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Yc 



I 



THE RED CROSS 

A HISTORY 
OV THIS REMARKABLE 

INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT IN 
THE INTEREST OF HUMANITY 



FT 



CL^R/i BARTON 

PitmnKirT akd Tucasdhb or tk> Ambucam National Rbd Cmuu 



A VIVID AND AUTHORITATIVE AC<X)UNT 
OF RELIEF FROM SUFFERING BY WAR, 
PESTILENCE, FAMINE, FLOOD, FIRES, 
AND OTHER NATIONAL CALAMITIES .-. 



^^t^^aU HAT.ONAUREO-c«os^ 




^^-^SH/NGTON, aC^^-*' 



474903 



COPYRIGHT, 1898, BY 
CLARA BARTON. 



MANUFACTURED BY 

J. B. l,YON COMPANY 

ALBANY, N. Y. 



From the President of the United States, 



• • • In this connection it is a pleasure for me to mention in terms of 
cordial appreciation the timely and useful work of the American National 
Red Cross, both in relief measures preparatory to the campaigns, in 
sanitary assistance at several of the camps -of assemblage, and, later, 
under the able and experienced leadership of the president of the society. 
Miss Clara Barton, on the fields of battle and in the hospitals at the 
front in Cuba. Working in conjunction with the governmental author- 
ities and under their sanction and approval, and with the enthusiastic 
co-operation of many patriotic women and societies in the various States, 
the Red Cross has fully maintained its already high reputation foi 
intense earnestness and ability to exercise the noble purposes of its 
international organization, thus justifying the confidence and support 
which it has received at the hands of the American people. To the 
members and officers and all who aided them in their philanthropic 
work, the sincere and lasting gratitude of the soldiers and the public is 
due and freely accorded. 

In tracing these events we are constantly reminded of our obliga- 
tions to the Divine Master for His watchful care over us and His safe 
guidance, for which- the nation makes reverent acknowledgment and 
offers humble prayers for the continuance of His favors. 



/^JZC^^^^.^^^'^XL 




Illustrations. 



Clara Barton, from a portrait taken aboat 1875 Frontispiece. 

The International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland . . opp. 16 

Clara Barton, taken about 1885 opp. 17 

The First Red Cross Warehouse, Washington, D. C ar 

National Red Cross Headquarters in Washington, from 1893 to 1897 32 

Some of the First Members of the American National Red Cross ..... 43 

A Group of American National Red Cross Members 44 

A Group of American National Red Cross Members 55 

Suburban Headquarters, American Natiooal Red Cross 56 

Some Red Cross Decorations Presented to Clara Barton 83 

Chronological Historic Tree 84 

Clara Barton, taken about 1884 iil 

"Josh V. Throop" 112 

Camp Perry 143 

Red Cross Headquarters 144 

Johnstown, Pa., before the Flood of 1889 153 

Red Cross Hotel, T.,ocust Street, Johnstown, Pa. 154 

Red Cross Furniture Room, Johnstown, Pa 163 

Tjrpical Scene after the Flood at Johnstown, Pa., May 30, 1889 164 

In Memoriam 172 

Typhus Fever Patients in the Russian Famine, 189T-93 . . 181 

Count Lyoff Tolstoi 182 

Women Cutting Potatoes for Planting — Sea Island RelieC, S. C, February, 1894, 199 

A Windfall for St. Helena 200 

Testimonial from Russian Workmen for American Help and Sympathy in the 

Famine of 1892 217 

A Russian Peasant Village 3i8 

(3) 



4 THE RED CROSS. 



PASS 



ReceiTing Room for Clothing, S. C. Island Relief, 1893-94 235 

South Carolina Sea Island Relief 236 

The Island District from Savannah to Beanfoit . . 251 

Sick with the Famine Fever 253 

Hunger- Stricken 254 

Miss Barton's Room 271 

In the Old Schloss of Baden 373 

Red Cross Headquarters, Constantinople 381 

View from Red Cross Headquarters, Constantinople 382 

Turkish Cemetery 282 

Chief of the DersiiiEoards and His Three Snb-Chiefs 391 

Chief of the Dersin Konrds 292 

Decoration of the Royal Order of Melusine 300 

Tower of Christ, Constantinople 301 

W. W. Peet, Bsq 302 

Rev. Henry O. Dwight, D. D 302 

Rev. Joseph K. Greene, D. D 302 

Rev. George Washbom, D. D 302 

Signature of the Sultan 303 

Turkish Dispatches 306, 307 

Map of the Country traversed by the Red Cross Expeditions carrying American 

Relief to the Victims of the Armenian Massacres in 1896 309 

Interior of Gregorian Church at Corfa 30S 

American College Buildings, Aintab . 311 

American and Armenian Quarters, Harpoot 311 

Marash 3^' 

Red Cross Caravan .' 3^3 

A Bit of Palon - ■ 318 

Rev. C. F. Gates, D. D., Harpoot 3»i 

Miss Caroline E. Bush, Harpoot 321 

Krst Expedition Embarking on Ferryboat, Euphrates River ■ 321 

A Turkish Teskere or Passport ' - - 3" 

Diarbeker, Vilayet of Diarbeker 33» 

Ruins of an Old Gateway at Farkin 33a 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 5 



PAOB 



Some Methods of Work 340 

Salemlik 341 

Pen Bridge, Constaotmople ■ . ■ 341 

Turkish Coffee House 342 

Hamalls — Showing Manner of Canying Heavy Burdens 343 

Red Cross Expeditions Passing through the Valley of Catch Beard 348 

A Turkish Procession in Arabkir 349 

Jndge Alexander W. Terrell, United States Minister to Constantinople during 

the Armenian Troubles 351 

Armenian and Turkish Decorations 353 

Group of Armenian Teachers and Pnpils, Harpoot American Missionary 

College 357 

Clara Barton, taken in 1897 358 

A Part of the American National Red Cross Fleet in the Spanish-American 

War of 1898 371 

Officersof the Executive Committee American National Red Cross 372 

Admiral WiUiam T. Sampson 381 

Governor-General's Palace, Havana 382 

Entrance to Harbor of Havana — Punta Park 391 

John D. Long, Secretary of Navy 392 

On San Jnan Hill, Santiago 407 

Spanish Guerillas 409 

A Mounted Advance, Reconnoitring 410 

United States Steamship " Oregon " 413 

"AlmiranteOquendo," after the Engagement 419 

United States Warships before the Eotrance to Santiago Harbor 421 

" Marie Teresa " after the Engagement ^ 424 

Chickamaoga Camp 427 

Camp Thomas, Headquarters American National Red Cross 438 

Fortifications of Manila 440 

RedCrossDiningRoomfor Convalescents, Fort McPherson. Ga 445 

Dining Tent Attached to Red Cross Kitchen, at Camp Hobson, Ga 446 

Panorama of Manila 451 

In the Trenches before Santiago 453 

A Soldier Foneral 4^ 



6 THE RED CROSS. 

PAOB 

McCalla Camp— Early Morning Attack 454 

A Typical Cuban Camp 464 

A Cuban "Block House," Garrisoned 481 

A View of Sastem Cuba 48a . 

A Part of the Red Cross Corps . 499 

"I Am witk the Wounded."— Clara Barton's Cable Message from Havana . . 500 

Wreck of the Battleship "Maine," Havana Harbor 517 

The Prado— Principal Street in Havana 518 

Havana Harbor 535 

Captain C D. Sigsbee 536 

Street in Cavite 539 

CiHzens of Jaruco Presenting a Memorial for the Victims of the "Maine " . . 553 

Little Convalescents in Hospital 534 

Location of Shore Batteries, Santiago .... 556 

Jnly Fifth in Rifle Pits 558 

Scenes on the "State of Texas "and in Sibooey 570 

The Physicians and Nurses of the Orphanage and Clinic in Havana 571 

A Cuban Thatch Hut 581 

A Battery of Cuban Artillery 582 

View of Morro Castle, Santiago de Cuba 591 

View of Santiago de Cuba from the Harbor 593 

The Burning of Siboney 596 

Annie B. Wheeler 609 

The Youngest Red Cross Nurse 610 

Scenes in Siboney 637 

Scenes in Santiago 628 

Refugees from Santiago 635 

Santiago Refugees at El Caney 637 

Establishing Headquarters Ashore 638 

Starving in the Plaza 647 

Los Fosos 649 

Bringing in the Wounded 657 

Clearing for a Cross Road . 658 

A Group of Red Cross Sisters 675 

Diploma of Gratitude for Miss Clara Barton from the Red Cross of Spain , . 676 



Contents. 



PAOB 



To THE PBOPLB 13 

Introduction 17 



The Rbd Cross. General History 23 

Oi^anization and Methods of Work 27 

Occupation in Times of Peace 29 

Services in Time of War 30 

Nentral Countries in Time of Peace 34 

International Correspondence. M. Moynier's First Letter 36 

American Association of the Red Cross. Constitution and Original In- 
corporation 46-47 

First International Conference 48 

The Treaty of the Red Cross 57 

Governments Adopting the Treaty 58 

Address by Clara Barton 60 

Action of the United States Government 72 

The " Additional Articles " Concerning the Navy 74 

International Bulletin, Extract from 77 

Accession of the United States to the Treaty and " Additional Articles " . 80 

Proclamation of President Arthur 85 

International Bulletin. Concerning Adhesion of the United States . 87 
International Committee. Letter Acknowledging Notice of Adhesion by 

United SUtes . 90 

International Committee. Fiftieth Circular Announcing Adoption of 

Treaty by United States 91 

Signiticance of " Red Cross " in its Relation to Philanthropy. Address 

by Clara Barton 94 

(7) 



THE RED CROSS. 



Michigan Porbst Fires 104 

Mississippi and Ohio Rivsr Floods 108 

Mississippi and Louisiana Cvci^nb iio 

Ohio River Fuk>d 113 

Down the Mississippi 119 

"The Little Six" ia8 



Texas Famine • 134 

The Mount Vernon Cycm)nk 141 

Vei.i^w Fever Epidemic in Florida 145 

The MacClenny Noises 147 



TheJohnstown Fz,ood 155 

ArriTal at Johnstown 156 

Appointment of Committees 158 

The Work of Relief 159 

Farewell to Miss Barton 167 

"The Dread Conemaugh" 168 

In Memoiiom 172 



The Russian Famtne 173 

Connt Tolstoi on the Character of the Peasants 174 

Beginning of American Relief 175 

Appreciation of American Sympathy 17S 

Dr. Habbell's Report 180 



CONTENTS. 9 

PAOR. 

The ReincoTpoiBtion of the American National Red Cross 195 



Sba. Isi^nds Horkicanb 197 

Coast of South Carolina 197 

Admiral Beardslee's Description of the Hurricane 303 

Relief Work South of Broad River aro 

Report by John McDonald 312 

Hlltonhead District Clothing Department Report by Mis. MacDonald . 330 

Medical Department. Report by Dr. B. W. Egan 332-338 

Relief Methods in Field. Dr. Hubbell's Report 332 

On the Charleston GroQp. Report by H. L. Bailey 344 

The Clothing Department Mrs. Gardner's Report ... 353 

The Sewing Circles . 357 

A Christmas Carol 261 

Mrs. Reed's Report 263 

Leaving the Field ■ ■ 368 

Letter to Charleston News and Courier 268 

Circular to Clergymen and Committees 373 



Arusnia 375 

Distance and Difficulties of Travel and Transportation 305 

Funds 307 

Committees 310 

To the Press of the United States 313 

To Contributors 313 

To the Government at Washington 314 

To Our Legation in Constantinople - . . . . 314 

To the Ambassadors of other Nations 315 

Commendatory 315 

"Marmora." Poem by Clara Barton 319 

Report of Financial Secretary 324 



lo THE RBD CROSS. 

General Field Agent's Report 334 

Medical Report 350 



Thb Spanish-Aubrican Wab. 359 

Home Camps and American Waters 361 

The Central Cuban Relief Committee, Appointment of 362 

The Red Cross Requested to Administer Relief in Cnba 365 

Taking Command of the " SUte of Texas " 368 

Relief Work at Tampa and Key West 368 

Feeding Spanish Prisoners of War 369 

Correspondence with Admiral Sampson 370 

Appointment of the Bxecntire Committee of the Red Cross and the 

Relief Committee of New York 375 

Communication from Secretary of State Acknowledging Official Status 

of the American National Red Cross 377 

The Modus Vivendi with Spain 3S4-394 

Services of the Red Cross accepted by the Government 395 

Appointment of Red Cross Field Agents for the Camps 395 

Camp Alger, Washington, D. C 397 

Camp Thomas, Chickamauga Park 408 

Jacksonville and Miami, Florida 414 

Fort Mcpherson, Atlanta, Gb '420 

Camp Hobson, Lithia, Ga. 422 

St. Paul Red Cross 425 

Montauk Point, Long Island 426 

Pacific Coast 431 

The Red Cross of California 433 

The Red Cross of Oregon 441 

The Red Cross, Seattle, Wash. 452 

Porto Rico 460 

Report of Horace F. Barnes 460 



CONTENTS. II 

PAOK. 

Shipmenta by United States Transports 470 

Relief Committee of New York, Report by 473 

Women's Auxiliaries of the Red Cross 491 

"Women Went Who to the Field." Poem by Clara Barton 509 



Cuba and thb Cdban Campaign 514 

Havana 520 

Los Posos ■ 521 

The Orphanage S" 

Destruction of the "Maine" 524 

Jamca 527 

Matanzas 531 

Senator Redfield Proctor's Speech in United States Senate 534 

Aitemisa 540 

S^^a La Grande .... 542 

Cienfuegos 544 

Back to Havana 545 

Leaving Havana 549 

On Board the " State of Texas " 550 

Tampa 552 

Return to Key West 553 

Arrival at Santiago 555 

SJboney - 557 

Hospital Work at Siboney ... 560 

Relief Work at the Front 566 

Entering the Harbor of Santiago 576 

Unloading the " State of Texas " 577 

Feeding the Refugees 577 

Relief Work in Santiago -578 

Departure of the " State of Texas " 580 



12 THE RED CROSS. 

PAOK, 

The Transport " Clinton " at the Dispositioii of the Red Croes 583 

Leaving Santiago for Havana 584 

Departure from Havana 585 



rbforts. 

Report of Dr. A. Monae Lesaer 586 

Report of Financial Secretary, Mr. C. H. H. Cottrell 599 

The Schooner "Mary B. Morse." Distribution of Ice 633 

Letter of Santiago Committee 636 

Medical Report hy B. W. Bgan, M. D 641 

Clothing Department. Report by Misa Annie M. Fowler 655 



The Red Croas of Other Nations 661 

To the Congress of the United States. Address by Clara Barton 666 

To the Committeea on The Red Cross 674 

To the Auxiliariea of the Red Cross and the Nurses Who Went to the War 677 

Unwritten Thanks 680 

A Word of EzplanaUon 676 

ConcloBlou 6S1 

Notea 68a 



TO THE PEOPLE. 




|N recounting the experience of the Red Cross in the 
Cuban campaign, I have endeavored to tell the 
story of the events as they succeeded each other, 
recording simply the facts connected with the 
work of the War Relief, and refraining from 
criticism of men and methods. There were un- 
pleasant incidents to relate, and unfortunate con- 
ditions to describe, but I have neither said nor 
written that any particular person, or persons, were to blame. It is 
not my duty, nor is it within my power, to analyze and criticise all the 
intricate workings of a government and its armies in the field. 

The conditions that existed during the campaign and the suffer- 
ing that had to be endured, were by no means peculiar to the Spanish- 
American War. Suffering, sickness, confusion, and death — these are 
inseparable from every armed conflict. They have always existed 
under such circumstances; they are a part of war itself, against which 
no human foresight can wholly provide. 

Every civilized government is financially able to provide for its 
armies, but the great and seemingly insuperable difficulty is, to always 
have what is wanted at the place where it is most needed. It is a part 
of the strategy of war, that an enemy seeks battle at a time and place 
when his opponent is least prepared for it. Occasionally, too, an 
attacking commander is deceived. Where he expects only slight re- 
sistance, he encounters an overwhelming force and a battle of unfore- 



14 



RED CROSS. 



seen proportions, with iincxpcctcd casualties, occurs. This is the 
universal testimony of nations. If tt were not so, all needs could be 
provided for and every move planned at the outset. 

It was for these reasons that a body of gentlemen, now known as 
the International Committee of Geneva, aided by National Associations 
in each country, planned, urged and finally succeeded in securing the 
adoption of the Treaty of the Red Cross. For these reasons the Treaty 
of Geneva and the National Committees of the Red Cross exist to-day. 
It is through the National Committees of the Red Cross in each treaty 
nation, that the people seek to assist the government in times of great 
emergency, in war or other calamity. It is only by favoring the 
organization of this Auxiliarj' Relief In times of peace, encouraging its 
development to the highest slate of efficiency, preparing to utilize not 
only all the ordinary resources, but also the generous support of the] 
people, through the Red Cross, that a government may hope to avoid] 
much of the needless sufTering. sickness and death in war. 

In carrying out its mission, to assist in the prevention and relief of 
suffering, the Red Cross has neither the desire nor the intention to be 
censorious, and is actuated neither by political opinion nor motives of 
interference, ft is but the outward and practical expression of that 
universal sympathy that goes out from the millions of homes and fire- 
sides, from the great heart of the nation, to humanity in distress, to the 
soldier on the march, in the bivouac and on the field of battle. 

Through all the past years, during which the Red Cross has sought 
recognition, protection and co-operation, it was but for one purpose — 
to be ready. Our only regret Is iliai. during the late war, we were not 
able to render greater service. Even the little that was accomplished, 
could not have been done without the ever ready assistance of the 
President and the Secretary of War. 

Before us now lie the problems of the future, and the qtiestion is: 
How shall we meet them? As friends of humanity, while there is still 
a possibility of war or calamity, it behooves us to prepare. In America 





TO THE PUBLIC. 15 

perhaps, we are apt to undervalue careful preparation and depend too 
much upon our impulses. Certainly in no other country have the 
people so often risen from a state of unreadiness and accomplished such 
wonderful results — at such a great sacrifice. The first American war 
since the adoption of the Treaty of Geneva, has brought the Red Cross 
home to the people; they have come to understand its meaning and 
desire to become a permanent part of it. Now that the-appropriate 
time has come, it is the purpose of the Red Cross, relying upon the 
active sympathy of the government and the generous support of the 
people, to continue its work of preparation, until in its councils and in 
its ranks the whole country shall be represented, standing together, 
ready for any great emergency, inspired by the love of humanity and 
the world-wide motto of the Red Cross : 

" In time of peace and prosperity, prepare for war and calamity." 



Mf^oc/T^G^^a^r^x^ . 



INTRODUCTION. 




-O be called to tell in a few brief weeks the whole story 
of the Red Cross from its origin to the present time 
seems a labor scarcely less than to have lived it. It is 
a task that, however unworthily it may now be per- 
formed, is, in itself, not unworthy the genius of George 
Eliot or Macaulay. It is a story illustrating the rapid rise 
of the humane sentiment in the latter half of the nineteenth century. 
On its European side, it tells of the first timid and cautious putting 
forth of the sentiment of humanity in war, amid the rattling swords 
and guns of Solferino, its deaths and wounds and its subsequent 
awful silence. 

It tells of its later fertilization on the red fields of Gravelotte and 
Sedan beneath my own personal observation, 

It was from such surroundings as these that the Red Cross has 
become the means by which philanthropy has been grafted onto the 
wild and savage stem of war. 

From the first filaments spun in the heart of a solitary traveler 
have been drawn onward stronger and larger strands, until now more 
than forty of the principal nations of the earth are bound together by 
bonds of the highest international law, that must make war in the 
future less barbarous than it has been in the past. 

It gives hope that ' ' the very torrent, tempest and whirlwind ' ' of 
war itself may some day at last, far off, perhaps, give way to the 

sunny and pleasant days of perpetual and universal peace. When a 
a (17^ 



i8 INTRODUCTION. 

proposition for an absolute and common disarmament of nations, made 
by the strongest of the mlers of Europe, will not be met by cynical 
sneers and suggestionc of Machiavelian craft. 

On its American side it is a story of such immense success on the 
part of the American National Red Cross in some of its greatest and 
most difficult fields of labor, that no financial report of them has ever 
been made, because the story would have been altogether incredible. 
The universal opinion of ordinarj' business people would have been that 
these results could not have been obtained on the means stated, and 
therefore something must be wrong or hidden, and to save ourselves 
from painful suspicion, it was decided, rightly or wrongly, that the 
story must remain substantially untold till its work in other fields had 
prepared the public mind to accept the literal truth. 

But the time has come at last when the facts may properly be set 
forth without fear that they will be discredited or undervalued. 

It will relate some of the experiences, the labors, the successes and 
triumphs of the American National Red Cross in times of peace, by 
which it had prepared itself to enter upon the Cuban contest as its first 
independent work in time of war. 

The Red Cross has done its part in that contest in the same 
spirit in which it has heretofore done all the work which has been com- 
mitted to its care. It has done it unobtrusively, feithfully and 
successfully. 

It may not altogether have escaped censure in the rather wild 
cyclone of criticism that has swept over the country, but we remember 
not so much the faultfinding that may have occasionally been poured 
out upon the Red Cross, as the blessings and benedictions from all 
sides for work well and nobly done that have fallen even upon its 
humblest ministers and assistants 



INTRODUCTION. 



19 



It has been tnithfiUly said that " so great has been Ihe prwsure to 
sboK the difficulties and dangers of this service with only transpor- 
tation and subsistence for pay, that the Red Cross could on these terms 
have had as many voluutecrs as there were enlisted men, if their 
services could have been utilized and made important. *• 

Indeed, it seems to have become the milder romance of war, and 
is gradually winning its way into the very heart of the pomp and cir- 
cumstance of "glorious" war itself. 

The Re<l Cross has therefore come to be so loved and irustetl, its 
principles and insignia have been so deeply set into the substance of 
intcruationaJ law and the life of many great nations, that people 
everywhere arc beginning to ask with enthusiasm about its origin and 
histor>': about the principles on which it acts. They ask for some 
statement of its experiences, its hardships and its perils, and for some 
account of those who have been most prominent in its operation.^ 

It is partially to answer these and many similar inquiries that this 
book has been prepared. It is in part a compilation and revision of 
various statements necessarily incomplete and unaatisfactorj-, made 
from lime to time to meet emergencies. In part it has been wholly 
rewritten. 

A great portion of the story of the Red Cross has been told in 
other languages than English, because it was of work done by other 
than English people. Much of this literature has never been trans- 
lated or placed within the reach of the English -speaking public. 

Although the gradual growth of the idea of something like 
humanity in war, stimulated by the ignorant and insane horrors of 
India and the Crimea, and soothed and instructed by the sensible and 
practical work of Florence Nightingale, had slowly but surely led up to 
the conditions which made such a movement possible, it was not until 
the remarkable campaign of Napoleou III. in Northern Italy again 



30 



INTRODUCTION. 



woke the slumbering sympathies of the world that any definite steps 
revealed themselves. 

In compiling this book I have been compelled to make use of 
much of the material contained in a previous history written by myself 
in 1883, which in turn was based upon the records and the literature 
of the International Committee, and the o£Scial correspondence con- 
nected with the treaty. 



/S/xau9Hi,J^ct^''^r^ 




The Red Cross. 



CHAPTER L 

"N June 24, i859f occurred the memorable battle of Sol- 
^ ferino, in whidi the Frencli and Sardinians were arrayed 
agaituit the Austrians. The battle raged over a wide 
reach of country and continued for sixteen hours; at the 
end of which sixteen thousand French and Sardinian sol- 
diers and twenty thousand Austrians lay dead or were 
wounded and disabled on that field. The old and ever-recurring fact 
reapi>cared: the medical staff was wholly inadequate to the iramense 
task suddenly cast upon them. For days after the battle the dead 
in part remained unburicd, and the wounded where they fell, or crawled 
away as they could for shelter and help. 

A Swiss gentleman, Henri Dnnant by name, was then traveling 
near that battlefield, and n'as deeply impressed by the scenes there 
presented to him. He joined in the work of rehef. but the Inadequacy 
of preparation and the consequent sufTcnngof the wounded haunted 
him afterwards and impelled him to write a book entitled "A 
-Souvenir of Solferiuo," id which he strongly ad\'ocated more humane 
and extensive apphances of aid to wounded soldiers. He lectured 
alwut thcra before the "Society of Public Utility" of Geneva. M. 
Gustav Moynier, a gentleman of independent fortune, was then presi- 
dent of that society. Ur. Louis Appia, a philaulhropic physician, and 
Adolph Ador, a counsellor of repute in Geneva, became interested tn 
his views. They drew the attention of Dufoar, the general of the 
Swiss army, to the subject, and enlisted his hearty co>operation. A 
meeting of this society was called to consider "a proposition relative 
to the formation of permanent societies for the relief of wounded sol- 
diers." This meeting took place on the ninth of February, 1863. The 
matter was laid fully before the society. It was heartily received and 
ftcted upon and a committee was appointed with M. Moynier at its head 

.(»3) 



M 



THE RED CROSS. 



to examine into methods by which the desired results might be obtainMl. 
So ftilly dill this comraittet- realize its responsibility and the magni- 
tude, grandeur and labor of the underlakiug, that the first steps were 
made even with timidity. But overcoming all obstacles, it decided 
upon a plan which seemed possible, and announced for the twenty- 
sixth of the following October areuniou to which were invited from 
many countries men sympathizing with its views or able to assist in 
it3 discussions. This internntionnl conference was held at the appointed 
time, and continued its sessions four days. At this meeting it was 
decided to call an international convention to be held at Geneva during 
the autumn of the following year (1S64). At this convention was 
brought out the Geneva Treaty, and a permanent international com- 
mittee with headquarters at Geneva was formed, and the fundamenlal 
plan of the national permanent relief societies adopted. 

One of the first objects necessary and desired by the International 
committee for the successful prosecution of its work was the co-operation 
by some of the more important states of Europe in a treaty which 
should recognize the neutrality of the hospitals established, of the side 
and wounded, and of all persons and effects connected with the relief 
seT\'ice; also the adoption of a uniform protective sign or badge. It 
inquired with care into the disposition of the several governments, and 
was met with active sympathy and moral support. It first secured the 
co-operation of the Swiss Federal Council and the Emperor of France, 
It shortly after procured the signatures of ten other governments, which 
were given at its room in the city hall of Geneva, August 33, 1 864, and 
was called the Convention of Geneva. 

Its sign or badge was also agreed upon, namely, a red cross on a 
white ground, which was to be worn on the arm by all persons acting 
with or in the service of the committees enrolled under the convention. 

The treaty provides for the neutrality of all sanitary supplies, 
ambulances, surgeons, nurses, attendants, and sick or wounded men, 
and their safe conduct when they bear the sign of the organization', viz: 
the Red Cross. 

Although the convention which originated the organization was 
necessarily international, the relief societies themselves are entirely 
national and independent; each one governing itself aud making its 
own laws, according to the genius of iL-? nationality and needs. 

It was neccssar>' for recognition and safely, and for carrying out 
the general provisions of the treaty, that a uniform badge should be 
agreed upon. The Red Cross was chosen out of compliment to the 



THE RED CROSS. 



25 



Swiss republic, where the first convention was held, and in which the 
central comiuittee has its headquarters. The Swiss colors being a 
white cross on a red ground, the badge chostcu was these colors reversed. 

There are no " members of the Red Cross," but only members of 
societies whose sign it is. There is no " Order of the Red Cross." The 
relief societies use, each according to its convenience, whatever methods 
seem best suited to prepare in times of peace fur the necessities of 
sanitary service in ticues of war. They gather and store gifts of money 
and .supplies; arrauge hospitals, ambuliinces. methods of transportation 
of wounded men, bureaus of information, correspondence, etc. All 
that the most ingenious pUilauthropy could devise and execute has been 
attempted in this direction. 

In the Franco- Prussian war this was abundantly tested. That 
Prussia acknowledged its beneficence is proven by the fact that the 
emperor affixed the Red Cross to the Iron Cross of Merit. The number 
of governments adhering to the treaty was shortly after increased to 
twenty-two and at the present date there are forty-two. 

The German-Austria war of 1866, though not fully developing the 
advantages of this international law, was yet the means of discovering 
its imperfections. Consequently, in 1S67 the relief societies of Paris 
considered it necessary that the treaty should be revised, modified and 
completed. Requests were issued for modification. The International 
Comiuittee transmitted them to the various governments, and in 1868 a 
second diplomatic conference was convened at Geneva at which were 
voted addirional articles, improving the treaty by completing its design 
and extending its beneficial action to maritime warfare. 

During the war of 1866 no decisive trial of the uew principles 
involved in the treaty could be made, for Austria at that time had not 
adopted it. But in 1870-71 it was otherwise. The belligerents, 
botli France and Germany, had accepted tiie treaty. Thus it became 
possible to show to the world the immense iicrvice and beneficent results 
which the treaty, through the relief societies, might accomplish. 

The dullest apprehension can partially appreciate the responsibility 
incurred by relief societies in time of war. Tlie tlioughtful mind will 
readily perceive that these responsibilities involve constant vigilance 
and effort during periods of peace. It is wise statesmanship which 
suggests that in time of peace we must prepare for war, and it is no 
less a wise benevolence that makes preparation in the hour of peace for 
assuaging the ills that are sure to accompany war. Wc do not wait till 
battles are upon us to provide efficient soldiery and munitions of war. 



THE RED CROSS. 



Everj'lhing that foresight and caution can devise to insure success fs 
made ready and kept ready against the time of need. It is equally 
necessary to hold ourselves in readiness for effective service in the 
mitigation of evils consecjucnt uix>n war, if humane work is to be 
undertaken for that purpose. 

Permanent armies are organized, drilled and supported for the ' 
actual service in war. It is no less incumbent if we would do efficient 
work in alleviating the sufferings caused fay the barbarisms of war, 
that we should organize philanthropic efforts and be ready with what- 
ever is necessary, to be on the field at the sound of the first gun. An 
understanding of this truth led the conference of 186.^ to embody in 
its articles as one of its first cardinal characteristics the following: '* In 
time of peace the committee will occupy itself with means to reader 
genuine assistance in time of war." 

The International Committee assumed that there should be a relief 
association in every country which endorsed the treaty, and so generally 
was the idea accepted that at the end of the year 1864. when only ten 
governments had been added to the convention, twenty-five committees 
had been formed, under each of which relief societies were organized. 
It was. however, only after the wars of 1864, i866 and 1870 that the 
movement began really to be popular. These conflicts brought not 
only contestants, but neutral powers 90 to appreciate the horrors of 
war. that the>' were quite ready to acknowledge the beneficence and 
wisdom of the Geneva Treaty. Many who approved the humane idea 
and expressed a hearty sympathy for the object to be obtained, had 
heretofore regarded it as Utopian, a thing desirable but not attainable, 
an amiable and fanatical illusion which would ever elude the practical 
grasp. Nevertheless, the work accomplished during the wars referred 
to won over not only such cavillers, but persons actually hostile to (he 
mo\'ement, to regard it as a practical and most beneficent undertaking. 
The crowned heads of Europe were quick to perceive the benign uses 
of the associations, and bestowed upon the central committees of their 
countries money, credit and personal approbation. The families of 
sovereigns contributed their sympathy and material support The list 
of princes and princesses who came forward with personal aid and 
assumed direction of the work, was by no means small, thus proving cor- 
rect the augury of the Conference of 1S63, that " The governments would 
accord their high protection to the committees in their organiTation." 

From one of the bulletins of the lutemational Committee we make 
the following hopeful extract : 



ORGANIZATION AND METHODS OF WORK. ?7 

" The whole of Europe is marshaled under the banuer of the Red 
Cross. To its powerful and peaceful sign the conuuittee hopes to brins 
all the civilized nations of the earth. Wherever men fight and tear 
eadi other in pieces. whcre\'er the glare and roar of war are heard, 
they aim to plant the white banner that bears the blessed sign of reliefl 
Already they have carried it into Asia. Their ensign waves in Siberia, 
on the Chinese frontier, and in Turkestan, and, through the African 
committee, in Algeria and Egypt. Oceantca has a committee at Batavia. 
Japan accepte<l the Treaty of Geneva in 1886. and on the breaking out 
of hostilities between Japan and China, the Minister of War issued a 
notificatioa to the Japanese army, September 22, 1894, calling their 
attention to the substance of the treaty." 



ORGANIZATION AND METHODS OF WORK. 



One of the things cMinstdered indispensable, and cherefore adopted 
as a resolution by the Confereuce of 1863. was the centralization of the 
work in each country seixiratcly by itself. 

While the treaty must be universally acknowledged and its badge 
accepted as a universal sign, it was equally essential that the societies 
of the different countries should be simply national and in no respect 
international. It was therefore ordained by the conference that all 
local committees or organizations desirous of working with the Red 
^Cross, should do so under the auspices of the Central Committee of their 
ra nation, which is recognized by itsgovemraent and also recognized by 
the International Committee from which the sign of the Red Cross 
emanates. Singularly enough, the International Committee has had 
considerable difficulty in making this fully understood, and frequently 
has been obliged to suggest to local committees the necessity for their 
lubordination to the Central or National Committee. Once iu three 
iths the International Committee publishes an official list of all 
central committees recognized by it as national. In this way it is able 
ito exercise a certain control, and to repress entatiglemenls and abuses 
■larhich would become consequent on irresponsible or counterfeit organi- 
zations. To recapitulate: the Commission of Geneva, of which M. 
t'Moynicr is president, is the only International Committee. All other 
imtttees are simply national or subordinate to national committees. 



28 THE RED CROSS. 

The Conference of 1863 foresaw that national differences would prevent 
a universal code of management, and that to make the societies Inter- 
national would destroy them, so far as efficiency was concerned. They 
therefore adopted a resolution that ' ' Central committees should organize 
in such a manner as seemed the most useful and convenient to them- 
selves." Every committee being its own judge, has its own constitu- 
tion and laws. To be efficient, it must have the recognition of its own 
government, must bear the stamp of national individuality and be con- 
structed according to the spirit, habits and needs of the country it repre- 
sents. No hierarchy unites the national societies; they are independent 
of each other, but they have each an individual responsibility to the 
treaty, under the ensign of which they work, and they labor in a com- 
mon cause. It is desirable that they should all be known by one name, 
namely, the Society of the Red Cross. The functions of the Interna- 
tional Committee, whose headquarters are at Geneva, were also deter- 
mined by the Conference of 1863. It is to serve provisionally as an 
intermediate agent between national committees, and to facilitate their 
communications with each other. It occupies itself with the general 
interests of the Red Cross in correspondence, and the study of theo- 
retical and practical methods of amelioration and relief. 

The national committees are charged with the direction and respon- 
sibility for the work in their own countries. They must provide 
resources to be utilized in time of need, take active measures to secure 
adherents, establish local societies, and have an efficient working force 
alway.s in readiness for action, and in time of war to dispatch and dis- 
tribute safely and wisely all accumulations of material and supplies, 
nurses and assistants, to their proper destination, and, in short, what- 
ever may be gathered from the patriotism and philanthropy of the 
countrj'. They must always remember that central committees without 
abundant sectional branches would be of little use. 

In most countries the co-operation of women has been eagerly 
sought. It is needless to say it has been as eagerly given. In some 
countries the central committees are mixed, both sexes working 
together; in others, sub-committees are formed by women, and in 
others, such as the Grand Duchy of Baden, woman leads. 

As a last detail of organization, the Conference of 1863 recom- 
mended to the central committees to put themselves en rapport with 
their respective governments, in order that their offers of service should 
be accepted when required. This makes it incumbent upon national 
societies to obtain and hold government recognition, by which they are 



REtlEF SOCIETIES IN TIMES OF PEACE. 



99 



endowed with the iminuuities and privileges of legally constituted 
bodies and with recognition frotu other nations io lime of war, not 
otherwise possible to them. 



OCCUPATIONS OF RELIEF SOCIETIES 
IN TIMES OF PEACE. 



■ otuerwii 

H Organization, recognition and commuarcation are by no means all 

H that is necessary to insure the ful&Umeut of the objects of these asso- 
' ciations. A thing most important to be borne in mii]d is that if money 

be necessary for war, it is also an indispensable agent in relief of the 
H miseries occasioned by war. Self -devotion alone will not answer. The 
™ relief societies need funds and other resonrces to carry on tlieir work. 

They not only require means for current expenses, but, most of all, for 
B possible emergencies. To obtain and pnidcnlly conserve these resources 
" is an important work. The Russian Society set a good example of 

t activity in this direction. From the beginning of its organiration in 
1867 it systematically collected money o\-er the whole empire and 
neglected nothing that tended to success. It put boxes in churches, 
convents, armories, railroad depots, steamboats, in every place fre- 
quented by the public. Beside the collection of funds, the Coufer- 
■ cnce of 1863 recommended that peace periods should be occupied 
In gathering necessary material for service. In 186S there were in 
Geneva alone five depots where were accumulated one thousand two 
huudred and twenty-eight shirts, besides hosiery, bandages, lint, etc., 
for over one thousand wounded. There were also large collections 
in the provinces, and now, thirty years later, these accuumlatious have 

I probably greatly increased. lu other countries the supplies remaining 
after wars were gathered in depots and were added to abundantly. 
Thus, in 1S68, the Berlin Committee was in possession of supplies 
worth over twenty-five thousand dollars. Especial care is taken to 
acquire famiUarity witli the use of all sanitary material, to eliminate 
H as far as possible whatever may be prejudicial to sick or wounded men, 
"^ to improve both sanitary system and all supplies to be usc<l under it. lo 
have everything of the very best, as surgical instruments, medicine 

tndagcs. stretchers, wagons, tents and field hospitals, 
fould refer to the effort made in the national exhibitions of the 
luntnea, where the societies of the Red Cross have displayed 



30 THE RED CROSS. 

their practical improvements and inventions in competitive fields, taxing 
to the utmost litunan ingenuity and skill. Some countries have taken 
grand prizes. An exposition at The Hague was held in 1867 delusively 
for the work of the Red Cross. Permanent museums have been 
established where all sorts of sanitary material for relief are exhibited, 
as may be seen in Stockholm, Carlsruhe, St. Petersburg, Moscow and 
Paris. The museum of Paris is the most important of all, and is 
international, other countries having participated in its foundation. 
Another method is the publication of works bearing upon this subject, 
some of which are scientific and very valuable. Not less important is 
the sanitary personnel. Of all aid, efficient nurses are the most difficult 
to obtain. There are numbers of men and women who have the will 
and devotion necessary to lead them into hospitals or to battlefields, 
but very few of them are capable of performing well the duties of 
nurses. Therefore, but a small portion of the volunteers are available. 
The relief societies soon found that women were by nature much better 
fitted for this duty than men can be, and to enable them to fiilfill to 
the best advantage the mission for which they are so well adapted, it 
was decided to afford them the best possible professional instruction. 
For this purpose, during peace training schools were established fiom 
which were graduated great numbers of women who are ready at a 
moment's notice to go upon the battlefield or into hospitals. These 
professional nurses find no difficulty during times of peace in securing 
remunerative employment. Indeed, they are eagerly sought for by the 
community to take positions at the bedside of the sick, with the proviso 
that they are to be allowed to obey the pledge of their society at the 
first tocsin of war. There are schools for this purpose in England, 
Germany, Sweden, Holland, Russia and other European countries, 
and nothing has been neglected to make them thorough and to place 
them on a strong and solid basis. 



SERVICES IN TIME OF WAR. 



Notwithstanding the readiness with which most persons will 
perceive the beneficent uses of relief societies in war, it may not be 
amiss to particularize some of the work accomplished by the societies 
of the Red Cross. Not to mention civil disturbances and lesser conflicts, 



SERVICES IN TIME OF WAR. 



3' 



they participated in not less than five great wars in the first ten years, 
oommenciiis with Schleswig-Holstein, and ending with the Franco- 
German. Russia and Turkey have followed, with many others since 
that time, in all of which these societies have signally proved their 
power to ameliorate the horrors of war. The earlier of these, while 
affording great opportumly for the beneficent work of the societies, 
were also grand fields of iustructiou and discipUne to the committee, 
enabling them to store up vast funds of practical knowledge which 
were to be of great service. 

The Sanitao' Commission of the United States also sen'ed as an 
excellent example in many respects to the relief societies of Europe, 
and from it they took many valuable lessons. Thus iu 1866 Europe 
was much better prepared than ever before for the care of those who 
suffered from the barbarisms of war. She was uow ready with some 
degree of ability to oppose the arms of charily to the arms of violence, 
and make a kind of war on war itself. Still however there was a hick 
of centralization. The provincial committees worked separately, and 
consequently lost force. Notwithstanding these drawlKicks, large 
amounts of money were gathered, and munificcut supplies of material 
brought into store. The Austrian Committee alone collected 2,170,000 
francs, and a great supply of all things needed in hospital service. 
The Central Committee was of great use in facilitating correspondence 
between the different peoples comprising the Austrian Empire, the 
bureau maintaining correspondence in eleven different languages, 

Italy was not backward in the performance of her duty. She used 
her abundant resources in the most effectual way. Not only were her 
provincial .societies of relief united for common action, but they 
received external aid from France and Switxerlaud. Here wa.** exhib- 
ited the first beautiful example of neutral powers interfering in the 
cause of charity in time of war — instead of joining in tlic work of 
destruction, lending their aid to repair its damages. The provincial 
committees b«nded together nnder the Central Committee of Milan. 
Four squads, comprising well-trained nurses and assistants, were 
organized and furnished with all necessary material to follow the 
military ambulances or field hospitals, whose wagons were placed at 
their disposal. 

Thus the committee not only reinforced the sanitary ptrsonnfl 
of the army, but greatly increased its supplies. It provided entirely 
the sanitary- material for the Tyrolesc volunteers, and afforded relief to 
the navy, aud when the war was over it rcmainetl among the wounded. 




32 THE RED CROSS. 

In addition to the supplies this committee afibrded, it expended in 
money not less than 199,064 francs. 

But after all it was Germany standing between the two armies 
which distinguished herself. Since the Conference of 1863 she had 
been acting on the rule of preparation, and now found herself in readi- 
ness for all emergencies. The Central Committee of Berhn was flooded 
with contributions from the provincial committees. In the eight 
provinces of Prussia 4,000,000 of thalers were collected, and the other 
states of Germany were not behind. So munificently did the people 
bestow their aid, that large storehouses were provided in Berlin and in 
the provinces for its reception, and at the central depot in Berlin two 
hundred paid persons, besides a large number of volunteers, and nearly 
three hundred ladies and misses were employed in classifying, parcel- 
ing, packing up, and dispatching the goods. Special railroad trains 
carried material to the points of need. In one train were twenty-six 
cars laden with 1800 to 2000 cwt of supplies. Never had private 
charity, however carefully directed, been able to accomplish such 
prodigies of benevolence. It was now that the beneficence of the 
Treaty and the excellence of the organization were manifested. But 
the committee did not confine itself to sending supplies for the wounded 
to the seat of war. It established and provisioned refreshment stations 
for the trains, to which those unable to proceed on the trains to the 
great hospitals without danger to life, were admitted, nursed and cared 
for with the tenderest solicitude until they were sufliciently recovered 
to be removed, or death took them. At the station of Pardubitz from 
six liundred to eight hundred were cared for daily for two months, and 
lodging provided for three hundred at night. This example suffices to 
show the extraordinary results of well-organized plans and concerted 
action. During the war, the relief societies had also to contend with 
the terrible scourge of cholera. There can be no estimate of the misery 
assuaged and deaths prevented by the unselfish zeal and devotion of the 
wearers of the Red Cross. 

In the interval between the wars of 1866 and 1867, and that of 
1870-71, the time had been improved by the societies existing under 
the Geneva Treaty, in adding to their resources in every possible 
manner. Improvements were made in all articles of sanitary service; 
excellent treatises regarding the hygiene of the camp and hospital were 
widely circulated; the press had greatly interested itself in the promul- 
gation of information regarding all matters of interest or instruction 
pertaining to sanitary effort, and almost universally lent its powerful 



SERVICES IN TIME OF WAR. 



33 



influence to build up tlie sodelies. Teu new societies were formed during 
tliis time. In Geruiauy the work of tlie Ked Cross was so thorouglily 
orgauized, ttiat at the first sigual from Berlin, committees arrived as if 
by magic at ail required points, forming a chain which extended over 
the whole country, and numliered over two thousand persons. This is 
more remarkable since Germany was a neutral power. Constant com- 
munication w:is kept np between these committees and the central 
bureau, and the most perfect order and discipline were maintained. 
Relief was sent from one or another of these stations as was needed. 
The slate affordetl free transport, and the voluntary contributions of the 
people kept up the supplies of sanitary material, so that there was 
never any lack or danger of failure. With the government transports, 
whether by I.ind or water, there went always the agents of (he Red 
Cross, protected by their badges and Hag, to wait on the invoices, hasten 
their progress, see to their being kept in good order, and properly 
delivered at their destination. Depots of supplies were mwcd from 
place to place as exigencies demanded. The greatest care was taken 
to prevent disorder or confusion, and the best military- circumspection 
and regularity prevailed. The great central depot at Berlin comprised 
seven sections, viz: Camp material; clothing; dressing, for wounds; 
surgical apparatus; medicines and disinfectants; food and tobacco; and 
hospital furnishings. Did space allow, it would be desirable to give 
statistics of the contributions in money and supplies to this service. 
Suffice it to say, the humanity of peoples is far beyond that of govern- 
ments. Governments appropriate immense sums to carry oa destructive 
conflicts, but the work of relief societies the world over, and especially 
during the war of 1870^-71, has shown that the philanthropy of the 
people equals their patriotism. The sums given to assuage the miseries 
of the I'raiico- Prussian war were simply ^bulons. In 1863. fears were 
exprtssed that there would be difficulty in collecting needful funds and 
supplies to carry out the designs of the treat>'. These misginugs 
proved groundless. After the warof 1870-71, notwithstanding nothing 
had been withheld in the way of relief, the societies settled their 
accounts with large balances in their treasuries. 

In France not nearly so much had been pre\'iousIy done to provide 
for the exigencies which fell upon them, but the committee worked with 
such vigor and so wroui^ht ujion the philanthropy of individuals, that 
active measures of relief were instantly taken. Gold and supjilies 
H poured into the hands of the committee at Paris. One month sufficed to 



I 



I 



u 



THE RED CROSS. 



whidi immediately joined tlie army aud accompauied it through 
the first iieriod of tlie war, or until the l>att!i; of Sedan. In Paris 
ambulances were stationed at the railroad depotstopickup the wounded, 
and a tmreau of information was created for soldiers' families. When 
the siege of Paris was about to take place, the commiUee threw, with- 
out delay, a comtni&sioii into Brussels charged with the direciion and 
help of flyitig hospitals. Nine committees were established in the 
provinces, with power lo act for the Central Committee and to in\Hte the 
people to help. Meanwhile the committee in Paris did its utmost to 
mitigate the distress that reigned there, and to prepare for the result of 
the siege. History has recorded the sufferings, the horrors of misery 
that accompanied and follmve<l that siege; but liistory can never relate 
what wretchedness was averted, what agonies were alleviated, wliat 
muliitiides of lives were saved, by the presence and effort of the relief 
societies ! What the state of France must have been without the mer- 
ciful help of the Red Cross societies the imagination dare not picture. 
After the armistice was signed there were removed from Paris, nndcr 
the auspices of the relief societies, ten thousand wounded men, who 
otherwise must have lingered in agony, or died from want of care; and 
there were brought back by them to French soil nine thousand men 
who had been cared for iu German hospitals. 



NEUTRAL COUNTRIES IN TIME OF PEACE. 



Neutral countries also during this war were ready and bountiful 
with help; and those working under the treaty did most effectual 
service. England contributed 7,500,000 francs, besides large gifts of 
sanitary supplies; in one hundred and eight>'-eight days' time she sent 
to the seat of war twelve thousand boxes of supplies through the agents 
of the Red Cross. 

To give an idea of the readiness and efficacy with which the com> 
mittees worked even in neutral countries, one instance will suffice. 
From Pont-a-Mousson a telegram was sent to I/mdon for two hundred 
and 6fty iron beds for the wounded, and in forty-eight hours they 
arrived in answer to the request. England kept also at the seat of war 
agents lo inform the committee at home of whatever was most needed 
in supplies. The neutral countries sent also surgeons, physicians and 



NEUTRAL COUNTRIES IN TIME OF PEACE- 



35 



I 



I 



nurses, and in mauy other ways gave practical testimoay to the benign 
efficacy of the Geneva treaty. 

As will be seeu by the foregoing pages, the objects and provisions 
of the Geneva convention and tiie societies acting under it, are designed 
for, and applicable to, the exigencies of war only. The close contact of 
Che nation.4 hitherto signing this treaty, renders them far more liable 
to tlie recurrence of wnr among them than onr mvn. which by its 
geogmphical position and distance from neighboring nations, entertains 
a feclini; of c^xiirity which justifies the hope that we may seldom, il 
ever again, have occasion to provide fortheexigeuciesofwarinourland. 

This leads the American Red Cross to perceive the great wisdom, 
fiwesight and breadth of the rcsohition adopted by the convention of 
I86j, which provides that "Committees shall organize in the manner 
which shall seem most useful and convenient to themselves;" also in 
their article on the organization of societies in these pages occurs the 
following: " To be efficient, societies must have government recog- 
nition, must bear the stamp of their national individuality, and be 
constructed according to the spirit, habits, and needs of the countr>' 
they represent. This is essential to success." 

As no work can retain its vitality without constant action, so in a 
countrj- like ours, with a people of so active a temperament, au essen- 
tial eiemeut in endearing to them a work, is* to keep constantly before 
them its usefulness. With this view the question of meeting the want 
heretofore felt on all occasions of public calamity, of sufficient extent 
to be deemed of national importance, has received attention at the 
haudaof this association. For this purpose the necessary steps have 
beeu inaugurated to organize auxiliar>' societies, prepared to co-operate 
with the central association in all plans for prompt relief: whilst the 
volunteers who shall render personal aid will* be exptcted to hold 
themselves in the same rea<lineas as in the case of an international call. 

It must, however, be distinctly understood that these additional 
fuucttons for local purposes shall in no manner impair the international 
obligation of the association ; but on the contrary it is believed will 
reader them aiore efTcctivc in time of need. 

It may appear singular that a movement so humane in its purposes, 
ao wise and well considered in its regulations, so niiiversal in its appli- 
cation, and everj- way so unexceptional, should have been so long in 
finding its way to the knowledge and consideration of the people of the 
United Stales. This fact appears to have been the result of circum- 
stances rather than intention. While eminently a reading people, we 




^ 



THE RED CROSa 



are almost exclusively confined to the English language. The Hten- 
ture of the Red Cross is entirely in other languages, largely French, 
atid Urns has failed to meet the e>'e of the reading public. 

It will be obsen'ed that the fir&t convention was called daring our 
war; no delegates were especially sent by the United States,* but our 
Minister Plenipotentiar>' to Switzerland, acting as delegate, sent a copy 
of the doings of the convention to our government for recognition. 
In the midst of civil war as we were at the time the subject was vcty 
naturally and properly declined. 

It was again most fittingly presented in 1866 through Rer. Dr. 
Henry W. Bdlows, and by this eminent gentleman and philanthropist 
a Society of the Red Croas was actually formed; but for some cause it 
failed, and the convention was not recognized. The Intemational 
Committee became in a manner disconragcd in its efforts with the 
United States, but 6nally it was decided to present ti again through 
Miss Clara Barton, amd accordingly the following letter was addressed 
to President Hayes during the first year of his administration : 



iHTaaMATlOKAI, COUMITTSS FOa 

TBS RXUBF or WOVNDUD SOLOtRBS, 

Gbnbva, Auguit 19, i&ff. 
To Uu Presuient of the United States, at WashingUtn: 

Ua. Pkbsiubnt : The latemadooal CDtumiUcc of ibc Red Cross dcjrfrea moit 
earnMtly that the United States should be Aseociaie<I with thetti in their work, 
mxA they lake the liberty of ftddressing themselves to ya-a, with the hope that yoa 
will second their cflbrts. In order that the rnnctions of the Nntiomtt Society of 
the Red Otom be laitlifally performed, it U indispensable that it should have the 
sympathy and protection of the govermiienL 

It would be irrational to eaUblish an aaaociation npon the principles of the 
Convention of Geneva, without the aasoctatiou having the lustirnnce that the army 
of il« own country, of which it should be an auxiliary, would be guided, Kbould 
the cas e occar, by the same principles. It would consequently be oaelcfls for as to 
appeal to the people of the country, inasmuch as the United States, as a govern- 
ment, has made 00 declantiott of adhering oflidsUy to the principles laid dowa by 
the convention of the tweuty-aecond Augnat, 1864. 

Such is then. Mr. Frcsidcot, the principal object of the present request We 
do not doulrt but this will meet with a favorable reception Irom you, for the 
United States is in advance of Burope upon the subject of war, and the celebtated 
" Inatructionj of the American Army " are a monument which does honor to the 
Vnlted States. 

Vou are aware. Mr. President, that Uie Government of the United SUlcs was 
officially represented at the Convention of GtneTa, in iS6>|. by two delegntes. and 
this mark of approbation given to the work whicn was iKing accomplUhcd was 
then considered by every one a^ a precursor of a legal ntificatioo. Until the 



SlRSt LtmaR ['ROM M. CUSTAV MOVNIER TO THR 1>RRS[DBNT OP TBB UNlTltb 
STATES, DItCIWC THK ADOPTIOK OF THE TRRATV OF CENKVA.. 



[Orislual autagrsph ItanaUtJaD'by Clara B«rto4i.] 



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37 



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■fi 



AUTOGRAPH BKDORSEMBNT BV PRESIDENT GARFIELD. 



EXECUTIVE MANSION, 

WASHINGTON 



/(jLAy\- '^T'Ov--^-? Cn^^^-^.^ 








40 



INTHRNATlONATv CORRESPONDENCE. 41 

present time, however, tills confirmation hwB sot taken plscc, and wc think that 
OiiS formality, which would have no other bearing than to expres-s publicly the 
Bctjuicsceoce of the United States in those humanitarian principles now admitted 
bj nil civilized people, has only been retarded becauae the cxxuaion liaa not offered 
haelf. We flatter onnelvc:* with the hope that, appealing directly to your generous 
■mtimeuta, will detenniue >'OU to take the necessary mcavores to put an end to a 
situation so much to be regretted. We only wait such good news, Mr. President, in 
order to urge the founding of an American Society of the Red CroM. 

We have already an able and devoted assistant in Misa Clara Barion, to 
whom we confide the care of handing lo you Ihia presetit request. 

It wonid be very desirable that the projected aascveration sliould be under 
yoor distinguished patronage, and we hope that yuu will not refuse un thui favor. 

Receive, Mr. President, the assurance of our highest eoiwideration. 

For the Intenuitional Committee: O. HOVXIKS, President, 

This letter was sent to Miss Barton, who, having labored with 
committees of the Red Cross dtiriiig the Franco-Pru&!>iaa war, thus 
becoming familiar with its methods, was very naturally selected as the 
bearer of the letter, and the exponent of the cause. Moreover, foreign 
nations had secured her promise to present it to the goverumeut on her 
return to her country and endeavor to make its principles understood 
among tlie people. 

Accordingly tlie letter was presented by Miss Barton to President 
Hayes and by him referred to his Secretary of State,, but as no action 
was taken, and no promise of any actiou given, it was not deemed 
advisable to proceed to the organization of societies formed with special 
reference to acting under the regulations of a goverameutal treaty hav- 
ing no present t-xi.stence, and no guaranty of any in the future. 

Thns it remained nntil the incoming of the administration of Pres- 
ident Garfield when a copy of the letter of Mr. Moynier was presented 
by Miss Barton to President Garfield, very cordially received by 
him, and endorsed to Secretary Blaine; from whom after full con.tider- 
ation of the subject the following letter was received: 

tiBPASTUB.vT OF State, 

Washinoton, May lo, iHSr. 

'■ M135 CtA»A Bartox, American Rffrrtientaiive of the Rfd Cross, fie.. Washing' 

ion: 

Dkar Madam: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the letter 

addressed by Mr. Moynier, President of the Red Cross International Convention, 

^ lo the President of the Cnitcd States, bearing the date of the nineteenth Auguat, 

■ 1877, and referred by President Garfield on the thirtietb March, 1S81, to thU 

^f departmenL 



RED CROSS. 

It appears, from acnreful perusal of the letter, Ihnt Mr. Mofnicr is onxioiu 
that tlir Govctument of the Umlcd Sutcs should joiu with other govcrewcnU o{ 
the world in lhi» iRteriMttoiial Convention. 

Will you be pleased to »*y to Mr. Moyaier, in reply to hjs letter, tlut the 
Prcddeut of the United Statei, and the officers of Uiia goi-cruinctit, arc in full 
•ympntliy wiUi uny wiae measures tending toward the amelioration of the suffif ring 
Indilciit tr> warfare. The conatitudon o( the United Slates has, howcrer, lodfjed 
the entire wKr-uiakiuR power iu the Cou]^cs»of ttit IJailoJ Stnle*; and, u the' 
partictpatioQ of the United SUtcs io an International CouTention of this character ' 
b conitcquent upon and aiuciliary to the war-iual(iug power of the nation, Icgisls- 
tion by Congress is needful to accompliah the humane end that your sodcly hoa in 
view. It gives me, howerer, great pleasure Io &lAte that I shall Ik happy to give 
any measures which you may propoMc careful attention and coosidcration, and 
should the I'reaideiit, as t doubt not he will, approve of the matter, tlie ndnttnis' . 
trnticm will recommend (o Congress the adoption of the international treaty which 
you desire. 

] BIS, madoot, with very great respecu your obedient servant. 

JAUBS G. Bl^JKB. 

On the twenty-fifiU of Jutie the following letter from Mr. Moynier, 
prcMdcnt of the Intern ational Coininitlee of Geneva, in reply to the 
preceding letter of Secretary Blaine, was received l^ Mias Barton, and 
duly presented at the State deparluient; 



Gehkva, /une /j, tSSr. 
To the Honorable Secretary of Slate, James C. Blainb, Waihinglon: 

Sir: Miss Clara Bartou haa ju.tt communicated to me the letter which she has 
bad the honor to receive from yon, bearing date of May lo, i83t, and I baalen to 
cxprexs to 70U how much sativfaclian I have experienced from it. I do not doubt 
now, Dianks lo your favorable consideration and that of PrcMdent Garfield, Uwl 
the United Stales may soon be counted anioDK^thenuniberof signers of the C^cncva 
Convention, since yon have been Icind enough to allow me to hope that the propo- 
sition for it wilt be made to Congress by tlie administration. 

I thank you, as well as President Gar&eM, for having been willing to take into ' 
serious coDsideralimi the wish contained in my letter of August 19, 1877, nssnrcdly 
a very uaturol wii-h, since it tended to unite your country with a work of humanUy 
and civilisation for which it is one of the best (jualified. 

Since my letter of 1877 was written, scvenil new govemmeiiUl ndhesiona 
hare been given to the Geneva Convention, and I tbinlt that these precedents will 
lie much more encouraging to the United States from the fact that they lit .c t>cen 
given bj' America. It was under the influence of events of the recent war of the 
Pacific that Ilolivia signed the treaty the l6tb of October, 1879. Chili ou ihc i^tb 
of November. 1879, Argentine Republic 00 the ajth of November, 1879. and Peru 
on the a2<i of April, 1881, Thit argument in favor of the adhesion of your country 
is the only one I ran add to my requcitt, and to the printed documents tlint Miss 
Barton has placed io your hands, to aid your judgment and that of Congress. 



INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE. 45 

I DOW await with full confidence the final result of your sympathetic efforts, 
and I beg you to accept, sir, the assurance of my high consideration, 

G. MoYNiHH, President. 

The very cordial and frank expressions of sympathy contained 
in Secretary Blaine's letter gave assurance of the acceptance of the 
terms of the treaty by the government at no distant day, and war- 
ranted the formation of societies. Accordingly a meeting was held in 
Washington, D. C, May 21, 1881, which resulted in the formation 
of an association to be known as the American [National] Association 
of the Red Cross. A constitution was adopted, a copy of which follows: 



afi 



THE RED CROSS. 



CONSTITUTION. 



Name, Locaium, 

Arttcu! I. Tliim Aitaociatioii stiall b« known as the American Associatioa 
of the Rcil Cruw, wilh iu office located at Wasbiuglon, D. C, and shall connst 
of the ■ubecribcre hcreuuto, aud stiich other pereoas as shall hereafter be elected 
to membership ; and it shaU constitute a Central National AModation with power 
Lo orgamzc state and territorml aA!tociAdon« auxiliary to itself. 

Objeeii of Associati<m. 

Aet. 2. The objects of the National Asaociation ue, 

FU'Si^ to necure the adoption by the Government of the United States of 
Treaty of August ai, 1864. 

StctmJ, To obuiu recognition by the Ooverument of Ihc L'uilcd States, and 
to hold it»elf in readiness for communicating theicwilh at all times, lo the end 
that its purposes may be more videly and effectually carried out, 

TTtird, To organize a system of ualioaal relief and apply the aame in 
mitigating tbc siifTcrings caused bj- war, pestilence, famtuc aod other calamities. 

Fottrth, To collect and diffuse iiifoniiation toucbiuK the progress of laercy. 
t3ie oigantzation of national relief, the adraucemcnt of sanitary science and 
hoHpitiil service, and Ihclr apjilication. 

fifth. To co-opcrale with all other national sociclica. for Ihc furtherance of 
the articles herrin net fortli, in such ways as are provided by the rcgulationa 
governing soch co-operation. 

Dtttia. 

Aar. J. Tliia association shall hold itself in n-adincss In the event of war or 
any calamity gr^t enough to be conxiilere<l national, to inaugurate such practical 
measurea, in mitigation uf the suffering and for the protection and relief of sick 
And wounded, as may be consistent with the objects of the association as ittdicaled 
is Article a. 

Offian, 

Art. 4. The officers of this association shall consist of a preudent ; first vice- 
presidcut ; other vice-presidents, not to exceed one from CRcb State, Territory, and 
the District of Columbia ; a secretary ; treasurer ; an executive board ; a boaid for 
eoosultallon, which shnll consist of the following officers of the United States 
Oovertimcnt, viz: The President and his cabinet : General of the Army ; Sm'geon 
General: Adjutant General, and Judge Advocate General, and such other officers 
M may hereafter be deemed Decessaiy. 




I 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION. 



47 



1H5 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF THE RED CROSS. 



Originai. Incobjoratiow. 

The nnderalgned, all of whom are citbetut of the United States of America, 
and « majority of whom are citizens of lh« District of Columliia. dcsiroita of farm- 
ing an association for benevolent and charitable jvurposM to co-operate with the 
Comity Intemationnl de Secoum aux Mililaires Blesa^ of Geneva, Switzerland, do, 
iaptmaance of sections 545, 546. 547. 548, 549, ssownd 55 r of the Revised Statutea 
of the United States, relating to the District af Colombia, make, sigo and acknowl- 
edge these: 

AETICIAS dp XXCORFOBATIOK. 

I. 

name of this aasociarion ahall be the American Aeaocintion of the Red 



J. 
The term of jta existence ithatt he for twenty (so) vean. 



The objects of this association shall be: 

tn. To secure hy the United States the adoption of the treaty of August as, 
1864, betwee^n Italy. Baden. Bcl^uni, Denmark, Holland. Spain, Portugal, Prance, 
Pmaua, Saxony, Wurtemlierg, and the Federal Council of Switzerland. 

ad. To obtain recognition by the Governmeut of the United States, and to 
hold itself in readiness for communicating therewith at all timca, to the end that 
Its purposes may he more wiaely and effectnally carried oat. 

3d. To oiganiae a l^cm of untional relief and apply the same in mitigating 
the sufferings caused by war, pealilence. famine and other calamitie*. 

4th. To collect and diffuse information touching the progress of mercy, the 
organizstion oT oatioiial relief, the advancement of sanitary science, aad tbdr 
■ppHcation. 

5th. To cooperate with all other similar national sodetica for the furtherance 
of the articles hi-rein set forth, in such ways as are provided by the regulations 
governing such co-operation. 



Thennmberof this nnociation, to be styled the '* Executive Board,*' forth* 
first year of its existence, sliall Iw eleven fill. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set onr hands and seals at the city of 
Washington this first day of July. A. O. 1881. 



48 THE RED CROSS. 



THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. 

The proceedings of ikis Conference and what led up to it we learn chiefly from 
the historical report of the Conference by Mr. Gustav Moynier and Dr. 
Louis Appia, of the International Committee of the Red Cross. It was the 
work of this Conference that laid the foundation for the Treaty of Geneva, 
adopted in the following year. 

In the year 1864, Europe was covered, as if by enchantment, 
with a network of committees for the relief of wounded soldiers; and 
this phenomenon would have led the least discerning persons to suspect 
that this special work was entering on a new phase. Several of these 
committees had already begun to exercise their functions in the Schles- 
wig-Holstein war, yet all unanimously proclaimed that they would 
constitute themselves as permanent institutions, and, in a great measure, 
they seemed to obey one watch-word. All, in fact, declared in their 
charter of establishment, that they would conform to the resolutions 
of the Geneva Conference. 

What, then, was this conference, whose magic wand had, so to 
speak, electrified all nations? It seems too important an historical fact 
to be passed over in silence, because we feel certain that an inquiry into 
its nature, and how it arose, will prove highly interesting. 

I. It originated with the Soci^t^ Genevoise d'utilit^ publique, which 
had undertaken to contribute toward the progrcM of philanthropy. 
At its sitting of the ninth of February, 1863, it discussed the question, 
in accordance with the proposition of one of its members, M. Henri 
Dunant, whether means might not be found to form, during a time of 
peace and tranquillity, relief societies, whose aim should be to help the 
wounded in time of war by means of volunteers, zealous, devoted and 
well qualified for such work. 

Although it had no very clear idea of what should be done, in order 
to obtain the result which seemed desirable, the society took the matter 
under its patronage, and entrusted the examination of it to a special 
commission, with full power to act. 

The course to be pursued was long debated in ■ this little com- 
mittee, the members of which finally agreed to submit the question to 
more competent judges. It was, in fact, necessary, before encouraging 
the formation of societies of volunteers, to know whether any need for 
them had been felt, and whether they would not be regarded with a 



FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. 



49 



jealotift eye by the administrative or military authorities. It was also 
nccessar>' to determine what should be the nature of their action under 
\-arious social and political forms of government. In order not to 
venture recklessly on a road bristling with obstacles, it was therefore 
evident thai tbey ought to take as guides experienced men, versed iu 
the practice of war, and belonging to different nationalities. An Inter- 
national Conference appeared to be indispensable to the work, as a basis 
or starting point. If, after this ordeal, the first idea, upon which the 
most divergent opinions were e%'eu then professed, should be recognized 
as impracticable, its partisans would at least possess the consolation of 
having done their best. We shall have, said one of them, the approval 
of our consciences, and the feeling that we have done that which it is 
right men should do who love their neighbor. If, on the contrary, the 
thing were pronounced to be good, uscl'.il and acceptable, what cucour- 
agement such a decision would afford them to launch out upon their 
course ! Wliat moral force they who should first put themselves 
iu the breach would receive I It was not a time to hesitate. The 
circular convoking the meeting was issued ou the first of ScptenilKn', 
1863. 

Nothing was ucgtected that could give the greatest publicity to 
this appeal. Il was brought .sjjeciaHy to the notice of the International 
Statistical Congress, sitting at Berlin, in the month of September, 1863, 
which expressed an opinfou entirely favorable to the project. 

At length the day fixed for tlie t^etiing of the Conference arrived. 
On the morning of the iweuty-sixth of October, in the rooms of the 
Athenreum at Geneva, might he seen an assembly composed of eighteen 
official delegates, representing fourteen governments, six delegates of 
different associations, seven imaccrcdited visitors, with five members 
of the Geneva Committee. It was sufficient to glance m-er the list of 
the thirt>'-six members of the Conference, to understand that the expecta- 
tion of its promoters was attained, and even surpassed, and that their 
initiative had already found its reward in the meeting of such a body. 
It was impossible that a deliberation among men so eminently qualified 
should not throw the fullest light on the question submitted to them. 
The committee tells us that the eagerness with which the invitation 
was responded to soon justified the propriety of the step it bad taken. 
It became convinced Uiat, in drawing public attention to the insuffi- 
ciency of the official sanitary service, it had touched a sensitive chord, 
and had responded to a universal wish. It was also convinced that it 
was not pursuing a chimerical object. If, for s moment, it had feared 



The red cross. 



I 



that its project would only attract mere dreamers and Utopians, it was 
reassured on seeiag that it had to deal with men in earnest, with medi- 
cal and nu]itar>' magnates. It also received much encouragement from 
persons who were prevented firom taking port in the debates, but who 
testified to the lively interest they took io them. 

It was then, with the most happy auspices that General Dufbur 
opened the Conference, which lasted four days, under the presidency 
o/ M. Moynier, president of the Gencvoise Society- of Public Utility, 
and thevice-presidency of His Highness Prince Henrj- XIII.. of Reuss. 
the delegate of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Every one seemed 
animated by the best motives, and desirous not to lose so good an 
(^portunity to open a new arena for the cause of charity. It was inter- 
esting to witness the general unanimity, as new as it was sponuueous, 
on a question of humanity instantaneously developed into one of philan- 
thropic urgenc)'. Dr. Landa, delegate of the Spanish Government, 
well expressed the sentiment of the assembly when he exclaimed, "Oh, 
tliat we may be so liappy as to discover the basis which shall render the 
tlie useful institution we aspire to found durable and effectual I * ' The 
.magnitude of the result which may be obtained, and the tears which 
may be wiped away, demand that \Te should devote all our efforts to 
attain it; and if this work be realized, it will be an event which all 
friends of humanity will be able to bail with the greatest Joy. We 
feci, said the president of the Conference, thdt a great duty is imposed 
upon us, and we shall not rest until we have found means to lessen for 
our fellow- creatures the privations, the sufferings and the evils of all 
kinds which are the inevitable consequences of an armed contest. 

So much good-will was not superfluous, in order to accomplish 
the arduous task of the Conference. For what, indeed, was it laboring? 
For nothing less than to reconcile two opposites — charity and war. 
The propriety of voluntary aid being admitted, it was necessary to 
leave it sufficiently free, in order that xeal might not be cooled bjr 
unreasonable conditions; yet, at the same time, to subject it to a certain 
discipline, so that it might have access to the army without being an 
encumbrance to it. Here was the real problem to be soU-ed. Here 
was a link to be established between the civil and the military, which, 
though opposed, are not necessarily incompatible, and should be 
encouraged to live fraternally side by side. The experience of modem 
wars seemed to justify this inquiry, for it was averred that here the 
administration of voluntary offerings had been defective. Besides, 
the question presented itself in a new character, owing to the fact that 



FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. 



51 



a staff of x'olunteers occnpied an important place in it. If this view of 
the case was to take precedence of nil others, nothing less than a com- 
plete revolution was intended, and its importance being acknowledged, 
it would have been wTong to engage in it otherwise than caiuestly. It 
was for discussion to reveal the opinion that was entertained of it. 

Independently of all that was difficult in the very nature of the 
subject with which the conference was to occupy itself, it met with 
another obstacle, in the consideration which it was obliged to give to 
the different forms of government under which civiUzed natious dwelt 

It is certaiu that a relief committee would be bound to modify 
its conduct, and its bands would be more or less free, according to the 
political or social circle in which it would have its existence. For 
example, where individual initiative is highly developed, as in Switzer- 
land and America, there will be found liberty for the efforts of free 
sixrieties which would not be tolerated to the same degree iu France or 
Austria. The consequence of this situation was, that, called to draw 
up ft code of military philanthropy for the use of all oations, the 
Conference could only advocate general principles, so that its decisions 
might be everywhere acceptable. 

Here it took its stand, and following the advice of its president, 
it left to each society the duty of regulating minute details an it might 
judge expedient. It wisely confined its ambition to the cctistructiun 
of a solid fomidatiou for the monument which it wished to erect, and 
whiclt was perhaps destined to become one of the glories of our 
century. 

het us now give heed to the voice of the Conference, and let us 
cast our eyes over the resolutions, placed side by side with the propO' 
siHons presented by the Geneva Committee, under the title of ProfH de 
Concordat. It is evident, indeed, from a comparison of these two docu- 
ments that the first ideas were tme, since they have only l>cen slightly 
modified. The authors of this project, however, ofler it as the 
eminently perfectible fruit of their first meditations, and as a basis 
which tliey deemed it right to furnish to the Conference, in order to 
guide it in its labors, 

Cknbral Pro\'isions. 

Abticlk I. Tbere shall be, in each of the contracting: countnca, a national 
committee, whose duty shall consist in remedying, by aU the menn-s in Itn power, 
the inadequacy of the ofBctal sanitary service of the anuio in acti\'e service. 

This committee ithftll organize itaelf in the manner which mny appear to it the 
tDo>t ujcfnl and expedient 



5^ 



THE RED CROSS. 



Art. 2. Seclioiiii, unlimited in number, shall be foonde*!. in order to second 
the aalional committee. Tbcsc shall be necessarily subordinate to the conuaittce, ' 
to which aloiic shall belong the supreme direction. 

Abt. 3. Every natioual committee shall place itself in oommunicatioa wit 
the government nf iU own country, unci Khalt nMxrtiitn that iU efFivrU of Mt 
will be accepted in case of war. 

Art. 4- In time of peace, the committees and their Mctlooa ihall occupy 
themselvea with improvements to be introduced in the military sanitary service, io 
the establiabmcnt of ambulances and liaipitaLs, in the means of transporla for the . 
w-ounded, etc, and in pursuing the realization of these objecta. 

Art. 5. The committee* andsectiuns of thedifTrientcoiiotrieashaHreasaemblv 
in iutemational congresses, in order to communicate Che resukof their experience, 
and to concert together on the measures to be taken in Hie interests of the work. 

Art. & In the month of January every year, the national committees shall 
present a report of ttieir labors durtn;; the past year, adding to it such communica- 
tions as they may consider useful to be brouj{bt lo the knowledge of the committees 
of Other con 11 trie*. The exclmrige of thetw comimini cations and reports shall 
managed through the medium of the Geneva committee, to whom they shall 
oddreased. 



Special Provisions in Cask or War. 

Art. 7. In aae of wnr. the committees of the belligerent nations shall fnrnlsl 
the necessary aid to thdr respective armies, and. in particular, shall prox-idc fc 
the fniniation ami organization of corpaof volunteer nurses. 

Tliey fihall solicit the support of the committees belunginR to neutral nations. 

Art. 8. Tlic volunteer nurses shall bind themselves to svtvc during a limited 
lime, and not in any way To meddle in the operations of the war. 

They shall he employed, according to their wish, in field Mnrice or in that of 
the hocpttals. Females will necenwrity be assigned to the latter. 

Art. <)■ The volunteer nurses shall wear a uniform in all countries, or an 
identical distinctive bodge. Their person shall be sacred, and military chie& shall 
afford them protection. 

At the commencement of a campaign, tlie soUlieia of both armies shall be 
informed of the existeiice of these corps, and of their cxclosively benevolent char- 
acter. 

RasoLtmoN!! OP ruR Confrrbkcb. 

The IiitemaUonal Conference, desirous to give aid to the wounded soldien in 
all cases where the military medical service shall be ina<!cquate, has adopted the 
follo-n-ing resolutions; 

.\RTrcLE I. There shall be in every country a committee whose duty it will be 
toco-operate in lime of war hy all the means in iu power, with the sanilar)- ser- 
vice of the army. 

This committee shall organize itself In the manner which may appear to it as 
the most useful and expedienL 

Art. a. Seaions, unlimited in number, shall be formed, in order to second thi 
committee, to which the general direction will belong. 



FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. 



53 



Art. 3. Every conunittee shull place llseJf in couiiuuniciilioii with tliegOTcrn* 
mcDt of its orm cooutry, in order that its offers of aseidaucc, in case of need, 
may be accepted. 

Art, 4. In time of peace Uic committees and sections shnll be occupied with 
the means (o make themselves rc»lly useful in time of war. espcciHlly in pTii)ariu}{ 
nutcriul aid of every kind, aud in endeavoring to train and iastruct vohiuicct 
ourses. 

Art. 5. Ill the event of war, the committees of the bcllt^rent nations sUall 
farniab relief to their respective nniiiefl in proportion to Iheir resources: iri pftrtic- 
uliir, they shull or({anize and place the voluutecr nursca on an active foolitig, aud, 
in conjunction with the military authority, they itbiLlL KTrange place* for the rccep- 
tion of the wounded. 

They shall soltcic the assistaace of the cotnuiitletM belonging to ncatral 
nations. 

Art. 6. On the demand, or -vrith the concnrrence, of the military authority, 
the committers xhall »end volunteer nurses to the field of bailie. They xhall t]ier« 
place them under tlK direction of titc military chiefx. 

Art. 7. The volunteer nurses employed with nrnne.s sh.iH be provided, by 
their respective committees, with everj-thing necessary for their maintenance. 

Art. S. Tliey idinll wear, in all couulrics, a white bund around the arm with 
a Red Cross upou it, as a distinctive and uniform badge. 

Art. 9. The commitivcs and sections of the different countries shall meet in 
International Conference, in order to communicate to each other the results of 
their experience, and to decide on the measures to be ndopied for the cidvancc- 
menl of the work. 

Art. 10. The exchat^e of communicationa between the commmitees of the 
different niLtiuns shall be made provuuooally through the medium of the Com- 
mittee of Geneva. 

IndepeiKlently of the above resoIution.s, the Conference expressed the follow* 
iog wishes : 

A. Thai the govemmenlH »hou1d grant protection to the national oommittee« 
which may be formed, and should, as far as possible, facititale ihe accomplishment 
of their task. 

B. That, id time of war, neutrality shonid be proclaimed by the belligerent 
nations for the field and stationary' hospitals, nnd that il may nlflo l>e accorded, in 
the most complete manner, to all ofGciab employed in sanitary work, to volunteer 
nurses, to the inbabilantx of the country who sluitl axiiiKt the wounded, and to the 
woiindeii IhemnelvcK, 

That an incidental distinctive sign be adopted for the medical corps of all 
■nutes, or, at least, for all persons attached to this service in the same army. 

That an identical flag he also adopted for the field and stationary hospiialA of 
all armies. 

The innovation which is most striking, in reading these documents, is Uie 
pre-«zistenceof the committees for war, and their creation and maintenance in 
times of peace. 

If those societies which have hitherto labored had only conformed to this 
ftrrangemcnt, they would have been upared much trouble, and would have l»ren 
able to gin to their resources a more j'ldicious direction. If each of them bad 



54 THE RED CROSS. 

been enlightened by the experience of its predecesson ; if e&ch bad known before 
hand that which it would have to do in such and such an emergency ; if it lud 
anticipated obstacles in order to remove them ; and if it had been provided with 
money and material, it wotild have been able to render much greater necvioes, utd 
woald not, to the same extent, have been a victim either to its inexperience or to 
its precipitation. The preliminary study of ways and means woald have left traces 
of something more systematic and would have prevented much waste and manj 
folse calculations. Volnntary action will be so mnch more efficacions when It shall 
have preorganized. At a meeting of the different German relief committees hdd 
at Berlin, on the tenth of July, 1864, Baron Tint), of Vienna, strongly innsted on 
this truth, and the Committee of Schwerin did the same in its report of 18$^ 
When our generosity shall be less ignorant, it will know where and in what ws^* . 
it can be useful ; we shall economize onr means ; we shall mnltiply our gifts by the 
good employment that we diall make of them, and by the direction that will be 
^ven to the public desire. Sis dai, qui ciio dat. He who gives opportunely ^vei 
twice. 



INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS TREATY. 



57 



THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS TREATY. 



CONVBtfTION OV CItXBVA. 

For the Amelioratum oj the Condition oj the Wounded in Armies at the field, 

Aniguit fi, 1864, 

The sovercijins of the following countries, to wit : Ba<lcn. Belgium, Drnmarlc, 
Holland, Spaiu, Poitu^nl, France, Prussia, Saxony, Wiirtembeig, anil ibe Federal 
Council of Sviucrland, animated by a common dcairc of mitigating, as for aa in 
their power, the evils in«pBJ»blefrom war, of suppressing nee<llcsi severities and 
of amcliuialiu^ the conditioa of soldiers wounded on fields of battle, haviug 
conclndnl to drtvrmini; u treaty for Ihtii purpoK, these plenipoteiitiurio, after the 
due interchange of their powers, found to be in good and proper form, bav.: agreed 
upon the following; articles, to wit : 

Articlb I. Ambulances (field hospitals) and military hospitals shall be 
acknowledged to be neutral, and ut MUCh shall be jiroti^^-lcil nnd respected by 
belligereuts, 90 long as any siclc or wounded may be therein. Such neutrality 
ahallccuiie, if tbeambulunces or hospitals should beheld by n militar)* force. 

Art. 3. rersons employed tn hospitals and ambulances, comprising the staff 
for superintendence, medical aerrlce, admiaLstration, transport of wounded, as 
well as chaplains, shall participate in the l^enefit of neutrality whilst so employed, 
and so long as there remain any to bring in or to succor. 

Art. 3. The penwns designated in the preceding article may, even after occu- 
jwtion hy the enemy, continue to fidfill their duties iu the hospital or ambulance 
which they way hare, or may withdraw in order to regain the corps to which they 
belong. Under such circuuistanccs, wbcn the persona shall cease from their func* 
tions, they shall be delivered by the occupying army to the outposbtof the enemy. 
They shall have specially the right of sending a representative to the headquarters 
of their respective annie& 

Art. 4. As the equipment of milttorj hospitala remains subject to the invn 
of war, persons attacbed tosucb hospitals cannot, on withdrawing, carry away any 
articles but auch as arc tUcir private property. Under tliesamecircumotances an 
ambulance shall, on the contrary, retain its equtpmeut. 

Art. s. lobabitants of the country who may bring help to the wounded shall 
he respected and small remain free. The generaLt of the belligerent powers sball 
make it their care to inform the inhabitants of the appeal addressed to their 
humanity, and of the neutrality which will lie the consequence of it. Any 
wounded man en te rt.it i)e<l and talten care of in a hoHse shall be con^dered as a 
>tection thereto. Any inhabitant who Bhall have entertained wounded men in 
[his house shall be exempted from the quartering of troops, as well as from a part 
of the contributions of war which may be imposed. 

Art. 6. Wounded or sick soldiers shall be entertained and taken care of, to 
whatever nation they may belong. Comman^lere-in-ehtef shall have the power to 
deliver inunediatdy to the outpostsof the enemy, soldiers who have been wounded 



r 



I uigagmicnt, vhcQ drctumtsnocs pcnnit 
•ent of both piinics. Those frixQ an ncognUK<l .ifter tbey are hnUcd as iocApable 
of serving, shall be sent back to tbcir country. The others may also be sent ba<i 
on the condition of not ajjatn Ijcnriag amis iluring the costinunace of the war- 
Bvscuations, togcthFr with the penotu under whose directioas they take place, 
ahall be protected by hq absolute neutrality. 

Akt. 7. A di^inctive and uniform flag shall be adopted for ho^itals, ambti- 
lanoes, and evacuations. It Ditu.t on erery oocasioD be accompanied by the 
national fla^;. Au arm badge (braasaid) shall also be allowed for indtridnols 
seatraliied, but the dvlivirry tlicreof sbnll be Irfl to military authority. The fla^ 
and arm badg« shall bear a red cross on a white K^ound. 

Art. S. The details of execution of the present convention shall be rej^lated 
1)y the commandcTS-in-cbief of belligerent armies, according to the instructions ol 
their respective governments, and in conformity with the general priitciplea laid 
down tn this convcutiou. 

Akt. 9. The high cuntractiug powers hare agreed to commnntcatc thepresent 
conviftitiou to those gorcmments which have not found itcouveDieniio send pletU- 
potcntianes to tile I iitemational Convention at Geneva, with au invitation to 
accede thereto; the protocol ia, for that purpose, left open. 

AkT. 10, The present convetiliou shall be ratified and the ratification aball be 
ezdianged at Beroe, in four months, or sooner, if pooaible. 

In witness thereof the respective plenipoteuUaries have signed the aamc, and 
have aflixefl thereto the seal of their arma. 

Done at Geneva, the twcnty-thtrd day of Angu-tt. 1 864. 



GOVERNMENTS ADOPTING THE TREATY. 



List in chronological order of the govemmeuls which have adopted 
the articles of Uie Cou\'eiiltou of Geueva. of the twenty-second of 
Augu&t, 1S64.: 

France September 12, 1864, 

Switzerland October 1, 1864. 

BcJgium October 14. 1864, 

Nelherland.-! November 29, 1864. 

Italy December 4, 1864. 

Sweden and Norway December 13, 1864. 

Denmark December 15, 1864. 

Spain December 15, 1S64. 

Baden December 16, 1864. 

Greece Januar>- 17, 1S65. 

Great Britain February 18. 1865. 



GOVERNMENTS ADOPTING TREATY. 59 

Mecklenburg-Schwerin March 9, 1865. 

Prussia June 22, 1865. 

Turkey July 5, 1865. 

Wiirtemberg June 2, 1866. 

Hesse Darmstadt June 22, 1866. 

Bavaria June 30, 1866. 

Austria July 21, 1866. 

Portugal August 9, 1866. 

Saxony October 25, 1866. 

Russia May 22, 1867. 

Pontifical States May * 9, 1868. 

Roumania November 30, 1874. 

Persia December 5, 1874. 

San Salvador December 30, 1874. 

Montenegro November 29, 1875. 

Servia March 24, 1876. 

Bolivia October 16, 1879. 

Chili No'-ember 15, 1879. 

Argentine Republic November 25, 1879. 

Peru April 22, 1880. 

United States March 1, 1882. 

Bulgaria March i, 1884. 

Japan June 5, 1886. 

Luxemburg October 5, 1888. 

Hungary 

Congo Free State 

Venezuela 1894. 

Siam June 29, 1895. 

South African Republic September 30, i8g6. 

Honduras May 16, 1898. 

Nicaragua May 16, 1898. 



«o 



THE RED CROSS. 



The following public address, written in 1881, is inserted because 
of its historical character, showing as it does, quite as well as anything; 
that could now be written, the geueral apathy in Ammca conceniiug 
the treaty, aud tlie many obstacles that had to be overcome by years 
of struggle aud weary waitiog: 



ADDRESS BY CLARA BARTON. 



To iht President, Congress^ and People 0/ the Untied SUites: 

A brief statement of how I became acquainted with the Red 
Cross may ser^'e to explain at once its principles and methods, as 
well as the present attitude of our goveruutcnt In regard to it. 

The practical beueficence of the sauitarj' and clirislian commis- 
sions of tlic United States attracted the atlentioi) of tlie civilized world. 
I had borne some part in the operations of field hospitals in actual 
ser\'icc in tlie battles of the Rebellion, aud some public notice had been 
taken of that work. But, broken in health, I was directed by my 
physicians to go to Europe prepared lo remain three years. 

In September, 1S69, I arrived at Geneva, Switzerland. In 
October I was visited by the president aud members of the " Inter- 
national Committee for the relief of the wounded in war." They 
wished to Icani if possible why the United States Imd declined to sign 
the treaty. Our position was incomprehensible to them. If the 
treaty had originated with a monarcliial government they could see 
some ground for hesitancy. But it originated in a Republic older than 
our own. To what did America object, and how could these objections 
be overcome? The>' had t^vicc formally presented it to the government 
at Washington, once in 1864, through our Minister Plenipotentiary- at 
Berne, who was present at the convention ; again in 1868, through 
Rev. Dr. Henry W. Bellows, the great head of war relief in America. 
They had failed in both instances. No satisfactory nor adequate 
reason had ever been given by the nation for the course pursued. 
They had thought the people of America, with their gjand sanitary 
record, would be the first to appreciate and accept it. I listened in 
silent wonder to all this recital, and when I did reply it was to say that 
I had never in America heard of the Convention of Geneva nor of the 



ADDRESS. 



61 



I 

I 



I 



I 



treaty, and was sure that as a country America did not know she had 
declined; that she would be the last to withhold recognition of a 
Lumane movement ; that it had doubtless been referred to and declined 
by some one department of the government, or some one official, and 
had never been submitted to the people; and as its literature was In 
languages foreign to onr English-speaking population, it had no way 
of reaching us. 

You will naturally infer that I examined tt. I became all the 
time more deeply impressed with the wisdom of its principles, the good 
practical sense of its details, and its extreme usefulness iu practice. 
Humane intelligence bad de\'ised its provisions and peculiarly adapted 
it to win popular favor. The absurdity of our own position in relation 
to it was simply marvelous. As I counted up its roll of twenty-two 
ftationii — nut a civilized pec^le in the world but ourselves missing, and 
saw Greece, Spain, and Turkej- there. T l)egan to fear that in the eyes 
of the " rest of mankind " we could not be far from barlnrians. This 
reflection did not furnish a stimulating food for national pride. I grew 
more and more ashamed. But the winter wore on as-wintcrs do with 
invalids abroad. The simiraer found mc at Berne in quest of strength 
Among its motintain views and baths. 

On the fifteenth of July, 1870, France declared war against Prussia. 
AVithin three days a band of agents from the " Intematicmal Committee 
of Geneva," headed by Dr. Louis Appia foneof the prime movers of 
the convention), equipped for work and en nmtc for the seal of war, 
stood at the door of my villa inviting me to go with them and take 
such part as I had taken in our own war. I had not strength to trust 
for that, and declined with thanks, promising to follow in my own 
time and way, and I did follow within a week. No shot had then 
been fired — no man had fallen — yet this organized, powerful commis- 
sion was on its way, with its skilled agents, ready to receive, direct 
and dispense the charities and accumulations which the geaeroua 
sympathies of twenty-two nations, if applied to, might place at its 
disposal. These men had treaty power to go directly on to any field, 
and work unmolested in full co-operation with the military and com- 
manders- in -chief ; their snpplies held sacred and their efforts recognised 
and seconded in every direction b>- either belligerent army. Not a 
man could He uncared for nor unfed. I thought of the Peninsnla in 
McCIellan's campaign — of Pittsburg Landing. Cedar Mountain and 
second Bull Run, Antietam. Old Fredericksburg with its acres of snow- 
covered and gun-covered glaeee, and its fourth-day flag of truce ; of its 




^ 



dead, and tturvin; wounded, frozen to the ground, and onr commissions 
and tlictr iiupplie» in Washington, with no elective organizatton to go 
Ifcyoiid ; of tb« Hetersbarg mine, with its four thousand dead and 
wuuuded and no flag of tmce, the wounded broiling in a Jtily son — 
diod and rotted where the)' fell. I remembered our priaocs, crowded 
with iftnrving men whom all the powers and pities of the world could 
>t reach cveti with a bit of bread. 1 thought of the widows' weeds 
111 freah and dark through all the land, north aud south, from the 
~plnc to tlie palm; the shadows on the hearths aud hearts over all my 
country. Sore, broken hearts, ruined, dcsoUtc homes ! Was this 
people to decline a humanity In war? Was this a country to rgect a 
treaty for the help of wounded soldiers ? Were these the women and 
men to stand aloof and consider? 1 be)ie\'ed if these people knew that 
the last cloud of war had forever passed ftom their horizon, the tender, 
pniiiful, deathless memories of what had been would bring them in 
with a force no power could resist. They needed only to know. 

As I journeyed on and saw the work of these Red Cross societies 
in the Geld, accomplishing in four months under tbeic systematic organ- 
ization what we failed to accomplish in four years without it — no 
mistakes, no needless suffering, no starving, no lack of care, no waste, 
no confusion, but order, plenty, cleanliness and comfort wherever that^^l 
little flag made its way— ^ whole continent marshaled under the bannerol 
of the Red Cross — as I saw all this, and joined and worked in it, yon 
will not wonder that I said to myself " If I live to return to ray country 
I will try to make my people understand the Red Cross and that 
treaty." But I did more than resolve, I promised other nations I 
would do it, and other reasons pressed nic to renieitiber my p 
The Franco-Prussian war and the war of the commune were both en 
moiis in Uie extent of their operations and in the snfTenng of individuals. 
Tliui great mcKlcm international impulse of charity went out every- 
where to meet and alleviate it.s miseries. The small, poor countries 
gave of their poverty and the rich nations poured out abundantly of 
their vast resources. The aintribotions of those under the Rt-d Cross 
went quietly, promptly through international responsible channels, 
were thoughtftdly and carefully distributed through well-known agents, 
returns, accurate to a franc, were made and duly published to the credit 
of the contributing nations, and the ohjtd aimed ai was accomplished. 
America, filled with German and French people, with people humane 
and universal in their instinctsofcitizenshipand brotherhood, freighted 
ships with supplies and contributions in money prodigal and vast* 





ADDRESS 



63 



I 
I 
I 



tbcy arrived in Europe, but they were not tinder the treaty regula- 
tions. No sign of the Red Cross authorized any one to receive and 
dbtribute them. The poor baffled agents, honest, well meaning and 
indefatigable, did all that individnak without system or organization 
could do. But for the most part the magnificent charity of America 
was misapplied and went as unsystematized charity always tends to go, 
to ruin and to utter waste. T/ie objtet aimed al was not accomplishid. 

At the e:id of the report of the interaational oigantzatioo of the 
Red Cross occurs something like tliis: " It is said that the United States 
of America also contributed soraelliing for the sick and wounded, but 
•what, or how much, or to whom, or when or where, it is impossible to tell. " 

In the autumn of »873, I rctunicd to America more broken in 
health than wlien I left iu 18&9. 'ITien followed years of suffering ia 
which I forgot how to walk, but I remembered my resolve and my 
promise. After almost fi\'e years I was able to go to Washington with 
a letter from Monsieur Moyuier, president of the International Com- 
mittee of Geneva, to the President of the United States, asking once 
more that our goverup'— 't accede to the articles of the convention. 
Having been made the official bearer of this letter, I presented it in 
1877 ^ President Hayes, who received it kindly, referring it to his 
Secretary of State. Mr. ^^•^rts, who in his turn referred it to his assistant 
secretary as the person who would know all about it, examine and 
report for decision. I then saw how it was made to depend not alone 
upon one department, but one man, who had been the assistant secre- 
tary of state in 1S64 and also in 1868. when the treaty bad been on the 
two previous occasions presented to our government. It was a settled 
thing. There was nothing to hope for from that administration. The 
matter had been officially referred and would be decided accordingly. 
It would be declined because it had been declined. If I pressed it to a 
decision, it would only weigh it down with a third refusal. I waited. 
My next thought was to refer it to Congress. That step would be 
irregular, and discourteous to the administration. I did not like to 
take it, still I attempted it, but could aot get it considered, for it 
promised neither political influence, patronage, nor votes. 

The next year I retunied to Washington to try Congress again. 
I published a little pamphlet of two leaves addresse<J to the members 
and senators, to be laid upon their desks in the hope they would take 
the trouble to read so little as that, and be by so much the better pre- 
pared to consider and act upon a bill if I could get one before them. 
My strength fiiiled before I could get that bill presented, and I went 




64 



THE RED CROSS. 



home again in midwinter. There then remained but a portion of the 
tenn of that admin istrftt ion, and I determined, if possible, to outlive 
it, hoping another would be more responsive. Meanwhile I wrote, 
talked, and did whatever I could to spread the idea among the people, 
and March, i8Si. when tlte administiation of Presideot Garfield came 
in, I went again to WashiuKton. The subject was ver>' cordially- 
received by the President and carefully referred by him to Secretary 
Blaine, who considered it himself, conferred fully with me, and finally 
laid it before the Presideut and the cabitiet. Perhaps the most satis- 
factory account of that trausactiou will be iound iu the letter of Mr. 
Blaine addressed to me, (see page 33 ) , which gives the asstirance that 
President Garfield would reccommeud the adoption of Uic treaty in. 
bi& me&»age to Congress. 

What were the proviuons of that treaty which had Ijeen so con- 
spicuously and persistently neglected and apparently rejected by this 
whole goveniment, whose people arc as humane as any i)cople in the 
world, and as ready to adopt plain and common sense provisions 
against evils sure to come upon themselves and those whom tlicy hold 
most dwir? It was merely the proposed adoption of a treaty by this 
government with other nations for the puqxKe of ameliorating tlie 
conditions incident to warfare, humanizing its regulations, softening 
its barbarities, and so far as possible, lessening the sufferings of the 
wounded and sick who fall by it. Ttiis treaty consists of a code of 
ten articles, formed and adopted by the International Convention 
of Geneva, Switzerland, held August 22, 1864, which convention 
was composed of delegates, two or more from each of the civilised 
nations of the world, and was called at the instance of the mem" 
bers of the Societj- of Public Utility of .Switzerland. 

The sittings of the convention occupied four da>-s, and resulted, as 
before stated, in a code of ten articles, to be taken by the delegates 
there present, back to the government of their respective countries for 
ratification. Four months were allowed for consideration and decision 
by the governments, and all acceding within that time were held as 
ha\*ing signed at the convention. At the close of this period, it was 
fotud that twelve nations had endorsed the terms of the treaty and 
signed its articles. The protocol was left open for such as should 
follow. The articles of this treaty provide, as its first and most impor- 
tant feature, for the entire and strict neutrality of nil material and 
SMppIies contributed by any nation for the use of the sick and wounded 
in war; also that persons engaged iu the distribution of them, shall not 



ADDRESS. 



-€5 



be subject to capture; that all hospitals, general or field, shall be neu- 
tral, respected and protected by all belligerents; that all persons com- 
[H^isiug the medical ii(:r\-ice, surgeons, chaplaius, superhitendenls, shall 
be neutral, continuing their work after the occupation of a field or post 
the same as before, and when no longer needed be free to retire; that 
they may send a representative to their own headquarters if needful; 
that field hospitals shall retaiu their owu cquipincuts; that inhab'tants 
of countrj' who cutertaiu and care for the wouudcd of cither side, in 
their houses, shall be protected; that Uie generals of an army shall so 
inform the people; that commanders- in-diief shall have the power to 
deliver immctliatcly to the outposts of the enemy soldiers who ha^-e been 
wounded in an engagement, both parties consenting to Uie same; that 
the wounded, incapable of se^^•iug, shall be returned when healed; that 
all transports of wounded and all evacuations of jxjsts or towns shall be 
protected by absolute neutrality. Tliat the sick and wounded shall be 
entertained regardless of nationality; and that conimanders-in-chief 
shall act in accordance with the instructions of their respective govern- 
ments, and in conformity to the treaty. In order that all may under- 
stand, and no mistake be possible, it also provides that one uniform 
international flag shall mark all hospitnls, all pustsof sick and wounded, 
and one uniform badge or sign shall mark all hospital material, and be 
worn by all persons properly engaged in the hospital service of any 
nation included within the treaty; that this international flag and sign 
shall be a red cross on a white ground, and that the nations within the 
compact shall not cease their endeavors until every other nation capable 
of making war shall have signed this treaty, and thus acceded to the 
general principles of humanity in warfare recognized by other peoples. 

Thirty-one goveniments have already signed this treaty, thirty- 
one nations are in this humane compact. The United States of 
America is not in it. and the work to which your attention is called, 
and which has occupied me for the last se^'eral years, is to induce her 
to place herself there 

This is what the Red Cross means, not an order of knighthood, 
not a commandery, not a secret sodety, not a society at all by itself, 
but the powerful, peaceftil sign and the reducing to practical usefnlness 
of one of the broadest and mast needed humanities the world has ever 
known. 

These articles, it will be observed, constitute at once a treaty 
governing our relations with foreign nations, and additional articles of 
war governing the conduct of our military forces in the field. As a 




6fi 



THE RED CROSS. 



treaty jtader the constitution, the Presttlcut and Senate are competent 
to dej'. with them; as additional articles of war, CongrL-ss must sanction 
and a:ljpt them tx.'foTC they can become efil-ciivc and binding upon the 
govenicaent and the people. For this reason I have appealed to Con- 
gress as well as to the Executive Department. 

On the breaking up of the original convention at Geue\'a, the 
practical work of organizing its principles into form and making them 
understood and adopted by the pt-oplc, devolved upon seven men, 
mainly those who had Ijecn instmmental in calling it. These men were ' 
peculiarly fitted (or this work by special training, enlarged \*iews, and a 
comprehensive charity, no less than by practical insight, knowledge of 
the facts and needs of the situation, and a brave trust in the humane 
instincts of human nature. They are known to-day the world over as 
" The International Committee of Geneva for the relief of the sick and 
wotinded in war." This committee is international, and is the one 
medium through which all nations withiu the treaty transact business 
and carry on correspondence. 

The 6rst act of each nation subsequent to the treaty has been to 
establish a central society of its own, winch of course is national, 
and which has general charge and direction of the work of its own 
country. Under these comes the establisluuent of local societies. It 
will be perceived that their system, aside from its international feature, 
is very nearly what our own war relief societies would have been had 
they retained pernianent organizations. Indeed, it is believed that we 
furnished for their admirable syjttem some very valuable ideas. The 
success of the Red Cross associations consists in their making their 
societies permanent, holding their organizations firm and intact, guard- 
ing their supplies, saviug their property from waste, destruction aud 
pillage, and making the persons in charge of the gifts of the people as 
strictly responsible for straightforward conduct and honest returns, as 
they would be for the personal property of an individual, a business 
firm, or a bank. 

In attempting to present to tlie people of this country the plan of 
the Red Cross societies, it is proper to explain that originally and as 
operating in other countries they recognize only the miseries arising 
from war. Their humanities, although immense, arc confined to this 
war centre. Tlie treaty does not cover more than this, but the resolu- 
tions for the c^tabli^iment of societies under the treaty, permit them 
to organize in accordance with the spirit and needs of their nationahties. 
By our geographical position aud isolation we are far less liable to the 



ADDRESS. 



67 



disturbances of war than the nations of Europe, which arc so frequently 
called upon that they do well to keep in readiness for the exigencies of 
war alone. But no couniry is more liable than our own to great over- 
mastering calamities, various, ■widespread and terrible. Seldom a year 
pa&iies that the nation from sea to sea is not, by tlie shock of .some sudden, 
unforeseen disaster, brought to utter consternation, and .stands shivering 
like a ship iu a gale, powerless, horrified and despairing. Plagues. 
cholera, fires, flood, famine, all bear upon us with terrible force, Like 
war these events are entirely out of the common course of woes and 
necessities. Like death they are sure to come in some form and at 
some time, and like it no mortal knows where, how or when. 

What have we in readiness to meet these emergencies save the good 
heart of our people and their impulsive, generous gifts? Certainly 
no organized system for collection, reception nor distribution; no 
agents, nurses nor material, and, worst of all. no funds; nowhere any 
resources in reserve for use in such an hour of peril and national 
woe; every movement crude, confused and unsystematized, every 
thing as unprepared as if we had never known a calamity before and 
had no reason to expect one again. 

Meanwhile the suifcrlug victims wait! True, in the shock we 
bestow most generously, lavishly even. Men "on Change" plunge 
their hands into their pockets and throw their gold to strangers, who 
may have neither preparation nor fitness for the work they undertake, 
and often no guaranty for honesty. Women, in the terror and excite- 
ment of the moment and in their eagerness to aid, beg in the streets 
and rush into fairs, working day and night, to the neglect of other 
duties in the present, and at the peril of all health in the future — often 
an enormous outlay for very meagre returns. Thus our gifts fall far 
short of their best, being hastily bestowed, irresponsibly received and 
wastefiiUy applied. We should not. c^''en if to some degree we might. 
depend upon our ordinary charitable and church societies to meet 
these great catastrophes; they are always overtaxed. Our communi- 
ties abound in charitable societies, but each has its specific object to 
which its resources are and must be applied; consequently they cannot 
be relied upon for prompt and abundant aid in a great and sudden 
emergency. This mnsl necessarily be the case with all societies which 
organize to work for a specific chnrit}'. And this is as it should 
be; it is enough that they do constantly Ijestow. 

Charity bears an open palm, to give is her mission. But I 
have ne\-er c1a.ssed these Red Cross societies with charities. I have 




I 



I 



I 



I 



I 



rather cotisidered them as a wise national provision which seeks to 
gamer and store up something against an honr uf sudden need. In all 
our land we have not one organization of this nature and which acts 
upon the system of conser\"ed resources. Onr people have been more 
wise and thoughtful in tliu establishment of means for preventing and 
arresting the destruction of property tliaii the destr^iction of human 
life and the lessening of consequent suffering. They have provided 
and maintain at an immense cost, in the aggregate, a system of 6re 
departments with their exjiensive buildings and apjiaratns, with th«r 
fine horses and strong men kept constantly in readiness to dash to the 
rescae at the first dread clang of the fire Ix'll. Still, while the electric 
current may ilash upon us at any moment its ill tidings of some great 
human distress, we have no means of relief in readiness sucJi as these 
Red Cross societies would fnmish. 

I beg you will not feel that tn the presentation of this plan of 
action I seek to add to the labors of the people. On the contrarj*. I am 
striving to lesson them by making previous, calm preparation do away 
with the strain and confusion of unexpected necessities and haste. I 
am providing not weariness, but rest. 

And, again, I would not be understood as sug^gesting the raising 
of more moneys for charitable purposes; rather I am trj'ing to save the 
people's means, to economize their charities, to make their gifts do 
more by the prevention of needless waste and extravagance. If I 
thought that the formation of these societies would add a burden to our 
people I would be the last toad\"ocate it. I would not, however, yield the 
fact of the treaty. For patriotism, for national honor, I would stand 
by tliat at all co«t. My first and greatest endeavor has been to wipe 
(rem the scroll of my countr>''s fame the stain of imputed lack of com- 
mou humanity, to take her out of the roll of barbarism. I said that 
in iS6g there were twenty-two nations in the compact. There are now 
thirty-one, for since that date have been added Roumania, Persia, San 
Salvador, Montenegro, Scr\'ia, Bolivia, Chili, Argentine Republic and 
Peru. If the United States of America is fortunate and diligent she 
may, perhaps, come to stand No. ^2 in the roll of civilization and 
humanity. If not, she will remain where she at present stands, among 
the barbarians and the hcatheu. 

In considering this condition of things it seemed desirable to so 
extend the original design of the Red Cross societies operating in other 
lands as to include not ouly suffering by war, but by pestilence, famine, 
fires or floods — in short, any unlooked-for calamity so great as to place 



i 



4 





ADDRESS. 



6» 



it beyond the means of ordinary local charity, and which by pnblic 
opinion would be pronounced a national calamity; but that this addi- 
tion should in no way impair the original ftinctions of the 50ciel>'. and 
that for their own well being they should be held firm by the distin- 
guishioK featiu"e of the iuternational constitution, which provides that 
local societies shall uot act except upon orders from the National Asso- 
ciation, which is charged with the duty of being so fully informed upon 
all such subjects, both at home and abroad, as to constitute it the most 
compclcnt judge of the magnitude and gravity of any catastrophe. 

During all these years no societies under the true Ivanncr ol the 
Red Cross of Cicneva were or could be organized, for the government 
bad not yet ratified the treaty and no department of the government 
bad then intimated that it ever would be ratified. It could not be a 
responsible or quite an honest movement on my part to proceed to the 
formation of societies to act under and in conformity to a treaty of 
Special cliaracier so long as our government recognized no such 
treaty and I could get no assurance tliat it ever would or indeed could 
^recognize it. 

But this delay in tlie formation of societies, however embarrass- 
ing, was in no manner able to interfere with the general plan, or the 
.working details for its operations, which had been arran},i'd and ileciiled 
Upon before the presentation of the subject to the guvcrnmcni in 18/7, 
and published in pamphlet form in 1878, making it to cover, as it now 
docs, the entire field of national relief for great national woes and 
calamities in time of peace, no less than in war. The wise provisions,, 
careful preparations and thorough s>'stem whidi had been found so 
efficient in the permanent societies of the Red Cross in other countries, 
could not fail, I thought, to constitute both a useful and powerful 
system of relief in any class of disasters. I therefore ventured so far 
upon the generous spirit of their original resolutions in the plan of 
our societies as. mechanically speaking, to attach to this vast motor 
power the extra and hitherto dead weight of our great national 
calamities, in order that the same force should apply to all and serve 
to lighten I hoped, so far as possible, not only the woes of those 
directly called to suflTcr, but the burdens on the hearts and bands of 
those called to sympathize with their sufferings. 

The time allowed for the practical test of this experiment has been 

short. Scarcely three mouths iu which to organize and act, but the 

brave societies of tlie Red Cross of western New York, at this moment 

btanding so uoUy among their flame-tslnckeu neighbors of Michigan — 



,*» 



THE RED CROSS. 



so generously respoudiog to their calls for help, are quite sufficient I 
believe to show what the actioa and results of this conitHucil system 
-will be wheu recognized and inaugurated. 

It maybe said that this treaty jeopardizes our traditional paltcy, 
which jealously guards against entaugliug alliances abroad; that as we 
are exempt bj' our geographical position from occasions for war this 
treaty must bring us not benefits but only burdens from other jieoplc's 
calamities and wars — calamities and wars which we do not create and 
of which we may properly reap the incidental advantages. But this 
treaty binds none to bear burdens, but only to refrain from cmclties; it 
binds not to give but to allow others to give wisely and to work 
humanely if they will, while all sliall guarantee to them undisturbed 
activity in deeds of cliarity. There is theu in the Red Cross no 
" entangling alliance " ihat any bnl. a barKirian at war can ft'el as a 
restraint. This inculcatt-d wariness of fou-ign influences, wonderfully 
freshened by the conduct of foreign rulers and writers during the rebel- 
lion and deepened by the crimes and the craft directed primarily at 
Mexico and ultimately at us, made the people of America in 1864 
and 186S devoutly thankful for the friendly and stormy sea that rolled 
between them and the European states. And it is not perhaps alto- 
gether strange that American statesmen, inspired by such a public 
opinion, should then have been but little inclined to look with fax-or 
upon any new international obligations liowever specious in appearance 
or humane in fact. But the award of Geneva surely opened the way 
for the Red Cross of Geneva. Time and success have made plain the 
nation's path. Tlie postal treaty since made among all nations and 
entered into heartily by this has proved salutary to all. It has 
removed cver>- valid state reasou for opposition to the hannles.s, 
humane and peaceful provisions of the treaty of the Red Cross. 

Bui in the midst of the rugged facts of war come sentimental 
objections and objectors. Kor, deplore it as we may, war is the great 
fad of all history and its most pitiable feature is not after all so much 
the great numbers slain, wounded and captured in battle, as their cruel 
afier treatment as wounded and pri.soncrs, no adequate provision being 
nude for their necessities, no humane care even permitted, except at 
the risk of death or imprisonment as spies, of those moved by wise 
pity or a simple religions z«al. 

Among these liard facts appears a conscientious theorist and asks. 
Is not war a great sin and wrong ? Ought we to provide for it, to make 
it easy, to lessen its horrors, to mitigate its sufieriugs? Shall we not 



ADDRESS. 



in this way encourage rulers aiid peoples to engage in war for slight 
and fancied grievances ? 

We provide for the victims of the great wrong and sin of intern* 
perance. These are for the most part voluntary victims, each in a 
measure the arbiter of his own fate. The soldier has generally uo pari, 
no voice, in creating the war in which he fights. He simply obeys as 
he must his superiors and tUe laws o£ his country. Yes, it is a great 
wrung and sin, and for that reason I would provide not only for, but 
against it. 

But here comes the speailative theorist! Isn't it encouraging a 
bad principle; wouldn't it be better to do away with all war F Wouldn't 
peace societies be better ? Oh, yes, my friend, as much better as the 
milleuuium would be better than this, but it is not here. Hard facts 
are here; war is here; war is the outgrowth, indicator and rtdic of 
barbarism. Civilization alone will do away with it, and scarcely a 
quarter of the earth is yet civilized, and that quarter not beyond the 
possibilities of war. It is a long step yet to permanent peace. We 
cannot cross a stream until we reach it. The sober truth is, we are 
called to deal with facts, not tlieories; we must practice if we would 
teach. And be assured, my friend.s. there is not a peace society on the 
&ce of the earth to-day, nor ever will be, so potent, so effectual against 
war as the Red Cross of Geneva. 

The sooner the world learns tliat the halo of glory which sur- 
roands a field of battle and its tortured, thirsting, star\-ing, pain-racked, 
dying victims exists only iu imagination; that it is all .sentiment, delu- 
sion, falschofKl, gi\'en for efTecl; that .soldiers do not die painless deaths; 
that the sum of all human agony finds its equivalent on the battle- 
field, in the hospital, by the wearj- waj-side and in the prison; that, 
deck it as you will, it is agony; the sooner and more thoroughly the 
people of the earth are brought to realize and appreciate these facts, 
the more slow and considerate they will be about rushing into hasty 
and needless wars, and the less popular war will become. 

Death by the bullet painless! What did this nation do during 
[eighty agonizing and memorable days but to watch the effects of one 
llet wound ? Was it painless? Painless either to the victim or the 
nation ? Though canopied by a fortitude, patience, faith and courage 
scarce exceeded in the annals of history, still was jt agony. And when 
in his delirious dreams the dying President murmured, "The great 
heart of the nation will not let the soldier die," I prayed God to 
hasten the time when every wounded soldier would be sustained by 



THE RED CROSvS. 

this sweet assurance; that in the combined sympathies, wisdom, 
enlightenment and power of the nations, he should indeed feci that 
the great heart of the people would not let the soldier die. 

Friends, was it accident, or was it providence which made it one 
of the last acts of James A. Garfield in health to pledge himself to urge 
upon the representatives of his people in Congress assembled , this great 
national step for the relief and care of wounded men ? Living or dying 
it was his act and his wish, and no member in that honored, considerate 
and humane body but will feel himself in some manner holden to see it 
carried out. 



ACTION OF THE 00\ERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The president of the American Red Cross, Clara Barton, in 
November, 1881, laid before President Arthur the matter of the 
Treaty of Geneva, and the niifulfillcd desire of President Garfield that, 
the United Stales sliuuld give its adhesion to that inteniatioual com- 
pact. To this President Arthur gave a cordial and favorable response, 
and made good his words by the following paragraph in his first annual 
message, sent to the forty -seventh Congress; 

At its last extra KSiion tlie Senate called for tbetext of theOeMva Convention 
for the relief of the wouuded in war. I trust th&t this bcUod forctliaUows such 
inttmt in the mibjed tu will rciniU In the adhesion of the Uatted States to that 
hiunane atid commendable eng^ctucnt. 

This part of the message was immediately taken np in the Senate 
and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations, consisting of 
the following named gentlemen, to wit: William Windom, Minne- 
sota; George F. Edmimds. Vermont; John T, Miller, California; 
Thomas W. Ferry, Michigan; Elbridge G. Lapham, New York; John 
W. Johnston, Virginia; J. T. Morgan, Alabama; George H. Pendleton, 
Ohio; Benjamin 11. Hill. Georgia. 

During the consideration of the subject an invitation was extended 
to the president of the American Association, its counsel and other 
associate members to meet the above named Senate Committee at the 
capilol, for conference, and for an explanation of such points as still 
remained obscure, to aid their deliberations, and to facilitate investi- 
gatious. 



ACTION OK THE GOVERNMENT. 



73 



On the seventeenth of May, tSSt, Hon. OniarD. Conger submitted 
to the United States Senate the rollowing resolution, which was con^d- 
ered by unanimous consent and agreed to: 

Rfiolxfed, That Uie SecreUry of Slate be requested to furnish to the Senate 
cofdes (trausdaiions) of Articles of Convention ngned «t Geiiev«, Switicrliiml, 
Angust 33, 1864, toucbiiig the Irealtueut of ibose wounded in woi, tosether with 
the forms of rstificatiou cmplaj*c<! t)>- the several government*, purttes Ilien;lo. 

On the twelfth of December, 1881, in respouse to the above resolu- 
tion, President Arthur addressed to the Senate a message transmitting 
a report of the Secretary of State, with accompanying papers, touching 
the Geneva convention for tlie relief of the wounded in war, which 
message, report and accompanying papers were as follows: 

(Senate Ex. Doc. No. 6, 47tb Congren, ist Sewioa.) 

MtsBafce from the President of (be United States. Irauttuitting in lespouse to 
Senate rewlntion of May 17th, iSSt, a report of tlic Secretary of State, with 
accompanying papers, touching the Geoeva conTenthH] for the rdlef of tbe 
wontided in war. 

December t3, iSSi.— Referred to the Committee on Poreiga Relations and 
ordered to be printed. 

To SenaU of thg United Stales: 

I transmit herewith, in response to the resolution of the Senate of the BCveo- 
teenth of May lost, a report of the Secretary of State, with accompanying papers^ 
toncbtng tbe Geneva convention for the relief of the wounded in war. 

CUESTBR A. AnTBUK. 
BxBcirrivu Mansiox, 
Washington, December 13, 1S8/. 



Tb ihe President.- 

The Secretary of State, to whom wa« addresvcd a recoltition of the Senate, 
dated tbe eeventeeutb of May, 18S1, requesting him " torurni&b to the Senate copiet 
( troaslationa) of Articles of Cunventtoo signed at Geneva, Swiuerland, August », 
1864, touching the treatment of thoac wonndcd in war, together with the forms of 
ratification employed by the several gMcmmenUipArtiea thereto," hoathe honor to 
lay before the President Ibc papers called for by tbe rescdution. 

In \-iew of tbe reference made, in tbe annual message of the President, to the 
Geaevu coovenUou, the Secretary of State deems it uunecesoary now to enlarge 
upon the advisability of the adhesion of tbe United States lo an international 
compact at once jo bamnne in itk chamcter and »o uniwnMtl in iUt application M to 
commend itself to the adoption of nearly all the civilij^ powers. 

JamssO. Biaik«- 

DHPARTME.vT Ol' STATU, 
Vashingtok, December to, tS&J. 



74 



THE RED CROSS. 



THE "ADDITIONAL ARTICLES" CONCERNING THE RED 
CROSS FOR THE NAVY. 



The govcrnment'i of North Germany, Austria. Baden, Bsvaria, 
Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain. Italy, the Netherlands, 
Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and Wiirtembcrg, desiriug 
to extend to armies on the sea the advantages of the convention con- 
cluded at Geneva the twenty -second of August, IS64. for the ameliora- 
tioo of the condition of wounded soldiers in armies iu the field, and to 
further particulari/i; .some of the stipulations of the said couvention, 
proposed and signc<l the following additional articles: 

Additional Articles to the Convention of Geneva of the twenty- 
aecoud Augtist, 1864. signed at Geneva the twentieth of October, 1868. 

ArTIcls L The persons deaignatcd in Article II. of the convention shall, 
after the occupation by the eneiny, continue lo fulfill ilieir duties, accordlog to 
their wantj), to the &ick and wounded in the amtmlaticc or the hospital which Lbey 
Kn'e. When they rMiuest to withdraw, the commander of the occupying troops 
shall fix the time of departure, which be shall only be allowed to delay for a short 
time in cnac of military nccewily. 

AkT. II. ArraiiKcmcnts will have to be made by the belligereat powers to 
ensure to tlie neutralized person, fallen into tlie bands of the anny of the enemy, 
the entire eujoymcnt of his salary. 

Art. III. Under the conditionit provi<led for in Articles I, nncl IV. of tbe 
convention, the Dame " ambulance " applies to field hospitals and other tempo* 
rary cittablishmenls, which follow tbe troops on the field of battle to receive tba 
sick and wounded. 

Art. IV. In qonformity with tbe spirit of Aiticlc V. of the convention, and 
Lo the roservationa contained in the protocol of 1S64, it is explained that for 
the appointment of the charge;! relative to the quartering of traopA and of the 
contributions of war, account only shall be taken iu an equitable manner of the 
cbariUble xeol diaplayeil by tlie iubabitants. 

Art. V. In addition to Article VI. of tbe convention, it is stipulated that, 
with tbe reservation of officers whose iJeteution might be important to the fate of 
inns, and within the limits fixed by tbe second paragraph of that article, the 
trouode<l fallen into the hnnds of the enemy shall be sent back to tbeir country, 
after they are cured, or sooner if po«sible, on condition, nererthelcas, of not agaia 
bearing anna during the continuance of the war. 

AitT. VI. The boats which, at their own ri^ and peril, during and after an 
engagement pick up the shipwrecked or wounded, or which, ba^-lng picked them 
up, convey them on board a uentml, or hospital ship, shall enjoy, until the accom- 
pllsbnient of their miwioii, the cliaracter of neutrality, an far an [hr circumstances 
of the cugagemeut and the position of the ships engaged will permit 



ADDITIONAL ARTICLES. 



75 



The appreciatioa of these cticumstances is ealrustc<l to tlie hnmuiitj' of «n 
tlie combBtnntft. The wrecked and wouaded thus picked up and saved must Dot 
aervengain during the continuance of the war. 

AkT. VII. The religiotui, medical and hospital staff or any captured vcuel are 
declared neutral, and, on leaving the ship, may remove the articles and iiurgical 
iustmmcnts >vhich are their private property. 

Art. Vlil. The staff dcaignatc<l in the preceding article mual continue to 
Folfill their functions in the capturwl ship, ii.<L<tiMing in the removal of wounded 
made by Ibe victorious party; Ihcy will tlacnbcat liberty to reluru to their country, 
in conformity with the second paragraph of the first additional nrlicle. 

Tbe stipulations of tlie second additioual ulicle are applicable to the pay and 
allowance of the staff. 

AXT. IX. Tbe military hospital ahtpa remain under martial law in all that 
coaccms their stores; thty become the property of the captor, but the latter must 
not divert them from their apecial appropriation duriufc the continuance of tbe 
war. 

The Tcuels not equipped for fighting, which during peace the government 
shall have officially declared to be intended to serve as floating hospitul ships, sball, 
however, enjoy during tbe war f:oniplete neutrality, both e« regnrd* stores, and 
also as regards their staff, proWded their equipment is exclusively appropriated to 
the special gcr\-ice ou which they are employed. 

Art. X. Any mercbantnian, to whatever nation she may belong, charged 
excluflivcly with removal of nek and wounded. I.-* protected by neulrnlity, but the 
mere fact, noted on the sliip'a books, of the vesftcl having been visited hy an 
enemy's cruiser, renders the sick and wminded incapable of Bcr\-ing during the 
continuance of the war. Tlie cruiser shall even have the right of putting onboard 
an officer in order to accompany the convoy, and thus Tcrify the good faith of the 
operation. 

If the mcirhant ship also carries a cargo, her neutrality yill still protect it, 
provided that such cargo is not of a nature to be confiscated by the helligerenta. 

Tbe belligerents retain the right to interdict neutralized vessels from all com- 
munication, and from any course which they may deem prejudicial to the secrecy 
of their operations. In urgent cases, special conventions may be entered into 
between commandervin-obief, in order to neutralize temporarily and in a special 
manner tlie vessels intended for the removal of tbe sick and wounded. 

Art. XI. Wouude<l or &ick aailoraand aoldi^rc, when enibArked, to whatever 
nation they may belong, shall !« protected and taken care of by their captots. 

Their return to their own country is subject to the provisions ol Axtide VL of 
the convention, and of the additional Article V. 

Art. xn. The distinctive dag to be used writh the national flag, in order to 
tndicate any vessel or boat which may claim the benefits of neutrality, in virtue 
of the principles of this convention, is a white flag with m red crosk Tlie belliger- 
tnts may exercise io thia respect any mode of verification which tliey may deem 
Beoeaury. 

Military hospital ships shall be distinguished by being painted wbite outside, 
with green ^triike. 

Art, XIII. The hospital ships which aie equipped at the expense of the aid 
Bodeties, recognized by the govemuunu aignlng this convention, and wliicb ara 

5 



70 



THE RED CROSS. 



fumisbcd witii a commission emanating from the aovemga, who ahall hare given 
«xpns9 autbority for their being fitted onl, and with a certificate from the proper 
iiaval authority that they have licen plitccd under bia control during their fitting 
cut and on their [inal departure, and that they were then appropriated solely to the 
purpose of their misuou. shall he considered ucotrol, aa well as tli« whole of tbdr 
ataff. They shall be recognized and protected by the belligerents. 

They aball make themselves known by hoisting, together with their national 
flag, the white dag with a red crosa. The diatincli%-e mark of their staff, while 
perfoTRiing their duties, shall be an armlet of the same colora. 

The outer jiatoling of these hospital ships shall be white, with red etrake. 

These ships shall bear aid and assistance to the wounded and wrecked bcUig- 
erents, without distinction of nationality. 

They must lake care not to interfere in any way with tlie movements of the 
combatants. During and after the battle they must do their duty at their own 
risk and peril. 

The belligereuts shall have the right of conlioUing and visitiai; them; tbvy 
will lie at liberty to refuse their assistance, to order them to depart, and to detain 
them if the exigencies of the case require soch a step. 

The wounded and wrecked picked up by these ships cannot be reclaimed by 
either of the combalaots, and tliey will be required not to serve during the con- 
tinuance of the war. 

Art. XIV. In naval wars any strong presumption that cither belligerent 
takes advantage of the benefits of neutrality, with any other view than the interest 
of the aick and wounded, gives to the otlier belligerent, until proof to the eoB- 
rary, the right of suspending the Convention Treaty, as iKgards such belligerent 

Should this pTcsumpliun become a certainty, notice may be gi\-ea to such 
beUigerent that the convention is nupended with regard to him daring the whole 
continuance of the war. 

Art. XV. 
shall be deposited 

Ad authentic copy of this act shall be delivered, with on invitation to adhere 
to it, to each of the signatory powers of the convention of the tweaty^eoond of 
August, 1864, as well as to thoae that have successively acceded to iL 

In faith whereof, the undersigned commi*sATie« have drawn up the present 
project of additional arlicles and have affixed thereunto the seals of their arms: 



of the war. . 

V. The present act shall be drawn tip in a single original copy, which ^M 
isitcd in the archives of the Swiss Confederation. ^H 



Von Koeder, 
V. Uffler, 
Eohler, 
Dr. Mnndy, 
Steiner, 
Dr. Dompiene, 
Viascbeis, 
J. R. G. Galiffe, 
D. Felice Baroffio, 
Paalo Cotlmu, 
H. A. Van Kamebeck, 
Dr. 



Westenberg, 

F. N. Staaff, 

G. H. Dufour, 
G. MoynicT, 

A. Conpvent des Dois, 
H. dc Prfval. 
John Snville I.umley, 
H. R. Velvcrion, 
Dr. S. Lefamann, 
llu.sny. 
Dr. C. Kahn, 
Fichte. 



THE CONVENTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 



77 



l/nUmali^nAi BittMitt, January, tSSt.] 

THE GENEVA CONVENTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Tlie rriends oflhe Red CrosA are not IgnorAtit tbnt the lial of States which 
have siKOtrd the Geneva Convention presents a grave and liunenlable lack. One 
of the moftl dvWixied nations of the world. ati<l cutuequeutly one of t1>c best pre 
pared lo sulMcribc to the principles of this treaty, that is to say. the United States 
of America, does not appear there. Their absence is sn much the more surprisiDK 
because the procecdinfp of the Geueva Coiu-cntion have only been, in some 
respects, the purtial reproduction of the celrfmitwl "' InsitnicUons of the Auierican 
Army," edited by the late Dr. Licber, aud adopted by President Lincoln {April 
»4. 1S63), and put in practice by tlie armies of the North duiiug the war of secee- 
Bion. More than this, it is remembered that the Covemmcnt at Washington bad 
been reprenented at Ihe IMplomatic Conference of Geneva in 1864 by two delegate! 
at the debates relative to the Geneva Convention, but without being fumiKhed 
with cuSicient power to glgn it. [Protocol of the dCRSion of Aiiyiist 9, 1864.] 
These were Mcbstb. George J. Fogg, United States Minister st Bcmc, and Charles 
S. P. Bowles, Boropean Agent of the American Sanitary Commission. 

It was expected, then, that tlic adhesion of the United States would soon fol- 
low, but nothing came of it. Nevertheless, in the hope that this result would not 
be too long delayed, an aid society was fonned at New York In 1S66, when the 
ciril war had conic lo an end. to gather in some way the heritage of the Sanitnry 
Coiiunts!iion, which hud ju.M filled with much brilUftney, and during screral years, 
Ihc rfile of a Tcriteblc Red Cross Society. 

One might have thought that the llcrltn Conference in 1869 would be a d©. 
tennining circumstance which would induce the United States to enter into the 
European concert. 

The inviution to assist at the Conference at Berlin in iSfig was addressed to 
the Government of the United States, which declined it with thanks, as not hnv- 
tng taken part in the Convention of Geneva. The society of which we have juA 
spoken was in like manner invited, but it also was not represented. 

This double absence called out a proposition from M. Hepke, privy counsellor 
of the legation, a proposition, supported by tlic signatures of thirty-eight other 
delegates present, and adopted unanimously by the members of the Conference. 

The test of it was as follows: 

"The Conference having arrived at the end of their labors, exprcw allvdy 
regret at having been deprived of the precious assistance of the delegates from the 
United Stales of Kortb Amerira, convinced that the great and noble nation which, 
one of the first in the world, has rendered emineat services to the great homani- 
tavian work, will welcome with sympathy the resultsof their labors, lite Conference 
desires that the protocols of these sessions shall he addressed by their President to 
the Government of the United States of North America, and to the different aid 
oommUtees which exist la that coontiy." 



78 



THE RED CROSS. 



That step onrortniiAtcIf remained vithout results. The societywbidi had tt«aeat 
at New York, comprehending that its ezutteace would l>e unntttural and it« position 
false >o long as thr government refn«cd to lign the cvtiveiition. finisbed by dutolv 
ing towards, the eud of 1873. 

Since then, the latcniAlional Comimttcc, which wonid not despair nr sacccM, 
made apon its part aereral new attempu, which invariahiy met with absolute noQ> 
atfcntioo. Happily the history of the Red Cross was tltirrr to prove that the moat 
lenacioua realataucc ia iiol indefinite, and thul noonrr or Utcr the senlunenls of th« 
most recalcitrant govenuaents are modified under the control of "irrnmitfanrfti 
How many we have seen who nt first believnl thetr odlieaion naeless, or even 
dangerous, and who have been led to repentance on the oecnrrenee of wara In 
which their oruiics were to be, or had been, engaged, because they comprehcoded 
at that niuiiient only to what point their fears were chiowrical or their indifiereooe 
lojarious to those depending upon than for iirotcction. 

In the United Stales time has done iu work as elsewhere, though peace baa 
long reigned there. The change of aentuncnt whicli has been produced in regard 
to the Red CroM haa revealed itself recently on the sixth of IJecwnbrr, 1K81, in 
tl» BMnage o( President .-Vrlhur at the opening of the fourth scasioD of the Forty* 
■eventh Congress. We read there the following paragraph: 

"At. its hurt extra aeastoo the Senate demanded the text of the Genen 
Convention for aiding the wounded in time of war. 1 hope that this fact proves 
tlic interest whkh the Senate feels in thi« question, and that there will result from 
H, the adhesion of the United Stales to this humane and commendBblc treaty." 

It teemi, then, that we toncb the port; the matter is seriously considered, and 
it will be with lively satisfaction that we shall register the result wliicli has been ao 
long the end of our desires. 

We will not terminate these retrospective considerations, without telling 
what we know of the canses which have recently led to decisive steps in the 
question. 

It is, above all. to a woman that this resoilt is owing, and the nunc of that 
woman is not unknown to onr readers. Wc spoke to them sevend years ago 
of Miss Clara Barton, one of the hen>inc« "f the American war, where she 
reproduced the diaritablc exploits of Miss Nightingale; she was honored at the 
couclusion of the war with a national rccompeiue. * 



• ThUsUUmrnlWBOtewKt; ltidce«l. it does •«»« IsJiKice m» well to Ulu BnTtoa •» to the 
Amcrtotu Cougtcn. utid wa« UouWIcsa Jrrived ftoiu wlswatemeiiw promulijatnl In lh> United 
■Utea. the mult of a k«>i«»1 uiauiHlenUndioy of Ike facts, and aa cRor. of coarse, aafcaowa 
Is ■ ftwetcn wrllCT. 

nveWlr what llic Thirtr-Kwnlh Coogrwsdlil wa» l» psM Ihc (bltowtng Joint temlutton of 
feMh hffBsf*, ami In accordsiKv with the Biine to iwy »vcr ta Mia* DarUm tfi« nut) mentwacd la 
U for the luwa aad purpoMs Iticrtln set fotth: 

Uarch u>. 1M6. 

J rrhtlMtioH ^rtnnditc far rxfntin in<M>^t4 im srarctinx /or mittiitf uMiat ef tkt Army 0/ IA* 
fnilnl .««*«, and far /H*thrt firtucttioa o/UU Mine. 

mtrtti t. MIm CU t« Raiinn ban, during the tnic war of the rebellion, CKp*nd«d ftom hw owa 
T«mMre«a Urx<: •iinn of nionry In eiiJnivoriin! i.> .'.l«xiTer iBunnic mldUra of the BTTaks of tkt 
Vntlod atatea, anJ (n couniiauk-atiOK iBteliiK«ne« to ihcit »Haliw«; Ihpreforc, 

/tnafffil !»'«' Sfmau an.f Hohu a/RifftruiahMt a/'tht fmitetl SUta 0/ Amfiat m Ce^grtu 
»iwmUrJ. That thr warn of flrtreii IhoaMiad ilolliini be, and the same U hereby apptopriated ou 
ef muf BHWsys ta U*« Trta«ir7 iwt »m«wli« sppropriawd, to relmtMine Klaa Clara Batloa for 



* 



4 



THE CONVENTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 



79 



Thes, being in Rurope At ihe time of the French and German wu, sbc again 
flew to the battltficld. Rcturniiijj ot Inst to her own country with enfeebled 
bcBllh, she dctcrmtm^l to give what strenxth tenuincd to bcf to the service of the 
Red Crow, and took for her txsk to pleail its canac with the influenlial men of the 
Amcrictm govemmenL Quillin){ her home at DansviUe, she passed lonfj nioDtha 
at Washington to carry conviction to the minds of the l^reMdeut, of his miulsten^ 
of members of Congrcs.«, wriiing for the jonrnsla, publishing pamphlets to spread 
the ideas the triumph of which she bad at heart. She had »eed of mucti pertfr* 
verance and cners}' to avoid renouncing her plan, for she waited long before hndiug 
a favorable opportunity. It was not imlil the acce^ion of President itiirSeld Uiat 
she could catch a glimpite of success. She then found in the Chief M^iglstratc of 
the nation a man who warmly espooscd her cause, and in the Secretary of States 
Mr. Blaitic, au auxiliary as zealous aa he was devoted. Wc have seen by the 
quotation winch we have borrowed from the lost I*refiidenlial message that Mr. 
Arthnr diarcs the sentiments and ideas of hla predecessor on the subject of the 
Geneva Conventiou, aud it is hardly probable that be will encounter upon this 
point opposition from Cungrviu. 

The name of Miss llarton will probably not figure in the official documents 
which will be the fniit of her labors, hut here, where we ha%t; entire liberty to 
render homage to her devotion, we are happy to be able to proclaim her itnperish* 
able title to the gratitadc of the Red Cross. 

To the name of Mim Ilarton we should join lliat of M. Kdouard 8eve. who, 
after hu%-ing rendered important service to the Red Cross in South America, where 
be represented Belgium to Chili, h:is continued to use his activity in favor of the 
■ame cause in the Uuiteil Slates since lie has been called to the pocUion of consul* 
general at Philadelphia. His efforts have certainly conlribtitcd to render tha 
Government at W.a.Hliington favorable to the Geneva Convention, 

The preceding article was already printed when wc received from the ind» 
fstigstile Mi«-H Ilarton a new pamphlet npon the Red Cross and the Geneva Con- 
vention. This little worlc ia destined to initiate the Americans into the origin and 
history of the work, with which they arc as yet but imperfectly acquainted, and for 
which it it the aspiration of the author In aw.iken their interest ; in pnrticnlnr, we 
find there the confirmation of the step* of which we ba%-e spoken above, and especi- 
ally the text of the two letters addressed by the International Committee, one oa 



the smoDDt m expended by her, and U> aid In tht further priMcrulinn of Ihe srin^h Tor minmiiK 
■oldici*. and [he |>tliitfng ncccMsry lu the furtbcratice of the wid object Bhall bercallcT be done 
by the Publtc PrI titer. 

Approved March lo. 18G6. 
[14 Vol U. A. Stsltites at I^nt'- P- iy>-l 

ThU, thcr«roir, wninoi rrmmpetm for tervicct; It was Tcimbutsetnent Ibr moDcyexD«Bd«d; 
it was mooej czpetidcd by a private citlita for luhllc nxrs. and ml*, mainly, nfler the doae of 
tte war. The nm-eninieirt recoRnlied iin vnlae lo Ihe peofilr. and rvftinded the money, end Hurt 
without •olicftnltoa on Mia* Bartoc** pari. 

TbU work wvi a fitting, even acccwury, mult of her four yenra' volnnlary and unpaid 
Mrriceaon the Add, na( uaa ordinnry nuiee. but aaa aortof Independent aanltary comniaalMi, 
wbom Ihe eovemment. the *oldlrr«. and ttie poeople came at Uat to impticidy Iruat. (br tbey 
BarVT found Iheli lru«t hrtraynl nor lbemiieIi>e«ilti>a|ipointed tiy any want of diacietion, *a)c>clty, 
« enerwy 00 bf f part- It cnunol beset forth here, lienn only be alluded lo moat hriefly. ]a its 
4eUll* tt BiD5t form ■ chnpter in the story of a life MD|co1nrly orlnifial. nioressrul, anil beticliceut. 
laanual Report of the Ancricati (Natioual) AaaocUtluu of the ItedCTMs.| 



As 



THE RED CROSS. 



the ninth of Augnst, 1877, to President Ha>-ec, tbe other on the thiftecnth of Jnue, 
to Secretary of State BUtne. 

The pxmplitet which wc have announced has been pobliab»d by the American 
Kational Society of the Red Cross, with which we hare not ;«t bad occarion to 
make ou readers BcquatntcU. Thia sodetjr, recently estahlishcd at the suggestion 
of Uiu Datton, and of which she has been made president, U only waiting; Tor the 
official fedheaion of the Uiiiled States to the Geneva Convention to put itself in 
rclatiati with the K>ctetic» of other countrieai. We will wait until Uicu to apisik ot 
it and to gire the details of its organizatioa. 



ACCESSION OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE TREATY OF 
GENEVA AND TO THE ADDITIONAL ARTICLES. 

On the first day of March, 1882, the President, by his signature, 
gave tlie accession of the UnUctl vStatestotheTreaty of Geneva of August 
22, 1864, and also to that of October so, 1S68, and transmitted to the 
Senate the following message, declaraUon, aud proposed adoption of 
the same: 

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting an acces- 
sion of the United States to the Convention {oncluded at Gene%<a on 
the Iwenty^econd August, 1864^, ixtween various powers, for tht 
amelioration of the wounded of armies in the field, and to the 
additional artides thereto, sig ned at Geneva on the twentieth Oetoder, 
iStiS. 

March 3, iSSi.— Read; accettion read the first time referred to the Committee on 
Foreign Relation*, and, together with the meatage, ordered to be printed in 
confidence, for tlic use of Llie Scualt. 

Uarch 1$, iSSs.— Ratified and injunction of secrecy removed tbcteferm. 

7b the Senalf of Ike UniUd Stales: 

I tnuisuiit to the Senate for its action thereon, the accession of the TlnHed 
States to the cxinvcntion concluded at Geneva on the twenty.««rcuiid Aajjimt, 1S64, 
between various powers, for the amelioration of the wounded of armies in the field, 
and to Ujc additional articles thereto, signed at Geneva on the twentieth of 
October. 1868. Chester A. abthdk. 

Wasuikctoit, March 3, sSSr. 



tyhereas, on the twenty-second day of August, 1864. a convention was con- 
cluded at Geneva, in Switzerland, lietween the Ciand Ducby of Baden and tba 



ADHESION TO THE TREATY. 



it 



Swiss Cctiif«dcntioa, the Kiagdom of Bdgium, the KiDgdoin of DeBiBtirlc, t!he 
Kingdom of Spain, Uw Freoch Empire, the Grand Ouchy of Umsc, the Kingdom 
of Italy, the Kingdom of the NetlierUnda, the Kipgilom of Honug«l, the Rmgdom 
of Fnwtia, and the Kingdom of Woftetnberg, for the amelioration of th« wouuded 
in annks in the field, the teuor of which conveulion is ax follows; 

(See treaty and additional articles, already inserted.) 

Now, tbercfoie, the President of the United Slates of America, by aod with 
tbe advice and consent of the Seiixte, hereby declares that the Onited States accede 
to the said con^'«ntioa of the tweDty>seicond Aaguat, 1864, and idiio accede to the 
Mid convention of October 30, 1S6S. 

Done at Washington this first day of March in the year of our Lord one thoo- 
aand eight hnodred and eighly-two, and of the Independence of the t*nitcd States 
the one hundrt^d and sixth. 

(Seal. > CmsnCR A. ARTBUS. 

By the President. 
Fbsd'k T. FBEUKcetnfSKM, 

Secretary of SiaU. 

The satne day the president of the American Association sent by 
caUcgratu to Presideut Moynier, of the lutcmatioual Committee at 
Geneva, the glad tidings that the United States had at last joined in 
the great humane work of tlie world by ratifying the treaties of the 
Red Cross; and on the twenty-fourth of the same month, President 
Moynier replied as follows: 



I 



COUITH iMTBRNATtONAL DB SBGODKS 

Aux MiUTAiRKS Blssses, 
Gi;ne\'a, March 2^, iSRt, 
MiBS CiARA Barton, President of tkt Ameriean Society of the Red Cross. IVasA- 
ingtcn: 

MadbmokbixE; At liLit. on the seventeenth inMnnt, t received your glorious 
telegram. I delayed replying to it in order to couuuuuicatc ita contents to my col- 
lea^es of the Inter national Comiuittee, so as tu be itble to thnnlc you in the nam* 
of nil of us and to tell you of tbe joy it gives lis. You must feel happy too, and 
proud to have at lastatlaioed yonr object, thanks to a peiseverancc and a zeal which 
sonnounted every obstacle. 

Please, if opportunity offers, to be onr interpreter to President Arthnr and 
present him our warmest congratnlationa. 

I suppose your government will now notify the Swiss Foleral Council of its 
decision in the matter, and the latter will then inform the otlier Powers which 
have signed the Red Cratn Treaty. 

Only after this formality shall have been complied with can we occupy ourselves 
with fixing tlieofEcial intemiitional status of your American society. Wc have, 
however, already considered the circular which .we intend to address to all tbe 
societies of the Red Cross, and with regard thereto we have found that it will be 




CROSS. 



neccMuy for tu u s preliminftiy meunre to be fofsiBbed viih • Aocameat certi* 
fyiag that the Anterican Midetjr hu attuned the Kcood of its otjecU, iL e^ that it 
haa bven (officially) recognized by the Amcricui Gorc mm cnt 

It is impoitaat that we be able tocertii'y that roui govemmest is pcepaied lo 
accept yvw acrricea in case of war ; that it will readily enter into co-operatioa 
with^on, and will encoura^ the centnlizjitioa under yoor Erection of alt the 
Tolnntarr aid. Wc hare ao doubt that raa will readily obtaia tma the cotnpetest 
aathoritica an official declajation to that effect, and we believe that this matter 
will be merely a fomulity, te/ aw mtiach tht grtaiest imfioriomcr to tie fad in 
erder to covtr our responsilnliiy, especialiy in vir» of tMt frettnsioms of rivai 
societies whi/A might claim to he AckmnoUdsed hy us. 

It is yoar Mciety alone and none other that we will rccofnizi^ becmae h 
Inspirca tu with con&flcace, and we nould be ptneed im a false fnniliom if yon 
/ailed to obtain for it a privileged posiOem ty a formai recogmtlion by Ikt 
government. 

We hope that yoa will appreciate the motives of caatjon wUdi gidde ns is 
this matter, and that yon may tnon enable as to ad in tlic premises. 

Wishing to testify to yoti its gratitude for the services yon have already ren* 
dcred lo the Red Citms, the comraittn; decided to offer to yoa one of the medals 
which a German engraver caused to be sItucIe off in 1870 in honor of ihe Red 
Croas. It will be sent to yon in a tew daya. It is of very small intriaaic mlue 
indeed, but, soch as it is, we hare no other means of rccompetising the iao«t 
meritorious of onr assistants. I'lease to rrgard il only aa A simple tnemorial, and 
as a p[tM>f of the cstecin and ffratitudc wc feel for fcn. 

Accept, mademoiselle, the assnrance of my most distingniahed seiitimenta. 

O. Movswm Pnsidtni, 



The requirements contained in the foregoing letter, in regard lo 
the recognition of the American Asssociation of the Red Cross, were 
fully and generously complied with by the various branches of the 
Government of the United States, and the documents conveying the 
official recognition were transmitted by the Honorable Secretarj* of 
State to the American consul at Geneva, with instructions to deli^-cr 
them to the International Committee. 

Tlie following is the proclamation by President Arthur announe- 
ing to the people the adoption by the United States of the Treaty of 
Geneva, and the Additional Articles concerning the Navy: 



A PROCLAMATION. 



85 



Pretident of the United Sbitu oi America: 



A PROCLAMATION. 



Whereas, on the twenty-second day of August, 1S64, a cOdventtoD was con* 
eluded at Creiieva, tu SwtUcrlanil, Ijetwcrn the Gnuid Ducliy of Raden and the 
Swiss Confederation, IhcKingd^ra of llrlgiHm, the Kiugdwin of Denmark, the King- 
dom of Spain, ihc Fteocli Empire, the Ci^iud Duchy of Hc&se, tlie Eingdom of 
[ Italy, the Kingdom of tbe Netherlands, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Kingdom 
of Pmsaia, and the Kingdom of Wurtemberg. for the amelioration of the 
woODdcd in arniioi in the field, the tenor of which convention is hereinafter 
'aut^oiaed: 

^nd wAfreas, the several contractinR parties to the said convention exchanged 
the ratification thereof at C«nevii on tlie tweuty-seconri d;iy of Jime, rSfij; 

ytntt whereas, the several states hereinafter named have adhered to the aaid 
convention in virtue of Article IX. thereof, to wit: 

Sweden, December 13, 1864; Greece, January 5-17, 1S65; Gnat Britain, 
rcbniary iS, 1S65; Mecklenburg -Schweriu, March 9, 1865; Turkey, July 5, 1865; 
Wiirtcfflberg. Jane 22, 1866: Hesse, June 2, 1S66; Bavaria, June ya, ]866: Auatria, 
July SI, 1866; Persia, I>eccmber5i 1874; Salvador, December 30^ 1874; Montenegro, 
Wovember 17-39, 1S75: Srrvia, Mnrch x;, lS;6; Rolivia, October 16, 1S79; Chili, 
'November 15, tSjg; Argemine Republic, November 25, 1879; Petti, April aa, 1880. 

And a/hrreas, the Swiss Cou fcdcratLon. in virtue of the Mild Article IX. of said 
convention, has invited the United States of America to accede tlicrcto; 

Attd whereas, 00 the twentieth October, 1S6S, the following ndditioiuil articles 
were proposed and signed ot Geneva, on behalf of Great Britain, Austria, Baden, 
Bavaria, ilclgiiun, Denmark, France, Italy, Nelhtrrlaniln, North Germany. Sweden 
and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and WQrtemberi;. the tenorof which Additional 
Articles is hereinafter subjoined (see page 64); 

And Kfkereas. the President of the United States of America, by and with the 

advice and consent of the Senate, did, ou the first dny of March, ouc thousand 

eiglit hundred and eighly-two. declare th--it the Unite-d Staten afcetie to the wiid 

^convention of the twentysecoud of August, iS&i, and also accede to the said cou- 

Teotion of October 20, t86S ; 

And whereas^ on the ninth day of June, one thousand eiglit hundred and 
dg^ty-two, the Federal Council of the Swiss Confederation, in virtue of the final 
provision of a certain mimite of the exchange of the r.ntifi cations of the said con- 
tftotioa at Berne. December 33, 1664. did, by a formal declamlion, accept the said 
adhesion of the United St&tes of America, as well in the name of the Swiaa Con- 
federation as in that of the other contracting states \ 

Amd whereas, furthermore, the Government of the Swiss Confederation has 
iolbrmed the Government of the United States that the exchange of theratlfica* 
tions of the aforcsnid Additional Articles of the twentieth October, 1S6S, to which 
the United States of America have, in Ukc manner, adhered as aforesaid, has not 



k 



THE RED CROSS. 

yet taken place between the contnctioK partiea, and thai tbete artklci cannot be 
KKariied n a tivxty in foil force and cllvct : 

Now, tbercfore, be it known that I. Chester A. Arthur, President of the United 
Sbitei of America, have caused the Mid Convention TrcKty of Ai^^M », 1864, to 
be made pnblJCt to the end that the same and everv article and riatuc thereof ma? 
be obscr\-ed and fulfilled with good &jtb by Uw United States and the catizens 
tbeirof; reservinK, however, the promulgation of the facreiabcfore mentioned 
Additional Articles of October x>, 1868, neewtthstaoding ibe accession of the 
United States of America thenta, until Ibe exchange of the tatJGcationa thereof 
between the Bc%-cral coDtracting state* shall have been c0ected, and tb« aoid 
A<k11Uoual Axtii:Iek >hidl have acquired full force and effect as an iDtematioiia] 
treaty. 

In witoeaa whereof t have hereunto set my band, and caused the seal of the 
UniU-d Suics to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Wasfainjifton, this twcnty-«izth day of July, in the year of 
our LiOrd otic IhwiMnd ct^lit hundred atid ciKhly-two, and of the In dependence of 
the United Statca the one hundred and aet'enth. 

(L.S.) COESTER A. Artbur. 

By the PreridenL 

FRED'K T. FSELIKr.HtTVSEN. 

.S^crrtary of State. 

United Siates 0/ America, Department of Slate, to att to whom these pmentt 

shatt tome, greeting: 

I certify that the foregoing is a true copy of the origiaal on file in the Depart- 
ment of State. 

la testimony whereof I, John Davia, Acting Secretary of State of the United 
States, have hereunto subscribed my name and caused the seal of the Department 
of State to be affixed. 

Done at the dty of Washington, ibis ninth day of At^ust, A. D. l8S>, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the one hondrcd and seventh. 

(L.S.) John DjLvia. 



Thus was tlie American branch of the Red Cross welcomed into 
the fellowship of kindred a.ssociations in thirty-one other uations, the 
most prosperous and civilized un the globe, its position assured, aud its 
future course made simple, direct and untroubled. 

The official bulletin of the International Committee also hailed the 
accession of the United States to the treaty, iu an article of character- 
istic caution and of great significance. In that article, which is quoted 
in full hereafter, the distinction was carefully pointed out between that 
which had already been fiilly agreed to, and had become invested with 
all the force and solemnity of international treaties, and the proposed 
amendment which had been drawn up and considered with a view to 
ultimate adoption. This proposed amendment had received the sanction 



ADHESION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



87 



and signatures of the Intematioiml Committee at Gcuex'a, without 
ever having been formally atl<>pted by aay nation. The United States 
had, at the same moment adopted both, Uius becoming ilie thirty- 
second nation to adhere to the treaty of August 22, 1864, and Iheyiw/ 
to adopt the proposed amendment of October 20, 1868. 

Untemati<mai BmiUtlH/^ Afra. iSit.\ 

ADHESION OF THB UNITHD STATUS TO THR CONVENTION OF GRNBVA. 

Rrferriog to the arlicle iaaertcd iu oux preceding faullelia, p. 43, we are happy 
to twable to announce tbat the act oriinlbc^iua which wr pr«scnti.-d wa» signed at 
Wulilngton the sixteenth of Alarch, iu pimuauce of a vote by which the memhefi 
of the Senate save their approval with unanimity. Our readers will doubtless be 
surpriwd, as we are, thnt after the long and systematic resistance of the Goveni- 
utctit of Ihc United SUtea against rallying to the Convention oF Geneva, there 
canuol be found in the AniericxH legislature a single reprttaeulalivc of the oppoKi- 
tioti. So complete a reversal of opinion cannot be explained, unless we admit 
that the chief officers of the nation hail cheriiOicd, up to the present time, preju- 
dices in regard to the Convention of Geneva — prejudices which vanislied as soon 
as they fully c>^mpTch ended what wtn r'xpcrluj of tlieni, tind recogniM-d that 
there was nothing com pro mi sing iu it to the political condition of their country. 

With the Jwal of new converts, tltcy have even gone beyond the murk, inoa- 
niucb as they have voted their adhesion not only to the convention of the twenty- 
second of August, 1864. but also to the plnn of Additional Ardclcs of the twentieth 
of October, l96S, which was not the matter in question, mucc they had ne*-er had 
the force of law; wc give this newa only under every leaerve, bccauae wc have 
received contradictory information on the sabject. If this defect iu form is found 
in the official document wlitcli will be acnt to the Swiss Federal Council one could 
fear it might retatd the so much desired conclusion of tins important affair, hut it 
need not he too much regretted, since it will enable ns to underatand the opinion 
of the great Transatlantic Republic upon maritime qnestions as they relate to the 
Red Cross. 



The action of the United States, mentioned in this artide. was 
perhaps somewliat characteristic. Il seemed to give itself to the move- 
ment of the Red Crass witli a gracions earnestness seldom seen in the 
cautious forms of diplomatic action, and it certainly was in very 
decided contrast with its former hesitancy. 

No doubt could now rest in any mind that the adhesion of the 
United Statas was, at last, hearty and sincere, and calculated to allay 
any distrust which its former isolation and declination of the treaty 
might have anywhere engendered. 

This action of the Owcmment of the United States also rendered 
the position of the National Association excepticmaUy satisfactory, and 



88 



THE RED CROSS. 



introduced it to the International Committee at Geneva and all the 
affiliated societies under circumstances calculated to promote in the 
greatest degree its usefulness and harmony, and to add to the grattBca* 
tion of all who personally have any part in the operations of the 
American Association. 

For all this it is indebted to the judicious and thoughtful care and 
exalted statesmanship of the President of the United States, his cabinet 
and advisers, and the members of the Forty-seventh Congress, who, 
without one breath of criticism, or one moment of delay, after Ihey 
came to fully understand the subject and comprehend its purposes and 
object, granted all that was then asked of them, in the adhesion to the 
treaties, in the recognition of the National Association, and the provisions 
for printing and disseminating a knowledge of its principles and 
practical work. 

Perhaps no act of this age or counto' has reflected more credit 
abroad upon those specially active in it, than this simple and beneficent 
measure. It must, in its great and humane principles, its far-reaching 
philanthropy, its innovations upon the long established and accepted 
customs and rules of barbaric cruelty, its wise practical charity, stand 
forever next to the immortal ]>rocIamation of freedom to the sla\"es that 
crowns the name of Abraham Lincoln. 

Special thanks are peculiarly due to those who have been its active, 
wise and unwavering friends, who have planned its course so truly, 
and set forth its purposes so clearly, that it will hereafter be misunder- 
stood only by those who are umvilling to learn, or who are actively 
hostile to its beneficent aims. 

Perhaps at the risk t,{ seeming invidious — for we would by no 
means ignore, and have no less gratitude for the legion of generous 
helpers we cannot name — we might state that among those who have 
been foremost to aid and encourage us have been the Hon. Omar D. 
Conger, of Michigan, who, first in the House, and afterward in the 
Senate, has been conspicuous for persistent and courageous work ; also, 
Hon. William Windom, of Minnesota, Chairman of the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, who was first to investigate and take the matter up 
as a member of President Garfield's cabinet; Senator E. P. Lapham, 
of New York, who has spared neither time nor thought, patience nor 
labor, in his legal investigations of the whole matter ; and probably no 
person has done more than he to throw light upon obscure parts and 
point out the true and proper course to be pursued in the accomplish- 
meat of the work, and the acceptance of the treaty. Senators Morgan, 



ADHESION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



89 



of Alabama; Eclmumls, of Vermont ; Hawley. of Connecticut; Anthony, 
of Rhode IsLind ; Hoar, oE Massachusetts, all accorded to it their 
willing interest and aid. Indeed, all sections and parties have seemed 
eager to help the Red Cross; a. result that might, perhaps, have been 
anticipated, since it aslts only an opportunity to faithfully work according 
to methods approved by thoughtful experience, and toward ends that 
all humane persons must approve. 

To the American ncwsi>aper press, and perhaps to the New York 
Herald more than to any other newspaper, through its international 
character, wonderful enterprise, and far-reaching circulation, tlie Red 
Cross is indebted for timely aid and noble furtherance of its objecL'S and 
aims. It has been qnick to discern their substantial character, and 
generous and full in commending them. Still, the same difficnltj- con- 
fronts us in regard to publications as persons — where all have Ijeen so 
willing it is difficult to distingui?Ji. Not less than three hundred peri- 
odicals and papers hare, within the last two years, laid upon our desk 
their graceful tribute of encouraging and fitly spoken words, and it has 
been given as an estimate of an experienced city editor, gathered 
through his exchanges, that over five hundred editorial notices were 
given of o«r little Red Cross book of last year, and these, invariably, 
so far as met our eyes, kindly approving and encouraging. The 
capacity of the Red Cross to carry on most wisely and well its benefi- 
cent work must in the future, as it has doue in the past, depend 
largely upon the acti\'e and cordial co-operation of the newspaper 
press; and we do not doubt that it will continue to receive the 
same prompt aud efficient assistance so long as it shall coutiuue to 
deserve it. 

By the combined assistance of all these powerful friends of the Red 
Cross, the country has at last been rescued from the position in which it 
had been standing for the last seventeen years — a puzzling wonder to its 
admiring friends, a baffling enigma to all, treating its enemies subdued 
with romantic generosity, aud its euemi<;s taken captive in war with all 
the tenderness of friends, aud yet, clinging, apparently with intense fierce- 
ness, to an unsocial isolation, to savage rules and regulations of war 
that only barbarians would ever wish to practice, pouring out its 
beneficence in astonishing prodigality, and in untold volume, variety 
and value upon strangers, and yet seemingly hesitating only when it 
was proposed by ijilcmalional law and system to use and not waste its 
magnificent voluntary offerings, but to entrust them all to responsible 
agents, trained m the vexy torrent aud tempest of battle, to wisely 



90 



THE RED CROSS. 



apply this geuerosily to the great and awful needs of war — agents held 
to business rules, with calm accountabittty amid distraction and panic, 
trained to protect material, to give and lake receipts, and at last to 
account faithfully for e\-cr>'thing entrusted to them, like the officers of 
a well-regulated bank. 

The final adhesion of the United States to the treaty of the Red 
Cross lias created a lively sense of satisfaction in all its affiliated 
societies wherever, throughout the world, its beneficent work is carried 
on ; particularly, by the International Committee of Geneva, has this 
wise and simple act of beneficence and common sense and common 
humanity been regarded with sentiments of gratitude and renewed 
hope. The American National Association has received the following 
cxpresmon of the sentiments of the noble and philanthropic president 
of the International Committee, written upon the receipt from the 
United States of the official documents of recognition : 



COHTTB IhTBBNATIONAL OB SROOUBS 

AUX MlUTAtRSS BtBSSRS, 

Genbta, SepUmUr 6, t8&2. 
Mas CuKA Barton, lyiiisAimcfQfi. D. C: 

Madbuoisbllb: I comv to tbank and congratulate yon cordiallj" upon your 
tiew succesa I have read your letters of the nth and 14U1 with the most lively 
uiterest, and I bave also received, through the mcdiurn of the United Stxtes conaul 
at Gene^-a, all the offidal docutiieuU which yon have annotmccd to tne. 

The pnmtion of yoar society ia now entirely [iout £/ait) correct, and nothing 
man oppofies itaelf; to that hy n circular wc can now make It known to the socie- 
ties of other cotmtrica. I am already occupied in tlie preparation of this document, 
hnt I Atn ohiiged to leave for Turin, where I go to attend the reunion of the Inter- 
nalionnl Inatiltile of Lmr, and it will not be until my returu, say about the twen* 
tietl) of .September, that I can press the printing of the circular. In any caac, it 
•ill be ready before tlie enJ of the month. 

Accept, msdcmoiteJIe. tbe asimraiice of my dlstinguisbefl teentiments. 

G. UovNixR, President. 



The circular alluded to in this letter of M. Moynier announces the 
adhesion of the United States to the great international compact of tbe 
Red Cross, and authenticates and opens the way for the voluntary 
action of the people and the government in international humauitarian 
action, through the medium of the American Association of the Red 
Cross, and is in the following terms: 



INTERNATIONAI. CIRCULAR. 



91 



nfTBRNATIONAL COHHITT£E. FOUNDATION OP THB AMKRICAN 
SOCIBTT OP THE RED CROSS. 



PimXTH CtRCDI,A& TO TUB PRSSIQKCrTS AND MKMBBRS OP TBB NATIONAL 

CbOTTRAI. COKMimiKS. 

Ckkkva, Sepi^m&erg. jSSr. 

GsmLBMBH; When on the twenty-third of August, 1876, wc antiounwil to 
you by our thirty-fourth cifttUnr, that the American society for aid to the wounded 
had had only an epbeiucrkl existence, and had finished by diMoIutlon, we still 
ratertidaed tlie hope of seeing it revive, and we asked tlie friends of the Red 
Chms to labor with os for i\s resuscitation. 

To-day we bare the great satisfaction of being able to tell yoa that this appeal 
has hcen heard, and that the United States ta again linked anew to the duin of 
our societies. 

Nerertbeless it is not the old aiisocLatioi] which lijis relurnetHo life. Tlial 
whtcli w« present to yon at this time has a special origin upon which wc ought to 
give you sotne details, 

Its whole history is associated with a name already known to yon, that of VLim 
Clara Barton. Without the energy mid pcnievernnce of this rcmarVable woman we 
ahntilH prohablj- not for a long time have had the pleaaureof seeing the Red Croas 
revived in the United States. We will not repeal ht-ie what we have said elsewhere 
of the claims of Miss Barton to our gratitude, and we will confine ourselves to 
mentioning what she has done I0 reconstruct a Red Cross society in North 
America. 

Aflcr baring prepared the gronnd by dtrera pnblicationti, afae called together 
a great meeting at WasJiington on Hie twenty-first of Uuy, iSSi; llien nsccoada 
on the ninth of June, at which the exialanDO of the aociety was solemnly act forth. 
On the same day ITeiident Garfield nominated Misi Barton aa president of this 
institution. 

The I ntenuitional Committee would liare dewred from thai tinw to have gtx-en 
notice of the event to all the central committees, but certain scruples restrained it. 

Remeubering that the first American society had been rendered powerless by 
the distinct refusal of tht cabinet at Waahington to adhere to the Genera Coitren- 
tion, it look precantiou and declared it would wait, before rccognicing the yonng 
society, until the government should have rejjularly signed the treaty of 1864. 
Uisa Barton, uiMlentaadtng the special propriety of this requirement, redoubled 
her efforte to attain thb end, and we know that on the first of Uarch she gained a 
complete victory upon this point. 

There remained another question with rettprct to which the International 
omniittc«7 did not feel itaelf anfficiently informed. Just how far was the Amer- 
ican Oovemment disposed to accept the services of this society? We ba^-« 
often aaid. and wc repeat it. that a society which would be exposed, for the want 
of a previntis nnderslandlng. to find itself forbidden acce« to its own army in case 
of war, would be at fault fundamentally, and would not be qualified lo take its 
place in the International coocert. Further upon this point Uiss Barton and the 




p 



I 
I 



tatmben of th« AmenotB Centrxl ContmiUev, sought to eater into our viem. 
Th(-y conrcmd with the competent nutlioriUes. Tbe destretl rccognitioa was vefy 
difficult to obtain, for it wus contrai>' '" American cnstoasand tndiHoni. It wsa, 
nevcTtholeBBt accomplished after cotiKiderable div-ussion. On this paint Mia* 
Barton has Mated to ns that the govcniinciit, jo acquiescini; in the dccistoa which 
had been expressed, was entering upon a {nth altogether new, and that the official 
lecoguilion ofth« R«l CroM Society was for the lattet avcTj- exceptional honor. 

Certain documents resulted therefrom which have been communicated to us 
directly by the SecnOary of Sute, at Washington, showing: 

lat. That the American Association of the Kcd Ctdm haa been legally eon* 
ttituted hy an Act or Congresa. 

ad. That Prcsidi-ut Arthur has declared himaelf in fall sympathy with the 
work, and very wiltJugly baa accepted the presidency of theBoardof Con&ulution. 

3d. That the principal inemberB of lUe cabinet bavc consented to become 
mcmbcraof a board of trustee:;, empowered to receive snbacriptionii and to hoM 
tbe funda for tbe society. 

4th. Finally, that Conf^nras unanimoualy, without diacuMsion or opposition, 
has voted a sum of one tbonsaud dollars, to be expcnilcd by the KOTcmment in 
printed matter, designed to inform the people of the United State* of the orgunl- 
lation of the Red Cross. The initiation of this lost measure was not the work of 
the society btit of tbe Committee on I-'orcign Relations of the Senate ; cODSeqaently 
it bean ^^■itIles8 to the ypontaneotis impulse with which the Ilouacs of Cong if 
came into accord with the views of ftlisa Barton. 

Wc muflt odd that the International Conimittcc attachcB so mucb the mon 
importance to the fact that titia society took an official pf»ition, because there was 
crcfttH, at nearly the same time in the I" nileil States, two other iustitutjons, claim- 
ing lo pursue a similar object, but of which the Committee of Geneva in absolutely 
IgnoranL One, called " The Woman's Kaliomil Relief Association," which con- 
ccnisitself with all public calamilies, among other things with the calamili«i of 
war, but more especially with shipwrecks, and ho-i for ita distinctive emblem a 
blue anclior; the other has taken the name of " Tbe Order of the Red Crofis." Dr. 
James Saunders is the preadent of it, with the title "Supreme Commander." 
This onler prupo&es to organize more or less in a military way and appears dcsirotts 
of imitating tlw ordcre of chivalry in ancient timts. 

The American Ccntml Commitiee of the Red Cross has iu seat at Waahington, 
but has already foundt-d branches in other localitieit. at Danaville, Rochester, 
Sjrtacuw, etc. Soon, doubtlem, cities uf (lie first class will alao take their 
turn. 

Wc will give in our next bulletin the complete text of the conrtitulion and 
by-laws of the American society, which, as will be kcu, has not believed it ought 
lo limit it* program to aaaistance Jo case of war. but has comprised within it. ia 
conformity with a suggestion of the conference at Berlin, the other great calamities 
which might befoll the country and its Inbabitunts. 

As for oarse^vea^ we liave greeteil with joy the addition of the United Statea 
lo tbe countries already enrolled under the Ked Cross : it ta for our work an im- 
portant ond long de,Mred reinforcement, and wc doubt not our impremions in this 
reganl will be shared by tbe twenty-eight central committcos to which wc addreM 
tbcse liues. 




■ 



PREPARATION OF HISTORY. 



93 



We also hope thnt D«xt ycmr Nomc rrprriientiiUveA of Lhe AmtM-ican society 
will cross tlie AtLiDtic iu order to fraternize with the delegates of the other 
nations, who wiU certainly be happy to mevt tlieoi at the coufcreuce at Vienna. 
Rccdre, gentlemen, the ofiSuraiiceB of our distioguisbcd conaidcradon. 
Por the International Committee of the Red Cross. 

Preaideiit : G. Movkisk. 
Secretary ; O. Adqh. 



Immediately following our accession to the Treaty of Geneva, 
March i, 1S82, the president of the Rt-d Cross was asked by the 
Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, to prepare n history of 
the Red Cross for publication by them through ilic govemment printing 
office. This was done, and a book of two hundred and twenty-seven 
pages was issued, giving an account of the origin of the organization, 
the steps by which it became a treaty, of our own initiation, and not 
only the exact text by which our accession was made, but that of every 
other nation within the treaty up to that time, 1S82. 

A bill for a reprint by Congress of fifty thousand copies of this 
book was lost in tbe session of 1898 througb lack of time. 

No consecutive book has been published by us since that date, but 
the history has been perhaps even more fully told, and that scores of 
times, in pubHc addresses which its president and assistants have been 
called to make before great asscuiblics, selections from some of which 
will appear in this volume, as the fullest information given iu the most 
Compact manner that we can render in the short space of time allotted us. 

The very title of the organization, viz: " Relief in War," has 
been a misnomer, and through all the early years especially was very 
generally misunderstood by the public. 1 have not unfrequently becQ 
invited and innocently urged to attend peace meetings and large 
charity gatherings for the poor and afflicted on the ground of needing 
instruction myself; ina.sinach as I " was engaged in advocating war, 
wouldn't it be well to hear something on the other side?" And I 
have been invited to become party to a discussion in which the merits 
of peace and war should be compared. 

Large organizations of women, the best in the country, and, I 
belie\-e, the best in the world, have faithfully labored with me to merge 
the Red Cross into their society as a part of woman'swork; without 
the smallest conception or realization of its scope, its international 
character, its treaty obligations, and the official gnnmd it was liable at 
any time to be called to occupy. 



94 



THE RED CROSS. 



Many charming in%Htations, from ladies even more charming, W> 
addness their convention or meeting, have still contaiued some well 
choaen wonl which might imply a question, if indeed the Red Crtiss 
really were the humane and philanthropic institution it claimed lo be; 
naturally the address usually dealt with the question as it was put. 

I name these facts as mere relics of the past, amusing now, but 
instructive to you of the present day (when no child even questions the 
motives of the Red Cross), as showing what it had to meet and live 
through in order to live at all. 

In order to show the enthusiastic devotees of the present year how 
questionable the beneficence of the Red Cross appeared to the best 
people only a few years ago, I introduce the fallowing address, read, 
by request, before a congress of women, 1895 or 1896, hoping that the 
charitably disposed reader will understand and appreciate the state of 

^K mind engendered by the title of the request made, and forgive any 

^H seeming acerbity: 



ADDRESS. 



WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OP THB RED CROSS IK ITS RKLATIOIT 

TO PHILANTHROPY? 




I am ftsked to say something upon the " Significance of the Red 
Cross in its Relation to Philanthropy." I am not ."nire that I undenttand 
precisely what is desired. 

If a morning paper should announce that three or four of the 
greatest political bosses or grc.ile.st railroad kings in the country had 
quietly met somewhere, and sat with closed doors till long after mid- 
night, and then silently departed, people would ask. "What is the 
significance of that ? What mischief have the>' been de^-ising in 
secret?" In that sense of the word, stgnifimnef — which is a very 
common oue — the Red Cross has none that I ever heard of. It has no 
rich offices to bestow, no favorites to reward, no enemies to punish. It 
has no secrets to keep, no mystic word or sign. Its proceedings would, 
and do. make a valuable library, accessible to all men and all women 
from Norway to Mew Zealand. 

I will not say tlrnt it is so simple and common in character that he 
who runs may read, but surely she who desires information can at 
down, read and obtain it. The Red Cross has been quietly doing its 



ADDRESS. 



9S 



■ 
I 



work for thirty years and is now established in .forty independent 
nations. No other institution on earth, not e\'cn Christianity, has a 
public recognition so nearly nniversal. None has ever adhered more 
closely to its one single purpose of alleviating human suffering. Has 
that any significance or any connection with philanthropy ? Let us 
sec 

An institution or reform movement that is aot selfish, must 
originate in the recognition of some evil that is adding to the sum of 
human suffering, or diminishing the sum of happinesfi. I suppose it is 
a philanthropic movement to try to reverse the process. Christianity, 
temperance and sanitary regulations in general arc examples. Great 
evils die hard; and all that has yet been done is to keep them within 
as narrow limiii? as possible. Of these great evils, war is one. War is 
itt itt very nature cruel — the very emhodiment of cruelty in its effects — 
not necessarily io the hearts of the combatants. Baron Macaulay 
thought it not a mitigation but an aggravation of the evil, that men of 
tender culture and humane feelings, with no ill will, should stand up 
and kill each other. But men do not go to war to save life. They 
might save life by keeping the peace and staying at home. They go 
solely with intent to iaSict so much pain, loss and disaster on tlie 
enemy tliat he will yield to their terms. All their powers to hurt are 
focused upou him. 

In a moving army the elements of destruction, armed meu and 
munitions of war. have the right of way; aud the means of preser\'ing 
and sustaining even their own lives are left to bring op tlie rear as they 
best can. Hence, when the shock and crasli of battle is over, and 
troops are advancing or retreating and all roads are blocked, and the 
metlical staff trying to force its way through with supplies, prompt and 
adequate relief can scarcely ever reach the wounded. The darkness of 
night comes dawn upt^n them like a funeral ]ial1, as they lie in their 
blood, tortured with thirst and traumatic fever. The memory of such 
scenes set a kindly Swiss gentleman to thinking of ways aud means for 
alleriadng their horrors. In time, and by efforts whose history must 
be familiar to many of you, there resulted the Geneva Convention for 
the relief of the sick and wounded of armies. I shall not trace its 
history, as it seems to be more to the present purpose to explain 
briefly what it proposed to do. and how it proceeded to do it. 

The convention found two prime evils to consider. First, the 
existence of war itself; second, the vast amount of needless cruelt}* it 
inflicted upon its victims. For the first of these, with the world full 




96 



THE RED CROSS. 



of standing armies, every boandary line of nations 6xcd and held by 
the sword, and the traditions of four thousand years behind its cus- 
toms, the framers of the con\'ention, however earnest and devoted, 
could scarcely hope to find an immediate, if indeed, a perceptible miti- 
gation. Only time, prolonged effort, national economics, uuiver^nl 
progress and the pressure of public opinion could e\-er hope to grapple 
with this monster evil of the ages. 

But the second— if it were not possible to dispense with the need- 
less cruelties heretofore inflicted upon the victims of war, thus relieving 
human raiser>' to that extent, seemed to the framers of the convention 
a reasonable question to be considered. This is what it proposed to 
do. A few sentences will explain how it proceeded to do it. 

A convention was called at Geneva, Switzerland, for the fourth of 
August, 1S64, to be composed of delegates accredited by the heads of 
the governments of the world, who should discuss the practices of war 
and ascertain to what extent the restraints of the established military 
code in its dealing n*ith the sick and wounded of armies were needful 
for the benefit of the ser\-ice; and to what extent they were needless, 
of benefit to no one, causing only suffering, of no strength to the ser- 
vice, and might be done away with; and to what extent war-making 
powers conid agree to enter into o legal compact to tliat end. The 
connderation, discussion and concessions of two weeks produced a 
proposed agreement which took the form of a compound treaty, viz: 
A treaty of one go\'ernment with many governments — the first ever 
made — a compact known as the Treaty of Gene\*a, for the relief of the 
sick and wounded in war. 

Its basis was neutrality. It made neutral all sick, wounded, or 
disabled soldiers at a field; all persons, as sorgeons, nurses and 
attendants, who cared for them; all supplies of medicine or food for 
their use; all field and military hos]>itals with their eqnipments; all 
gifts from neutral nations for the use of the sick and wounded of any 
anny; all houses near a battlefield tliat would receive and nurse 
wounded men: none of these should be subject to capture. It pTo\*ided 
for the sending of wonnded men to iheir homes, rather than to prison; 
that friend and foe should be nursed together and alike in all military 
hospitals; and, most of all. that the people who had always been forcibly 
restrained from approaching any field of action for purposes of relief, 
however needed (with the single exception of our Sanitary Commission, 
and that under great difficulties and often under protest) shoiiifl not 
only be allowed this privilege, bat should arm and equip themselves 



ADDREvSS. 



97 



» 



with relief of all kinds, with the right to enter the lines for the helpless; 
thus relieving not alone the wounded and dying, but the armies of their 
care. 

It provided a universal sign by which all this relief, both of persons 
and material, should be desigiiflltd and known. A Greek red cross on 
a field of white should tell any soldier of any country %vithin the treaty 
that the wearer was bis friend and could be trusted; and to any officer 
of any army that he was legitimately there and not subject to capture. 

Some forty nations are in that treaty, and fix>m every military 
hospital in ever>' one of these nations floats the same flag; and every 
active soldier in all their armies knows that he can neither capture nor 
harm the shelter beneath it. though it be but a little " A " tent in the 
euemy's lines, and every disabled man knows it is his rescue and his 
houe. 

It may be interesting to know the formula of this compact. It 
recognizes one head, the luteniational Committee of Geneva, Switzer* 
laud, through which all communications are made. One national head 
in each countrj' which receives such communications, transmitting them 
to its goverument. The ratifying power of the treaty is the Congress 
of Berue. The organ izatJoii in each nation receives from its govern- 
ment its high moral sanction and recognition, but is in no way sup- 
ported or materially aided by it. The Red Cross means not national 
aid for the needs of the people, but the people's aid for the needs of the 
nation. The awakening patriotism of the last few years should, I 
tliink, make tliis feature more readily apprehended. 

As the foreign nations furnish the only illustrations of the value 
and material aid of the Red Cross in war, let us glance at what tt has 
accomplished. 

The first important war after the birth of the Treaty of Geneva, 
was between Germany, Italy and Austria. Austria had not, at that 
time, enteretl the treaty, and yet its objects were understood aud its 
spirit found a responsive chord in the hearts of the people. Over 
(400,000. beside a great amount of material, were collected by that 
countrj', and made use of for the relief of the combatants. Italy 
was fairly well organized and rendered excellent service, furnishing 
much substantial assistance. Germany, which was in the vanguard 
of the treaty nations, was throughly organized and equipped. She 
was the 6rst to demonstrate the true idea of the Red Cross — people's 
aid for national, for military, necessity. Great storehouses had been 
provided at central points, where vast supplies were collected. In an 




9« 



THB RED CROSS. 



hicredfUy short time, between $3,000,000 and ^,000,000 were raised 
for relief purposes, and large numbers of volunteers carac to help the 
already organized cxirps of workers. Great trains of supplies were sent 
to the front. The wounded enemy was tenderly cared for, and every- 
thing was accomplished so well and so systematically, tlutt it pro\'ed the 
incalculable value of organized, authorized, civil aid. French and 
Swiss Red Crass workers also rendered great assistance, this being the 
first instance of neutrals taking au active part. 

In the Franco- Prussian War the German Red Cross performed 
even better service, it having learned many valuable Icssous in the 
German -Austrian conBict.and throuf^hthclreffortsaii infinite amount of 
good was accomplished and great suffering averted. Not only were the 
wounded aud sick' soldiers tenderly cared for, but the unprovided families 
of soldiers werealsosupplied. The French RedCrossatthc breakingout 
of the war was poorly organized and penniless. Within one moutli, liow- 
ever, hospitals bad been established, ambulances and a large amount of 
field supplies were at the front, with a considerable relief force to care 
for the sick and wounded. The French Association, not including tbe 
branches in the provinces, spent over $3,000,000 and assisted 110,000 
wounded. Many neutral Red Cross nations assisted in rendering aid 
and relief in this great war. England alone sent a million and a half 
dollars, besides twelve hundred cases of stores. Higbty-five tliousand 
sick, wounded nnd famishing French soldiers entered Switzerland, and 
were cared for by the Central Committee at Berne. The International 
Committee at Geneva, in one instance, asked for and obtained 2500 
seriously wonnded French soldiers, supplied their wants, and sent them 
to their own country. 

In the great Russo-Turkish War, the Red Cross of Rtissia, splen- 
didly equipped, with ample means and roj-al patronage, was, at the 
beginning of hostilities, greatly hampered by the jealousy of the milj- 
lary. The relief organizations were as.signed places well in llie rear; bnt 
ere many months had passed the military surgeons gladly accepted the 
Red Cross aid, and colossal work did tt perform. Over $13,000,000 
were raised, and all that was necessary spent in supplying relief. The 
neutral Red Cross countries furnished valuable assistance in this war 
also. 

In the recent war between Japan and China, you undoubtedly read 
of the wonderful work performed by the Japanese Red Cross. This 
society followed the precedent of Germany, in tenderly caring for the 
wounded enemy, even though fighting against a nation not in tbe 







ADDRESS. 



99 



treaty. Japan had a crael, merciless enemy to fight, and yet her skA- 
dicrs were instructed to have respect even for a dead enemy. 

It is needless to give further Uluslralions; history reconls the won- 
derful achievements of this grenlest of relief organizations, though it 
cannot record the uulold suffering which has been averted by it. 

Is the Red Cross a humanitarian organization? What is the sig- 
nificance of the Red Cross? I leave these two questions for you to 
answer. 

But war, although the most tragic, is not the only evil that assails 
humanity. War has occurred in the United States four times in one 
hundred and twenty years. Pour times its men have armed and 
marched, and its women wailed and wept. That is on an average of 
one war every thirty years. It is now a little over thirty years since 
the Ia.<it hostile gun was fired; we fondly hope it may be many years 
before there is another. A machine, even a human machine, called into 
active service only once in thirty years is liable to get out of working 
order; hence to keep it in condition for use, no less than for the possible 
good it might do. the American Society of the Red Cross asked to have 
included in its charter the privilege of rendering such aid as it could iu 
great public calamities, as fires, fioods, cyclones, famines and pestilence. 

In a time of profound peace that has been the only possible field 
ef activity. It is not for me to say wiiether that field has been success- 
fully cultivated, but a few of the facts will determine whether the 
innovation upon the treaty will commeud itself to your judgment, as it 
has to those of the older societies of Europe. 

Naturally it required not only diplomacy hut arguments to obtain 
a privilege never before officially considered in the unbroken customs 
of an international treatj-. They must be submitted to a foreign con- 
gress. The same argument pertained fifteen years ago that pertains 
to-day, namely, that in all our vast territory, subject to incalculable 
disasters, with all our charitable, humane and benevolent associations, 
there was not one which had (or its object and duty to hold itself In 
preparation and traioing to meet and rclie\'e the woes of these over- 
mastering disasters. All would gladly aid, but there were none to 
lead. Everybody's business was nobody's business, and the stricken 
victims perished. 

We asked that under the Red Cross Constitution of the United 
States its national organization should be permitted to act in the capa- 
city of Red Cross relief agents, treating a national disa-stcr like a field 
of battle, proceed to it at once with experienced help, equipped with 



loo 



THE RED CROSS. 



all the needful supplies and means to commence relief, overlook and 
learn the needs of the £eld, make immetltate statements of the true 
condition nud wants to the people of the country, who, knowing the 
presence of the Red Cross there, could, if desirable, make it the 
medium of their contributions for relief either in money or material. 
To relieve the necessities in every way possible, keep the people at 
large in possession of reliable information, hold the field until relief 
has been given, and retire when all needed aid has been rendered. 
This privilege was graciously granted by the ratif>-ing Congress at 
Berne, and is known as the '* American amendment" of the Red 
Cross. Nations since that date, on becoming agnatory to the treaty, 
have included that amendment in their charters. 

This is the principle upon which we have acted. The affording of 
relief to the victims of great disasters anj-where in the United States, 
is what the National Red Cross has proceeded to do, and it has confined 
itself strictly to its privileges, acting only in dfsaslcrs so great as to be 
national. It never asks aid; never makes an appeal; it simply makes 
statements of the real condition of the sufferers, leaving the people free 
to exercise their own humanrt>' throngh any medium they may prefer. 

In the thirteen years of relief work by the Red Cross in the 
United States, every dollar and ever>' pound that has been received 
and distributed by it, has been the free-will offering of the people-, 
given for humanity without solicitation, and dispensed without reward. 
It has received nothing from the government. No fund has been 
created for it. No contributions have been made except those to be 
distributed us relief at its fields. Its officers serve without pay. There 
is not, nor e\'er was, a salaried officer in it, and even its headquarters 
meets its own costs. Among the various aijpropriations made by Con- 
gress for relief of calamities in the past years, as in great river Eoods, 
not a dollar so appropriated has ever been applied through the Red 
Cross, although working on the same field. I name these facts, not 
by way of complaint, or even comment, but to ccarect popular errors 
of belief, which I know yon would prefer to have corrected. True to 
its method, this is simply a statement of the real condition of things, 
and left to the choice of the people— the Red Cross itself is theirs, 
created for them, and it is peculiarly their privilege to deal with it as 
they will. 

The following list of calamities with the approximate value of 
material furnished, as well as money, will give you somi; appreciation 
of the scr\*iccs rendeied in the cause of humanity by the American 



ADDRKSS. 



lol 



National Red Cross. Limit of lime and spju:? forbids even an attempt 
at description of its various fields. I can only pame the most impor- 
tant, with estimated values distributed on eachi .-. 

MidxtKan Forest Fires, iSSi, material and nionej. '.*,,*':'$ 8o,oao 

Uicsiesippi FlucxU, 1S83, luoney and Kcedx '. t 6^000 

Ubaissippi Floods, 1SS3, nutcrial aud seeds ^8,300 

UissisBippi Cyclone, i8S,i, money ' i,s6ni.^ 

Dalkan War, 1883, money yxi'.'. 

Ohio and MixsisAippi I'toodfi, 1S84, feed for stock and •"';•' 

people, clolliiii}i{, lool*. house furuishings 175,000 ••.'.' . 

Tcxax Fainine, >>SS5, upprupruiliuiiK and contributions on ■ . .. 

statements made upon personal investigation . . . 120,000 

Charleston Eartliquuku, 1SS6, money 500 

Ml Vernon, rH,, Cyclone, 1SS8, money and supplies . . 85,000 

Florida Yellow Fever, jSSS, physirtanjinnd nurses , , . 15,000 
Johnstown Disaster, 18S9, money aod all kinds of mate- 

liul, buildings and rumi&hings 350,000 

Rusmn Famine. 1891-^2, mainly food . . - 125,000 

Pomemy. Iowa, Cyclone. 1893, money nnd onrses . , , 2,700 
South Carolina Islands, 1893-94, money and all kinds of 

»upplic:> and mnteriala, IooIa, scciIs, lumber, etc. . . 63,000 



$946,200 



Only about one-eighth of the above estimates represent cash ; the 
^■balance rcprc'sents material. 

In each of these emergencies something has been added to the sum 
of human happiness, something subtracted from the sum of human woe; 
ae naked have been clothed, the hungr>' fed, new homes have sprung 
ip from the desolated ruius, crops revived, and activities and business 
relations resumed. In a neighboring State and its adjacent islands 
;ly two hundred miles distant from this, could to-day be found 
ireral thousand human beings, living in their homes, enjoying their 
family lives, following their ordinary avocations, cultivating the ground, 
who. if asked, would unhesitatingly tell you that but for the help of the 
Red Crosis. they would two years ago have been under the grouud they 
now cultivate. 

If the alleviation of human miseries, the saving of life, and the 
bringing of helplessness aiul dependence back to methods of self- 
sustenance and indeiiendcnce are counted among the philanthropic 
movements nf the day, then to ns, who have seen so nuicli and 
rorked so long and so bard among it, it would seem that the Red 



I02 



TI?^ -B^ED CROSS. 



Cross movement has sctmr" significance " in connection with phil- 
anthropy. .-.'•*'•*■ 

There remains hut one question more. To whom is tWs movement 
due? Who insl^iitcil it? In what minds did it origiuate? I wish I 
could say it was ;i\r woman's work; but the truth compels the fact that 
thi.s greatr.humanc idea originated with men; the movement was insti- 
tuted by..thc)n. They thought it out, and ihey wrought St out, and it 
was gniy-jnect and proper that they should, for the terrible evil that 
madii Juncccssar)' was theirs as well. Women as a rule are not war- 
mVkers. For centuries the caprices of men have plunged the world in 
•/titiife, covered the earth's surface with armies, and enriched its soil 
*■* with the best blood that ever flowed in human veins. It is only right 
that at length, in the cycle of ages, something should touch man's 
heart and set him humbly down to find out some way of mending as 
much of his mischief as he could. Perhaps he " builded better than 
he knew," for in that one effort he louche<l the spring that sooner or 
later will mend it all. No grander or truer prophecy has ever been 
made than uttered in that first conveution: " Tke Red Cross skati teach 
war to make war upQit iiselj." It is the most practical and effective 
peace-maker and civilizer in the known world. It reaches where noth- 
ing else can. If proof of this be wanting, study the action of Japan in 
hs late war. 

But b man doing this work aloue? No — gladly, no ! Scarcely had 
be made bis first move, when the jeweled hands of royal woman 
glisteued beside him, and right royally have they borne their part- 
Glance at the galaxy — the great leader and exemplar of them all, 
Empress Augusta of Germany, her illustrious daughter, the Grand 
Duchess of Badeu, Eugenia, Empress Frederick, Victoria and Princess 
I/)uise of England, Margherita of Italy, Natalia of Ser\'ia and the entire 
Court of Russia, and to-day the present Empress of Germany, and the 
hard-working Empress of Japan, with her faithful, wear>' court, even 
now busy in the hospitals of convalescing Chinese. The \'arious aux* 
iliary societies of women of all the principal Red Cross nations are a 
pride and a glory to humanity. 

These nations have all two important features in their movement, 
which, thus far, have not been accorded to us. Their governments 
have instituted laws protecting the insignia and name of the Red Cross 
from misuse and abnse as trademarks by unscrupulous venders, and 
appropriation by false societies for dishonest purposes. This lack, and 
this alone, has thus far rendered general organkation iu the United 



THE RED CROSS. 103 

States impracticable and unsafe. For seven years the most strenuous 
efforts at protection have failed; the loss has been to the people in 
general. 

The second advantage of other nations is that citizens, the men of 
wealth in those countries, have created a Red Cross fund for its use, 
varying in amounts from a hundred thousand to several millions of 
dollars. Russia, I believe, has a fund of some three millions. It seems 
never to have occurred to our wealth-burdened men that possibly a 
little satisfaction might be gained, some good accomplished, and some 
credit done the nation by a step in that direction. It will dawn upon 
them some day, not, perhaps, in mine, but in some of yours, and then, 
ladies, you can well join hands with them, and discern more clearly 
than now the ' ' significance of the Red Cross as related to philanthropy . ' ' 




T may be necessary to recall to the minil of the 
pursoii readiDg these pages hastily, the faci tliat the 
National Red Cross of America was formed nearly 
a year before the accession to the treaty. This was 
done by the advice of President Garfield, in order 
to aid as far as possible the accession. "Accord* 
ingly a meeting was held tn Washington, D. C, 
May 21, i88t, which resulted in the formation of 
an association to be known as the American 
National Association of the Red Cross. " 
Several years of previous illness on the part of its president had 
resulted in fixing her country home at Dansville. N. Y., the seat of 
the great Jackson and Austin Sanitarium and the acknowledged foun- 
dation of the hundreds of health institutions of that kind which bless 
the cotmtry to-day. The establishment of the National Red Cross in 
Washington had attracted the attention of persons outside, who, of 
conrse, knew very little of it; but among others, the people of Dans- 
ville, the home of the president, felt that if she were engaged in some 
public movement, they too might at least offer to aid. Accordingly, on 
her return to Ibew in midsummer, tliey waited upon her with a reqnest 
to that effect, which resulted in the formation of a society of the Red 
Cross, this being the first body in uid of the National Association 
formed in the United States. It is possible I cannot make that more 
clear than by giving an extract from their report of that date, which 
was as follows: 



In reply to j-oar request, given tluonjih the stcretarj' of your asuodatioo, that 
wc make report to you cooMming the inauguration of our society, ite subae<juent 
proccciliugs and present condition, the committee has the honor to snbnut the 
foUowiDg Elateincot: 

Dansville. Livingston County, N. Y., being the ccwiotry residence of Mias 
CUra Barton, president of the Auicrieui Association of the Red Cruss, its ciiir^ns, 
desirous of paying; a compliment to ber. and at the same time of doing an honor to 
themselves, conceived the idea oforgantung in their town the first local society of 

(IM) 



THE MICHIGAN FOREST FIRES. 



K>5 



the Red Cross in the United SUitcx. To IhU end, a (iicnetal preliminary meeting 
was held iu tlie Presbyterian Church, wlien the priticipW of the Treaty of Genera 
and the nature of its WL-ieliL-s were tlefined in a clear and practical manner by Miss 
Barton, who had been invited to address the mcelinK. Shortly after, on the twenty- 
second of August, i8»i. a second meeting, for the purpose of organ izjitiou, held in 
th« Lutheran Churrh iind presidwi over by the pastor, Rev. Dr. Strobet, was 
attended by the cituens ijeoerally, including iiearly all the religious denomin&tiuns 
of the town, with their respective pastors. The purpose of the lacetinK was 
exp]ain»1 by your president, a constitution was presented and very largely signed, 
and officers were elected. 

Thus we are able to announce that on the eighteenth anniversary of the Treaty 
of Geneva, in Switzerknd, August aa, i36j, was formed tlie fintt local society of the 
Red Cross in tlie Uuited States of America. 



Almost immediately following this occi:rred the memorable forest 
fires of Michigan, which raged for days, sweeping everything before 
them— man, b«ast, forestjt, faruis — every living thing, until ju one 
report made of it w« find this sentence: "So sweeping has been the 
destruction that there is not food left in its track for a rabbit to eat, 
and, tudeed, do rabbit to eat it, if there were." Here occurred the 
first opportunity for work that the young society had found, and again 
I give without further note their report: 



Before a month had passed, before a thought of practical application to 
businew bad arisen, we were forcibly and sadly taught attain the old lesMMi that 
we need but to build the nltitr, C*o<I will ilimself provide the sacrifice. If we did 
not beitr the craclUiug of the flumes, our skies grew murky and dark and our 
ainia<[phcrc bitter with the drifting smoke that rolled over from the blazing fields 
of our neighbors of Michigan, whose living thousands fled in terror, whose dying 
hundreds writhed in the embers, and who»c dead blackened in the ashes of their 
hard^earnrtl home*, tniititntly wc felt the help and strengtli nf t>ur organization, 
youns and untried as it was. We were grateful that in ihis first ordeal your 
sympuUietic president wii« with u& We were deirply grateful for yonr pitimpt 
oill to action, given thnugh her, which rallied ns to our work. Our relief rooma 
were instantly secured and our white banner, with its bright scarlet cross, which 
has never been furled since that hour, waai thrown to the breeie. telling to everj- 
looker-on wknt wc were there to do, and pointinR to every generous heart an outlet 
for its sympathy. We had not mistaken the spirit of our people ; our scarce-opeiied 
doorway was filled with men. women and children bearing their gifts of pity and 
love. Tablm and xhelve* wrrc pili-4l. our working committee of liKliea took rvcry 
article nnder inspection, their faithful hands made all garments whole and Strong; 
lastly, each article received the stamp of the society and of the Red Crofls, and all 
were carefully and quickly consigned to the firm packing cases awaiting tfaem. 
Eight large boxes were shipped at first, others followed directly, and so continued 



lo6 



THE RED CROSS. 



QOtil Qotiiied hj the Rdirf CommiUee of Micliigran thut do more were needed. 
Meuuwliilc the liamU of our tiuLturer were doI Ml enijily, sortit hundnds of 
dvMan were depos^ilcd wiUi hiiii. A most coiiit>etent Agent, our esteemed towii^ 
Buui and oxinty clerk of Unngsun Countjr, Mi^or Mark J. Bannell, wwt di»patched 
with the first invoice of fuods and charged with the duly of the reception of tbe 
mipplies, tbeii proper diMribution and of m«kiiig direct report of the □ondition aod 
DoedE of the saBerers. 

The j;ood practical judgment of the people and society led them to coiwlder 
the neir approach of winter and the uniibelteTed condition of the victims, bereA 
of every earthly po«seuion, and warm clotliiDfi; and bcddiuf; wer« Knt in great 
abundance. Our cues were all marked with tlie Red Cross and cousif[ued to 
Senator Omar I>. Conger, of Turt Huron, who led the call of the Uicbigan 
couimittec and to whom, as well as to bis kindbesrtcd and practical wife, we are 
indebted for many timely suggestions and words of grateful appreciatlDn. 

In a spirit of gratitnde and hope we submit this partial report of onr first 
work under the Red Croas, which can be but partial, ax our rooma are still open 
and our wtirk is in p rogn fi awaiting such further calls as may come to as. We 
are grateful tbat we are called, grateful that ynur hniioreil President, with the 
acqnited skill of the humane labors of many years in many lands, was with ns to 
connnel and in«tnict. We nre gind to lun'e learned from thiit earlv object lesson 
tbe value of organised effort and the value of our own orgauization. 

We bope our report may be satisfactory to you, and tbat our beautiful little 
valley town, quietly nestling among the green slopes of the Genesee Valley, after 
hjiTing offered the lint fruits of the Red Cross to its own countrymen, may alwajs 
be as prompt and generous in any call of yours for aufiering humanity. 

The Deighboring city of Rochester, forty miles to the north 
of Daiisville, hearing of the activity of its smaller neighbor in the 
great disaster that was paralyzing all. desired also to Britc in the work 
and kuowiDt; much less even than DansviUc of what the Red Cross 
might mean, still desired to act with it, if possible; and appended 
herewith will be found their report, which will best tell their story: 



Influential citizens of Rochester, Uonroe Cosnty, N. V. , having twconie inter- 
eated in tbe aubject of the Trebly of Geneva and tlic Red Croiw work going on in 
DansvUIe, sent a request through the mayor of the city to Hias Clara Barton to 
address them in a public meeting. Miss Barton met an audience of thiDlciDg, 
philanthropic men and women, to whom it was a pleasure to unfold her theme. 
The rcstdl was a proposition to organize a society before adjoummcnt. Accord- 
ingly oarues were pledged, and, the second evening after, a constitution was 
adopted and officeis were elected. Edward M. Moore, M. D., presideiit .... 

Steps were immediately taken for reducing to practice the theory of tbcb' 
newly formed society, and in three days from the conmienccment of its existence 
itsagcot, Professor J. R. Hublxrll, waa on tbe burnt fields of Micbigaii with juetruc- 
tioaa to exaauDe into tbe condibus of the people and report tbeir aeoessities to tbe 



THE MICHIGAN FOREST FIRES. 



107 



society fnnn actu&l obscn-atiun. Thcee duties vrerv ftiitlifuUs- an<3 judidoiisly per- 
formed, and DO the day following his report of the specisl need u( moncv the sum 
of $2SfX> iu easii was forwarded as a first icstallmctil. At last reports tlie sum 
ni«cd amounted to J3Si»7.38 and the society uuinbered asouiembcni. It i» evident 
Uial DO full report cau be made concemiag a tnovcnient of which only the first 
Steps are taken, and which is still iu active operation, but it is believed that the 
JHAtADces are rare when, with no distrcas of its own as an incentive, but froni the 
simple motive of benevolence, a people has accomplished so much, both in orsan- 
»tion utid practical reaufts, in so bricfa space of time. 

FoUowiug dose 011 the organizatiou in Rochester, the citizens 
of the sister citj* of Syracuse and viciiiity. iu Oiioudaga Cotinty, 
N. Y. , met at the Board of Trade rooms aud perfected their organi- 
zatiou under the above name. Re\*. Dr. Richmond Fiske, a widely 
kuowu philanthropist, proiuiueutly connected with tlic principal 
charities of the city, assisted by IVofessor G. F. Coinfort. of the Syra- 
cuse University, led the movement. The ctm.'ilitution, cinliracing in 
admirable form Uic principles of the Geneva Convention, was signed 
by a large numlwr present and officers were appointed rcpresentiug 
the names of the leading people of the city. 

These were the first steps of the American National Association 
of the Red Cross in relief work and in the organization of atuciliarjr 
societies. The completion of this work, which may have seemed 
premature and preliminarj', left the association free to continue its 
efforts with the Government of the United States on behalf of its 
accession to the treaty. 



MISSISSIPPI AND OHIO RIVER FLOODS— 1882. 



HE spring rise of the waters of tlie Mississippi brought 
great devastation aud a cry weut over the country in 
regard to llic sufferiugs of the iababitants of the 
Mississippi valley. For hundreds of miles the great 
^^^''dlf river was out of its bed and raging madly over the 
country, sweeping in its course not only the homes 
but often the people, the animals, and many times 
the laud itself. This cbnstituted a work of the relief clearly within 
the bounds of the civil part of our treaty, and again we prepared for 
work. Again our infant organization sent its field agent. Dr. Hub- 
bell, to the scene of disaster, where millions of acres of the richest 
valley, cotton and sugar lands of America, and thousands upon 
thousands of homes under the waters of the mightiest of rivers— 
where the swift rising floods overtook alike man and beast in their 
fiighCof terror, sweeping them ruthle.-isly to the gulf beyond, or leaving 
them clinging in famishing despair to some trembling roof or sway 
ing tree top till relief could reach aud rescue them. 

The National Association, with no general fund, sent of its 
personal resources what it was able to do, and so acceptable did these 
prove and so convincing were the beneficences of the work that the 
cities of Memphis, Vicksburg and New Orleans desired to be permitted 
to form associate societies and work under the National Aa'K>ciation. 
This was permitted, aud those societies have reniaiued until the present 
time. New Orleans organizing for the entire State of l^uisiaua. The 
city of Rochester, proud and grateful of its success iu the disaster a 
few months before, again came to the front and again rendered excel- 
lent service. 

It was a singular fact that on the first day of March, 1882, while 
the National Association was in session busily engaged in devising 
ways and means for extending the relief which to them seemed so 
needed and so slender, a messenger came from the Senate of the United 
States to announce to them that tl:e vote had been taken aud that the 

(loBJ 



MISSrSIPPI AND OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 109 

United States bad acceded to the Treaty of Geneva without a dissent- 
ing voice. This closed a meeting joyfully which had opened with 
many misgivings. Fresh courage and hope were taken and every 
energy called into action for the furtherance of the work which seemed 
then fairly commenced. 

In the spring of 1883 occurred the first great rise of the Ohio River; 
1000 miles in extent. This river, although smaller than the Missis- 
sippi, is more rapid in its course, and its valleys hold the richest 
grain lands, the most cultivated farms and representing, in fact, the 
best farming interests of America. 

The destruction of property was even greater here than in the 
cotton and cane lands of the Mississippi. Again our field agent was 
dispatched and did excellent work. The entire country was aroused, 
and so liberal were the contributions to the various committees of 
relief that when Dr. Hubbell retired from the field, having completed 
the work, he had still unexpended ftmds in hand. But they were 
soon needed. 



MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA CYCLONE 




less than a month occurred the fearful cyclone of 
Louisiana and Mississippi, which cut a swath clear 
of all standing objects for thirty miles in width and 
several hundred miles in length, running southeast 
from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Our special agent for the South, Colonel F. R. 
Southmayd, took charge of the Red Cross relief in this 
disaster, and so efficient was his work that societies 
struggled for organization under him and the Red 
Cross was hailed as a benediction wherever he passed. . This was in 
May, 1883. 

Our association now enjoyed for eight months a respite from active 
work. It was surely needed. It was the longest rest we had yet 
known, and afforded some small opportunity to gather up its records 
of past labors, organize some societies and compile a history of the 
Red Cross, so much needed for the information of our people and so 
earnestly asked for by them as well as by the United States Senate. 
From this history the preceding pages of this book have been 
extracted. 




CLARA BARTON. 
Taken about /SS4. 



A 




N 




""-v^^ 



UT the respite was all too short for our purposes. 
The rapidly melting snows of February, 1884, 
fNuT*! ''^LiJ^^ brought the one thousand miles of the Ohio River 
\ JiL' ^-I ^^W^ again out of its bed. A wild cry went out all over 
C^mfiKeS&^-Tr ^'^s "'t*"*^ for help. The government, through 
Congress, took imnit-diate action and appropriated 
several hundred thousand dollars for relief, to be 
applied through the War Department. The Red 
Cross agents must again repair to the field, its societies be again 
notified. 

But its president felt that if she were lo be called cver>" year to 
direct the relief work of the association in these inundations it was 
incumbent upon her to visit the scene in person, to see for herself what 
floods were like, to team the necessities and he able to direct with the 
wisdom bom of actual knowledge of the subject; and accordingly, with 
ten hours' preparation, she joined Dr. Hubbell on his way and pro- 
ceeded to Pittsburg, the head of the Ohio River. There the societies 
were telegraphed that Cincinnati would be headquarters and that 
money and supplies should be sent there. This done, we proceeded to 
Cincinnati by rail. 

Any description of this city upon our entrance would fall 90 far 
short of the reality as to render it useless. 

The surging river had climbed up the bluffs like a devouring 
monster and possessed the town ; large steamers could have plied along 
its business streets; ordinary avocations were abaudoued, Bankers and 
merchants stood iu its relief houses and fed the huugr>- populace, and 
men and women were out in boats passing baskets of food to pale, 
trembling hands stretched out to reach it from third story windows of 
the stately blocks and warehouses of that beautiful city. Sometimes 
the water soaked away the foundations and the structure fell with a 
crash and was lost in the floods below; in one instance seven lives 
went out with the falling building; and this was one city, and prob- 
ably the best protected and provided locality In a thousand miles of 
thickly populated country. 

"3 




"4 



THE RED CROSS. 



It Itad not been my intentiou to remaiu at tbe sceae of disaster, 
but nitber to see, investigate, establish an agency and return to 
natiooal headquarters at Washington, which in the baste of departure 
had been left imperfectly cared for. But 1 might almost say, in mili- 
tary parlance, that I was "surprised and captured. " 

I had made no call beyuud the Red Cross societies — expected no 
supplies from other sources — but scarcely had news of our arrival at 
Cincinnati fotuid its way to the public press wheu telegrams of money 
and checks, from all sides and sources, commenced to come in, with 
letters auuouuciug the sending of materiul. The express office and 
freiijht depots began filling up until within two weeks we were com- 
pelled lo opeu large supply rooms, which were generously tendered to 
the use of the Red Cross. A description could no more do justice lo 
our flood of supplies than to tbe flood of waters which had made them 
necessary— cases, barrels and bales of clothing, food, household sup- 
plies, new and old; all that intelligent awakened sympathy could 
suggest was there in such profusion that, so far from thinking of 
leaving it one must call all available help for its care and distribution. 

The government would supply the destitute people with food. 
tents and army blaukets, and had placed its military boats upon the 
river to rescue the people and issue rations until the first great need 
should be supplied. 

The work of the Red Cross is supplemental and it .sought for the 
special want.s likely to be overlooked in this great general .stipply and 
the necessities outside Uie limits of gjvcmmental aid. The search 
was not difficult. The government provided neither fuel nor clothing. 
It was but little past midwinter. A cyclone struck the lower half of 
the river with the water at its greatest height and whole villages were 
swept away iu a night. Tbe inhabitants escaped in boats, naked and 
homeless. Hail fell to the depth of several inches and the entire 
country was encased iu sleet and ice. The water had filled the coal 
mines so abundant iu tliat vicinity until no fuel could be obtained. 
The people wen: more likely to freeze than starve and against Ibis 
there was no provision. 

We quickly removed our headquarters from Cincinnati to Evaua- 
ville, three hundred miles below and at the head of the recent sceue of 
disaster. A new staunch steamer of four hundred tons burden was 
immediately chartered and laden to the water's edge with clothing 
and coal; good assistants, both men and women nerc taken on board; 
the Red Cross flag was hoisted aud as night was setting in, after a 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 



ITS 



day of intense cold^amid surging waters and crashing ice, the float- 
ing wrecks of towns and villages, great uprooted giants of the forest 
plunging madly to the sea, the suddenly unhoused people wandering 
about the river banks, or huddled in strange houses with fireless 
hearths — the clear-toncd bell and shrill whistle of the "Josh V. 
Tbroop" announced to the generous inhabitants of a noble city that 
from the wharves of Evansville was putting out the first Red Cross 
relief boat that ever floated on American waters. 

The destroyed villages and hamlets lay thick on either bank, and 
the steamer wove its course diagonally from side to side calling the 
people to the boat, finding a committee to receive and distribute, and 
learning as nearly as possible the number of destitute persons, put off 
the requisite quantity of clothing and coal, and steamed away quickly 
and quietly leaving sometimes an astonished f€u\ sometimes a muiti- 
iude to gaze after and wonder who she was, whence she came, what 
that strange flag meant, and most of all, to thank God with tears and 
prayers for what she brought. 

lo this manner the Red Cross proceeded to Cairo, a distance of 
four hundred miles, where the Ohio joins the Mississippi River, which 
latter at that time bad not risen and was exciting no apprehension. 
Returning, we revisited and resupplied the destitute points. The 
government boats running over the same track were genial and 
friendly with us, and faithful and effictent in their work. 

It should he said that, notwitlistaiuling all the material we had 
shipped and distributwl, so abundant had been the liberality of the 
people that on our return to Evansville we found our supply greater 
than at any previous time. 

At this moment, and most unexpectedly, commenced the great 
rise of the ifjssissippi River, and. a second cry went out to the govern- 
ment and the people for instant help. The strongest levees were 
giving way under the sudden pressure, and even the inundation of the 
city of New Orleans was threatened. Again the government appro- 
priated money, and the War Department sent out its rescue and ration 
boats, and again the Red Cross prepared for its supplemental work. 

In an overflow of the Mississippi, owing to the level face of the 
country and the immense body of water, the valley is inundated at 
time^ thirtj- miles in width, thus rendering it impossible to get animals 
to a place of safety. Great numbers drown and the remainder, in a 
prolonged overflow, have largely starved, the government having 
never included the domestic animals in its work of relief. This 



Ii6 



RED CROSS. 



seemed an omission of vital importance, Iwth humanely and economi- 
cally considered, and tbe Rtd Cross preparwl lo go to the rtlief of the 
stan-iiig animals of the Mississippi valley. It would also supply 
clothing to the destitute people whom the government would feed. 

The navigation of the Mississippi River calls for its own st>'leof 
boats and pilotage, the latter being both difficult and dangerous, 
especially with the changed channels and yawning crevasses of a 
flood. 

The steamer "Throop" was left at Evansville and the "Mattie 
Bell" chartered at St. Louis and laden with com, oats, hay, meal and 
salt for cattle ; clothing and cooking utensils for the destitute people ; lea, 
coHee, rice, sugar and medicines for the sick : and as quickly as possible 
followed the government steamers leaving the same port with rations 
of meat and meal. These latter boats kindly burdened themselves 
with large quantities of our forage which our overladeu boat could not 
contain. 

We soon found that our judgment in regard to the condition of] 
the animals had been correct. Horses, mules, cows, sheep and pigs 
had been hastily gotten upon floating rafts and platforms of logsj 
raised above the water, or had taken refuge, as many as could, on the 
narrow strips of land, known as broken levees, say eight to twelve feet 
in width, just peering abo\'e the water; and here tbey stood often 
crowded beyond the possibility of lying down, with no raorscl of food, 
save the wee green leaves and tips of the willow branches and gray 
moss which their pitying owners, largely poor negroes, could gather in 
skifTs and bring to them. Day by day they stood and wasted, starved, 
and their bodies floated down the stream, food for the birds of prey hov- 
ering above. Week after week hour after hour the mighty river, pour- 
ing through its monster crevasses, spread wider and wider every hour. 
We left our steamer at times and were rowed out in little boats for 
miles alongside of the levees, and went among the cattle. Some waded 
out into the water lo their backs to reach after the grccu scum which 
gathered and swam delusively upon the surface. Some, uuable to 
stand, lay stretched at length with head and horns dabbling in the 
mud, fearlessly turning great pitiful eyes upon us as we approached. 
Others, reeling, followed us tamely about, as if beseeching us to feed 
them. I need not add that they were fed. Committees of both 
white and colored persons were formed and the requisite quantity 
of food for the animals and clothing for the people were left with 
these committees at every needy point. Our steamer was rcladeo, 




or our supplies replenished at each available port, aud iu this mauiier 
we passed to New Orleans, aud retuming, resupplied our committees. 

The necessity for a cbauge of boat ou the Ohio and Mississippi 
has been mentioned; that the "Throop" was discharged at Kvansvillc 
and the Red Crosii body passed over to St. Louis. Perhaps some 
reference to the journals of that date would best illustrate the necessity 
(or these movements, as well as the spirit of the people and of the 
times. 

From aa editorial iu the /»/^r-OfM« of March 31, 1884, the foUow- 
iug extract is taken: 



Tlic day ts not far illstaiiit— If It ba« not ■.trendy come — irheQ the Americfln 
people will recognize the Rett Cron aa one of the wivcet and beat systems qI* pbil- 
•ntbropic work in nio<1erii timcA. Its misiiion b not accompLisbed when it bas 
earned the generous offerings of tbe people to their brethren who hnve met with 
sudden calntnity. It docji not stop with the alleviation, of bodily suffering and tbe 
dotbinf; of tbe deatitntc— blencd a» tbnt work ia, when wisi^ly (ione, ko a» not bo 
break, down itie tnanly «ptrit of eelf-belp. The Red Cross lias become a grand 
educator, embodying Ibe \xn principles of social science, aud tluit true spirit of 
charity which countt it a sacred privilege (o serve one's fcllowmcu iu lime of 
trouble. The s:iipplyii)g of material wanta — of food, riiimcnt and shelter is only a 
■mall part of iLi miiiisLrj. In its work among suQcriug bumanil/, when lire or 
flood or pestilence has caused widespread desolation, tbe Red Cross seeks to carry 
lo people's hciirts that message which speaks of a universal brolbcHiood. Il is all 
the time and everywhere sowing; the seed of brotherly kindness and goodwill, 
vbicb is deMined in time to yield the fmiLs of world-wide peace. Once let tbe love 
of doin^ good unto others become deeply rooted and practiced as an inlcniationa] 
custom, Nud arsenals and ironclad naries will give way to the spirit of Cf|Mity. War 
will cea*e aa a relic of barlMrism, and peace will shed its benedictions over all 
nations. 

From the EvansvilleytJKraa/of April 3, the following: 

The pTemdent of tbe Red Cross left for St Ix»ila la«t night, where she will 
take charge of a steamer which has t>een chartered under bcr direction for relief 
aervice in Ibe lower Mississippi. . . . The mission of the Red Cross, which has 
done snch wonilerfnl and efTeccive work in the Ohio valley, is not yet completed. 
Tbe lower Mississippi cries for aid. Tbe destruction of properly tjelow the month 
of the Ohio is, if possible, KTcatet than was experienced on the Ohio. Life has not 
been in rach desperate peril, hut property baa been swept nwny by ocean.t of water, 
and the landowner, with corn and cotton fields, has been reduced to pauperism. 
. . . This year tlie overflow ttan been of nich a character that neither crop, 
nort^ge, nor udvance arc safe, and the rcuter and faalf-sharc faruier must suffer. 
TheKed Cross comes to the rescue. Uisa Barton will be sfcompanied by several 




ii8 



THE RED CROSS. 



ladei from thi* city mad will be joined "by many gcoUcmcn nod ladies from St. 

Louia. 

Prom the St. Louis Democrait April 4, the (oUowiug: 

Uin Clara Barton arrived at the " Soutlieni " Testerday momiag. MiisBartoo 
i* Bccompaiiied by Mrs. Pc Brulcrand UUs Enola Lee, of Bvanflvillc, Ind., Dr. J. 
B. Hubbell, field ageot, and Mr. John RiU, of Waalutigtou, D. C. The mtonben 
of the paxty wwt busily engaged y«tcrday in superintending tlie landin): of the 
steamer " Mattie Bell," which leavea for the iuuudnted dblrict» of ihe lower Mia- 
atasippt this morning. Miss Octaria IHx, secretary of the St. Louis branch of tfe«_ 
Red Cross, will accompany the expedition. 



The brave men of the Fifth Corp.^ in the Cuban War of 1898, 
endured hunger and thirst and other conditions better remembered 
than described. Some of them partook of tlic gracious offerings of 
hot gruel, malted milk, boiled rice, apple wine, and prune cordial at 
the hands of Mrs. Dr. Gardner. It will perhaps interest tliem to 
know that she is the same who, as Miss Enola I.ee, was otte of the 
company of tlie "Mattie JJeil " in 18S4. 

Someof the mea of the War of 1861 may remember the officer who 
had charge of the Coomiissary Department at Washington. I shall never 
forget the man who, despite all rank and position, stood many an hour 
of many a day beside my army wagons Loading at his headquarters, 
and who wisely directed the .selection of material best suited to and 
most needed at the proposed terminus of the dark and weary journey 
I was about to undertake — it was then Colonel, now General Beckwith 
of the regular army. He was in 1SS4, holding the position of Com- 
missary at St. Louis. In the same old time spirit and in Ihe old time 
way he came upon the deck of our little steamer,, and directed the 
placing of the supplies of the "Mattii! Bell." One will never forget 
the terror depicted on his fine face when he saw the bales of hay taken 
onboard. "Great heavens, you are not going to risk that! Think 
of it — yon in the middle of that great, rushing river, no land in sight, 
and your ship on fire!" Still, the risk was taken, and both thefihtp 
and the stock were saved. 

A few hours previous to the sailing of the "Mattie Belt" from St. 
Louis a stranger came ou board and asked to be permitted to go with 
tis. There was nothing very remarkable in his appearance, either for 
or against; but on general principles we objected to taking on a stran- 
ger vrithout some good reason for it. His quiet persistence, however. 




THE OHIO RTVTR FLOODS. 



ng 



won, and perhaps through lack of active measures on the part of some 
one he weut. He was a silent man — walked by himself, or stood alone 
on some unfrequented corner of the deck. As we got lower down and 
more tributaries were pouring their contributions into the mighty 
volume that rolled and seethed about and beneath us, the danger 
became more imminent. Running after dark was out of the question, 
and timely orders were given one afternoou to tie up for the night; 
but our captain, anxious to make a headland a few miles further on, 
begged permission to run a little later, sure he could reach it before 
dark. 

His request was rather reluctantly granted, and as we steamed 
on a fog and mist came up and night set in with us still aQoat. In 
less than a half hour the stranger rushed to me with: "We are in a 
crevasse! We must pull out or we arc lost I I have warned the ciigi- 
EKcr and captain. " The forward ruslioF the boat ceased; she stood 
still, pulled first one way then the other, shivered and struggled amid 
the shrieks of the reversed eugine, while we wailed, thoroughly 
aware of the situation and the doom awaiting us atl, depending on the 
power and strt:ngth cf one mule body of stctl and one 6rra man at the 
helm. At lengtli the struggling ceased; the engines had triumphed 
over the current. We commenced to move slowly backward, aud with 
a grateful awe iu our hearts that no words could express we found a 
place of safety for the uight. 

Daylight revealed to us a crevasse opeued the day before where 
the river had broken through to a width of thirty rods, with the water 
pouring dowa a depth of twelve or fifteen feet in a perfect 
torrent into the current below, and rolling off in a self made track to 
aome other streain or to the Gulf of Mexico. 

I have no way of accounting for this incident, but the reader wiH 
perhaps not be "too hard'* on mc, if I say with the father of "Little 
Dreeclies," "I have believed in God and the angels ever since one 
night last spring." 

Down thm Mississippi. 



Down the Mississippi all was changed. Two worlds could scarcely 
differ more. The ofttimes shoreless waste of waters; the roaring 
crevasse through the broken levees; the aiisious ebony faces and the 
hungry animals that "looked up and were not fed,"among whom and 
which we floated, could not fail to carry oiu- thoughts back at times 



ISO 



THE RED CROSS. 



to the history of the Deluge and the Ark. The simile, however, had 
this importDul diflcreiice; we were by no means so good as to be 
preserved, nor they so bad as to be destroyed. 

Any bare description of this voyage constitutes only the woodjr 
framework of the stractnrc. You will readily imagine that, when it 
should be clothed with its ever reairring incidents it would become a 
very different edifice. JTever a day that did not bring us incidents to 
be remembered, sometimes sad and touching, sometimes laughable or 
ridiculous. 

The rough, tattered and uncouth garb of the Ohio River farmer 
and woodsman was offset by his quick wit and sterling sense, and the 
rude dialect of the Southeni negro was buried out of sight by his 
simple faith. But the most touching of all was the honest gratitude 
which ]x)ured out on every side. 

These people adopted the Red Cross and those whobore it. and 
we, in turn, have held to them. We selected helpers from among 
them, banded them together, gave them responsibility and thus made 
them mutual helps to each other and to ns as well, in case of subse- 
quent disaster. 

One day as we were near the left bank of the river we saw a small 
herd of cattle wading out far into the water for what they could reach. 
A few cabins stood back of them. Steaming as near as we could we 
made fa.st to the body of a small fig tree and called the uegrocs. nieu 
and women, to us in their skiff. 

It proved to be a little neighborhood of negroes with no white 
"boss," as they say, but had their own mules ond cows and were 
farming independently. But the food and feed were gone. The 
government boats had passed without seeing tliem, and no help had 
come to them. Their mules and cow.>i nnire starving ; they had no one 
to apply to. They had their little church; and their elder, a good, 
honest-faced man, who led them onto the boat, told the story of their 
sufferings and danger. We selected two men and two women, formed 
them into a committee of distribution and wrote out formal directions 
and authority for them. But before presenting it to them to sign, I 
asked them seriously if we left these supplies with them if they 
iJiought they could share them honestly with each other and not 
quarrel over them. 

They were silent a moment. Then the tallest of the women rose 
up, and with commanding gesture said: *'Miss, dese tings is from de 
I^rd; dey if not from you, caze yon is from Him. He sent you to 



THE OHIO RrVER FLOODS. 



121 



bring dem. We would not dare toquairel ober dem things; we would 
not dare not to be honest wid 'em.*' 

I presented the paper with no further pledge. It was signed with 
one name and three marks. The supplies were put off' on the only 
little spot of land that could be reached. The negroes left the boat 
and stood beside the pile, which seemed a little mountain in the level 
space of waters. We raised steam and prepared to put off, expecting 
as we did so .some demonstration, some shout of farewell from our new- 
found friends ou shore and held our handkerchiefs ready to wave in 
reply — not a sound— and as we "rounded to" and looked back, the 
entire group had knelt beside the bags of grain and food and not a 
head or hand was raised to hid us speed. A Oreater than we had 
possessed them, and in tearful .silence we bowed our heads as well and 
went our way. 

After the first rush of danger was over and repairs commenced 
among the business men, it was not always easy to find faithful willing 
agents to distribute supplies among those who had nothing left to 
repair hut their stomachs, and no material for this. 

At Point Coupee the Mi.-^si.Hnippi sends out a false branch of thirty 
miles in length, forming an isUind, and again joining the main river 
at Hermitage. These arc known an Fal.se River and Island. The 
government boats had not entered Fal.w River, and there was great 
want among both people and cattle. 

All the way down we were besought to hold something back for 
this point. At Hermitage we found the one business man, owner of 
the boat which plied the thirty miles of river, its warehouse and all. 
He, of course, was the only man who could take charge of and distri- 
bute relief around the island; and Captain Trudeau was sought. He 
was a youTig, active man, full nf business, just pulling out of his own 
disaster, and did not know how to attend to it. "Guessed the trouble 
was most over up there; hadn't heard much about it lately." We 
knew better and felt discouraged that persons could not be found of 
sufficient humanity to distribute relief when brought to them. 

I was sitting heart .wre and perplexed in ray .stateroom trying to 
think out a way when tivo rather young women of prepossessing 
appearance entered with a bouquet of early flowers for me, introducing 
them.selvcs as Mrs. and Miss Trudeau, wife and sister of the captain. 
I scarcely felt gracious, but those fair womanly faces were strong to 
win, and I entered into conversation asking Mrs. Trudeau what she 
thought of the condiliou of the people of the i:ilaiid. Her face grew sad 




J 33 



THE RED CROSS. 



ss she said in touching tones, "Indeed, I cannot say, Miss Barton; 
husband's boat runs around twice a week and I tried to go on it for 
while, but the sight of such destitution and those starving cattle, 
mules, cows, horses and sheep were beyond my endurance. I had 
nothing to give them, and I could not see it, and so left off going. " 

"Would you ladies lake the agency of the Red Cross to deliver 
supplies to these people?" 

I shall not forget the appropriate and womanly manner in which 
this delicate lady received the abrupt proposition — no hesitation, no 
surprise, no self-depreciation, no simpering, but the straightforward 
reply, "We would, most willingly and gladly, and do our best. Our 
warehouse could store them, our boat take and we distribute them." 
The customary official document was at once drawn up and signed. 

An hour later the busy captain rushed in to see how much was 
really expected of bim. 

"Captain," I said, "I have found ngents to distribute our relief, 
and very satisfactorily, I think, and shall be able to release you from 
all responsibility. " His fine face fell; he had not expected this and 
in spite of all did not relish being quite relieved from duty. I went 
on: "You will have some share in it, captain. For instance, you will 
supply .storage in your warehouse; your boat will take .supplies on any 
day when demanded. Your men will handle and load all material. 
You will, in short, provide all accommodations, do all the work, meet 
all the cast, obey orders implicitly, but have none of the credit 1 Mrs. 
and MissTrudeau are my agents." 

The good fellow fairly threw up his hat "Good! That's just 
what I'm used ta It shall be done." And it was done; btit how well 
it was done I could not describe to you — not only wisely and well, but 
elegantly. 

The captain's warehou.se had little empty space after our cargo of 
supplies had gone into iL The next day but one would be the day 
appointed for Governor McEnnery, of Louisiana, to make at Point 
Coupee his re-election speech, which would call all the people of the 
island who could reach it to that point to see and hear the popular 
governor. The little steamer "Governor W'iltz" was laden with sup- 
plies, and under direction of Madame Tmdeau proceeded to Point 
Coupee in order to meet the people, learn the needs, and inform e\'ery- 
one that supplies find relief were at hand. The gallant goveruor 
flddresscd the crowd from the deck of ihe"Govemor Wiltz" under the 
Red Cross flag, and took passage on her down the river. 



;r floods. 



123 



I 



I 
I 



I 



We resuppHcd these agents on our return- We did this all the 
way among" both white and black. And from that time the Red Cross 
has had faithful, willing agents along all the uncertain track of the 
lower Mississippi. 

Months Sater. in Januarj*. 188S, vihcn a sea voyage, foreign 
iTcl, the cares of an international conference of military- men, the 
splendor of foreign courLs, much of weariness and illness had passed 
between, and I had thought all those little days of river work gone 
from memory, I found myself in the upper gallery cf llie New Orleans 
Exposition, and stepping in at a restaurant at the end of the halt was 
met by Colonel Lewis, the noted colored caterer of ^he South. He had 
been on the relief committee of New Orleans appointed to meet our 
steamer at the lime of our visit in May. 

He came with cordial recognition, seated nie and was telling me 
of his success in the restaurant when all his waiters, men and women, 
seemed to forget their work aud stood gazing at us. The colonel 
smiled aud said, "They have caught sight of the Ked Cross brooch at 
your neck aud recognize you by it They will come to themselves ia 
a few minutes." 

Next day I went in again for my lunch, when Colonel Lewis 
brought to me a little, thin, white-haired mulatto niau of seventy-three 
years, but still able to take charge of and direct the help at the tables, 
saying, "This, Miss Barton, is Uncle Amos, whom I promised yester- 
day to iiitrtxluce to you when you came again. Uncle Amos is my 
most tnic and f.iithful man." I reached out fur the withered, hard, 
dark l)ony hand he gave me as he said: "Yes, Miss Barton, I wants 
to See and speak to you, to tell you in de name of our people 
how grateful dey is for what your society has done for dem. Dat is 
never forgot. Yon come to us when we had nothing. You saved 
what was never saved bcfo' in a flood, our cattle, so dcy could goon 
and help derselvcs to raise something to eat Dey has all heard of it; 
all talk about it in de churches and de meetings. Our people is 
singular in some tings; dcy never forgets a kindness. Dey hab 
notions. Dcy hab a way of nailing up a hoss-shoe ober de do' for 
lock. I want to tell you dat in a thousand little cabins all up and 
down dis river dey has put up a little Red Cross ober de do' and 
every night before dey goes to bed dey names your name and prays 
God to bless you and de Red Cross dat He sent to dem in time of 
trouble and distress." Uncle Amos looked straight in my face the 
while. Colonel Lewis wiped biseyes, aud I got away as fast as I could. 




t«4 



THE RED CRasS. 



It would scarcely be faithful to the subject of this relief if some 
metitiun were not made of the third trip, namely, that of the voyage 
up Uic Ohio after the fall of the waters and the attempted return of the 
people to their former hoiuea. 

From an editorial of the Evausvillg Journal, May 28, 1884, 
headed "Good By Red Cross," \vc make an extract or two which has 
reference to the voyage and its purposes: 



The Red Crou, having concluded its labors on the Ohio River below this 
point, will sturt tu-dity for the upper Obio aad go as far as Pitt&buf^, rclieviag Ifae 
ratritorioiw cmcs on llie way. . . . The "Josh V. Throop." which has been 
rcchartercd for Uib trip, wu loaded last Satarday. A part of the load was rti.itrib- 
uttd between this point and Cave-in- Kock, and the rootn made vacant by ihe 
lower river distiibutioo waa filled with additional sloncs ycatcrday which wi!! be 
distributed up the river. The load consistx of what the people in the overflowed 
country will want and most need. There is clothing iu iiuineQ6e quantities, o^'cr 
ahuudred plows, large qiumtitiea of rakes, hoe?, scythes, spades, shovels, groceries, 
fluur, meat, meal, corn, l>cdstead^ chain, buckets, tubs, tables, queeusfware, tinware, 
pota, ketUes, akillela, etc. 

This trip waa arranged In general nt Cincinnati, when Miss Barton finA came 
WexL At that time her policy took de&nite Bhapi* and it has never changed. She 
anw that the government was providing for all the immediate nccessitiea of the 
sufferers atid looked forward to tlic time when the uufortuiialc j^cople would come 
almost hopelessly back to mined homes— cotni- l)«ck to find houDrs, furniture, tools, 
food, everything gone— and allliough aid would have been extended during the 
calamity by the government and benc%'Dlent iiu>tiLutiou», the ruine<l people would 
have but a poor chance to proceed in the buanees of life. This was tlie anticipated 
oppcHtunl^ of the Red Cross; this was the time Miss Barton foresaw woold be 
pregnant with possibilities fordoing large good, and llie e»-ent haa fully justified 
her prophetic view of the atuation. The loud now on the "Throop" will oot 
only provide for the houM, U will do much for the farm. 



I 



It would be difficult to iniagiue a voyage more replete with live 
interest than this beautiful May passage from Kvaiisville to Pittsburg. 

The banks were dotted with the marks of turn aud washed-out 
homes; and occasionally one foimd the family, from father aud mother 
to the wee little ones, gathered about the bare siwt that once was 
home. tr>'ing in vain to find enough of the liuricd timbers to recom- 
mence a framework for another house, if ever they could build it, 
with all the hunger and need for daily food staring them in the fact 

Picture, if possible, this sceue: A strange ship, with two flags. 
Steaming up the river; it halts, turns from its course, and draws up to 
the nearest landing. Some persons disembark and speak a few minutes 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 



"5 



with the family; thena half dozeu stroug mechanics mai: a snmlt boat 
laden with all material for coustructiiig a one-room house, take it to 
the spot and commence puttiug it up. Directly here is a structure 
with floor, roof, doors, windows and walls; the boat returns for furni- 
ture. Within three hours the strange ship sails away leaving a 
bewildered family in a new and clean house, with a bed, bedding, 
table, chairs, clothing, dishes, candles, n well-madelitllc cooking stove, 
with blazing fire, with all the common quota of cooking utensils, meat, 
meal, groceries, a plow, rake, axu, hoe, shovel, spade, hammer, hatchet 
and nails, etc. We ask few questions, they none; but often ft proves 
that the little, bare, boyhood feet of that desolated father had once 
skipped through the dewy grass of Ihc green bills of New England, 
the brave old parent of States, where great riches are slow to come, 
and famishing hunger never enters. 

Again, referring to the Evansville Joumat ot May 28 we find the 
following: 

A hand of Httic folVs in Chirtgo, called th* " Bmj- !!«■«," were organ iicd in s 
plan to extend succor to the sufierint; and collected a large box of jjoods which 
they scnl to Miss Barlon. with the n:i|uc«t ttitit it miKht be put where it would do 
the most good. She was souie time in iinding a place where nhe eonld put it with 
the j^reatcst satisfaction lo the givers nnd the donees She fonnd the opportnnity 
ahc hiiil Itren Ktokin){ for yesterday. On her lutt voyage a gentleman at Cave-iii- 
Rock to'.il her that a poor, but worthy, fantily wnsin thnt vicinity, and on becoming 
acquainted with the family Mim Barton f^vv them wme supplies and left fifteen 
dollars wilb the gentleman nforef-aid, lo either give to Che family or spcod for theni 
■9 he might think best. He concluded that it would be judiciously expended by 
the people for whom it wa» intemleil and accordingly turned it over to them. The 
woman of the family catue some days afterwar^l tu the gcuttctuau, bringing with 
her another woman who was very destitute, and aaiil: " This is my niHghl>or, and 
I have come to ask you if you think Uisa Barton would cure If I divided my fifteen 
dollars with her." "Most certainly not," was the reply; and then, out of her 
penury did tliU poor womnn give. She rcUined ten doIUns and gave five. Yester- 
day Misa Barton dividctl the contents of the ctore the " Busy Bees" bad gathered 
among theae two famitic*, connrting of eight and five p<tTK>na respectively, When 
»be was delivering the goods to tlie poor woman who had generotialy shared with 
herndgbbor, Mi«» Barton gave her lack her five dolhirs. ami said: "Vou have read 
wbcre it ia said. He that givelk to the poor Ifndeth to the Lord, and He has sent it 
backalreadjr." 



On February 1 1 , 1S84. Congress, in response to appeals from Ohio, 
Kentucky aud West Virgin la.approprialed $300.ooofor the relief of the 
people who bad lost tbetr homes aud other property by the Ohio River 




I2( 



fHE RED CROSS. 



floods. On February 15, the first appropriation having Ik«d consid- 
ered hardly sufficient to meet the demands, $200,000 more were appro- 
priated for the same purpose, making $500,000 in all to be expended 
under the direction of the War Oepartmeut A boat load of supplies 
was sent down the river from Pittsbiirg; two boats left Cincinnati, 
one going up the river and the other down; one boat went down the 
river from Louisville and a fifth boat was sent down the river from 
Evansville. Afterwanl some additional boats were sent out from, 
other places. Between February 15 and March 15, 536,000 rations 
were distributed by the government at a cost of $350,000. The re- 
maining $150,000 were transferred to the Mississippi flood supplies. 

In the official report of the relief funiishud to the Ohio River 
6ood sulTerers, written by R. P. M. Ames, A&ststant Surgeon U. S* 
Marine Hospital 8er\'ice, Evansville, Ind., be speaks as follows of the 
part taken by the Red Cross in this work: 



At this time also the Red Croes Association came actively to the front for now 
had tlie time arrived when tJiis association, of all others, could do the most 
gMid. . . . Ttarougb its instnimcntality niucb siiffcriiig and dMtiluIion has. 
been relieved ttirougboul tbc Ohio valley which it would have hern almont impo»> 
aiUe to n^ach but fur this organizattOD. With Miss Clara Barton at the head, aad' 
a liug« curps uf uciive uiiJ iiitvlli)jciit asfiMants, Uie relief work pcrTormcd by this 
■ssodatioii baa been most thorough and cfficaduua. Coiitribntiona of money and 
clothing have been sent lo all points in the inundated districts of the Ohio valley 
where such assisitiuice waa needed, while a thorough and careful invesligBtioD by 
members of the association of the Hooded territory has rendered the aid most 
beneficial. Aa soon as it became apparent that the B>uSeriu^ from, the litgb water 
would aeceaaltnte tbc various relief movements, Miss Barton removed her heal-' 
qoartcM from Washington, D. C, to Cincinnati, O.. where she carefully and 
inlelligenlly Kuprrin tended the distribution of a large amount of snppUcs donated 
from all pans of the couulry, consisting of money, foo«l, clothing and fuel. Am 
the water receded then come the lime for the relief proffered by thia aasociation to 
tie given. 

After remaining Mreersl daya in Cincinnati and relieving all the saflcring m for 
as it vcA% met wilh, Kim Barton, on March 3. removed her headquarters to Kvan»- 
ville, Ind., where airauKements were nt once commenced to reach and aid the 
suftrers tietwvpn thi^ point and Cairo, l\l. Captain J. V. Throop kindly placed 
his steamer, the "Josh V. Throop," at the disposal of the Red Crow without any 
expense eacept the a(;tual ninning co« of the boat. The steamer was at once 
loaded with an immeute quantity of boxes, barrebi, tulcs and bundles of clothing, 
beiag doualiODE from various private parties and rrlii-f organbations throughout 
the country which hud Iwen accumulating here for some lime, together wilh a 
Urge amount of bedding and fuel, and started on its mission of mercy down the 
river in charge ot Miss Clara Barton, Saturday, March S, 18S4. 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 127 

Miss Barton was accompanied and assisted on this trip hy Dr. J. B. Hubbell, 
of Washington, D, C, the field agent of the association; Rev. B. J. Galvin, agent 
of the Chicago Red Cross Association; Miss Hamilton, of St Louis, with Mrs. Be 
Bniler and several other Evansville ladies. Relief was given to all the sufferers 
needing it below Evansville and WickliS*, K7., below Cairo. The party reached 
Cairo March 15, and after proceeding down the river to Wickliff, Ky., turned 
back, arriving at Bvansville March 30. In addition to the supplies mentioned, 
the Rev E. J. Galvin, of Chicago, had placed at his disposal $25,000, from which 
checks were drawn and left with any party needing financial assistance. Miss 
Barton and her corps of assistants remained in Evansville after their return until 
April 2, when the relief transactions throughout the Ohio valley having been prac- 
tically finished, she removed her headquarters to St Louis, Mo., where a relief 
boat was at once fitted out and similar assistance tendered to the sufferers in the 
isnndated districts of the lower Mississippi. Mise Barton was further aided on tliis 
trip by Mr. John Hitz, of Washington, D, C. 




"THE LITTLE SIX." 

It is possible that some readers may recall the story of the " Little 
Six," which was locally published at the time, but which T venture to 
reproduce, a:> au extract from the Erie DispaUh, of Monday March 24, 
1884: 

Dispatch reulere doubtless ncollect its nccotiiit some weeks ago of tlw wanner 
in whtrh t\x cbildrcu of Waterford pive a public oiteriitiritnL'tit for ihe benefit of 
Ibo Obio flood suflifrvni: how they ihcmselvcs enggcsted it; how Uieir cITorts were 
crowned vitli sacceM; and how they brought the entire proceeds, {51.35, misvd hj 
their unpaid cfforta, to the editor of the DispaUh with Uie requMt that the latter 
forward it " where it would do the itiost gmMi," The DitpaUA complied by for- 
warding it to Miss Clara Barton, president of the American Red Cross A.ssciciation. 
The following letter tells the story of the disposition of the money. The names 
of the noble Utile baud, of which any town in the nation oufcht to be proud of, are; 
Reed White, Florence Howe, Uoyd Uartou, Joe Farrar, Mary Barton, Bertie 
Bnsworth. The oldest ii twelve year» of age. 



MISS BARTON'S I^ETTER. 
A TOI3CK1NO rNCIDENT YERV TODCmSGL%' IIRI.AT8D. 



^^^^^H Red Cross rclirf straubr, "Josh V. Trroop," 

^^^^^^^ OFF Shawn cETOWN, Ii.i.i»ots, 

^^^P OttiO KivRR, Afarch /S, /SS^, 

V&Ilt. H. E, Camp. TMilor of the Erie Ditpatch: 

^V At length, I have the happincce to iuform you that I have placed the con- 

tribution of Uie brave Little Six to my own satUfaction, and, as I behcve, to the 
■ satisfaction of the little donors und the friends interested in them as well. Your 
letter iDcloAtng the touching article describing their pretty thought and act, and 
the checV for the sum donated by them to the sufferers from the floods, came 
during the early day* of burr)- und confused activity. The entire matter was too 
beautiful and withal unique, to meet only a common fate in its results. I could 
not, for a moment, think to mingle the glfl of the little dramatists with Ihe 
common fund for general distribution, and sought through all these weeks for a 

i fitting dispo&itiou to make of it, where it would nil go in some special nianner to 
Tvlieve some special nec««<iity. I wanted it to benefit some children who bad 
" wept on the banks " of the riTcr which in its madness had devoured their home. 
I watched carefully all the wny down on this trip, and tried, last Snnday, at 
SmithUnd on our return to make a little " fonndation " for a children's help and 
instruction at that town which had .TOffcrcd 30 terribly; but I could not AAtisfy 
myself, and after telling the pretty 8tor>- to the Iwrt people of the town assembled 
on our boat, I still declined to leare the appropriatioa, waiting in coufideu :e for 



i 




"THE LITTLE SIX.' 



129 



the Tcal opportunity to present atid which wc hare met tu Uie la&t hour. As we 
oeafcd that picltiresqwe spot on the Illtnoia aide of the Ohio, known as "CRve-in- 
Rock," wc were hailed by a woman and her youug daogbter. The boat " rounded 
to "and made the tnndin^ mid they came on Injard — n tall, thin worn 
woman in a tattered suit, with a good, but inexpressibly sad face, who 
wished to tell lu that a package which we had left for her at the town 
on our way down had never reached her. She was s widow — Mra. Plew — whoee 
bu'iband, a good river pilot, had died from overwork on a hard trip to NewOrleana 
in the floods of the Uissi»sippi two years before, leaving her with six children 
(Irpendenl upon her, the eldest a lad in his " teens, " the youngest a little baby girl. 
They owned their home, just on the brink of Lbc river, 3 little " farm " of two or 
three acres, two hotses, three cows, thirty hogs and a half hundred fowls, aiid in 
spite of the bereavement they had gone on bravely, winning the esteem and com- 
tnendation of all who ktiew them for thrift nnd honest endeavor. I^st year the 
floods came heavily upon them, driving tbcm from their home, and the two horses 
were lo«t. Next the cholera c:ame among the hogs and all but three died. Still 
they worked ou and held the home. This spring (.tune the third flood, Tlie water 
climbed up the bank, crept tn at the door and QUcd the lower story of the house. 
They hnd nowhere to remove their houaehold goods, and stored them in the garret 
carefully packed and went out lu find a Hheltcr in an old log honac near by, used 
for a corn crib. Day by day they watched the house, haikil paaaing boats for the 
neusof the rise .ind fall of tlie water above, always trusting the house would 
stand — "and it would," Ihc mother said ("for it was a good, strong house), but for 
the storm." The wind came and the terrible gale that swept the valley like a tor- 
nado, with the water at its height, leveling whole towns, descended and beat upon 
that house and it fell. In the morning there wan no house Iherc and the waves in 
their fury rushed madly on. Then these litUe children " f.tood and wept on the 
banks of the Tt<.-er," and the desoliiUoii and fear in the careful mother's heurl.none 
but herself and her God can know. 

They lived in the corn-crib, and it wa.4 from it they came to hail tis as we 
pMsed to^ay. Something had been told us of them on our downward trip, and 
ft package had been left them at "Cave-in- Rock," which they h;id not recei\-ed. 
We Weill over shoe-tops in mud to their rude home, to find it one room of logs, 
an old stone chimney, with a cheerful fire of drift-wood and a dean hearth, two 
wrecks of beds, a table, and two chairs, which some kind neighbor had loaned. 
The GoTcmment boats had left them reUoaa. There was an air of thrift, even in 
their desolation. A plank walk was laid about the door, theHoorwas cleanly swept, 
and the twenty-Sve surviving hens, for an eqnal numlier was lost in the stonn, 
clucked and craiked comfortably about the Joor, and there were two unil a half 
dozen fresh eggs to sell us at a higher rate than paid tn town. We stood, as we 
bail done so many scores of times during the last few weeks, and looked this piti- 
ful scene in the face. There was misfortune, poverty, sorrow, want, londxtieaai, 
dread of foture, bat fortitude, courage, integrity and honest thrift 

" Would she like to return to the childhood home in Indiana ? " we asked the 
mother, for we would help them go. 

" No." she said tenderly. "My husband lived and died here. He was buried 
here, and I would not like to go awHy and leave him alone. It won't be very 
long, and i( is a comfort to the children to be able to visit his grave. No, I 



t30 



THE RED CROSS. 



reckon we will stay ben, aod out of the wreck of Uu old lioon wbidi sticks up 
out of Ibemod, we wilt put another little but. bijfber up In the hnnk out of tlic 
way of tbe floods, And if it is only a but. it will be a borne for us and we will get 
IntoK" 

There wcir no Hry eyes, hut very still bcarts. while we listened to tbia 
eorrowful but brave Utile speech, oiude witb a voice full of tears. 

Our iboughlfiU field agent. Dr. Hubtwll, was tbe first to speak. 

"Here arc six children." be said with an inqniring glance at me* 

No response was netded. The thing waa doiif. Wc loW the mother tbe 
story of the " Little Six " of Waterfonl, and asked her if that money witb enough 
more to make up one hundred dollar* would bclpberto get up her bouse 7 It was 
her turn to be ^peecblesa. At length with a ^tru^lin^, choking voice she managed 
toBay— "God knows how much it would be to me. Yea, with my good boys I can 
do it, and do it welt." 

Wc put in her hands a cbecic for this sum, and directed bom the boat clean 
boxes of clothing and bcddiug, to help restore tbe household, when the house shall 
have bccu coiupteted. 

Before we left her, w« asked if she would name her bouse when it would be 
done. She thongbt a second and caught the idea. 

"Yes," she replied quickly, with a really winsome smile on that worn and 
wearj- face, "yes. I shall natiic it 'The l,ittlc Six.' " 

And so, dear Mr. Camp, will you kindly tell those brarc little pbilantbropic 
dramatists, that they arc to have a bouse down on the banks of the great rolling 
river, and that one day, I think, will come a letter to tell them that auoUier six 
children are nightly praying God to bless them for the home that will ^letter tbem 
from the fiooda and the storma. 

Sincerely and cordially yours, 

Cl.AftA BaKTON. 

In reply the rollowing letters were received: 

Watbrpord, Pa., March »s, 1^4. 

M. B. Camp, Editor of Erie Dispalck: 

D8AR Sir: The " Little Six " met yesterday and wrote the accompanying 

letter, which they would like to have yon forward to Mi« Clara Barton. They 

wish me to thank you for sending them copies of your paper coutaining Misa Bar- 

ton's beamifnl letter to tliem. If yog or Miss Barton ever bad any doubts in 

regard to a child's appreciation of favors shown. I wish you could have wen those 

bright, happy faces »a they gave three cheers for " ye editor " and three times 

three for Miu Clara Barton and the "Home of the Little Six "on the banks of the 

Ohio. 

URS. LOTD BSNSOK, Committee. 



Watkkford, Marfh 14, /SS4. 
DKAR Miss Bartom: 

We rend your nice letter in tbe rHipaich, and we would like very much to sc 
that house called "Tbe Little Six," and wc are ao gUd we little six helped ai 



"THE LITTLE SIX." 



131 



other little children, and wc tbatik you for gufug to i>o much trouble in putting 

our money just where we would have put it outsclvca 
B Sometime again when you want money to help you in your good work, call 

I on the " I/ittle Six." 

H JOK Hahrar, twelve >-«'iin> oM. 

^^^^^^_ Plorknck Howh, eleven years old. 

^^^^^^H Marv Barton, eleven yeurs old. 

^^^^^H Rkbd Wnrru, eleven years old. 

^^^^^V Bbrtib Enswortii, ten yeara old. 

^^^^^^ Llovd Baktoh, seven years old. 

It conld not fail to have been a satisfaction to rae to know that I 

tbad done my- work a.-i they would have " done it themselves." 
As long as we remained on the Kver this family was occa.sionally 
visited by our boat. On one occasion a strong flagstaff twenty feet in 
length was taken and 6rmly set upon the bank near where they would 
place their house. Its well-lettered cross board at the lop showed 
*' Little Six Red Cross Landing," and this point has remained a land- 
ing on the Ohio River probably unto this day. 

During this trip on the upper Ohio, which was even yet scarcely 
safe for running at night, we had, after a hard day's work, found a 
CQvc and tied our boat for the night. It was a rather sequestered spot, 
and the appearance of a full-size river steamer, halting for tlie night oa 
one of its banks, attracted the attention of the few people residing there, 
and at dusk a body of five or six men came to the boat to ask if we 
were in trouble that we stopped there, and if there were anything they 
could do for us. We quieted their kindly apprehensions and invited 
them on board. The lights re\'ealed a condition of peraonal poverty 
which should have more naturally asked help than offered it. On the 
entire trip with its thousands of miles, among white and black, wc had 
never seen such evidences of destitution. They scarcely could have 
decently gone among civilized people, and yet as they spoke, there was 
no lack of sense. On the contrary, they seemed in many ways to be 
men of the world. Thdr language, while pro\-incial, had iiothtug 
tiDcommou in it, and altogether they were a study to tis. We 
gave them some supper, and while eating, learned the facts of their 
lives. 

Bither by bltxKi or marriage, they were all relatives, con.sistingof 
six families, making in all about thirty people. They all Ii\'ed 
together — ruch living as it was — and there seemed to be among them a 
perfectly good understanding. They had always lived on the river 
bonks, probably more on the river Uiau off of it. They were not 



I 



132 



THE RED CROSS. 



fanners, never planted or raised anythinfj. suhsistioff mainly upon fia 
and the floating drift to be picked up. Thus, they clung to the river 
like the muskrat and beavsr, and were washed out with cver>' flood. 
Sixteen of them at that time %vere living under some slanting boards. 

After supper our men quietly iuvited them to the cloltiiiig depart- 
ment on the stem of the ship, and exchanged their garments. 

Thus we got hold of these people, clothed, fed. encouraged and 
advised them, got them into houses, furnished them, formed them into 
a little colony, put up a landing named, at their own request, "Red 
Cross Big Six." and took care of the women and children. Every 
man foreswore his drink, hia cards and his betting, and wetit to work 
for the first time in his life. 

We found a faithful merchant to stand by, advise them and report 
to OS. From year to year we have helped to keep them clothed. The 
children immediately went to school, and the next year for the first time 
they planted land and raised their own food; and the growing thrift 
and strange prosperity of this body of heretofore vagrauls began afler a 
time to excite the envy of its neighbors, w*ho thought they were getting 
OQ better than themseK-es, and their merchant friend had to repel it. 

Only one or two of them could write a little, but they made good use 
of their accomplishment as far as possessed. One day I received a 
letter from one of their satirnfs, Charley Hunter, out of which among 
much that was encouraging, with considerable labor. 1 deciphered tlie 
following: " We are all doing well. We don't drink or play cards no 
more. I got the flannel undershirts and drawers and the medicine you 
sent me. My rlmmatis is better. I know now I have got two friends; 
one is you aud the other is God." 

I was sorry he named rae first; I do not think he intended it. I 
might add that two years later these people had united with the church; 
that the children were all in school, and that one daughter was being 
educatetl for a teacher. 

On the lower Ohio one of the villages most wrecked by the waters 
aud the cycloue was Smithlaod, an old aristocratic borough on the 
Kentucky side. They liad no coal, and we supplied them as we went 
down. Ou our return we lowered steam and threw out our landing 
prow opposite the town. The whistle of the "Throop" wasas welcome 
to their ears as the flag to their eyes. 

It was a bright, clear, spring morning and Sunday. In an hour 
the entire little hamlet of people stood on our decks; only four, they 
said, were left at home, and these sick aud infirm. They had selected 



4 



"THE LITTLE SIX." isr 

their lawyer to speak their thanks, and they had chosen well. No 
words will ever do justice to the volume of native eloquence which 
seemed to roll unbidden from his lips. We listened in mute surprise 
until he finished with these sentences : 

At noon on tbat day we were in the blackness of despair. The whole village 
in the power of the demon of waters, hemmed in by sleet and ice, without fire 
enough to cook its little food. When the bell struck nine that night, there were 
' seventy- five families on their knees before their blazing grates, thanking God for 
fire and light, and praying blessings on the phantom ship with the unknown device 
tbat had come as silently as the snow, they knew not whence, and gone, they knew 
not whither. 

A few days later we finished the voyage of relief, having covered 
the Ohio River from Cincinnati to Cairo and back twice, and the Mis- 
sissippi from St. Louis to New Orleans and return, occupying four 
months' time on the rivers, in our own chartered boats, finishing at 
Pittsburg and taking rail for Washington on the first of July, having 
traveled over eight thousand miles, and distributed in relief, of money 
and estimated material, $175,000. 

The government had expended an appropriation from the treasury 
on the same waters of $150,000 in money, and distributed it well. The 
diflference was that ours was not appropriated; we gathered it as we 
used it. 



THE TEXAS FAMINE. 



l^rCCASIONAL nimors readied us in tlie years 1S85 and 1886 
lU^' about a drouth in Texas and consequent suffering, but 
they were so contradictor>' and widely at variance that 
the public took little or no heed of them. During the 
year of 1S86 the Rev. John Brown, a North Presbyterian 
minister, located at Albany, Shackelford County, Texas, 
began niakiug appeals by circular and oral address to the people of the ^ 
Northern States, ia which he asserted that there were a huudred ■ 
thousand families in northwestern Texas who were utterly destitute 
and ou the verge of star\'ation. He stated that since the close of the 
war a large number of poor families had been constantly crowding into 
Texas from the Southern States principally, induced thither by land 
agents and others, who gave glowing representations of the character j 
of the soil for farming purposes. H 

These poor people, by hard labor and industry, had been generally 
able to make a living and nothing more. The last fall the>' had planted 
wheat and other grain qtiite exten^vely, but the rains came not and 
everything perished; and in the following spring and summer, too, 
everj'thing put into the ground was blasted by the hot winds, so that 
not a thing was raised for man or beast. For 6fteen months no rain 
had fallen, and the condition of the people was pitiable and called aloud 
to the charitable throughout the land for relief. They must be carried ^ 
through to the next summer or they would perish. At a meeting of fl 
the citizens of Albany, Texas, they decided that the task of relie\-ing 
the sufferers was greater than the well-to-do people of the State were 
able to undertake, and that an appeal should be made to the good- 
hearted people of the North for immediate aid. The Governor of 
Texas also published an appeal to The people of the whole laud, asking 
for food for these people. But as there was no concerted action, and so 
many denials of the stories of sufTering, little or nothing iu the way 
of relief work was accomplished for some time. Spasmodic attempts 
were made, and some food for man and beast was contributed, but not 
enough to relieve a hundredth part of the needy, 

(134) 



THE TEXAS FAMINE 



135 



I 



The Rev. Dr. Brown went to tlie State Capital and endeavored to 

interest the Legislature m the matter, but there were seeuiingiy .so much 
mi.su nderstaiiding and uubelief, aud so many conflicting interests to 
reconcile, that he failed to receive any substantial assurances and left 
the place in disgust. Wlieu the citizens of Texas could not agree as to 
the necessities of their own people Jl was not to be expecteil that the 
citizens of the country would take much interest in them, hence the 
relief movement languished from inanition. 

About the middle of January, 1SS7, Dr. Brown came to Washing- 
ton and, as solicitor and receiving agent for the committee which hnd 
issued an appeal to the countr>', appealed to me, as president of the 
American National Red Cross, asking our organization to come to the 
relief of the jK-ople, who were m a deplorable slate, greatly needing 
food and clotliing. I immediately shipped to Texas all the stores that 
were then in our warehouse, but they were no great quantity. 

An appeal direct to the Red Cross required immediate attention, 
and I at once sought a conference with President Cleveland, who was 
greatly worried over the contradictory stones that were constantly 
printed, and was anxious to learn the truth about the matter. \\Tien I 
said that I should go to Texas and see for myself, he was greatly 
pleased, and requested rac to report to him the exact situation just as 
soon as I had .satisfied myself by personal investigation. 

Dr. Hnbbell and I proceeded directly to Albany, Texas, where we 
arri\'cd near the end of Januarj*. We were met by the leading citizen.s 
and most heartily welcomed and accorded cverj" privilege and attention. 
We began our investigations at once in a s>*stematic way, carefully 
noting everything we heard and saw; aud in the course of a two weelcs' 
trip over the afflicted region, we learned the extent of the need and 
fornitilated plans for its relief. 

Making Albany our object point, we traveled by private conveyance 
over such territory as we thought sufficient to give a correct knowledge 
of the condition of the countr>' and Uie people. We met large numbers 
of the residents, both collectively and at their homes, and learned from 
them personally and by actual obsen-ation Ihcir condition and what 
they had to depend u\xm during the next few months. It will be bonie 
in mind that when we entered upon this investigation little or no relief 
had come from the State, and none was po6iti\x4y assured. 

Almost no rain had fallen during a period of eighteen inoatfas; 
two planted crops had perished in the ground, and the seed wheat sown 
the previoas fall gave no signs of life. The dust was rolHoK over the 




i^^o THE RED CROSS. 

jiiwit wtiul-swei^ delds. where the people had hidden their last little 
lOiU'in h*.'tHM.>f t>orTv.>wc\i s«kJ. and literally a heaven of brass looked 
vlowu mvu ail earth oi;" iron. 

Uviv wvtv tweut>' to forty counties of a size commensurate with 
"lV.\.m vlimca-iioiw *.<x"upied by new settlers, making their first efforts 
in the pKMKvr wort of developing home life in an untried countr>'-, soil 
.hkI clniLiti.'. They had put their all into the new home and the little 
^Uvk thc> <.\»uM afiord tor its i'.se. They had toiled faithfully, planted 
two aiul thn.v tiiiu-s. as long as there was anything to plant or sow, 
.iiul u» UK>»1 iusMiKYs Liik\l to get back their seed. Many had grown 
klixx'lu.isvsi ,ii»d left the country-. The people were not actually 
^l.uvmji, tnil they were in the direst want for many of the necessities 
ol hw. .uul it was v»iity a matter of days when they would have reached 
{\w \\^i\\\i\.M\ of the riwucentrados as we later found them in Cuba. 
Uuuvlvv\ls v>l Ihv>us.inds of aittle had died for the want of food and 
w.iUi, at^l llieii vliyiiij* carvaisscs and bleaching bones could be seen 
ti( ew'iv duvvlivui as the eye wandered over the parched surface of 
Vhv i»l.»us. 

i at oiuv Siiw that in the vastness of its territory and varying 
i\Hv'U'-»ts the leat ncl^l of iheso suffering communities was not under- 
••UHsl l>\ (Ik- *lV\as jH-\»pli- — it had not come home to them — ^but that 
\uvsv vA'im'ielu'iuliuj;, il would be their wish to have it known and 
^■.uv\l loi I'v iliem-ielves and not by others outside of the State. 

.V'^'>uitu>i thesi' (xvr iKvplo that their actual condition should be 
iH.hU' i.no\% u to theiv own ixvple, through the authoritative means of 
lUv- Ki.-4 v*u^-^-«, and that they sliould be speedily cared for, we bade 
Ou»i i.uvws'U .ind luuiirtl away to Dallas, where we intended to send 
^nU .t iMU'uu'iu to the prt>pIo of the State. 

\ni\ iiu; ihi-u\ we s»>U};ht an inlen'iew with Colonel Belo of the 
l\(U.ti \-.i' .md l.iid Ivioiv him the result of our observations. He 
vtl4s\\t llu' ^ohmnts v( his p^j^r at our disposal, and through them we 
^■iiUxhU'iud ih»' jH-ople of thi- true status of affairs in their own State. 
l^ie lv•.'.pou^e WiiH as .{iiivk as it was gratifying, and thence onward 
ih^'iv wf »o t'uUlut iK\vs>ity for appealing to anyone outside of the 
ji\.tU- limit-.. ludiH'd, tliat act in the first place was the greatest mis- 
use, .IT U" th»' aveia>;e Texan, feeling a genuine pride in the State's 
Vi\\*Uh .uid te-ioinws. it Siivorotlof Iraudsand imposition, and prejudiced 
hum ay,. unit Iho bi\>tlKT who would pass him by and appeal to outsiders. 

VUe 'l\'\iis Legislature appropriated one hundred thousand dollars 
^ ' " (iiut (u the uicnntiiuc rain began to fall and the entire aspect 



THE TEXAS FAMINE. 



137 



of affairs begau to diange for the better. But there were still many 
needs unprovided for — clothing, fuel, seeds for gardens aud fields, live 
stock and many other things — and it was necessary to place these needs 
before the people. This the News took upon itself to do; and upon ray 
suggestion it opened a popular subscription aud announced that it 
would receive coutributious of seed or cash and would publish the same 
from day to day and turn them o\'er to tlie ct«tstiluled autliorities 
appointed to disburse Ihera. In order to encourage the movement I 
inaugurated it with the 6rst subscription, aud from that time until 
now I do not believe any one has heard of any need in Texas that lias 
not beeu taken care of by her own people. 

Congress had appropriated ten thousand dollars for seed to be 
given the Texas drouth sufferers; but President Cleveland promptly 
vetoed the act and thereby laid himself open to a greal deal of uukiud 
criticism. He was right, however, and by his resolute acliou saved 
the nation's money aud the State's pride. I know that it must have 
been an unpleasant duty for the President to feel compelled to apply 
his pruning knife to that tender shoot, for be was one of the first to 
respond with hia own personal check to the call for aid for the drouth 
sufferers; and the subject had always held bis kindly interest. 

The services of the Red Cross, beyond those given by its presi- 
dent and field agent in making their investigation, were not required 
in this emergeui:>- ; and as we had performed the duty most needed, viz.: 
to unravel the misunderstanding and rightly inform the people of the 
true condition of affairs in the stricken district, we concluded that our 
task was ended and that we could return to our home. 

On our return to Washington tlie following report was made to the 
President; 

February I ^, 1889. 
To iht Presidtni of the United States: 

Mk. President — I have not been unmindful of your distiuguisbed 
permission to write you concerning the condition of the people of 
Teicas suffering from the drouth. Desiring to spare yoiu^ time and 
labor so far as possible, I delayed my communication until the imtsti- 
gations should be completed, and my opinions iu regard to the extent 
of their necessities, aud the sources from which relief should properly 
emanate, could be satisfactorily settled in my own mind. 

The prime reason for my going in person, to Texas was my entire 
inability to solve the mystery of why Texas was not equal to the care 
of its own poor and the meeting of its own calamities. I could not 




imprchend how a couple of seasons of drouth in one sparsely settled 
^corner or an old State of six millious of acres, with a treasury out of 
debt, should throw the people of that State upon the charity of the 
other Stales, or upon the support of the general government. My 
investigatioufl hrought to light the following perplexed conditions: 
!■ She had contending interests between her original cattlemen who 

' "wanted the lands left open, and the farmers who came in to settle Uiem 
up; the former placing ever>' obstacle, like the cutting of fences and 
driving off stock, in the way of the little immigrant! 

»A second conflicting interest arose betweeu these same original 
lords of the soil — the free ranchmen — and tbo»i, who, through railroad 
grants or purchase, had become actual owners of land which they 
desired to sell, and for this purpose, and to this end. held out unwar- 
ranted inducements, clothed in glowing descriptions, both false and 
dangerous, to encourage immigration, for which no preparation against 
the failure of crops firom any cause, or toward the opening of industries 
of any other kind had been made — not even the taking care to leave a 
small sum at the discretion of the governor in case any harm might 
befall these newly invited citizens. The immigrants, on their part, 
coming, as they had been instructed to believe, into a semi-tropical 
climate, with cxhaustless soil covered with almost perpetual verdure, 
made no provisions beyond tlie wants of the hour. One looked long 
and generally iu \mn for some trace of a cellar, or storehouse, or bam, 
or even the marks of some former hayrick, which might betoken some 
thought of provision for the future on the part of these so-called farmers. 
Pioneer like, they had wasted what they could not at the moment use. 
In this condition the drouth struck this section of the country. 

Fearing the effect of these conflicting interests, the mistake was 
made of their coming out of the State to .solicit aid, in the place of 
turning bravely and confidently to the people of her rich Southern 
^pfiections for help among themselves. 

H Again, the mistake of overstatement was made, and n population 
^•Of thousands represented a.s "starving," when in reality no one had 
™^tar\'ed nor was expected to. Thej- were in fiir too great want, but 
not "starving." These statements served to mortify and incense the 
people, and to turn the strength of nearly the entire press of the State 
against the statements of those representing the distress, and literally to 
kill nil help from both without and within. 

Adde<l to this, the courtesy of the railroads entering the Slate, and 
^liich at the first call for help liad generously offered free frdght on all 




THE TEXAS FAMINE. 



«39 



gifts for the drouth sufTerers, had most uufortuiiately beeii abused, and 
the occasion use*l by dealers to send goods in free to their customers 
for sale. This had the effect iu ten days to shut off all free railrtjad 
trausportation into the State, and thus it remains to^ay, aud the 
freight on a carload of gift oats from the grain centres of the North- 
west would exceed their value when there. 

These were a part of the perplexing conditions which coufrouted 
me upon my arrival in Albany, January, 1887. 

The Legislature was occupied in electing a senator, and so con- 
tinued during two weeks, paying no attention to the Relief bill before 
it. M e a n while, I occupied myself in traveling by private conveyance 
among the people, leamiog their conditions from themselves. Tliey 
suffered every necessity but homeUssncts, and this was the worst feature 
iu the case I<acking this, they would have felt justified iu going away 
and seeking plenty in the homes of others; but how to pick up their 
unfed children and travel out, Leaving their few cattle to the cowboys 
and the farm to the tax collector. 

I attempted to write the real state of things to you; but of what 
use? I might as well have sent you a tangled skein of silk to pick out 
for the winding. It was clearly no case for a great call for charily 
from the people at large, neither for governmental aid. Texas was a 
thousand times equal to it herself, when once slie looked it clearly in 
tthe face and set about the work. This she at length commenced by 
an appropriation of $100,000 for food. 

As good fortune would have it, rains commenced, the wheat was 
apparently saved, and hope revived. There was still need for staple 
grains at once to plant and sow tlie fields. These must come from the 
people within the State, as they had dosed all avenues from without, 
and it was proper they should furnish them. But it could only be 
accomplished by the aid of the pres, which was still poiuting its horns 
at John Browu, who persisted in declaring that "a million of dollars 
Iffiust come from Congress or the people of the North." There was no 
Tray but to reach the press, and turn its powers in llie true direction. 

The arrangement was not difficult for us to make. Tbe columns 
of botli the Dallas and Galveston NtU'S are open for a " Seed Fund " 
firooi the State, pledged to close them only when the need is met, I left 
that night, feeling that the skein was unraveled, aod our part of the 
work done. 

I thank you with all my heart, Mr, President, for the encourage- 
incnt given me at the commencement, aud the privilege of writing you. 




140 THE RED CROSS. 

I have done this little bit of work faithfully, and hope it may meet 
your approval. I am home, with scarcely strength to leave my bed, 
but I trust we have heard the last of " Texas drouth." 

I have the honor to be, 

Most respectfully, 

CJJUI.A Barton. 



THE MOUNT VERNON CYCLONE. 



ILLINOIS. 



UNDAY, February I9, 18S8, will ever be a memorable day 
in iLe annals ot the little town of Mount Vernon, III. — 
a day of supreme horrors, destruction aud death. There 
had been thunder and lightning during the afternoon, 
followed by rain and hail, which had given away to an 
ojuiuous stillness. The sky was covered with a wicrd 
light, and the air was strangely oppressive. The clouds 
rapidly changed color, rolling and whirling, and dropping nearer to 
the earth, until suddeuly they assumed the dreaded shape of a huge 
funnel or inverted cone, which came whirling along with an a%vful 
roar, and within three minutes after the fury of the stonn had struck 
the town, thirty people had been killed and scores of others injured, 
and an immense amount of property destroyed. 

Mount Veraoa is the county seal of Jefferson county, aud con- 
tained four thousand inhabitants. It was a prett>- and prosperous 
place; its business centre surrounded a public square, whose four sides 
were liued with stores, and the middle ground occupied by the 
county court house, a fine three-stor>' building; its broad streets were 
bordered with shade trees and lighted by electricitj-. 

The cyclone cut a broad swath through the eastern half of the 
town, destroying everj'thing in its path, tearing down brick houses, 
uprooting trees, and picking up small wooden bouses and carr>'ing 
them along as if they were made of cardboard, and finally dashing 
them to pieces against more substantial obstacles. In a \-ery few 
minutes after the storm had passed, the sun shone out brightly, but 
on what a scene! The air was filled with cries of anguish conn'ng 
from the maimed sufferers crushed under the ruins, and with the watl- 
iugs for the dead and missing. 

To add to the horrors already wrought, fire broke out in a dozen 
places. Those who were uninjured quickly came to the rescue, 
quenching the flames and exerting themselves to relieve the unfor- 
tunate victims, who were, in most cases, pinned down under the 



Ma 



THE RED CROSS. 



wreckage of their houses. All night long these brave men and women 
worked, and when morning came the few houftes that remained staiid- 
ing were filled with the dead and injured. 

Appeals for assistance were sent out to the people of the country, 
but through an improper statement of the situatiou, the public was 
misled, and not realizing tlic pressing needs of the stricken com- 
munity, failed to take up the matter in a busiuess-like manner, and 
the town was left to suffer for a little of the great abundance that was 
around them. In their extremity the despairiug citizens appealed 
to the Red Cross for aid, which responded at once. 

A most deplorable situation was presented: the people were 
homeless and helpless, neglected, and in a state of mind borderiug on 
insanity. 

After a .somewhat hasty examination of the situation, the follow* 
ing simple message was sent to both the Associated and the United 
Press; 



The pitiless snow is falling on tbe beads oT three thousand people who are 
without homes, without food or clothing and without money. 

Clara Babton. 

With only this little word to explain the needs, our generous 
American people responded promptly and liberally, as they always do 
when they fully understand what is needed. 

It was unnecessary to remain longer than two weeks with these 
people, who, as soon as they recovered from the first shfx:k of their 
great misfortune, and when they felt that kind friends were by their 
side, lending them moral and substantial support, manfully commenced 
to bring order out of chaos, to rebuild their town and resume their 
usual avocations. Large quantities of relief supplies of all kinds 
quickly came to hand, and when wc were ready to leave them, the 
Citizens' Committee had in its treasury a cash balance of ninety 
thousand dollars. And thus, with their blessings ringing in our ears, 
we left them. 

We were scarcely home from Mount Vcmon when the yellow fever 
of Florida, broke out in the summer and autumn of i88S. 



YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN FLORIDA. 




m 



.URING the month of August, 1888, yellow fever broke 
out in Jacksonville, and iu September it was declared to 
be epidemic, the usual alarm and exodus of citizens taking 
,,-, place. On September eighth heroic measures to depopulate 
^K '^■~' the city were talteu. Every person that was still well and 

^^^^. ^ could leave was requested to go; very little urging was 
^^^PV necessary. Camps were established outside of the city, 

^ vherc those who had not the means to go furtlier and get better 
^m quarters were euabltxl to live under medical surveillance, and away 
^M from the seat of infection. 

^M The Mayor of Jacksonville had made an appeal for doctors and 

^M nurses, which had been quickly responded to, and they were doing 
H everything possible to attend to the rapidly increasing number of 
^M patient:^ 

H Oil the formation of the Red Cross Society of New Orleans iu 1 893, 

^M it had been carefully and wisely arranged that in case of yellow fever 
^ becoming epidemic in any place, no unacclimated persons, or those not 

I immune, should be sent as assistants by the Red Cross. New Orleans 
was the home of the famous "Old Howard Association," that had 
won its reputation and worn its grateful renown from the horrors of 
Memphis to the present time. This body freely united with the Red 
Cross of New Orleans, and it was arranged that the southern states, 
through this society, should provide ail Red Cross nurses for yellow 
fever, and that the northern portion of the country should raise the 
money to pay and provide them. We felt this to be a security, and. 
an immediate provision which the country had never before known. 
Fearing that this might not, at its first inception, be fully understood, 
I called at once on Dr. Hamilton, then in cliarge of the Marine 
Hospital, explaining it to him, and offering all the nurses that could 
be required, even to hundreds, all experienced and organized for 
immediate action. Perhaps it was not strange that a provision so 
new and .so imknown in the sad history of plagues and epidemics, 
shotild have .seemed Eutopian, and as such been brushed aside as not 
only useless, but self-seeking and obtrusive. Like the eutire orgaui- 
9 (i«) 



A 



1 



146 



THE RED CROSS. 



zatioa of which it was a part, it had to wait and win its way 
against custom or even prejudice, by honest worth and stem neces- 
sity. It was the " o!d, old story." The world takes reform hard 
and slow. 

As it was, however, wc did what we could. Headquarters were 
established at the Riggs House in Washington. The good hearted 
people of the north who felt that they must go to Florida, had hy some 
means gotten the idea that they must have a pass from the Central 
Committee of the Red Cross in order to ga They came to us in 
hundreds and were mercifully held back from a scourge for which 
they would have been both food and fuel. WHiilst the entire people 
of the country in pity and horror at the reports received, were holding 
meetings, raising money, and pouring funds like water into the 
doomed city of Jacksonville, where the .scourge had centered, and to 
which every effort was made to cotifnic it. 

Not realizing the opposition there might pnn'e to be to our nurses, 
Wc called upon their old time leader, Colonel F. R. Southmayd, the 
efficient secretary of the Red Cross Society of New Orleans, instructing 
him to enlist a body of nurses and take them at once to the fever 
district. He enlisted thirty, both men and women, white and 
colored, took a part with him, the remainder following next day. 

Refugees who had fled from Jacksonville, carried the plague to 
several smaller places in the surrounding country, where in some 
instances it acquired quite a foothold ; but owing to their obscurity and 
the lack of commnnication with the outside world, they were left 
alone to fight the disease as best they could. Among these places 
was the little town of MacClenny. where as soon as it became known 
that there was a case of fc\'er within its limits, all trains were ordered 
to rush through without stopping, and an armed quarantine was placed 
arouud it with orders to shoot anyone attempting to leave the town. 
Thus left to their fate, without doctors, nurses or food, in ony quanttt>-, 
their situation was pitiable. There were a number of volunteers who 
had made attempts to get into MacClenny. but owing to the unreason- 
ing panic existing, Ihey were not permitted to enter the place. 

Colonel Southmayd had heard of these neglected people, and he 
succeeded while cu route to Jacksonville in dropping off ten nurses so 
much needed at MacClenny. How he did this, I have told in a little 
brochure entitled "The MacClenny Nurses," that was issued at the 
close of the year i838 as a holiday greeting, and intended as a public 
.nowledgment of tiie appreciation in which the Red Cross held those 



YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN FLORIDA. 



M7 



Doble nieii and women who braved everything that they might serve 
their stricken brethren. 

Colonel Southniayd, Southern born and bred, was a man of quick. 
pulse and intense feelings; bis heart was warm with the love of 
iumanit>' and the scum; of justice. He had beeu ideutitled with the 
fold Howard A.ssocialion almost from its inception, and had worked, 
through every epidemic of fever or other disease that had afllicted 
the South since the war; and he knew full well the value of the 
services of his chosen nurses. He strongly resented the injustice that 
he felt they were receiving, and naturally became involved in aa 
unforlmiate altercation with his superiors. In order to restore peace 
and remove an iiupediuient to eilective work, I withdrew ihe Colonel, 
requesting him to come to \Va.shington and assist the Central Com- 
mittee. 

He came in obedience to the call, but burning witli a sense of 
indignity and injustice to himself and the faithful suffering nurses he 
had brought— even with the lack of the good right arm which had 
swung his sword for the Confederate cause till it dropped from the 
shoulder, he was not an easy man to hold; but duty to the Red 
Cross, whicti he loved, and loyalty to its officers, whom he honored, 
held him quiet. He would never return to New Orleans, but at length 
retired to some northern city, where, after a few years he died, 
beloved and respected by those who knew his proud high soul, sterling 
worth and devotion to humanity. 

His was one of the strong hearts that carried the impress of its 
memories and griefs to the grave, and we always felt that somewhere 
on that heart that had ceased to beat could have been found a spot still 
bruised and sore on which was written Jacksonville. 

"THE MacCLENNY NURSES." 



A HOUDAY TRIBUTE 

to 

RED CROSS WORKERS, 

IN 

Wdtm appreeiatian and greUftd aeknowtedgnunt of tkt Jaith/ui Hands 
thai toiled, and the generous hearts that gave. 



sy 
Clara Barton, 




MS 



THE RED CROSS. 



"THE MACCLENNY NURSES." 



Dnring the fouzth week in Kovcmber a dispatch to Notional Headqaartert 
announced that the last bud of Ked Cross nunn, known as the MacClenny 
ntus<a, had finished tlicir work at BotcrprUc, and would come into Camp Prrry 
to wait their ten days' ()uarautine and go home to New OrlcaoB ioi Tbauka- 

Seveoty-nine days ago that would mean that their little company of 
eighteen, mainly women, stcamicg on to Jacksonrillc, under gnidanc^ of their 
Old>lime trOAted leader, Southmnyd, of Nevr Orleans, listened to his annoauce< 
mctittfaat the tow u of MacClcuny, thirty^eight miles from Jacksonville, Ploritla, 
md through which they would »oon pass, was ia ft frarful state of distress; a 
comparatiTely new town, of a few thonsand. hugely Nonhero and Western peo- 
ple, suddenly stricken down in scores; poor, helpless, ph>'sicians all ill, and 
no nurses; qoamntined on all sides, no food, medicine, nor comforts for sick 
«r well. 

"Nurses, shall I leave a part of you there; the train cannot stop in. DOC 
scar the town, hut if I can manage to get it slowed op Eomcwberc, will yon 
Jump?" 

"We will do anj'thing you say. Colonel ; we are here in Cod's name and 
■ervice to help His people; for Him, for you, and for the Red Cross, we will 
do our heat and our all. ' ' 

"Conductor, you had a hot box a few miles back; don't you think it should 
be looked to after passing UacClennyf" 

"I will slow ap and hare ji seen to. Colonel, although it may cost me my 
official head." And it did. 

One mile beyond town, the rain pouring in torrents, the ground sosked, 
■lippery, and caving, oat into pitchy darkness, leaped three men and seven 
women from a pulling, unsteady train, no physician with them, and no tnstmc- 
tions save the charge of their leader as the last leap was made, and the train 
poshed on. "Nurses, you know what to do; go and do your best, and God 
help you." Hand to hand, that none go astray In the darknos. they bobUed 
Iwck over a mile of slippery cros»-tie» to the stricken town. Shelter was found, 
the wet clothes dried, and at midaigbt the «ick had been parceled out, each 
nnrae had bis or her quotu. of patient«s and were in for the issue, be it life or 
death. Those post all hrlp mnst be seen through, and lost, all that could be 
must be saved. The next day a dispatch from Southmayd went back to New 
Orleans for Dr. Gill, a Norwegian by birtb, tall, straight, honcat, and true aa 
thepiues of bb native laud, to come and take charge of the sick and the nunc* 
at MacClenny. It was done, and under his wise direction tbcy found again a 
leader. Their labon and successes amnatlersforlateraDd more extended record. 

It is to be borne in mind that thejtc nurses found no general tabic, no table 
at all bnt such aa they could provide, find the food for, and cook for tbcin- 
selves, for the sick, the diilJren, and ihe old and helpless who had escaped the 
fever and roust l>c cared for. Xn patient could be left till the crisis was passed, 
■ad many are their records of seventy-two boors without change or alecp or 



YELLOW FF.VER EPIDEMIC IN FLORIDA. 



149 



"scarcely sitting down. As the disease gradually succumbed to their watchful 
care, experience aud skill. Uiey reached out to other fie»t]ly attacked towns and 
hft tTi lef. Sanderson and Glcn St. Mary's becamQ thcic charge, and ictum their 
blessings for life preserved. 

On November first it waa thought they could safely leave and go into camp 
(or qoanuitlnc; but do regular traiu would be pcruiiltBi.1 to take them. The 
Red Cross secured and paid a special train for them, aud, as if in bold relief 
agaiost the mariner of their entry seven week» before, the entire town, saving 
ita iavalida, waa assembled at the station at seven o'clock tu thcmomiug to bid 
them good-by Mnd God-apeed. 

But their fame had gone before them, And "Gnterpriae," a hundred mile* 
below, just stricken down among its flowers and fruits, reached out its hand 
for aid, and with one uccurd after tvro days iu camp, all turned back from the 
coveted home and needed rest and added snother month of toil to their alrcndj 
weary record. At length this waa ended, and word came again to tLs that they 
would go into quarantine. Their unselRsh, faithful, and successful record 
demanded something more than the tuere sending of money. It doicrved th« 
thanks of the Red Cross organization in the best aud highest uiaiincr in which 
they could be bestowed; it wan decided that its president, in person, should 
mcK^t fittingly do this, and nccordingly left Washington on the morning of 
November twenty-second in company ■<t''j Dr. Hubbcit, I'ield Agcnl, for 
Camp Perry, the quarantine station of Florida. Two days and one night by 
tail, a few miles across country by wugon. where trains were forbidden to stop, 
and another mile or so over the trestles of St. Mar>-'s on n dirt cat with the 
workmen, brought us into camp as the crcniug fires were lighted and the bugle 
Kunded supper. The genial surgeon in charge, I>r. Ilutton, who carried a 
If Ti ■friar Ir and musket iu an Illinois regiment in '6>, met us cordially aud 
extended ever}' possible hospitidily. Soon there filed past us to supper the tall 
doctor and his little flock; some light and fair-skiiined, with the easy step of 
• well'brcd lady, others dark iind bony-hiindcd, but the strong kind faces below 
the tarbaus told at a glance tlint you coiiMtrust your life there aud find it again. 
They were not disturbed tliat night, aud no certain information of our arrival 
got among them. It was cold and windy, and the evening short, us nine 
o'clock brought tupa and lights onU In apite of all caution the news of our 
coming had .■iprcad over the surrnnnding country, and tel^rams briuging both 
thanks for what bad been received and the needs for more, came from all aides, 
and the good mayor of MacCIenny made his troubl<r<l way to rench imd greet us 
in person, and take again the faithful hands that had served and saved his people. 
Snrgeon Hutton's headquarter tent was politely tendered for the first meeting, 
and as one could never, while memory lasts, forget this scene, so no words can 
ever adequately describe it. The ample tent was filled. Here on the right the 
mayor, broad shouldered, kind faced and efficient, officers of camp, and many 
Tisiton, wondering what it all meant ; in the centre the tall doctor and his 
faithful hand. Eliza I^nicr, Lena Seymoor (mother and daughter), Klizabeth 
Eastman, Harriet Schmidt, Liaie I.oni^ Rebecca Vidai, Annie Evans, Arthur 
Dnteil, Frederick Wilson and Edward Holyland. 

I give these names because they are worthy a place in the history of any 
epidemic; but no country, race, nor creed conld claim them as a body; fonr 




THE RED CROSS. 



AmericaDS, oue German, one PrencU, one Iiisli, Uir«« Africaus, part Protestaat, 
luttl part CatltoUc, but alt fmm New Orleoas, of graud old Howard Block, from 
Memphis down, nuning in even- epidemic from the b«you8 of the Minlasippi 
loTampaBay; and herealicr we will know them as tbc "OAi Cwtn/." 

Here, in the winds of approaching winter they stand in the light garb of' 
larly September in New OrleAnx, thin, worn, longing for home, but patient, 
grateful and glad. Some triSing "iiubta" or turtma about the be»d, but only 
one dietingnishing feuturc in common. A pilUul little misshapen Red Cross, 
made by their own hands, of two bits of scarlet rihVton, soiled, fringed, and 
tattered, pinned closely upon the left breast of each, stio\-c in mute appeal to 
cny who tlic-y were, and wbal they scn,'ed. A friendly recognition and »ome 
words of thanks from their president, opened the way for tboee anxious to fol- 
low. The rich, warm eloquence of Mayor Wstkins plainly told from bow near 
faift heart the xtreom of gratitude wan flowing, and bis manly voice trembled as 
he reverted to the condition of his stricken people, on that pitiless night, when 
this little band of pilgrim strangers strayed back to them in the raiu and dark> 
DC66. *'I fear they often worked in hunger," be suid, "for then, as now, wr 
had little for ounKlves, our sick, or our welt ; but they brought ns to our feet, 
and the blessing of every man, woman and child in MaeClenny Is on them. " 

It was with a kind of iMternii] pride that Dr. Gill advanced and placed 
before lis his matchless record of tfls^nttended, and life preserved. "This is 
the record of our work." be said, "I am proud of it, and glad that I have been 
able to make it, bnt without the best efforts of these faithful nurses I could not 
havedonc it; they have stood firm through everything; not sword of complaint 
fn>m, nor of, one of them, in all these tr>'ing months, and I thank you, our 
president, for this opportunity (o t^jfy to their merits in your prrsence, " 
The fult cups oversowed, and as we took each brown calloused band in oun, 
and felt the wuna tears dropping over them, we realized how far from calloused 
were the hearts tiehind them. The silence that followed was a season of prayer. 

Then came opportunity for some conversation, questions and explanations, 
"We wish to introduce to our president our chief nurse, whom Colonel South- 
mayd placed in charge of us when we left the cor, and directed us to oliey him; 
lie is younger Utan any of us, Eti. Kolylaud. ' ' A slight young man with clear, 
olive complexion, and dark browed, earnest eyes Utat looked yo« straight in 
the face, came forward; \\\% apparent youthfuloees ga%'e rise to the first remark: 

"How old are yoii, Mr. Ilolyland?" 

"Twenty-nine, wadatn." 

"And yon have taken charge of these nuT««i?" 

"t have done what I could for their comfort; I think that wits what the 
Colonel desired; he knew the^-would need only care and advice, they would do 
their best of themselves. During the few days that Colonel Sonthmuyd remained 
in Jacksonville," be continued, "he was able to send us some snch comforts at 
we needed fur the sick, and some nourishing food for oumelves; but this was 
only a few days, you know, and after that we got on as well as we could with- 
eoL I know thai after he U-ft the nur«es gave to the sick, the children, tbe old 
•nd the helpless, what they needed for their own strength. ' ' 

"Bnt yoia did not tell us this, Mr. llotyland." 

"^Fo^ we were dated and frightened by the tbtngu we heard. We felt that 



YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN FLORIDA. 



»5i 



I 

muT 

ML 



yoar organization was havtng enough to beur. We knew wc most loolc to yOU 
for our pay, aud wc thought, umlcr Uic circumstance!), ihat woul<i be yoar 
aharc. But permit me, plenKc, to cilII your nltention to Mr. Wilson (a Etout 
colored man advanced), wbo took charge of a little hospital of six exiles, and 
carried theni alt throiij^h day and Di){lit without au hour'a relief from any ptr- 
Mo, aud saved ever>' case." 

"And pcrmil me," diiuied in the clvar-loned Irish voicu of Lizzie Louis, 
"to tell of Mr. Holyland hitusclf, wfao found a neglected Italian family a mile 
or more outside of the town. He went AnA tiuraed them atone, aud when the 
young son, a lad of thirlccu or fourteen ycara died, knowintf there was no one 
to hury him there, he wrapped him iu a blaitket and brougbt him into town oa 
his back, for burial. " 

Holylund's face grew sad, and his eyes modestly sought the floor, as be 
listened to this unexpected revelation. 

"I wi-ili to .speak of something else," added one of the men, "which we 
were held back from doing, and for which we arc now very glad. We should 
not bave thought of it ounelvea. It la customary," he continued, "when a 
patient dice in an epidemic, to give the nurse ten dollars for preparing the body 
for burial; this was done in our first case, but Mr. Holyland had the gift promptly 
returned with thanks, and the explanation thni we were employed by an or{B;an- 
jsation which fully rewarded its nurses, and was too high aud too correct to 
accept tribute for misfortune; it wms enough that the patient waa lost." 

By this time poor black Anuie Bvans, the "Mammy" of the group, could 
quiet no longer, and broke &ilcucc with, "Missus President! whar is de 
Colonel? Colonel Soulhmnyd; dey tell» me nil de time he's gone away from 
New Orleans, and I can't b'l'cvc 'em. He can't go away; he can't lib any- 
whar else, be was always dar. I'se nursed in j-elluw fever and cholera morc'n 
twenty-five year, and I neberwcnt for nobodybut him; it ani't no New Orleans 
for uswidout him dar. I doesn't know de name of dat place dey say he's gone 
to, and I doesn't waul to; he'll be in New Orleans when wc gels dar," 

There were pitying glances among the group, at this little hurst of feeling, 
for in some way it was an echo of their own ; and Lena Seymour added tenderly : 
*'We have Ifcen trying fur thcMe two months to couviuec "Mammy" about this, 
but she is firm iu her faith aud sometimes refuses to bear us." Bnt the subject 
changed with "How many cases did you lose in this epidemic, Mummy?" 

"I didn't lose no casesi Lor' bless yon, honey, I doesn't lose cases if dey 
hasn't been killed afore dey gels to me; folks needn't die of yellow fever." 

Wc didn't suppose that "Mammy" intended any reflection upon the medi- 
cal fraternity. 

"But now, friends, we must tarn to oar settlement, which cannot be diffi- 
cult. Three dollars a day for each nurse, for seventy-nine days, till you are 
home on Thanksgiving morning. But here are only ten. There arc eighteen 
oa onr list who left with you and Colonel Southmayd; where are your com- 
rades?" Some eyes (lashed aud some moistened, as they answered, "We do 
Botknow." "They remained in the car that night, nud went ou to Jackson- 
ville," Swift, dark glances swept from one to another among them. Instinc- 
tively they drew doner to each other, and over knitted brows and firmly set teeth, 
a silence fell dark and ominous like a poll, which the future alone can lifL 




ISS 



THE RED CROSS. 



The bogle soanded dinner, aud this ended our iitUe camp>meeting, Ibui 
vllich, few camp-nieHinf{s vre believe, ever cftme DCArer to the beart of Him 
irbD offered His life a trukhb, and went about dotog good. 

Tbc winds blcv cold ucroac the cunp; the fires ftbot out long anj^ry tongues 
of flniue and drifts of etuokc to every passer-by. The norther was npon u. 
Nigbt cauie down. And ail were glad of shelter and sleep. Tbe morning, qniet, 
crl^ and white witb iroct, cevcaled tbe blufiiug which had fallen upon a 
stricken land. 

Tbanksfcivi Dg was there before its time. The baid rules relaxed. Oneday 
more, and the tjuuraatine was at an end. Tbe nortb-bound train halted below 
tlie camp, and all together, president and agent, tall doctor and happy nurses, 
took places on it. The first for headquarters nt WoAbington, the last for New 
Orleans, and home for Thanksgiving morning, full of the joys of a duty well 
done, rich in welUpaid labor in the love of those they had hefrimded and the 
approval of a whole people south and north wbeu once their work should be 
known to Ihem. 

To Lhe last they dung to their little home-made Red Crosses as if they had 
been gold and diamonds; and when st length, the tracks diverged nnd the part- 
ing must be made, it was with few words, low and softly spoken, but mennbig 
much; with u finger touch upon the little cross. "When you want us. wc arc 
there. " 



The fever spread dtiring the fall to several points in Georgia, 
Alabama and Mississippi, and re.<m1tcd in the usual panic and Oight 
from many places; but happily the disease got no great headway before 
the frost pnt an end to its career. 

It was late id November when we closed this work ; worn and dis- 
heartened as we were by both the needful and tbe needless bardsbips 
of the campaign, we were glad of the two or three mouths in which no 
call for action was made upou u& 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 



^N the thirtieth of May the knell of disaster rang over the 
entire world, and we were sharply reminded that the need 
of the Red Cross is ever present, and that its members 
must hold themselves in readiness to move at a moment's 
notice. The news of the awful calamity of Johnstown, Pa., 
with all its horrors, appallw! as ; and so frightful and improb- 
able were the reports, that tt required twenty-four honrs to 
satisfy ourselves that it was not a canard. 

In order to get an iutelUgent idea of this disaster aud the terrible 
damage wrought by the irresistible waters, it may be well to give 
a short sketch of the city of Johnstown and its adjacent surround- 
ings. Before the flood there were thirty thousand people in this 
busy community, which embraced the city of Johnstown proper and 
numerous suburbs. The city is situated at the junction of Stony 
Creek and the Little Conemaugh, forming the Couemaugh River. 
These streams are liable to sudden overflows! and owing to the 
contraction of the waterway in the lower part of the city by 
the dumping of cinders and slag from the large iron works on the 
banks of the stream, and also encroachments by riparian owners, the 
upper portion of the city is liable to inundations. About nine miles 
above the city a dam had been thrown across the Little Conemaugh 
River many years ago for commercial purposes, but had been abandoned 
and the site with much surrounding property had been ttubscqucnily 
{mrchased by a sporting club, whose membership embraced some of 
the wealthiest citizens of Pennsylvania. These gentlemen were 
attracted by the picturesque scenery, and the hunting aud fishing 
of the vicinity, and they spent thousands of dollars in improving 
and beautifying their holdings. The dam was raised to a height of 
over seventy feet and held an immense body of water covering many 
acres. 

This large mass of water was a constant source of fear to the in- 
habitants of the lower vallcy.s, who were aware of the danger that 



XS« 



THE RED CROSS. 



threateued them ; and many protests were made against the conttnu^ 
ance of tlie danger, but owing to the prominence of the owuers of the 
dam, and the stroug social and political influence they exerted, they 
remaincd unmolested in the pos-session of the monster that was to break 
its bounds and carry death and destruction in its pitiless pathway. 

A steady rainfall for several days in the latter part of May caused 
overflows in all the streams in western Pennsylvania, and much of the 
dty of Johastowu was already under water to a depth of from two to 
tea feet, when suddenly the dam over the Little Cooemaugh gave way, 
and its flood, resembling a moving mountain of water thirty feet high, 
was precipitated upon the doomed city. Numbers of the inhabitants, 
who had carried the fear of this disaster in their minds for years, 
had become so alarmed by the long continued rains, and the floods that 
were already upon tliem, took their families and fled to the high 
grounds on the hillsides. But the great majority of the people, 
who, though fully aware of the danger, bad lived with it so long that 
they bad become careless and iudiflereut, took no precautious wbatever. 
These were o^'erwbelmed by the tide almost without warning, and 
before they could seek safety were swept away. 

The number of lives last will never be accurately known ; but in 
all probability it reached in the entire valley nearly five thousand. 
It is said that property to the amount of twelve millions of dollars waa 
absolutely lost. 

It was at the moment of supreme affliction when we arrived at 
Johnstown. The waters had subsided, and those of the inhabitants 
who bad escaped the fate of their fellows, were gazing over the sceue 
of destruction and trying to arouse thera.wK'es from thclethargy that 
had taken hold of them when they were stunned by the realitalion of all 
the woe that had been visited upon them. How nobly they resjionded 
to the call of duty I How much of the berotc there is in our people 
when it is needed I No idle murmurtngs of fate, but true to the god- 
like iustincts of manhood aud fraternal love, they quickly banded 
together to do the best that tiie wisest among them could suggest. 

For five weary months it wasour portion to hve amid these scenes 
of destruction, desolation, poverty, want and woe; sometimes in tents, 
aometimes without; ia rain aud mud, and a lack of the commonest 
comforts, until we could build houses to shelter ourselves aud those 
around us. Without a safe, and with a dry goods box for a desk, we 
conducted financial affairs in money and material to the extent of 
nearly half a million dollars. 

I shall never lo.se the memory of my first walk on the day of our 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 



arrival — the wading in mud. the climbing over broken engines, cars, 
heaps of irou rotlers, brokeu timbers, wrecks of houses; bent rail- 
way tracks tangled with piles of iron wire; among bands of workmen, 
squads of military, aud getting around the bodies of dead animals, 
and often people being borne away; — ^the smouldeiing fires and 
drizzling rain — all for the purpose of officially announcing to the com- 
manding general (for the place was under martial law) that the Red 
Cross had arrived on the field. I could not have puzzled General 
Hastings more if I had addressed him in Chinese; and if ours had 
been truly an Oriental mission, the gallant soldier coald not have 
been more courteous and kind. He immediately set about devising 
means formaking as comfortable as possible a "poor, lone woman," 
helpless, of course, uponsncha field! It was with considerable difficulty 
thatheconkl he convinced that the Red Cross had a way of taking care 
of itself at least, and was not likely to suffer from neglect. I don't 
believe he quite got over his mistrust until a week later, when 
carloads of lumber from Iowa and Illinois began to come in consigned 
to the president of the Red Cross. As this was the only lumber that 
had come, the military were constrained to "borrow" from us in 
order to erect quarters in which to entertain the Governor of the State 
on the occasion of his first visit. 

Our first duty was to study the situation and take tip the line of 
relief as necessities developed and opportunities presented. Western 
Pennsylvania aud Ohio had been " instant in season." Pittsburg had 
mainly provided for the surx'ivons who were injured. Ohio bad sent 
its troops under itselUcient Adjutant-General Axline; and food, the 
first necessity, was literally pouring in from every available source. 

But the wherewithal to put and keep clothes upon this denuded 
city full of people, and something to sleep on at night was a problem ; 
and shelter for them, a present impossibility. The possiM^ musihe 
attempted. 

The first days brought in di^atches and letters to the amount of 
about a hundred a day, tendering sympathy, offering help, and giving 
notice of material and money sent. We were then living in tents and 
working literally night and day, some of ns at work a/J the time. 

From one mammoth tent, which ser\'ed as a warehouse, food and 
clothing were given out to the waiting people through the hands of 
such volunteer agents, both women and men, as I scarcely dare hope 
ever to see gathered together in one work again. The great cry which 
bad gone out had aroused the entire country, and our old-time helpers, 
foil of rich experience and siiU richer love for the work, faithful to the 



zsS 



THE RED CROSS. 



OEOSS of humanity as the devotee to the cross of the Master, came up 
from every iwint— Uie floods, the cyclones, the batUefields — and kneel- 
ing before the sbiiue, pledged heart and service anew to the work. 
Fair hands laying aside their diamonds, and busiDess men their cares. 
left homes of elegance and luxury to open rough boxes and barrels, 
handle second-hand clothing, cat coarse food at rough board tables 
sleep on boxes under a dripping canvas tent, all for the love oThnmanity 
symbolized in the little flag that floated above them. 

Clergymen left their pulpits, and laymen their charge to tramp 
over the hillsides from house to house, find who needed and snflfered, 
and to carry to them from our tents on their shoulders, like beasts of 
burden, the huge bundles of relief, where no beast of burden could 
reach. 

Let it not be supposed that all this was accomplished without per- 
plexity to someone. Goods came in from many sources of transport, 
five entries by freight and express requiring to be constantly watched ; 
for, strange to say, there is no work in which people grow more reck- 
less, selfish and jealous, than in the distribution of charities. Persons 
outside grew anxious that the receipt of goods was not acknowledged 
before they were received ; that checks were not drawn and retunied 
before the bank safes were out of the mud ; and that houses were not 
built and the people living in them before it was possible to find a cleared 
spot for a Uttle tent in which a workman could sleep at night We 
finally found space, howc\'cr, for the erection of a pine warehouse, fifly 
by one hundred and fifty feet iu dimensions in the centre of the old 
town. The building was put up in four days, and, still in the rain, 
our accumuJaiiou of supplies was removed to it on the first of July. 

We had been early requested by official resolution of the Finance 
Committee of the city of Johnstown to aid them in the erection of 
houses. We accepted the invitation, and at the same time proposed 
to aid in furnishing the nucleus of a household for the homes which 
should in any way be made up. This aid seemed imperative, as 
nothing was left for them to commence living with, neither beds, 
chairs, tables, nor cooking uteusils of any kind; and there were few if 
any stores open, and no furniture in town. 

It now became possible to more fully systematize the work; and a 
committee of Johnstown ladies of e\-ery denomination was formed, at 
oar Tcqnest, to receive the people and ascertain their greatest wants, 
which were carefully noted on printed blanks to be returned to us. 
These wants we undertook to fill without further trouble to the people 
themselves. 



• 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 



159 



The result of this committee's work was the writteu requests of 
three thousand families, aggregating eighteen thousand persons, to be 
served, in addition to two thousand others whom we had previously 
promised to help. 

The great manufacturers of the country, and the heavy coulrib- 
uting agents, ou learning our intentions, Kent, without a hint from ps, 
many of their articles, as for instance, New Bedford, Mass., scut 
mattresses and bedding; Sheboygan, Wis., sent furniture and enameled 
ironware; TitusviUe, Pa., with a population of ten thousand, sent 
ten thousand dollars' worth of its well-made liedsteads, springs, exten* 
sioQ tables, chairs, stands and rockers; and the well-known New York 
newspaper, The Mail and Express, sent car loads of mattresses, 
feather pillows, bed -clothing, — sheets, and pillow slips by the thousand, 
and cooking utensils by the ten thousands. Six large teams were in 
constant service delivering these goods. 

When the coutributious slackened or ceased, and more material 
was needed, we purchased of the .same firms which had contributed, 
keeping our stock good until all applications were filled. The record 
on our books showed that over twenty-five thousand persons had been 
directly served by us. They had received our help independently and 
without begging. No child has learned to beg at the doors of the Red 
Cross. 

Meanwhile our building contracts were not neglected. It is to be 
borne in mind that the fur>* of the deluge had swept almost eutirely 
the homes of the wealthy, the elegant, the cultured leaders of society, 
and the fathers of the town. This class who were spared, were 
more painfully homeless than the poor, who could still huddle in 
together. They'could not go away, for the suffering and demoralized 
town needed their care and oversight more than ever before. There 
was uo home for them, nowhere to get a meal of food or to sleep. Still 
they must work on, and t he stranger coming to town on business must 
go unfed, and return to Cresson at night, if he would sleep, or, iudeed, 
escape being picked up by the military guard. 

To meet these necessities, and being apprehensive that some good 
lives might go out under the existing lack of accommodations, it was 
decided to erect a building similar to our warehouse. The use of the 
former site of the Episcopal Church was generously tendered us by the 
bishop early in June, for any purpose we might desire. This house, 
which was soon erected, was known as the " Locust Street Red Cross 
Hotel ;" it stood some fifty yards from our w.irchonse, and was fifty by 
one hundred and sixteen feet in dimensions, two stories to height, 



i6o 



THE RED CROSS. 



with lantern roof, built of liemlock, single siding, papered inside with 
heavy building paper, and heated by natural gas, as all our buildings 
were. It consisted of thirty-four rooms, besides kitchen, laundry, 
bath rooms with hot and cold water, and one main dining-hall and sit- 
ting room through the centre, sticteen feet in width by one hundred in 
length with second fl[>or gallery. 

' It was fully furnished with exceUeot beds, bedding, bureaus, 
tables, chairs and at! needful housekeeping furniture. A competent 
landlady, who like the rest, had a few weeks before floated down over 
that same ground on the roof of her house in thirty feet of water five 
miles bdow the city, rescued in a tree lop, was placed in charge, with 
instructions to keep a good house, make what she could, rent free, but 
charging no Johnstown person over twenty-five cents for a meal of 
food. 

This was the first attempt at social life alter that terrible separation, 
and its success was something that I am very glad of. The house 
was full of townspeople from the first day, and strangers no longer 
looked in vain for accommodations. 

The conception of the need of this house, and the method of select- 
ing its inmates and the mauner of inducting them into their new home, 
were somewhat unique and may be of interest to the reader. We had 
noticed among the brave and true men, who were working in the mud 
and rain, many refined looking gentlemen, who were, before tliis great 
misfortune carried away most of their worldly belongings, the wealthiest 
and most influential citizens. Never having had to struggle amid such 
hardships and deprivations, their sufferings were more acute than those 
of the poorer and more hardy people; and it did not require any great 
foresight to know that they were physically incapable of such labor if 
prolonged, nor to predict their early sickness and death if they were 
not property housed and fed. As the salvation of the town depended 
in a great measure upon the efforts of these men, it was vitally neces- 
sary that their lives sliould be preser\-cd. ReaUzing alt ihjs, it occurred 
to us that the most important thing to do, next to feeding the hungry, 
was to provide proper shelter for these men and their families. The 
idea once conceived was soou put in the way of realization. 

It was decided that we should erect the house as quickly as po»- 
sible, furnish it completely, and when ready, invite the citizens to a 
reception within its hospitable walls. This arrangement was carried 
out, and a printed invitation was issued, of which the following is a 
facsimile; 



^NFLOOD. 



i6i 



<_J2v: c_^?v«-«. \iJ c-^>€>^ c->«* 



«<» 



#^ ^^ ^a- ^#«>*#« «r# ^^* 



cjt. 



<JyX,^e^ \D*-a.d^ r.,^/o~***^, .JZa~e>**^^ cZT^/t-^^-C, 






/.mj^./a^ 



^*rt»*tu<tWi*^yiJ^^ • M /! 



On the afternoon of July 17, hundreds of citizens called on us and 
congratulations and good wishes were the order of the day. As the 
members of each family whom we had selected to occupy apartments 
in the house arrived, they were quietly taken aside and requested to 
remain and have dinner with us. After all the guests were departed 
except those who had heen requested tore tnain, dinner was anoounced, 
and the party was seated by the members of the Red Cross. Beside 
the plate of each head of the family were laid the keys to an apartment, 
with a card inviting the family to take possession at once, and remain 
as long as they chose. 

I cannot describe the scene that followed ; there were tears and 
broken voices ; sufiBce to say, the members of that household were 




t63 



THE RED CROSS. 



made happy and comfortable for many long months ; and I venture to 
assert that those now living recall those days with the fondest recol- 
lections. 

This revealed a want so great, that a second bouse of the same 
dimensions and qualities was erected jusl across the river, known as 
the "Keruville Red Cross Hotel." Another competent landlady was 
installed in charge, who had not only lost her home, but her beautiful 
daughter of twenty years. This house was also filled; and a fourth 
house of forty by one hundred feet wa.s next built in the form of a 
block, the families living separately, for the accommodation of ihe 
working people of Woodvale, where no house was left. This was 
known as the " Red Cross Block," or " Woodvale House." 

There was no rent to pay for accommodations in this house, the 
only cost to the tenant being for fire, lights and living. 

Johnstown had neither a hospital nor an almshouse — never had 
its poor being taken to Ebensvillc, twenty miles distant. Under 
ordinary circumstances this might do, but with the scant, poor homes 
of this winter we felt it to be unsafe, and saw that better provision 
should be made. Accordingly the use of some half-dozen unset portable 
houses, known as the " Oklahomas," was asked of the Flood Commis- 
sion, and erected adjoining our warehouse, as separate wards connected 
by a covered way. and provided with an adjoining house of eightcea 
by thirty feet, two stories high, for kitchen, dining, store, sleeping and 
living rooms for the use of the wards and attendants. These were all 
fully equipped and warmed for the accommodation of thirty patients, 
with the best of new outfit, and the hospital was known as the 
"Johnstown Infirmary." 

These things accomplished, there remained but one more dang^er 
to be guarded against. The citizens still had no organization of their 
own for the relief of their needy people through the coming winter, and 
no protection against any alarming report which might be sprung upoi 
them. Any sen.sational writer conld still, if he chose to, report ti 
hundred cases of typhoid fever in Johnstown, alarming the whole 
country, with not a case of genuine typhoid there, and there were none 
to say him nay ; or that its people were freezing or star\-ing, with 
nowhere the authority to correct the misstatement. This protection 
was needed, not alone for Johnstown, but the people at large as wcU. 

A few welt-timed suggestions were sufficient. The meetings were 
held in our house and some of the leading men and women of the city 
effected a permanent organization to be incorporated under the name 
of the " Benevolent Union of Conemaugh Valley." 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 



i6s 



This completed, we had ouly to turn over to their hande, as the 
leaders of the towo, our warehouse with its entire remaiiiing stock, 
amounting to some thousatids of dollars; the care of the infiniiar>-; oae 
of our trained clerics, with all papers and accounts of our relief work 
from the day of its iuctption; one of our experienced working men to 
handle transportation — to fit up for them large, warm rooms for winter 
use; give tbcm our blessing; accept theirs in fullest measure; say good 
bye to them and to our faithful helpers, with heavy hearts and choking 
voices, and reluni to our home, bearing the record of a few months of 
faithful endeavor among a people as patient and brave as people are 
made, &a noble and gratcftil as falls to the lot of human nature to be. 
Enterprisii>g, industrious, and hopeful, the new Johnstown, phccnix- 
like, rose from its ruins more beautiful than the old, with a ceaseless 
throb of grateful memory for every kind act rendered, and every thought 
of sympathy given her in her great hour of desolation and woe. God 

less her, and God blc&s all who helped save her ! 

We had employed during our sojourn in Johnstown a working force 
of fifty men and womeu, whom we had housed, fed aud paid, with the 
exception of the volunteers who worked for the good they could do aud 
would accept nothing. The means which we so largely handled came 
from everywhere; accounts were reudered for everything, and no word 
if business complication ever came to us. There never has in atl our 

rork. 

There was much to do in Johnstown after we left ; buildings to 
remove and property to care for when it had ser\'ed its purpose and 
the ground became needed. But there is always a right time for any 
benevolent work to cease; a time when the community is ready to resume 
its own burdens, and when an offered charity is an insult to the honest 
and indcix.-udent, and a degradation to the careless and improvident, 
tending to pauperize and make them an added burden on their better- 
minded fellow citizens. And theu, the moment the tradesman is able 
to re-establish himself, be looks with jealous eyes on any agency that 
diverts possible business from his channels. This it is not only wise but 
just to all concerned to withdraw all gratuities from a people the instant 
they are able to gain even a meagre self-support. 

A rather curious circumstance, somewhat on the line of this reflec- 
tion, fell to our lot after leaving Johnstown. The houses that we had 
built and furnished were indispensable to the tenants during the winter, 
when there were no other houses to be had; but in the spring the city, 

ejuvenated, began to build up again, aud we were noti6cd that the 
on which our Urge houses were standing was needed by the 

10 



x66 



THE RED CROSS. 



owners, who wished lo use it for Iheir own purposes, aad they requested 
the Red Cross to remove its buildings. We promptly stnt an agent to 
attend to the matter, and he began the work of vacating the premises. 
There was no hardship involved in this, as all the tenants were by this 
time in condition to pay rent, the relief fund of $i .600,000 having been 
distributed among them in proportion to their losses, and there were 
bounds that tbcy cuuld };et; in a few days our bouses were empty. 
Then a new factor entered into the situation. When it became gener- 
ally known that the Red Cross must remove these immense bouses, 
and that a large quantity of lumber and house furnishings were to be 
disposed of. the self-interests of the dealers in those commodities were 
at once aroused, and they strongly protested against the gratuitous 
distribution of those articles among Uie people of Johnstown, asserting 
that the iuhabitauts were now prospering and had the means to buy 
everything they needed, and that a gift from us of any of these things 
would be an injustice to the honest traders who were trying to re-es- 
tablish themselves. 

\Vc saw the justice of their objection and gave assurances that no 
injury should be done them, still to have fully conformed to their idea 
and transpoiled the entire material to some other point, would, have 
put the Red Cross to au amount of trouble and cx)st unjust to it.self. 

I am not prepared to say that our quiet field agent iu charge of 
the work did not find resting places for very much of this material in 
still needy homes, where it did no harm to any one and for which no 
one but tlic pitiful recipients were the wiser. 

Notwithstanding the fact that we took away from Johnstown as 
little matenal and furniture as was possible, after quietly disposing of 
the greater part of It, and this at an expense and inconvenience to our- 
selves which we could ill afford, there were those, who could not under- 
stand why we should take auytkinj; away ; and their unkind miscon- 
stjuction and criticisms have scarcely ceased echoing even to this late 
day. 

The paths of charity are over roadways of ashes; and he who 
would tread Iht-m must be prepared to meet oppoation. misconstruc- 
tion, jealousy and calumny. Let bis work be that of angels, still it 
will not satisfy all. 

There is always au aflemiath of attempted relief where none is 
Dccdctl ; and more or less criticism of any work, for it is always so 
much easier to say bow a tiling ought to be done than it is to do it. 

These little unpleasantnesses, however, cannot deprive us of 
the tbouitand memories of gratitude, appreciation, and kindnesses 



4 



THE JOHNSTOU'N FLOOD. 



167 



exchanged, ^-liich were mutually needful aud helpful; uor of the 
mauy lifelong friendships formed that will bless us all our days. 

I may perhaps be pardoned for quoting a few liues from the official 
report of the Johnstown Flood Finance Committee, appointed by 
Governor Beaver, as showing how these gentlemen, the foremost men 
in the community, regarded owr efforts to give them a helping hand: 



Iq this matter of shcltcrittc the people, as In others of like importano^ 
Miss ClflfA Bartou, presi<lt.-ttt of the Red Croos AHOcUtioii, vnu mo«t bdpfal. At 
a time when there waa a douht if the Flood ComtnisKion could furnish honaes 
of suitable cbnractrr and with the rcquiftite protiii>tne», she offertrt to assume 
charge, and she creeled with the funds of the association three large apartment 
house* which affurded cuntfort.ilile Iwlgtnga for miLDy housctesa people. Sh* 
was smon^ the first to arrive on tlie scene of eslamit;, briugiag with her Dr. 
Huhbell.the field udiceT of the Red Cross A8SOciat[on.and a staff of skilled assts- 
tanUi. She made her own orgaaieation for relief work in every form dinponing 
of the large resoorccn nnder her control with such wjiulajin and tcTidcnicss that 
the charity of the Red Cruss had no atin^. and its recipients are not Miss Bar- 
ton's dependents, bat her friends. She was also the last of the aiinistcring 
spirits to leave the scene of her labors, and she left her apartment house* for 
nse during tlic winter, and turned over her warehouse, with its store of fumi- 
tare, Kcdding and clothing aiid a well -equipped iiifinnar^-, to theL'nion Itenevo- 
lent Auociation of the Conemau^h V:i11ey, the ort^an izatiou of which she 
advised and helped to form ; and its lady vtsitors have so well performed their 
work that tlie dreaded winter has no terront, mendicancy Iuls been repressed, 
and not a single case of unrellrrcd snffeHng is known to have occurred in all 
the flooded dititrict. 



The Johnstown Daily Tribufte was one of the enterprising and 
reliable papers of the unfortunate city, wliich, though droivued 
out, would not stay dead, and insisted on " pulling itself together," 
and cheering the people along in Ihdr efforts to re-cstahlJsh their homes 
and their fortunes. On the eve of our departure the Tribune published 
an editorial which we are fain to believe reflected the feelings of the 
people, aud which was as follows: 



FARRWEIX TO MISS BARTON. 



How sh;ill we thank jMiss CInra Barton and the Red Cross for the help they 
have given ns? It cannot lie done; and if it could. Miss Barton doeit not want 
our thanks. She lias simply done her duty as she saw it and received her pay 
— the coasciouanesa of a duty pcrfomicd to the Vest of her ability. To see ua 



i68 THE RED CROSS. 

upon oar feet, struggling forward, helping ourselves, caring for the sick and 
infinn and impoverished — that is enough for Miss Barton. Her idea has been 
folly worked out, all her plans accomplished. What more could such a woman 
wish? 

We cannot thank Miss Barton in words. Hunt the dictionaries of all lan- 
guages through and you will not find the signs to express our appreciation of 
her and her work. Try to describe the sunshine. Try to describe the starlight. 
Words fail, and in dumbness and silence we bow to the idea which brought her 
here. God and humanity ! Never were they more closely linked than in stricjten 
Jt^nstown. 

Men ere brothers! Yes, and sisters, too, if Miss Barton pleases. The first 
to come, the last to go, she has indeed been an elder sister to us — nursing, 
soothing, tending, caring for the stricken ones through a season of distress such 
as no other people ever knew — such as, God grant, qo other people may ever 
know. The idea crystallized, put into practice. ' ' Do unto others as you would 
have others do unto you. " " Even as ye have done it unto the least of these, 
so also have ye done it unto Me!" Christianity applied. Nature appeased and 
satisfied. This has been Miss Barton's work, and nobly has she done it 

Picture the sunlight or the starlight, and then try to say good-bye to Miss 
Barton. As well try to escape from yourself hy running to the mountains. "I 
go, but I return" is as true of her as of Him who said it. There is really no 
parting. She is with us, she will be with us always— the spirit of her work 
even after she has passed away. . 

But we can say God bless you, and we do say it. Miss Barton, from the 
bottom of our hearts, one and all. 



Some bard, whose name I do not know, but whose sad, lovely 
words frequently recur to me, has commemorated the disaster of the 
Conemaugh in the following beautiful poem, which, I think, is worthy 
of preservation : 

"THE DREAD CONEMAUGH." 

I tarried in Conemaugh Valley 

One beautiful morning in spring. 
And loveliness mantled the mountains. 

The meadows and everj-thing. 
The breezes were laden with odor 

Akin to the blossoming rose, 
And happiness brightened the faces 

Of people refreshed by repose. 

But death, the remorseless destroyer, 

Looked down on the valley, so green. 
Beheld the quaint homes on the hillsides. 

The towns nestled snugly between. 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 169 

And, hungry for awful disaster, 

For grief, lamentation and tears, 
Death paused where a lake in the mountains 

Had shimmered untroubled for years. 

The water grew darlc in his presence. 

Grew dark in the presence of death. 
And shrank from the terrible visage, 

Away from his poisonous breath. 
A tempest came forth in its fury 

And soon with an ominous flow 
The overcharged lake in the mountains 

Plunged into the valley below. 

A rumble, a roar, and destruction 

Came down with the pitiless fiood 
To stifle the cry of the wicked 

To silence the prayer of the good ; 
Like straws in a bubbling cauldron 

These homes in the valley were tossed 
Away on the hurrying waters, 

Along with the dying and lost. 

There brother was taken from brother, 

The false were destroyed with the true. 
There lovers were torn from each other 

With never a parting adieu. 
Confusion wrought havoc so wanton 

That mercy grew deaf for a while, 
And beings, half demon, made meny 

On Couemaugh's funeral pile. 

But Heaven will surely remember 

The names of the noble who died 
To rescue their perishing brothers 

From death in that horrible tide. 
For some of the noblest heroes 

That ever calamity saw, 
Repose uninterred in the valley 

Where wanders the dread Conemaugb. 



The incidents attending a field of relief — some pathetic and sor- 
rowful, others laughable and ludicrous — so loom up in the memory 
when the subject is opened, as almost to encumber the pen as one 
writes. Referring to our landlady at Locust Street Hotel, Mrs. Henrie, 
one recalls her wonderful experience during the night of the flood. 
By some means, entirely alone, she floated down the stream, not only 



I70 



THR RED CROSS. 



through Johnstown, but miles below in the darkness of the night, 
•until some time next day perhaps she managed to stay herself in a 
tree-top, where she clung among the brandies, her clothing torn from 
her iu shreds during her struggle for life, until discovered and taken 
away. 

The family of Mr. John Tittle, one of the oldest, most respected 
and beloved iu the town, floated clinging to the top of their house, 
without knowing that they were moving, but thought others were 
moving as they passed them ; uulilat length, fearing that Mrs. Tittle's 
strength and courage would fail, her husband joined hands with her 
finnly over the ridge-pole, and thus they hung on opposite sides of the 
roof through the long night. The courage and strength did often fail, 
and her pleading went out to her hnsbami ; " Oh. let us let go and 
end it, John 1 We cauuot escape ! I cannot endure it longer I " to be 
answered by his word-j of hope and cheer and a tightened gr.-isp on the 
aching wrists. At length, near morning, having reached the vicinity 
of Kernville, the house struck the bridge and remained stationary. 
One by one the inmates slid onto the bridge and gained the land on 
the Kernville side. 

They had left within the house, unable to be gotten out, the old, 
decrepit black mammy of a lifetime, the great silky-haired setter, 
"Rob," and the poll-parrot hanging in her cage. Alt had been trans* 
ferred, as the water rose, to the topmost jjcak of the attic, where they 
were left to their fate. The great biead-wagons of Pittsburg, with 
tbeir sturdy policemen^ were already there ; the dead and the living 
Tvere being picked up together as they floated down. Some con- 
sciencencss began to return to the dazed survivors, and at length ii 
was thought. safe to attempt an entrance to the Tittle mansion, still 
floating at the bridge. 

On gaining the attic, this picture as described at the time, presented 
itself: tbe water had never quite reached it. Poor, old mammy sat in 
the highest comer, with hantls clasped, her chiu resting on her knees, 
and her Lips muttering her woes aud her prayers ; long-eared, silky- 
haired " Rob," no longer a "setter " at least, bounding and roaring a 
welcome that required physical strength to resist; and "poll." her 
cage topsy-turvy, striding about the floor, with an air of offended 
dignity, hungry and cross, said "she had had a devil of a time." 

During one of the early days Mr. K., a citizen of the town, came 
iato my tent, bringing with him another man — tall, firmly knit, dark 
visaged, with hair tangled and matted, and still the bearing of a man 
if not a gentleman. Ou introducing his companion, Mr. K. said that 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 171 

he had been exceedingly unfortunate, and he had brought him to me 
to see if anything could be done for him. "I hoped so," and turned 
to inquire what was most needed. " Had he a family ; did they want 
food, or clothing? Had he little children?" His face grew darker 
still and his frown deeper, as at length, in a tone approaching contempt, 
he replied: "No; I don't want anything _j'i7« can give; you have 
nothing for me." I had still the courage to persevere, and added, 
" What would you have me do, if I could do it ? " Again a silence 
and a mental struggle that shook his whole frame, as he half hissed 
between clenched teeth, " Let me look on the face of one dead child ;" 
and rushing from the tent, he disappeared from me forever. 

He had had five motherless children, for whom he toiled early and 
late in the great Cambria Iron Mills. The flood swept his little home 
before he could reach it, and every child was lost. He had wandered 
about the river banks, watched the receding waters, dug in the sands 
for the little bodies hidden beneath, until reason had given way — till 
even God seemed cruel and mankind weak idiots. 




Executed and presfntfd to Clara Barton by one of the Johnstown sufferen. 

A PEN MEMORIAL TO CLARA liARTON BY ONE OF THE JOHNS. 

TOWN FLOOD SUFFERERS, MR. J. V. DRURV. 




THE RUSSIAN FAMINE, 
1891-1892. 



O properly understand the Russian Famine of 1891-94," 
and llic relief work of Ihe Rt-d Cross connected there- 
with, cue needs to keep in mind the ordinary moral and 
ecouomic conditiun of the Russian pcasantr>'. They 
:{■■■ were, many of them, not long ago serfs attached to the 

I land iu a condition but little better than American stai'CS. 
• Though the liberation of the serfs made their legal con- 
dition belter, it left them in condition scarcely less dis- 
couraging than before. They were subject to all the disabilitii.'S of 
hard bargains on every side, from the exactions of taxes levied in one 
way or another, and payable in services or goods, all of which called 
for on ever increasing sacrifice. They were subject to onerous military 
»cr\'ice, and penal exactions for violations of the law. These condi- 
tions surrounded them with an atmosphere of depressing poverty, fear 
and hopeless endurance, if not of despair. They have not felt the 
stimulating habitual influence of hope, of courage, of enterprise. They 
are not educated to surmount discouragements by overcoming them. 
Difficulties do not dowu easily before them ; they go down before diffi- 
culties and disasters in something like apathetic dcspondencj', or live 
in au amazing light-hearted, careless recklessness that easily turns to 
drink, to idleness, weakness, disease and early death. Fear is with 
them always, as if fate was over and against them. 

The climate of Russia is cold in winter, and the means of cooking 
and artiBcial warmth are scanty, and not easily procured at any time ; 
thus, when the famine really came upon them, observers vi'ere divided 
in opinion whetlicr the famine, or fear of famine, or of something 
worse, destroyed or paralyzed these people the more. 

The harvest yields of 1889 and 1890 had been much less than an 
average, and at the beginning of 1891 but little of the old supplies of 
grain was left over. The har\'est of i8gi was nearly a total failure 
throughout a vast region in central Russia extending from Moscow, 
roughly speaking, say, three hundred miles in a northeasterly directiott 
over a plain eight hundred to a thousand miles in width, beyond the 
Ural Mountains, and some distance into Siberia in Asiatic Russia — a 
district of nearly a million square miles. Ordinarily this is the most 

(=73) 



I 



I 




»74 



THE RED CROSS. 



productive part of the Hm[nre, upon which the remainder of the 
countr>' bad been accustomed to draw for food supplies ia tlie frequent 
cases of deficiency elsewbeie. The appearance of the country is similar 
to oor prairie States in the early days before the growth of the planted 
trees ; and the soil is a rich, black loam that usually produces good 
harvests. 

It was estimated by those best qualified to jndge that from thirty 
to thirty-five millions of people were sufierers by the famine of 1891. 

Count Tolstoi on thb Charactbk or tub Peasants. 

Count Tolstoi gave up his whole time to mitigating the suffering 
caused by this great disaster, aud to understanding the situation 
broadly. He went into the homes of the x>eople, and studied their 
needs sympathetically; he placed himself by their side, and with his 
dramatic instinct understood them, ascertained where the hurt was 
felt, and how it could be cured, if it could be cured at all. 

At that time the Count wrote of these poor, unfortunates: "I 
asked them what sort of a harvest they had had, and how they 
were getting along; and they replied in a LHthe, ofTband manner*! 
"Oh, right enough, God be praised I" And yet these pcoplei 
who reside in the most distressed districts of the goverumeut of 
Toola. cannot possibly live through the winter, u»/iss they Iffstir tkem^^ 
selves in time. They arc bound to die of hunger, or some disea 
engendered by hunger, as surely as a hive of bees left to face the 
rigors of a northern winter, without honey or sweets, must perish 
miserably before the advent of spring. The all-important question, 
therefore, is Ibis : Will they exert themselves while yet they posses 
the strength, if, indeed, it be not already wholly exhausted ? Every^ 
thing that I saw or heard pointed with terrible distinctness to a negative 
reply. One of these farmers had sold out the meagre possessioi 
which he could call his own, and bad left for Moscow to work or beg.' 
The others stayed on and waited with naive curiosity watching for what 
would happen next, like children, who, having fallen into a hole in the 
Ice, or lost their way in a dense forest and not realizing at first the 
terrible danger of their situation, heartily laugh at its unwontcdness." 

"Unless they bestir themselves in time" — what a text is this I 
They ore all the time o\*crbonic by the apathy of fear, of unus 
powers, of suppression and depression. Courage, hope, enterprise to 
licntir themsch-cs, where will they come from ? Not, surety, from fear, 
imd more di&ci>iuai;cnicnt. 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 



175 



The Bkginning op the American Kelibf. 



The work of tbu American National Red Cross in the Russian 
famine of 1S91-92 was comparatively lahs than ia some others of the 
conspicuous fields in which it bad done its work. The impulse to help 
ia the work of that relief sprang up simultaaeously in many American 
hearts and homes, in New York, in I'hiladelphia, in Minnesota and 
Iowa. lu Iowa it took the form of a vcrittble crusade for a mostlioly 
cause; beginning in the fer\*id and indomitable spirit of Miss Alice 
French — Ihe "Octave Thanci" of literature— it quickly enlisted Mr. 
B. F. Tillinghast, editor of the Davenport Democrat^ who became its 
director-in- chief and organizing force, everywhere organizing it, and 
promoting it in every direction and iu every form. The movement 
was taken up by the women of Iowa, and Governor Boies became 
a prime mover, till the whole State at last joined in a triumphal 
march bearing corn, God's best gift to man, to the Atlantic coast in a 
procession of two hundred and twenty-five carloads, exceeding five 
hundred bushels in each car. The com was consigned to Clara 
Barton in New York and reached her agents there without accident or 
delay. 

The American National Red Cross had authentic intelligence of 
the famine in Russia before it had attracted general attention ; it had 
placed itself iu communication with the Secretary of State, the Honor- 
able James G. Blaine, and the Russian Charge d'Affairs at Wash- 
ington, Mr. Alexander Gregor, and had ascertained that Russia would 
gladly receive any donation.*; of relief that the people of America 
might send to her famine stricken people. Not ouly would they 
receive supplies, but would send their ships for them, and provide inland 
transportation from Russian ports to the destitute people for whom 
these benefactions were intended. America declined to allow her 
soifenng sister nation to cross the seas to get this food, and quickly 
arranged to carry it to her. All the American agencies concerned in 
this movement met it in the noblest spirit ; railroad companies gave 
free transportation, telegraph companies the free use of wires, brokers 
and steamship agents declined their usual commissions, and some 
insurance companies even gave premiums for the safe delivery of the 
precious cargo into the bands of the starving people. 

Congress had been appealed to for ocean transportation, and the 
Senate had voted a liberal appropriation, but the bill was defeated in 
the House of Representatives. Then theciti7.cns of Washington took 
np the matter and were joined by the Society of Klks, one of the 



THE RED CROSS. 






noblest of our benevolent orders, ever ready to join in any good canse 
for humanity ; and funds to charter a steamship to carry the cargo 
to Russia were soon raised and placed in the hands of the Red Cross. 
The sculiment that roused and sustaiued this great movement on 
the part of the people of America was a mingled one of sympathy for 
starving Russian peasants, and gratitude for timely moral help of the 
.ussiaii navy in years gone by. 

Was it accident or design that chose the British steamship " Tyne- 
lead" to carrj* this material expression of American sympathy and 
gratitude and enabled the president of the American National Red 
Cross, ou the deck of a British vessel, in presence of the American 
people, to say that, " these tributes of America to Russia in her hoar 
of temporary distress were not to be counted as gifts, for they had 
been richly earned; not even aixounted as loans, for they had been 
anticipated a hundred- fold ia an hour of our own peril — far greater, 
God grant, than Russia may ever know. They were not e\'en the 
principal of a great national debt; but a tithe of the interest long due, 
and joyously acknowledged— acknowledged there under the triple 
shadow of the three great flags floating above, blending now in their 
mighty folds the finest, purest attributes of God's holy gifts to man, 
ce, love and charitj-." 
Mr. Tillinghast, in describing the scene of the departure of the 
Tynehead " from New York, at which the above quoted words weft 
spoken, said: " Captain Carr, a brave man and a Briton, who had been 
tossed by the waves from the Indian Ocean to the Bay of Fnndy, was 
for a moment speechless. The hardy sailors about him bowed, and 
their eyes moistened. There was not a man on that ship who had ever 
before been charged with the delivery of such a cargo." 

A tug hauled the ship out into the river at high tide. She was 
ted by saluting whistles of passing ferries, yachts aud steamers, 
by waving flags and cheers from thousands. The "Tynehead" was 
i headed for the long voyage to the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic on the 
L s hores of Russia. 

^B Dr. Hubbell, representative of the Red Cross to the intemational 
^^onference of the Red Cross to be held at Rome, and authorized to 
proceed to Riga and receive and distribute with the Russiau Red Cross 
this gift of Iowa, was already on his ocean voyage and ready to do his 
part in this beautiful blending of international courtesies and ser\-ice» 
that it is the mission of the Red Cross to devise and tocarry out where- 
ever it can make or find the fitting opportunity. Dr. Hnbbell arrived 
on time at Riga and will further on state the facts about the distribtitiDn 
of the cargo. 



■r: 



uciui 

Pftreet 




THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 



177 



It must not be thought that the Russian government or people 
were indifferent to the sufferings of their fellow countrj'men during 
this great misfortune, or that they made no sufficient effort to meet 
their needs or relieve their sufferings. The question has often beeu 
asked : " WTiile America was so active in this charity, what was the 
government of Russia doing forits unfortunates?' Perhaps this query 
K best answered by quoting from the official report of the American 
Ambassador at St. Petersburg, the Hon. Charles Emory Smith, to his 
govcruracnt, which was written at that time, and says: 

In tlie preserKTc oftlita national disaster ttie Ruminn government hKs not been 
psssive. Without reviewing the lulminiittnttive sy»teni, it must be wiid that it hM 
»ougbt to grapple in liberal uieadurea »vitU the treiiicudous prablcin. Before the 
first of March. 1893, it had appToprialed ouc hundred and fifty million nililes or 
■eventy-five milliou dollars for this purpoAc, and the direct outlay by June can 
hardly be less than two hiindrc<I million rubles. Besides this, taxes have tieen 
lemttted, and work has been funiisbcd where practicnhle. Vh*I quantitira of 
grain have hccn bought and brought from the rich field* of the Caucasus. Lhougfh, 
with the limited means of comniuaication and the loss of horses, it has been 
difficult to convey it to the regions remote from the railroads. Large public 
works, employing hnudrcds of Ibousatids of men, have t>een undertaken. The 
forests of the imperiAl doninin have been opened to tlic peasants for fuel. The 
proprietary fla.'** have, as a rule, in this cracrgeney. prove*! worthy of their posi- 
tions and responsibilities^ There are xingle families taking care of as many as 
twenty thouHtud people. The women, especially, hare cotue forward with b 
consecration and 6clf-6acrifice which commands admiration. 

If it were not invidious or indelicate many cases might be cited of Indies of 
gentle birth who have left their home4, braved the dangers of disease, faced the 
bardHhips of an unaccustomed and trying life, and given up weeks and months to 
the feeding of the hungrj- and miniKteHng to the sick. One thing ought in fair^ 
BCAs to be said. The Emperor has been puhhshed abrosd as indifFercnt. It is 
only just tu remark that Ibis peculiar kind of indifference has been manifested 
not merely in a vigorooB direction of iJic later governmental operations of relieT, 
even to the summary dismissal of inefficient agenlA; hnt in gifts from his private 
pUrae. which, if the belief of St. Petersburg can be accepted, amount to fifteen or 
twenty times all the contributiona of nil the world outside of Rus^ua. 

Ambassador Smith estimates that the American donations sup- 
ported more than seven hundred thousand people for a month. This 
may be accepted as the result of their practical work for humanity. 

From the above report it will be seen that the distress was .so exces- 
sive and widespread that eveu the available resources of so great au 
empire as Russia were sorely taxied in the endeavor to succor its famish- 
ing people; and that its people of all classes rose nobly to the work of 
the occasion. 




178 



THE RED CROSS. 



Appreciation ov American Svmpathy. 

That llie substantial sympathy of the American people was fully 
appreciated by the Russian people may bt gathered from what follows. 
The mayor of St. Petersburg, in aa address oa behalf of that city to 
American donors, declared: 

The Russiau people Icnow how to be RralcfuV IT up to this day these two 
gr«at countries, RuMJa auti the Uuited Statea, ha\-e ttt>t ouly never qtiarreled, hat 
on the CuuUary, wished c-ach other prosperity ani] xtreuj^th always, these feelings of 
sympathy shall grow only stronger in the (uiure— lioOi cotintries beinK coiiscioiia 
that, in the eeaaon of trial for eilher it will find in the other cordial succor and 
support. And when can true friendship he tesic<l if not in the hour of mi&fortuneF 

A peasant of Samara sent to a Russian editor, together with three 
colored eggs, a letter which he asked to have for\%-arded to America. 
It appeared in the Ctntury Magazine. Here is an extract: 

ChriM is risen! To the nienriful benefactors, the proleclora of the poor, the 
feeders of the starving, the guanlianii of the orphana — Clirist in rinen! North 
Americans! May the Lord grant you a peaceful and long life and prosperity in 
j'oar land, aud may your fields gi%-e abundant har^-e»U- -Christ is risen. Your 
merdfulneis gives us a helping hand. Through your charity yon have satis&cd the 
starving. And for your magnificent alma accept from mc this humble gift which I 
send to the entire American people for your great beneficence, from all the hearts 
of the poor, filled with feelings of joy. 

Count Bobrinskoy, writing officially to the secretary of the Iowa 
Russian Famine Relief Commission, used these words: 

II gives ue very great pleasure indeed to express to you the sincere apprecia- 
tion that the Russian people entertain ton-ard the splendid work organized In 
America for the relief of the sufferers in our famine-stricken districts. 1 can assure 
that the same deep gratitude is felt, not only by the poor who have received the 
generous American contributions, but also by us all, who, having worked for this 
relief, know how much it wait needeti. I know by Dr. IIubl>en how great was the 
activity of your peoples as well as that of Miss Clara Barton in sending us the 
" Tynchead," and how much yuu have done in the interests of our people. The 
names of "Indiana," "Missouri," "Coneraaugh." "Tynehead" and "I.eo" 
will always remind ns of the xaoA t)«autiful ex.imple of iuteniaciotial charity and 
fraternal love that history has perhaps ever mentioned. 

On the first anniversary of the arrival of the Iowa ship, " Tyne- 
head," at Riga, there was a significant event in Philadelphia. The 
Russian manof-war, the " Dimilre Donskoi," the flagship of the North 
Atlantic Stjuadron, anchored in the Delaware River. The vessel was 
decorated with dags and the officer of the day was the Grand Duke 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 



'79 



* 



Alexander. By special invitaiion of Uiis representative of the Czar, 
Dr. Htjblwll and the nine olher American commissioners, who went to 
Russia iu behalf of the duaors were presivnt ou board. They were 
received with the most impressive honors. The Czar had sent gilts by 
his officer, and the presentations were made in the name of his majesty, 
under the imperial flags. A large open trunk contained ten boxes of 
polished wood, and each of these was inscrilwd : " In remembrance of 
your viidt to Russia." Accompanying each was a letter expressive of 
his majesty's gratitude. The tokens were all magnificent specimens 
of Russian art work in silver. 

The Department of State at Washington, under date of January 
11, 1894. issued the following information: 

Ou Novcmbirr 7, 1893. the United States Minister at St. Petersburg received from 
the nobility of that citr, through ihdr marshal, Couut Alexis Bobrinskoy, an 
address to the people of the United St-ites. ThiK address, which is in tbe Eu}{lisb 
language, embodies, in terms fitly chosen, tbe thanks of tbe Ruasiau people to ihe 
American for tbeniil »ent to tbcjr country from our own duriti); the faniinc periods 
of the past two years ; it is beautifully cngrosswl aad its illuminatiou embraces 
Kilter-color drawings, which rcuder it a most iitlmctivc work of art, Tlic docu- 
me:n, which is superbly bound aud enclosed in a &ne case, was duly forwarded to 
Uiis city by Minister White, and will be given a conspicuous place to the library of 
this depnrtnicnt. 

(Copy of Text of Illuminated TesUmouial from the Nobility of 
Saint Petersburg to the People of the United States;) 

Iu the atinaU of Russia for 1893, painful though the meuiory be, history will 
poiuL out many a bright and joyous page scutU-rvd ihmuKhout the Empire, on 
which will be written in letters of gold the beautiful story of brotherly love as 
exemplified hy the good people of the t'nited States of America. 

Hardly had human voices been beard calling for hread in certain governments 
of Knasia, thai had mSered from druu^Iit, bail, and untimely frost, ere that 
friendly people across the AliaiUic, moved by au earnest desire to help the alHicted 
and tofeed the hungry, collected from every state in tlie Union, as if by one Bccord, 
Aliipload afler shipload of com, and dispatched them, one after llie other, on tlieir 
errand of mercy and relief. 

Deeply grateful for such evident signs of evangelical feeling and ititereat, the 
Ascembly of Nobles of the government of SL Pelemburg, a* representatives of the 
intellectual class in Russia, lias resolved to express their warm and heartfelt grati- 
tude to those friendly people who form the great nation of the Uuiled States of 
America. 

May the Ix>rd blcsa and keep all those kind-hearted Americaus, men, women 
and children, who took part in that grettt and good work, of charity, and may the 
Hand that gi\-etfa nnto lu all, reward tbem bountifully, and ever keep tbem fnnn a 
like misfortune. 

(Signed.) The Marshal of the Nobility of SL Petersburg, 

CODNT ALRXIS BOBRINgEOV. 





x8o 



THE RED CROSS. 



Previous to receiving this beautiful tribute, ou the arrival of the 
S. S. "'Indiana " from I'hiladelpliia while not connected with the Red 
Cros3 work, a similar artistic tribute to American donors was presented 
by the workmca of Libean to represent the sentiment of the workmen 
of Russia, we introduce it as au additional illustration of the universal 
sentiment of tender s>'iQP3thy and gratitude of the Russian people. 

Dk. Hubbkll's Rkk>mt. 

Arrived in St. Petersburg. It would be a week or ten days before 
we could expect the arrival of the "Tyuebead." with its cargo for the 
famiue sufferers; but we had a copy of lit-r manifest and knew what 
she would bring. 

There was something of anxiety, amountingeventoconstemation. 
among those who would have to do with the reception of the ship, for 
reports from the United States had been circulated that persons were 
on board the vessel who were objectionable, if not avowed enemies to 
the Russian government, and such could not be recognized uor received. 
This couceni could not e.isily be dispelled until it was made clear that 
no one was aboard the "Tjiiehead" save its own officers and crew. 
Elaborate ceremonies had been held on the arrival of the other relief 
ships and were contemplated for the "Tynehead." This we did not 
want, and took occasion to express the feelings of the Red Cross and 
of Araeriean donors in a letter acknowledging courtesies extended 
from the president of the Russian Red Cross affordiug opportunities 
to visit its various institutions, and particularly the regular working 
departments, iti its clinics, dispensaries, hospitals and training for 
active scn.'ice in civit as well as military field work. 

St, Fetbrsbdrg. May ^, 1890. 
To His Cxcellcticjr, Gkhrrae, db Kahpfmank, 

President 0/ the Red Crois of Russia: 

HONORRD PaastDltKT :— I desire to express my thanks for the courtesies and 
the privileffc of becoming aci]U«intccl with the every day practical work of the 
Red Cross of RuasuiuKhown by the kiti<lnc*«< of \XMir sccnriaries. 

Nowhere have I eecn more coiuplele, comfortable aud generous provision for 
the general care of the sick poor than here in the iaatltutiuns of the Red Croa 
and under its work. 

And there can l>c no doubt that the prectic«l rxpedenre that Die workers are 
rcceiviujj daily will greatly increase their efficiency for (i«T\ice in lime of war. 

It will be ii source of pleamre to nuke a report to the Anieiicao Red Cnws of 
the practicfll work of the Russian Society in time of peace. 

Rcti^rding the arrival of the cargo of the ship "Tynefaead," I trust your 
excellency bus already undentood by our Charge d'Affairs. Mr. Wurts, that no 



THK RUSSIAN FAMINK. 



<83 



patolK denioiiHtnttioiiit have been nor are desin»l. This caTffo U largely from the 
people of nn Rgricalttiral State, many of whom have suffcrM from failure of crops 
in their owu country, and thu!) keenly appreciate similar cuntlitiotm Uist othen 
m«y suffer when mich a mst territory ■« the interior of the Ruuian Empin: is 
denied rain season after season in succession; and l^ey have simply taken this 
metltod of exprccsiug their syin|>alhy, for it ia their cnstom to give in like toanncr 
in their awa coantry whenever occasions of calamity or au ffering of any kind require 
the aid of outside help. AtlhispnrticuUr time they feel that pcrhapsthc same rains 
that bad been withheld from their brothers in Russia b»d ){iveii the increase to 
their own crop«. which hnve hren unutually abundant Ihe poet year ; and thus 
added duty to desire. Morcov^T, there is a deep brotherly feeling throughout the 
nation: for our people never for^l tbzt Kuiisia has always hecn the friend of 
America. 

And further, the arrangements of yotir various committees tA the matter of 
distribution learc nothing; to be desired, and that Ihe Bnal reports will afford great 
pleasure and satisfaction to those who have them to make, there is every rea»on to 
believe. With great respect. 

J. E. HtJBBKU., 

General Fteld Agent Anuriean Red Cross 
in charge eargo " Tynehead." 

Tbu following is General Katifimanu's answer: 



St, PETBRSBtTRG. May ({, 1899. 

J. B. HtjSBBtt, M. D., General Field Agent, Amerimn /ied Cross: 

MCCB HONOKED Sir: — I am eager tnexjirevt toyou herewith my moat sincere 
tliankfniuess for the sympathetic account oflhe activity of the Russian Red Cro«s So- 
ciety, which you have been so kind to give in your lelier of the eighth May current. 
You have bad tbcoccasiontopcrsuadeyour^ctf of the common direction between the 
Rusrian and American Societies of the Ked Cro&s, by which the help to our fellow 
creatures is not restricted to the relief of sn8criug in time of war, hut is extended 
to all the calls of national calamities, from the gmtuitoux niedical treatment of the 
poor to the large help afforded in time of epidemic disease, famine and other 
calamities. It is to me a great pleasure to see the sympathy of the American people 
to the Rnsddan, the proof of which has been in the last years so evident As you 
are instructed by the AuiericAn Red Cross to express thi.^ feeling of sympathy to 
our »uciety, I beg you to believe the heartfelt expressions of the like feeling from 
our side, which [ pray to present in our name to your society and to the people of 
the United Sutes. 

The gift brought by the " Tynehead " will be accepted wllb deep gratitude and 
dlitrihuied among the needy people, according to the wish of the givers, through 
the offices of ihc beneficent committee under the august presidency of His Imperial 
Uajesly the Heir to tlteCtown. 

1 avail m>-sclf of Ihe pfeecnl oucanOD to pray yon to accept the assurance of 
my perfect coosidcration. 

The prvstdent of the Ruuian Red Crou Society, 

u 



tfii 



THE RED CROSS. 



Through thehelpof Mr. Wurtsof our IcgaCion; our Consul-Gen- 
eral, Dr. Crawford ; Count Bobrioskoy, representing the Russian Red 
Cross, aad the Government, as well as the Czarowitcb Committee; and 
through the active help of Mr. W. H. Hilton, an Englishman at th« 
liead of the large linseed oil works, deacon in the Anglo- American 
Church, whose thirty years' business arquaintaoce over Eastern Russia 
and his sympathy with a people in distress, particularly fitting him for 
the work; with these agencies the assignment of the cargo was arranged 
to be sent locighty-lwo famine ccntrts for distribution. It was to be 
consigned to persons of unquestioued integrity and fitness for the work. 
These people had been communicated with, and their acceptance of the 
charge assiued, and the number of carloads that each should receive 
made known to each, that he might make the necessary provision for 
its reception and distribution. Couut Bobriuskoy had ordered 320 
freight cars to be in readiness at Riga to receive and transport the cargo 
free of cost to whatever point might be desired. When these prelimin- 
ary arrangements had been completed and the "Tj-nchead" sighted 
from the signal station, we started in company with Count Bobriuskoy 
for Riga, the port that had been previously selected by the Russian 
Ambassador in Washingtou as beiug free from ice and most favorable 
for ttausportiag the cargo to the interior. 

The'Tynehcad" was a big ship, one of the largest oceau freighters, 
and came too heavily loaded to enter the harbor until her cargo had 
been partly discharged by lighters, and she anchored eight miles from 
the port. The governor's ship, having on board his excellency, 
M. ZuDvief; Count Bobriuskoy, representative of the Czaro\'itch Cora- 
roittce;N. von Cramer, representing the Red Cross of Russia; R. Ker- 
kovius, president of the Hxchangeof Riga; vou Richer, chief of police; 
vou Keldermann, chief of customs; vou Kagel, captain of the port; 
N. P. Bornbotdt, United States cousul, aud J. B. Hubbell steamed an 
hour down the river to welcome the " Tynehcad," which had all flags 
and streamers flying and by the activity of our consul, Mr. Bomholdt, 
the lighters already lying alongside to take in the grain. After an hour 
on board the captain was brought back in the governor's .ship on which 
we lunched, and later diued at the governor's palace, where the captain 
was presented with a beautiful tea ser\'ice of Rubsian enamel inlaid 
work as a present from the Cxar. 

It was arranged that two lines of cars be kept on the dock, into 
which the graiu should t>c carried direct from the ship, which lay along- 
side the wharf. As soon as a car was filled it was shi^ed, weighed 
and seated, and when enough were filled they wt-te made into trains 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 



185 



and sent to their destinations with right of way over every other traffic 
on the loatl, not exceptiug exprcbs and pas.scngcr trains; and at their 
destination no person presumed to t^reak the seal save the one to whom 
it was consigned. 

ViTien we reached Riga, we learned that two hundred and forty 
peasants had been waiting on the dock two days, waiting and waiting 
for the ship from America.. Not waiting for food, for Riga was not in a. 
famine pKunnce, but waiting that they might not miss the opportunity 
and ihe honor of unloading the American f hip that had hrought food to 
their unfortunate brothers in the interior. As soou as they could get 
into the bold of the ship, one hundred and forty of them began the un- 
loading. They workeduight and day . without rest, determined to unload 
Uieeutirc cargo themselves without help. But on the third night our con- 
sul, Mr. Bornholdt, insisted on their having a relief of tweK-e hours, and 
when the twelve hours were up they were all in their places again, and 
remained until the cargo was out, declining to take any pay for their 
labor. Twelve women worked along with them, in the same spirit, in 
the ship and on the dock, with needles, sewing up the rents in the bags 
to prevent waste in handling, 

Ouly a part of the "Tynebead's" cargo was in bags; beuce for 
convenience and economy iu handling and the final distribution, wc 
purchased in St. Petersburg and Riga 43,(X»o additional bags to sack 
the rest of the cargo, which in all amounted to nearly 1 17,000 bushels 
of shelled com, 1 1 ,033 bags of flour and meal, besides small amounts 
of wheat, rye, bacon, canned goods, drugs, etc., requiring 307 Russian 
freight cars for its tran.sportaliun. Sumc of this was rL-shipped on 
steamboats sent tip the headwaters of the Volga, reshipped again on 
cars nearly to the foot of the Ural Mountains, a distance of 3.000 miles 
from Riga. Notwithstanding our declaration while in St. Petersburg 
It oeilher the Red Cross nor the American people desired any public 
^ceremonies in the way of acknowledgments: dinners, excursions and 
public demonstrations and illuminations were planned, which we felt 
ourselves obliged to decline on the ground we had first taken, that any 
effort and any money proposed to be used in this manner would be most 
acceptable to all Americans if turned, into food for the hungry, whom 
we bad come to help. 

At our hotel the Rusidan and American colors were crossed over 
the entrauce: iu the shop windows were the American colors, and in 
other places, where it seemed that these were not easily procured, 
titlc-i>ages of American sheet- nuisic were displayed — such as ' 'America," 
"HailColtimbia," "Yankee Doodle," "Star-Spangled Banner," etc. 



l6$ 



THE RED CROSS. 



and little boys in the streets carried American flags of their own make. 
One little fuUow bud made the Russian flag ou one side and the 
Amcricau on the other side of bis device. The telephone office was 
kept open all night, to be ready for any possible want, and the loco- 
moli\'c with steam up for any possible service. The Custom House 
floiited on its main stall only the Amcrrican flag during the entire 
time of the unloading of the " Tynehead," from Saturday morning 
until Tuesday noon — three days and a-half. When all was finished at 
Kign, the last train on its way, all had been so well planned, so welt 
done in every particular that we felt there was not the least necessity 
for any further attention on our part in looking atlcr this charge. But 
to the donors at home Ru:^ia was a loug way off; they had no per- 
sonal knowledge of the people they were trying to help, and some 
critics had circulated misgivings about the gifts reaching their intended 
destination. Hence, that we might be prepared to give a report Irom 
I>ersonal observation for the satisfaction and die gratification of the 
people at home, who hod contributed these stores, it was decided to see 
how some of the final dislribulions were made. 

Our hist objective point in the famine district was the Pro\'ince of 
Nijni Novgorod. But wc must go by Moscow, where by the cour- 
tesy of Count Bobrinskoy a telegram was received, stating that his 
brother would pass through the city to the famine district, and his 
company could be made available, if desired. Such an opportunity was 
not to be tost, and our course is changed to the south, first by rail 
to Bogorodizk. thence by druschky to Michailuvskoi, to the house 
of ShestoparofT, manager of the beet sugar mills of the BobrJuskoys. 
Here the home taste and appearance of everything inside make one feel 
as if he were iu his own New England home, althouj,'h not a word 
of English is heard. After breakfast the next morning wc go to the 
distributing station, which is supported by the Bobrinskoy family in 
one of the sugar mill buildings. Here we find the doctor, the baker, 
the soupmaker, several of the first ladies of the place, great cauldrons 
of excellent soup, tea, milk, Nestle's food, rye and com bread — the 
tea and milk are for the sick and for the children — and the doctor, who 
is familiar with every family, directs who shall receive and what- The 
bread and the soup are ser\'td on regular account, the houses and 
families all having been visited and the condition of each carefully 
recorded. As soon as one ts able in part to care for himself the bread is 
sold at a moderate price. 

A number of villages arc supplied from this bakery and kitchen, 
and this is but one of nine carried on by this family entirely at their 



THE RUSSIAN KAl 



187 



own expeuse. In the afternoon wc visit difTcrcnt villages, some twenty 
houses or more. We find two Red Cross nurses from Moscow, who 

'dre at work and have Uicir home with the jieasants. In four months 
one has lost but four cases ; the olher but two ; and the average 
number of sick in tlie past four montlis by the doctor's report is three 
hundred. The peasants say they would rather do without the doctor 
than \ie without the nurses in the village. 

The peasants' home consists of one or two square rooms, built of 
logs, stone, or mud bricks, with floor of earth, and furniture of boards. 
One quarter of the room is given up to the brick oven, which is so con- 
structed that it ser\'es not oiily for a stove, oven, cupboard, aud bed in 
cold weather, but the chickens and small animals find protection from 
the cold underneath during the severe cold weather. Usually a large 
horizontal pipe of terra cotta passes overhead aud out through a 
thatchc*! roof of straw, which is often two feet thick. The fuel may be 
wood, straw, or dry dung; fuel is scarce. A deep cellar, well cm'ered, 
outside, may hold potatoes, roots, etc. The cattle and other animals 
find shelter in a room adjoiniug the family. At Bogorodizk another 
royal family, in addition to work similar to the above named, supplied 
the peasants with raw material for spinning, weaving and making of 
native good* and garments both for themselves and for the market, 

_which the countew found either at home or by sending them to the 
rger cities. Through letters of introduction we had the good fortune 
to find Count Tolstoi on his estate at Yasnia Polonia. 

WHicn the count was asked his opinion of the cause of the exist- 
log couditions, he said the government might uot like to have htm 
say that the peasauts should have more laud and own it themselves — 
that uow they have only enough in the best seasons to give barely food 
for their support, and when a year of scarcity comes, they caunot help 
being destitute. When asked if there had In-cn improvement in their 
conditions since the emancipation, he said if that meant in the way of 
property, financially, no, but mentally there bad been progress and 
development. 

Que of the first questions Count Tolstoi asked was, " What do you 
think of most? I would excuse him for such a question; but he 

^always liked to get into sympathy with the pereon he wns talking with 
ind to know how to undcrstind him. WTiat subjects occupied ray 
mind most when going to sleep?" etc. 

At night I slept ia the library' surrounded by English and Ameri- 
can books and magazines. 

When asked about the demoralizing effect of giving free help to 



THE RED CROSS. 



the peasauts, as said by uuuiy, he tUougbt that an excuse of those who 
did not want to help. The pea*ant was never so unhappy as when cut 
of work and had nothing to do. Even a day 's idleness was tiresome to 
him, and he did not think that a people who had been worked to their 
full endurance for a generation were going to be demoralized by giWng 
them soup when they were hungry. 

Peasants were coming at all hours of the day to see the count. 
At dinner time two had been waiting several hours. The Count let 
the dinner go on, and stopped to read a long paper they had biougbt; 
read it through carefully; had a long talk with them; unfolded the 
paper again to look over passages more carefully; after further talk he 
read again, and told me after they were gone, for I remained with htm, 
that they were having a taw suit and had come to him for advice, and 
so far as be could judge, the peasants were iu the right. 

When I bade him good-bye be said, from wbat he had heard of 
Miss Barton, he fell that she must be a \'ery near relation, aud wished 
me to give her his love. 

Starting again for Nijni Novgorod we meet at Moscow Mr. Frank 
G. Carpenter, the writer and lectxircr, who accompanied us through the 
Volga and southern di.stricts. leaving Moscow in the «'cning by the 
fast express, we reached Nijni the next forenoon at ten. Here we were 
entertained by the governor. The city of Nijni Novgorod has a popu- 
lation of atK>ut sixty thousand teu months of the year; duriug the 
other two months its population is increased to six hnudred thousand. 
This extra population from the twenty -seventh of July to about the 
fifteenth of August inhabit the "dead cit)-" in which not a single 
family lives the rest of the year. Yet it contains oue of the largest and 
finest buildings in Russia, and not a match nor a cigar can be lighted 
at any time under penalty of twenty-five rubles. The "dead city" 
is built at the junction of the Oka River with the Volga, so that it ts 
yearly inundated to the ceiling of the first stories, when the spring rise 
of forty feet or more comes with the melting of the snow. Here, too, 
is located one of the largest churches of Nijni, and on the Volga side 
the Siberian wharves. 

In the living city is the residence of the governor on a clay bluff 
four hundred and seventy feet above the river, with the business part 
at the foot of the bluff adjoining the river. Nijni being in direct line 
of free river transportation as well as railway connection between St. 
Petersburg, Siberia, China, and the Caspian districts, the Caucasus, 
the oil region M southern Russia, with its wine, grain and fruit dis- 
tricts, make this city a great commercial centre. And the pulse of 



The RUSSIAN FAMINE. 



189 



fiUDine or plenty is probably felt here as soon as in any part of the 
empire. 

In the two months naiiitrd, traders from nearly every European and 
Asiatic country gather here with every variety of goods and product 
that can be carried by rail, water, or caravan : grains, hides, leather, 
teas, uietals, precious stones, fi^h, meats, cloths, silWs, peasants' worVs 
and, weavings; and the great sandbar in the river Oka of several hun- 
dred acres is covered with Siberian iron. Electricity furnishes light 
where needed, for it will be rememt>ered that it is light enough 
in this latitude to read at midnight in summer time. Here arc 
also royal quarters for the governor and State officials, whose social and 
executive residences are in the " dead city " during the entire time of 
the fair, in which time the governor is an absolute czar in power. To 
give brieily a Russian view of the famine and bow it was felt in a 
single province aud the Russian manner of dealing with it I give the 
following abridged account: 

Nijui claims to have been the Bnl provincial government of Russia 
to take active measures to relieve the sufferers by famine. The first 
news came to the governor from reports of dry weather in his province 
hi May, [S91, for the crops of the three preceding years had been 
short, and at this time the peasants had begun to ask for bread, having 
already sold a part of their horses aud tools; and only two of the eleven 
districts had sufficient bread for their people. 

Without wailing to consult the general government, in order to 
save time, the governor took the rc.*ipon.sibility upon himself of imme- 
diately purchasing one hundred and twenty-five thousand poods (a pud 
is about forty ponnds), or twenty-two hundred tons of grain, and sent 
this in the early part of June to the districts most affected by the drouth. 
He used his inBuence to stop speculation in grain, Nijni being a great 
grain centre, and formed a commission from all the districts to carry 
out n\i^ measures. It was after this that the Department of the 
Interior appropriated one million rubles ($550,000) to buy bread. 

It has been a custom in Russia that when a loan is made to the 
poorpeasants that the rich peasants of the community are held equally 
responsible for the payment ; hence ihey have fallen into the habit of 
claiming an equal apportionment whenever loans have been made for 
relief measures in times ]>ast. Thus the Zemstvo (the elective magis- 
trates of the village) have the power ia themselves to say that they had 
not ordered nor asked for the grain, and refuse to iecei\-e it for those 
really needing it. Hence the governor of Nijni ordered that only 
those rcceix-ing should be charged with the loan. 



I90 



THE RED CROSS. 



The whole loan here received was 6,350.000 rubles, all of which 
except 150.000 rubles had been distributed when we visited the 
district. 

In the nine needy districts of Nijni Noi'gorod Proinnoe there 
were 587,000 persoits needing assistance that were excluded from the 
government loon as being between the ages of Sfteen and fifty-five — 
"therefore able-bodied and able to work." The Nijni governor 
followed his judgment rather than the instructions of the Minister of 
the Interior, and seeing that this amount was insufficient and that no 
provision had been made for cattle and horses, he tried to get permission 
to begin public works in order to furnish labor and pay to those need- 
ing it; but this was not secured until December, when 3,000,000 rubles 
were appropriated for roads, 420,000 rubles for town improvements, 
40,000 for schools and churches. From eight to tea thousand men 
were given work in the woods at fifty kopeks, 27 ccuts. per day, and 
one ruble and fifty kopeks, about 77 cents, per team. 

To secure a general interest of the people the governor made every 
public commission (boards of directors, trustees, etc.), take an active 
part in the relief work. He created commissions among the nobility 
to superintend relief work, combining the Red Cross, the churches aud 
other individual orgauizatious all into one committee, so that when 
the Crown Prince's committee was formed on the twenty-eighth of 
December 541,550 nibles had been recei\*cd and distributed besides 
54,030 poods, 2,080.800 pounds, of bread which had been given 
to those who had no right to the governmental loan. 

By contributions three hundred aud thirty-one kitchens were estab- 
lished in villages, giving meals for one-half to two kopeks per meal. 
Nijni, with a living population of sixty thousand, contributed one hun- 
dred and ninety thousand rubles. Places were establi.shed in Kijoi 
when; twenty kitchen meal tickets may be purchased for one ruble. 
The citizens buy these and give to such as they desire to help^ 

From Nijni we take stcamtr down t!ic Volga, aud through the 
kindness of Mr. Zeveke, owner of the American Steamboat Line, so 
called because American names arc given to all of hLs twelve large 
RteamboatH, we are allowed time to visit each town on the Volga, as 
we poas down the river. At each place the grain has Wen received aud 
being used. At Samara we find Mr. Bezant, one of our consignees, just 
recovering from the typhus which was contracted in his relief work. 
And wc get direct reports from Count Tolstui, Junior, whose work is 
in this province farther to the east, and Prince Dolgoruhow, auoUier 
consignee in the district of Burulich; these have ten carloads of the 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 



191 



"Tyaehead's" com, and are saving the livcsof many, At this lime 
the Province of Samara alone had lost five hundred thousand cattle, as 
many horses and i ,500,000 sheep from the famine. 

At Volsk wc saw many people around the church. The bells in 
a dozen different towers all ringing; from another church a large pro- 
oessiou of a thousand people were coming, bearing on high poles 
crosses and banners and icons. They are joined by the people from 
Ihe first church, with their crosses and banners which are not raised 
till the first procession is joined, and all march in their variegated red 
and yellow and brtjjht colored dresses, with bare feet and uncovered 
beads in the broiling sun, miles away to the open fields to pray for rain, 
which has still been withheld from this section of Saratoff Province, 

The town of SaratofT has a population of 125,000, contains many 
Germans, from having been one of the German colonics founded by 
Queeu Catherine during her reign, to encourage agricultural industries. 
Here as in Volsk we found the pi:o])le in the fields praying for rain, 
and in the evening it came. Here we met Mr. Golden, an Kngli.shman, 
who has been the active agent in the Saratoff district, and Mr. Muhter, 
a German, who has btren Ihc active worker on the east side of the 
Volga in Samara Province. Both these gentlemen, together with a 
Catholic Bishop, say that the American help, both in material and 
money, came so timely that it saved thousands of lives that other- 
wise must have been lost. It came when they could get nothing from 
other sources, and their thanks to America are unbounded. The relief 
was "as if the Lord had ordered it." Of the "Tynehead's " cargo, 
Saratoff received fifty-three carloads and the Province of Samara one 
hundred and four cars. 

There was a small quantity of the com that got wet when put into 
the fthip during a rain in New York, and had begun to heat when 
unloaded. This was sent to SaratofT with a suggestion that they use it 
for their cattle, but when we reached that place the peasants had 
washed the com and dried it, and said it made very good bread. 

As a typical incident and as an expression of the universal feeling 
throughout Russia : — when we reached the platform of the station at 
Saratoff to start westward, a Russian gentleman who could speak a 
little English, and another one and his wife who could not, came to the 
train, with an attendant bearing champagne and glasses, and made a 
qieech of thanks, expressing the gratitude of the people of Russia to 
America for the heartfelt sympathy she had so beautifully expressed. 
The help she had biougbt to Iheir people in a time of distress made 
every Russian feel to want to personally express bia thanks. Wi!;hing 



19a 



THE RED CROSS. 



every 5ucce«a to its representatives, they drank to America and 
voyage. 

To sec some of the £iuatler consignments, on our way eastward 
from Saratoff we stopped at an inland station and went into the 
country some miles near Tambof, where two carloads of com had been 
con^gned. Here it was being ground in the wind-mills and made 
into the old-fashioned New England r>'e and Indian loaves and baked 
in great, brick ovens, jnst as we had found in other plnces. 

Referring back to Riga. After the last car had been scaled and the 
way-bills sent, we were speaking of the harmony and unity that existed 
iu all the dtfiereiit branches of this ndicf work, and it incidentally 
came out that the coni'.t and his family were carrying on au extensive 
system of ri-licf among the peasants in the famine district, supplying 
some thirty Wllageswith rye and com bread, obtaining their com from 
sonthcrn Russia, with soup, broth and tea for the sick and Nestle's 
food for the babies — ^the latter an experiment of his own. It was sug- 
gested that in such an extensive work as tlits he should have had some 
of the American a)rn, but he replied they could get on very well with- 
out it; that his family had taken that work upon themselves to do at 
the beginning, and would continue to do it until next August and did 
not need other help. I expressed a desire to see this work, which I 
later found w.is a fair sample uf wh-it is being so quietly done all over 
Russia that its extent is unknown until one comes upon it. And tt was 
at Michailoviski that we had the pleasure of seeing some of this work. 

Everj'whcre we found people of all classes giving their lime to the 
work of rtlief to supplement the governmental help; and this does not 
mean simply directing, superintending, or planning work for others to 
execute, but I found men giving up their own business, the attention of 
their estates, to see personally to the detail as well as the general work. 
I found cuUlvated, intelligent, refined women making their homes in 
the huts of the |>casants, where they could be nearer their work. I 
fouud countesses working in the huts of the typhus hospitals, or taking 
the sick into their own homes, giving up social enjoyments and personal 
comforts, their own plans, in order to make their work of relief more 
effective. If the official side of Russia is subject to criticism, as some- 
times claimed, surely the quiet, personal work and self-sacrifice of its 
people in this calamity is au example for any Christian land. 

Sitting at the hotel table Count George told how his conscience 
would protest against a good dinner after he had returned from his 
investigating tours in the famine district to learn the situation, as a 
member of the Grand Duke's Committee, for, " Ltie ruble spent for 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 



193 



wine and coflte would keep a peai^aal child or luulber a whole mouth. ' ' 
But he says whea he got back to St. Petersburg a few days away Irom 
the disties&ing scenes, his miud occupied with other business, it did not 
trouble him at all to cat a good fall meal just as he had done before. 

On another hand to show how suffering continues in any place 
from lack of competent oversight this incident will show. 

When going over the ground to see how the relief work had been 
done for his committee, he came to a village that was in a very bad 
condition. Many sick and dying for want of food, beoaked theZemstov 
ii a kitchen could not be established. The reply was no; there was no 
one to manage it. "But," he said, "you have a school here; the 
teacher can take charge of the kitchen." " No; he is not capable; he 
i.<i too .''low and of no account, and we intend to get rid of him as soon 
as we can get someone to take his place. There is not a person iu the 
village that could conduct a kitchen.'" The count iu his rounds came 
to the school house aud found, as he had been told, that the school- 
master did look miserable enough in an old, woru and even ragged 
coat, and learned that be had nut received his wages for some mouths; 
there was uo money to pay him. His roll showed a list of sixt}' 
pupils; there were but fifleen present. When asked where the others 
were, he replied th.^t it was so near the holiday time — only ten days — 
that he had let them go home. The count turned to one of the boys 
and asked if he had had anything to eat to-day, expecting him to say 
no; but he said yes; " he had a warm soup this morning." The same 
question lo the second boy, with the same reply; and so on with alt 
the fifteen. Whea asked where they got their soup, they said llie 
master had given it lo them, and had been doing so for some weeks. 

The master stood iu the comer with his face very red, looking very 
much ashamed. It was then learned that when the school-master fouud 
his pupils coming to school without food, he began to use the savings 
he had laid by, to feed them, until his purse would not allow him to 
continue with so large a number; and he had let all but the fifteen go, 
and he was feeding and teaching them from the savings of other year.s. 
The count said he could not pay him his wages due, but he furnished 
the village with the means for a soup kitchen, and the master was put 
in charge and conducted it in such a manner that no one thought of his 
being an incompetent manager. 

The shipping of the cargo of corn in the "Tyiiehead" lo the 
Baltic in a voyage of twenty-eight days and its distribution through 
Russia answers a ntunher of questions that were raised when the propo- 
sition to send com to Russia was contemplated. These auestionings 



THE RKD CROSS. 



came ^m business men, Khippers, boards of trade, the produce 
excb9^ge and philanthropist*, and by some it was stoutly asserted 
that coru could not bear ocean transportation that distance without 
spoiling. 

And if it should pass without spoiling, it was afiirmed they had 
no mills to grind it in Russia, that the peasant knew nothing about 
corn, that they could not change their habit of living, and therefore 
would be unable to make use of it, if received. One of the leading 
business men of the country went so far as to write that we might as 
well ship a cargo of pebbles as a cargo of uugrouud com. Hence there 
was a degree of satisfaction to see the entire cargo, with the excep- 
tion of a small quantity referred to loaded in the rain, come out of the 
ship in as good condition as when it was put in the hold, and to find 
in our jouruey in the interior that the peasants even needed uo sugges- 
tion about grinding it in their windmills, which were amply sufHcieni. 

But when the little com that had heated was sent to Samara with 
the suggestion that it be used to feed the cattle, with four additional 
days in the hot state in the cars, and this was still used by the peasants 
and called good, it removed any doubt that might be forced into one's 
mind that a star\-iug peasatit would die rather than eat a food that he 
was not accustomed to. 

Referring back to St. Peterabiu-g, after our list had been made np 
for the general distribution of the cargo. Mr. Hilton carefully went 
over it aud said, from bis personal knowledge of the people to whom 
the consignments were to be made, he would be willing to personally 
guarantee thai 80 per cent of everything sent according to the list would 
be honestly and faithfully di.stributcd, just as the donors wished, and 
lie further believed that the remaining 20 per cent would be as faithfully 
handled. 

My trip to the various places of distribution, widely separated and 
at unexpected times, confirmed Mr. Hilton's belief that the entire cargo 
cculd not have gone through better hands in auy land. 

To be able, after such observations and inquiries, to give this report 
is a satisfaction that rcpaj-s for all the anxious care and responsibility 
naturally felt with such a charge. 

To add to this, the deep gratitude expressed by nobleman and 
peasant alike, in capital or in far-away, unfrequented interior \-tlIage, 
always the same, even the humblest peasant refusing compensation for 
any service rendered an American, manifests a genuine gratitude and 
friendliness to America aud Americans which has characterized Russia 
during many years. 



RE- INCORPORATION. 



195 



THE RE-INCORPORATION OF THE AMERICAN NATIONAL 

RED CROSS. 

CbRTIFICATU op iNCORPOItATlON Ul' VUM AJIBRICAK NATIONAL RKD CROSS. 
Know nil men by these presents, that urc. Clara Burton, Julian B. Mubb«U, 
Stephen E. Barton, Peter V. DeGmw and Genrgt- Kennan. all being persons of fall 
«ge, citixenn of the Uuited States, and a majority rcsUlenU of the Uislrict of 
Coliuiibta, being de«ln>u« of forming nn association to carry on tlic henevoleut and 
humane work of " Tlie Red Cross " in accordance wilb the Articles of the Inter- 
national Treaty of Geneva, Switzerland, entered into on tbe tweuly-second day of 
August, r86.). and adopted by the Government of the United States on the &rA day 
of March, 1882, aitd also in accordance with the broader scope given to the humane 
work of said treaty by "The Aineriaui AaHUcialion of the Red Croas," and known 
as " The American Araendmen'," whereby the suffering incident to great flooOa, 
famine!), epidemics, conflagrations, cycloLes, or other disasters of national magni- 
tude, muy be ameliorated by the administering of necessary relief; and being 
desirous of continuing the noble work heretofcurc performed by " The American 
Aasociatton of the Red Cros»," incorporsted in the District of Columbia for the 
purpose of securing the adoption of the said Treaty of Ceuevu by the United States, 
fur benevolent and charitable purposes, and to co-operute with the Comite Inter- 
national dc Sccoura aux Militaitcs Ulcsscs. 

Now, therefore, for the purpose of creating ourselves, our associates and 
successors, a body politic and corporate in name and in tact, we do hereby 
associate our*elve» logrther under and by virtue of ncctionK 545, 5.16, 547, 5^8. 549 
and 550 of tbe Re\ised Slalntesof the United States relating ty the Diirtrici of 
Columbia, as amended and in force at this time ; and do make, sign and acknowl- 
edge Ibis Certificate of Incorporntion, as follows, to wit : 

Ftrst. — The name by which this association shall be known in law b: "The 
American National Red Croiu." 

Sttrnid. — The principal office of the oaaocialion shall be in the City of 
WashtDgtoQ, District of Columbia. 

Tjtfnf.— The term of Lta existence ahall be fifty years from the dateof thta 
certificate. 

Fourth. — The objects of this aaeodation shall be, in addition to the purpoaea 
act forth in the above preamble, aa follows, to wit : 

1, To gamer the store materials, articles, supplies, moneys, or property of 
whatsoever name or nature, and to maintain a systeui of national relief and admin- 
isiei the same in the mitigation of human suScring incident to war, pestilence, 
famine, flood, or other calamities. 

2. To hold itMir in readiness for communicating and co-operating with the 
Govcninicnt of the United States, or any Depiitiment thereof, or with the "Comite 
Interaalional de Sccours aux Militaires Blesses," of Geneva, Swiuerland, to the 
end that the merciful provisions of the said " Inteniatlonal Treaty of Geneva " 
may be more wisely and effectually carried out. 

5. To collect and diffiite information con«*ming the progress and application 
of ntercy, the orgauization of national relief, the advancement of sanitary science 
and the training and preparation of nurses or others occcssary io the application 
of such work. 



196 



THE RED CROSS. 



4. To cairy on aiid trau^act sny busineas, coanatcnt witb liiw, tli&t may be 
occceevry or iksirablc in the fultillmcaC of ooy or all of Uie objects and purposes 
hereinbefore wt forth. 

5. The affiiira and fund* of the corporation shall be controlled and manjigMl 
by a Boanl of Direclon, and the number of the directon for the; tintt year of the 
corporation'* existence, and until their nuceeMor&arc lawfully elected and qiuili- 
fied, is fiw, and tlieti names and addresws aie as follows, to wit: 

Clara Barton, Wasliingtoa, V. C; Pcler V. OeGraw, Washington, I). C; Dr. 
Julian 11. HnbheU, Washington, D. C; Dr. Joseph Cardocr, Bedford, lud., and 
Stephen B. Barton, Newtonville, Hau. 

Tho iiniiiesand addressca of the full membership of the association, who eilBXl 
be designated w> charter members, ate a» follows, to wit: 

Clara Barton, Wa^iiit^lon, I>. C; Hon. William Lawrence, Bcllcfoataine. 
Ohio; I'eter V. DeGraw, Washington, D. C; George Kennan, Wasliington. I>. C; 
Ur. Julian K lluhbeil, Washington, 1>. C; Colonel Kichard J. Hinton, Waatiiog- 
lou. D. C; Mr* Hcar>' V. Boynton, Washington, D. C; Rcr. Rush R. Shippen. 
Wa^tngtou, D. C. ; Rev. Alexander Kent, Washington, D. C; Rev. Williasi Mer- 
ritt Ferguson, Washington, D. C; General Edwanl W. Whitsker, Washingtoo, 
D. C.:Joseidi Iv. Holme*. Washington. D. C; Mis. I'eter V. De Graw. Washington, 
D. C; Mrs. George Kennan, Washington, Ti.C; Mrs. R. Delavan Muatey, Wadt- 
ingtun, D. C-; Mm. Omar D. Conger, Washington, L). C. ; A. S. Solomoiu, Wash* 
ington. D. C; Waller P. Phillips; New York. N. Y.; Joseph Sheldon, New Haven, 
Conn.; John H. Van Woraicr. New York. N. V.; Albert C. Phillips. New YorU. 
N. Y.: Mrs. Waller V. Phillips. New York, N. Y.; Mrs. Joseph Gardner. Bedford. 
Ind.; Dr. Joseph Gardner, Bedford, Ind.; Miss Mary E. Almon, Newport, R. 1.; 
Ur. I.ncy HalMtrown, Brooklyn, N. Y.; John H. MorUii, Bedfonl. Ind., and 
Stephen E. Barton, Ncwtonville, Man. But the corporation ahall have power to 
increaac it» membership in accordance with b>*laws to be adopted. 

In witnea whereof, we have hereto subitcribwl our names and affixed ottr 1 
In triplicate, at the City of Washington, District of Columbia, this seventeeot 
day of April, A. D. 189J. 
Wttncaa: 



STIPnK B. Barton. 

Cl^KA BASTO.V, 
J(7L1AN B. UCDSKLX, 

p. V. DeGkaw, 



Gkokcr Kennan, 
S. O. Hopkins, 
P. n. Smith, 



(Se.1.) 



1, S. G. Uupkins, a Notaty Public in and Ibrthsaaid District of Columbia, do 
hereby certify that Clara Barton, Julian B. Hubbell. Stephen E. Barton. P. V. 
DeOraw and Georip: Kennan, whose names are signed to the fonsgoiag 
annexed "Certificate of Incorpof»tio4i of the American National Red Cnsi" 
ing date of Apn! 17, .K. D. I893. personally appeared I)cforcn»e, in the said 
of Colnmbia, the Kaid Clan Barton, Jnltun B. Hubbell, Stepbm K. Barton. P. V. 
PeOraw and George Kenn.in, being perwmally well known to me aa the 
whoexccnted the said certificate, and each and all acknowledged the asme to bcl 
his, her and their act and deed for the ptirpoae Iberein mentioned. 

Given under my band and oUk'ial ami, thnaeventeenthdarof April, A. D. iS^^t. 

(SiigBcd. ) S. G. HOPXIKS, Aotaty fkblit. 



THE SEA ISUNDS HURRICANE. 



^^^ 



Coast of South Carolina. 



is prubable that Ibere are few iiislauccs oti record where 
a muvcmeiit toward relief of such maguitude, com- 
menced under circimislances so new, so unexpected, eki 
unprepared and so adverse, was ever carried on for 
such a length of time and closed with results so entirely 
satisfactory to both those served aud those serving, as this 
disaster, which, if reraemlwrcd at all at the present day, is 
designated as the "Hurricane and Tidal Wave of the Sea 
Islands off the Coast uf South Carolina." The descriptions 
of this fearful catastrophe I shall leave to tlic reports of those who 
saw, shared its dangers and lived within its tide of death. They 
will tell how from 3,000 to 5,000 human Ix'ings (for no one knew the 
number) went down in a night; how in the blackness of despair they 
clang to the swaying tree lops till ihe roots gave way, and together 
they were covered in the sands or washed out to the reckless billows 
of the great mad ocean that had sent for them; of the want, woe 
and nothingness that the ensuing days revealed when the winds 
were hushed, the waters stilled aud the frightened sur\'tvors began 
to look for the lost home and the loved ones, and hunger presaged , 
the gaunt figure of famine that silently drew near and stared 
them in the face. How, with all vegetable growth destroyed, all 
animals, even to fowls, swept away, all fresh w*ater turned to salt 
— not even a sweet well remaining — not one little house in five hun- 
dred left upright, if left at all; the victims with the clothing torn 
and washed off them, till they were more nearly naked than clothed 
— how these 30,000 people patiently stood and faced this silent second 
messenger of death threatening them hour by hour. Largely igno- 
rant, knowing nothing of the world, with no real dependencies upon 
any section of its people, they could only wait its charity, its pity, 
its rescue and its care — wait and pray — does anyone who knows the 
negro characteristics and attributes doubt this latter f Surely, ii 



r,^ 



THE RED CROSS. 



angels do listen, the>- heard pleading enough in those honrs of 
to save even the last man and woman and the helpless babe, Some- 
tfaing saved them, for there is no record of one who died of star- 
vation or perished through lack of care. 

I have promised to leave these descriptions to those who saw. I 
will also leave the descriptions of the work of relief done at the field 
to those who so faithfully performed it, the members of my working 
staS and the volunteer workers of other fields who came to their sssist- 
auce on this. 

I place here the more important of the reporti made to toe at the 
time, but which have until now remained under seal, no general report of 
thai field having been made. The main interest of these reports will 
consist in showing the methods of work adopted, not only to prcser^'c 
so many people in life with so small means as wc had at hand, but to 
preserve them as well from habits of begging and conditions of 
pauperism: to teach them self-depeudence, economy, thrift; how to 
provide for themselves and agaiu,st future want, and help to fit them 
for the citizenship which, wisely or unwisely, we had endowed them 
with. I will then, with the reader's kind permission, simply show 
the open doorway through which we were called to enter th.it field and 
introduce the nationally renowned advocates and escorts who personally 
conducted us and placed its work in our hands. 

About the twenty-eighth or tweuty-ninth of August, 1893. th< 
press commenced to give notice, such as it could get over wrecks 
roads and broken wires, of a fearful storm coming up from the West 
Indies that bad struck our coast in the region of South Carolinapi 
sweeping entirely over its adjacent range of islands, known as the Old - 
Port Ro>-al group, covering them from the sea to a depth of sixteen 
feet, with the wind at a rate of one hundred and twenty miles an honi 
— tliat its destructive power was so great that it had not only swept 
the islands, but had extended several miles onto tlie mainland of the 
State. 

I chanced to be familiar with the geography and topography 
that group of islands, having lived on them in the capacity of 
relief mauy months during the siege of Charleston in 1863-64. Know- 
ing that they scarcely averaged four feet rise above the sea level, with 
no mountains, not even hills that could be called such, that the soft," 
sandy soil could not be trusted to hold its tree roots firm, that the 
habitations were only huts, to be washed away like little piles of 
boards — I thought I saw no escape for the inhabitants and that alt 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



30 1 



must have perished; and so replied to all inquiries at Brst made as to 
whether this were not a. disaster for the Red Cross to relie\'e, "No, 
there was nothing left to relieve." Later and more reliable news 
brought the astonishing fact that it was estimated that from thirty to 
forty thousand had sur\nvcd and were in the direst need. Was not 
this a call for the Red Cross? Still more emphatically, "No; if that 
i.-; the case, it is beyond the Red Cross. Only the State of South Caro- 
lina or the general government can cope with that;" aud again we 
closed our ears and proceeded with our work. 

liut the first week of September brouglit pitiful paragraphs from 
various Southern sources— one I recall from the governor of the State, 
in which he proclaimed his perplexity and great distress at the condi- 
tion of these poor people, needing everything, and who, at that season 
of the year, with crops all destroyed, would continue to need; and 
cluicd by wonderiug "if the Red Cross could perhaps do anything for 
them." 

It would uot do to close our ears or eyes against this suggestion, 
and I at once sought our congressional neighbor. General M. C 
Butler, of South Carolina, then in the Senate, now on the Cuban Com- 
mission, asking his views. The response was such as would uot have 
been looked for in that busy, hard-worked Senator, surrounded by a 
network of political wires, some of Ihera only too likely to be "live;" 
be dropped all business, telegraphed at once to Governor Tillman at 
Cohimbia to Icarn the conditions and urgently requested us to go, and 
he would even leave his seat and gn with tis as soon as we could be 
ready. Time is never a question with the Red Cross, and the next 
night, in a dark cheerless September mist, with only two assistants, I 
closed a door behind me for ten months, went to the station to 
meet General Bntler, prompt and kind, and proceeded on our way. 
At Cohimbia we were joyfully surprised at meeting Governor Tillman, 
prepared to accompany us, with a member of his staff, and thus power- 
fully reinforced we made our entrance into Beaufort. 

The work of relief had been wisely placed at first in the hands 
of committees from both Beaufort and Charleston, comprising the best 
business men of each city-— its lawyers, merchanbt, bankers, all men 
of prominence and known practical ability. They had done and were 
doing all possible for them to do, with hearts full of pity, bands full 
of work, themselves large losers by the storm, business nearly 
Wrecked, and needing every remaining energy for the repairing of 
their owii damages and those of the citizens about them. 



303 



THE RED CROSS. 



The governor, at whose request they bad fonned, realizing the 
necessities of the case, sought to release them, calling them together 
in each city and successively relieving them, placing the Red Cross in 
full charge of the relief. With the little knowledge we had of the 
conditions and surroundings, it would have been maduess to accept, aC 
least until both more knowledge and more numerical force were 
gained, and the refusal was as prompt as the proffer had beeo. We 
however promised to remain in Beaufort, meet with the committee 
each day, advise with them, study the situation and report our con- 
clusions when we could safely arrive at them. 

Thus we remained until the first day of October, when, realizing 
that the relief coming in from outside would soon diminish, as the 
excitement should wear away, that the sum in hand was painfully 
small, that the number of destitute was steadily increasing, that the 
winter was approaching and they must be carried through iu some 
mamier till the next year's crops could grow; and that, in order to do 
this a fixed system of relief must be adopted, a rigid economy enforced 
aud every person who could do so must be made to work for his food 
aud receive food and raiment ouly in return for labor; that this could 
only come from persous who had no interests but these to subserve 
aud with the light of all experience that could be called to the task. 
Eveu theu a successful result was questionable; but there was uo 
question oE the fatal result of any other course, and after a thoughtful 
council of our oflicial board (which had meanwhile become nearly filled) 
on the night of tiepteuiber lliirtleth it was decided that the Red Cross 
would accept the appointment of the governor and enter upon i 
duties the following day. 

Accordingly, at the meeting of the uext day, October i, 4 p. n., 
the Beaufort Relief Commission, as appointed by the governor, was 
formally released as a committee and immediately re-elected by tlie 
Red Cross as its "advisory board," to meet and advise with us as we 
bad done with them. 

Through all these years the tenderness springs to my heart and 
gathers in my eyes as I recall the kindly and affectionate intercourse 
of months, without one break, that grew up between us. And 
although some have been called to higher service and greener fields, I 
am confident that none of us will ever seek on this side a better, more 
tnutcd, kindlier association than were found in these. 

I desire to supplement the foregoing allusions to the storm by the 
full and ably rendered account of commodore, now admiral, Beardslee, 



4 






THE SKA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 205 

then iu commaad of the naval forces of that section, with head- 
quarters at Paris Island. The admiral and his charming wife wem 
our neighbors, aud most efficient helpers through all our work: 

Al>llIRAI, BRARDSI.1;k'S DKSCRtPTtON OF THK HtmKICANS. 

Mrs. Beardslee and I were participators in the events and shared 
tbe dangers brought to the iuhabitauls of the Sea Islands of South 
Carolina by the terrific West India hurricane, with accompany iug 
tidal wave, which desolated those unfortunate islands in Augu&t, 181^3. 

Since our recent return and while on the journey, and at New 
York, friends whom we have met, anii new acquaintances, have almost 
universally exhibited much interest iu the description of the situation 
of affairs ou those islands, before, during and after tbe storm, and to 
many the simple details which were to us hut household words, 
brought the first realizing sense of tbe magnitude of the calamity. 
• ««•«• 

Miss Clara Barton, the president of the American branch of the 
International Organization of the Red Cross, who has the manage- 
ment of contributions and of the dispensing of aid among the Sea 
Islands now, and had occupied a similar position at Johnstown, made 
us ber agents to dispense on one of the islands, where weekly we 
feed over four hundred persons, and I know we are but doing as she 
would wish, iu continuing so to act, during our brief respite from our 
work. 

Therefore I most cheerfully comply with the request, and trust 
that my eflorta to interest and revive interest will not be in vain. 

G£OGRAPBY OP THB COAST. 

I will premise with a bit of geography : The coast of South Caro- 
lina Is bordered for over a hundred and fifty miles by an archipelago 
consisting of hundreds of islands and islets from a hundred square 
miles to as many yards in area. These arc nearly all well wooded 
with pine, oak, magnolia and gum trees. Many of them consist 
largely of arable land, which, iK'fore the war of the rebellion, was 
divided by hedges into great plantations, whereon the rich planters, 
aided by their hundreds of slaves, cultivated, l>cstdes vegetables of all 
kinds, the famous long staple "Sea Island cotton." The islands are 
separated from each other and from tbe main land by arms of the sea. 



504 



THE RED CROSS. 



bere called rivers, or creeks, accordiag to their width and depth, some, 
as Beaufort, Broad and Coosaw rivers, from oae to three miles iu 
width and thirty feet in depUi. and others, which, at low tide, are but 
marshes, with a thread of water. 

After the Waiu 



After the war the large plantations were subdivided into 6ve, ten 
and twenty-acre farms, which were by the government distributed 
among the "heads of families," generally of the slaves who were left on 
them, and these negroes, with their descendants, still occupy these 
farms, living in comfortable cabins, each plantation having its own 
hamlet or colony. After the first shock of change was over, these 
negroes developed into orderly, industrious, thriving Christian com- 
munities. Each farm was thorongfaly cultivated, and there was 
produced every year good crops of potatoes, sweet and Irish, peas, 
com, melons and one or two bales of cotton, which, mortgaged to the 
local storekeciKT, generally a white man, furnished them with groce- 
ries. All raiticd and ownetl horses, mules, hogs, cattle, turkeys, 
domestic fowls and ducks. All were owners of one or more buggies, 
carts, plows and other agricultural implements, and those who lived 
near the sea owned one or more boats, with outfit of nets and fi.<>hing 
gear, and from spring until winter the sea yielded abundant harvest 
of good fish, tnrtlcs. crabs, shrimps, prawns, clams and 03-sters, and 
the marshes fnmishetl terrapin, which sold at very remunerative figures, 
as I well know, for the storm took from me nearly three hundred of 
them. Every cabin was comfortable, from their point of view, fur- 
nished, and in many were sewing machines, house organs and 
melodeous, and for every member of the family, however slightly 
attired ou week days, a fine, often gorgeous, suit of Sunday clothes — 
and they are all church-goers. 

The great bam-like structures that the>' build for churches are 
presided o%'er by preachers of their own race — "reverence doctor" is 
the title — and are crowded. They have also smaller places of worship, 
called "praise booses," where they assemble ouce or twice a week in 
the e\'ening to indulge in "shouting" a mingled prayer. lesfMXidiD^ 
singing, and when "spirit dun come pow'ful," a wild, waltzing sort 
of a dance, soch as I have seen in Africa. They have schools which 
truopsof weU-dresscd children attend daily. There are lots of children, 
and bat a very snail portion of tboae under twenty have not qmte a fair 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



?o5 



common school education. Said an old aunty to a lady friend of mine: 
*'Has yer children, honey?" "Yes, aunty. I have three boys and one 
girl." "Is dat all?" "Yes, isn't it enough?" "Daf s as the Lord 
wills, honey: to some He sends little litters aud to some big ones. I'se 
got thirteen head and I'se dun loss four head." 

Twa Disastrous Storm. 



The climate is perfect, very little labor produces good results, and 
I think that without going more into detail you will all admit that 
the Sea Islanders were - happy, contented, vwry comfortably fixed set 
of people. So it was »» the going down of the sun on the twenty- 
seventh day of August, 1893. When the sun rose the next nioniitig, 
hundreds of those cabi"- had been bwcpt from the earth, with all they 
contained. Over thirtv thousand of those i^eople were homekss^ 
clotheless, fwidluss. with no resources. Over eight hundred were dead 
(the figures are from actual census). A hurricane on its way from the 
Gtilf of Mexico to the north had swervctl somewhat from the usual 
course of these storms, its centre, instead of following the Gulf Stream, 
had come in over the laud, and the great uprising of the surface of the 
sea. which always occurs at the calm centre of these storms, caused by 
the Sow atmospheric pressure, as shown by low barometer, had, instead 
of dissipating itself on the surrounding ocean, inundated our islands 
to depths varying from one to ten feet according to the height of the 
land, the average height of the tidal wave, above high water, being 
about seven feet. Thus the surface of each island was a sea, and 
driven by the tremendous force of the wind over a hundred miles per 
hour, as recorded at Charleston, north of us, aud at Savannah, south, 
into death. dealing waves. 

The houses, all built on posts two to four feet above ground, came 
down like card houses. Some collapsed and crushed their inmates on 
the spot; others went drifting off with men, women and children 
clinging to them, until falling to pieces they dropped their living 
freight into etemit)*. Some escaped by seeking shelter amid the 
branches of the giant pines and oaks; some were so saved, but others 
bad but found death traps, for yielding to the force of the wind, many 
were thrashet) to death by the whipping branches, or knocked ofi into 
the raging sea below. And among the thousands of these trees which 
were uprooted, or twisted off, were many on whose branches people 
were dinging. I knew nothing of what was occurring on other islands 



3o6 



THE RKn CROSS, 



than the one we were dwelling on, Paris Island, where T a« In com- 
mand of the uaval station ; for, deprived of every means of comniunica- 
tion with the outer world by the destruction of all railroads and sleam- 
era that connected with us. telegraph and telephone lines down, and 
all of my boats either sunk or wrecked, our own affairs had my entire 
time and attention, 

A Work of RKsctm. 



1 have been a sailor for forty-6ve years, and as such have battled 
with many tempests, but on my own ship, with plentj- of sea room. I 
have known what to do to increase safety and lessen danger. But in 
this case I was nearly helpless. Fortunately I alone knew this, for [ 
was now surrounded by those who looked to me for help. I was forced 
to "keep a stitT upper lip." but the task was not a slight one. My 
house is a two-story frame, built on brick piers, about sixt>%rods from 
the beach. Between it and the water were six negro cabins and two 
quite large houses. Shortly after sunset the weaker of them suc- 
cumbed, but the tide was not yet so high but that my men succeeded 
in s.iving from the wrecks the women and children, all of whom were 
carried first to the largest of the two houses. About 1 1 p. m. the tide 
Was at its height, and there came driving onto my lanii and under my 
house great timbers, wrecks of houses, wharves, and boats, and fortu- 
nately a large flat boat, called a lighter. Some of the braver of my 
men captured this boat by plunging in up to their necks and pushed 
and pulled it to Uie house where the rcfug<.'es had gathered, at which 
the screams told us there was trouble. They got there just in time to 
rescue about fifty and brought them tu my bouse. 

During all this time the rain was falling in torrents and every 
person was soaked through, and as the wind was from the northeast, 
the rain was cold, and tliey were chilled through. An attempt to get 
up a fire io my kitchen stove disclosed the fact that my woodslied was 
gone and there was no wood. Some empty packing boxes in the 
garret were utilized; then a big pot was put on to make coffee. We 
then found that excepting in a few pitchers there was no fresh water. 
My cistern had been overflowed by the sea. Fifty men were put to 
bailing and pumping, and weather boards from my shed and ser\'ants* 
quarters were <iiiickly extemporized into gutters and pipes — then the 
rain pro\'ed a blessing, and we were saved from water famine. But 
there were chances of a food famine. My storerooms and those of my 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



ao7 



only white neightwr, the civil engineer of the station, held all of the 
food on the island, and there were htiudreds to feed. Fortunately it 
was Sunday. Saturday is our marketing day, and we had a week's 
supply under ordinary circumstances, but with such a lot of boarders 
we had to handle it very sparingly. 



Thr Next Day. 

By daylight the storm had modi6ed and the sea subsided. Then 
came work. , First of all my mules and carts were started with search 
parties for drowned people. Before night there were nine such laid 
out in my coal shed- To those we gave Christian burial, but to twelve 
others found during the next forty -eight hours, guided by the buzzards 
that had begun their feasts, we for sanitary reasons had to treat them 
as we did the many carcasses of ajiim&h, bury them at once where we 
fouud them. On the second day I captured a passing sailboat, one of 
the vca-y few left, and obtained from Port Royal a big load of provi- 
sions, with which I slartetl a store, paying the big gang of laborers 
that I had employed with checks on thc^ store, where food was 
funiished at cost. 

Red Cross to thh RKSCtJE. 

On the fifth there came to ns a great blessing. The Red Craw 
Association bad been appealed to and had responded. Miss 
Barton, its president with her staff of physicians, nurses and other 
trained people, came, investigated and took charge of us, and under 
their sj-stcmatic, business-like methods, taught them by much ex- 
perience in many great calamities, are now keepiug, and will keep, 
as long as the good people of the country will furnish the means, 
starvation away from this miserable mass of humanity. 

It may be that iu this favored part of the country, where cyclones 
and earthquakes do not occur, many of your readers know little of this 
organization. I will tell them a little and close. During our war, 
in 1863, a congress composed of representatives of the leading nations 
of Europe met at Geneva, Switzerland, its object being to make such 
international rules as would tend to lessen the horrors of war and alle- 
viate the suffering. The United States was invited to participate, and 
Miss Clara Barton, a woman even then well known for her career ol 
charitable deeds, and for her abilities, was afterward selected to bring 
in the United States to the treaty. Miss Barton secured for the United 



aoB 



THE RED CROSS. 



States the privilege of adding to its war relief tl.at of sufferings from 
storms, earthquakes, floods and other culiitnilies due to natural causes. 
This addition is known as the American amendment. An American 
branch was formed, of which Miss Barton was elected president. She 
has a large and able corps of ex]>ericnced assistants scattered through- 
out the Union, ready to respond at once to lier call and hurr>- to place 
their services, free of cost, at her disposal. This corpsof helpers take 
nothing for granted; they investigate for themselves and learn accu- 
rately just who need help, and how much, and what kind. Books are 
kept, and every penny or penny's worth accounted for. The Red 
Cross does not, as a Iwjdy, give charity — it dispenses intelligently that 
of others. The bo<Iy is your and ray agent to see that what we choose 
to give shall be honestly and inteUigently put where it will do the 
most good. Its members, from principle, do not beg. It is their busi- 
ness to present facts to the public and let every man, woman and child 
act oil his or her unbiased judgment. She has done me the honor to 
accept my service as an amateur. I am not quite so stricUy bound by 
the rules as arc the members, therefore if atiyone detects a little ten- 
dency to beg in this article it is my fault, not that of the Red Cross. 

Presknt Hradquakters. 

At this present time Miss Barton has her headquarters in Beau- 
fort, where she has chartered a large warehouse, over which she and 
her staff tamp out, living, although I am told she is well off, in the 
plainest of .styles. Her desk is a dry goods bos, with s homemade 
drawer; bcr bed, a cot. Her agents are distributed on the various 
islands, living in negro cabins and tents. The Red Cros.s flag floats in 
their midst, and the food, clothing and other articles are served to the 
crowds of nejjroes, and trained nurscsand physicians are caring forihe 
sick and wounded. Hundreds of men are labtiring digging drains to 
get clear of the brackish swamp water left by the mingling of sea water 
and rain, building bouses and bonis for the helpless, and the colored 
women, made beggars by the storm, have lieen organized into .sewing 
societies, which repair all ragged garmeuts sent, turn ticking into 
mattress covers, homespnn into garments. 



DKTAii. OP THE Work. 

There is now being served out, once a week, the following rations, 
which is all that her stock of stores allows: To a family of seven 



THH SEA ISLANDS HURRICANK. 



209 



persons for oiie week, one peck of hominy, one pound of pork. To those 
who work for the community, double the above. To sick people, a 
small portion of tea or coilee, sugar and bread. She would gladly 
double ur quadruple this allowance, but she has not the material. 

Thus it .stands. There are 30,000 American citizens who must be 
almost entirely .supported by charity until they get a spring crop in 
April or May. Unless they are furnished with food they will starve, 
without bedding they will die from exposure; without medicines, of 
fever. Everything not perishable is needed, especially money to buy 
lumber, nails, bricks and hardware to rebuild the houses, cast-off and 
warm clothing, cooking utensils, pans, pots, spoons, etc. Most of the 
express companies send free all articles directed to : 

Hiss Claba Baktoh, 
President Rtd CroiS Association, Beaufort, S. C. 
Por storm sufTcrcT!!. 

White Suppbrbrs. 



Id response to further inquiries Admiral Beardslec ftiniishes us 
the following: 

There is a very small population of whites living on the Sea 
lalands, and of them tlio greater number arc storekeepers, supplying 
the negroes and taking mortgages on their growing crops, principally 
the cotton. As nearly all of the crops, including the cotton, which 
was nearly ready for picking, were ruined, these storekeepers, in 
addition to great direct loss by the Hood, which swept away their 
storehouses, have lost largely by unrecoverable debts, thus they are 
not able to do much toward the relief of the sufferers. • • • Among 
the sufferers there arc a few white families, generally descendants of 
the old-time planters, who. having recovered by purchase small por- 
tions of their family property, have made their living by hard work 
as farmers and truck growers. They are, in some cases, reduced to 
abject poverty. 

The merchants of the city of Beaufort lost heavily. Most of the 
principal stores were on Bay street, their storehouse:s stretching out on 
the wharf. All of these with the back buildings on them were swept 
away, and the merchants are not in position to give much help. 
Nearly all of the old Southeni families were impoverished by the war 
and caa do little, and that little is to a great extent very naturally 



3IO TEEE RBD CROSS. 

bestowed upon the negroes and their descendants^ iriio vcre at 
time their slaves. 

What is Needkd. 

The State of South Carolina is poor, one of its greatest soorces of 
revenue, the phosphate business, which paid in royalties nearly f6oo 
per day into its treasury, and expended thousands of dollars weekly, 
in payment of labor, was badly crippled and temporarily, at least. 
ruined. All of the dredges, lighters and most of the tugs and many of 
the "mines, " the great establishments where the pho^hate rock is 
dried, crushed and prepared for export, were destroyed. * * * * 

While anything or everything eatable, wearable or usable in any 
shape will do good, I would suggest as most valuable, money with 
which to buy lumber and hardware to rebuild houses, and food, hard 
bread, hominy, pork and cheap groceries, warm cast-off dothing, thick 
underclothing, cooking utensils, such as frying pans, tea kettles, pots, 
pans, etc, second hand as good as any, and children's clothing, of 
which but a limited supply has been received. 

There will be no necessity to mend up clothing, the sewing 
societies will do that and prepare for use bedticking, homespun and 
cloth of all kinds. 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



211 



RELIEF WORK SOUTH OF BROAD RIVER. 

Next to the account of Admiral Bcardslee. I desire to place that of 
Mr. johu MacUouald, wbo, from having faced death in the rigging of 
the ill-fated "Savannah" for three days, enduring every privation aud 
danger thai could be endured, still lived to come to us, and to generously 
volunteer his services to the Red Cross as one knowing how to feel lor 
those with whom he had suffered in common. After a visit to the 
northern end of the islands, aud a full verbal report to us of their con- 
ditions and needs, he went in a like capacity to the southern end, aud 
finding less likelihood of other assistance there, decided to take this 
as his field and accordingly made headquarters at Hilton Head, where 
he did most efficient and praiseworthy work, drawing from the supplies 
at Beaufort such as could be spared from the needs of the other hun- 
dreds of distributing points. 

The work of Mr. MacDouald and his capable wife (for he married 
while there Miss Ida Battell, a charming trained nurse from Mil- 
waukee) was intelligent and comprehensive to an uncommon degree, 
not only relieving the colore<l population of the entire island, but 
raising them to a higher degree of industrial intelligence and self- 
help than they had ever dreamed of. I desire to tender in behalf of 
friendless humanity my grateful tribute of thanks to Mr. aud Mrs. 
MacDonald for faithful and efficient service. 

Report by Mb. McDonald. 



On the night of August 27, 1893, while en route from Boston to 
Savannah on the steamer "Cityof Savannah," the terrible devastating 
cyclone, which swept over tlie Sea Island Coast of South Carolina, was 
experienced by me tn all iLs awfulness, terminating in the wreck and 
complete break up of that magnificent ship, and the terrible suffering 
and endurance of three days lashed to the rigging, without food or 
water and facing and hourly expecting deatli. Where could help ccmc 
from? All the boats and ships in these waters had probably met the 
same fate as ours, All hope of help from nearby was abandoned, and 
our eyes were fastened on the North with anxious watchfulness. On 
the third night, when all hope bad dic<l out, in the darkness shot up 



313 



THE RED CROSS. 



a bright signal light— the last we had on board — and in a few moments 
another light shot out into the sky about two miles away; our cry for 
help was answered! Out of the North came help to us. and after the 
perilous work of rowing from one ship to the otlier, trip after trip, 
through breakers and high-running seas, we were saved and carried 
into port. 

On arriving in Savannah and seeing from the papers, as the re- 
ports slowly came in, the awful wreckage which had been wrought on 
the islands, my sympathies were naturally aroused, for who could 
better know what these people must have passed through? When, a 
few days later.the call was issued (or the Red Cross to assume control of 
the relief work, I abandoned the plans which had brought me South 
and joined Miss Barton's forces. 

A first inspection of the devastated district was appalling, and 
even as the scenes of distress, sickness and destitution became more 
familiar, its sadness did not wear away. Here were pretty islands, 
where, a few days before, cotton had been in its full luxuriance, corn 
almost ready for harvesting waving in the breeze, a bounteous harvest 
smiling in the faces of a contented people, their little homes intact and 
comfortable and each one congratulating himself and each other on a 
prosperous season as the fruits of their labors. Yes, prosperous, for 
to these colored people, whose needs are small, whose ambition 
receives no stimnhis, fifty or sixty bushels of com is a bounteous har- 
vest. But the stom; came! 

In a few hours neat cottages were a heap of ruins, scattered jwr- 
haps miles away ; giant trees lay across the roads, twisted and knotted 
into almost impossible shapes; corn and cotton gone, and human 
beings — missing. Roads flooded with water, almost impas.sable, but 
still alive with people — here a mother looking for her children, a 
husband for his wife, children for their parents. There in the marsh, 
a dark object is seen lying prostrate. Onward they push, waist deep 
in water and mud, till they grasp the inanimate object, and after a 
moment's silence a piercing wail announces anoUier loved one found, 
dead. Go with them as they carry their dead home. Home! where 
is it? Gone I 

A few boards or branches of trees have been put together, tent 
fashion, covered with com stalks and mud, and into this the family 
crowd, wet (tor it rained incessantly nearly two weeks after the storm), 
hungry, sick, ragged and helpless, unable to think or act for them- 
selves, dazed by the calamity which Lad befallen them; they looked 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



ai3 



around for, some hand to lead them out of their pitiable conditioD, 
but everywhere the same wreckage and destitution faced them. Bat 
where should they looL? 

As we on the wreck amidst the breakers looked northward, so 
these people cast their eyes thither and sent out a plea for help. 
Hoping against hope, they lingered on, until, when everything seemed 
darkest, a gleam of light shot out of the Northern sky and help came 
qnickly; they were saved from star\'ation. They grasped at the 
finger of help extended to them, as a drowning man at a straw, 
and with a supreme effort dragged themselves nut of a listless, 
apathetic condition and endeavored ont of chaos to bring order. With 
such a vast territory, and so many thousands of destitute people to 
care for, the task of systematizing the work was a heavy one. It 
was. however, divided into districts, and each willing helper entered 
on his labor with very little to encourage him, but with obstacles 
innumerable. How to get from island to island — boats all wrecked; 
how to get supplies to them; how to pick out the most needy cases to 
serve first when all were needy and the supplies scanty. The steam 
launch from the United States navy-yard was placed at my service aud 
provisioned for a week. 

I started out to the district assigned me, comprising the fallowing 
oamed islands: Hiltou Head, Pinkuey, Harry Young, Savage, Hunt- 
ing, Bull's, Spring, Barataria and Dawfuskie, with Bluffton on the 
mainland south of Broad River, a treacherous stream, four miles wide, 
which received the full fury of the Atlantic and renders navigation by 
small craft hazardous. To prevent as far as possible any imposition on 
the part of applicants for relief, who were not in absolute necessity, I 
made my inspection from house to house, going into their com cribs and 
estimating from their supply on hand how long they could^^xij/without 
as-iistancc. The condition of their houses, clothing and sickness in 
their families was also carefully noted. The stagnant water lying 
on the land, with no outlet, the hot sun, beating down on decaying 
animal and vegetable matter, the drinking water all polluted, had 
caused malaria in its wor.st form to be general amongst the people. 
With my medicine case constantly with me, scantily provided with 
quinine and other simple remedies, I relieved the cases as I met them, 
sending the worst cases to Beaufort, where they could be attended to by 
one of the doctors on the staff of the Red Cross located at headquarters. 

After examining some three hundred families on Hilton Head 
Island, after driving from one end of the island to the other — 



»=•» 



THE KSD CSOSSL 



aUe-bodicd 



t ft« < n miles — and bezDgaeta 

docripciaa. £roai jonac and old, feonx finso^ tw iflTij 
■n to weak, toctering old aadcs and aBsbes^ I *''Wf'^rh^ Aa 
aott oc nlici, w ithmi t i t<ti u n By aooie mnt nan tboae able to 
woold he dcmoraliznig, and. act as an tnoentiTc to people ootsule to 
flof^ to tbe falaDda. daimii^ awOTTaiirr What wofk Aoald be 
orxaBDEed was the next q a ts t i o i Tbere wen no dhdies on the 
tf^™f« Those whicli had faeea dog in ante-beflnra tines had become 
filled np. Had there bees maj outlet or dntiaace at aay deKripdoo. 
ao that the watcn coeUd ha*c nm off the hnd, tbe loas of crofia «oase- 
qoent on the heaty rains -arhkb IbHowed tibe storm mmld not hare 
been 90 auiuiUL I thertlore pen those who wcte able to work dig^ng 
ditches, those refanng towork I refused aaw is tanc e. The result of this 
was that a total leo^ith of about tfatrty-seren miles of ditches, varying 
from two to fcKxr £eet wide and from two to six feet deep, vrere dog. The 
benefit of this work was a pp aren t dnrii^ the **mint^r and faU foUow- 
tng, which was an ontisaally aret seasoai, and in the bottom lands, bat 
for these ditches, the crops would hare been Innndated. As it was. 
cxceptiooally good crops were prodoced, tbe health of the island was 
improired and a large area of otherwise waste land was reclaimed and 
rendered ti Liable. 

After visiiing my district I cooduded to make Hilton Head my 
headquarters. There was no boildiDg available so tents had to be 
fanmght 0¥er for our use as storage, hospital, sewiag and living 
aocoammdatioas. Whzl willing bands to help make our camp com- 
fortablel Some making cupboards, desks, stools, benches, bedsteads, 
out of old ^racking boxes, some gathering moss to lay on tbe floor as a 
carpet, aad bnally unfurliug the Red Cross flag to the breeze and we 
were established. To simplify tbe work of issuing supplies weekly, I 
gave each family a card. On this I marked cverj-thing to be issued 
and each issue was crossed off, preventing it being presented tnice in 
one week. It also enabled tbe old and sick to send by diildren or any 
one else, and receive the supplies without coming themsdves. 

How shall 1 describe our daily work? No r^^tar hours, no rou' 
tine, no system apparently, and yet everything went along in the 
twcnt>*-fonr hours of duty as smoothly as possible. No regnlar hours? 
No; unless from sunrise to sunrise may be counted regular. No 
routine — no .system? No; unless attending to everything as soon as 
it presented itself may be called system. At daylight the applicants 
would be around the tents waiting to see "Mr. Red Cross^" and from 



4 



« 



« 



THE SEA ISLANDS HITRRTCANE. 



ai5 



then on. a steady stream of people, some sick, wanting medicine; 
some hungr>', wanting food; some ragged, wanting clothes; some 
loafers, wanting anything they could get. As soon as this stream 
could be stemmed, and a little breakfast eaten hastily, came visits to the 
sick who were unable to come to us; and in all sorts and conditions of 
vehicles, from a shaky cart with au ox as motive power, to a roadcart 
behind a mnle, we went wherever we were called. On returning to 
camp, deputations of applicants iiom other islands would be in waiting, 
and while eating dinner, these would be attended to. After this the 
men working on the ditches would be visited. When it became dark 
and everyone had gone home, we would visit our hospital teuts, make 
patients comfortable for the night, and retire to our own teuts, hoping 
to sleep, hoping against hope, for "the poor ye have always with you:" 
ftud this case was no exception, for at all hours of the night we were 
called out to go anywhere from one to sik or se\'ea miles, to attend 
someone who was sick or dying. In the midst of this Avork visits had 
to be paid periodically to the other islands in my district (where I had 
local committees to look after the distribution of supplies) often taking 
up two or three days. Aud what a scene of bustle our camp presented 
every Friday when the supplies came ! Thirty or forty carts in line 
at the landing — the boat arrives — all haiid-s help unload, and then load 
the carts, the numljcr of sacks or boxes in each cart being marked 
down against the driver, and away they go to the camp, three miles 
away. As s<xin as they arrive, the crowd of watting recipients hand 
in their cards, and as they are called in one by one, their b.igs ready 
opened, the "weekly ration" is quickly measured, dropped in, the 
card returned marked, and away they go. While all this is being 
done, a flotilla of smalt boats from the other islands in the district, is 
at the landing, and as each "captain" presents his order issued by 
me, my storekeeper gives him the supply for his Island, and away he 
goes home, to enact the same scene with cards and empty bags and 
hungry people. Nor was this all. Houses must be built, lumber and 
nails measured and distributed (tents being provided for the houseless 
temporarily). Those whose houses were not damaged were required to 
help others rebuild. Their clothing had to be brought over, repaired and 
distributed. How this was done is shown in Mrs. Macdonald's report. 

This seems very simple to write about now after a year's lapse of 
time, but it does not convey to the mind of the reader the constant 
anxiety resting on the mind of the Red Cross officer, with, as I had, 
2,554 people tu absolute need of all the necessaries of life ; separated 



4i6 



THE RED CROSS. 



from BesnioR. the : 



fram vbich I had to dnw oil my supplies, by 



Bn»d Rncr, with the majoritjr of the boats in this district rendered 
helples by tbc sLonn — it «asa matter ctf coostaDt anxiecrbow I sboald 
get my weekly aop{£es Car tins large immfaer of people, scattered orcr 
K> Urge a temtory, with so many riTers to cross. If the supplies were 
not here oo time, think o( these people having to tramp home etn'pty- 
haoded lo hnngry diildren, whocoold not understand thai " it was too 
roagh to cross firaad River." With thii difficulty coostanlly be&ice 
DC, it is a saiis&ction cow to pat on record the self-sacrificing seal of 
one ooSorcd man on Hilton Head Istand — Bco Green — wbo j^aced his 
boat and the services of himself and men at my disposal end, witboot 
fee or reward of any kind, for se\-eral months, during good and bad 
weather, brought o^'cr the Urge amount of supplies required for this 
district. Another anxiety was. whether, wbcu the boat went to 
Beaufort, KufBdeni supplies would be on hand to satisfy the demands 
of all the districts, or whether I should be put on "half rations." 
Amid all this anxiety, tbere were occasiooal gleams of sunshine Co 
cheer us in oui arduous work. as. when I received from Miss Sarah S. 
Monroe, of 13 W. Ninth street, Xen- Vork, two boxes of delicaocs for 
the sick, and, after Mrs. Hacdonald bad cooked beef tea, com starch, 
etc., and sent it round b}* little girls to the old and sick, how tbey 
wonld " tank de good Lawd fer sendin' de buckra to look aflcr us po* 
cuU'd folks; " how the name of "Miss Cla* Ba'Lou" was ou e\'ery- 
body's tongue, the infant girls named Clara Barton and the boys 
'Red Cross." The sdf-appointed "Red Cross Deacons^" with an 
enormous Red Cross stitched on a piece of white cotton and worn on 
the left arm, were conspicuous in showing tlieir gratitude for tlie 
bounty received. Then, when planting time came and seeds of e^'ery 
description and in large quantities were distributed to tliem, how 
eagerly they worked in their gardens, planting garden " yarbs " 
(herbs) and then their com, cotton, etc. Our thanks arc due to the 
J. C. Vaughan Seed Store of New York and Chicago (through Mr. Burt 
Bddy, their Southern Agent), for a large supply of potatoes and other 
seeds sent direct to me. 

A brief summary of food supplies issued in my district shows : 

Meat 7.440 lbs. 

GritA 16,410 peeks. 

Beef 395 lbs. "Y 

"•"t '^^ "^ >Porlhc«cli. 

Coffee 143 'l»- I 

Sugar lao lbs. y 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. Jiy 

Tliere were 454 cases of sickness treated at the camp and 75 visits 
made to the sick at home. In May, with the vegetables and wild 
fruits in good supply and marketable, their crops all growing well, I 
asked the people, " Can you manage to get along now without further 
help?" They answered "Yes ; we are thankful for what has been done 
for us, and will try to pull through till harvest, alone." On the 
twentieth of May I issued a month's supply to each family, took down 
the Red Cross flag and closed the relief work for this district. A year 
has passed since then. I am now a permanent resident on Hilton Head 
Island. I watched the crops grow, saw a good harvest gathered in, 
the people resumed their old-time cheerful tone, and the storm became 
a memory. With the exception of a very few old people who are 
hardly able to totter, and have no one to plant or work for them, the 
people of this island are again prosperous and happy. Occasionally 
some kind Mend enables me stUl to make some old uncle or auntie 
happy with a little help, and so they totter down to "where the storms 
shall cease to roll." 



O 



aso 



THE RED CROSS. 



CLOTHING BRANCH. HILTON HEAD DISTRICT. 



RBPORT BT MRS. MACDONALD. 



Accustomed as I had been, in Chicago and other Urge cities, to 
see a luiscellaueoiis assortment of ragis worn under the uame of cloth- 
ing, 1 was little prepared for the night of the almMt nude condition of 
the great mass of people, which came to my notice on first entering on 
the relief work of the Sea L-Jand Sufferers. After a couple of days and 
nights spent iu the clothing room in Beanfort, packing barrels and 
boxes for the Hilton Head District, we proceeded there and amid loud 
exclamations of ' ' closcn ' ' had the freight hauled to our camp. Before 
an hour had passed we were besieged with applicants, but as our 
present supply was limited, we could only attend to a few of the worst 
cases, and these were told to come at ten o'clock the next morning. 
Having already procured the information regarding the families — ages, 
sex and number of children — we spent the time in putting into bundles 
suitable clotliing for such as had been told to cotuc. Fearftil of being 
late, they began to assemble by daylight, and as each man or woman 
was seen emerging, "toting '* the bundle, a hum of voices would assail 
the lucky one with " Bress de Lawd; what yc done get?" The 
experience with this first installment showed that some work must be 
expended on the clothing before distribution, to make it more servic- 
ahle. As the men were put to work in the ditches, so the women who 
were able to leave their families were called on for a week's work each 
in the sewing tents; a sewing machine was borrowed from one, and 
Miss Mary Clark (who was put in charge) assorted the garments, 
giving to some patching to do. to others buttons to sew on, to others 
apparently useless garments to make into children's clothing, \Vlien 
ail got steadily to work, one would commence a patter song, the rest 
would quickly join in, and, to the accompanying rattle of the sewing 
machine, work and music blended. To hear them sing, one would 
hardly think they bad just passed through a great calamity; but it was 
the calm which follows the storm — the>' knew their troubles were over, 
and they were going to get "kiverin " for the " chilluns." How they 
worked! Gannent after garment was quickly mended, examined by 
Miss Clark for faults, and then placed in its proper barrel, ready for 
giving away. When all the dothing had been repaired, the list of 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



923 



needy ones was examined, and, as before, the most needy told to come 
the next day. But the "most needy" generally included half the 
island, for telegrams never flew faster than did the news that clothes 
were going to be issued. Then, when the last garment liad been 
issued, some liappy, some dejected, they would go away to await the 
next issue. So week by week, a constant stream of barrels, boxes and 
bundles would be received, mended and given away to those who, many 
of them, hardly knew what a whole garment was. Occasionally one, 
more crafty than the rest, would try to excite extra sympathy by pro- 
ducing a goodly array of " motherless chilluus," borrowed for the 
occasion, in the hope of getting an extra supply, not knowing that we 
already knew the full number and ages of each family. The system 
adopted by the Red Cross of first, quietly getting its infonnalion com- 
plete, and then going to work, knowing what to do and how to do it, 
showed its value in preventing imposition, which must always be met 
with to some extent, in all charitable work. In this way 3.400 gar- 
ments were repaired and given away in this district, besides shoes, 
hats, etc. 

While the sewing was in progress in one tent, I helped attend the 
cases in the haspital tents, and made daily calls when necessary on 
patients who were unable to come to me. My experience in Hahne- 
mann Hospital, Chicago, fitted me for this part of the work. In all this 
work the lack of .snitable supplies had to be overcome. As soon as our 
busiest sca.-son had passed and the sickness had abated, I opened a fi'ee 
school in one roi^m of our house, expecting to teach reading, writing 
and arithmetic to ten pupils. The attendance rose almost immediately 
to forty and we gave up another room to the use of the school, and I 
had one of the older pupils assist me with the younger ones. To 
Mr. Proudfii.of Morristown, N. J., are dueourthanks for his generous 
contributions, enabling us to purchase slates, books and other school 
supplies. 



232 



THE RED CKOSS, 



WAREHOUSE AND SHIPPING DEPARTMENT. 

In introdncing the dual reports of Dr. E. W. Egaii, I imagine that 
I realize soincthini; of the feeling of the Q-ieen of Sheba when she 
proclaimed that the half had not been told. The practical, unswerving 
and unique method of procedure pursued by Dr. Egan with these 
thousands of ignorant, hungry wards and waifs would constitute an 
interesting study for the most advanced philanthropist. The problem, 
as he tersely states it, of how to make thirtj* thousand dollars feed and 
shelter thirty thousand people a year, was not easily .solved; and yet, 
largely under his original calculation and undcviating fniihfiilness to 
hb own plans, it was solved, and bow succes-sfully. all the years from 
that time to this have testified. The medical aid which he established 
among these poor, deluded sufferers wa.s as if an advanced clinic from 
his A/ma Afa/er, Jefferson College, or the University of Pennsylvania, 
had been suddeuly opened in their midst. The old dislocated joints, 
broken bones, tumors, internal diseases, carried about and dragged on 
through years of pain, disappeared; they literally took up their beds 
and walked. Their faithful hearts, like their eyes, followed him in 
admiring confidence, as with hurried step and quick glance he passed. 
among the distributers of tlic warehouse; and if he told them that a 
potmd of meat and a peck of grits was enough for a week — all they 
could have and must be supplemeute<l either by work, if obtainable, or 
6sh or game, if it could be caught — tliere was no complaint, no demur: 
"The doctor said so, and it was all right." 

It is a comfort to me as I wTite to kuow that his skillful hand is 
now on tlie keys that have for such wear;- months locked in the untold 
agonies of the terrible dens in western Cuba, designated, for the tack 
of some more appropriate term, as " hospitals." 



ReroRT BY H. WniFiBXJ> Bgah, M. D. 

The first official word of the Port Royal Rdief Field, ambiguously 
called the Sea Island Relief Field, came to Dr. J. B. Huhbell. the 
general field agent of the American National Red Cross, with whom 
it was my privilege to he at Indianapolis, attending the annual rcunkm 
oT the Grand Army, where, for the first time in the htstor> of that 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



933 



organization, the Red Ctckss of Geneva took its place upon the arms of 
the surgeons, the ambulances and the tents which were regularly dis- 
tributed along the lineuf march. Twenty-four hours found us en route 
to Beaufort. S. C, which was to be the headquarters of the American 
Katioual Red Cross, through its year of effort to take care of 30,000 
human beiugs living upon the islands, known as the " Sea Island " or 
Old Fort Royal group, as they were called during the war. lying off 
the coast of South Carolina, between Charleston and Savannah, and 
which had been devastated by that memorable cyclone of August 27, 

1893- 

I rcp'.rted to the president, at headquarters, for duty the twenty- 
eighth day of September, 1893. Upon arrival I found the president 
and field secretary' quartered in an unused club house, using parts of 
billiard tables for dining purposes, desks made of dry goods boxes. 
crude furniture made iu a day and nicelj' upholstered with manila 
paper — in short, it was camping out indoors. 

The local relief comratttce was stilt in charge. Miss Barton and 
her staff meeting with them hy invitation as an advisory board. 

The Red Cross headquarters was the scene of busy census takers; 
men from cvcr>- part of the field were constantly coming and going, 
bringing reports of the number of people, their condition, tlie condition 
of their homes and their needs. 

Their reports were being careftiHy indexed and entered upon one 
great book for future reference, a record of the greatest relief field 
America has ever known. 

October 2. came my "marching orders'* which were, "Take 
charge of the warehouse and stores, make an inventory of them, 
disperse these men and rid this city of the demoralizing influence of 
idle people." The doors were closed and preparations for an inventory 
begun . 

The manner of distribution previous to November 2, though 
performed by willing workers, was not, could not be. that systematic 
distribution which comes only after years of experience. 

The warehouse had to be cleaned, partitioned, shelved and made 
ready for the repacking, separating heavy from light goods, and 
getting ready for receiving and shipping. The inventory showed not 
enough food to keep ten families t\vo weeks. 

On November 9. the doors of all the departments at headquarters 
were opened. The question of remuneration for workmen's services 
most be determined upon and a standard adopted. There were at 



224 THE RED CROSS. 

headqnazters twenty^fiTc workmen in-iloors — wUte and otdond — beside 
the cftitmen and oot-docr lalxucrs. 

A standard of fifty cents in value was adapted far a day's work 
and was given in floor, meal, grits, pork, or whatever there was in the 
storeroom at the end of each day, and tfae next day an entirely new 
set of men was an|doyed, and this daily change lasted o>ver a month, 
Uins distriboting to over a thousand people something beside the 
nifmJjr Tnrh/r distribation. 

Women were engaged to sew sacks and other hght work (jost as 
necessar>- as heavier'', and they were paid in the same manner and at 
the sime rate as men. Will some <^ my readers think that these 
women. Si>me with large bmilics to snj^port, and all having socne ooe 
depending npon tbcm, sboold recesve less than the men, because they 
were wvMnen ? 

ShoYvK spades and axes came in a few days in ic^mise to an 
ivder tTwm oar president, and men w^ne pot npon Ac public roads to 
dear and im[«ove their ooodition and repair the damage wkkh the 
5lictfin had done. 

The loiil* were all marked hetore they left beaidquaiters with a 
Greek oivvcf: — on the f«eel or iivm part they were stamped with a sted 
die and the «vx>i handks wta^e bnnxd with an iron die. 

This laartir-i; s<^rved mar.y rcT^tses. Thent was an indcsoribafale 
Tesr<v^ s.>r the Ki>i Ortws amon*: the pev'pie it served and its insignia 
Wis :ts; reorr<»fnrjiti\~e which ntean: a ST^at "ic*! Kr th«n. 

I; nfKiv^vxV. A ie:::rt:i:k\n; ihey were iastracted ^lat those imple- 
Tser.'.s wen? v-r.'y ioanec and c:b« no5 see idle days, and were to be 
ti»ssc.^ >^r. r.> :he t:cx: wv^rkraer. whe::i ibeir lalvirs were finished. The 
— .irt-.rj: ~,i,u- :h(.ia Tn>,ies;r»Mo p-rt>o«t>- aai nooe weie k>a, thov^h 
ht;r.^lrf.rs xrtTv s: Wvirk si', ibe tiiae. Many were hr^iten, and the 
T^cvxs wrrc rtir-T^ec :.^ heft-^nJirtsTSK rseoAjc a:*! pai -sto carcnlatioa 

v\hi-T jafts v>i wvirtaacc: wvrr iS.'ve wis> oceajod cM drams and 
r-.A.',; - ■;« .T.^;v :hrt^:xsh the :.»■ ii.~.v-i: tvc":>.trs oc Ok ifiasds. Tbese 
-■-u" c-.-.xri"v wv.Tktv^ ^-of wvtfi. ■.;-. rt'.i-'S .-;~r(ccC\e, ;.A lacce detailed 
A.-'.v.- -: .-; :h;-si- ^Iri-.r-s ■«",",". S: ?,-v-TNi := '.he sesserti 6eJ5 ^:cnt's 
r^'.v:-. ^^ X v-.-r.'.hs Ut^t whtr. ihf h:»;h witcr ciTDf, a jew who had 
:-tr-.rv;->.' :,- ;.,• ;hr-?f rc-'A\-> cc w.-Tkzwr. *rs; creci Tie ciaitts, last 

—.:?.■>. -f :>;•: .— ." — o.-i-."--l i :th<r,k; hiv* >ecr. Trj."ice eA>;a^t* 

A" ;"--r \\v-v-v-- ■ttVTt -.liL;.: ::\in; h«»5^=tr^CT^ tiiTV^Ej:^ their over- 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE- 



225 



each man. In all cases where a man worked, be received the regular 
weekly allowance of one peck of grits and one pound of meat, iu addi* 
tion to what he received for his work. 

The .spirit shown by these people, after tliey had been instructed in 
the demoralizing effect of free and plenteous distribution, was remark* 
able: they did not beg for food, they asked for work, and the Ked Cross 
made work for them. 

The relief supply was received at three points: the railroad station, 
ibout one and a quarter miles from headquarters, the steamer " Pilot 
' bringing goods from Charleston, and the "Alpha," bringing a 
few goods from Savannah. Freight way brought to headquarters in 
smalt carts drawn by horses or cattle ol any kind, and it was always 
an interesting sight to the stranger: the animals were driven with a bit,* 
with ropes for harness, and in most instances the bend of a tree bad 
been sawed out and used as saddles, on which were ropes or wire 
holding up the shafts, with burlap or crudely made cushions to protect 
the animal's back — all indications of the primitive condition of a peo- 
ple who were to be the wards of the Red Cross for a year, but who 
were also to be given au object lesson in practical life which was more 
to them, more to the couutry. than the little allowance of grits and 
meat to which they must add something more to support their families. 
" They must not eat the bread of idleness," said our president. " We 
mtist not leave a race of beggars, but teach them the manliness of self- 
support, and methods of self-dependence." 

The distributing was done through sub-committee men, represent- 
iog an>'wbere from five people into the hundreds. They were the 
appointees of the local relief committee and retained to the end of the 
field, with but few exceptions. They came weekly, tri-monthly and 
monthly: those who came thirty and forty miles in crude boats were 
given supplies enough to last a month, for it was a long and sometimes 
difficult journey. 

Each sub-committee man presented himself at headquarters and 
was referred, in his turn, to the main office, where an order was Issued 
for whate%-er the notes of the investigatiug committee called for — grits, 
meat, nails, hatchets, saws, lumber and clothing the most frequent. 

These orders were brought to the shipping room, where they were 
filled, marked with name of sub-committee man, his address and a Red 
Greek Cross, the insignia which would entitle it to protection and 
ly times free transport to its destination. A complete record of this 
I made in the shipping room. 




*s6 



THE RED CRaSS. 



A most important step was the uniform issue to each person on the 
Red Criy&A books. How was it to be done ? WUat could be done ? All 
imporiant quesdous were as familiar to cacli officer ab his own depart- 
ment questions. The president would call her staff together (and 
many times it was in the small hours of the moniingj and present the 
question for consideration. It was at one of these meetings the fact 
had been presented that the prime problem was *' How lo feed 30,000 
people with $30,000 for one year?'* It was evident that they must be 
provided with a way to produce something themselves, and to this end 
all a<(si.staiicc was given. 

One peck of grits and one pound of pork to a family of seven for 
one week was the regular Red Cross impply. and this was given to all 
Vho needed assistance, and the laboring men received one peck and one 
pound for their work. 

The description gi^-en us of the negro on our arrival was not fiat- 
Icriug. " He cannot be trustedl " " He'll steal anything he can get! *' 
" You can't make him workl " and similar expressions came from all 
sides. But MisiS Barton had seen the negro before and knew the best 
way to lift him up. and her wisdom was uiauifest all through that 
field, as the splendid gardens (producing more than the people coiiid 
eat or sell), the mended condition of the clothing, the division of cot- 
tages into rooms, the carefully selected, bottled and labeled seeds for 
next year's planting, and the general elevation of their habits pn«'ed 
beyond argument. 

They were treated like gentlemen and they felt the responsibility. 
They were trusted and told so, and they lived up to tlie trust- They 
were shown the necessity of work, and they worked like men and 
women. No race of people could have home their affliction better, 
more cheerfully (they are pre-eminently a cheerful, happy people) and 
with less record of crime than did these 30,000 people, the vast majority 
of whom were negroes. 

One important and erroneons impression among some of the less 
intelligent was that seeds were of little account which they raised in 
their own garden, and the proper procedure was tn buy each year 
from the merchants "new and good seeds," and that practice was 
common. 

One day one of the sub-committee men brought in a ver>- large, 
mngnificent onion, and with some pride presented it as a result of hia 
work, and said, " Miss Barton, if I could git some ob dat y'ar seed, I 
reckon I could raise onyun 'nough to pay fo a critter uex' year." 



THB SEA ISLANDS HURRICANB. 



227 



"Well," said Miss Barton, "do you think you could not raise seeds 
enough from those onions? " 

" Oh, bress you, no marm. You sec dem ain* good what we raise; 
we has to buy de seed." 

Then followed a long explanatiou and agricultural logic such as 
Jack Owen (for that is his name) had never heard before, aud when 
lie left he said: "To link dat 1 could'u know befo' dal a good ouyun 
mus' bring good seed, and dat good seed mus' bring good onyuu. I 
sabc my seed now, sho. " 

When he returned to his plantation, he called his neighbors 
together and gave them as many of the instructive points as he could 
remember, and they now plant seeds of their own raising and ha^-e 
established, in a very crude way, sii exchange of seeds from "up 
country " and ueighboring islands. 

An cfltly crop was of great imprlance to the wards of the Red 
Cross, and our president began to look around for white potatoes, know- 
ing their early productiveness. The merchants said the soil would not 
raise them; llie negro would not take care of Uxem; they did not 
know what they were, aud if they did raise them, they would not 
eat them. 

Inquiry showed thcni to cost $5.00 per barrel, and was it any 
wonder Uiey did not cat tlicm ? 

In the face of all this opposition Mtss Barton ordered ever one 
thousand bushels of white i>otaloes for planting. These were brought 
to headquarters and cut into small pieces (each having an eye or sprout) 
—a novel sight, the fortj- women cutting potatoes for seed. These 
were distributed from headquarters and from the two Red Cross sub- 
stations — Wadmalaw Island and Hillon Head Island — representing 
respecti\'ely the northern and southern end of the district It is almost 
needless to add that the potatoes were planted, from which a One crop 
was raised and eaten, and the people were grateful. 

Com for planting was another important distribution ; 2200 bushels 
of com were distributed, and a second crop raised by raauy who had 
ne\'er asked mother earth for more than one crop. There were raauy 
doubts among the people as to the possibility of a second crop, so a 
second planting was urged to get the fodder for their cattle, and the full 
cchu in the car rewarded their second planting. 



3zS THE RED CROSSu 

MEDICAL AND SANITARY REPORT. 

BV E. WINFIEUl EGAM. M. O. 

The stonn had left tbe sanitary conditioQ of the islands m a very 
tinhealtby state, and it became necessary to estaUish a medical and 
surgical department at headquarters. 

Dr. Magmder of the United States Marine Hospital Service had 
done very eflScient work in the vicinity of Beaufort, but many of the 
wells refilled with a brackish led-cotored water and there were many 
cases of illness, two-thirds of which were fever, which, in the healthiest 
times, exists upon the islands. 

It required many emptyings of the wells to get good water and 
many wells had to be abandoned, as good water could not be brought 
into them. 

A clinic and dispensary was op^ied from 12 till 2 daily, at head- 
quarters, and patients were required to see a local physician before 
they applied to the Red Cross, and if they could not get medical aid from 
any other source they were admitted and treated. 

This precaution was taken to protect the local physicians, who 
were themselves heavy losers by the cydone and could not a£ford to 
do as much as they wished to. There were some noble-hearted men 
among them who counted no sacrifice too great to relieve their fellow 
beings. 

It is always the policy of the Red Cross to protect the merchants 
and people who have goods to sell, and giving in the way it does, it not 
only protects, but improves their business after the first effects of the 
calamity have passed off — say two or three months (according to the 
field) and it is conceded at every field where the Red Cross has worked, 
that it has left the locality more prosperous than even before its 
calamity. 

The average number of patients treated daily between November 
ninth and April 2d at this clinic was seventy-three. Nights were devoted 
to seeing those patients who were unable to leave their beds, and this 
" out-patient " service was only made possible by the tireless, faithful 
and competent nurses who had volunteered their services to the cause 
of humanity and had been assigned to the medical department by Miss 
Barton. 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE- 



M9 



PaticDts came Erom all parts of the field, and as Ifaere was no 
hospital, they were placed in Ikmilics who were on the supply list, 
and something additional given for the care of the sick. 

Sunday was given wholly to surgical cases and the operating 
room was often opeue<l at daylight and not closed till dark; operations 
varying from a simple inciseil ivouud to a laperotomy were performed 
and the crude appliances often made the surgeon wisili lor a moderately 
well equipped operating room in one of our hospitals. 

Il would be difficult to write a ver>' clear medical histor>' of the 
majority of cases from a subjective examination, and I insert one as 
an example : 

" I got a lump in de stomach here, sir" (pointing just above the 
pnbtcbone), " and be jump up iu de t'roat and den 1 gits swingness in 
de bead. Dat lump he done gone all over sometime; I fine him here 
and den he go way down in de leg. 

April 2. A telegram from our president (who was iu Washing- 
ton. D. C), ordered me to the oortbem end of the district, with head- 
quarters on James Island, and on April 4 the scarlet banner of 
humanit>- waved over a hastily arranged office where for two weeks 
from fort>- to fifty patients were seen every day, when it became 
evtdcut the trouble was in their drinking water. A tour of the island 
showed wells onlj' twelve inches deep and draining the surface for rods 
around. Tliese were curbed, cleaned, dug deeper and in many iustaiice.s 
filled up and new ones dug. Three barrels were generally suuk for 
curbing. 

This labor was performed without a promise to pay, willingly and 
well, and it was not long before the daily number of applicants (or 
medical aid ou James Island was reduced to ten or twelve. 

Medicines and surgical dressings were provided for the work in 
this district by Mr. E. M. Wister. of Philadelphia, Mr. John Wright, 
of Grtenficld, Mass., and others. These gentlemen not only con- 
tributed, but came personally to the field to lend their aid, the former 
sptiuding a week at a time in the Cnmbahee River district, in a small 
crude boat, among the unhcalthiest parts of the islands. 

Many rough places were smoothed by Mr. W. G. Hin&on. of 
James Island, who did much to lighten the work of the Red Cross 
rcpresailativcs in his locality, and it is always a pleasure to look back 
upon his eAurte to help the people in their affliction. 

One of the great evils existing upon the islands is the charlatanism 
practiced upon the ignorant. 




THE R£0 CROS& 

docton." wbo nerer tm.w a materia medica. miesc the 
1 every imaginable cure, as weD as cores which btc txit 

iBudSy toads and Torioas atber thsn^ from varions 

ti tbc body is ooe ionB and peiliaps the highest trpe of medical 

The ** doctor" will dedare the potiait "amjand." and at 

co ot raa ID lOBOve the cAndxng sfitrit. the nsnal fcc being 5ve 

m go per cent of sach cases, he tskes a lioi on a cow. borae, 

«- pig. aad finally^ hf fiaradosme, gets tfae animal, fcr by the pnsent 

■^■BK ^rsteoi of trial jnstioes, almost may venBct may be nendcred. 

I vas aaked to see a case ooe evenii^ which was described to be a 
sate arm. It was fbor miles distant, but the hnafaand of the patient 
haddrhmonr far me becacae "de pain is powcrfnl bad, sir." 

1 fijond the woman sitiing in a chair, her right am resting on a 
haznl that had been rc^cd in for the occasion, an immenae ponltice of 
fanad, meal, feadters and nnmerotis other ii^ie£enls wr ap ped around 
the ann. the whole weighing about thne poonds. As I lifted the 
ckith 1 &Muid a mass of the ordtnary gionsd worms dead npon the 
nHhcc With aery of pleasare, the couple said. " Dat *em ! Dat 'em ! 
He tole us dat arm full of wonn and sho' 'nof be come ouL" 

Cotdd anything appeal more pitcoosly; could it be more pathetic? 
Think, at oiu very doors exists such barbarity, while each year 
Shiwwirii npon thousands of doQars go as many miles to help a people 
Cu beyoaid some ot the people of oor own country. 

I Fcmored tbc poultice, washed the arm, and found a compound 
csaummic&ted fnutare of both bones of the forearm. 

Who conld tfand by such a picture with an unmoved heart or an 
luunoisteoed vytl Tell her the error? No; only asked her not to let 
■Btm&gcn treat bcr when she was ill and advised her to go to some 
Bductor slir knew in the fotiirv. 

H l»ried Riecn yeas coated with sugar was one of the staple drugs, 

H ami othcn ns useless, but not as harmless. 

^k_ I fi'unil ilu'W a gratefal people. They would bring eggs, chickens, 
HSHcs and oil kinds of gift*, including money, and when told tliat the 
■Hcd CtoM ncwr received pay for its work, its was hard for them to 
MndcnUand; but as wreks passed, they learned it and tried to help each 
^wlivi B* Oicy li»id been hdped. On the first of June the medical 
Htll*lTllimlui: dc|«<iTtra«iit of the American National Red Cross was closed 
BkUd all the otliwi'^ were ordcfr<l to headquarters, where the field was 
H vl 1 ,■..! i;^,. pn-^iiloni Atut staff left for Charleston, to repack and 



i 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 231 

ship to the northern district, June 7, 1894. Then came a few weeks at 
the Charieston Headquarters. Through the courtesy of Mr. Kauftnau, 
his long warehouse (150 feet by 40 feet) was at the disposal of the 
Red Cross from the time it received the Charleston Committee to the 
close of its field, with privilege of occupying it as long as they wished. 

Tents were pitched in this room and Miss Barton and her staff 
lived there until June 30, when the field was officially closed. 

Miss Barton and her party went to Washiagton, leaving Dr. Hub- 
bell, the general field agent and myself. 

Crops of vegetables and com, building and ditching were in prog- 
ress and instruction was necessary, and this instruction was given as 
follows ; 

Each day we would meet from fifty to three or four hundred people 
and give them a good practical talk, ^with about these headings for 
notes : 

"Owe no man anything." 

How to keep out of debt. 

Don't sell cotton before it is picked. 

Plant more vegetables, and whj'. 

Divide cottages into rooms. 

Don't mortgage, which was a continuation of the instruction given 
daily from the beginning of the field. 

These talks were of much help and the islanders would drive miles 
to get the advice which they knew was given unselfishly. 



»is 



THE RED CROSS. 



• RELIbF METHODS IN THE FIELD. 

However brilliant may lie the scintillations lighting up the 
ilescriptions of the worker who sees a field for the first or the first few 
times, it is always to the steady-burning fiamc of the veteran of all the 
fields 6:Y>m the earliest to the latest, that we look for the steady light, 
by which we shall sec the calm (ads, and so far as possible, the 
machinciy that moves the whole. 

It will be remembered that Dr. Hubbell was the agent of the Red 
Cross in the Michigan fires of the North iu iSSi. We saw hiiu in the 
snows of Russia, and now find him nt the Islands. The doctor's 
reports are always an unknown quantity. They may be but a few 
sentences; they may be many pages, but never Xoo much. 1 will ask 
of him that he give his report iDdependcnlly, and not to me. The 
various topics which he will touch, render this preferable: 



Dr. Hobbkll's Rki-okt. 



On this field there were many Jirsi things to be done. Among 
these were the feeding of the people, rebuilding the houses, cleaning 
out the wells, draining tlie land of salt water, clothing and pladug the 
people ill ways to help themselves; half a million feet of lumber to be 
raft^l down to accessible points, from the mills on the rivers which 
emptied into the waters of these island inlets. While this was being 
floated down, the well men and women were instructed in different 
tinds of work; tn take care of the helpless, rebuild their homes, and 
to provide sheUi:r and food for tliemselves. 

While the people of these islands, in great measure, own their little 
tracts of land, the>' retnin tlie old plantation name for tlieir home. 
These plantations usually ecmiain from twenty to forty families. The 
inhabitants of each plantation were directed to select a representative 
from their own number who should be the representative and commit- 
teeman for that plantation, whose duty it should be to communicate 
with the Red Cross, receive and distribute supplies for his people, and 
be the director of the various kinds of work that should be carried on 
among his people. These committeemen from all over the islands 




THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



233 



would come to headquarters to receive their inslruction — food, seeds, 
tools, clotbing, and learn the methods of work. 

These committeemen were received at headquarters bv MLss Barton 
personally as well as by her oflBcers, and careful explanations given to 
them that the supplies and the help that we were to give were in no way 
from the government, as many supposed from their memorj- of the old 
" Freedmeu Bureau" days, but that they were the contributions verj* 
largely of poor people from over the countr\', who themselves had little 
to give, for the times were hard, but these had heard of the pitiable 
condition of the storm sufferers, and xvere willing and glad to divide 
the little they had to help them into their homes again. The funds we 
had iu hand, they were made to understand, were very small, far less 
than we could wish, not likely to be much increased, and we should 
depend upon them to help us to use thcui to the very best advantage, 
and we would do our best in the same way to help Ihem. 

Among the early contributions were a quantity of garden seeds. 
More were sent for, particularly of those vegetables that would grow 
there profitably during the late autumn and winter. It*may not be 
generally known that it was not the ctistom of these people to plant 
anything but cotton, com, sweet potatoes and rice. Hence they knew 
almost nothing about the raising of other field or garden products. 

These committeemen were carefully itistrncte<l and directed how 
to prepare the ground and plant the various kinds of new scliIs which 
were put up iu packages for families, which he would take home and in 
turn instruct his people what to do with them; in this way liitucc, 
onions, and garden peas were planted, and in a few weeks these 
plantiugs began to supply them with a vegetable food to go along with 
their grits and meat. 

Prom among those who could handle tools, building committees 
were formed whose duty it was to repair and rebuild the houses, first, 
of widows and the infirm, and afterward, their own. These com- 
mittees were furnished with nails, lumber, and the necessary hardware; 
tooLs were purchased, marked with the insignia, and loaned until their 
work should be finished, when they would be returned and another 
committee would take these same tools and begin work on another 
plantation. 

At the same time a foreman for ditching would be elected from a 
plantation, who would select his force of men, clean out the wells and 
ditch the lands-of his plantation, working jointly with adjoining 
plantations, so that the ditching of one piece of land should not flood 



234 



THI-; RED CROSS. 



his neighbor. Spades, shovels, axes, hoes, mattocks, were funushed 
Ihcse men. who. wbcn their work was finished, would rutuni the tools 
to bcadqiiarttim for others to take and work with iu the same way. 

Mai acquainted with tlie building of fl(x>d gates, or " truuks." as 
they are called, aud daius, buili and put these iu to protect the open- 
ings of the ditches from the incoming tides. 

iTirough their committees each man was instructed to ^lit out 
pahugs from the fallen timber and fence in a large ganlen. so that it 
shoidd be secure from his chickens and pigs. Nails and tools vtere 
likewise luruisbed for this work, frows, crosscut saws, axes, hatchets, 
hammers, etc. 

As the season advanced, in February, the planting time, seedmen 
of New York and Philadelphia, as well as otlier cities, bearing of the 
success of these amateur gardeners tlirough the winter season, sent 
generously from their stores, and the Congressmen of several district* 
joined them in directing the seeds in the Agricultural Department 
apportioned for their distribution to be sent direct to the Red Cross for 
the Sea IsltuiHcrs. Again these committeemen, as formerly, were 
called and instnictcd in the manner of prcp.iring the ground and plant- 
ing #-arA (i-i'w(f of seed, with instructions to communicate ivhal he had 
learned to his neighbors, as before. As these people had never before 
made gardens, even the leading business men and merchants laughed 
at the idea of attempting to "make truck gardeners out of these peo- 
ple." Notwithstanding this. Miss Barton bought nine hundred 
bushels of Early Rose potatoes. Women were set at work carefully 
cutting these into one or two eyes each for planting. This provision 
also removed any possible temptation, with their scant provisions, to 
use them at once for food. 

The seed corn, like ever>'thing else in all this vicinity, had been 
destroyed by the storm. Again Miss Barton sent to the Ohio valley 
for two carloads of seed corn. This was distributed over the entire 
Storm-swept section, and many of these people at harvest time said 
that if the storm had brought tliera nothing but this new variety of 
seed com, it would have been a blessing, for their crop was double 
what it had c\-er been before. 

In order to preserve the quality of the famed '* seaisLind cotton," 
which is a sjiedal variety, with long, silky fibre, used far making 
thread, the funii.^hiug of this seed was given to the care of the local 
cotton niercbants, who were directly interested in preserving its high 
staudard and market value. 



THE SKA ISt,ANDS HURRICANE. 



as? 



In the feeding and "rationing" of these people they were as 
carefully instnicted in the principles of economy and care as in other 
lines of work. Where a fisherman could be found, he was furnished 
with a boat or net to supply his people with fish to help out with tbe 
living, and this was a great aid. The living ration for a family of 
seven was half a peck of grits a week and a pound of pork, simply 
as an insurance against star\'ation for those not having work. Those 
who were at orgauized ^vork under a regular foreman received double 
that amount, /. e., two pecks of grits or meal and two potwds of pork 
a week for each man . 

At all times these people were cautioned abont going into debt for 
any purpose, and so faithfnlly did they follow these suggestions that 
when we questioned them in their churches when their corn was ready 
to use, no more than one in thirty had contracted debts for food or 
living supplies, — a matter of special interest in view of the fact that it 
has always been ihc custom of the country, to go into debt for food 
supplies until the cropshould bercady for market. True, on some of 
these islands additional help was received from other sources, notably 
on St. Helena, Indies and Port Roj-al, through the influenceof someof 
the resident merchants and other friends — local mcrdiants rebuilding 
their stores and warehouses gave employment to some, shipping to 
others, and later, a partial reopening of the phosphate indu.stry brought 
labor to others. 

It will be remembered that these people were constantly receiving 
lessons in practical economy, and suggestions in improvising and turn- 
ing to best account what they might have at liand. These instniclious, 
coming from Miss Barton direct made a deep iinpressiou on the minds 
of these people, and they were faithfully followed up by her repre- 
sentatives, who had received their lessons beforehand in practical, 
common sense economy. I recall an incident. AAer showing a number 
of the committeemen through the office and living apartments at head- 
quarters, where they saw desks, working tables, book shelves, wash- 
stands, wardrobes, commodes, all neatly covered with manila paper or 
hung with tasty calico curtains or draperies, with neat and attractive 
effect — and then when shown the constructions they were amazed to 
find that nearly every piece of furniture before them was made from 
various sizes of dry goods boxes (that are nsually broken up for 
kindlings) with shelves inside or on top, as occasion required. One 
of these committeemen made the practical remark that this half-hour 
observation and instruction was worth just seventy-five dollars to him, 
14 



»3» 



THE RED CROSS. 



in ir rfmwiiUiiiii Imp IJM Hill iiihiiIIm iimlil ■■< lliil ■■■iiiaH/ihU. 

fcr kii farailjr. 

Csrenu repotti oi tools bociDwcd uta. ictwueoL oc mulk qooc dcn 
veek. SI tbe haan of addiboosl food sop port. furou rag ed a c cma cy, 
•l^ftAW sod icspijw Sibil i ty ■ 

I bopc it nay not prove too tedioas if a. fern Anxagt reports of 
c o mait tecs ue lien giren Don dtsaent atctjonii of Qke odd aad m, 
aamftt "labor ifaeet" to aiore cfaadr sbow some of tbe kinds of work 
dODC. and tbe duractet sad ipcnt of tbe people. Tbe labor dieet is 
faUa ded lobe araoord of tbe tools giren otituid r e nuu cd. tbe irffwWr 
of men at ivork. tbe kind of work dmiL wbe tber ditcbei^ MdgB, 
roads, dams, repairing wre ck ed booaeat or boilding new eoea, ^^*"g 
Ills, wnldiog ctHBiners. fcnring gardes^ ipGttaag boards or linsc^c^ 
dc.atid alaotbe record of tbe conditiaa asofaoerrcd l^fterailorar 
ij^ectarof ttemek. 

The Mbwii i g ssaqife is tbe work of OonuniUeemaa JadksoB <^H- 
aon, of Stuart Point. Port Ro^al Uaad, being owe of tbe ixst who 
begaarak: 



lABOa OS POKT ROTiU. IsgAyp. 
acBUKVc &ys axvajanib 



^ il I 



nm«i 



a ta 



l*o(to< 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 
Labor on Port Royai. Island — Continued. 



239 



18M 

Prb. 
I« 



April 
»7 



DITCHING. 

Width. Depth. Length. 

Dike IS J 4tt> 

" "5 4 7«) 

'■ 6 4 500— 1600 feet Dlkea, 

Ditch a 3 isoo 

a 3 700 

" 3 a 800 

" 3 a ^°° 

" a I 400 

" a a 700 

a 3 500 

" a a 400 

5 = 400 

'.a 3 600 

a I 300 

" 3 a aoo 

Ditches 3 a 600 

a 3 80* 

a a 150—8650 Ditches. 

Trunk (Tide Gate), repaired 

Tn)i)ki( " " ), made 3 Tmnka. 



On Ladies Island George Barnwell, foreman for Eustis Place and 
Hazel Farm, reports four houses built, ten repaired, 87,870 feet of 
ditching, fifty feet of dam, three miles of road across the island, thirty 
feet wide, cleared up and repaired; this latter required seventy-five 
men at work three weeks cutting out fallen trees, rebuilding bridges, 
and filling in washed places. Barnwell says, in closing his report : 



The improvement of the land that ia redeemed and pnt in good order for the 
farmers on Eustice Place, inclnding the houses, is worth abont three thousand 
dollars. July 30th, 1894. 



At that time we endorsed on this report the following : 



Anguat 4th we inq>ected this work and found all well done, but we found 
•ereral bnildings that Barnwell bad begun were not mentioned in his report 
because they were not finished when he made it Houses and ditches give 
evidence of good practical work. 



240 THE RED CROSS. 

From two plautatious on St, Helena's Island Rev, D. 
Washington's report shows 32,351 feet of ditching, two houses built* 
four repaired. The close of his report has this : 



To tbe Red Cnm officer*: We, ihc nnnlersigned sufferers, rerara n vote of 
thanks to you for Uie gooducss you Iiavc done for us by giving u* ditchcfl to uve 
our crops. The value to um ia faooo. 

D. C Wasuixgton, 
Agent of the Mary Ann ChQplirt, 
Tom Fripp and VUtage fHantatioas. 



I find this observation on the back of this report, aflcr & visit to 
look at his work and to speak to his people : 



Aogvt 13th, 1894, went over tbta work in port. TIic ditches are doing excel- 
lent aerrlee and have been of grcAt value to Ibc ptantations during the u«t season. 
It may be that the width of the ditches is hardly Buffidcnt in all places, but the 
couditioti of the ^leople is moat gratifying, and the work of Revetend Washington 
hftabecn markedly unselfish. 

On reaching his place wc learned for the first time that his own house, a large 
plantation building of former years, had been burned juat before the storm, and be 
ba.s since been living in his stable. This personal lo«» he has never mentioned to 
the Red Cross people, although his duties as coouuittccfliaii brought him in con- 
tact with Uiem every week for nearly a year. 



From the maiulnnd Rev. Wade Hampton, in returning his tools, 
after making nearly one mile of canal and ditches, and 330 feet of 
causeway, says : 



We, the committee on said places (ChapHn, Pripp, Toomcr, and Tom 
Bhodes), return our sincere thanks to ynu for the rations and tlie tools to work 
with, for it was just tbe same as if yon bad given us a hundred doUnn apiece. 
This is to the Red Cross, by your committee. Most respectfully. 

Wads IIamptox. 
Agent Oiapiin Jlantation, 



From another section of the nutinland. William Grant, of 
Poootaligo, reports nearly two miles of caual eight feet wide, and about 
the same amount of ditches, aud the building of four houses. 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



241 



Jack Snipe, a young man, almost a boy. after building 5 chimneys, 
getting out over 4C00 shingles and clapboards, and repairing 1 1 houses, 
began and made 2000 feet of ditches, and we find this endorsement on 
his paper. "July 27, I went over part of Jack Snipe's work to-day. 
He was a hard working, conscientious man, but not verj- strong physi- 
cally. After his work of building and repairing as the leader of his 
men, he took charge of the ditching; got sick from working in the 
water, and died soon after. Mrs. Barker, one of our volunteer trained 
ntu'seSr worked faithfully during all his illness to save him, but in 
▼Bin." 

Ben Watkins, on Baker Place, shows i9,,«;62 feet of ditches, i 
house built, 2 repaired, 3 large gardens fenced, 7 wells dug. July 
24, 1894, inspected this work, Ijoth buildings and ditches, and found 
the work wdl done, the ditches being new and important, carrying the 
water from three large ]>oiids. One main ditch \s fnwn fmir tn scren feet 
deep, equally wide at the top. The crops are in excellent and promis- 
ing condition, and Watkius' work is more than he has claimed for it, 
besides being practical and well done. The Gregorys and Browns on 
Baker Place have attractive homes, neat and orderly, with appearances 
of thrift and inHustrj-." 

These quotations taken at random from a list of a hundred reports 
ser^-e to gi\'e an idea of the kind and quality of the work done over 
the entire field, as well done in one district as another from Charleston 
to Sa\'annah. a distance of 150 miles, including a large area of the 
mainland as well. 

While these people arc in large measure cut off from the advantages 
that conic from travel and contact with the outside world, they have a 
^peculiar style of expression, and a musical sweetness of voice that is 
tiniisually attractii-e. They are of difEerent origin and tj-pe from the 
Virginia or "upland people;" many are good scholars, due largely to 
the .whools of Miss Batrtum and Miss Murray on St. Helena, and others 
established soon after the war. Nearly all read and write. Still. Ihere 
are some that retain the old-time style of expression, as in the follow- 
ing: "W'c's de bcs garden I ebcr seen seuce I was a man grown." 
" All de .squash, dc tomaty and de watermillion seed goue died, but de 
Lo'd's will must be done." 

" All de house (houses) is done ractified.*' " I couldn't tell a He, 
for Vz deacon in de chuch. I has to be respectable." Another says: 
*'rv ben dar from de fust upstartmeot, and dar ain't ben de fust rag 
gin to dose people-" 



a*» 



THE RED CROSS. 



Another: A man who liad seen the Red Cross staff getting on the 
boat to go to Charleston said: "I tell yuu, doctor, when I see Miss 
Baitou gcttin' on the boat to go away I just fell so, my eyes couldn't 
help leakhr wattr, for you all have saved us jwoplc." 

After the general relief had closed, and tlie body of the Red Cross 
staff had left, Dr. Egau remained with me to heliJ finish the dlsiribu- 
tioti of a remnant of supplies and tools dial could be kept in u.se, and to 
encourage the continuance of the general improvements so well begun. 
Considerable attention was given to visiting the work, and the jieople 
on the diflereut islands in their cliurches, where practical suggestions 
were made on the Hue of the instructions they had received from head- 
quarters at first. These talks were always preceded by an inspection 
of the fields, gardens, buildings and work which had been done ou the 
place, for the purpose of better judging what kind of suggestions would 
be of most profit to the people; but the subjects usually taken up would 
be headlined thus: 



PROSPHRITV. 



Keep out of debt. Debt is a burden and a hindrance to prosperity, 
the cause of much trouble and bad feeling. "Owe no man anything." 

How to keep out of debt. Keep the garden producing something 
to live on the entire year. The climate here will allow this to be done. 

Then a list of vegetables suitable for the soil and the climate that 
experience has shown can be raised with succc.s.s. 

On the farm keep some kind of profitable crop growing the entire 
year, both for profit and for feed for the stock. Follow the regular com 
crop with a second oue for fodder, or with some of the root crops, as 
turnips, beets, rutabagas, cabbage or coUards. 

Plant such things as the fowls will injure inside the garden fence. 

Fruits; figs and grapes grow from cuttings, and are easily raised. 
if only protected from the pigs, the goats, or the cattle. Pears, peaches, 
apple.s, oranges, pomegraimtes, pecaus, walnuts, grow with a little care. 
(Fine samples of vegetables and fruits raised ou the islands, often by 
their own people, were shown in evidence.) 

Ivct each one raise nud prescr\'e his own meat, or have a neighbor 
who has been successful, put it up for him until lie learns how for 
himself. This point was particularly made, bccau.se the general custom 
of the country is to sell hogs for three or four cents a pound aud pay 
twelve to sixteen cents a pound for pork. 



4 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



243 



Homes: — Make tbeni neat, light, attractive; have trees, flowers 
and the simple conveniences, any and all of which can be had by a little 
thought, labor and interest. 

In the line of health, use less pork, more vegetables, fruit, milk, 
eggs, and pure water. Good wells are necessary, ditches are necessary 
for health as well as for agricultural development. If all the planta- 
tions are well draiued, it will in large measure banish fe\'ers from the 
islaads. 

Observe among your people which one succeeds best in any under- 
taking, whether it is in the raising of a particular kind of crop, or the 
saving of it, the successful curing of his meat, tlie raising of fruit, the 
breeding of good stock, or having attractive home — go to thai one for 
that particular kind of iufonnatiou or instruction that you want. 
Strive to improve the moral standing, which is necessary for physical 
as well as social advancement. 

No one who has been with these people, worked with them as we 
have, but must be pleased to obser^'e their gratitude, their gentle man- 
ner of expressing it, their desire to improve and their attention to 
instruction or suggestion, their cheerfiil disposition and their fiiith in 
God and the Red Cross. 




THE RED CROSS. 



ON THE CHARLESTON GROUP. 

Among thoM who lived the storm and later brotjght their experience 
and quickened sympathy to U3 for such help as they could give to their 
still suffering companions in danger and 'n'oe, was our tireless and 
faithful assistant. Mr. H, L. Baile)-, of Charleston. 

It lias uever been my good fortune to find one who — entirely new 
to the work and to its conception — has grasped more readily the field 
of labor presented to him. The success atteiiding his work aud the 
satisfiurtioa attested by his beneficiaries are rich stores of memory for ft 
hfctime. The Red Cross could uot have asked for better service. 



Rrport op Mr. H. L. B.^ilby. 

In order to make the following narrative more complete I deem it 
not amiss to preface it with a short account of my own experience in 
the great Cyclone of 1893, and a few incidents relating thereto. 

In August, 1893, I was doing business on that part of Edisto 
Island, known as " Little Edisto," and spending the nights at a small 
place "just across the creek" called "Brick House," said place taking 
its name from an old and substantial brick house which had bi.-en built 
on that sjx>t, at a time ante-dating the Rcvolutionan.' War, and much 
honored in that locality on account of its autitiuity and the good mate- 
rial of which it was built, the bricks, etc, liaving been imported from 
Holland. 

On Saturday raoniing, August 30th. I went to my business on 
"Little Edisto" as usual, aud on arriving I remarked to Mr. Wlmlcy 
(my employer) how promising the crops were looking, and the bright 
prospects of a Que harvest. His answer was " Yes; but I am afraid a 
storm is brewing, and one of unusual severity, too, because the signs 
of the last few days have been ominous of such, and I feet very uneasy. ' ' 
1, being young and skeptical, of course took no heed of his prophetic 
words, aud alas, oiUy a few hours more cominccd me that something 
of unusual magnitude was upon us. I retired that night, and on 
awaking next morning (Sunday) took breakfast, and parted from Mr. 
W. to spend the day at " Brick House," promising him to return that 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



245 



evening antl remain all night. But cirewnistances intervened (which 
pre\'entc<l me from doing so for .several daj's later) so appalling that 
even as I write them now, a cold shudder comes over me, and all the 
horrors of that awful time «mie back. 

Sunday mumiiig ilawned dull and hazy witli a stiff breeze blowing 
from the east and in cra'Biing the creek, I remarked to my companion 
that we would liave had weather, and on reaching ' ' Brick House " we all 
began speculating on the approaching storm (no one ever dreaming 
s»eh a storm was coming), etc., etc., nnd so llie day wore on, the wind 
rising higher and higher every moment, and towards afternoon the 
trees began to bend and sway in a terrible manner, branches and iiinbs 
fiyiug in all directions. By sunset we were all thoroughly alarmed 
and moved over to the previously mentioned " Brick House," deeming 
that the safest place to pass the night, and in a few hours' time the 
whole population of the village was gathered under its protecting roof, 
alt feeling thankful a safe shelter was provided for us. How we passed 
that night of terror, only Ood knows, for the winds blew, the rain fell, 
and the tide rose, until towards midnight it seemetl as if ever>'thing was 
lost: but the old house stood and carried ns through until dawn of 
another day, and then what a sight met our anxious eyes. What had 
been a smiling pretty village, was nothing but a pile of wreckage and 
a mass of ruins, some honses having been washed away completely, 
and those that remained, so badly damaged as to be uninhabitable. To 
make matters worse even our food had been swept away, and there we 
were, cut off from the island on this point of land, wrecked, desolate 
and hungry, some of tis with only the clothing on our backs, all the 
balance gone; and as far as the eye could reach there was nothing to 
■ee but water, and those spots from which the tide had receded, covered 
with portions of houses, trunks of clothing broken open and scattered, 
drowned poultry, and ever>' crop mined and prostrated. After a little 
while we found some grist that had been saved b>* a colored man. and 
cooking this with some saltwater and "dro\vned" cliickcn. we sub- 
sisted till evening, when help came in the shape of water and food. 

By Wednesday I returned to " Little Etlisto " and Mr. Whaley, 
who I had been so anxious about during the storm. I found the 
brave old man " holding the fort." and tr>'ing to save, by drying out, 
etc., what the storm liad left; but oh! how different everything looked. 
What had been of so much promise and beauty had been literally 
swept from the face of the earth, nothing remaining but ruin, desolation 
and death for those whose all had been taken from them if help did 



THE RED CROSS. 



not come quickly. It is hard for those who were not there to realize 
such a conditiou of things; but just imagine a whole island completely 
covered with water (and a ragiug sea. at that) from three to six feet in 
depth. Can you wonder that so many poor creatures were drowned 
or that anything was saved at all? 

Fortunately Mr. Whaley had saved some provisions which were 
stored in his house out of the reach of the tide, aiid gathering up all 
else we could Ond, we began issuing food to the poor hungry negroes 
around us, who had been enlird} Urrcfl of their all. And there I 
stayed on llial little ibiand for some time after the cyclone, giving out 
each day of our own little store, food, mtrdicine and comfort to those 
who came, tnistiug that when that supply was exhausted, other means 
wonld be provided to carry on the good work, thus so nobly begun; 
for it must be understood that those who had, freely gave to those who 
had Dot, and the men of that section worked hand to hand and heart 
lo heart to help those of their colorctl brethren, who otherwise must 
have died of hunger, sickness and exposure. 

Such then, was the condition of affairs when news was received 
that the Red Cross would take the field, and a sigh of relief, and a 
prayer to God went up from thousands of homeless, hungry, helpless 
and demoralized people, who had gone through so much, ii seemed a 
miracle they were still alive. I then went to Charleston and immedi- 
ately wrote to Miss Barton offering her my services, telling her of my 
knowledge of the people and the islands, and how glad I would be to 
help her in any way to rclic\'e the necessities of the thousands tlial were 
begging for help. My offer was accepted; a telegram summoning me 
to Beaufort, the Red Cross Headquarters, and there I made the 
acquaintance of the noble lady who had come lo our stricken people 
with her valued corps of assistants, to perform a task that was gigantic 
in its contemplation. 

I was retained by Miss Barton in Beaufort three weeks, and by 
practical teaching was soon able to grasp intelligently the tnie intents 
and purposes of the Red Cross, and able then to undertake any duty 
assigned mc. I was then sent to take charge of the district composed 
of Edisto, Wadmalaw, John's and Kiawah Islands, the first three 
named being very large islands, with a combined population of nearly 
,io,ooo souls. 

Kiawah being directly on the sea was almost entirely submerged 

tidewater, and on the other islands, those portions which were 

cposed to the sea and the tributary streams suffered in liki 




THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



547 



manner. Cotton, the main dependence of the people, was almost 
totally destroyed, and only in some localities were any potatoes and 
com sa\xd, and these badly damaged. I found many people hungr>-, 
destiLute, without suitable habitation or sufficient clothing and badly 
demoralized. Such, tlieu, was the condition of things when 1 took 
charge, and how to meet the various problems that arose, and to cov*r 
this lerritory in the most iutelligeut aud speedy way of course became 
my first object. After plaimiug a little I soon arrived at a happy solu- 
tion, and proceeded to organize the territor>' into working condition. 

Rockville. on Wadmalaw Island, had been selected as the most 
central point to work from, and making this my headquarters and basis 
of supplies, I secured a house and was soou comfortably fixed, with 
sufficient supplies on hand to meet the immediate wants of the people. 
To reach all these people quickly and of^en was the next point to be 
settled (scattered as they wereover an area of vast dimensions, divided 
in many places by streams, at times dangerous to navigate). This 
diffiailty was overcome by thoroughly canvassing each island, and 
establishing one or more sub-stations at the most central location, and 
fctnn these stations I would each week make my distribution of rations, 
receive reports, arrange work for the coming week and transact other 
business. All this time petitions of various kinds had been coming in, 
and my time was fully occupied in seeking out those who were in imme- 
diate want, among the old people and children especially, and I soon 
got that settled sufficiently to give mc a chance to start all able-bodied 
men, that needed help, in ditching, hoTise-bin'Idtng, bridge^building 
and any other work T could find that would benefit the general com- 
munity; and soon I had large forces at work on each island. A school 
for children w.is established at Rockville, which was successfully con- 
ducted for some time, and a wharf built, which is as unique as it 18 
substantial, having been built by native workmen with raw materials 
cut and hewn out of the woods, the piles being driven by a pile driver 
of our own construction. This wharf stands to-day, a monumeut of 
strength and an object lesson to those who were doubtful of its com- 
pletion. On the se\'crat islands much good work was done; new dams 
being thrown up; bridges rtbuiU and abandoned lauds reclaimed. I 
occupied this field for over eight mouths, and during that time visited 
every district one day of each week and personally distributed all 
rations given out. tlius being certain that nothing was misappropriated. 
From Monday until Saturday I would travel by team and boat, on an 
average of twenty miles a day, neier ailowiug rain, wind or aaytbing 



1148 



THE RED CROSS. 



else to keep me from going, as some of tliese poor people had to walk 
miles to reach the point of distribution, and I ctiuld not disappoint 
tbem and cause Ihem to go back einpt>' handed. The distribnilun of 
aceda, as they came in season, was started from the beginning, and sooa 
gardenn of various dimensions began to spring up in all directions, thus 
making another valuable (bod supply which vas practically inexhaus' 
tiblc, as loitg as no frosts intetfered. Happily the season vas propi- 
tious, and the people b}' these little gardens were well supplied with 
TegctaUcs of all kinds. Com, bean and Irish potato seed were also 
supplied. Knowing thi.'se {teoplc as well as I did (h:i\'ing been amongst 
them from childhood), I had a peculiar sympathy for them, and in 
ever>' possible way so conducted my affairs as to benefit and instruct 
them in the highest possible manner, the results obtained fully repay- 
ing me for all my exertions in their Iwhalf. I never at any time fonnd 
them anything but kind, n-spcctful and extremely grateful for what 
waa bestowed upon them, and the evidences shown to-day, amply testify 
to the good tliat was done by Red Cross methods and teachings. Of 
course tronblcs and trials would ari'sc, but these were soon overcome, 
and things would go on smoothly again. 

The methods adopted by Miss Barton, and through me carried 
ont. gave universal satisfaction, and all able-bodied men were willing 
and anxious to work for their rations. The clothing (a large quantity), 
with the exception of that given by me in exchange for labor, was dis- 
tributed through the sewing societies formed by Miss T^artoii. 

This field was taken in December, 1893, and held till Augnst, 
1894. when I lefl there, feeling satisBed that all danger from n-ant and 
privation was o\*eT. VeRetables had been abundant, still coming in, 
the rii^ers furnishing their portion in abundance of fish, etc.; all crops 
promising a good harvest, the people in the meantime having been 
brought safely throtigh the most Irving period of their lives. Many 
incidents could be mentioned of the trials and sufferings endured by 
these people, and when the whole story is told, those who bestowed 
their charity in iliis. the most appalling disaster That has ever visited 
our coast, will not feel that it was injudiciously expended, or their 
kindness misplaced. 

Too much cannot be said in praise of Miss Barton, that great and 
wise general, on this most peculiar and difficult field, for there nex'er 
vas a man or woman who labored more zealously or untiringly in a 
work so varied in its diaracter or harder to perform. Enough has beea.^ 
Hid to tell the arduous duties to be performed, and the c«rcs an^ 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



349 



anxieties attendant ufx^n a wurtc of tills kind, but after a hard day's 
work, tbecoDsciousucssofhaviiigmadesomaay poor souls bappy would 
take away all fccUng of fatigue, and long in the night would we be 
packing and unpacking goods and clothing, and sometimes all day 
Sunday, thus showmg that no amount of time or effort was spaied in 
behalf of tbo^ dependent upon us. 

In regard to the good accomplished by the Red Cross (a question 
so of ten asked), can more be said tbau this? That human Ufe was 
saved from death by slar\'alion; the homeless were housed, and the 
naked were clothed, and by our words of counsel and clieer we were 
enabled to give new hope and life to a people who were in a most piti- 
able condition. Some wAo were not on that hard fought field Iiave 
been so bold as to criticise us, but we who were there with these people 
in their hour of need, and worked with them heart to heart and slioul- 
der to shoulder, know what we did and the everlasting good accom- 
plished. 

I kept a complete record of all goods received and everytliing 
given out, from a pint of grits to a barrel of clothing. Committees 
composed of the most intelligent men and women were formed to inves- 
tigate and report for each plantation, and as each new applicant 
appeared, their home was immediately visited, and relief extended 
accordiug to their needs. lu justice to all who came, I can truly say 
that in verj' few instances was I imposed upon, as they very seldom 
stated other thau the truth in regard to their condition. This narrative 
could be extended indefinitely, there is so much to write about, but fear 
I must come to a close, as my patient readers must be tired by this 
time. Sincerely trusting that the.se lines will convey their true mean- 
ing to those interested, I will subscribe myself as a sincere admirer of 
Miss Barton nud that grand institution she so fittingly represents. 

Eight thousand one hundred and nine souls were in the wards of the 
Red Cross in this district, in the following proportions on each island : 

Edisto 1.S12 

Wadmalaw 3.123 

South Jobn's 1,650 

North John's 3. 4*9 

Kiawah 55 

8,109 

Upwards of aoo packages of dothing (barrels, boxes and cases) 
were given out, besides blankets, comforteiB, etc., special attentioa 



aso THE RED CROSS. 

being given to those who were sick, old or helpless. Food stnff was 
distributed in the following amount: 

Grits 1, 527 bushels. 

Meal 163 bushels. 

Rice ^672 pounds. 

Wheat flour 23,980 pounds. 

Bacon 7,000 pounds. 

and other sundries, such as tea, sugar, canned beef, etc. Seeds were 
supplied, such as peas, tomatoes, okra, melon, bean, com, etc., of the 
following amounts: 

Com i4obushels. 

Bean 60 bushels. 

Irish potato 75 bushels. 

Assorted seed 30 bushels. 

Assorted seed 3 crates. 

Garden seed 3 boxes. 

Statembnt of Work Done on Each Islaxd. 

WADMAI^W lSI.A.in>. 

Twenty miles of ditching. 

One-halt mile of road work. 

One house repaired and others rebuilt 

Three chimneys repaired and others rebuilt. 

Five hundred shingles cut and split. 

Six thousand feet of planking and timber hewn and cut. 

Wharf built at Rockville of the following dimensions: 

One hundred and ten feet long. 

Ten feet wide with a bulkhead twenty by thirty feet. 
A school started and carried on for several months, 

KDISTO isiAiro. 

Two hundred and eleven and one-half miles of ditching. 
One thousand four hundred and sevaity feet of causeway, 

twelve by two feet, built. 
Two hundred feet of timber cut and hewn. 
One bridge eighty feet long and twelve feet wide rebuilt. 



«54 



'THE RED CROSS. 



THE CLOTHING DEPARTMENT. 

Whilst food for the nourishment of these thousands of human 
bodies was of the first and highest importance, it was followed so 
closely by the necessity of something to cover them, that the two 
seemed well uigh inseparable; and while our meu stood over the boxes 
of meats and the bags of grain, by the carload and the trainload, it was 
no less imperative, that some one stand by the boxes and barrels of 
clothing scut from, every where^&eut by the great, warm, pitying hearts 
of our blessed, generous couutrywomeu, from the church, with its 
towering steeple aud the sofl-toued bell that calls to prayer, the blazing 
bazaar, with its galaxies of beauty, animate and iuaniniatc, the dimly 
lighted, one little room of the womau who has tmlcd out all day and 
rctTinis %veary aud heavy laden to the waiting family of little ones, who, 
iu the midst of their own hard life aud the need of much, still bless 
God for a (ate better thau those tliey hear of^from all of these alike 
come the gifts of Dorcas. In tons they come, and some one must, 
"stand aud ddiver," as hour by hour goes out the appeal: "Closen 
marm — please give me somecloscn. I's lost all I hadl" How literally- 
true this was may be judged by the fact that here as at JoUnstowu, there 
were those who came out of tliat terrific strife for life with uo thread 
left on the boily but the sliirt band about the neck, which a strong, well- 
sewc<l button had served to bold. 

Again, as always, we turned to our " Mistress of the Robes," Mrs. 
Dr. Gardner, whose quick and dear judgment seems to double the 
value of all she handles. She goes to ever>' field, helps to organize, 
and remains as long as the strength in her slender, wiry body permits. 
She left her uupreteudlug report as far as she was able to do, or to 
make it; 



Mrs. Gardner's Report. 



On the first day of October, 1S93, the Ainencan National Red 
Cross took charge of the relief work of the Sea Islands of South 
Carolina. During the month before this and just after the storm, the 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



355 



clothing department had been in the hands of a very efScient local 
committee composed of swmc of the most prominent ladles and gentle-" 
men of the section around Rcaufort. 

In the first days after a disaster of this kind, the necessity* of relief 
work is so great, that it is impassible to keep a correct record of supplies 
that pour in from everj* part of the ccuntrj-, and this was no exception, 
with both hearts, and hands full, distributing to the thousands of 
destitute who were imploring them on every hand for help, this 
coimniitee had nothing to tell of what had been received. 

After we took charge, a faithful record was kept, and when there 
was a mark of ai)y kind to show us where the goods caoie from, an 
acknowledgment was sent at onco. Many, many things came without 
a sign of any directions to tell where they w-ere from. In these cases 
close watch was kept for any writing inside to give some clew. I have 
even taken the newspaper the box, barrel or parcel was lined \vith. and 
tried in that way to reach the donors. 

The people of the United States are a most generous people, and 
yet so modest with it, that they very often miss the verification of the 
saying that " it is more blessed to give than to receive." Could they 
stand, as do the members of the National Red Cross, and look into the 
glad, grateful faces of the relieved oues. there would be no need of our 
president sending out circulars aud letters all over the country, praying 
that articles for the relief be plainly marked. Would it be out of place 
for rae to urge the good people who read this report to remember this 
when sending to the next field? 

The distribution of the clothing had to be systematically planned. 
Here was a territory 150 miles long by 50 miles wide, not on the main 
land, but on islands, surrounded by water, with the most treacherous 
chaimels, and many impossible to even get into. The people to be 
helped, kind and industrious, but they had lieen dependent from their 
cradles, and were in such a dazed condition, they hardly knew what 
had overtaken them. 

The clothing, plenty of it, bnt all for adults. What was to 
become of the little waifs of the wind, rain and high tide? Evidently 
these goods had to l>c fashioned into little garments. 

Bedding, comparatively none, and ever>' few minutes the plea, 
" Please miss, jmt a little bedding to keep the chilluns warm at 
night." 

r have stood at my lahlc from 7 a. ra, until way into the night, 

opening boxes, barrels and parcels, and not one piece of bedding to 
15 



856 THE RED CROSS. 

come to my hands. The people on half rations, thinly clothed and 
nothing to keep them warm of a night. 

This, as well as all other puzzling questions, were referred to our 
most honored president, and I have asked her to tell how she came to 
the rescue, and by her wise forethought not only assisted her own 
workers, but placed a responsibility upon the people that made them 
help each other, and gave them a self-respect that they would have 
gained in no other way. 



THli SEA ISLANUS HURRICANE. 



257 



THE SEWING CIRCLES. 



There are many points in the administration of relief that will 
never present themselves nntil forctti uixin the miml by the absolute 
necessities of the case. It was not long until we were confronted with 
a condition of things that called for ingenious methods and diplo- 
matic action. All foods sent or pnrcliased wure always of good qnality 
and in readiness for immediate ilistribmion and use — these could Iw 
given (o the committeeman, who in turn sent them out as veritable 
rations a speci6ed quantity to each. There was no question, no 
judgment required, no opportunity for favoritism, no chance for reserve. 
But with, the clothing all these conditions changed and securities 
vanished. The coumiitteemau who came for the ration.-? of food, took 
also the boxes of clothing, and naturally claimed, the privilege of 
distribution. The clothing sent was very largely, as is always the case, 
for women and children. Tins rough negro, however well versed 
in corn meal, hominy and bacon, was not likely to prove a skDlfuI 
manipulator of women's wardrobes. Jealousies would arise and 
criminations follow. Again the chothing was almost entirely second- 
hand, sent hastily, and usually so out of repair as to be nearly useless 
for actual wear until overlooked, mended, strengthened and put into 
proper coudiliou. How was this lo be done? Thirty thousand people 
to cluthi:, winter at hand, little shelter, and almost no bedding — surely 
av could not undertake this labor. That a poor, untaught negro labor- 
ing women, would ue^'e^ of herself mend a hole, or sew on a button, 
even if she had a button, a needle, and thread, and a place to do it iu. 
How to formulate some system by which this could be done, how to 
get them under intelligent dirccUon. lo get the women interested and 
into the n'ork and the men out of it, for the committeemen were fast 
gaining in importance and influence among the other men by reason of 
patronage, a kind of " political pull," one might say. 

I struggled with this problem some days, imtil finally — it might 
have been the spirit of the Widow Bcdolt that come to my assistance — 
for Kviddenly then; flits through my jvrplexcd mind the idea of * ' sewing 
societies." No ameudmuut was required, and the resolution was put 



258 THE RED CROSS. 

and motion carried in far less time than it had taken to evolve the idea. 
Word went out at once that the president of the Red Cross, accom- 
panied by her staff, of ladies especially, would be pleased to meet the 
women of one of the most important islands; that the meeting would 
be held in the interest of the women ; that they might consider it their 
meeting — but men were not forbidden — would they kindly appoint a 
day, and place of meeting, and the hour most convenient for themselves. 
The church which had been repaired was selected, and its dergj-man 
notified us. 

It was a sunny autumn day when our party crossed over the ferry 
and landed on the sandy beach of Coosaw, and took our pathways 
through the clumps of shrubs and trees, basking in the sunshine, but 
ripening and reddening with the dying year. Soon groups of women 
commenced to appear from the by paths and the little trails on either 
side, dressed in the best we had given them, and traveled on with 
cheery faces, full of expectation. 

After a journey of perhaps two miles, the little ' ' ractified ' ' church 
came in sight, or rather would have come in sight but for the crowd of 
people gathered about it. The entrance was politely held clear for us. 
The little edifice, which would seat with its gallery perhaps two hundred 
persons, was packed with a waiting audience. The platform and desk 
had been reserved for the "extinguished visitors," and we took our 
places. The entire space filled and echoed with the sweet, plaintive 
melody that the negro voice alone can give. This was followed by 
earnest prayer by the pastor; then a little speech of welcome by the 
elder, and we were introduced to our audience. And, who could ask a 
more attentive or sympathetic audience than this! The president, who 
has addressed some bodies of people, never stood before one that she 
enjoyed or honored more. Here was the simplicity of nature, the 
earnestness of truth, the innate trust in the love and care of the living 
God of Heaven that even its winds and waves could not shake, and 
the glorious spirit of resignation that could suffer and be glad, if not 
strong. 

But to business. The situation was fiiUy explained to them, and 
they were told that in spite of all we had for them, they alone could 
comfortably clothe themselves through the winter. Then the plan of 
a well arranged sewing society, with its constitution, laws, officers and 
regulations was explained, and their approval and co-operation asked. 
On a unanimous assent, they were required to select twenty-five 
women from among them, who should retire for twenty minutes and 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



«59 



discuss the subject among themselves, selcctiug their chief officers, and 
far as possible, give us tiic points of their organizatitm. 

In the boily of women that rose and retired for consultation one 
saw good ground for liojx!of success. A part were the strong, matronly 
women, whose childhood and youth had been passed in tlie service of 
the hospitable home of the master in the old days of el^ant luxury 
" 'fo dc wa"," and who needed no one to teach thera courtesy or what 
belonged to a family howsthokl; others were sewing girls, some of 
whom had partially learned trades, and a few were teachers, for the 
great majority of the children of ten years and upwards on these 
islands had been taught to read. These women needed only the proper 
inslruciion, encouragement, the way opened for them, the suitable 
material distributed, and the liberty of action and conscience, with no 
patronage or jiolitics invading their premises. 

The system formulnted for one society became the system for all; 
each district which received rations of food had its regularly organized 
sewing society for the clotliing sent to them on requisition. First 
some room was found, with a fire, shelves arranged for garments and 
tables for work. Of the twenty-five official women, each should give 
one week of her time in ever>' month, but changing regularly in order 
that at no time should there be more than one-fourth of the number 
new to the work in hand. Four women should visit and inspect 
applicant for assistance, and two should attend entirely to the wants 
of the feeble and old and the sick, to sec that they ivere in no way 
neglected. 

Of those in the sewing room, a part cut overgannents for children, 
as there arc never enough of these; others repaired and mended. As 
the barrels and boxes went in from the committeemen, Uicy were 
received and opened on one side of the room; when repaired tlie>' were 
placed on the shelves on the opposite side and given out from there 
on the recommendation of the visiting inspectors. Along with the 
clothing went thread, needles, pins, thimblitfi, wax. shears, knives and 
pieces for me:iding. For the bedding, besides two thousand heavy 
wool blankets which were donated, as many more purchased; cotton 
hatting and calico, or muslin, by the ton were bought, and the societies 
instructed in lying " comforts," which in many instances served as both 
cover and bed. 

There was never any complaint with these women about the time 
given to, or the la1x>r performed, in this service for the common weal, 
and seldom any difficulty arose between them. If so, a few words »et 



a6o 



TFIK RED CROSS. 



it right, and the offending individual was discovered, pointed out, and 
pul out r)f ihy society, with the usual expIanator>' remark: " She want 
too nmcli nile; she done always do make trouble." But whatever 
trials the day might bring to them, they were solaced and forgotten in 
the nice afternoon lunch, and the steaming cups of tea and coffee pre- 
pared by one of the members from the rations so wisely planned and 
faithfully sent by Mrs. Gardner. 

Next to the absolute necessity for the distribution of food supplies, 
and tlie great essentials of life itself, t regard the sewing societies as 
perhaps the most important feature of the field. From these they 
learned not alone the lesson of self-help, but of mutual help, which they 
had nei'er known before. It had never occurred to them to look about 
and see who was in need, and find away to help ii; and it was a glad 
satisfaction to hear their voluntary pledges when we left them, never 
to give up the custom of these societies, and the habit of caring for 
their poor. 

Appended to Mrs. Gardner's report are long, tiresome lists of 
names of recipients, which, howCT'cr necessar>* and business like in their 
tiuic and place, we may well spare tile reader in these belated years; 
but one little list apjx^ls to jiie with such loving interest, that I ain 
constrained to ask the privilege of inserting it. It is a partial roll of 
the presidents of the sewing societies, of whose tireless, faithful work 
no adequate descrijitton could be given. And when we read among 
them the name of Mrs. Admiral Beardslce, and that missionary of 
scholarship and teaching on St. Helena, Miss Ellco Murray, nielo\*able 
and accomplished late wife of Robert Small, and Mr.s. Jolin MacDonald. 
who liumbly and magnanimously placed themselves side by side with 
poor, unlettered, but honest and faithful Patty Frazier. and her kind, 
the reader will fed with me that it is indeed a roll of honor: 



Simrfy. Plresident. 

CooKaw Works Mrs. Mary Chaplain 

Beaufort Mrs. General Small 

Hilton Head Mrs. John MacDonald 

Wadmalnw - Mrs. Fr&uk Whalej- 

Ladies' Island . Mrs. Sam Green 

St. Helena ... Miss Ellen Murray 

Coosaw Islaud Maria Rt^'ers 

Bennet's Point C. C. Richardson 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



s6i 



Soiiffy. _ Ptresident. 

Musselboro Mrs. Phillips 

HnUchiiisou, Bolders, > _, _. 

Of,,, \ W. Rncrs 

Beef, Warreu J 

Rockvillc H. L. Bailey 

Edisto Amanda Brown 

Tommy Johns Mary Jenkins 

Johns Island Mrs. Chas. Wilson 

Big State Plantation Jackson Field 

Jericho, Rhctts F. C. Garrett 

DixonviUe General Saunders 

Paris Island Mrs. Beardslee 

Tommy Rhodes Patty Frazicr 

Christmas, which tn*o months before had jwiemed but a veil ol 
future blackness, opened bright and cheerful. Most of the churches 
had been in some way reopened, and Christmas Eve brought again its 
melody, its prayer and its praise. 

There was in all this a Christian spirit, so sweet, so much to be 
commended, that I could not refrain from passing in my little contribu- 
tion of a Christmas carol, for which they at once found a tuueaad sang 
it with a will. Light-hearted, happy race. 



A CHRISTMAS CAROU 

For tny 30,000 Se» Island PriendE. 

v4 Loving GtrtHHg and Merry Christmas. — Clara Darton. 

Lo! The Cbrisbnas mom is breaking, 

Ilriitg lh« angels bright array, 
For tbe Christian world is waking, 
Anil the \jotA is liorn lo^ay. 

Shout then, brothers; shout and pmy. 
For the blesses] Lord i« born UKby. 

No ntore t#mr« and pain and nottdw. 
Hark I 1 hear the angels say 

Blemed be the bright to-morrow. 
For the Lord ia born ttwiay. 

Shout then, aintent; aHduI ntid pray. 
For Ute blessed Lord is bom to-day. 



a62 THE RED CROSS. 

Forget yonr night of sad disaster, 

Cast yoar burdens all away. 

Wait the coming of the Master, 

For the Lord Is bom to-day. 

Shout then, children; shout and pray, 
For the blessed Lord is bom to-day. 

In the sunlight, soft and golden, 

Round the babe the angels play; 
List, their notes so grand and olden, 
Lo! The Lord is bom to-day. 

Shout, all people; shout and pray, 
For the blessed Lord is bom to-day. 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



363 



CLOTHING DEPARTMENT— Continued. 

As the work dropped from the vrcary hand of Mrs. Gardner, 
another, stronger, more fresli and new in the work, took it up. Mrs. 
Harriette h- Reed, of Boston, who, while never permanently with us, 
seldom allows a field to escape her. We regard it as a loss to any 
field where her genial presence, clear perception and sound judgment 
take no part. Mrs. Reed, like our beloved and brilliant countr>'woman, 
Mrs. Logan, went to the civil war o{ i86r, a bride. Her gallant young 
husband. Captain J. Sewall Reed, took the first detachment of volun- 
teer cavalr>- from California, known as the " California One Hundred." 
He fell in on ambuscade, in the Army of the Potomac, [864. His 
brax-e young wife was ahvays with him at tlie front, and received his 
dead body when brought in. Thus early bereft, she took up the 
march of life alone, and faithfully and tirelessly has she made it, with 
a cheering word and an outstretched hand to every wear^* comrade in 
the tedious march of more Uian thrtc decades, and still she ser\'es, and 
still they call her blesse<l. 

Her graceful report, which has lain in my portfolio since 1893, 
now comes to light with its waiting compauioas: 



Mrs. Rbed's Report. 



The preceding account of the distribution of clothing, relates to 
the early part of the work covering a period of several months, and 
was under the charge of Mrs. Dr. Gardner, of Bedford, Ind., who was 
called home. 

Coming upon the scene about this time, I was more than glad to 
lake up her work to a small cxleul, and for three mouths it was my 
privilege to labor in this field of the Red Cross work, bringing so 
often to my miud the words of the Master, "for I was naked and ye 
clothed me." 

And what a strange, unusual and extraordinary field of labor it 
was and how unlike anytlitng I ttad ever seen berore. Let me briefly 
picture a few of the regular types of "sufferers" besieging bead- 
quarters, the old, decrepit uncle of the days "befa' the wah " with. 



THE RED CROSS. 

while head and IkiiL shoulders; the tittle unc, toddling along behind 
the young moibur, hiding in her latlcred garments, with great black 
eyes peering Uirough the rags; the strong young man, barefoot or with 
pieces of shoes tied on with strings, coat and pants Lhat looked like 
relics of a Ijygone lime and a conspicuotis absence of under garments; 
Uie old'tinie " mammy " shivering svith cold and begging for a little 
"closen'* to keep her warm, all these and more were our daily, hourly 
visitors, imploring our aid and needing it oh, how sorely! And what 
heartrending tales of loss and sorrow and fcnrful destitution were 
brought to us by tlicsc messengers from a stricken people! Many of 
them, before the cyclone, had comfortable little homes and clothing 
sufficient for their simple needs; occasionally a sewing machine was 
owned, and sometimes, in more fiivored homes, an organ. Now, there 
was absolutely nothing of all this. Parents, children, friends were 
gone — not a vestige left of the home; horses, mules, cows, hens swept 
away, and scarcely clothing enough left to cover part of the family. It 
was not an infrequent tale that fell upon our cars, that the little hand 
that had left the home were all that could find sufficient clothing to 
come in and the rest were left nearly nafced in consequence. 

Very early in the morning a motley crowd gathered in the street, 
in the vicinity of headquarters, and all day long they were coming and 
going and it was far into tlie evening before the last one had departed. 
And, what a good-natured, patient, orderly crowd it was! Seldom was 
there any loud talking, screaming.^ quarreling such as is ordinarily 
heard in a like gathering, in scenes with which I had been more familiar. 
The shadow of the terrible calamity that bad bdallen them had in no 
wise departed from them, and not yet had the dawn of the ne\v day 
itstored the happy, careless, cheery* manner that seems to be natural 
to them. 

When they were admitted to the office, singly or in small groups, 
as was necessary', for our quarters were limited, how quietly, respect- 
fully, they made their entrance! No crowding nor jostling to get the 
best places or be served first, but patiently waiting their turn, entering 
with a low bow or deep courtesy, they recei\'ed the slip of paper that 
meant so much to them and, with words and tears of gratitude, with- 
drew as quietly as they came. 

It is simply impossible within the limits of this report, and indeed 
words are inadequate, to convey even a faint idea of the immensity of 
the labor required in this department. Kind hearts all over our land 
had been stirred by the appeals tliat had been made for those needy 




THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 165 

ones, and boxes, barrels, buudles. all sorts aud descriptions of these 
came pouring in upon us. All of tliese must be oapacked and sorted 
and again repacked before they could reach those for whom they were 
intended. Think of this, careful housekeepers, as you sort over and 
pack away your family wardrobe and household goods. Think what 
it would mean to sort over and pack away clothing for the use of thirty 
thousand people. 



As I think it will not be without interest to our readers, to give a 
little closer \'icw of the people among whom we worked; for this 
purpose I shall make a few extracts from various letters received at 
Red Cross headquarters. The first is a plea for help aud is a fair 
sample of these papers, 1 copy words aud spelling with uo attempt at 
correction: 



Hiss Clara Darton thb gcRRN ov trr Red cross SociKn*. 

we ar now, making a Plc^d before you roam, we are the suSen of the Stonit. 
we bc>; you mum to lielph wc to »oni clothing, mam wc nr all nakvd. mam, 
there is Soiii old People is there mani can uot lielpli Ihoiii Self Some tiiotberlJs 
childreo \» there can not li«1ph tbeui Self WaitiiiK for Som clothing f you Please 
num. Thanks yon nuun for the Rasbon (ratiotuj we get it maoi But no clothing 
we Get We is the committee of tlie clothing:. 



This is signwl by the three women of the committee. 

As pleas for help came by mail, so also did letters of thanks and 
a few of these will tell their own slory much bertcr than any description 
di mine could possibly hope to do. Here is one: 



we the people of tbia Plantation have sen much tbanlc to you Dear madam for 
the cloung (dotlring) what you have send for ous the very children sen there 
thanks to you for the shoes an closing; that you bave sent fnr them an we the 
people pray Day ftn<l night that the god of heaven will keep you an gard yon an 
when Ihii) short life U pass heaven will he your home nothing more to My at 
prcsenL Sigued by one member of the committee, a woman. 



266 



THE RED CROSS. 



As an instance of the de^re of many of the committees io charge 
of the distribution of clothing, to be honest and fair, I copy another 
letter : 

Miss Bastoh : 

Dear Madau; Urs. Diana WlUliuns prrRident or Sewing Society Ko. t 
Say she coming over for Clothing on Monday I dont thinic cny ciolhing need not 
riglil away I would like to «e on iny Section how many needy person are not senre 
in Clothing yet nnd plo&edont send over no clothing before for it will take luesouic 
time, when clothing are need to go ovtr 1 will let you now (know) for further 
Infoniiatiou I can explain it something I like to any to }-oa before «ny mote cloth- 
ing go over, 

I have thus far mentioned the more pleasant features of this work, 
but 110 one will be surprised if I touch lightly upon some of its trials. 
Life was not always " one loug. bright, suuny day " in the Sea Islands, 
any more than it is in the more favored sections of our land. This 
great work of relief bad its reverse side ; the usual trials, disappoint- 
ments and disconiagements attending most lines of philanthropic work 
were not lacking here. Not all were entirely content with the 
necessary restrictions and methods ; aot all were wholly satisfied with 
such things as could be found for them just at that lime ; not all 
committees worked in absolute peace and harmony, and the common 
faults of humanity in general were not wholly absent. 

I well remember one instance which will illustrate these conditions. 
Two rival committees presented themselves before our president, Iwth 
anxious to establish their rights and claims, and with great earnestness 
and vehemence related their grievances. With her u.snal wisdom and 
patience, sitting in their midst like a judge in his court, she pronounced 
the sentence which was that no more clothing should be issued Xo either 
side for the present. This will explain the following letter : 



HoK. Miss Babtom : 

Dkar Madam ; We the people of this I&land gi\-e yem grate th&nkft. for what 
you are Doing (or iis. as the corniittce We have put Before ua, arc Doing all in 
thdr power and kuowdge (knowledge) We Believe, and Deu- Madam the codi- 
loiUee of the doth (clothes) Who Went before yon with the cotruption Wc Dont 
rccunizc (recognize) them in that for We the people of this island ore very happy 
for all that you arc Doing for u«. Now Dear Madam Wc a^ you. as we icrn 
the close arc Mop on account of the fust (fuss) that the corniiltee made amon^g 
thenuclvctt tliU we now* (loiliin;; about tliia netlier the connitlce We put before ns 
these don't no anything ntxiut it 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 267 

This is signed by twenty-two men of the Island. 

Scenes of this sort were not of frequent occurrence and were the 
exception to the rule of general satisfaction which prevailed every- 
where. As the months went by, smiles returned to their faces and 
hope to their hearts, and by every method in their power, they evinced 
a most sincere desire to do something for their benefactors. Delegations 
of men and women came from long distances, sailing in their boats 
days and nights, oftentimes to express their gratitude and thanks. 

With the coming of spring, they brought us early vegetables from 
their gardens, seeds having been furnished them by the Red Cross ; 
they searched the woods and the fields for the beautiful wild flowers so 
abundant there, till our rooms were filled with beauty and fragrance 
and our hearts gladdened by their brightness. 

I have tried in this very imperfect report to give a little idea of 
our life at the Sea Islands and the manner of our work. Its great 
magnitude, its far-reaching results must be imagined, for they cannot 
be told. The history of philanthropy has few brighter pages to record 
and its pleasant memories will gladden our hearts long after its weary 
hours are forgotten. 



268 THE RED CROSS. 



LEAVING THE FIELD. 

If it be desirable to understand when to commence a work of 
relief, to know if the objects presented are actually such as to be bene- 
fited by the assistance which would be rendered, it is no less desirable 
and indispensable that one knows when to end such relief, in order to 
avoid, first, the weakening of effort and powers for self-sustenance; 
second, the encouragement of a tendency to beggary and pauperism, 
by dependence upon others which should be assumed by the persons 
themselves. It has always been the practice of the Red Cross to watcii 
this matter closely and leave a field at the suitable moment when it 
could do so without injury or unnecessary suffering, thus leaving a 
wholesome stimulus on the part of the beneficiaries to help not only 
themselves individually, but each other. 

Seldom a field, or any considerable work of relief which may have 
attracted public notice, comes to a close that there does not some person 
or body of persons arise and propose to continue the work under some 
new form, but using the former well established sources of sup- 
plies; to put out new appeals to old patrons, detailing great need, 
newly discovered, and thus keep the sympathetic public forever on the 
anxious seats of never-ending pity and help. We have been compelled 
to guard against this at the close of every long-continued field, notably 
Johnstown, where it became necessary for the citizens to organize a 
"Home Relief" to keep sensational strangers off the ground, and 
their well arranged " Benevolent Union " of to-day is the result. 

The Sea Islands were no exception, and at the last moment of our 
stay a well-drawn petition was discovered (for it was to be kept con- 
cealed until we were gone), and was checked only by the vigorous aid 
of the Charleston News and Courier, of June 25, 1894, always our stay 
and friend in time of trouble. I append a letter to that journal which 
followed a visit from their able correspondent. The last weeks of our 
stay in that place were passed in Charleston, hence the letter dates 
from there: 

To the Edilor of the " News and Courier," 

Charleston, S. C: 

If no other service called for my pen this morning it would be safBcient 
motive that it comes to thank yoa for the graceful, manly and cordial note of 



THK SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



369 



yesterday, which will Rlwnys hold its place nsiong my Ueuures of elegant litera- 
ture, asking for a personal audience for your correspondent for aonie facta con- 
cerning the work whidi tuut rircenlly been brou);bt lo 11 close. • • • 

It ill liUle to say that, without the strong, honest support given in notes of 00 
nuccrtatn aound, bearing in every line the courugv of its convictions, of the 
Cbarleiton Newa and Courier, no work of relief of this great disaster could have 
lived and been carried on to any mcccM » • • 

llie ration* iainied have been as followt: St. Helena, 5,72.^ persatia; Indies' 
Island, including; Coosaw, Com. Morgan and adjoiDing smallvr islands, 3,500; 
Hilloii Heud, including the twelve islands in the group and ttdjuining mainland, 
inclnding Bluffton, 2,875; Paris Island, 597; Port Royal Island, 3,666; Kcan's Neck, 
ftitUi-itcd on the mainland, Including Cooiiaw and I'aclfic phosphate districts, 1,437; 
Hntchinsou Island district, including Bennett's and Muaselboro Points, Peuwick, 
Seabrook, Baird's, S:inipiton nnd other smaller Ltlands, 3.338; Bdi»to, Wadmalsw, 
John's and adjacent islands, 8,000. The above figures do tiot include the special 
issue on the muinlnnd of 34.00a in number nor the regular labor rations of 6,50u, 
which IB a double ration. 

I ssy I was moro than willing to leave all this needful detail to other hands, 
Inasmuch as the subject which I desired to present i^ of s diOereut nature, coil* 
ccming the general puinl^ of welfare, and, may I say. reputation of South Carolina, 
and addressed to the people of nil this grand and goodly State of old renown. 
Proud and chivalrous, all the world knows that it must be hard and diatastefnl for 
her to accept help under any conditions, and it in only in the furj- of tiit i-lenientul 
rage, as when the earth cnimbles under her, or the seas roll over her, that au>-one 
cssa>'s to attempt it; and it was for this reason. If no otlicr hod been needed, that 
I cnme personally to stand among my workers, and sec to it thai the Red Cross, at 
least, bear in all it did a demeanor of delicacy and respect, where it must extend 
■ti aid. I believe it has done this. 

It cannot be ncccKwiy to rrpcfit at this late day that I was asked by your 
governor to accept the diarge of the relief of the sufierers of the Sea Islands, of 
whom it wan said there were thirty thousand who would need aid until they conld 
raise something to subsist upon themselves. Thin was accepted with great hesii- 
taucy, and only in view of the fact that no other body of persona in all the land 
appeared to siMuiiie the resj^onaihility, and with the cordial, ^iiiKelBsh and gt-ncrous 
support of the advisory committee of Charleston and Beaufort, to whom our 
earnest thanks are due, Che work has been corned on to a successful conclui.ion. 
It later developed that an equal number of persons, both white and colored, 
residing on the seagirt coast of the State, now known as the " mainland," u'ere 
nearly as destitute as the islanders, and many of them eiiually storm swept. 
Finding t1ie«e people appealing to as, and well knowing that, tti the deprexKed 
financial condition of the entire United States, m could not safely take on this 
double charge, we memoriatizc<l the South Carolina Legi&tature in Novemberi the 
people, also under our advice, pelitioneil for a little aid to get them through the 
winter. The governor also recommended the suggestion. 

Por some reason, which we never knew, no response was given. We never 
questioned this, but redoubted our exertions to meet the wants as they came by 
single rations ismrd upon application, until onr hook» show nn i.<-«ne up to June i 
of over 34,000 to the needy white and colored on the mainland of the Slate, fiom 



270 THE RED CROSS. 

Cliarleston to SavaoDah. No applicant, unless detected in absotnte imporitimi, 
and this after having been repeatedly sen-«d with all he needed for the time, has 
ever been declined. Oor thirty tfaoosand Sea I^anders have received their veekljr 
rations of food, they have becD tanght to distribute their own clothing, making 
official report, and have done it well. They are a well clothed people, and over 
^<3O0 garments have gone to the mainland. Tboosands of little homes liave been 
rebult or repaired, and arc occupied, 0\-er 245 miles of ditche* have been made, 
reclaiming and improving many thousands of acres of land; nearly five tmui of 
garden seeds, producing all varieties of vegetables in their well-fenced gudens of 
from a quarter of an acre to one acre and more for each family, with 800 bnahela 
of peas and beans, have been provided. These seeds have been distribated on tbe 
islands and to every applicant from the mainland; 1,000 bushels of Irish potato 
seed, 400 bushels of which went to the mainland; 1,800 bushels of seed 00m, 800 
bushels of this distributed on the mainland. Those provisions, together with • 
revival of tbe phosphate industries, the fish in the rivers and their boats in repnr, 
have served to make the 30,000 Sea Islanders, whom we were a^ed to take disrge 
of nine months ago, a prosperous and self-helping people. They know this and 
realize that they can take care of themselves, and we cannot but regard any attempt 
at throwing them again upon the charities of the outride worid as demonlixing, 
misleading and fatal to them, as a self-supporting and independent class of indoa- 
trial people, and a matter which should concern the State whose ward.4 they : 



(Xaba Bartoh. 
CharUiton. S. C.,June 24, 1894. 



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THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



a73 



^iie ^ffleni;an ^alwnaf ^eil V^rusjfc. 



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>:*■ fMAalMitfall 



mW^r^ »—U m i». fw*. IW»«. niwHtiow W 



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JB .r r^ —ia HHA k. vm iii Mm i iTi ri iiibi if tj^ 
I ft ■■& »?i im II kt rill, am n. jxy h km. 



[»• 



February 36, /8^. 

Copy of Circular Lf Iter Sent lo Each Clergyman and Committeeman 0/ Our Sea 
fUand Reli^ IVork the Season A/ler We Came Away from the Islands. 

Altboufib tile claims upon oor limi; art more than wr can meet by working 
ftll the ilay ami much of the nigbl, ll« memory- anJ ihe interest of our faithful 
Sea Ifilanil friends with whom we worked last year, through the months that fol- 
lowed thegrent stoiui, >till claim much uf our tliouglits. 

Another planting season is apprnachict;, and we arc hoping that your people 
havebeen doing the prcparalory work of ditching for tlie raising of good crops. 
If any have not begun this work, will you EC« those who would tBkc an actiw 
interest in the pablie good, like vonnelf, and get them to start the work Kgain at 
once, so tti.il there Tii.-iy l>e •» great an ailvance over last year's improvements as 
last year was over previous years. 

Get the neighbors to join together and clean out the uld dttchcv, make all the 
new main ditches and canals that they can, and then make the smaller ones to 
conneet with them; this will help to gi\-e them better health, \t*% fe\'er, larger 
crops and better ones. 

\Vc hope they will gix-c particular attention to their ganlens and ba>-c even 
better one°i this year than they did last, imjirovins each reason by experience and by 
learning from one another, particularly from thoHc who have been most succ3C»ful. 

Dr. Hubbell has made a list of seeds profitable to plant, iu two groups, as 
Ml own: 

Fob EAIU.Y Vumtxhg. 

Baclj purplC'top ttrap-Ieaf turnip, early cabbage, lettuce, rutabaga tnmipa. 

Id b bot-bed or iu a protected place, where they can be covered nt night when 
it b cold, the cabbage plants and tomato plants should be started at once, to be 
ready for tiansplunling when the ground is worm. 



For Plahtinc Whhr thb Timb tor PRoar is ^*st. 

Buly Rose potatoes, ouious (sets and seed), early turnip, blood beet, early 
corn, Boglish peas, snap or wax beans, biuh l,ima or Sie\-et bcnnti, early squash, 
okf.i, tomalocft, carrots, cncombcra, collards, late cabbage, taniera, and large sugar 
beet for atock. (Some of thcae may be planted in the field.} 
tS 



274 



THE RED CROSS. 



I 

n 



In tlie field (with corn or cotton) pumpkins and large »qiuubcs, castiiiloD 
and watermelons uiAy be plunted. 

The garden ahoold be well fertilize*! and no weeds or grass allowed to grow. 
The weeds take the nourishment from the plants, tuc up and waste the fertiliz^rK. 

There ihould be a good fence to keep the chickens out; then the jjardcn, with 
the cbickrnt' iind their fggx, will fumixh most of h good living for a family until ^i 
the regular crops can be harvested and save from debt. ^^M 

A good garden and a variety of crops are as necessary for the prosperity of a^B 
firmer as they ore for hia health. 

Every Sea Islander sliould plant now a few &g cuttings and a few grape cut- 
tingv, antl such fruit trees a.i he may he able to get; [leaches, pearx, pecans. In a 
few years these plautiags (if protected &om the goats, pigs and cattle) will give 
pleutiful fruit throagh the "dry season" [paiticuUrly the fig), and the grapes and 
other fmit will be a luxury and profit ia their seiuoD, besides keeping the people 
In health, 

With good ditches erctywhere. with plenty of vegetables from the gardens, 
figa and grapca, there xbould be almost no sickneaai on those prosperous island^ 
■nd every one should be happy. 

Regarding the other crops, as cotton, com, rice, -tweet potatoes, peanuts and 
cow peas, the people should be encouraged to get and save the best seed. Select 
from the earlical an<l lieat of their own or Ibcir neighbor's raising. Fertilize SS 
much as possible with tliose fertilizets that they can get by tlieir own labor, sndt 
as manh-gTBss, Ben mud, liable compost, fish, oyster shell lime, ashes, etc (and 
some commercial fertilizer). 

They should strive to raise the best of evcrytliiiig. The best yields the most 
for the Mime labor, and brings the higheNt price, gives the greatest satisfaction to 
htm who grows it and him who buys it. That means prosperity, which we wiili 
for you all in largest measure. 

Enjoin the people to keep out of debt, to "ow« no man anything;*' tlii.t conrae 
.rill make the road of honesty and integrity easier and shorten the way to 
plenty and prosperity; speak uo evil of thy neighbor, then all will work together 
happily in tl»rir public work of ditches, bridges, toads, welb, etc., and live happy 
in their homes. 

The people should not forget the loct that water from wells not thoroughly 
cleaned will breed fever and other sicknesE, and that good pure water will in a 
large degree keep the fever off. 

To encourage the general continuance of this work of improvement your 
people so readily took up at onr re<iuc»it and carried on of youraelve* lo our gratifi- 
cation and to the astonishment of your old-time neighbors, I will have copies of 
this letter sent to other leading Sea Island citizens, thus all may be nt wurk at the 
some time and all will receive the benefits of your nnitcd labors by lessened sick- 
oessand Increased crops. 

Uay the good Lord bless the efforts of a faithful people is the wish of 

Your friend, 

Ci^RA Barton, 
Pttsident of the Ameritan Red Ousx 



ARMENIA. 



(?i 



■ ^ N November, 1895, Uie press commenced to warn us of 
a possible call for the relief of tlie terrible suSeiJugs 
of Armenia, which were engaging tlie altcnlion of 
the civilized world. These warniuKS were followed 
later by a letter from Rev. Judsou Smith, D. D., of 
v.- Boston, secretary of the American Board of Com* 
^ misbionersfor Foreign Missions, referring his sugges- 
tion back to Rev. Henry O. Dwight, D. D., of the 
American Board of Foreign Missions at Constanti- 
nople. The American Red Cross was requested by 
these representative gentlemen, to undertake the distribution of relief 
funds among ttie suffereis of Armenia. Owing to the disturbed condi- 
tion of the country aud of its strict laws, combined as they were with 
existing racial and religious differences, it was found almost impossible 
at the moment to distribute the relief needed. The faithful but dis- 
tressed resident missionaries were themselves helpless sufferers to a 
great extent and practically prisoners in their own houses. These had 
not always been spared to tliem in the wild excitement which reigned 
for several months previous, otherwise they would have been the nor- 
mal channels for distributing aid. This written request from Dr. Smith 
was nearly identical with a similar one from Mr. Spencer Trask, of New 
York, who, witli other-S was about to form a National Armenian RcUef 
Committee, to be established in that city. Following their letters, 
both of these gentlemen. Dr. Smith and Mr. Trask, came to Washing- 
ton to personally urge our compliance with the request that we accept 
the charge of this distribution of relief funds. Accustomed to the 
trials, respousibihties aud hardships of field relief labor, this proposition 
seemed something to be shrunk from rather than accepted and we natu- 
rally hesitated. The idea, however, became public, and a general 
importunity on the part of the people became prevalent. The necessity 
for immediate action was urged ; human beings were starving and could 
not be reached, hundreds of towns and villages had not been heard 

(»75) 



276 THE RED CROSS. 

from since the fire and sword went over them, and no one else was so 
well prepared for the work of field relief, it was said, as ourselves. It 
was urged that we had a trained force of field workers, and as Turkey 
was one of the signatory powers to the Red Cross Treaty of Geneva, 
having given its adhesion as long ago as July, 1865, it must conse- 
quently be familiar with its methods aud humanitarian ideas. Thus it 
was hoped that she would the more readily accept its presence than 
that of a more strange body of workers. These are only a shadowing 
of the reasons urged on behalf of our acceptance. Under this pressure, 
coupled with our strong sympathies, the subject was taken into serious 
consideration with the simple demand on our part of two positive 
assurances: First, we must be assured by the committees that we were 
the choice of the people of the entire country, that there was no oppo- 
sition to us, and that there was perfect unanimity between themselves; 
there must be nowhere any discord; the task would be difficult enough 
under the best conditions. Second, that they had the funds to dis- 
tribute. Assured on both these points, our promise was given that we 
would go and do our best to make the desired distribution in the inte- 
rior of Asia Minor. 

With this ray of hope that something might be done, the pent-up 
sympathies of the people burst forth. Public meetings were held, 
addresses made, Armenian conditions estimated, horrors reproduced, 
responsibilities placed, causes canvassed, and opinions expressed; 
honest, humane, and entirely natural, precisely the course to rouse 
public sentiment and indignation, if that were the only or the main 
object in view. In consideration, however, of the relief effort, it was 
of questionable wisdom perhaps, when it is borne in mind that we had 
yet to ask the opening of a door hitherto closed against the world, 
when we needed permission to enter, in order to reach the starving 
sufferers with the relief that was planning for them. In the enthusiasm 
of the hour, this fact seemed to be entirely lost sight of. It also 
seemed to be forgotten that if this difScult and delicate task were to be 
assigned to the Red Cross and its officers, that the making of their 
mission or of themselves personally, prominent or laudatory features of 
public gatherings where Ottoman oflBcials or representatives were 
always listeners, could not fail to render the post more difficult, and 
prospects of success more doubtful. 

The international aud neutral character of the Red Cross, as a 
medium of relief in mitigation of war or overwhelming calamity, 
appeared to be overlooked or wholly misunderstood. It was not recog- 
nized that only by abstaining from discordant opinions could we be in 



ARMENIA. 



277 



a position to perform our work. By the obligations of the Geneva 
Treaty, all uatioual controversies, racial distinctions, and difference in 
creed must be held in abeyance and only the nceils of humanity con- 
sidered. In thi.s spirit alone can the Red Cross meet its obligations as 
the representative of the nations and governments of the world acting 
under it. But American enthusiasm is boundless, and its expression 
limitless; and the same breath that cmsbed the Ottoman Kmpirc, 
scattered it to tbc winds or sunk it in the lowest depths, elevated 
the Red Cross and its proposed relief out of sight among the clouds. 
Precautionary remonstrance from ns was in vain, but it was not 
until after we had publicly given our Consent, made all arrangements 
and appointed our aids, that the fruits of tliese ardent dcmonstra* 
lions became visible in a pronuuciamento through the Turkish Min- 
ister resident at Washington, prohibiting the Red Cross from entering 
Turkey. 

I found this decision on the part of the Bey and his government 
Ter>* natural and politically justifiable — our own government and peo- 
ple would probably have done the same or even more under sirailarcon- 
ditions, provided similar conditions could have existed among them. I 
was ready to abide by the decision and remain at home. This, neither 
people nor committees, would consent to. Of course our selected force 
of more than a score of trained and experienced field workers, each a 
specialist, must be given up. If any relief were now attempted it could 
only be individual, with two or three officers from headquarters as 
indispensable aids. 

Previous to the announcement of the Turkish Minister prohibiting 
the Red Cross from entering Turkey, the promise had been gained from 
us 10 leave by the steamship " New York " on the twenty-second of 
January, and notwithstanding the reply to a cablegram from the De- 
partment of State to Constantinople, asking if the prohibition against 
the entrance of the Red Cross was really official and from the govern- 
ment itself, or but seuii-ofScial, had not been received, our promise was 
kept and we sailed with this uncertainty resting over us. 

The picture of that scene is still vivid in my memory. Crowded 
piers, wild with hurrahs, white with parting salutes, hearLs beating 
with exultation and expectation — a little shorn band of five, prohibited, 
unsustaincd cither by government or other authority, destined to a port 
five thousand miles away, from approach to which even the powers of 
the world had shrunk. What was it expected to do or how to do it? 
Visions of Don Quixote and bis windmills loomed up, as I turned away 
and wondered. 



278 



THE RED CROSS. 



A week at sea, to be met at midnight at SoutHampton, by messen* 
ger down from Londou, to say that the prohibition was sustained, the 
Rxd Cross was forbidden, but that such persons as our minister, Mr. 
Terrell, would appoint, would be received. Here was auotber delicate 
uncertainty which could uot be committed to Ottoman telegraph, and 
Dr. Hubbcll wa.s dispatched alone to Constautioople (while we waited 
in London) to leam from Mr. Terrell his attitude toward ourselves and 
our mission. Under favorable responses we proceeded, aud reached 
Constantinople on February 15; met a most cordial reception from all 
our own government officials, and located firo Icm. at Pera Palace Hotel; 
it being so recently after the Stamboul massacres that no less public 
place was deemed safe. 

The following day we received in a body the members of the Mis- 
aionarj' Board in Constantinople, including its treasurer. W. W. Pcet, 
Esq., and Dr. Washburn, president of Robert College, and here com- 
menced that friendly intercourse which continued without intcrmptioa, 
strengthening as the days wore on through the half year that followed, 
till moistened eyes and warm hand-grasp at parting told more plainly 
than words how fraught with coufideuce that intercourse had been. If 
one would look for peers of this accomplished Chriiitiau body of our 
countr>'meD, they would only be found in the noble band of women, 
who, as wives, mothers and teachers, aid their labors and share their 
hardships, privations and dangers. I shall always feel it a privilege 
aud an honor to have been called, even in a small way, to assist the 
efforts of this chosen body of our countrymen and women, whose 
faithful and devoted lives are made sacred to the serWce of God and 
their fellow men. 

The 6rst step was to procure an introduction to the govenunent 
which had in one sense refused me ; and accompained by Minister Ter- 
rell and his premier interpreter, Gargiulo, perhaps the longest serving 
and one of the mo.st (.-xperieuced diplomatic officers in Constantinople, 
I called by appointment upon Tew&k Pasha, the Turkish Minister of 
Foreign Affairs or Minister of State- To those conversant with the 
personages connected with Turkish affairs, I need not say that Tewfik 
Pasha IS probably the foremost man of the government; a manly man, 
with a kind, fine face, and genial, polished manners. Educated 
abroad, with advanced views on general subjects, he impresses one as a 
man who would sanction no wrong it was in his power to avert. 

We were received at the Department of State in an uninterrupted 
interview lasting over an hour. As this was the main iuter\'icw and 
the base of all our work, it is jierhaps proper that I give it somewhat 



ARMKNIA. 



in detail. Mr. Terrell's introduciion was most appropriate and well 
expressed, beaming with strong emphasis upon the suffering condition of 
the people of the interior in consequence of the massacres, and the 
great sympathy of the people of America, their iiiteuse desire to help 
them, the heartfelt interest in their missiouaries whose burdens were 
greater than they ought to bear, and the desire to aid them, and that 
for all these reasons we had been asked to come; that our objects were 
purely humanitarian, having neither political, racial, norreligious bear- 
as such; that as the head of the organization thus represented I could 
have no other ideas, and it was the privilege of putting these ideas into 
practice and the protection required meanwhile that the people of 
America, through him and through me, were asking. 

The Pasha listened most attentively to the speech of Mr. Terrell, 

Ltiianked him, and replied that this was well understood; that they knew 

'the Red Cross and its president, and, turning to me, repealed: " We 

know you. Miss Barton; have long known yon and your work. We 

would like to hear your plans for relief and what you desire." 

I proccedtd to stale them, bearing fully upon the fact that the con- 
dition to which the people of the interior of Asia Minor had been 
reduced by recent evenls had aroused the sympathy of the entire 
American people until they asked, almost to the extent of a demand, 
that assistance from them should be allowed to go directly to these 
sufferers, hundreds of whom had friends and relfltives in America — a 
fact which naturally strengthened both the interest and the demand; 
that it was at the request of our people, en masse, that I and a few 
assistants had come; that our object would be to use the funds our- 
selves among the people needing them wherever they were found, iu 
helping them to resume their former positions and avocations, thus 
relieving them from continued distress, the State from the burden of 
providnig for them, and other nations and people from a torrent of 
sympathy which was both hard to endure and unwholesome in its 
effects; that I had brought skilled agenLs, practical and experienced 
farmers whose first efforts would be to get the people back to their 
deserted Gelds and provide them with farming implements and material 
wherewith to put in summer crops and thus enable them to feed them- 
selves. These would embrace plows, hoes, spades, sced-cora, wheat, 
and later, sickles, scythes, etc., for harvesting, with which to sa^-e the 
miles of autumn grain which wc had heard of as growing on the great 
plains already in the ground before the trouble; also to provide for 
them such cattle and other animals as it would be possible to purchase 
or to get back; that if some such thing were not done before another 



36o 



THE RED CROSS. 



winter, unless we had been greatly mi^infonned, the suffering there would 
shock the entire civilized world. None ofus knew from personal obserra- 
tions, as yet, the full need of assistance, bat had reason to believe it 
\'er}* great. That if my agents were permitted to go, such need as 
they found they would be prompt to relieve. On the other hand, if 
they did not find the need existing there, none would leave the field .so 
gladly as they. Thert: would be no respecting of persons; humanity 
alone would be their guide. *' We have," I added, " brought only our- 
selves, no corre-^pondent has accompanied us, and we shall have none, 
and shall not go home to write a book on Turkey. We are not here 
for that. Nothing shall be done in any concealed manner. All dis- 
patches which we send will go openly through your own telegraph, 
and I should be glad if all that we shall write could be seen by your 
govemmeut. I cannot, of course, &ay what its character will be, but 
can vouch for its truth, fairness and integrity, and for the conduct of 
every leading man who shall be sent. I shall never counsel nor per- 
mit a sly or underhand action with your government, and you will 
pardon mc. Pasha, if I say that I shall expect the same treatment in 
return — such as I give I shall expect to rccei%'e.'* 

Almost without a breath he replied — ' ' And you shall have it. We 
honor your position and your wishes will be respected. Such aid and 
protection as we are able to, we shall render." 

I Uienaskedif it were necessary for me to see other officials. *' No," 
he replied, " I speak for raj* government; " and with cordial good 
wishes, our interview closed. 

I never spoke personally with this gentleman again; all further 
business being officially transacted through the officers of our Lega- 
tion. Yet I can truly say, as I have said of my first meeting with our 
matchless band of missionary workers, that here commenced an 
acquaintance which pro^'etl invaluable, and here were given pledgesof 
mutual faith of which not a word was ever broken or invalidated on 
either side, and to which I owe what we were able to do through all 
Asia Minor. It is to the strong escorts ordered from the Sublime 
Porte for our expeditions and men, ihat I owe the fact that they all 
came back to me, and tliat I bring them home to you, tired and worn, 
but saved and nselul still. 

Dr. Hubliell, and the Ieader.«i of the five cxjicditions tell us that 
they were never, even for a portion of a day, without an escort for pro- 
tection, and this at the expense of the Turkish Government, and 
that without this protection they mu.<it not and could not have pro- 
cecded. 



ARMENIA. 



283 



This interview with Tewfik Pasha was equal to a penuit. Both 
Minister Terrell and myself cabled it to America as such. Dr. Hubbell, 
as general Geld agent, commenced at once to fit himself for a passage 
by the Black Sea, through Sivas to Harpool. He had engaged a drago* 
man and assistants, and with Ernest Mason, who went with us as 
Oriental linguist, was prc[>ared to ship next day, when atS^lamlJk I 
was officially waited upon by a court chamberlain who informed me 
that although greatly regretting it, they were compelled to ask me to 
delay my expedition, in order to give the government time to translate 
and read some of the immense quantities of newspaper matter which 
was being thrown in upon them from America, and which from its con- 
text appeared to be official, representing all our State governors as 
engaged in a general move against Turkey, and that the chief seat of 
operations was ihe National Capitol. The Chamberlain tried by motions 
to show me that there were bushels of papers, and that it was impos- 
sible for them to translate them at once; that if they prove to be official 
as appeared by the great names countcicd with them, it was imperative 
that the government consider them; but if it proved to be mere newspaper 
talk it was of uo consequence, and I was begged to delay until they 
could investigate. Having received some specimens myself, I did not 
wonder at this request, I only wondered at the kindly courtesy with 
which it was made. I will take the liberty of inserting one of thcdip* 
pings which I had received as a sample of what Turkey had to con- 
sider. -This is only one among scores, which had led rac to consider 
how, with these representations, we were ever to get any further: 

PRO-ARMENIAN ALLIANCE. 



ITS WORE TO BB EXTBKDCO TO THB RBUOTBST SECTIONS Of THB ttNlTSO 
STATES— COVBRKOB8 Or STATKS WILt AID. 

[Special dispati:h to the Stitntay //ffaU.} 

WASHINGTON'. I>, C. February S, 1$^. 

The pro-Armenian AUianee, with headqnnitcrs ia thia city, says the Even. 
i»g News, irhicli ia working hnnd in glove with Mim Clura Barton an.l Uw R<;d 
CitM* Society for the relief of the Anncman«, is rapidly cotapletint; arraatfemciitB 
for extending iu vrork to the remoiest seaions of the rnUc*J States Tlie per- 
manent organiMtion of the alliHnce was perfected in thi« city • little over a 
wetk ago, when the following officer* were elected: President. R. S, Tbarin; 
ricc-pre*ident9, B. Sundcrlond, D. 11.. and I. K. Gilbert, D. D. ; lecretory, H. 
L. Bargcnt; treasurer, !•, A. Slier. 

Within a few days the broadest promulgation of a pamphlet prepared by the 
alliance will begin. 



394 



THE RED CROSS. 



On ttie title pagt of the little book 'will appear Uigm unique mottoes: "God 
against AlUIi, Chmt against Mohitnimid, Bible agaiust Konu, Heaven against 
Hell!" 

It is proposed to proceed Bt once with Uic orgniiization of locnl alliances 
throut;bout the Union, any person connected with a Christian organization or 
.lociet}-, regordlCM oF denomination, being eligible to uieiubershipL 



The headquarters of the alliance at the National Hotel are open from ten to 
twelve o'clock. 

It is jutcuded to send ont about two million of the pamphlets explaining 
the jMirposca of the alliance, in lotji of Lwo hundrcMl thousand or more. The 
ddi^ates to the national convention wilt be selected by the different local cluha. 



Well knowing, however, that investigation would show no trace 
of govemineiit or other official authority, we decided to lasc no time, 
bul to prcpate ourselves for work at the earliest moment; aud takiug 
uptlierdlcof merchants, went into Slamlioul, and purchased from the 
great wholesale bouses, immeuse quantities of such material ascuuld 
not fail of being tiseful and needed, to be later taken by caravans into 
the interior. 

JtL<>t at this interval, a requc^ was brought to me by Dr. Washburn, 
of Robert College, from Sir Philip Currie, English ambassador, asking 
if I conld not be "persttaded" to turn my expedition through the 
Mediterranean, rather th.in the Black Sea, in order to reach Marash 
and Zeitoun, where the foreign coustils were at the moment convened. 
They had gotten word to him that ten thousand people in those two 
cities were down with foitr distinct epidemics — typhoid and typhus 
fevers, dysentery and smallpox — that the victims were dying in over- 
whelming numbers and that there was not a physician among them, 
all being either sick or dead, with no medicines and little food. This 
was not a case for " persuasion," but of heartfelt thanks from as all 
that Sir Philip had remembered to call us whom he had never met. But 
here was a hindrance. The only means of conveyance from Constan- 
ticople to Alexandretta were coasting boats, belonging to difiereut 
nationalities, and which left only oucc in two weeks and irregularly at 
that. Transport for our goods was secured on the first boat to leave, 
the goods taken to the wharf at Galata, and at the latest moment in 
order to give lime, a request was made to the government for Uskires 
or tra\-eling permits for Dr. Hnbbell and a-ssistanls. To our surjjrise 
they were granted instantly, but by some delay ou the part of tlie 
messenger scut for them, they reached a moment too late ; the boat kft 
a Utile more than promptly, taking with itour relief goods, and leaving 



ARMENIA. 



285 



the men on the dock to receive their permits only when the boat was 
beyond recall. It was really the fault of no one. With the least 
possible delay the doctor secured pa.ssagc by the first boat to Smyrna, 
and a fortunate chance boat from there, took him to Alexaudretta, via 
Beyrout and Tripoli, Syria. The goods arrived in safety and two 
other of our assistants, whom we had called by cable from America, 
Messrs. Edward M. Wistar and Charles King Wood, were also pa.sscd 
over to the same point with more good.s. There caravans were fitted 
out to leave over the, to them, unknown track to Aintab, as a first 
base. Prom this point the reports of each of these gentlemen made to 
me and compiled with this, will be living witnesses. I leave them to 
tell their own modest tales of exposure, severe travel, bard work and 
hardship, of which uo word of complaint has ever passed their lips. 
There has beeu only gratitude and joy that they could do something 
in a cause at once so great and so terrible. 

These little changes and accidents of travel, of not the slightest 
importance orconcL-m to any one but ourselves, were naturally picked 
up and cabled to America as " news." The naming of the mere facts, 
with neither explanations nor reasons assigned, could not be under* 
stood and only created confusion in the minds of the readers. They 
must, nevertheless, be accepted by our reporters, circulated and di^ 
cussed by our anxious people and perplexed ojmmittees. 

The transcript of a i;>aragrapb from a letter received from America, 
March 35, will .serve to recall, at this late date, something of the state 
of feeling at the moment prevailing in America: 

Great doabt aud dUsatisfactiou Is felt liere at the cluingcalile coiine you 
Kcem to put»ue — wby you should propose to go &nl to the Blnck Sea, then to 
ihc Mediterranean, then not at all. Why to Smyrna, then to Alexancirclt.!. 
points ■wlicre nothing i» the iiinttcr atid no help needed ? They feel that you <lo 
liot understand your own courM:, or are being deceived^will never get into the 
country— a fact which, it iv iiaid, is clearly seen here. 

To further elucidate the intense feeling in our sympathetic country 
we give a few sentences from other letters received at that time: 



Whftl are those folks doing over tlicicf First wc hear they are Roiag to 
Harpoot by the Black Sea, ucxt they have gone to Smyrnu ; there is nothing 
the matter at Smyrna ; next to Alexandrctta ; what have they gone there for? that 
i* no place to go; any one can go to .'Mcxattdrelta. They don't seem to know 
what they art about. They will never get into the country; we said so when 
they went; tbey ought to have known better themselves; we knew the SuUan 
would forbid them, as he ban; they arc only being duped. 



a86 THE RED CROSS. 

Unpleasant and somewhat ludicrous as these criticisms were they 
served a purpose in coming baclc to us, as bj' them we were able to 
understand more fully the cables which had preceded them. " Give us 
news in full of your doings, it is important that wc know." Every 
cable was answered with all the news we could send by that costly 
method. 

I had asked permission and escort for two caravans from Alexan- 
drettn, but had learned later from them that they would unite and go 
together to Aintab, in company with the Rev. Dr. Fuller, of that city, 
who requires no introduction to the missionary or religious world. At 
this junclion Mr. Gargiulo, of the legation, came to me in great haste 
(he ha\*ing beensent for by the Sublime Porte) to know where ourexpe" 
ditions were. They had provided for two and could only get trace of 
one; where was the other? Please get definite information and let them 
know at once. I had served on too mauy battlefields not to understand 
what this meant I knew our men were iu danger somewhere and some 
one was trying to protect them, and sent back the fullest information 
that there was but one expedition out, and waited. Two days later came 
the news of the massacre at Killis by the Circassians. Killis lay 
directly .in their track, unknown to them, and the Turkish troops had 
unexpectedly come up and taken them on. I can perhaps, at this dis- 
taut date, give no more correct note of this, and the conditiijn of things 
as found, than by au extract from a letter written by me at the time to 
our world's friend and mine, Frances Willard. We were at this moment 
securing the medical expedition for Marash and Zeiloun: 



Drar rRANCRS WtrxARn: .... Miiy I also send a mcMage by you 
to our people, to your people and my people; in Uic name of your God and my 
God, axk them not to be diseouratjed in llie good worlc tlicy liave uiidertakeu. 
My heart would grow fainl and words fail, were I lo alteiiipt to tc!l tlicni the 
woes and the needs of tb«ie Christian mnrtyrs. Hut what need to tell? They 
already know what words cnn &ay— alone, bereft, forsaken, sick and heBTtbrokeo, 
without food, raiment or shelter, on the snow-piled mounUin e>ide)i and wlong 
tlie smokint; valleys they wnnder and linser and perish. What more slionid I 
say to our people, but to show them the pictare of what tbey themselves have 
already done. 

The scores of holy men and women sustained hy them, wtthpmyers in their 
hearts, (ears in their voices, hovenng like angels and toiling like slaves, along 
•II these bonleni of miiicry and woe, oouultu]; peril as gain and death as naught, 
SO it is in His Xame. But here another picture risca; as if common wor were 
not euough, the angel of ddiease flaps hU black wiuga like » pall, and in once 
bright Zcitoun and Marash contagion reigns. Byacores, by hundreds, they die; 
no help, no medicine, no skill, little food, and the last yard of cotton gone to 



* 




ARMENIA. 



287 



cover the sick and dying. To whom auiie the cry, "Help or we perish 1 Scad 
us pliysiciaiis!" The contributed gift« of America open the doors of classic 
LBeyrout, and Ini Harris, vntli his bund of doctorn, vpcciU liiit way. Ja Bskxtid- 
f«rooa sleep the waitiug caravaus. The order comes, "Arise aod go( henceforth 
your wiiy is clear." Cuaiels heavy ludL-ii, nut wiUi ivory uiid jewels, ^old ia 
the itiftni and «ilk in the btiles, but food and raiment for the starving, the sick, 
ond the dying. Onward they sweep lowurd dread Killis — ^the wild tribe's 
knives before, the Mo&lcui troops behind — "gooul we protect;" till at length 
the spires of Aintab rine in view. Weary the catiicls and wenry the men — Iftib- 
bdl, Fuller, Wistar, Wood, Mason — uumes that should live in Etoryfor the brave 
tfleeds of thiit inarch but ju»t begun. The tjuick, glad cry of welcome of a city 
that had known but terror, sorrow and neglect for months — a little rest, help 
given, and over the mountains deep in snow, wearj- and worn their c.irnvnns go, 
toiling on toward fever and death. Let iia leave them to their taak. This is 
the work of Americn's people abroad. My mcsuutge, through you, to licT people 
«t home — not to her smalt and poor, but to bcr rich and powerful people, is, 
remeuiber this picture and be not wear>' >u well doing. 

(Xaxa Barton. 



While the first and second expeditiotjs were fitting out from Alex- 
andrtlta, the terrible state of things at Zeitoim and Marasb was con- 
firmed by the leadtug missionaries there, aud we were asked to assume 
the expense of physicians, druggists, medicines and medical relief in 
general. This wc were only too glad to do. Negotiations had already 
been opened by them with Dr. George K. Post, of Beyrout, the glorious 
outcome of which was the going out of Dr. Ira Harris, of Tripoli, 
Syria, with his corps of local pb>"sicians, and the marvelous results 
achieved. For some catLse the doctor took the route via Adana, rather 
than by Alexandretta, and found himself in the midst of an unsafe 
country with insufficient escort. After a delay of two or three days, he 
got a dispatch to us at Coustantiuople. This dispatch was immediately 
sent through our legation to the Porte, and directly rettimed to me 
with the written assurance that the proper steps had been in.?t3ntly 
taken. On the same day Dr. Harris left Adana with a military escort 
that took his expedition through, leaving it only when safe in Karash. 

Dr. Hubbellhadarrived some days previous, hut following instruc- 
tions left immediately on the arrival of Dr. Harris, to pursue his inves. 
tigations in the villages, and supply the geueral need of the people 
wherever found. This formed really the fourth expedition in the field 
at that early date, as the separate charges later so efQciently assumed 
by Messrs. Wistar and Wood, who were on the ground previous to the 
medical expedition, became known as thcsecond and third expedition.s. 

It will be inferred that the assignment, furnishing and direction of 
these several expeditions, nearly a thotisand miles distant, four weeks 



388 



THE RED CROSS. 



by personal travel, six weeks to write a letter and get reply, from two 
days to almost any time by telegraph, according- to the condition of the 
wires, and in any language from Turkish and Greek to Arabic, with all 
other duties immediately surroundiuK^ could not leave large leisure for 
home correspondence. While conscious of a restlessness on this score, 
we began to be mystified by the nature and text of dispatches from 
committees at home; " Contributors object to Turkish distribution." 
What could it mean ? We could only reply; " Do not understand your 
dispatch. Please explain." These were followed by others of a similar 
character from other sources; finally letters expressing great regret at 
the means to which I had been compelled to resort in order to accom- 
plish my distribution, and the disastrous efleet it could not fail to have 
upon the raising of funds. ' ' Well, i t was probably the only way to do, 
they had expected it, in fact, foretold it all the time." — What hadldonc? 
The mystery deepened- Finally, through the waste of waters and the 
lapse of time it got to me. — A little four-line cablegram &om Constant! 
nople as follows: 

Tbc conncil of mtnietera has decided that Mim CUra Rnrton CMa work, only 
in ConJuuctioQ with the Turkish Couuuissioii in the di»tributioa of relief, aud 
can only uso their lUls uf destitute Armuniatu. An Imdo to that effect ii ex- 
pected. 



No one had thought to inquire if this statement were /tttf, no one 
had referred it to me, and as well as I ought lobe known by our people, 
the question if I would be /I'if/y to take snch a step, seems not to have 
been raised. It had been taken for granted through all America, Eng- 
land, and even the Missionary Hoards of Turkey, that I had pledged 
myself and signed papers, to distribute the funds entrusted tome, under 
Turkish iubpeclion and from lists furnished by Turkish officials. 
Mj'self and my officers appeared to be the only persons who had never 
heard of it. Astonished and pained be>-oud measure it was plainly and 
emphatically denied. 

Our press iKwks of that date are marvels of denial. Sir Philip 
Currie and the Turkish Government itself, came to the rescue, declar- 
ing that no such course was ever intended. Secretary OIney was cabled 
to try " to make the people of America understand that the Turkish 
Government did not interfere with their distribution." In spite of all 
this, it went on until people and committees were discouraged ; the lat- 
ter cabling that in the present state of feeling littlcor nothing morecould 
be expected, and gently suggesting the propriety of sending the balance 



ARMENIA. 



389 



!n hand to other parties for distribution. My own National Red Cross 
officers in America, hurt and disgusted at the niijust form affairs ivure 
taking, in sympathy, advised the leaving of the £eld and returning 
home. 

Here was a singular condition of affairs. A great iulemational 
work of relief, every department of which was succeeding beyond all 
expectation, wherein po misUbcs had been made, letters of g^titude 
and blessing pouring in from every field of labor, finances carefully 
handled and no pressure for funds. On the other hand a whole nation 
in a panic, strong committees going to pieces, audbravc faithful officers 
driven through pity to despair and contempt, and the cause about to 
be abandoned and given up to the lasting harm of all humanity. So 
desperate a case called for quick and heroic measures. Realizing the 
position of the committees from their own sad reports, I at once cabled 
relieving them from further contributions: " U^e wi'ff ^tisk the field 
witkotU further aid." To my Red Cross officers I dictated tlic following 
letter, which I believe was used somewhat by the harassed committees 
in struggling on to their feet again : 



Avaz-Pacua, Taxiu, Constantinople, April iS, {$96. 

P. V. DbGraw, Esq., Corresponding Secretary, 

Ameriean Nathnal fied Crvss, Washington, D. C. V. S, A.: 

Dbar Mk. DkGraw: [ received both your aud Stephen E. Barton's 
Itcavy- hearted nud (riuudly letters, aad they fell on sott abuut as heavy. I 
could not understand how it could be, for I knew we hod dune onr betU, and I 
bgtunvd tlie b<^t tlint coold have bccu done under tlic circumstances and coudU 
tioua. I kucW we held a great, well organized relief lliat would be needed sis 
nothing eUe could be. That, besides ub, tlicrc was no one to handle the ter- 
rible scourge that was settling down— no one here, no one to come, who coald 
touch iL I knew I was not interfered with; that no "reatrictlons" nor propo- 
sitions liad been imposed or even offered ; thnt the govenimcot was considerate 
and nccorded ftll I a^kcd. 

Rut what had attrrcd America up ttnd set it, apparently, against us? The 
relief societies RoiuR to pieces, and turning sad glances here? We could not 
uoderstaud it. I did not wonder tbut you tliuugbt wc "bad best come home," 
still I knew wc would not; indeed, we could not. I have a body of relief on 
these liclds, buudrcd-s of miles away in the mountatna, a thousand miles frnm 
me, that I could not draw off in six weeks, und if we were to, it would be to 
abandon thoiuauds of poor, sick, suffering wretches to a fate that ought to 
shock the entire world. Sick, foodlem, n.ikcd, and not one doctor and no 
medicine among them; whole cities scourged and left to their fate, to die 
without a hand raised lo help excepting the three or four resolute missionaries, 
tired, worn, God-serving, at their posU until they drop. The civilixed world 



390 



THE RED CROSS. 



ninolng over with skilful physician*, and not one iliere; no one to arran)^ to 
get tlicm there; to pay expenses, lAke special charge and thus nuke it [luxtible 
fur them to go. Anil we, seeing that stale of things, holding in our ffntp the 
relief we had been weeka preparing and orgnnizing in anticipation of lhi>, to 
turn back, draw oQ uur helpers, send hack the doctors already eturted. gJTe all 
np because somebody had said something, the press had circulated it, the world- 
^ad believed It, onr diMppoinled committeea had lost heart and growu socCj 
struggling with an occupation rather ucw to thcan, and the people had taken 
•Isrm and fnileil to sustain them. 

Was this all there was of us? Xo purpose of our OWD? "On Change, " like 
the priecof wheat on the market? In the name of Cod and humanity this field 
mu&t he cnrried, these people must be rcscncd; skill, rare, mcdiciiirs and food 
for the sick must reach thrai. And it is a glad sight to my soul to think of 
Turkiiib Imupei talcing these bands of doctura on toUarash. They have done it, 
and arc at this vcr>' hour marching on with them to their field of labor, ^liat 
does one care for criticism, disapproval or approval, under circumstances like 
these. Don't h« troubled— we can cany it. We are fair finaaclen!, not di». 
tnayed, and God helping, can save our ho9|ntal9. 



It retnains to be said that the remedy was cficctive. The panic 
settled away and it is to be hoped that there are few people in any 
country to-dity who do not understand that America's fund was dis- 
tributed by its own agents, without molestation or advices from, the 
Turkish or any other government. 

I have named this incident, not so much a.s a direct feature of the 
work of distribution, nor to elicit sympathy, as to poiut a characteristic 
of our people and the customs of the times in which we are living, in 
the hope that reflection may draw from it some lessons for the future. 
One cannot fail to see bow nearly a misguided ciitbiisiasni, desire for 
sensational news, vital action without thought or reflection, came to the 
overthrowing of their entire object, the destruction of all that had 
been or has since been accomplished for humanity, and the burial of 
their grand work and hopes in a defeated and disgraceful grave, 
which, in their confusion, they would never have realized that they 
bad dug for themselves. They are to>day justly proud of their work 
and the world is proud of them. 

Our very limited number of assistants made it necessary that each 
take a separate charge aa soon as possible ; and the division at Aintab 
and the hastening of the first division, under Dr. Hubbell, northea.st- 
ward to Mara.^h, left the northwestern route through Oorfa and Diar- 
bekir, to Messrs. Wistar and Wood ; the objective point for all being 
Haxpoot, where they planned to meet at a certain date. Nothing gave 



ARMENIA. 



393 



me greater joy tlifln to know they would meet our brare end world- 
honored countrywoman. Miss Shattuck, isolated, surrounded by want 
and misery, holding her fort alone, and that something from our liands 
could go to strengthen hers, emptied by the needs of thousands every 
day. If they might hu^-e still goue to Van, and reached our other 
heroic, capable and accomplished countrywoman, Dr. Grace Kimball, 
it would have been an added joy. But the way waa long, almost to 
Ararat ; the mouutaius high and the snows deep ; and more tlian all it 
seemed that the superb management of hrr own grand work made help 
there less needed than at many other less fortunate points. It seemc-d 
remarkable that the two expeditions separating at Aiutab, oa the sixtli 
day of April, with no trace of each other between, should have 
met at Hnrpoot on ApiU 29, within three hours of each other; and 
that when the city turned out en mane, with its missionaries in the 
lead, to meet and welcome Dr. Ilubbell and the Red Cross, that far 
away in the rear, through masses of people from housetop to street, 
modestly waited the expedition from Oorfa. 

This expedition containing as it did two leading men. again 
divided, taking between them, as their separate reports show, charges 
of the relief of two hundred villages of the Harpoot vilayet, and later 
on Diarbekir, and that by their active provision and distribution of 
farming iraplements and cattle and the raising of the hopes and 
courage of the people, they succeeded in securing the hart'cst and 
saving the grain crops of those inagificent valleys. 

While this was in progre.ss, a dispatch came to me at Constanti- 
nople, from Dr. Shepard, of Aiutab, whasc tireless bauds had done the 
work of a score of men, saying that fevers, both typhoid and typhus, 
of a most virulent nature, had broken out in Arabkir, two or three 
da> s nortli of Harpoot ; c^uld I send doctors and help ? Passiug the 
word oa to Dr. Hubbrl), at Harpoot, the prompt and courageous action 
was taken by him which his report will name, but never fully show. 
It is something to say that fi-om a rising pestilence with a score of 
deaths daily, in five weeks, himself and his assi.stant.s left the city in a 
normally healthful condition, in which it remained at last accounts, the 
mortality ceasing at once under their care and treatment. 

During this time the medical relief fur the cities of Zeitoun and 
Maiash was in charge of Dr. Harris, who reached there March iS. 
The report of the consuls had placed the daily number of deaths from 
the four contagious diseases at one hundred. This would be quite 
probable when it is considered that ten thousand were smitten with the 
prevailing diseases, and that added to this were the crowded conditions 

»7 



994 



THE RED CROSS. 



of the patients, by the tbouaands of homeless refugees who had flocked 
froni thtir forsaken villages; the lack of alt comforts, of air, cleanliness. 
and a state of prolonged starvation. Dr. Harris' 6r5t report to me was 
that be was obliged to set the soup kettles boiling, and feed his patients 
before medicine could he reiained. My reply was a draft for two hun- 
dred liras, with the added dispatch: " Keep the pot boiling; let us know 
your wants." The further reports show from this time an astonish- 
ingly small number of deaths. The utmost care was taken by all onr 
expeditions to prevent the spread of the contagion and there is no 
record of its ever having been carried out of the cities, where it was 
found, either at Zeitoun, Marash, or Arabkir. Lacking this precau- 
tion, it might well hai'e spread thronghnut all Asia Minor, as was 
greatly feared by the anxious people. On the twenty-fourth of May 
Dr. Harris leported the disease as overcome. His stay bdng no longer 
needed, be retnmed to his great charge in Tripoli with the record of a 
medical work and succe^ behind him never surpassed if ever equaled. 
The lives he had saved were enough to gain heaven's choicest diadem. 
Never has America cause to be .so justly proud and grateful as when 
its sons and daughters in foreign lands perform deeds of worth like 
that. 

The appalling conditions at Zeitonn and Marash on the arrival of 
Dr. Harris, naluraDy lud him to call for men; physicians, and the most 
strenuous efforts were made to procure them, but the conditions of the 
6cld were not tempting to medical men. Dr. Post had already sent the 
last recruit from Beyrout, still he manfully continued bis efforts. 
Smyrna was caux-assed through the efforts of our prompt aud eflSdent 
Cousul, Colouel Madden, on whom I felt free to make heavy drafts, 
rciDembering tenderly as we both did, when we stood together in the 
Red Cross reUcf of theOhio floods of 1S84. Failing there, I turned my 
efforts upon Constantinople. Naturall>,we must seek nationalities 
outside of Armenians. Wesiicceeded in finding four Greek physicians, 
who were contracted with, and sailed May 11, through perplexing 
delays of shipping, taking with them large and useful medical supplies 
and delicacies for the sick, as well as several large disinfecting machines 
which were loaned to us by the Turkish Government, Dr. Zavitziano, 
ft Greek physician, who kindly assisted us in many ways, conducting 
the ocgoUations. Through unavoidable delays they were able to reach 
Alexnntlrcttaouly on May 25. By this time the fevers had been so far 
overcome llmt Jt w.ns not deemed absolutely necessary for them to pro- 
Mtid 10 Marash; ami after conferring with Dr. Harris, they returned to 
uutantliioplc, still remaining under kindly contract without remunera- 



ARMENIA. 



295 



tion to go At once if called upon by us even to the feeing of cholera, if 
It gained a foothold in Asia Minor. We should not hesitate to call for 
the sen'ices of these gcntlemirn even at this distance if Ihey became 
necessary. This was known as the fiftli expedition, which, although 
performing less service, was by far the most difficult to obtain, and the 
most firmly and legally organized of any. 

The closing of the medical fields threw our entire force into the 
generalrelief of the vilayet of Harpoot. which the relieving missionaries 
bad well named their "bottomless pit," and where we had already 
placed almost the entire fundsof the Boston and Worcester committees. 

One will need to read largely between the lines of the modest 
skeleton reports of our agents in order to comprehend only approxi- 
mately the work performed by them and set in motion for others to per- 
form. The apathy to which the state of utter nothingness, together 
with their grief and fear, had reduced the inhabitants was by no means 
the smallest diEBculty to bo overcome; and here was realized the great 
danger felt by all — that of continued almsgiving, lest they settle down 
into a condition of pauperism, and thus, finally stan-e from the inabil- 
ity of the world at large to feed them. The presence of a strange body 
of friendly working people coming thousands of miles to help them, 
awakened a hope and stimulated the desire to help themselves. 

It was a new experience that these strangers dared to come to them. 
Although the aforetime home lay a heap of stone and sand, and noth- 
ing belonging to it remained, still the land was there and when seed to 
plant the ground and the farming utensils and cattle were brought to 
work it with, the faint spirit revived, the weak, hopeless hands un- 
clasped, and the farmer stood on his feet again ; and when the cities 
could no longer provide the spades, hoes, plows, picks, and shovels, 
and the crude iron and steel to make them was taken to them, the 
blacksmith found again his fire and forge and traveled weary miles 
with his bellows on his back. The carpenter again swung his hammer 
and drew his saw. The broken and scattered spinning wheels and 
looms from under the storms and debris of winter, again look form and 
motion, and the fresh bundles of wool, cotton, flax, and hemp, in the 
waiting widow's hand brought hopeful visions of the revival of indus- 
tries which should not only clothe but feed. 

At length, in early June, the great grain fields of Diafbekir, Par> 
kin and Harpoot valleys, planted the year before, grew golden and 
bowed their heavy spear-crowned heads in wailing for the sickle. But 
no sickles were there, no scythes, not c\-en knives, and it was a new 
and sorry sight for our full-handed American farming men, tosecthose 



^96 



THE RED CR065. 



P 



poor, bard, A«iatk haad*. trying by main stRi^th to break the toog 
■traw or puD it bjr tbc roots. This state of things could not rp'rtTaWt ' 
ftnd tbdr sorrow and phy gare place to joy vben tbey wen able to 
drain the dtica of Harpoot and Dtarbekir of harrest tools, and tnraed 
tbe work of all the vfllage btacksnhhsoa totbeBajni£utttre crf'aacUes 
and fitgrtbes, and of the flint worieers npoo tbe mde thieshtng om 
diines. 

They have told me since their re tiim Lbat the [4easantest memories 
left to tbcm were of thcoe great Talle)'& of golden grain, bendii^ and 
&Uing before the harveders, men and wosien, each with the new sharp 
sickle or scythe — the crade threshing planks, tbe cattle trampling out 
the grain, aod the gleanets in ibc rear aa in tbe days of Abraham and 
Moab. Cod grant that somewfaere among them was a kind-hearted 
king of the harvest who gave crdeis to let some sheaves fall. 

Even while this saving process was goin); on, another condition no 
less imperative arose. These fields must be replanted for the coming 
year, or starvation bad been simply deU>'ed. Only tbe strength of 
tbeir old time teams of oxen could break up the bard sod and prepare 
fiw tbe fall sowing. Not an animal— ox, cow, horse, goat or sheep — 
bad been left. All bad been driven to the Konrdish mountains. 
When ^t^. Wood's telegram came, calling for a thousand oxen for the 
bundruds of Wllages, sonic of which were very large, I thought of our 
not rapidly swelling bask account, and all that was needed everywhere 
else, and replied accordingly. But when, in return, came the telegram 
from the Rev. Dr. Gates, president of Harpoot College, tbe Ii\-e, active, 
practical man of affairs, whose judgment no one could question, saying 
that the need of oxen was imperative, that nnless the ground could be 
ploughed before it dried and hardened, it could not be done at all, and 
the next harvest would be lost, and that " Mr. Wood's estimate was 
moderate," I loosened my gra^ on the bank account and directed tbe 
financial secretary to send a draft for 5,000 liras ($23,000) to care of 
Rev. Dr. Gates, Harpoot, to be divided among the three expeditions for 
the purchase of cattle and the progress of the harvest of 1S97. 

This draft left something less than $3,000 with us to finish up the 
field in all other directions. As the sum sent would be immediately 
applied, the aclive services of the men would be no longer required, and 
directions went with the remittance to report in person at Cou.stanti- 
nople. Unheard of toil, care, hard riding day and night, with risk of 
life, were all involved in the ca.rr>-ing out of that order. Among the 
uncivilized and robber bandsof Kourds, the cattle that had been stolen 
and driven off must be picked up, purchased and brought back to the 



J 



AKMENIA. 



297 



waiting farmer's field. There were routes so dangerous that a brigand 
chief wa:i selectL-d by thuse understaudiiig the situatiou as the safest 
escort for our men. Perhips the greatest danger encountered was in 
the region of Farkin, bcyoud Diarbcfcir, where the official escort had 
not beeu waited for, and the leveled musket of the faithless guide told 
the difference. 

At length the task was accomplished. One by one the expeditions 
closed and witlidrew, returning by Stvas and Samsoun and comiug out 
by the Black Sea. By that time it is probable that no one questioned 
the propriety of their route or longer wondered or cared why they 
went to Smyrna or Alexandretta, Sivas or Samsoun. The perplexed 
irowns of our anxious committees and sympathetic people had long 
given way to .smiles of confidence and approval, and glad hands would 
have reached far over the waters to meet ours as warmly extended 
to them. 

With the return of the expeditions we closed the field, but con* 
tributors would be glad to know that subt^equeut to this, before leanng 
Constantinople, funds from both the New York and Boston committees 
came to us amouating to some $15,000. This was happily placed with 
Mr.'Peet, treasurer of the Board of Foreign Missions at Slamboul, to 
be used subject to our order, and with our concurrence it is now being 
employed in the building of little houses in the interior as a winter 
shelter and protection where all had been destroyed. 

The appearance of our men on their arrival at Constantinople con- 
firmed the impression that they had not been recalled loo soon. They 
had gone out through the snows and ice of winter and without change 
or rest had come back through the scorching suns of midsummer — fii-e 
months of rough, uncivilized life, faring aud sharing with their beasts 
of burden, well nigh out of communication with the civilized world, 
but never out of danger, it seemed but just to thcmsclvct and to others 
who might yet need them that change and rest be given them. 

SincB our entrance upon Turkish soil no general disturbance had 
taken place. One heard only the low rumbling of the thunder after 
the storm, the clouds were drifting southward and settling over Crete 
aud Macedonia, and we felt that we might take at least some steps 
towards home. It was only when this movement commenced that we 
began to truly realize how deep the roots of friendship, comradeship, 
confidence, aud love had struck back among our newly found friends 
and counlr>'men ; how muchn part of ourselves — educational, humani- 
tarian and official— their work and interest had become, and surely from 
them we learned anew the lesson of reciprocity. 



398 



THE RED CROSS. 



Some days of physical rest wcfc needful for the men of tlieexped!- 
tiona after reaching CaBSUntinople before commencing another jotir- 
ney of thousands of miles, worn as they were by cxpostxre, hardship 
and inoeasant labor, both physical and mental. This inten-al of time 
was, however, mainly employed by them In the preparation of the 
reports submitted with this, and in attention to the letters whic^ fol- 
lowed them from their various fields, telling of further need, but more 
largely oversowing with gratitude and blessing for what bad been 
done. 

For oar financial secretary and myself there could be neither rest nor 
respite while we remained at a disbui^ng post so well known as onrs. 
Indeed there never had been. From the time of our arrival in February 
to oar embarkation in August thert: wen: but two days not strictly 
devoted to business, the fourth of July and the fifth of August — the 
last a farewell to our friends. For both of these occasions we were 
indebted to the hospitality of treasurer and Mrs. W, W. Peet, and 
although held in the open air, on the crowning point of Proti, one of 
the Princes' Islands, with the Marmora, Bosporus and Golden Horn 
in full view, the spires and minarets of Constantinople and Scutari fell- 
ing ns of a land we knew little of. with peoplts and cnstoms strange 
and incomprehensible to us. still there was no lack of the emblem that 
makes every American at home, nod its wavy folds of red, white and 
blue shaded the tables and flecked the tasteful viands around which sat 
the renowned leaders of the American missionary element of Asia 
Minor. 

Henry O. Dwight, D. D., the accomplished gentleman and diplo- 
matic head, who was the first to suggest an appeal to the Red Cross, 
and I am glad to feel he has never repented him of his decision. One 
fact in regard to Dr. Dwight may be of interest to some hundreds of 
thousands of our people: On first meetiug him I was not quite sure of 
the title by which to address him, if reverend or doctor, and took the 
courage to ask him. He turued a glance fnll of amused meaning upon 
me as he replied: " That is of little consequence; the title I prize most 
is Captain Dwight." "Of what?" I asked. "Company D, Twen- 
tieth Ohio Volunteers, in our late war." The recognition which fol- 
lowed can well Ih: imagined by the comrades for whose interest I have 
named the incident. 

Rev. Joseph K. Greene, D. D., and his amiable wife, to whom so 
much is due toward.s the well being of the missionary work of Constan- 
tinople. I regret that I am not able to reproduce the eloquent and 
patriotic remarks of Dr. Orecne on both these occasions, so true to our 



ARMENIA. 



399 



country, our government and our laws. Rev. George P. Knapp, 
formerly of Bitlis, whose courage no oue questions. Mrs. Lee of 
Marasb, and Mrs. Dr. George Washburn of Robert College, the worthy 
and efficient daughters of Rev. Dr. Cyrus Haralio, the veteran mission- 
ary and founder of Robert College, living in Lexington, Mass, A half- 
score of teachers, whose grand Hves will one day grace the pages of 
religious historj*. And last, though by no means least, our host, the 
man of few words and much work, who bears the burden of monetary 
relief for the woes aud wants of Asia Minor, \V. W. Peet. Esq. 

It was a great satisfactiou that most of our field agents were able to 
be present at the last of these l»eautiful occasions aud personally render 
an account of their stewardship to those who had watched their course 
with such interest. The pleasure of these two days of recreation will 
ever remain a golden light in our meniorit'S. 

As the first ofBciaJ act of the relief work after our arrival in Con- 
stantinople was my formal presentation to the Sublime Porte by the 
.American Minister, Honorable A. W. Terrell, dijiloinatic courtesy 
rdemauded that I take proper occasion to notify the Turkish Covem- 
ment of our departure and return thanks for its assistance, which was 
done formally at "Selaiulic," a religious ceremony held on the Turkish 
Sabbath, which corresponds to our Friday. The Court Chamberlain 
delivered my message to the palace. It was received and responded to 
through the same medium aud I took my departure, having finished 
my diplomatic work with that government which had from first to 
llast treated me with respect, assisted my work aud protected my 
workers. 

To correct certain impressions and expressions which have been 
circulating more or less extensively in this couutr>', and for the correct 
information of the people who through their loyal interest dcsen'C to 
know the facts, I make known my entire social relations while residing 
in Turkey. Personally I did not go K-yond Constantinople. The 
proper conduct of our work demanded the continuous prcscuce of both 
our financial secretary and myself at headquarters. I ne\'cr saw, to 
personally communicate with, any member of the Turkish Gm-erumeut 
excepting its Minister of Foreign A^airs, Tewfik Pasha, as named 
previously. I never spoke with the Saltan and have never seen him 
excepting in his carriage on the way to his mosque. 

On being informed through our Legation that the Turkish minister 
at Washington, Mavroyeni Bey, had been recalled and that his succes- 
sor was about to leave for his new position, I felt that national courtesy 
required that I call upon him and, attended by a member of our 



30O 



THE RED CROSS. 



kj^atlou, my secretary and myself crossed the Bospomsto a magnifi- 
cent estate on tbe Asiatic shore, the palatial home of Moustapha Tahsin 
Bej', a gentleman of culture, who had resided in Xew York in some 
legal capacity and who, I ft-el certain, will be socially and officially 
acceptable to our Government. 

I have received a decoratiua, offidaUy dciicribed as follows: 



Brevet of Chcralier of tbe Royal Ordo* of Melusine, founded in 1186, by 
Sibyllc, Qiiccn jin<l itpoiwf of King Guy of JeTii»alcm, »nd nsinrfitulrtl »cv«ti1 
yeaiB since by Marie, Princess of LusiGnsu. Tlic Order is conferred for 
huniutiitariein, scietitiCc and ctlter seVvices of distitictioD, but efpccinDy wbcii 
Biirh services arc rrndLTcd lo the JIdusc of Lusignnn, and particularly to the 
Armctiinn nation. Tlie Order is worn by a iiumber of reigning soveteigns. «nd 
is highly prized by the tccipicau because of its rare hchtowal and i\s beauty. 
This decoration i» be»Lowed by Hin Royal Highuesa, Guy of I^uaigniui, Prince 
of Jenuulem, Cyprus luid Ansento. 



w.=Src^-_ "fifiE BE can'*uais n irtujaNi -SSS 



|«.--1l*--bH,| 



NOUS 

GUY DE LUSIGNAN 






•a^ . 



m^^mtm ■■1*11. * fi>*« 

> 1 ^ea-a law-irn mjJimtr*. 






2_.»r 



-^^ 



Some months after returning home I received through our State 
Department at Washington the Sultan's decoration of Shefakctarul its 
accompanying diploma in Turkish, a reproduction and translation of 
which is here given: 




J 



:'^^*'^-^^m^.^.. 



-•iiV^jL 



^'-z^^^^.j.;^.^^ 



U 

% 






'^^-^izJ 



Ai Hiss Barton, Americnn citizca, poEseasea many great and distingaiahed qnalitlea and as 
recompenM; is dite to ber, I am plc:iacd therefore to accord to bcr the aecond daia of taj decora- 
tion* of Shefaket. — [Translation.] 

(303) 



304 



THE RED CROSS. 



The first notice of this honor came to me tbroaEh our own 
Smithsonian Institute, as indicating its scientific character. 

On the uiuth of August we took passage outx>ard the steamship 
" Meteor," a Roumanian steamer plying between Constantinople and 
tlie ports of the Black Sea, our objective point being Cosianza, at the 
month of the Danube River. This was our first step toward home, and 
the leaving of a people on whom, in common with the civilized world, 
our whole heart interest had been centred for more than half a year; 
having no thought, however, until the hour of partiDg revealed it, of 
the degree of interest that had been centred on us. 

On the spacious deck of the .steamer were assempled our entire 
American representation at Constantinople, prepared to accompany us 
through ihe Bosporus, their boats having been sent forward to take 
them oif near the entrance of the Black Sea. 

The magnificent new quay iu either direction vias crowded with 
people without distinction of nationality, the Riraiige costumes and 
colorscommiugliug in such variety as only an Orieatal city can pro- 
duce, patiently waiting the long hour of preparation. When at length 
the hoarse whistle sounded and the boat swayed from its moorings, the 
dense crowd swayed with it and the subdued tones pealed out in 
tongues many and strange; but all had one meaning — thanks, blessings 
and God speed. We received these manifestations reverently, for while 
they meant kindliness to us and our work, they meant far more of hom- 
age and honor for the nation and people we represented. And not only 
in Constantinople bnt the shores of the Bosporous as we proceeded 
presented similar tokens of recognition — the wavy Stars and Stripes 
from Robert College, Rebek, and Hissar, told raorestrongly than words 
how loyal to their own free land were the hearts and hands toiling so 
faithfully in others. 

Tonching at Budapest for a glimpse at its Millenial Exposition; at 
Vienna to pay respects to our worthy Minister, Hon. Bartlett Tripp; 
we hastened to meet the royal greeting of the Grand Duku and Grand 
Duchess of Baden, at their beautiful i:^Iaud of Minau in Lake Constance 
— the wedding gift of the Grand Duke to his young princess bride forty- 
three years ago. It was a great pleasure to be able to bring our hard- 
worked men into personal contact with these active royal personages, 
who know so well in their own philanthropic lives how to appreciate 
such labor in others. 

Lest some may not recall directly the lines of royal succession, our 
readers will pardon mc if I say that the Grand Duchess of Baden is 
the only daughter of the old Hmperor William and Empress Augusta, 



ARMENIA. 



*>S 



the sister of Germany's " Fritz," the aunt of the present Emperor, 
the mother of the Crown Princess of Sweden, and the granddaughter 
of the beloved Queen Louise, whom she is said to very much 
rtrsemble. 

Oue day was given to Strasburg — another labor field of the 
Franco-German war, of longer duration than Armenia — reaching Lon- 
don ou the twenty-fourth day of August. 

Our passage was engaged on the "Servia," to sail September i, 
when the news of the terrible troubles iu Constantinople reached us. 
We were shocked and distressed beyond words. The streets where we 
had passed, the people who had ser\'ed us, the Ottoman Bank where 
we had transacted business almost daily for nearly a half a year, all in 
jeopardy if not destroyed. Our men of the interior feared a general 
upridng there, in which case we might be able to help. Our sense of 
duty did not permit ns to proceed until the facts were better known. 
We cancetled or rather transferred our pas&age by the "St:r\'ia," tele- 
graphed to Constantinople and cabled to America, expressing our 
willingness to return to the field i[ our services were in any way 
needed. Kindly advices from both directions, together with a more 
quiet condition of things, decided us to continue our journey, and 
engaging passage by the " Umbria " for the fifth, we arrived in New 
York on the twelfth of September, eight months lacking ten days from 
the time of our departure on the twenty-second of January. 



Distances akd Djfpicultiks op Travki., Transportation and 

commc n 1 cations. 



For the convenience of the cla'iety occupied who ha\'e not time to 
study as they read, I have thought it well to condense the information 
aljove referred to in a paragraph, which can be taken in at a glance, 
iu connection with the map. 

The one great port of A-sia Minor is Constantinople. To reach 
the centre, known as Anatolia or Armenia, there are two routes from 
Constantinople. One by way of the Mediterranean Sea to Alexan- 
dretta, the southern port or gateway ; the other by the Black Sea, to 
reach the tiorthem ports of Samsoun and Trebizond. lying along the 
southern coast of the Black Sea. There is no land route, but a " pony 
post," like the overland days of California, takes important dispatches 
for the government, or money. The way is infested by brigands. 



3o6 



THE RED CROSS. 



There are no regular passenger boats, but Russia, Austria, France 
and Greece have dispatch — in reality, coasting boats — one of which 
aims to leave Constantinople each week, although at first we found it 
at least two W(.-eks between the times of sailing and iiregnlar at that. 

The time from Constantinople to Alexadretta is eight to ten days. 
From Constantinople to Samsoun, two days. From either of these ports 
the interior must be reached by land. 

From Alexandretta to Harpoot is fifteen (15) dasrs, 

" " " Marash is five (5) days. 

" " " Zeitouu is seven (7) days. 

" Oorfa is six (6) days. 

" " " Diarbekir is twelve (12) days. 

On the north from Samsoun to Harpoot is fifteen (15) days. 

These journeys were made by horse, mule or donkey, over moun- 
tain paths, rocks and precipices. Only in comparatively a few places 
are there roads allowing the passing of a wheeled vehicle of any kind, 
even the passing of a horse along the steep declivities is sometimes 
dangerous. 

Communications. 

As will be seen, the sending of a letter from Constantinople to 
the interior, requires at the best six weeks, or forty-six days with no 
delays. 

Only the large and more important towns have telegraphic com- 
munication. This requires two, three, four days of a week, according 
to circumstances. These di.spatches are all sent and must be answered 
in Turkish. 



■i^^ ^\ 



,r^ 




i>i^ 



\ S^^lXJ^'y^'^-^t^jX}'\yr:^''^^^ ' 




ARMENIA. 



307 






[TratiAlstion orabore Tclecmm-I 

Arabkbr. Maytf.tS^S. 
MiM Baktok: 

Siuc« tliree days we are atteudiiijj; with our doctors and tlieir attcndaiiU to one 
bandrvd sick per ^a.y. The couUgioufi fever (lypliiiE) Is diiitini tilting. Mita Buoh 
and all Uie puty arc distributing clothing and bedding. I.cnuue is giving imple- 
ments and seed to the fArmcra. Tlic needs here nre extreme. Wistar's pnrty «re 
at Pjrre. Wood witli his party are working in the district of Paloa. 

ITtr»Riti.i., 

The larger towns have mails usually Ivaving once a week, carried 
ou horses with a military guard. No newspaper is piihlLihed in Asia 
Minor. 

The missionnry stations, with bat two or three exceptions, are not 
near the scacoast, but from thn.-e to Bfteen days' travel from either the 
Mediterraueau or the Black Sea, or three to twentyfive days to the 
nearest Mediterranean port. As will be seen by reference to the map 
Ihe following statiuiis areouthe seaboartJ: Trebizond on the Black Sea; 
Smyrna and a stnalt station near Mcrrstncon the Mediterranean, and 
Constantinople on theRosponis. 

The following are inland and during several months in the winter 
and spring mnst be nearly, if not quite, inaccessible to outside approach: 
Adabazar, Bardezag, Biousa, Cesarea, Marsovan. Hadjin, Tarsu.s, 
Adana, Mardiu. Aintab, Marash, Sivas, Harpoot, Oorfa, Krzingan, 
Erzroom, Van, Bitlis. 

Funds. 

It should be distinctly understood by contributors that neither 
their letters, nor any individual contributions came to us; these were 
received by the committees or parties raising the funds in America. 



3oS 



THE RED CROSS. 



The letters were donbtlcss faithfully acktiowledpetl. and the various 
suDis of money placed in the general fund forwanled to us by them. 
All coutributioiis received by us directly at Constantinople are acknowl- 
edged in our report. 

Although an account of the disposition of all funds is rendered in 
the report of the fiuaucial secretary, which, after verification, I signed 



\: 



\ 



:^ 



^: 



rfs 



\ 



t 



iZh: 






«^ 



ntmuoit or grbcokiah chtrch at oorpa. wbvse makv uttkdrbds 

O* WOMKN AMD CHtlrDRKlf WOSLK MASSACRKD. 



jointly with tiim, I will, however, at the risk of repetition, take the 
liberty of adding the following remarks on the subject; 

It is to be borne always in mind that the amouni of mouey to be 
distributed was never made a conceru of ours, provided they were 
actually "funds to diilribuU." To the question so frequently and 
kindly asked of us, "Did you have money enough, or were you embar- 
rassed in your operations by want of funds? '* I beg to have this reply 
intelligently understood: that we had always money enough in hand 
for the work in hand. We were never embarrassed in our operations 
by lack of funds, holding, as I always have, that charitable relief in 
order to be safe and efficient, should be conducted on the same reason- 



3IO 



THE RED CROSS. 



able basis as business, and tliata good business mac, unless by accident 
on the part of other persons, or of circumstances, will never 6nd bim wlf 
embarrassed, as he will never undertake more than he has the means to 
siicccssfhlly accomplish. We were never embarrassed in oiir operations 
by lack of funds, and onr committees will testify that no intimation of 
that kind ever came to them from us. This would have been both 
unwise and unjust. According to the universal system of charitable 
relief, all was being done that could be done; but if asked if we had 
enough for the Mcc(/j^//jir;*f'<;^<r, enough to relieve the distress through 
desolated Asia Minor, enough to make those people comfortable again, 
then a very tender chord has been touched. No hearts in America are 
more sore than ours; its richest mine might drain in that attempt. 
Our men in the interior have seen and lived among what others vainly 
strive to picture; they are men of work, not words, and under heaven 
have labored to do what they could with what they had. It is their 
stewardship they are trying to render to a great-hearted, sympathetic 
and perplexed people, racked by various emotions, seeking light through 
every channel, and conclusii-ely solving and settling in a score of ways, 
ever>' day. problems and questions which have unsettled a considerable 
portion of the world for centuries. 

The CoMJiiTTBBs. 



On behalf of the wretchedness and snfiering met through Asia 
Minor, we return heartfelt thanks to the committees who labored with 
such untiring zeal toward their relief. We were never unmindful of the 
difliculties which they were constantly called to encounter and to over- 
come. Not having in hand the funds desired, or even guaranteed, they 
must raise them, ami this largely from persons whose sympathies out- 
ran their generosity, if not their means. This naturally opened the 
door for excuses for withholding, until it could be seen that "some- 
thing was actually l)eing accomplished ; " then the doubt if anything 
"could be accomplished ;" next the certainty that it "could not be," 
and so on through whole chapters of dark prophecies and discourage- 
ments sufficient to dishearten the most hopeful natures, and weaken at 
times the best efforts that could be put forth. Against volumes, nay, 
oceans of these discouragements, our committees must have struggled, 
with more or less of success, and again for their efforts on behalf of 
such suffering as even they never witnessed, wc return with reverence 
onr sincercst gratitude. Their efforts have been herculean, their ob- 
structions scarcely less. 



ARMENIA. 



3<3 



The cause of these difficulties lay in the customary conceptioa and 
methods of charitable relief which they were naturally compelled to 
adopt and follow. Until the world conies to recognise that charity is 
not beggar>', and should not be made to depend npon it, that a legiti- 
mate and ready fund to draw from in order to facilitate and validate its 
transactions is as necessary as in other movements, the difHcuIties of 
our tireless and noble committees will be everywhere met. 

It is with these views that the Red Cross has never solicited means 
in aid of its work of relief. Heretofore ou all its Oelds, the people have 
been left free to contribute what they desired, and through whom they 
desired, and it is we believe, a well understood fact, that the use of the 
name of the Red Cross in the raising of funds for the late Armenian relief, 
was simply incidental, one oFthc methods naturally resorted to in order 
to secure the end. and by noconcurreuce of ours, as has been previously 
and fully explained. 



To THB PSBSS OP THE UnITHD STATES. 

Among the dark hours that came to us in the hopeless waste of 
work and woe on every side, the strong sustaining power has been the 
Press of the United States. While naturally compelled to give circula- 
tion to nnaulhorized reports from other sources, it has evidently done 
it with regret, and hastened by strong editorials, in words of no un- 
certain sound, to set right before its readers any errors that may have 
crept in. The American press has always been loyal to the Red Cross 
and to its work, and once more it is our privilege to tender to it our 
meed of grateful praise. 



To TUB CoNTKiBirross OP Tu£ United States, 



Whose Sympathy, God-like pity and mercy prompted them to the 
grand work of relief for the half million suffering and dying in a land 
they had never seen, whose purses were opened, whose own desires 
were repressed that they might give, not of their abundance, but of 
their scantiness ofttimes, whose confidence made us their almoners, 
whose whole-hearted trust has strengthened us, whose hearts have been 
with us, whose prayers have followed us, whose hopes have sustained 
us, aud whose beckoning hands were held out in tenderness to welcome 
us back to them, what can be said, what can be done, but to bow our 
iS 



314 



THE RED CROSS. 



beftds in (fateful recogniUon of the words of unexpected commenda- 
tion which nearly overwhelm ns, and pray the gracious God that He 
bless our work, to the measure of the praise bestowed. 



To OUR GOVEUKMBNT AT WASHINGTON ; 

To its cordial sympathy so warmly expressed through its houored 
Secretaries of State aad Na%-y, and through whose ready access we 
were at all times able to reach the public, our earnest and respectful 
thanks are reiidtrc*!, birgjpng our warra-hearted people to bear in mind 
that our rulers are a part of, and like themselves ; that the security of 
the government lies largely in the fact that responsibility tends to coa- 
servatism — not necessarily less sympathetic, but less free, more lespoa- 
sible and more thoughtful. 



To ouK Legation in Constantinople. 

Our thanks arc due to our genial minister, Hon. A, W. Terrell, his 
accomplished secretary, &nA eh argi d' affairs, J. \V. Riddle, his inter- 
preter and dragoman, Gargiulo; our Consul General, Luther Short, 
Esq.; the consular interpreter. Demctriades, from eixry one of whom 
we received unremitting care and attention duriug all the months of 
our residence at Constantinople, and without which aid we could not 
have succeeded in our work. There was not an hour that their free 
service was not placed at our command. Through them all govern* 
mental business was transacted. The day was never too long nor the 
night ton short for any active help they could render ; I only hope that 
OUT diplomatic Her\-ice at all courts is as faithfully and chci-rfnlly ren- 
dered as at Constantinople. In this connection I desire to make special 
mention of the assistance of United Stales Consul, Dr. Milo A. 
Jewett, at Stvas, and Consular Agent, Dauiel Walker, at Alexaudretta. 

Both personally and officially I believe the record of MinUter Ter- 
rell will sustain him. While firm and direct of speech he is a man of 
uncommon courtesy, abounding in the old time haspitality of his native 
state, Virginia. If at the clo.se of his official term, be shall be able to 
report that through all the months — nay. years — of unheard-of troubles, 
dangers and deaths in the country to which lie was assigned, while 
some hundreds of his fellow citizens were constantly and peculiarly 
exposed to these dangers, that with no direct governmental aid or 
authority, without even a ship of his own country iu port, that no lifie 




ARMENIA. 315 

in his charge has been lost, and that only such dangers, hardships and 
losses OS were incident to the terrible transactions about them had been 
inflicted npon them, we will, I trust, look calmly at the results, and 
decide that if this were not diplomacy, it was a very good substitute. 



To THK Ambassadors op Othkr Nations at Constaxtinopi,r. 

To these high and honorable gentlemen our thanks are due. To 
Sir Philip Currie of England, there seemed to come no diSerence in 
sentiment between our people and his own ; a tower of strength whcre- 
ever he took hold. Germany and Russia were cordial aud ready to 
aid, as also our English Consul, R. A. Fontaiia. at Harpoot, and C. M. 
Hallward, at Diarbekir; and following these, may I also name the 
ready help of Renter's Express and the United and Associated Presses 
of both Constantinople and I^ndon. 



COUMG NDATORT. 

Here is a phase of our work which should not be entirely passed 
by, and yet, if only partially taken up would overrun our entire report. 
Only one or two excerpts must suffice to show what the others might 
mean. 

From Rev. Dr. H. O. Dwjght, one word among the many so 
generously spoken : 



UIu B&rtoa lias dooe a splendid work, senitllily and economically mnnKgrd. 
Wherever her agents have been, the missionaries have expressed the stroiigestt 
approval of th«ir methods and efficiency. The work done ham been of great and 
pcnnaucnt importance. 



From Rev. Joseph K. Greene, D. D., to the New York " Independ- 
ent'*: 



After aotne six tnonthB of service,MiBa Clara Barton and her five able aaalst- 
aats have left Constant iuople ou their rvlurn to Aaieitca. It woa only on Um 



3i6 THE RED CROSS. 

earnest solicitation of the missionaries, the officers of the American Board and 
many other friends of the suffering Armenians that Miss Barton nndeitook the 
relief in this land. The difficulties of the work, arising from the suspicions of 
the Turkish authorities, the distance from the capital to the sufferers, the perils 
and discomforts in communicating with them, and from nnfamiliarity with the 
languages and customs of the people of the land, would surely have appalled a 
less courageous heart. Under such circumstances it is only just and fair that 
the American public should be apprised of the substantial success of this mis- 
sion of the Red Cross. 

In the first place, Miss Barton has shown a rare faculty in getting on well 
with everybody. To facilitate her work she, and the assistants whom she loves 
to call "my men," laid aside all the insignia of the Red Cross and appeared 
everjwhere simply as private individuals. She clearly understood that she 
could accomplish her mission only by securing the confidence and good will of 
the authorities, and this she did by her patience and repeated explanations, 
and by the assistance of the American Legation. When the iradS, or imperial 
decree sanctioning her mission, was delayed, she sent forward her assistants 
with only a traveling permit for a part of the way, trusting, and not in vain, 
that the local authorities, instructed from headquarters, would facilitate their 
way. As a matter of fact, while Mr. Pullman, her secretary and treasurer, 
remained at Constantinople with Miss Barton, her distributing agents, namely. 
Dr. Ilubbell and Mr, Mason, Mr, Wistar and Mr, Wood, either together or in 
two parties, traveled inland from Alezandretta to KilHs, Aintab, Marash, 
Zeitoun, Birejik, Oorfa, Diarbekir, Farkin, Harpoot, Palou, Malatia, Arabkir, 
Egin, Sivas, Tokat, Samsoun and back to Constantinople without interruption 
or molestation. They were readily and constantly supplied with guards, and 
could not with safety have made their perilous four months' journey without 
them. Demands are said to have been made that the distribution of aid be 
made under the super\-isiou of government officials, but in fact. Miss Barton's 
agents knew how to make their distributions in every place, after careful con- 
sultation and examination, without any interference on the part of the author- 
ities. 

Miss Barton received in aJl about Ji 16,000, and an unexpended balance of 
$15,400 was committed to Mr. Peet, the treasurer of the American Missions in 
Turkey, to be held as an emergency fund, subject to Miss Barton's orders. No 
expense has been incurred for Miss Barton or her agents save for traveling 
expenses and the wages of interpreters, and with this exception the entire sum 
expended has gone to the actual relief of the sufferers. While the fund com- 
mitted to the Anglo-American Committee, of which Mr. Peet is a member — a 
sum four to five times the amount committed to Miss Barton — has been 
expended through the missionaries, largely to save the hungry from starvation, 
the relief through the agents of the Red Cross has for the most part been wisely 
devoted to the putting of the poor sufferers on their feet again, and thus helping 
them to help themselves. Some 500 liras (a lira is $4.40 o{ good money) were 
given for the cure and care of the sick in Marash, Zeitoun and elsewhere, and 
some 2,000 liras' worth of cloths, thread, pins and needles were sent inland; but 
many times this amount was expended in providing material for poor widows, 
seeds, agricultural implements and oxen for farmers; tools for blacksmiths and 



ARMKNIA. 



31? 



ciu-pentera, and loonui forweAven. In some places MUa Barton's ageiiU bad the 
plcasnrc of srci n); vegetable gajdeiia coining forwarci from ftCcd furnWhol liy the 
Red Croits, am) village farmers reapiuK tbe grain with sickles wbicU the Red 
CroBB bad given. The great wiitit now — a want which the funds of the Red 
CroM ngentti did not permit them to any large extent to meet — is aid to the 
poor viUagciB to help them rebuild their hnrned and rained houses, and thus 
provide for Iheuuelvea nhelter xgaiuiit the rigors of the coming winter. The 
Red Ctx»s agents have, however, gathered n grciit stocic of infonnation; and 
passing by the horrors of ibe massacres and the awfol abuse of girlsaud women, 
as unimpeachable witnesses tbi^ can bear testimony to the frightful sufferings 
and needs of the people. We most sincerely hope and pray that Miss Uartott 
and the agents and friends of the Red Crosn will not esteem their work in 
Turkey done, but knowing now so well just wlut remains to be done, and what 
can be done, will bend every efTdrl to nccure further relief for the widows and 
orphans of the more than sixty thoiisaud murdered men — mostly between the 
ages of eighteen and fifty — whose Uvea no e;irihly arm waa outatiutchcd to savc^ 
While we gr;itcfully hcj»r witueu to the wific and indefatigable efforts of 
Miss Barton's agents, permit ua to add that during hct more than six months' 
ttay in Constantinuplc Miss Barton gave A^j^^naremittingly to the work of 
her mission. She scema to have bad no time for sight-seeing, and not a few 
of her friends ore disposed to complain thnt she had no time to accept the 
invitations of those who would have been glad to entcitnin licr. The only 
relaxation ehe seems to have given herself w:»« on two Ofcasions — llic firet, a 
Fourth of July picnic with a few American friends, on one of the Princes* 
Islands, and the second, another picnic on the same island, on Wcduesdny, 
Angut 5, when, with three of her "men," she met some twenty Ameriran lady 
tCftchers and raisaionarica, in order to bid them a conrtcous farewell. The first 
occaiiion atie un([ualifie<lly declared to have been the happiest I'ourth of July 
she had ever had ; and inspired by the occasion, she penned some vetses which 
shu kindly read to her friends on the second gathering, and which we very 
much wi^ abe wonKl permit the editor of the indcprndenl to puhliah. On the 
second occasion, at Mi*s Barton's request, the linanotal secretary read bis report 
and Dr. Hubbell and Mr. Wood presented reports of the wurk of di^rihution. 
Wc gratefully acknowledged the honor done nx in permitting us to hear these 
rejwrts; and. remembering our concern for Mi^s Barton while preparing for the 
work of distribution six months ago. we gladly expressed our joy and congrat- 
ulations now on tlic happy return of her faithful and efficient agents, of whom 
it may be troly said that they went and saw and conquered. We rejoiced that 
thesM new friendN had come to know so well the American misitionaries in 
Turkey, and were tnily thnnkful for a mutually happy acquaintance. We 
wished Miss Burton oud her "men" a hearty welcome on their arriva], and, 
now, with all our hearts, we wish them god-^xed on their return home. 

ComsiantinopU, Turkty, 



The little ' ' verses ' ' so kindly referred to by Dr. Grcciic, were not 
even written, but wuru a simple train of thought that took rhythmic 



318 



THE RED CROSS. 



form as we crossed over the sea of Marmora, od oar way to an island 
celebration of the Fourth of July. Later I found time to put them on 
paper and read them to the guests at our farewell meeting, presenting 
them to our host, Mr. W. W. Peet. They appear to have gained a 
favor far beyond their merit, and by request of manj' fiiends they are 
given place in the report as a "part of its history." 



^- ".■■ ' 




A BIT OF PAI,OU. 



AKMENIA. 



3»» 



MARMORA. 

It was twenty and a hundrcil years, oh blue and rolling sea, 
A Uidusaud in the onwnrd rnarcb of htiman llbcrly. 
Since on iu huuHl Ihisuiu, wind-tosaed and Mils unfurled, 
Atlantic's mighty billows bore a message to the world. 

It lhuiid«ra down its rocky coast, and stirs its frugal Iioines; 

Tlic Ssucon hears it as he toils, the Indian aa be rooms; 

Tbe bulTnlo \i\uin the plains, the p.mtlicr in his lair. 

And tbc eagle hails the kindred note, and screams it through the air. 

"Make way for liberty," it mured, "here let the oppreswcd go free, 
Break loose your bnndx of lyrAnt hsndK, this land is not for thee. 
The old world in it.i crusted ft^asp grinds out the souls of men. 
Here plant their feet in freedom's Mil, this lund was made for them. " 

The tnothcT jilept in her idand borne, but tlic children he.-inl the call, 
And ere the western sun went down, had answered, one and all; 
Tor Britain's tbirteeii colonies bud vanished in a day, 
And six and half a hundred men had signed tbeir lives away. 

And brows were dark, and word* were few. the steps were quick and strong, 
And firm the lipa as ever his who treasures up a wrong; 
And stern Ibo tone that offt-rnl up the prayer beside the bed. 
And many a Molly Stark that night wept aileut tears of dread. 

The bugles call, and swards are out, and armies march abreast. 

And the old worhlcastaa wondering glance to the strange light in the west; 

Lo, from its lurid lightnings play, free toasing in the wind. 

Bursts forth the star-gemnicd flag that wraps the hopen of all mankind. 

And weary eyes grew brighter then, and fainting hearts grew strong. 
And hope was mingled in the cry, "How long, oh Lonl, Uow long?" 
The seething millions turn and stir ind struggle toward the light; 
Tbc free flag streams, ntid morning gleams where erst wafihopeleasnight. 



And grim Atlantic thunders still adown its rocky shores. 
And still the eagle screBma his note, as aloft he sails and soars; 
And hope is bom, that even thou, in some far day to come, 
O blue and rolling Marmora, sbalt bear the message home. 
Dedicated to W. W. Peet, Esq. CuRA Barton. 

ConstantinopU, July 4, iS^. 



THE RED CROSa 



Reports are always tedious. If some reader, luring pe we veird 
thus far, if such there be, shall find himself or herself saying with a 
little thrill of diii^)pauttmeat, ' ' But this does not give the iniiarBWtsoa 
expected, it does not recommeiid aay specific coarse to be porsved, 
whether emigration for the Armenians, and if so, where, and how; 
or antooomy, and if so, how to be secured, and assured; if more ships 
thotild be sent, and what they should do when there; if greater 
preaBuze of the Powers sboold be demanded by ta. or iHiat cooiae, as a. 
nation, we ooght to porsae. We had expected some light oa these 

qULStioBS." 

Appreciatiag and reletting this disappointment, we mnst icmind 
our anxious reai^rs and friends — for soch iSwy aie — that we have never 
been reqoised to do this; that all coodaskms to that effect are simply 
inferential, and all snch expectations were bora of anxioos bi^w. Bat 
that which we hel doa immediately conceni as, and comes directly- 
within oar prorince, is, to state that notwithstanding all that has been 
done throngh all sonrces, infinitely more lemains to be doaie by some 
one; and while speculation npon the moral dnty of nations, the rights 
or wTOi^ of govemmenis, the problem of whether one mler or aootber 
shall sit npoo a throne for the next six months; what exprasstoos <4 
individQal principle in regard to certain actiooa sboold be given; the 
proper stand for a people to take and maintain on high niofal and 
religious qnestioos — all important subjects — none Talne tbem more than 
I— all marking the high tone and prt^rcssive spirit of the most 
advanced stage of hmnan thought and colttire the world has yet known, 
it would seem that each and all of these, imperative and important as 
they are, admitof at least a tittle moment of time for considentiaa, and 
will probably take it itbcther admitted or not. 

But the iacts are, that between the Archipelago and the rirfwn 
Seas, the BUck and the Mediterranean, are to-day living a million and 
a half of peo[^ of the Armenian race, existittg under the ordinances oC 
al least, semi-civil izatioa, and professing the leligioa of Jesus Christ; 
that according to the stated estimate of intelligent and impartial 
ofaservcTS of various countries and coocnrxed in by our own agcsta, 
wboae observatious have been tmrestricted, &om 100,000 to 300*000 of 
these persons, men, women and children, are destitute c^ sbdter. 
ixisent, fire, fovid, medicines, the comforts that tend to make hnmaa 
life pfeserrable, or any means of obtaining them, save through the 
chahtAble beneficence of the world. 

The same estimates coocnr in the statement, that without snch 
ootnde n^port, at least 30,000 of these peraons will have died of 



ARMENIA. 323 

starvation or perished through accumulated hardship, before the first 
of May, 1897. 

That even now it is cold in their mountain recesses, the frosts are 
whitening the rocky crests, trodden by their wandering feet, and long 
before Christmas the friendly snow will have commenced to cover their 
graves. 

These facts, bare and grim, are what I have to present to the 
American people; and if it should be proposed to make any use of them 
there is not much time for consideration. We have hastened, without 
loss of a day, to bring them plainly and truthfully before the public as 
a subject pertaining peculiarly to it. 

I would like to add that this great work of human relief should 
not fall wholly upon the people of our own country — by no means with- 
out its own sufiering poor — neither would it. The people of most 
enlightened nations should unite in this relief, and I believe, properly 
conferred with, would do so. 

None of us have found any better medium for the dispensation of 
charitable relief than the faithful missionaries already on the ground, 
and our government oflScers, whose present course bespeaks their 
active interest. 

Ci^RA Barton. 



324 



THE RED CROSS. 



REPORT OF THE FINANCIAL SECRETARY. 



The following financial report, of neceijsiiy, has to deal with the 
' cuTTencies oj 6ve different coantries, viz.; American, English, French, 
AuHlriaa and Turkish, but as nearly all except expenses of travel and 
maiutenauce are in Turkish inoaey, aud as American, English, French 
and other moneys received were naturally reduced to the coin of the 
Ottoman Empire, we were obliged to make our accounts to correspond. 
As the report is made on the gold basis of loo piasters to a lira, our 
friends may easily Hnd the value in American money by multiplying 
the niimber of piasters by 4,4, as a gold lira (too piasters) is approxi- 
mately worth four and four-tenths dollars. 

Owing to the difference iu values between gold and silver coin, the 
wide range cf values between the same coin in different cities, also the 
singular variation of the purchasing power of the same coin in the same 
cities for various commodities, complicated and curious mathematical 
problems have constantly confronted us, and for the correctness and 
accuracy of our report we are under tn.nny obligations to W. W. Pect, 
Esq.. treasurer of the American Board of Foreign Missions; the officers 
of the Imperial Ottoman aud Credit Lyomiais Banks; as well as George 
Kiiiizel, Esq., expert accountant of the Administratiou de la Dette 
Publique Ottomane, Our grateful ackiiowledgmeuls are also due and 
heartily gii-en to Rev. Dr. H. O. Dwight, the executive head of the 
Missionary Board at Constantinople, and Rev. Dr. George Washburn, 
president of Robert College, for many valuable suggestions. 

To gi%'e a single illustration of the acrobatic acquirements of the 
sprightly piaster, the ignus fatuus characteristics of the mejidieh (nom. 
30 piasters), and the illusive proulivitics of the lira, we vfiW outline a 
transaction couuected with our first medical expedition, under Dr. Ira 
Harris, of Tripoli, Syria. Wc had scut four hundred liras to Dr. 
George E- Post, of Beyrout, who was fitting out the expedition for us, 
and presumed we would receive a receiirt for that amount, or for 40,000 
piasters, its equivalent. Theacknowledgmetit came, and we weresome- 
wbat nonplussed to note that we had been credited with a sum far 
exceeding that amount. A letter of inquiry was sent, as we supposed 
our good doctor bad made an error. Wc quote a paragraph or two in 
his letter of reply: " I am not surprised that you do not quite under- 
stand the intricacies of Turkish finance. After thirty-three yearsof 



ARMENIA. 



3»5 



resideDce, I am still trying to get some idea of what a piaster is. * * * 
In fieyrout it is worth one piaster and five paras, with variations; a 
mejidieh is worth from nineteen piasters to almost anything. Every 
town has its rate. * * * The nominal value changes daily. Thus 
ifl credit you to-day with 123.20 piasters on the lira, next week I may 
be out of pocket, or vice versa. * * * Intcnijilly, it is well nigh 
impos-sihlL- to keep accounts. * * * The only way our college books 
are kept is by giving the rate as it is when the account is entered and 
as it appears in all receipts and other vouchers." 

We were much gratified with this assurance, for if a college president, 
after thirty-three years' study, had not solved the piaster puzzle, there 
was some excuse for us. Hundreds of acconnts and bills have been 
received, audited and paid, and scarcely any two correspond in piaster 
equivalents. Therefore, although the money Unit is the gold piaster, 
and the monetary standard the gold lira, the frequent changes in valas- 
lion is very bewildering to foreigners, and necessitates fretjncnt confer- 
ence with perstms who, after long years of residence, have reached an 
equitable bas^is by which monetary equivalents can be ascertained* 

Aglancealourcohimn of receipts shows a considerable variation ill 
rates of exchange, and also llie selling price of British gold (most of 
our drafts and cabled credits were iu English sovereigns). We sold 
the g^-eater part of our gold at a rate exceeding t to, which is the 
commercial rate in business transactions. In all credits received, the 
values arc of course given according to the rale on the day of sale. 

Many of our accounts, receipts and vouchers are curiosities, as they 
are in various languages. Arabic, Kourdish, Turkish. Armenian, 
Greek. Italian, etc. They were interesting but at the same time 
exceedingly perplexing to us, though our expert accountant found no 
difficulty with any of them, and right here we desire to make special 
acknowledgment to Mr. Kunzel for his excellent but unpaid services. 

In our column of expenses will be found an exceedingly rare Red 
Cross item, namely, "Wages Account." All the native or local 
doctors and apothecaries with one exception, had lobe paid "conta- 
gious disease rates," as they called it. The exception was Dr. Ira 
Harris, of Tripoli, Syria, that brave and self-sacrificing American, 
whose great medical ability and splendid surgical skill accomplished so 
much in curing the sick in the terribly distressed cities of Marasb and 
Zeitoun, with their many surrounding villages. We are glad to make 
this public acknowledgment in full appreciation of bis heroic services. 
Besides the doctors, there were interpreters and dragomen for the 
various expeditions in the field to whom wages were paid. No adverse 



326 



THE RED CROSS. 



reflection isilesi^ncd in tlie making or this stalement, as the conditions 

stUTOunding life aud service iti tUat regiou of operatioa made such 

'remuneration aa equitable necessity. 

It is, we think, a well understood fact that the Red Cross officeni 
neither receive nor ask any remuneratiou for their sen-ices, but away 
from our own country we did not find the splendid volunteer aids we 
have had on fonner fields. But few could be found, and these we have 
liad with us both in Constantinople and Asia Minor, and very efficient 
helpers they have been; to these our thanks are due and cordially 
given. 

After our expeditions had entered the field, aud begun work, the 
flrst remittances to our chief of&cers were sent lu a manner which for 
slowness and !>ecming insecurity would have appalled American busi- 
ness men. The modus operandi was as follows; A check for the 
amount desired was drawn and taken to the bank; after half an hour or 
more the gold would be weighed out and handed over — our bankers 
would have performed the same service in two minutes. The coin was 
then put into a piece of stout canvas cloth, done up in a round ball, 
securely tied and taken to the Imperial Turkish postofhce* where it was 
placed in a piece of sheepskin, all the euds brought together very 
evenly, cut off s<iuare and covered witb sealing wax, the strong cords 
binding the package in a peculiar mannu' were woven in so that the 
ends could be pawsed through a small wooden box like a piU box; this 
box was filled with wax. After the imperial post and onr seals were 
attached, baksliisli given, and the package insured in an Kngllsh com- 
pany, the only thing remaining afler the three or four hours' work and 
<lclay was to go home and, with fear and trembling, wait some twenty- 
five or thirty days until the pony express arrived at its destination and 
acknowledgment by telegraph of the receipt of the money relieved the 
nervous strain as far as that package w.is concerned. This trying busi- 
OcM was kept up until it became possible to use drafts in the interior. 
We are happy to report that, though the money had to be taken 
through a country infested with robbers, outlaws and brigand.s, we 
never lost a lira. 

Bnkshisli is another custom of the country, infinitely more exas- 
perating than nnr " tip " system, which is bad enough. This is trj'ing 
to most iwoplc, but peculiarly irritating to a financial secretarj'. Bak- 
•hisli i» a gift of money which an Oriental expects aud demands fc»- the 
nost trilling Ker\*tce. Beggars, by instinct, seem tokuoi^a financial 
inctitary and swarm around in the most appalling manner. To make 
tay headway with this horde at least two Turkish words must be 



ARMENIA. 



3*7 



mastered the Erat day, namely, " VoA," No, and " HidSgit," " Be off 
with you." These expressions are sametimes efficacious with beggars, 
but the bakshish 6end must be paid soiuetbiag. 

As long columns of figures have no interest to the great majority 
of people, and detailed accounts of receipts aud expeoses are never 
read, as it is of no possible importance what moneys were received at 
certain times, or what goods were purchased ou specific days for the 
field work, or gold or drafts sent into the interior, we give onr state- 
ment in as condensed a form as possible. The committees have 
received their respecli\'e reports, with all vouchers and other detail. 

We believe the account of our stewardship will be approved by 
our couiitrj'men ; we know that the people whom we came to assist, 
are grateful and thoroughly appreciative, as numberless letters of grat- 
itude, testimonials and personal statements abundantly prove. 

To the $1 16,326.01 , at least a third if not a half more should be ' 
added, as in all kinds of industrial business we have made the money 
do double duty. For instance: We purchased irou and steel and 
gave to the blacksmiths to make tools. That started their work. 
They paid us for the iron and steel ia tools ; these we gave to other 
artisans to start their various trades. In like manner spinning, weav- 
ing and garment- ma king avocations were commenced. Speaking of 
values, the consensus of opinion of our countrymen in the interior is, 
that putting a price ou our work, the people of Anatolia have gained 
twice or thrice the actual money sjient, and that the moral supjrart 
givea was £ar beyond any valuation. (At such a money valuation 
then, the aggregate value of the chief distribution will be nearly 
$350,000.) 

A few words of explanation in regard to the table of expenditures: 
" Cash sent to the Interior ' ' includes all moneys sent by pony express 
or draft, and of this amount something over seven thousand liras are ia 
the hands of W. W. Peet, Esfj.; Rev. C. F. Gates, at Harpoot; C. M. 
Hallward. Esq.. British Consul, at Diarbekir; Rev. E. H. Ferrj', at 
Sivas, and other equally responsible representatives, for an emergency 
fund, to be used, ou order, as occasion requires. 

*' Relief Expeditions, General and Medical," represents largely the 
goods purchased and shipped with the four expeditions from Constanti- 
nople and Beyrout for relief purposes. A portion of this supply is still 
held at different stations awaiting the proper time for its distribution to 
the best advantage. 

"General Expen.sc Account*' represents freights, postage, bak- 
shish, hammals, car fares, carriages, etc " Douatious for Relief of 



338 



THE RED CROSS. 



Orpbiin Children " represents sums of moDey given to the Armenian 
and Gennan hospitals for Armenian refugee children. The other items 
ttc think explain themselves. 

U will be ohsen.'cd that the special Red Cross fund, as noted in 
our tahnlation of debits and credits, more than covers expenses of 
" Red CroM Headquarters. Field," "Travel and Maintenance," "Gen- 
eral Expense and Wages Accounts," and " General and Medical Relief 
Expeditions Accounts," all of which itera.s were of direct benefit to the 
field as all were necessary to the succtrssful conduct of our work. We 
only mention this to show that, besides the work we have been able to 
successfully p«.-rfi»rm, ihc Red Cro.is has also materially coutributed moa- 
■tsnly to the field. And it will not be out of place to note that in the 
Iota) of cash expended ($ii6..^26.oi) there is shown to be an administra- 
tive cost amotmting to $7,526.37, as covered by such items as 
" Teleframs and Cables," " Wages Account.'* "General Expense," 
"Hefldfinartcni, Field," "Stationery and Printing," and " Travel and 
Maintcnnncc." This cost was but a fraction over6 per cent on the cash 
total. If the estimated money value in field results be taken at three 
times the cosh received and paid, for relief material, food, etc . as stated, 
it will be found that the cost of administration is only about 2 percent 
In dt brr account or estimate theresnll is gratifying though not surprising 
to 1 he ofTicers of the Red Cross, since the methods pursued are the fruits 
of n wide experience that evaded no rcspou.sibility and It-amed only to 
aprnd wisely for the trust imposed and accepted. It is also satisfactory 
Id ktidW that such exjXJnditurL-s came direct from the " Special Funds" 
of lliv Ke«l Cross it.Hclf. An examinatiou of the balance sheets aceom- 
IMriying this report shows that of funds expended, the Red Cross is 
orvdilrd with J34, 64 1. 93, which leaves an excess for relief over the cost 
of adnilniiitration of $17,1 15.56. 

1*erltBpa this brief financial review of the work achieved may be 
f mperly closed by n reference to the sincere enthusiasm and earnestness 
with which the efforts to raise funds in the United States were ani- 
ntulrd. The inciiletits herein mentioned may also illustrate how the 
wImIuiu of experience accepts the camcstuc-ss and yet discounts without 
urtticliim the over confident calculations, to which a noble zeal may 
run. It WDiild appear that the collection of funds for the purpose of 
rfllcvlnga ChriHlian iicoplcin dangcrof starvation and violent death by 
hnlfe or butlct^f aiding a historic race in the throes of dissolution 
lit'in nta<uiacre, and dispersion in winter by storm and famine, would 
b«i II very easy thing to aocomplish. A good many of our countrymen, 
tnmccustomed to great relief work, found the collection of the means 



ARMENIA. 



3^9 



needed, a task more than diS,cu]C. A single illustration will prove how 
misleading is the conception. It must be bijme in mind always that 
the Red Cross never aoJicils funds. It sees its field of benefit workaud 
having fully examined the needs, states them through the press andall 
other public avenues, to the American people, leaving the response 
direct to their judgment and generosity. When it is osked to accept 
the administration of rt-lief funds and material, in fields like this that 
awaited it in Asia Minor, the trust is surely met, but the Red Cross 
does Dot ask for the means and money. Others do that, staling that 
the work will be under its charge. When it is once accepted there is no 
retreat, no matter how far the exertions may fall short of reaching the 
hoped-for results. 

I^st November (1895), after many petitions had been received and 
carefully considered, representatives of the great Armenian Relief Com- 
mittees came to Washington for Ihe purimse of supplementing snch 
earnest petitions by personal appeals, A conditional consent having 
been obtained, the subject of funds was brought up by the following 
question: 

" Miss Barton, how much do you think it will cost to relieve tlie 
Armenians ? " 

The question was answered by another: " Gentlemen, you arecon- 
nected with the various missionary boards, with hanks and other gfreat 
institutions and enterprises. What amountdoyouconsidtrnccessary ?" 

After deliberation, $5,000,000 was suggested as the proper sum and 
the question was asked if the Red Cross concurred. Miss Barton, with, 
the fainlest suggestion of a smile, replied that she thought $5,000,000 
would be snfhcient. As the difficulties of raising money became 
more apparent to the committees, numerous meetings were held and 
various other amounts suggested, Miss Barton agreeing each time. 
From $5,000,000 to $500,000, with a guarantee for the balance; then 
$100,000 cash, with $|oo,ooo guaranteed, and so on, until $50,000 was 
named to start the work with, such sum to be available on the arrival 
of the Red Cross iu Constantinople. The president and a few officers 
of the Red Cross arrived there on February 15, 1896, but it was late in 
the following April before the $50,000 was received. These facts as 
given are intended solely to show the difficulties tlie committees had to 
contend with in raising the amount they did. 

For general information it will, perhaps, not be inappropriate to 
state that all relief work is governed and conducted on military lines to 
preclude tb.c possibility of confusaon, as the Red Cross on fields of dis- 
aster is the only organized body in a disorganized, community. Thus, 



330 THE RED CROSS. 

whererer the organizatioa has control, Miss Barton haspersmal super- 
vision of all departments: the finaucial, receiving and disposing ci all 
funds; the correspondence, opening all letters and directing replies; the 
field, assigning workers to attend to such duties as are best suited to 
their variousabilities, who report daily, if possible, and receive instruc- 
tions for the prosecution of the work, the supplies, receiving accurate 
reports of all material and giving directions as to its disposition. 

Georgr H. Pullman. 
Constantinople, August i, 18^6 



ARMENIA. 333 

PlNANCIAt, BALA.NCS SBBBT 07 THB RBUQP FdndS AND SBRVICB OP 1S96 

IN Asia Minok. 

The American National Red Cross, in account with the Relief Field of Asia 
Minor. 

Dr. 

To The National Relief Coamuttee *Ltq. 14,784 51 

The New England Relief Committee " 5,667 25 

The Worcester Relief Committee " 403 i3 

The I^adies' Relief Committee, of Chicago " 922 50 

The Friends of Philadelphia, through Asa S. Wing .... " 481 69 

Citizens of Newark, through C. H. Stoul, Esq " 674 65 

Citizens of Milton, North Dakota " 4 66 

St. George's Church S. S. through C. H. Stout, Esq. . . " 40 06 

Ransom Post, G. A. R, Wales, Minn " 3 95 

The Davenport, Iowa, Relief Committee " 54 78 

American I^ies in Geneva, Switzerland " 5 85 

Miss Phillips, Mission school, Balisori, India ...... " 13 20 

Mrs. Dr, Galbraith, Tarentum, Pa " 3 30 

"Sailors' Rest," Genoa, Italy *' 2 33 

A citizen of Chester, N. J " oa 

Miss Mayham Winter, Philadelphia, Pa " i 14 

The American National Red Cross (special) " 3,376 66 

Total " *a6,437 73 

Cr. 

By telegrams and cables Ltq. % 245 12 

Cash sent to interior " 18,965 70 

Relief expeditions, general " 2.91^7 81 

Relief expeditions, medical " 543 68 

Wages account " 431 30 

General expense account " 138 oa 

Red Cross headquarters. Field " 235 05 

Stationery and printing " 128 79 

Expense account, travel and maintenance " 542 36 

Donations for relief of orphan children " 100 00 

Emergency Fund, deposited with W. W, Pect " 2,200 00 

Total " 26,437 73 

I have carefully examined the books, accounts and vouchers of the American 
National Red Cross, in its relief work in Asia Minor, and find everything correct 
and accmate. 

(Signed.) Gborgb Kunzbl, 

Accountant, Administration Ottoman Public Debt, 
CoNSTANTiNOPtS, August i, i8g6. 

■Uq. i,3i3.7Sor thia mm wM SpccUIHted Crow Funds drawn tmta Brawn Brotbenft 
Cotnpanj. Ltq.— Turkiih Lira=about $4.40. Ltq. 16, 43 7. 73=911 6, 316.01. 

19 



334 



THE RED CROSS. 



GENERAL FIELD AGENT'S REPORT. 



Anatalia, Asia Mihok. 

To Miss Clara Barton, President: 

In speaking of the relief work in Asia Minor, may I be allowed to 
begin at Constantinople, at which place, while waiting for the necessary 
oEQcial papers for our work, we were all busy selecting and purchasing 
relief supplies, camping outfit, cooking uicnsiU, and making other 
preparations for interior travel; and also securing competent inter- 
preters and dragomans. Although the Ita'de of the Sultan granting 
permission to enter Asia Minor had not yet been received, we were 
naturally anxious to follow the first shipment of supplies purchased and 
sent by steamer to the port of Alcxandretta as the safest route, to be 
forwarded again by camels under guard to different places in the 
interior: a'"l with our own men to accompaay and attend the work of 
distribution. Accordingly, accompanied by interpreter Mason, I left 
Constantinople on the tenth of March, touching at Smyrna, Latakea, 
Mcrsina and Tripoli, reaching Alexandrctta on the eighteenth, and by 
the kind help of otir Consular Agent, Mr. Daniel Walker, and Mr. 
John Falanga, began making up the caravans for shipment to Aintab, 
as a central point for the southern field. 

By the time the caravans were ready and horses for travel selected, 
Mr. Wistar and Mr. Wood, with dragomans, arrived by steamer from 
Constantinople. Rev. Dr. Fuller, president of the Aintab (American) 
College, had also jupt come through with friends from Aintab to take 
steamer, himself to return again immediately, and together we all set 
out under soldier escort the next morning. Alcxandretta was in a state 
of fear while we were there, notwithstanding the fact that the warslilps 
of England, France, Turkey, and the United Slates lay in her harbor. 
Kirk Kbaii, the first stopping place on our journey inland, was 
threatened with plunder and debtruction on the night before our arrival 
there. At Killis we found the town in a state of fear from the recent 
massacres. Here, with Dr. Fuller, we visited the wounded who were 
under the good care of a young physician just from the college at 
Aintab, but without medicine, surgical dres^ngs and appliances. 
These with other needed things we arranged to send back to him from 
the supplies that had gone ahead. 




ARMENIA. 



335 



Aintab, with its American school, college, seminary and hospital 
buildings standing out in relief and contrast from the native buildings, 
was a welcome reminder of home ; and the greeting of the hundreds of 
pupils as they came hurrying down the road to welcome back their own 
loved president, became awelcorae for the Red Cross. Wc were most cor- 
dially oflfered the hospitality of Dr. Fuller's house and home, but as we 
were still strangers in a strange land, it seemed best to place ourselves 
in a khan, where we could have belter opportunity to make an acquain- 
tance with the people to obtain the varied information necessary 
to accomplish best results ID the disposition of our relief. Here we 
remained long enough to learu the ueeds of the place and surrounding 
country, to obtain carefully prepared lists of those artisans needing 
tools and implements for their various trades and callings. Supplies 
were left, clothing, new goods for working up, thread, needles, thim- 
bles, medicines, and surgical stores. 

Aintab is favored with its Mission Hospital; with its surgeon and 
physician, Dr. Shcpord and Dr. Hamilton, and a strong American 
colony of missionary teachers, besides the Franciscan Brothers, who 
arc doing excellent select work. The Father Superior was killed near 
Zeitoun. Supplies were selected and made up for Oorfa, Aintab, 
Marash and other points, while a quantity of supplies, by the kindness 
of Dr. Fuller, was left in storageiuthecoUege building to be forwarded 
as our inquiries should discover the need. To Oorfa, where the 
industrial work had been so successfully established by MissShattuck, 
we sentmaterial and implements for working, needles, thread, thimbles, 
cotton and woolen goods for making up. To Marash and Zeitoun, 
ready-made goods in addition to new, with surgical appliances and 
medicines. 

From Aiutab, Mr. Wood and Mr. Wistar started by waj' of the 
most distressed points needing help eastward, and then north to Har- 
poot ; and because of your telegram of the report of typhus and 
dysentery at Marash and Zeitoun, we started in that direction, with 
Rev. L. O. Lcc, who wa-s returning home. After facing rain, snow 
and mud for three days we came to Marash. Here we remained until 
□ur caravan of goods came on. Typhus, dysentery and smallpox 
were spreading as a result of the crowded state of the city; Marash 
had been filled with refugees since the November massacres, notwith- 
standing a large part of its own dwelling houses had been burtied and 
plundered. The surrounding country had also been pillaged, people 
killed and villages destroyed, and the frightened remnant of people 
had crowded in here for protection, and up to this time had feared to 



336 



THE RED CROSS. 



return. With insufficient drainage and wairn weather coming on, 
typhus, dysentery and smallpox already in the prisons, an epidemic 
wu becoming general. True, the preachers requested mothers nol to 
bring children xtiik analipcx to church, nevertheless the typhus and 
smallpox spread, and rendered medical supeniosion a necessity. By 
the efforts of Mrs. Lee and Mrs. Macallum, wires of the missionaries 
of the Marash station, a hospital had heim established with plenty of 
patients, bnt they had no funds for physicians or medicines. Medicines 
were left and funds furnished for a native doctor educated in America 
(who himself had j uat recovered from typhus) and was placed in charge 
of the hospital and out-of-door service, and was doing efBcieut work 
betore we left Marash. Arrangements were made with Rev. Mr. 
Macallum to have tools and implements made and distributed to 
artisans and villagers; and we le^ with him to begin this work the sum 
which you had sent for our own, use 500 lire. 

By this time Dr. Ira Harris, whom you had called from Tripoli, 
Syria, with his assistants, arrived for the Zeitoun field. Dr. Harris 
had his well-filted medical chests and surgical supplies in a mule 
caravan, and being more needed at other places, we left immediately 
for Adioman via Besnia, passing through Bazarjik and Kumaklejercle, 
a three days' mountain journey. Our officer kindly told us, wheu we 
stopped at a Kourdish village for the night, to ''order what we want 
and not pay if wc do not want to." But we made it clear to him, that 
while we are nol extravagant in our wants, w^ always pay for what we 
take. It is customary in this country for villages to entertain soldicnt 
free of charge. At Bazarjik when we inquired concerning the health 
of the place, an official said they had no sickness except a few cases of 
smallpox, and this was wnfined to childrea—that his little girl had it, 
and she was brought in as a proof. 

Besttta was $a\'cd from pillage and massacre by the efforts of Pasha 
Youcab, Osman Zade, Mahund Bey, and several other Turkish Beys, 
but the surrounding villages were attacked an<l sufitred more or less 
severely. Some of the women escaped and found protection in Besnia, 
where they were still living. We did some medical work here and 
left, iu good hands, a moderate sum for emergencies. Our receptiou by 
the officials at Besnia, as indeed at every place wc have been, large or 
small, was most cordial and friendly. With only an exception or two, 
no more considerate treatment could have been expected or asked from 
any jieople. Before reaching tlie city we had heard that there was a 
feudal war in progress ahead ofns, and when the militar>' commander 
learned that we were intending to go to Adioman, he interposed, 



ARMENIA. 



337 



saying he could take no respoTisibility in sending us there ; that he had 
ju&t seut a huudred soldieis out on that road to quell a hot ; that it was 
dangerous, but lie would give us a good officer and soldiers for another 
road to Malatia. This we accepted and four days more of mountain 
travel, via Pavcrly, Sfwrgoo, and Guzciia, brought us to the fruit and 
garden city of Malatia, which formerly had a population of 45,000. It 
is reported that about 1500 houses were phmdcred and 375 were 
burned, and some thousands of persons killed. The people of all 
classes were still in fear. 

A sum of money from Iricndii in America bad been received by the 
missionaries, but its distribution had been delayed several weeks 
through sonic fonnality in the post-office, and was but just lacing made 
the day we arrived. We left here a sum for special cases and typhus 
patients, and with a promise to retnm, pressed on to our objective 
point, two days' journey more across the Euphrates at Isli to Harpoot, 
when the limit of our time would be out for meeting ihe second expe- 
dition which arrived only two hours ahead of us. Here the people 
turned out en tnassc to welcome the Red Cross; the road was lined, the 
streets and windows 6i led, and house roofs covered, and all had words 
of welcome on their Hps. We were told by the Rev. Dr. Wheeler, Ihe 
founder of the Mission and American College of Central Turkey, that 
we were the second party of A mericans, not missionaries, that they had 
seen in Harpoot in forty years. We were most cordially met by the 
mission people. Although they, too, had been plundered, andmostof 
their buildings and their home.s bad gone in the flames, we wercofTered, 
most kindly, the shelter of the remaining roofs and seats at their table 
as long OS we would stay. 

We felt at home again, though startled, too, when we stopped to 
think we were 8000 miles away and 6fteen days by horseback to the 
nearest steamer that might start us on a homeward trip or that could 
carry a letter for us to the outside world. We had been told from the 
first that Harpoot was suffering more than anyolherpartof the interior, 
and here we prepared to begin systematic work j Mr. Wistartaking the 
Char Sanjak with Peri as a centre, the Harpoot plain, and later the 
Aghan villages. Mr. Wood took the Palou district with two hundred 
villages, and Silouau iu the Vilayet of Diarbekir with otic huudred 
Aad sixty villages, with the town of Palou and the city of Farkia as 
Centers. UTiile making these arrangements we received your telegram 
of May I St: " Typhus and dysentery raging at Arabkir. Caiiyousend 
doctorswith medicines from Harpoot? Please investigate." Upon 
inquirj* we found reported one thousand Mck and many dying. This 
naturally would be my field. 



«8 



THE RED CROSS. 



After telegraphing to the various centres for additional medical 
help without success, we found a native physician, educated in America, 
Dr. Hititliau, at Harpoot, who was ready to go. Miss Carohne Bush 
and Miss Scymourof the Mission, withunassumrd bravery, volunteered 
to accompany the expedition. As only one could leave, the choice fell 
upon Miss Bush. When one reflects that this was a slight little body, 
never coming up to the majesty of a hundred pounds, with sensitive 
nature, delicate organization, educated and refined conditions of early 
life, fears might well be felt for the weight of the lot assumed; but every 
day's contact convinced us that the springs were of the best ofsted, 
tempereii by the glowing fires of experience, thus teaching us how far 
mind may be supvrior to matter. 

On our first night oat, as is frcqticntly the custom in this country, 
we slept in the stable with our horses— and stualUr animals. On the 
second day in crossing the Kuphratcs at Cabin M.^din. the big wooden 
flcoop-sfaovel ferryboat struck a rock in the s\v\it current mid-stream, 
and came very near capsizing with its load of luggage, horses and 
human beings. The boatmen lost their chance of making the opposite 
shore, and we were iu the swift current fast making for the gorge and 
rapids below. I looked as unconcerned as I could at Miss Bush, ouly 
to see that she was as calm as if this was an every-day occurrence or 
that she liad been from childhood accustomed to such experiences. 
We knew she had not, only she had lived long enough in the interior 
not tobefrightenedatanythingthatmighthappen. However, another 
rock was reached near the bluff and we unloaded. Each leading bis 
horse and the pack animals following, we climbed up over the edge of 
a precipice, over loose stones, slippery earth and ragged rocks, back to 
the landing we should have made had we gone directly across. 

Our next day's travel was through a cold, pouring rain, into the 
mined city of Arabkir, but notwithstanding the rain, hundreds of people 
Stood in the streets as we passed to make their "salaams'* and to say 
their word of welcome to those who hnd come to bring the gifts of 
anoiher land to the suffl-ring, the sick and needy of their own. Passing 
through the rain, we arrived at the native pastor's bou.se, which had 
been saved by a Turkish military officer and cleared of refugees and 
typhus patients for our installation. 

Nearly the entire city of Arabkir was in ruins, only heaps of stones 
where bouses had been. Out of eighteen hundred homes but few 
remained; the markets as well as the dwellings were destroyed, and the 
people, plundered and destitute, were crowded into the few remaining 
houses, down with the typhus. We were told that six hundred had 



ARMENIA. 



339 



already died of the disease, and the people's physician, the only one in 
that part of the country, was in prison. Later we were told that the 
arrival of help changed the characttT of the disease the moment it was 
known that we had come. Miss Bush went with us directly into the 
sick rooms, and the presence of a woman gave cheer and strength. A 
hundred patients were seen daily. After the first wants of the typhus 
patients had been met the long neglected surgical cases were looked 
after, and many lives and limbs were saved. The medical and surgical 
efforts gave gratifying results, of which Dr. Hintlian will make a special 
report from his daily record. 

Immediately upon our arrival the Gregorian church and school 
buildings, which escaped destruction, were offered for our use as a hos- 
pital. These rooms were admirably adapted for this purpose, but by 
selecting and employing persons already in need of help as assistants 
and nurses we found that we could better care for the sick in their own 
quarters than to attempt to remove them to a hospital, where the con- 
gregation of sick would only be increased. To give employment was 
the one thing needed for the well, therefore we made no hospitals, but 
employed competent, healthy women in need, instructed and put them 
to care for sick families also in need, but of another kind. The piaster 
a woman earned for a day's work gave food for herself and for her own 
family, and gave the sick family the ser\'ices necessary to save their 
lives. The necessary beds for the patients were furnished. 

A sheep or a goat given where there wa3 a helpless babe or mother 
would give iood for both, and be a permanent property that would grow 
by the increase of its own young. A small sura for fowls would be a 
gift that would furnish more than its value in eggs for food for present 
use. It would prove a small investment that mu.st multiply in kind and 
value as chicks were hatched. While medical work was going on other 
forms of relief were also in progress. A supply of tools had been 
ordered from Harpoot, directly upon our arrival, for blacksmiths, car* 
pcnters, tinkers, masons, stone workers, etc. The bl-ick^iniths were 
set to work making sickles for cutting grass and reaping grain; shovels, 
plows and other implements for farmers. Others were put at making 
spinning-wheels for the destitute women, who with these could earn 
their own living; others made weaving looms. Out of the twelve hun- 
dred band looms formerly in the city it was said only forty remained. 
Arabkir was the chief manufacturing centre for native cotton cloth, 
and if a man had a loom which would cost three medjidieh (about 
$3.50) he could earn bis own family's living. Field <ind garden seeds 
were bought in quantity and distributed. 



ARMENIA. 



34i 



would secure a double service for oin: outlay. Melkon MiransbAhian, 
the druggijsl, kindly offered his services, and we arranged with him to 
take up special cases and to continue to care for them after we would 
no longerbe able to remain on the field. Then, feeling ihatwemight 
f-safely leave this work in the hands of Dr. Hintlian, we went to Kgia 
to arrange for distributiou in the Aghaii villages, Miss Bush accom.' 
pauying. 

The inquiry will naturally be made as to how relief was received. 
The gratitude of the people was almost overwhelming at times. If 
youcould only have heard the blessings that were poured out upon Clara. 
Barton, the Red Cross, and the good people everj-where who have 
aidwl, you wonld realize that deep as the need, so fervent and sincere 
have been the thankful prayers and blessings that the unrorttinale peo- 
ple who survive the massacre could alone render to all who help them. 
To you and your name espcrially were they responsive. Of all this, I 
vould say we often had most gratifying evidence and expression on the 
lonely roads, in the stricken homes, and through personal letters from 
many sources. 

When we were some six miles out on the road to Egin, we met the 
leading men. of the village of Sheptk coming to town; they had heard 
that wewerc going away soon, and the \nllagers had sent this committee 
to Arabkir to express their gratitude for what they had received And for 
all that had been done for them. This was iivc or six weeks after we 
had made a distribution of seeds, and as we came iu sight of their vil- 
lage we saw gardens green with onions, potatoes, beans, cucumbers, 
melons, squash, pumpkins, etc., from the seeds we had given. Here, 
too, the women were iu the Gelds cutting the grass and grain with 
the sickles which, the blacksmith had made from the iron and steel we had 
furnished. The men were plowing with the plows and oxen we Iiad 
supplied and, notwithstanding they had been plundered of every mov- 
able thing and their houses burned or destroyed, there was an air of 
prosperity in the fields that banished thoughts of want or suffering. 
We rude on past the little room where the school was kept and every 
child rose to his feet and made a most profound, though youthful bow 
to our passing company. 

Bgin is an old, strangely beautiful city, inhabited by the descend- 
ants of the noble families of Mosul (NINEVEH) who fled to this moun- 
tain stronghold on the Euphrates during the Persian inv.v;ion, many 
years ago, and they are still a royal and gentle people. At Egin the 
officials declared it unsafe for us to go to the villages as we had pro- 
posed. Accordingly we made purchases in this market and sent them 




■s 



to the needy point*. Egin had boaght Ihe Kourds off with 1500 lire, 
mnd consequeutly it had remained up to the dale of our arrival 
nharmcd through all ihc dcstniciiori about it. We also left a sum of 
money with a responsible committee for eight unfortunate villages, and 
did what medical work we could in our short stay. We then rettimed 
to Harpool. 

Oa our road back, Miss Btiab had with her a young girl vrfaom we 
were taking to liarpoot for safety (we had frequent charges of this kind), 
and she wanted me to stop at her favorite beautiful village of Bier\'an, 
for apleasaiit picture to carry back in memory to America. We had a 
long day's journey at best to reach our village, and had met with 
delays; four hoursin the morning waiting for a zaptieh. Our muleteer 
left lis at the ferry some twelve miles back, in order to stop over night 
at his own village; and the second zaptJeh was two hours late, but 
having started we must keep on through the mountain pass, and it was 
ten o'clock at night when we reached the village. Our zapiieh took us 
to the house of the ' ' Villageman ' ' (each village is provided with snch 
a personage whose duty it is to st-c that shelter is provided for travel- 
ers). We rode up together and the zaptieh pounded on thedoor. The 
dog on theroof barked viciously, then all thedogsin the village barked, 
A woman on another roof abo^-e this one rai.sed herself and talked, then 
shouted down thechimney-hole (theroof is the sleeping place in warm 
weather), after a time she pointed with her hand and thezaptieh started 
off in the direction indicated; the moon had gone down and it was too 
dark to see anything distinctly. He came to a small pile, poked it with. 
hifl foot, punched it with his gun. kicked it. 

AAer a time a part of the pile raised itself in a sort of surprised 
Mtouiiihment, mystified, uncertain, complicated attitude — evidently 
looking at the "poker." Then the pile expressed itself emphatically, 
the z-iptieh did the same more emphaticaHy, unch in turn louder and 
louder, all with necessary and anuecessary gesticulation. Then the 
pile got up and began on our servants for having the pack mules and 
animals on his roof. After these had been led off the house, he wanted 
to know what we came there for anyway, at that lime of night, to wake 
im up when there were six other villages we could have gone to; why 
Idn't we go to one of them ? Then our zaptieh changed his tone and 
attitude and in the most polite, persuasive, pleading voice and manner, 
tried to explain that he himself was notto blame for all this trouble, 
he was under orders and had to come with these people; he couldn't 
help doing his duty. But this made no impression, and we were told 
there was no place for us. 




ARMENIA. 



345 



None could be found at this time of night; besides there was no 
barley for Ihc horses, and nothing was to be done unless it was to go on 
and try another village. Our zapLteh seemed to have exhausted his 
resources and said no more. Other villagers had come and were stand- 
ing around the " villageman," who still insisted that he could do 
nothing. Miss Bush quietly suggested " Arg-enium." We got down 
from our horse, went around carelessly, and slipped a " cherck " (a five 
piaster piece) into his fingers. He took and felt of it, and then went 
away without a word. After about ten minutes he rcturnLd with a 
light, a door was opened close beside us, and we unloaded our animals, 
put them all in, took in the luggage, went in ourselves, got our supper, 
spread our bhuikets, drove away our audience of villagers, fastened the 
stable door and announced to ourselves that wc were one hour into the 
"next day," and went to steep. We were off again the next rooming 
before the sim was up. This is a simple incident of what happened in 
frequent variation during interior travel. 

At Harpoot we arranged for supplying tools and cattle to the 
remaining villages which we failed to reach from Egin. Here, too, wc 
fouud Mr. Wistar busy supplying harvesting and threshing implements, 
and cattle for plowing in the Jlarpoot plain and villages, la this 
vilayet there an- upwards of two hundred villages either plundered or 
wholly destroyed, and from these many persons of all classes came for 
medical or surgical help. 

Preparations were made to work in Malatia, where, some weeks 
before, we had ordered supplies and medicines sent to be ready for oiw 
arrival, but owing totheun.scttlctl conditions there, no such work could 
be done to advantage. The time for our return to Constantinople was 
drawing near and on the twenty-seventh of June we were ready to start 
for the Black Sea. We called to pay our respects to the governor of 
Harpoot and found him as cordial as he had always been. Inquiries 
were made and explanations given, so that he might more thoroughly 
understand the character and purposes of the Red Cross. His Excel- 
lency remarked that it gave to those engaged in the work great opjKW- 
tunities to become acquainted with different countries, and that we 
must have found Turkey the most difficult of them all to work in. He 
regretted that he himself had been of so little a.ssistance to our eSbrts, 
etc., but we took pleasure in saying that he had done at all times alt 
that we had asked and ofttimes more. Speaking for those associated 
with our work I could safely say that oil the recollections of our 
personal relations with the vali of Harpoot will remain with us as 
pleasant and satisfactory. 



346 



THE RED CROSS. 



The principal food and Ibe main crop of the interior is wheat, and this 
year's growth wherever we have been is reported to be unasnally good. 
If the wheat can be distributed where the destitution will be this 
coming winter, many lives raay be savt?<l; if not, many must inevitably 
be lost for want of food. When we left the Harpoot valley harvesting 
had well begun, and was even more briskly going on as we neared the 
Euphrates, which we crossed for the last time at Isli on the twenty- 
ninth of June. The usual Euphrates ferry-boat is twenty-four to thirty 
feet long, eight fcetwide, and two feet high at one end and eightattbe 
other where a rudder, or sweep, forty feet long is hung. Au American 
frequently sees methods of work and management that lead him some* 
times, when first traveling, to make sugjjestions. After seeing the 
ferrymen upon many occasions putting loaded wagons on the boat, 
lifting them by maiu force some two or three feet with much awkward- 
ness over the edge of the craft, we ventured to suggest that two planks 
laid on the bank and end of the boat so as to roll the wagons in or 
out would save much trouble and time and extra help and labor. We 
were met with this unanswerable reply; "Who would pay for tliem?" 

To Malatia ^ve carried money to the people from their relatives in 
America which had been entrusted to Dr. Bamum at Harpoot We also 
left in the hands of a respotisible committee a fund for artisans' tools, 
and a smaller sum for food and supplies in special needy cases. The 
state of prosperity and feeling of security in Malatia was not nearly so 
propitious as in Harpoot. We saw few people here, nor could we 
remain long enough to attempt the relief work that was probably more 
needed than in many other districts. The acrompanyitig letter received 
since our return to the United States, from the Rev. Dr. Gates, president 
of the Harpoot American College, gives, as will be seen on reading, a 
most interesting account of the work done and the money distributed 
after our dt:pa.rture by himself aud Miss Bush: 

The sun is extremely hot during the interior summer season, hence 
when the moon was favorable we traveled by night, leaving the saddle 
long enough to sleep in the "Araba " (a sort of small, springlcss, cov- 
ered wagon used where there are roads) so as to have the day to work 
in while our hordes rested. When we could do so in our journey we 
left funds for specified purposes, but frequently the sufferers felt safer 
without such assistance and declined to receive it. At Sivas we gave 
a fund for farmers' tools. Here the grain crop was later than in the 
valleys further south. We also left here with the Rev. Messrs. Perry 
aud Hubbard, a horse, in order to facilitate their relief work. From 
Malatia several families and individuals placed themsch-es under the 



ARMENIA. 



M7 



protection of the Red Cross and its guards in order to go In Mfcty to 
the coast. A portion of this road is infcstudwilh brigands and a strong 
guard is ucct-ssary, in fact it is needed throughout the whole region. 
The government took particular care of us by giving us a brigand as a 
special guard through the dangerous part of the road, saying that we 
should be safer with him than with the regular military guard. A few 
weeks before a rich caravan was rohbcd on tliis road, and when we 
passed we had the interesting pleasure of taking tea and journeying 
for a while with the chief of these brigands who had two days before 
been enlisted in government service. With the ample government pro- 
tection we have at all times had, we seldom feltconcem for our personal 
safety, notwithstanding that in places where we vi-sited there was often 
a great deal of anxiety and fear ou the part of the people for their own 
safety and that of their friends, or their property if they had any. 

Tokat and Amasia were on our homeward route — the tatter place 
being the site of the ancieut castle of Mithridates. King of Poutus. 

At Samsoun we had two saddle horses to dispa«« of, and our con- 
sular agent, Mr. Stephapopale, having a stable, kindly offered to sell 
them to the best profit for us, and to see that the proceeds were used in 
aiding the refugees who crowd to the coast in the hope of getting 
farther on, but only find themselves stranded and unable to return, 
becoming thereby veritable sufferers. 

On the sixteenth of July we reached the Bospborus, tour months 
and six days from the time we started out from Constantinople for the 
interior, glad of the privilege and power we have enjoyed an messen- 
gers to carry some of the gifts that have been enlmsted to your care 
by the people of America for the innocent, unfortunate sufferers of 
Anatolia. 

Wherever we have met the missionaries. Protestant or Catholic, we 
have found them devoting most, if not all, of their time to the work of 
relieving the suffering about Iheni, regardless of sect or nationality; 
but in all cases Ihcir fields of work have bcvn greater than their strength 
or their means. With them we have worked always harmoniously and 
without consciousness of difference of place or creed; and to them and 
to many others we are indebted for courtesies and for hospitalities that 
will always Ik- remembered with gratitude. 

The real work of the relief expedition was greatly aided by the 
hearty co-operation of every European and American resident with 
whom we came in contact. Each did all in bis pQwer for our aid, and 
we regret that space forbids our telling how each gave his support and 
help. 



At Egin we will ever remember the geuerous hospitality during 
our short stay with the families of Nicoghos Aghajangochyan and 
Alexander Kffendi Kasabyan, tioblemcn, who by their energy aod 
liberality jMivcd the city and people from destractiou, while the country 
round about was being plundered and burned, and who gave us great 
assistance in furnishing' tools and implements to this section of the 
country. 

Not long after leaving Egin we learned the sad news that these 
gentlemen with nearly a thousand others had been killed. These 
families were the centre of a large community of the mint charming 
and cultivated people we had met. 

To the Turkish officials everywhere we are grateful for their care- 
ful supervision of our personal safety, and for the general personal 

■ i^ 

— -sZ^ 



^-^■^^— -*.. V" '^ ^"-^ •■.'v"^^*^ "'' 







'-\ 



UtD CnOSS RXTRDRIOKS FAS3IKO mn'^nr.tt TtTR VAU.BV OP CATCH BRAKI). 



freedom allowed ourselves wherever we worked. To the officers and 
guards who always accompanied us in our jonmeys through cold and 
heat, on the road by night or day, over desolate plain or mountain 
trail, for bringing us safely through from sea to sea without a scratch 
or harm of any kind, fur all this we are most assuredly grateful, and 
od recall the cheerful vigilant service and special courtesies we enjoyed 
at their hands, which could only be prompted by the most friendly 
feoUngs and consideration. 

But we do not forget, dear Miss Barton, that the success of this 
expedition ts due to yonr careful and constant oversight and direction 
ol all our movemcuts, from the seat of government at Constantinople, 



35° 



THE RED CROSS, 



MEDICAL REPORT. 



Dr. Ira Harris, resident Ainericau physician at Tripoli, Syria, a 
gentleman of high attainments, Chrii^tian character, scholarship and 
service, who directs a large private hospital aud practice of his own, 
honored the Red Cross and contributed largely to the beneficence of 
his and our own people's efforts to relieve aud rebuild the inxiple of 
Asia Minor, by accepting a commissioa to command an expedition for 
the relief of the fever-stricken thousauds, residents and refugees, 
crowded into the cities of Marash aud Zeitoun. The reports received 
from consuls and missionaries presented a terrible condition of adairs, 
threatening the lives of thousands by pestilence and hunger, more 
rapidly than the Circassian knife and the Kourdish spear and bullet had 
done. Our own special agents were all in charge of difficult and dis- 
tant 6elds, and none could \k spared to this section, After variotis 
disappointnienLs, aided by the Rev. Dr. Post atBeyrout, Dr. Ira Harris 
was reached and asked to aid in organizing aud forming a relief expe- 
dition at once. Besides himself as director, six other physicians and 
two pharmacists were required. Dr. Harris, though burdened with 
hospital patients and promised operations, finally decided to proceed to 
Beyrout and meet Dr. Post, taking with him his own assistant and 
pharmacist. Dr. HubtKll bad already been Dr. Harris' guest and this 
fact aiiled the latter'sacceptance. At Rcyrout time was spent in exam- 
ining medical applicants, most of whom withdrew however on learning 
of the dangers before them. Two Protestant doctors were secured oa 
the second day, and so with half the needed medical force at hand, the 
supplies and stores were quickly purchased and packed for travel. 
Arrangements at Tripoli for the care of Dr. Harris* own patients were 
then made, and upon the third of April our fourth expedition was 
under way. A route was chosen via Mersene and Adana. At the 
latter city some delay was occasioned by the rumors of incursions of 
bandit tribes to neighboring towns and villages and an insufficient 
military escort available. After trying in vain two or three days, to 
influence the local authorities Dr. Harris telegraphed to Red Cross 
headquarters for assistance. The matter was immediately brought to 
the attention of the Porte, through the TJnited States legation, and 
within an hour an imperial order was sent to the governor of Adana. 
As fine a mounted Turkish soldier guard as ever escorted an expeditioa 



ARMENIA. 



353 



wftsat once found, and Dr. Harris with lii.s corp.«i of a-ssistants, hastened 
on to Marash, where he was welcomed by Dr. Hubbell of our first 
expedition, on the eighteenth of April, after five days of severe travel. 
Dr. Harris' report was embodied in a letter. After enumerating the 
trials at Adana, from which he was so quickly freed by the order from 
the Porte, the doctor ia his communication says: 



We found that the medical work wns being cared for by native pbyieicinns, 
and the mJBftionaries and their wives were caring for the other relief worlc, one 
feature of which seemed to inevery viilunble indeed, i.i., the making of clothing 
by poorwotuen fruiii the uialcrial sent by you from Coustaiilinoplc or purchased 
by I>r. IlabbcU in Miirasfa. I wish the dew people in America who g.tve of their 
meaas, could »ee with thdr own eye9 the coaditiou of thoxi&ands in these 
districts alone. Tbo hundreds of women, almoKt destitute of covering, and lliat 
a moM of rags. It does not require much thought to realize the value of good 
clothing at such a time. 

A consultation wis held and our party decided to proceed to Zeitoun, just 
as soon as our weary bodice were rested. Unfortunately the day after we 
arrived I hnd n severe chill and fe%*er which prostrated me for several days. As 
the symptoms seemed to resemble typhus fever the doctors remained with me 
until a clear diagnosis was made by the fever leaving me on Tbumdwy. The 
next day the party weal to Zeitouu witb Mr. Kacallum, I following three days 
later. 

I have witnessed scenes of sufTering, both in the United States and the 
Orient, but never, to my dying day, will I be able to dismiss from my mind 
the horror of the pinched, lingganl faces and forma that gathered about me that 
first day. Before we left the teat one of the doctors said: "We will now see 
the place is full of walking skeletons." This expressed fully their condition. 
Just imagine a place having a normal population of 13,500 living all told in 
140^ bouses, yon can see there is not much cubic space to spare; then imagine 
7000 or more refugees to be provided for iu the town also. Some of the 
Zeitounes g>vc shelter to a small number, but the greater majority lived on the 
Street, under the booses, iu many instances too vile to be of use to its owner; 
ia cow and donkey stables with the animals; in spacer in close proximity to 
water-etoscts ; in fact not a place that even suggested shelter was unoccupied. 
The smell and presence of human excrement were everywhere, and this, added 
to divers other odors, made Uic air a fit place for the culture of disease germs. 
So Diuch for the hygienic conditions of the place. 

Diseases. — I regret that I am unable to give the exact number of those 
afflicted with each individual disease; to ascertain this would have taken too 
much valuable time. We found it a difEcuIt task even to moke a true estimate 
of the number ill with acute diseases. Our first estimate sent you, vie, 1400 
dysentery and diarrboea. 600 typhus fever, afterwards proved nearly correct, «.*., 
If we Uke abont three bandrcd from the typhus and add to the dysentery. 
These were acute cases. Of the refugees, ninety-eight per cent complained and 
ao 



354 



THE RED CROSS. 



were treated for diseases sndi aa chronic dysentery, dtarrhcea, dropsy (usDony 
tlioec rccoverinj; rroni tyi^us), rhratnatigm, bronchitis, dyspepsia, malaria ; all 
were suflering from nnxmia and debility. 

Catuca. — Overcrowding and b:ul air; but that coadition borderiag on atar- 
vattoti waa the prtacipal cause of all the sickoesa. I ahotild add, many of Uie 
cases of diarrhcej were cuiuvd from eating a soup niatle from grass, weeds, 
buds uid leaves of sliruhs and trees. In fact anything green that could be 
gathered in the fields was boiled in water to which a small quantity of flour 
was added. Tbia diet was especially dangerous to children. 

Treatment. ^ We were ttoon convinced that if we expected to gain the upper 
hand of all this sickness and snvc even a remnant of the refugees, we must fir^t 
feed Uie stclt, and then when they were well — to give the former e\'ery possible 
chance to get well, and to prevent the well from becoming ill. Second, we 
mu&t try in every way in onr power to gel the refugee* to return to their homes, 
or at ail events to camp out in tbc fields. The Grtt day we filled the hospital 
opened by Consal Barauiii with cs'te* off the street, and from that time on we 
increased hospital facilities as fast as pos<iiblc. Wc engaged two men and one 
woman to care for the hoipttnl; foar inlerpreters and one nssistnnt for the 
pbarmactsL We then divided the town into districts so as to systematically get 
at every sick penon. Then we hired {for we oonid get nothing without a sys- 
tem of bargaining as to price) two large copper kettles used to make grape 
molasses, and purchased two huadre<l pounds of beef and innde n flrong, rich 
Boup. We then strained every nerve to get a aoup ticket into the possession of 
every sick pciSfm. We did not waste time by trying to cull out the impostors; 
in fact there were very few of this clasM, all the refugees were nce<ly and 
huagry. The second dny we nddc^d three kettles and to supply the number w« 
served nt ten o'clock clear meat broth; «t four o'clock thick soup of beef and 
rice. By the end of the third day every sick penon was receiving food. Then 
all complaints of vomiting the medicine censed. 

The problem then to be met was — how to get the people to go outside the 
town. We suggested that if they wituld, we would place a soup kettle out in 
the open fields to the south, north and cast, and in addition to tlie Koup we 
would give them flour. This had a very decided effect, for one thousand went 
the first day. The moving continncdnntil every person Hviai^ on the streets and 
in cow stables had built for him'«!f slielters of twigs and leavca Now the 
butchers saw a chance of applying the plan of patting up the price of meat 
from seven to fourteen pianterK per oke {i^ ixniuda). But we had anticipated 
this and sent mcti to a friendly Mo<iIcm village to purchiwe cattle. So their 
Scheme failed. By the end of the second week there were no hungry people in 
Zeitoun. 

Result*.— The typhus coses began to recover, the new cases took on s mild 
form. Uie same conld be aaid of dysentery. The new cases of both became less 
and less uoli! they almost disappeared. The most mnrkcd improvement was the 
wpidlty which the daily funerals in the three burying grounds decreased. I 
watched these places with deep Interest, for they were a thermometer to gauge 
the success of our work, and it was with deep gratitude to God that we saw the 
daily burinU re<Inccd from lirieen to none. So much for the acnte cases. The 
first week the chronic cases took the entire time of one doctor, each taking oar 



ARMENIA. 



355 



regular turn. Tonic treatment and food so reduced the number that sixty 
became the dnily Average at the en<l of the second week. At the end of thi. 
third week, fell to tcti. Our phanuacist, Shickri PakhurJ, proved, as he nlwaya 
has, a jewel. HiN liitndit were full to prepxre the prencripitioiiM of three dttctora. 
At fint it was accessary for one of us to give him assistance of an hour or so 
daily. On the twentieth of Miiy wu felt we could, leave the towu free of acute 
typhus and dysenlcry. Wc gave to the committee selected by Mr. Macallum, 
fund» enough to keep the soup kettles going for one week, and aoo liras (^So) 
worth of fiour, which would BuQice for at least six weeks, and by that time it 
waa hoped that all tlie refugee* would Iwve departed for their hiiuie*. 

On our ictum to Uarash we remained four days supcriutendiug the work of 
relief of the native doctors, and performing surgical operations. We then 
started for the coast. Wc chose a shorter and leas eitpehsive route than that by 
which we c^me. We were able in se%'cral places on the road to give needed 
relief, although to a limited amount. The lessons learned by our experience 
have be«n :ii:iny : 

1. Tbc value of keeping well, for obviou&ly, success depends upon this. 
It is evident to us the way to reduce the danger of infectioa to a minimum for 
medical men, is to eat and sleep outside the infected town. This plan may 
present liifficullica, but if possible, it is bicst. The drcndful mortality nroong 
doctors and numcs in the epidemics of typhus fever is well known. The query 
is, cuuld not this mortality be reduced by the plan snggcstcd? It proved so in 
our case at 1ea.st. 

2. The food supply is of first importance, especially for epidemics caused by 
ttuik of food. 

3. The utter worthlessness of medication witbont it. 

4. Pure uir. It is mueli better for people to risk possible exposure out In 
tlieopen air, than risk contagion in vile, unwholesome shelter in an overcrowded 
town. 

Lastly, I am more than ever convinced that small doses of medicine oft 
repeated give better rvsiultjt in lypliu.t ant\ dyitenLcry tliiin tboiu: uaunlly recom- 
mended in text-books; I, at least, had ample opportunity to test this to my 
aatisfttctiou. 

In conclnsion, I wish to exprcm my hearty approval of the methods pursued 
by yourself and associates, especially as applied to the giving relief to the 
aullcriug people. The distribution of your forces was admirable, and the way 
they grasped the situation and the tiee<ls of the people uf e.icb [>articu1ar place 
should excite the admiration of all who have the relief of this aiBictcd people 
at heart. Instead of scatter iug the money tiere and there in an aimless way, 
food, medical and surgical supplies, clothing, &ecd, cattle, farming utensils^ 
simple cooking ve<uels, were .■iystematicatly disTrihuled, thu.^ putting all in the 
way of providing for Uicmselvcs in the future aud t>ccomin(; iudependcnt again. 
It is very eoisy to puupertxe the people of the Orient, but your methods prevent 
thia. 

Again, the non-scctnrinn aspect of your work bos made a favorable Impres- 
sion. It eliminates ail religious prejudices from tbc minds of all, especially 
the religions beads. Therefore no ungencroas rcmnrks as to the nllerior 
motives of your relief. On the contrary we beard nothing but words of com- 
swDdBtion. 



356 THE RED CROSS. 

No one bnt yourself and your associutes and those who have lived iaTorke? 
for a number of years, can appreciate the difficulties and perplexities under 
vhich you have labored from the very first. 

I am sorry that this report ends my official relations with yon, but believe 
me, dear Miss Barton, my wife and I shall hold yourself and your associates 
always in interested remembrance. 

Truly and sincerely yours, 

Ira Haksis. 
Titia, Mt. Lebanon^ August ts, 1896. 



Equally interesting reports are in hand of the work of our special 
field agents, E. M. Wistar, of Philadelphia, and Charles King Wood, 
whose labors extended to different fields of Harpoot ; Chinnsez Peri 
Diarbekir; Palon Silonan Foiikin, feeding and clothing the people, 
furnishing tools, cattle, seeds, grain for harvesting the crtqjs, and 
planting the fields for future provision. 

We regret that space will not allow their introduction here in folL 

So feithful and competent agents deserve their own recitation of a 
work so well done. 

Returning from the field when called, Dr. Hubbell and assistants 
arrived in Constantinople July 16, Mr. Wistar and Mr. Wood on the 
twentieth of the same month. 

I need not attempt to say with what gratitude I welcomed back 
these weary, brown-feced men and officers from a field at once so diflS- 
cult and so periloos, and none the less did the gratitude of my heart go 
out to my faithful and capable secretary, who had toiled early and late, 
ne\-er leaving for a day, till the face grew thin and the eyes hollow, 
striving with tender heart that all shotild go well, and " the childreu 
might be fed." 

And when the first greetings were over, and the first meal par- 
taken, the full chorus of manly voices : " Home Again," "Sweet Land 
of Liberty," ** Nearer My God to Thee," that rolled out through the 
open windows of the Red Cross headquarters in Constantinople, fell on 
the listening ears of Christian and Moslem alike, and though the 
tones were new and strange all felt that to some one, somewhere, they 
meant moic than mere notes of music. 




THE SPflHISH-flMERICflN WAR. 



N the subsequent chapters is traced the history of the opera- 
tions of the American National Red Cross during the 
past year, including the distribution of relief among the 
"Reconcentrados " in Cuba, and the auxiliary field and 
hospital service in the Spanish-American war. 

Being called away to Cuba in the midst of the prepa- 
rations for war relief, with much of the preliminary work unfinished, it 
seemed proper to leave at home, for a time, a personal representative 
familiar with the obligations of the National Red Cross, to relieve the 
over-burdened committee in New York of some of the details which 
fell more particularly within my own province, and to which I had 
planned to give personal attention. 

Accordingly, Mr. D. L. Cobb, of my staff, was detached for this 
service. Being familiar with the work which was done in my absence, 
and in which he has faithfully and efficiently served with an interest 
second only to my own, 1 have asked him to tell the story of the rela- 
tions of the National Committee with the Government, the formation 
of the committees and the auxiliary societies, through whose guidance 
and administrations all the great work of relief in the Camps and else- 
where was carried on. This he has done in the following chapter, 
under the title, " Home Camps and American Waters." 




(359) 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



JURING the summer of 1S97 tliere began to appear 
reports of great suffering among the unfortunate peo- 
ple of Cuba, since familiarly knowu as the " reconcen- 
trados." They were the non-combatants, men, wouien 
and children, ordered from their homes and plantations 
in the interior and concentrated in the seacoast towos 
ander control of the Spanish arms. Thousands were dying, hundreds 
of thousands were in want; the terrible story of tlieir misery and 
awful distress was re-echoed throughout the country, and everywhere 
the cries for relief and the appeals to humauitj- were heard. Congress, 
loo, had taken the matter up and were discussing plans for Cuban relief. 
The time had arrived when something must be done. Finally the 
President opened the way by issuing the following appeal to the peo- 
ple on the lwent>'- fourth of December: 

Dbpabtsibnt op Statb, 
Washisgtos, D. C. 

Hy direotion of the President tlie pulsJiV is informed thai, in Oeference to tbe 
earnest desire of the Government of the IJnilcd Slates to conlribute, by effective 
xction, toward the relief of the Nuffering people iu tlie ikiniid of Cub^, arrange- 
ments have twcn perfected by which charitable contributions, in money or iu kind, 
can be &ent to the island by the twnevoleiitly disposed people of the Uoited Staica. 

Money, provisions, clothing and like articles of prime necessity can be for- 
warded to General l-'itj:hugh I^e. the Con-nil-General of the United States at 
Havana, and all articles tiow dutiable by law, so consigned, will be admitted into 
Cuba free of duty. The Cotwul-Gencrul hnsbecn instmctcd to receive the sanie 
and to co-opcratc with the local cuthoritlcs atid the charitable boards, for the distri- 
bation of mch relief among the destitute anrl needy people of Cuba. 

The President ia confident that the people of the United States, who hisvc on 
many ocrarionA in the past responded most xcneronsly to the cry for bread from 
peoples Btricken by famine or twre calamity, and nhu have bebeld no less ^eneroua 
action on the part of rorciKH eommunitieawhen ourown countrjnneu have suffered 
from fire or flood, will heed the appeal for aid that comes from the dcsUlute at 
their own threshold, and especially at this season of good will and rejotciug give 
of their abundance to thJa htuoaae cod. 

John Sbkbman, Stcretary. 

(360 



363 



THE RED CROSS. 



This appeal was sent out through the Associated Press aud dis- 
tributed through the mails, and met with a most generous response 
from the public. It soon became apparent, however, that to inaugu- 
rate a thorough system of relief, to concentrate and administer the 
varied contributions of the people, a central committee would be 
required who should be i;barge<l with the duties of organization, col- 
lection and shipment. A cuiifcrence was held at Washington, between 
Freddent McKinley, the Secretary of State aud the American National 
Red Cross, the result of which appears in the following commuuica- 
tioos: 



DSPARTIIKNT OK STATB, 

January /, jS^. 
Hlss Ci.Aa* BakTon, President, American National Red Cross: 

M&KK Madau: After my conference with you yesterday, I saw the President 
Agniu, who expressed hU great pleAnnre Ihnt the Red Ctosa will so cbe«rful1y 
respond to the initintivc which the Pie«ideut has taken toward the relief of the 
suQeritix people of Cul)&. No Icsa could have been expected by him in vici^' of 
the good work which Uie Red Cross has done in Uic post when called upon to 
fulfill its humane mission of relieving suffering, either at home or in foreign 
countries, and acting aa Ibe mcdiom for the effective spplicadon of the charitable 
giils of our citizcos, 

With tile President's approval, I have the pleasure to suggest to you the way 
in which it ta denned that the co-operation of the Red Crosa in this humane 
endeavor can be maet practic-ally accomplished. 

The first necessity is the organization, in New York City as the moat con- 
vrnient centre of operRtlonR, of a committee whose functions it will be to appeal 
to the kindly sentiments of the American people in behalf of the sufferers in Cuba; 
to receive cQutnbutious iu money or in kind, and to forward the same to Havaoa, 
coitatgned to the Conaul-Generol ct the United Suics, he having been placed by 
the President, in aole charge of the receipt and application of the relief in the 
island; the committee, as a whole, to act under the supervision and direction of 
tbe Secretary of State, with whom it may cortcspoud on all matters of buMnem 
arisii^ and requiring direction In the name of the Government of the United 
fiuitea. 

In view of the genemus and cordial offer of Mr. 1/niia Klopsch, of the C*TO- 
tian Herald, the President desires that, if agreeable to yon, he shall be a mcmher 
of the committee aud. iti concert with a third member to be designatM by the 
ChamlicT of Commerce of New York, co-operaling with the representative of the 
Red Cross to make effective the effort which is now being pnt forth. 

The representation of the Rc<t Cross on the proposed relief committee, la left 
to you. WTiile the Previlenl would be most gratified were yon in person to act ■• 
the urcond member, he recognizes that t!ie dutip* nnd lahon [>f the ofSce might 
more conveniently fall upon a representative of the Red Cross in New York City, 
and will cheerfully accept yoar suggeslion that Mr. Stephen E. Barton, second 
vice-pccsident of the American Nadooal Red Croes. serve in that cap»city. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



36J 



Mr. Barton will be funiUlied with letters to Ur. Louis Klopscb and to SiCr. 
Alexander £. Orr, president of tbc New York Chamber of Comuiercc, explaining 
the cirmmsUiaccs rnidcr which their co-oiKraiion toward the formation of tbe 
proposed committee is solicited, U is trusted that spec«1y action may be Iiad, so 
that the org.inimtio-n of the Central Cubim Relief Cunimillcc may be annoiiDccd 
to the people of tbe United States by tbe Secretary- of State at the evliest pos»ib!u 
day, 

I am, my dear madam. 

Very respectfully yours, 

AI.VSV A. Al>BS, 

Second Asm{att( Secretary. 



Lettet^ of notification were then sent by tlie Secretary of State to 
Mr. Stephen K. Barton, Mr. Louis Klopsch and Mr. Alexander E. Orr, 
Mr. Barton being appointed, Mr. Klopsch having .iccepled the invita- 
tion to ser\*e. Mr. Chories A. Schieren was selected to represent the 
New York Chamber of Commerce, and thus was formed what is still 
known as the Central Cuban Relief Cominittee. The committee met 
early in January of this year and organized, Mr. Barton being elected 
as chairman. Mr. Schieren treasurer. This committee began active 
work by sending a telegraphic appeal to the governors of all tJie States 
and Territories, announcing the object of the committee's existence, 
and asking their co-operation and active support, in order to carry out 
the I'resideut's policy in tlie administration of relief to the starving 
people in Cuba. All responses received were favorable, many com- 
mittees were appointed, and the supplies and funds began to come in. 
It was at this point that the Secretary of State issued the second public 
api»eal by the goveniment, on January the eighth, again tirging the 
people, the municipal authorities and the great corporations to assist 
in the work. 

The first shipment of supplies to Cuba by the Central Cuban 
Relief Committee was made on January 4. and the second on January 
12, the first consisting of 160 cases of condensed milk, and the 
second of about forty tons of food, clotliing and medicines. These 
supplies were consigned to Consn I- General Lee at Havana, and were 
transported by the Ward Line of steamships free of charge. 

In the meantime the committee issued its own circular appeal to all 
local authorities, bn.siness hou-ses, boards of trade, religious in.stitulions, 
charitable corporations, social and business clubs, organizations and 
societies generally in ever)' State of the Union. 

The question of transportation and its cost now became one of vita] 



3^4 



THE RED CROSS. 



importance. IE full freight cliarges were to be poid on all consignmeuts 
to the committee to the Atlantic coast, the expense of shipment might 
in many cases equal the value of the supplies, and in any event would 
be a serious burden upon the treasury. Accordingly, negotiations 
were carried on with the principal railway and steamship transportation 
lines, and with the Joint Traffic Association of New York, one result 
of which was that the association shortly afterward issued its general 
circular of instructions, the substance of which was: 

That, responsive to the request of the Central Cuban Relief Com- 
mittee, appointed by the President of the Uuitetl States and acting 
under the direction of the Department of State, it shall be permissible 
for the railway companies, parties to the Joint Traffic Association, to 
forward free of transportation charges, from points subject to its juris- 
diction to or from New York, New Orleans. Mobile. Montgomery aud 
Tampa, shipments of food, clothing and medicines, and oilier mxessary 
supplies intended for the use and relief of the inhabitaulfi of the island 
of Cuba who are suffering from sickness and famine. 

Tliroiigli this generous action on the part of the Joint Traffic Asso- 
ciation, comprising the principal railroads east of Chicago, with branch 
lines extending north and south, all contributions were carried to the 
Atlantic and Gulf ports free. The Word Line from New York, and 
tlic Plant System of railways and steamships had already taken similar 
action, then the great trunk lines of the West, the New England 
companies, the Southern railways, and all the coastwise steamship 
companies and the Munson Line united in furnishing free trausjxjrtatioa 
to the ports of Cuba. Of the steamship lines whose kind assistance 
did so much to further the work of relief, special mention is due to 
Messrs. James E. Ward & Co., of New York, owners of the Ward 
Line, whose steamers running to Ha\'aaa, Santingo, Cicnfuegos and 
ports along the southern shore of Cuba, not only carriwl the larger 
amount of provisions, but unloaded it and delivered it on shore without 
charge. 

No single agency did greater scr^'ice than the press. By the daily 
and widespread dissemination of news concerning the actual conditions 
in Cuba, by the reports of their own representatives in the famine* 
strickcTi districts, and by the persistent reiteration of appeals the great 
heart of the American people was reached, and the response was 
prompt and abundant. 

Operating over such a large territory, communication by mail 
would have often been too slow to be effective, aud it was constantly 




HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



3^5 



necessary to resort to the telegraph, and the cost of such sendee would 
have ordinarily been ver>' great. But the Postal Telegraph Couipany 
and the Western Union Telegraph and Cable Company, in order lo 
assist the work, extended unusual privileges, the 6r5t company trans- 
miUing all messages free, and the second accepting messages at the 
government rates. The Central Cuban Relief Committee in their 
report to the President, extend their thanks to many other companies, 
and individuals, for whose kindly assistance they are indebted, and 
special mention is made of the valuable service rendered by the United 
States dispatch agent, Mr. I. P. Roosa, in the receipt and storage, the 
purchase and shipment of relief supplies. 

In the latter part of March a conference was held at Washington, 
between the Secretary of State and the Central Cuban Relief Commit- 
tee, which resulted in bringing the committee into relationship with 
the American National Red Cross, and the designation of the Red 
Cross as the distributing agent in Cuba, acting for the State Depart- 
ment and the committee. As told elsewhere, the work of distribution 
in Cuba was scarcely begun when friendly relations between the United 
Stales and Spain were suspended, and upon the advice of the Corwul- 
Geueral at Havana, the Red Cross retired when the President called all 
Americans home. 

In the meantime the committee, upon the advice of the Department 
of State, had chartered the steamship "State of Texas " of the Mallory 
Line, and, loading her with a general cargo of food, clothing, medicines 
and hospital supplies, dispatched her, under the flag of the Red Cross, 
to Key W'est. 

The purpose for which this good ship was dispatched, and the 
conditions under which she was sent, are best explained by the corre- 
spondence exchanged at that time by the Departments of State and 
Nav>', the American National Red Cross, the Central Cuban Relief 
Committee and the naval commanders: 



THH CHVTRAI, CtTBAN RRttRP COUMITTRK, 

Appalatcd by ihe Prcidciit of th« Unltc4 fiut« and mefug flndcr 
(he (Urcctioo of lfa« DepartniMit of &tiii«. 

New York, ^fin'i so, 1898. 
Hiss Clara BarTox, 

Preiiiient, Atncrican Sational Red Cross, tt^ashington, D. C- 

DSak Miss Barton : In ooufjmiation of the veTt>a] request \>y the ctiflirttuta 

■od ireuurer of tli« Ceatral Cuban Relief ConuQittcc, in coojanction with the 



366 



THE RED CROSS. 



Hon. Wto. R. Dajr, AaaUtant Secretary ofSbite, that you proceed to tbe islsnd of 
Cnb«, there to carry oa the work of distribntioD and relief to the sufiering people 
ia bchaU of thu committee and in co-operaiioa with lUc United States Coasuls. I 
beg to inform you that al a Epccial meeting of this commiUee, held on ihirleetith 
of April, 1898, the following action wait taken : 

WUBREAS, The D<.-p*rtmctit of State having extended the authority of this 
committee to the supervbion of the distritiution of relief ntqjplicB, and the carrying 
out of all neccBsary relief measures, in co-operation with the Aiuericaa Consulis in 
Cuba; and this coaumtlee, having verbally joined with the Dcpoxtinent of State 
in askintf the AtDcrican National Red Cross, Mi3s Clara Barton, presUeot, to 
proceed at once to Cutm as the representati%-c of this committee, and to perform, 
in behalf of the committee, all ncceMsry work of relief; therefore he it 

Reiohxd, That the chairman be authorized to write suitable letten to UlM 
Clara Barton, Comml-Genend Lee and the other American Consols lo Ctiba, 
Dotifyiugthcm oflblsocHon. 

As you are aware, this committee at rc<iue»t of the Department of State, has 
detemtined to send the steamship " State of Texas," with relief supplies from 
New York City to Key West, Florida, there to await ordcra and instructions from 
tbe Uititcd States Cavcmmcnt By instmctions fmm tlie Department of Stale, 
the committee have to send the steamship under the Red Cross flag and the pro- 
visions of the Geneva Convention, turning the vessel over to the Amertcsu 
National Red Cross upon leavin}; New York. 

I, therefore, beg to say lu you that la oU probability tbe vessel will be loaded 
and made ready to sail on Sstnnlay (he twenty-third iiist.. and you arc expected to 
ha^-c such of your ri-prescnlatives— as you desire shall nccompany and take charge 
of the sliip from New York to Key West— ia readiness to go aboard Saturday fore- 
Dooo, Tito arrival of the vewtel at Key West should be reported to this committee 
by telegraph immediately, when insUuctiuns will be given by the Government at 
Washington for proceeding further. If hostilities shall have begun bvtwecn the 
United i^tes .tnd Spain, it will be your dnty to call upon the United States 
Government for tlic nccewtary uavsl consort— aa provided by the Geneva 
Convention. 

This program has been proposed by the Assistant SecreUry of State, who will 
Immediately issue tbe neccassry orders upon hearing from t». 

Before your departure from Key West for Cuba, tliis committee will give you 
further inforuistton as to its desires and recommendation concerning the distribn- 
tioB of supplies from the different ports in Cuba, 

This committee sUiids ready to furnish you with the funds necessary to cany 
on this work of relief to the extent of iw ability, and it is expected that yon will 
render lo the trcasnrcT a detailed account of your expenditures in the work en- 
truKlnl to your organiiution. 

You are requested to make requisition by letter or telegraph from time to time, 
OS yon need fnrther funds. 

Wc will thank you (or your official acknowledgment of Uus communicstion ia 
writing. 

Very truly yours. 

Stbpusn B. B&xtoit, Chairman, 



HOME CAMPS AND AMBRICAN WATERS. 367 



Navy DKPARtMKxr. 

Washington, April 3$, 1898. 
Sir: Mias Clara Barton, the representative of the American National Red 
Cruii& Sc»civly, i$ aboui la proceed to Key West to take charge of the distributian 
of the supplies now aboard the steamship "State of Teiias," and which supplies it 
i> proposed to distribute uttiong the starving recoucentrndos of Cuba. There are 
enclosed herewith copies of letters from llie Ueparlaieut of Slate to the Depart- 
ment uf the Nary anil from the Serrclary of the Navy lo the CommiincJer-in-Chief 
of the North AOantic Station which coutain the terms upon which this trust is 
underlakcn, and the Cepiirttnenl'H instructions in relation thereto. 

The Department desires that you will .itford every as<iUtnnc« within tout 
power to &Iiu Barton itnd her auociatcs, while they are in Key West. 

The departure of the "State of Texas" from Key West and it* destination are, 
of course, mntlers coming rntirely tinder the juriwdiction of the ConimandeT-iii- 
Chief of the North Atlantic SUtion. 

Very pespcctftilly, 
Conimaudant, JoBN D. Loyc, 

Naval SUtioo, Key West, Fla. Secretary, 



Navy Dbtartment, 

Wasuinuton, April 2$, iS^. 
Sir : There is forwarded enclosed a copy of a letter received this day from the 
Dcpartmeut of State, which fully st.itts the conditions under which Miwt Clara 
Barton, a* the repre«ntativc of Uic American Natiotml Red Cross Society, proceeds 
to Key Wi.'«L Yon will afford Hi«a i)arU.)n every f»ciHty tlmt shall hecorne feaaiblA 
for the diiitributton of the supplies now ou board the steamship " State of Texas " 
to the starving rcconcentrados, hul it is, of course, necessary tbat none of ibese 
supplies sliall come into the possession of the Spanish Army, ns this would result 
in defeating the purposes for which the blockade has been established. 

tt is believed that you will fully appreciate the winhea of the Departments of 
State and the Navy iu this matter, and all the dctaik are necessarily left to your 
discretion. 

Very respectfully, 
Commaudcr-io-Chief, M. S. Naval Force, JOBW D. LOKC, 

North Athmtic Station. Secretary. 



DBPABTMRNT op STATtf, 

Wasudjgton, April ts% '*?*• 
711^ Honorable the Secretary of the Navy: 

Sir: The Central Cuban Relief Committeeof New York, organized by direction 

and under the authority of the President, (or the collection and trauimbsioa to 



3^ 



THE RED CROSS. 



Cuba of supplies for Uie relief of the MuflrcHng and OesUtuW iii llut ieland, lua, 
oAcr coiisuluiicm with LKU Department and with full approval of its course, cliar- 
lertd and dispatched from New Vork the nteanier " Slate of Texas " ladcu with 
supplies and sailing under the ciisi};n uf the National Red Cross. The only pu- 
scugeis she carries arc olficcra aud employes of the Red Cruu for the purpose of 
aaitutiiig ill Llie dijitrihulion uf IIiik chanUilfle relief. 

As at present contemplated, the dcstiuadoii of the "State of Texas " is cither 
Mataiizaii or Cardeuaa, or perhupM, if circuitisUitices favor, bolli; but thcpoiiitof 
landing will laryely be detcmjinwi by circumstances of whit-h iht- Admiral com- 
muiidiiig the blockading force ou Ibc north coaat of Cuba will nccesaarily be the 
best judge, 

Illixst Cliint Barton, president of the Anieriatu N-itional Red Cross, is about to 
proceed to Tampn nnd Key West at which latter poiut &ht Kill go aboard Uic "State 
of Texas" upoti iut arrival there. 

trpon reaching Key West K'lsa Bartou, aa the person in charge of the relief 
expc<lition, Mill report to such naval oflicer as yon may dcingnate aud take from 
him directiouH as to the movements of the " Stale of Texas " from that point oti. 

I have the honor lo commend Mi<is Barton to tlie kind uUeiili'^na uf your De- 
partment in crder ib^t she may receive, before leaving Washington, sucki iustroc- 
tiotis Oil you may deem it necessary and proper to give her. 

Respectfully yours, 

John SmtitMAN, 

Sccre/ary. 



With these credentials, the President and .stflfF of the American 
National Red Cross immediately proceeded to Key West, and, nftcr 
reportingto the commandant of the naval .station and to the representa- 
tive of Admiral Sampson, the part>' hoarded the "State of Texas " 
and awaited an opportunity to carrj' out the mission of th,e Red Cross. 

During the year prior to the outbreak of hostilities between the 
United States and Spain, Ciihan families were fleeing from the island, 
and thi.s exodus continued until war began. The refugees, num- 
bering .<ieveral thousand, took up their abode at Tampa, Key West 
and other Atlantic and gulf ports. They had been obliged to leave 
their native country hastily, leaving nearly all their personal property 
behind thera, and In a short time after their arrival in America were 
actually without food and with no means wherewith to purchase it 

Committees and agents of the Red Cross \s'ere established in both 
Tampa and Key West, and acting as the distributing agencies for the 
supplies forwarded by the Central Cuban Relief Committee, the 
refugees were cared for. In Key West the number supplied with food 
from the warehouse and kitchen of the Red Cross were over 9eT.'enteen 
hundred jjeople, and the distribution sijll contintics. Kej* West has 
becu one of the most important distributing stations, and from the 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



509 



begiuning lias been under the efficient direction of Mr. George W. 
Hyatt, for whose contiuuous and faithful service the Re<l Cross is much 
indebted. 

The distributing station was kept constantly supplied by the Cen- 
Ual Cuban Relief Committee, and when the stock, began to run low 
in the latter part of July, the committee dispatched the schoouer 
" Nokomis " from New York with 125 tons of assorted provisions '.o 
replenish the storehouse. 

Before the " State of Texas " arrived at Key West, war had been 
declared between the United Slates and Spain, and soon after the prize 
ships, sciiooners, steamers and fishing smacks, captured off the Cuban 
coast began to come in, in low, or iu charge of prize crews. The navy 
worked rapidly and brought in their prizes so quickly that the go\'ern* 
menl oificials were not prepared lo feed the prisoners of war. On the 
ninth of May the United Stales Marslial for tlie southern district of 
Florida made the following appeal: 



MtSS C%KJIA BARTOK, 

Pttiidfnt, Amfricau Natiotiai Red Cross: 
Drah M;ss Barton: Oh board llie captured ves^ls we find quite a number 
oT aliens amoug Uie crvws, mostly Culniu^ uu<) vouie Atucncan ciliicns, and tbcir 
detention hcrt: and inability to tt^ away for want of funds has exbaunied their 
supply of food, and some of them will toon be entirety out. A« there (s no appro- 
pnxtion available from wbicb food could be purchased, would you kindly pTortde 
lor tbctu until I can get defiaile instructions from the Department at Washiugtoa ? 

Very respectfully, 

JOUN P. HOBR, 

U. S. AfarsAaJ. 



Attached to this letter was an official list of the Spanish prizes 
whose crews were in needof food. Thcboatsof the "Staicof Texas " 
were quickly loaded with a supply of assorted provisions and, being 
taken in tow b\' the steam-launch of the transport "Panther." the 
work of distribution began. All the ships in need were supplied with 
food and medicines for ten days, and their supply renewed every ten 
days for some weeks until government rations were regularly issued 
and auxiliary assistance was no longer necessary. The stipplies on 
the " State of Texas" being intended for the rcconccntrados in Cub-i, 
her cargo was drawn upon to the stnallest possible extent. Many of 
the prizes had on board cargoes of bananas and plantains, and the 



370 



THE RED CROSS. 



wells of the "Viveros" were filled with live fish. After some 
uesotiating, arrangenieDts were made to secure these cargoes at a 
tiifliug cost, and they were distributed among the crews of the vc 
that carried nothing eatable. Tasajo, or jerked meat, was also bougl 
and given ont in tlie same waj*, and From one of the prizes loaded vnth^ 
dried meat from the Argentine, which was afterward sold at auction in 
Key West, forty tons were purchased and stored in Ibe n-arehouse to 
supply the refugees, and to replace that portion of the cargo of 
the "State of Texas" which had been distributed to the prisoners 
of war. 

^XTjile 'waiting for an opportunity to get into Cuba, the reports 
which reached us showed that the distress among the reconcentrados wa«j 
daily increasing, and it was determined to make an attoapt to 1am|] 
with the "Stale of Texas," or at least to show the willingness of the' 
Red Cross to do so, if permitted. As the ship was under the direction 
of the Navy Department, the following letter was addressed to the 
admiral in command of the blockading Scet: 



S. S. " Statr or Tbtas," Jfay *, tSgS, 
ADUIXAI, WlLUAM T. Sampsok, tl. S. N,, 

Commanding JUH btfore Havana: 

Admiral: But for the lolrodaction Vindly proOiered by our multtal acquais'^] 
vacK. Capiatn Hsrringtnn, I bIujuIiI scarcely presume lo addnss you. He will bat 
[n&tlt; known to yoa tbc subject wUich I desire to bring to yoar gncioiu cotutdc 
tion. 

Papers forwarded by direction of our goveramenl will Iutv shown ttie charge ' 
entnistctl to me, vu: To gel food to the starving people of Cuba. I have with me 
a cargo of fottrtecn bnudrcd ton^ under the flag of the Red Cross, the one intero^ 
lioiial emblem of neulraltiy and humanity known lo dnlizatioD. Spain kii< 
and rej^ard* it. 

Pourtecu months ago, the entire SpanUb Covcnmeot at Madrid cabled nw 
penninion to take to, and distribute food to the mCferinj; people tu Cuba. ThlaJ 
official pennissian wita liroadly published; if rvad by onr people, do response ' 
made, no action taken until two months ago, when under the humane and grade 
call of our honored President, I did go, and distributed food unmolested any>^ 
where on the bland, notll arrangement!) were m«de by oar govemaient for all 
American citizens to leave Cuba. Persons mt»t now be dying there by tbc 
fauadrcds If not thoaMiada daily, for the want of the food we arc shotting obC 
Win not the world hold us acconntabtc ? Will hlctory write tu blameless ? Will It 
not be nid of ns that we completed the scheme of extenuinatton couuuenccd bj 
Weyler f I fear the muttcriuga arc already in the air. 



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HOMK CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 373 

Fortunalel}', t know the SpntiUli Hutliorities in CuHm, Cnptsin-Gciicral Blanco 

aud liis a^sistauts. We parted with perfect friendlinesB. They do not reffanl me iis 

«u Americaii merely, but as the tialLoaal reprcKUlftUve of an iutertrntioual Ircaly 

*to which itictnsclvcB are m^atory and under whtcli ihcy act. I believe they would 

rcceiTc and confer with nie, if such a thing -vrere made possible. 

I would like to auk. Spanish permissiou and protection to laud and distribute 
the food now on the "State of Texas," Could I be i>crmittwl to B>jk to 6ce them 
under flog of iruce? If we nuke the effort and itrc refused, the blame rests with 
them; if wr fail to make it, it reaUiwith us. I hold it good stuttxmanship to at 
least dinde the responsibility. I nm told that some dayfl must elapse before our 
troops c«ii be ill position to reach and feed this starving people. Our food and our 
force are here, ready to commence at once. 

With assurances of highest regard, I am, Admiral, 

Very respectfully ymtis, 

Cl&ka Barton. 



On the .same day, Admiral S.impsoa, in his reply, pointed out 
why, as comtnaBder of the blockiiding squadron, liLs itistructiona 
wotild not permit him to admit fuud into Cuba at Lliat time. 



V. S. FucsaiF " Nbw York," First Ratb. 

Kxv Wkst, Florida, Afay 3, 1S9S. 
Hna CuRA Barton, 

Ptesident. American Naliouat Red Cross, Key West, Fla.: 
Drar Madau : I have received, through the senior naval officer prenent, a 
copy of a k'ttcr from the State Department to the Secretary of the Navy, s copy of 
a letter of the Secretary of the Navy to the commaader-iu-chief of the naval force 
on thia sUtion, and also a copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the 
commandant of the naval sUition at Key West 

2. From these communicatiomi it appear* that the destination of tbesleamsliip 
" State of Texas," loaded with supplies for the 9tar>i-inx recoacentradoa in Cuba, is 
left, in a meaiture, to my judgment. 

5. At present I am octing under tostructious from the Navy Departwent to 
Uockailc the coast of Cuba for the purpose of preventing, among other things, 
any food supply from reaching the Spanish forces in Cuba. Under these circum- 
ataoccs it seems to me unwise to let a ship-load of such supplies be sent to the 
recoiicentradoi, for, iu my opinion, they would !>« distributed to the Spanish aniiy. 
Until some point be occupied in Cuba by our forces, from which such distributioQ 
may be made to those for whom the supplies are ttitended, I am uawiUiiii; that 
they should be landed on Cuban soiL 

Yours, very respect fill ly, 

W. T. Sampsok, 
Rear Admiral. U. S. Navy. 
Commander-in-Chief U. S. Naval Force, 
ai ■ North Atlantic Station. 



374 



THE RED CROSS. 



The Red Cross had been requested to hasten south to take food 
into Cuba, but the admiral had been instructed to keep it out. Noth- 
ing remained to do but to iufonu the goveniniem at Washinj^ton. and 
the coinmitiL-t' in New York, regarding the situation as dewlopcd by 
this correspondence, and await further iustructions, which was done by 
cablegram addressed to the chairman of the Central Cuban Relief 
Conimitlce m New York: 

Krv Wbst, Fi^., A/ay j, iSgS. 
Herewith I transmit copies of letters puAed between Admiral Sampson and 
niTself I think it iutportaot that you flhoitld imtucdUtcIy prc&cnt this com-s- 
pDQ'Ience persouolty to the goveniineut, as it will place before them the exact 
situatton here. The utmost cunliality exists between AUmirol Sampson ami 
mjaelf. The ndiniral feeLt it bis duty, as chief of the hlockailtng squadron to 
keep food out oT Cuba, atid recognizes that from ray standpoint my duty it to try 
to get fool into Cuba and t!iis correspondence is transtnitteil with liis cordial con- 
Beat. If I insist. Admiral Sampson will try to open commnnication under a Aag 
of trace, but bis letter expreanes his opimon regnnling the best method. Adrice« 
from the f^vcniment nonld enable us to reach a decision. Unless there is objec- 
tion at Wasbington, yon are at liberty to publish tltis correspondence if you M-iidi. 

Claka Bakton. 

I» a few days the following cablegram was received in reply; 



WuniNGTOEs, May 6, tS^. 
CuJiA Barton, Kty West.' 

Submitted your message to President and cabinet, and it was read with moist> 
ened eyrs- Conwdered serious and pathetic. Admiral Sampson's views regarded 
w wisest at present. Hope to laad you soon. President. Long and Moore send 
highest regards. Barton. 

We too hoped to land soon, but the opportunity never came. 
and the "State of Texas" whose 6nely assorted cargo was 
primarily intended for the starving reconcentrados. did not get 
to Cuba until she went with the transports conveying the invading 
army, and, after doing good service in the relief of the sick and 
wounded at El Caney and Siboney, she entered the harbor of Santiago, 
the first American ship to reach the city. 

While these things were transpiring, preparations were being 
made by the Re<l Cross, in accordance with the provisions of the 
Treaty of Geneva, to render auxiliary medical and hospital service 
during the war. Upon the declaration of war. a special committee was 
apiKjinted, composed of Dr. J. B. Hub^U, Mr. John Hitz and Mr. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



375 



Stephen E. Barton, to wail upon the President of tbe United States, 
the Secretaries of State, War diid Navy, and tbe Surgeon General, to 
give oral notice of the intention of the Red Cross to be ready to furnish 
any supplemental aid that might be rtqnired by the armies in the field. 

Following the usual cu^ituiu, Ltie American National Ked Cross 
was about to issue a statement to the American people for funds and 
materials to support its ministrations to tbe sick and wounded, when a 
resolution was passed by Ihe board of directors of the New York Red 
Cross Hospital, of which institution Mr. William T. Wardwell is 
president, proposing the formation of a Relief Comniittec. The pur- 
pose of this committee was to raise fuuds and supplies, in the name of 
the Red Cross, and to act as a national auxiliary in the capacity of 
trustees and lemporary custodians of the contributions of the people in 
support of the work to be done by the American National Red Cross, 

The tender of the proposed Rehef Committee, tlius voluntarily 
formed, was provisionally accepted by Mr. Stephen E. Bartou, subject 
to the official acceptance by the American National Red Cross. Upon 
this provisional acceptance the Relief Committee proceeded to organize, 
and its membership was enlarged by the addition of men well known in 
social and financial circles of the City and State of New York. 

The name adopted by the committee : ' ' The American National 
Red Cress Relief Committee." was perhaps unfortunate, in some 
rcsiK'Cts, inasmuch as it created a certain confusion in the minds of the 
people, who were often unable to distinguish between the parent organ- 
ization, the American National Red Crass, and the Relief Committee 
of New York. The committee having completed its organization, the 
tender of its services during the war was made and accepted in the 
following terms: 



New York, May j, rS^S. 
GSNTLBM RN ; We have l>efoT« ujt the oSicUl comtuunicalion tn which yoor 
■ecretary. Mr. John P. Fanrc, transmiui to u« for sctioo tbereoo, the following 
resolution from your executive committee: 

Rrsol^td, Thiit llie secretary be and be hereliy it in»tructeil to oBicixlly notify 
the American National Ked Cross of the fncl of the organization of this committee, 
Teqnestittg oflficinl ncknowledginent ami acceptance by the American National Red 
Crosa, of the lender of fiuancial co-operalion hnd support offered by this committee. 

In reply we would say that it gives us great pleasure to accept your generons 
offer of financial co-operation and support, la carrying out (he ohjectofyour 
offer, you are authorized to malce such a public appeal, in the dame of the Americau 
National Red Croas, as yoo may think best. 



376 



THE RED CROSS. 



For tbc purpose of unifying all etTort, Rn<) coticentraUng all fin.incinl and 
material support to the Auierican Natioual Red Cro^s, wc siso confidently entnuL 
to you, in cunsultation with uur own «xt:culi^1: committee, tlie work of inviting, 
through your cromtniltec, the co-opcrsUou uf all Red Cruse Relief Cammitteea 
throughout the United StJiteii. 

Very traly yours, 

Tlie AnivrkMn National Retl Croaa, 
CI.ARA Barton, President, 
Cso. Kbsnan, Vice-President, 
&T8PUCN K. Barton. Second Vicc-Preaident. 



The acceptance of thiB offer made necessary the fonuation of an 
executive committee of the American National Red Cross, with head- 
quarters in the city of New York, whose function it would be to repre- 
sent the Red Cross in its official dealings with the government at 
Washington, the American people and the Relief Committee, and to 
devise ways and means for the administration of the contributions of 
the people, through the appointment and direction of official representa- 
tives of the Red Cross in the camps. The executive committee was at 
once appointed and constated of the following members: Stephen E. 
Barton, Charles A. Schicren, Hon. Joseph Sheldon, George W, Roldt 
and William H. Howland, and organized with Mr. Barton as chairman 
and Mr. Schieren as treasurer. 



On the fourteenth day of May the Relief Committee addressed the 
ic^owing letter to the President of the United States, reciting the 
formal offer of the American National Red Cross to supplement the 
field and hospital service of the army and navy, aud reiterating their 
tender of co-operation and financial support: 



Nbw Yobe, May sto, 1898, 
To tkt Praideui: 

Sir: In accordance with the rMinest made by yon to the special committee 
appointed by tbc American National Red Cross Relief Committee, during its 
recvnt visit to you, the undersigned members of said i>pccial commitLcc Ixg leave 
to submit ttie following statements for your consideration: 

The American National Red Cron Relief Commttte« of New York, organized 
with an unlimited number of co-openting and auxiliary bodies thmughout the 
connlry. for tbc purpose of providing fimincial and materiiil sustenance to the work 
of the American National Red Cross, Miss Clara Barton, president, begs leave to 
represent to the Ooverament of the United States as Tollows, vix: 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 377 

Fint. — Tliiit the American National Red Ctxws is the duly incorporated com- 
tnittee rcprescatitig the work of the Red Cross Ju its civil capacity, and is rt-coffimcd 
ax such by the Govcnuncnt of the United States, the govcrumcnts of otlier countries 
and tlie International Committee at Geneva. 

Seamd. — That wc arc inform^ that the said American National Red Croaa haa 
jfiven formal notice to the Departments of State, War and Navy and the Surgeon»> 
General of the army and nnvy of its nradinewi to rexpond to any calls for civil aid 
to supplement the hospital work of the army and navy, in accordance with the 
provisions of the resolutions of the Geneva Conference of 1&63 and tlie Geneva 
Convention of 1H64, ajid their atncndments. 

7^/n/.— That, in onler to guarantee the fullest effectivencM of the aid thtu 
offered by the civtl Red CroM, this committee hereby Rives you ofEcial notice that 
it Btands ready, togelher with othin' ci>-operating committees, to famish all 
necessary money and material to eiipport the work of the said American National 
Red Cro«8, as hereiuhefore outlined. 

We beg to request, Mr. PrcHidcnt, that you lake the necessary action to have the 
•evcrnl departmenLs of the government du!y notified of this ftnancial guarantee of 
the assistance tendered by the American Nntional Krd Cross, to the end that the 
fullest reliunce may be placed upon its oiler, should the extent of the present war 
o%'cr tax the preparations of the medical departments of the army and navy. 

I1ea.<w fnvor u.i with a prompt acknowledgment of this letter and information 
t3 to yonr action thereon. Respectfully, 

Lhvi p. Morton, 
Hbnkv C. PotTeb, D. D., LL. D., 
WlLLlAU T. Wardwelu 
GSDRQU p. SURADV, M. D., 

A. MoNAB LBSSsa, U. D. 



On May- 24, Uie above cotnuiiiuicatiou was transmitted by the 
Secretary of State to the Departmetit of War, in the following letter in 
which he e.^cplatus the position of the American National Red Cross 
and its uatioual aud iuteruatioual status: 

DSPj^RTMaKT OF STATV. 

ne HonorahU the Secretary 0/ War: 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit to you copy of a letter addressed to the 
President under date of the twentieth mst., by Messrs. L,cvi P. Morton, Henry C 
Potter, D. D., William T. Wardwdl, George P. Shrady, M. D., and A. Monae 
Lesser, M . I>. , a special committee appointed by the American National Red Cnm 
Relief Committee, in regard to the u-ork propo!ie<l to be undertaken by that oi;gao- 
ization for the purpose of providing financial and material aupport to the work of 
the American National Red Crotts, of which latter Uis« Clara Darton is pre«ident. 

The proposal has the Prrsident's cotdial approbation tnyiewof thedistiuctire 
porition of the American National Red Crois as the sole central organization In the 
United Sutes in affiliation with the International Committee of Bcmc, and througli 



378 



THE RED CROSS. 



it with thr Crntral Rtcl Crow* Coimnitlee* which have been foiltied in every" 
CounLry which has adhered to thcGcncvit Convciitioii of 1864. 

It is to be Temcml>cT«d tliat the Genevu Convctitioo it£«tf 14 Iiir^dy the out- 
growth of American initiai-ivc. The Atnvrican Sanitary ComniL&sioa, oi^ganized 
daring the first year* of the Wnr of the Rebetlion, prow*! the efficjicy of iinirorm 
and coQceutratcd effort to bring into phiy the bcoovolcnl inBucuccs of Uic people 
to aid the luilitsry suthorities in caring for the aiclc and wounded it> war, and its- 
conspicuous success attracted atteution abroad to such a degree itiat, in obedience 
to a vcr^ genenil desire in European oouDtrics. the Swiss Go^'emment, in 1S63, 
invimlan international conference to formulate und adopt a general plan for the 
ameliorntioii of the suffering of the sick and wonnded in wnr. As n result of that 
conference arrangements vrere perffcted for the orgitmuitian of central civil coni- 
utittc«3 iu the several oounUiea to supplcmcut the work done by the milit^ir)- MT\-icc 
of the nmiiirs in the tield. tbun creating in nearly all the Continental States or){aui- 
zatious similar to the American Sanitary Couiiuis&iou. The following year anolher 
coufereace was held at Gene^-a, under the auspices of the International Committee, 
which rcsnlted iu the sijiniug of the Geneva Convention of 1864. to which the 
United States ia a party. Still anotherconfer«^ncc in 1&68 resulted in the additional 
articles extending the principles of the Geneva Convention to naval operations, 
which have bocu adopted by tUis govcrnuieut and Spain as a modus vivendi during 
the present war. 

Besides these truly international conventions, conferences held at Geneva in 
1867 and in 1S69 stiU furtlicr [>crfcctcd the organization and operation of the tnler- 
national Committee of Beme and its relations to the several civil central RedCro»» 
Comiuitteea in the adhering Slates, to tlie end that the latter might nut alone co- 
operate with the governments of tbctr rcBpccti\-c nations iu time of war, but iihonld 
perform analogous relief work in each State in time of pestilence, famine or other 
national calamity. 

The American National Red Croas, incorTiorateil under the laws of the 
United States for the District of Columbia, constitutes the sole legitimate and rec- 
ognized local branch in this country of the great international association, of 
which the International Committee of Bcmeis the bead. Of its conspicuous peace- 
fal services in time of national suQ'cring at home and abroad, it is jupcrtluoua to 
^>eak. Ita relation to the military and naval ho^ital service in time of war is 
now under oonsiderBtion. Under the terms of the Geneva conventions, its lid 
may be powerfully given to Uie military and naval armies, with the added pre&tif(e 
which belongs to it lu the American brunch of the luteruuLional Red Cross. By 
tlie teniiR of the Geneva Convention of 1S64, the participation of its agents in the 
active amhnlance and tKtspital service of the amite<t ftn<1 naval forces of the I' tilled 
State* in effected through the express ueutralixalion of its individual workers by 
the mititnry and navitl authorities and the iatoance to them of the Ntipulaled nnu- 
let bearing the sign of the Red Cross. Its asustancc, however, is not limited to 
this individual eropIo^1nent of its agents in the field ; it stands ready to co-operate 
in the etjuipmcnt and supply of amlmlances and medical Mores, drawing for ila 
reaources on the benevolence of the community and systcniatiiing effort and nid 
throuKhout the country by the various local committees it has orgaotxed. 

By Article II of the protocol of the Geneva Conference of 1863. which crcnlcd 
the International Committee of Berne and ita asociated national committees. 



I 
4 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



379 



each Valioiial Central Comuiittce is to enter into retatioiiA with the Kovem- 
niGUt uf iu wutiLry so lUut ils services miy be accepted if vccusioii sbouM present ' 
itself, and tiy Article III, on being called upon, or with Ibc assent of tbe snlitary 
autboritie». the respective Centrnl Committee is to send volunteer nurM-^ to the 
field of battle, there to be placed under the orders of the eonimniidiitg officer. 
Tbese articles suflit-tenlly nhnw tlie cbuiacler of tbc aid to be rendered in time of 
war by the widespread orRsnization of wbicb tbe Internattoti&l Committee of 
Berne is the head. 

There is pending in Congress at the present time an act tolegilimize tbe 
national istatns of the American National Red Cro<ts and to protect its exclusive 
use of the insignia of the Red Cross for the work it waa orgnniEcd to perform, and 
its early puaage iaexpectcd. Indeeil, it would probably Itave become aluw before 
oow but for a need of a slight ameudtnent which this Department basadvitfctL 
The purpose of that act has the Piesideiil's cordial approval. 

In referring lo me the annexed letter from tbe special eommiltee of tbe Ameri- 
can National Red Cross Relief Committee the rresident hnH retjucsted me to take 
•ucb steps u may he necessary aud cifL-ctive to rccoguiic the American National 
Red Cross as the proper and sole representative in the United Siatci of the 
Intcnialiunal Committee, aud, aa such, corresponding to tbe central committees 
which have been constituted in the several Slatsi which have adhered to the 
Geneva Convention. So jhr as international correspondence with the Swi» 
Government in relation to the delibcrationa of the Geneva Conference is concerned, 
this govemmcitt hiiit uniformly recognized (he American Nntionnl Red Crom as 
Ihu only civil body iu the United States which U regularly af&liati-d with th«| 
Internationat Committee of Berne for the purpoeeof carrying out the arTangeatcataj 
elaborated by the various conferences held ut Genera, and the representatives of 
Ihe Americnn National Red Cross at those conferences have uniformly attended 
with the sanction of the United States Govemoicnt. No additional recognition or 
sanction \» nredcd in that i]uartcr. 

I have therefore the honor to inform you, by direction of the President, 
that this government recognizes, for any appropriate co-operative pur^Mwes, the 
Americ.-in Nation.il Red Cross as the Ci\-il Cetitral American Committee in 
correspondence with the International Committee for the relief of the ^-otiMdcd iu 
war and In invite Miuilar recognition of il« Ntatus by j-our depnrtment with a ^-iew 
to taking ad«'aatage of its proffered aid during the present war so far as may be 
available. 

Respectfully yours, 

WHXIAK R. DAV. 

iieaelary of State. 



The foregoing letter from the Secretary of State defines the posttioa 
of tbe Aniericaa Natioual Red Cross, as uniforuily recognized by the 
Govemiueut of tbe United States, and by the Internationat Coumiitlee 
representing all tbe treaty nations. The treaty contemplates that there 
shall be in each country one national organization of the Red Cross, 



gSo 



THE RED CROSS. 



with power to organize an unlimited number of subordinate branches, 
or auxiliaries, all directly tributar>- to the natioual Iwdy. As the per- 
sonnel and cfiuipmeut of the Red Cross are expressly neutrali7.cd and 
protected by the treaty, it was essential to the security of all, that tlie 
civil power and responsibility should be concentrated. It was for this 
reason that the president of the International Committee, in his letter 
of March 24, 1882, urged that: 

It is important that we t>e nble to ocrtify that your got- enitiunt ia prepared to 
accept your services in caK of war; that it will readily cuter into coHipcration with 
yon ami wilt encoumge th« c«ntr^i»itioii, under your direction, of k11 rohinLary 
aid. 

We have no doubt that you wQl readily obtain, from the competent autlior- 
kics. an official declaration to that effect, and we bclicvethis niattcrwill b« merely 
a formaUty; hnl we attach the greatest importAncc to the fact, in order to cover 
out responsibility, especially in view of the pretensions of rival societies wliicb 
mifjlit claim to ba acltaowletlged by us. It is j'oui society and noae other that we 
will recojpiiae. 

It will be seen that, in the opinion of the International Committee, 
not recognition alone, but cordial co-operation on the part of the 
govenuuent is of vital iraiwrtance. In each country, the National 
Red Cross, or national committee as it is sometimes called, is the only 
civil medium contemplated by the treaty, through which the people of 
the respective countries may lawfully communicate with the armies in 
the field, for the purpose of rendering such auxiliar>- medical and 
hospital service, and other relief, as may be required. It must be con- 
stantly born in mind, in order to clearly understand the operations of 
the Red Cross, that our government and the people are bound, not 
only by the solemn provisions of the treaty, but also by the resolutions 
of the intematioual conferences, composed of delegates authorized by 
their respective goveramcals. Thus, the Secretary of State in his 
letter says: 



The AmericAn National Red Cross constitutes the sale legitimate aud reoog- 
nited local bratvcb, in this country, of tbcgreat Inlemfitionnl AuociAtion, of which 
the International Committee at Bcrae is the head. This goverumcul liaa unifoimly 
recognised the American National Red Croes as the only dvil body in tbc United 
Stales which is regularly nftiliate'l with the International Committee of Berne, for 
the purpose of carrying oat the arrangcoicuta elaborated by the various conferences 
held at Geneva, and the repre»cnUtive» of the American National Red Cross at 
those conferences have uniformly attended with tbc sanction of tlie United States 
Government. No additional recognition or sanction is needed iu that quarter. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 383 

The American National Red Cross is, consequently , the recognized 
source from which is derived all civil authority to use the official 
insignia aud to work uuder the Red Cross as auxiliar>- to the army and 
navy. The uatioaal Red Cross, in each couutry. is rcsiwnsible to its 
own government and, through the International Conuuittec, to all the 
nations of the treaty, for the integrity of its branches. Auxiliaries of 
the Red Cross must therefore receive Uieir cliarlcrs or certificates of 
authority from the parent organizatiun, which, iu turu, is held to a. 
strict observance of all its treaty obligations. Hence the use of the 
name or of the insignia of the Red Cross by civil societies, in relief 
work, without the sanction of the national orgauization, is an imposition 
and a violation of the treaty. Without such official pernitssiion or 
charter, no auxiliary can have any rightful existeuce, as a branch of 
the American National Red Cross. 

After having secured for the people by treaty the right, through 
their own national organizations of the Red Cross, to contribute to the 
relief of the sick and wounded in war, the delegates to the inter- 
national conventions at Geneva continued their labors until there was 
added to the functions of the Red Cros.s, the ]wwcr to administer relief, 
in times of peace, on fields of national disaster. Out of compliment to 
the president of the American National Red Cross, who advocated this 
extension, the addition to the treaty is known as " Tlie American 
Amendment."' Referring lo it, the Secretary of State in his letter 
coattnnes: 

Conferences held at Geneva in 1S67 and 1869, still farther perfected the 
orf;snizntion nnil opcrntion of the Inlenutional Coniinlttee of Beme, atid iU rcU- 
lions to the severnl civil Central Red Cross CommiUccs in the adhcniig Staleo, to 
the end that the Utler might not alone co-o|Kn(le wilh the gavemmcnts of their 
tespective oationK in time of wrjir. hut should perform amtloKous relief work in 
each State in time of peatiletice, famine or oilier national caLimity. Of the Ameri- 
can Nnlional Red Cros%. and its conspicuoDS peaceful senHcesin time of natioiul 
suffering at home and abroad, it is superfluoui to speak. 

Thtis is dearly explained why, on such great fields of suffering 
and disaster as the Ohio Floods, the Russian Famine, the Sea Islands 
Hurricane, tn Armenia and in Cuba, the American National Red Cross 
is found endeavoring to carry out the benign intentions of the Treaty 
of Geneva. 

For the first time in the history of warfare, it was" now proposed 
to fit out, and maintain at sea, hospital ships for the relief of sick and 



384 



THE RED CROSS. 



wounded. The Treaty of Geneva, howe\-er, only provided for the 
recognition and protection of the hospital sen-ice of the army in its 
operations upon the land. An amendment to the treaty was proposed 
by the convention which inel at Geneva on October ao, i868, 
extending the treaty to include hospital service at sea. This amend* 
ment, couceroing naval hospital sen*ice, was known as the "Ad- 
ditional Articles," and, although the Government of the United States 
in acceding to the Treaty of Geneva included the propased amend* 
ment, President Arthur in his proctomatiou of August 9, 1882, 
reserved the promulgation of the Additional Articles until after the 
exchange of ratifications by the signatory Powers. The Additional 
Articles were never ratified by the other treaty nations, and, at the 
beginning of the Sim nish- American war, they were not in force as a 
part of the treaty. Spain was therefore under no treaty obligation to 
respect the flag of the Red Cross upon the ocean. 

Although the Additional Articles had not yet been formally rali- 
6ed, the Swiss Govcmmeut, acting as an intermediary, and with a 
view to securing their observance by both belligerents during the war, 
opened a diplomatic correspondence between the governments of the 
United States and Spain, proposing the adoption of a temporary agree* 
ment, or modus vtvcntft, during the continuance of hostilities. The 
official correspondence on the subject between the Sc:crctar>' of State 
and the Swiss Minister will be of interest, as showing the method by 
which the temporary agreement between the two countries was secured, 
the modifications made and the interpretation placed upon some of the 
doubtful clauses: 



Swiss I^EGATIOH, 

Washin'CTON, ^pn'l fj, /89S. 
Uk. Skcretakv op Statb: War hflviogbeeu now unhappily declared between 
the United Stnttrs «nd Spntn, my gorernment, in its capacity as the intermediary 
ot^gan between the siKnatOTv statcsorthrcouveation of Geneva, has decided to pro. 
pOM to the caltineU afWaHhin^ton »Md Madrid to 1 ccogiiize and carry into execution, 
as a *modhS viventii, dnring tlie whole dnn-itton of liuKtilities, the additional article*, 
proposed by Uie Interuational Coureteuce which met at Geneva on October ao, 
1S6S. to the convention of Gvnevii of Au^ast 31, 1S64. which (ftdditioaal aitides) 
extend the effects of that convention to naval wars. Altbongh it has as yet been 
tmpouible to convert tbe said draft of additional articles into a tn-aty, »Iill, in 
1&70. Gennonv and France, at tbe su^iKestion of ibe Swiss Federal Council, con* 
Kiitcd to apply the additional articles as a modus vivettdi, during the whole dura> 
tlon of hostilitie*. The Federal Council proposes the additional articles as they 
have been amended at the request of France and constracd by that power and 
Great Britain. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



385 



My government, while tiutnicting me to make tfaU proposition to Your Hxcet- 
leocy, recalls lite fact thai, on March i, 1SS2, the rrcsideiit of the UnittMl SUtc* 
declared thiit he Bccctlnl, not only to the Ucncva Convention of Augiiit ai, tS&lt 
but aI)o to the additional articles of October ao, 1S6S. 

The Sp:iiiii>h Gowrnmcut. liUewiae. in tSji, decUreil itself ready to adhere to 
these articles. The Federal Council, therefore, hopes tlint the two goreniments 
will agree to adopt the measure, the object of which is to secure the application 
on the !i(uu> of the huuixne principles Inid down in the Gene\-a Convention . 

With the conlident expectation of a favorahle reply from the Vnited Stales 
GoverameDi Co thia proposal, I a\-ail uiyaelf, etc., J. B. PiooA. 



Departmrnt ov state, 

WASniNGTON, ^firii jj, rSqS. 

Sib: I have the honor to aclcnowledge the receipt of your note of the twenty- 
third instant, whereby, in view of Uie condition of war existing between the United 
States and Spain, you communicate the purpose of your government to propose to 
the cabiucts of Washington and Madrid tliat Ihey recognize and carry into execu- 
tion, as a modus vivendi, during the whole duration of bostilitiea, the additiotia! 
articleB propowd by the Inlcrn.itional Conference of Geneva, under date of Octol>cr 
20, 1S6S, for tlie purpose of extending to na\'al wars the effects of the conventioii 
of Geneva of August 2a, 1S64. for the succor of the wounded iu armies in the Scld. 

Aa you note in the communication to which I hare the honor to reply, the 
United States, through the act of the Prcstdeut, did on the &tst day of March, 
18S3, accede to the »a.id ailditional tirlicles of October 30, 186S, at the same lime that 
it acceded to the original conrcnUou of Geneva of August 21, 1S64; but, as is 
recited in the Prendent's proclumution of July 26, iSSz, a copy of which I enclose 
herewith, the exchange of ibc m-lificalions of the aforesaid addiliooal artidee of 
October 20. 186S, h.id not then (nor ha.H since) taken place between the contracting 
parties, so that the pioniulgation of the accession of the United Slates to the said 
additional arliclexwas (and still remains) reserved until the exchange of tlie ratifica- 
tions thereof between the several contracting states shall have been effected and 
the aoid additional articles ^aU have acquired full force and effect oa an inicma- 
tioaal treaty. 

I find, upon examination of the published correspondence which took place in 
1870 at the time of the war hctwecn Prance and North Germany (British and 
Foreign State Papers, vol. 60, pp. 945-94'6), that upon Ihcinitiatiwofthc Prussian 
minister nt Berne, followed by the proposal mode by the government of the Swiss 
confederation to the French and North Gennan Kovemmcnls, the then bellig- 
erents severally notified to the gorcniiuent of Switzerland their willingness to 
accept provisiosally and at once to establish as a modus vitvudi applicable to the 
war then in progress, both by sea and land, all the additional articles to the con- 
vention of Geneva of Octobcrao, 1S6S, toin.'ther with the subsequent interpretations 
of the ninth and tenth Articles thereof agreed upon and proposed by Hngland and 
France. I understand from your note that, although those articles have not as yet 
become a matter of internntinmil convention, it is desired that ttie Uniteil States 
and Spain accede to the iisme, together with the same amendments and consinidion 
as above stated. I entertaiu no doubt that the United States wlU readily lend 



386 



THE RED CROSS. 



iU mpporl and ajiproval to tb« Rvaeral purpose of those articles and be In favor of 
adopting tbetu u a modus vivendi; it tuut ever been ia favor of proper rc^aUotu 
for Lbe midgalion of the bardsbipa of war. Bnt before H can acoede xa tbem as a 
matter of fact, in the present inatance, it most 6rst folly undersUod the nature and 
text of the amendinenta and construction placed upon the artidca by France and 
England as ittaled by you. 

I would respectfully anggot, therefore, that there be furnisbed to this Kovern- 
nent either Lbe text or a clear exposition of the articles, with the amendments 
and CDostroctions referred to. in order that the understanding may be complete. 
A certain pamphlet, written by Lieutenant Colonel l\>land in 1886, is said to 
contain these amendments and constmctions, but there is not now acceaiible to the 
Department oi Stale a copy of such paiuphlet or other reliable means of informa- 
tion on the subject I lOiall await with pleasure fuller and exact infonnatioa fiom 
you of the terau to whkh we arc aslted to accede; 

Accept, etc JOHR SUBRMAII. 

Swiss LiiGATlorr. 

WASiiiNfVTON, D. C, May 4, rSgS. 

Ms. SrcBETasV op STatR: I have had the honorto receive the note which your 
faonotablr predcce«»or did mc the favor of addrcnsing to me under the date of the 
twenty-fifth of April, In reply to mine of the twenty-third of the same month, upon 
the subject of the proposition of my government to the cabinets of Washington 
and Madrid to adopt as a mvdus vtvendi, pending the entire duration of the war, 
the articles of the twentieth of October, tS6S, additional to those of the convention 
of Geneva of the twenly-*econd of Auguat, 1864. 

The documents whicti, in the aforesaid note of your predecessor, were demred 
■od which, as I have had the opiwrtunity of telling you verbally, my government 
had lent at the same time that it iustnicted mc by cable to make the o\-crturcs on 
the subject, have just arrived, and I enclose them herein in duplicate copies. 
They ccmfirm the text of the additional articles, the modification of Article IX 
proposed by France and the note* exchanged between Rngland and France 
coticeming the import of Article X. The Spanish Government having, by note of 
Its I>eg»tion of the seventh of September, 1S73, ulso declared that it was ready to 
adhere to the articlen in qnrRtion. the Federal Council hopes that the governments 
of America and Spain, appreciating the sentiments which have guided it in its 
coufw, will be of accord in adopting as a tnodus vivendt n measure which has for 
its purpose the securing of the application upon the sea of the humanita.rian 
principles consecrated by the Geneva Convention. 

Awaiting your communication to me of the decision which the Government of 
the United States shall see fit to take in regard to this proposition, I offer you, Mr. 
Secretary of State, the expression of my very highest considerstion. 

J. B. PIODA. 



DaPARTUKNT OF STATE. 

WASUtMCTOK, May 9, 189S. 
8nt: npon receiving your note of the fourth instant, in reply to mine of the 
twtnty-fiftb of April, concerning the proposition of the Government of the Swiaa 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



387 



Confederntioti that the Dnited States and Spiaia adopt as 8 modits z'ivendi, pcndtug 
ttw eutirc duration of the war, the articles of October so, 1S68, additional to those 
of the couvention of G«oeva on Angtut 73, 1S64, I cxnumaiucatvd sU the p«pen in 
the case to the Secretary of the Navy, calling his attention to the form of the 
modus Vivendi adopted daring the Fraoco-Gerauui war, which your government 
was pleased to suggest ns a precedent to be followed during the existing wnr. The 
printed pxper you enclose, besides giving the text of the origiual additional articles 
of October 20, 186S, contains the correspundence had in 1868 nnd 1869 concerning 
the interpretatiou of Articles IX and X of the said additional oonreuuou and 
thus establishes the precise nature of the uuderttauding to which Fnmce and the 
North German States rcspectivclj- acceded. 

As so expresacd, the Ooveminent of the United States finds no diGGculty in 
acceding to the suggcslion of the Government of Switzerland. It had, in fact, 
anticipated it, »o far iut cunccrns \\m owh conduct of hoslililies nnd iU nwn pur]x»e 
to obser\-e the humane dictates of modem civilization in the prosecution of warfare 
upon the sea ua well ha upon laud by fitting out aud equipping 11 special ambulance 
aliip, the '"Solace." in conformity with the terms of the addittoual convention 
aforesaid, thus confinning cniphalically its adhexion to the priaciples of that 
benefident arrangement without regard to the absence of its formal ratification by 
the various signatories. 

I am happy, therefore, to adrise you. and through yon the Go\'cmnieut of the 
'iss Confederation, tb*t the Government of the United States will for its part, 
•ad so long as the present war between this conntry and Spain shall last, treat as 
an effective modiii vivtndi the fourteen ndditional articles of Octolier M. i968, 
with the interpretations of the ninth and tenth articles theieuf appearing in tlie 
publtcatiuD you communicate to mc. While it is proper to adopt this course on ila 
own account, and without reference to snclt action as Spain may tike, this govern* 
tnent would nevertheless be glad to hear that the repre^entatioiis made by yoar 
go^'emment to that of Sl»in had met with a fHvurnble response in onler that the 
two parties to the present contest may stand pledged to the same humane and 
enlightened conduct of iiav&l operations as respects the slclc and wounded as was 
recognized and adopted by the rrapccti^-e parties to the Franco- Pmasian war. 

Should Ifi*' Government of Spain likewise accede lo the Swi*» pTOposJlion, I 
should be much gratified to be apprised of the fact, and also that the Spanish 
accession cunlcmpUtcs acceptance of Uie interpretations of Articles IX nnd X 
which were adopted by Prance and the North German States and which ar« 
embraced in the proposition of your government. 

Accept, etc., 

WlLUAM R. DAV. 



Swiss Lkgatios, 

WAaaiNCTON, D. C, May 9, jSgS. 
Mil. Srckbtarv op STatr : As I had the booor verbally to inform the As- 
sutanl Secretary of State this morning, my Govenunent has charged me to bring 
to the knowledge of Your Kxccllcney that the Spaninh Government has accepted 
the proposition of the Federal Council cODcerDing the additional articles of the 
Geneva Couvcntiou. 



388 



THE RED CROSS. 



I doubt DCrt tbat Your Bxcelloicy will be plessed nry soon to emble me to 
atmouDce to the federal Council tbat the Governnient of the Union also adheres 
for its part to the propoaed modus vivenJi. and in this expectation I offer to Your 
Bscellency the ezpceuion ol my very high oonaidemtioQ, 

J. B. FlOOA. 



DsPARTUENT or Stats, 

Washtngtoj*. May lo, /S^S. 
Sitt: I have the honor to acktiowlcdge the receipt of your note of May 9, 
fonnally notifyiti]{ :ite that the Spanish Oovertiment tutu Accepted the p r o p o s ition 
of the Federal Council conct-ming the additional articles of the Geneva Conven- 
tion, and expressini; the hope that yon would be soou enabled to inform your 
govcrnincnl that the United States Govcmment adheres for its part to the pn>> 
posed modus vlvcndi. 

As you were adx-i^ed in the verbal interview with the Second Aaaistant Secre* 
tary of State, to which you refer in your note of tlie ninth, I luve alrendy bad the 
pleasure of infomiing you, by my official note of tbat date, that the United States 
<jo\-emmcnt wonid for its part treat as an effective modus vit-endi the additional 
articles of t568, vrilh the anieiidmciita and interpretations of Articles IX and X 
thereof appearing in the pnhlinilion communicated to me by yon. 1 truxt tbat 
that note, which apparently had not reached your hands at the lime of your note 
to me of the same date, has now been received by you and its contents transmitted 
to the Federal CouDcil. 

Be pleased to accept, etc., 

WiLUAU R. Dav. 



The additional artic]e.s concerning the Maritime Hospital Sen'ice 
in war, as modified ty the mod»s vivcidi, forming Articles VI to XV of 
Ihe Treaty of Geneva when formally ratifiwl, are: 



Art. VI. Theboata which, at their own risk and peril, during and after «n en- 
gagement pick up the shipwrecked or wounded, or which, having picked tbeta, 
np, convey them on board a neutral or hospital ship, shall enjoy, until Ihcac 
plishment of their mission, the character of ncntrality, as far as the circuiustances 
of the engagement and the position of the ships engaged will permit. 

The appreciation of these circumstances is entrusted to the humanity of all 
the combatants. The wrecked and wounded thus picked up and saved must not 
■erve agnin during the contlnuitncf of tlie war. 

Art. Vn. The religious, medical and hospital staff of any cAptured vcsael are 
declared neutral, and, on leaving the slup, may remove the articles and surgical 
instinmcnts which are tlicir private propcrlT. 

Art. Vni. The staff deaignnted in the preceding article must continue to ful- 
fill their fiiDcttons in the captured ship, assisting in the removal of the wounded 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



3H' 



mitde hy Ihc viclorioiiw pirty; they will then be at liberty to return to llieif country, 
in conformity with the second paragraph of the lint fulitional iirticlc.* 

TLc siipulationii of lUe sccoiul additional aitidef are applicable to the pay aod 
allowance of the atafi*. 

Art. IX. The milltAry hospiul ships remain under mnrtiiil law in all that con- 
certia their stores; they becumt the property of (lie captor, but tbc latter must uot 
divi-rt t belli Trotn their special Jippn»j>ri«Iioii iluring l!ie conltniinncccf Ihc war. 

[The vessels not equipped for fiKhtiiiK, which during peace, th« ^overiimetit 
shall have oSciully dcclare<l Ui Ik: iniciiilvd to serve ns floating hospital Bhips, shall 
faoweter, enjoy during the war complete neutrality, both as re^rda stores, and 
■bo u regards their staff, provided their equipment is exclasiTety oppropriatcd to 
tbc special service on which they arc employed.] 

Art. X. Any merchantman, to whaterer nation she may livlong, charged 
excliisivcty with removal or sick and wounded, is protected by neutrality, but the 
mere fact, noted on the sliip's books, of llie vessel having bc-un \-isitetl by an 
enemy's cruist-r, renders the sick and wounded incapable of scr^'ing during the 
continuance of the w.ir. The cnuKr shall even have the right of putting on board 
an officer in order to accompany the convoy, and thus verify the good faiQi of the 
operation. 

If the merchant ship also carries a cargo, her neutrality will still protect it, 
provided that such cargo is uot of a nature to be confiscated by the belligerent 

Tbc belligerents retain the right to interdict nenlralizcd vessels from all com> 
municntion, and from any coune which they might tiecm prejudicial to the *rcrery 
of their opcratious. In urgent cases special conventions may be entered Into 
between commanders in chief, in order to iieutialtze temporarily and ia a special 
manner the vessels intended for the removal of the sick and wounded. 

AiiT. XI. Wounded or sick sailors and soldiers, vhen embnrked, to whatever 
nation they may belong, shall be protected and taken care of by their captara. 

Their return lo Iheir own country in snhject to the provisjotis of Article VI 
of the couventiou and of the additional Article V.t 

Art. XII, The distinctive flag to be used with the national flag, in order to 
Indicate any vcaael or boat which may claim the benefits of neutrality, in virtue 
of the principle* of thi* convention, is a white flag with a red cross. The belligcr- 
ents may exercise in this respect any mode of verification which they may deem 
neccsaar>'. 

Military- hospital ships shall be distincuisbed by being painted white outside 
with green strake. 

• AancLX I. Tbe pcrtons dnlEnatcd la Arttck Itof th« coareaUoa shaU. aft«r the oceupallon 
tky the enemy, continue to fnlAII their itutio. KccontiiiK to Iheii wmnt*. lo the sick and wmiDded 
Id Itie nmbulancc or Ih* hcwpilul wtiich ihry *»Tvr. Whrii Ibey Te<]<KM to witbtlrB*, the 
cotntaottdcT of the oecupylnK Iroopi ohatl Bz the time of depamire. whlcti be thMM ttaiy be 
allowed to delay (at a «liott timr in (-aitror military nei-ciMlty. 

t Abt. II. Amagrm^nu vHIl haw to b« madv tiy the Iwllieerent powers to iaiMe to tbe 
Beuinl<<cd pcnon bllen into tbc haada <^ the mxmjol Ibe enemjr, tbe entire cnjoxmenl of hi* 
aalary. 

; Art. T. Id addition to Article VI of the conveaHoa. It is «t|>ulated that, wilh the reatnrallon 
of officers wbMetktcDCion might be important la (he Taleof artiimaad vilhln the Hiritii fixed by 
tbc soctnil (KirairTapl] of lliat article, lli« waainrled fnllen Into the band* of the enemy ■hnll t>e 
scat hack to thetreoutitrranertlieyBreciireil. Of •onner ir poMible, on cotHtition, nevetlbelcM, 
of not afsiii bcarinc arms dnrins the continuance of Ute war. 



390 



THE RED CROSS. 



ART. Xllt. The hospital sbips whkh are equipped at the exptaae of the aid^ 
•oddies. ncofpiacA by the ^overnmcuU sijittiiiig lliia convention, Hiid which are 
fhniiahcil willi si cummisaioa emanating frutn the (UTcreigM, who sliall has'e Kivca 
express authority for their being fittcti out, and with a certificate from the proper 
naval authority that they have been placed under his coatrol during tlieir fitting 
out aud on their final departure, and that they were then appropriated solely to 
tlic pur3»9e of their mission, shall be consiilertd neutral, as well as the whole of 
their staif. Tlicy shall be rccopniwd aud protected hy the licit ijjrerents. 

l*bey 9i!t:ill ninke ibc-mjtelves known by huisting together with their national 
Aa}i. the white &»s ^'■^'^ ^ ^^ cross. The distinctive mark or their stafl', while 
peiformiog their duties, shall be an annlel of the tame colors. The outer painting 
of these hospital ships shall be white, with red stroke. 

These ships shall bear aid and assistanoe to the wounded and wrecked bcUig- 
ercutfl, without distinctiou of uationality. 

They must take care not to interfere in any way with tlie tnovement* of the 
combatants. During and after the Imttle they mnat do their duty at tbcdr own ri^ 
and peril 

The belligerents shall hB\-e the right of controlling and \-i5iting them ; they 
will tic at litjcrly to refuse their assistance, to order theru to depart, and to detain 
them if the exiffencies of the caae require ftuch a step. 

The wottnded aud wrecked picked up by these ebii» cannot be reclaimed by 
either of the combalButs, and they will be required not to serve during the con- 
tinuance of the wnr. 

Art. XIV. In naval wars any strong pre.<tumpUnn that either belligerent 
takea advantage of the benefits of neutrality, with any other view than the interest 
of the sck aud wounded, gives to the other belligerent, until proof to the con* ' 
trary, the right of suspending Uie convention as regards such belligerent. 

Should this presumplion become a certainly, notice may be given tosu^ 
belligerent that the convention is suspended with regard to him during the whole 
contintmnce of the war. 

Akt, XV. The present act Khnll be drawn up in a single original copy, whicH 
atul] be deposited in the archives of the Swiss Confedcnition. 

An authentic copy of this act shall be delivered, with an invtUtiou to adhere 
to it, to each of the signatory powers of the convention of the twenty-second of 
Angust, 1S64, as well ai to those that have aocccMivcly acceded to iu 

la faitli whereof, the undersigned commisMries have drawn up the preaenti 
project of additional artJclea and have apposed thereunto the scats of their arms. 

[Done at Ccne^'^, the twentieth day of the month of October, of the year one 
thoBMud, eight hundred and sixty-eight,} 



The following note shows the special amendment and the inter- 
pretation of certain clauses of the articles, as agreed by the Govcrn- 
mcuts of the United States and Spain: 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 



393 



NOTE. 

(«) The amcnrlnient proposed by Prance is contained i» brackcta aitcr Articlfl 
IX. 

(A) The itjterpretiilion placed upon Article X by Hnglaud and France u to tbe 
foUowing effect: 

Tli« question being raided as to whether under Article X a vessel might not 
BTail herself oF the carrying of sick or wounded to engage wttli impunity in uufTic 
otlierwi.se hazardous under Uic rules of war, it was agreed that there was no pur- 
pose in the articies to modify in any particular the generally admitted principles 
concerning the rights of belUgereats; that the performance of such services of 
buuianily could not l>e uhkI hh u corer eitlter fur cuntruband of war or for eneniy 
nerdiaudisc; and that everj' boat which or whose cargo would, under ordinary 
drcrumbUincei^, be subject to conCacatiQii, cau not be relieved therefrom by the sole 
fact of carrj-ing sick and wounded. 

Question being nii5ed ns to whether, under Article X an ahAolule right was 
afforded to a blocVadcd party to freely remove its sick and wounded from the block- 
aded luwu, it wiis agreed thai such removal or evacuation of tick iind wounded 
was entirely sabjcct to the consent of the bluckading party. It should be permit- 
ted for humanity's sake where the superior exigencies of war niay not interrene to 
prevent, but the besieging party might refuse permission entirely. 

The full text of the I'rench intcrpfctation of Article X is subjoined. 

The second paragraph of the additional Article X rea<U thus: " If the mtt' 
cbaat ship also carries ft cai^go, Iter ueatnilily will still protect it, provided that 
such cargo is not of a nature to be confiscated by the belligcrcnL " 

The words "of a nature to be confiscated by the Iwlligercat" apply equally 
to the nationality of the merchandise and to its quality. 

Thus, according to the latest iiiternationa] conventions, mercbondiae of a 
□ature to be confiscated by a cruiser are: 

J^ifst. Contraband of war. under whatever flag. 

SeeoHtL Enemy mercbandiac under enemy flag. 

The cniiaer need not recognire the neutrality of the vewiel carryinff wounded 
if any part of its cargo shall, under international law, be comprised In either of 
theae two categories of goods. 

The faculty given by the paragrvph in question to leave on board of vessels 
carrying wounded a portion of the cargo is to be considered a.*; a facility fur the 
carrhtge of freight, as well as a valuable privilege in favor of the navigability of 
merchant vessels if they be bad sailors when only in ballast; but this faculty can 
in no wise prejudice the right of coafiscatioa of tbe Cargo within the limits fixed 
by international law. 

Kvery ship the cargo of which would be snbjecl to confiscation by tbe cruliter 
under ordinary circumstaoces is not susceptible of bdng covered by neutrality by 
the sole fact of carrying in addition sick or wounded men. The ship and the 
cargo would then come under the common law of war, which has not been modi- 
fied by the convention except in fnvor of the vessel exclusively lailen with wounded 
men, or the cargo of which would not t>e subject to coufiscstton in any case. 
Thus, for example, the merchant ship of a belligerent laden with nentraJ me^chat^ 
disc and at the same time carrying sick and wounded is covered by nentrality. 



394 



THE RED CROSS. 



The mercliant Hbip of a belligerent carr}-iiif(, betiides -wotiiided and sict meo, 
goods of the enemy of tbv cruiser's nation or contrab^aad of war is uot neuLral, and 
Uie chip, as well as the cargo, comes uuclcr the coiutuou law of wiir. 

A neutral ship currying, in ndJiliou to wounjcd and sick men of the beU 
liferent, contraband of war also is subject to the camnion law of war. 

A neutral ship canying gowls of any nationulity, but nol contraband of war, 
lends its own neutrality to the wounded aiid siulc which it may carry. 

fn KO fir wt coticcrnK Ihe usage which expressly prohibits a cartel sbip from 
engaging in any commerce whatsoever at the point of arrival, it is deemed that 
tliRe ia no occasion to specially subject to that inhibition vessels carrj'tng wounded 
men, because the second paragraph of Article X imposes upon the belligerents, 
ecjually as upon neutrals, the exclusion of the tranKportfttion of merchandise TOb> 
jcct to confiscation. 

Moreovrr, if une of the bellijjerenls should abuse the privilege which i* 
accorded to hliu, and under the pretext of transporting the wounded shotdd 
neutralize under its ftag an important commercial intercourse which might in a 
notorious manner influcucc the chances or the duration of the war. Article XIV 
of the convenlion could iH«tly be invoked by the other IjelligcrcnL 

As for the second poiut of the note of the British Government, relative to the 
privilege of cfTeclirely removing from o city, besieged and blockaded by sea, under 
Ihe cover of neutrality, vessels bearing wounded and sick men, in such a n'ay oa 
to prolong the resistance of the iK-sicged. the convention does not authorize thi^ 
privilege. In according tlic benefits of a neutral status of a specifically limited 
neutrality to veuelit citrT\-ing wounded, the convention could not gi\-e thcni rights 
superior to those of other neutrals who can not pass an effective blockade without 
special authorization. Humuuily, lioocever, in »uch a case, does not lose all its 
rights, and, if circumstances pennil the besieging party to relax the rigorous 
righlaof the blockade, the besieged party may make propositiouB to that cud in 
virtue of the fourth paragraph of Article X. , 



It was under this modus viz'cndi that the steam launch " Moy- 
rafer" received from the Government o£ the Uuited States her com- 
mission as a httle hospital ship of tlie Red Cross. For this little vessel, 
presented by Mr, William B. Howlaiid, the editor of the Ouficok, 
as the ^ift of the readers of that popular periodical, the Red Cross is 
gratefully iudcbled. 

On June 6, 1898, the lender o£ the services of the American 
National Red Cross to act as an auxiliary to the Medical and Hospital 
Service of the Army aud Navy, iu accordance with the treaty, was 
formally accepted by the Departuieuls of War and Navy: 



1 




HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 395 

War Dt^PAHTUKNT, 

WashimcTon, June 6, /S98. 
CiARA Barton, 

Presideul 0/ the American National Red Cross, JP'ashington, D. C: 
The tancler of the ser^-icra of the American National Red Croee, made to thia 
department through the Department of Stntc under date of May 25. 1898. for 
ine<lic«l und huapiliil work lut auxiliary lo llic hospital service of the Annj- of the 
United States, is occcplp<I; "U TTpitMwiimiivPX and cmploj-etiof kaiil orgauicatioii to 
be subjecl to orders accordiag to tlic rules and discipliae of war, as provided by 
the 63d Article of War, 

Very respectfully, 

R. A. ALCKK. 

Sfcretary of War. 



Navv Dhpabtmhxt, 

W'ASKtSCTOS, /«»<■ ^, iS^ 

Clara Bartok, 

President af the Amtrimo National Red Cross. Wdshinglon, D. C: 
Thctendcr of the services of the American Katioiuil Red Crow, made to this 
department lliroujib. Ihe Department of State nndcr date of May 25, 1S98, for 
inediciil aiul hospital work a» Muxilixry to the hosjiital aervice of the nnvy of the 
United Slates, U accepted; all representatives and employes of said organization 
to be lubject to orders according to tbe rule* and discipline of wuc. 

Very respectfully, 

CIIAS. H. ALLKS, 
Acting Seeretawy. 



In the meantime, war was officially prodaimed, and the Preadent 
had issued bis call for volunteers. As the troops responded to the call, 
they were assembled in camps in various sections of the country, 
principally iu Washington, Chickamauga Park, Georgia, Jacksonville, 
Tampa and Port Tampa in Florida. Soon after the formation of the 
camps it became evident that the auxilinr>' ser^'ice of the Red Cross 
would be necessary in caring for the men , and a formal tender of such 
service was made to the go\'emment by Mr. George Kennan, first ^noe- 
pre«ident of the American National Red Cross, to which the following 
reply was received: 

Wax DKrARTMSNT, 
Junes, jSfiS. 
Dear Sir: I have, by your reference, the letter of this date from Mr, George 
Keanaa, of the American National Red Croas, and see no objection whatsoever to 
their esUblishing a station in every military camp for the purpoac indicated in 



39C THE RED CROSS. 

tbeir lelter. Instructions have been issued by me to^sy to tbe surgeon general, 
who will communicate this inrortnalion to the cbief surgeons of tbe cooips. 

Very tnily yours, 

R. A. ALOBR, 
UoEf. JOBN ADDISON PoBTHR, Secretary of War. 

Seeretaty to the tVeiideiU. 



Acting upon this acceptance, the executive committee, of whicb 
Hr. Stephen H. Barton was Uie cbainnan, appointed and sent to each 
camp an agent, to represeut Ihe Red Cross ia the field. These repre- 
sentatives were iuslructed to report to the respective medical officers 
of the array in charge, to make, jwrsonally, a formal tender of assJst- 
sncc, and to ascertain if the Red Cross could be of service, by ftimish- 
ing quickly any medical and hospital supplies of which the camps 
might be in need. 

It is perhaps proper to state here, as a matter of history-, that 
while these field agents were always most courteously received, in 
many instances the auxiliary ser\'ices of the Red Cross were not at first 
welcomed by the medical officers of the army. Indeed it often hap- 
pened that the assistance, of which the hospital ser\-ice of the army 
was apparently in need, wa.*; not accepted until after its effidencj' was 
seriously diminished by reason of delay. 

The reluctance to permit the people, through the Red Cross, to 
assist in ministering to the comforts of tlie men, did not gencraUy seem 
to arise from personal objection on the port of the medical officers at 
the camps, but from an apparent fear, whether well founded or not, 
that immediate acceptance of assistance would result in official censure 
and disapproval. This, notwithstanding the miqualiSed acceptance 
of the services of the Red Cross by the War Department. 




CAMP ALGER. 



CAMP ALGER. 



Among the first of the Red Cross field agents appointed was Mr. 
B. H. Warner, of Washington, to whose special charge was assigned 
the field known as " Camp Alger." Mr. Warner makes the following 
report of the work done by himself and the committee of which he was 
chairman: 

On June lo, 1898, 1 \vas notified by letter of George Kennan, Esq., 
first vice-president of American National Red Cross, that I had been 
appointed as its representative, at Camp Alger, Virginia, and was re- 
quested to report to Chief Surgeon Girard, regarding the establishment 
•fa station at that camp; to ascertain if anything in the form of hos- 
pital supplies were needed, and to advise the Executive Committee. 

It was suggested that, as the work to be established at Camp 
Alger was the first step of the Red Cross in the field in connection with 
the Spanish war, that prudence and tact should be used in maintaining 
friendly and harmonious relations with the military authorities, espe- 
cially with the surgeons. 

In accordance with my appointment. I visited tlie War Depart- 
ment, and obtained a special letter uf introduction from Secretary Alger 
to Major-General Graham, commanding ai Fort Alger, .isking him to 
give me every facility possible in connection with the work to be under- 
taken. General Graham introduced me lo Colonel Girard, with whom 
I had a long conference, the result of which was the establishment of 
headquarters of the Red Cross in the camp, and the settlement of some 
details as to work which was to be done in accordance with the advice 
and authority of the surgeon in charge. 

I found Colonel Girard exceedingly busy, and apparently very 
sanguine as to the ability of the gm-emmenl to meet all demands that 
might be made by every department of the army. He seemed, how- 
ever, willing that the Red Cross sliould furnish extra comforts for the 
men at the camp. I was impressed with the fact that he considered 
*ien who had recei\'ed a regular army education thoroughly competent 
to meet the atnation, and that all supplies could be bad as soon as 
meeded; that he did not want too many comforts for sick men. so as to 
unfit them for the hardships of war when they should go nearer to the 
scene of active operations. 



398 



THE RED CROSS. 



On the twenty-first of June, in accordance with a call issued by 
me, quite a large number of citizens met at the Arlington Hotel , and I 
was formally electeil cliairmon of an executive committee, Mrs. J. 
Ellen Foster^ vice-chairman; C.J. Bell, treasurer. George C. I,ewis, 
secretary. Power was given to add to this committee which, as finally 
constituted, consisted of the following named persons: E. H. Warner, 
Simon Wolf, William F. Mattingly. Mrs. J. Ellen Faster. Mrs. Thomas 
Calvcr, president of the Legion of IyO>'al Women; Mrs. James Tanner, 
national president of the Ladies' Union Veteran Legion; Mrs. Sarab 
A. Spencer, Mrs. J. A. T. Hull, wife of Representative Hull, Mrs. 
Ellen S. Musscy, one of the counsel to the Red Cro.ss, and Mrs. M. M. 
North. 

Quite a number of prominent citizens were present at the first 
meeting, including Rev, T. S. Hamlin, D. D., and Rev. Byron Sun- 
derland, D. D. 

Mrs. Spencer was compelled by other engagements to retire from 
the work of tlic Executive Committee early io its history, but still 
remains as a member of the General Committee. I want to say for 
the ladies, who served on the Executive Committee, that I never saw 
more devoted, energetic and efficient ser\-ice on any committee or under 
any conditions with which 1 ha\*e been familiar, than that rendered by 
Ihcm. They were all constantly active, both at Camp Alger, Fort 
Myer, and all along the line, at all hours, day and night, whenever 
and wherever their presence was required. Tlie>' were exceptionally 
competent to direct, pose^essed of a high order of ability and iutelligence, 
and deserve, not only the thanks of Che national organization, but also 
of all who arc friendly to the thousands of soldiers who were benefited 
by theiradrainistration. The Executive Committee met every Tuesday 
and more frequently when required. 

Mrs. J. Ellen Foster began service at the commencement of war» 
and was very active in and arouud Washington iu camp, hospital, and 
the railway relief work. She also visite*! Camp Wikofi", Camp Black. 
Camp McPherson, Camp Thomas, Chickamauga, camp at Huntsville, 
Ala., and the hospitals in Ne\v York and Boston, where sick soldiers 
were quartered. Her exi)cricnce gave her opportunities of suggesting 
improvement in many departracnLs of work, and the admini-stration 
of relief, not only by the Red Cross, but by other organizations as 
well. 

Captain George C. Lewis, on the twenty-first of June, was elected 
secretary of the committee. He had been an officer iu the Civil War, 



CAMP ALGER. 



399 



and had large experience among soldiers, both in camp and hospital. 
His first visit to Camp Alger was made on that date, and from that 
time, until the camp was discontinued, he was constantly on duty there, 
seeing that supplies were furnished, and all possible relief extended. 
His headquarters were iu a large hospital tent, from which the flag of 
the Red Cross was flying. The principal office of the Executive Com- 
mittee being in Washington, at No. 1310 G street, which was tendered 
free of charge by Dr. and Mrs. J. Ford Thompson, and which the 
commitiee has retained umch longer than originally anticipated. 

Ex])ericnced nurses seemed to be needed at Camp Alger. Patients 
were not receiving the necessary care and atlcntiou. The committee 
supplied mattresses, sheets, pillows and slips, mosquito bars, lemons, 
and a large quantity of medicine, pajamas, underclothing, night-shirts, 
handkerchiefs, groceries, delicacies, etc. 

The surgeons at the hospitals were timid about asking the govern- 
ment for supplies. As stated, the surgcon-in -chief at Camp Alger 
seemed to think that the soldiers who were taken sick should be treated 
in such a manner as would inure them to the hardships of camp, and 
the life of a soldier. Wlien spoken to on this subject he said, " TbeaC'J 
men must understand that war is not play." One of the assistant 
surgeons said, " It is much easier to ask the Red Cross for supplies, 
and they can be obtained sooner than by asking the government, as 
there is so much red tape aud it takes so long to get ever>'thiug." 
When the kitchens at Camp Alger were inspected the food did not 
appear to be of the right kind, and was not properly cooked. Point 
Sheridan, Va.. was visited by Mrs. Mussey on July 29, and sixteen 
men were found sick. They seemed to be suffering for supplies, 
especially medicine, which had been ordered on June 27, but had not 
been received. The Red Cross delivered them proper medicine within 
twenty-four hours, It was found that each camp hospital must have its 
regular visitors, and diRcrent members of the committee were 
appointed. Articles ncwlcd were supplied from headquarters in 
Washington, and large shipments were also sent direct from New York 
to various points. On several occasions imderclothing and pajamas 
were supplied by the hundred within twenty-four hours. 

Early in August, the Washington Barracks were made a post 
hospital, and the Red Cross aid was gladly accepted by Major Adair, 
surgeon in charge. For a long lime our committee supplied this point 
with 800 pounds of ice. 5 gallons of chicken soup, 30 gallous of milk, 
20 pounds of butter daily, as well as 2 crates of eggs weekly. Wc also 



40O 



THE RED CROSS. 



fiimished 1200 suits of underwear, several hundred suits of pajamas, 
500 towels, several hundred paiTs of slippers, socts and medicines, anti* 
septic dressings, and aumerous small articles. The work at this point 
was closed up October 8, with expressions of mutual satisfaction. 

The Secretary of War gave authority for the establishment of diet 
kitchens in the camps near Washington, and Mrs. Mussey, who had 
taken a special interest ia this work from the beglaning, was given 
general charge of the establishmeut of the kitchens. 

A diet kitchen was established at Camp Bristow, and two competent 
male colored cooks placed in diarge. Major Weaver, the chief sur- 
geon . and his staff of five surfieoiis, were boUi devoted and competent 
in their service, and the sick soldiers w^ere loud in their praise. 

We found it was uunecessar>' to establish one at the hospital at 
the Washington Barracks a.s arrangcmciits there were so good, and it 
only seemed necessary to furnish fresh soups daily, and the committee 
made a contract for five gallons per day at cost for material only. 

The committee anlhorizeU Mrs. E. S. Mussey and Mrs. J. A. T. 
Hull to establish a diet kitchen at Fort Myer. Major Davis, surgeon 
in charge, yielded his ovm wishes to the Secretary of War. As no 
building was furnished, the committee made a contract for one of a 
temparar>' character, which was put up at a cost, when completed with 
range, plumbing, etc., of about $350.00. Dr. Mary E. Green, presi- 
dent of the National Household Economical Association, was secured 
as superintendent, aud in not more than ten days from the time of its 
commencement the building was completed, ftimishcd and orders being 
filled. It has been a great assistance, not only in fnmi.shing properly 
cooked food, but invaluable as an cAjcct lesson in neatness and skilled 
cooking. 

The government has voluntarily paid all the bills for meat, 
chickens and milk, leaving the committee to pay for groceries, and 
wages of employes. Dr. Green has rcndcretl such efficient service 
that she has been employed by the govenimcnt to establish diet 
kitchens at other points. 

At Fort Myer nearly four hundred patients were suffering with 
typhoid and no provision existed for preparing a .s|>fcial diet. Canned 
aoup was heated up and served to tfaoise just leaving a strictly milk 
diet, and the so-called chicken broth, which was served wholly unsatis- 
factorily to both physicians and nurses. When the diet kitchen was 
completed, beef, nuitton and chicken broth, made fresh daily in the 
manner best calculated to bring out the nutritive value of the meat, 



CAMP ALGER. 



40X 



were prepared. Mutton broth was made from hind quarters only, and 
beef broth from solid meat, with ao waste. Albumen, su neces!>ar)* to 
repair the waste of the system by fevers, was suppHed in tlie palatable 
form of rich custards, as ice cream and Wane mange — jjelatine made 
into jellies with port and sherry wines — and albnmen jelly, all nour- 
ishing to the irritated lining.s. 

During the month of September from the seventh insLint, 550 
orders, averaging fifteen portions each, or 8250 portions, were filled in 
the diet kitchen. Physicians, nurses and patients unite in saying the 
aid they secured from this work is of inestimable value, not only in 
sa\nng lives, but in hastening the recovery of all. Major Davis, as 
the surgeon in charge, has expressed his high appreciation of the good 
resnits obtained by establishing Uie kitchen, and fhe methods pursued 
in conducting it. 

In response to suggestions from the general committee in New 
Ynrk, a special committee was sent to Fortress Monroe to meet the first 
wounded, who came up from the battlefields of EI Cancy, San Juan 
and Gua-simas. The surgeon in charge, Dr. DeWitt, stated their 
immediate needs, and supplies were sent one day after they were called 
for, consisting in part of 500 pairs of pajamas, twenty-five pairs of 
crutches, 200 pairs of slippers, 350 yards of rubber sheeting, large 
quantities of antiseptic dressings, five dozen gallons of whiskey and 
brandy, 200 cans of soup, granite-ware basins, pitchers, dislies, etc. 

Several other vHsits were made to this point, resulting in the 
employment of additional trained nurses, with proper provision for 
their maintenance. Arrangements were also made on behalf of the 
general committee for supplying ice for the use of troops on board the 
transports going south, and also for the sick on their journey iiortli- 
ward. Mr. Biclcford was afterward designated to take charge of the 
work of the Red Cro.'» at this point, so fmrther work on the part of our 
committee was unnecessary. 

The branch of the work, which has been really one of the most 
difficult to conduct, was the looting after soldiers, who passed through 
the citj' mostly from Southern to Northern camps, and those who were 
going home. There was such a general demand on the part of the men 
for coffee, bread and other supplies, and it was so liard to limit our 
service to the sick soldiers alone, that we soon delcrmincd to feed not 
only the convalescent, but all who were hungr>\ Soldiers from the 
following organizations were fed and supplied, the well men receiving 
bread and butter sandwiches: 



402 



THE RED CROSS. 



Farts of the 5th and 6th Artillery. 25th lufantr^-, two troops of 
1st Cavalry, I2tli. 16th ami tylh Infantry, portions of the 8th, gthand 
lolh Cavalry, all United Stales troops, and the following volunteer 
forces: 22d Kansas, 3d and 4lh Missouri, 1st Maine, sd Tennessee, 
7th IlUuDi&. iht. 8th, 9th. i2th, i3ih, isih and 17th Pennsylvania, 
1st Couueclicut, 5th Maryland, 2d, 5d. 8th. 9th, 14th and 65th New 
York, ist and 2d New Jcrse>-, two brigades of United States Signal 
Corps, and detachments from a number of other regiments, in all about 
40,000 men. 

Vcrj- frequently llie commitlec furnished handkerchiefs and soap, 
as well as reading matter. The sick wore given soup and milk packed 
in ice, fruit, medicines, etc. Forty-five were removed from the trains 
and taken to the hospitals in Washington. U'e nsed, in this connec- 
tion, not only the ser\'ices of trained nurses in the employ of the Red 
Cross, but Dr. Bayne was detailed by the War Department, and 
rendered most efficient ser\-ice, as he was always ready and willing to 
do ever^-iliing in his power, day or night, for the relief of the sick. 

The War Department ordered for the use of the committee the 
erection of two tents in close proximity to our rooms, which were aC 
915 Marj-land Avenue. One of these tents was filled with fully 
equipped cots, on whidi the invalids were placed while waiting the 
arrival of ambulances, and the other was used as a general depot for 
supplies. The War Department paid for the bread we used in this 
work, and, also, for 4346 loaves furnished to the Pension Office Relief 
Committee, which was engaged in the same kind of work. Many 
donations of food and material were received, and as stated, nearly 
forty thousand men were fed, and how some of them did cat not only 
Bs if they were making up for the fasts of the post, but for any which 
might occur in the future. 

Mrs. James Tanner had charge of this work, which was very 
exacting, and she had l>ecn appointed a committee to secure reading 
matter for the different camps, before the Red Cross Committee was 
organized, and collected several wagon loads of books, magazines, and 
other periodicals, which were sent to Camp Alger. Fort Myer, Point 
Sheridan, Fort Washington, Chickaraauga, Tampa and Santiago. 
Distribution of this reading matter was also made at the Red Cross 
quarters at 9 1 5 Maryland Avenue and handed to the soldiers who passed 
through the city on trains. 

All bills for ice furnished to Point Sheridan, Va., Washington 
Barracks, and to the Diet Kitchen at Fort Myer have been paid by the 



CAMP ALGER. 



405 



Red Cross Ice Plant Auxiliary of New York, which also furnished the 
large ice chests for the latter point. 

The Legion of Loyal Women, of which Mrs. Thomas W. Calver, 
a member of our committee, was president, acted as an auxiliary for 
the Red Cross Committee, mid made a large number of mosquito tieU» 
flannel bandages, wash cloths, aud pajamas. Besides this, they col- 
lected many supplies, consisting of boxes of oranges, lemons, tea, 
coffee, jelly, condensed milk, crackers, yeast powder, cocoa, stamps, 
writing paper, tobacco, fruit, soap, socks, haudkerchicfs, towels, night- 
shirts, underclothes, pajamas, quinine and other uiediclue, which were 
sent to the various caiitps. 

Generous donations of clothing, jellies, cordials and money were 
also received from various auxiliaries of the ladies' of the Union 
Veteran Legion. 

The Red Cross Committee assisted in the establishment of a tem- 
porary home iu this cit>' for the returuiug volunteers. The existaicc 
of this home was limited to two months. The time will expire Novem- 
ber 10, when it will be broken up. It has cared for .1 daily average 
of sixty soldiers. The Red Cross assisted by furnishing cots and 
furniture. Mrs. Calver, of our committee, is iu charge, and it is con- 
ducted without expense to the Red Cross. 

The total amount expended iu the Railway Relief work, in feeding 
men as they passed through the city, was $2637. 13. 

Arratigemeuts were also made afler ttiis work closed to look after 
all the sick soldiers, who came in at the several railroad stations. 

Tlie treasurer, C. J. Bell, will transmit a full reimrt, with vouch- 
ers for all expenditures which have been np to this dale, $7560, and 
with outstandiitg bills amounting to alxmt $1000 more. 

A large number of ladies rendered excellent service in making 
sheets, pillow-cases, mosi|uito nets, pajamas, bandages and articles loo 
nnmerous to mention. Many volunteer nurses were anxious to go 
where they could render scr\-ice to tlic sick and wounded. 

It is gratifying to be able to .stale that whate%'er %new the surgeona 
and other officers may have had as to the need of the Red Cross at the 
beginning of the war, at the close they joined with the private soldiers 
in testifying to its wonderful and efficient work. 

Among the principal donations were those from the Lutheran 
Church Society, Hagerstowu, ^td., consisting of 50 pajamas. 50 suits 
of underclothing, 50 nightshirts. 40 sheets, 250 pairs of socks, joo 
towels, aoo handkerchiefs, 75 rolls of bandages, delicacies and sundrjr 



404 



THE RED CROSS. 



articles. There were also daily contributions of different supplies, 
dcmonstnttiug the general interest taken in our work. 

There were distributed by this committee, in part, 800 sheets, 500 
pillow-cases, Soo suits of pajamas, 1500 suits of uuderclotliing, 1600 
abdominal bandages. 800 pairs of socks, 750 iiightsUirts, 350 mosquito 
bars, 100 rubber sheets. 400 pairs of slippers, 2000 palm leaf fans, 75 
large Uoxes of soap, 150 cots, 250 mattresses. 100 pairs of blauhets, 
275 pillows, Siooo worth of groceries, $300 malted milk, $850 
-wups and bouillons. $725 medicines and surgical supplies. $250 winesi 
and liquors, and $1050 milk, a great variety and quantity of smaller 
artidcs and supplies. 

The following supplies were received from the general New York 
Committee: 50 boxes of ivorj- soap, 50 rubber sheets, 400 suits of uuder«] 
wear, 250 slieets, 250 pillow-cases. 250 nightshirts, 200 pairs of slippers, 
500 suitsof pajamas, $200 worth of malted milk, beef extract and Mellin'a 
food, $7oowcnth of canned soups and bouillons and $6000 cash. 

In closing, permit me to thank Vice-President Barton and the 
Executive Coniniittee for prompt and liberal responses to every request 
made for aid of any character, and for immediately recognizing the fact 
that Oie et>mnuttL-e at this jwint had a work placed upon it ver>' exten- 
sive and uniqnc in character, and requiring a large outlay of mouey and 
service. 

I desire to call to your special attention the great service ren- 
dered by Mrs. E. S. Mussey, who. during the absence of Mrs. Foster 
and myself from the city, acted as chairman of the committee, and foBj 
two months gave nearly all of her time to its ser\'icc. visiting differenl 
camps and hospitals, and in the work de\''oh'ing upon her she was 
untiring and nnusually efficient. 

Much complaint has been made as to the location of Camp Alger, 
because of the prevalence of typhoid and malarial fever, and the absence 
of water supply both for drinking and bathing purposes. A personal 
knowledge of this section of Virginia, extending over many years, 
enables me to state that it has been regarded as unusually healthy, and 
a most desirnblc section for homes, the growth and development of 
which wonld have been ver\- rapid had there been an additional bridge 
giving greater facilities for crossing the Potomac. The water there 
has been considered pure and healthy, and used by many families with- 
out bad results. 

Falls Church, near this camp, has been regarded as one of the 
healthiest and most desirable suburbs of the National Capital. The 



CAMl* ALGER. 



405 



topography of the ground aud the presence of a large amount of shade 
were very suitable for the purposes of camp life.' It was. howevcTt 
evident, even to the inexperienced eye of a laymau, that good, practical 
daily scavenger service aided by the effective use of disinfectants was 
sadly needed both for the comfort aud health of the men; that the 
preseiice of numerous booths, stands and peddlers engaged in selling 
soft drinks, fruits, cakes, caudy, etc., tended to further deuioralize the 
already interrupted digestiou of the soldiers. No matter what the 
general orders were they could not be made effective without the 
carucbt and iiitclhgeut co-operattou of rcyimeutal officers and soldiers. 
Could this be secured, withiu two or three mouths from riien not 
experienced in war? A feeling uf individual respou5ibilit>* appeared 
to be lacking. One of the most useful officers who can be detailed for 
camp duty is an inspector, one who will not only inspect daily, but 
insist that the men lake care of themselves, and co-operate to prevent 
disease, especially in keeping the camp in projjer sanitary condition by 
constant attention to sinks and the water supplj*. 

The Red Crass entered uixin its great work at the beginning of the 
war under many dil!iculttes. Instead of l)eing aided and encouraged in 
an undertaking that comprehended the generous spirit of tlie nation, its 
mission was oftimes interrupted and hindered by officers of prominence 
and rank. It is proper to say, however, that the President and 
Secretary' of War were at all times deeply intcrestetl in our work, and 
did all in their power to expedite our plans. There appeared to be a 
jealous apprehension in some quarters that the Red Cross would 
interfere with eslablished institutions. What it has accomplished is a 
matter of history, daily recorded in the public press, it has not been 
aggressive, oor has it dominated any legitimate authority. It has 
sought to be the ser\'anl and not the master. As one general partic- 
ularly friendly to the organization remarked, "the Red Cross has not 
been the foe, but the friend of every one, even of red tape." 

If.we had any criticism to make it would be in favor of more 
practical common sense dealing with all matters especially those per- 
taining to the camp and hospital, and of the necessity of fixing 
individual responsibility so as to be certain of results as well as orders. 

Many high-minded and patriotic officers have been blamed where 
they ought to have been praised; one distinguished professional man 
dying from the effects of undeserved fault finding. 

If another war should ever come to us as a nation, we trust the 
lessons of that which has just closed will not be forgotten. Many of 



406 



THE RED CROSS. 



the very best and most conscieaUous surgeoDs are not business men. 
Hen who have not had business experience in time of peace cannot be 
expected to learn at once new methods in time of war so as to perfect 
or harmooize a great system. Should not the executive officer in ever>' 
large hospital be selected somewhat with reference to bis business 
capacity ? Gcxxl surgeons and ph>'sicians Iiave enough to occupy 
them in attending to their professional duties. They liad too much to 
attend to in most instances during the Spanish war, and the number of 
deaths in comparison to the number of sick and wounded has been 
surprisingly small. 

I want to place upon record the generous kindness of Dr. and 
Mrs. J. Ford Thompson in tendering to the committee the use of house 
No. 1310 G Street for headquarters; W. B. Moses & Sons for furni- 
ture loaned for our use; Springman & Sons for free transportation of 
goods; to the railroads for reduction of fare; to the Falls Church Elec- 
tric Railroad, and Washington and Norfolk Steamship Company fcH* 
free tmosportation; to the Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Com- 
pany for telephone, and to all who generously worked and contributed 
for the success of the committee. 

The army and navy embodied the power of the government in the 
Spanish war, but the Red Cross in a large degree represented the 
affectionate regard of the American people, for those who went out to 
defend the flag of the Union, and their great desire to mitigate in 
every poMible way the sufferings resulting from exposure, disease and 
conflict, as well as to relieve distress wherever it existed. 

Courage and charity go h»i)d in tiand, and when the smoke of 
battle has rolled away, and the tattoo and reveille are memories of the 
past; when the white tents of the camps arc folded; the equipment 
of war is exchanged for the implements of [leacc the appreciation of tlie 
citizen soldier for the Red Cross will grow in volume as he sits by his 
fireside and tells how it<t ministries gave relief and aid to his comrades 
and himself in the camp, the hospital, at Siboney, Santiago, Porto 
Rico and ciseu'here, and how It extended .«succor even to bis enemies 
when the conflict ceased. 

The Red Cross of peace will outlive the Red Flag of war, even as 
'chority shall sur^'ive the force of arms. Let us hope that the former 
ensign may soon float by the side of the flags of all the nations and 
peoples of the world, as an evidence of the advance of civilization, and 
the universal desire that there be no more war; that men everywhere 
are ready to extend a helping hand to all who suffer from disaster or 



406 



THE RED CROSS. 



CAMP THOMAS. 



The agent first appointed for Chickamauga Park, was Dr. Charles 
R. Gill. SUortlj- afterwards, however, Dr. Gill expressed a desire to 
go to Cuba, and he was relieved, Mr. E. C. Smith being placeil tu 
charge of this field, which proved eventually to be oue of the most 
impoi'tant statious of the Red Cress. As the demands of the camp 
increased, Mr. A, M. Smith was sent to assist his brother in the woik. 
Their services have beeu etuinently satisfactory to all concerned, and 
many voluntary expressions of appreciation have beeu received. All 
requisitions for assisUuice were promptly filled by the Executive Coju- 
niittee in New York, and in addition to the large amount of supplies 
sent, about $16,000 in cash were expended at the camp. Mr. Smith, 
In his report on the work dune at this camp, says: 

The headquarters of the American National Red Cross, at Camp 
Thomas, Chickaqiauga Park, Ga., was Iocate<I alongside the historic 
Brolhcrton House, which was in the thickest of the fight in 1863. No 
array of mere numerals written to express dollars, or tables of figures 
standing for quantities, could in comprehensive sense tell the story of 
Red Cross work at Chickamauga. in 1S9S. The record is written 
indelibly in the hearts of thousands of soldiers who were stricken with 
disease on this battlefield, and the stor>' has been told at quiet home 
firesides in ever>' Stale of the Union. 

All those who have labored in the work of mercy have been repaid 
a thousandfold in words of thankfulness and appreciation from fevered 
lips, and the praise of Christian men and women throughout the 
countr>'. In answer to the petitions of anxious wires, mothers and 
fathers, and the tender prayers of prattling infants, God put strength 
in the arms of the noble women who wore the badge of the Red Cross, 
and made them heroic in an hour of great trial. 

It has been testified by the gallant survivors of Santiago, and other 
sanguinary engagements, that the chief terror was carried to tlie hearts 
of our gallant men through the awful silence of the enemy's bullets, 
and the mystery which enshrouded their position because of the use of 
smokeless powder. leaving no mark for retaliation. Here in Chicka- 
mauga, men fell firom the ranks day after day, who seemed to have beea 



CAMP THOMAS. 



4tt 



Bingtvd out as Uic most robust and barely of all, and were carried help- 
less lollic regimental, division, corps, and general hospitals, stricken 
by au unseen loe. The danger lurked in the air that all breathed, and 
the apparently pure, limpid water, God's greatest gift to man, became 
his deadliest enemy. 

When tUc plague descended on the camp, and u (ull realisation of 
present and impending honors was forced upou all inlelligeut minds, 
frantic effurlb wen: made to stay the progress of the destroyer, but the 
seeds had bvtm sown, and Ibe epidemic was fated to run its course. 
It seemed incongruous that such a spot should be so afflicted; in all Uie 
wide continent there is no fairer place. The valley stretching between 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Rtdge is oue of the most beautiful 
of all the fertile valleys of the world; sunshine aud shade here mingle 
to satisfy every sense. Our boys entered the park joyfully, and all 
who should have known of the requirements of a camp, pronounced it 
an ideal spot. There was no adequate preiJaralion for the unexpected, 
which some say "always happens." The action of the Red Cross 
redeemed the situation. Stephen H. B.irlon, chairman of the Executive 
Committee, promptly authorized measures to alleviate suffering, to quote 
the language of the authorization, "without stint." Elias Charles 
Smith, tUe 6eld agent of the Red Cross, acting at once on the orders 
of his superior, proceeded to find ways, the means being furnished, 
Millc and ice were the diief retjuiates. All the farming country 
surrounding tlie camp was called upon to supply the milk, some of it 
ccmiing from as far as Billmore, N. C, from the celebrated dairy of a 
inillioiiaire. 

The ice came from Chattanooga, and both ice and milk were 
supplied without delay, with no red tape, no halting, " without stint," 
to the sick. Requisitions for carloads of delicacies were sent by 
telegraph, and when the needs were urgent the goods came, not 1^ 
freight Imt by express. Soups, wines, fruit, and in fact every 
conceivable article that could contribute to the comfort aud recovery 
of the sick was sent for, dispatched, received and distributed. There 
were no " middle men " to question or quibble about the advisability 
of things being doiic, no halting and haggling about how things 
should be done. The &eld agent of the Red Cross ascertained the 
urgent necessities of the sick, through the best ofEicial sources, and — 
presto! — the necessities were on the ground and in use. 

The problem of nursing was coincident. Men In the division 

and other hospitals were willing, no doubt, but there was "lack of 

"3 



412 



THE RED CROSS. 



urotnan's nursing." There was no "dearth of woman's ears." — at 
home. 

The Red Cross Auxiliary No. 3 of New Vofk, Ibrougb the 
ageacj- of MUs Maud Crotnlein in the field, took up this «-ork. At 
one time there were 140 young women graduate nurses in the service 
of the Red Cios$ iu this camp, maiuly at StemljeTg Hospital. How to 
care for this large number of refined young women, unused to the 
faardship6 of camp life, was a serious problem, Dormitories ii'ere built 
to shelter them, and furnished for their comfort. A contract was made 
with a steam laundry at Chattanooga to wasli their clothing and every- 
thing possible was done to make their stay al least endurable. Some 
fell sick, of course, and u-ere tenderly cared for or furlougbed and sent 
to their homes. Under the direction of Miss Maxwell a perfectsystem 
was established In all the work, which commanded the respect and 
approbation of the niedicil odiceis. Diet kitcltens were introduced, 
and the sick were fiinitshe<l with cvcr>* necessary delicacy. 

It is sow a matter of history that this first organized experiment 
of it.sing women in large uurabers as nurses in a iicld Itospital tias been 
an uuqualified success. It has the official approval of the medical 
officers of the government from Surgeon-General Sternberg to the 
smallest, humblest sutxilieni. 

The Red Cross did not confine its efforts to the help of nurses 
wearing the Red Cross. At the old Third Division First Corps 
Hospital, afterward called Sanger, Sisters of Charity and Sisters of Mercy 
ministered to the sick. The same attention wa-s given to them ; all 
TC<iuisitions for milk and ice and delicacies were promptly filled. One 
of these noble women. Sister Stella Boyle, wrote, "We are over- 
whelmed with your kindness — what should we have done without the 
Red Cross ! " Leiter Hospital received the same help ; milk and ice 
and delicacies were furnished "promptly and without stint." Thi 
was the watcliword. And so witb the regimental hospitals : th«' 
surgeons in charge made requisition for necessary supplies and they 
were forthcoming, even to the day of the departure of the last trooi 
from the camp, the hospital trains being supplied as well. Thus 
Red Cross followed the sick to the doors of their own homes. 

The Christian women of Chattanooga belonging to the Epworth 
League aud the churches of that city, did a greatly needed work in 
establisliiug hospitals for the care of sick soldiers enroutc. They were 
amazed and delighted when they learned they couHl make requisition 
on the Red Cross for necessary supplies. 



CAMP THOMAS. 



413 



Field Agent E. C. Smith, frail of body but stout of soul, was 
stricken at bis post of duty with typhoid September 12, but is 
convalescent and rapidly gaining strength. When Miss Cromlein and 
Miss Maxwell retired about the sarae date, they were succeeded by 
Miss Gladwin and Miii Ivounsbury, who ha\"e ably managed the afiairs 
of the Red Cross at Sternberg. Under my direction Miss Gladn-iu 
recently visited Annision, Ala., and found the .service of the Red 
CrOM greatly needed at Camp Shipp. Miss Gladwin lias established 
a Diet Kitchen at tliat camp and has done much to better the coti- 
dition of the soldiers in the camp hospitals. 

There are still 200 sick at Sternberg and 50 at Lcitcr, but these will 
soon I hope be furloughed and returned to their home.s. 

All who liave repre.sented the Red Cross at Chickamauga have 
worked with the greatest self-denial and entliusia-sm, with full apprecia- 
tion of the lofly aims of the society and with personal pride. When 
the roll of honor is made up, I know of no name that should be 
omitted. 



-^".-V 



-*?^ 



U. S. S. "OB&aoN." 



4t4 



THE RED CKOSS. 



JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 



At Jacfcsouville, Flo., the work at the camp was under the direc- 
tion of the Rev. Alexander Keiii, of WasljiiiKtoii, D. C, who has 
been a member of the American National Rwl Cross for many years. 
He began his duties about the middle of Jtine and, assisted by hts son, 
continued until the order for the abandonment of the camp was issued. 
The territory covered by this agency incluile*! also the camps at Miami 
and Fernandina. The affairs of the Red Cross in this field were most 
efficiently conducted and with great credit to Dr. Kent and his nssist- 
aut. In addition to the medical and hospital supplies and delicacies, 
which were furnished in great quantities, over thirteen thousand dol- 
lars were spent in adding to the comforts of the sick and convalescent. 
Dr. Kent makes tlic following interesting reiKirt: 

On June t6 I arrived in Jacksonville, in company with Miss 
Clara Barton, then on her way to Key West and Santiago. We visited 
Camp Cuba Libre in the afternoon, when I enjoyed the great advantage 
of being presented by Miss 13artoa to several of the ofiicials as the rep- 
resentative of the Red Cross at this point. On the following morning 
I visited the hospital — that of the Second Division, the First being at 
Miami and the Third not fonncd — where I found what appeared to me 
to be vcr>' disLres.sing and unhealthfut conditions. The number of 
patients at that time was .-^mall. but, few as they were, no adequate 
pra\'ision had been made for their comfort. Most of them, indeed, 
were on cots, but few had either sheets or nightshirts to cover their 
nakedness. They were either lying in soiled luiderclothing, sweltering 
in the heat under army blankets, or destitute of any clothing whatever. 
I lust no time in ordering one hundred sheets, with the same number of 
pillow-cases and ticks, having assurance from one of the surgeons (hat 
the latter could be readily filled with moss and pine needles, making a 
comfort -giving and healthful pillow. By the time this need was met 1 
learned that the sick were destitute of suitable food, so I made it my 
next business to provide a sufficiency of this. No .sooner had I begun 
this work than I had to face the fact that the hospital had no proper 
facilities for cooking this food and no place in which to care for it and 
keep it cool and sweet when prepored. So I purchased a large Blue 
Flame oil stove and a No. 6 Alaska ice chest. I soon discovered tha. 



« 




JACKSONVIIXE, FLA. 



415 



the patients were suffering from want of ice and made haste to secure 
an adequate supply of this. But in all these things adequate provision 
for one week was no adequate provision for the next. Patieuts cranie 
into the hospital in ever-increasing nnmbcrs; cots, sheets, pil!o%vsand 
pillow-cases had to be doubled and trebled and <jttadrupled as the 
weeks went by. The governmeut provided inauy sheets, many cots 
and many pillows, but the demand ever outran the supply, and the Red 
Cross was called on contiuually to make up the lack. In the matter of 
ice, milk, eg^, lemons, malted milk, peptonoids. clam bouillou, beef 
extract, calfsfoot jelly, gelatine, cornstarch, tapioca, conden.sed railk, 
rice, barley, sugar, butter, and delicacies of all kinds, the government 
made 110 provision, neither did the hospital from its ration fuud. All 
supplies of this kind were funiished by the Red Cross or by other 
charitable or beueficcnt agencies. So far as I have been able to learn, 
and I (Questioned those in charge of the division hospitals, no use was 
made of Ute ration fund in the Jacksfmville hospitals in the way of pro- 
curing delicacies for patieuts. The sole reliance for these things waa 
the Red Cross and similar agencies of individual and organized 
beneficence. 

Of individual beneficence the most uiarked examples were Mrs. 
Marshall, proprietor of the Carleton Hotel: Mrs. MouItoii,wJfe of Colonel 
Moulton, of Uie Second Illinois, ami Mrs. Rich, a quiet, modest lady 
of this city. These gave their whole lime to the work of devising ways 
and means for promoting the comfort and healtli of the sick. They 
made chicken broth, ice cream, wine jellies and a variety of delicacies 
grateful to the palates of the sick soldiers. Other Jacksoiiville ladies 
did much in this direction, but these ladies were constant and untiring 
in their efforts. Though Mrs. Marshall had many of the soldiers cared 
for free of charge at her own hotel, never for a day was she absent 
from the camp. She was a veritable ministering angel, and the Red 
Cross is greatly indebted to her for much of the information that helped 
lis to give wisely and when most needed. Through Mrs. Moultoa 
many of the good people of Chicago bestowed their benefactions. Five 
days out of every week found Mrs. Rich at one of the division hos- 
pitals, making her ice cream for the boys and giving them a taste of 
her delicious wine jellies, When the Red Cross learned of her excellent 
work it took pains to keep her supplied with all needed material, beside 
furnishing a twenty-five quart ice cream freezer with which to do her 
work. All of these women deser\-e a more extended and a worthier 
tribute than we can pay them in this report. 



4iG 



THE RED CROSS. 



With the growth of the hot^ital there came evtr-increasing 
dctuands for ice aud duIIe, for delicacies of every sort, and fur all the 
comforts and couveiiiences that tend to make htispitiil work pleasant 
and effective. Early iu the historj' of the Second Division hospital, 
the Red Cross paid tlie hills for a bath house and a kitchen. It 
furnished al£o the large circular wall tent for convalescents. It gave 
over a hundred cots and mattresses, and nearly a tliousand pillows. 
Of sheets and pillow-cases, nightshirts and pajamas, it gave many 
thonsaiids. Wenotouly distributed a large number sent from New York; 
boxes were sent us fixim St. Augustine, from Augusta, Ga., from 
Connecticut, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. Pew people 
have any conception of the quantity of such articles required to keep 
a hospital with five hundred to seven hundred patients iu good running 
order. So often are these things soiled that there must he at least 
three or four seUj to every cot. When there are three or four hospitals, 
with an aggregate sick lii^t ranging from fifteen hundred to two thou- 
sand, the number of sheets and piUow-ca.ses, night<^irts and pajamas 
necessary to keep the beds and the paiients presentable is surprisingly 
large. Of course the government has supplied the greater number of 
sheets and piUow-cascs, but the Red Cross has furnished probably tlic 
greater number of pillows, nightshirts and pajamas. In none of these 
things has the supply ever luite equaled the demand. Even at the 
present time the cry of need is almost as loud as ever. When the 
recuperating hospital was established at Pablo Beach, the Red Cross, at 
the request of the chief-surgeon, supplied two hundred and fifty sets 
of dishes with a complete out£t of pitcliers, trays, buckets aud many 
other thiugs. Even the business of the chief-surgeon's office and that 
of the surgeon at Pablo Beach is transacted on desks furnished by the 
Red Cross at the request of these parties. It has contributed to furnish 
the diet kitchens with stoves, utensils and dishes, aud has supplied the 
hospitals themselves with many articles of couveuieuce aud comfort. 
It [>rovided four dozen large clothes hampers, printed many thousauds 
of patient records and other papers. It had fifty large ice chests manu- 
factured and placed one in each ward of the principal hospitals. It 
gave over seven hundred buckets for the carrying of offal, aud fur- 
nished screens for the use of the nurses. It gave bed-pans and urinals 
in large numbers, over a tlioti-saud tumblers, medicine glasses, gradu- 
ated glasses, a sterilizing apparatus, hypodermic syriuges aud needles. 
Of the latter we learned that there was not a single whole one iu the 
hospital :it the time wc were called on. Scores of men had been 



JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 



417 



obliged to receive their hypodermic injeclious from a broken point, 
suffering greatly from the operation and subsequent results. The 
Red Cross has furuisbed over one thousand dollars worth of medicines 
not on the government list, besides malted mill:, peptonoids, pepto 
mangan, peptogenic milk powder, maltine and a large shipment of 
medicines sent from New York. It has given over a thousand bath aud 
surgical sponges and towels in immense quantities. In short, with the 
exception of tents, cots blanket'*, and, to a considerable extent, sheets. 
furnished by the government, the Red Cross, up to September ist, 
furnished the greater part of the hospital equipment. As the several 
heads of divisions have said to me again and again. " The hospitals 
never could have equipped themselves from their ration fund. They 
would have broken down utterly without the aid of the Red Cross." 

We havesiieut hercoverihirtcenthousanddoUarsincash for hospital 
equipment and supplies of various kinds, including ice and milk, in 
addition to the large quantities of goods sent from New York the cost 
of which we do not know. And with all this, the need has not been 
met as fully or as promptly as it should have been. The number of 
the sick increased so greatly beyond the expectations of the officers in 
charge that the supply has never, for any considerable time, been equal 
to the demaud. Even now, when the govemmeut has allowed sixty 
cents a day for each patient iu the hospital, and has recently so 
extended the order as to include regimental as well as di\-ision hos- 
pitals, there is still continuous appeal to the Red Cross for a variety 
of things, which those in charge of the hospital fund do act feel war- 
ranted in buying, and as yet few of the regiments have gotten their 
bospitab into shape to ask for anything. As they move to Savannah 
in afew days, they will not be in conditioiUodrawauymoncy for weeks 
to come. It is very fortunate therefore, that your committee has .seen 
fit to grant our last requisition, for the goods you have shipped will 
be of great beuefit to the soldiers on their way to Cuba. 

I have omitted to slate that a most important part of the work of 
the Red Cross has been the supplying of ice for the purpose of cooliug 
the drinking water of the camps. Our ice bills for camp and hospitals, 
at an average of thirty-five cents per hundred pounds have been over 
MX thousand dollars, the Second Division hospital alone oflcn consum- 
ing from (our to five tons a day. Our milk bills were also lavf 
averaging for some time over five hundred dollars a week, at a cost 
forty cents a gallon. 

Our relations with botli amty and medical officials have been, on 



4i8 



THE RED CROSS. 



whole, harmonious and pleasant. Perhaps the best evidence of this is 
the fact that the government teams and men have always been at our 
service whether to haul the goods from the whart' to the store or from 
the store to the camp. Some little feeling arose over my attitude in 
regard to the necessity for female uurses, but as the outcome has 
. abundantly sliowu the soundness of my contention, that has pretty 
much passed away. Our hospitals have been far from ideal but I 
believe tliey are generally regarded as llie best in Uie country, aud 
perhaps tioue ha\x realised their shortcomings and defects more than 
the men charged with their administration. It is uot an easy matter 
to select, even from an American army, a sufficient number of capable 
and reliable men for so large and complex an institution, and incapacity 
or infidelity at auy point is liable uot ouly to bring most serious restUts, 
but to throw discredit upon the entire management. Doubtless many 
things have l^cen done that should never have been permitted, aod 
many left undone that constitute a rccurd of what ought to be criminal 
neglect, yet these things can be wholly avoided only by men of the 
highest ability and largest experience, working with trained subordi- 
nates, and with ever>' facility for successful cudeavor. It 1ms not been 
possible to secure such conditions in any of the hospitals. The men ia 
charge have been oliligcd to use snch material as they could get. and 
often the commanding officers of regiments, when asked for a detail for 
hospital work, have given the ^-cry p*x»rest material they had. I am 
disiwsed, therefore, to have pretty large charity always for tlic surgeon* 
ia-chargc. He has a most dilTicult task, and at the very best, can only 
hope for moderate success. Ideal results he can never secure. 

. I have said nothing of our work at Miami nr Fernandina, for there 
is little to sny. The troops were ma\'cd from Miami so soon after wei 
were made acquainted with their needs, that we did little more thaal 
supply the hospit.il with ice. during the weeks in which the sick were 
convalescing. We were not permiltwl to do even this at Fernandina. 
Those in charge of the hospitals, division and regimental, disclaimed 
all need of nid. The government supi>licd them with all that thejr 
required. We have had many testimonies from ofTiecrs and privates, 
showing the profound appreciation everywhere felt for the work of the 
Red Cross. Perhaps no otlicr part of its work was so highly prized by 
the soldiers at large as that which furnished them cool drinking water. 
Had the chief-surgeon. Colonel Maus, not been so deeply preju- 
diced against female nurses in general, and Red Cross nurses in 
particular, we might have done a much greater work in the hospitals 



JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 



419 



than was permitted to us. WUile tUe Secoud Otvisioii hospital was 
still young, the Red Cross offered its nurses freely and gratuitously. 
It offered to shelter and feed them at its own expense, but the offer \va» 
spurned indignaiitly and with scarcely disguised contempt. We were 
told that female nurses were not needed, that the haspital bad already 
more skilled nurses than it could use, and that female nurses were-a 
nuisance round a camp anyway. Most of them, the chief-surgeon 
affirmed, were drawn to the work by a morbid sentimentality or by 
motives of even a more questionable character. He would have none 
of them. But the time came when even this officer had to change his 
attitude if not his opinions, and women nurses were sought for and 
welcomed to the hospital Iiy hundreds. That they have proven a great 
blessing to the boys, no one now questions ; many most pronounced in 
their opposition are now loudest in their praise, and the Red Crosa 
rejoices that the good work is being done, though itself denied the 
privilege o£ doit^. 



ii.7\\ 



..;x 



1: 1(17,1. 



mv 



^ii 



■■'■a-ir. 






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l-i^llrT^ ►* ' 









lx>'yykt 



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"ALMIRANTB OQVhNDO " AKTER THK BXGAGI{MKII¥. 



490 



THE RED CROSS. 



FORT MCPHERSON, GA. 

13ar!y hi August Mr. 13. L. Cobb, oo o tour of inspection, arrived 
at Fort McPhcrson, Georgia, to see if any assistance was required at the 
post, and if an ageucy could be established. It was found that Mrs. 
Anna E. Nave, wife of Kev. On-ille J. Nave, chaplain of the post, and 
their daughter, Miss Hermione Nave, had established a small dietary 
kitchen and were supporting a table for convalescents. The object of 
the kitchen was to provide light and nutritive diet for the soldiers in 
the barracks who were suOferiug from stomach troubles, dysentery and 
kindred digestive disorders, and to care for the convalescents from 
typhoid fever and other serious sickness, until they were sufficiently 
recovered to be again returned to the company mess. 

As this kitchen was performing an important part in the care of 
the men, and the demands upon it were daily increasing, it was pro- 
posed thai it be continued, and its work extended as the demands 
increased, and that the Red Cross would pay all expenses and furnish 
all the supplies re*iuired. Rev. Orville J. Nave was accordingly 
appointed as the Geld agent at Fort McPherson, the kitchen remaining 
under tlic immediate care aitd supervision of Mrs. Nave and her 
daughter, assisted by a committee of representative women of the city 
of Atlanta, including Mrs. Go\-enior Atkinson, Miss Mary I,. Gordon- 
Huntley, Mrs. Loulie M. Gordon, Miss Juuia McKinley, Mrs, E. H. 
fianies, and others. 

Under the auspices of the Red Cross tlie capacity of the kitchen 
was soon doubled, and the table was maintained until the first of 
October, when assistance was no longer necessary. At the table about 
ao.ooo meals were served. By this means doubtless many lives were 
saved, for the percentage of relapses among the typhoid fever cases, 
ordinarily quite large, was very small at this post. In addition to the 
supplies of food, medicines and clothing sent to this field, in response 
to the requisitions, some $1400 iu cash were expended in support of 
the table and in furnishing those things whicli were at times needed 
quickly, and which could be purcltased iu the local tnarkets at Atlanta. 

A stenographer was also furnished, so that Dr. Nave might be 
able to answer the many inquiries from parents and relatives of men 
In the hospitals, and attend to the ordinary corre^xindence connected 




KOKT Mcpherson, oa. 



431 



with the work. Seven nurses were supplied to assist in the hog>ital 
work. Dr. Nave m his report says: 



The Importance of thia work, a» a sapplemeut to that tlotie by tbe government 
for the relief of the sick, cannot be OTcntatcd. An insttlution, such as an arniy 
bospitiLl, d«Lls with the sicic by mames. >Inch mu.it be 1cl\ lo sitbonliiialcs, msuy 
of wliom liavc little or uo c«pcricncc iu caring for tbe sick. The system ia ileviiitrd 
for the niniiy. But, where many ire nick, n prrcviitn|je of tbe patients canuot 
regain bealtU witboul special caie. The work Joue by tbe Bed CroM at I-ort 
Mcpherson was ibat which could nut be done effectually by tnstituttonal methods. 
Furtheniiore, those wbo assistei] in tbe work were actuated solely t>y philanthropic 
motives. Tliey therefore bronglit elements to Uicir work that employes too often 
lack, cirmenta of ({entlennut and low. Two thoumind soldiers tn as many homes, 
nursed back to health, live to love and honor the Red Cross in memory of 
the helping hand sent to tlicm and udmtnivtered Uirough tbe hospital at l-'ort 
Mcl'hcrson. The total cash expenditures, including the coat of maintaining tbe 
kitchen, waa $i3.\a. 



To Dr, Nave, his wife and daughter, and to the Atlanta Com- 
mittee of the Red Cross, great credit is due for the efficient manner in 
which the auxiliary %vork at this point was carried on. Acting with 
discretion, and with loyalty to the principles of the Red Cross, they 
have carried their work to a successful coaclusion without a com* 
plaint from any source. 



>»/»hC 



._.,.jJU- 



-.> 



'^. m 






.0. 8. WAR SHIPS BKPOKS 
THB ENTRAKCK TO SAN- 
lUOO HAJiBOK. 



423 



THE RED CROSS 



CAMP HOBSON, GA. 



At Camp Hobson, Lithia Springs. Ga., a diet kitchen was also 
naiulaincd, under the directiou of Miss Junia McKinley, assisted by 
tlie Atlanta Committee of the Red Cross, of which the following account 
is received: 

The diet kitchen was opened here on Monday, Augiist 9, and 
remained in operation three weeks, at the expiration of which time the 
camp broke up. During the first week after the kitchen was estab* 
lislied, when detachments from the Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Twenty- 
first and Twenty-fifth regiments were in camp, 1 1 76 meals were served. 
The next week orders were received for the removal of the Eighth and 
part of the other regiments to Monlauk Point, consequently the number 
of convalescents was reduced, but during the second and third week 
2066 meals ^verc served, making a total of 3242 meals served at the 
table and in the hospital during the time the kitchen was in operation. 
The meals were furnished to convalescents in the hospital, men relieved 
from duty but not sick enough to be in the hospital, and to the limpital 
corps. The table meals consisted of the following: For breakfast, 
cereals. coSee, tea, fresh milk, eggs, toast, bread and butter. For 
dinner, soups, bouillons, rice and milk, eggs, crackers, bread and fresh 
milk, coffee, California fruits (canned), wine, jelly or simple dessert. 
Supper was the same as breakfast, with the addition of stewed fruit. 
To patients in hospital, beef tea (made from fresh beef as well as 
extracts), sofl-boilcU eggs, cream toast and fresh milk was served at 
regular hours. 

The only paid help were two men and one woman, the latter lived 
near the canip and reported for duty at first meal call and remained 
until dining tent and kitchen were in order. The other work in 
kitchen was gratuitously done by Atlanta members of Red Cross 
Society, assisted by Mrs. Edward H. Uamcs, Miss I<oidie Gordon 
Roper (niece of General J. B. Gordon), Miss Emmie McDonnell, Miss 
Estelle W'hclan, Mrs, George Boykin Saunders, all of Atlanta, and the 
ladies from Sweetwater Park Hotel, who came over daily from the 
hotel, about half a mile distant from camp, and assisted in serving 
tabic meals, also in carrying delicacies to hospitals and distributed flowers 
uuong the patients. 



CAMP HOBSON, GA. 



4»3 



It affords us pleasure to acknowledge the uniform courtesy of the 
army officials, especially the conimainiant, Major Thomas Wilhelm, 
Chief Surgeon Major E. L. Swift, Assistant Surgeons Street, Bak and 
Johnson and Lieutenant Norman, quarlennaster. Major Wilhclni bad 
our kitchen built and fly tent for dining hull put up iu a few hours 
after our arrival, detailed men to help whenever needed in kitchen, 
and with Cnest courtesy assured us of his appreciation of what was 
bein>; done to add to the comfort of his sick and convalescent men. 

Besides the regular kitchen work at Carap Hobson, the Red Cross 
furnished for a short time to the hospitals one special nurse (Miss 
McKiuIey) and one trained nurse (Miss McLain), who remained until 
our last patients were sent to Fort McPherson General Hospital and 
went with them iu the hospital train, ministering to their wants until 
they were transferred to their resjjectivc wards there. In this connec- 
tion we think proper to state tliat many of our Camp Hobson patients 
now in Fort McPherson Hospital, one of the best equipped and best 
managed hospltahi in the country, assure us that tliey can never forget 
tlie unfailing kindness of Chief Surgeon Swift and assistants, the faith- 
ful care of their Red Cross nurses, nor the delicacies furnished by the 
diet kitchen at Camp Hobson. 

T!ie Red Cross having authorize<l Miss McKinley to fnmish any- 
thing necessary for the sick, medicines, fine whiskey and hospital 
supplies were ordered by telephone from Atlanta, as there was some 
delay in shipment of govcninicnt supplies, the orders were promptly 
filled and i>roveil imjiortant factors in improving hospital wards. Cloth- 
ing was furnished to some of the Camp Hobson meti who were left 
behind and could not draw needed articles of clothing as their "descrip- 
tive lists " had not been furnished. When the Twenty-first Regiment 
left for the North coffee was served on the train to the entire reginK-ni 
in second section. Most of the ice used after the diet kitchen was 
established was furnished through Mr. Percy R. Pyne, of New York, 
who kindly supplied what was needed. Thanks are due G. F. Mat- 
thews & Co., of New York, who wrote that they would furnish alt the 
tea needed in the kitchen, but as the camp was about to break up, their 
kind offer was not accepted. 

Special tlianks are due to H. W. Blake, manager of Sweetwater 
Park Hotel at Lithia Springs, for many courtesies extended, when otir 
milkman was late, or our groceries (ordered from Atlanta) were 
delayed, he furnished fresh millc and eggs for the patienu until our 
supplies arrived. Mrs. Blake sent daily irom the beautiful hate. 



4^4 



THE RED CROSS. 



gardens, flowers for liospitnls and dining taMe, also for distribution in 
hospital trains before leaving Camp Hobsoii. 

In coucltision, we can venture to assure yon tliat while the time of 
onr work at Camp Hohson was short, great good was aceomplishcd, the 
improveuieut of convaicscenLs who took meals at the kitchen was very 
rapid, owing to the well prepared and nourishing food furnished them. 
The Murgeous, as well as hospital stewards, were much gratified at 
marked improvement in hospital wards after the arrival of Red Cross 
nurses. 

Upon the departure of every hospital train, we ser\'ed iced milk to 
fever patients. miJk toast to those not restricted to liquid diet, and 
supplied milk and stimulants for their journey. We thank the Red 
Cross for the privilege of assisting in their relief work for our soldiers 
at Camp Kobson, whose appreciation for all that was done for them was 
dubounded and their gratitude a delight to those who ministered to 
their wants. 




^^^t::::M 



"MAKIR TBRRSA" APTBR TBI KKGAGRHRRT. 



ST. PAUL. MINN. 



425 



ST. PAUL, MINN. 

The story of tUc Red Cross of St. Paul. Minn., is brieay told in 
the report by Miss Caroline M. Beautnont, the recording secretar>*: 



The St. Paul Red Cross Aid Society was ortfaiiizcd on Uie nintb of May, 1899^ 
Kliortly aflrr lli« beginning of tlir war. pursuant to a geiieniJ call for Bid, with Mr. 
A. S. Talltuadgc as prcfidcut, and a full tK)Bnl of ofiiccTS. It was at first intended 
\o fonn a r4.-gulnr auxiliary of the Red Ctors, directly iHbulary to tlic National 
Organization, and distribute supplies tfaiough lieadquartcrB only. Hut the fact that 
the State volnnleer regimenta were actually in need af immediate aid to <^uip 
thoni to leave for poiuts of mobllizatioD, induced the society to torn th«r alteution 
to local needs firbt. 

The Twelfth, Thirteenth and FDurtccnlh Minnesota Volunteers were first 
fomtshed with hospital supplies. deliracie.i for the sicic, and all those ncccsAarj- 
arliclcs which the government docs not supply, or furni&bea only in meagre 
<|uantit>e>. Working iKradqunrterH were entahlUhcd, requrwts for donatioriB were 
pnUiGbed which met with immediate lesponsc, which testified to the (jenerosily of 
the citizens of St. Paul and earmunding towns, Successful entertainments were 
alito given, sewing and packing committees were appointed, and women from all 
over the city gave freely o( their means, their time and their efforts, as Ihey 
thought of » husband, a Mu or a dear one in fur away Cuba or Manila. The 
patrioliuu and loyality of the men of Minnesota was shared and often inspired by 
the women who gave so freely. Ttte women of St. Paul with willing hands and 
loving hearts, have shared in the glories of the war, and the sorrows of personal 
toss has been mitigated by pride of race, and the love of a country that bos borne 
such aoldiera and sailors as our brave boys. 



Not in Minnesota alone, but in all tlie States, the witling hands 
and loving hearts of the women of America have been among the 
foremost iti affording relief to the sick and wounded. At home in the 
auxiliaries, in the hospitals, on the transports and at the front, wher- 
ever sickness and suffering called. 

Early in the campaign they seemed to awaken to the true meaning 
and the great mission of the Red Cross, and, setting before them the 
standard, Ihey have followed it from one field of suffering to another. 
True soldiers of humanity, ihey have labored earnestly and incessantly, 
and have proven themselves worthy to wear the emblem of their loving, 
faithful service— the Red Cross of Geneva. 



436 



THE RED CROSS. 



MONTAUK POINT. L. I. 



At the request of the New York Relief Committee, the executive 
committee of Uie Red Cross appointed Mr. Howard Towiiseud as the 
field agent at Moiitauk Point, Loug Islaud, uud«r whose supervtstou 
the work of the Red Cross at Uii.s important station was admirably 
conducted. Mr. Townseud in his report says: 

The Red Cross appeared on the ground on Sunday, August 7, 
1898, and its representative remained there pennauently after August 
10. The first, and in some respects the most imporlunt work, was the 
delivery of a daily supply of pure water to the government officials at 
the camp. For the first ten days the most Herious problem was how 
to obtain good water, and until the great well was dug, die hospitals 
were supplied by the Red Cross. Ten thousand gallons of Hygcia 
water were delivered at llie camp, and four tank cars brought daily 
&-om Jamaica .sufficient spring water to prevent a water famine. 

There was important work to be done also iu comiectiou with the 
general hospital, fiimishiiiR to it soch supplies as were rendered neces- 
sary by the hurrj- and confusion of the first two weeks of the camp's 
existence. Cuts, clothing, bcd-clotliing. houscliold appliances and 
cooking uCeii»iI.s. refrigerators and other articles, iu short a large part 
of the things necessary for a hospital. All of tliesc things were 
promptly supplied, through the quick communication established with 
the Red Cross supply depot in Xew York City, and the system of 
placing orders by telegraph, by which supplies most needed were often 
on hand within a few hours after the need was discovered. 

nelicacies, fruits and milk were furnished to the hospitals until the 
government itself was able to meet the demand in this direction. 
Although the quarantine regulations prevented the Red Cross from 
being in constant attendance at the detention hospital, yet we kept it 
abundantly supplied with delicacies, and quite often with necessities. 
Many tons of supplies were furnished, includiug food, clothing and 
stimulants. 

The necessity arising for trained nurses at the general hospital, 
the services of twenty trained women nurses were offered about August 
16, their salaries and all expenses to be paid by the Red Cross. The 
Secretary of War promptly directed the acceptance of the offer, although 



MONTAUK POINT, h. I. 



499 



insisting that the goverameat should pay all expenses. Since that 
time there have been as many as one hundred and forty nurses in the 
hospital at one time, iu addition to about one hundred and ten Sisters of 
Charity. These women nurses uniformly conducted themselves with 
decorum in the camp, and their sen'ices undoubtedly saved the lives 
of many patients. All the nurses, except the Sisters of Charily, were 
funiislied through the instrumentality of the Red Crass. The division 
hospitals were established later in the history of the camp, and these 
were also supplied with suitable provisions, delicacies, medical stores 
and instruments, and Red Cross nurses. 

The Red Cross yacht arrived at Camp Wyckoff on tlie eleventh of 
August with the first load of supplies. The boat was furnished for the 
use of the Red Cross by the Relief Committee of the Red Cross iu New 
York. This vessel is admirably fitted for carrying a small number of 
sick people, and was offered to the government by the relief committee, 
and has been iu steady use as a hospital ship, conveying fifteen invalids 
at a time to the various hospitals along the Connecticut coast and in 
New York City. 

After the first confusion incident to the establishment of the camp, 
the Red Cross extended its field to include a visit to the regimental 
hospitals, which were discovered to be in great need of food and equip- 
metit suitable for sick, particularly in the hospitals of the infantry 
divisions. The assistant agent, Dr. Brewer, and Mr. Samuel Parrish, 
of Southampton, N. Y., devoted themselves particularly to daily visits 
to the regiments, and were able to materially help the regimental sur- 
geons in their discouraging work, hampered as they were by lack of 
medical stores and equipment. 

The auxiliar>' for the maintenance of trained niu-ses sent to the 
camp Mrs. Willard, a dietary expert, who, in conjunaion with the 
Massacliusetts Volunteer Aid Association, and with the assistance of 
Dr. Prescott, establishe*! diet kitchens in the various hospitals, and 
supplied the patients with such satisfactory diet thnt the government 
agreed to pay the expense of this port of the work. 

Another branch of work was carried on by the Red Cross and 
which appealed particularly to the sick, which was an attempt made to 
answer, each day, inquiries from all parts of the country concerning men 
from whom their relatives and friends had heard nothing perhaps since 
the army left Cuba. 

Another division of the work was that concerning the feeding of 
the sick and hungry men arriving on the transports. Dr. Magruder, 

24 



430 



THE RED CROSS. 



the chief quarantine oflSccr, gave much of his time tft this part of the 
ser\'ice, carr>'iig continually in his boats stores of Red Cross pro\'isioQs 
and delicacies with which he supplied those ships that were in quaran- 
tine and suflfcring most from lack of food. At the quarantiue dock, 
where the sick men were landed. Captain Gullfoyle of the Ninth Cavalry 
rendered most efficient service ia helping the sick, while at the same 
time enforcing the quarantine regulations. 

At the railroad dock an important part of this \vork was carried on. 
There Dr. and Mrs. Valentine Mott were stationed day after day as 
the transports unloaded their men. Captaiu Edwards, of the First 
United States Cavalrj-, had already volunteered to aid and. by order of 
Major-Geueral Young, hewas permitted to have his men assist. Every 
regiment that landed stacked arms, and in single file passed by a tent, 
erected by the militar>- officials, where each niau was given a glass of 
milk, or a cup of beef It-a, and in some instances the men volunteered 
the statement thatUiey were too weak to have marched to the host)ital. 
and could have gone no further but for this friendly help at the dock. 

In the meantime, at the railway statiou, the men going on sick 
furlough fretiucntly collapsed just before the departure of the train, or 
became faint through want of food. Here the Red Cross arranged 
that every sick man should be supplied with milk, and, where it was 
necessary, given a few ounces of whiskey, so as to enable him to con- 
tinue his journey. The increasing number of furloughed men n-^quired 
the establishment of an emergency haspital near the railway station, 
and this was installed in two tents erected for the Red Cross by the 
army officers. 

These tents at limes sheltered for the night as many as twenty 
sick men who were unable to catch the train, and who wontd otherwise 
have been obliged to sit up in the station until morning. This work, and 
the emergency hospital, were under the charge of Miss Martha Draper. 

Owing to the cheerful recognition given to the Red Cross, when 
the camp was first opened, due to the courtesy of Major-General 
Young, the Red Cross was able to enter into a far broader sphere of 
usefulness than would other^vise have been poi&ible. We are also 
particularly indebted to Captain Chase, of the Third Cavalry, Captain 
Guilfoyle, of the Ninth Ca\'alry, and Captain Fuller, of the First 
Cavalry, for their constant endeavors to aid the representatives of the 
Red Cross in carrying out their work of supplementing the efforts of 
the government, to relieve the suffering and in minLstering to the 
comfort of the men and officers of the Fifth Army Corps. 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 



«" 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 

The States of tlie Pacific coast, Washington. Oregon, California, 
Nevada and others, have taken a very prominent part in the relief' 
work duriug the war, under the Red Cross. It is yet too soon to write 
the story of the great service they have rendered, for the work still 
continues and only partial reports are at hand. In the latter part of 
June the following letter was received by the chairman of the executive 
committee of the Red Cross, from Mrs. L. I*. Dunbar, secretary of the 
Red Cross of Sau Francisco : 



DsAR StR : — Referring to my tetter ol a few days since. I enclose bcrcwitli 
mimtnary of the Red Cross work tn CalifortiiA to date, which I trust will pmre of 
interest to you. 

You will note thai tliere hut been .a gi^neroua respon^K by tlie cilLretis of 
CsUfomia to the call for funds with which to establish the work of the Red Cross. 

This society seems to have sprang into life fully e<iuippcd for any emergency. 
Cotnmittcea have been formed. Ten to twelve thouaand dollars on hand avatlabla 
for further nsc ; mldiera welcomed on arrival with friendly words and gooilchccrjl 
none have left the port of eiUry for their long inareh to the eaniping ground 
without a gdoil tirriikfiut ftimiiihed by the Red Cro«w ; further comforts provided 
while in catup, and physical welfare carefnlly looked after. 

Without working on constitational line*, not having to Ihis date received 
details of the plan of operation as carried out under the rules or regulations of the] 
American National Red Cross, we have adopted common sense methods as seem 
proper in war times, or as would angge«t tliemKlvea in case of any great public 
calunity, not standing on the order of doing, but doing as occasion seems to 
require. 

The primary' movement toward organization was the result of a desire to 
ccjnip our National Ou.ird to a war footing, it having been pointed out to a few 
leadrrs in charitable and patriotic work after the fint call for troops that the need 
existed for medical supplies and surgical a|)p]ianc«:i in the National Guard to 
properly outfit them to meet all contingencies. At that time they were not aware 
that the Spaniards were so poor at target practice as they proved to \x at Manila. 
While it is the province of the State to supply abore needs, the legislature was 
not in seosion, time wis limited, ships for Manila were soon to sail, therefore it 
seemed proper not to wait on uncertain legislation, and it was resolved and imme- 
diately made effective to supply alwve ueeds which was done, involving the expen- 
diture of three thousand dollara. 

Referring to the minutes of the Red Cross Society of San Franctaco, we find a 
commonicatlon was forwarded to Washington, placing alt resources at the service 
of the govemmcuL The supplies for the National Guard, mentioned above, wer« 



433 



THE RED CROSS. 



puichas^ under the direction of Surgeon -General Hopkins, National Guard of 
California. As the uiovcmieut enlarged and we learned Uie inleniion lo concentrate 
large bodies of troopdi from oil over th« Unilctl Status, our work expanded. The 
government was inadequately prepared to lake care of so many troops on tlic 
coast and for some tinie afier tlieir .irrival, to present positive suffering, Ihc Red 
Cross Society by and w-itll tbc consent of llic Uuiled States conimxnding officers, 
■applied any and everything lh;it iwt^mcd to lie needed by tUc soldiere for ihetr 
bealth and comfort All of Ibc ladies connected with the society vied with each 
other in giving their whole time and attention to the work, and the number of 
letters that have since been received by the society from the .wldiers is the best 
evidence of the- appreciation of the lunnncr in which this work has been done: 
*Wc erected a Red Cross hospital tent, utpptied trained nurses, medical Hupplies, 
etc., and from tluit day to tltia the tent has been occupied by those in need of 
sicdica] attention. 

The matter of sending an expedition to the PhilipjMnes was discussed, but as 
we got along in our work we found to do efleclive work in lliis connection it ww 
necessary to ha^'c the anthority of the government throngh the American National 
Red Crosa, and my previous letter upon this subject explains in detail our views in 
regard to this expedition. This will cttaala In statu quo until we bear further from 
you. 

We famished twenty thousand hAodages to the troop!i, made after pattems 
given to ua by the nniiy officers, Wc arranged with several of the hospitals here 
to receive and care fur very nick mm, iind they have been generous in thts rexpecL 
Tlic French hospital ha^ been very kind. Tliat you may see the scope of our work, 
we have the following couiiuittced at wotk harmoniously nuder the iutelh^eat 
ditection of a most efiicicnt chairman, sided by the uublc work on the part of their 
assistants: Hospital Committee, Finance CommittecNuraing Committee, Subscrip- 
tion Committee, Society Hiidge Comiiiitlcc, Identification Medal Committee, 
Printing, IJntcrtainmcnts, Hnspitalily, Presa, Information, Auditing, Stores, Am- 
bulance, Schools, Clubs. From this you will see that the field has been very com- 
ptehcnaively covered, and aa a sample of the work of each committee, I enclose 
herewith the report of the Nunuug Conitniltcc. from which you can judge the 
nature of the work and how it is conducted by each committee, and 1 trust that 
thi» ivill give y\m the infurmution required to judge wiint hns been done here, and 
we would be glad to receive such suggestion* from you in reference lo this matter 
OS you, from your large experience, may find ncccwary to make. 

Wc-hope that your rcprescnt/ilive will visit Sau Fraacisco to confer witb the 
Stete Association. It seems to ns necessary. 



I 



In response to this appeal il was decided to -send a represeiitalive 
of the American Kational Red Cross to t»nfer with the proposed 
societies of the Pacific Coast, to acquaint tlit-m with the rules govern- 
ing the Red Cross in time of war, to explain the relationship that exists 
hetween such societies and the national body, and to accord to then 
official recognition, so that they might proceed as regular auxiliaries 
of the Red Cross. 





434 



THE RED CROSS. 



Society, resigned from the State Board, and Mr, Adolph Mack was 
elected to fill the vacancy thus caused. Mrs. Granville Abbott aud Mr. 
Ginn, of the Oakland Society, resigned, their successors being Mrs. O. 
F. Long and Mrs. J. G. Lemmon. Mrs. Haight, of the Berkeley 
Society, was succeeded by Mrs. Warring Wilkinson, and Mrs. Louis 
Weinman was elected to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of 
Mrs. E- R. Dimond. The officers of the board are Mrs. W. B. Har- 
rington, president; Mrs. J. M. Griffith, vice-president; Mrs. L. L. 
Dunbar, secretary; William E. Brown, treasurer, and Mrs. E. R. 
Dimond, assistant treasurer. 

Later the positions of second and third vice-presidents were created 
and Mrs. Long was elected second vice-president and Mrs. Elkus third 
vice-piesitlcnt. Mrs. Louis Weinman was elected corresponding sec- 
retary. Mrs. Dimond, who had been in the work since its inception, 
was 0)mpelled to resign on account of ill health, early in September, 
her pasitious both as a member of the lK>ard aud as assistant treasurer, 
the vacancies being filled by the election of Mrs. Weinman, Miss 
Miriam K.. WalHs being elected corresponding secretary in place of 
Mrs. Weinman. It was with sincere regret that Mrs. Dimoud's resig- 
nation was recei\'ed, her work, both as assistant treasurer and as a 
member of tlie board, liaving been most satisfactory. 

Shortly after the formation of the State Association, through the 
kindness of Mrs. P. A. Hearst, two rooms were given us rent free in 
the Examiner Building for headquarters. We owe a ver>' large debt 
of gratitude to Mrs. Hearst, and take this occasion to thank her most 
sincerely for her kindness. Since its organization the executive 
board has held twenty-three meetings, besides these there have been 
two meetings of the association. 

One of the first steps taken by the board was to open a corre- 
spondence with the American National Red Cross, with a view to 
becoming an auxiliary to the parent organization, and also to gala 
official information in regard to the work of the Red Cross. 

While awaiting a reply to our communication a constitution was 
framed and adopted. A circular letter was prepared, giving informa* 
tion in regard to the formation of auxiliary societies, the conditions of 
membership in the State Association and other matters of detail. This 
circular letter, the constitutions of the State Association and the San 
Francisco Red Cross, and a form of constitution for local societies were 
printed In pamphlet form and sent to all Red Cross societies through- 
out the State, also to societies in Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, Dakota, 



THE RED CROSS OF CALIFORNIA. 



435 



Nebraska, Kansas and Iowa. AppHcattous for membership were rap- 
idly received until we liad enrolled loi auxiliary societies. Hesides 
these tliere are a number of Red Cross societies uot enrolled which 
have aided us with both money aud supplies. A copy of tlie pamphlet, 
together with a detailed statement of the work of the Red Cross of 
California, was sent to Mr. Stephen K. Barton, vice-president of the 
American National Red Cross, and soon after a response was received, 
expressing pleasure at what had l>eeu done and promising that a dele- 
gate should be sent to inspect our work and advise in organizing. 

Judge Jaseph Sheldon, the promised delegate, arrived about the 
middle of July; he informed himself fully as to what had been done; 
expressed his surprise that without definite knowledge of the work of 
tlie American National Red Cross, we had planned our work so closely on 
its lines. Being satisfied with the work, Judge Sheldon recognized 
California Red Cross State Association as an auxiliarj- to the American 
National Red Cross. Leaving each auxiliar>- to tell its own story of 
the work it has done, we shall give an account of our own stewardship. 

With the first expedition, two finely trained nurses, Messrs. Waage 
and Lewis, were sent by the San Francisco Red Cross to Manila. The 
splendid work of these men, who gave up lucrative positions, and 
volunteered their sen'ices, has been told over and over again in letters 
received from both officers and men. Following the formation of the 
State Association, it was decided that it should take charge of the 
nurses, and Mrs. Wendell Easton, chairman of the Committee on 
Nurses, transferTed her work to the State Society. Through the 
efforts of Mrs. Easton, aided by Dr. Beverly Cole, a course of lectures 
and clinics was arranged. Fifty or sixty enthtisiastic men and women 
were in daily attendance on these lectures. Drs. Cole, Kugeler, 
McConc, Rixford, Stafford, Somcrs and Weill gave much of their 
valuable time to this work, and aided Mrs. Easton greatly- The 
sincere thanks of the society are again extended to them. 

It was not until the fourth expedition was ordered to Manila that 
an opportunity was given us to send more nurses. Mrs. Easton reported 
four good men available, Dr. F. J. Hart, Leon Crowtlier, Eugene 
Rasenthal and O. H. J. Schlott, all of whom were engaged at once. 
It being deemed advisable, and strongly urged by army surgeons, it 
was decided to establish on the arrival of this expedition at Manila a 
Field Hospital. A fiuancial agent, and a steward who would take 
charge of the bulk of the supplies for such a hospital, and such funds 
as the society should see fit to place at his disposal, being a necessity, 



436 



THE RED CROSa 



Mr. Schlott was adected to fill the pcnition. There being fiaor transport 
ships. Dr. Hart was assigned to duty on the " Puebla," Mr. Crowther 
on the "Peni," Mr. Rosenthal on the "Pennsylvania." and Mr. 
Schlott on the " Riu Janeiro." With each of the ships, supplies were 
sent in charge of our nurses for the use of the aek men en ronte. 

In Mr. Schloti's care .was also sent the greater portion of an 
equipment for a Field Hospital of 125 beds, and supplies sufficient for 
five or six months' use. The balance of the equipment was sent on 
the "Scandia." as there was not sufficient room on the "Rin Janeiro." 
Five hundred dollars was placed in the Hong-Kong and Shanghai Bank 
to be drawn «pon by Mr. Schlott. We have received letters telling of 
the excelleni work done by our nurses on the sliips. All ha\'e arrived 
in Manila and our Field Ha«piial has l)cen established. A cablegram 
signed by Majors McCarthy and Woodruff, surgeons, was received 
recently apprising us of the success of the work. The State A-^socia- 
tion had now sent six nurses to the front. Not nearly cnongh con.sid- 
ering the reports of .sickness among the troops ; it was therefore 
decided, if possible, to .send more. The great desire of the board was 
to send women nurses as well as men. 

In the earlier stages of our work, it was decided to take initiatory 
steps toward seniring a ho-spital ship for the Pacific Coa.'st, but in 
response to telegrams sent to the President, and Secretaries of War and 
Navy, we were assured that such a ship would be fumi.shed by the 
government, and the matter was dropped. In .\ugust, the ships 
"Scandia" and " ATi7,ona " were purchased hy the government, to 
be used for transportating troops and government hospital supplies to 
Manila and to return as hospital ships. We were notified that we could 
send nurses on these ships and steps were taken at once to secure them. 
Shortly after, the office was thrown into a commotion by the announce- 
ment from General Merriam that a limited number of women nurses 
would be .sent. Mrs. Kaston had a long ILst of names of nurses who 
had offcrc<1 their ser\'ices and were ready to go at a moment's notice. 
Eight of these were: Misses Garlick, Sm\-thc, Ralph, Elsifcr, Laswell, 
Shacfer, Mrs. Palm, and Mrs. I^man. The men selected were: Drs. 
Ross, Caldwell, Dwight, and Messrs Leonard, Durst, Kibbel, Hcyl, and 
Tanner. Four were sent on the "Scandia." the remaining twelve on 
the "Arizona," We were rejoiced at being able to send the women 
ntirses and feel sure they will do excellent work. As many of the 
nurses as are needed will remain on duty at tBe Field Hospital, the others 
will returu with the ships, caring for the sick men being sent back. 



THE RED CROSS OF CALIFORNIA. 



437 



We have not as yet had time to receive reports from our ajjent Mr. 
Schlott, but feci assnreil that the worlc is in pood hands and tliat our 
Field Hospital at Manila will prove a hiessiiij; to many a sick boy. 

No provision haviiig been made by the government, for the care 
of convalescent soldiers, who upon leaviuR tlie hospital went back to 
their tents and iu their weakened condition in many instances con- 
tracted colds or suffered relapses that perhaps resulted in death, it was 
decided to secure a home where convalescent men could have better 
care. Au effort was made to secure a suitable house in the neighbor- 
hood of the Presidio, This being impossible, upou consultation with 
the military authorities, it was decided lo build a house at the Presidio. 
General Miller looked over the grouud and selected tlie most eligible 
spot. The idea of erecting the home was taken up most enthusiast- 
icaUy by the auxiliaries, and the money required was soon in the 
treasur>'. Messrs Newsom and Meyers kindly donated plans and in 
three weeks from the day of starting, it wa.^ fini<i1ied. It is a one story 
building, containing a large ward, four small rooms, dining and sitting 
room combined, kitchen, ofEce, storerooms, two bath rooms, etc. The 
large ward accommodates twenty beds, the fourth room is used by the 
nnrses. 

Requests came quickly from both priwilc individuals and anxil- 
iaries to be allowed to completely furnish one or more beds, so that by 
the lime the building was fini.shed the furnishings were ready. Fourteen 
patients were admitted the day of opening and within a few days every 
bed was occupied. It is a most invitinj; and homelike place, exquisitely 
neat, with health-giving sunlight pouring in all day. Trained nurses 
are in attendance night and day and cvcr^-thing possible is done to bring 
back health and strengtli. The hapi^nessof the boys is unbounded, 
and iheir expressions of joy arc pathetic. "It's most like heaven " 
was one boy's sentiment. It is talked of in the Division Hospital and 
is the goal to which the sick men look forward. Miss McKinstrj- who 
has been sui»crintcmlent since the opening, has done .spk-ndid work. 
She received no compensation whatever, other than the gratitude of her 
charges and the high commendation of the surgeons. 

The sincere thanks of the executive board are estcnded to Miss 
McKinslry. and it is with deep regret that her resignation, which she 
was compelled to send in bccanse of illness in her family, was accepted. 
Sixty-three men have been cared for in the home, and thirty-se\*cn 
discharged. They arc under the care of Major Surgeon Matthews, of 
the Division Hospital, who regulates their coming and going. He 



438 



THE RED CROSS. 



expresses himself in most unquatilic<l terms of praise of Miss McKitv^ 
stry's work, and also of the benefit the home has been to the boys. 

.Ml of the troops leaving for Manila have been supplied writ 
identification medals by the State Society, irrespective of the Stat* 
from which they came. In se\'eral instances the money expended for 
these has been refunded by either the governor of the State, or Red 
Cross societies. The executive board desires to express its sincere 
appreciation of the aid it has received from its auxiliaries. All have 
responded promptly and royally to our calls for aid, which have only been 
nude when absolutely necessary. It has been our endeavor to expend 
all money sent to ns as carefully and judiciously as pos»b1e, consider- 
ing the trust placed in ns as sacred. Our treasurer's report will show 
how the money has been expended. Not a dollar has been paid for 
the services of our women since the organization of the association. 
We have been in the office from 9 a. m. until 5 and 6 p. m., gladly 
giving our time and strength for the caose. 

We have cndira\-orcd in all our worlc not to transgress army regu- 
lations. To that end our president has held many conferences with 
Generals Merritt and Mcrriam, as well as the surgeons in charge. 
They have aided us courteously and kindly in our work, and have 
granted us alt the privileges possible, for which we are most grateful. 
We have also kept in touch with the American National Red 
and have reported our work fully. 

The parent organization has shown its confidence in ns by 
gating the work in the Philippines to our association. Mr, Barton, 
chairman of the executive board and vice-president of the Americas 
National Red Cross, has referred all societies in the West to us. advis- 
ing them to work through the California Red Cross. We have in our 
membership a society in PocateUo, Idaho; one in Almo, Idaho; one in 
Corvallis, Oregon; and one in Beatrice. Nebraska. 

The Elko (Nevada) Red Cross has withdrawn to become an auxil- 
iary of their own State organization. Two societies have disbanded, 
their members were only summer residents, who have returned to their 
city homes. It is our earnest desire that our auxiliary societies will 
not disband, feeling that the war is over. We have assumed certain 
obligations in establishing the Field Hospital at Manila, as welt as the 
Convalescent Home at the Presido, and our work cannot cease at tliis 
time. Wc sincerely hope the auxiliaries will stand loyally by tis as 
the>- have done in the past. 

A siiort time since, an a{^>eal was made for a re^Iar monthl] 



THE RED CROSS OF CAUFORNIA. 



439 



contribution, no matter how small, from each auxiliary. Many of 
the societies have responded, and we liope soon to hear from others. 
Wc have certain and sure expenses to meet and a variable income is 
rather a source of uneasiness. 

The thanks of the executive board are exteuded to the Pacific 
Telephone and Telegraph Company for the free use of the telephones; 
to the Western Union Telegraph Company for the free use of their 
wires in the State; to Wells, Fargo & Co., and the Southern Pacific 
Railroad Company for free transportation of supplies. Our demands 
upon them have been heavy, and were gencroiwly granted. To the 
press of San Francisco we are most deeply indebted for the generous 
and coHrteoits treatment wc have received, aud we extend our sincere 
thanks. To the 20,000 people of California, wearing the little badge 
of membership in the Red Cross, we extend cordial greetings and 
thanks for their kind interest in our work. 

Wc have been helped more than we can tell by the kind words 
and expression of confidence from our auxiliaries. How well wc have 
done our work, wc leave you to judge. 



F' CONSOLroATED FlNANCIAI, STATEMSNT OP THK RRD CROSS OP 
\ Caupornia. 

While this statement is incomplete, inasmuch as reports from all 
the local auxiliaries have not yet been received, it illustrates how 

universal was the organization of the Red Cross in one of the States of 
the far West: 

FLAcm. ni(ciu»T& HPSNua. balancs. 

California Red Cross Suic AfisocUtiaa, Cal. . .$33,119.74 4to,473.6j I11.647.11 

Rnl Crow Soricly, Sao Francisco, Cal 55,408.83 23,4^.18 31,974.65 

San Jose, Cal a,»74.66 1.465.03 80963 

Lompoc, Cal 334-70 <24iS "O-iS 

Palo Alto, Cal 333,90 153- IS 69.75 

Ventura, Cal I93-40 179-95 1345 

" " '* San Leanilro, Cal 73-50 69-65 y^i 

* Ccntcrvillc. Cal 16590 »i3-55 3'-35 

•' ■• " SniiKin, Cal 405. 80 I54-6S 351.1$ 

Tulare. Ca! 55.70 53.45 2,35 

" " " Sacramento. Cal. .... 6,373-43 2.749.75 3.623.63 

" " " Slendocioo, Cal 105.10 102.29 '■^^ 

" •' " Graaa Vatlpv. Cal 787.10 S71-09 316.01 

" Berkeley, CaL 1,092.91 485.37 6o7-54 



THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 



441 



THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 



Frt>m tlie Red Cross of Oregon, comes the following report, 
forwarded by Mrs. Levi Young. In transmitting the rci>on Mrs. 
Young says : " WhUe it nmy be longer than desired, sttU we feel that 
the eyes of our countrj* have been more particularly turned toward 
Cuba and the relief work done by the eastern branches, while the 
Paci6c Coast has been doing s work second to none. Conditions here 
make it difficult to raise the necessary funds, and every dollar expended 
represents untiring devotion to the cause :" 

The call "to arms" was still ringing through the land, when a 
band of patriotic women responding to an appeal for assi^itancc 
assembled at the armory in Portland, Oregon, on the morning of April 
36, to offer their services to the railitar>* board of the State in providing 
materia], aid and comfort for the Second Regiment Oregon Vnhmtcers. 

Colonel O. Summers was present and briefly explained the object 
of the appeal. He suggested that as speedily as possible a society be 
formed to take up that branch of work which belongs alone to women 
in time of war and consists in providing the requisites for a soldier's 
welfare not laid down in army regulations. 

Temporar>' offices were chosen, and twelve committees were 
appointed. Kach committee consisted of six members, the chairman 
selecting those she desired as helpers. The duty of each committee 
was the personal supervisiou of one company alphabetically assigned 
to it. 

Final organization was perfected April 27, wheti the following 
permanent officers were elected ; Mrs. Henry E. Jones, president ; 
Mrs. W. A. Buch-inan, vice-president; Mrs. F. E. Lounsbury, recording 
secretary ; Mrs. Martin Winch, treasurer. The executive committc*. 
Mrs. O. Summers, Mrs. A. Meier. Mrs, Lc\'i White, Mrs. W. T. 
Gardner, Mrs. B. E- Miller, Mrs. J. E. Wright, Mrs. K. C. Protzman, 
Mrs. R. S. Greenleaf. Mrs. G. T. Telfer and Mrs. J. M. Ordway. 

The name, "Oregon Emergency Corps," was adopted and Mrs. 
W. A. Buchanan, Mrs. Levi Young appointed to draft a constitution. 
This was presented at the next regular meeting and after a slight 
revision, unanimously adopted. 



44a 



THE RED CROSS. 



Preamblb to Constitution. 



' * The Oregon Etnergenc>' Corps realizing that its aims and objects 
are far-reaching, will remain a permanent organization to aid not only 
the brave Oregon VoUmtetrs upon land or sea, but assist in the welfare 
of the wives and children, many of wliora may need care and support 
while their loved ones .ire absent." 

In compliance with the provisions of the cotwlitution, the following 
standing committees were appointed : 

f-'Srtattcf Committee. — -Mrs. Charles F. Bcelie, Mrs. Ben Selling, 
Mre. H. W. Goddard. 

Auditing Commi/tee.^Mrs. H. W. Wallace. Mrs. James Jackson, 
Mrs. J. Frank Watson. 

Purchasing Committee. —M.t^. H. H. Northrtip, Mrs, Adolph 
Dekum, Mrs. B. Blumaucr. 

Sewing Commtitce. — Mrs. Wm. Patterson, Mrs. W. C Atvord, 
Mrs. A. E. Rockey, Mrs. E. Nollain, Miss T. Rose Goodman. 

Press Committee. — Mrs. Levi Young, Mrs. H. L. Pittock, Miss 
Ida Loewenberg. 

Naval Committee. — Mrs. John Cran, Miss Nina Adams, Miss 
Zerlina Locwctibcrg, Mis.*! Carrie Flanders, Miss Fx:na Brickel. 

A suitable badge was adopted and a membership ]i.st opened, 
affording all patriotic women an opportunity to enroll their names and 
become active workers of the corps. Regular meetings were held at 
the armor>' oncca week, the executive committee meeting at the call 
of the president as often as the business of the society required. Being 
now in readiness for work, the question arose as to what should be 
done and the most practical way of doing it. To this end the military 
board was consulted and valuable suggestions received irom General 
Charles F. Beebe, Colonel James Jackson. Colonel B. B. Tuttle and 
Major Daniel J. Moore, brigade commissary, O. ^3'. G., each advising 
that a regimental fund for the Second Regiment Oregon Volunteers be 
raised; also the making and purchasing of such articles for a soldier's 
knapsack as army quartermasters do not keep in stock. 

A room on First street was placed at the disposal of the society by 
Mr. Adolph Dekum, and here the Oregon Emergency Corps' head* 
quarters opened May 5. 1898. Captain R. S. Greenleaf. of Battery A, 
kindly detailed members of the company to decorate and make attrac- 
tive the room, loauing for this purpose the historic centennial flag 



THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 



443 



whicli, for the first time in over twenty years, ]>assed from the custody 
of the company. Members of the battery reported for duly each 
morning, thus assisting the committee of ladies in charge in many 
ways. 

A telephone was pnt in by the Oregon Telephone Company, elec- 
tric lights supplied by the General Electric Company, chairs, tables 
and other fnniishiiigs provided, by the business houses of the city. 
The Singer Machine Company sent sewing machines for the use of the 
supply committee and work began in earnest. Women from every 
part of the commnnity representing church, cinb and society organi7.a- 
tions, enrolled their names and o(Tere<l their scr\*ices in the eraergcnc)' 
call, showing more plainly than words can describe the broadening 
influence of these organizations upon the mother heart of the land. 
Laying aside prejudices, creeds and personal aftiliatioiis, they l)ecame 
a unit in this patriotic work. Day after day with aching hearts but 
smiting faces they toiled — the membership grew into the hundreds — 
subscriptions came pouring in. the sums ranging from gioo to the 
dimes, nickels and pennies of the children. 

Word was received that the volunteers of Oregon were to he mol>j 
ilized at Portland and on April 27, Brigadier-General Charles F. Beebe, 
O. N. 0., isstied special orders for the preparation of a suitable camp 
within the city limits The site selected was the Irvington race track, 
and April 29 one hiindrcd and sixty-one tents were pitched, the name, 
Camp McKinley. adopted and on ihe morning of April 30, 1898, the 
first company arrived and active camp life tiegan. 

Members of the difTereni committees of the Emergency Corps visited 
the camp daily, consulting with the commanding officers as to the 
health, comfort and needs of the soldiers in their charge. Open house 
was kept at lieadquarters for the volunteers when in the city and every- 
thing human ingenuity could suggest and loving hearts contribute to 
smooth the pathn-ay from comfortable civil life to the hardsliip and 
discipline of camp life was done. This was not planned nor workwl 
out by om person but by united effort on the part of a/i, whose kindly 
ministrations grew out of a desire to cheer and encourage these brave 
Oregon volunteers— the flower of the State — who had given up home 
and position, offering their lives to their cwinlry in the noble work of 
liberating an oppressed and outraged people. 

Meantime circular letters had been sent to the cities and towTis 
throughout the State urging the patriotic women to form auxiliaries for 
the purpose of raising money to swell the regimental fund and also help iu 



444 



THE RED CROSS. 



the purchasing of a flag to be presented to the volunteers by the women 
of the State. 

Hood River was the first to respond with Roscburg, Peudleton, 
Con-allis, HilLsboro, LaFayette, LaGraiidc, Hubbard, Westoo. Wood- 
bum, Astoria and The Dalles, quickly falling into line. Faithfully 
have these auxiliaries assisted in every line of work that it has beeu 
fouud necessary to take up — contribution.s of luoncy and supplies have 
been given, while in their respective localities a fund has been raised 
to assist the families of the vxiluntccrs. Hos])ital supplies of caps. 
fever belts and cordials are constantly forwarded, and daily, letters 
are received asking for instructions. 

On Sunday, May 8, a patriotic and s.icred concert was given at 
Carap McKinlcy to increase the regimental fund that the Emergency 
Corps were raising and the proceetls netted the creditable sum of 
$1399.35. The atieiidance of over ten thousand people was an 
evidence of tlicir zca\ and desire to contribute their mite toward the 
object. The program was fiimished by the First Regiment Band, Miss 
Rose Bloch and Madame Norclli. It was a scene nei'er to be forgotten 
by that vast audience when, at the close of the evening drill, the stars 
and stripes were slowly lowered at the booming of the sunset gun, and 
the long lines of volauteers, motionless as statues, listened as the 
insjjiring strains of the Star Spangled Banner floated upon the summer 
air, while the setting sun, kissing the peak of the distant suow-crowned 
mountain, shed its departing rays like a heavenly bcuediciiou upon 
these sons of valor. 

May 1 1 , (898, the first battalion consisting of Companies A. B, C, 
D, Second Regiment Oregon Volunteers, under command of Major C. 
H. Gantcnbein, by order of the War Department, left for Sau Francisco 
and one week later. May 16, Companies E, F, G. H. 1. K, I, and M, 
under command of Colonel O. Summers, broke camp and proceeded to 
join the others at the Presidio to await transportation to Manila. 

To the captains of Ihese respective companies, the Oregon Emerg- 
ency Coqjs gnve one hundred dollars iu gold coin as an emergency 
fund. To Major M. H. Ellis, commanding regimental surgeon in 
charge of the Hospital Corps, was giveuone hundred dollars, alsoeight 
hundred yards of flannel for bandages. In addition to this, contribu- 
tions from other sources made the available amount futty two thousand 
dollars. 

After the departure of the volunteers for San Francisco Uic head- 
quarters were transferred from First street to the Armory which the 
military board turned over to the Emergency Corps for their use. 









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J 



THK RED CROSS OF OREGON. 



447 



Here meetings were held, a bureau of iuforniation esUblislied with a 
committee in cliar^e. and all other busiuess transacted. 

Ou May 14 au offer was made by the firm of Lipman, Wolfe & 
Co., to tuni over Uicir dejiartnient .store to the Emergency Corps upon 
any date they might select. The entire charge of this establishment 
was to be assumed l>y the organization for one day — ten per cent of 
all sales to go to the regimental fund. To this generous oiTcr was 
added the privilege of serving a mid-day lunch and introducing other 
suitable features that would help to swell the treasury. This offer was 
unanimously accepted and on May 17 the most novel scene ever 
witnessed in Portland's business history, was presented. Women, 
prominent in charitable and philanthropic work, leaders of society, 
sedate and stately matrons, assumed control of the various depart- 
ments of this large business house, acting as suiwrinteiident. assistant 
superintendent, cashier and floor managers, while a hundred or more 
of Portland's fair daughters from early morning till late at night stood 
beliind the counters sending ctistoniers. The store was gaily decorated 
with flags, bunting and roses; music was furnished by the Kinross 
Orchestra and Columbia Mandolin Quartette. Thousands of pur- 
chasers who had waited for this day surged back and forth through 
the aisles, crowded stairways and elevators in their haste to give their 
ten per cent to the soldiers' fund. The East Indian department which 
was transformed into a most enticing restaurant proved inadequate to 
the demand, as hundreds whom it was impossible to serve, were turned 
away. The result proved the success of the venture, one thousand 
dollars being added to the treasur>' of tlie society while the remark 
made by tlie senior member of the linn that it had " been the happiest 
day in a business career of over thirty-five years." left no other con- 
clusion than that a twofold blessing follows such generous deeds. 

,'\flcr the departure of the Second Regiment for San Francisco the 
Emergency Corps continued the work of its supply department in 
meeting the wants of the soldiers — not only Oregon volunteers but all 
or any needing assistance. May 23 an appeal was received from a 
member of the Red Cross Society in San Francisco for fever belts and 
sleeping caps as it was impossible to meet the needs for these articles 
then cjcisting. The following telegram was at once sent: 



RBO CttOSS SOCIBTV, 

San Francisco. Cal. 
Greetiog:— Cmot oa u; will send one thousand caps and one thou««tid 
ferer belts. Okrook Bm«kobkcv Corh. 



44a 



THE RED CROSS. 



Work was at once beguu aad in a few days (lie supplies were 
^pped to i6 Post street. 

TUe Sewing Committee has coutiiiued its labors, hundreds of 
articles being made and furnished to the Secoud Regiment Engiaeer 
Corps Oregon recruits and Washiiigloii volunteers, etc. 

It has been the privilege of the Oregon Emergency Corps to 
entertain all troops passing through Portland en route to different 
stations on the coast. This was at first done at the Union depot, 
where the soldiers were met by committees and served a substantial 
lunch, consisting of coffee, sandwiches, calce. fruit, etc. Tn this branch 
of work the Klower Mission, composed of twenty or more young women, 
have rendered valuable assistance in ser\*)ng refreshments and decorating 
the trains. Tons of flowers have been donated for this purpose and the 
departing soldier has been given a liouquet of Oregon roses in addition 
to his box of lunch. Frcrquently has a letter accompanied by a box of 
flowers been sent at tlic request of htisbnnds, brothers and sons to their 
distant homes, and replies received from many have made sweeter the 
saying. " Small service' Is true service while it lasts.*' 

After the use of the armory was tendered the corps by the State 
Militarj' Board, the soldiers were met on their arrival at the depot and 
escorted to militarj- headquarters and lunch scr^-ed in the spacious drill 
hall. The freedom of the building was extended, the g>'mnasium, 
bowling alley, reading room, etc., affording rest and recreation few all. 

In July the work was found to be increasing so rapidly that it waa 
neces.sar>' to enlarge the executive staff. To this end the president 
made the following appointments: first assistant, Mrs. Levi Young; 
second assistant. Mrs. H. \V. Wallace; as-sisiant to treasurer, Mrs. 
Wm. Patlenwn; assistant for correspondence, Mrs. Edmund Nollain; 
assistant for recording. Mrs. Lischen Miller. 

Headquarters were again established at 137 First street, to meet 
the request of business men and others who wished to contribute to the 
society and found the armory at an inconvenient distance. 

An honorary membership list was opened with the fee fixed at one 
dollar. This list at present numbers over 300, and among the named 
recorded are those of Captain C. K. Clark, of the battleship " Oregon," 
Hon. Edward Everett Hale, General Lougstre«t. Hon. Jos. £. Sheldon 
and Mrs. James Sliafter. 

The total tnetnbership of the society is i557- Oi this number 553 
arc members of auxiliary corps, leaving 1004 members for the Portland 
organisation. The membership of the various auxiliaries is as follows: 



THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 



449 



'eaton 37 

Astoria ....69 

Hillsboro 69 

Petidleloii 38 

Lafayette 33 

Corvallis 51 



La Grande 39 

Hootl Ri%'cr ai 

IIuhtiftTil to 

Roscburg 100 

Wooilburd 3J 

The Dalles 80 



Valuable service lias been rendered the State of Oregon by a mem- 
ber of the corps, Madame A. de Fonfridc Smith, who has compiled an 
" Official Roster " of the enlisted men for 1K98. This has been entirely 
her own ivork and contains a careful history sketch of each member of the 
State Military Board, officers of the Second Regiment and the name of 
every volunteer. This little book is tastefully bound and illustrated with 
views of Camp McKinley and photographs of the officers of each com- 
pany. The author has visited nearly every town in the State from which 
X'oluuteers were recruited circulating the work, while a copy has been 
kept for every man whose name is recorded on its pages. Several 
thousand copies have been sold and the net proceed are to be a con- 
tribution to the trea5ur>' of the Emergency Corps. In work of this 
kind Oregon stands alone, being the only State that is the fortunate 
possessor of so concise and comprehensive history of its brave sons. 

Up to the time of the departure of the Oregon recruits for San 
Francisco, there had been an ample field for the labors of the Oregon 
Emergency Corps in its local work, but it became e\'idcnt that in order 
to carry out the promises of continued care and attention to the volun- 
teers while in the service of their country'; to assist in the relief work 
of furnishing supplies for the hospital slitps or sending nurses to care 
for the sick at Manila it was now necessary to have governmental pro' 
tection. This could only be obtained through the agency of the Red 
Cross Society and the question of expediency in this direction was 
considered. On July 25. Judge Joseph Sheldon nsitcd Portland in 
the interests of the American National Red Cross. In an address 
before the Emergency Corps he presented the advantages result- 
ing to the relief societies of the different States throngh co-operation 
with this national body, advising affiliation as soon as passible. Action 
was deferred on the part of the society till the next regnlar meeting in 
order that members might be given an opportunit>* to investigate for 
themselves. Meanwhile, the executive board held several conferences 
with Judge Sheldon relative to their power to continue loral work, and 
their obligations as an organization to the national committee. At* 



4SO 



THE RED CROSS. 



regtilar meeting July 30th the subject was resumed, and after a pr«sea- 
latioii of both sides of the question a nnaninious vote in favor of affilia- 
tion resulted. The name of the organization was changed to the 
Oregon Emergency Corps and Red Cross Society and au application 
made to the national committee for proper recognition. The wi^om 
of the step was demonstrated a few weeks later when transportation was 
given by the govcmmejit for two nurses, Dr. Frances Woods and Miss 
l,eua KiUiani for Manila. These nursts were outfitted and furnished 
funds by the Portland Society and sent forward on the "Arizona *' as 
Oregon's representatives in the relief work of caring for her sick or 
suffering volunteers. 

Reports having been received of the sickness and general discom- 
fort of the Oregon recruits at Camp Merritt, the liociety, at a meeting 
held August 6, voted to send the president, Mrs. H. E. Jones, and Mrs. 
he\i Young to visit Che recruits and inquire into the matter. They 
proceeded at once to San Francisco, spending two weeks in investigat- 
ing conditions and doing whatever their judgment advised to make 
more comfortable their unpleasant surroundings. These recruits, 
whom it was expected would be sent at once to their officers and regi- 
ment, turned out veritable military orphans stranded at Camp Merritt 
and left for weeks to Uie care of young officers from other regiments. 
Happily this condition is changed, as on the twentieth of August they 
were turned over to the command of an able and experienced officer, 
Major Goodale, of the Tweuty-tliird U. S. Infantry. They liave since 
been moved tu the Presidio, where surroundings are pleasaiiier, pend- 
ing orders for their transportation to their own regiment at Manila or 
return to their homes. 

During their stay in San Francisco the representatives of the 
Oregon Emergency Corps and Red Cross Society were enabled to look 
into the various lines of relief work of the Califoniia society. Many 
courtesies were extended by the officers of the State and local associa- 
tions, valuable suggestions were received, and it was also their privilege 
to attend the meeting of the State A.ssociation, held in Golden Gate 
hall, and listen to Judge Sheldon's able address upon the American 
National Red Croas. 

It gives us pleasure to publicly acknowledge the unbounded grati- 
tude of the Emergency Corps of Portland for the many kindnesses 
bestowed by the women of the California Red Cross upon the soldiers 
from Oregon. First, for their attention to the Second Regiment Vol- 
unteers, who, though with them but a few weeks, were the redpients 




THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 



45« 



of many comforts; but more particularly to the sick or a£Elictcd ones of 
the Oregon recruits for whom they have cared, supplying Ixith medicines 
and delicacies and in other ways providing for their necessities. 

In the space of this article it is impossible to mention in detail the 
many contributions from patriotic citizens throughonl the State of 
Oregon. Gifts from corporations, business houses, independent leagues 
and individuals bear testimony lo the interest all feel in this great 
relief work, and their cou6deuce in the Red Cross Society, through 
which their offerings are dispensed. The press has been our staunch 
and valued friend, freely giving editorials and space to further the 
cause. 

There are no salaried officers, men and women having generously 
ffiven their time from the first day of organization to the present. It 
has been the aim of the officers to faithfully and conscientiously dis- 
charge their duties, realizing the grcit responsibility and confidence 
reposed in them. 

Each month a carefully prepared report of the proceedings, receipts 
and disbursements of the society has been given the public, and the 
treasurer's report here appended is in full from April 26 to November 5. 

The work of the organization will be carried on in future, as in 
the past, along every line which best serves the interest of those for 
whose beiiefit it was begun. The treasurer's report shows : receipts, 
$7,526.03 ; disbursements, $6,389.54 ; balance on hand, $1,136.49. 



■m^ 



(i^ 



pAsttttAHA or HAWnjU 



4S» 



THE RED CROSS. 



THE RED CROSS OF WASHINGTON. 



Extract Fbom the Ofj^iciai, Rsport. 

The tocsin of war starle<l in each coinimmity, from which went 
out the brave dcfeuders, a desire to Ijencfit and make soldier life more 
comfortable. As emergency corps, relief corps, or without name, the 
women went to work to do sometliitig for the soldiers. The Red Cross 
was a name to most known only in an indefinite way, until reports 
began to come in of grand wort done. Not knowing how to proceed, 
groping in the dark, feeling our own way instinctively, we organized 
in Tacoma and Seattle. The Seattle Red Cross, desiring a. State 
organization, called a convention for Augnst 16, to meet at Seattle, and 
successfully latmclied the Red Cro«> of Washington. 

Of the work done much of it has not been reported to the State 
Association, and even the reports represent only a small part of the work 
done throughout the State. Had all reported to a common centre 
Washington would have made a magnificent showing. As it was, all 
contributions have been sent directly to the company each city was 
directly interested in. Thus much relief given the soldiers materially 
or financially by the State of Washington cannot be stated here, as 
many of the emergency corps and other relief societies have disbanded 
since the cessation of hostilities. However, the Red Cross of Wash- 
ington is effecting auxiliary Red Crow societies all over the State, and 
in the future all relief work in this State will be under the insignia of 
the Red Cross. 

The Red Cross of Washington was organized on August 16, at 
Seattle. The officers are: 




Un. John fi. Allen, President Seattle. 

Un. Chauncy Origgn, Vtce-I're-iident, Tocom*. 

Mn. J. C. Ilaincs, Vice-President, SeatUe. 

Hlu Birdie BealH, Vice-E'rexiilent, 1a Conner. 

Mn. Lcater S. Wilson, Vice-President Walla WalU. 

Mtb. Vii^inia K. Huywootl, Vlce-P resident Spokane. 

Mr*. Johu C. Evans, Vice-President, Xew Whatctnn. 

Mra. Francia Rotch, CorresjioncltDg Recirtnrv, , T51S Thirtecnlh ave., Seattle. 
Misa Helen J. Cowic, AssisUut Coritsponding Secretary, . . .Seattle. 



THE RED CROSS OF WASHINGTON. 455 

Hiss Sadie Mnyniuxl, TrvaiUTct, 807 North J si., Tacnuia. 

Miss Jessie S«}'niour, Assistant Trcrasurcr, . Tacoma. 

Hiss MsTLi; Hewitt, Rccunliiig SecreUry joi Nortll Poorlli St., Taconu. 

lliB. BrercU Griggs, Asastaiit RccunUng Secreury TbcoDM. 



Seattle Red Cross, 

In answer to a call issued by Mrs, J. C. Haines (lirough the Daily 
Press to all loyal women of Seattle, there were gathered in Elks Hall, 
June 20, 1898, nearly one hundred wornen, anxious to organize on 
definite lines; the universal scnliirtcnt ]M.T\'ai!ing, that organization 
under the Red Cross banner would result iu the most effective work. 
The present officers arc: 

Mrs. J, C. Hainrs, President. 

Mrs. II. E. Holmes, Vice-Pre*ideiiL 

Mn. Hary M. Miller, Se<:uud Vice-President 

Mr^ C I>. Sitnaon Tretusurer. 

Mrs. W. v. Giddlngs, Recording Secretary. 

Mrs. H. C. Colver, . Correspoiuliiig Secretary. 



An executive committee was elected, composed of twelve members, 
with the officers tx-offido members of the same. The constitution and 
by-laws were drafted and copies mailed to all local Red Cross Societies 
of \Va.shington. Through the various committees much work has 
been accomplished, the same spirit which prevaded the organization in 
its infancy' having increa5icd until the membership uow shows Uvo 
hundred and fifty active members. 

It afforded the Seattle society great satisfaction to be able to send 
to the national society a check for $500. To the captains of Companies 
B and D, Washington Volunteers, at San Francisco, was sent $.150 to 
be used in cases of illness and other emergencies, and to the Indepen- 
dent Battalion, U'asliington Volunteers, at Vancouver Barracks, was 
sent $100 for similar purposes. In many instances the relief committee 
has drawn upon tlie emergency fund for the relief of soldiers' families. 
Upon a half day's notice fifty-one lunches were put up by the memliers 
for a company of volunteers on their way to .San Franciso, and to a 
call from Major L. R. Dawson, for funds to purchase food and milk for 
hospital patients at the Presidio, the society responded with $100. To 



456 



*HTr"Rl 



the sufferers from the New Wesliuiiistcr fire was disbursed over ^oo. 
collected by the Seattle Red Cross womea, aud S50 was donated by tlie 
society itself. Carloads of food, cols aud needful cloUiiuif were sent 
and distributed by a committee chosen by the society. The chaimmn 
of the Sewing Committee has expended S401.43 for material for Red 
Cross work aud much besides has been donated by Seattle merchants. 
From this material have been made Z32 deuiiu pillowcases, 843 flannel 
bandages. 408 eider-down caps aud 248 housewives (the latter filled 
with necessaries and comforts), besides hospital night sliirts, haadker- 
Chiefc and a variety of difTereut bandages. To Dr. L. R. Dawson, 
surgeon of the First Washington Volunteers, was sent a dozen boxes 
of hospital supplies aud delicacies to bn shipped on the transport 
"Ohio" wiUi that portion of our troops, and the society has also 
decided to take charge of a Christmas box to be sent to the Washington 
Volunteers at Manila. 



Tacoma Red Cross. 

T/ie Tacoma Red Cross was the first Red Cross organization in the 
State of Washington, and has done most effective work. The officers 
are: 

Mrs. Chauiicy Griggs, president; Mrs. A. Tl. Bull, first vice- 
president; Mrs. G. S. Holmes, second vice-president; Mrs. Lincoln 
Gault, third vice-president; Mr, Chester Thome, treasurer; Mrs.W. C 
Wheeler, assistant treasurer; Mrs. Frank Sharpe, recording secretary; 
Mrs. H. M. Thomas, corresponding secretary. 

The Taconia Red Cross has 400 members. Receipts, $684.82. 
Disbtirsemeuts, $592.08. 



Walla Walla Rhd Cross. 



In June, 1898, a temporary orgauization w.-w effected at W^atla 
Walla, known as the Red Cross Aid, with Mrs. J. H. Stockwell a.^ 
chairman. This .Aid .Society cared for and entertained 229 soldiers 
passing through, and forwarded to Company I, several boxes of 
bfiudftg;efi, towels, handkercliiefs, etc. On September 21, 1898, the 
Red Cross Aid became a permanent organisation under the name of 
the Walla Walla Red Cross and the following officers were elected: 



THE RED CROSS OF WASHINGTON. 457 

Mrt. Lester S. 'Wilsoa Prtsident. 

Mrs. Thomas H. UretiUi. Vice-I'resideitt. 

Mra. D. T. Kygcr, Vi«-ITcsidtut. 

Hiss Orace O. Tsaacii, , ■ ' RM»rdiii(; Secretary. 

Mro. Eugene Boycr, Corrcsponditig Sccrctarf, 

ilra. George Wliitehouse Treasurer. 



Upon notice that Company I was to start fur Manila, the Red Cross 
of Walla Walla forwarded money and delicacies to the value of $100. 
Since permanent organization, the membership has more than doubled, 
and now numbers about one hundred and fifty. Receipts, ^1,408.00. 
Dtsbursemeuts, $1,058.00. 



Spokake Red Cross. 

A meeting for the organization of a Red Cross Auxiliary was 
called in Spokane, Washington, on July 11, 1898. Two days later the 
Gnal ofganizatiou was couiplcted and oSicers elected to scr\'e until the 
annual meeting in October: 

The work of the society has been largely along the lines of raising 
fnads for supplies, and to aid the families of the two companies of 
volunteers, Company O and L, both of which have gone to Manila. 
Supplies of underclothing, socks, towels, soap, combs, sleeping caps, 
fever bauds and other necessary articles ha^-e been seut. Five hundred 
pounds of jellies were sent to Manila. Christmas packages have been 
sent to CT'ery man in the two companies. The sewing committee ia 
steadily at work on hospital supplies. The membership is 173. 

The present officers are: 



Mrs. ViTfpniaK. Hay word Presidnit. 

Mrs. George Turner Hoiiornble Vice-PrcstdcnL 

Mrs. F. P. Emery First Vicc-Pn»id«at 

Mrs. H. Snlmonsoo, Second Vice-PrcsidcnL 

Mr». A. J. Shaw CorrcBpoadiiig Secretary. 

Mra, L. J. Biidseye Recorijing Secretary. 

Mra. N. W. Durham, Treasurer. 

Receipts ^1.78 

Disbursemeiita 355 -07 

Cash on band 1596-7* 



458 



'HE RED CROSS. 



To MUs Birdie Seals belongs the credit of organizing the La 
Conner Auxiliary, and also the Bclliiiglmin Bay Auxiliarj- at New 
Whatcom. The La Conner Auxiliary was most active to respond to 
the call of the Ked Cross. They .sent large boxes of fruits and jellies 
to the Hospital of the First Regiment Wa.shinglon Vohniteers. made 
caps and bandages, e(c. , and contributed towards the outfit for the 
First Regiment Washington Volunteers. 

The lielliiighani Red Cross was organized by Miss Birdie Heals, 
President of the La Conner Auxiliary. They have adopted the consti- 
tution and bylaws, selected officers and are ready to do active work. 
The officers are: Mrs. John A. Evans, president; Mrs. E. S. McCord, 
vice-president; Mrs. S. J. Craft, recording secretarj'; Mrs. T. J. 
Kershaw, corresjjonding secretary; Mrs. E. W. Pardy, treasurer. 

The reptJrt from the Emcrgencv' Corps Ihroughont the State is 
very incomplete, as many corjw who have done good work have sent 
directly to the Company of soldiers raised in that particular town, and 
not reported to the Red Cross at all. 

The following is an extract from the report of the Emergency^ 
Corps: 



Th« EmerRency Corps of the Stale of Wasbington, having accomplished, as 
far as lay within its pow«t, tlie work fur whiuli it or({anlzed, has, through its 
officers and executive twani and wilb the consent of its mcmbcrti an reprcscmed at 
the meeting of Oclotier 1 1 , decided ta diabaiid. 

At tti« time of its orxanizahoa the corps pledged its undivided effort to the 
service of the volunteers of the State of Washinjfton during the -war between the 
Unitwl Stntex am) Spain. Tlmt emergency having happily ended in victory aiid 
peace, the society feels that its special work is over. To those of its member* who 
can Btill devote tiiiic and strength to patriotic mid Uuuiane vEfoil, the president and 
the executive board cordiatly sngg*Bl that they enroll them5elve.i na nicmbcrs of 
the Tacoma Red Cross socieiy organised lor permanent effort in the broad field of 
the nation')) and tlie world'n need, and when the aid and support that tlicy Can 
gi%-e will result in practical beiietit to any cause to which it is applied. 

In closing the work of this organisation the officers and executive board wish 
to make a public report of what has been itccomplished during the four months of 
its existence. In absolute Iiaraiony the society has workefl togetlicr, members and 
ofEccT* alike. Tlie following reconl. Uken from the aecreUry's lost report, speaks 
for itself in proof of tlie patriotic energy which h«« in»pirerl its labors. Since 
June I the Emergency Corps of the Slate of Wa.thiiigton has diislributed for Ihc nac 
of state volonlccrs: Flannel abdominal bandngcs, towels, suits of pBJaniaa. night 
ahlrts, sniti hnlbHggan underwear, hospital pads and shirts, hospital pillow cans, 
and linen handkerchiefs. 



THE RED CROSS OK WASHINGTON. 



■ 459 



In clodng the work of ihe organiuition tlie ofliccn and executive board dc&irc 
to express their appreciation of the aid aud fi,vinpatliy extended them by the public 
<nd especially by the tueteltaiita of TitcuiiiM. whose donntionD of money and male- 
rial ABsifttcd no largely in what has been accompHthcd. To tlie Taconia ChHtntxrr of 
Coiiiiuerce they ace jji^eatly iudcbteil for the use of a room, for headquarters and 
for work and stur^ge luumx. To thv Northern Pacific Exprew Company, and to 
tlie Northern Pacific Steamship Company, they owe many thanks for aid and 
courtesy. It is imposaible in thb short siiiiiiuary to enumernte ever>' instanct- of 
cordial sympathy and support which has cheered and aided the Eucrgcncy Corps 
in itB lalwra; froni all niile* cncouraacnieiit cunie iiiid ftuboliintial help. 

In diesolvioR the bciad betweeu officers and meuiberB now remaius in eadi 
heart a cordial incmury of mutual interest and sympalby, respect and coniidence. 

To the press of Taconia the Mmergency Corps acknowledges its many cdiliga- 
tions. To the pre»s and citizens of the State at iarg;e it is also indebted for niiicli 
of its power of uscfulueas and would expreux an e»mesl appreciation and gratitude. 
The foltowin)^ letter waa received from Captain Sturges. of Company C* stationed 
at the Prcaidio, San Francisco: 

To the Ladies of ike iyashington Emergency Corps, Tactfma, Washington: 

It is with a feeling of almost inexpressible gratitude that the officers and mcni- 
bera of Company C, I'irat Washington Volunteer Infantry*, try to express to you 
their vannest and most lasting thanks for your kind and wry uaefuldonAtions and 
yonr expressions of sympathy and interest. The many kindnesses of their Emer- 
geney Corps have dune much to help the soldiers more eiutly to bear their many 
hardsbipA and to more enjoy their few comforts, knowing that kind hearts are 
iuiercvted in their wi;lfare. 

We unite in wishing you all the reward that your noble work so justly merits. 

Very thankfully yours, U. C Sturgbs, 

CaptatH CommaHding. 



460 • THE RED CROSS. 



PORTO RICO. 

The labors of the Executive Committee of the Red Cross in New 
York were not confined to the work in the camps. Upon them devolved 
the larger share of the responsibility for the administration of relief 
everywhere, including the vast correspondence and the myriad details 
that arise in connection with the systematic management of a work so 
fer-reaching and varied as the auxiliary relief by the Red Cross in time 
of war. 

Outside of the United States, the relief of the sick and wounded in 
war was not confined to Cuba and the Philippines, but was extended to 
Porto Rico. Horace F. Barnes, of Boston, Mass., was appointed by 
the committee as the field agent of the Red Cross in Porto Rico, and 
taking with him a large assortment of supplies, sailed on the transport 
' ' Concho ' ' for Ponce on the thirteenth of August. Later, General W. 
T. Bennett, of Philadelphia, Pa., was appointed to assist Mr. Barnes. 
All requisitions from Porto Rico were promptly filled by the committee 
and the relief continued so long as any necessity for it remained. Of 
the field work in Porto Rico the following report is made: 



Report by Horace F. Barnes. 

Red Cross relief work for Porto Rico began with the arrival of a 
detachment of female nurses before the American and Spanish armies 
had ceased hostilities. These nurses, however, were ordered back to 
the States at once as attendants for returning sick and wounded 
soldiers. On the tenth of August the Executive Committee commis- 
sioned me as the Red Cross field agent for Porto Rico, and put me in 
charge of a cargo of relief supplies then on the steamship " Concho," 
which sailed from New York on August 13. 

With the aid of a good military map of the island, and of informa- 
tion obtained before sailing as to the location of the different divisions 
of the army, during the voyage the line of Red Cross work was deter- 
mined. The army was in three divisions. The eastern, under General 
Brooke, was above Guayama; the central, under General Wilson, was 
at Ponce and vicinity; the western, under General Schwan, was in 
Mayaguez and the neighboring region. 



PORTO RICO. 



461 



It seemed to be the natural course to visit lliese divisions as soon 
as possible, ascertain their sanitary condition, give supplies as needed 
for the sick, vroonded and convalescent, and then, after supplying the 
American forces, to visit the Spanish camps and hospitals and provide 
for Ihem. Aftcn^'a^ds headquarters for stores and operations should 
be fixed at the most central convenient port for receiving goods from 
New York and distributing tlieni witli least cost and difficulty to all 
army stations. The plan outlined was closely followed, circumstances 
making it easily possible to do so. The " Concho " arrived at Pouce 
00 August 20. 

Two days afterward the ship with the cargo of Red Cross stores 
still unbroken on board, started for Arroyo, the port of Guayania, 
about thirty miles east of Ponoc, whcrt: General Brooke's command 
had its bxM! of operations. There a large sclecuon of relief supplies 
was left in charge of Cliief Surgeon Huidekoper. of the division 
hospital at Guayama. Nothing could have been more anspidon.-i .is 
the beginning of Ritl Cross work in Porto Rico than this quick .and 
free transportation of supplies to a distant command, with Uie minimum 
of labor and delay, at a period of most urgent need. 

Returning, the "Concho" renched Ponce again on tlte twenty- 
fifth. The same night, on ascertaining that the steamship " Alamo" 
was to proceed the next day to Mayagut-z and Arccilw. I arranged for 
lighters to put a cargo on iKwird, to be divided between these two iH>rts, 
intending the first for General Schwan's command, and the second 
for the Sixth Massachusetts, at Utuado. the latter to l)e Iandc<l at 
Arccilio. The Surgeon of the Sixth Massachusetts was accordingly 
notified by wire to have wagons sent up to Arecibo lo meet the 
"Alamo" on her arrival. Every thing worked admirably. The 
"Alamo" reacheil Mayagiiez August 27, and ample supplies for the 
hospital of General Schwan's command were landed at ^fayagnez, and 
delivered to Dr. Bailey K. Asliford, surgeon in charge, who expressed 
most cordial and grateful ap])reciat)on. 

Thence the "Alamo" proceede<l, August 29, to Arecilw, which 
■port was reached on the same day. There the wagons of the Sixth 
MassadmsetLs from Utuado were found in readiness to rccvive the 
consignment of goods brought for them, which were put in charge of 
Assistant Surgeon of the Sixth Massachusetts, Dr. F. A. W.'ishbuni. 
At Arecibo was a strong force of Spanish troops, having a military 
and a Red Cross hospital. The Spanish military commander, the 
captain of the port, and the chief surgeon of the Red Cross hospital, 



463 



THE RED CROSS. 



personally gave the kindest attentions, conducting me to all the 
military quarters and hospitals, yet while expressing thanks for the 
offer of goods from the American Red Cross, they declared they were 
not in need, as was evidently the case. 

On the same day, August 29, my visit and departure having been 
wired \Q the Siianish Governor General Macias at San Juan, I took 
train thither, reaching the capital in the evening. The next day with 
an interpreter I visited General Macias at his headquarters, and was most 
cordially received, given the freedom of the city, especially including 
all the forts, l>arracks and hospitals, and on inquir>' allowed if I chose 
to make any photographs of the military works, concerning which he 
said it did not matter as they would lie .so »iK)U in the hands of the 
Americans. Five days were .spent in San Juan. The forts, barracks 
and hospitals of the Spaniards were visited, hnt all need of American 
Red Cross supplies was courteonsly disavowed, evidently with truthful- 
ness, for signs of want were nowhere apparent. General Marias 
kindly gave me a pass through all the Spanish militarj' guards nnd civil 
jurisdictions under his command throughout the island of Porto Rico. 

With this pass I started from San Juan September 2 by coach for 
Ponce. At Caguas I was politely invited hy the German Consul General 
of Porto Rico, Herr Adolph Rauschenplat, who had been traveling 
alone in his coach behind me from San Juan, to join him in his carriage, 
and send mine back to San Juan. The invitation was heartily accepted. 
We dined together at Cayey. On reaching Aibouito while our relay 
of horses was being harnessed, and we had been surrounded by the 
Spanish soldiers and townspeople, engaging in pleasant chat with them, 
suddenly the captain of the Spanish troops with a guard appeared and 
marched us unceremoniously to the guardhouse. There we were chal- 
lenged , and a parley ensued, until I showetl my pass from General Macias. 
The change of front was spectacular, apologies were profuse, but I 
ended the affair by insisting successfully that the officer sign his name 
to my pass which was already rather heavily overloaded with the names 
of military and civil magnates, both Spanish and American. 

This trip was memorable not only for the enjoyment of a ride over, 
one of the best long roads in the world, amid the displays of all tropical 
frviits and flora, \news of many characteristic people, habitations, cus- 
toms, and cultivated sections of the island, but for the intelligent and 
charming exposition of ever>*thing, together with discu:ssion of the 
social, political, military and commercial interests and problems of 
Porto Rico, at the present stage of affairs, by Herr Rauschenplat^ 



1 


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i 


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1 H 



PORTO RICO. 



465 




whose English speech scarcely betrays his Gennaa Temacnlar or bis 
cuiitoiDary Spanish. 

ArriWug at Ponce on the evening of September 2, on the following 
day storage for Red Cross goods was secured in the Custom House at 
the Playa, or Port of Ponce, which continued our only headquarters 
during work in Porto Rico. The distribution of goods commenced on 
Sunday, September 4. The goods at first distributed in Police were 
the remainder of the cargo brought on the " Concho," but left in charge 
of and lightered off of the "Concho," and carefully stored by kind 
agreement in the Custom House, when 1 was obliged to depart on the 
"Alamo" for Mayaguez and Arecibo or lose a most valuable oppor- 
tunity for distributing stores where urgently needed. 

Everj' applicant not seeking for himself alone was interrogated as 
to the number of sick or convalescents for whom the goods were desired, 
and informed that our provisions were specifically for these classes. 
The amount bestowed was in view of the number of sick thus reported. 
Then on a sheet of paper headed by the dale of application all articles 
were recorded, checked off when taken, aud the signature of theofficer 
applying was affixed. Then my official stamp as field agent was 
affixed, and the paper put on file as a voucher. All goods received by 
steamer came into the office under my personal supervision, and with 
very few nece*sar>' exceptions none wcut out without it. 

On September 4 the office work of the Red Cross in Porto Rico 
was inaugurated with five representative issues of stores, which became 
matter of record. As the later files show, the number rapidly multi- 
plied and the office work was increased by a constant procession of 
single applicants for small things. A dose of medicine, a pencil, an 
abdominal band, a comfort bag, something to read, a pair of stockings, 
a handkerchief, a towel — a little stationer>' — such applicatiotLf alone 
made work enough for one man, and one had to be secured, Corporal 
Patrick Syrou, who was detailed from the First Engineers, and whose 
help was invaluable. 

As the work was increasing very rapidly, and appeals pouring in 
from all the camps and hospitals, the executive committee sent as my 
assistant General W. T. Bennett, who arrived September 7 on the 
"Seneca," which also brought a fresh and valuable cargo of stores. 
Having like myself had army experience in the Civil War, General 
Bennett easily grasped the situation, aud while I attended specially to 
the distribution of goods at the office, be gave efficient help in manag- 
ing the outside relations of the work, made doubly exacting by the 

36 



466 



THE RED CROSS. 



necessity of lightering off all goods from ships, and transferring them 
b)" native porters to the headqaarters, amidst piles of army stores, and 
a horde of omnipresent and vigilant thieves. Any lull in the office 
work was impro\'cd in nsiting hospitals and camps, and noting how 
goods were received and distributed. By frequent consultatioa of the 
ofiicial figures, at the chief surgeon's office, of the sick, rate at all 
military stations on the island, it was possible to judge correctly con- 
cerning the neediest places for sending relief, and also to judge the 
merits of applications. 

The e)ttr.-»ordinarj- amount of typhoid fc\*er and intestinal diseases 
among the troops was the object of thoughtful attendou. Se^'eral 
uative physicians and army surgeons were solicited to write their 
diagnosis and treatment of the.<ic di<icascs, in the hope that thtdr 
combined testimony may furnish valuable data for guidance of physi- 
cians aud sui^eons who may have charge of oar troops here in the 
future. 

On October 0, Mr. Monroe Scott, arrived from New York on the 
steamship "Chester," to be second assistant in our work. He was 
desirous of giving personal sen.'ice to the sick, as he had just came from 
such work in the Norttiern army hospitals. But the needs at the 
various hospitals iu Porto Rico were being so fully met tliat he gave 
his allcutitm to the varied demauds at the office, where his courteous 
manner and cITtcivncy in detail were highly appreciated. Two ainbu- 
lanccs were scut to Ponce in September. They proved of great value 
in emergency cases requiring quick transportation to and from the 
hospitals, and in cou\'c>'ing our goods for sliort distances. It must be 
admitted, however, that they proved also a delicate responsibility, as 
ei'erybody seemed to regard them as free pleasure coaches in which the 
Red Cross w.is eager to take tlie town to ride. 

A daily care was to note all incoming steamers, to lioard them to 
inquire for Red Crews supplies, also to note all departing steamers and 
provide that all sick and convalescents had Red Cross goods enough 
to insure their comfort for the homeward voyage. The chief surgeons 
were apjwalcd to and a<>ke<t not to allow any detachment of sick men 
to go home without previously notifying us, so that we might provide 
for their nutriment iu supplement to that provided by the Government. 
It is proper to add that the surgeons going home in charge of the sick 
on ships were all attentive to their duty in securing Red Ctom supplies 
for their patient-s. Tweht: .shipments were made for transports carrj'ing 
home the sick. 



PORTO RICO. 



One of the duties of the office was to give first aid to tlie sick and 
injured. Hardly a day passed without our giving many prescriptioiis 
of medicine to soldiers for intestinal troubles, or first dressing lo men 
injured on the pier or ou shipboard. We carefully gave antiseptic 
dressing and bound up gashed heads and limbs, and tenderly conveyed 
the unfortunates to the proper hospitals or to their homes or ships. 

In September on order from New York, we began to furnish ice 
to hospitals not already supplied. We purchased machine-made ice 
at the heavy cost of forty pesos a ton, and had arranged with the 
hospitals of Coamo and Guayaina, the only ones not supplied, to send 
wagons weekly for a load. For this work we were about to establish 
an ice-storage plant, when a large cargo furnished by the Government 
arrived, and although about one hundred tous soon after came from 
New York, consigned to the Red Cross, it was not needed, nor an ice- 
house for storage, as the government supply was freely furnished to all 
in need, and was so large as to last till the Red Cro^ ice, though 
carefully stored in a covered lighter, had entirely mtJted, Had the 
Ooverameut not ttiadc this provision, a free grant of site, lumber and 
labor for au ice plant already secured, would have been utilized. The 
same cablegram authorizing an ice supply also authorized the supply 
of milk as neetled. On inquiry it was found that all of the hospitals 
were already well prov-ided with this article. In case of the hospital 
for the First Engineers, however, the ingenious surgeon. Dr. Probeo, 
had opened negotiations for a cow. and we promptly insisted on paying 
for it, but were allowed to pledge only one-half its cost, which we 
most cheerfully did. 

Twelve hospital tents, 14x14 feet each, were furnished by the 
Red Cross, of which one was loaned to the Engineers' hospital, 
one to the Sixth Massachusetts hospital, and ten were located, under 
medical supcrvi.sion, beneath a row of cocoanut trees, for the accommo- 
dation of convalescents awaiting transportation. A suitable trench was 
dug. flooring put in all the tents by the engineers, and straw was fur- 
nished for bedding by the quartermaster. This camp was named 
" Camp Barton." 

Some of the incidental work of the Red Cross was to answer letters 
of inquiry concerning missing soldiers; to guide numerous strangers 
arriving at the port; to gel stragglers of the army into their proper 
quarters; to help soldiers in various conditionsof distress; always lobe 
ready with a kind look and friendly hand, as proper representatives of 
a generous public, desiring to show full appreciation of these who 



468 



THE RED CROSS. 



upheld the nation's tionor wttU the offering of their li^'es. Every man 
on the staff of the Red Cross in Porto Rico, could he have embodied 
his real preferences, would have spent his wliole time personally with 
the bo)'S in their tents or hospitals, It was a real regret to us all that 
from early morning until dark we had to be hard at work, with few 
exceptions, in dealing out stores and attending to duties at head- 
quarters. 

But as we were ser^'ing, not a campaigning army, hut garrisons 
after hostilities had ceased, and the supply of anrgeons and nnrses was 
ample, there was no need of persona) field ser\'ice on our pail. A 
tribute of respect and praise is demanded in honor of the army officials 
of Porto Rico, es^jecially those of the southern district, so wisely 
administered by General Guy V. Henry, now Governor of Porto Rico, 
The different departments were ably couducted. Their relations were 
entirely cordial. The difficult problems presenting themselves were 
handled iu a manful way. 

The Red Cross carefully avoided the role of critic or censor, and 
sought to conform to the wishes of commanders and surgeons, while 
watchfully providing for the needs of the sick, as ascertained by 
independent investigation. It never had occasion to make a protest, 
nor acted as a meddler, but attended strictly to its own business, and 
kept in its own place as an arraj* auxiliary, and seni-ant of the sick. 
Hence from the first of its work the militarj', naval, surgical, medical, 
commissary and quartermaster's departments treated it as a part of 
their own common fraternity, freely granting all its requests, subjecting 
it to no restrictions, and cordially accepting and forwarding its benefi- 
cent operations. We received every advantage gratuitously. Not in 
a single instance were our requests denied. By this cordial under- 
standing many hundreds of dollars of expense were saved to the 
Red Cross. 

Indications of the heavy sick rate in the army of Porto Rico may 
be found in the following data, gathercil at the time from official 
sources : In Augi«t the surgeon in charge at Maj'aguez reported that 
fully 7-5 per cent of the troops stationed there were sick in hospitals, 
or in quarters, or unfit for duty. September lo there were in the 
district of Ponce over 1400 sick, including 350 tj-phoid cases. 600 
malarial, 350 intestinal diseases. September 20 the ofiBdal report 
shows 750 sick in Ponce, 799 in Coamo, 336 in Mayaguez, 264 in 
Utuado, 22 in Guanica, and 328 in Guayama. September 28th the 
Sixteenth Penn.sylvania Infantry, at Coamn. reoorted 625 sick. One 




PORTO RICO. 



469 



company had no officers on duty, all being ack. October 3 there 
wtre 125 sick in Ponce, 60 in Guayama. 65 in lltiaado, 40 in Mayaguez, 
and 491 at Coamo. Total in these places, 781. Thw great reduction 
in the number of reported sick was due to large shipments of patients 
to the States. October 20 there were 747 sick in the general hospital 
in Ponce, lao in that at Mayaguez, and 135 in that at Guayama. 

On November 10, 603 men were reported sick in the district of 
Ponce. The data above given will best be understood if it is remem- 
bered that they comprise for the most part only hospital inmates. 
The sick in quarters were not generally reported, though ihcy fully 
■ etjualed in luimber those in hospital.'^. Again it should be remembered 
that those unfit for duty equaled in number both of the otlicr two 
classes. In brief, during September, October aud November, not more 
than one-half of tlic army was available for dnt>-. In September a 
captain of engineers informed me that iu the morning he had only 
four men report for duty. 

Several obvious causes operated to produce the great sick rate. 
The effects of exposures and hardships before reaching Porto Rico, the 
nature of the food, malarious influences, native fruits, the heavy rains, 
and the excessive heat, were potent factors iu producing the general 
illness. There was no iu\igoratiou iu the atmosphere, its heat and 
humidity being very depressing, and not allowing rapid recovery after 
prostration. Almost ever>' man lost heavily iu weight, tlie amounts 
varying from twenty-five to one hundred pounds. This was true even 
of those who were extremely careful of (heir diet and habits. During 
September and October a register of temperatures, kept by Dr. Charles 
I. Proben, surgeon of the First Engineers, .showed an average daily 
temperature of 82.52° Fahrenheit, and in Octol»er 80.136* Fahren- 
heit. These figures give litUe snggestion of what the soldiers had to 
endure, as for instance, Septemlier 20 the mercury stood 96" in the 
shade at midday, aud 113** in the sun. Octolicr 3 the mcrcnr>- st<xid 
at 92" at midday. These health conditions made every American in 
Porto Rico a fitting subject for relief, but Red Cross supplies were 
limited as far as practicable to the sick and conv.ilescent. 

The extent and direction of our Red Cross work are indicated 
below: 



Kumber of Uhki Id Iwenty-fotu anuy hospitals ■ . ISO 

K Number of iseuce to UtitLcd States tninsiKirt.<i returning North with sick ... la 

H Kuniber of JMnci to Infiintry, rcgimenta and detachments lot 

H Nnmbcr of Issues to ArtiUcty battcriea 14 



470 THE RED CROSS. 

Number of usu«fl to Cavalry Uoops 6 

Nuntlwr of issues to OfBoers* mesftes 3 

Number of i&sucB to MisceUaneona parties 6r 

Total isfiUM jfe 

These issues were alt recorded, and vouchers filed. The number 
of issues to single applicants for their owu itnmediate use, mostly 
private soldiers, were over laoo. Prescriptions of medicine to sick 
soldiers, applying at the office, about 300. Wounds dressed at office, 
iu £rsl aid to wounded men, about 30. Sick carried in ambulances of 
Red Cro&s, 50. 

The camps and hospitals served by the Red Cross were scattered 
all over the island, some accessible only tfarotigh diflicult mountain 
passes, bad roads, or by loug sea voyages, aecessitaliug weekly consul- 
tation of the chief surgeons, sick reports from all military stations, and 
careful study of the best routes and meaus of transportation. 

Three mouths' experience lead one to say that if a man knows how 
to keep a hotel, run a restaurant, and a refreshment stand; if he be a 
good grocer, dry goodsmaii, apothecary, financier, accountant, doctor, 
and liiigwist; if he have the strength of a Samsiin, the patience of a. 
Job, and the cheerfulness of the morning lark; if he ha\'e the power to 
see much and say little, to sweat and not swear, to behold limitless 
suifering and be fair to all; if he is pachydcrmous to the shafts of 
criticism, diplomat enough to secure universal favor, and worthy to 
hold it by solid merit, let him try a Field Agency of the Red Cross with 
confi<lence, for in such service he will need all of these qualities in 
abundance. And yet, in the midst of it all, he will daily hear the 
sweetest words of gratitude, and feel that he is doing the most self- 
rewarding work of his whole life. 



Shipments by Transports, 



By the coiirtesy of the War Department, the Executive Committee 
were enabled to make several shipments, botli to Cuba and to Porto 
Rico, on the United States transports. With the exception of the 
5rst cargo by the "Port Victor," the larger part of these supplies 
which should properly have been consigned to the Red Cross at tlie 
front, were sent direct lo the commanding officers, or to the officers 



PORTO RICO. 



471 



of the medical departioeut of the army, upon request. The consign- 
ment of the " Port Victor," although received by the Red Cross aod 
forwarded to Gibra for distribution, was afterward laLen by an officer 
of the U. S. army without permission. Among the shipments were : 
" Port Victor," July 10, to Santiago, 800 tons general provisions and 

medical supplies. 
"New Hampshire," July 15, to Santiago, 35 tons groceries and hos- 
pital supplies. 
"Olivette," July 18, to Santiago, clothing and delicacies. 
"Resolute," July 19, to Santiago, general supplies and clothing. 

Value, $2000. 
" Missouri," July ig, to Santiago, clothing, laundry plant, ice phint, 

cots and delicacies. 
"Seneca," July 21, to Santiago, clothing for 50 men. 
" Kanawa," July 22, to Santiago, 10 cases of supplies. 
*' Concho," August i, to Santiago, supplies for 200 men. 
" Breakwater," August 6, lo Santiago, 10 cases general supplies. 
" Harvard," Augtist 5, to Santiago, 16 cases groceries and clothes. 
" Altai," August 5, to Santiago, 96 cases delicacies and clothing. 
"Seguranca," August 20, to Santiago, 113 cases provisions and soups. 
" Port Victor," October 7, to Santiago, 1 15 tons of ice, 50 equipped 

cots. 
"Concho," August 13, to Porto Rico, 900 cases general provisions and 

50 e<iuipped cots. 
"Yucatan," September 7, lo Porto Rico, 545 cases general provisions 

and medical supplies. 
"Obdam," September 14, to Porto Rico, 387 cases assorted provisions 

and 7 ambulances. 
" Chester," September 27, to Porto Rico, 406 cases assorted supplies. 
" Missouri," September 19, to Porto Rico, 60 cases general supplies. 
" Berlin," September 20, to Porto Rico, 20 barrels ginger ale. 
"Port Victor," October 7, to Porto Rico, 115 tons of ice and 50 

equipped cots, duplicate of shipment to Santiago. 

["Panama," October 12, to Porto Rico, 300 cases of groceries and 
clothing, 50 equipped cots and loi cases medicine for General 
Wood at Santiago. 
Since their appointment by the President of the United States, the 
Central Cuban Relief Committee have been busily engaged in carr>ing 
on the great work entrusted to them by the government. In addition 
to the smaller consignments of materials sent for distribution to the 



473 THE RED CROSS. 

relief stations in Cuba and on the Florida coast, they have expended 
in the purdiase and forwarding of larger shipments of relief, over two 
hundred thousand dollars, and have collected in mon^ and supplies 
nearly half a million. The latest important shipment was sent by 
the steamer " City of San Antonio," consisting of an assorted cargo of 
about 700 tons, which was landed at the port of Matanzas, and distrib- 
uted by the representatives of the Red Cross in charge of the vessel. 



REPORT OF THE RELIEF COMMITTEE. 473 



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS RELIEF COMMITTEE 

OF NEW YORK. 

The origin of this great volunteer emergency committee has 
already been explained in these pages. But the storj' of their wonder- 
ful work can never be fully told. With their co-operation much suffer- 
ing has been prevented or relieved, and many lives have been saved; 
through the ministrations made possible by their effort-s, the humblest 
private in the ranks now realizes that " the great heart of the nation 
will not let the soldier die. ' * No words can express the gratitude of 
the Red Cross for their powerful assistance. Faithful, earae.st and 
efficient, they have labored incessantly through the campaign, and 
now at the close they make the following short but eloquent report: 



Report op the Relief Committee. 
Organised May J , tSp8. 

Officers. — Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D. D., chairman; Alexauder 
E. Orr, vice-chairman; William T. Wardwell, vice-chairman; John P. 
Faure. Secretary; Frederick D. Tappeu, treasurer; Samuel Woolvcr- 
ton. assistant treasurer. 

Members. — Dr. Felix Adler, Bishop Edward G. Andrew.s, August 
Belmont, Joseph H. Choate, William P. Clyde, John D. Crinimins, 
Chauncey M. Depew, Cleveland H. 15otJge, John P. Faurc, Edwin 
Gould, Clement A. Griscom, Jr., John S. Huyler, Morris K. Jcsup, 
Edwin Laiigdon, Dr. A. M. Les.ser, William G. Low, Rev. Sylvester 
Malone, J. Pierpont Morgan, I^evi P. Morton, Alexander E. Orr, 
Ri. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D., LL-D.. Percy R. Pync. Douglas 
Robinson, John D. Rockefeller, Jacob H. Schiff. Gustav H. Schwab, 
Charles Stewart Smith, Dr. George F. Shrady, James Speyer, 
William R. Stewart, A. S. 5iolomons, Frederick D. Tappen, Howard 
Tcwnsend, Dr. T. Gaillard Thoma.s, William T. Wardwell. 

Executive Committee. — William T. Wardwell, chairman; John P. 
Faure, secretary; Levi P- Morton, Frederick D. Tappen, George F. 
Shrady, M. D., William G. Low, Gustav IT. Schwab, Cleveland H. 
Dodge, A. S. Solomon.<, Douglas Robinson, Howard Townscnd, A. 
Monac Lesser, M.D.; Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D., LL-D.. ex- 
officio; Alexander E. Orr, ex-officio. 



474 THE RED CROSS. 

Finance Committee. — ^J. Pierpont Morgan, chainnan; Frederick D. 
Tappen, vice-chairman; August Belmont, James Speyer, Gustav H. 
Schwab, Edwin Langdon, Levi P. Morton. 

Committee on Yacht ''Red Cross." — William T. Wardwell, Gustav 
H. Schwab, Alexander E. Orr. 

Supply Committee. — Cleveland H. Dodge, chainnan; Mrs. W. S. 
Cowles, Mrs. John Lyon Gardiner, John S. Huyler, Percy R. Pyne, 
George F. Shrady, M. D., A. S. Solomons, Howard Townsend; Miss 
Helen Fidelia Hoffman, secretary; F. C. Garmany, purchasing agent. 

Medical Advisory Board. — Wm. H. Draper, M.D., chainnan; 
Andrew J. McCosh, M.D., secretary; Francis P. Kinnicutt, M.D., 
Francis Delafield, M.D., John S. Billings, M.D., Edward G. Janeway, 
M.D., Charles McBurney, M.D., Richard H. Derby, M. D. 



Trbasdrkr's Report 
And Analysis of Expenditures, May p to December r, 1898. 

Total receipts 1305,229 66 

OflSce supplies |5iit7 S9 

Food supplies, groceries, milk, fruit, etc. 46,067 95 

Cots and equipments 24,946 09 

Medical supplies, wines, liquors, etc ".357 33 

Clothing and dry goods i)4i3 61 

Miscellaneous supplies . . 16,051 14 

Account nurses 17.718 24 

Ambulances and mules 7,782 56 

Ice 27,666 14 

Yacht " Red Cross " and maintenance 54.057 16 

Cash to General Committee, account of camps 59,91302 

Laundry plant 1,230 10 

Freight, express charges, towing, transportation, etc . 4,283 05 277,604 28 

Balance on hand 127,625 3S 

Woman's Committee on Auxiliaries. — Mrs. John Lyon Gardiner, chairman; 
Mrs, Paul Dana, secretary; Miss Martha L. Draper, treasurer; Mrs. Butler Duncan, 
Mrs. James W, Gerard, Mrs. Bettina Hofker Lesser, Mrs. J. Pierpont Morgan, Dr. 
Lucy Hall Brown, Mrs. W, S. Cowles, Mrs, Wiuthrop Cowdin, Mra. Levi P, Mor- 
ton, Mrs. Henry C. Potter, Mrs. G. F. Shrady. 

By a resolution of the Executive Committee the above ladies were 
appointed a Woman's Committee on Auxiliaries, charged with the duty 
of organizing auxiliary committees throughout the United States, to 



REPORT OF THE RELIEF COMMITTEE. 



475 



assist in Red Cross work. This committee met for the first time on 
May 12, and it was decided to interest, b>- personal effort and corres- 
poudeiice, the people of the country in sen'ing the sick and wounded 
soldiers and sailors during the war without regard to nationality, in 
accordauce with the rules of the Conference of Geneva. 

From its iuaugural meeting on May t2 until the present date the 
Woman's Committee has authorized the organi/^atton of ninety-two 
auxiliaries, many of these with numerous sub-auxiliaries, thus spread- 
ing the work throughout the country from Maine to the Rocky 
MouDtaius, the western limit of the work of the Relief Committee. 



The Fou-owiNG Auxiuaribs Wkre Okganizbd: 



Ne. 



Nfttne. 



ritux. 



New York 



I FirstN.Y. AmbtUance 

Equip. Society ■ . New York . . 
a Women's Confer. Soc; 

of Ethical Cullnre. " '* . . 
3Maiutcnance of 

Trained Nurac« . . " " . . 
4 Yonkcr*. N. V. 

5 MctcaJf-Bliss Hospital 

Cot Bquipment . . 

6 Columbia University " ■• . . . . 
7N.Y. CityCh. D.A.R. " •' ... 

8 Council of Jewish 

Women " " . . . , 

9 lianford Worn. Aux. Hartford, CoDO. 
lo Ice Plant Auxiliary . New York . . ■ 

It Norwalk, Cono. 

13 Soldiers' Field Hosp. New York . . 

13 Mohcgmi Ch. D.A.R. Sing Sihr. N. Y. 

14 ......... . Moriistown, N, J. 

1$ Green Twigs Aux. . Flushing, L. I. . . 

16 Utcfafictd, Conn. 

17 Ftnt Peun. Red Croas 

AiixiUary PittaliurK, Pa. . 

tS MiacclUneouftAitx, . Nevr York ... 
19 I,aum!ry Plant Anx. . " " . . - 

ao Westchester Co. Aux. Mt KUco, N. Y. 

at HazItton.Pa. . . 

aa T^iand and Sea Aox. . Pellinm Manor 
33 Staten Island Aux. . New Brif{htoa . 

24 Princeton, N.J. 

as . Hackcasack, N. J. 

96 Sewickley, Fa. . 



PreiUUni. 

Mn. W. S. Cowlea 

Uts. Hcnr>- OUeshelmcr. 

Mrs. James Speyer. . . . . 
. Ura. William Sharman. 

Ure. William Mctcalf-Bliss . 

Mn. Sell] I.,ow. 

Mrs. Donald McLean. 

Mra. Cynis L,. Sulxberger. 

Mrs. F. W. Cheuey 

Miss Julia L. Dclafield. 

Mrs. Jennings, 

Uiss E. C. Hebert. 

Mnk Atmie Van RenMelaer' 

Miss Louisa F.. Kcosby . . . 

Miss Helen A. Colgate. 

Mis. George U. Woodru£ 

Hr. John B. Jackson . . . . 

Mi>K Helen Domiaick. 

Miss Alice B. Rnbcoclc. 

Mrs. Henry Marquand . . . 

Mre. W. C. Gailcy. 

Mrs. Frank K. Hunter . . . 
, Mre. George Been. 
. Mn. James P. Morgan - . . 
. Mrs. Jameei Romeyn. 
. Rer. B. A. Benton. 



No. of 
sab- 

AlU. 



15 



16 



74 



476 



THE RED CROSS. 



No. 



Name. 



PUce. 



27 The Fanners' Aux. . Jennerstown, Pa. . 

28 Fort Stanwii Aux. . Rome, N. Y. . . . 

29 Fairfield, Conn. . 

30 Norwich, Kan. . 

31 Beaver Connty Aux. New Brighton, Pa. 
3a Grace Pw.Laun.Aux. New York .... 

33 Athens, Pa 

34 . . Canandaigua . . . 

35 Eau Claire, Wis. , 

36 Mount Vernon, N.Y. 

37 Elmhurst, N.Y. . 

38 Dublin, N. H. . . 

39 Larkinsville, Ala. . 

40 Western Reserve Ch. 

D. A. R Cleveland, Ohio . 

41 New Canaan, Conn. 

42 Platbush, Brooklyn 

43 Colorado Springs 

44 North Shore, L.I.,Au. Glen Cove, L. I. 

45 

46 Far Rockaway . 

47 First R. I. Auxiliary Providence , . , 

48 NassauCo.,1,.1., Aux. Roslyn, L. I. . . 

49 Kinderhook, N. Y 

50 Tobacco Auxiliary - Newport, R, I. . 

5iCentralFalls,R.I.,Au. " " . 

52 Rhode Island Aux. , Providence . . . 

53 Westmoreland Co., 

Pa., Auxiliary Greensbui^, Pa. 

54 Pottstown, Pa. , 

55 Emporia, Kan. . 

56 Scott Schley, of Frederick, Md. . 

57 .,..,,... . Lenox, Mass. . . 

58 Caldwell, N.J. . 

59 Upper Red Hook 

60 Saugerties-on- Hudson 

61 Hokendauqua, Pa. 

62 Bridgeport, Conn. 

63 Suffolk Co., N,Y., Aux Greenport, L. I. 
64 Staatsburgh, N. Y. 

65 Otsego Co., N.Y. , Aux Springfield Centre 

66 Plymouth Church Au. Worcester, Mass. . 

67 Oyster Bay, L. I. • 

68 Cninford. N.J. . . 

69 Loyal Friends Aux. . New York .... 
70 London, Ohio . . 



No. of 
Sut>- 
Anx. 



PresidenL 

Misa F. B. Coffin. 
Mrs. Louise M. Dufiy. 
Mrs. Henry S. Glover. 
Mrs. Sarah A. King. 
Mrs. Mary C. Kennedy. 
Mrs. Butler Dnncan. 
Mrs. L. M. Park. 
Mra. C. C. Wilcox. 
Mrs. Francis P. Ide. 
Mrs. WilHam Wilson 
Mrs. A. C. Green. 
Mrs. Lewis B. Monroe. 
Miss Anna L. Morris. 



Mrs, Andrew Squire 163 

Mrs. Willard Parker. 

Mrs. Cornelius L. Wells. 

Mrs. F„ S. Cohen. 

Mrs, John E. Leech. 

Mrs. W. Zabriskie. 

Mrs. Alexander Stevens. 

Mrs. Charles Mason. 

Mrs. Valentine Mott 

Mrs. P. S. V. Pmyn. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 

Mrs. Arthur Rogers. 

Mrs. Mary Frost EvansL 

Miss Louise Brunot 3 

Mrs. E. S. Cook. 
Miss Sabia B. Whitley. 
Mrs. Henry Williams. 
Mrs. John E. Alexandre- 
Mrs. F. H. Wing. 
Mrs. Theodore Cookingham. 
Mrs. George F. Shrady. 
Miss Bessie H. Thomas. 
Mrs. Charles B. Read. 
Miss Bessie Clark, 
Miss Madeleine Dinsmore. 
Mrs. H. W. Wardwell. 

Mr. Arthur Reed Taft i 

Mrs. Thomas S. Young, Jr. 
Mrs. F. R. Bourne. 
Mrs. F. P. P. Miller. 
Mrs. George Lincoln. 



REPORT OF THE RELIEF COMMllTEE. 



477 



Ha, Name. Plnce. 

7t Short«iUc. N. Y. . 

7a Richmond Hill . . 

Soulli Orange, N. J. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. , . 

PlaltcTille. Wis. . . 

WoJdeii, N. V. . . . 

Wheeling. W.Va. . . 

Tolwlo. Ohio . . . , 

Lovington, 111. . . . 
New Rrunswick, N.J. 

Kansas City, Ksn. ■ 

North Berwick. Me . 

Orange, N. J 

linniTnond, lii<l. . . 
Holdrwige, Neb. . . 
Glen Cove, L. I. . . 
Brallleboro. Vt . . 
I£vnnston, 111. . . . 
UonlcUir, N. J. . . 

I^yons. N. Y 

Dobbs Ferry. N. Y. . 
Maishall, Mich. . . 



74 Tclegtapli Signal 
Corps A«wli3r>- - . 

75 

76 

77 I'irst West Va. Adz. 

78 

79 

80 

81 Colored Womea'sAu. 

82 Sous aud Duugliters 

Red Cross Anz. . . 

83 

M 

85 

86 Girls' Towel Aux. . 

87 

88 

»9 

9« ■ ■ 

9« 

9a 



Prrddent. 

UiS. O. S. Titos. 

Mrs. Walter P. I^ng. 
Mn. V. Arnold. 

MUo Mnry A. Tomlioaoa, 
Mre. E. G. Buck. 
Hr». Phoebe Saxt. 
Mrs. William P. Butler. 
Mrs, 5. S. Knnbenshue. 
Mr. S. S. Boggs. 
Mrs. Nichobut G- Rutgers. 
Mrs. Katie Minor. 

Chester A. Hayes. 

Mtfts Rosamond Howard. 

Dr. Mftry E. Jackson, 

Mm. Reeves. 

Miss Alice O. Draper. 

Miss Mary K. CsboL 

Mn. N. GUI Kirk. 

Mrs. Bcnjauiiii Strong. 

MiM Hudora A. Lewis. 

Mr». Walston Hill Browne. 

Mrs. W. H. Porter. 



Aux. 



SUPPUBS CONTRIBUTKD BY AUXILIARIES THROUGH SUPPI.T 

COMMITTBB. 



CoU 3.601 

Sheets 13,673 

Draw sheets 994 

Robber shtcla 336 

Pillow caaea 13,858 

Blankets 586 

Towel* . . 36,871 

Wash cIoUis 10,473 

Kigbtdilru 13,388 

Pajstnaa 14,264 

Wrappers 53 

llandkercbicrs 40,268 

Socks 8,484 

Slippen 3,343 

Abdominftl bands 18,557 

Negligee sbirta S.097 

Undershirts 6,937 



Estimated %-alue, |8o,ooo. 



Under drawers 6,937 

Comfort bags i.iSS 

Palm-leaf fans 6cs. 

Cot pads 1.006 

Mosquito netting .... 32 pc« 

Nurses' caps 371 

Nurses' aprons 100 

Brassards 90 

Old linen 10 cs. 

Napkins 466 

Stationery a ca. 

DeUcacitr* 9OQC8. 

Tobacco ....'*... 30 ea. 

Pipes 5,000 

literature i3oc«. 

Miscetlaneous articles . . 13,394 

Red Cross flags 70 



478 THE RED CROSS. 



Special Work Done by Auxiliaries. 

Auxiliary No. i provided eleven "equipped ambulances with forty 
mules. For Hospital Ship "Missouri": two hundred electric fans, 
telephones, six rubber beds, disinfecting plant, carbonating plant, 
twenty-eight foot steam launch, thirty-seven foot steam launch, sent to 
Chief Surgeon Havard at Santiago. Supplies of clothing and delica- 
cies sent to Colonel Wood at Santiago. 

Auxiliary No. 2 opened a work shop on Madison Avenue and Fifty- 
ninth Street. There women, members of the families of enlisted men, 
were employed to make the garments supplied by this auxiliary. 
Employment was given to these women both at their homes and at -the 
shop. Those who took work home were paid by the piece. In all, 
142 women were employed, many having steady work for over five 
months. Up to December i, 20,842 articles were made by this Auxil- 
iary. 

Auxiliary No. 3 has perhaps brought more comfort to the sick and 
wounded soldiers than any of the others. It was organized for the 
special work of providing funds for the maintenance of trained nurses, 
and as will be seen by the following list of nurses sent out by this 
auxiliary, no opportunity to relieve the suffering of the sick was ever 
passed by. 

Raihvaj- transportation was furnished for nearly four hundred 
nurses sent out from the New York office. 

The number of nurses employed may be divided approximately 
into four classes: (i) Those employed, maintained and paid by the 
auxiliary. (2) Those whose salaries and maintenance were borne 
partly by the government, and partly by the auxiliary. (3) Those 
who signed the government contract and were paid and supplied with 
army rations by the government, but received additional supplies from 
the auxiliary. (4) Those who were paid by the auxiliary and main- 
tained by local aid. 

Class I. 

At Fort Wadsworth 41 Nurses. 

" Charleston 20 

" loiter Hospital 10 " 

" Governor's Island 6 " 

" Tampa S 



REPORT OF THE REI^TEK COMMITTEE. 479 

At Atlautic Highlands 5 Norecs, 1 Surgeon. 

" Convalescent Home for Nurses t Nurse. 

" Hospital Cara 4 Nursea. 

Oass //. 

At Camp Bluclt ja Nurwft 

" Fort Hamiltoa ' • 23 " 

" Fortress Mouroe 43 " 

On Hospital Ship "Missouri" . . • 14 Nurses (Men). 

At lledlr>e's Island I Nur*e. 

" Portsmouth 6 Nurses (Hcd). 

aoit iti. 

General Hospital, Moutaulc 125 Nur«ei. 

Sternberg Hospital, Chidcamuugn 64 " 

Oas% tV. 

L. I City RcUer Statioa 39 Nuisca, 2 Sutgeona. 

Relief TenU. Montauk Smtion i " 

Nassau Hospital, Hempstead 30 '* 

Home for Conviticsccut Soldiers at Sag Harbor 6 '* 
Convalescent Homeof 8th Rcg'tfUuutci'sUlBiid a " 
U. S. Tniusport " LampasaB " 29 Nunws (of these tuany ircre Vot- 
Uere). 



The salaries of some and maintenance of all were borne by the 
auxiliary. Nurses were also supplied on emergency calls to the 
Eitjlilh and Ninth Regiment Armories. 

Auxiliary No. 5 sent equipped cots to the different camps in the 
United States^ Cuba and Porto Rico, supplying in all 3766. 

Auxiliary No. 10 undertook to send ice to Cuba and Porto Rico, 
the blockading fleet, and the different camps. This auxiliar>' also fur* 
nished the ice plant on the Hospital Ship " Missouri," and expended 
in all for ice $27,802.20. 

The work of this auxiliar>' appealed especially to e\'ery one 
during the hot weather, and donations poured in upon it. not the least 
of which was a steady income from the " Nathalie Schenck Ice Chain," 
which produced a revenue of $24,000 in three months. 

Auxili.ir>- No. 17, enrolled seventy-four sub-auxiliaries, with a 
total membership of G173. 

To the Supply Committee (lus auxiliary sent in the largest 
quantity of supplies. 



4to 



THE RED CROSS. 



Auxiliary No. 19 raised funds for a laundry plant, and put same 
on Hospital Ship " Missouri." 

Auxiliary No. 32 had five sub-auxiliaries, with a total tneinbcr- 
sliip of 1018. 14.144 garments, 850 cases and packages of food, and 
13,583 books and magazines were sent to the Supply Depot. In Sep- 
tember the auxiliary took as its particular work the supplying of 
clothing to destitute soldiers applying for same, with properly signed 
orders, at 554 Broadway. Nearly 800 men were given unden,vear, 
blue flannel shirts, socks, handkerchiefs, night shirts, etc., etc. 

Auxiliary No. 40, — The War Emergency Relief Board of Cleveland 
became an auxiliary to the Ked Cross in June, witli 163 sub-auxiliaries. 
Ten thousaud dollars in money, and between thirty and forty thousand 
dollars worth of supples, were sent to the front. Two thousand dollars 
were spent in fitting up unfurnished wards in Cleveland hospitals, 
where 533 soldiers were cared for. The wives and families of soldiers 
and sailors were also cared for. Five thousand four hundred and 
fifty hot breakfasts and dinners were ser\'ed at the Union Depot to 
soldiers passing through Cleveland. Four hundred cases of clothing 
and delicacies were shipped by this auxiliary. 



Requisitions Fiixed by Supply Couuittkr. 



J*m€ 31 to December i. 
tXftKU NUMBSB, 437. 

To Santiago Shipments, a6 




Porto Rico . . . 
Camp WUtoff . . 

" Tbouia* . . 

" Alger . . 

" Black . . 

'* Townsend 

" Hobaoti . . 
JftckKMiville . . . 

Tampa 

Hiamt 

Governor's Island 
Bcdloe'B Island . 
Scftvey's Tslatid . 
Port Wadsworth . 



REPORT OF THE RELIEF COMMITTEE. 483 

To Fortress Monroe Shipments 5 

" Fort Riley • . . . " i 

" Fort Hamilton " 18 

" Fort McPherson " 4 

" Quarantine " 5 

" Bellevue Hospital " 6 

" Roosevelt Hospital. '■' 2 

" Brooklyn Hospital " 3 

" St. Peter's Hospital " 6 

" St. Francis' Hospital " 2 

" St. Catherine's Hospital " 2 

" St Joseph's Hospital " 4 

" Yontera Hospital " 4 

" Mount Vernon Hospital " 4 

" New Rochelle Hospital " 4 

" Jamaica Hospital " i * 

" Nassau Hospital " 4 

" Long Island College Hospital " 6 

" Long Island Red Cross Emergency Hospital . . " 27 

" Stapleton Marine Hospital " i 

" U.S. S. "St. Paul" " I 

" " " New Hampshire " " 1 

" " "Nahant" " i 

" " " Harvard" " 1 

" " "Kanawha" " i 

" " "Elfrida" " i 

" " "Vigilancia" " i 

" " "Supply" " I 

" Hospital Ship " Missouri " " 4 

" "Relief" " 2 

" "Red Cross "Yacht " 3 

" 9th Regiment Armory ■ . . . , " 7 

"8th " " " 4 

" 71st " " " I 

" 13th " " " 2 

" Convalescent Homes " 43 

" Soldiers' Comfort Committees " 25 

" Distribution to Soldiers at Supply Depot . . , , " 13 

" Stephen E. Barton " 2 

" Dr. B. B. Lanier, U. S. A 

" Major Henry Page, U. S. V 

" Mrs. L. Button, Athens, Ga " 

" Mrs. G. M. Moulton, Savannah " 

" Mrs. P.M. Armstrong, Hampton, Ve " 

Total 427 

at 



484 



THK RED CROSS. 



EXTRACTS OF REPORTS FROM CAMPS. 



jACKSDNviixe, Fla. 

Field Atfcnt, Rev. Alexattder Kent 

Headquarters opened June i6, 1898. The ho5{iital was found in a 
very tlistn-ssing and un healthful condition. Most of the patients were 
indeed on cols, Irat few had cither sheets or night shirts to cover them I 
It was also found that the sick had no suitable food, and when the 
suitxible food was provided it was fount) that there was no proviaon for 
preparing it! 

The govenimcnt provided many sheets, many cots, many pillows, 
but the demand ever outran the supply, and the Red Cross was called 
on coutinunlly to supply the lack. 

The go\'ernnicnt made no provision for ice, milk, eggs, lemons, 
malted milk, peptonoids, clam bouillon, beef extracts and delicacies of 
all kinds until after the first of September, when each patient was 
allowed sixty cents a day. All supplies of tliis sort were furnished by 
the Red Cross, or by the beneficient agencies. 

At the Second Division Hospital the Red Cross paid for a bath 
bouse, kitchen and large circular tent for convalescents — 100 cots, 
mattresses and tooo pUlo^vs. Sheets, pillow cases, night shirts, pajamas 
and towels were sent by the thousand. 

The Red Cross furuished over $1000 worth of medicines not on the 
government list, over looo bath and surgical sponges, 50 ice chests, 
o\'er 700 buckets, tumblers by the barrel, medicine glasses, ice bags, 
hypodermic syringes, etc. 

Over J1300 was spent for hospital equipment and supplies of 
N'arious kinds; in addition to this, laige shtpmeuts were received from 
New York. 

An important part of the work in this camp was the supplying of 
ice for the purpose of cooling the drinking water. The cost of this ice, 
f6ooo, was met by Auxiliary No. 10. 

The milk bills average<I $500 a week. 

When the Recuperating Hospital was opened at Pablo Beach, the 
Red Cross, at the request of the chief surgeou, supplied 250 sets of 
dishes, with a complete outfit of pitchers, trays, buckets, etc. 



EXTRACTS OF REPORTS FROM CAMPS. 485 

The several heads of divisional hospitals have said to the agent 
again and again, ' ' The hospitals never could have equipped themselves. 
They would have broken down utterly without the aid of the Red 
Cross." 

Camp Thomas, CnrcKAMAtTGA, Oa. 

Field Ageni, B. C Stniih. 

" Ko array of mere numerals written to express dollars, or tables 
of figures standing for quantities, could, in comprehensive sense, tell 
the story of the Red Cross work ai Chickamauga in 1898. The record 
is written indelibly in the Iiearts of thousands of soldiers who were 
stricken with disease on this battlefield, and the story has been told at 
quiet firesides in every State of the Union." Here in Chickamauga 
men fell from the ranks day after day, and were carried helpless to the 
legimeutal, division, corps and general hospitals, stricken by an unseen 
foe. It was at these hospitals that the Red Cross sent supplies of all 
kinds, medical and surgical, dothiag, bedding, delicacies, etc. The 
agent, Mr- Smith, was told to supply everything needed, regardless of 
cost. Milk and ice were the chieE requisites, and all the surround- 
ing farming counto' was called upon to supply the milk, some of It 
coming as lar as Biltmore, N. C. The agent ascertained the neces- 
sities of the sick through the best oflicial sources, and withunt delay 
the necessities were supplied. 

Ur. Smith was stricken at his post with typhoid, but is now 
convalescent. 

Washington, D. C. 

Headquarters for Camp Alger, Point Sh«nilftn, Vl, Washington Barracks Post 
Hospital, Cunp Briitow, Fort Meyer, Fortress Monroe. K It. Werner. Agent 
and Chairman Bxectttive Committee of Red Cross at Waaliington. 

By this branch of the Red Cross a large part of the work in camps 
was undertaken. A meeting was called on June 21, at which a large 
number of citizens met, and an Esecnttve Committee was formed to 
carry on the relief work at these different posts. 

Captain George C. Lewis was the representative of the committee 
at Camp Alger. He was constantly on diit>' there, seeing that supplies 
were furnished and all possible relief extended— mattresses, pillows, 
sheets, pillow cases, mosquito bars, night shirts, pajamas, handkerchief, 



486 



THE RED CROSS. 



nnderdothing, medicines, groceries and delicacies were supplied ia large 
quantities to this camp. 

Point Sheridan was visited by Mrs. Mussey, a member of the 
Committee. It was found that they were suffering for supplies of all 
kinds, but especiaUy for medicines, which had been ordered a mouth 
before, but had not been received. Proper medicines were delivered by 
the Red Cross within twenty-four hours, and other necessities were 
supplied, large shipments being also sent from New York. 

When the Washington Barracks was made a po«t hofqiital, the 
Red Cross supplied daily 800 pounds of ice, 5 gallons chicken soup. 
30 gallons of milk. 20 pounds of butter and s crates of eggs weekly. 
Also ftimished 1200 suits underwear, several hundred suits of pajamas, 
several hundred pairs socks, and slippers, 500 towel.s, medicines, anti- 
septic dressings, etc. The work at this point closed Octol)er 8. 

The Secretary of War gaw authority for the establishment of diet 
kitchens, iu the camps near Washington, and Mrs. Mussey was given 
general charge of this special work. A diet kitchen was established at 
Camp Bristow, one at the hospital at the Washington Barracks and at 
Fort Meyer. 

The government had voluntarily paid for meat, chicken and milk, 
leaving the committee only bills for groceries aud wages of employees. 

Dr. Green rendered such efficient service that she has been em- 
ployed by the government to establish diet kitchens at other points, 

" Physicians, nurses and patients unite in saying the aid they 
8ccure<l from the work was of inestimable value." 

To Fortress Monroe supplies were ."^ent one day after they were 
called for, consisting in part of 500 suits pajamas. 25 pairs crutches, 
2CO pairs slippers, 350 yards rubber sheeting, large quantities antiseptic 
dressings, 60 gallons whiskey and brandy, 2C» cans soups, basins, 
pitchers, dishes, etc. 

Arrangements were also made at tin's point for supplying ice for 
the use of the troops on board the transports going South, and also 
for the sick on their journey North. 

The branch of work undertaken by this committee, which was the 
most difficult to conduct, was in looking after the sick soldiers who 
passed through the city. Soldiers from almost forty different regiments 
were fed and cared for when ill. In all, about 40,000 men. The War 
Department paid for the bread used in this branch of the work. All 
bills for ice, and ice chests provided by this committee, were paid for by 
Atudliary Ko. 10. 



EXTRACTS OF REPORTS FROM CAMP. 



487 



" It is gratilying to be able to state that whatever view the snr- 
geons and other officers may have had as to the need of the Red Cross at 
the begirmiug of the war, at the close ihey joined with the private 
soldier in testi^'ing to its wondedul and efficient work." 



Yacht " Red Cross. 

The yacht " Red Cross " was bought by the Relief Committee, to 
be used by Miss Barton as headquarters during her stay in Cuba. The 
yacht sailed from New York for Key West on June 30, laden with 
twenty-five tons of surgical and medical supplies, and with five doctors, 
arriving at Key West on July 10. From Key West the yacht sailed 
for Santiago on July 16. She ran into a storm, and was so badly 
damaged she had to put back to Key West for repairs. It was found 
impossible to repair her there, so the medical supplies were transferred 
to a transport sailing for Cuba, and the "Red Cross" returned to New 
York, arriving August 4. 

In three or four days she was in order again, and took on board a 
cargo of supplies for Camp \\^ikoflF. She was then oflfered to the 
government to transfer patients from the general hospitals at Camp 
Wikoff to the hospitals in New York, New Haven, and adjacent cities, 
where the soldiers could receive better shelter and care. The yacht 
was comfortably fitted out, and made twenty-eight trips, carrying in all 
449 sick men. During these trips she carried a doctor and three 
trained nurses to care for the sick, and often the relatives and friends 
of the soldiers were allowed to accompany those whom thej' had been 
to find at Camp Wikoff. 



Camp Wikoff, MoNTAtTE Point, L. I. 

Field Ageat. Mr. Howard Townacnd. 

It is difficult indeed, in gi\*ing extracts of this report, to present 
any idea of the great work accomplished here. Mr. Townseud visited 
the camp on August 8, and, after returning to New York to report to 
the Relief Committee, went to Montauk on the loth to open "head- 
quarters." The first, and in some respects the most important work 
was the delivery of a daily supply of water for the troops. Ten 
thousand gallons of hygeia water were delivered to the government, 



4BS 



THE RED CROSS. 



aad foar tank cars were brought daily from Jamaica with fresh spring 
water. This work ceased when the great n-ell was bnished. To ilie 
general hospital such supplies were fiiniished as were rendered neces- 
sary by the confustoa and burr>' of the first weeks, indeed a large port 
of the articles necessar>' for a hospital were placed in the words a few 
hours after the need was discovered. 

W^e supplied but few delicacies to the hospital aAer it was in 
nitming order. Oranges and lemons, were, howc\-er, supplied at the 
rate of ]ooo a day, and 200 gallons of milk were fiimished. until, by 
order of Secrrtary Alger, the govenunetit furnished jooo gallons of 
milk a day to the hospitals and troops. The detention hospital we als 
kept abundantly supplied with delicacies, and often with necessities. 

The regimental hospitals were fncnd to be in great need of 
equipment and food suitable for the sick, and to this part of the work 
Dr. Geo. E. Brewer and Mr. Samuel Parrish tlc\-otcd themselves, maJc^ 
ing daily visits to the Fcgimcnts, and assisting the regimental snrgeons^ 
in their discouraging work. 

Auxiliar>' No. 3 .sent a dictiry expert, Mrs. Wiltard, to the camp 
to establisli diet kitchens, and with the aid of Mr. Prcscott, of the 
Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Society they were established in con- 
nection with the ^tu'ious hospitals, aud such satisfactory results were 
worked out that the govemmeot agreed to pay all the expenses. 

The feeding of all the sick and half-stan'ed men who arrived from 
Cuba on the transports vias undertakeu by Dr. and Mrs. Valentine 
Mott, while Dr. Magruder, chief quarantine officer, exerted himself 
admirably in Red Cross work , carrying continually stores of Red Cross 
delicacies to those ships which were in quarantine and suffering for lack 
of food. 

At the railroad station , the meu leaving on sick furlough frequently 
collapsed, and here the government erected two tents for the Red Cross, 
and Miss M.-irtha L. Draper was asked to take charge. The men were 
fed with milk, and when neces.<^ary given a few ounces of whiskey to 
enable them to continue their journey. Those who were unable to 
take the train were kept in the tents over night, which sheltered at 
times as many as twenty sick men! 

A great effort was made to answer all the inquiries from relati\'e9 
of the missing soldiers. Few can realize the number of letters and 
telegrams received each day from all parts of the country. 

"Owing to the recognition given to the Red Cross agent by 
Ma}or-Gcncral Young when the camp was first begun, the Red Cross 



EXTRACTS OF REPORTS FROM CAMPS. 



489 



was «Me to enter into a far broader sphere of usefulness than would 
otherR'ise have been possible." 

The following list is given of articles furnished by the Red Cross, 
to show in what quantities the supplies were used: 



Bquippcd cots 1.533 

SuiU uuilerwear 4.94^ 

Pairs of socks 4.333 

Night Rturta 4.33> 

pBJmiiQS 4,733 

Comfort bags 1,51: 

Sb«cts 3,471 

PiUow cases 2,53^ 

Haodkerchleft 10.946 



P«irs of slippers 3,493 

Towds 6,S54 

Pillows Sod 

Blankets 9x9 

Cocoa 1,440 

Soups (can«) 10.344 

Lactate*] food (bottles) ..... 3,456 

Beef extract I.aa4 



In all, 178 different articles were furnished, and many of them in 
as large, some in even larger numbers than these given. 



Rbd Cross Ruukk Station. Long Isl.\nd CiTV. 



Mrs. Haoimond in char:ge. 

The Red Cross Relief Station was opened on August agth. The 
building which was directly opposite the railroad station, and in every 
way most admirably adapted to the work, was offered to the Society by 
Patrick J. Gleason, ex-Mayor of Long Island City. Ou the second 
and third floors of this building, cots were erected, diet kitchens wtre 
started, a corps of sen'ants employed, and in a day or two everything 
was in readiness. All the traius arriving from Moutauk were met and 
the men assisted to the Red Cross Relief Station, where they were all fed. 
Many men were too ill to continue on their journey and were kept at 
the "Emergency Hospital," or sent to hospitals in New York and 
Brooklyn. The work, in a day or t^vo, assumed such large proportions 
that cots were erected on the first floor, and the lufurmaliou and 
Business ofiices were in a tent in &xmt of the building. Even this 

L proved inadequate, and fifteen tents were erected, each holding six 
cots. 
Competent trained utirscs were ou duty, supplied by Auxiliary 
K0.3. 
Two ambulaL>ces were supplied by Auxiliary No 1. 



490 THE RED CROSS. 

Clothing and delicacies of all kinds were dispensed in large 
quantities. 

Over fourteen thousand men were fed, and about $7000 was spent 
in carrying on this work. 

From the reports of the physicians in charge we can safely say 
that for the first two weeks 75 per cent of all that came in were si^ 
needing care and medical attention, the third week about 50 per cent, 
and the fourth week about 25 per cent. 

It was due to the untiring enthusiasm of the women interested in 
the relief work that the society was able to carry it on so successfully. 



I 



WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THH RED CROSS. 491 



THE WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THE RED CROSS. 

By special authority from the American National Red Cross, these 
auxiliaries were organized under lUe auspices of the Relief Committee 
in New York, acting in conjunction with the Executive Commitiee of 
the Red Cross. Therefore, full reports of what they have accomplished 
have not been sent direct to the national headquarters. Among the 
woman's anxiliaries it was the custom for each to organize for some 
special work, and devote their entire attention to it. It is a pleasure 
to be able to insert here, as an example of the manner in which these 
loyal women did their part in the work of war relief, the following: 
from the report of Auxiliary No. 3, ort;auized for the maiutenance of 
trained nurses : 



From thb Rhport of Rhd Cross ArxtUARv No. 3. 

At (he request of the Women's Committee on Auxiliaries, this 
auxiliar>' was organized on May 18, 1898, to provide funds for the 
maintenance of trained nurses. It was the origiual inteutiou that these 
nurses should be placed on a hospital sliip to be f\iniishcd by ttie 
National Relief Committee. It was not long, however, before this 
plan of specialized work was abandoned by the Relief Committee, and 
the Executive Conimiitec of the euxih'ary adapted itself to the change, 
b>' using its funds and devoting its energies in suppl}-ing and main- 
taining trained nurses in army hospitals, where, owing to the sudden- 
ness and greatness of the emergency, the supply and maintenance of 
an adequate number of nurses were not in the go\-ernmcnt'5 power. 
This form of work was begun early in July, and on the 19th of that 
month was, with the concurrence of the Relief Committee, finally 
adopted as the chief purpose of the auxiliary'. It is hoped that some 
estimate of the success achieved may be gained from this report. 

Immediately on its organization, the important work of raising 
money was undertaken, systematic efforts were made to reach sub- 
scribers, associate members were enlisted, circulars were sent out, and 
personal appeals were made. From Paris atone, by the generosity of 
French and American friends, more than $21,000 was received. 
Suburban branches were alao established, which, under the direction 



493 



THE RED CROSS. 



of separate committees, labored earnestly and contributed largely, both 
in money niid in supplies. The chief of these branches were at Sea- 
bright, Elln-Ton, Navesiuk, Orange, New Hamburg, Tnxedo, Tarry- 
town, Northern Westchester Coumy. Riverdale. Rye and Harrison, 
White Plains, Laltc George, St. Hubert's Inn, Lenox, Wakefield and 
Nana gan sett ami Bar Harbor. The Kxecutive Committee met fre- 
quently to consider this question of ways and means, and the assistant 
treasurer, Mrs. Edmund I,. Baylies, was soon able to report a generous 
response. As shown by her account, the sum of J107, 785. 12 has in 
all been collected, of which $72,101,64 lias already been expended. 
Without this hearty support from the friends of the cause, the good 
RCcomi)lishc(l by the auxiliary would have been .sadly restricted. 
Indeed, when the critical time of arranging cooperation with the 
govcmtiieut came, wc might never have felt justified in undertaking 
such a responsibility, had our actual contributions not been so large, 
and the assurance of further financial support so definite. 

On June 30 the first call for nurses came in the shape of a tele- 
graphic dispatch from Santiago, sent by Dr. A. Monae I,esscr, chief 
surgeon of the American National Red Cross Society. Two days 
later, in compliance with this dispatch, a party consisting of twelve 
trained nurses, one immune nurse, and one assistant, was sent from 
New York to Tampa in charge of Miss Laura D. Gill, uith orders to 
proceed to Santiago at the first opportunity. This part>- was reinforced 
by a second, consisting of three physicians and eleven nurses, who left 
New York on July 4 in charge of Miss Isabel Rutty. A third party 
of two physicians, thirty-two nurses, and six orderlies was sent forward 
the same week, and reached Tampa on the evening of July 9. The 
first available steamer for Santiago was the U. S. tran.sport " Lam- 
pasas," which was takiug out Col. Black and his engineering corps, 
and through the kindness of General Coppingcr and Col. Edniond 
Rice, five phy.sicians, twenty-nine nurses, and two orderlies were given 
transportation upon that ship. 

The "lyampasas" reached Santiago just after its stirrender, but 
owing to the recent outbreak of yellow fever in the city, a strict 
quarantine bad been established, and none but immuues were permitted 
to go ashore. The steamer thereupon proceeded to Porto Rico, and 
ou reaching the harbor of Guaiiica was converted into a hospital ship. 
The plan of landing the nurses was abandoned, and they immediately 
devoted themselves to the care of the 112 soldiers, most of them tj'phoid 
fever patients, for whom accommodation was provided on the vessel. 




WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THE RED CROSS. 493 

Two of these patients died at Giianica, two at Ponce, and four on 
the homeward voyage. The remaining 104 were safely landed at 
Fort Monroe early in August. Miss Mary E. Gladwin, who wr^ with 
the party, spoke for all the nurses when she said tliat this " I^mpasas" 
trip was the opportunity of a lifetime, and that the two weeks of 
absorbing work " were worth years of ordiuarj* living." 

Ill the oieantiuie the rest of our party at Tampa had embarked 
ou another government transport, the " Nueces," also bound for San- 
tiago. But within a few hours after the " Lampasas " left the dock at 
Tampa, and before the " Nueces " could get away, a telegram was 
received telling of the outbreak of yellow fever in Cuba. By directioa 
of the government, all of our party, except one trained nurse aud four 
assistants, were thereupon removed from the "Nueces," aud left in 
Tampa to await further developments. The five excepted members of 
the party proceeded to Cuba, and some time afterwards returned to 
New York in attendauce upou the patients who were brought home oa 
the slearaer " Concho." 

It was in Tauipa, while these uurses were imjjatiently awaiting 
trausportation to the front, that the suddeu outbreak of typhoid fever 
in the camp tliere gave the first important occasion for their services. 
Four nurses, under the charge of Mrs. K. B. Freer, were assigned to 
the Division Hospital at Picnic Island, aud continued their work until 
about July 27, when the sick men were lenioved and the island aban- 
doned as n camp. The services of Mrs. Freer's party were then desired 
by Colonel O'Reilly, chief surgeon of the Fourth Army Corps, and 
she was asked on Satuniay, July 30, to suiwrintend the opening of a 
new militarj' hospital in West Tampa. Authority and funds were, oa 
application to the auxiliary in New York, telegraphed her accordingly, 
and the efTcctiveness of the compliance with the chief surgeon'.*; request 
will appear when it is said that by e\"ening of the next day (Sunday) 
a three-story brick building was selected for the hospital, thoroughly 
cleaned, equipped with cots and other nccessar>* hospital appliances, 
and the cots themselves occupied by fifty soldiers suffering from typhoid 
and malarial fevers. The spirit of this auspicious beginning guided 
the conduct of the hospital until its last patient had been discharged on 
October 14. Five hundred soldiers, chiefly typhoid patients, were 
treated during those ten weeks, and only eleven deaths occurred, Even 
a modem city hospital might be proud of such a record. 

Meanwhile the constant efforts of the auxiliary to send nurses to 
Cuba were thwarted by the appearance of yellow fever in Santiago. 




494 THE RED CROSS. 

Notwithstanding our repeated offers, the government adhered to its 
determination to permit none but immune nurses at the front, and the 
extension of the auxilian-'s work seemed to be hopelessly chected. 
The situation with which we were confronted was most serious. We 
had sought and collected over $60,000 in money, and notwithstanding 
the great amount of suffering, and our conviction that if only permitted to 
do so we might relieve so much of it, we were nearly helpless. Happily, 
a speedy and most gratifying solution of the problem was found in the 
following manner: The Executive Board of the Relief Committee 
decided to send a committee representing itself and this auxiliary to 
Washington, to reach some positive understanding with the President 
and the surgeon -general of the army regarding the regular employ- 
ment of our nurses. 

On the evening of July 15, this committee, consisting of Hi. 
Howard Townsend, Mrs. Whitelaw Reid and Mrs. Winthrop Cowdin, 
was accorded a private inter\'iew at the WTiite House by President 
McKiuley, who listened with kindly attention to a brief explanation 
of the aims and purposes of the auxiliarj-, and expressed himself as 
entirely in sympathy with them. At his request, a conference at the 
White House between the committee, the Secretary of War and the 
surgeon- general w^as arranged for the following morning, That same 
evening the committee called also upon the adjutant-general, and 
was assured of his co-operation in their efforts. Owing doubtless to 
the limited time at the disposal of the surgeon-general, who was on 
his way to meet the hospital ship "Olivette" on its first journey 
North with a load of wounded from Santiago, no definite results were 
reached at the conference the next morning. The Secretary of War, 
however, said he would aid us to the extent of his power, and the 
surgeon-general promised another inter\'iew with the same committee 
at Mrs. Reid's house in New York, Sunday afternoon, July 17. The 
result of this interview is thus stated in a letter from General Sternberg 
to Mrs. Reid: 



I take pleasure in confimiing by letter the arrangements made at our iaterview 
in New York on the 17th instant. 

I am quite willing to employ female nurses %-ouched for by yourself as 8ecre> 
tary of the Red Crosa Society for Maintenance of Trained Nurses. I had previoasly 
made very satisfactory arrangemeuls for the employment of trained female Dunea 
through a committee of the Daughters of the American Revolution. As I said to 
you during our iuten'iew, I recoguize the value of trained female nurses in geaenl 



WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THE RED CROSS. 495 

hospitals, and wc expect Lo make nae of tbrlr services to such an extent as Memf 
to be <J«MTable. But I do not .approve of sending female uurses with troops in 
the 6cld or to camps of instruction. It is<be intention to transfer the .seriously 
sick men from our field hoRpiulu to the genernt hoapitfils as soon as practicable; 
and we wish our cttlistcd men of tlie Hospital Cofpa to take care of the nick 
in the Division I-icld Iiuspita!* uud iii t:ii:ips of itiBtruction, so that they may 
be fully prepared Co perform the same duties when the troops are iu active 
operations. 

Among these privates of the Hospital Corps who constitute the Red Cross 
organization of the rcjijular military* fter^'ice. and who are uon-combatants in 
accordance with the terma of the Gcueva Convention, wc have uiauy medical 
students and even grajuales in medicine. 

I have made an exception with reference to sending female nunes to Cuba in 
view of the outbtcak of yellow fever in Santiago, and am now sending immune 
nnrscs, both male and female, (or duty fit the yellow fever haspitab. In accord- 
ance with our agreement, you are authorized to send ten female trained nurses, 
selected by yourself, to the I^ler Ho»pita] at Camp Thoiniut, Ga.; ten to the U. S. 
General Hospital at Fort Monroe, Va. ; and two to the hospital at Tort Wadsworth, 
M. Y., the understanding being that those nt Fort Monroe and at Fort Wadswoith 
ahall be boarded and lodged outsiilc of the hospital. 

Tliftuktng yon very sincerely for your earnest efforts in hehalf of our sick and 
wounded soldiers, I am, etc 



This letter was accompanied by au order for twenty nurses to be 
sent at once lt> the hospitals iu the city of Charleston. 

As a result of this penuissiou of the goverumeut, ttiree men 
nurses were sent on July 31 to the Marine Hospital at Stateu Island, 
and Miss Marjorie Henshall went with three women nurses to the Post 
Hospital at Fort Wadsworth, where a number of sick and wounded 
officers bad just been landed from the " Olivette." An example of the 
immediate benefit resultiug from the increaseri powers of the auxiliary 
may be found iu the case of one of the lieutenants in the regular 
army, who had been ill with fever for weeks in Santiago withotit 
proper care, and who had reached New York in an almost dying 
coutiition. The surgeons in cliarge attributed his recovery to the 
timely anival of the nurses under Miss Hcushall. 

In further accordance with the surgeon-general's permission, the 
nurses who were on waiting orders at Tampa were sent to the I^eiter 
Hospital near Chattanooga, where ten were immediately placed on duty 
by the chief surgeon. Major Carter ; and as they could not be provided 
for in the hospital building, Mias Gill went to Chattanooga to arrange 
■ for their maintenance in quarters near by. The service at the Lcitcr 
I Hospital was peculiarly bard, and one of the nurses, Miss Phinney, 



49* 



THE RED CROSS. 



died there as a result of the great mental and physidal strain to which 
she was subjected. 

Ten nurses \vere sent on July 22 to the General Hospital, Fort 
Monroe, in charge of Miss Lida G, Starr. As this hospital consisted 
largely of tents, it was necessary for the nurses to be maintained in 
hotels, in the neighborhood. T^ter, other nurses came, and soon the 
entire force, with two exceptions, had signed contracts with the govern- 
ment, but were maintaine<l at the expense of the auxiliary. The total 
number of nnrses maintained by the auxiliary in service at this place 
was at times as large as forty -five. Ten other nurses, maintained by 
the Woman's War Relief Association, shared in the work there. In 
all seventeen hundred patients were treated at this hospital, of whom 
only thirty-four died. To Miss Starr is due much credit for the 
admirable management of the funds intrusted to her by the auxiliary, 
and for the sedulous care she bestowed upon the welfare of tie uurscs. 
Only tliis, as they themselves realized, made it possible for them to 
perform so remarkable a work, — a work of which Major De Witt, the 
aurgeon in charge, said ; "I am 9atis6ed that whatever success we 
may have had in the treatment of our sick and wounded lias been 
in great measure due to the skill and devotion of the female nurses." 

Our labor at Charleston involved somewhat different necessities. 
The city hospitals were crowded with soldiers who had been taken ill 
on their way from the camps to the transports. Additional nurses 
were thus greatly needed, and on July 24 twenty, in charge of Miss 
Martha L. Draper, were sent to meet the emergency. That their 
services were valuable and appreciated is shown by the testimonials 
granted them by the Board of Commissioners of the City Hospital of 
Charleston. 

When, in early August, the steamship ''Missouri " was bought 
by the government for a hospital ship, Mrs. Reid offered women 
nurses to the officer in charge. Major Arthur. As the construction of 
the ship did not afford accommodations whicti permitted the presence 
of women on board, this offer was changed. The department had 
allon'cd Major Arthur ten male nurses, but the government salary did 
not command thcquality of sen'ice which the special workof sui.>eriuten- 
dence required. It was therefore proposed to choose, under the advice 
of Dr. Fisher, of the Presbyterian Hospital, a small supplementary 
corps of exceptionally able nnrses, who could assume the responsibility 
of the wards. When these men had been chosen, they impressed 
Major Arthur so favorably tliat he decided to dispense with the ten 




WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THE RED CROSS. 497 



nurses allowed him by the government, take these selected meii under 
contract, pay them the regulalion salar>*. and leave upon the auxiliary 
the expense (inly of the additional salary necessar>' to oommand tliis 
superior nursiug ability. Tlie men relaiued the piaition of Re<l Cross 
nurses, and wore the sj^ecial uniform provided by the auxiliary. Ten 
men made the trip to Santiago, but for the second and third trips the 
staff was increased to fourteen. The spirit and capacity of these men 
were severely tested on the first voyage by the unprepared state in which 
the emergency required that the " Mi.ssouri " be sent South, but they 
met their labors and hardships in a way which brought forth Major 
Arthur's wannest praise. 

Forty-two nurses have in ihe course of the summer been sent to 
Fort Wadsworth, Statcn Island, where, under the able manngemeut of 
Miss Morjorie HenshaU, effective service has been rendered, giving 
absolute satisfaction to the surgeons in charge. 

At Governor's Islaud Miss Alice Marie Wyckoff and Miss Barker 
have represented the auxiliary. Early in