an organized, year-round, 
countywide recreation program. 

E COMMITTEE accepted most of the 
conclusions of the state survey in 
principle. Since it seemed unlikely that 
either city or county alone would sup- 
port a full-time superintendent of rec- 
reation, the committee proposed that 
each of the three government units es- 
tablish a recreation commission as au- 
thorized by Tennessee statute, and that 
the three commissions be directed by 
their respective units to act jointly in 
supporting and supervising a recreation 
program for the area. 

The committee further recommended 
that an initial annual fund of at least 



fifteen thousand dollars be provided and 
that the commissions engage a full-time, 
professionally trained superintendent of 
recreation for the countywide program. 
It was decided that the new program be- 
gin with the more densely populated ar- 
eas and be gradually extended through- 
out the county. The need for developing 
a long-range plan for park and recrea- 
tion areas and facilities to serve the 
whole county was emphasized. 

The recommendations were warmly 
received and approved, and the commit- 
tee was instructed to proceed with their 
implementation. The plan was presented 
to the two city boards of commissioners 
with suggested ordinances to establish 
the recreation commissions. A resolu- 
tion to the same effect was presented to 
the Blount County Fiscal Court. In each 
case a recreation commission of five 
members was specified, two of whom 
were to be ex officio representatives of 
the corresponding school system, since 
the initial recreation program would de- 
pend chiefly upon use of school facili- 
ties. In each case it was stipulated that 
the recreation commission was to act 
jointly with those of the other two units 
to provide a countywide program. 

In the face of some opposition, the 
July 1954 Quarterly Court adopted a 
resolution establishing the Blount 
County Recreation Commission and au- 
thorizing an initial annual appropria- 
tion. Ordinances were enacted soon 
after, establishing the two recreation 
commissions for Maryville and Alcoa. 
The city of Maryville likewise made a 
substantial appropriation. The Alcoa 
Board of Commissioners agreed to par- 
ticipate with a reasonable administra- 
tive appropriation, while continuing to 
operate its own summer program. The 
Community Chest later made substan- 
tial contributions. After some delay the 
members of the three recreation com- 
missions were appointed. 

The next step was combining the 
three recreation commissions into a sin- 
gle working group. A joint meeting was 
called, and, after considerable discus- 



sion, the principles of a working plan 
were agreed upon. Afterwards a "mem- 
orandum of agreement" was drawn up, 
ratified by the three commissions and 
signed by the three chairmen; and, in 
January 1955, the Consolidated Recre- 
ation Council of Blount County came 
into being. 

The agreement provided for a chair- 
man, vice-chairman, and secretary to be 
elected by the combined commissions, 
one officer from each commission. The 
three officers made up the executive 
committee. Monthly meetings were spe- 
cified. A two-thirds vote of the council 
membership of fifteen was required for 
the approval of the annual budget, and 
for the engaging of the superintendent 
of recreation, both to be on recommen- 
dation of the executive committee. The 
fiscal year was begun April 1, to pro- 
vide early planning and budgeting for 
the summer programs. No commis- 
sions could withdraw from the council 
without thirty days' notice before the 
end of the fiscal year. 

A PPLICANTS WERE SOUGHT for the 

-^*- position of the superintendent of 
recreation and carefully screened by 
the executive committee. Decision was 
finally made in favor of a coach and 
physical-education teacher in the coun- 
ty school system, a highly respected 
man, whose appointment assured a sub- 
stantial degree of confidence in the new 
program. A treasurer was elected from 
one of the local banks and bonded as 
required in the agreement. An office 
for the superintendent of recreation 
was established in the county court 
house. 

Initial planning of the council was 
focused on organization and extension 
of summer programs. This was no 
great problem in urban areas, where a 
beginning had already been made; but 
the procedure by which programs could 
be initiated in rural communities was 
not so clear. It was apparent that, re- 
gardless of need, the council should not 
attempt to impose a recreation program 



APRIL 1960 



179 



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upon a community, but rather that such 
a program should stem from a recogni- 
tion of need by the community itself. 
Thus, the policy gradually evolved that 
the recreation council would cooperate 
with rural sponsoring groups in devel- 
oping community recreation; by furn- 
ishing counsel, direction, equipment, 
reasonable financial support as needed, 
and publicity. This policy has proved 
sound since it placed initial responsibil- 
ity and control within a stable commu- 
nity group. 

Another principle, which the council 
followed from the beginning, that the 
recreation activities not interfere with 
church events, brought approval and 
support from church groups. No rec- 
reation event was scheduled on Sunday 
or Wednesday evenings. The summer 
programs began after the Daily Vaca- 
tion Bible Schools, held the first weeks 
of summer vacation. 

The first summer recreation, in addi- 
tion to the Alcoa program, included 
operation of four playgrounds in Mary- 
ville and six in rural communities 
throughout the county. Also, five coun- 
tywide baseball and two softball leagues 
were conducted. Most of these ux-d 
school facilities, such as gymnasiums, 
libraries, and athletic fields. Volun- 
teers did much of the supervising; those 
who devoted much time receiving mod- 
est remuneration. 

INCE EXTENSIVE USE of School facil- 

ities was an important part of the 
planned program, it was essential there 
be a careful and farsighted policy in 
this sensitive area. The council made it 
clear from the first that every precau- 
tion would be taken to insure proper 
use of school property and that main- 
tenance, janitorial, and occasional dam- 
age expenses would be met adequately, 
promptly, and without question. The 
policy has been followed carefully for 
the five years and the school people 
have been outstandingly cooperative. 

During the fall and winter of the first 
year an attempt was made to broaden 
recreation opportunities to meet the 
needs of various age groups. The first 
adult, square-dance school, sponsored 
jointly with the local daily paper, drew 
seven hundred registrants, four hun- 
dred completing the ten-week course. 
The following year a similar course 



drew over three hundred, the next year 
one hundred. Biweekly square dances 
were held and a number of square- 
dance clubs formed voluntarily. As a 
result, square dancing has become pop- 
ular recreation throughout the county 
for adults as well as youth. 

Evening woodworking classes, con- 
ducted by high-school, manual-training 
teachers in school shops, have proven 
successful, with many husband-wife 
teams participating. A chess-and- 
checker club has attracted young and 
old, chiefly male. Annual hobby shows- 
have stimulated wide interest and par- 
ticipation. Throughout the five years 
of its existence the Blount County Rec- 
reation Council program has grown 
steadily in variety of activities and 
number of participants, while it has 
gradually extended into the rural com- 
munities. In addition to eight rural rec- 
reation programs last year, many of the 
earlier local programs have become 
countywide. Each winter, for example, 
men's and women's PTA basketball 
teams compete in lively countywide 
leagues, and this holds true for most of 
the sports programs. 

Of course, much remains to be done. 
The first five years have been devoted 
largely to building a substantial year- 
round program that would merit pub- 
lic support as an essential service, not 
a luxury. Attention must now be given 
to strengthening the financial structure 
and leading the way to capital outlay 
for permanent recreation facilities. The 
limit of school facilities has already 
been reached; in fact, there are not 
enough playing courts in the county 
now to provide adequately for the bas- 
ketball program. There must be more 
room for clubs, crafts, and theatrical 
productions. An outdoor swimming 
pool is greatly needed in the Maryville 
area. There is increasing demand for 
recreation for the elderly. Acquisition 
of land for parks and playgrounds must 
be pushed. Areas along the Fort Lou- 
don Lake, set aside by TVA for public 
rrrreation and recently leased by the 
recreation council, mui-l \>r developed. 

A good beginning has been made. 
The Blount County Recreation Council 
has demonstrated that separate political 
units can work to mutual advantage in 
building community recreation. But 
the big job is -till ahead. # 



180 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RF.CKKATION 




'Parents' skills are utilized 



A Cooperative 

Playground 

Plan 



John D. Dittmar 



A UNIVERSITY TOWN with a bor- 
ough manager form of govern- 
ment, State College, Pennsyl- 
vania, has eleven thousand residents 
living within the borough limits and 
thirteen thousand university students 
who live on campus. The university is 
the primary source of income for com- 
munity residents. Two parks and six 
playgrounds exist in the borough. A 
legal recreation board was established 
in 1946, and a year-round recreation 
program is now operating. 

In July 1957 the director of recrea- 
tion was appointed director for the 
area, which includes five neighboring 
townships. At the present time, a col- 
lege-area recreation program is being 
organized. In 1955 the recreation di- 
rector and the recreation board started 
planning for a new approach to ade- 
quate supervision of both parks and 
playgrounds, a problem of too many 
children and too large groups for the 
playground leaders to handle. Another 
question was whether the program was 
adequate to meet the needs. 

MR. DITTMAR is director of recreation, 
State College Park and Recreation 
Board, Pennsylvania. 



The first step was gaining coopera- 
tion of the college of education at the 
university. Dr. Dorothea Hinman, with 
considerable experience in family edu- 
cation, was interested and agreed to 
work with the recreation department. 

Students were assigned to make fam- 
ily visits in different areas of the com- 
munity so that all playground neigh- 
borhoods would be covered. The main 
purpose of these visits was to ascertain 
the number of children interested in at- 
tending the playground, their interests, 
what parents could do to help, what 
kinds of supplies and equipment fam- 
ilies could lend for the summer pro- 
gram. 

The results of this survey were tabu- 
lated and evaluated in the college 
classes under the guidance of the recre- 
ation director and Dr. Hinman. From 
this survey we found out where some 
strong volunteer help might be enlisted 
for the summer playground supervision. 

Several parents from each of the 
playground areas were therefore invit- 
ed to assist in planning the next year's 
playground program, after which a se- 
ries of evening meetings was held in 
each playground area, to explain the 
program to interested parents. Their 
comments were considered in making 
final summer playground plans. At 
these meetings parents were asked to 
serve as volunteers for at least one sum- 
mer playground session, and not more 
than four. Response was excellent, and 
one parent from each playground area 
was assigned to schedule the parents 
who would assist the playground leader 
during these sessions. 

Age groups were divided into four to 
seven; eight to ten; eleven to thirteen; 
and thirteen to fifteen years. We de- 
cided the program should be more in- 
formative educational as well as rec- 
reational. A start was made by visiting 
the individual neighborhoods to learn 
what really existed, what was needed in 
this area, and so on. Next followed a 
series of visits to other areas in town 



and then to regional areas. With the 
parents' additional help we were able 
to increase our trips, our special events 
on individual playgrounds, and, best of 
all, to encourage family participation 
during playground hours and during 
our family night activities. 

The role of the playground leader is 
most important in this cooperative plan. 
He is responsible for the playground 
program and general supervision of the 
playground area, meeting with the 
scheduled parents before the play- 
ground opens for the day, meeting with 
the parents scheduled to discuss the 
program for the week, and assisting 
parents with program activities. 

The parents' skills included many of 
the general playground activities such 
as arts and crafts, storytelling, singing, 
music, dramatics, sports, and dancing. 
The amount of talent and leadership un- 
covered through this parent coopera- 
tion was amazing. We are planning to 
organize a parents council next. 

Through our cooperative plan we 
have found that our playground attend- 
ance has doubled; many more parents 
have become interested in our total rec- 
reation program ; our playground lead- 
ers have gained the additional experi- 
ence of working with adults; and our 
community leadership resources are 
really being discovered and used. 

Summary of 1956-57 Playground 
Season 

Individual parents who participated reg- 
ularly in daily programs 513 

Individual parents who took direct lead- 
ership of program 40 

Individual homes that were open to small 
and large groups 36 

Individual parents who provided guid- 
ance or transportation 327 

Individual parents who constructed 
equipment and helped in preparing 
areas 77 

Individual parents who participated in 
whole family affairs 300 

Mothers who provided snacks or treats 
for the group 208 

Individual parents who participated in 
playground planning meetings 316 



APRIL 1960 



181 



A unique and easy-to-teach 
method of music education 
for children 



THE 

PLAYGROUND 
AS MUSIC TEACHER 

An Introduction to Music Through Games 
By MADELEINE CARABO-CONE 

Co-author of How fo Help Children Learn Music 

In this delightful and clearly illustrated book, Mrs. Cone has 
dramatized the written language of music in terms of the 
games children love best. Over 100 favorite games Blind- 
man's Buff, Musical Chairs, Take a Giant Step have been 
adapted for play on a music staff marked on either an indoor 
or outdoor play area. With the bass clef, the treble clef, and 
the entire Note family as companions, the children play and 
sing in the land of lines and spaces that form the Grand Staff. 
For parents, teachers and recreation directors (who need no 
previous musical training to use the book) Mrs. Cone has pro- 
vided a unique and creative method of making music a part 
of childhood experience. 

"All told, a most original idea, engagingly developed." 
MARTIN BERNSTEIN, Head, Dept. of Music. 
New York University 

Over 100 line drawings s.Vdt) 

at your bookstore or from 
HARPER & BROTHERS, New York 1 6 



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Research Revie 



Utility Easement Policy in Parks 

In 1959 the Albuquerque. New Mexico. Parks and Rec- 
reation Department collected information from eight cities 
on their policies with reference to granting requests for 
easements across park land by utility companies. A sum- 
mary of the replies, together with a statement from the 
American Institute of Park Executives, was issued in bul- 
letin form by the department. Among major conclusions 
were : 

1. Seven of the eight cities have either written or gen- 
erally established policies regarding location of utilities in 
park areas. 

2. Four cities grant easements or other right-of-entry 
across parks if the utility is to serve park purposes. 

3. Seven of the eight cities demand, as a general rule, 
that underground installations be made if utility must cross 
the park but serve other than park purposes. Only one city 
stands the additional cost, but three cities share the cost 
with the utility companies in varying degrees. Three re- 
quire the utility companies to bear all costs. 

4. Unless utility lines are placed underground, seven cit- 
ies require lines be routed around park areas. 

5. City attorneys in two cities Denver and San Diego 
have ruled the city has no legal means to grant easements 
or other property rights over dedicated park properly. 

Industrial Recreation Research Proposed 

According to the January 1960 issue of Recreation Man- 
agement the National Industrial Recreation Association has 
established a research policy "to stimulate and coordinate 
research by prospective surveyors, research students, and 
others wishing to conduct research projects. 

"Under the policy, proposed research projects will be 
sent to each member of the five-man NIRA Research Com- 
mittee which will recommend changes and approval or dis- 
approval. Upon approval, the survey or questionnaire will 
earn the statement 'Authorized by the NIRA Research Com- 
mittee.' This policy will guarantee that surveys made of 
NIRA members will be worthwhile projects condueled ac- 
cording to approved statistical methods." 

NIRA research director is Gordon L. Starr of the Student 
Union at the University of Minnesota. The NIRA hoard 
also made a research grant to the University of Minnesota 
to study the relationships of employee participation in in- 
dustrial recreation and employee morale, absenteeism, job 
tenure, turnover ratings, and efficiency. This study will be 
conducted both by questionnaire and interview with selected 
firms in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. 

Ire Skating Information from Michigan 

The Grand Rapids Public Recreation Department in 1959 
secured information from fifty-three Michigan munieipali- 



182 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



and Abstracts 



George D. Butler 

ties with reference to their ice-skating facilities and pro- 
grams. A total of 473 artificial and natural ice skating rinks, 
plus two hockey rinks, were reported. Nine cities reported 
refrigerated rinks; Detroit, nine; and Dearborn, six rinks 
of this type. 

Twenty-seven cities reported hockey, in addition to two 
reporting a clinic. Fifteen had figure skating. Thirty-five 
of the fifty-three cities reported supervision of one or more 
of their skating rinks; three others of their hockey rinks 
only. All nine cities with refrigerated rinks reported super- 
vision. 

Esthetics and Economic Development 

The Conservation and Resource-Use Education Project 
of the Joint Council on Economic Education raises a num- 
ber of questions affecting recreation in its publication Re- 
source-Use Policies: Their Formation and Impact. For 
example : Is the economic development of a community more 
important than social or esthetic considerations? Do we 
want waterfalls or power projects? Do we want grass and 
trees or strip coal mines? Resort hotels or untouched 
beaches? A new lake or the old family homestead? 

The publication comments: "Meanwhile, the drive for 
economic gain has seriously decreased the number of rec- 
reational facilities and areas of natural beauty available to 
the general public. Unfortunately, there are no universally 
accepted or right answers to these problems and each sep- 
arate case requires a new evaluation of the evidence. When 
we consider all the difficulties involved it is little wonder 
that the progress of the movement is sometimes slow." 

Recreation Use of Wildlands 

The Wildlife Research Center at the University of Cali- 
fornia in Berkeley has issued a report entitled Conserving 
Wildland Resources Through Research. In a section relat- 
ing to recreation it states: 

"Recreation is exploding across California wildlands in 
a way that couldn't have been foreseen a few years ago. 
Recreational activities are accelerating at a far greater 
rate than any other wildland use. And in some wildland 
areas, dollar returns for recreational uses are exceeding any 
previous commodity production values." 

The report lists a number of questions recreation use is 
posing each day, which must be answered with only a mea- 
ger scientific background available, such as: "How much 
and what kind of lands should be devoted exclusively to 
recreation? What are the effects of recreation use on soil, 
plant cover, and other elements of the resource, and how 
can such effects be minimized? Can the 'carrying capacity' 
of the land for recreational use be increased by modification 
of the plant cover or by other means? . . ." 



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520 Coster Street, New York 59, N. Y. DAyton 9-5100 



APRIL 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



183 



A REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK 




Playground Swap Shop 

Last summer the youngsters of the 
Patterson Park Playground in Balti- 
more, Maryland, held their first "Tom 
Sawyer Day" swap shop in which they 
could trade "good toys and games" they 
were tired of for those other youngsters 
were tired of. Children from three to 
thirteen swarmed onto the playground 
to swap story books, games, toy trucks, 
dolls, comic books, and so on. 

The affair was organized like an auc- 
tion. Each child brought his item for- 
ward, and the auctioneer authorized the 
first child who raised his hand to try 
and arrange an exchange. When the 
exchange was agreed upon, each child 
received two tickets ; if none, one ticket 
each. The tickets were later used when 
wrapped toys and trinkets, donated by 
the Patterson Park Mothers' Club, were 
auctioned off. 

Playground Craft Service 

Last year the Wooster, Ohio, Depart- 
ment of Parks and Recreation inaugu- 
rated a craft service system on its play- 
grounds. Each week it made one free 
craft available to each child, and addi- 
tional craft materials, bought in large 
quantities by the department, were 
packaged into kits, and sold to the chil- 
dren at a portion of the department's 




Free craft period. This is one of the 
multipurpose rooms in eight elemen- 
tary schools made available for sum- 
mer playground use in Wooster, Ohio. 

184 



costs. The youngsters could pay cash 
or buy a one-dollar credit card, which 
was then kept on file at the playground. 
Thus they had a wider choice of crafts 
to work with, both free and purchased. 
Wooster also conducted storytelling 
contests and rope-jumping contests 
with charts to measure achievement. 

On the Move 

The Cincinnati Recreation Commis- 
sion bought two new pieces of off-beat 
transportation equipment for its new 
"Land of Make Believe" at the Airport 
Playfield off-beat in the sense that 
they are not standard playground 
equipment, but nonetheless what young- 
sters consider fascinating to clamber 
over. The first was a stagecoach au- 
thentically constructed to three-quar- 
ters actual scale. The other vehicle 
acquired, as of December 1959, is a real 
1929 Ahrens-Fox pumper-ladder fire 
engine. 

Currently, the commission is trying 
to locate a small steam engine and an 
outmoded jet plane among other things. 
Anyone wishing further information 
about how and where to acquire an ob- 
solete jet plane should get in touch with 
Miss Betty Bunn, Public Information 
and Information, National Recreation 
Association, 8 West 8th Street, New 
York 11. 

Salute to Dade County 

Dade County, Florida, has been cited 
by the National Swimming Pool Insti- 
tute for having the nation's outstanding 
water-safety public-relations program 
for 1959. More than eleven thousand 
children in the Miami area received be- 
ginner, intermediate, swimmer, and 
junior lifesaving certificates since last 
June 1; more than seventeen thousand 
first-graders received "Rockpit Ranger" 
buttons and pledges last year; and more 
than forty thousand children within the 



county participated in the overall pro- 
gram. 

A special water-safety coordinating 
committee, headed by Arthur Peavy, 
Jr.. Dade County parks and recreation 
director, was established to create com- 
munity awareness of the water-safety 
problem. There are six hundred miles 
of shoreline, 279 miles of canals, plus 
numerous rockpit areas within the 
county. The award-winning committee 
enlisted county-wide aid in organizing 
and promoting youth and adult water- 
safety programs, "Rockpit Ranger" 
memberships, swimming and lifesaving 
classes. It became a success through 
the cooperation of city and county offi- 
cials, civic groups, schools, the Red 
Cross, press, radio, and TV. 

Dade County won another salute 
when its park system was rated among 
the top ten in the United States in 
beauty and maintenance, according to 
Harvey S. Crass, president of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Park Executives. He 
pointed out that Dade's well-planned 
parks were country parks a few years 
ago. Today, they have become sur- 
rounded by new home developments 
and are fast being encroached upon 
from all directions. 

Mr. Crass termed Dade Count\V 
parks "one of the best maintained s\~ 
terns I have ever seen." He said Mct- 




Best in the nation! Arthur Peavy. Jr. 
(left), director of the Dade Count\ 
Park and Recreation Department, pre- 
sents gold in dial for best renter />;//> 
lie-relations program of 1959 to Ben 
McGahey, county commission chair- 
man, on behalf of National Swimming 
Pool. Institute. Looking on are Ed Shea 
and Mrs. Marion It'ood Hne\. members 
i> f water-safety coordinating committee. 

RECREATION 



ropolitan Miami was fortunate to have 
Vizcaya (Bade County Art Museum) 
and its thirty-acre formal gardens 
under a park system operation where 
the character of one of the area's great- 
est showplaces could be preserved for- 
ever, in the estate tradition, and prop- 
erly maintained. 

Boys' Club Centennial 

A four-cent commemorative multi- 
color postage stamp honoring the 100th 
anniversary of the Boys' Clubs of Amer- 
ica will appear in mid-1960. The initial 
print order will be for 120,000,000 
stamps. The Boys' Club movement be- 
gan in the 1860's in Hartford, Connec- 
ticut. In 1906 some fifty such clubs 
joined to form a national organization. 
Today there are 542 boys' clubs serving 
more than a half million boys, and a 
new club is established every two weeks. 

Flashes from the Fifty 

MICHIGAN. The new president of the 
Recreation Association of Michigan is 
Harry L. Burns of Grand Rapids. 

TEXAS. Reese Martin, city superin- 
tendent of parks and recreation in 
Beaumont, has been appointed a mem- 
ber of the Texas State Parks Board a 
five-member policy-making body gov- 
erning the state's park program. 

NEBRASKA. On February 25, Mrs. 
Paul Gallagher National Recreation 
Association board member - - was 
named as this year's recipient of Oma- 
ha's B'nai B'rith Citizenship Citation. 
The annual award is given in recogni- 
tion of outstanding service in commu- 
nity affairs and in the field of human 
relations. 

PENNSYLVANIA. The State Council of 
Education has initiated a program of 
certification for recreation leaders em- 
ployed by school districts. At present 
certification is nonmandatory and on a 
trial basis. Recreation leaders who are 
not now working for school districts are 
encouraged to apply as the number of 
applications will affect the decision as 
to whether to continue certification. 

IDAHO. In Twin Falls the Jaycees 
recently gave superintendent of rec- 
reation Ernest C. Craner their senior 
distinguished service award for his out- 
standing work. He is a member of the 
Association's Pacific Northwest Dis- 
trict Advisory Committee and was pres- 





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link in the maintenance of park and 
municipal pools. 

Our own special epoxy formulation, POXOLON 
is a roll-on "ceramic like" glaze which retains 
its fresh "new paint" appearance year after 
year without recoating. Your pool's radiant 
sparkle and attractive appearance will be a 
tribute to your excellent judgment in selecting 
POXOLON. POXOLON is getting to be known 
by the company it keeps. It is getting around 
in the best circles. Ask any of the older, more 
experienced and better informed members of 
the swimming pool industry. They are familiar 
with the POXOLON record of achievement. It's 
the ultimate in fine pool finishes. 



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JUdton 2-1926 




Portable 

Hat and Coat Racks 

These multi-purpose wardrobe racks go 
wherever needed or store away like folding 
chairs when not in use. They come in 3 ft. 
or 4 ft. lengths, have two hat shelves and 
1 or 2 full length hanger bars for coat 
hangers or coat hooks. (Two sided hooks 
snap over and straddle the bar, see detail). 
Standard units come on glides or casters; 
stand rigidly under a full load. CHECKER- 
ETTES are also available in two sided units 
(double capacity) : add-on units for making 
long continuous racks, and matching wall 
mount units. 

Write for Catalog. CT-515 



VOGEL-PETERSON CO, 



Rt. 83 and Madison Streets, Elmhurst, III. 



APRIL 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



185 




ident of the Idaho State Recreation 
Society in 1957-58. 

MISSOURI. The big recreation news 
in St. Louis these days is the fact that 
the St. Louis Board of Education has 
accepted a proposal of the city's depart- 
ment of parks, recreation, and forestry 
to operate fifty-two summer play- 
grounds on school facilities. These will 
be in addition to the forty-five park 
playgrounds already operated by the 
city. The recreation department will 
supply personnel, supplies, and admin- 
istration. 

NEW JERSEY. Retired National Rec- 
reation Association district representa- 
tive J. W. Faust of 
East Orange has 
been reappointed 
to a five-year term 
as a member of the 
local board of rec- 
reation commis- 
sioners. "J. W." may be retired, but is 
certainly not inactive! 

INDIANA. Three hundred and fifty-six 
park and recreation administrators and 
technicians from twenty-one states and 
four Canadian provinces participated 
in the fourteenth annual Great Lakes 
Park Training Institute, held at Poka- 
gon State Park in Angola. Sixty-five 
people cooperated on the program. The 
institute is conducted by the Indiana 
University department of recreation, 
with the state conservation departments 
and state park and recreation associa- 
tions and their respective Midwest and 
national associations as cosponsors. 

In-Service Training 

Eleven representatives from the 
Michigan cities of Ann Arbor, Ply- 
mouth, and Ypsilanti, the village of 
Wayne, and the Wayne County Train- 
ing School recently completed a corre- 
spondence course in municipal recrea- 
tion administration offered by the In- 
ternational City Managers Association. 
This is a part of the intercommunity 
in-service training program established 
by top government administrators from 
several communities in southeastern 
Michigan. The course in recreation ad- 
ministration is only one of many such 
correspondence courses in administra- 
tion offered by ICMA. The purpose of 
these courses is to train career em- 



ployees, promote high standards of pro- 
fessionalization, and, ultimately, to pro- 
vide better public service. 

Focus on Youth 

The Youth Bureau and Recreation 
Commission in Corning, New York, up- 
holds "The Children's Bill of Rights" 
and the "Children's Bill of Responsi- 
bilities" and has printed them on the 
back of its attractive letterhead (done 
in sepia ink) . Thus, director Caesar R. 
George and his staff circulate this phil- 
osophy with each letter they write. 

In Oceanside, New York, last year 
fifty-four boys and girls, from sixteen 
to eighteen years old, assembled in the 
Little Theatre to take a written exami- 
nation for the position of junior play- 
ground leader. The test took an hour 
and twenty minutes. It was in four 
parts: twenty multiple-choice ques- 
tions, two essay questions involving 
judgment, a diagram on which a listing 
of playground facilities had to be lo- 
cated, and a special posterboard on 
which each had to prepare a layout ad- 
vertising a playground circus. Maxi- 
mum score on first section was sixty, 
second section twenty, and third and 
fourth sections counted ten each. 

Of the fifty-four youngsters taking 



the exam, two scored in the nineties, 
twenty in the eighties, and thirty-two 
in the seventies. Seven junior play- 
ground leaders were chosen, their se- 
lection depending upon the test score, 
an interview, and past experience. 
These seven were paid thirty dollars a 
week for six five-day, thirty -hour weeks. 
All those not chosen were invited to 
serve as "apprentices" volunteers. 

The junior-leader plan worked with 
great success in most instances, and rec- 
reation director Joe Harper plans to re- 
peat the project this year. 

SOS 

In an urgent now-or-never message 
to the state legislature, New York's 
Governor Nelson Rockefeller requested 
a $75.000,000 bond issue for the im- 
mediate acquisition of park and rec- 
reation land. A survey by the state 
conservation department and State 
Council of Parks shows a desperate lack 
of "almost every kind of public outdoor 
facility." The bond issue, if authorized 
by the legislature, will be submitted to 
the voters in the general election next 
November. The governor stressed that 
the situation requires "action now or 
the loss forever of the opportunity to 
meet the recreation needs of the state 
economically." 



EXTRA ! 

As we go to press, a special edition (February 29. 1960) of the 
Vallejo Times Herald reaches us, announcing in banner headlines 
that the distinguished award of "All America City for 1959" has just 
been presented to that California city along with ten others.* Val- 
lejo's award cites its drive for annexation and unification which led 
to vigorous civic improvement. One entire fourteen-page section of 
this thick edition (almost as fat as Sunday's New York Times) appears 
under a red, two-inch head, "Vallejo, a City for Leisure." and carries 
a full, laudatory report of the activities and achievements of the 
Greater Vallejo Recreation District, of which our good friend, Keith 
Macdonald. is the executive director. According to all accounts, liis 
department projects are booming, its accomplishment and growth are 
outstanding, and community participation is thriving. Congratula- 
tions, and well done, Keith: the recreation profession may well !>< 
proud of you! 



Alton and East St. Louis, Illinois; DC Soto, Missouri: Fargo, North DaUi;i: 
Lamar, Colorado; Norfolk, Virginia; San Juan. Puerto Rico; Santa Fe Springs, 
California; Metropolitan Seattle, Washington; and Winston-Salem, North Caro- 
lina. 



186 



Hi < 10 \TIO\ 



RECREATION For The 



III and Handicapped 



The staff of the National Recreation 
Association Consulting Service on Rec- 
reation for the 111 and Handicapped has 
been on the road a great deal of late. 
Perhaps you have been meeting some 
of them. Elliott Cohen spent the past 
month in California in consultation 
with various community agencies, such 
as the Braille Institute of America and 
the Crippled Children's Society. He 
also spent some time at San Jose State 
College helping with the development 
of a graduate program in recreation for 
the ill and handicapped, spoke at the 
NRA Pacific Southwest Recreation 
Conference. Doris Berryman visited 
Charlottesville, Virginia, to work with 
the Virginia Commission on the Visu- 
ally Handicapped, as part of the Con- 
sulting Service's sheltered workshop 
project. She also pitched in at the 
NRA Great Lakes District Conference 
in St. Paul. Frances Arje took off for 
Muskegon, Michigan, and then to Min- 
neapolis, to gather information about 
sheltered workshops in those communi- 
ties. Morton Thompson will head for 
Massachusetts to conduct a workshop 
on games at Westborough State Hospi- 
tal there. He will also conduct an insti- 
tute on recreation for the aging in 
Toledo, Ohio. Alice Burkhardt recently 
conducted an institute for persons 
working with the blind in Albany, New 
York. I, myself, have been in Pennsyl- 
vania developing services for the aged 
in nursing homes and am about to take 
part in the White House Conference on 
Children and Youth in Washington. 

f 1 In February the Consulting Service 
held a very successful meeting with 
representatives of the National Associa- 
tion of Recreation Therapists, Recrea- 
tion Therapy Section of the American 
Association for Health, Physical Edu- 
cation, and Recreation, and the Hospi- 
tal Section of the American Recreation 
Society. Among the fundamental ques- 
tions discussed were a basic philosophy 
of recreation for the ill and handi- 
capped and the best academic prepara- 
tion for persons entering this field. A 
report of the conclusions of these dis- 
cussions has been sent to the executive 

MRS. HILL is director, National Recre- 
ation Association Consulting Service on 
Recreation for the 111 and Handicapped. 



Beatrice H. Hill 



committee of each of the organizations 
for final approval, and a condensed ver- 
sion of the statements as finally ap- 
proved, will be available to anyone 
requesting it. A number of informal 
discussions also concerned possible 
amalgamation of the three organiza- 
tions. Obviously, everyone will have to 
give a little, and it is hoped the execu- 
tive committees will have developed a 
workable plan by spring. 

In August the Consulting Service 
will conduct a demonstration at the 
Eighth World Congress of the Interna- 
tional Society for the Welfare of Crip- 
ples at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria in 
New York. This is the first time this 
international congress has been held in 
the United States, and the Consulting 
Service hopes, through a variety of 
demonstrations using patients, that 
many of our friends from other nations 
will see what recreation can do for the 
ill and handicapped. 

*r" A new Consulting Service project 
concerns adult narcotic addicts. Work- 
ing in a general hospital, CS is ex- 
ploring recreation's role both in the 
hospital and in the after-care program. 
Using the experimental and control 
method, it will provide recreation serv- 
ice to a selected number of discharged 
patients, and evaluate the behavioral 
differences between these patients and 
discharged patients not receiving rec- 
reation follow-up service. 

Hh Are you affiliated for service? 
NRA's Consulting Service is making an 
all-out effort to educate the professional 
and the layman to the value of recrea- 
tion for the ill and handicapped. One 
of our new services for affiliates, in ad- 
dition to their monthly copy of RECREA- 
TION Magazine, will be a quarterly 
newsletter concerning recreation in the 
medical setting (in addition to many 
other services). To be more effective 
in education, program, and legislation, 
the Service needs everyone to be affili- 
ated for service. Are you? 

r" Don't forget the recruitment contest 
(see March issue). Contestants ac- 
cepted NOW. Prizes will be awarded 
January 1961. Please send in your 
names. # 



TENNIS FOR TEACHERS 

Enlarged Ell.. 1959 Printing $5.OO 

The authoritative text in use in to countries. 

This book gives stroke mechanics and 
strategy; teaching methods for handling 
large groups of pupils on one court. In- 
cluded are 90 action photos and diagrams; 
Official Tennis Rules, graphic wall chart 
with 18 sketches. 

TENNIS SELF-INSTRUCTOR 

I handbook lor players, 1O9 pp S2.OO 

PLAYERS WHO WANT TO IMPROVE 
This self instruction handbook gives 
simple directions for learning the nine 
tennis strokes and improving your court 
strategy in both singles and doubles. 43 
action photos and illustrations that show 
how champions play their shots. 

H. I. DRIVER CO. 
803 Moygara Rd. Madison 4, Wis. 




BASKETBALL 

STEEL CHAIN 

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XTETHERBALL POLES & PADDLE SETS 

XWATER BASKETBALL STANDARDS 

^ALUMINUM BATTING TEES 



Send for Free Catalog 

JAYFRO ATHLETIC SUPPLY CO. 
Dept. R, Box 1065, NEW LONDON, CONN. 




tw^*^^ 
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DIHICT PUKi 

DISCOUNTS I TSRMS ^ alj-new HOLD-KING Banquet Tables, 
with exclusive new automatic folding and 
locking, super strencth, easy seating. 6S nxlcK and si/cs. 

BIG NEW 1960 CATALOG FREE 

Color piviures lull line l.iMcs, chairs, table and chair trucks, plat- 
form-risers. ixm.tMc partitions, hnllclin boards. Our 52iid vciir. 

THE MONROE CO., 181 Church St., Colfax, Iowa 




Recreation leaders from Boston to 
Los Angeles use this means of solv- 
ing many playground problems. 

THE MORALE BUILDER 



Ten Minutes of Special Coaching Can Pro- 
duce a Kalah Enthusiast. 

SEND FOR LEAFLET No. 12. Show, how one in- 
spired player can develop volunteer helpers who 
will start a wave of sustained interest that may 
spread over a city. 



KALAH BOARD 



H 



Simple Kalah rules reprinted 
from UNICEF Recreation Man- 
ual supplied with each order. 



KALAH GAME CO. 
131 State St., Boston, Masi. 



APRIL 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



187 



MARKET 




NEWS 



For further information regarding, 
any of these products, write directly 
to the manufacturer. Please mention 
that you saw it in RECREATION. 

Jean Wachtel 




Designed for children aged 
two to ten, Saddle-Mates are 
made of tough fiberglass, col- 
orfully finished with a special 
epoxy resin coating, which 
practically guarantees long 
wear and weather resistance. 
The equipment is mounted on 
sturdy steel springs with steel 
mounting plates. Models are 
available with either portable, 
no-tip bases, or without base 
for permanent installation in 
cement. Springs are specially 

designed to provide a pleasant rocking motion yet won't 
pinch curious small fingers. Children can rock happily ^on 
Saddle-Mates, which come as horses, donkeys, camels, 
swans, or ducks, and in various colors. For descriptive lit- 
erature in full color and detailed specifications, write Game- 
time, Inc., Litchfield, Michigan. 

Two functional pieces of equip- 
ment for teaching novice players 
proper batting techniques are the 
Jayfro aluminum Batting Tee and 
the "Skill Trainer" Game Target. 
The tee, permanently attached at 
the base to an official-size rubber 
home plate, is adjustable from 25" 
to 42". The unit comes equipped 
with a rubber-covered official base- 
ball, securely fastened to 20 feet of 
nylon cord, connected to a spring 
and stake. The latter is driven into 
the ground between the batter's feet and the ball returns to 
the batter regardless of how hard it is hit. The target is 
made of extra heavy-gauge vinyl and measures 6' by 4^2 ' 
Both of these devices are excellent for baseball batting prac- 
tice in playgrounds as well as practice on the diamond it- 
self. Write for further information to Jayfro Athletic Supply 
Company, P. 0. Box 1065, New London, Connecticut. 

Visually handicapped children can safely join in the fun 
of bicycle riding, thanks to the new T-P Bicycle assembly. 






188 



This unit was developed by Dr. Frank E. Dudley, president 
of the Franklin Manufacturing Company, and will be made 
by that company. Adaptable for one to eighteen bicycles, 
the assembly consists of a hexagonal aluminum framework 
which rotates around a center post. Aluminum rods fast- 
ened to the front and rear of the bicycles keep them erect 
with no danger of tipping or falling. A telescoping feature 
permits adjustment of the riding area to different size cir- 
cles. For complete details, write the company at 12 Center 
Street, Westmont, New Jersey. 



Camps and large 
outdoor recreation 
areas often com- 
prise extent i\ 
stretches of land, 
difficult to get 
around on in the 
standard automo- 
bile. With these re- 
quirements in 
mind, the Crofton 
Marine Engine 
Company has de- 
veloped a small utility vehicle of functional design, called 
the "Bug," with the general appearance of a half-size war- 
time Jeep. Its specifications are: weight, 1100 pounds; car- 
ries a quarter-ton payload; overall length. Ill"; wheelbase, 
63"; 40" tread and 48" overall width. It is powered by a 
35-hp overhead cam, liquid-cooled. 4-cylinder gasoline en- 
gine, which drives in the conventional manner through a 
three-speed transmission. Optional equipment includes a 
Powr-Lok differential and dual rear wheels to provide trac- 
tion in sand, on rough trails, and in wet grass. For complete 
details, write the company at 888 Gull Street, San Diego 1, 
California. 



Since an ever-increasing number of recreation agencies 
and departments are directly or indirectly involved wilh 
camping, they are in a position to recommend various kinds 
of equipment to the individual camper or camping group. 
Or, often, the recreation agency rents it out. The following 
necessary item could be used for either function. The 925 
Sievert stove is easy to refill, ignites instantly, has an ad- 
justable flame, is completely windproof, burns approxi- 
mately fifty-five hours on one filling of propane gas long 
enough to last four weeks with reasonable use. Compact 
and easy to carry, it can be converted to a lantern with an 
80-watt capacity. Swedish made, the stove complies with 
the standards of the Swedish Kxplosives Inspectorate and 
the Swedish Workman's Safety Board. The same romp:in\ 
also makes a two-burner, propane stove, as well as stoves 
and lanterns for kerosene, alcohol, and gasoline. For all do- 
tails, write the United States distributor Rexo-Therm, Inc.. 
986 Ogden Avenue, Naperville. Illinois. 

RECREATION 



INDEX OF ADVERTISERS 



Page 



American Playground Device 183 

Castello Fencing Equipment 152 
Chicago Roller Skates Back Cover 

Cleveland Crafts . 148 

Cosom Industries _ . 145 

Dayton Steel Racquets _ 150 

Delmer F. Harris _ . 189 

Dimco-Gray . 150 

Emblem & Badge _ 180 

Exposition Press 189 

F. H. Noble . 182 

FLXIBLE.. 180 

Gold Medal Products _ 148 

Gymnastic Supply _ 189 

Harper & Brothers ... 182 

H. I. Driver 187 
Hillerich & Bradsby _ Inside Front Cover 

James Spencer 189 

Jayfro Athletic Supply 187 

J. E. Burke _ 149 

Kalah Games ... . 187 

Kelley Paint .185 

Monroe 187 

National Sports .185 

National Studios . 185 

Program Aids .151 

Recreation Equipment 146 

Rheem Califone . _ 151 

Skelley Sales .. 151 

Superior Industries .183 

T. F. Twardzik . 146 

Vogel-Peterson . 185 

Voit 152 

Wenger Music Equipment 151 




CATALOG 



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GRANDSTANDS PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT 
FOLDING BLEACHERS BASKETBALL BACKSTOPS 
REBOUND TUMBLING UNITS SCOREBOARDS 
WEIGHTLIFTING EQUIPMENT- LOCKERS 

GYMNASTIC SUPPLY COMPANY 

250 Sixth Street San Pedro, California 




SWEDISH GYM" 

the PLAYMATE line 
PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT 
The DELMER F. HARRIS Co. 

Concordia, Kansas 
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1 to publish your book, get 40% royalties, na- 
tional advertising, publicity and proirotion. 
Free editorial appraisal. Write Dept. RM-4 

Exposition Press / 386 4th Ave., NY. 16 



New, improved Golden Age Club Pin. 
Now in real gold plate with tree in 
green jewelers' enamel. Safety catch. 
50c each, including federal tax and 
postage. 

Minimum order 10 pins 
Available only to authentic clubs. 

JAMES SPENCER & CO. 
EXACT SIZE 22 N. 6th Street Philadelphia 6, Pa. 




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HELP WANTED 

Recreation Therapists 

for California State Hospi- 
tals. Opportunity to plan 
and conduct individual pa- 
tient recreation as well as 
special group activities; 
modern equipment and fa- 
cilities available. Positions 
open to college graduates 
with major in recreation or 
recreation therapy, which 
included supervised field 
work. No experience re- 
quired. Starting salary 
S415.00 per month; promo- 
tional opportunities; liber- 
al employment benefits. 
Write State Personnel 
"nard, 801 Capitol Avenue, 
Sacramento, California. 



Recreation Worker I, in 

hospital -school for severely 
handicapped educable chil- 
dren ages 5-21 years. Col- 
lege graduate, major in 
group work or recreation 
preferred. Write Illinois 
Children's Hospital-School, 
2551 North Clark Street, 
Chicago 14, Illinois. 

Park Naturalist: $370- 
$465. We want a man un- 
der 55 who has had two 
years' experience in con- 
ducting recreational pro- 
grams or courses involving 
nature study. Must have 
graduated from a recog- 
nized college or university 
with major work in natural 
science or have an equiva- 



lent combination of experi- 
ence and training. Apply 
to: Personnel Director, 105 
City Hall, Omaha 2, Ne- 
braska. 

SERVICES 
AVAILABLE 

Square Dance Caller, col- 
lege, club, or convention. 
Piute Pete, 55 West Eighth 
Street, New York 11, New 
York. 

POSITION WANTED 

General counseling position 
in summer camp. College 
senior. Previous experience 
in college counseling. Can 
teach baseball, basketball, 
track. Box 792, College. 
Grinnell, Iowa. 



The publisher assumes no responsibility for services or items advertised here. 



APRIL 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



189 



Magazine Articles 



AMERICAN FORESTS, February 1960 

Operation Wildlife, Daniel A. Poole. 

Mending a Mountain, Robert C. Blair. 

A Second Look at Multiple Use, Howard 
Stagner. 

Conserving and Using our Open Spaces. 
ARTS AND ACTIVITIES, March 1960 

Special Ceramics Issue 
MENTAL HOSPITALS, February 1960 

The Geriatric Patient Psychiatric and So- 
cial Problems. 
PARK MAINTENANCE, February 1960 

Outstanding Park Is Gift to Boise, Gordon 
S. Bowen. 

Fireman's Slide Delights Cedar Rapids 

Children, Nancy Gibbons Zook. 
SENIOR CITIZEN, March 1960 

Automation in America, Tom Meyer. 

Second Childhood, W. W. Bauer, M.D. 
WOMAN'S DAY, March 1960 

Children's Play Furniture. 



Books & Pamphlets 
Received 



Adolescence, Teen-Agers 

ADOLESCENCE AND DISCIPLINE, Rudolph M. 
Wittenberg. Association Press, 291 Broad- 
way, New York 7. Pp. 318. $4.95. 

ABOLESCENCE TO MATURITY, V. C. Chamber- 
lain. Penguin Books, 3300 Clipper Mill 
Rd., Baltimore 11. Pp. 94. $.65. 

LET'S FACE IT (Guide to Good Grooming for 
Negro Girls), Elsie Archer. J. B. Lippin- 
cott, E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia. Pp. 
186. $2.95. 

MCCALL'S GUIDE TO TEEN-ACE BEAUTY & 
GLAMOUR, Betsy Keiffer. Prentice-Hall, 
Englewood Cliffs, N. J. Pp. 161. $3.95. 

PREMARITAL DATING BEHAVIOR, Winston Ehr- 
mann, Ph.D. Henry Holt, 383 Madison Ave., 
New York 17. Pp. 316. $6.00. 

PSYCHOLOGY OF ADOLESCENCE (5th ed.), Lu- 
ella Colle. Rinehart, 232 Madison Ave., 
New York 16. Pp. 731. $7.00. 

SHE-MANNERS, Robert H. Loeb, Jr. Associa- 
tion Press, 291 Broadway, New York 7. Pp. 
188. $3.50. 

YOUTH IN COMMUNITY AFFAIRS. Committee 
on Youth Services, National Social Welfare 
Assembly, 345 E. 46th St., New York 17. 
Pp. 15. $.25. 

Areas and Facilities 

BOOK OF LANDSCAPE DESIGN, THE, H. Stuart 
Ortloff and Henry B. Raymore. M. Barrows, 
425 Park Ave. S., New York 16. Pp. 316. 
$3.95. 

How TO PLAN MODERN HOME GROUNDS, 
Henry B. Aul. Sheridan House, 257 Park 
Ave. S., New York 10. Pp. 312. $4.00. 

LANDSCAPE DESIGN (rev. ed.), Henry V. Hub- 
bard and Theodore Kimball. Hubbard Edu- 
cational Trust, 9 Park St., Boston 8. Pp. 
419. $7.50 ($5.00 to students). 

MAINTENANCE MEN LOOK AT HOUSING DE- 
SIGN (3rd ed.). Natl. Assoc. of Housing & 



Redevelopment Officials, 1313 E. 60th St., 
Chicago 37. Pp. 40. Paper, $2.50. 

SPORTS AND RECREATION FACILITIES: For 
School and Community, M. Alexander Gab- 
riel sen and Caswell M. Miles. Prentice- 
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. Pp. 370. $9.00. 

SWIMMING POOLS. Lane Publishing, Menlo 
Park, Calif. Pp. 112. Paper, $1.95 (library 
ed. $3.50). 

Books for Children and Young People 

ALASKA, Bernadine Bailey. Albert Whitman, 
560 W. Lake, Chicago 6. Unpaged. $1.25. 

BABY DRAGON, THE, Witold T. Mars. Hough- 
ton Mifflin, 2 Park St., Boston 7. Pp. 30. 
$2.75. 

BARNEY, BRING YOUR BANJO, May Justus. 
Henry Holt, 383 Madison Ave., New York 
17. Pp. 61. $2.50. 

BLUE CHIMNEY, Gladys Baker Pond. Holiday 
House, 8 W. 13th St., New York 11. Pp. 
164. $2.75. 

EMPEROH AND THE NIGHTINGALE, THE, Hans 
Christian Andersen. Pantheon Books, 333 
6th Ave., New York 14. Unpaged. $2.95. 

Eo OF THE CAVES, Florence Wightman Row- 
land. Henry Z. Walck, 101 5th Ave., New 
York 10. Pp. 160. $3.00. 

FAVORITE FAIRY TALES TOLD IN FRANCE; 
TOLD IN GERMANY; TOLD IN ENGLAND; all 
retold by Virginia Haviland. Little, Brown, 
34 Beacon St., Boston 6. $2.75 each. 

FRIENDS AROUND THE WORLD, Helen Doss. 
Abingdon Press, 201 8th Ave. S., Nashville, 
Tenn. Unpaged. $1.50. 

GIUI. IN THE WHITE II \T. W. T. Ciimmings. 
McGraw-Hill, 330 W. 42nd St., New York 
36. Pp. 32. $2.25. 

GOLDEN ANNIVERSARY BOOK OF SCOUTING, 
THE, R. D. Bezucha. Golden Press, 630 5th 
Ave., New York 20. Pp. 165. $4.95. 

GOOD MANNERS: The Magic Key, Margaret 
Stephenson and Ruth Millett. McKnight 
and McKnight, Route 66 & Tonawanda 
Ave., Bloomington. 111. Pp. 72. Paper, $.80. 

HANS ANDERSEN: Forty-Two Stories, trans- 
lated by M. R. James. A. S. Barnes, 11 E. 
35th St., New York 16. Pp. 346. $3.95. 

HAPPY BIRTHDAY UMBRELLA, THE. David Cor- 
nel Dejong. Atlantic-Little, Brown, 34 Bea- 
con St., Boston 6. Pp. 50. $2.75. 

How Tin: MANX (!\T LOST ITS TAIL, retold 
by Blanche Young. David McKay, 119 W. 
40th St., New York 18. Pp. 114. $2.75. 

ISAAC NEWTON, Beulah Tannenbaum and 
Myra Stillman. McGraw-Hill, 330 W. 42nd 
Si.. New York 36. Pp. 128. $2.00. 

JAPANESE GARDEN, THE. Molly Brrit. Fred- 
erick Warne, 210 5th Ave., New York 10. 
Pp. 44. $2.50. 

LAUGHING BIRD, THE, Anita Hewett. Sterling 
Publishing, 419 4lh Ave., New York. Pp. 
32. $2.50. 

LEARNING TO COOK THE GIRL WAY, Joy Law. 
Sporl shelf. Box 634, New Rochelle, N. Y. 
Pp. 63. Paper, $1.75. 

LITTLE HEDGEHOG, Gina Ruck-Pauquet and 
Marianne Richter. Hastings House, 151 E. 
50th St., New York 22. Unpaged, $2.75. 

LOST BEAR, Ann Durell. Doubleday, Garden 
City, N. Y. Pp. 47. $2.95. 

MAGIC NIGHT FOR LILI.IHET, Gerry Turner. 
Bobbs-Merrill, 1720 E. 38th St.! Indiana- 
polis 6. Pp, 48. $2.95. 

MORE ANIMALS FROM Evnti \\HUIK. Clifford 
Webb. Frederick Warne, 210 5th Ave.. Nr 
York 10. Unpaged. $2.75. 



PUPTENTS AND PEBBLES. William Jay Smith. 
Little, Brown, 34 Beacon St., Boston 6. Pp. 
32. $2.75. 

SKY Is OUR WINDOW, THE, Terry Maloney. 
Sterling Publishing, 419 4th Ave., New 
York 16. Pp. 128. $3.95. 

THREE HAPPY LIONS, THE, Louise Fatio. Mc- 
Graw-Hill, 330 W. 42nd St., New York 36. 
Pp. 32. $2.25. 

WE ARE ALL AMERICANS, Bettye D. Wilson. 
Friendly House, 65 Suffolk St., New York 
2. Unpaged. $2.50. 

WORLD OF WONDERFUL DIFFERENCE, THE, 
Hans Guggenheim. Friendly House, 65 Suf- 
folk St., New York 2. Unpaged. $2.50. 

Zoo CELEBRITIES, William Bridge?. William 
Morrow, 425 4th Ave., New York. Pp. 127. 
$2.95. 

Communities 

COMMUNITY, Carl J. Friedrich. Liberal Arts 
Press, 153 W. 72nd St., New York 23. Pp. 
293. $5.00. 

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION 1959, (86th An- 
nual Forum of National Conference on So- 
cial Welfare) . Columbia Univ. Press, 2960 
Broadway, New York 27. Pp. 133. $2.50. 

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNITY RECREATION 
(3rd ed.), George Butler. McGraw-Hill, 
330 W. 42nd St., New York 36. Pp. 577. 
$7.50. 

URBAN COMMUNITY, THE: A World Perspec- 
tive, Nels Anderson. Henry Holt, 383 Mad- 
ison Ave., New York 17. Pp. 500. $5.50. 

Sports, Physical Education 

HISTORY OF BASEBALL, THE, Allison Danzig & 

Joe Reichler. Prentice-Hall, Englewood 

Cliffs, N. J. Pp. 412. $12.50. 
MODERN BAIT AND SPIN CASTING, Walter R. 

Breard. Comet Press, 200 Varick Si.. New 

York 14. Pp. 207. $3.75. 
NEW LIGHT ON GETTING EXTRA MILEAGE FROM 

'I. UK TI.NM^ COI-RTS. U.S. Lawn Tennis 

Association, 120 Broadway, New York 5. 

Pp. 4. Free. 
NEW SMALL BOAT SAILING, THE, John Fislirr. 

John de Graff, 31 E. 10th St.. Nrw York 3. 

Pp. 176. $4.00. 
PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN URBAN ELF. MI M u;\ 

SCHOOLS, Elsa Schneider, U.S. t..>\. iiiim-iit 

Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Pp. 

91. $.45. 
PROBLEMS IN SMALL BOAT DESIGN, Gerald 

Taylor White, Editor. Sheridan Hon- 

4th Ave.. New York 10. Pp. 246. $6.00. 
SMIIM. Hovi 1 -. Uffa Fox, St. Martin's Prr--. 

175 5th Ave.. New York 10. Pp. 204. $4.50. 

M'OHTS Il.MsTHATED BOOK OF THE OUTDOOKs. 

John O'Reilly. Golden Press, 630 5th Av.-.. 

\, w York 20. Pp. 322. $12.50. 
STOIITSMAN'S WORLD, THE. Henry Holt. 383 

Madison Ave., New York 17. Pp. 272. 

$1250. 
SPORTS OF THE TIMES, Arthur Daley. Dullon. 

300 4th Ave., New York 10. Pp. 270. $3.95. 
SPRINGBOARD DIVING, Phil Moriarty. Ronald 

Press, 15 E. 26th St., New York 10. Pp. 

146. $4.00. 
M \NDARD HANDBOOK OF PI.EASI UK. HOM-. 

Robert J. Shekter. Crowell. 432 llli W.. 

New York 16. Pp. 341. $5.95. 
I MM KW \TEH WORK, John E. Cayford. Cor- 
nell Maritime Press, Cambridge, Md. Pp. 

217. $5.00. 
WINNING BASKETBALL STRATEGY, Glenn Wil- 

kes. IVniirr-Hall. F.nglrwood ClitK N. .1. 

Pp. 203. $4.95. 



190 



RECREATION 




PUBLICATIONS 



Covering the Leisure-time Field 



They Talked to a Stranger, Len 

O'Connor. St Martin's Press, 175 Fifth 
Avenue, New York 10. Pp. 276. $3.95. 

"What makes a boy bad? What turns 
a seemingly proper girl in her mid-teens 
into a neighborhood slut?" After all 
that is being said and done about ju- 
venile delinquency perhaps the "inside 
story" of the delinquent and the forces 
creating him will emerge not from the 
clinical case histories of social workers, 
psychiatrists, or criminologists but 
from the unsparing reports of seasoned 
newspaper reporters without any olo- 
gyisms or doctrinal axes to grind. Such 
was The Shook-Up Generation by Har- 
rison Salisbury of The New York Times 
(Harper's, $3.95), and now They 
Talked to a Stranger by a veteran Chi- 
cago reporter and NBC newscaster. 
Both men have received many awards 
for public service. Among them, two 
Sigma Delta Chi awards and a citation 
from the National Parole and Proba- 
tion Association have gone to Mr. 
O'Connor and a 1955 Pulitzer Prize to 
Mr. Salisbury (for his series on Russia, 
later appearing in book form as Amer- 
ican in Russia.) 

In Shook-Up Generation, Mr. Salis- 
bury dealt with rumbling street gangs, 
the rootless boys and girls turning de- 
linquent, and how they got that way. He 
went into their backgrounds, gang pat- 
terns, and the function of the street 
worker, the family, church, and school 
in relation to helping them. He wrote 
"Side by side and working in closest 
amity and collaboration with the police 
in metropolitan areas, most communi- 
ties need an agency like the Youth 
Board in New York, handling spot ac- 
tivity with youngsters on the street." 
(The story of what the recreation de- 
partment in Washington, D.C., is doing 
along these lines with "detached work- 
ers" is described on Page 162. See also 
Page 158.) 

Mr. O'Connor, on the other hand 
gives us tape-recorded interviews with 
young offenders involved in serious 
crimes. 

In his perceptive introduction. Sena- 
tor Paul H. Douglas says, "The homes 
in which (these) youngsters live were 
tawdry and unkempt. Churches and re- 

APRIL 1960 



ligion apparently did not enter into 
their lives, and clubs for boys and girls 
were not for them. They had little 
chance for wholesome play. There were 
no books in their homes. They seldom, 
if ever, were able to relax in the quiet 
of nature and to appreciate the mys- 
teries and beauties of the skies and of 
growing and living things. They had 
only the streets drab and unclean 
on which to play, and only youngsters 
as wild and uncared for as themselves 
with whom to associate. Most of all, they 
inevitably felt lonely, unloved, and re- 
jected by their families, their neighbor- 
hoods, and society. This was still fur- 
ther intensified for the Negro boys and 
girls by the racial antagonism shown 
toward them by most of the white com- 
munity. It is the same with the Mexi- 
can-American and Indian youth of the 
Southwest and with the Puerto Ricans 
in New York." 

Throughout the O'Connor interviews 
one theme emerges from the limited, 
pathetic, unchanneled soul-searching of 
the young criminal a feeling of root- 
lessness, a desire for direction. Again 
and again, the delinquent yearns for 
the programed security of military serv- 
ice from which he is barred by reasons 
of age or record. 

Quoting one of the boys, "It's when 
they are fourteen and fifteen years old 
that thoughts of really doing something 
bad come into their minds. They are 
out of the Little League and too young 
for somethin' else and, hell, there just 
ain't any place for them to go. That's 
where you got your trouble." They have 
no place to go and they get there fast. 

A police captain says, "These boys 
have a very real hunger for boys' clubs. 
It is the only thing I know, the boys' 
club, that will pull together the loose 
ends of a delinquent's existence and 
give him a pattern that he can follow 
and something he can respect. And even 
all this is only a partial answer to the 
lacks and absences of good elements in 
his home situation." 

These books can help greatly in our 
understanding of today's potential, as 
well as actual, juvenile delinquent and 
young criminal and should be in the 
library of every youth leader no matter 
what organization he serves. E.D. 



A User-Resource Recreation Plan- 
ning Method. National Advisory Coun- 
cil on Regional Recreation Planning, 
Hidden Valley, Loomis, California. Pp. 
80. Paper, $2.00. 

"The recreation planning method . . . 
proposes a practical and comprehensive 
means of estimating the present and 
future recreation requirements of users 
and the recreation potential of na- 
tural and man-made sources." This 
idea of relating what people want to the 
availability of resources for satisfying 
those wants and using the relationship 
as a basis for planning the amount, lo- 
cation, and design of recreation areas 
seems a simple one. Yet, as applied in 
this book, it is unique and constitutes 
a landmark in planning for all recrea- 
tion but especially for regional recrea- 
tion. This book will be a classic and 
should be read by all those interested in 
providing for recreation in a national, 
systematic way. Stanley B. Tankel, 
Regional Plan Association, New York 
City. 

Local Planning Administration (3rd 
ed.), Mary McLean, Editor. Interna- 
tional City Managers' Association, 
1313 East 60th Street, Chicago 37. 
Pp. 467. $7.50. 

This is one of a series of ten volumes 
on municipal administration. A com- 
prehensive and authoritative manual, it 
has chapters by leading authorities in 
planning and related fields, and was 
edited by the director of research of 
the American Society of Planning Offi- 
cials. Because parks and other recrea- 
tion areas are an important element in 
the city plan, the administration of local 
planning is of direct interest and con- 
cern to recreation and park authorities. 

The chapter on "Recreation and 
Open Spaces," by Miriam Strong, se- 
nior planner, New York City Planning 
Commission, merits careful study by 
RECREATION readers. Much of the chap- 
ter is devoted to an excellent treatise 
on the controversial subject of recrea- 
tion space standards. It presents stand- 
ards for a variety of area and facility 
types, incorporating proposals devel- 
oped by a number of agencies, and re- 
views factors that influence the applica- 
tion of standards in specific localities. 

Miss Strong points out that for years 
locally adopted standards have been 
based generally on those developed by 
the National Recreation Association. 
She supports the widely held opinion 
that an appraisal of these standards is 
overdue in order to make sure that they 
take into account the basic and variable 
recreation needs and interests of people. 
"Land Subdivision Regulation" is an- 
other chapter of special interest since it 
describes various procedures for ac- 

191 



quiring public sites in subdivisions, 
with special reference to recreation 
areas. 

The selected bibliography affords a 
guide to additional reference sources. 
It is unfortunate, however, that plans 
showing the distribution of recreation 
areas in Paterson, New Jersey, and 
Providence, Rhode Island, were includ- 
ed, since the types of recreation areas 
proposed in the reports from which they 
were reproduced bear little resemblance 
to those described by Miss Strong, and 
the space standards recommended in 
them are far below those recognized as 
adequate. G.D.B. 

Adventures With Scissors and Pnper, 
Edith C. Becker. International Text- 
book Company, Scranton 15, Pennsyl- 
vania. Pp. 1 16, illustrated. $5.50. 

Expensive? No, because it's worth 
every cent and more a beautifully 
printed and illustrated book, full of fas- 
cinating adventures (and we don't use 
that word lightly) , with simple, easy-to- 
get material (paper of every sort, scis- 
sors, paste, and crayons or paint if 
wished). 

This book could be the foundation 
stone for a whole craft program for 
your playground or center. Its projects 
and examples are clear, original, in 
good taste, and good humor. Many of 
them are the wonderful kind that fairly 
cry out to be used in correlation with 
other activities, like drama, puppets, 
and special events. (See Page 154.) 

There are a sparkle and enthusiasm 
here that lift it far above the usual pa- 
percraft book, making it a really excit- 
ing addition to recreation literature. 
Here's investment that will pay rich 
dividends in creative craft experiences. 
Buy it and see for yourself! V.M. 

The Art of Making Dances, Doris 
Humphrey. Rinehart and Company, 
232 Madison Avenue, New York 16. 
Pp. 176. Illustrations and drawings. 
$6.50. 

As a performer, teacher, concert art- 
ist, and choreographer, Doris Hum- 
phrey has reached thousands of indi- 
viduals who were associated with the 
arts. Now, as an author, the rich and 
vibrant leadership which was experi- 
enced by her students and associates 
becomes part of the heritage of the 
American dance and is available to 
every community. Through The Art of 
Making Dances she gives to the people 
of the world a philosophy of the Amer- 
ican dance, and the means by which 
this art form may be developed, stud- 
ied, and appreciated. 

From the opening page, she speaks 
directly to the individual. The reader 

192 



is swept through the pages; the book 
cannot be pushed aside. The first read- 
ing is pure poetic motion, culminating 
in the awareness that here is a great 
book, that words have been found to 
express the movement art of the dance. 

Immediately, the reader reopens the 
book, studies each chapter and the prac- 
tical technical presentations for the de- 
velopment of choreography. Here the 
tools of the choreographer are concise- 
ly, vividly explained. Chapter Two 
deals with the craft and the discussion 
of design and one is challenged by such 
subjective material as "design," "sym- 
metry and asymmetry," "stage space," 
"dynamics." If the suggestions are fol- 
lowed, the American dance will have 
an extremely bright future, for the old 
repetitions and copying of techniques 
will not be acceptable. 

One could wax romantic about this 
book. The style is superb and the know- 
how expressed clearly. The methods 
for the development of choreography 
could only come from a person who has 
lived long in the field; watched thou- 
sands of bodies; struggled with the 
practical problems of music, space, the- 
ater, costumes; felt the tolerance and 
intolerance of press, public, coworkers, 
and performing artists. Only a gifted 
observer could further strengthen the 
explanation and suggestions written 
into the text by placing assignments at 
the end of each "tool"-unit. These in 
themselves lend a sense of release and 
individual integrity of thought and re- 
sulting movement. 

Fortunate, indeed, are we to have 
this text available. Nowhere have those 
who are interested in the dance been 
able to secure, except in a very few 
dance centers, the underlying practical 
principles of choreography. Equally 
important as the know-how is the en- 
couragement to utilize the individual's 
own style, the responsibility of each 
person to be sincere and to respect the 
technique of each dance form. Through 
the insights offered each community 
will share in the "art of making 
dances." Dorothea M. Lenscli, direc- 
tor of recreation, Portland, Oregon. 



A Guide for Planning the School 
and College Swimming Pool and Nata- 
torium, William L. Terry. Bureau of 
Publications, Teachers College, Colum- 
bia University, New York 27. Pp. 73. 
$2.50. 

This study, prepared in partial ful- 
fillment of requirements for a doctoral 
degree, is a valuable addition to the 
growing literature on the planning, con- 
struction, equipment, and use of the 
swimming pool. Although it contains 
much information that is familiar, it 
presents in a detailed, well-organized 



manner valuable information with ref- 
erence to the various problems covered. 
It deals primarily with the indoor pool, 
but much of the information will be of 
value to those considering the construc- 
tion of an outdoor facilitv. G.D.B. 



Selected Paperbacks 

For Boys' Club Program (Page 167). 
BANTAM: The Bridge Over the River Ktvai, 
Pierre Boulle; The Red Pony, John Stein- 
beck; Drums Along the Mohawk, Walter D. 
Edmonds; The Light in the Forest, Conrad 
Richter; Who Rides with Wyatt, Will Henry; 
Apache Land, Ross Santee; Five and Ten, 
John K. Winkler; Folk Songs of the Carib- 
bean, James Morse; Wild Animals I Have 
Known, Ernest Thompson Seton: Cowhand: 
The Story of a Working Cowboy, Fred Gipson. 



DELL: David Copperfield, Charles Dickens: 
Great Flying Stories, edited by Dr. Frank W. 
Anderson, Jr.; The Long Rifle, Stewart E. 
White; The World in Space, Alexander Mar- 
shack; The Walt Disney Story of Our Friend 
the Atom, Franz Haber; Common Wild Ani- 
mals and Their Young, photographs. William 
Vandivert, drawings, Carl Burger, text, Rita 
Vandivert; The American Heritage Reader: 
The Great Locomotive Chase, MacLennan 
Roberts; A History of the United States, Wil- 
liam Miller; Six Centuries of Great Poetry, 
edited by Robert Penn Warren and Albert 
Erskine. 



FAWCETT: Best Quotations for All Occasions, 
edited by Lewis C. Henry: The Miracle of 
Language, Charlton Laird; The Insect World 
of J. Henri Fabre, edited by Edwin Way 
Teale; The Strange Story of Our Earth, A. 
Hyatt Verrill; A Key to the Heavens, Leo Mat- 
tersdorf ; How You Can Forecast the Weather, 
Eric Sloane; Animal Wonder World. Frank 
W. Lane: Crucibles: The Story of Chemistry, 
Bernard Jaffee; The Practical H <i\ to a Better 
Memory, Dr. Bruno Furst; How to Understand 
Music, Oscar Thompson (revised by D. E. 
Wheeler). 



THE NEW AMERICAN LIBRARY: Indians of the 
Americas, John Collier; Machines That Built 
America, Roger Biirlingame: Gods, Heroes 
and Men of Ancient Greece, W. H. D. ROHM': 
The Oxbow Incident, Walter V. T. Clark; 
Night Flight, Antoine de St. Exupery; Lives 
of Destiny as Told for the Reader's Digest, 
Donald Culross Peatlie: Christopher Colum- 
bus, Mariner. Samuel Eliot Mori-cm: The 
Green Hills of Earth. Robert A. Heinlein; 
Satellites, Rockets and Outer Space, Willy 
Ley; American Folk Tales and Songs. Richard 
Chase. 



POCKET BOOKS: Old Masters, edited by Her- 
man Wechslcr; Kon-Tiki, Thor Heyerdahl; 
Old Yeller, Fred Cip.-mi: The Red Badge of 
Courage, Stephen Crane; A Stillness at Ap- 
pumtittox. Bruce Catton; Pocket History of 
the (I. S., Henry Sleele Commaiier: Profiles in 
Courage, John Kennedy; The Doctors Mmo. 
Helen Clapesattle; The Silent V orld. Jacques- 
Yves Cousteau; My Farnritr Sport Stories, 
Bill Stern. 

RECREATION 




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agers Recreation Supervisors Lead- 
ers both paid and volunteer Mainte- 
nance Supervisors Purchasing Agents 
Libraries Local Guidance Coun- 
selors 

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to work 

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and your staff by making sure that 
everyone has HIS OWN COPY OF RECRE- 
ATION. Just use the handy coupon and 
we'll be glad to bill you or your depart- 
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September 1, 1960: $5.00 

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auditorium. Announcements; neophyte entertainers; 

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\ Two NEW ENGLAND TOWNS have at- 
tracted the attention of national maga- 
zines by means of their comprehensive 
recreation programs. A recent issue of 
The Ladies Home Journal carried an 
article about the Bristol, New Hamp- 
shire, recreation program, and the April 
issue of Pageant carries "What Every- 
body Does in Brookline (Massachu- 
setts)," by Al Silverman. At the same 
time, the April Playground Issue of 
RECREATION included a story about the 
creative program on Bristol's play- 
ground, "Pirates in the Playground," 
by Beatrice McAuliffe Stone. The town 
of Bristol will present a complimentary 
copy of the latter magazine to Governor 
Wesley Powell of New Hampshire in an 
especially planned, formal ceremony. 

> A NATIONAL COMMITTEE on the En- 
croachment of Park and Recreation 
Lands and Waters, composed of repre- 
sentatives from the American Institute 
of Park Executives. American Recrea- 
tion Society, National Conference on 
State Parks, and National Recreation 
Association, has been appointed to make 
a study of encroachment. Its purposes 
are to: (1) determine the nature and 
extent of encroachment: (2) determine 
what is being done and what can be done 
to meet this problem; (3) formulate 
guiding principle? for meeting the prob- 
lem: and (4) develop a program of 
public information-education to alert 
the nation. 

As a means of gathering information 
a questionnaire has been distributed by 
the four cooperating organizations. Any 
park or recreation agency that has not 
received a copy and that has experi- 
enced a successful or unsuccessful at- 
tempt to divert its areas to nonconform- 
ing uses is urged to write the National 
Recreation Association, 8 West Eighth 
Street, New York 11, for a copy. 

)> TWO THOUSAND FORESTRY EXPERTS 

from more than fifty nations will meet 
for two weeks in Seattle. Washington, 
starting August 29, for the Fifth World 
Forestry Congress. This international 
meeting of forestry authorities many 
of whom are world-famous is the first 
Congress for which the United States 
has been host and the first ever held in 
the Western hemisphere. The University 
of Washington has made its dormito- 
ries, auditoriums, press, radio. TV. and 
other campus facilities available. 



> A COURSE OF INSTRUCTION for OUt- 

board mariners is available as a "pack- 
age deal," telling how to set up a class 
to be taught by marine dealers, boating 
clubs, camp counselors and/ or other 
leaders, to give information on seaman- 
ship, fundamentals of motor installa- 
tion, and so on. Write Boating Services 
and Education Department, Outboard 
Boating Club, 307 North Michigan Ave- 
nue, Chicago, Illinois. 

t THE APRIL 1960 ISSUE of The In- 
structor carried an editorial on fitness 
written by Virginia Musselman, director 
of National Recreation Association Pro- 
gram Service. This magazine reaches 
some 600.000 elementary school teach- 
ers. This issue also contained very in- 
teresting and useful articles on physical 
fitness. Look it up; it will be assigned 
in your summer work. 

^ A PUBLICATION, Research in Recrea- 
tion Completed in 1959, has just been 
issued by the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation. It contains an annotated classi- 
fied list of 267 study reports issued by 
local, state, national organizations, and 
educational institutions. Most numer- 
ous are studies dealing with recreation 
for special groups, community surveys, 
land-and-water areas, activities and pro- 
grams, and leadership and personnel. 
This thirty-eight-page bulletin is avail- 
able from the Association at one dollar. 

K WlTH PERMISSION of the Conference 

on National Cooperation in Aquatics 
ihe National Recreation Association lias 
reprinted the booklet The Outdoor 
Swimming Pool A Study Report. The 
first edition of this booklet was exhaust- 
ed in 1959. but because of the continu- 
ing demand the second printing has 
been made. Highly commended by 
aquatic authorities, it deals with such 
pool problems as site, activities, slui|>es 
and si/es. construction features, facili- 
ties and equipment, operating factors 
and finance. A special section deals 
with camp pools. Copies are obtainable 
from NRA at one dollar each. 

^ HAVE YOU CALLED THE JANUARY ISSUE 

of RECREATION to the attention of your 
local church recreation groups? Many 
churches need help with recreation 
ideas, and RECREMION \\ill he carrying 
more of them in the coming month*. 



194 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



MAY 1960 





THE MAGAZINE OF THE RECREATION MOVEMENT 



Editor in Chief, JOSEPH PRENDERCAST 
Editor, DOROTHY DONALDSON 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 
JEAN WACHTEL ELVIRA DELANY 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Administration, GEORGE BUTLER 
Program, VIRGINIA MUSSELMAN 



Business Manager, FRANK J. ROWE 
Advertising Manager, ESTA GLUCK 



VOL. LIII. 



Price 50 Cents 



No. 5 



On the Cover 

CHERRY BLOSSOMS around the tidal basin in 
Washington, D. C., with Washington Monument in 
the background. 

Next Month 

The June magazine, our last until September, is your 
summer resources issue. Among its many features 
you will find articles on tennis, on canoeing and 
small boating, on family camping, and on square- 
and round-dancing festivals. You will want to learn 
how volunteers converted a weed patch into a park, 
and you'll want to see our page of summer equip- 
ment ideas. On the national level you will read 
about the relation of recreation to the new National 
Cultural Center, a spread on what to do and see in 
Washington, D. C., come Congress time, a discussion 
of the philosophy of the Democratic and Republican 
parties concerning recreation, and a report on the 
recreation use of national forests. Happy summer! 

Photo Credits 

Page 202, Sanborn Studio, Wilmington, Del.; 203, 
Flint, Mich., Journal; 205, Hal Phyfe; 215, Arizona 
Highways; 216, (center left) NYSPIX-Commerce; 
217, (top right) Newark, N. J., News, (right center) 
Official Tulip Time Photo, (bottom right) Hugh 
Morton; 218, M/Sgt. Harry S. Brown, World-Wide 
All Service Amateur Photography Contest, 1949; 
223, Donald C. Blais, 1948 National High School 
Photographic Awards; 226, The Optimist; 229, Fred 
Behringer, Ambler, Penn., Gazette; 235, (Krestan) 
Walter T. Cocker. 



RECREATION is published monthly except July and 
August by the National Recreation Association, a service 
organization supported by voluntary contributions, at 8 
West Eighth Street, New York 11, New York, is on 
file in public libraries and is indexed in the Readers' 
Guide. Subscriptions $4.00 a year. Canadian and for- 
eign subscription rate $4.50. Re-entered as second-class 
matter April 25, 1950, at the Post Office in New York, 
New York, under Act of March 3, 1879- Acceptance 
for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in 
Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized May 
1, 1924. Microfilms of current issues available Uni- 
versity Microfilms, 313 N. First Street, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 

Copyright, 1960, by the 
National Recreation Association, Incorporated 

Printed in the U.S.A. 

* Trade mark registered in U. S. Patent Office. 



CONTENTS 



GENERAL FEATURES 



The Aging American and the Future 

(Editorial) Daniel G. Grady 196 

William Murray Hay 200 

Our Washington Hosts 201 

Retreading, Not Retiring 202 

What's Different About Retirement? . . Dorothy C. Stratton 205 
Saying It With Flowers Elvira Delany 215 

ADMINISTRATION 

Public Responsibility for Recreation 207 

The Varied Faces of Recreation 208 

City Parks. . .Amenity or Necessity? George Hjelte 212 

State and Local Developments 226 

Don Koontz of Whitemarsh Township 228 

Research Reviews and Abstracts 230 

PROGRAM 

The Return of Softball Wayne Bly 206 

Have You Tried ... A Block-Party Service? 211 

Big Game Hunt EHioll M. Cohen 219 

Drama Is Ageless Jean Wachtel 220 

A Psychiatric Experiment Sally Pugh 222 

Fact-Rising Slow-Pitch League Irtcin Danzig 224 

REGULAR FEATURES 

Things You Should Know 194 

Letters 198 

Resources and References 225 

Obituaries 229 

Listening and Viewing 232 

Recreation for the 111 and Handicapped 233 

Reporter's Notebook 234 

Market News 236 

Classified Advertising 237 

Index of Advertisers 237 

Books and Pamphlets Received, Magazine Articles 238 

New Publications . 240 




IDUCATIONAL 
IRESS 

iSOCIATION 
OF 
AMERICA 



The or tide* herein printed are the expres- 
sion of the writers and not a statement of 
policy of the Notional Recreation Association. 



MAY 1960 



195 



THE 

AGING AMERICAN 

AND 



Editorial 



THE FUTURE 



Daniel G. Grady 







IS THE recreation profession ready 
and capable of meeting the leisure 
needs and demands of the older citizen? 
This is just one of the questions the 
White House Conference on Aging, con- 
vening in Washington, D. C., January 
1961, will attempt to answer. The mem- 
bers of that conference are currently 
gathering with their respective governors' committees on 
aging in over thirty-one states to prepare recommendations. 
Every area of human endeavor and its relation to the older 
person is being scrutinized and discussed in the hope that 
sensible, worthy plans for future services to older Americans 
will be formulated. Some of the professional recreation 
people involved in the state conferences will be at the White 
House Conference. 

Fewer complexities challenge the minds of men than plan- 
ning the aging American's future. Who is the aging Ameri- 
can? He is that person somewhere in the United States who 
has survived birth and is currently in possession of both 
body and soul. As each individual moves from birth to 
death, he experiences a continuing organic deterioration, to 
which our tense culture, with all its components, contributes. 
Despite evidence that nature is harder on us as we get older, 
is it not also true that our culture can be even harder on the 
older member of the community? 

Americans subscribe to a theory of obsolescence regard- 
ing older people which is most inhuman and unscientifically 
sound. Our culture has contrived a practice of declaring 
an employee of sixty or sixty-five to be occupationally ob- 
solete, and arbitrarily enforces a social control which pro- 
hibits that person from his work. This is a nearly universal 
practice, despite scientific evidence indicating that not all 
people over sixty or sixty-five are incapable of working. 
The most prevalent single misconception in this area is 
that on a person's sixty-fifth birthday, not the day before, 
or the year before, or the day after, or the year after, but 
on this one day, everyone in the United States is to be sub- 
jected to specific attitudes, restrictions, and connotations. 
I am convinced that our attitudes on aging should be 
re-evaluated, and future planning be predicated on a new 
set of appropriate humane and intelligent concepts. Some 

MR. GRADY is a consultant on services for the aging, Cath- 
olic Charities of the Archdiocese of New York. 



people feel attitudes cannot be altered. This is not true. 
Do you remember the attitude a few years ago toward bor- 
rowing money, credit, and pay-as-you-use? It was un- 
thinkable and considered by many downright immoral 
to be in debt, yet today we are a nation either individually 
or collectively in hock. 

America boasts of a culture based on Judeo-Christian 
precepts, yet the word "mother-in-law" has near vulgar 
connotations. In our questionable sophistication, we some- 
times look at the Eastern and Far Eastern peoples and find 
their cultures wanting. Yet the older person in China is 
regarded with great respect. The mother-in-law maintains 
an honored status in the family while the American mother- 
in-law is constantly subjected to abuse in cartoons, pseudo- 
humor, and plagued by so-called comedians. The fault lies 
not alone with the comedian or the cartoonist; the fault 
lies in the public which approves such diatribes and thus 
indicates acceptance of the basic idea. 

Noted anthropologist Dr. Ethel Alpenfels regards our 
prevailing attitude towards old age as symptomatic of our 
youth-oriented culture. Churchill had more effect on the 
future of the world at seventy than he did at thirteen. I 
have no quarrel with sincere efforts to provide for the real 
needs of children or of the aged. However, I do not be- 
lieve that the older person should be identified as one of a 
special group in need of special services, which is a mis- 
leading concept in itself. We should regard the older person 
as a member of the community, not as a member of a spe- 
cific group separated from other members of the community 
by an artificial barrier. Thus we begin to think and plan 
for the entire community, not artificially structured -<:: 
ments of the community. We must treat the older pnxm 
with dignity befitting any individual. 

I advocate no program for all aged people; however, op- 
portunities for dignified living and accessibility of nc< < .11 v 
services should be at the disposal of the older person w lien 
and if he needs them. Some older people need medical care 
just as some people of any age require medical care. Some 
older people have problems peculiar to (lie a^ing process, 
but, after all, who doesn't? Therefore, just as anyone else 
may need community and social services, older ]>eople also 
need these services. 

How should we. then, as members of one of the social- 
planning professions, plan for the future of our eldeiK:' 
First we must examine our altitudes touaid the a^cd hctoie 



196 



RECREATION 



we can begin to educate the public toward action, and cer- 
tainly we must increase our knowledge of their problems. 
Dr. N. P. Larsen of Honolulu says, in defining youth and 
age, "Youth means a temperamental predominance of cour- 
age over timidity, of appetite for adventure over the love of 
ease. This often exists in a man of fifty more than in a boy 
of twenty. Nobody grows old by merely reaching a number 
of years. . . . Years wrinkle the skin but to give up your 
enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, doubt, self-distrust, 
fear, and despair these are the long, long years that bow 
the heart and turn the green spirit back to dust." 

Constructive thinking and planning are not to be simply 
evolved nor speedily initiated. Dr. Michael Bluestone, for- 
mer director of Montefiore Hospital in New York City 
and a leading educator and pioneer in the study of geriatrics, 
offers the following as a basic premise in planning for the 
aging American, "Our goal for the elderly is to plan for 
them so well that they will be able to die peacefully, in 
sleep, at home, at a great old age, without leaving any re- 
grets behind. To reach this goal, the family and community 
must accept their proper responsibility; subsidy must be 
equal to the varying requirements of misfortune; mental 
senility must be faced squarely and dealt with humanely; 
overinstitutionalization and overrehabilitation must be 
avoided; and the maturity and experience must receive 
greater recognition and respect from youth." 

Recreation activities, services, programs, clubs, and facili- 



... A Sense of Contribution 

6trrviE RATE at which . . . older people are flocking 
to senior citizens' clubs and adult centers in- 
dicates their hunger for social contact, conversation, 
and some form of activity. . . . The real challenge of 
aging lies in the need to create new roles in which 
older persons can find opportunity for expression and 
from which they can derive self-respect, recognition, 
and a sense of contribution." JAMES W. DOARN, 
regional director, U. S. Department of Health, Edu- 
cation and Welfare, Kansas City, Missouri. 



ties also need a great deal of discussion. For some older 
people, reversal of a life pattern of leisure illiteracy may be 
difficult or out of their grasp. Leisure in later years is the 
concern of every recreator in every area of service and 
should not be handed over to a few geriatric specialists 
of which I am one. We cannot, and should not, do the job 
alone. At best, we can help you, the recreation specialists, 
encourage you, and learn with you as we seek the return of 
dignity for our older people. My purpose is to disturb you, 
prod your intellect and your ability because I have faith in 
your desire to serve people who profit from your efforts and 
your profession. :$: 




WILLIAM MURRAY HAY 



ON GOOD FRIDAY morning, the headquarters staff of the 
National Recreation Association was deeply shocked 
to learn of the sudden death of William Hay, NRA's South- 
ern district representative. He died unexpectedly April 14 
at his home in Decatur, Georgia, at the age of fifty-four 
from a heart ailment. He is survived by his sister, Lenora 
Hay, 2563 McCurdy Way, Decatur, Georgia. 

Bill Hay came to the NRA in 1947 as a special field repre- 
sentative to assist state agencies and officials concerned with 
recreation in the southeastern states. His previous experi- 
ence provided an excellent foundation for his NRA work. 
For ten years he had been director of the Division of State 
Parks, Department of Conservation, in Tennessee. In this 
capacity, he initiated the first state recreation consultant 
service to assist towns and counties. Before that he had 
served with the United States Forest Service and the United 
States Park Service. 

In 1950, he became the Association's district representa- 
tive for Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee. He was later 



assigned to the district which includes Tennessee, North and 
South Carolina. Kentucky, and West Virginia. One of Bill's 
concerns was long-range planning for recreation areas, facili- 
ties, and services. He had the opportunity in recent years to 
implement this interest through his participation in a num- 
ber of community, county, and metropolitan-area recreation 
surveys, conducted by the NRA, for such development. 

Born in Tennessee, Bill Hay studied landscape architecture 
at North Texas Agricultural College and journalism at Iowa 
State College. His love of the outdoors and of all growing 
things and his interest in writing he wrote many articles 
and reviews for RECREATION Magazine remained with him 
all his life. At the time of his death he was a life member, 
board of directors, National Conference on State Parks, and 
a charter and honorary member, Association of Southeastern 
State Park Directors. 

No one who has met Bill Hay will ever forget his humor 
and integrity, his gentleness and sweet disposition. 



197 



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Letters 



"A Challenging Issue" 

Sirs: 

Although I enjoy reading the issues 
of RECREATION as I receive them, I am 
particularly impressed with the March 
1960 camping issue. My reaction is 
extremely strong because the general 
tenor of the points made in the several 
articles reflects my own thinking as to 
fundamental confusion as to what a 
camp is and what a camp program 
should offer. . . . (they) emphasize con- 
centrating upon outdoors and simple 
camp skills, utilizing native materials 
and providing far greater freedom for 
individual choice and more activity for 
the small group than we generally do 
in "camping" programs. 

I was somewhat surprised that the 
four objectives of organized family 
camping, as set up by the American 
Camping Association, did not mention 
the outdoors or camping in any way. I 
say this because I think the vast differ- 
ences in degree in the kind of camping 
lumped together under the title of 
"Family Camping" might make an in- 
teresting area to be explored by REC- 
REATION in a future issue. 

FRANK W. HARRIS, Executive Secre- 
tary, Greater Neu- llm <-n Council of 
Social Agencies, 397 Temple Street, ' 
New Haven 10, Connecticut. 

Special Enjoyment 

Sirs: 

Congratulations on your March is- j 
sue. I think it is one of the finest that 
I have been privileged to receive. I 
have enjoyed this one particularly be- 
cause of my camping affiliation; how- 
ever, I and my staff have also enjo\e<l 
the other issues. 

BASILLA E. NEILAN, Director, Curnps 

Elbanobscot and Teenobscot. Sutl- 

bury, Massachusetts. 

Afoot or Ahorse 

Sirs: 

For some time. I have been wonder- | 
ing why the National Recreation Asso-l 
ciation seems to neglect the subject of 1 
horsemanship with such conspicuous, 
consistency. Surely this organization 
mu>t be aware of the nationwide inter- 
est in riding, as well as the increasedl 
national importance of this sport in the! 
of our now civilian Olympic Irani. 



... A shocking passage appeared in 
RECREATION iMarrh'i in "Day Camp 
Patterns". ... I refer parlirularly to 
the statement that " 'really advanced 
riders . . . are taught 'advanced' riding 

seat, posting, animal care, etc." For 
clarification, may 1 point out that seat 



198 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 



and posting are the most elementary 
skills taught to a beginner, and that ani- 
mal care is not riding. As an analogy, 
how would this sound: "The really ad- 
vanced swimmers are taught advanced 
swimming floating, breathing, pool 
cleaning, etc."? 

One remark on the safety record of 
this camp: The use of the word "corral" 
and the published photo are dead give- 
aways to the fact that Western saddles 
are used, and it's practically impossible 
to fall out of 'em. . . ! 

JILL BOSWELL, Box 308, Burlington, 

New Jersey. 

A Camp Is a Camp 

Sirs: 

After reading "Four F's of Camping" 
(March) I have gained new inspiration 
to strive for the goal which I have al- 
ways strongly believed in that a camp 
should truly be a "camp." 

The past five years I have been trying 
to finance a camp for boys. Being a 
man of dreams instead of means, I've 
tried to raise the much-needed financ- 
ing from men of logic and facts. Al- 
ways I have been met with the same 
questions: "How would this camp pos- 
sibly prepare boys for our atomic 
world of today? Isn't a camp of Indian 
and pioneer lore an escape from the 
realities of 'real-life' problems?" 

Now, at last, I have found the proper 
words to answer these questions. 
Thanks to (this) article I am going to 
make another try at making a dream 
come true, a dream of boys going to 
camp, living in the great outdoors, shar- 
ing an adventure together that will live 
with them through out their lives. 

HENRY M. STOCK, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Volunteer Service 

Sirs: 

I cannot tell you how pleased I am 
over the article on our hospital volun- 
teer program, "Vets with Volunteers," 
which appeared in the January 1960 is- 
sue. It is most gratifying to our VAVS 
Committee as well as our hospital staff, 
to have our volunteer service publicized 
in your nationally known magazine. 
M. R. BROWNLEE, Chief of Special 
Services, Veterans Administration 
Hospital, Salisbury, North Carolina. 

Fine Film Review 

Sirs: 

Many thanks for the very fine review 
you gave to For All The Children in 
your magazine (March 1960) . You will 
be pleased to know that this has resulted 
in many inquiries for the film, and we 
are most appreciative for this. Of 
course, the Fresh Air Fund joins me 
in thanks. 

LEO TRACHTENBERG, Harvest Films, 
90 Riverside Drive, New York 24. 



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Recreation leaders from Boston to 
Los Angeles use this means of solv- 
ing many playground problems. 

THE MORALE BUILDER 



Ten Minutes of Special Coaching Can Pro- 
duce a Kalah Enthusiast. 

SEND FOR LEAFLET No. 12. Shows how one in- 
spired player can develop volunteer helpers who 
will start a wave of sustained interest that may 
spread over a city. 



KALAH BOARD 



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Simple Kalah rules reprinted 
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Fun For Everyone! 

From 8 to 80 here is exciting recrea- 
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for players and spectators. 

Rugged, Dimco FreeGlide Shuffle- 
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door and indoor installation. 
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Write today for colorful folder, "Let's 
Play Shuffleboard," containing com- 
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equipment. 

DIMCO-GRAY COMPANY 

205 EAST SIXTH STREET 
DAYTON 2, OHIO 



MAY 1960 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



199 



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Dept. R-560, 724 West Eighth St., Anderson, Indiana 

Manufacturers of Play Equipment for Swimming Pools, 
Parks, Beaches, Playgrounds; also Basketball Equipment. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Write for 

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Less than three years ago a business was conceived 
and predicated on the premise of service and quality. 
Proof that "service and quality" need not be a mere 
business cliche is attested to by the success of our 
company during this short period. During the past 
34 months we have watched with pride, and some awe, 
the avalanche of orders that placed TFT Ball Meters 
dispensing TFT table tennis balls in 46 states, the 
District of Columbia and Canada. And now, a line of 
paddles and nets also bear the TFT stamp of quality. 



The TFT Ball Meter is leased free to responsible 
.tRi'iicies and is now in use by public recreation 
agencies, schools and universities, industrial recrea- 
tion centers, Y's, resorts, camps, dude ranches, boy's 
clubs, churches, hospitals, military installations, youth 
clubs and country clubs. 

Our concept of service and quality is now fact. 
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T. F. Twardzik, PRESIDENT 



T. F. TWARDZIK AND COMPANY 

SHENANDOAH, PENNSYLVANIA 



200 



When writing to our advertisers please mention RECREATION. 



RECREATION 





The men largely responsible 
\ for our comfort and enjoyment 
in the city of Washington, 
from September 25-29, 1960. 



Our Washington 
Hosts 



Milfl Christiansen Local Arrangements chairman and chief 
host Milo Christiansen is a familiar figure in the recrea- 
tion profession, known for his accomplishments in the field 
and, since 1942, as superintendent of the District of Colum- 
bia's excellent public recreation department. Prior to this 
he was state director of recreation in Kansas and regional 
recreation planner and assistant regional director with the 
National Park Service. 

A graduate of the University of Minnesota, with a BS in 
social sciences and education, and of Wisconsin Teachers 
College, at Superior, in physical education and social sci- 
ence, he is also an alumnus of the National Recreation 
School sponsored by the National Recreation Association 
in New York City. His skill in administration was further 
strengthened by a year of graduate work in educational 
administration at Rutgers University. 

Mr. Christiansen is also serving on the Congress Policy 
Committee and the Program Planning Committee. He is 
an active member of the NRA's Middle Atlantic District 
Advisory Committee (see Page 228) ; also of the American 
Recreation Society Legislative Committee, and the Com- 
mittee on Citations and Awards. He is vice-president of 
the National Federation of Professional Organizations for 
Recreation, secretary of the National Advisory Committee 
of the Athletic Institute, past-president of the American Rec- 
reation Society (1945-47), and recipient of the Society's 
Fellow Award for outstanding contributions to the field of 
recreation (1946). He received a citation from the Navy 
Department for Meritorious Personal Service during World 
War II, a Meritorious Service Award from the District of 
Columbia Commissioners (1959), and a Merit Citation 
from the National Civil Service League (1956). 




MAY 1960 



THE STEERING COMMITTEE 

LUWaru H. Thacker Mr. Thacker serves on the steering committee which was appointed to represent the Congress 
Policies Committee and the D.C. Recreation Society, and also to serve as a "brain trust" for Congress planning. Cur- 
rent president of the Washington chapter of the American Recreation Society, cooperating agency for the Congress, he 
joined the D.C. recreation department in 1952 as a recreation analyst. As such he is responsible for conducting stu- 
dies and research relating to all phases of recreation administration and program and for public recreation informa- 
tion services. His research experience made him a natural for the National Recreation Association's National Ad- 
visory Committee on Recreation Research, on which he served a term. He was formerly a representative for the 
American Recreation Society's Middle Atlantic area, is currently its treasurer and a member of its Research and 
Study and Public Relation Committees and serves on the Congress Policies Committee as well. Mr. Thacker served 
with the U.S. Navy during World War II on duties related to physical fitness, welfare, and recreation. 

Joseph H. Cole Assistant superintendent of the District of Columbia Recreation Department, Mr. Cole was born 
in Philadelphia, but was moved to Washington by his parents three months later. 

He attended Howard University and was graduated in 1935 with a BS in health, physical education, and recreation. 

After his graduation, he was first employed in 1935 by the D.C. Playground Department as a summer playground 
leader. He has held many positions with the department since then, including that of playground director, de- 
tached recreation leader, area supervisor, director of citywide adult programs, and administrative recreation assist- 
ant in the department, before being appointed to his present position. In the latter, he is chiefly responsible for day- 
to-day operation of the recreation program. 

Among many affiliations, Mr. Cole is a member of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, president-elect of the D.C. Chap- 
ter of the American Recreation Society, president of the local Royal Golf Club, and chairman of the Eastern Golf 
Association's Junior Golf Program. 

201 



RETREADING, NOT RETIRING 

Today's senior citizen has ividening opportunities 
for the pursuit of self -fulfillment. 



Lighting the Way 

APPROXIMATELY TWENTY-TWO THOUSAND older men and 
women in Genesee County surrounding Flint, Mich- 
igan, have a growing chance to make their sunset 
years a time of personal contentment and rewarding pro- 
ductivity. Flint's elder-citizen program recognizes the needs, 
the fears, and the hopes of the individual, rather than see- 
ing him as a "leftover" statistic whose remaining time must 
be filled with harmless pleasures. 

This philosophy, no longer unique in Flint or elsewhere, 
has gained added vigor under the leadership of Gertrude 
Cross, supervisor of Flint's McKinley Senior Citizen Drop- 
In Center. It is understood and augmented by the center's 
sponsors, the Flint Recreation and Park Board and the 
Greater Flint AFL-CIO Council. 

The McKinley Center opened on December 5, 1956. It 
was not an auspicious beginning, for only 290 persons regis- 
tered and, of that group only seven volunteered, upon invi- 
tation, to make and paint toys for handicapped children in 
the area. These senior citizens were given a special invita- 
tion to attend the annual Christmas party of handicapped 
youngsters; twelve additional members were persuaded to 
go along. 

This tactic paid off. The reluctant oldsters came, sa\\. 
and were conquered by the sight of youth chained through 
disability, but still challenging the world with laughter. 
Within the next month, eight of the nonparticipants became 
volunteer workers on the toy projects. 

This same technique is still practiced because it is based 
on very sound psychology. For many aged persons passiv- 
ity, self-pity, or bitterness have filled the void left by the 
removal of a familiar job or the task of raising a family. 
Mrs. Cross intuitively hit on the right method of showing 
them two basic truths that age is not the worst thing that 
can happen to a human being and that the ability to do 
something for someone else is not measured by years or 
rare talent. 

Donald Sinn, superintendent of the recreation and park 
department, says, "Our lives are measured in curves of com- 
munication which determine our fullness as an individual 
and as a member of society. As an infant, this communica- 
tion is limited to one or two people, but, as we grow, our 
world expands little by little to include school friends, neigh- 
borhood acquaintances, coworkers and others. At our peak, 
we have communication with a limitless number of other 
people, and, correspondingly, an interest in varied activilic-s. 
As we age, however, the graph begins to drop. We lose com- 
munication with school friends, relatives, acquaintances, 
and, on retirement, coworkers, until our world once more 
becomes a limited place. More frightening now, because 

202 



we are left with the knowledge of what we once had, and 
have no more. Our job is to re-establish as much of that lost 
communication as possible and to build new lines across 
the chasm of loneliness." 

At the end of the third year of operation, the Flint senior- 
citizen group has made over two thousand toys and has 
contributed over eighteen thousand man hours to helping 
others. The service projects have expanded to take in other 
institutions and hospitals and the senior citizens, inspired 
by the reception of their contributions, branched out into 
making special equipment and furniture for the specific 
needs of handicapped people. Once each year, special rec- 
ognition, in the form of a dinner and a service pin. is given 
to members who have contributed one hundred hour* or 
more toward the toy projects. 

The Sunshine Crew consists of forty-nine members two, 
eighty years 'young,' the rest averaging 74.5 years. This 
group presented its first "sunshine program" to the patients 
of a local county hospital where most of the patients were 
over sixty, many of them alone and friendless. The sun- 
shine trips were so well received that the \ isits were set up 
on a monthly basis, at the request of the patients. 

Independence is the watchword in this as in the other pro- 
jects. Members pay their own transportation charges, use 
their own cars for local trips or pay their own fare on char- 
tered buses for out-of-town jaunts. They have contributed 
approximately two thousand service hours on the Sunshine 
Crew project. Other organizations in Flint now call to re-; 
quest special programs by them. 

Flint's senior-citizen program is healthy and growing. 
It has to be. For while the membership now is almost one 
thousand, the achievement is clouded by the fact that in the 
background, there are thousands more In he reached and 
helped. The McKinley Drop-In Center is lighting the wa\. 
RUBY McDoNALD, associate editor. Flint WeekK I<Y\ lew. 

A Separate, Quieter World 

The Golden Age Camp in South Coventry, Connectic ut. 
is designed exclusively for golden-agers. Operated by the 
Southern New England Division of the Salvation Army the 
camp immediately adjoins a well-established camp fur chil- 
dren, sharing service from the children's kitchen and clinic. 
Il is. all the same, a separate and quieter world. The senior 
camp has paved walks well-lighted at night and a duster 
of garden chairs at the pier where lake water laps at three 
sides. The eight separate cottages provide pri\ai \ I'oi luo. 
three, or even four occupants, heat to chase the morning 
dam]), and good hcds. The golden -ager* aic alwavs welcome 
at the children's campfire programs, but mostly prefer to 
gather in their own pavilion or down on the pier where ihc\ 

RECREM ION 




Flint's senior citizens have devoted themselves to many 
service projects, including toys for handicapped children. 

can listen to the camp songs from a comfortable distance. 

Originally the cottages were built for summer rental and 
they include kitchens, bathrooms, and screened porches. 
The kitchens are not really needed now, but the campers 
seemed to like the home touch and the possibility of making 
an occasional cup of tea. The main house contains the camp 
dining room, "diet kitchen," and general housekeeping and 
management headquarters. 

The pavilion was designed for the camp and built with 
funds contributed by the Hartford Foundation for Public 
Giving. Its one great room, dominated by a fireplace, is 
the place for music and television, card games, craft work 
and special programs, and casual social gatherings, all day 
and into the evening. Its porch overlooking the lake is a 
favorite sitting spot, and a small kitchen by the entrance 
facilitates preparation of snacks or an occasional supper. 

While the usual stay last summer was five days, a few 
remained for a second week, sometimes with the help of a 
campership. For one woman the second week was a birth- 
day gift from her daughters. Several married couples came 
and several pairs of friends. Word of the new program has 
spread through Salvation Army offices, golden-age clubs, 
and a variety of agencies serving the aging. The Bridge- 
port Heart Association sent one patient and found her in- 
creased self-confidence an important gain. The fee of $12.50 
for the fifteen-day period was set with more relevance to 
the purse of the guests than camp outlay. 

Activities were as varied as the individuals in camp at 
any given period differing sharply from the scheduled ac- 
tivities in children's camps. One camper taught chess to 
several others. Fishing, swimming (slightly supervised), 
crafts and games all had their place; cards ranked high. 
But an informal check suggests the favorite activities were 
just talking and watching the changing light reflected in 
the water. 

"You see," one woman said, "my window at home just 
looks out on a blank wall." And another, "What I like best 
is the quiet just this little sound of water. Our boarding 
house is on such a noisy corner." ESTHER D. BARNETT, 
research assistant, Institute of Gerontology and Commission 



on Services for Elderly Persons, University of Connecticut. 
Reprinted with permission from Aging in Connecticut, Au- 
tumn, 1959. 

Indoor Pioneers 

Oldsters in Hutchinson, Kansas, look forward all year to 
the all-day, indoor, spring get-together called the "Pioneer 
Picnic," sponsored by the Hutchinson Recreation Commis- 
sion's Pioneer Club. Each year the "picnic" attracts a 
larger crowd. In 1959, over one thousand people attended. 
Golden-age clubs from other Kansas cities are invited to 
attend as well as any over-sixty local resident. 

Local service groups assist the recreation commission 
with the Pioneer Picnic. Registration is taken care of by 
the Gamma Pi Chapter of the Beta Sigma Phi Sorority; 
hats and coats are checked by the American Legion Auxil- 
iary; the Color Presentation is given by the American Wo- 
men's Relief Corps. Local stores and business firms often 
cooperate by supplying materials free of charge or by giv- 
ing discounts. 

The morning program starts off with a welcome from the 
recreation commission chairman, the Pioneer president, 
and the mayor. The picnic is held in Convention Hall from 
10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. For the most part, the Pioneers 
entertain themselves during the day. Members of the Hutch- 
inson Club present talent acts, including acts by the Pioneer 
Chorus. Men and women dress in old-time costumes, sing 
songs popular during their younger years. Literary read- 
ings are also popular. 

Age is celebrated and awarded. An award is given to 
the oldest teacher, oldest preacher, oldest person, the couple 
married the longest, and to the person traveling the farthest 
distance to attend. Last year the oldest person was ninety- 
six and the couple married the longest had been together 
sixty-two years. All couples who have been married fifty 
years or longer are honored at the "golden-wedding" table. 

Fun continues through the lunch hour. Each person at- 
tending the picnic brings a sack lunch. Coffee is furnished 
and served by the Hutchinson Club. Since the crowd has 
become so large, the club finds it is most practical to have 
the forty gallons of coffee catered by a local store. Tables 
are set up for the out-of-town members and all local people 
are asked to bring card tables. Those who have no table 
simply eat from their laps. 

After lunch is over, the fun continues. Contests are staged 
to determine the best hog caller, the best fiddler, the biggest 
liar, the best speller, and the best harmonica player. At 
3:00 P.M. physical activity by the oldsters begins. The most 
popular activity is social dancing spiced with an occasional 
"old-time" square dance. Mixers and get-acquainted dances 
are scattered throughout the two hours. Other activities 
include card playing, dominoes, chess, checkers, and just 
watching and visiting. 

Activities cease at Convention Hall at 5:00 P.M. only to 
adjourn to the recreation center. Out-of-town guests are in- 
vited to visit the center during the supper hour. Snack 
lunches are available at small cost, and visitors may play 
table games, watch a movie, or just rest. At 8:00 P.M. the 
dancing begins again. This time, there is an orchestra, usu- 



MAY 1960 



205 



ally donated by the musicians' union. Those who wish to 
compete with the noise may play table games. 

By the time the evening is half gone, the recreation leaders 
are exhausted but the golden-agers seems to be getting their 
second wind. Lunch time is observed at 9:00 P.M. with 
coffee and cookies furnished by individual members of the 
Hutchinson Club. The festivities continue for another two 
hours, and then the out-of-towners load their buses and 
cars and head for home; another picnic passes into happy 
memory. DOXIE A. and LESTER C. KELLER. Mr. Keller is 
superintendent of the Hutchinson, Kansas, Recreation Com- 
mission. 

Outdoor Fete 

In Wilmington, Delaware, the annual Old Timers Picnic 
is a carefully organized affair. George T. Sargisson, execu- 
tive director of Recreation Promotion and Service, Inc., 
explains: "The program is organized by means of a small 
committee of about twelve people. We have purposely kept 
it small and yet have it large enough so it includes a repre- 
sentative of all the various interest areas. We have tried 
also to assign each member of the committee a specific re- 
sponsibility. It has worked. 

"We have prepared a communication that goes out to all 
of the old timers with an application form inviting them to 
attend. We obtained our original list from churches, asked 
industries to submit a list of retired personnel, and asked 
different people if they would give us names of those men 
and women over sixty-five who they believe might be in- 
terested. We have one person who checks over the obituary 
columns and keeps our files up to date. 

"At our first picnic we had about 250 present and have 
had as high as 550. One year, after being rained out three 
times, we still had over 450. 

"We actually provide little leadership. We register eve- 
ryone and make up advance name cards with stubs on them 
for door prizes. These are given out as the members arrive. 

"We have found that there is very little interest in horse- 
shoes and other games. The old timers seem to want just 
to be entertained. We have provided everything from ma- 
gicians, acrobats, and brief talks by dignitaries to hillbilly 
singing, puppet shows, and so on. 

"We provide dessert and coffee or cool drinks. We have 
tried various methods in setting this up. We have found 
it more practical to take the food directly to the tables. . . . 
The Red Cross provides its regular canteen service unit, 




A ride in the surrey with the fringe on top - 

timers at their annual picnic in Wilmington, Delaware. 

204 



which makes coffee on the spot. Before we had the Red 
Cross, however, we borrowed five-gallon thermos jugs and 
obtained the cooperation of some restaurants to make coffee 
for us. Incidentally, each person is responsible for bring- 
ing his own food. In the first two years, we made sand- 
wiches for some who neglected to bring food but found it 
difficult to dispense fairly so we cut this out entirely. 

"We decided on the policy of not arranging to pick peo- 
ple up with the car for the reason that everyone would have 
made excuses to be picked up. We felt that getting there 
and returning home was the individual's responsibility." 

Planned Pot Luck 

Many people had a hand in making the Aurora, Illinois, 
invitational pot-luck program for older adults a successful 
venture. The park district cooperated with the playground 
and recreation department in setting up and reserving an 
area in a beautiful park. The department's own maintenance 
crew dropped all other duties for the day, to set up all the 
necessary equipment and to stand by for emergencies during 
the party. The Aurora Section of the National Council of 
Jewish Women acted as hostesses and conducted the bingo 
games. The American Red Cross sent a properly staffed 
standby unit for first-aid duty. Both local newspaper and 
radio gave the event very impressive publicity and coverage. 
Our older citizens are delighted to be in the "news." 

This type of gathering has proved itself one of the most 
successful programs planned for golden-age recreation ac- 
tivity. It more nearly approximates the pattern of normal 
living that was carried on by those in the older age brackets 
during the middle years of their life. Thirty to forty } cars 
ago big picnics, big parties, and big family reunions \\erc 
the rule rather than exception. 

Every two or three months Aurora's older citizens plan 
to have some senior-age club from out of town as guests. 
Then they sit back and hope to be invited to an afternoon j 
party out of town. The enchantment of dressing up, board- 
ing a chartered bus for the trip, eating in new places, seeing 
new people, and being entertained can be enjoyed in antici- 
pation, in actuality, and in retrospect. 

Along with its invitations to other clubs Aurora's Friend- 
ly Center Club sends detailed directions for the trip to the 
center. Too many times an uncaring bus driver lias 
ered a group of older adult passengers in a state of near 
hysteria because he had lost his way and made them late. 

Cake and coffee served at card tables in the big audi- 
torium and refreshment room is done with ease for a group 
of over two hundred because willing hands are utilized, 
open the tables and unfold chairs and set up proper seatii 
and serving areas. This is the hour when the golden-ag 
really get to know each other. 

These get-togethers have been so successful, along wit 
many invitational events to mark holidays or special cli; 
programs, that they have become a regular feature of 
yearly recreation schedule for older adults. The time 
work involved in the planning of this special type of adi\ i 
are really negligible \\hen measured against (lie pleasi; 
experienced by the senior citizen-*. - -Ji M KI:\M n. <///< 
tor, Friendly Center Club, Aurora, Illinois. 

I! i ( itr.\ric 



What's Different 
About Retirement? 




The author, for many years an administrator, points out 
what retirement means to her. The spirit with which Miss 
Stralton approaches this question is the spirit of recreation 
as we see it. Any leisure-time activity performed for enjoy- 
ment is recreation be it study, gardening, reading, or just 
settin and as such, it can, as Miss Stratton says, open up 
whole new worlds.- Ed. 



Dorothy C. Stratton 



THE COVER of a recent issue of a na- 

ftional magazine has a sketch of the 
retired a-settin' in the sun on benches, 
pitching horseshoes, playing Ping-pong. 
Their expressions are saturnine. Oddly 
enough, there are no women in this pic- 
ture. Need retirement really be as dull 
as this appears? If so, some of the sixteen million of us re- 
tirees, or about-to-be's, may not view the "golden years" as 
unalloyed bliss. 

I enjoy a-settin' in the sun, but not as a full-time occupa- 
tion. For men life would be unthinkable without work 
and without study, as well as without those activities com- 
monly thought of as recreation. I enjoy trying, and failing, 
to get out of a sand trap on the first try as well as the next 
duffer, but that improving a golf score should be the end- 
all of life is not in my philosophy. I like to work and I ex- 
pect to go on working. I also like to play, but I like play 
as a minor, not a major, theme of life. The obligation to 
earn one's space on the earth is not canceled on retirement. 
What's different, then, about retirement if one intends 
to continue to work? The major difference lies, I think, 
in the opportunity to have more control over the use of one's 
time. What's different is that the person makes the decisions 
as to what is most important to him rather than the job's 
making them. After years of planning how other people 
would spend their working hours, the time has come for me 
to see whether I can plan my own when I am no longer in 
the familiar working routine. 

When the earning of one's daily bread is not quite so 
urgent as in the earlier years of life, the opportunity is 
offered to concentrate on areas in which one has always 
been interested but which have had short shrift because 

Miss STRATTON, national executive director, Girl Scouts 
of the U. S. A., one-time head of the SPARS and former 
dean of women and professor of psychology at Purdue, 
is planning to retire next June 30. 

MAY 1960 



of other commitments. To achieve this retreading, one needs 
a period of complete change in which to dig in the earth, 
renew old friendships, knit up "the raveled sleave of care," 
catch up on all the personal matters one has kept deferring. 
Then one can bite into the future. 

In administration, as has often been remarked, one keeps 
learning less and less about more and more. After a while 
one becomes appalled by how little one knows especially 
after listening to the College Bowl (an intellectual quiz 
competition among college students on television). So I 
yearn for a chance to study again, to tackle a subject in 
depth, to have a feeling of mastery in some one area of 
knowledge, however small. 

My major interest has always been in education and in 
young people. I do not stand in the role of critic of either, 
but as one who is deeply devoted to giving full opportunity 
to youth to develop their abilities to the maximum. This 
interest will not change by virtue of retirement from a speci- 
fic job. What are the values going to be on which individual 
young persons build their lives? This is a momentous ques- 
tion for the country as well as for its individual citizens. 
I care deeply about this. 

I believe that each one of us must make a personal effort 
to promote international understanding. This may be done 
on a person-to-person basis, by correspondence, by intelli- 
gent travel, by study of some one area of the world, or by 
some combination of these approaches. This I regard as a 
personal obligation, to be carried out regardless of whether 
one is employed. 

I am disturbed, but fascinated, by the questions involved 
in our foreign policy. How can we put into words our ideals 
of government so that we are understood by long-established 
as well as by new nations? Is anyone wise enough to know 
the answers? The series of studies now being made for 
the Foreign Relations Committee of the U. S. Senate pro- 
vides the person who has time to study them with plenty of 
material for thought. I hope to study them simply in the 
context of a citizen trying to inform herself about issues 
that matter to her country. 

Perhaps highest on my list of things-I-want-to-do-when 
is reading. My book shelves bulge with books that have 
waited a long time. I have made a promise to them and to 
myself. 

I want some time just to enjoy the wonders of the world 
around me. Seeing the world through the eyes of the young 
is one thing; seeing it as you realize that the time for en- 
joying it no longer stretches as a long vista into the future 
is something else. Perhaps one sees more, or perhaps one 
only feels more, about the things that are seen. 

One field I have been exploring the last few years as a 
complete novice is the opera. The opportunity of getting 
a ticket to the Metropolitan once in a while, or of listening 
to the Texaco radio broadcasts, has opened up for me a 
whole new world of pleasure and of learning. Since opera 
is purely a recreation for me, it presents me with delightful 
new experiences. In addition to the enjoyment of the music 
itself, opera sends me off into all sorts of new paths the 
lives of the composers, the sources of the themes, the politi- 
cal setting in which a number of the operas were written, 

205 



the singers, the directors, the costumes and costumers, and 
the languages. For full enjoyment of opera, one should 
surely have enough Italian, German, and French to under- 
stand who is stabbing whom and why. Here, alone, is a 
whole lifetime of pleasure and of learning. 

I want to do better about expressing appreciation to the 
people who are making the tough decisions, charting the 
way to the future, standing up and being counted on the 
crucial issues. Almost every day I read in the paper that 
someone I know has received an award or been put on the 
spot for a stand he has taken or has made some special 
contribution in his profession, and I vow to write a note be- 
fore the day is out. But often I don't. This is another 
promise to myself. 

For a successful retirement I must conquer fear fear 



of the loss of income, fear of the loss of opportunity to 
take an active part in the life around me, fear of loss of 
my faculties, and, finally, fear of death. These fears are 
seldom admitted in articles about retirement, but they are 
as real as the familiar quoits and fishing pole. Since much 
of everyone's life consists in overcoming fears of one kind 
or another and since by the age of sixty-one one has had 
much experience in this aspect of life, there is reason to 
believe that this store of experience will serve one well in 
overcoming the natural fears involved in setting forth on 
a different phase of life. 

What's different about retirement? Why, simply that 
the manner in which time is used is fully now one's own re- 
sponsibility. Surely this is a blessing, not a burden. The 
only trouble with time is that there's too little of it. # 



THE RETURN OF SOFTBALL 



rriHE RETURN and growth of interest in Softball as a rec- 
A reation activity in Lawrence, Kansas, a city of twenty- 
four thousand, may have been duplicated in many com- 
munities during the past three years, but the resurgence of 
the sport has amazed us all. Following World War II, many 
returning veterans were eager to play, and Softball pros- 
pered. Then its popularity began to wane locally until, in 
1955, only six teams played in the adult city league and 
twelve on the playgrounds. 

Young boys were reluctant to play, having been told by 
adults that softball would ruin them for baseball. We at- 
tacked this problem by first having our baseball leaders 
encourage all boys to play softball on playground teams. 
They enjoyed themselves playing the game and were sur- 
prised to find it actually enhanced their baseball ability. 

An adult church league of six teams was organized in 
1957, after a number of unsuccessful attempts. Boys over 
fourteen were allowed to play so some churches would have 
enough participants to field a team. The league was or- 
ganized on an informal basis with as few rules as possible. 
Players on the teams had to be a member of, or regularly 
attend, the church they played for. Enforcement was left 
to team leaders. In 1958, fourteen adult teams entered two 
leagues, and six junior teams, composed of members four- 
teen years and under, were organized. The growth con- 
tinued into 1959, with twelve teams entered in the regula- 
tion adult softball and eight teams in the newly organized 
slow-pitch league and eight teams in the junior league. This 
constituted a growth of from six to twenty-eight teams in 
three years. 

As a result of this interest in low-pressure softball, the 
adult city and industrial leagues have grown from six to 
ten teams, with more expected in 1960. The caliber of soft- 
ball in this league is good, with the 1959 winner going to 
the semifinals in the state ASA meeting. In addition, twenty- 
two playground teams, including six girls' teams, played 
an informal schedule during the summer. Over one thousand 

206 



boys participated in our summer baseball program, and 
many also played on church or playground softball team. 

The attendance in all leagues has increased along with 
the interest. Although we are attempting to encourage par- 
ticipation and not promote a spectator sport, it is gratify- 
ing to see so many enjoying the game. We hope this will 
continue, and that it can be kept on a recreation lia>l~. 
avoiding the entanglements and arguments that often de- 
velop in high-pressure sports. 

This is not written with the thought that we have done 
anything unusual, since many communities our size doubt- 
less have such programs, but as an indication that our j;ro\\ - 
ing population is becoming interested in softball partici- 
pation, and that this game can be a factor in the overall 
picture of fitness and enjoyment of life. WAYNE BLY, 5u- 
perintendenl oj Recreation, Latvrence, Kansas. 




Copyright 1948, The New Yorker Magaiin* Inc. 

"Certdinl\ they cost a lot of monr\ . 

but it's time we started getting xonif inn mil of life.'" 

Hi . ui \ri.iN 



PUBLIC 

RESPONSIBILITY 
for RECREATION 



A discussion of policy and goals. 



THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION of Social Workers Dele- 
gate Assembly officially adopted, in May 1958, a re- 
port on Goals of Public Social Policy, prepared by 
its Commission on Social Policy and Action and now avail- 
able.* The commission emphasized that health, education, 
and social welfare problems can be dealt with most effec- 
tively internationally, nationally, and in local communities 
through the establishment and maintenance of a flexible 
network of public and voluntary programs designed to meet 
our changing needs. The main body of the report dealt 
with policy statements relating to various aspects of public 
welfare. One of these, relating to recreation and leisure-time 
services, is reproduced, in condensed form, with permission. 

Public Recreation and Leisure-Time Services 

The Problem. The human personality requires for its full 
development the opportunity for self-expression and devel- 
opment of broad and absorbing interests; varied recreation 
experiences; relaxation from tensions of work and respon- 
sibility; constructive social relationships with people; broad 
perspectives and satisfactions derived from cultural com- 
munication; and participation in responsibility for com- 
munity life. 

Technical advances have effected changes in living pat- 
terns, resulting in more comfort for more people but less 
satisfactions from the ordinary chores of living and work- 
ing. Tensions mount for individuals, families, and com- 
munities when basic social needs are not met or cannot be 
met easily and naturally. Government at state and national 
levels has a vital role in fostering conditions, facilities, and 
programs that strengthen the capacities of individuals and 
families for meeting their own recreation needs. 

As public policy and support move to develop resources, 
facilities, and coordination of the unique purposes and func- 
tions of recreation, urgent attention must be directed to 
recruitment and education of competent manpower, and to 
research in methods, organizations, programs, and new ap- 
proaches to training. 

The Objective. People in a democratic society should make 
.use of the instrumentality of government, wherever appro- 
priate, to develop and conserve those resources of nature 
and man that make recreation a rewarding aspect of human 



'Available from the National Association of Social Workers, 95 
Madison Avenue, New York 16. $1.00. 



development and offer opportunities for putting to good 
use the new leisure made possible by increasing productiv- 
ity. The following recommendations are made: 

Community Programs 

Government provisions of recreation services in local 
communities should include: 

Citizen participation on commissions and boards. 

Support of recreation services by appropriate govern- 
ment bodies adequate to establish and operate programs, 
maintain facilities, and finance a capital outlay program 
of land acquisition and facility development. 

Employment of competent, well-paid, professionally 
prepared leadership assisted by capable, trained volunteers. 

A variety of recreation opportunities provided ade- 
quately and attractively throughout the year to meet the 
needs of all people (including the physically and mentally 
handicapped ) , regardless of age, sex, race, creed, or eco- 
nomic status. 

A wide variety of recreation areas and facilities, in- 
cluding parks, playgrounds, playfields, swimming pools, 
beaches, camp grounds and other facilities for camping, 
indoor recreation centers, libraries, art galleries, and stu- 
dios, museums, and community theaters. 

A general long-range plan for land and facility ac- 
quisition to meet the needs of an increasing population. 

Establishment and maintenance of adequate recreation 
services for their therapeutic and corrective value as well 
as for the leisure needs of individuals in schools, hospitals, 
and institutions. 

State and Federal Responsibilities 

Measures in the governmental provision of recreation 
services at the state and federal level should include: 

Provision by agencies of state and federal governments 
of technical information and consultant services to local 
communities. 

Grants-in-aid to state and local jurisdictions of gov- 
ernment. 

Annual review by state and federal agencies concerned 
with recreation, of the development, conservation, and uti- 
lization of recreation resources with subsequent recommen- 
dations concerning areas, facilities, and programs that exist 
or may be needed. 

Expanded and adequately financed systems of regional, 
state, and federal parks and forests, including access to 
coastal waters and inland waterways for purposes of rec- 
reation and conservation of wildlife and natural resources 
and the preservation of sites of historical interest. 

Establishment and maintenance of adequate recreation 
services for their therapeutic and corrective value as well 
as for the leisure needs of individuals in state and federal 
schools, hospitals, and institutions. 

Government Support of the Arts 

The contribution of the arts broadly defined in afford- 
ing opportunities for self-expression and development and 
in enriching enjoyment of leisure should be recognized 
through the sponsorship and support by government of the 
arts at all levels. 



MAY 1960 



207 




THE VARIED 
FACES 
OF RECREATION 



New Marriott Motor Hotel near the heart of Philadelphia, 
combines travel and resort facilities, including patio and pool. 



. IN MOTELS 



THE FOUR buildings of a new Philadelphia motel will 
enclose a patio with two swimming pools. This unit 
will occupy forty thousand square feet, with half of all rooms 
overlooking this area. A section of the handsomely land- 
scaped patio will be reserved for outdoor dining, and spe- 
cially planned young people's recreation facilities will be 
located in a "teen-age room." This is to be finished this 
spring and will be similar to the world's largest motel in 
Washington, D. C., across the river from old Georgetown. 

In California, motel and trailer parks, surrounded by 
boat-launching facilities, picnic, swimming, camping, and 
playground facilities, and a riding stable, are part of plans 
for developing a public recreation area on the Colorado 
River in Riverside County. 

These steps toward meeting recreation needs illustrate 
a trend, which, gathering momentum during the last few 
years, points toward the general installation of recreation 
facilities in today's motels. They are finding recreation an 
important attraction. In many parts of the country, motels 
are expected to have at least a swimming pool as a matter 
of course. According to the 1958-59 Motel Census, those now 
equipped with pools number 9,906, and those planning to 
add pools during the next two years total 8,110. 

Most people stopping at motels, as transient guests, are 
probably not interested in having any organized program 
of recreation, but certain facilities can be very welcome. 
The National Golf Foundation reports, for instance, plans 
under way for combination motel-golf operations in twelve 
key southeastern cities. 

The playground prescription for the average motel would 
not need to include a large play area, such as one find:- in 
a city recreation system, but might have a limited apparatus 
area for children up to ten or twelve years of age, with a 
swing or two, a slide, possibly a climbing apparatus and a 
horizontal bar. Adjoining this, but separated by a low 
fence or a hedge, a small area might be set aside for pre- 
school children. This should include benches for the moth- 
ers, a sandbox and some small-scale equipment, sui-li as 

208 




This play area at New York City's Bay- 
view housing project is typical <>/ the 
small playgrounds set up and main- 
tained by the municipal Housing Au- 
thority, These are not mpervitti, 
hence tin- authority favors concrete 
and sturdy construction materials. 



swings, slides, and a climber. In addition, a good level 
lawn area could include simple outdoor facilities for older 
young people and adults, with equipment for croquet, hoi -<- 
shoes, badminton, and volleyball. 

Multiple-use play courts for children are also appropri- 
ate for motel layouts. These are usually constructed in the 
form of a single moderate-size slab of concrete or asphaltic 
material, and have lines for a number of different panics 
painted on the surface. Such games can include badminton, 
giant checkers, deck tennis, handball, paddlr tennis, hop- 
scotch, marbles, shuffleboard, and volleyball. 

In placing the playground in a motel layout, pnvaut ion- 
should be taken to insure the children's safety. Parent- .in- 
more willing to have their children use tin- motel |>la\ pound 
if it is fenced. Location of the area in resjurt to the moid 
buildings, the main highway, and other roadways is an im- 
portant factor in determining the advisabilit\ of fencing it. 

HKI isr v i II>N 



Play areas accommodating all ages 

are now accepted in housing units of all types. 



Bear sculpture was meant 
as a decorative piece in 
New York housing proj- 
ect, became children's 
favorite climbing device. 




... IN MOBILE-HOME PARKS 

Up-to-date U. S. mobile-home parks have also rolled out 
the red carpet for recreation, by offering special games and 
hobby classes, dinners and tours for the older people living 
in them. Yet the idea is still far from a common denomi- 
nator in mobile living. While one can find examples in 
most of the fifty states, the best nourish in the retirement 
centers of Florida and California. 

Facilities usually include a large recreation hall, card 
room, a swimming pool, and shuffleboard courts. One mo- 
bile park, for example, offers a nine-hole golf course, billiard 
room, table-tennis courts, and with two pot-luck dinners and 
one stage show a month thrown in. Another, in California, 
offers classes in leathercraft, rock collecting, writing, and 
woodworking. Parks geared for other than senior citizens 
usually include only the standard playground facilities for 
children slides, swings, pools. Condensed from statement 
of Robert Lee Behme, editorial director of Trailer Life Pub- 
lishing Company, California. 

. . . IN SHOPPING CENTERS 

Just published in observation of Youth Fitness Week 
May 1 through 7 is a brochure for supermarket operators, 
put out by the Topics Publishing Company and signed by 
its executive vice-president, Richard F. Tomlinson. In 
A Plan for Supermarket Community Recreational Centers 
for Youth Fitness he says, "It is my firm conviction that the 
supermarket industry can again contribute enormously to 
the national welfare through donating use of its parking 
lots during off-hours as community recreation centers." 
This is in cooperation with the endorsement by the Presi- 
dent's Council on Youth Fitness of a plan that will attempt 
to curb juvenile delinquency by converting supermarket 
parking lots into play areas during nonuse hours. It is esti- 
mated that nearly four million children could be provided 
with recreation space if America's thirty thousand super- 
markets devoted their parking facilities to this program. 

MAY 1960 



. . . IN HOUSING PROJECTS 

An increasing number of recreation departments are 
working in one way or another, and in varying degrees, with 
local housing authorities to provide recreation and play- 
ground services and programs and are helping, increasingly, 
with the planning of recreation facilities in housing projects. 
Ideally, the working relationship between the housing au- 
thorities and the municipal recreation department should 
include cooperation at the planning stage, before the project 
is built for the best possible results in recreation services 
to be offered. This cannot be emphasized too strongly. This 
working arrangement has not been frequent, and recreation 
departments are usually approached by housing authorities 
after the needs make themselves evident through sad experi- 
ence. Both approaches are illustrated below: 

Experiment in Connecticut. The present housing- 
project recreation program was initiated just a year 
ago, when the Greenwich Public Housing Authority asked 
the local recreation board to provide recreation activities in 
Armstrong Court, one of three projects in town. Since this 
was a new undertaking for both the members of the recrea- 
tion board and the housing authority, some research was 
needed and Charles Reed of the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation was asked for aid. He was most helpful, and through 
information supplied by the NRA library, we drafted a 
recommendation for our recreation board. We discovered 
that precedent existed in hundreds of towns and cities of 
every size. Many questions remained however: 

Connecticut is a governmental function state as regards 
liability for recreation. Yet the act setting up the PHA 
specifies that it is open to liability suit. How could this be 
resolved? 

We had a playground near the area. Would this be a 
duplication of facilities? And what facilities could actually 
be used at Armstrong Court? There had been no preplan- 
ning for recreation areas. 

There were also the many personal problems arising from 
having so many people living in such a restricted space. 
(There are 144 families, with 220 school-age and 122 pre- 
209 



school youngsters.) A meeting with PHA officials resolved 
some of the major problems, however, and we decided to 
make a start, "playing by ear." 

The first step in actual organization was formation of the 
Armstrong Court Recreation Council because we have al- 
ways had a large measure of success operating through 
neighborhood councils. The PHA gave us the names and 
apartment numbers of twelve tenants who might be inter- 
ested. Letters of explanation and invitation to each family 
insured a good attendance, and interest has continued ever 
since. The minutes of every meeting are mimeographed and 
distributed to each family. 

Although Armstrong Court is a moderate-income devel- 
opment, these people had tended to herd together and shut 
themselves off from the rest of town. One of our major prob- 
lems has been to prevent this and to encourage people to 
mix into other townwide activities. 

During the summer months, while the council was still 
organizing on a formal level, the recreation board sent an 
arts-and-crafts supervisor and baseball instructor over to 
the area once a week. In both cases, enrollment and young- 
sters' interest was higher than on any other playground 
in town; however, there was no significant drop in attend- 
ance in these activities at the nearest or neighboring play- 
grounds. This seemed to bear out the theory that these 
youngsters were not attending existing playgrounds. 

The PHA has turned two large adjoining basement rooms 
and a small ball diamond play area over to the recreation 
board. The town has leased these areas for one dollar a 
year, which has solved our legal problems. Major mainte- 
nance for the rooms is provided by the PHA; custodial 
services are assumed by the recreation board, with m.m 
power supplied by the Armstrong Court Recreation Council. 
The Greenwich parks department maintains the ball <lu 
mond play area. 

The rooms allocated for recreation had previously been 
used for storage. The Armstrong Court Recreation Council 
conducted a block dance to raise the money to buy the 
sorely needed paint for the new recreation space. Many of 
the male tenants pitched in over two weekends to do the 
necessary cleaning and painting. I cannot overemphasize 
the genuine interest and work-together attitude that pre- 
vails among the tenants because of this project and tin- an- 
ticipation of others to come. 

The recreation board is operating an indoor playground 
program for youngsters after school, and teen-age programs 
in physical fitness and arts and crafts as well as a study 
room in the evening. Mosaic tiling, jewelry making, and 
music appreciation are currently offered adults. Also, we 
have invited other agencies to participate. 

Now that Greenwich's pilot study in housing is in suc- 
cessful operation, the plan is to be extended to the other two 
PHA projects. Currently, local and federal money has been 
approved and a site picked for a housing project for the 
elderly. The recreation board is in on the preplanning this 
time, with agreement on all sides, to make this the center of 
older people's activity in Greenwich. Recreation in public 
housing can be an exciting field all of its own, and should 
one day stand alongside industrial recreation, hospital rec- 



reation, armed forces recreation, and others, as a major di- 
vision of the recreation field. PETER A. BEIMEL, assistant 
superintendent of recreation, Greenwich, Connecticut. 



Preplanning in New York. Recreation in New York 
City's municipal housing projects comes under the juris- 
diction of three separate agencies and is an integrated part 
of the planning from the first blueprint. Since the thirties, 
the New York City Housing Authority has evolved a definite 
formula for the recreation areas in its projects and has pio- 
neered some of the playground equipment now widely ac- 
cepted across the country. 

As a rule, each of the city's housing developments has 
a major play area, known as the "project playground," and 
several scattered smaller play areas. The large project play- 
ground is developed from detailed plans drawn by tin- 
housing authority after thorough consultation with the city 
parks department. After construction, this area is turned 
over to the parks department for operation, maintenance 
and, above all. paid supervision. In some instances ill)', |, 
the housing authority donates the land, and the park de- 
partment constructs its own playground. In a very few 
projects (5*/f ) there is no project playground because of 
pre-existing facilities or because a large park with adequate 
facilities adjoins the project. 

The smaller play areas are built and maintained l>\ tin- 
housing authority itself. These are unsupervised except for 
mothers keeping watch over their small fry. Indoor pro- 
grams in project community centers and children's (enters 
are the responsibility of Community Ser\ ice-, which is also 
allotted a small outdoor area to utilize when it wishes to 
move some of its equipment outside for activities and game-. 

The question of supervision has more or less dictated 
what equipment will be used and what activities will be con- 
ducted on the various areas in the city housing projeet-. 
The playgrounds under parks department supervision have 
equipment with movable parts, wading pools. sandpits, 
handball and basketball courts, sometimes even football, 
softball. and baseball fields or hocce courts. The-e area- 
are fenced and padlocked at night; play equipment can be 
stored ; comfort stations are available. 

For the smaller play areas the housing authority allot- 
froin forty to fifty square feet per dwelling unit. I'roject- 
in highly congested areas may neeessitate fifty feet per dwell- 
ing unit. In projects adjacent to beach or open land, the 
space allotted is less. Since these areas are unsii|x-r\ ised. 
insurance is high and lawsuits costly, so. over the years, tin- 
housing authority has leaned more and more to concrete 
and construction materials for play equipment, has given 
up slides, never uses swings, seesaws, and sandpits. 

Half of the housing authority's play areas are given nvei 
to the six-to-twelve-year-old group, one-fourth l<> tots, one- 
fourth to teen-agers. In the tot lots O|H-II space is re-liii led 
and divided to discourage intrusion 1>\ tin- older age groii|>-. 
Here the authority places, among other equipment, -ewei- 
pipe tunnels, log piles I boiled down I . concrete step-, a -|>i.i\ 
shower (limited n-e I . concrete tables, -tepjied disc-, and 
cast concrete animals, such a- turtle- ami starfish. This 



210 



RECRKATIHN 



use of construction material stems from the early days of 
the housing authority when children happily appropriated 
building materials as play equipment. If the children wanted 
to crawl through sewer pipes, why not give them sewer pipes 
to crawl through? 

In areas for the six-to-twelves, open space is more ex- 
tensive than in the tot lots but smaller than that given the 
teen-agers. Here are areas for chalk or pavement games 
hopscotch (potsy), nations (circle), tic-tac-toe, and skelly 
(checkers). There is roller-skating space and such equip- 
ment as a wood dodger labyrinth or corral, tunnel tables, 
and arch climbers. The teen-agers get basketball courts, 
limited bicycle areas, parallel bars, horizontal ladders, a 
handball wall, among other facilities. 

Pressure of work prevents the housing authority's land- 
scape architects and Wolcott Andrews, chief of landscape 
design, from giving the play areas all the attention they feel 



these deserve, but the landscape division is constantly ex- 
amining new ideas in hopes of coming up with new safe, 
inexpensive, and easy-to-maintain equipment. A recent 
brainstorm, still in -gleam4o-the-eye stage, is to upend and 
use the supports of concrete park benches as play "horses" 
and other animals. (Mr. Andrews is one of the playground 
designers given prominent attention in the recently pub- 
lished Creative Playgrounds and Recreation Areas, a study 
of playgrounds throughout the world, given a double-spread 
picture review in RECREATION last month.) 

The housing authority conducted an informal study sev- 
eral years ago, keeping a record of the success of its various 
play equipment from the point of view of safety, child ap- 
peal, educational values, parental reaction, maintenance and 
management. In New York City's housing projects recrea- 
tion is given careful consideration and detailed preplanning. 
It is an integral part of the essential service provided. $ 



Have You Tried . . . 

A BLOCK-PARTY 
SERVICE? 



CITIZENS in Modesto, California, 
know how to get their block parties 
and Fourth of July celebrations off to 
a bang-up start. They simply call up 
the city parks and recreation depart- 
ment and ask for a do-it-yourself block- 
party kit complete with a recreation 
specialist. Recreation superintendent 
Kenneth Walts started the service on an 
experimental basis as his department's 
June-Is-Recreation-Month promotion. 

"Our department chose at random 
one block to be used on an experimental 
basis. Copies of our information sheets 
were passed out to home owners. 

"On the following day a staff member 
of our department was asked to attend 
a 'coffee break' meeting at one of the 
homes to further explain the workings 
of a block party. The meeting was a 
success and arrangements for Modesto's 
first block party were under way. 

"The blocking and barricading of the 
street had to be cleared with the fol- 
lowing city departments: fire, police, 
parking and traffic, public works, and, 
finally, with the city council. This, in 





Street was barricaded for block party 
by special permission. Here, barefoot 
resident takes a whack at batting-T. 

itself, generated interest and curiosity. 
"Games were planned which would 
cause little or no damage to property 
and participants. The following is a 
list used for our first party: 

Plastic baseball, bat, and batting tee 
(batter allowed one swing no long 

waiting for that one good pitch as if a 
pitcher were involved) 

Plastic bowling sets 

Croquet 

Table tennis 



Planning committee holds a coffee-klatsch meeting. 



Basketball 

Volleyball 

Plastic football 

Table games (chess, checkers, etc. ) 

Shuffleboard 

"The department then stepped out of 
the picture, except for an occasional 
check on progress, and let members of 
the block handle the remaining prepara- 
tions. That one party, through word 
of mouth and publicity gained through 
our local newspaper for National Rec- 
creation Month, was the beginning of 
similar parties throughout our com- 
munity. 

"On July 4, the residents at a new 
subdivision banded together and, with 
ninety-six percent participation, blocked 
off their entire area. They played 
games in the afternoon, ate outdoors 
in the evening, had fireworks and enter- 
tainment supplied by residents of the 
area, and. to top it off. after putting 
their children to bed under the super- 
vision of one baby sitter for every two 
to three houses, danced in the street 
until midnight." # 



MAY 1960 



21 1 




Los Angeles acquired this nine-acre site under its $39,500,000 bond-issue program. 

CITY PARKS . . . 

Amenity or Necessity? 



George Hjelte 



Fern Dell is one of many lovely spots 

in Griffith Park, Los Angeles. 

Most of the park was donated 

to the city by the late 

Colonel Griffith J. Griffith. 




212 



RECRKATION 




Mr. Hjelte 



CITY PLANNERS generally agree that 
local parks and other public rec- 
reation facilities in large cities should 
be distributed more or less uniformly 
throughout the metropolis. Wherever 
there are children residing in sufficient 
number there must be a school; where- 
ever there are people there should be a 
park with more or less standard facili- 
ties. All the people should have approximately equal op- 
portunity to enjoy the advantages afforded by a system of 
in-town parks. 

As yet, no large industrial city in America has been able 
to achieve a satisfactory degree of distribution. Probably 
none ever will. Park and recreation systems as now consti- 
tuted are largely the outgrowth of expediency rather than 
orderly planning. Most park acquisitions are of substandard 
or marginal unimproved lands. There has been no lack of 
planning but means of implementing the plans have been 
insufficient. 

Most cities prepare master plans to indicate where, in 
general, new lands should be acquired to provide a balanced 
distribution of parks. Complete accomplishment has never 
been possible; partial realization is sometimes achieved. 
Thus far, no city has boldly determined its comprehensive 
needs and proceeded forthrightly, at public cost, or other- 
wise, to satisfy them in full and keep its supply abreast of 
growing needs. 

This is in contrast with common procedure among large 
cities in providing schools and other necessary facilities. 
Because schools are imperative in a democratic society, it 
logically follows that there must be a dependable means of 

MR. HJELTE is general manager of the department of rec- 
reation and parks in Los Angeles, California. He recently 
completed thirty years service with the department. 



providing them. There must be an agency, say, the board of 
education, vested with power to acquire property, by emi- 
nent domain if necessary, to build schools wherever needed ; 
and also to assess taxes for these purposes. Few question 
the necessity for this. 

It is true that the right of eminent domain may be exer- 
cised for the purpose of acquiring parkland, but it is rarely 
exercised to acquire improved property or when determined 
opposition develops in the chosen neighborhood. There 
are exceptions, of course, such as when a given park needs 
to be enlarged to extend its boundaries to nearby streets. 
When the right of eminent domain is used, it is usually 
because this is considered the most expeditious and fair 
method of determining price. 

Provisions of parks, playgrounds, and other public rec- 
reation facilities is not a mandatory function of local govern- 
ment but purely a permissive one. Cities will have parks 
only to the extent that practicable opportunities occur to 
acquire them by gift, transfer of land from other purposes, 
or when legislative bodies appropriate current or borrowed 
funds for acquisition and improvement. Occasionally the 
city electorate will vote a park bond issue, but then usually 
for a limited few projects hardly ever to accomplish a 
comprehensive distribution of park areas. Hence, parks are 
an amenity in city living and not strictly a legal necessity, 
important as they may be in the long view of social welfare. 

Examination of the origin of the parks of any large system 
reveals a history somewhat as follows: 

An early water reservoir became obsolete. To sell it, in 
view of a need for parks, was repugnant to citizens and offi- 
cials: it was therefore filled and developed as a park. 

A family prospered in a community and developed, dur- 
ing generation or more, a landed estate of beauty and utility. 
Pained over the prospect of its dismemberment, as members 
of the family grew up and moved away, the head of the 



Robert L. Burns Park, located in 

Los Angeles' Wilshire district, 

was also acquired under the 

city's 1957 bond fund program. 




MAY 1960 



213 



family willed the property to the city as a park or, perhaps, 
granted it to the city before his death. 

A marshy, unsightly area, uneconomical to develop pri- 
vately, was donated to the city. The city was in a position to 
reclaim the area by rilling with rubbish, sweepings from the 
streets, or other material, and to improve the property for 
use as a lake with landscaped borders. 

Steep and hilly property, costly and difficult to build upon, 
but on the tax rolls, proved a burden to its private owner. 
If it were a park it would relieve congestion and otherwise 
serve a public purpose. It was accepted and thereafter im- 
proved and maintained by the city. The value of the gift 
was deductible under the internal revenue laws. 

One of the country's best park systems is in Minneapolis. 
The annual report of the Minneapolis Park Commission, for 
the year 1958, lists 153 parks, of which fifty are off-street 
triangles of less than one-half acre. Opposite each park is 
a notation as to how it was acquired. Twenty-two parks and 
a substantial part of other parks were gifts. Probably no 
other city service rendered is supported to this extent by 
gifts from citizens. Seven park properties of about seventy 
acres were transferred to the park commission by other 
jurisdictions. 

The city of Los Angeles, with a total park acreage of 
12,820, may be cited as another example. It has 169 parks 
and playgrounds, not including off-street parkways and tri- 
angles. Of this number, forty-one were gifts, totaling 3,472 
acres. The largest single gift was thirty-two hundred acres: 
Griffith Park, added to by purchases, and now the largest 
urban park, 4,254 acres, in the United States. The donation 
of land was followed by the gift of a million-dollar trust fund 
to provide cultural facilities in the park. Other donations 
include about two miles of extraordinarily fine public beach 
property, a playground of thirty acres, next to a school 
property of twenty acres, and another of ten acres also next 
to a school property. The school properties were purchased 
at market prices. Transfers of land from other uses or 
jurisdictions have been several, including two notable ones 
from the federal government: Hansen Dam Park, seventeen 
hundred acres, and Sepulveda Dam Park, two thousand 
acres. Five park lakes were once swamps and drainage 
channels acquired by the city, as much to abate a nuisance 
as to create useful and beautiful parks by filling and other 
means. 

The foregoing examples are quite typical of ways in 
which cities add properties to their park and recreation 
systems. The windfalls, however, are not always wholly 
accidental. They occur with some advertising of precedents 
and the readiness of the city to accept them, and are often 
the result of outright promotion. Administrators of park 
and recreation systems are ever on the alert to seize op- 
portunities of these kinds, to encourage generous impulses, 
and to be imaginative in developing plans for utilization of 
submarginal land. 



STATE AND NATIONAL tax structure in recent years has 
operated to encourage the transfer of privately owned 
land to local government for park purposes. Value of such 



gifts may be deducted from taxable annual gross revenue. 
To distribute the tax benefit, parks of a given parcel may 
be donated in different years. The inheritance tax might 
operate to encourage liquidation by public donations of 
properties before demise. In 1959. the California State 
Legislature passed an act permitting local jurisdictions to 
acquire less than fee title of lands for park purposes; de- 
ferred use of the property, for example, being equated as 
part of the value, or continued public park maintenance 
as a buffer to other property also being a part of the con- 
sideration. A park may convey reflected benefits on ad- 
joining property, justifying gift or sale to the public at 
nominal cost. The former, that is. gift to the city in view 
of reflected benefit, has been a motivation in the donation 
of many parks in the past. 

Funds expended by cities for the purchase of parklands, 
and for facilities included within the definition of "recrea- 
tion," as used by the U. S. Census Bureau, are almost en- 
tirely derived from sale of municipal bonds authorized by 
vote of the electorate of cities, usually a two-thirds majority 
being required. An estimate of the degree to which this 
function is serviced by disbursement of capital funds de- 
rived from the issuance of general-purpose municipal bonds 
may be had from the relationship that bonds outstanding 
for recreation bear to bonds outstanding for other purposes. 
The Census Bureau reports that in 1957 the long-term gen- 
eral debt outstanding of the country's forty-one largest 
cities (all over 250,000 population ) was $6,323,822.000, of 
which $294,629.000 was outstanding for recreation. This 
was only 4.7 percent of the whole. The outstanding bonds 
were listed under the following functions: public safety. 
education, highway, hospitals, sewers and sewage disposal, 
nonhighway transportation, housing and community de- 
velopment, recreation, and other unallocable functions. 

The cities borrowed three times as much for education, 
four times as much for highways, and three times as much 
for sewers and sewage disposal as they did for recreation. 
including all of the facilities listed under the latter term by 
the Census Bureau. A large part, undetermined, of the bond 
issues voted for recreation was for stadia, auditoriums, 
zoological gardens, museums, and the like. 

WHETHER parks and other public recreation facilities 
.fill seem so necessary in the future as to be |>r<>\idc<l 
for in the same manner as streets, highways, schools, and 
public utilities is a matter of speculation. Certain!] for- 
tuitous circumstances are not an adequate base upon which 
to predicate the development of a complete system of public 
parks and recreation facilities that meets the well-consid- 
ered needs of the citizens of American cities according to 
reasonable standards. It appears that the services, which 
such lands and facilities pn>\idc for all citizens, must con- 
tinue to be regarded as amenities and not necessities. 

Meanwhile, however, it is not altogether unlikely that 
the public demand for recreation areas and facilities will 
gain such recognition in the light of our expanding leisure 
time, that the public park function will eventual!) achie\e 
recognition as a necessary one. approaching the status, per- 
haps, of the function of education. # 



214 



RECREATION 



THE FLOWERS THAT bloom in the 
spring, tra la, certainly do have 
something to do with the case. 
So do the flowers that bloom any other 
season and all the bounty of the harvest. 
Has your community taken advantage 
of the "natural" opportunities offered 
by its public parks, private and public 
gardens, conservatories, and open areas 
to put on a large-scale floral festival? 
Park and recreation departments, and 
other agencies and organizations across 
the country, are letting nature do her 
work and then getting in the act with 
rose festivals, watermelon parades, 
grape harvest celebrations, and all man- 
ner of spectaculars. 

Poets have sung of Kew in lilac time 
but folks around Rochester, New York, 
think their lilacs, too, put on quite a 
show. Folks in Essex County, New Jer- 
sey, feel their cherry blossom festival 
equals its famed counterparts in Wash- 
ington and Japan. Holland, Michigan, 
of course, goes all out and dances in the 



streets at tulip time. Flower and garden 
festivals offer a chance for recreation 
departments to invite a variety of com- 
munity groups to participate actively. 
Call out the photographers, the artists, 
folk dancers, costumed nationality 
groups, and really put on a show. In- 
vite churches to hold sunrise or outdoor 
services. Publicize via your local press, 
radio, TV, posters, and sample displays 
in strategic store or bank windows. 

Let's take a look and see what's 
sproutin' around the country from 
New York City's celebrated Bronx Bo- 
tanical Gardens to Los Angeles Coun- 
ty's historic Descanso Gardens and the 
lush foliage of Honolulu. The areas 
cited are a sample representation, a 
cross-section of many types and varie- 
ties. Space alone prevents inclusion of 
the numerous other gardens and festi- 
vals that are equally noteworthy. 
<& On Washington's Olympic Penin- 
sula, all the sports, activities, and local 
color of the Northwest logging camps 



have been incorporated into the Mason 
County Forest Festival held in Shelton. 
Fifty thousand people have been known 
to crowd into this little city of seven 
thousand for the jamboree. Washing- 
ton's year-round series of festivals, 
fairs, and public events includes the 
Wenatchee Apple Bloom Festival in that 
famed apple capital; the Puyallup Val- 
ley Daffodil Festival, cosponsored by 
the communities of Puyallup, Sumner, 
and Tacoma; the Blossom-Time Festi- 
val in Bellingham, with its vast acres of 
tulips; and Spokane's week -long Lilac 
Festival. 

|8|> Peoria Park District in Illinois 
adds a public-service touch to its Easter 
lily and Christmas poinsettia shows by 
handing out leaflets advising visitors on 
home care for holiday gift plants. The 
Christmas show, staged at Glen Oak 
Park Conservatory, stars the tempera- 
mental beauty of over seven hundred 
red, rose, and white poinsettias against 
a background of other plants in proper 



SAVING II WITH 

Jlowets 



Elvira Delany 



// is the season now to go 
About the country high and low, 
Among the lilacs hand in hand 
And two by two in fairyland. 

Robert Louis Stevenson 




Arizona's state flower, the sagua.ro cactus, in bloom. 



MAY 1960 



215 






Moon bridge is center 

of interest in the Oriental 

canyon section of the 

Henry E. Huntington Botanical 

Gardens in San Marino, 

California, a privately endowed 

garden open to the public. 



SAYING IT WITH FLOWERS Continued 




Washington Park in Albany, New York, is a tulip lover's paradise during the 
city's annual tulip festival in mid-May. As in Holland, Michigan ladies in 
wooden shoes scrub the main street to commemorate the city's Dutch heritage. 



Children learn how to sew 
leis as part of summer 
playground craft program 
in Tacoma, Washington. 




216 



l.oiiisiiirin Forest Festival queen is tl 
Bunyan which greets visitors <il the 
field. She carries a replica of Smok 

RECREATION 




6y towering, eleven-foot model of Paul 
:e to festival exhibit building in Winn- 
, traditional mascot of festival queens. 

MAY 1960 




The pony-tail set sketches away during cherry blossom festival in Branch 
Brook Park, Essex County, New Jersey. The display is lighted at night. 




A "Little Netherlands" was designed and constructed for the tulip festival 
in Holland, Michigan a charming setting of figures, houses, canals, boats. 





Azaleas and cypress knees provide a reflective scene in municipally owned 
Greenfield Park, Wilmington, North Carolina, heart of the azalea country. 

Continued V > 

217 



yuletide color, including cyclamen, 
Christmas cherry, and Christmas be- 
gonias. The Easter show offers an im- 
pressive display of lilacs, backed by 
palms, and accented with tulips, daffo- 
dils, hyacinths, and cinerarias. 

^> During the Japanese cherry blos- 
som festival in Branch Brook Park,