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Full text of "The Red Cross : in peace and war"

CLARA BARTON. 
From a por trail taken about i8j§. 



THE RED CROSS 



IN PEACE AND WAR 




By Clara Barton 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL PRESS 
1906 




SOCIAL WELFARE 
LIBRARY 



Copyright, 1898, by Clara Barton 



,^t«>C.« NATIONAL R£0 c^oj. 




'^■'SH'NGTON, D.C.U-S-^ 



Si] 

From the President of the United States 

In his Message to Congress December 6, 1898. 



It is a pleasure for nie to mention in terms of cordial appreciation 
the timely anil useful work of the American National Red Cross, both 
in relief measures preparatory to the campaigns, in sanitary assistance 
at several of the camps of assemblage, and, later, under the able and 
experienced leadership of the president of the society. Miss Clara 
Barton, on the fields of battle and in the hospitals at the front in Cuba. 
Working in conjunction with the governmental authorities and under 
their sanction and approval, and with the enthusiastic co-operation of 
many patriotic women and societies in the various States, the Red 
Cross has fully maintained its already high reputation for intense 
earnestness and ability to exercise the noble purposes of its interna- 
tional organization, thus justifying the confidence and support which 
it has received at the hands of the American people. To the mem- 
bers and officers and all who aided them in their philanthropic work, 
the sincere and lasting gratitude of the soldiers and the public is due 
and freely accorded. 

In tracing these events we are constantly reminded of our obliga- 
tions to the Divine Master for His watchful care over us and His safe 
guidance, for which the nation makes reverent acknowledgment and 
ofifers humble prayers for the continuance of His favors. 



Z^jz^j^^^,,..^':^°-rfL..^ 




ILLUSTI^ATIONS. 



PAOB. 

Clara Barton, from a portrait taken about 1875 Frontispiece. 

The International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland . . opp. 16 

Clara Barton, taken about 1885 opp. 17 

The First Red Cross Warehouse, Washington, D. C 21 

National Red Cross Headquarters in Washington, from 1892 to 1897 22 

Some of the First Members of the American National Red Cross 43 

A Group of American National Red Cross Members 44 

A Group of American National Red Cross Members 55 

Suburban Headquarters, American National Red Cross 56 

Some Red Cross Decorations Presented to Clara Barton 83 

Chronological Historic Tree 84 

Clara Barton, taken about 1884 1 1 3 

"Josh V. Throop" "4 

Camp Perry I43 

Red Cross Headquarters 144 

Johnstown, Pa., before the Flood of 1889 15S 

Red Cross Hotel, Locust Street, Johnstown, Pa 156 

Red Cross Furniture Room, Johnstown, Pa 163 

Typical Scene after the Flood at Johnstown, Pa., May 30, 1889 164 

In Memoriam '74 

T)phus Fever Patients in the Russian Famine, 1891-92 181 

Count Lyoff Tolstoi 182 

Women Cutting Potatoes for Planting— Sea Island Relief, S, C. , February, 1894, 199 

A Windfall for St. Helena 200 

Testimonial from Russian Workmen for American Help and Sympathy in the 

Famine of 1892 217 

A Russian Peasant Village 218 

(3) 



4 Till- Ri:i) CROSS. 

PAGE 

Receiving Room for Clothing, S. C. Island Relief, 1S93-94 ......... 235 

South Carolina Sea Island Relief 236 

The Island District from Savannah to Beaufort 251 

Sick with the Fauiiue Fever 253 

Hunger-Stricken 254 

Mi.ss Barton's Room 271 

In tlie Old Schloss of Baden 272 

Red Cross Headquarters, Constantinople 281 

View from Red Cross Headquarters, Constantinople 282 

Turkish Cemetery 282 

Chief of the Dersin Kourds and His Three Sub-Chiefs 291 

Chief of the Dersin Kourds : 292 

Decoration of the Royal Order of Melusine 300 

Tower of Christ, Constantinople 301 

W. W. Peet, Esq 302 

Rev. Henry O. Dwight, D. D 302 

Rev. Joseph K. Greene, D. D 302 

Rev. George Washburn , D. D 302 

Signature of the Sultan 303 

Turkish Dispatches 306, 307 

Map of the Country traversed by the Red Cro.ss Expeditions carrying American 

Relief to the Victims of the Armenian Massacres in 1896 309 

Interior of Gregorian Church at Oorfa 308 

American College Buildings, Aintab ' 311 

American and Armenian Quarters, Harpoot .... 311 

Marash 312 

Red Cross Caravan 312 

A Bit of Palou 318 

Rev. C. F. Gates, D. D., Harpoot 321 

Miss Caroline E. Bush, Harpoot 321 

First Expedition Embarking on Ferryboat, Euphrates River • 321 

A Turkish Teskere or Passport 322 

Diarbeker, Vilayet of Diarbeker 331 

Ruins of an Old Gateway at Farkin 332 



ILI.USTRATIONS. 5 

PAGE 

Some Methods of Work 340 

Salenilik 341 

Pera Bridge, Constantinople 341 

Turkish Coffee House 342 

Hamalls — Showing Manner of Carrying Heavy Burdens 342 

Red Cross Expeditions Passing through the Valley of Catch Beard 348 

A Turkish Procession in Arabkir 349 

Judge Alexander W. Terrell, United States Minister to Constantinople during 

the Anneiiian Troubles 351 

Armenian and Turkish Decorations 352 

Group of Arnieuian Teachers and Pupils, Harpoot American Missionary 

College 357 

Clara Barton, taken in 1897 358 

A Part of the American National Red Cross Fleet in the Spanish-American 

War of 1898 371 

Officers of the Executive Connnittee American National Red Cross 372 

Admiral William T. Sampson 381 

Governor-General's Palace, Havana / 382 

Entrance to Harbor of "Havana — Punta Park 391 

John D. Long, Secretary of Navy 392 

On San Juan Hill, Santiago 407 

Spanish Guerillas • 409 

A Mounted Advance, Reconnoitring 410 

United States Steamship " Oregon " 413 

"Almirante Oquendo," after the Engagement 419 

United States Warships before the Entrance to Santiago Harbor 421 

" Marie Teresa " after the Engagement 424 

Chickamauga Camp 427 

Camp Thomas, Headquarters American National Red Cross 428 

Fortifications of Manila 440 

Red Cross Dining Room for Convalescents, Fort McPhersoii, Ga 445 

Dining Tent Attached to Red Cross Kitchen, at Camp Hobson, Ga 446 

Panorama of Manila 451 

In the Trenches before Santiago 453 

A Soldier Funeral 463 



6 THlv RKI) CROSS. 

PAOB 

McCalla Camp— Karly Morning Attack 454 

A Typical Cuban Camp 464 

A Cuban " Block House," Garrisoned 481 

A View of PXstern Cuba 4*2 

A Part of the Red Cross Corps 499 

" I Am with the Wounded." — Clara Barton's Cable Message from Havana . . 500 

Wreck of the Battleship " Maine," Havana Harbor 517 

The Prado — Principal Street in Havana 518 

Havana Harlx)r 535 

Captain C. D. Sigsbee 536 

Street in Cavite 539 

Citizens of Jaruco Presenting a Memorial for the Victims of the " Maine " . . 553 

Little Convalescents in Hospital 554 

Location of Shore Batteries, Santiago 556 

July Fifth in Rifle Pits 558 

Scenes on the " State of Texas " and in Siboney 570 

The Physicians and Nurses of the Orphanage and Clinic in Havana 571 

A Cuban Thatch Hut 581 

A Battery of Cuban Artillery 582 

A Group of Red Cross Sisters 591 

Diploma of Gratitude for Miss Clara Barton from ilie l\c(l Cross of Spain . . 592 

View of Santiago de Cuba from the Harbor 675 

View of Morro Castlf, Santia;;o de Cuba 676 

The Burning of Siboney 597 

Annie E. Wheeler 609 

The Youngest Red Cross Nurse 610 

Scenes in Siboney 627 

Scenes in Santiago 628 

Refugees from Santiago 636 

Santiago Refugees at El Caney 639 

Establishing Headquarters Ashore 640 

Starving in the Plaza 64>.» 

Los Fosos . . , 648 

Bringing in the Wounded , 657 

Clearing for a Cross Road 658 



Contents. 



FAOB 

To THE PKOFI.E 13 

Introduction 17 



The Red Cross. General History 23 

Organization and Methods of Work . , 27 

Occupation in Times of Peace 29 

Services in Time of War 30 

Neutral Countries in Time of Peace 34 

International Correspondence. ]\I. Moynier's First I.etter 36 

American Association of the Red Cross. Constitution and Original In- 
corporation 46-47 

First International Conference 48 

The Treaty of the Red Cross 57 

Governments Adopting the Treaty 58 

Address by Clara Barton 60 

Action of the United States Government 72 

The " Additional Articles " Concerning the Navy 74 

International Bulletin, Extract from 77 

Accession of the United States to the Treaty and " Additional Articles " . 80 

Proclamation of President Arthur 85 

International Bulletin. Concerning Adhesion of the United States ... 87 
International Committee. Letter Acknowledging Notice of Adhesion by 

United States 90 

International Committee. Fiftieth Circular Announcing Adoption of 

Treaty by United States 91 

Significance of " Red Cross " in its Relation to Philanthropy. Address 

by Clara Barton 97 

(7) 



Tlili RED CROSS. 



VAGB 

MicHiOAN Forest Fires '°7 

Mississii'i'i AND Ohio RivKR Floods m 

Mississippi AND Louisiana Cyclonk '12 

Ohio River Flood ^'5 

Down the Mississippi '-' 

"The Little Six" I3<^ 



Texas Famine • 13^ 

The Mount Vkrnon Cyclone H5 

Yellow Fever Epidemic in Florida -147 

The MacCleuuy Nurses I5' 



The Johnstown Flood i 5j 

Arrival at Johnstown 158 

Appointment of Committees 160 

The Work of Relief 161 

Farewell to Miss Barton 169 

" The Dread Conemaugh " 170 

In Menioriam 174 



The RUS.SIAN Famine 175 

Count Tolstoi on the Character of the Peasants 176 

Beginning of American Relief 177 

Appreciation of American Sympathy 1 80 

Dr. Hubbell's Report 184 



CONTENTS. 9 



PAOE. 



The Reincorporation of the American National Red Cross 94 



Sea Islands Hurricane 197 

Coast of South Carolina 197 

Admiral Beardslee's Description of the Hurricane 203 

Relief Work South of Broad River 211 

Report by John McDonald 211 

Hiltonhead District Clothing Department. Report by Mrs. MacDonald . 220 

Medical Department. Report by Dr. E. W. Egan 222-228 

Relief Methods in Field. Dr. Hubbell's Report 232 

On the Charleston Group. Report by H. L,. Bailey 244 

The Clothing Department. Mrs. Gardner's Report 252 

The Sewing Circles 257 

A Christmas Carol 261 

Mrs. Reed's Report 263 

Leaving the Field • • 268 

Letter to Charleston Nezvs and Courier 268 

Circular to Clergymen and Committees 273 



Armenia 275 

Distance and Difficulties of Travel and Transportation 305 

Funds 307 

Committees 310 

To the Press of the United States 313 

To Contributors 313 

To the Government at Washington 314 

To Our Legation in Constantinople • . . . . 314 

To the Ambassadors of other Nations 315 

Commendatory 315 

" Marmora." Poem by Clara Barton 319 

Report of Financial Secretary 324 



10 IHli KlUJ CKObiS. 

PAGE. 

Gencrnl Field Ajienl's Report 334 

Medical Reix.rt 35° 



The Spanish-Amkrican War 360 

Home Cani{)s and American Waters 361 

The Central Cuban Relief Committee, Appointment of 362 

The Red Cross Requested to Administer Relief in Cuba 365 

Taking Command of the " State of Texas " 368 

Relief Work at Tampa and Key West 368 

Feeding Spanish Prisoners of War 369 

Correspondence with Admiral Sampson 370 

Appointment of the Executive Committee of the Red Cross and the 

Relief Committee of New York 375 

Communication from Secretary of State Acknowledging Official Status 

of the American National Red Cross 377 

The Modus Vivendi with Spain 384-394 

Services of the Red Cross accepted by the Government 395 

Appointment of Red Cross Field Agents for the Camps 395 

Camp Alger, Washington, D. C 397 

Camp Thomas, Chickamauga Park 408 

Jacksonville and Miami, Florida 414 

Fort McPherson, Atlanta, Ga 420 

Camp Hobson, Lithia, Ga 422 

St. Paul Red Cross 425 

Montauk Point, Long Island 426 

Pacific Coast 431 

The Red Cross of California 433 

The Red Cross of Oregon 441 

The Red Cross, Seattle, Wash 452 

Porto Rico 460 

Report of Horace F. Barnes 460 



CONTENTS II 

PAGE. 

Shipments by United States Transports 470 

Relief Committee of New York, Report by 473 

Women's Auxiliaries of the Red Cross 491 

"Women who went to the Field." Poem by Clara Barton 509 



Cuba and the Cuban Campaign 514 

Havana 520 

Iwos Fosos 521 

The Orphanage 522 

Destruction of the "Maine" 524 

Jaruca 527 

Matanzas 531 

Senator Redfield Proctor's Speech in United States Senate 534 

Artemisa 540 

Sagua La Grande 542 

Cienfuegos 544 

Back to Havana 545 

Leaving Havana . . ■ 549 

On Board the " State of Texas" 550 

Tampa 552 

Arrival at Santiago 555 

Siboney 557 

Hospital Work at Siboney 560 

Relief Work at the Front 566 

Entering the Harbor of Santiago 576 

Unloading the " State of Texas" 577 

Feeding the Refugees 577 

Relief Work in Santiago 578 

Departure of the " State of Texas " 580 



12 THI-: Ri:i) cR(xss. 

PAGE. 

Thf TraiisjKirt " Clinton " at tho Disposition t)f tlie Red Cross 583 

Leaving Santiajjo for Havana 584 

Departure from Havana 585 



Reports. 

Report of Dr. A. Monae Lesser 587 

Report of rinancial Secretary, Mr. C. H. H. Cottrell 600 

The Schooner " Mary E. Morse." Distribution of Ice 624 

lyctter of Santiago Committee 637 

Medical Report by E. W. Egau, M. D 642 

Clothing Department. Report by Miss Annie M. Fowler 656 



The Red Cross of Other Nations 662 

To the Congress of the United States. Address by Clara Barton 666 

To the Committees on The Red Cross 674 

To the Auxiliaries of the Red Cross and the Nurses Who Went to the War 677 

Unwritten Thanks 680 

A Word of Explanation 680 

Conclusion 681 

Notes 683 



TO THE PEOPLE. 




]NJ recounting the experience of the Red Cross in the 
Cuban campaign, I have endeavored to tell the 
story of the events as they succeeded each other, 
recording simply the facts connected with the 
work of the War Relief, and refraining from 
criticism of men and methods. There were un- 
pleasant incidents to relate, and unfortunate con- 
ditions to describe, but I have neither said nor 
written that any particular person, or persons, were to blame. It is 
not my duty, nor is it within my power, to analyze and criticise all the 
intricate workings of a government and its armies in the field. 

The conditions that existed during the campaign and the suffer- 
ing that had to be endured, were by no means peculiar to the Spanish- 
American War. Suffering, sickness, confusion, and death — these are 
inseparable from every armed conflict. They have always existed 
under such circumstances; they arc a part of war itself, against which 
no human foresight can wholly provide. 

Every civilized government is financially able to provide for its 
armies, but the great and seemingly insuperable difficulty is, to always 
have what is wanted at the place where it is most needed. It is a i)art 
of the strategy of war, that an enemy seeks battle at a time and place 
when his opponent is least prepared for it. Occasionally, too. an 
attacking commander is deceived. Where he expects only slight re- 
sistance, he encounters an overwhelming force and a battle of unfore- 



14 KKD CROSS. 

seen proportions, witli unexpected casualties, occurs. This is the 
universal testimony of nations. If it were not so, all needs could be 
provided for and every move planned at the outset. 

It was for these reasons that a body of gentlemen, now known as 
tlu- International Connnittee of Geneva, aided by National Associations 
in each country, planned, urged and finally succeeded in securing the 
adoption of the Treaty of the Red Cross. For these reasons the Treaty 
of Geneva and the National Committees of the Red Cross exist to-day. 
It is through the National Committees of the Red Cross in each treaty 
nation, that the people seek to assist the government in times of great 
emergency, in war or other calamity. It is only by favoring the 
organization of this Auxiliary Relief in times of peace, encouraging its 
development to the highest state of ef^ficiency, preparing to utilize not 
onlv all the ordinary resources, but also the generous support of the 
people, through the Red Cross, that a government may hope to avoid 
much of the needless suffering, sickness and death in war. 

In carrying out its mission, to assist in the prevention and relief of 
suffering, the Red Cross has neither the desire nor the intention to be 
censorious, and is actuated neither by political opinion nor motives of 
interference. It is but the outward and practical expression of that 
universal sympathy that goes out from the millions of homes and lire- 
sides, from the great heart of the nation, to humanity in distress, to the 
soldier on the march, in the bivouac and on the field of battle. 

Through all the past years, during which the Red Cross has sought 
recognition, protection and co-operation, it was but for one purpose — 
to be ready. Our only regret is that, during the late war, we were not 
able to render greater service. Even the little that was accomplished, 
could not have been done without the ever ready assistance of the 
President and the Secretary of War. 

Before us now lie the problems of the future, and the question is: 
How shall we meet them? As friends of humanity, while there is still 
a possibility of war or calamity, it behooves us to prepare. In America 



TO THE PUBLIC. 15 

perh^jx!, we are apt to undervalue careful preparation and depend too 
much upon our impulses. Certainly in no other country have the 
people so often risen from a state of unreadiness and accomplished such 
wonderful results — at such a great sacrifice. The first American war 
since the adoption of the Treaty of Geneva, has brought the Red Cross 
home to the people; they have come to understand its meaning and 
desire to become a permanent part of it. Now that the appropriate 
time has come, it is the purpose of the Red Cross, relying upon the 
active sympathy of the government and the generous support of the 
people, to continue its work of preparation, until in its councils and in 
its ranks the whole country shall be represented, standing together, 
ready for any great emergency, inspired by the love of humanity and 
the world-wide motto of the Red Cross : 

" In time of peace and prosperity, prepare for war and calamity." 



Ai)^cc/ra^7Bay?''^^x 



c/?^^ 




Copyright, 1898, by Clara Barton ^;5:igo^ 

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITl^EH OF THE RED CROSS, 
GENEVA, SWITZERLAND. 
Dr. Appia died, succeeded by M. E. Jouard Naville. Recent additions to the 
Committee are, N. Adolphc Moynier and M. Paul des Guulles, Secretary to 
the President. 




CLARA BARTON. 
Taken about 1885. 



INTRODUCTION, 




-O be called to tell in a few brief weeks the whole story 
of the Red Cross from its origin to the present time 
seems a labor scarcely less than to have lived it. It is 
a task that, however unworthily it may now be per- 
formed, is, in itself, not unworthy the genius of George 
Eliot or Macaulay. It is a story illustrating the rapid rise 
of the humane sentiment in the latter half of the nineteenth century. 
On its European side, it tells of the first timid and cautious pntting 
forth of the sentiment of humanity in war, amid the rattling swords 
and guns of Solferino, its deaths and wounds and its subsequent 
awful silence. 

It tells of its later fertilization on the red fields of Gravelotte and 
Sedan beneath my own personal observation. 

It was from such surroundings as these that the Red Cross has 
become the means by which philanthropy has been grafted onto the 
wild and savage stem of war. 

From the first filaments spun in the heart of a solitan,' traveler 
have been drawn onward stronger and larger strands, until now more 
than forty of the principal nations of the earth are bound together by 
bonds of the highest international law, that must make war in the 
future less barbarous than it has been in the past. 

It gives hope that " the very torrent, tempest and whirlwind " of 
war itself may some day at last, far off, perhaps, give way to the 
sunny and pleasant days of perpetual and universal f>eace. When a 

2 (IJ, 



i8 INTRODUCTION. 

proposition for an absolute and common disarmament of nations, made 
by the strongest of the rulers of EuroiX', will not be met by cynical 
sneers and suggestions of Machiavelian cratl. 

On its American side it is a story of such immense success on the 
part of the American National Red Cross in some of its greatest and 
most difficult fields of labor, that no finaiicial report of them has ever 
been made, because the story would have been altogether incredible. 
The universal opinion of ordinary business people would have been that 
these results could not have been obtained on the means stated, and 
therefore something nuist be wrong or hidden, and to save ourselves 
from painful suspicion, it was decided, rightly or wrongly, that the 
story nnist remain substantially untold till its work in other fields had 
prepared the public mind to accept the literal truth. 

But the time has come at last when the facts may properly be set 
forth without fear that they will be discredited or undervalued. 

It will relate some of the experiences, the labors, the successes and 
triumphs of the American National Red Cross in times of peace, by 
which it had prepared itself to enter upon the Cuban contest as its first 
independent work in time of war. 

The Red Cross has done its part in that contest in the same 
spirit in which it has heretofore done all the work which has been com- 
mitted to its care. It has done it unobtrusively, faithfully and 
successfully. 

It may not altogether have escaped censure in the rather wild 
cyclone of criticism that has swept over the country, but we remember 
not so much the faultfinding that may have occasionally been poured 
out upon the Red Cross, as the blessings and benedictions from all 
sides for work well and nobl}'^ done that have fallen even upon its 
humblest ministers and assistants 



INTRODUCTION. -v 

It has been truthfully said that " so great has been the pressure to 
share the difficulties and dangers of this service with only transpor- 
tation and subsistence for pay, that the Red Cross could on these terms 
have had as many volunteers as there were enlisted men, if their 
services could have been utilized and made important." 

Indeed, it seems to have become the milder romance of war, and 
is gradually winning its way into the very heart of the pomp and cir- 
cumstance of " glorious " war itself. 

The Red Cross has therefore come to be so loved and trusted, its 
principles and insignia have been so deeply set into the substance of 
international law and the life of many great nations, that people 
everywhere are beginning to ask with enthusiasm about its origin and 
history; about the principles on which it acts. They ask for some 
statement of its experiences, its hardships and its perils, and for some 
account of those who have been most prominent in its operations. 

It is partially to answer these and many similar inquiries that this 
book has been prepared. It is in part a compilation and revision of 
various statements necessarily incomplete and unsatisfactory', made 
from time to time to meet emergencies. In part it has been wholly 
rewritten. 

A great portion of the story of the Red Cross has been told in 
other languages than English, because it was of work done by other 
than English people. Much of this literature has never been trans- 
lated or placed within the reach of the English-speaking public. 

Although the gradual growth of the idea of something like 
humanity in war, stimulated by the ignorant and insane horrors of 
India and the Crimea, and soothed and instructed by the sensible and 
practical work of Florence Nightingale, had slowly but surely led up to 
the conditions which made such a movement possible, it was not until 
the remarkable campaign of Napoleon III. in Northern Italy again 



so INTRODUCTION. 

woke the slumbering sympathies of the world tliat auy definite steps 
revealed themselves. 

In compiling this book I have been compelled to make use of 
much of the material contained in a previous history written by myself 
in 1883, which in turn was based upon the records and the literature 
of the International Committee, and the official correspondence con- 
nected with the treaty. 



/(PXCCO^CL TSoyP'X^'Z^ -• 





'ruT;Z^'^^'^^ W.KKHOVSH, WASH.NOTOK, D. C. 



The Red Cross, 




CHAPTER I. 



"N June 24, 1859, occurred the memorable battle of Sol- 
ferino, in which the French and Sardinians were arrayed 
against the Austrians. The battle raged over a wide 
reach of country and continued for sixteen hours; at the 
end of which sixteen thousand French and Sardinian sol- 
diers and twenty thousand Austrians lay dead or were 
wounded and disabled on that field. The old and ever-recurring fact 
reappeared: the medical staff was wholly inadequate to the immense 
task suddenly cast upon them. For days after the battle the dead 
in part remained unburied, and the wounded where they fell, or crawled 
away as they could for shelter and help. 

A Swiss gentleman, Henri Dunant by name, was then traveling 
near that battlefield, and was deeply impressed by the scenes there 
presented to him. He joined in the work of relief, but the inadequacy 
of preparation and the consequent suffering of the wounded haunted 
him afterwards and impelled him to write a book entitled '* A 
Souvenir of Solferino," in which he strongly advocated more humane 
and extensive appliances of aid to wounded soldiers. He lectured 
about them before the "Society of Public Utility" of Genev^a. M. 
Gustav Moynier, a gentleman of independent fortune, was then presi- 
dent of that society. Dr. Louis Appia, a philanthropic physician, and 
Adolph Ador, a counsellor of repute in Geneva, became interested in 
his views. They drew the attention of Dufour, the general of the 
Swiss army, to the subject, and enlisted his hearty co-operation. A 
meeting of this society was called to consider "a proposition relative 
to the formation of permanent societies for the relief of wounded .sol- 
diers." This meeting took place on the ninth of February, 1863. The 
tnatter was laid fully before the society. It was heartily received and 
acted upon and a committee was appointed with M. Moynier at its head 

(23) 



24 THE RED CROSS. 

to examine into methods by which the desired results might be obtained. 
So fully did this committee realize its responsibility and the magni- 
tude, grandeur and lalxjr of the undertaking, that the first steps were 
made even with timidity. But overcoming all obstacles, it decided 
upon a plan which seemed possible, and announced for the twenty- 
sixth of the following October a reunion to which were invited from 
many countries men sympathizing with its views or able to assist in 
its discussions. This international conference was held at the appointed 
time, and continued its sessions four days. At this meeting it was 
decided to call an international convention to be held at Geneva during 
the autumn of the following year (1864). At this convention was 
brought out the Geneva Treaty, and a permanent international com- 
mittee with headquarters at Geneva was formed, and the fundamental 
plan of the national permanent relief societies adopted. 

One of the first objects necessary and desired by the International 
Committee for the successful prosecution of its work was the co-operation 
by some of the more important states of Europe in a treaty which 
should recognize the neutrality of the hospitals established, of the sick 
and wounded, and of all persons and effects connected with the relief 
service; also the adoption of a uniform protective sign or badge. It 
inquired with care into the disposition of the several governments, and 
was met with active sympathy and moral support. It first secured the 
co-operation of the Swiss Federal Council and the Emperor of France. 
It shortly after procured the signatures of ten other governments, which 
were given at its room in the city hall of Geneva, August 22, 1864, and 
was called the Convention pf Geneva. 

Its sign or badge was also agreed upon, namely, a red cross on a 
white ground, which was to be worn on the arm by all persons acting 
with or in the service of the committees enrolled under the convention. 

The treat}'- provides for the neutrality of all sanitary supplies, 
ambulances, surgeons, nurses, attendants, and sick or wounded men, 
and their safe conduct when they bear the sign of the organization, viz: 
the Red Cross. 

Although the convention which originated the organization was 
necessarily international, the relief societies themselves are entirely 
national and independent; each one governing itself and making its 
own laws, according to the genius of its nationality and needs. 

It was necessary for recognition and safety, and for carrying out 
the general provisions of the treaty, that a uniform badge should be 
agreed upon. The Red Cross was chosen out of compliment to the 



THE RED CROSS. 25 

Swiss republic, where the first convention was held, and in which the 
central committee has its headquarters. The Swiss colors being a 
white cross on a red ground, the badge chosen was these colors reversed. 

There are no " members of the Red Cross," but only members of 
societies whose sign it is. There is no ' ' Order of the Red Cross. ' ' The 
relief societies use, each according to its convenience, whatever methods 
seem best suited to prepare in times of peace for the necessities of 
sanitary service in times of war. They gather and store gifts of money 
and supplies; arrange hospitals, ambulances, methods of transportation 
of wounded men, bureaus of information, correspondence, etc. All 
that the most ingenious philanthropy could devise and execute has been 
attempted in this direction. 

In the Franco- Prussian war this was abundantly tested. That 
Prussia acknowledged its beneficence is proven by the fact that the 
emperor affixed the Red Cross to the Iron Cross of Merit. The number 
of governments adhering to the treaty was shortly after increased to 
twenty-two and at the present date there are forty-two. 

The German-Austria war of 1866, though not fully developing the 
advantages of this international law, was yet the means of discovering 
its imperfections. Consequently, in 1867 the relief societies of Paris 
considered it necessary that the treaty should be revised, modified and 
completed. Requests were issued for modification. The International 
Committee transmitted them to the various governments, and in [868 a 
second diplomatic conference was convened at Geneva at which were 
voted additional articles, improving the treaty by completing its design 
and extending its beneficial action to maritime warfare. 

During the war of 1866 no decisive trial of the new principles 
involved in the treaty could be made, for Austria at that time had not 
adopted it. But in 1870-71 it was otherwise. The belligerents, 
both France and Germany, had accepted the treaty. Thus it became 
possible to show to the world the immense service and beneficent results 
which the treaty, through the relief societies, might accomplish. 

The dullest apprehension can partially appreciate the responsibility 
incurred by relief societies in time of war. The thoughtful mind will 
readily perceive that these responsibilities involve constant vigilance 
and effort during periods of peace. It is wise statesmanship wliich 
suggests that in time of peace we must prepare for war, and it is no 
less a wise benevolence that makes preparation in the hour of peace for 
assuaging the ills that are sure to accompany war. We do not wait till 
battles are upon us to provide efficient soldiery and munitions of war. 



2(, THE RKD CROSS. 

Everything that foresii;lit and caution can devise to insure success is 
made ready and kept ready against the time of need. It is equally 
necessary to hold ourselves in readiness for effective service in the 
mitigation of evils consequent upon war, if humane work is to be 
undertaken for that purpose. 

Permanent armies are organized, drilled and supported for the 
actual service in war. It is no less incumbent if we would do efficient 
work in alleviating the sufferings caused by the barbarisms of war, 
that we should organize philanthropic efforts and be ready with what- 
ever is necessary, to be on the field at the sound of the first gun. An 
understanding of this truth led the conference of 1863 to embody in 
its articles as one of its first cardinal characteristics the following: " In 
time of peace the committee will occupy itself with means to render 
genuine assistance in time of war." 

The International Committee assumed that there should be a relief 
association in every country which endorsed the treaty, and so generally 
was the idea accepted that at the end of the year 1864, when only ten 
governments had been added to the convention, twenty-five committees 
had been formed, under each of which relief societies were organized. 
It was, however, only after the wars of 1864, 1866 and 1870 that the 
movement began really to be popular. These conflicts brought not 
only contestants, but neutral powers so to appreciate the horrors of 
war, that they were quite ready to acknowledge the beneficence and 
wi.sdom of the Geneva Treaty. Many who approved the humane idea 
and expressed a heart^' sympathy for the object to be obtained, had 
heretofore regarded it as Utopian, a thing desirable but not attainable, 
an amiable and fanatical illusion which would ever elude the practical 
grasp. Nevertheless, the work accomplished during the wars referred 
to won over not only such cavillers, but persons actually hostile to the 
movement, to regard it as a practical and most beneficent undertaking. 
The crowned heads of Europe were quick to perceive the benign uses 
of the associations, and bestowed upon the central committees of their 
countries money, credit and personal approbation. The families of 
sovereigns contributed their sympathy and material support. The list 
of princes and princesses who came forward with personal aid and 
assumed direction of the work, was by no means small, thus proving cor- 
rect the augury of the Conference of 1863, that " The governments would 
accord their high protection to the committees in their organization." 

From one of the bulletins of the International Committee we make 
the following hopeful extract : 



ORGANIZATION AND METHODS OF WORK. 27 

" The whole of Europe is marshaled under the banner of the Red 
Cross. To its powerful and peaceful sign the connnittee hopes to bring 
all the civilized nations of the earth. Wherever men fight and tear 
each other in pieces, wherever the glare and roar of war are heard, 
they aim to plant the white banner that bears the blessed sign of relief. 
Already they have carried it into Asia. Their ensign waves in Sil:>eria, 
on the Chinese frontier, and in Turkestan, and. through the African 
committee, in Algeria and Egypt. Oceanica has a committee at Batavia. 
Japan accepted the Treaty of Geneva in 1886, and on the breaking out 
of hostilities between Japan and China, the Minister of War issued a 
notif cation to the Japanese army, September 22, 1894, calling theit 
attention to the substance of the treaty." 



ORGANIZATION AND METHODS OF WORK. 



One of the things considered indispensable, and therefore adopted 
as a resolution by the Conference of 1863, was the centralization of the 
work in each country separately by itself. 

While the treaty must be universally acknowledged and its badge 
accepted as a universal sign, it was equally essential that the societies 
of the different countries should be simply national and in no resj^ect 
international. It was therefore ordained by the conference that all 
local committees or organizations desirous of working with the Red 
Cross, should do so under the auspices of the Central Committee of theii 
own nation, which is recognized by its government and also recognized by 
the International Committee from which the sign of the Red Cross 
emanates. Singularly enough, the International Committee has had 
considerable difficulty in making this fully understood, and frequently 
has been obliged to suggest to local committees the necessity for their 
subordination to the Central or National Committee. Once in three 
months the International Committee publishes an official list of all 
central committees recognized by it as national. In this way it is able 
to exercise a certain control, and to repress entanglements and abuses 
which would become consequent on irresponsible or counterfeit organi- 
•/.ations. To recapitulate: the Commission of Geneva, of which M. 
Moynier is president, is the only International Committee. All other 
committees are simplj- national or subordinate to national committees. 



s8 Till- RICI) CROSS. 

The Conference of 1863 foresaw tluU national differences would prevent 
a universal coile of nianajieinent, and that to make the societies inter- 
national would destroy them, so far as efficiency was concerned. They 
therefore adopted a resolution that " Central committees should organize 
in such a manner as seemed the most useful and convenient to them- 
selves." Every committee being its own judge, has its own constitu- 
tion and laws. To be efficient, it must have the recognition of its own 
government, must bear the stamp of national individuality and be con- 
structed according to the spirit, habits and needs of the country it repre- 
sents. No hierarchy unites the national societies; they are indej^endent 
of each other, but they have each an individual responsibility to the 
treaty, under the ensign of which they work, and they labor in a com- 
mon cause. It is desirable that they should all be known by one name, 
namely, the Society of the Red Cross. The functions of the Interna- 
tional Connnittee, whose headquarters are at Geneva, were also deter- 
mined by the Conference of 1863. It is to serve provisionally as an 
intermediate agent between national committees, and to facilitate their 
connnunications with each other. It occupies itself with the general 
interests of the Red Cro.ss in correspondence, and the study of theo- 
retical and practical methods of amelioration and relief. 

The national connnittees are charged with the direction and respon- 
sibility for the work in their own countries. They must provide 
resources to be utilized in time of need, take active measures to secure 
adherents, establish local societies, and have ati efficient working force 
always in readiness for action, and in time of war to dispatch and dis- 
tribute safely and wisely all accumulations of material and supplies, 
nurses and assistants, to their proper destination, and, in short, what- 
ever may be gathered from the patriotism and philanthropy of the 
country. They must always remember that central committees without 
abundant sectional branches would be of little use. 

In most countries the co-operation of women has been eagerly 
sought. It is needless to .say it has been as eagerly given. In some 
countries the central committees are mixed, both sexes working 
together; in others, sub-committees are formed by women, and in 
others, such as the Grand Duchy of Baden, woman leads. 

As a last detail of organization, the Conference of 1863 recom- 
mended to the central committees \.o put themselves en I'appoj't with 
their respective governments, in order that their offers of service should 
be accepted when required. This makes it incumbent upon national 
societies to obtain and hold government recognition, by which they are 



REUEF SOCIETIES IN TIMES OV PEACE. 29 

endowed with the inimunities and privileges of legally constituted 
bodies and with recognition from other nations in time of war, not 
otherwise possible to them. 



OCCUPATIONS OF RELIEF SOCIETIES 
IN TIMES OF PEACE. 

Organization, recognition and communication are by no means all 
that is necessary to insure the fulfillment of the objects of these asso- 
ciations. A thing most important to be borne in mind is that if money 
be necessary for war, it is also an indispensable agent in relief of the 
miseries occasioned by war. Self-devotion alone will not answer. The 
relief societies need funds and other resources to carry on their work. 
They not only require means for current expenses, but, most of all, for 
possible emergencies. To obtain and prudently conserve these resources 
is an important work. The Russian Society set a good example of 
activity in this direction. From the beginning of its organization in 
1867 it systematically collected mone)' over the whole empire and 
neglected nothing that tended to success. It put boxes in churches, 
convents, armories, railroad depots, steamboats, in every place fre- 
quented by the public. Beside the collection of funds, the Confer- 
ence of 1863 recommended that peace periods should be occupied 
in gathering necessary material for service. In i868 there were in 
Geneva alone five depots where were accumulated one thousand two 
hundred and twenty-eight shirts, besides hosiery, bandages, lint, etc., 
for over one thousand wounded. There were also large collections 
in the provinces, and now, thirty years later, these accumulations have 
probably greatly increased. In other countries the supplies remaining 
after wars were gathered in depots and were added to abundantly. 
Thus, in 1868, the Berlin Committee was in possession of supplies 
worth over twenty-five thousand dollars. Especial care is taken to 
acquire familiarity with the use of all sanitary material, to eliminate 
as far as possible whatever may be prejudicial to sick or wounded men, 
to improve both sanitary system and all supplies to be used under it, to 
have everything of the very best, as surgical instruments, medicine 
chests, bandages, stretchers, wagons, tents and field hospitals. 

We would refer to the effort made in the national exhibitions of the 
various countries, where the societies of the Red Cross have displayed 



30 THE RED CROSS. 

their practical iniprovemenls and inventions in competitive fields, taxing 
to the utmost human ingenuity and skill. Some countries have taken 
grand prizes. An exposition at The Hague was held in 1867 exclusively 
for the work of the Red Cross. Permanent museums have been 
established where all sorts of sanitary material for relief are exhibited, 
as may l)e seen in Stockholm, Carlsruhe, St. Petersburg, Moscow and 
Paris. The museum of Paris is the most important of all, and is 
international, other countries having participated in its foundation. 
Anotlicr method is the publication of works bearing upon this subject, 
some of which are scientific and very valuable. Not less important is 
the sanitary personnel. Of all aid, efficient nurses are the most difficult 
to obtain. There are numbers of men and women who have the will 
and devotion necessary to lead them into hospitals or to battlefields, 
but very few of them are capable of performing well the duties of 
nurses. Therefore, but a small portion of the volunteers are available. 
The relief societies soon found that women were by nature much better 
fitted for this duty than men can be, and to enable them to fulfill to 
the best advantage the mission for which they are so well adapted, it 
was decided to afford them the best possible professional instruction. 
For this purpose, during peace training schools were established fi-om 
which were graduated great numbers of women who are ready at a 
moment's notice to go upon the battlefield or into hospitals. The.-e 
professional nurses find no difficulty during times of peace in securing 
remunerative employment. Indeed, they are eagerly sought for by the 
conununity to take positions at the bedside of the sick, with the proviso 
that they are to be allowed to obey the pledge of their society at the 
first tocsin of war. There are schools for this purpose in England, 
Germany, Sweden, Holland, Russia and other European countries, 
and nothing has been neglected to make them thorough and to place 
them on a strong and solid basiS: 



SERVICES IN TIME OF WAR. 



Notwithstanding the readiness with which most persons will 
perceive the beneficent uses of relief societies in war, it may not be 
amiss to particularize some of the work accomplished by the societies 
of the Red Cross. Not to mention civil disturbances and lesser conflicts. 



SERVICES IN TIME OF WAR. 3i 

they participated in not less than five great wars in the first ten years, 
commencing with Schleswig-HoLstein, and ending with the Franco- 
German. Russia and Turkey have followed, with many others since 
that time, in all of which these societies have signally proved their 
power to ameliorate the horrors of war. The earlier of these, while 
affording great opportunity for the beneficent work of the societies, 
were also grand fields of instruction and discipline to the committee, 
enabling them to store 'up vast funds of practical knowledge which 
were to be of great service. 

The Sanitary Commission of the United States also served as an 
excellent example in many respects to the relief societies of Europe, 
and from it they took many valuable lessons. Thus in 1866 Eunjpe 
was much better prepared than ever before for the care of those who 
suffered from the barbarisms of war. She was now ready with seme 
degree of ability to oppose the arms of charity to the arms of violence, 
and make a kind of war on war itself. Still however there was a lack 
of ceutralizjation. The provincial committees worked separately, and 
consequently lost force. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, large 
amounts of money were gathered, and munificent supplies of material 
brought into store. The Austrian Committee alone collected 2,170,000 
francs, and a great supply of all things needed in hospital ser\ice. 
The Central Committee was of great use in facilitating correspondence 
between the different peoples comprising the Austrian Empire, the 
bureau maintaining correspondence in eleven different languages. 

Italy was not backward in the performance of her duty. She used 
her abundant resources in the most effectual way. Not only were her 
provincial societies of relief united for common action, but they 
received external aid from France and Switzerland. Here was exhib- 
ited the first beautiful example of neutral powers interfering in the 
cause of charity in time of war — instead of joining in the work of 
destruction, lending their aid to repair its damages. The provincial 
committees banded together under the Central Committee of Milan. 
Four squads, comprising well-trained nurses and assistants, were 
organized and furnished with all necessary material to follow the 
military ambulances or field hospitals, whose wagons were placed at 
their disposal. 

Thus the committee not only reinforced the sauitar>' personnel 
of the army, but greatly increased its supplies. It provided entirely 
the sanitary material for the Tyrolese volunteers, and afforded relief to 
the navy, and when the war was over it remained among the wounded. 



32 THE RED CROSS. 

In addition to the supplies this committee afforded, it expended in 
money not less than 199,064 francs. 

But after all it was Germany standing between the two armies 
which distinguished herself. Since the Conference of 1863 she had 
been acting on the rule of preparation, and now found herself in readi- 
ness for all emergencies. The Central Committee of Berlin was flooded 
with contributions from the provincial committees. In the eight 
provinces of Prussia 4,000,000 of thalers were collected, and the other 
states of Germany were not behind. So munificently did the people 
betJtow their aid, that large storehouses were provided in Berlin and in 
the provinces for its reception, and at the central depot in Berlin two 
hundred paid persons, besides a large number of volunteers, and nearly 
three hundred ladies and misses were employed in classifying, parcel- 
ing, packing up, and dispatching the goods. Special railroad trains 
carried material to the points of need. In one train were twenty-six 
cars laden with 1800 to 2000 cwt. of supplies. Never had private 
charity, however carefully directed, been able to accomplish sucii 
prodigies of benevolence. It was now that the beneficence of the 
Treat)' and the excellence of the organization were manifested. But 
the committee did not confine itself to sending supplies for the wounded 
to the seat of war. It established and provisioned refreshment stations 
for the trains, to which those unable to proceed on the trains to the 
great hospitals without danger to life, were admitted, nursed and cared 
for with the tenderest solicitude until they were sufficiently recovered 
to be removed, or death took them. At the station of Pardubitz from 
six hundred to eight hundred were cared for daily for two months, and 
lodging provided for three hundred at night. This example suffices to 
show the extraordinary results of well-organized plans and concerted 
action. During the war, the relief societies had also to contend with 
the terrible scourge of cholera. There can be no estimate of the misery 
assuaged and deaths prevented by the unselfish zeal and devotion of the 
wearers of the Red Cross. 

In the interval between the wars of 1866 and 1867, and that of 
1870-71, the time had been improved by the societies existing under 
the Geneva Treat)-, in adding to their resources in every possible 
manner. Improvements were made in all articles of sanitary service; 
excellent treatises regarding the hygiene of the camp and hospital were 
widely circulated; the press had greatly interested itself in the promul- 
gation of infonnation regarding all matters of interest or instruction 
pertaining to sanitary effort, and almost universally lent its powerftd 



SERVICES IN TIME OF WAR. 33 

influence to build up the societies. Ten new societies were formed during 
this time. In Germany the work of the Red Cross was so thoroughly 
organized, that at the first signal from Berlin, committees arrived as if 
by magic at all required points, forming a chain which extended over 
the whole country, and numbered over two thousand persons. This is 
more remarkable since Germany was a neutral power. Constant com- 
munication was kept up between these committees and the central 
bureau, and the most perfect order and discipline were maintained. 
Relief was sent from one or another of these stations as was needed. 
The state afforded free transport, and the voluntary contributions of the 
people kept up the supplies of sanitary material, so that there was 
never any lack or danger of failure. With the government transports, 
whether by land or water, there went always the agents of the Red 
Cross, protected by their badges and flag, to wait on the invoices, hasten 
their progress, see to their being kept in good order, and properly 
delivered at their destination. Depots of supplies were moved from 
place to place as exigencies demanded. The greatest care was taken 
to prevent disorder or confusion, and the best military circumspection 
and regularity prevailed. The great central depot at Berlin comprised 
seven sections, viz: Camp material; clothing; dressing, for wounds; 
surgical apparatus; medicines and disinfectants; food and tobacco; and 
hospital furnishings. Did space allow, it would be desirable to give 
statistics of the contributions in money and supplies to this service. 
Suffice it to say, the humanity of peoples is far beyond that of govern- 
ments. Governments appropriate immense sums to carry on destructive 
conflicts, but the work of relief societies the world over, and especially 
during the war of 1870-71, has shown that the philanthropy of the 
people equals their patriotism. The sums given to assuage the miseries 
of the Franco-Prussian war were simply fabulous. In 1863, fears were 
expressed that there would be difficulty in collecting needful funds and 
supplies to carry out the designs of the treaty. These misgivings 
proved groundless. After the war of 1870-71, notwithstanding nothing 
had been withheld in the way of relief, the societies settled their 
accounts with large balances in their treasuries. 

In France not nearly so much had been previously done to provide 
for the exigencies which fell upon them, but the committee worked with 
such vigor and so wrought upon the philanthropy of individuals, that 
active measures of relief were instantly taken. Gold and supplies 
poured into the hands of the committee at Paris. One month sufficed to 
organize and provide seventeen campaign ambulances or field hospitals, 



31 THE RKD CROSS. 

which immediately joined the army and accompanied it through 
the first period of the war, or until the battle of Sedan. In Paris 
ambulances were stationed at the railroad depots to pick up the wounded, 
and a bureau of information was created for soldiers' families. When 
the siege of Paris was about to take place, the committee threw, with- 
out delay, a commission into Brussels charged with the direction and 
help of flying hospitals. Nine connnittees were established in the 
provinces, with power to act for the Central Committee and to invite the 
people to help. Meanwhile the committee in Paris did its utmost to 
mitigate the distress that reigned there, and to prepare for the result of 
the siege. History has recorded the sufferings, the horrors of misery 
that accompanied and followed that siege; but history can never relate 
what wretchedness was averted, what agonies were alleviated, what 
multitudes of lives were saved, by the presence and effort of the relief 
societies ! What the state of France must have been without the mer- 
ciful help of the Red Cross societies the imagination dare not picture. 
After the armistice was signed there were removed from Paris, under 
the auspices of the relief societies, ten thousand wounded men, who 
otherwise must have lingered in agony, or died from want of care; and 
there were brought back by them to French soil nine thousand men 
who had been cared for in German hospitals. 



HELP FROM NEUTRAL COUNTRIES. 



Neutral countries also during this war were read}' and bountiful 
with help; and those working under the treaty did most effectual 
service. England contributed 7,500,000 francs, besides large gifts of 
sanitary supplies; in one hundred and eighty-eight days' time she sent 
to the seat of war twelve thousand boxes of supplies through the agents 
of the Red Cross. 

To give an idea of the readiness and efficacy with which the com- 
mittees worked even in neutral countries, one instance will suffice. 
From Pont-a-Mousson a telegram was sent to London for two hundred 
and fifty iron beds for the wounded, and in forty-eight hours they 
arrived in answer to the request. England kept also at the seat of war 
agents to inform the committee at home of whatever was most needed 
in supplies. The neutral countries sent also surgeons, physicians and 



HELP FROM NEUTRAL COUNTRIES. 35 

nurses, and in many other ways gave practical testimony to the benign 
efl&cacy of the G^jneva treaty. 

As will be seen by the foregoing pages, the objects and provisions 
of the Geneva convention and the societies acting under it, are designed 
for, and applicable to, the exigencies of war only. The close contact of 
the nations hitherto signing this treaty, renders them far more liable 
to the recurrence of war among them than our own, which by its 
geographical position and distance from neighboring nations, entertains 
a feeling of cecurity which justifies the hope that we may seldom, if 
ever again, have occasion to provide for the exigencies of war in our land. 

This leads the American Red Cross to perceive the great wisdom, 
foresight and breadth of the resolution adopted by the convention of 
1863, which provides that "Committees shall organize in the manner 
which shall seem most useful and convenient to themselves;" also in 
their article on the organization of societies in these pages occurs the 
following: "To be efficient, societies must have government recog- 
nition, must bear the stamp of their national individuality, and be 
constructed according to the spirit, habits, and needs of the country 
they represent. This is essential to success. ' ' 

As no work can retain its vitality without constant action, so in a 
country' like ours, with a people of so active a temperament, an essen- 
tial element in endearing to them a work, is to keep constantly before 
them its usefulness. With this view the question of meeting the want 
heretofore felt on all occasions of public calamity, of sufficient extent 
to be deemed of national importance, has received attention at the 
hands of this association. For this purpose the necessary steps have 
been inaugurated to organize auxiliary societies, prepared to co-operate 
with the central association in all plans for prompt relief; whilst the 
volunteers who shall render personal aid will be expected to hold 
themselves in the same readiness as in the case of an international call. 

It must, however, be distinctly understood that these additional 
functions for local purposes shall in no manner impair the international 
obligation of the association; but on the contrary it is believed will 
render them more effective in time of need. 

It may appear singular that a movement so humane in its purposes, 
so wise and well considered in its regulations, so universal in its appli- 
cation, and every way so unexceptional, should have been so long in 
finding its way to the knowledge and consideration of the people of the 
United States. This fact appears to have been the result of circum- 
stances rather than intention. While eminently a reading people, we 



36 ' THE RKD CROSS. 

are almost exclusively confined to the English language. The litera- 
ture of the Red Cross is entirely in other languages, largely French, 
and thus has failed to meet the eye of the reading public. 

It will be observed that the first convention was called during our 
war; no delegates were especially sent by the United States, but oui 
Minister Pleni|x>tentiary to Switzerland, acting as delegate, sent a copy 
of the doings of the convention to our government for recognition. 
In the midst of civil war as we were at the time the subject was very 
naturally and properly declined. 

It was again most fittingly presented in 1866 through Rev. Dr. 
Henry W. Bellows, and by this eminent gentleman and philanthropist 
a Society of the Red Cross was actually formed; but for some cause it 
failed, and the convention was not recognized. The International 
Committee became in a manner discouraged in its efforts with the 
United States, but finally it was decided to present it again through 
Miss Clara Barton, and accordingly the following letter was addressed 
to President Hayes during the first year of his administration: 

International Committee for 

THE Relief of Wounded Soldiers, 

Geneva, August 19, 1877. 
To the Presidetit of the United States, at Washmgton: 

JIr. President : The International Committee of the Red Cross desires most 
earnestly that the United States should be associated with them in their work, 
and they take the liberty of addressing themselves to }-ou, with the hope that you 
will second their eCForts. In order that the functions of the National Society of 
the Red Cross be faithfully performed, it is indispensable that it should have the 
sympathy and protection of the government. 

It would be irrational to establish an association upon the principles of the 
Convention of Geneva, without the association having the assurance that the army 
of its own country, of which it should be an auxiliarj', would be guided, should 
the case occur, by the same principles. It would consequently be useless for us to 
appeal to the people of the country, inasmuch as the United States, as a govern- 
ment, has made no declaration of adhering officially to the principles laid down by 
the convention of the twenty-second August, 1864. 

Such is then, Mr. President, the principal object of the present request. We 
do not doubt but this will meet with a favorable reception from you, for the 
United States is in advance of Europe upon the subject of war, and the celebrated 
" Instructions of the American Army " are a monument which does honor to the 
United States. 

You are aware, Mr. President, that the Government of the United States was 
officially represented at the Convention of Geneva, in 1864, by two delegates, and 
this mark of approbation given to the work vvhicn was being accomplished was 
then considered by every one as a precursor of a legal ratification. Until the 



FIRST LETTER FROM M. GUSTAV MOYNIER TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES, URGING THE ADOI'TION OK THE TREATY OF GENEVA.. 



[Origiual autograph translation by Clara Barton.] 



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37 



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<?a7fc/}i. oL/)T/(i TftjLfsr-est^ii-lJonti, ncAMf^A>4j>\ 7n/i CcmfcrtiiiaTiorx, 

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'iluxjo adoivdZicL 6ij oM. C/viU^voC fijuyfiZt^ hoi onfu i^e/ii JudaAoU.oL 



38 



UeCLUAJL ^'tJt oe eo sunt has '^icrt oj'f-oy^ci olhlJ . ^hi. f-PcJlM 

^•e/rvus szonyTtrtiey-iTf uji£jL .oU/Jitoriinr&^-uuxjL. Co foka. thjt. ^TeeesiOJiy *)ntoi. 
• inji i C fujdrCLoi JLoicJ Co a t'luajCuot. So ^Jtcien to ue. Ax C7-eCUoL . 

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ardjLO' CT-OA^ Yke. ^cnjU)icLof>o of dm Cl/)-7t.e/>icQjii. <iS'oc!-tLl\r vf yftt. 



ydid'e? 



on 



(A3jl hcvu^ cchjiodxj a/n ClMs. aofcL clmrtrOd^ oftttTaovt 

liayncLuyto u) "^[Cru Y/?/s 'fVLesjuiit'AJLO'LLeT/'. 

^J^yUruuJcU CU /IMAyy cCnTco-aAA. YhoJr /hjuYotc-^^eTjcL 
OTf-i/n>aJ/Mjt 3/7 cruJot "o-t. ZjC/nc/ji/y \rcnxjy cl/s/f'no-ujtiiJdTaoJTi^ty. 
CUncl a>^ koftJL YncxJ- XfcuL njiil ^a/'AjfuAjL cui YA/'j fc 



t'Otruy-. 






1 






'O^/nO C£A^ 






3Q 



AI'T(m;ka1-H HNIXIKSKMKNT HY PRHSrOKNT GARFIELD. 



EXECUTIVE MANSION, 

WASHINGTON 







/^^ ^, //#/. 



INTKRNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE. 41 

present time, however, this confirmation has not taken place, and we think that 
this formality, which would have no other bearing than to express publicly the 
acquiescence of the United States in those humanitarian principles now admitted 
by all civilized people, has only been retarded because the occasion has not offered 
itself. We flatter ourselves with the hope that, appealing directly to your generous 
sentiments, will determine you to take the necessary measures to put an end to a 
situation so much to be regretted. We only wait such good news, Mr. President, in 
order to urge the founding of an American Society of the Red Cross. 

We havo already an able and devoted assistant in Miss Clara Barton, to 
whom we confide the care of handing to you this present request. 

It would be very desirable that the projected asseveration should be undei 
your distinguished patronage, and we hope that you will not refuse us this favor. 

Receive, Mr. President, the assurance of our highest consideration. 

For the International Committee: G. Moynier, President. 



This letter was sent to Miss Barton, who, having labored with 
committees of the Red Cross during the Franco- Prussian war, thus 
becoming familiar with its methods, was very naturally selected as the 
bearer of the letter, and the exponent of the cause. Moreover, foreign 
nations had secured her promise to present it to the government on her 
return to her country and endeavor to make its principles understood 
among the people. 

Accordingly the letter was presented by Miss Barton to President 
Hayes and by him referred to his Secretary of State, but as no action 
was taken, and no promise of any action given, it was not deemed 
advisable to proceed to the organization of societies formed with special 
reference to acting under the regulations of a governmental treaty hav- 
ing no present existence, and no guaranty of any in the future. 

Thus it remained until the incoming of the administration of Pres- 
ident Garfield when a copy of the letter of Mr. Moynier was presented 
by Miss Barton to President Garfield, very cordially received by 
him, and endorsed to Secretary Blaine; from whom after full consider- 
ation of the subject the following letter was received: 

Departmknt ov St.\tk, 

Washington. May 20, /SS/. 
Miss Clara Barton, A)ncrican Representative of the Red Cross, ete., Washing- 
ton: 
Dear Madam: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the letter 
addressed by Mr. Moynier, President of the Red Cross International Convention, 
to the President of the United States, bearing the date of the nineteenth .Augu.st, 
1877, and referred by President Garfield on the thirtieth March, l88l, to thia 
department. 



42 THE RKn CROSS. 

It npjK\irs, from a careful perusal of the letter, that Mr. Moynier is anxious 
thai llii- government of the United States should join with other goveruments of 
the world in this International Convention. 

Will you be jjleased to say to Mr. Moynier, in reply to his letter, that the 
President of the United States, and the officers of this government, are in full 
sympathy with any wise measures tending toward the amelioration of the suffering 
incident to warfare. The constitution of the United States has, however, lodged 
the entire war-making power in the Congress of the United States; and, as the 
participation of the United States in an International Convention of this character 
is consequent upon and auxiliary to the war-making power of the nation, legisla- 
tion by Congress is needful to accomplish the humane end that your society has in 
view. It gives me, however, great pleasure to state that I shall I)e happy to give 
any measures which you may propose careful attention and consideration, and 
should the President, as I doubt not he will, approve of the matter, the adminis- 
tration will recommend to Congress the adoption of the international treaty which 
you desire. 

I am, madam, with very great respect, your obedient servant, 

James G. Blaine. 

On the twenty-fifth of June the following letter from Mr. Moynier, 
president of the International Committee of Geneva, in reply to the 
preceding letter of Secretary Blaine, was received by Miss Barton, and 
duly presented at the State department: 

Geneva, June 13, /881. 
To the Honorable Secretary of State, James G. Blaine, Washington: 

Sir: Miss Clara Barton has just communicated to me the letter which she has 
had the honor to receive from you, bearing date of May 20, 1881, and I hasten to 
express to you how much satisfaction I have experienced from it. I do not '^oubt 
now, thanks to your favorable consideration and that of President Garfield, that 
the United States may soon be counted among the number of signers of the Geneva 
Convention, since you have been kind enough to allow me to hope that the propo- 
sition for it will be made to Congress by the administration. 

I thank you, as well as President Garfield, for having been willing to lake into 
serious consideration the wish contained in my letter of August 19, 1877, assuredly 
a very natural wish, since it tended to unite your country with a work of humanity 
and civilization for which it is one of the best qualified. 

Since my letter of 1S77 was written, several new governmental adhesions 
have been given to the Geneva Convention, and I think that these precede ats will 
be much more encouraging to the United States from the fact that they hr e been 
given by America. It was under the influence of events of the recent war of the 
Pacific that Bolivia signed the treaty the i6th of October, 1879, Chili on the 15th 
of November, 1879, Argentine Republic on the 25th of November, 1879, and Pern 
on the 22d of April, 1881. This argument in favor of the adhesion of your country 
is the only one I can add to my request, and to the printed documents that Miss 
Barton has placed in your hands, to aid your judgment and that of Congress. 



IP^I^PI 




SOME OF THE FIRST MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN 
NATIONAL RED CROSS. 




A GROUP OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS MEMBERS. 



INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE. 45 

I now await with full confidence the final result of your sympathetic efforts, 
and I beg you to accept, sir, the assurance of uiy high consideration. 

G. MOYNiER, President. 

The very cordial and frank expressions of sympathy contained 
in Secretary Blaine's letter gave assurance of the acceptance of the 
terms of the treaty by the government at no distant day, and war- 
ranted the formation of societies. Accordingly a meeting was held in 
Washington, D. C, May 21, 1881, which resulted in the formation 
of an association to be known as the American [National] Association 
of the Red Cross. A constitution was adopted, a copy of which follows: 



46 THK RED CROSS. 



CONSTITUTION. 



NamCy Location. 

Article i. Tliis Association shall be known as the American Association 
of the Re<i Cross, with its office located at Washington, D. C, and shall consist 
of the snhscribers herennto, and such other persons as shall hereafter be elected 
to membership ; and it shall constitute a Central National Association with power 
to organize state and territorial associations auxiliary to itself. 

Objects of Association. 

Art. 2. The objects of the National Association are, 

First, To secure the adoption by the Government of the United States of the 
Treaty of August 22, 1864. 

Second, To obtain recognition by the Government of the United States, and 
to hold itself in readiness for communicating therewith at all times, to the end 
that its purposes may be more widely and eflfectually carried out. 

Third, To organize a system of national relief and apply the same in 
mitigating the sufferings caused by war, pestilence, famine and other calamities. 

Fourth, To collect and diffuse information touching the progress of mercy, 
the organization of national relief, the advancement of sanitarj- science and 
hospital service, and their application. 

Fifth, To co-operate with all other national societies, for the furtherance of 
the articles herein set forth, in such ways as are provided by the regulations 
governing such co-operation. 

Duties. 

Art. 3. This association shall hold itself in readiness in the event of war or 
any calamity great enough to be considered national, to inaugurate such practical 
measures, in mitigation of the suffering and for the protection and relief of sick 
and wounded, as may be consistent with the objects of the association as indicated 
in Article 2. 

Officers. 

Art. 4. The officers of this association shall consist of a president ; first vice- 
president ; other vice-presidents, not to exceed one from each State, Territor}-, and 
the District of Columbia ; a secretan- ; treasurer ; an executive board ; a board for 
consultation, which shall consist of ihe following officers of the United States 
Government, viz: The President and his cabinet : General of the Army ; Surgeon 
General; Adjutant General, and Judge Advocate General, and such other officers 
as may hereafter be deemed necessary. 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION. 47 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF THE RED CROSS. 



Original Incorporation. 

The undersigned, all of whom are citizens of the United States of America, 
and a majority of whom are citizens of the District of Coluuil>ia, desirous of form- 
ing an association for benevolent and charitable i)urj)oses to co-oi)erate with tht 
Comity International de Secours aux Militaires Hless^s of Geneva, Swit/.crlainl, do, 
in pursuance of sections 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550 and 551 of the Revised SUitutes 
of the United States, relating to the District of Columbia, make, sign and acknowl- 
edge these: 

Articles ok Incorporation. 
I. 
The name of this association shall be the American Association of the Red 



2. 

The term of its existence shall be for twenty (20) years. 



The objects of this association shall be: 

1st. To secure by the United States the adoption of the treaty of August 22, 
1864, between Italy, Baden, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Spain, Portugal, France, 
Prussia, Saxony, Wurtemberg, and the Federal Council of Switzerland. 

2d. To obtain recognition by the Government of the United States, and to 
hold itself in readiness for communicating therewith at all times, to the end that 
its purposes may be more wisely and effectually carried out. 

3d. To organize a system of national relief and apply the same in mitigating 
the sufferings caused by war, pestilence, famine and other calamities. 

4th. To collect and diffuse information touching the progress of mercy, the 
organization of national relief, the advancement of sanitary science, and their 
application. 

5th. To co-operate with all other similar national societies for the furtherance 
of the articles herein set forth, in such ways as are provided by the regulation? 
governing such co-operation. 

4. 

The number of this association, to be styled the " Executive Board," for tht 
first year of its existence, shall be eleven (11). 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals at the city of 
Washington this first day of July, A. D. 1881. 



THE RED CROSS. 



THE FIRST INTHRNATIONAL CONFERENCE. 

Tht proceedings of this Conference and what led up to it we learn chiefly from 
the historical report of the Conference by Mr. Gustav Moynier and Dr. 
Louis Appia, of the International Committee of the Red Cross. It ivas the 
U'ork of this Conference that laid the foundation for the Treaty of Geneva, 
adopted in the folloiving year. 

In the year 1864, Europe was covered, as if by enchantment, 
with a network of committees for the relief of wounded soldiers; and 
this plienomenon would have led the least discerning persons to suspect 
that this special work was entering on a new phase. Several of these 
committees had already begun to exercise their functions in the Schles- 
wig-Holstein war, yet all unanimously proclaimed that they would 
constitute themselves as permanent institutions, and, in a great measure, 
they seemed to obey one watch-word. All, in fact, declared in their 
charter of establishment, that they would conform to the resolutions 
of the Geneva Conference. 

What, then, was this conference, whose magic wand had, so to 
speak, electrified all nations? It seems too important an historical fact 
to be passed over in silence, because we feel certain that an inquiry into 
its nature, and how it arose, will prove highly interesting. 

I. It originated with the Societe Genevoise d'utilite publique, which 
had undertaken to contribute toward the progress of philanthropy. 
At its sitting of the ninth of February, 1863, it discussed the question, 
in accordance with the proposition of one of its members, M. Henri 
Dunant, whether means might not be found to form, during a time of 
peace and tranquillity, relief societies, whose aim should be to help the 
wounded in time of war by means of volunteers, zealous, devoted and 
well qualified for such work. 

Although it had no very clear idea of what should be done, in order 
to obtain the result which seemed desirable, the society took the matter 
under its patronage, and entrusted the examination of it to a special 
commission, with full power to act. 

The course to be pursued was long debated in this little com- 
mittee, the members of which finally agreed to submit the question to 
more competent judges. It was, in fact, necessary, before encouraging 
the formation of societies of volunteers, to know whether any need for 
them had been felt, and whether they would not be regarded with a 



FIRST INTERNATIONAL COXI'I:ri<:NCK. 49 

jealous eye bj^ the administrative or military authorities. It was also 
necessary to determine what should be the nature of their action under 
various social and political forms of government. In order not to 
venture recklessly on a road bristling with obstacles, it was therefore 
evident that they ought to take as guides experienced men, versed in 
the practice of war, and belonging to different nationalities. An Inter- 
national Conference appeared to be indispensable to tire work, as a basis 
or starting point. If, after this ordeal, the first idea, upon which the 
most divergent opinions were even then professed, should be recognized 
as impracticable, its partisans would at least possess the consolation of 
having done their best. We shall have, said one of them, the approval 
of our consciences, and the feeling that we have done that which it is 
right men should do who love their neighbor. If, on the contrary, the 
thing were pronounced to be good, useful and acceptal^le, what encour- 
agement such a decision would afford them to launch out upon their 
course ! What moral force they who should first put themselves 
in the breach would receive ! It was not a time to hesitate. The 
circular convoking the meeting was issued on the first of September, 
1863. 

Nothing was neglected that could give the greatest publicity to 
this appeal. It was brought specially to the notice of the International 
Statistical Congress, sitting at Berlin, in the month of September, 1863, 
which expressed an opinion entirely favorable to the project. 

At length the day fixed for the opening of the Conference arrived. 
On the morning of the twenty-sixth of October, in the rooms of the 
Athenaeum at Geneva, might be seen an assembly composed of eighteen 
official delegates, representing fourteen governments, six delegates of 
different associations, seven unaccredited visitors, with five members 
of the Geneva Committee. It was sufficient to glance over the list of 
the thirty-six members of the Conference, to understand that the expecta- 
tion of its promoters was attained, and even surpassed, and that their 
initiative had already found its reward in the meeting of such a body. 
It was impossible that a deliberation among men so eminently qualified 
should not throw the fullest light on the question submitted to them. 
The committee tells us that the eagerness with which the invitation 
was responded to soon justified the propriety of the step it had taken. 
It became convinced that, in drawing public attention to the insuffi- 
ciency of the official sanitary service, it had touched a sensitive chord, 
and had responded to a universal wish. It was also convinced that it 
was not pursuing a chimerical object. If, for a moment, it had feared 



50 THE RED CROSS. 

that its project would only attract mere dreamers and Utopians, it was 
reassured on seeing that it had to deal with men in earnest, with medi- 
cal and military magnates. It also received much encouragement from 
persons who were prevented from taking part in the debates, but who 
testified to the lively interest they took in them. 

It was then, with the most happy auspices that General Dufour 
opened the Conference, which lasted four days, under the presidency 
of M. Moynier, president of the Genevoise Society of Public Utility, 
and the vice-presidency of His Highness Prince Henry XIII., of Reuss, 
the delegate of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Every one seemed 
animated by the best motives, and desirous not to lose so good an 
opportunity to open a new arena for the cause of charity. It was inter- 
esting to witness the general unanimity, as new as it was spontaneous, 
on a question of humanit}^ instantaneously developed into one of philan- 
thropic urgency. Dr. Landa, delegate of the Spanish Government, 
well expressed the sentiment of the assembly when he exclaimed, ' ' Oh, 
that we may be so happy as to discover the basis which shall render the 
the useful institution we aspire to found durable and effectual ! " The. 
magnitude of the result which may be obtained, and the tears which 
may be wiped away, demand that we should devote all our efforts to 
attain it; and if this work be realized, it will be an event which all 
friends of humanity will be able to hail with the greatest joy. We 
feel, said the president of the Conference, that a great duty is imposed 
upon us, and we shall not rest until we have found means to lessen for 
our fellow-creatures the privations, the sufferings and the evils of all 
kinds which are the inevitable consequences of an armed contest. 

So much good-will was not superfluous, in order to accomplish 
the arduous task of the Conference. For what, indeed, w^as it laboring ? 
For nothing less than to reconcile two opposites — charity and war. 
The propriety of voluntary aid being admitted, it was necessary to 
leave it sufficiently free, in order that zeal might not be cooled by 
unreasonable conditions; yet, at the same time, to subject it to a certain 
discipline, so that it might have access to the army without being an 
encumbrance to it. Here was the real problem to be solved. Here 
was a link to be established between the civil and the military, which, 
though opposed, are not necessarily incompatible, and should be 
encouraged to live fraternally side by side. The experience of modern 
wars seemed to justify this inquiry, for it was averred that here the 
administration of voluntary offerings had been defective. Besides, 
the question presented itself in a new character, owing to the fact that 



FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. 51 

a staff of volunteers occupied an important place in it. If this view of 
the case was to take precedence of all others, nothing less than a com- 
plete revolution was intended, and its importance being acknowledged, 
it would have been wrong to engage in it otherwise than earnestly. It 
was for discussion to reveal the opinion that was entertained of it. 

Independently of all that was difficult in the very nature of the 
subject with which the conference was to occupy itself, it met with 
another obstacle, in the consideration which it was obliged to give to 
the different forms of government under which civilized nations dwell. 

It is certain that a relief committee would be bound to modify 
its conduct, and its hands would be more or less free, according to the 
political or social circle in which it would have its existence. For 
example, where individual initiative is highly developed, as in Switzer- 
land and America, there will be found liberty for the efforts of free 
societies which would not be tolerated to the same degree in France or 
Austria. The consequence of this situation was, that, called to draw 
up a code of military philanthropy for the use of all nations, the 
Conference could only advocate general principles, so that its decisions 
might be everywhere acceptable. 

Here it took its stand, and following the advice of its president, 
it left to each society the duty of regulating minute details as it might 
judge expedient. It wisel}^ confined its ambition to the construction 
of a solid foundation for the monument which it wished to erect, and 
which was perhaps destined to become one of the glories of our 
century. 

Let us now give heed to the voice of the Conference, and let us 
cast our eyes over the resolutions, placed side by side with the propo- 
sitions presented by the Geneva Committee, under the title of Projct de 
Concordat. It is evident, indeed, from a comparison of the.se two docu- 
ments that the first ideas were true, since they have only been slightly 
modified. The authors of this project, however, offer it as the 
eminently perfectible fruit of their first meditations, and as a basis 
which they deemed it right to furnish to the Conference, in order to 
guide it in its labors. 

Generai. Provisions. 

Article i. There shall be, in each of the contracting countries, a national 
committee, whose duty shall consist in remedying, by all the means in its jx)wer, 
the inadequacy of the official sanitarj- service of the armies in active service. 

This committee shall organize itself in the manner which may appear to it the 
most useful and expedient. 



52 THE RED CROSS. 

Art. 2. Sections, unlimited in number, shall be founded, in order to second 
the national cotnniittee. These shall be necessarily subordinate to the committee, 
to which alone shall belong the supreme direction. 

Art. 3. Every national committee shall place itself in communication with 
the government of its own country, and shall ascertain that its efforts of service 
will l)e accepted in case of war. 

Art. 4. Ill time of peace, the committees and their sections shall occupy 
themselves with iinprovements to be introduced in the militar}' sanitary service, in 
the establishment of ambulances and hospitals, in the means of transports for the 
wounded, etc., and in pursuing the realization of these objects. 

Art. 5. The committees and sections of the different countries shall reassemble 
in international congresses, in order to communicate the result of their experience, 
and to concert together on the measures to be taken in the interests of the work. 

Art. 6. In the month of January every year, the national committees shall 
present a report of their labors during the past year, adding to it such communica- 
tions as they may consider useful to be brought to the knowledge of the committees 
of other countries. The exchange of these communications and reports shall be 
managed through the medium of the Geneva committee, to whom they shall be 
addressed. 

Speciai. Provisions in Case of War. 

Art. 7. In case of war, the committees of the belligerent nations shall furnish 
the necessary aid to their respective armies, and, in particular, shall provide for 
the formation and organization of corps of volunteer nurses. 

They shall solicit the support of the committees belonging to neutral nations. 

Art. 8. The volunteer nurses shall bind themselves to serve during a limited 
time, and not in any way to meddle in the operations of the war. 

They shall be employed, according to their wish, in field service or in that of 
the hospitals. Females will necessarily be assigned to the latter. 

Art. 9. The volunteer nurses shall wear a uniform in all countries, or an 
identical distinctive badge. Their person shall be sacred, and military chiefs shall 
afford them protection. 

At the commencement of a campaign, the soldiers of both armies shall be 
informed of the existence of these corps, and of their exclusively benevolent char- 
acter. 

Resolutions of the Conference. 

The International Conference, desirous to give aid to the wounded soldiers in 
all cases where the military medical service shall be inadequate, has adopted the 
following resolutions: 

Article i. There shall be in every country a committee whose duty it will be 
to co-operate in time of war by all the means in its power, with the sanitary ser- 
vice of the army. 

This committee shall organize itself in the manner which may appear to it as 
the most useful and expedient. 

Art. 2. Sections, unlimited in number, shall be formed, in order to second the 
committee, to which the general direction will belong. 



FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. 53 

Art. 3. Every committee shall place itself in communication with the govern- 
ment of its ovpn country, in order that its offers of assistance, in case of need, 
may be accepted. 

Art. 4. In time of peace the committees and sections shall be occupied with 
the means to make themselves really useful in time of war, especially in preparing 
material aid of every kind, and in endeavoring to train and instruct volunteer 
nurses. 

Art. 5. In the event of war, tlie committees of the belligerent nations shall 
furnish relief to their respective armies in proportion to their resources; in partic- 
ular, they shall organize and place the volunteer nurses on an active footing, and, 
in conjunction with the military authority, they shall arrange places for the recep- 
tion of the wounded. 

They shall solicil the assistance of the committees belonging to neutral 
nations. 

Art. 6. On the demand, or with the concurrence, of the military authority, 
the committees shall send volunteer nurses to the field of battle. They shall there 
place them under the direction of tl:e military chiefs. 

Art. 7. The volunteer nurses employed with armies shall be provided, by 
their respective committees, with everything necessary for their maintenance. 

Art. 8. They shall wear, in all countries, a white baad around the arm with 
a Red Cross upon it, as a distinctive and uniform badge. 

Art. 9. The committees and sections of the different countries shall meet in 
International Conference, in order to communicate to each other the results of 
their experience, and to decide on the measures to be adopted for the advance- 
ment of the work. 

Art. 10. The exchange of communications between the commmitees of the 
different nations shall be made provisionally through the medium of the Com- 
mittee of Geneva. 

Independently of the above resolutions, the Conference expressed the follow- 
ing wishes : 

A. That the governments should grant protection to the national committees 
which may be formed, and should, as far as possible, facilitate the accomplishment 
of their task. 

B. That, in time of war, neutrality should be proclaimed by the belligerent 
nations for the field and stationary hospitals, and that it may also be accorded, in 
the most complete manner, to all officials employed in .sanitary work, to volunteer 
nurses, to the inhabitants of the country who shall assist the wounded, and to the 
wounded themselves. 

That an incidental di.stinctive sign be adopted for the medical corps of all 
armies, or, at least, for all persons attached to this service in the same army. 

That an identical flag be also adopted for the field and stationary hospital.-; of 
all armies. 

The innovation which is most striking, in reading these documents, is the 
pre-existence of the committees for war, and their creation ami maintenance in 
times of peace. 

If those societies which have hitherto labored had only conformed to this 
arrangement, they would have been spared nmch trouble, and would have been 
able to give to their resources a more judicious direction. If each of them had 



54 



THE RICH CROSS. 



been enlightened by the experience of its prcdecessuis ; if each had known before 
hand that wliich it would have to do in such and such an emergency ; if it had 
anticipated obstacles in order to remove them ; and if it had been provided with 
money and material, it would have been able to render nmch greater services, and 
would not, to the siime extent, have been a victim either to its inexperience or to 
its precipitation. The preliminary study of ways and means would have left traces 
of something more systematic and would have prevented much waste and many 
false calculations. Voluntary action will be so much more efficacious when it shall 
have preorganized. At a meeting of the different German relief committees held 
at Berlin, on the tenth of July, 1864, Raron Tinti, of Vienna, strongly insisted on 
this truth, and the Committee of Schwerin did the same in its report of 1S65. 
When our generosity shall be less ignorant, it will know where and in what way 
it can be useful ; we shall economize our means ; we shall multiply our gifts by the 
good employment that we shall make of them, and by the direction that will be 
given to the public desire. Bis dat, qui cito dat. He who gives opportunely gives 
twice. 




A GROUP OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS MEMBER& 



INTERNATIONA!. RED CRO.SS TREATY. 57 



THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS TREATY. 

CONVKNTION OF GKNKVA. 

For Ihc Amelioration oj the Condttion of the Wounded in Arinits al the Field, 
August 22, 1864. 

The sovereigns of the followinj^ countries, to wit : Baden, Belgium, Denmark, 
Holland, Spain, Portugal, France, Prussia, Saxony, Wiirtemberg, and the Federal 
Council of Switzerland, animated by a common desire of mitigating, as far as in 
their power, the evils inseparable from war, of suppressing needless severities and 
of ameliorating the condition of soldiers wounded on fields of battle, having 
concluded to determine a treaty for this purpose, these plenipotentiaries, after the 
due interchange of their powers, found to be in good and proper form, havo agreed 
upon the following articles, to wit : 

Article i. Ambulances (field hospitals) and military hospitals shall be 
acknowledged to be neutral, and as such shall be protected and respected by 
belligerents, so long as any sick or wounded may be therein. Such neutrality 
shall cease, if the ambulances or hospitals should be held by a military force. 

Art. 2. Persons employed in hospitals and ambulances, comprising the staff 
for superintendence, medical service, administration, transport of wounded, as 
well as chaplains, shall participate in the benefit of neutrality whilst so employed, 
ami so long as there remain any to bring in or to succor. 

Art. 3. The persons designated in the preceding article may, even after occu- 
pation by the enemy, continue to fulfill their duties in the hospital or ambulance 
which they may have, or may withdraw in order to regain the corps to which they 
belong. Under such circumstances, when the persons shall cease from their func 
tions, they shall be delivered by the occupying army to the outpo.stsof the enemy. 
They shall have specially the right of sending a representative to the headquarters 
of their respective armies. 

Art. 4. As the equipment of military hospitals remains subject to the laws 
of war, persons attached to such hospitals cannot, on withdrawing, carry away any 
articles but such as are their private properly. Under the same circumstances an 
ambulance shall, on the contrary, retain its equipment. 

Art. 5. Inhabitants of the country who may bring help to the wounded shall 
be respected and shall remain free. The generals of the belligerent powers shall 
m.-ike it their care to inform the inhabitants of the appeal addressed to their 
humanity, and of the neutrality which will be the consequence of it. Any 
w(ninded man entertained and taken care of in a house shall be considered as a 
protection thereto. Any inhabitant who shall have entertained wounded men in 
his house shall be exempted from the quartering of troops, as well as from a part 
of the contributions of war which may be imposed. 

Art. 6. Wounded or sick soldiers shall be entertained and taken care of, to 
whatever nation they may belong. Commanders-in-chief shall have the power to 
deliver immediately to the outposts of the enemy, soldiers who have been wounded 



58 THE RED CROSS. 

iu an engagement, when circumstances permit this to be done, and with the cob- 
sent of lx)th parties. Those who are recognized after they are healed as incapable 
of serving, shall be sent back to their country. The others may also be sent back 
on the condition of not again bearing arms during the continuance of the war. 
Evacuations, together with the persons under whose directions they take place, 
shall \ie protected by an absolute neutrality. 

Art. 7. A distinctive and uniform flag shall be adopted for hospitals, ambu- 
lances, and evacuations. It must on every occasion be accompanied by the 
national flag. An arm badge (brassard) shall also be allowed for individuals 
neutralized, but the delivery thereof shall be left to military authority. The flag 
and arm badge shall bear a red cross on a white ground. 

Art. 8. The details of execution of the present convention shall be regulated 
by the commanders-in-chief of belligerent armies, according to the instructions of 
their respective governments, and in conformity with the general principles laid 
down in this convention. 

Art. 9. The high contracting powers have agreed to communicate the present 
convention to those governments which have not found it convenient to send pleni- 
potentiaries to the International Convention at Geneva, with an invitation to 
accede thereto; the protocol is, for that purpose, left open. 

Art. id. The present convention shall be ratified and the ratification shall be 
exchanged at Berne, in four months, or sooner, if possible. 

In witness thereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and 
have affixed thereto the seal of their arms. 

Done at Geneva, the twenty-third day of August, 1864. 



GOVERNMENTS ADOPTING THE TREATY. 



List in chronological order of the governments which have adopted 
the articles of the Convention of Geneva, of the twenty-second of 
August, 1864: 

France September 22, 1864. 

Switzerland October i, 1864. 

Belgium October 14, 1864. 

Netherlands November 29, 1864. 

Italy December 4, 1864. 

Sweden and Norway December 13, 1864. 

Denmark December 15, 1864. 

Spain December 15, 1864. 

Baden December 16, 1864. 

Greece January 17, 1865. 

Great Britain , February 18, 1865. 



GOVERNMENTS ADOPTING TREATY. 59 

Mecklenburg-Schweriii March 9, 1865. 

Prussia June 22, 1865. 

Turkey July 5, 1865. 

Wiirtemberg June 2, 1866. 

Hesse Darmstadt June 22, 1866. 

Bavaria June 30, 1866. 

Austria July 21, 1866. 

Portugal August 9, 1866. 

Saxony October 25, 1866. 

Russia May 22, 1867, 

Pontifical States May 9, 1868. 

Rouraania November 30, 1874. 

Persia . December 5, 1874. 

San Salvador December 30, 1874. 

Montenegro November 29, 1875. 

Servia March 24, 1876. 

Bolivia October 16, 1879. 

Chili . . November 15, 1879. 

Argentine Republic November 25, 1879. 

Peru April 22, 1880. 

United States March i, 1882. 

Bulgaria March i, 1884. 

Japan June 5, 1886. 

Luxemburg October 5, 1888. 

Hungarj'' .......... 

Congo Free State December 27, 1888. 

Venezuela 1894. 

Siam June 29, 1895. 

South African Republic September 30, 1896. 

Honduras May 16, 1898 

Nicaragua May j6, 189^ 



6o THR RKD CROSS. 

The following public address, written in 1881, is inserted because 
of its historical character, showing as it does, quite as well as anything 
that could now be written, the general apathy in America concerning 
the treaty, and the many obstacles that had to be overcome by years 
of struggle and weary waiting : 



ADDRESS BY CLARA BARTON. 



To the President, Congress, and People of the Ujiiled States: 

A brief statement of how I became acquainted with the Red 
Cross may serve to explain at once its principles and methods, as 
well as the present attitude of our government in regard to it. 

The practical beneficence of the sanitary and christian commis- 
sions of the United States attracted the attention of the civilized world. 
I had borne some part in the operations of field hospitals in actual 
service in the battles of the Civil War, and some public notice had been 
taken of that work. But, broken in health, I was directed by my 
physicians to go to Europe prepared to remain three years. 

In September, 1869, I arrived at Geneva, Switzerland. In 
October I was visited by the president and members of the " Inter- 
national Committee for the relief of the wounded in war." They 
wished to learn if possible why the United States had declined to sign 
the treaty. Our position was incomprehensible to them. If the 
treaty had originated with a monarchial government they could see 
some ground for hesitancy. But it originated in a Republic older than 
our own. To what did America object, and how could these objections 
be overcome? They had twice formally presented it to the government 
at Washington, once in 1864, through our Minister Plenipotentiary at 
Berne, who was present at the convention; again in 1868, through 
Rev. Dr. Henry W. Bellows, the great head of war relief in America. 
They had failed in both instances. No satisfactory nor adequate 
reason had ever been given by the nation for the course pursued. 
They had thought the people of America, with their grand sanitary 
record, would be the first to appreciate and accept it. I listened in 
silent wonder to all this recital, and when I did reply it was to say that 
I had never in America heard of the Convention of Geneva nor of the 



ADDRESS. 61 

treaty, and was sure that as a country America did not know she had 
declined; that she would be the last to withhold recognition of a 
humane movement ; that it had doubtless been referred to and declined 
by some one department of the government, or some one official, and 
had never been submitted to the people; and as its literature was in 
languages foreign to our English-speaking population, it had no way 
of reaching us. 

You will naturally infer that I examined it. I became all the 
time more deeply impressed with the wisdom of its principles, the good 
practical sense of its details, and its extreme usefulness in practice. 
Humane intelligence had devised its provisions and peculiarly adapted 
it to win popular favor. The absurdity of our own position in relation 
to it was simply marvelous. As I counted up its roll of twenty- two 
nations — not a civilized people in the world but ourselves missing, and 
saw Greece, Spain, and Turkey there, I began to fear that in the eyes 
of the " rest of mankind " we could not be far from barbarians. This 
reflection did not furnish a stimulating food for national pride. I grew 
more and more ashamed. But the winter wore on as winters do with 
invalids abroad. The summer found me at Berne in quest of strength 
among its mountain views and baths. 

On the fifteenth of July, 1870, France declared w^ar against Prussia. 
Within three days a band of agents from the " International Committee 
of Geneva," headed by Dr. Louis Appia (one of the prime movers of 
the convention), equipped for work and e7i route for the seat of war, 
stood at the door of my villa inviting me to go with them and take 
such part as I had taken in our own war. I had not strength to trust 
for that, and declined with thanks, promising to follow in my own 
time and way, and I did follow within a week. No shot had then 
been fired — no man had fallen — yet this organized, powerful commis- 
sion was on its way, with its skilled agents, ready to receive, direct 
and dispense the charities and accumulations which the generous 
sympathies of twenty-two nations, if applied to, might place at its 
disposal. These men had treaty power to go directl}'' on to any field, 
and work unmolested in full co-operation with the military and com- 
manders-in-chief ; their supplies held sacred and their efforts recognized 
and seconded in every direction by either belligerent army. Not a 
man could lie uncared for nor unfed. I thought of the Peninsula in 
McClellan's campaign — of Pittsburg Landing, Cedar Mountain and 
second Bull Run, Antietam, Old Fredericksburg with its acres of snow- 
covered and gun-covered glacee, and its fourth-day flag of truce ; of its 



62 THE RED CROSS. 

dead, and starving wounded, frozen to the ground, and our commissions 
and their supplies in Washington, with no effective organization to go 
beyond ; of the Petersburg mine, with its four thousand dead and 
woinided and no flag of truce, the wounded broiling in a July sun — 
died and rotted where they fell. I remembered our prisons, crowded 
with starving men whom all the powers and pities of the world could 
not reach even with a bit of bread. I thought of the widows' weeds 
still fresh and dark through all the land, north and south, from the 
pine to the palm; the shadows on the hearths and hearts over all my 
country. Sore, broken hearts, ruined, desolate homes ! Was this 
people to decline a humanity in war? Was this a country to reject a 
treaty for the help of wounded soldiers? Were these the women and 
men to stand aloof and consider? I believed if these people knew that 
the last cloud of war had forever passed from their horizon, the tender, 
painful, deathless memories of what had been would bring them in 
with a force no power could resist. They needed only to know. 

As I journeyed on and saw the work of these Red Cross societies 
in the field, accomplishing in four months under their systematic organ- 
ization what we failed to accomplish in four years without it — no 
mistakes, no needless suffering, no starving, no lack of care, no waste, 
no confusion, but order, plenty, cleanliness and comfort wherever that 
little flag made its way — a whole continent marshaled under the banner 
of the Red Cross — as I saw all this, and joined and worked in it, you 
will not wonder that I said to mySelf " If I live to return to my country 
I will try to make my people understand the Red Cross and that 
treaty." But I did more than resolve, I promised other nations I 
would do it, and other reasons pressed me to remember my promise. 
The Franco-Prussian war and the war of the commune were both enor- 
mous in the extent of their operations and in the suffering of individuals. 
This great modern international impulse of charity went out every- 
where to meet and alleviate its miseries. The small, poor countries 
gave of their poverty and the rich nations poured out abundantly of 
their vast resources. The contributions of those under the Red Cross 
went quietly, promptly through international responsible channels, 
were thoughtfully and carefully distributed through well-known agents, 
returns, accurate to a franc, were made and duly published to the credit 
of the contributing nations, and the object aimed at was accomplished. 

America, filled with German and French people, with people humane 
and universal in their instincts of citizenship and brotherhood, freighted 
ships with supplies and contributions in money prodigal and vast. 



ADDRESS f^2 

They arrived in Europe, but they were not under the treaty regula- 
tions. No sign of the Red Cross authorized any one to receive and 
distribute them. The poor baffled agents, honest, well meaning and 
indefatigable, did all that individuals without system or organization 
could do. But for the most part the magnificent charity of America 
was misapplied and went as unsystematized charity always tends to go, 
to ruin and to utter waste. The object aimed at was not accomplished. 

At the end of the report of the international organization of the 
Red Cross occurs something like this: " It is said that the United States 
of America also contributed something for the sick and wounded, but 
what, or how much, or to whom,or when or where, it is impossible to tell." 

In the autumn of ^873, I returned to America more broken in 
health than when I left in 1869. Then followed years of suffering in 
which I forgot how to walk, but I remembered my resolve and my 
promise. After almost five years I was able to go to Washington with 
a letter from Monsieur Moynier, president of the International Com- 
mittee of Geneva, to the President of the United States, asking once 
more that our government accede to the articles of the convention. 
Having been made the official bearer of this letter, I presented it in 
1877 to President Hayes, who received it kindly, referring it to his 
Secretary of State, Mr. Evarts, who in his turn referred it to his assist- 
ant secretary as the person who would know all about it, examine and 
report for decision. I then saw how it was made to depend not alone 
upon one department, but one man, who had been the assistant secre- 
tary of state in 1864 and also in 1868, when the treaty had been on the 
two previous occasions presented to our government. It was a settled 
thing. There was nothing to hope for from that administration. The 
matter had been officially referred and would be decided accordingly. 
It would be declined because it had been declined. If I pressed it to a 
decision, it would only weigh it down with a third refusal. I waited. 
My next thought was to refer it to Congress. That step would be 
irregular, and discourteous to the administration. I did not like to 
take it, still I attempted it, but could not get it considered, for it 
promised neither political influence, patronage, nor votes. 

The next year I returned to Washington to try Congress again. 
I published a little pamphlet of two leaves addressed to the members 
and senators, to be laid upon their desks in the hope they would take 
the trouble to read so little as that, and be by so much the better pre- 
pared to consider and act upon a bill if I could get one before them. 
My strength failed before I could get that bill presented, and I went 



64 THE RED CROSS. 

home again in midwinter. There tlien remained but a portion of the 
term ol" that administration, and I determined, if possible, to outlive 
it, hoping another would be more responsive. Meanwhile I wrote, 
talked, and did whatever I could to spread the idea among the people, 
and March, 1881, when the administration of President Garfield came 
in, I went again to Washington. The subject was very cordially 
received by the President and carefully referred by him to Secretary 
Blaine, who considered it himself, conferred fully with me, and finally 
laid it before the President and the cabinet. Perhaps the most satis- 
factory account of that transaction will be found in the letter of Mr. 
Blaine addressed to me, (see page 41), which gives the assurance that 
President Garfield would reccommend the adoption of the treaty in 
his message to Congress. 

What were the provisions of that treaty which had been so con- 
spicuously and persistently neglected and apparently rejected by this 
whole government, whose people are as humane as any people in the 
world, and as ready to adopt plain and common sense provisions 
against evils sure to come upon themselves and those whom they hold 
most dear ? It was merely the proposed adoption of a treaty by this 
government with other nations for the purpose of ameliorating the 
conditions incident to warfare, humanizing its regulations, softening 
its barbarities, and so far as possible, lessening the sufferings of the 
wounded and sick who fall by it. This treaty consists of a code of 
ten articles, formed and adopted by the International Convention 
of Geneva, Switzerland, held August 22, 1864, which convention 
was composed of delegates, two or more from each of the civilized 
nations of the world, and was called at the instance of the mem- 
bers of the Society of Public Utility of Switzerland. 

The sittings of the convention occupied four days, and resulted, as 
before stated, in a code of ten articles, to be taken by the delegates 
there present, back to the governments of their respective countries for 
ratification. Four months were allowed for consideration and decision 
by the governments, and all acceding within that time were held as 
having signed at the convention. At the close of this period, it was 
found that twelve nations had endorsed the terms of the treaty and 
signed its articles. The protocol was left open for such as should 
follow. The articles of this treaty provide, as its first and most impor- 
tant feature, for the entire and strict neutrality of all material and 
supplies contributed by any nation for the use of the sick and wounded 
in war; also that persons engaged in the distribution of them, shall not 



ADDRESS. 65 

be subject to capture; that all hospitals, general or field, shall be neu- 
tral, respected and protected by all belligerents; that all persons com- 
prising the medical service, surgeons, chaplains, superintendents, shall 
be neutral, continuing their work after the occupation of a field or post 
the same as before, and when no longer needed be free to retire; that 
they may send a representative to their own headquarters if needful; 
that field hospitals shall retain their own equipments; that inhal)'tants 
of a country who entertain and care for the wounded of either side, in 
their houses, shall be protected; that the generals of an army shall so 
inform the people; that commanders-in-chief shall have the power to 
deliver immediately to the outposts of the enemy soldiers who have been 
wounded in an engagement, both parties consenting to the same; that 
the wounded, incapable of serving, shall be returned when healed; that 
all transports of wounded and all evacuations of posts or towns shall be 
protected by absolute neutralit5\ That the sick and wounded shall be 
entertained regardless of nationality; and that commanders-in-chief 
shall act in accordance with the instructions of their respective govern- 
ments, and in conformity to the treaty. In order that all may under- 
stand, and no mistake be possible, it also provides that one uniform 
international flag shall mark all hospitals, all posts of sick and wounded, 
and one uniform badge or sign shall mark all hospital material, and be 
worn by all persons properly engaged in the hospital service of any 
nation included within the treaty; that this international flag and sign 
shall be a red cross on a white ground, and that the nations within the 
compact shall not cease their endeavors until every other nation capable 
of making war shall have signed this treaty, and thus acceded to the 
general principles of humanity in warfare recognized by other peoples. 

Thirty-one governments have already signed this treaty, thirty- 
one nations are in this humane compact. The United States of 
America is not in it, and the work to which your attention is called, 
and which has occupied me for the last several years, is to induce her 
to place herself there. 

This is what the Red Cross means, not an order of knighthood, 
not a commandery, not a secret society, not a society at all by itself, 
but the powerful, peaceful sign and the reducing to practical usefulness 
of one of the broadest and most needed humanities the world has ever 
known. 

These articles, it will be observed, constitute at once a treaty 
governing our relations with foreign nations, and additional articles of 
war governing the conduct of our military forces in the field. As a 



66 



THK RKD CROSS. 



trc.'ity under the constitution, the President and Senate are competent 
to deal with theni; as additional articles of war, Congress must sanction 
and adopt them before they can become effective and binding upon the 
govennnent and the people. For this reason I have appealed to Con- 
gress as well as to the Executive Department. 

On the breaking up of the original convention at Geneva, the 
practical work of organizing its principles into form and making them 
understood and adopted by the people, devolved upon seven men, 
mainly those who had been instrumental in calling it. These men were 
peculiarly fitted for this work by special training, enlarged views, and a 
comprehensive charity, no less than by practical insight, knowledge of 
the facts and needs of the situation, and a brave trust in the humane 
instincts of human nature. They are known to-day the world over as 
" The International Connnittee of Geneva for the relief of the sick and 
wounded in war." This committee is international, and is the one 
medium through which all nations within the treaty transact business 
and carry on correspondence. 

The first act of each nation subsequent to the treaty has been to 
establish a central society of its own, which of course is national, 
and which has general charge and direction of the work of its own 
country. Under these comes the establishment of local societies. It 
will be perceived that their system, aside from its international feature, 
is very nearly what our own war relief societies would have been had 
ihey retained permanent organizations. Indeed, it is believed that we 
furnished for their admirable system some very valuable ideas. The 
success of the Red Cross associations consists in their making their 
societies permanent, holding their organizations firm and intact, guard- 
ing their supplies, saving their property from waste, destruction and 
pillage, and making the persons in charge of the gifts of the people as 
strictly responsible for straightforward conduct and honest returns, as 
they would be for the personal property of an individual, a business 
firm, or a bank. 

In attempting to present to the people of this country the plan of 
the Red Cross societies, it is proper to explain that originally and as 
operating in other countries they recognize only the miseries arising 
from war. Their humanities, although immense, are confined to this 
war centre. The treat}'^ does not cover more than this, but the resolu- 
tions for the establishment of societies under the treaty, permit them 
to organize in accordance with the spirit and needs of their nationalities. 
By our geographical position and isolation we are far less liable to the 



ADDRESS. 67 

disturbances of war than the nations of Europe, which are so frequently 
called upon that they do well to keep in readiness for the exigencies of 
war alone. But no country is more liable than our own to great over- 
mastering calamities, various, widespread and terrible. Seldom a year 
passes that the nation from sea to sea is not, by the shock of some sudden, 
unforeseen disaster, brought to utter consternation, and stands shivering 
like a ship in a gale, powerless, horrified and despairing. Plagues, 
cholera, fires, flood, famine, all bear upon us with terrible force. Like 
war these events are entirely out of the common course of woes and 
necessities. L,ike death they are sure to come in some form and at 
some time, ard like it no mortal knows where, how or when. 

What have we in readiness to meet these emergencies save the good 
heart of our people and their impulsive, generous gifts? Certainly 
no organized system for collection, reception nor distribution; no 
agents, nurses nor material, and, worst of all, no funds; nowhere any 
resources in reserve for use in such an hour of peril and national 
woe; every movement crude, confused and unsystematized, every 
thing as unprepared as if we had never known a calamity before and 
had no reason to expect one again. 

Meanwhile the suffering victims wait! True, in the shock we 
bestow most generously, lavishly even. Men "on Change" plunge 
their hands into their pockets and throw their gold to strangers, who 
may have neither preparation nor fitness for the work they undertake, 
and often no guaranty for honesty. Women, in the terror and excite- 
ment of the moment and in their eagerness to aid, beg in the streets 
and rush into fairs, working day and night, to the neglect of other 
duties in the present, and at the peril of all health in the future— often 
an enormous outlay for very meagre returns. Thus our gifts fall far 
short of their best, being hastily bestowed, irresponsibly received and 
wastefuUy applied. We should not, even if to some degree we might, 
depend upon our ordinary charitable and church societies to meet 
these great catastrophes; they are always overtaxed. Our communi- 
ties abound in charitable societies, but each has its specific object to 
which its resources are and must be applied; consequently they cannot 
be relied upon for prompt and abundant aid in a great and sudden 
emergency. This must necessarily be the case with all societies which 
organize to work for a specific charity. And this is as it should 
be; it is enough that they do constantly bestow. 

Charity bears an open palm, to give is her mission. But I 
have never classed these Red Cross societies with charities, I have 



68 Till- RKD CROSS. 

rather considered them as a wise national provision which seeks to 
garner and store up something against an hour of sudden need. In all 
our land we have not one organization of this nature and which acts 
uptin the system of conserved resources. Our people have been more 
wise and thoughtful in the establishment of means for preventing and 
arresting the destruction of property than the destruction of human 
life and the lessening of consequent suffering. They have provided 
and maintain at an immense cost, in the aggregate, a system of fire 
departments with their expensive buildings and apparatus, with their 
fine horses and strong men kept constantl}' in readiness to dash to the 
rescue at the first dread clang of the fire bell. Still, w^hile the electric 
current may dash upon us at any moment its ill tidings of some great 
human distress, we have no means of relief in readiness such as these 
Red Cross societies would furnish. 

I beg you will not feel that in the presentation of this plan of 
action I seek to add to the labors of the people. On the contrary, I am 
striving to lesson them by making previous, calm preparation do away 
with the strain and confusion of unexpected necessities and haste, I 
am providing not weariness, but rest. 

And, again, I would not be understood as suggesting the raising 
of more moneys for charitable purposes; rather I am trying to save the 
people's means, to economize their charities, to make their gifts do 
more by the prevention of needless waste and extravagance. If I 
thought that the formation of these societies would add a burden to our 
people I would be the last to advocate it. I would not, however, yield the 
fact of the treaty. For patriotism, for national honor, I would stand 
by that at all cost. My first and greatest endeavor has been to wipe 
from the scroll of my country's fame the stain of imputed lack of com- 
mon humanity, to take her out of the roll of barbarism. I said that 
in 1869 there were twenty-two nations in the compact. There are now 
thirty-one, for since that date have been added Roumania, Persia, San 
Salvador, Montenegro, Servia; Bolivia, Chili, Argentine Republic and 
Peru. If the United States of America is fortunate and diligent she 
may, perhaps, come to stand No. 32 in the roll of civilization and 
humanity. If not, she will remain where she at present stands, among 
the barbarians and the heathen. 

In considering this condition of things it seemed desirable to so 
extend the original design of the Red Cross societies operating in other 
lands as to include not only suffering by war, but by pestilence, famine, 
fires or floods — in short, any unlooked-for calamity so great as to place 



ADDRESS. 69 

it beyond the means of ordinary local charity, and which by public 
opinion would be pronounced a national calamity; but that this addi- 
tion should in no way impair the original functions of the society, and 
that for their own well being they should be held firm by the distin- 
guishing feature of the international constitution, which provides that 
local societies shall not act except upon orders from the National Asso- 
ciation, which is charged with the duty of being so fully informed upon 
all such subjects, both at home and abroad, as to constitute it the most 
competent judge of the magnitude and gravity of any catastrophe. 

During all these years no societies under the true banner of the 
Red Cross of Geneva were or could be organized, for the government 
had not yet ratified the treaty and no department of the government 
had then intimated that it ever would be ratified. It could not be a 
responsible or quite an honest movement on my part to proceed to the 
formation of societies to act under and in conformity to a treaty of 
special character so long as our government recognized no such 
treaty and I could get no assurance that it ever would or indeed could 
recognize it. 

But this delay in the formation of societies, however embarrass- 
ing, was in no manner able to interfere with the general plan, or the 
working details for its operations, which had been arranged and decided 
upon before the presentation of the subject to the government in 1877, 
and published in pamphlet form in 1878, making it to cover, as it now 
does, the entire field of national relief for great national woes and 
calamities in time of peace, no less than in war. The wise provisions, 
careful preparations and thorough system which had been found so 
efl&cient in the permanent societies of the Red Cross in other countries, 
could not fail, I thought, to constitute both a useful and powerful 
system of relief in any class of disasters. I therefore ventured so far 
upon the generous spirit of their original resolutions in the plan of 
our societies as, mechanically speaking, to attach to this vast motor 
power the extra and hitherto dead weight of our great national 
calamities, in order that the same force should apply to all and serve 
to lighten I hoped, so far as possible, not only the woes of those 
directly called to suffer, but the burdens on the hearts and hands of 
those called to sympathize with their sufferings. 

The time allowed for the practical test of this experiment has been 
short. Scarcely three months in which to organize and act, but the 
brave societies of the Red Cross of western New York, at this moment 
standing so nobly among their flame-stricken neighbors of Michigan — 



70 THK RED CROSS. 

so generously responding to their calls for help, are quite sufficient I 
believe to show what the action and results of this combined system 
will be when recognized and inaugurated. 

It may be said that this treaty jeopardizes our traditional policy, 
which jealously guards against entangling alliances abroad; that as we 
are exempt by our geographical position from occasions for war this 
treaty must bring us not benefits but only burdens from other people's 
calamities and wars — calamities and wars which we do not create and 
of which we may properly reap the incidental advantages. But this 
treaty binds none to bear burdens, but only to refrain from cruelties; it 
binds not to give but to allow others to give wisely and to work 
humanely if they will, while all shall guarantee to them undisturbed 
activity in deeds of charity. There is then in the Red Cross no 
" entangling alliance " that any but a barbarian at war can feel as a 
restraint. This inculcated wariness of foreign influences, wonderfully 
freshened by the conduct of foreign rulers and writers during the rebel- 
lion and deepened by the crimes and the craft directed primarily at 
Mexico and ultimately at us, made the people of America in 1864 
and 1868 devoutly thankful for the friendly and stormy sea that rolled 
between them and the European states. And it is not perhaps alto- 
gether strange that American statesmen, inspired by such a public 
opinion, should then have been but little inclined to look with favor 
upon any new international obligations however specious in appearance 
or humane in fact. But the award of Geneva surely opened the way 
for the Red Cross of Geneva. Time and success have made plain the 
nation's path. The postal treaty since made among all nations and 
entered into heartily by this has proved salutary to all. It has 
removed every valid state reason for opposition to the harmless, 
humane and peaceful provisions of the treaty of the Red Cross. 

But in the midst of the rugged facts of war come sentimental 
objections and objectors. For, deplore it as we may, war is the great 
fact of all history and its most pitiable feature is not after all so much 
the great numbers slain, wounded and captured in battle, as their cruel 
after treatment as wounded and prisoners, no adequate provision being 
made for their necessities, no humane care even permitted, except at 
the risk of death or imprisonment as spies, of those moved by wdse 
pity or a simple religious zeal. 

Among these hard facts appears a conscientious theorist and asks, 
Is not war a great sin and wrong ? Ought we to provide for it, to make 
it easy, to lessen its horrors, to mitigate its sufferings? Shall we not 



ADDRESS. 71 

in this way encourage rulers and peoples to engage in war for slight 
and fancied grievances ? 

We provide for the victims of the great wrong and sin of intem- 
perance. These are for the most part voluntary victims, each in a 
measure the arbiter of his own fate. The soldier has generally no part, 
no voice, in creating the war in which he fights. He simply obeys as 
he must his superiors and the laws of his country. Yes, it is a great 
wrong and sin, and for that reason I would provide not only for, but 
against it. 

But here comes the speculative theorist! Isn't it encouraging a 
bad principle; wouldn't it be better to do away with all war ? Wouldn't 
peace societies be better? Oh, yes, my friend, as much better as the 
millennium would be better than this, but it is not here. Hard facts 
are here; war is here; war is the outgrowth, indicator and relic of 
barbarism. Civilization alone will do away with it, and scarcely a 
quarter of the earth is yet civilized, and that quarter not beyond the 
possibilities of war. It is a long step yet to permanent peace. We 
cannot cross a stream until we reach it. The sober truth is, we are 
called to deal with facts, not theories; we must practice if we would 
teach. And be assured, my friends, there is not a peace society on the 
face of the earth to-day, nor ever will be, so potent, so effectual against 
war as the Red Cross of Geneva. 

The sooner the world learns that the halo of glory which sur- 
rounds a field of battle and its tortured, thirsting, starving, pain-racked, 
dying victims exists only in imagination; that it is all sentiment, delu- 
sion, falsehood, given for effect; that soldiers do not die painless deaths; 
that the sum of all human agony finds its equivalent on the battle- 
field, in the hospital, by the weary wayside and in the prison; that, 
deck it as you will, it is agony; the sooner and more thoroughly the 
people of the earth are brought to realize and appreciate these facts, 
the more slow and considerate they will be about rushing into hasty 
and needless wars, and the less popular war will become. 

Death by the bullet painless! What did this nation do during 
eighty agonizing and memorable days but to watch the effects of one 
bullet wound? Was it painless? Painless either to the victim or the 
nation ? Though canopied by a fortitude, patience, faith and courage 
scarce exceeded in the annals of history, still was it agony. And when 
in his delirious dreams the dying President murmured, "The great 
heart of the nation will not let the soldier die," I prayed God to 
hasten the time when every \younded soldier would be sustained by 



72 THE RKD CROSS. 

this sweet assurance; that in the combined sympathies, wisdom, 
enlightenment and power of the nations, he should indeed feel that 
the great heart of the people would not let the soldier die. 

Friends, was it accident, or was it providence which made it one 
of the last acts of James A. Garfield in health to pledge himself to urge 
upon the representatives of his people in Congress assembled, this great 
national step for the relief and care of wounded men ? lyiving or dying 
it was his act and his wish, and no member in that honored, considerate 
and humane body but will feel himself in some manner holden to see it 
carried out. 



ACTION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The president of the American Red Cross, Clara Barton, in 
November, 1881, laid before President Arthur the matter of the 
Treat)' of Geneva, and the unfulfilled desire of President Garfield that 
the United States should give its adhesion to that international com- 
pact. To this President Arthur gave a cordial and favorable response, 
and made good his words by the following paragraph in his first annual 
message, sent to the forty-seventh Congress: 

At its last extra session the Senate called for the text of the Geneva Convention 
for the relief of the wounded in war. I trust that this action foreshadows such 
interest in the subject as will result in the adhesion of the United States to that 
humane and commendable engagement. 

This part of the message was immediately taken up in the Senate 
and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations, consisting of 
the following named gentlemen, to wit: William Windom, Minne- 
sota; George F. Edmunds, Vermont; John T. Miller, California; 
Thomas W. Ferry, Michigan; Elbridge G. Lapham, New York; John 
W.Johnston, Virginia; J. T. Morgan, Alabama; George H. Pendleton, 
Ohio; Benjamin H. Hill, Georgia. 

During the consideration of the subject an invitation was extended 
to the president of the American Association, its counsel and other 
associate members to meet the above named Senate Committee at the 
Capitol, for conference, and for an explanation of such points as still 
remained obscure, to aid t>ieir deliberations, and to facilitate investi- 
gations, 



ACTION OF THE GOVERNMENT. 73 

On the seventeenth of May, 18S1, Hon. Omar D. Conger submitted 
to the United States Senate the following resolution, which was consid- 
ered by unanimous consent and agreed to: 

Resolved^ That the Secretary of State be requested to furnish to the Senate 
copies (translations) of Articles of Convention signed at Geneva, Switzerland, 
August 22, 1864, touching the treatment of those wounded in war, together with 
the forms of ratification employed by the several governments, parties thereto. 

On the twelfth of December, 188 1, in response to the above resolu- 
tion. President Arthur addressed to the Senate a message transmitting 
a report of the Secretary of State, with accompanying papers, touching 
the Geneva convention for the relief of the wounded in war, which 
message, report and accompanying papers were as follows: 

(Senate Ex. Doc. No. 6, 47th Congress, ist Session.) 

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting in response to 
Senate resolution of May 17th, 1881, a report of the Secretary of State, with 
accompanying papers, touching the Geneva convention for the relief of the 
wounded in war. 

December 12, 1881. — Referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations and 
ordered to be printed. 

To Senate of the United States: 

I transmit herewith, in response to the resolution of the Senate of the seven- 
teenth of May last, a report of the Secretary of State, with accompanying papers, 
touching the Geneva convention for the relief of the wounded in war. 

Chester A. Arthur. 
Executive Mansion, 
Washington, December 12, 1S81. 



To the President: 

The Secretary of State, to whom was addressed a resolution of the Senate, 
dated the seventeenth of May, 1881, requesting him "to furnish to the Senate copies 
(translations) of Articles of Convention signed at Geneva, Switzerland, August 22, 
1864, touching the treatment of those wounded in war, together with the forms of 
ratification employed by the several governments, parties thereto," has the honor to 
lay before the President the papers called for by the resolution. 

In view of the reference made, in the annual message of the President, to the 
Geneva convention, the Secretary of State deems it unnecessary now to enlarge 
upon the advisability of the adhesion of the United Slates to an international 
compact at once so humane in its character and so universal in its application as to 
commend itself to the adoption of nearly all the civilized powers. 

James G. Blaine. 
Department of State, 
Washington. December /a, i88t. 



74 THE RED CROSS. 



THE "ADDITIONAL ARTICLES" CONCERNING THE RED 
CROSS FOR THE NAVY. 

The governments of North Germany, Austria, Baden, Bavaria, 
Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, 
Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and Wiirtemberg, desiring 
to extend to armies on the sea the advantages of the convention con- 
cluded at Geneva the twenty-second of August, 1864, for the ameliora- 
tion of the condition of wounded soldiers in armies in the field, and to 
further particularize some of the stipulations of the said convention, 
proiK»sed and signed the following additional articles: 

Additional Articles to the Convention of Geneva of the twenty- 
second August, 1864, signed at Geneva the twentieth of October, 1868. 

Article I. The persons designated in Article II. of the convention shall, 
after the occupation by the enemy, continue to fulfill their duties, according to 
their wants, to the sick and wounded in the ambulance or the hospital which they 
serve. When they request to withdraw, the commander of the occupying troops 
shall fix the time of departure, which he shall onl}- be allowed to delay for a short 
time in case of military necessity. 

Art. II. Arrangements will have to be made by the belligerent powers to 
ensure to the neutralized person, fallen into the hands of the army of the enemy, 
the entire enjoyment of his salary. 

Art. III. Under the conditions provided for in Articles I. and IV. of the 
convention, the name "ambulance " applies to field hospitals and other tempo- 
rary establishments, which follow the troops on the field of battle to receive the 
sick and wounded. 

Art. IV. In conformity with the spirit of Article V. of the convention, and 
to the reservations contained in the protocol of 1864, it is explained that for 
the appointment of the charges relative to the quartering of troops and of the 
contributions of war, account only shall be taken in an equitable manner of the 
charitable zeal displayed by the inhabitants. 

Art. V. In addition to Article VI. of the convention, it is stipulated that, 
with the reservation of officers whose detention might be important to the fate of 
arms, and within the limits fixed by the second paragraph of that article, the 
wounded fallen into the hands of the enemy shall be sent back to their country', 
after they are cured, or sooner if possible, on condition, nevertheless, of not again 
bearing arms during the continuance of the war. 

Art. VI. The boats which, at their own risk and peril, during and after an 
engagement pick up the shipwrecked or wounded, or which, having picked them 
up, convey them on board a neutral, or hospital ship, shall enjoy, until the accom- 
plishment of their mission, the character of neutrality, as far as the circumstances 
of the engagement and the position of the ships engaged will permit. 



ADDITIONAL ARTICLES. 75 

The appreciation of these circumstances is entrusted to the humanity of all 
the combatants. The wrecked and wounded thus picked up and saved must not 
serve again during the continuance of the war. 

Art. VII. The religious, medical and hospital staff of any captured vessel are 
declared neutral, and, on leaving the ship, may remove the articles and surgical 
instruments which are their private property. 

Art. VIII. The staff designated in the preceding article must continue to 
fulfill their functions in the captured ship, assisting in the removal of wounded 
made by the victorious party; they will then beat liberty to return to their country, 
in conformity with the second paragraph of the first additional article. 

The .stipulations of the second additional article are applicable to the pay and 
allowance of the staff. 

Art. IX. The military hospital ships remain under martial law in all that 
concerns their stores; they become the property of the captor, but the latter must 
not divert them from their special appropriation during the continuance of the 
war. 

The vessels not equipped for fighting, which during peace the government 
shall have officially declared to be intended to serve as floating hospital ships, shall, 
however, enjoy during the war complete neutrality, both as regards stores, and 
also as regards their stafT, provided their equipment is exclusively appropriated to 
the special service on which they are employed. 

Art. X. Any merchantman, to whatever nation she may belong, charged 
exclusively with removal of sick and wounded, is protected by neutrality, but the 
mere fact, noted on the ship's books, of the vessel having been visited by an 
enemy's cruiser, renders the sick and wounded incapable of serving during the 
continuance of the war. The cruiser shall even have the right of putting on board 
an officer in order to accompany the convoy, and thus verify the good faith of the 
operation. 

If the merchant ship also carries a cargo, her neutrality will still protect it, 
provided that such cargo is not of a nature to be confiscated by the belligerents. 

The belligerents retain the right to interdict neutralized vessels from all com- 
munication, and from any course which they may deem prejudicial to the secrecy 
of their operations. In urgent cases, special conventions may be entered into 
between commanders-in-chief, in order to neutralize temporarily and in a special 
manner the vessels intended for the removal of the sick and wounded. 

Art. XI. Wounded or sick sailors and soldiers, when embarked, to whatever 
nation they may belong, shall be protected and taken care of by their captors. 

Their return to their own country is subject to the provisions of Article VI. of 
the convention, and of the additional .'\rticle V. 

Art. XII. The distinctive flag to be used with the national flag, in order to 
indicate any vessel or boat which may claim the benefits of neutrality, in virtue 
of the principles of this convention, is a white flag with a red cross. The belliger- 
ents may exercise in this respect any mode of verification which they may deem 
necessary. 

Military hospital ships shall be distinguished by being painted white outside, 
with green strake. 

Art. XIII. The hospital ships which are equipped at the expense of the aid 
societies, recognized by the governments signing this convention, and which are 
5 



76 THK RKD CRO.SS. 

furnishetl with a coimnission ciiianatiiig from the sovereign, who shall have given 
express authority for tlieir heiiig fitleil out, and with a certificate from the proper 
naval authority that they have l)een placed under his control during their fitting 
out and on their final departure, and that they were then appropriated solely to the 
purpose of their mission, shall be considered neutral, as well as the whole of their 
staff. They shall be recognized and protected by the belligerents. 

They shall make themselves known by hoisting, together with their nationar 
flag, the white flag with a red cross. The distinctive mark of their staff, while 
performing their duties, shall be an armlet of the same colors. 

The outer painting of these hospital ships shall be white, with red strake. 

These ships shall bear aid and assistance to the wounded and wrecked bellig- 
erents, without distinction of nationality. 

They nmst take care not to interfere in any way with the movements of the 
combatants. During and after the battle they must do their duty at their own 
risk and peril. 

The belligerents shall have the right of controlling and visiting them; they 
will be at liberty to refuse their assistance, to order them to depart, and to detain 
them if the exigencies of the case require such a step. 

The wounded and wrecked picked up by these ships cannot be reclaimed by 
either of tiie combatants, and they will be required not to serve during the con- 
tinuance of the war. 

Art. XIV. In naval wars any strong presumption that either belligerent 
takes advantage of the benefits of neutrality, with any other view than the interest 
of the sick and wounded, gives to the other belligerent, until proof to the con- 
rary, the right of suspending the Convention Treaty, as regards such belligerent. 

Should this presumption become a certainty, notice may be given to such 
belligerent that the convention is suspended with regard to him during the whole 
continuance of the war. 

Art. XV. The present act shall be drawn up in a single original copy, which 
shall be deposited in the archives of the Swiss Confederation. 

An authentic copy of this act shall be delivered, with an invitation to adhere 
to it, to each of the signatory powers of the convention of the twenty-second of 
August, 1864, as well as to those that have successively acceded to it. 

In faith whereof, the undersigned commissaries have drawn up the present 
project of additional articles and have affixed thereunto the seals of their arms: 

Von Roeder, Westenberg, 

F. Loffler, F. N. StaaflF, 

Kohler, G. H. Dufour, 

Dr. Mundy, G. Moynier, 

Steiner, A. Coupvent des Bois, 

Dr. Dompierre, H. de Preval, 

Visschers, John Saville Lumley, 

J. B. G. Galiffe, H. R. Yelverton, 

D. Felice Baroffio, Dr. S. Lehmann, 

Paalo Cottrau, Husuy, 

Ji. A. Van Karnebeck, Dr. C. Hahn, 
Pr. Fichte. 



THE CONVENTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 77 

{TnUrnational Bulletin, January, i88i.'\ 

THE GENEVA CONVENTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The friends of the Red Cross are not ignorant that the list of vStates which 
have signed the Geneva Convention presents a grave and lamentable lack. One 
of the most civilized nations of the world, and consequently one of the best pre- 
pared to subscribe to the principles of this treaty, that is to say, the United States 
of America, does not appear there. Their absence is so much the more surprising 
because the proceedings of the Geneva Convention have only been, in some 
respects, the partial reproduction of the celebrated " Instructions of the American 
Army," edited by the late Dr. Lieber, and adopted by President Lincoln (.\pril 
24, 1863), and put in practice by the armies of the North during the war of seces- 
sion. More than this, it is remembered that the Government at Washington had 
been represented at the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva in 1864 by two delegates 
at the debates relative to the Geneva Convention, but without being furnished 
with sufficient power to sign it. [Protocol of the session of August 9, 1S64.] 
These were Messrs. George J. Fogg, United States Minister at Berne, and Charles 
S. P. Bowles, European Agent of the American Sanitary Commission. 

It was expected, then, that the adhesion of the United States would soon fol- 
low, but nothing came of it. Nevertheless, in the hope that this result would not 
be too long delayed, an aid society was formed at New York in 1866, when the 
civil war had come to an end, to gather in some way the heritage of the Sanitary 
Commission, which had just filled with much brilliancy, and during several years, 
the role of a veritable Red Cross Society. 

One might have thought that the Berlin Conference in 1869 would be a de- 
termining circumstance which would induce the United States to enter into the 
European concert. 

The invitation to assist at the Conference at Berlin in 1869 was addressed to 
the Government of the United States, which declined it with thanks, as not hav- 
ing taken part in the Convention of Geneva. The society of which we have just 
spoken was in like manner invited, but it also was not represented. 

This double absence called out a proposition from M. Hepke, privy counsellor 
of the legation, a proposition, supported by the signatures of thirty-eight other 
delegates present, and adopted unanimously by the members of the Conference. 

The text of it was as follows: 

"The Conference having arrived at the end of their labors, express a lively 
regret at having been deprived of the precious assistance of the delegates from the 
United States of North America, convinced that the great and noble nation which, 
one of the first in the world, has rendered eminent ser\'ices to the great humani- 
tarian work, will welcome with sympathy the results of their labors, the Conference 
desires that the protocols of these sessions shall be addressed by their President to 
the Government of the United States of North America, and to the different aid 
committees which exist in that country." 



7S THE RED CROSS. 

That step unfortunately remained without results. The society which had itsseat 
at New York, comprehending that its existence would be unnatural and its position 
false so long as the gt)vernnlent refused to sign the convention, finished by dissolv- 
ing towards the end of 1S72. 

Since then, the International Committee, which would not despair of success, 
made upon its part several new attempts, which invariably met with absolute non- 
attention. Happily the history of the Red Cross was there to prove that the most 
tenacious resistance is not indefinite, and that sooner or later the sentiments of the 
most recalcitrant governments are modified under the control of circumstances. 
How many we have seen who at first believed their adhesion useless, or even 
dangerous, and who have been led to repentance on the occurrence of wars in 
which their armies were to be, or had been, engaged, because they comprehended 
at that moment only to what point their fears were chimerical or their indifference 
injurious to those depending upon them for protection. 

In the United States time has done its work as elsewhere, though peace has 
long reigned there. The change of sentiment which has been produced in regard 
to the Red Cross has revealed itself recently on the sixth of December, 1881, in 
the message of President Arthur at the opening of the fourth session of the Forty- 
seventh Congress. We read there the following paragraph: 

"At its last extra session the Senate demanded the text of the Geneva 
Convention for aiding the wounded in time of war. I hope that this fact proves 
the interest which the Senate feels in this question, and that there will result from 
it, the adhesion of the United States to this humane and commendable treaty." 

It seems, then, that we touch the port; the matter is seriously considered, and 
it will be with lively satisfaction that we shall register the result which has been so 
long the end of our desires. 

We will not terminate these retrospective considerations, without telling 
what we know of the causes which have recently led to decisive steps in the 
question. 

It is, above all, to a woman that this result is owing, and the name of that 
woman is not unknown to our readers. We spoke to them several years ago 
of Miss Clara Barton, one of the heroines of the American war, where she 
reproduced the charitable exploits of Miss Nightingale; she was honored at the 
conclusion of the war with a national recompense. * 

♦This statement is not exact; indeed, it does some injustice as well to Miss Barton as to the 
American Congress, and was doubtless derived from misstatements promulgated in the United 
States, the result of a general misunderstanding of the facts, and an error, of course, unknown 
to a foreign writer. 

Precisely what the Thirty-seventh Congress did was to pass the following joint resolution of 
both houses, and in accordance with the same to pay over to Miss Barton the sum mentioned in 
it for the uses and purposes therein set forth: 

March 10, 1866. 
A resolution providing for expenses incurred in searching for missing soldiers of the Army of the 
United States, and for further prosecution of the same. 

H^hereas, Miss Clara Barton has, during the late war of the rebellion, expended from her own 
resources large sums of money in endeavoring to discover missing soldiers of the armies of the 
United States, and in communicating intelligence to their relatives; therefore. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress 
assembled. That the sum of fifteen thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby appropriated out 
of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to reimburse Miss Clara Barton for 



THE CONVENTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 79 

Then, being in Europe at the time of the French and German war, she r.gain 
flew to the battlefield. Returning at last to her own country with entecbled 
health, she determined to give what strength remained to her to the service of the 
Red Cross, and took for her task to plead its cause with the influential men of the 
American government. Quitting her home at Dansville, she passed long months 
at Wasliington to carry conviction to the minds of the President, of his ministers, 
of members of Congress, writing for the journals, publishing pamphlets to .spread 
the ideas the triumph of which she had at heart. She had need of mucb perse- 
verance and energy to avoid renouncing her plan, for she waited long before finding 
a favorable opportunity. It was not until the accession of President Garfield that 
she could catch a glimpse of success. She then found in the Chief Magistrate of 
the nation a man who warmly espoused her cause, and in the Secretary of State, 
Mr. Blaine, an auxiliary as zealous as he was devoted. We have seen by the 
quotation which we have borrowed from the last Presidential messag; that Mr. 
Arthur shares the sentiments and ideas of his predecessor on the subject of the 
Geneva Convention, and it is hardly probable that he will encounter upon this 
point opposition from Congress. 

The name of Miss Barton will probably not figure in the oflBcial documents 
which will be the fruit of her labors, but here, where we have entire liberty to 
render homage to her devotion, we are happy to be able to proclaim her imperish- 
able title to the gratitude of the Red Cross. 

To the name of Miss Barton we should join that of M. Edouard Seve, who, 
after having rendered important service to the Red Cross in South America, where 
he represented Belgium to Chili, has continued to use his activity in favor of the 
same cause in the United States since he has been called to the position of consul- 
general at Philadelphia. His efibrts have certain!}' contributed to render the 
Government at Washington favorable to the Geneva Convention. 

The preceding article was already printed when we received from the inde- 
fatigable Miss Barton a new pamphlet upon the Red Cross and the Geneva Con- 
vention. This little work is destined to initiate the Americans into the origin and 
histon,-of the work, with which they are as yet but imperfectly acquainted, and for 
which it is the aspiration of the author to awaken their interest ; in particular, we 
find there the confirmation of the steps of which we have spoken above, and especi- 
ally the text of the two letters addressed by the International Committee, one on 

the amount so expended by her, and to aid in the further prosecution of the search for missing 
soldiers, and the printing necessary to the furtherance of the said object shall hereafter be done 
by the Public Printer. 

Approved March lo, 1866. 
[14 Vol. U. S. Statutes at Large, p. 350.] 

This, therefore, was not recompense for services; it was reimbur^jement for money expended; 
it was money expended by a private citizen for public uses, and this, mainly, after the close of 
the war. The government recognized its value to the people, and refunded the money, and that 
without solicitation on Miss Barton's part. 

This work was a fitting, even necessary, result of her four years' voluntary and unpsid 
8er\'iceson the field, not as an ordinary nurse, but as a sort of independent sanitary commission, 
whom the government, the soldiers, and the poeople came at last to implicitly trust, for they 
never found their trust betrayed nor themselves disappointed by any want of discretion, sagacity, 
or energy on her part. It cannot be set forth here, it can only be alluded to most briefly. In its 
details it must form a chapter in the story of a life singularly original, successful, and beneficent. 
— [Report of the American (National) Association of the Red Cross of 3] 



So THE RKD CROSS. 

the ninth of August, 1877, to President Hayes, the other on the thirteenth of June, 
to Secretary of Stale Blaine. 

The pamphlet which we have announced has been published by the American 
National Society of the Re<l Cross, with which we have not yet had occasion to 
make our readers acquainted. This society, recently established at the suggestion 
of Miss Barton, and of which she has been made president, is only waiting for the 
official adhesion of the United States to the Geneva Convention to put itself in 
relation with the societies of other countries. We will wait until then to speak of 
it aud to give the details of its organization. 



ACCESSION OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE TREATY OF 
GENEVA AND TO THE ADDITIONAL ARTICLES. 

On the first day of March, 1882, the President, by his signature, 
gave the accession of the United States to the Treaty of Geneva of August 
22, 1864, and also to that of October 20, 1868, and transmitted to the 
Senate the following message, declaration, and proposed adoption of 
the same: 

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting an acces- 
sio?i of the United States to the Conventiofi concluded at Geneva on 
the twenty-second Atigust, 1864., betrveeyi various powers, for the 
amelioration of the wounded of armies in the field, and to the 
additional articles thereto, signed at Geneva on the twentieth October^ 
1S68. 

March 3, 1882.— Read; accession read the first time referred to the Committee on 
Foreign Relations, and, together with the message, ordered to be printed in 
confidence, for the use of the Senate. 

March 16, 1882.— Ratified and injunction of secrecy removed thereform. 

To the Senate of the United Slates: 

I transmit to the Senate for its action thereon, the accession of the United 
States to the convention concluded at Geneva on the twenty-second August, 1864, 
between various powers, for the amelioration of the wounded of armies in the field, 
and to the additional articles thereto, signed at Geneva on the twentieth of 
October, 1868. Chester A. Arthur. 

Washington, March 3, 1SS2. 

Whereas, on the twenty-second day of August, 1864, a convention was con- 
cluded at Geneva, in Switzerland, between the Grand Duchy of Baden and the 



ADHESION TO THE TREATY. 8i 

Swiss Confederation, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the 
Kingdom of Spain, the French Knipire, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Kingdom 
of Itiily, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Kingdom 
of Prussia, and the Kingdom of Wiirtemberg, for the amelioration of the wounded 
in armies in the field, the tenor of which convention is as follows: 

(See treaty and additional articles, already inserted.) 

Now, therefore, the Presideiit of the United States of America, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate, hereby declares that the United States accede 
to the said convention of the twenty-second August, 1864, and also accede to the 
said convention of October 20, 1868. 

Done at Washington this first day of March in the year of our Lord one thou- 
sand eight hundred and eighty-two, and of the Independence of the United States 
the one hundred and sixth. 

(Seal.) Chester A. Arthur. 

By the President. 
Fred'k T. Frelinghuysen, 

Secretary of State. 



The same day the president of the American Association sent by- 
cablegram to President Moynier, of the International Committee at 
Geneva, the glad tidings that the United States had at last joined in 
the great humane work of the world by ratifying the treaties of the 
Red Cross; and on the twenty- fourth of the same month, President 
Moynier replied as follows: 



COMITE aNTERNATIONAIv de Secours 

AUX MiUTAIRES BI.ESSES, 

Geneva, March 24, 1882. 
Miss Clara Barton, President of the American Society of the Red Cross, IVash- 

ington: 

Mademoiselle: At last, on the seventeenth instant, I received your glorious 
telegram. I delayed replying to it in order to connuunicate its contents to my col- 
leagues of the International Committee, so as to be able to thank you in the name 
of all of us and to tell you of the joy it gives us. You must feel happy too, and 
proud to have at last attained your object, thanks to a perseverance and a zeal which 
surmounted every obstacle. 

Please, if opportunity offers, to be our interpreter to President Arthur and 
present him our wannest congratulations. 

I suppose your government will now notify the Swiss Federal Council of its 
decision in the matter, and the latter will then inform the other Powers which 
have signed the Red Cross Treaty. 

Only after this formality shall have been complied with can we occupy ourselves 
with fixing the official international status of your American society. We have, 
however, already considered the circular which we intend to address to all the 
societies of the Red Cross, and with regard thereto we have found that it will be 



82 TIIK RKD CROSS. 

necessary for us as a preliminary measure to be furuished with a document certi- 
fyiii){ that the American society has attained the second of its objects, /. e., that it 
has been (»>fncially) recognized by the American Government. 

It is imjwrtant that we be able to certify that your government is prepared to 
accept your services in case of war, that it will readily enter into co-operation 
with you, and will encourage the centralization under your direction of all the 
voluntary aid. We have no doubt that you will readily obtain from the competent 
authorities an official declaration to that effect, and we believe that this matter 
will be merely a formality, but ive attach the greatest i>nportance to the fact in 
order to cover our responsibility, especially in view of Ihc pretensions of rival 
societies which might claim to be acknowledged by us. 

It is your society alone and none other that we will recognize, because it 
inspires us with confidence, and lue would be placed in a false position if you 
failed to obtain for it a privileged position by a formal recognition by the 
government. 

We hope that you will appreciate the motives of caution which guide us in 
this matter, and that you may soou enable us to act in the premises. 

Wishing to testify to you its gratitude for the services you have already ren- 
dered to the Red Cross, the committee decided to offer to you one of the medals 
which a German engraver caused to be struck off in 1S70 in honor of the Red 
Cross. It will be sent to you in a few days. It is of very small intrinsic value 
indeed, but, such as it is, we have no other means of recompensing the most 
meritorious of our assistants. Please to regard it only as a simple memorial, and 
as a proof of the esteem and gratitude we feel for you. 

Accept, mademoiselle, the assurance of my most distinguished sentiments. 

G. MoYNiER, President. 



The requirements contained in the foregoing letter, in regard to 
the recognition of the American Association of the Red Cross, were 
fully and generously complied with by the various branches of the 
Government of the United States, and the documents conveying the 
ofi&cial recognition were transmitted by the Honorable Secretary of 
State to the American consul at Geneva, with instructions to deliver 
them to the International Committee. 

The following is the proclamation by President Arthur announc- 
ing to the people the adoption by the United States of the Treaty of 
Geneva, and the Additional Articles concerning the Navy: 




Copyright, 1898, by Clara Barton. 

SOME RED CROSS DECORATIONS PRESENTED TO CLARA BARTON. 

The Iron Cross of Merit presented by Emperor William I. and Empress 
Augusta, in recogtiition of services in the Franco-German War of iSjo-ji. 
The Geneva Medal of Honor presented by the ComitS International in recog- 
nition of services in securing the adhesion of the United States to the treaty of 
the Red Cross. The Servian Red Cross presented by Queen Natali of Servia. 




opyright, KS98, by Clara Barton. 

CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORIC TREE. 
Showing the development of the Red Cross during the first twenty-five years of 
its existence. The City of Geneva, its origin. The central branch represents 
the ivork of the Coniite International. The right branch the formation of the 
national societies or committees. The left branch the date of adhesion to the 
treaty by the various nations. 



A PROCI.AMATION. 85 



By the President of the United States of America: 

A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas, on the twenty-second day of August, 1864, a convention was con- 
cluded at Geneva, in Switzerland, between the Grand Duchy of Baden and the 
Swiss Confederation, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the King- 
dom of Spain, the French limpire, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Kingdom of 
Italy, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Kingdom 
of Prussia, and the Kingdom of Wiirtemberg, for the amelioration of the 
wounded in armies in the field, the tenor of which convention is hereinafter 
subjoined: 

And whereas, the several contracting parties to the said convention exchanged 
the ratification thereof at Geneva on the twenty-second day of June, 1865; 

And whereas, the several states hereinafter named have adhered to the said 
convention in virtue of Article IX. thereof, to wit: 

Sweden, December 13, 1864; Greece, January 5-17, 1865; Great Britain, 
February iS, 1865; Mecklenburg-Schwerin, March 9, 1865; Turkey, July 5, 1865; 
Wiirtemberg, June 22, 1866; Hesse, June 2, 1866; Bavaria, June 30, 1866; Austria, 
July 21, 1866; Persia, Decembers, 1S74; Salvador, December 30, 1874; Montenegro, 
November 17-29, 1875; Servia, March 24, 1S76; Bolivia, October 16, 1879; Chili, 
November 15, 1879; Argentine Republic, November 25, 1879; Peru, April 22, 1880. 

And whereas, the Swiss Confederation, in virtue of the said Article IX. of said 
convention, has invited the United States of America to accede thereto; 

And whereas, on the twentieth October, 1868, the following additional articles 
were proposed and signed at Geneva, on behalf of Great Britain, Au.stria, Baden, 
Bavaria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, North Germany, Sweden 
and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and Wiirtemberg, the tenor of which Additional 
Articles is hereinafter subjoined (see page 74); 

And whereas, the President of the United States of America, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate, did, on the first day of March, one thousand 
eight hundred and eighty-two, declare that the United States accede to the said 
convention of the twenty-second of August, 1864, and also accede to the said con- 
vention of October 20, 1868 ; 

And whereas, on the ninth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-two, the Federal Council of the Swiss Confederation, in virtue of the final 
provision of a certain minute of the exchange of the ratifications of the said con- 
vention at Berne, December 22, 1864, did, by a formal declaration, accept the said 
adhesion of the United States of America, as well in the name of the Swiss Con- 
federation as in that of the other contracting states ; 

And whereas, furthermore, the Government of the Swiss Confederation has 
informed the Government of the United States that the exchange of the ratifica- 
tions of the aforesaid Additional Articles of the twentieth October, 1S6S, to which 
the United States of America have, in like manner, adhered as aforesaid, has not 



86 THK RED CROSS. 

yet taken place between the contracting,' jiarties, and that these articles cannot be 
regarded as a treaty in full force and effect ; 

Now, therefore, l)e it known that I, Chester A. Arthur, President of the United 
suites of America, have caused the said Convention Treaty of August 22, 1864, to 
be made public, to the end that the same and every article and clause thereof may 
be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens 
thereof; reserving, however, the promulgation of the hereinbefore mentioned 
Additional Articles of October 20, 186S, notwithstanding the accession of the 
United States of America thereto, until the exchange of the ratifications thereof 
between the several contracting states shall have been effected, and the said 
Additional Articles shall have acquired full force and effect as an international 
treaty. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the 
United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington, this twenty-sixth day of July, in the year of 
our Ivord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-two, and of the Independence of 
the United States the one hundred and seventh. 

(L.S.) Chester A. Arthur. 

By the President. 
Fred'k T. Freunghuysen, 

Secretary of State. 

United States of America, Department of State, to all to ivhom these presents 

shall come, greeting: 

I certify that the foregoing is a true copy of the original on file in the Depart- 
ment of State. 

In testimony whereof I, John Davis, Acting Secretary of State of the United 
States, have hereunto subscribed my name and caused the seal of the Department 
of State to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington, this ninth day of August, A. D. 1882, and of 
the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and seventh. 

(L.S.) John Davis. 

Thus was the American branch of the Red Cross welcomed into 
the fellowship of kindred associations in thirty-one other nations, the 
most prosperous and civilized on the globe, its position assured, and its 
future course made simple, direct and untroubled. 

The official bulletin of the International Committee also hailed the 
accession of the United States to the treaty, in an article of character- 
istic caution and of great significance. In that article, which is quoted 
in full hereafter, the distinction was carefully pointed out between that 
wliich had already been fully agreed to, and had become invested with 
all the force and solemnity of international treaties, and the proposed 
amendment which had been drawn up and considered with a view to 
ultimate adoption. This proposed amendment had received the sanction 



ADHESION OF THE UNITED STATES. 8? 

and signatures of the International Committee at Geneva, without 
ever having been formally adopted by any nation. The United States 
had, at the same moment adopted both, thus becoming the thirty- 
second nation to adhere to the treaty of August 22, 1864, and the first 
to adopt the proposed amendment of October 20, 1868. 

[fnteinaliona! BuUelin for April, /5&.] 
ADHESION OF THE UNITED STATP:s TO THE CONVENTION OF GENEVA. 

Referring to the article inserted in our preceding bulletin, p. 42, we are happy 
to be able to announce that the act of adhesion which we presented was signed at 
Washington the sixteenth of March, in pursuance of a vote by which the members 
of the Senate gave their approval with unanimity. Our readers will doubtless bt 
surprised, as we are, that after the long and systematic resistance of the Govern- 
ment of the United States against rallying to the Convention of Geneva, thert 
cannot be found in the American legislature a single representative of the opposi- 
tion. So complete a reversal of opinion cannot be explained, unless we admi( 
that the chief officers of the nation had cherished, up to the present time, preju- 
dices in regard to the Convention of Geneva — prejudices which vanished as soon 
as they fully comprehended what was expected of them, and recognized that 
there was nothing compromising in it to the political condition of their country. 

With the zeal of new converts, they have even gone beyond the mark, inas- 
much as they have voted their adhesion not only to the convention of the twenty- 
second of August, 1864, but also to the plan of Additional Articles of the twentieth 
of October, 1868, which was not the matter in question, since they had never had 
the force of law; we give this news only under every reserve, because we have 
received contradictory information on the subject. If this defect in form is found 
in the official document which will be sent to the Swiss Federal Council one could 
fear it might retard the so nmch desired conclusion of this important affair, but it 
need not be too much regretted, since it will enable us to understand the opinion 
of the great Transatlantic Republic upon maritime questions as they relate to the 
Red Cross. 

The action of the United States, mentioned in this article, was 
perhaps somewhat characteristic. It seemed to give itself to the move- 
ment of the Red Cross witli a gracious earnestness seldom seen in the 
cautious forms of diplomatic action, and it certainly was in very 
decided contrast with its former hesitancy. 

No doubt could now rest in any mind that the adhesion of the 
United States was, at last, hearty and sincere, and calculated to allay 
any distrust which its former isolation and declination of the treaty 
might have anj'where engendered. 

This action of the Government of the United States also rendered 
the position of the National Association exceptionally satisfactory, and 



88 THE RKD CROSS. 

introduced it to the International Committee at Geneva and all the 
affiliated societies under circumstances calculated to promote in the 
greatest degree its usefulness and harmony, and to add to the gratifica- 
tion of all who personally have any part in the operations of the 
American Association. 

For all this it is indebted to the judicious and thoughtful care and 
exalted statesmanship of the President of the United States, his cabinet 
and advisers, and the members of the Forty-seventh Congress, who, 
without one breath of criticism, or one moment of delay, after they 
came to fully understand "the subject and comprehend its purposes and 
object, granted all that was then asked of them, in the adhesion to the 
treaties, in the recognition of the National Association, and the provisions 
for printing and disseminating a knowledge of its principles and 
practical work. 

Perhaps no act of this age or country has reflected more credit 
abroad upon those specially active in it, than this simple and beneficent 
measure. It must, in its great and humane principles, its far-reaching 
philanthropy, its innovations upon the long established and accepted 
customs and rules of barbaric cruelty, its wise practical charity, stand 
forever next to the immortal proclamation of freedom to the slaves that 
crowns the name of Abraham Lincoln. 

Special thanks are peculiarly due to those who have been its active, 
wise and unwavering friends, who have planned its course so truly, 
and set forth its purposes so clearly, that it will hereafter be misunder- 
stood only by those who are unwilling to learn, or who are actively 
hostile to its beneficent aims. 

Perhaps at the risk of seeming invidious — for we would by no 
means ignore, and have no less gratitude for the legion of generous 
helpers we cannot name — we might state that among those who have 
been foremost to aid and encourage us have been the Hon. Omar D. 
Conger, of Michigan, who, first in the House, and afterward in the 
Senate, has been conspicuous for persistent and courageous work ; also, 
Hon. William Windom, of Minnesota, Chairman of the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, who was first to investigate and take the matter up 
as a member of President Garfield's cabinet ; Senator E. P. Lapham, 
of New York, who has spared neither time nor thought, patience nor 
labor, in his legal investigations of the whole matter ; and probably no 
person has done more than he to throw light upon obscure parts and 
point out the true and proper course to be pursued in the accomplish- 
ment of the work, and the acceptance of the treaty. Senators Morgan, 



ADHESION OF THE UNITED STATES. 89 

of Alabama; Edmunds, of Vermont ; Hawley, of Connecticut; Anthony, 
of Rhode Island ; Hoar, of Massachusetts, all accorded to it their 
willing interest and aid. Indeed, all sections and parties have seemed 
eager to help the Red Cross; a result that might, perhaps, have been 
anticipated, since it asks only an opportunity to faithfully work according 
to methods approved by thoughtful experience, and toward ends that 
all humane persons must approve. 

To the American newspaper press, and perhaps to the New York 
Herald more than to any other newspaper, through its international 
character, wonderful enterprise, and far-reaching circulation, the Red 
Cross is indebted for timely aid and noble furtherance of its objects and 
aims. It has been quick to discern their substantial character, and 
generous and full in commending them. Still, the same difficulty con- 
fronts us in regard to publications as persons — where all have been so 
willing it is difficult to distinguish. Not less than three hundred peri- 
odicals and papers have, within the last two years, laid upon our desk 
their graceful tribute of encouraging and fitly spoken words, and it has 
been given as an estimate of an experienced city editor, gathered 
through his exchanges, that over five hundred editorial notices were 
given of our little Red Cross book of last year, and these, invariably, 
so far as met our eyes, kindly approving and encouraging. The 
capacity of the Red Cross to carry on most wisely and well its benefi- 
cent work must in the future, as it has done in the past, depend 
largely upon the active and cordial co-operation of the newspaper 
press; and we do not doubt that it will continue to receive the 
same prompt and efficient assistance so long as it shall continue to 
deserve it. 

By the combined assistance of all these powerful friends of the Red 
Cross, the country has at last been rescued from the position in which it 
had been standing for the last seventeen years — a puzzling wonder to its 
admiring friends, a baffling enigma to all, treating its enemies subdued 
with romantic generosity, and its enemies taken captive in war with all 
the tenderness of friends, and yet, clinging, apparently with intense fierce- 
ness, to an unsocial isolation, to savage rules and regulations of war 
that only barbarians would ever wish to practice, pouring out its 
beneficence in astonishing prodigality, and in untold volume, variety 
and value upon strangers, and yet seemingly hesitating only when it 
was proposed by international law and system to use and not waste its 
magnificent voluntary offerings, but to entrust them all to responsible 
agents, trained in the very torrent and tempest of battle, to wisely 



90 TIIH RKD CROSS. 

apply this generosity to tlie great and awful needs of war — agents held 
to lousiness rules, with calm accountability amid distraction and panic, 
trained to protect material, to give and take receipts, and at last to 
account faithfully for everything entrusted to them, like the officers of 
a well-regulated bank. 

The final adhesion of the United States to the treaty of the Red 
Cross has created a lively sense of satisfaction in all its affiliated 
societies wherever, throughout the world, its beneficent work is carried 
on ; particularly, by the International Committee of Geneva, has this 
wise and simple act of beneficence and common sense and common 
humanity been regarded with sentiments of gratitude and renewed 
hope. The American National Association has received the following 
expression of the sentiments of the noble and philanthropic president 
of the International Committee, written upon the receipt from the 
United States of the official documents of recognition : 



COMITE INTEK NATIONAL DE SECOURS 

Aux MiLiTAiREs Blesses, 

Geneva, September 6, 1882. 
Miss Clara Barton, Washington , D. C: 

Mademoiselle: I come to thank and congratulate you cordially upon your 
new success. I have read your letters of the i ith and 14th with the most lively 
interest, and I have also received, through the medium of the United States consul 
at Geneva, all the official documents which you have announced to me. 

The position of your society is now entirely [tout a fait) correct, and nothing 
more opposes itself; so that by a circular we can now make it known to the socie- 
ties of other countries. I am already occupied in the preparation of this document, 
but I am obliged to leave for Turin, where I go to attend the reunion of the Inter- 
national Institute of Law, and it will not be until my return, say about the twen- 
tieth of vSeptember, thit I can press the printing of the circular. In any case, it 
will be ready before the end of the month. 

Accept, mademoiselle, the assurance of my distinguished sentiments. 

G. MoYNiER, President. 



The circular alluded to in this letter of M. Moynier announces the 
adhesion of the United States to the great international compact of the 
Red Cross, and authenticates and opens the way for the voluntary 
action of the people and the government in international humanitarian 
action, through the medium of the American Association of the Red 
Cross, and is in the following terms: 



INTERNATIONAL CIRCULAR. 91 



INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE. FOUNDATION OF THE AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF THE RED CROSS. 

Fiftieth Circular to the Presidents and Mkmijers of the National 
Central Committers. 

Geneva, September 2, 1882. 

Gentlemen: When on the twenty-third of August, 1876, we announced to 
you by our thirty-fourth circular, that the American society for aid to the wounded 
had had only an ephemeral existence, and had finished by dissolution, we still 
entertained the hope of seeing it revive, and we asked the friends of the Red 
Cross to labor with us for its resuscitation. 

To-day we have the great satisfaction of being able to tell you that this appeal 
has been heard, and that the United States is again linked anew to the chain of 
our societies. 

Nevertheless it is not the old association which has returned to life. That 
which we present to you at this time has a special origin upon which we ought to 
give you some details. 

Its whole history is associated with a name already known to you, that of Miss 
Clara Barton. Without the energy and perseverance of this remarkable woman we 
should probably not for a long time have had the pleasure of seeing the Red Cross 
revived in the United States. We will not repeat here what we have said elsewhere 
of the clahns of Miss Barton to our gratitude, and we will confine ourselves to 
mentioning what she has done to reconstruct a Red Cross society in North 
America. 

After having prepared the ground by divers publications, she called together 
a great meeting at Washington on the twenty-first of May, 1881; then a second, 
on the ninth of June, at which the existence of the society was solemnly set forth. 
On the same day President Garfield nominated Miss Barton as president of this 
institution. 

The International Committee would have desired from that time to have given 
notice of the event to all the central committees, but certain scruples restrained it. 

Remembering that the first American society had been rendered powerless by 
the distinct refusal of the cabinet at Washington to adhere to the Geneva Conven- 
tion, it took precaution and declared it would wait, before recognizing the young 
society, until the government should have regularly signed the treaty of 1864. 
Miss Barton, understanding the special propriety of this requirement, redoubled 
her eCForts to attain this end, and we know that on the first of March she gained a 
complete victory upon this point. 

There remained another question with respect to which the International 
Committee did not feel itself sufficiently informed. Just how far was the Amer- 
ican Government disposed to accept the services of this .society? We have 
often said, and we repeat it, that a society which would be exposed, for the want 
of a previous understanding, to find itself forbidden access to its own army incase 
of war, would be at fault fundamentally, and would not be qualified to take its 
place in the International concert. Further upon this point Mi.ss Barton and the 



92 THE RED CROSS. 

members of the American Central Committee, sought to enter into our views. 
They conferred with the competent authorities. The desired recognition was very 
difficult to obtain, for it was contrary to American customs and traditions. It was, 
nevertheless, accomplished after considerable discussion. On this point Miss 
Barton has stated to us that the s^overnment, in acquiescing in the decision which 
had been expressed, was entering upon a path altogether new, and that the official 
recognition of the Red Cross Society was for the latter a very exceptional honor. 

Certain documents resulted therefrom which have been communicated to us 
directly by the Secretary of State, at Washington, showing: 

1st. That the American Association of the Red Cross has been legally con- 
stituted by ati Act of Congress. 

2d. That President Arlhur has declared himself in full sympathy with the 
work, and very willingly has accepted the presidency of the Board of Consultation. 

3d. That the principal meuibers of the cabinet have consented to become 
members of a board of trustees, empowered to receive subscriptions and to hold 
the funds for the society. 

4th. Finally, that Congress unanimously, without discussion or opposition, 
has voted a sum of one thousand dollars, to be expended by the government in 
printed matter, designed to inform the people of the United States of the oi]f.,ani- 
zation of the Red Cross. The initiation of this last measure was not the wo k of 
the societ}' but of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate ; consequ<jntly 
it bears witness to the spontaneous impulse with which the Houses of Congress 
came into accord with the views of Miss Barton. 

We must add that the International Committee attaches so much the more 
importance to the fact that this society took an official position, because there was 
created, at nearly the same time in the United States, two other institutions, claim- 
ing to pursue a similar object, but of which the Committee of Geneva is absolutely 
ignorant. One, called "The Woman's National Relief Association," which con- 
cerns itself with all public calamities, among other things with the calamities of 
war, but more especially with shipwrecks, and has for its distinctive emblem a 
blue anchor ; the other has taken the name of " The Order of the Red Cross. " Dr. 
James Saunders is the president of it, with the title "Supreme Commander." 
This order proposes to organize more or less in a military way and appears desirous 
of imitating the orders of chivalry in ancient times. 

The American Central Committee of the Red Cross has its seat at Washington, 
but has already founded branches in other localities, at Dansville, Rochester, 
Syracuse, etc. Soon, doubtless, cities of the first class will also take their 
turn. 

We will give in our next bulletin the complete text of the constitution and 
by-laws of the American society, which, as will be seen, has not believed it ought 
to limit its program to assistance in case of war, but has comprised within it, in 
conformity witli a suggestion of the conference at Berlin, the other great calamities 
which might befall the country and its inhabitants. 

As for ourselves, we have greeted with joy the addition of the United States 
to the countries already enrolled under the Red Cross ; it is for our work an im- 
portant and long desired reinforcement, and we doubt not our impressions in this 
regard will be shared by the twenty-eight central committees to which we address 
these lines. 



PREPARATION OF HISTORY. 93 

We also hope that next year some representatives of the American society 
will cross the Atlantic in order to fraternize with the delegates of the other 
iiatitT.is, who will certainly he happy to meet thcni at the conference at Vienna. 
Receive, gentlemen, the assurances of our distinguished consideration. 
For the International Committee of the Red Cross. 

President: G. Moynier. 
Secretary: G. Ador. 



The foregoing pages deal only with the official history of the 
Red Cross and its inauguration in this country, closing with the 
accession of the United States to the Treaty and its promulgation in 
1882. The original formation of the Red Cross was had previous to 
the adoption of the Treaty by the government, and, indeed, primarily 
for that very purpose. That was the corner-stone upon which rested 
the entire structure of the Red Cross in America at that date, and 
constituted almost entirely the work undertaken by it to perform. 

During the first ten years of the existence of the organization it 
had accomplished all that had been promised, and a great deal more; 
and had proved the utility of its work on almost continuous fields of 
national calamity of the character defined in the "American Ainend- 
ment " to the Treaty. But the American government had not given 
the Red Cross the official recognition that it desired and was entitled 
to; and it could not take its appropriate place by the government of 
which it was so eminently a part. As long as government provides for 
war, so long must it recognize its adopted twin sister of peace, the 
Red Cross; as long as it finds it necessary to deliberately mutilate 
men, so long should it take part in healing them. 

In order to strengthen the organization, and make its influence 
more widely felt, the members decided to adopt a plan that would 
enable them to work on a somewhat broader basis; accordingly, on 
April 17, 1893, the Red Cross was reincorporated and has continued 
its labors up to the present time under the provisions of the instrument 
a copy of which follows: 



94 THE RED CROSS. 

THE RE-INCORPORATION OF THE AMERICAN NATIONAL 

RED CROSS. 
Certificate op Incorporation ok the American Nationai. Red Cross. 

Kuow all men by these presents, that we, Clara Barton, Julian B. Hubt)ell, 
Steplien E. Barton, Peter V. DeGraw and George Kennan, all being persons of fnll 
age, citizens of the United States, and a majority residents of the District of 
Columbia, being desirous of forming an association to carry on the benevolent and 
humane work of "The Red Cross" in accordance with the Articles of the Inter- 
national Treaty of Geneva, Switzerland, entered into on the twenty-second day of 
August, 1S64, and adopted by the Government of the United States on the first day 
of March, 1SS2, and also in accordance with the broader scope given to the humane 
work of said treaty by " The American Association of the Red Cross," and known 
as "The American Amendment," whereby the suffering incident to great floods, 
famines, epidemics, conflagrations, cyclones, or other disasters of national magni- 
tude, may be ameliorated by the administering of necessary relief; and being 
desirous of continuing the noble work heretofore performed by " The American 
Association of the Red Cross," incorporated in the District of Columbia for the 
purpose of securing the adoption of the said Treaty of Geneva by the United States, 
for benevolent and charitable purposes, and to co-operate with the Comite Inter- 
national de Secours aux Militaires Blesses. 

Now, therefore, for the purpose of creating ourselves, our associates and 
successors, a body politic and corporate in name and in fact, we do hereby 
associate ourselves together under and by virtue of sections 545, 546, 547, 548, 549 
and 550 of the Revised Statutes of the United States relating to the District of 
Columbia, as amended and in force at this time ; and do make, sign and acknowl- 
edge this Certificate of Incorporation, as follows, to wit : 

First. — The name by which this association shall be known in law is : "The 
American National Red Cross." 

Second. — The principal office of the association shall be in the City of 
Washington, District of Columbia. 

Third. — '^h^ term of its existence shall be fifty years from the date of this 
certificate. 

Fourth. — The objects of this association shall be, iu addition to the purposes 
set forth in the above preamble, as follows, to wit : 

1. To garner the store materials, articles, supplies, monej's, or property of 
whatsoever name or nature, and to maintain a system of national relief and admin- 
ister the same in the mitigation of human suffering incident to war, pestilence, 
famine, flood, or other calamities. 

2. To hold itself in readiness for communicating and co-operating with the 
Government of the United States, or any Department thereof, or with the "Comite 
International de Secours aux Militaires Blesses," of Geneva, Switzerland, to the 
end that the merciful provisions of the said " International Treaty of Geneva " 
may be more wisely and effectually carried out. 

3. To collect and diffuse information concerning the progress and application 
of mercy, the organization of national relief, the advancement of sanitary science 
and the training and preparation of nurses or others necessary in the application 
of such work. 



RE-INCORPORATION. 95 

4. To carry on and transact any business, consistent with law, that may be 
rtecessary or desirable in the fulfillment of any or all of the objects and purposes 
hereinbefore set forth. 

5. The affairs and funds of the corporation shall be controlled and managed 
by a Board of Directors, and the number of the directors for the first year of the 
corporation's existence, and until their successors are lawfully elected and quali- 
fied, is five, and their names and addresses are as follows, to wit: 

Clara Barton, Washington, D. C; Peter V. DeGraw, Washington, D, C; Dr. 
Julian B. Hubbell, Washington, D. C; Dr. Joseph Gardner, Bedford, Ind., and 
Stephen E. Barton, Newtonville, Mass. 

The names and addresses of the full membership of the association, who shall 
be designated as charter members, are as follows, to wit: 

Clara Barton, Washington, D. C; Hon. William Lawrence, Bellefontaine, 
Ohio; Peter V. DeGraw, Washington, D. C; George Kennan, Washington, D. C. 
Dr. Julian B. Hubbell, Washington, D. C. ; Colonel Richard J. Hinton, Washing 
ton, D. C; Mrs. Henry V. Boynton, Washington, D. C; Rev. Rush R. Shippen 
Washington, D. C. ; Rev. Alexander Kent, Washington, D. C. ; Rev. William Mer 
ritt Ferguson, Washington, D. C. ; General Edward W. Whitaker, Washington 
D. C; Joseph E. Holmes, Washington, D. C; Mrs. Peter V. De Graw, Washington 
D. C. ; Mrs. George Kennan, Washington, D. C. ; Mrs. R. Delavan Mussey, Wash 
ington, D. C; Mrs. Omar D. Conger, Washington, D. C. ; A. S. Solomons, Wash 
iugton, D. C; Walter P. Phillips; New York, N. Y.; Joseph Sheldon, New Haven 
Conn.; John H. Van Wormer, New York, N. Y.; Albert C. Phillips, New York 
N. Y.; Mrs. Walter P. Phillips, New York, N. Y.; Mrs. Joseph Gardner, Bedford 
Ind.; Dr. Joseph Gardner, Bedford, Ind.; Miss Mary E. Almon, Newport, R. I. 
Dr. Lucy Hall-Brown, Brooklyn, N. Y.; John H. Morlan, Bedford, Ind., and 
Stephen E. Barton, Newtonville, Mass. But the corporation shall have power to 
increase its membership in accordance with by-laws to be adopted. 

In witness whereof, we have hereto subscribed our names and affixed our seals 
in triplicate, at the City of Washington, District of Columbia, this seventeenth 
day of April, A. D. 1893. 
Witness: 

Stephen E. Barton, George Kennan, 1 
Clara Barton, S. G. Hopkins, I ^g^^^ ^ 

Julian B. Hubbell, F. H. Smith, | 

P. V. DeGraw, J 

I, S. G. Hopkins, a Notary Public in and for the said District of Columbia, do 
hereby certify that Clara Barton, Julian B. Hubbell. Stephen E. Barton, P. V. 
DeGraw and George Kennan, whose names are signed to the foregoing and 
annexed " Certificate of Incorporation of the American National Red Cross" bear- 
ing date of April 17, A. D. 1S93, personally appeared before me, in the said District 
of Columbia, the said Clara Barton, Julian B. Hubbell, Stephen E. Barton, P. V. 
DeGraw and George Kennan, being personally well known to me as the persons 
who executed the said certificate, and each and all acknowledged the same to be 
his, her and their act and deed for the purpose therein mentioned. 

Given under my hand and official seal, this seventeenth day of April, A. D. 1893. 
(Signed. ) S. G. Hopkins, Notary Public. 



96 TIIK RED CROSS. 

Immediately following our accession to the Treaty of Geneva, 
March i, 1882. the president of the Red Cross was asked by the 
Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, to prepare a history of 
the Red Cross for publication by them through the government print- 
ing office. This was done, and a book of two hundred and twenty- 
seven pages was issued, giving an account of the origin of the organ- 
ization, the steps by which it became a treaty, of our own initiation, 
and not only the exact text by which our accession was made, but that 
of every other nation within the treaty up to that time, 1882. 

A bill for a reprint by Congress of fifty thousand copies of this 
book was lost in the session of 1898 through lack of time. 

No consecutive book has been published by us since that date, 
but the history has been perhaps even more fully told, and that scores 
of times, in public addresses which its president and assistants have 
been called to make before great assemblies, selections from some of 
which will appear in this volume, as the fullest information given in 
the most compact manner that we can render in the short space of time 
allotted us. 

The very title of the organization, viz.: "Relief in War," has 
been a misnomer, and through all the early years especially was very 
generally misunderstood by the public. I have not unfrequently been 
invited and innocently urged to attend peace meetings and large 
charity gatherings for the poor and afflicted on the ground of needing 
instruction myself; inasmuch as I " was engaged in advocating war, 
wouldn't it be well to hear something on the other side? " And I 
have been invited to become party to a discussion in which the merits 
of peace and war should be compared. 

Large organizations of women, the best in the country, and, I 
believe, the best in the world, have faithfully labored with me to merge 
the Red Cross into their society as a part of woman's work; without 
the smallest conception or realization of its scope, its international 
character, its treaty obligations, and the official ground it was liable 
at any time to be called to occupy. 



THE ADDRESS. 9/ 

Many charming invitations, from ladies even more charming, to 
address their convention or meeting, have still contained some well 
chosen word which might imply a question, if indeed the Red Cross 
really were the humane and philanthropic institution it claimed to be; 
naturally the address usually dealt with the question as it was put. 

I name tliese facts as mere relics of the past, amusing now, but 
instructive to you of the present day (when no child even questions the 
motives of the Red Cross), as showing what it had to meet and live 
through in order to live at all. 

In order to .show the enthusiastic devotees of the present year how 
questionable the beneficence of the Red Cross appeared to the best 
people only a few years ago, I introduce the following address, read, 
by request, before a congress of women, 1895 or 1896, hoping that the 
charitably disposed reader will understand and appreciate the state of 
mind engendered by the title of the request made, and forgive any 
seeming acerbity: 



ADDRESS. 



WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RED CROSS IN ITS RELATION 
TO PHILANTHROPY? 

I am asked to say something upon the " Significance of the Red 
Cross in its Relation to Philanthropy." I am not sure that I understand 
precisely w^hat is desired. 

If a morning paper should announce that three or four of the 
greatest political bosses or greatest railroad kings in the country had 
quietly met somewhere, and sat with closed doors till long after mid- 
night, and then silently departed, people would ask, "What is the 
significance of that ? What mischief have they been devising in 
secret?" In that sense of the word, significayice — which is a very 
common one — the Red Cross has none that I ever heard of. It has no 
rich offices to bestow, no favorites to reward, no enemies to punish. It 
has no secrets to keep, no mystic word or sign. Its proceedings would, 
and do, make a valuable library, accessible to all men and all women 
from Norway to New Zealand. 

I will not say that it is so simple and common in character that he 
who runs may read, but surely she who desires information can sit 
down, read and obtain it. The Red Cross has been quietly doing its 



,^8 THE RED CROSS. 

work for thirty years and is now established in forty independent 
nations. No other institution on earth, not even Christianity, has a 
j>ublic recognition .so nearly universal. None has ever adhered more 
'•losely to its one .single purpose of alleviating human .suffering. Has 
that any significance or any connection with philanthropy ? Let us 
see. 

An institution or reform movement that is not selfish, must 
originate in the recognition of some evil that is adding to the sum of 
human suffering, or diminishing the sum of happiness. I suppose it is 
a philanthropic movement to try to reverse the process. Christianity, 
temperance and sanitary regulations in general are examples. Great 
evils die hard; and all that has yet been done is to keep them within 
as narrow limits as possible. Of these great evils, war is one. War is 
in its very nature cruel — the very embodiment of cruelty in its effects — 
not necessarily in the hearts of the combatants. Baron Macaulay 
thought it not a mitigation but an aggravation of the evil, that men of 
tender culture and humane feelings, with no ill will, should stand up 
and kill each other. But men do not go to war to save life. They 
might save life by keeping the peace and staying at home. They go 
solely with intent to inflict so much pain, loss and disaster on the 
enemy that he will yield to their terms. All their powers to hurt are 
focused upon him. 

In a moving army the elements of destruction, armed men and 
munitions of war, have the right of way; and the means of preserving 
and sustaining even their own lives are left to bring up the rear as they 
best can. Hence, when the shock and crash of battle is over, and 
troops are advancing or retreating and all roads are blocked, and the 
medical .staff trying to force its way through with supplies, prompt and 
adequate relief can scarcely ever reach the wounded. The darkness of 
night comes down upon them like a funeral pall, as they lie in their 
blood, tortured with thirst and traumatic fever. The memory of such 
scenes set a kindly Swiss gentleman to thinking of ways and means for 
alleviating their horrors. In time, and by efforts who.se history must 
be familiar to many of you, there resulted the Geneva Convention for 
the relief of the sick and wounded of armies. I shall not trace its 
hi.stor}', as it seems to be more to the present purpose to explain 
briefly what it proposed to do, and how it proceeded to do it. 

The convention found two prime evils to consider. First, the 
existence of war itself; second, the vast amount of needless cruelty it 
inflicted upon its victims. For the first of these, with the world full 



THE ADDRESS. 99 

of standing armies, every boundary line of nations fixed and held by 
the sword, and the traditions of four thousand years behind its cus- 
toms, the framers of the convention, however earnest and devoted, 
could scarcely hope to find an immediate, if indeed, a perceptible miti- 
gation. Only time, prolonged effort, national economics, universal 
progress and the pressure of public opinion could ever hope to grapple 
with this monster evil of the ages. 

But the second — if it were not possible to dispense with the need- 
less cruelties heretofore inflicted upon the victims of war, thus relieving 
human misery to that extent, seemed to the framers of the convention 
a reasonable question to be considered. This is what it proposed to 
do. A few sentences will explain how it proceeded to do it. 

A convention was called at Geneva, Switzerland, for the fourth of 
August, 1864' to be composed of delegates accredited by the heads of 
the governments of the world, who should discuss the practices of war 
and ascertain to what extent the restraints of the established military 
code in its dealing with the sick and wounded of armies were needful 
for the benefit of the service; and to what extent they were needless, 
of benefit to no one, causing only suffering, of no strength to the ser- 
vice, and might be done away with; and to what extent war-making 
powers could agree to enter into a legal compact to that end. The 
consideration, discussion and concessions of two weeks produced a 
proposed agreement which took the form of a compound treaty, viz: 
A treaty of one government with many governments — the first ever 
made — a compact known as the Treaty of Geneva, for the relief of the 
sick and wounded in war. 

Its basis was neutrality. It made neutral all sick, wounded, or 
disabled soldiers at a field; all persons, as surgeons, nurses and 
attendants, who cared for them; all supplies of medicine or food for 
their use; all field and military hospitals with their equipments; all 
gifts from neutral nations for the use of the sick and wounded of any 
army; all houses near a battlefield that would receive and nurse 
wounded men: none of these should be subject to capture. It provided 
for the sending of wounded men to their homes, rather than to prison; 
that friend and foe should be nursed together and alike in all militar\^ 
hospitals; and, most of all, that the people who had always been forcibly 
restrained from approaching any field of action for purposes of relief, 
however needed (with the single exception of our Sanitary Commission, 
and that under great difficulties and often under protest) should not 
only be allowed this privilege, but should arm and equip themselves 



loo THE RED CROSS. 

with relief of all kinds, with the right to enter the lines for the helpless; 
thus relieving not alone the wounded and dying, but the armies of their 
care. 

It provided a universal sign by which all this relief, both of persons 
and material, should be designated and known. A Greek red cross on 
a field of white should tell any soldier of any country within the treaty 
that the wearer was his friend and could be trusted; and to any officer 
of any army that he was legitimately there and not subject to capture. 

Some forty nations are in that treaty, and from every military 
hospital in every one of these nations floats the same flag; and every 
active soldier in all their armies knows that he can neither capture nor 
harm the shelter beneath it, though it be but a little " A " tent in the 
enemy's lines, and every disabled man knows it is his rescue and his 
home. 

It may be interesting to know the formula of this compact. It 
recognizes one head, the International Committee of Geneva, Switzer- 
land, through which all communications are made. One national head 
in each country which receives such communications, transmitting them 
to its government. The ratifying power of the treaty is the Congress 
of Berne. The organization in each nation receives from its govern- 
ment its high moral sanction and recognition, but is in no way sup- 
ported or materially aided by it. The Red Cross means not national 
aid for the needs of the people, but the people' s aid for the needs of the 
7iation. The awakening patriotism of the last few years should, I 
think, make this feature more readily apprehended. 

As the foreign nations furnish the only illustrations of the value 
and material aid of the Red Cross in war, let us glance at what it has 
accomplished. 

The first important war after the birth of the Treaty of Geneva, 
was between Germany, Italy and Austria. Austria had not, at that 
time, entered the treaty, and yet its objects were understood and its 
spirit found a responsive chord in the hearts of the people. Over 
$400,000, beside a great amount of material, were collected by that 
country, and made use of for the relief of the combatants. Italy 
was fairly well organized and rendered excellent service, furnishing 
much substantial assistance. Germany, which was in the vanguard 
of the treaty nations, was throughly organized and equipped. She 
was the first to demonstrate the true idea of the Red Cross — people's 
aid for national, for military, necessity. Great storehouses had been 
provided at central points, where vast supplies were collected. In an 



THE ADDRESS. loi 

incredibly short time, between $3,000,000 and $4,000,000 were raised 
for relief purposes, and large numbers of volunteers came to help the 
already organized corps of workers. Great trains of supplies were sent 
to the front. The wounded enemy was tenderly cared for, and every- 
thing was accomplished so well and so systematically, that it proved the 
incalculable value of organized, authorized, civil aid. French and 
Swiss Red Cross workers also rendered great assistance, this being the 
first instance of neutrals taking an active part. 

In the Franco-Prussian War the German Red Cross performed 
even better service, it having learned many valuable lessons in the 
German- Austrian conflict, and through their efforts an infinite amount of 
good was accomplished and great suffering averted. Not only were the 
wounded and sick soldiers tenderly cared for, but the unprovided families 
of soldiers were also supplied. The French Red Cross at the breaking out 
of the war was poorly organized and penniless. Within one month, how- 
ever, hospitals had been established, ambulances and a large amount of 
field supplies were at the front, with a considerable relief force to care 
for the sick and wounded. The French Association, not including the 
branches in the provinces, spent over $2,000,000 and assisted 110,000 
wounded. Many neutral Red Cross nations assisted in rendering aid 
and relief in this great war. England alone sent a million and a half 
dollars, besides twelve hundred cases of stores. Eighty-five thousand 
sick, wounded and famishing French soldiers entered Switzerland, and 
were cared for by the Central Committee at Berne. The International 
Committee at Geneva, in one instance, asked for and obtained 2500 
seriously wounded French soldiers, supplied their wants, and sent them 
to their own country'. 

In the great Russo-Turkish War, the Red Cross of Russia, splen- 
didly equipped, with ample means and royal patronage, was, at the 
beginning of hostilities, greatly hampered by the jealousy of the mili- 
tary. The relief organizations were assigned places well in the rear; but 
ere many months had passed the military surgeons gladly accepted the 
Red Cross aid, and colossal work did it perform. Over $13,000,000 
were raised, and all that was necessary .spent in supplying relief. The 
neutral Red Cross countries furnished valuable assistance in this war 
also. 

In the recent war between Japan and China, you undoubtedly read 
of the wonderful work performed by the Japanese Red Cross. This 
society followed the precedent of Germany, in tenderly caring for the 
wounded enemy, even though fighting against a nation not in the 



ii.j THE RED CROSS. 

treaty. Japan had a cruel, merciless enemy to fight, and yet her sol- 
diers were instructed to have respect even for a dead enemy. 

It is needless to give further illustrations; history records the won- 
derful achievements of this greatest of relief organizations, though it 
cannot record the untold suffering which has been averted by it. 

Is the Red Cross a humanitarian organization ? What is the sig- 
nificance of the Red Cross? I leave these two questions for you to 
answer. 

But war, although the most tragic, is not the only evil that assails 
humanity. War has occurred in the United States four times in one 
hundred and twenty years. Four times its men have armed and 
marched, and its women waited and wept. That is on an average of 
one war every thirty years. It is now a little over thirty years since 
the last hostile gun was fired; we fondly hope it may be many years 
before there is another. A machine, even a human machine, called into 
active service only once in thirty years is liable to get out of working 
order; hence to keep it in condition for use, no less than for the possible 
good it might do, the American Society of the Red Cross asked to have 
included in its charter the privilege of rendering such aid as it could in 
great public calamities, as fires, floods, cyclones, famines and pestilence. 

In a time of profound peace that has been the only possible field 
of activity. It is not for me to say whether that field has been success- 
fully cultivated, but a few of the facts wdll determine whether the 
innovation upon the treaty will commend itself to your judgment, as it 
has to those of the older societies of Europe. 

Naturally it required not only diplomacy but arguments to obtain 
a privilege never before ofi5cially considered in the unbroken customs 
of an international treaty. They must be submitted to a foreign con- 
gress. The same argument pertained fifteen years ago that pertains 
to-day, namely, that in all our vast territory, subject to incalculable 
disasters, with all our charitable, humane and benevolent associations, 
there was not one which had for its object and duty to hold itself in 
preparation and training to meet and relieve the woes of these over- 
mastering disasters. All Avould gladly aid, but there were none to 
lead. Everybody's business was nobody's business, and the stricken 
victims perished. 

We asked that under the Red Cross Constitution of the United 
States its national organization should be permitted to act in the capa- 
city of Red Cross relief agents, treating a national disaster like a field 
of battle, proceed to it at once with experienced help, equipped with 



THE ADDRESS. 103 

all the needful supplies and means to commence relief, overlook and 
learn the needs of the field, make immediate statements of the true 
condition and wants to the people of the country, who, knowing the 
presence of the Red Cross there, could, if desirable, make it the 
medium of their contributions for relief either in money or material. 
To relieve the necessities in every way possible, keep the people at 
large in possession of reliable information, hold the field until relief 
has been given, and retire when all needed aid has been rendered. 
This privilege was graciously granted by the ratifying Congress at 
Berne, and is known as the ' ' American amendment ' ' of the Red 
Cross. Nations since that date, on becoming signatory to the treaty, 
have included that amendment in their charters. 

This is the principle upon which we have acted. The affording of 
relief to the victims of great disasters anywhere in the United States, 
is what the National Red Cross has proceeded to do, and it has confined 
itself strictly to its privileges, acting only in disasters so great as to be 
national. It never asks aid; never makes an appeal: it simply makes 
statements of the real condition of the sufferers, leaving the people free 
to exercise their own humanity through any medium they may prefer. 

In the thirteen years of relief work by the Red Cross in the 
United States, every dollar and every pound that has been received 
and distributed by it, has been the free-will offering of the people, 
given for humanity without solicitation, and dispensed without reward. 
It has received nothing from the government. No fund has been 
created for it. No contributions have been made except those to be 
distributed as relief at its fields. Its officers serve without pay. There 
is not, nor ever was, a salaried officer in it, and even its headquarters 
meets its own costs. Among the various appropriations made by Con- 
gress for relief of calamities in the past years, as in great river floods, 
not a dollar so appropriated has ever been applied through the Red 
Cross, although working on the same field. I name these facts, not 
by way of complaint, or even comment, but to correct popular errors 
of belief, which I know you would prefer to have corrected. True to 
its method, this is simply a statement of the real condition of things, 
and left to the choice of the people — the Red Cross itself is theirs, 
created for them, and it is peculiarly their privilege to deal with it as 
they will. 

The following list of calamities with the approximate value of 
material furnished, as well as money, will give you some appreciation 
of the services rendered in the cause of humanity by the American 



i,)4 Jill*: ki-:!) CROSS. 

National Re<l Cross. Limit of time and space forbids even an attempt 
at description of its various fields. I can only name the most impor- 
tant, with estimated values distributed on each: 

Michigan Forest Fires, 1881, material and money. . . . $ So.ooo 

Mississippi Floods, 1SS2, money and seeds 8,000 

Mississippi Floods, 1SS3, material and seeds 18,500 

Mississippi Cyclone, 18S3, money 1,000 

Balkan War, 1SS3, money 500 

Ohio and Mississippi Floods, 1S84, feed for stock and 

people, clothing, tools, house furnishings 175,000 

Texas Famine, 18S5, appropriations and contributions on 

statements made upon personal investigation . . . 120,000 

Charleston Earthquake, 18S6, money 500 

Mt. Vernon, 111., Cyclone, 1S88, money and supplies . . 85,000 
Florida Yellow Fever, iSSS, physicians and nurses . . . 15,000 
Johnstown Disaster, 1889, money and all kinds of mate- 
rial, buildings and furnishings 250,000 

Russian Famine, 1891-92, mainly food 125,000 

Pomeroy, Iowa, Cyclone, 1893, money and nurses . . . 2,700 
South Carolina Islands, 1893-94, money and all kinds of 

supplies and materials, tools, seeds, lumber, etc. . . 65,000 

$946,200 

Only about one-eighth of the above estimates represent cash; the 
balance represents material. 

In each of these emergencies something has been added to the sum 
of human happiness, something subtracted from the sum of human woe; 
the naked have been clothed, the hungry fed, new homes have sprung 
up from the desolated ruins, crops revived, and activities and business 
relations resumed. In a neighboring State and its adjacent islands 
scarcely two hundred miles distant from this, could to-day be found 
several thousand human beings, living in their homes, enjoying theii 
family lives, following their ordinary avocations, cultivating the ground, 
who, if asked, would unhesitatingly tell 3'ou that but for the help of the 
Red Cross, they would two years ago have been under the ground they 
now cultivate. 

If the alleviation of human miseries, the saving of life, and the 
bringing of helplessness and dependence back to methods of self- 
sustenance and independence are counted- among the philanthropic 
movements of the day, then to us, who have seen so much and 
worked so long and .so hard among it, it would seem that the Red 



THE ADDRESS. 105 

Cross movement has some "significance" in connection with phil- 
anthropy. 

There remains but one question more. To whom is this movement 
due? Who instituted it? In what minds did it originate? I wish I 
could say it was all woman's work; but the truth compels the fact that 
this great, humane idea originated with men; the movement was insti- 
tuted by them. They thought it out, and they wrought it out, and it 
was only meet and proper that they should, for the terrible evil that 
made it necessary was theirs as well. Women as a rule are not war- 
makers. For centuries the caprices of men have plunged the world in 
strife, covered the earth's surface with armies, and enriched its soil 
with the best blood that ever flow^ed in human veins. It is only right 
that at length, in the cycle of ages, something should touch man's 
heart and set him humbly down to find out some way of mending as 
much of his mischief as he could. Perhaps he " builded better than 
he knew," for in that one effort he touched the spring that sooner or 
later will mend it all. No grander or truer prophecy has ever been 
made than uttered in that first convention: " The Red Cross shall teach 
war to make war upon itself.^' It is 'the most practical and effective 
peace-maker and civilizer in the known world. It reaches where noth- 
ing else can. If proof of this be wanting, study the action of Japan in 
its late war. 

But is man doing this work alone? No — gladly, no ! Scarcely had 
he made his first move, when the jeweled hands of royal woman 
glistened beside him, and right royallj^ have they borne their part. 
Glance at the galaxy — the great leader and exemplar of them all, 
Empress Augusta of Germany, her illustrious daughter, the Grand 
Duchess of Baden, Eugenia, Empress Frederick, Victoria and Princess 
Louise of England, Margherita of Italy, Natalia of Serv'ia and the entire 
Court of Russia, and to-day the present Empress of Germany, and the 
hard-working Empress of Japan, with her faithful, weary court, even 
now busy in the hospitals of convalescing Chinese. The various aux- 
iliary societies of women of all the principal Red Cross nations are a 
pride and a glory to humanity. 

These nations have all two important features in their movement, 
which, thus far, have not been accorded to us. Their governments 
have instituted laws protecting the insignia and name of the Red Cross 
from misuse and abuse as trademarks by unscrupulous venders, and 
appropriation by false societies for dishonest purposes. This lack, and 
this alone, has thus far rendered general organization in the United 



io6 TIIK RKI) CROSS. 

States impracticable and unsafe. For seven years the most strenuous 
efforts at protection have failed; the loss has been to the people in 
general. 

The second advantage of other nations is that citizens, the men of 
wealth in those countries, have created a Red Cross fund for its use, 
varying in amounts from a hundred thousand to several millions of 
dollars. Russia, I lielieve, has a fund of some three millions. It seems 
never to have occurred to our wealth-burdened men that possibly a 
little satisfaction might be gained, some good accomplished, and some 
credit done the nation by a step in that direction. It will dawn upon 
them some da}', not, perhaps, in mine, but in some of yours, and then, 
ladies, you can well join hands with them, and discern more clearly 
than now the ' ' significance of the Red Cross as related to philanthropy." 



THE MICHIGAN FOREST FIRES. 




T may be necessary to recall to the mind of the 
person reading these pages hastily, the fact that the 
National Red Cross of America was formed nearly 
a year before the accession to the treaty. This was 
done by the advice of President Garfield, in order 
■ to aid as far as possible the accession. "Accord- 
ingly a meeting was held in Washington, D. C, 
May 21, 1 88 1, which resulted in the formation of 
an association to be known as the American 
National Association of the Red Cross." 
Several years of previous illness on the part of its president had 
resulted in fixing her country home at Dansville, N. Y, , the seat of 
the great Jackson and Austin Sanitarium and the acknowledged foun- 
dation of the hundreds of health institutions of that kind which bless 
the country to-day. The establishment of the National Red Cross in 
Washington had attracted the attention of persons outside, who, of 
course, knew very little of it; but among others, the people of Dans- 
ville, the home of the president, felt that if she were engaged in some 
public movement, they too might at least offer to aid. Accordingly, on 
her return to them in midsummer, they waited upon her with a request 
to that effect, which resulted in the formation of a society of the Red 
Cross, this being the first body in aid of the National Association 
formed in the United States. It is possible I cannot make that more 
clear than by giving an extract from their report of that date, which 
was as follows: 



In reply to your request, given through the secretary of your association, that 
we make report to you concerning the inauguration of our society, its subsequent 
proceedings and present condition, the coinniittee has the honor to submit the 
following statement: 

Dansville, Livingston County, N. Y., being the country residence of ATiss 
Clara Barton, president of the American Association of the Red Cross, its citizens, 
desirous of paying a compliment to her, and at the same time of doing an honor to 
themselves, conceived the idea of organizing in their town the first local society of 

(107) 



io8 THE RED CROSS. 

the Red Cross in the United States. To this end, a general preliminary meeting 
was held in the Presbyterian Church, when the principles of the Treaty of Geneva 
and the nature of its societies were defined in a clear and practical manner by Miss 
Barton, who had been invited to address the meeting. Shortly after, on the twenty- 
second of August, iS8i, a second meeting, for the purpose of organization, held in 
the Lutheran Church and presided over by the pastor, Rev. Dr. Strobel, was 
attended by the citizens generally, including nearly all the religious denominations 
of the town, with their respective pastors. The purpose of the meeting was 
explained by your president, a constitution was presented and very largely signed, 
and officers were elected. 

Thus we are able to announce that on the eighteenth anniversary of the Treaty 
of Geneva, in Switzerland, August 22, 1864, was formed the first local society of the 
Red Cross in the United States of America. 



Almost immediately following this occurred the memorable forest 
fires of Michigan, which raged for days, sweeping everything before 
them — man, beast, forests, farms — every living thing, until in one 
report made of it we find this sentence: "So sweeping has been the 
destruction that there is not food left in its track for a rabbit to eat, 
and, indeed, no rabbit to eat it, if there were." Here occurred the 
fir.st opportunity for work that the young society had found, and again 
I give without further note their report: 



Before a month had passed, before a thought of practical application to 
business had arisen, we were forcibly and sadly taught again the old lesson that 
we need but to build the altar, God will Himself provide the sacrifice. If we did 
not hear the crackling of the flames, our skies grew murky and dark and our 
atmosphere bitter with the drifting smoke that rolled over from the blazing fields 
of our neighbors of Michigan, whose living thousands fled in terror, whose dying 
hundreds writhed in the embers, and whose dead blackened in the ashes of their 
hard-earned homes. Instantly we felt the help and strength of our organization, 
young and untried as it was. We were grateful that in this first ordeal your 
sympathetic president was with us. We were deeply grateful for your prompt 
call to action, given through her, which rallied us to our work. Our relief rooms 
were instantly secured and our white banner, with its bright scarlet cross, which 
has never been furled since that hour, was thrown to the breeze, telling to every 
looker-on what we were there to do, and pointing to ever}' generous heart an outlet 
for its sympathy. We had not mistaken the spirit of our people ; our scarce-opened 
doorway was filled with men, women and children bearing their gifts of pity and 
love. Tables and shelves were piled, our working committee of ladies took every 
article under inspection, their faithful hands made all garments whole and strong ; 
lastly, each article received the stamp of the society and of the Red Cross, and all 
were carefully and quickly consigned to the firm packing cases awaiting them. 
Eight large boxes were shipped at first, others followed directly, and so continued 



THE MICHIGAN FOREST I'lRlCS. loy 

until notified by the Relief Committee of Michigan that no more were needed. 
Meanwhile the hands of our treasurer were not left empty, some hundreds of 
dollars were deposited with him. A most competent agent, our esteemed towns- 
man and county clerk of Livingston County, Major Mark J. Bunnell, was dispatched 
with the first invoice of funds and charged with the duty of the reception of the 
supplies, their proper distribution and of making direct report of the condition and 
needs of the sufferers. 

The good practical judgment of the people and society led them to consider 
the near approach of winter and the unsheltered condition of the victims, bereft 
of every earthly possession, and warm clothing and bedding were sent in great 
abundance. Our cases were all marked with the Red Cross and consigned to 
Senator Omar D. Conger, of Port Huron, who led the call of the Michigan 
committee and to whom, as well as to his kindhearted and practical wife, we are 
indebted for many timely suggestions and words of grateful appreciation. 

In a spirit of gratitude and hope we submit this partial report of our first 
work under the Red Cross, which can be but partial, as our rooms are still open 
and our work is in progress awaiting such further calls as may come to us. We 
are grateful that we are called, grateful that your honored President, with the 
acquired skill of the humatiC labors of many years in many lands, was with us to 
counsel and instruct. We are glad to have learned from this early object lesson 
the value of organized effort and the value of our own organization. 

We hope our report may be satisfactory to you, and that our beautiful little 
valley town, quietly nestling among the green slopes of the Genesee Valley, after 
having offered the first fruits of the Red Cross to its own countrymen, may always 
be as prompt and generous in any call of yours for suffering humanity. 



The neighboring citj^ of Rochester, forty miles to the north 
of Dansville, hearing of the activitj' of its smaller neighbor in the 
;^reat disaster that was paralyzing all, desired also to unite in the work 
and knowing much less even than Dansville of what the Red Cross 
might mean, still desired to act with it, if possible; and appended 
herewith will be found their report, which will be.st tell their story 



Influential citizens of Rochester, Monroe County, N. Y., having become inter- 
ested in the subject of the Treaty of Geneva and the Red Cross work going on in 
Dansville, sent a request through the mayor of the city to Miss Clara Barton to 
address them in a public meeting. Miss Barton met an audience of thinking, 
philanthropic men and women, to whom it was a pleasure to unfold her theme. 
The result was a proposition to organize a .society before adjournment. Accord- 
ingly names were pledged, and, the second evening after, a constitution was 
adopted and officers were elected, Edward M. Moore, M. D., president. . . . . 

Steps were immediately taken for reducing to practice the theory of their 
newly formed society, and in three days from the connnencemcnt of its existence 
its agent, Profe.ssor J. B. Hubbcll, was on the burnt fields of Michigan with instruc- 
tions to examine into the condition ot the people and report their neces-sities to the 



no THE RED CROSS. 

society from actual observation. These duties were faithfully and judiciously per- 
formed, and on the day following his report of the special need of money the sum 
of ^12500 in cash was forwarded as a first installment. At last reports the sum 
raised amounted to j;3So7.2S and the society numbered 250 members. It is evident 
that no full report can be made concerning a movement of which only the first 
steps are taken, and which is still in active operation, but it is believed that the 
instances are rare when, with no distress of its own as an incentive, but from the 
simple motive of benevolence, a ])eople has accomplished so much, both in organ- 
zation and practical results, in so brief a space of time. 

Following close on the organization in Rochester, the citizens 
of the sister city of Syracuse and vicinity, in Onondaga County, 
N. Y. , met at the Board of Trade rooms and perfected their organi- 
zation under the above name. Rev. Dr. Richmond Fiske, a widely 
known philanthropist, prominently connected with the principal 
charities of the city, assisted by Professor G. F. Comfort, of the Syra- 
cuse University, led the movement. The constitution, embracing in 
admirable form the principles of the Geneva Convention, was signed 
by a large number present and officers were appointed representing 
the names of the leading people of the city. 

These were the first steps of the American National Association 
of the Red Cross in relief work and in the organization of auxiliary 
societies. The completion of this work, which may have seemed 
premature and preliminary, left the association free to continue its 
efforts with the Government of the United States on behalf of its 
accession to the treaty. 



MISSISSIPPI AND OHIO RIVER FLOODS— 1882. 




j^HE spring rise of the waters of the Mississippi brought 

Ipi great devastation and a cry went over the country in 

regard to the sufferings of the inhabitants of the 



Mississippi valley. For hundreds of miles the great 
river was out of its bed and raging madly over the 
country, sweeping in its course not only the homes 
but often the people, the animals, and many times 
the land itself. This constituted a work of the relief clearly within 
the bounds of the civil part of our treaty, and again we prepared for 
work. Again our infant organization sent its field agent, Dr. Hub- 
bell, to the scene of disaster, where millions of acres of the richest 
valley, cotton and sugar lands of America, and thousands upon 
thousands of homes under the waters of the mightiest of rivers — 
where the swift rising floods overtook alike man and beast in their 
flight of terror, sweeping them ruthlessly to the gulf beyond, or leaving 
them clinging in famishing despair to some trembling roof or swaj'- 
ing tree top till relief could reach and rescue them. 

The National Association, with no general fund, sent of its 
personal resources what it was able to do, and so acceptable did these 
prove and so convincing were the beneficences of the work that the 
cities of Memphis, Vicksburg and New Orleans desired to be permitted 
CO form associate societies and work under the National Association. 
This was permitted, and those societies have remained until the present 
time, New Orleans organizing for the entire State of Louisiana. The 
city of Rochester, proud and grateful of its success in the disaster a 
few months before, again came to the front and again rendered excel- 
lent service. 

It was a singular fact that on the first day of March, 1S82, while 
the National Association was in session busily engaged in devising 
ways and means for extending the relief which to them seemed so 
needed and so slender, a messenger came from the Senate of the United 
States to announce to them that tl:e vote had been taken and that the 

fun 



112 THE RED CROSS. 

United States had acceded to the Treaty of Geneva without a dissent- 
ing voice. This closed a meeting joyfully which had opened with 
many misgivings. Fresh courage and hope were taken and every 
energy called into action for the furtherance of the work which seemed 
then fairly commenced. 

In the spring of 1883 occurred the first great rise of the Ohio River; 
1000 miles in extent. This river, although smaller than the Missis- 
sippi, is more rapid in its course, and its valleys hold the richest 
grain lands, the most cultivated farms and representing, in fact, the 
best farming interests of America. 

The destruction of property was even greater here than in the 
cotton and cane lands of the Mississippi. Again our field agent was 
dispatched and did excellent work. The entire country was aroused, 
and so liberal were the contributions to the various committees of 
relief that when Dr. Hubbell retired from the field, having completed 
the work, he had still unexpended funds in hand. But they were 
soon needed. 



MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA CYCLONE. 

less than a month occurred the fearful cyclone of 
Louisiana and Mississippi, which cut a swath clear 
of all standing objects for thirty miles in width and 
several hundred miles in length, running southeast 
from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Our special agent for the South, Colonel F. R. 
Southmayd, took charge of the Red Cross relief in this 
disaster, and so efl&cient was his work that societies 
struggled for organization under him and the Red 
Cross was hailed as a benediction wherever he passed. This was in 
May, 1883. 

Our association now enjoyed for eight months a respite from active 
work. It was surely needed. It was the longest rest we had yet 
known, and afforded some small opportunity to gather up its records 
of past labors, organize some societies and compile a history of the 
Red Cross, so much needed for the information of our people and so 
earnestly asked for by them as well as by the United States Senate. 
From this history the preceding pages of this book have been 
extracted. 





CLARA BARTON. 
Taken about 1S84. 




Copyrig}it, iSiyS, by Clara Barton. 

"JOSH V. THROOP." 
The first steamer used in the United States by the American Red Cross, 1884. 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 




UT the respite was all too short for our purposes. 
The rapidly melting snows of February, 1884, 
brought the one thousand miles of the Ohio River 
again out of its bed. A wild cry went out all over 
the country for help. The government, through 
Congress, took immediate action and appropriated 
'»^^. <.>o several hundred thousand dollars for relief, to be 

applied through the War Department. The Red 
Cross agents must again repair to the field, its societies be again 
notified. 

But its president felt that if she were to be called every year to 
direct the relief work of the association in these inundations it was 
incumbent upon her to visit the scene in person, to see for herself what 
floods were like, to learn the necessities and be able to direct with the 
wisdom born of actual knowledge of the subject ; and accordingly, with 
ten hours' preparation, she joined Dr. Hubbell on his way and pro- 
ceeded to Pittsburg, the head of the Ohio River. There the societies 
were telegraphed that Cincinnati would be headquarters and that 
money and supplies should be sent there. This done, we proceeded to 
Cincinnati by rail. 

Any description of this city upon our entrance would fall so far 
short of the reality as to /ender it useless. 

The surging river had climbed up the bluffs like a devouring 
monster and possessed the town; large steamers could have plied along 
its business streets; ordinary avocations were abandoned. Bankers and 
merchants stood in its relief houses and fed the hungry populace, and 
men and women were out in boats passing baskets of food to pale, 
trembling hands stretched out to reach it from third story windows of 
the stately blocks and warehouses of that beautiful city. Sometimes 
the water soaked away the foundations and the structure fell with a 
crash and was lost in the floods below; in one instance seven lives 
went out with the falling building; and this was one city, and prob- 
ably the best protected and provided locality in a thousand miles of 
thickly populated country. 

"5 



ii6 THK RKD CROSS. 

It had not been my intention to remain at the scene of disaster, 
but rather to see, investigate, establish an agency and return to 
national headquarters at Washington, which in the haste of departure 
had been left imperfectly cared for. But I might almost say, in mili- 
tary parlance, that I was "surprised and captured. " 

I had made no call beyond the Red Cross societies — expected no 
supplies from other sources — but scarcely had news of our arrival at 
Cincinnati found its way to the public press when telegrams of money 
and checks, from all sides and sources, commenced to come in, with 
letters announcing the sending of material. The express office and 
freight depots began filling up until within two weeks we were com- 
pelled to open large vSupply rooms, which were generously tendered to 
the use of the Red Cross. A description could no more do justice to 
our flood of supplies than to the flood of waters which had made them 
necessary — cases, barrels and bales of clothing, food, household sup- 
plies, new and old; all that intelligent awakened sympathy could 
suggest was there in such profusion that, so far from thinking of 
leaving it one must call all available help for its care and distribution. 

The government would supply the destitute people with food, 
tents and army blankets, and had placed its military boats upon the 
river to rescue the people and issue rations until the first great need 
should be supplied. 

The work of the Red Cross is supplemental and it sought for the 
special wants likely to be overlooked in this great general supply and 
the necessities oiitside the limits of governmental aid. The search 
was not difficult. The government provided neither fuel nor clothing. 
It was but little past midwinter. A cyclone struck the lower half of 
the river with the water at its greatest height and whole villages were 
swept away in a night. The inhabitants escaped in boats, naked and 
homeless. Hail fell to the depth of several inches and the entire 
country was encased in sleet and ice. The water had filled the coal 
mines so abundant in that vicinity until no fuel could be obtained. 
The people were more likely to freeze than starve and against this 
there was no provision. 

We quickly removed our headquarters from Cincinnati to Evans- 
ville, three hundred miles below and at the head of the recent scene of 
disaster. A new staunch steamer of four hundred tons burden was 
immediately chartered and laden to the water's edge with clothing 
and coal; good assistants, both men and women were taken on board; 
the Red Cross flag was hoisted and as night was setting in, after a 



THE OHIO RIVKR FLOODS. ii; 

day of intense cold — amid surging waters and crashing ice, the float- 
ing wrecks of towns and villages, great uprooted giants of the forest 
plunging madly to the sea, the suddenly unhoused people wandering 
about the river banks, or huddled in strange houses with fireless 
hearths — the clear-toned bell and shrill whistle of the "Josh V. 
Throop" announced to the generous inhabitants of a noble city that 
from the wharves of Evansville was putting out the first Red Cross 
relief boat that ever floated on American waters. 

The destroyed villages and hamlets lay thick on either bank, and 
the steamer wove its course diagonally from side to side calling the 
people to the boat, finding a committee to receive and distribute, and 
learning as nearly as possible the number of destitute persons, put off 
the requisite quantity of clothing and coal, and steamed away quickly 
and quietly leaving sometimes an astonished fcic^ sometimes a multi- 
tude to gaze after and wonder who she was, whence she came, what 
that strange flag meant, and most of all, to thank God with tears and 
prayers for what she brought. 

In this manner the Red Cross proceeded to Cairo, a distance of 
four hundred miles, where the Ohio joins the Mississippi River, which 
latter at that time had not risen and was exciting no apprehension. 
Returning, we revisited and resupplied the destitute points. The 
government boats running over the same track were genial and 
friendly with us, and faithful and efficient in their work. 

It should be said that, notwithstanding all the material we had 
shipped and distributed, so abundant had been the liberality of the 
people that on our return to Evansville we found our supply greater 
than at any previous time. 

At this moment, and most unexpectedly, commenced the great 
rise of the Mississippi River, and a second cry went out to the govern- 
ment and the people for instant help. The strongest levees were 
giving way under the sudden pressure, and even the inundation of the 
city of New Orleans was threatened. Again the government appro- 
priated money, and the War Department sent out its rescue and ration 
boats, and again the Red Cross prepared for its supplemental work. 

In an overflow of the Mississippi, owing to the level face of the 
country and the immense body of water, the valley is inundatcfl at 
times thirty miles in width, thus rendering it impossible to get animals 
to a place of safety. Great numbers drown and the remainder, in a 
prolonged overflow, have largely starved, the government having 
never included the domestic animals in its work of relief. This 



ii8 THE RED CROSS. 

seemed an omission of vital importance, both humanely and economi- 
cally considered, and the Red Cross prepared to go to the relief of the 
starving animals of the Mississippi valley. It would also supply 
clothing to the destitute people whom the government would feed. 

The navigation of the Mississippi River calls for its own style of 
boats and pilotage, the latter being both difficult and dangerous, 
especially with the changed channels and yawning crevasses of a 
flood. 

The steamer "Throop" was left at Evansville and the "Mattie 
Bell" chartered at St. Louis and laden with corn, oats, hay, meal and 
salt for cattle ; clothing and cooking utensils for the destitute people ; tea, 
coffee, rice, sugar and medicines for the sick: and as quickly as possible 
followed the government steamers leaving the same port with rations 
of meat and meal. These latter boats kindly burdened themselves 
with large quantities of our forage which our overladen boat could not 
contain. 

We soon found that our judgment in regard to the condition of 
the animals had been correct. Horses, mules, cows, sheep and pigs 
had been hastily gotten upon floating rafts and platforms of logs 
raised above the water, or had taken refuge, as many as could, on the 
narrow strips of land, known as broken levees, say eight to twelve feet 
in width, just peering above the water; and here they stood often 
crowded beyond the possibility of lying down, with no morsel of food 
save the wee green leaves and tips of the willow branches and gray 
moss which their pitying owners, largely poor negroes, could gather in 
skifl^s and bring to them. Day by day they stood and wasted, starved, 
and their bodies floated down the stream, food for the birds of prey hov- 
ering above. Week after week hour after hour the mighty river, pour- 
ing through its monster crevasses, spread wider and wider every hour. 
We left our steamer at times and were rowed out in little boats for 
miles alongside of the levees, and went among the cattle. Some waded 
out into the water to their backs to reach after the green scum which 
gathered and swam delusively upon the surface. Some, unable to 
stand, lay stretched at length with head and horns dabbling in the 
mud, fearlessly turning great pitiful eyes upon us as we approached. 
Others, reeling, followed us tamely about, as if beseeching us to feed 
them. I need not add that they were fed. Committees of both 
white and colored persons were formed and the requisite quantity 
of food for the animals and clothing for the people were left with 
these committees at every needy point. Our steamer was reladen, 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. uy 

or our supplies replenished at each available port, and in this manner 
we passed to New Orleans, and returning, resupplied our connnittees. 

The necessity for a change of boat on the Ohio and Mississippi 
has been mentioned; that the "Throop" was discharged at Evansville 
and the Red Cross body passed over to St. Louis. Perhaps some 
reference to the journals of that date would best illustrate the necessity 
for these movements, as -.veil as the spirit of the people and of the 
times. 

l-'ioni an editorial in the Chicago Inter-Ocain of 2\larch 31, iJ<84, 
the following extract is taken: 



The day is not far distant— if it has not already come — when the American 
people will recognize the Red Cross as one of the wisest and best systems of phil- 
anthropic work ill modern times. Its mission is not accomplished when it has 
carried the generous offerings of the people to their brethren who have met with 
sudden calamity. It does not stop with the alleviation of bodily suffering and the 
clothing of the destitute — blessed as that work is, when wisely done, so as not to 
break down the manly spirit of self-help. The Red Cross has become a grand 
educator, embodying the best principles of social science, and that true spirit of 
charity which counts it a sacred privilege to serve one's fellowmea in time of 
trouble. The supplying of material wants — of food, raiment and shelter is only a 
small part of its ministry. In its work among suffering humanity, when fire or 
flood or pestilence has caused widespread desolation, the Red Cross seeks to carry 
to people's hearts that message which speaks of a universal brotherhood. It is all 
the time and everywhere sowing the seed of brotherly kindness and goo<lwill, 
which is destined in time to yield the fruits of world-wide peace. Once let the love 
of doing good unto others become deeply rooted and practiced as an international 
custom, and arsenals and ironclad navies will give way to the spirit of equity. War 
will cease as a relic of barbarism, and peace will shed its benedictions over all 
nations. 

From the Evansville yi^/^/v/a/ of April 3, the following: 

The president of the Red Cross left for St. Louis last night, where she will 
take charge of a steamer which has been chartered under her direction for relief 
-service in the lower Mississippi. . . . The mission of the Reil Cross, which has 
done such wonderful and effective work in the Ohio valley, is not yet completed. 
The lower Mississippi cries for aid. The destruction of property below the mouth 
of the Ohio is, if possible, greater than was experienced on the Ohio. Life has not 
been in such desperate peril, but property has been swept away by oceans of water, 
and the landowner, with corn and cotton fields, has been reduced to pauperism 
. . . This year the overflow has been of such a character tiiat neither crop, 
mortgage, nor advance are safe, and the renter and half-share farmer must suffer. 
The Red Cross comes to the rescue. Miss Barton will be accompanieil by .several 



ijo THE RKD CROvSS. 

ladies from this city and will bi; joined by many gcnUemeu and ladies from St. 
Louis. 

From the St. Louis Democrat, April 4, the following: 

Miss Clara Barton arrived at the " Southern " yesterday morning. Miss Barton 
is accompanied by Mrs. De Bruler and Miss Knola Lee, of Evansville, Ind., Dr. J. 
B. llubbell, field agent, and Mr. John Hitz, of Washington, D. C. The members 
of the party were busily engaged yesterday in superintending the loading of the 
steamer " Mattie Bell," which leaves for the inundated districts of the lower Mis- 
sissippi this morning. Miss Octavia Dix, secretary of the St. Louis branch of the 
Red Cross, will accompany the expedition. 

The brave men of the Fifth Corps in the Cuban War of 1898, 
endured hunger and thirst and other conditions better remembered 
than described. Some of them partook of the gracious offerings of 
hot gruel, malted milk, boiled rice, apple wine, and prune cordial at 
the hands of Mrs. Dr, Gardner. It will perhaps interest them to 
know that she is the same who, as Miss Enola Lee, was one of the 
company of the "Mattie Bell" in 1884. 

Some of the men of the War of 1861 may remember the officer who 
had charge of the Commissary Department at Washington. I shall never 
forget the man who, despite all rank and position, stood many an hour 
of many a day beside my army wagons loading at his headquarters, 
and who wisely directed the selection of material best suited to and 
most needed at the proposed terminus of the dark and weary journey 
I was about to undertake — it was then Colonel, now General Beckwith 
of the regular army. He was in 1884, holding the position of Com- 
missar)'- at St. Louis. In the same old time spirit and in the old time 
way he came upon the deck of our little steamer, and directed the 
placing of the supplies of the "Mattie Bell. " One will never forget 
the terror depicted on his fine face when he saw the bales of hay taken 
on board. "Great heavens, you are not going to risk that! Think 
of it — you in the middle of that great, rushing river, no land in sight, 
and your ship on fire!" Still, the risk was taken, and both the ship 
and the stock were saved. 

A few hours previous to the sailing of the "Mattie Bell" from St. 
Louis a stranger came on board and asked to be permitted to go with 
us. There was nothing very remarkable in his appearance, either for 
or against; but on general principles we objected to taking on a stran- 
ger without some good reason for it, His quiet persistence, however, 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 121 

won, and perhaps through lack of active measures on the part of some 
one he went. He was a silent man — walked by himself, or stood alone 
on some unfrequented corner of the deck. As we got lower down and 
more tributaries were pouring their contributions into the mighty 
volume that rolled and seethed about and beneath us, the danger 
became more imminent. Running after dark was out of the question, 
and timely orders were given one afternoon to tie up for the night; 
but our captain, anxious to make a headland a few miles further on, 
begged permission to run a little later, sure he could reach it before 
dark. 

His request was rather reluctantly granted, and as we steamed 
on a fog and mist came up and night set in with us still afloat. In 
less than a half hour the stranger rushed to me with: "We are in a 
crevasse ! We must pull out or we are lost ! I have warned the engi- 
neer and captain. " The forward rush of the boat ceased ; she stood 
still, pulled first one way then the other, shivered and struggled amid 
the shrieks of the reversed engine, while we waited, thoroughly 
aware of the s-tuation and the doom awaiting us all, depending on the 
power and strength of one mute body of steel and one firm man at the 
helm. At length the struggling ceased; the engines had triumphed 
over the current. We commenced to move slowly backward, and with 
a grateful awe in our hearts that no words could express we found a 
place of safety for the night. 

Daylight revealed to us a crevasse opened the day before where 
the river had broken through to a width of thirty rods, with the water 
pouring down a depth of twelve or fifteen feet in a perfect 
torrent into the current below, and rolling off in a self made track to 
some other stream or to the Gulf of Mexico. 

I have no way of accounting for this incident, but the reader will 
perhaps not be "too hard" on me, if I say with the father of "Little 
Breeches," "I have believed in God and the angels ever since one 
night last spring." 

Dowx THE Mississippi. 

Down the Mississippi all was changed. Two worlds could scarcely 
differ more. The ofttimes shoreless waste of waters; the roaring 
crevasse through the broken levees; the anxious ebony faces and the 
hungry animals that "looked up and were not fed, " among whom and 
which we floated, could not fail to carry our thoughts br.ck ct times 



I-' J THE RED CROSS. 

to the history of the Deluge and the Ark. The simile, however, had 
this important difference; we were by no means so good as to be 
preserved, nor they so bad as to be destroyed. 

Any bare description of this voyage constitutes only the woody 
framework of the structure. You will readily imagine that, when it 
should be clothed with its ever recurring incidents it would become a 
very different edifice. Never a day that did not bring us incidents to 
be remembered, sometimes sad and touching, sometimes laughable or 
ridiculous. 

The rough, tattered and uncouth garb of the Ohio River farmer 
and woodsman was offset by his quick wit and sterling sense, and the 
rude dialect of the Southern negro was buried out of sight by his 
simple faith. But the most touching of all was the honest gratitude 
which poured out on every side. 

These people adopted the Red Cross and those who bore it, and 
we, in turn, have held to them. We selected helpers from among 
them, banded them together, gave them responsibility and thus made 
them mutual helps to each other and to us as well, in case of subse- 
quent disaster. 

One day as we were near the left bank of the river we saw a small 
herd of cattle wading out far into the water for what they could reach. 
A few cabins stood back of them. Steaming as near as we could we 
made fast to the body of a small fig tree and called the negroes, men 
and women, to us in their skiff. 

It proved to be a little neighborhood of negroes with no w^hite 
"boss," as they say, but had their own mules and cows and were 
farming independently. But the food and feed were gone. The 
government boats had passed without seeing them, and no help had 
come to them. Their mules and cows were starving; they had no one 
to apply to. They had their little church ; and their elder, a good, 
honest-faced man, who led them onto the boat, told the story of their 
sufferings and danger. We selected two men and two women, formed 
them into a committee of distribution and wrote out formal directions 
and authority for them. But before presenting it to them to sign, I 
asked them seriously if we left these supplies with them if they 
thought they could share them honestly with each other and not 
quarrel over them. 

They were silent a moment. Then the tallest of the women rose 
up, and with commanding gesture said: "Miss, dese tings is from de 
Lord ; dey i? not from you, caze you is from Him, He sent you to 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 123 

bring dem. We would not dare to quarrel ober deni things; we would 
not dare not to be honest wid 'em." 

I presented the paper with no further pledge. It was signed with 
one name and three marks. The supplies were put off on the only 
little spot of land that could be reached. The negroes left the boat 
and stood beside the pile, which seemed a little mountain in the level 
space of waters. We raised steam and prepared to put off, expecting 
as we did so some demonstration, some shout of farewell from our new- 
found friends on shore and held our handkerchiefs ready to wave in 
reply — not a sound — and as we "rounded to" and looked back, the 
entire group had knelt beside the bags of grain and food and not a 
head or hand was raised to bid us speed. A Greater than we had 
possessed them, and in tearful silence we bowed our heads as well and 
went our way. 

After the first rush of danger was over and repairs commenced 
among the business men, it was not always easy to find faithful willing 
agents to distribute supplies among those who had nothing left to 
repair but their stomachs, and no material for this. 

At Point Coupee the Mississippi sends out a false branch of thirty 
miles in length, forming an island, and again joining the main river 
at Hermitage. These are known as False River and Island. The 
government boats had not entered False River, and there was great 
want among both people and cattle. 

All the way down we were besought to hold something back for 
this point. At Hermitage we found the one business man, owner of 
the boat which plied the thirty miles of river, its warehouse and all. 
He, of course, was the only man who could take charge of and distri- 
bute relief around the island ; and Captain Trudeau was sought. He 
was a young, active man, full of business, just pulling out of his own 
disaster, and did not know how to attend to it. "Guessed the trouble 
was most over up there; hadn't heard much about it lately." We 
knew better and felt discouraged that persons could not be found of 
sufficient humanity to distribute relief when brought to them. 

I was sitting heart sore and perplexed in my stateroom trying to 
think out a way when two rather young women of prepossessing 
appearance entered with a bouquet of early flowers for me, introducing 
themselves as Mrs. and Miss Trudeau, wife and sister of the captain. 
I scarcely felt gracious, but those fair womanly faces were strong to 
win, and I entered into conversation asking Mrs. Trudeau what she 
thought of the condition of the people of the i.sland. Her face grew sad 



'J THE RED CROSS. 

as she said in touching tones, "Indeed, I cannot say, Miss Barton; my 
husband's boat runs around twice a week and I tried to go on it for a 
while, but the sight of such destitution and those starving cattle, 
mules, cows, horses and sheep were beyond my endurance, I had 
nothing to give them, and I could not see it, and so left off going." 

"Would you ladies take the agency of the Red Cross to deliver 
supplies to these people?" 

I shall not forget the appropriate and womanly manner in which 
this delicate lad}^ received the abrupt proposition — no hesitation, no 
surprise, no self-depreciation, no simpering, but the straightforward 
reply, "We would, most willingly and gladly, and do our best. Our 
warehouse could store them, our boat take and we distribute them," 
The customary official document was at once drawn up and signed. 

An hour later the busy captain rushed in to see how nmch was 
really expected of him. 

"Captain," I said, "I have found agents to distribute our relief, 
and very satisfactorily, I think, and shall be able to release you from 
all responsibility." His fine face fell; he had not expected this and 
in spite of all did not relish being quite relieved from duty. I went 
on: "You will have some share in it, captain. For instance, you will 
supply storage in 3'our warehouse; your boat will take supplies on any 
day when demanded. Your men will handle and load all material. 
You will, in short, provide all accommodations, do all the work, meet 
all the cost, obey orders implicitly, but have none of the credit! Mrs. 
and Miss Trudeau are my agents." 

The good fellow fairly threw up his hat. "Good! That's just 
what I'm used to. It shall be done. " And it was done; but how well 
it was done I could not describe to you — not only wisely and well, but 
elegantly. 

The captain's warehouse had little empty space after our cargo of 
supplies had gone into it. The next day but one would be the day 
appointed for Governor McEnnery, of Louisiana, to make at Point 
Coupee his re-election speech, which would call all the people of the 
island who could reach it to that point to see and hear the popular 
governor. The little steamer "Governor Wiltz" was laden with sup- 
plies, and under direction of Madame Trudeau proceeded to Point 
Coupee in order to meet the people, learn the needs, and inform every- 
one that supplies and relief were at hand. The gallant governor 
addressed the crowd from the deck of the "Governor Wiltz" under the 
Red Cross flag, and took passage on her down the river. 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 125 

We resupplied these agents 011 our return. We did this all the 
way among both white and black. And from that time the Red Cross 
has had faithful, willing agents along all the uncertain track of the 
lower Mississippi. 

Months later, in January, i885, when a sea voyage, foreign 
travel, the cares of an international conference of military men, the 
splendor of foreign courts, much of weariness and illness had passed 
between, and I had thought all those little days of river work gone 
from memory, I found myself in the upper gallery of the New Orleans 
Exposition, and stepping in at a restaurant at the end of the hall was 
met by Colonel Lewis, the noted colored caterer of the South. He had 
been on the relief committee of New Orleans appointed to meet our 
steamer at the time of our visit in May. 

He came with cordial recognition, seated me and was telling me 
of his success in the restaurant when all his waiters, men and women, 
seemed to forget their work and stood gazing at us. The colonel 
smiled and said, "They have caught sight of the Red Cross brooch at 
your neck and recognize you by it. They will come to themselves in 
a few minutes." 

Next day I went in again for my lunch, when Colonel Lewis 
brought tome a little, thin, white-haired mulatto man of seventy-three 
years, but still able to take charge of and direct the help at the tables, 
saying, "This, Miss Barton, is Uncle Amos, whom I promised yester- 
day to introduce to j'ou when 3'ou came again. Uncle Amos is my 
most true and faithful man." I reached out for the withered, hard, 
dark bony hand he gave me as he said: "Yes, Miss Barton, I wants 
to see and speak to you, to tell you in de name of our people 
how grateful dey is for what your society has done for dem. Dat is 
never forgot. You come to us when we had nothing. You saved 
what was never saved befo' in a flood, our cattle, so dey could go on 
and help derselves to raise something to eat. Dey has all heard of it; 
all talk about it in de churches and de meetings. Our people is 
singular in some tings; dey never forgets a kindness. Dey hab 
notions. Dey hab a way of nailing up a hoss-shoe obcr de do' for 
luck. I want to tell you dat in a thousand little cabins all up and 
down dis river dey has put up a little Red Cross ober de do' and 
every night before dey goes to bed dey names your name and prays 
God to bless you and de Red Cross dat He sent to dem in time of 
trouble and distress." Uncle Amos looked straight in my face the 
while. Colonel Lewis wiped hiseyes, and I got away as fastas I couM. 



126 THE RED CROSS. 

It would scarcely be faithful to the subject of this relief if some 
mention were not made of the third trip, namely, that of the voyage 
up the Ohio after the fall of the waters and the attempted return of the 
people to their former homes. 

From an editorial of the Evansville Joiirnal, May 28, 1884, 
headed "Good By Red Cross," we make an extract or two which has 
reference to the voyage and its purposes: 



The Red Cross, having concluded its labors on the Ohio River below this 
point, will start to-day for the upper Ohio and go as far as Pittsburg, relieving the 
meritorious cases on the way. . . , The "Josh V. Throop," which has been 
rechartered for this trip, was loaded last Saturday. A part of the load was distrib- 
uted between this point and Cave-in-Rock, and the room made vacant by the 
lower river distribution was filled with additional stores yesterday which will be 
distributed up the river. The load consists of what the people in the overflowed 
country will want and most need. There is clothing in immense quantities, over 
a hundred plows, large quantities of rakes, hoes, scythes, spades, shovels, groceries, 
flour, meat, meal, corn, bedsteads, chairs, buckets, tubs, tables, queeusware, tinware, 
pots, kettles, skillets, etc. 

This trip was arranged in general at Cincinnati, when Miss Barton first came 
West. At that time her policy took definite shape and it has never changed. She 
saw that the government was providing for all the immediate necessities of the 
sufferers and looked forward to the time when the unfortunate people would come 
almost hopelessly back to ruined homes — come back to find houses, furniture, tools, 
food, everything gone — and although aid would have been extended during the 
calamity by the government and benevolent institutions, the ruined people would 
have but a poor chance to proceed in the business of life. This was the anticipated 
ojiportunity of the Red Cross; this was the time Miss Barton foresaw would be 
pregnant with possibilities for doing large good, and the event has fully justified 
her prophetic view of the situation. The load now on the "Throop" will not 
only provide for the house, it will do much for the farm. 

It would be difficult to imagine a vo5'age more replete with live 
interest than this beautiful May passage from Evansville to Pittsburg. 

The banks were dotted with the marks of torn and washed-out 
homes; and occasional!}' one found the familj', from father and mother 
to the w^ee little ones, gathered about the bare spot that once was 
home, trying in vain to find enough of the buried timbers to recom- 
mence a framework for another house, if ever they could build it, 
with all the hunger and need for dail}' food staring them in the face. 

Picture, if possible, this scene: A strange ship, with two flag.«;, 
steaming up the river; it halts, turns from its course, and draws up to 
the nearest landing. Some persons disembark and speak a few minutes 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 127 

with the family; then a half dozen strong mechanics man a small boat 
laden with ail material for constructing a one-room house, take it to 
the spot and commence putting it up. Directly here is a structure 
with floor, roof, doors, windows and walls; the boat returns for furni- 
ture. Within three hours the strange ship sails away leaving a 
bewildered family in a new and clean house, with a bed, bedding, 
table, chairs, clothing, dishes, candles, a well-made little cooking stove, 
with blazing fire, with all the common quota of cooking utensils, meat, 
meal, groceries, a plow, rake, axe, hoe, shovel, spade, hammer, hatchet 
and nails, etc. We ask few questions, they none; but often it proves 
that the little, bare, boyhood feet of that desolated father had once 
skipped through the dewy grass of the green hills of New England, 
the brave old parent of States, where great riches are slow to come, 
and famishing hunger never enters. 

Again, referring to the Evansville Journal oi May 28 we find the 
following: 



A band of little folks in Chicago, called the " Busy Bees," were organized in a 
plan to extend succor to the suffering and collected a large box of goods which 
they sent to Miss Barton, with the request that it might be put where it would do 
the most good. She was some time in finding a place where she could put it with 
the greatest satisfaction to the givers and the donees. She found the opportunity 
she had been looking for yesterday. On her last voyage a gentleman at Cave-in- 
Rock told her that a poor, but worthy, family was in that vicinity, and on becoming 
acquainted with the family Miss Barton gave them some supplies and left fifteen 
dollars with the gentleman aforesaid, to either give to the family or spend for them 
as he might think best. He concluded that it would be judiciously expended by 
the people for whom it was intended and accordingly turned it over to them. The 
woman of the family came some days afterward to the gentleman, bringing with 
her another woman who was very destitute, and said: "This is my neighbor, and 
I have come to ask you if you think Miss Barton would care if I divided my fifteen 
dollars with her." "Most certainly not," was the reply; and then, out of her 
penury did this poor woman giv She retained ten dollars and gave five. Yester- 
day Miss Barton divided the contents of the store the "Busy Bees" had gathered 
among these two families, consisting of eight and five persons respectively. When 
she was delivering the goods to the poor woman who had generously shared with 
her neighbor, Miss Barton gave her back her five dollars, and said: " You have read 
where it is said. He that giveth to the poor Icndeth to the Lord, and He has sent it 
back already." 

On February 11, 1884, Congress, in response to appeals from Ohio, 
Kentucky and West Virginia, appropriated $300,000 for the relief of the 
people who had lost their homes and other property by the Ohio River 



128 THR RED CROSS. 

floods. On February 15, the first appropriation having been consid- 
ered hardly sufficient to meet the demands, $200,000 more were appro- 
priated for the same purpose, making $500,000 in all to be expended 
untler the direction of the War Department. A boat load of supplies 
was sent down the river from Pittsburg; two boats left Cincinnati, 
one going up the river and the otiier down; one boat went down the 
river from Louisville and a fifth boat was sent down the river from 
Hvansville. Afterward some additional boats were sent out from 
other places. Between February 15 and March 15, 536,000 rations 
were distributed by the government at a cost of $350,000. The re- 
maining $150,000 were transferred to the Mississippi flood relief. 

In the official report of the relief furnished to the Ohio River 
flood sufferers, written by R. P. M. Ames, Assistant Surgeon U. S. 
Marine Hospital Service, Evansville, Ind. , he speaks as follows of the 
part taken by the Red Cross in this work: 



At this time also the Red Cross Association came actively to the front for now 
had the time arrived when this association, of all others, could do the most 
good. . . . Through its instrumentality much suffering and destitution has 
been relieved throughout the Ohio valley which it would have been almost impos- 
sible to reach but for this organization. With Miss Clara Barton at the head, and 
a large corps of active and intelligent assistants, the relief work performed bj- this 
association has been most thorough and efficacious. Contributions of money and 
clothing have been sent to all points in the inundated districts of the Ohio valley 
where such assistance was needed, while a thorough and careful investigation by 
members of the association of the flooded territory has rendered the aid most 
beneficial. As soon as it became apparent that the suffering from the high water 
would necessitate the various relief movements, Miss Barton removed her head- 
quarters from Washington, D. C, to Cincinnati. O., where she carefully and 
intelligently superintended the distribution of a large amount of supplies donated 
from all parts of the countrj', consisting of money, food, clothing and fuel. As 
the water receded then came the time for the relief proffered by this association to 
be given. 

After remaining several days in Cincinnati and relieving all the suffering so far 
as it was met with, Miss Barton, on March 3, removed her headquarters to Evans- 
ville, Ind., where arrangements were at once commenced to reach and aid the 
sufferers between this point and Cairo, 111. Captain J. V. Throop kindly placed 
his steamer, the "Josh V. Throop," at the disposal of the Red Cross without any 
expense except the actual running cost of the boat. The steamer was at once 
loaded with an immense quantity of boxes, barrels, bales and bundles of clothing, 
being donations from various private parties and relief organizations throughout 
the country which had been accumulating here for some time, together with a 
large amount of bedding and fuel, and started on its mission of mercy down the 
river in charge ot Miss Clara Barton, Saturday, March 8, 1884. 



THE OHIO RIVER FLOODS. 129 

Miss Barton was accompanied and assisted on this trip by Dr. J. B. Hubbell, 
of Washington, D. C, the field agent of the association; Rev. E. J. Galvin, agent 
of the Chicago Red Cross Association; Miss Hamilton, of St. Louis, with Mrs. De 
Bruler and several other Evansville ladies. Relief was given to all the sufferers 
needing it below Evansville and Wickliff, Ky., below Cairo. The party reached 
Cairo March 15, and after proceeding down the river to Wickliff, Ky., turned 
back, arriving at Evansville March 20. In addition to the supplies mentioned, 
the Kev E.J. Galvin, of Chicago, had placed at his disposal |25,ooo, from which 
checks were drawn and left with any party needing financial assistance. Miss 
Barton and her corps of assistants remained in Evansville after their return until 
Apiil 2, when the relief transactions throughout the Ohio valley having been prac- 
tically finished, she removed her headquarters to St. I<oui.s, Mo., where a relief 
boat was at once fitted out and similar assistance tendered to the sufferers in the 
inundated districts of the lower Mississippi. Miss Barton was further aided on this 
trip by Mr. John Hitz, of Washington, D. C. 

On May 25th Miss Barton made a second trip down the Ohio with the 
steamer " Josh V. Throop " under charter with household supplies and farm- 
ing implements for the recent sufferers. The boat went as far as Elizabeth- 
town, or possibly a few miles below, and then turning back, proceeded up 
stream to Wheeling or Pittsburgh till the supplies were exhausted. 



130 THE RKD CROSS. 



"THE LITTLE SIX." 

It is possible that some readers may recall the story of the " Little 
Six," which was locally published at the time, but which I venture to 
reproduce, as an extract from the Erie Dispatch, of Monday March 24, 
1884: 

Dispaii/i readers doubtless recollect its account some weeks ago of the manner 
in which six children of Waterford gave a public entertainment for the benefit of 
the Ohio flood sufl'erers; how they themselves suggested it; how their efforts were 
crowned with success; and how they brought the entire proceeds, I51.25, raised by 
their unpaid efforts, to the editor of the Dispatch with the request that the latter 
forward it " where it would do the most good." The Dispatch complied by for- 
warding it to Miss Clara Barton, president of the American Red Cross Association. 
The following letter tells the storj' of the disposition of the money. The names 
of the noble little band, of which any town in the nation ought lobe proud of, are: 
Reed White, Florence Howe, Lloyd Barton, Joe Farrar, Mary Barton, Bertie 
Ensworth. The oldest is twelve years of age. 



MISS BARTON'S LETTER. 

A TOUCHING INCIDRNT VERY TOUCHINGI^Y REI,ATED. 

Red Cross Relief Steamer, "Josh V. Throop," 
OFF Shawneetown, Illinois, 

Ohio River, March iS, iSS^, 
Mr. M. E. Camp, Editor of the Erie Dispatch: 

At length, I have the happiness to inform you that I have placed the con- 
tribution of the brave Little Six to my own satisfaction, and, as I believe, to the 
satisfaction of the little donors and the friends interested in them as well. Your 
letter inclosing the touching article describing their pretty thought and act, and 
the check for the sum donated by them to the sufferers from the floods, came 
during the early days of hurry and confused activity. The entire matter was too 
beautiful and withal unique, to meet only a common fate in its results. I could 
not, for a moment, think to mmgle the gift of the little dramatists with the 
common fund for general distribution, and sought through all these weeks for a 
fitting disposition to make of it, where it would all go in some special manner to 
relieve some special necessity. I wanted it to benefit some children who had 
" wept on the banks " of the river which in its madness had devoured their home. 
I watched carefully all the way down on this trip, and tried, last Sunday, at 
Smithland on our return to make a little " foundation " for a children's help and 
instruction at that town which had suffered so terribly; but I could not satisfy 
myself, and after telling the pretty story to the best people of the town assembled 
on our boat, I still declined to leave the appropriation, waiting in confi^\eu,ce for 



"THE LITTLR vSlX." 131 

the real opportunity to present and which we have met in the last hour. As we 
ncared that picturesque spot on the Illinois side of the Ohio, known as "Cave-in- 
Rock," we were hailed by a woman and her younj^ daughter. The boat " rounded 
to " and made the landing and they came on board— a tall, thin worn 
wotnan in a tattered suit, with a good, but inexpressibly sad face, who 
wished to tell us that a package which we had left for her at the town 
on our way down had never reached her. She was a widow — Mrs. Plew — whose 
husband, a good river pilot, had died from overwork on a hard trip to New Orleans 
in the floods of the Mississippi two years before, leaving her with six children 
dependent upon her, the eldest a lad in his " teens," the youngest a little baby girl. 
They owned their home, just on the brink of the river, a little " farm " of two or 
three acres, two horses, three cows, thirty hogs and a half hundred fowls, and in 
spite of the bereavement they had gone on bravely, winning the esteem and com- 
mendation of all who knew them for thrift and honest endeavor. Last year the 
floods came heavily upon them, driving them from their home, and the two horses 
were lost. Ne.xt the cholera came among the hogs and all but three died. Still 
they worked on and held the home. This spring came the third flood. The water 
climbed up the bank, crept in at the door and filled the lower story of the house. 
They had nowhere to remove their household goods, and stored them in the garret 
carefully packed and went out to find a shelter in an old log house near by, used 
for a corn crib. Day by day they watched the house, hailed passing boats for the 
news of the rise and fall of the water above, always trusting the house would 
stand — "and it would," the mother said ("for it was a good, strong house), but for 
the storm." The wind came and the terrible gale that swept the valley like a tor- 
nado, with the water at its height, leveling whole towns, descended and beat upon 
that house and it fell. In the morning there was no house there and the waves in 
their fury rushed madly on. Then these little children " stood and wept on the 
banks of the river," and the desolation and fear in the careful mother's heart, none 
but herself and her God can know. 

They lived in the corn-crib, and it was from it they came to hail us as we 
passed to-day. Something had been told us of them on our downward trip, and 
a package had been left them at "Cave-in-Rock," which they had not received. 
We went over shoe-tops in mud to their rude home, to find it one room of logs, 
an old stone chimney, with a cheerful fire of drift-wood and a clean hearth, two 
wrecks of beds, a table, and two chairs, which some kind neighbor had loaned. 
The Government boats had left them rations. There was an air of thrift, even in 
their desolation, a plank walk was laid about the door, the floor was cleanly swept, 
and the twenty-five surviving hens, for an equal number was lost in the stonn, 
clucked and craiked comfortably about the door, and there were two and a half 
dozen fresh eggs to sell us at a higher rate than paid in town. We stood, as we 
had done so many scores of times during the last few weeks, and looked this piti- 
ful scene in the face. There was misfortune, poverty, sorrow, want, loneliness, 
dread of future, but fortitude, courage, integrity and honest thrift. 

" Would she like to return to the childhood home in Indiana? " we asked the 
mother, for we would help them go. 

" No," she said tenderly. "My husband lived and died here. He was buried 
here, and I would not like to go away and leave him alone. It won't be very 
long, and it is a comfort to the children to be able to visit his grave. No, I 



132 THE RED CROSS. 

recko!! we will stay here, and out of the wreck of the old house which sticks up 
out of the mud, we will put another little hut, hijjher up in the bank out of the 
way of the flrxxls, and if it is only a hut, it will be a home for us and we will get 
into it." 

There were no dry eyes, but very still hearts, while we listened to this 
sorrowful but brave little speech, made with a voice full of tears. 

Our thoughtful field agent. Dr. Hubbell, was the first to speak. 

" Here are six children," he said with an inquiring glance at nie. 

No response was needed. The thing was done. We told the mother the 
story of the " Little Six " of Waterford, and asked her if that money with enough 
more to make up one hundred dollars would help her to get up her house ? It was 
her turn to be speechless. At length with a .struggling, choking voice she managed 
to say — " God knows how much it would be to me. Ves, with my good boys I can 
do it, and do it well." 

We put in her hands a check for this sum, and directed from the boat clean 
boxes of clothing and bedding, to help restore the household, when the house shall 
have been completed. 

Before we left her, we asked if she would name her house when it would be 
done. She thought a second and caught the idea. 

"Yes," she replied quickly, with a really winsome smile on that worn and 
wear}' face, "yes, I shall name it 'The Little Six,' " 

And so, dear Mr. Camp, will you kindly tell those brave little philanthropic 
dramatists, that they are to have a house down on the banks of the great rolling 
river, and that one day, I think, will come a letter to tell them that another six 
children are nightly praying God to bless them for the home that will shelter them 
from the floods and the storms. 

Sincerely and cordially yours, 
Clara Barton. 

In repl}' the following letters were received: 

W^A.TERFORD, Pa., March 25, 1R84. 
M. E. Camp, Editor of Erie Dispatch: 

Dear Sir: The "Little Six " met yesterday and wrote the accompanying 
letter, which they would like to have you forward to Miss Clara Barton. They 
wish me to thank you for sending them copies of your paper containing Miss Bar- 
ton's beautiful letter to them. If j-ou or Miss Barton ever had anj* doubts in 
regard to a child's appreciation of favors shown, I wish you could have seen those 
bright, happy faces as they gave three cheers for "ye editor" and three times 
three for Miss Clara Bartoii and the " Home of the Little Six " on the banks of the 
Ohio. 

Mrs. Loyd Benson, Committee. 

Waterford, March 24, 1884. 
Dear Miss Barton: 

We read your nice letter in the Dispatch, and we would like very much to see 
that house called "The Little Six," and we are so glad we little six helped six 



"THE UTTLE SIX." 133 

other little children, and we thank you for going to so much trouble in putting 
our money just where we would have put it ourselves. 

Sometime again when you want money to help you in your good work, call 
on the " L/ittle Six. " 

Joe Farrar, twelve years old. 

Fl^ORENCE Howe, eleven years old. 

Mary Barton, eleven years old. 

Reed White, eleven years old. 

Bertie Ensworth, ten years old. 

L1.0YD Barton, seven years old. 

It cotild not fail to have been a satisfaction to me to know that I 
had done my work as they would have ' ' done it themselves. ' ' 

As long as we remained on the river this family was occasionally 
visited by our boat. On one occasion a strong flagstaff twenty feet in 
length was taken and firmly set upon the bank near where they would 
place their house. Its well-lettered cross board at the top showed 
" L,ittle Six Red Cross Landing," and this point has remained a land- 
ing on the Ohio River probably unto this day. 

During this trip on the upper Ohio, which was even 3'et scarcely 
safe for running at night, we had, after a hard day's work, found a 
cove and tied our boat for the night. It was a rather sequestered spot, 
and the appearance of a full-size river steamer, halting for the night on 
one of its banks, attracted the attention of the few people residing there, 
and at dusk a body of five or six men came to the boat to ask if we 
were in trouble that w^e stopped there, and if there were anything they 
could do for us. We quieted their kindly apprehensions and invited 
them on board. The lights revealed a condition of personal poverty 
which should have more naturally asked help than offered it. On the 
entire trip with its thousands of miles, among white and black, we had 
never seen such evidences of destitution. They scarcely could have 
decently gone among civilized people, and yet as they spoke, there was 
no lack of sense. On the contrary, they seemed in many ways to be 
men of the world. Their language, while provincial, had nothing 
uncommon in it, and altogether they were a study to us. We 
gave them some supper, and while eating, learned the facts of their 
lives. 

Either by blood or marriage, they were all relatives, consisting of 
six families, making in all about thirty people. They all lived 
together — rtich living as it was — and there seemed to be among them a' 
perfectly good understanding. They had always lived on the river 
banks, probably more on the river than off" of it. They vvere not 



i.U THE RKD CROSS. 

farmers, never planted or raised anything^, subsisting mainly upon fish 
and the floating drift to be picked up. Thus, they clung to the river 
like the muskrat and beavsr, and were washed out with every flood. 
Sixteen of them at that time were living under some slanting boards. 

After supper our men quietly invited them to the clothing depart- 
ment on the stem of the ship, and exchanged their garments. 

Thus we got hold of these people, clothed, fed, encouraged and 
advised them, got them into houses, furnished them, formed them into 
a little colony, put up a landing named, at their own request, " Red 
Cross Big Six," and took care of the women and children. Every 
man foreswore his drink, his cards and his betting, and went to work 
for the first time in his life. 

We found a faithful merchant to stand by, advise them and report 
to us. From year to year we have helped to keep them clothed. The 
children immediately went to school, and the next year for the first time 
they planted land and raised their own food; and the growing thrift 
and strange prosperity of this body of heretofore vagrants began after a 
time to excite tfie envy of its neighbors, wlio thought they were getting 
on better than themselves, and their merchant friend had to repel it. 

Only one or two of them could write a little, but they made good use 
of their accomplishment as far as possessed. One day I received a 
letter from one of their savants, Charley Hunter, out of which among 
much that was encouraging, with considerable labor, I deciphered the 
following: " We are all doing well. We don't drink or play cards no 
more. I got the flannel undershirts and drawers and the medicine you 
sent me. My rhumatis is better. I know now I have got two friends; 
one is you and the other is God," 

I was sorry he named me first; I do not think he intended it. I 
might add that two years later these people had united with the church; 
that the children were all in school, and that one daughter was being 
educated for a teacher. 

On the lower Ohio one of the villages most wrecked by the waters 
and the cyclone was Smithland, an old aristocratic borough on the 
Kentucky side. They had no coal, and we supplied them as we went 
down. On our return we lowered steam and threw out our landing 
prow opposite the town. The whistle of the ' ' Throop ' ' was as welcome 
to their ears as the flag to their eyes. 

It was a bright, clear, spring morning and Sunday. In an hour 
the entire little hamlet of people stood on our decks; only four, they 
said, were left at home, and these sick and infirm. They had selected 



"THE LITTLE SIX." 135 

their lawyer to speak their thanks, and they had chosen well. No 
words will ever do justice to the volume of native eloquence which 
seemed to roll unbidden from his lips. We listened in mute surprise 
until he finished with these sentences : 

At noon on that day we were in the blackness of despair. The whole village 
in the power of the demon of waters, hemmed in by sleet and ice, without fire 
enough to cook its little food. When the bell struck nine that night, there were 
seventy-five families on their knees before their blazing grates, thanking God for 
fire and light, and praying blessings on the phantom ship with the unknown device 
that had come as silently as the snow, they knew not whence, and gone, they knew 
not whither. 

A few days later we finished the voyage of relief, having covered 
the Ohio River from Cincinnati to Cairo and back twice, and the Mis- 
sissippi from St. Louis to New Orleans and return, occupying four 
months' time on the rivers, in our own chartered boats, finishing at 
Pittsburg and taking rail for Washington on the first of July, having 
traveled over eight thousand miles, and distributed in relief, of money 
and estimated material, $175,000. 

The government had expended an appropriation from the treasury' 
on the same waters of $150,000 in money, and distributed it well. The 
difference was that ours was not appropriated; we gathered it as we 
used it. 



THE TEXAS FAMINE. 




CCASIONAIv rumors reached us in the years 1885 and 1886 
; about a drouth in Texas and consequent suffering, but 
they were so contradictory and widely at variance that 
the public took little or no heed of them. During the 
year of 1886 the Rev. John Brown, a North Presbyterian 
minister, located at Albany, Shackelford County, Texas, 
began making appeals by circular and oral address to the people of the 
Northern States, in which he asserted that there were a hundred 
thousand families in northwestern Texas who were utterly destitute 
and on the verge of starvation. He stated that since the close of the 
war a large number of poor families had been constantly crowding into 
Texas from the Southern States principally, induced thither by land 
agents and others, who gave glowing representations of the character 
of the soil for farming purposes. 

These poor people, by hard labor and industry, had been generally 
able to make a living and nothing more. The last fall they had planted 
wheat and other grain quite extensively, but the rains came not and 
everything perished; and in the following spring and summer, too, 
everything put into the ground was blasted by the hot winds, so that 
not a thing was raised for man or beast. For fifteen months no rain 
had fallen, and the condition of the people was pitiable and called aloud 
to the charitable throughout the land for relief They must be carried 
through to the next summer or they would perish. At a meeting of 
the citizens of Albany, Texas, they decided that the task of relieving 
the sufferers was greater than the well-to-do people of the State were 
able to undertake, and that an appeal should be made to the good- 
hearted people of the North for immediate aid. The Governor of 
Texas also published an appeal to the people of the whole land, asking 
for food for these people. But as there was no concerted action, and so 
many denials of the stories of suffering, little or nothing in the way 
of relief work was accomplished for some time. Spasmodic attempts 
were made, and some food for man and beast was contributed, but not 
enough to relieve a hundredth part of the needy. 

(136) 



THK TICXAS FAMINE 137 

The Rev. Dr. Brown went to the State Capital and endeavored to 
interest the Legislature in the matter, but there were seenaingly so nuich 
misunderstanding and unbelief, and so many conflicting interests to 
reconcile, that he failed to receive any substantial assurances and left 
the place in disgust. When the citizens of Texas could not agree as to 
the necessities of their own people it was not to be expected that the 
citizens of the country would take much interest in them, hence the 
relief movement languished from inanition. 

About the middle of January, 1887, Dr. Brown came to Washing- 
ton and, as solicitor and receiving agent for the committee which had 
issued an appeal to the country, appealed to me, as president of the 
American National Red Cross, asking our organization to come to the 
relief of the people, who were in a deplorable state, greatly needing 
food and clothing. I immediately shipped to Texas all the stores that 
were then in our warehouse, but they were no great quantity. 

An appeal direct to the Red Cross required immediate attention, 
and I at once sought a conference with President Cleveland, who was 
greatly worried over the contradictory stories that were constantly 
printed, and was anxious to learn the truth about the matter. When I 
said that I should go to Texas and see for myself, he was greatly 
pleased, and requested me to report to him the exact situation just as 
soon as I had satisfied myself by personal investigation. 

Dr. Hubbell and I proceeded directly to Albany, Texas, where we 
arrived near the end of January. We were met by the leading citizens 
and most heartily welcomed and accorded every privilege and attention. 
We began our investigations at once in a systematic way, carefully 
noting ever^^thing we heard and saw; and in the course of a two weeks' 
trip over the afflicted region, we learned the extent of the need and 
formulated plans for its relief. 

Making Albany our object point, we traveled by private conveyance 
over such territory as we thought sufficient to give a correct knowledge 
of the condition of the country and the people. We met large numbers 
of the residents, both collectively and at their homes, and learned from 
them personally and by actual observation their condition and what 
they had to depend upon during the next few months. It will be Ixjrne 
in mind that when we entered upon this investigation little or no relief 
had come from the State, and none was positively assured. 

Almost no rain had fallen during a period of eighteen months; 
two planted crops had perished in the grt)und, and the .seed wheat sown 
*he previous fall gave no signs of life. The dust was rolling over the 



i;^S Till-: RI'I) CROSS. 

great wind-swept fields, where the i)eople had hidden their last little 
forlorn hope of borrowed seed, and literally a heaven of brass looked 
down npon an earth of iron. 

Here were twenty to forty counties of a size commensurate with 
Texan dimensions occupied by new settlers, making their first efforts 
in the pioneer work of developing home life in an untried country, soil 
and climate. They had put their all into the new home and the little 
stock they could afford for its use. They had toiled faithfully, planted 
two and three times, as long as there was anything to plant or sow, 
and in most instances failed to get back their seed. Many had grown 
discouraged and left the country. The people were not actually 
starving, but they were in the direst want for many of the necessities 
of life, and it was only a matter of days when they would have reached 
the condition of the reconcentrados as we later found them in Cuba. 
Hundreds of thousands of cattle had died for the want of food and 
water, and their drying carcasses and bleaching bones could be seen 
in every direction as the eye wandered over the parched surface of 
the plains. 

I at once saw that in the vastness of its territory and varying 
interests the real need of these suffering communities was not under- 
stood by the Texas people — it had not come home to them — but that 
once comprehending, it would be their wish to ha.ve it known and 
cared for by themselves and not by others outside of the State. 

Assuring these poor people that their actual condition should be 
made known to their own people, through the authoritative means of 
the Red Cross, and that the)^ should be speedily cared for, we bade 
them farew^ell and hurried away to Dallas, where we intended to send 
out a statement to the people of the State. 

Arriving there, we sought an intervaew with Colonel Belo of the 
Dallas Nc7vs and laid before him the result of our observations. He 
placed the columns of his paper at our disposal, and through them we 
enlightened the people of the true status of affairs in their own State. 
The response was as quick as it was gratifying, and thence onward 
there was no further necessity for appealing to anyone outside of the 
State limits. Indeed, that act in the first place was the greatest mis- 
take, as to the average Texan, feeling a genuine pride in the State's 
wealth and resources, it savored of frauds and imposition, and prejudiced 
him against the brother who would pass him by and appeal to outsiders. 

The Texas Legislature appropriated one hundred thousand dollars 
foi food, and in the meantime rain began to fall and the entire aspect 



THE TKXAS FAMINK. i39 

of affairs began to change for the better. But there were still many 
needs unprovided for — clothing, fuel, seeds for gardens and fields, live 
stock and many other things — and it vi^as necessary to place these needs 
before the people. This the Nezvs took upon itself to do; and upon my 
suggestion it opened a popular subscription and announced that it 
would receive contributions of seed or cash and would publish the same 
from day- to day and turn them over to the constituted authorities 
appointed to disburse them. In order to encourage the movement I 
inaugurated it with the first subscription, and from that time until 
now I do not believe any one has heard of any need in Texas that has 
not been taken care of by her own people. 

Congress had appropriated ten thousand dollars for seed to be 
given the Texas drouth sufferers; but President Clev'eland promptly 
vetoed the act and thereby laid himself open to a greal deal of unkind 
criticism. He was right, however, and by his resolute action saved 
the nation's money and the State's pride. I know that it must have 
been an unpleasant duty for the President to feel compelled to apply 
his pruning knife to that tender shoot, for he was one of the first to 
respond with his own personal check to the call for aid for the drouth 
sufferers; and the subject had always held his kindly interest. 

The services of the Red Cross, beyond those given by its presi- 
dent and field agent in making their investigation, were not required 
in this emergency; and as we had ^^erformed the duty most needed, viz. : 
to unravel the misunderstanding and rightly inform the people of the 
true condition of affairs in the stricken district, we concluded that our 
task was ended and that we could return to our home. 

On our return to Washington the following report was made to the 
President: 

February ip, iSSp. 
To the Presidcfit of the United States: 

Mr. President — I have not been unmindful of your distinguished 
permission to write you concerning the condition of the people of 
Texas suffering from the drouth. Desiring to spare your time and 
labor so far as possible, I delayed my communication until the investi- 
gations should be completed, and my opinions in regard to the extent 
of their necessities, and the sources from \vhich relief should properly 
emanate, could be satisfactorily .settled in my own mind. 

The prime reason for my going in person, to Texas was my entire 
inability to solve the mystery of why Texas was not equal to the care 
of its own poor and the meeting of its own calamities. T could not 



140 Till-: RICI) CROSvS. 

comprehend how a couple of seasons of drouth in one sparsely settled 
corner of an old State of six millions of acres, with a treasury out of 
debt, should throw the people of that State upon the charity of the 
other States, or upon the support of the general government. My 
investigations brought to light the following perplexed conditions: 

She had contending interests between her original cattlemen who 
wanted the lands left open, and the farmers who came in to settle them 
up; the former placing every obstacle, like the cutting of fences and 
driving off stock, in the way of the little immigrant! 

A second conflicting interest arose between these same original 
lords of the soil — the free ranchmen — and those, who, through railroad 
grants or purchase, had become actual owners of land which they 
desired to sell, and for this purpose, and to this end, held out unwar- 
ranted inducements, clothed in glowing descriptions, both false and 
dangerous, to encourage innnigration, for which no preparation against 
the failure of crops from any cause, or toward the opening of industries 
of any other kind had been made — not even the taking care to leave a 
small sum at the discretion of the governor in case any harm might 
befall these newly invited citizens. The immigrants, on their part, 
coming, as they had been instructed to believe, into a semi-tropical 
climate, with exhaustless soil covered with almost perpetual verdure, 
made no provisions beyond the wants of the hour. One looked long 
and generally in vain for some trace of a cellar, or storehouse, or barn, 
or even the marks of some former hayrick, which might betoken some 
thought of provision for the future on the part of these so-called farmers. 
Pioneer like, they had wasted what they could not at the moment use. 
In this condition the drouth struck this section of the country. 

Fearing the effect of these conflicting interests, the mistake was 
made of their coming out of the State to solicit aid, in the place of 
turning bravely and confidently to the people of her rich Southern 
sections for help among themselves. 

Again, the mistake of overstatement was made, and a poj^ulation 
of thousands represented as ' ' starving, ' ' when in reality no one had 
starved nor was expected to. They were in far too great want, but 
not "starving." These statements served to mortify and incense the 
people, and to turn the strength of nearly the entire press of the State 
against the statements of those representing the distress, and literally to 
kill all help from both without and within. 

Added to this, the courtesy of the railroads entering the State, and 
which at the first call for help had generously offered free freight on all 



THK TEXAS FAMINE. 



t4i 



gifts for the drouth sufferers, had most unfortunately been abused, and 
the occasion used by dealers to send goods in free to their customers 
for sale. This had the effect in ten days to shut off all free railroad 
transportation into the State, and thus it remains to-day, and th'^^ 
freight on a carload of gift oats from the grain centres of the North- 
west would exceed their value when there. 

These were a part of the perplexing conditions which confrontea 
me upon my arrival in Albany, January, 1887. 

The Legislature was occupied in electing a senator, and so con- 
tinued during two weeks, paying no attention to the Relief bill before 
it. Meanwhile, I occupied myself in traveling by private conveyance 
among the people, learning their conditions from themselves. They 
suffered every necessity but homelcssjiess, and this was the worst feature 
in the case Lacking this, they would have felt justified in going away 
and seeking plenty in the homes of others; but how to pick up their 
unfed children and travel out, leaving their few cattle to the cowboys 
and the farm to the tax collector. 

I attempted to write the real state of things to you; but of what 
use? I might as well have sent you a tangled skein of silk to pick out 
for the winding. It was clearh^ no case for a great call for charity 
from the people at large, neither for governmental aid. Te.xas was a 
thousand times equal to it herself, when once she looked it clearly in 
the face and set about the work. This she at length connnenced by 
an appropriation of $100,000 for food. 

As good fortune would have it, rains commenced, the wheat was 
apparently saved, and hope revived. There was still need for s'aple 
grains at once to plant and sow the fields. These must come from the 
people within the State, as they had closed all avenues from without, 
and it was proper they should furnish them. But it could only be 
accomplished by the aid of the press, which was still pointing its horns 
at John Brown, who persisted in declaring that ' ' a million of dollars 
must come from Congress or the people of the North." There was no 
way but to reach the press, and turn its powers in the true direction. 

The arrangement was not difficult for us to make. The colunnis 
of both the Dallas and Galveston News are open for a " Seed Fund " 
from the State, pledged to close them only when the need is met. I left 
that night, feeling that the skein was unraveled, and our part of the 
work done. 

I thank you with all my heart, Mr. President, for the encourage- 
ment given me at the connnencement, and the privilege of writing ytm. 



,4J THK RED CROSS. 

I have done this little bit of work faithfully, and hope it may meet 
your approval. I am home, with scarcely strength to leave my bed, 
but I trust we have heard the last of " Texas drouth.'' 
I have the honor to be, 

Most respectfully, 

Clara Barton. 




THE MOUNT VERNON CYCLONE. 

ILLINOIS. 

UNDAY, February 19, 1888, will ever be a memorable day 
in the annals of the little town of Mount Vernon, 111. — 
a day of supreme horrors, destruction and death. There 
had been thunder and lightning during the afternoon, 
followed b)' rain and hail, which had given away to an 
ominous stillness. The sky was covered with a wierd 
light, and the air was strangely oppressive. The clouds 
rapidly changed color, rolling and whirling, and dropping nearer to 
the earth, until suddenly they assumed the dreaded shape of a huge 
funnel or inverted cone, which came whirling along with an awful 
roar, and within three minutes after the fury of the storm had struck 
the town, thirty people had been killed and scores of others injured, 
and an immense amount of property destroyed. 

Mount Vernon is the county seat of Jefferson county, and con- 
tained four thousand inhabitants. It was a pretty and prosperous 
place; its business centre surrounded a public square, whose four sides 
were lined with stores, and the middle ground occupied by the 
county court house, a fine three-story building; its broad streets were 
bordered with shade trees and lighted by electricity. 

The cyclone cut a broad swath through the eastern half of the 
town, destroying everything in its path, tearing down brick hou.ses, 
uprooting trees, and picking up small wooden houses and carrying 
them along as if they were made of cardboard, and finallj' dashing 
them to pieces against more substantial obstacles. In a very few 
minutes after the storm had passed, the sun shone out brightly, but 
on what a scene! The air was filled with cries of anguish coming 
from the maimed sufferers crushed under the ruins, and with the wail- 
ings for the dead and missing. 

To add to the horrors already wrought, fire broke out in a dozen 
places. Those who were uninjured quickly came to the rescue, 
quenching the flames and exerting themselves to relieve the unfor- 
tunate victims, who were, in most ca.ses, pinned down under the 

(145) 



T46 THE RKD CROSS. 

wreckage of their houses. All night long these brave men and women 
worked, antl whcMi morning came the few houses that remained stand- 
ing were filled with the dead and injured. 

Appeals for assistance were sent out to the people of the country, 
but through an improper statement of the situation, the public was 
misled, and not realizing the pressing needs of the stricken com- 
munity, failed to take up the matter in a business-like manner, and 
the town was left to suffer for a little of the great abundance that was 
around them. In their extremity the despairing citizens appealed 
to the Red Cross for aid, which responded at once. 

A most deplorable situation was presented: the people were 
homeless and helpless, neglected, and in a state of mind bordering on 
insanity. 

After a somewhat hasty examination of the situation, the follow- 
ing simple message was sent to both the Associated and the United 
Press : 

The pitiless snow is falling on the heads of three thousand people who are 
without homes, without food or clothing and without money. 

Clara Barton. 

With only this little word to explain the needs, our generous 
American people responded promptly and liberally, as they always do 
when they fully understand what is needed. 

It was unnecessary to remain longer than two weeks with these 
people, who, as soon as they recovered from the first shock of their 
great misfortune, and when they felt that kind friends were by their 
side, lending them moral and substantial support, manfully commenced 
to bring order out of chaos, to rebuild their town and resume their 
usual avocations. Large quantities of relief supplies of all kinds 
quickly came to hand, and when we were ready to leave them, the 
Citizens' Committee had in its treasury a cash balance of ninety 
thousand dollars. And thus, with their blessings ringing in our ears, 
we left them. 

We were scarcely home from Mount Vernon when the yellow fever 
of Florida broke out in the summer and autumn of 1888. 



YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN FLORIDA. 




i^URING the month of August, 1888, yellow fever broKe 

out in Jacksonville, and in September it was declared to 

be epidemic, the usual alarm and exodus of citizens taking 

place. On September eighth heroic measures to depopulate 

the city were taken. Every person that was still well and 

could leave was requested to go; very little urging was 

necessary. Camps were established outside of the city, 

where those who had not the means to go further and get better 

quarters were enabled to live under medical surveillance, and away 

from the seat of infection. 

The Mayor of Jacksonville had made an appeal for doctors and 
nurses, which had been quickly responded to, and they were doing 
everything possible to attend to the rapidly increasing number of 
patients. 

On the formation of the Red Cross Society of New Orleans in 1893, 
it had been carefully and wisely arranged that in case of yellow fever 
becoming epidemic in any place, no unacclimated persons, or those not 
immune, should be sent as assistants by the Red Cross. New Orleans 
was the home of the famous "Old Howard Association," that had 
won its reputation and worn its grateful renown from the horrors of 
Memphis to the present time. This body freely united with the Red 
Cross of New Orleans, and it was arranged that the southern states, 
through this society, should provide all Red Cross nurses for yellow 
fever, and that the northern portion of the country should raise the 
money to pay and provide them. We felt this to be a security, and 
an immediate provision which the country had never before known. 
Fearing that this might not, at its first inception, be fully understood, 
I called at once on Dr. Hamilton, then in charge of the Marine 
Hospital, explaining it to him, and offering all the nurses that could 
be required, even to hundreds, all experienced and organized for 
immediate action. Perhaps it was not strange that a provision so 
new and so unknown in the sad history' of plagues and epidemics, 
should have seemed Eutopian, and as such been brushed aside as not 
only useless, but self-seeking and obtrusive. Like the entire organi- 

9 (147) 



148 THE RKI) CROSS. 

zatioii of which it was a i)art, it had to wait and win its way 
against custom or even prejudice, b\' honest worth and stern neces- 
sity. It was the "old, old story." The world takes reform hard 
and slow. 

As it was, however, we did what we could. Headquarters were 
established at the Rij^gs House in Washington. The good hearted 
people of the north who felt that they must go to Florida, had by some 
means gotten the idea that they must have a pass from the Central 
Conunittee of the Red Cross in order to go. They came to us in 
hundreds and were mercifully held back from a scourge for which 
they would have been both food and fuel. Whilst the entire people 
of the country in pity and horror at the reports received, were holding 
meetings, raising money, and pouring funds like water into the 
doomed city of Jacksonville, where the scourge had centered, and to 
which every effort was made to confine it. 

Not realizing the opposition there might prove to be to our nurses, 
we called upon their old time leader. Colonel F. R. Southmayd, the 
efficient secretary of the Red Cross Society of New Orleans, instructing 
him to enlist a body of nurses and take them at once to the fever 
district. He enlisted thirty, both men and women, white and 
colored, took a part with him, the remainder following next day. 

Colonel Southmayd, Southern born and bred, was a man of quick 
impulse and intense feelings; his heart was warm with the love of 
humanity and the sense of justice. He had been identified with the 
old Howard Association almost from its inception, and had worked 
through every epidemic of fever or other disease that had afflicted 
the South since the war; and he knew full well the value of the 
services of his chosen nurses. He strongly resented the injustice that 
he felt they were receiving, and naturally became involved in an 
unfortunate altercation with his superiors. In order to restore peace 
and remove an impediment to effective work, I withdrew the Colonel, 
requesting him to come to Washington and assist the Central Com- 
mittee. 

He came in obedience to the call, but burning with a sense of 
indignity and injustice to himself and the faithful suffering nurses he 
had brought — even with the lack of the good right arm which had 
swung his sword for the Confederate cause till it dropped from the 
shoulder, he was not an easy man to hold; but duty to the Red 
Cross, which he loved, and loyalty to its officers, whom he honored, 



YELLOW FEVI«:R EPIDEMIC IN FLORIDA. 149 

hold him quiet. He would never return 10 New Orleans, but at length 
retired to some northern city, where, after a few years he died, 
beloved and respected by those who knew his proud high soul, sterling 
worth and devotion to humanity. 

His was one of the strong hearts that carried the impress of its 
memories and griefs to the grave, and we always felt that somewhere 
on that heart that had ceased to beat could have been found a spot still 
bruised and sore on which was written Jacksonville. 

Refugees who had fled from Jacksonville, carried the plague to 
several smaller places in the surrounding country, where in some 
instances it acquired quite a foothold ; but owing to their obscurity and 
the lack of communication with the outside world, they were left 
alone to fight the disease as best they could. Among these places 
was the little town of MacClcnny, where as soon as it became known 
that there was a case of fever within its limits, all trains were ordered 
to rush through without stopping, and an armed quarantine was placed 
around it with orders to shoot anyone attempting to leave the town. 
Thus left to their fate, without doctors, nurses or food, in any quantity, 
their situation was pitiable. There were a number of volunteers who 
had made attempts to get into MacClenny, but owing to the unreason- 
ing panic existing, they were not permitted to enter the place. 

Colonel Southmayd had heard of these neglected people, and he 
succeeded while en route to Jacksonville in dropping off ten nurses so 
much needed at MacClenny. How he did this, I have told in a little 
brochure entitled " The MacClenny Nurses," that was issued at the 
close of the year 1888 as a holiday greeting, and intended as a public 
acknowledgment of the appreciation in which the Red Cross held 
those noble men and women who braved everything that they might 
serve their stricken brethren. Following is the story: 



I50 THIv RICD CROSS. 

"THE MacCLENNY NURwSES.' 



A HOLIDAY TRIBUTE 
TO 

RED CROSS WORKERS, 

IN 

fVatvn appreciation and grateful acknowledgment of the faithful hand's, 
thai toiled, and the generous hearts that gave. 



BY 

Clara Barton, 

President of the American Association of the Red Crost. 
"THE MACCLENNY NURSES." 

During the fourth week in November a dispatch to National Headquarters 
announced that the last band of Red Cross nurses, known as the MacClenny 
nurses, had finished their work at Enterprise, and would come into Camp Perry 
to wait their ten days' quarantine and go home to New Orleans for Thanks- 
giving. 

Seventy-nine days ago that would mean that their little company of 
eighteen, mainly women, steaming on to Jacksonville, under guidance of their 
old-time trusted leader, vSouthmayd, of New Orleans, listened to his announce- 
ment that the town of MacClenny, thirty-eight miles from Jacksonville, Florida, 
and through which they would soon pass, was in a fearful state of distress; a 
comparatively new town, of a few thousand, largely Northern and Western peo- 
ple, suddenl}' stricken down in scores; poor, helpless, physicians all ill, and 
no nurses; quarantined on all sides, no food, medicine, nor comforts for sick 
or well. 

"Nurses, shall I leave a part of you there; the train cannot stop in, nor 
near the town, but if I can manage to get it slowed up somewhere, will you 
jump?" 

"We will do anything you say. Colonel; we are here in God's name and 
service to help His people; for Him, for you, and for the Red Cross, we will 
do our best and our all. " 

"Conductor, you had a hot box a few miles back; don't you think it should 
be looked to after passing MacClenny?" 

"I will slow up and have it seen to. Colonel, although it may cost me my 
oflBcial head." And it did. 

One mile be3-ond town, the rain pouring in torrents, the ground soaked, 
slippery, and caving, out into pitchy darkness, leaped three men and seven 
women from a puffing, unsteady train, no physician with them, and no instruc- 
tions save the charge of their leader as the last leap was made, and fhe train 
pushed on. "Nurses, you know what to do; go and do your best, and God 



YELLOW FJvVI-:r epidemic IX FLORIDA. 151 

help you." Hand to hand, that none go astray in the darkness, they hobbled 
back over a mile of slippery cross-ties to the stricken town. Shelter was found, 
the wet clothes dried, and at midnight the sick had been parceled out, each 
nurse had his or her quota of patients, and were in for the issue, be it life or 
death. Those past all help must be seen through, and lost, all that could be 
nmst be saved. The next day a dispatch from Southmayd went back to New 
Orleans for Dr. Gill, a Norwegian by birth, tall, straight, honest, and true as 
the pines of his nativeland, to come and take charge of the sick and the nurses 
at MacClenny. It was done, and under his wise direction they found again a 
leader. Their labors and successes are matters for later and more extended record. 

It is to be borne in mind that these nurses found no general table, no table 
at all but such as they could provide, find the food for, and cook for them- 
selves, for the sick, the children, and the old and helpless who had escaped the 
fever and must be cared fur. No patient could be left till the crisis was passed, 
and many are their records of seventy-two hours without change or sleep or 
scarcely sitting down. As the disease gradually succumbed to their watchful 
care, experience and skill, they reached out to other freshly attacked towns and 
hamlets. Sanderson and Glen St. Mary's became their charge, and return their 
blessings for life preserved. 

On November first it was thought they could safely leave and go into camp 
for quarantine; but no regular train would be permitted to take them. The 
Red Cross secured and paid a special train for them, and, as if in bold relief 
against the manner of their entry seven weeks before, the entire town, saving 
its invalids, was assembled at the station at seven o'clock in the morning to bid 
them good-by and God-speed. 

But their fame had gone before them, and "Enterprise," a hundred miles 
below, just stricken down among its flowers and fruits, reached out its hand 
for aid, and with one accord after two days in camp, all turned back from the 
coveted home and needed rest and added another month of toil to their already 
weary record. At length this was ended, and word came again to us that they 
would go into quarantine. Their unselfish, faithful, and successful record 
demanded something more than the mere sending of money. It deserved the 
thanks of the Red Cross organization in the best and highest manner in which 
they could be bestowed; it was decided that its president, in per.son, should 
most fittingly do this, and accordingly left Washington on the morning of 
November twenty-second in company with Dr. Hubbell, Field Agent, for 
Camp Perry, the quarantine station of Florida. Two days and one night by 
rail, a few miles across country by wagon, where trains were forbidden to stop, 
and another mile or so over the trestles of St. Mary's on a dirt car with the 
workmen, brought us into camp as the evening fires were lighted and the bugle 
sounded su^^per. The genial surgeon in charge, Dr. Hutton, who carried a 
knapsack and musket in an Illinois regiment in '62, met us cordially and 
extended every possible hospitality. Soon there filed past us to supper the tall 
doctor and his little flock; some light and fair-skinned, with the easy step of 
a well-bred lady, others dark and bony-handed, but the strong kind faces below 
the turbans told at a glance that you could trust your life there and find it again. 
They were not disturbed that night, and no certain information of our arrival 
got among them. It was cold and windy, and the evening short, as nine 



152 Till-: RKD CROSS. 

o'clock brouglit laps and lights out. In spite of all caution the news of our 
coming hail spread over the surrounding country, and telegrams bringing both 
thanks for what had been received and the needs for more, came from all sides, 
and the good mayor of MacClenny made his troubled way to reach and greet us 
in person, and take again the faithful hands that had served and saved his people. 
Surgeon Hutton's headijuarter tent was politely tendered for the first meeting, 
and as one could never, while memory lasts, forget this scene, so no words can 
ever adequately describe it. The ample tent was filled. Here on the right the 
maj'or, broad shouldered, kind faced and efficient, officers of camp, and many 
visitors, wondering what it all meant ; in the centre the tall doctor and his 
faithful band. Eliza Lanier, Lena Seymour (mother and daughter), Elizabeth 
Eastman, Harriet Schmidt, Lizzie Louis, Rebecca Vidal, Annie Evans, Arthur 
Duteil, Frederick Wilson and Edward Holyland. 

I give these names because they are worthy a place in the history of any 
epidemic; but no country, race, nor creed could claim them as a body: four 
Americans, one German, one French, one Irish, three Africans, part Protestant, 
and part Catholic, but all from New Orleans, of grand old Howard stock, from 
Memphis down, nursing in every epidemic from the bayous of the Mississippi 
to Tampa Bay ; and hereafter we will know them as the ' ' Old Guard. ' ' 

Here, in the winds of approaching winter they stand in the light garb of 
early September in New Orleans, thin, worn, longing for home, but patient, 
grateful and glad. Some trifling "nubia" or turban about the head, but only 
one distinguishing feature in common. A pitiful little misshapen Red Cross, 
made by their own hands, of two bits of scarlet ribbon, soiled, fringed, and 
tattered, pinned closely upon the left breast of each, strove in mute appeal to 
say who they were, and what they served. A friendly recognition and some 
words of thanks from their president, opened the way for those anxious to fol- 
low. The rich, warm eloquence of Mayor Watkins plainl}' told from how near 
his heart the stream of gratitude w^as flowing, and his manly voice trembled as 
he reverted to the condition of his stricken people, on that pitiless night, when 
this little band of pilgrim strangers strayed back to them in the rain and dark- 
ness. "I fear they often worked in hunger," he said, "for then, as now, we 
had little for ourselves, our sick, or our well ; but they brought us to our feet, 
and the blessing of every man, woman and child in MacClenny is on them. " 

It was with a kind of paternal pride that Dr. Gill advanced and placed 
before us his matchless record of cases attended, and life preserved. "This is 
the record of our work," he said. "lam proud of it, and glad that I have been 
able to make it, but without the best efforts of these faithful nurses I could not 
have done it; they have stood firm through everything; not a word of complaint 
from, nor of, one of them, in all these trying months, and I thank you, our 
president, for this opportunity to testify to their merits in your presence." 
The full cups overflowed, and as we took each brown calloused hand in ours, 
and felt the warm tears dropping over them, we realized how far from calloused 
were the hearts behind them. The silence that followed was a season of prayer. 

Then came opportunity for some conversation, questions and explanations. 
"We wish to introduce to our president our chief nurse, whom Colonel South- 
mayd placed in charge of us when we left the car, and directed us to obey him ; 
he is younger than any of us, Ed. Holyland." A slight young man with clear. 



YKLLOW FKVKR KPIDKMIC IX laORIDA. 153 

olive complexion, and dark browed, earnest eyes that looked you straight In 
the face, came forward; his apparent youthfulness gave rise to the 6rst remark: 

"How old are you, Mr. Holyland?" 

"Twenty-nine, madam. " 

"And you have taken charge of these nurses?" 

"Iliave done what I could for their comfort; I think that was what the 
Colonel desired; he k::ew they would need only care and advice, they would do 
their best of themselves. During the few days that Colonel Southmayd remained 
in Jack.sonville, " he contiimed, "he was able to send us some such comforts as 
we needed for the sick, and some nourishing food for ourselves; but this was 
only a few days, you know, and after that we got on as well as we could with- 
out. I know that after he left the nurses gave to the sick, the children, the old 
and the helpless, what they needed for tlieir own strength." 

"But you did not tell us this, INIr. Holyland." 

"No, we were dazed and frightened by the things we heard. We felt that 
your organization was having enough to bear. We knew we must look to you 
for our pay, and we thought, under the circumstances, that would be your 
share. But permit me, please, to call your attention to Mr. Wilson (a stout 
colored man advanced), who took charge of a little hospital of six cases, and 
carried them all through day and night without an hour's relief from any per- 
son, and saved every case." 

"And permit me," chimed in the clear-toned Irish voice of Lizzie Louis, 
"to tell of Mr. Holyland himself, who found a neglected Italian family a mile 
or more outside of the town. He went and nursed them alone, and when the 
young son, a lad of thirteen or fourteen years died, knowing there was no one 
to bury him there, he wrapped him in a blanket and brought him into town on 
his back, for burial. ' ' 

Holyland's face grew sad, and his eyes modestly sought the floor, as he 
listened to this unexpected revelation. 

"I wish to speak of something else," added one of the men, "which we 
were held back from doing, and for which we are now very glad. We should 
not have thought of it ourselves. It is customary," he continued, "when a 
patient dies in an epidemic, to give the nur.se ten dollars for preparing the body 
for burial; this was done in our first case, but Mr. Holyland had the gift promptly 
returned with thanks, and the explanation that we were employed by an organ- 
ization which fully rewarded its nurses, and was too high and too correct to 
accept tribute for misfortune; it was enough that the patient was lost." 

By this time poor black Annie Evans, the "]Mannny" of the group, could 
hold quiet no longer, and broke silence with, "Missus President! whar is de 
Colonel? Colonel Southmayd; dey tells uie all de time he's gone away from 
New Orleans, and I can't b'l'eve 'em. He can't go away; he can't lib any- 
whar else, he was always dar. I'se nursed in yellow fever and cholera more'n 
twenty-five year, and I neberwent for nobody but him; it arn't no New Orleans 
for uswidout him dar. I doesn't know de name of dat place dey say he's gone 
to, and I doesn't want to; he'll be in New Orleans when we gets dar. " 

There were pitying glances among the group, at this little burst of feeling, 
for in some way it was an echo of their own ; and Lena Seymour added tenderly : 



154 THK RED CROSS. 

"We have been Iryiiij^ fi)r these two months to convince "Maiumy" about this, 
but she is firm in her faith and sometimes refuses to hear us. " But the subject 
changed with "How many cases did you lose in this epidemic, Mammy?" 

"I didn't lose no cases! Lor' bless you, honey, I doesn't lose cases if dey 
hasn't been killed afore dey gets to me; folks needn't die of yellow fever." 

We didn't suppose that "Mammy" intended any reflection upon the medi- 
cal fraternity. 

"Bu^ now, friends, we must turn to our settlement, which cannot be diffi- 
cult. Three dollars a day for each nurse, for seventy-nine days, till you are 
home on Thanksgiving morning. But here are only ten. There are eighteen 
on our list who left with you and Colonel Southmayd ; where are your com- 
rades?" Some eyes flashed and some moistened, as they answered, "We do 
not know." "They remained in the car that night, and went on to Jackson- 
ville." Swift, dark glances swept from one to another among them. Instinc- 
tively they drew closer to each other, and over knitted l)rowsand firmly set teeth, 
a silence fell dark and ominous like a pall, which the future alone can lift. 

The bugle sounded dinner, and this ended our little cauiij-meeting, than 
which, few camp-meetings we believe, ever came nearer to the heart of Him 
who ofTercil His life a ransom, and went about doing good. 

The winds blew cold acro.ss the camp; the fires shot out long angry tongues 
of flame and drifts of smoke to every passer-by. The norther was upon us. 
Night came down, and all were glad of shelter and sleep. The morning, quiet, 
crisp, and white with frost, revealed the blessing which had fallen upon a 
stricken land. 

Thanksgiving was there before its time. The hard rules relaxed. One day 
more, and the quarantine was at an end. The north-bound train halted below 
the camp, and all together, president and agent, tall doctor and happy nurses, 
took places on it. The first for headquarters at Washington, the last for New 
Orleans, and home for Thanksgiving morning, full of the joys of a duty well 
done, rich in well-paid labor in the love of those they had befriended and the 
approval of a whole people south and north when once their work should be 
known to them. 

To the last they clung to their little home-made Red Crosses as if they had 
been gold and diamonds; and when at length, the tracks diverged and the part- 
ing must be made, it was with few words, low and softly spoken, but meaning 
much; with a finger touch upon the little cross, "When you want us, we are 
there. ' ' 



The fever spread during the fall to several points in Georgia, 
Alabama and Mississippi, and resulted in the usual panic and flight 
from many places; but happily the disease got no great headway before 
the frost put an end to its career. 

It was late in November when we closed this work; worn and dis- 
heartened as we were by both the needful and the needless hardships 
of the campaign, we were glad of the two or three months in which no 
call for action was made upon us. 




THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 



the thirty-first of May the knell of disaster rang over the 
entire world, and we were sharply reminded that the need 
of the Red Cross is ever present, and that its members 
must hold themselves in readiness to move at a moment's 
notice. The news of the awful calamity of Johnstown, Pa., 
with all its horrors, appalled us ; and so frightful and improb- 
able were the reports, that it required twenty-four hours to 
satisfy ourselves that it was not a canard. 

In order to get an intelligent idea of this disaster and the terrible 
damage wrought by the irresistible waters, it may be well to give 
a short sketch of the city of Johnstown and its adjacent surround- 
ings. Before the flood there were thirty thousand people in this 
busy community, which embraced the city of Johnstown proper and 
numerous suburbs. The city is situated at the junction of Stony 
Creek and the Little Conemaugh, forming the Conemaugh River. 
These streams are liable to sudden overflows, and owing to the 
contraction of the waterway in the lower part of the city by 
the dumping of cinders and slag from the large iron works on the 
banks of the stream, and also encroachments by riparian owners, the 
upper portion of the city is liable to inundations. About nine miles 
above the city a dam had been thrown across the Little Conemaugh 
River many years ago for commercial purposes, but had been abandoned 
and the site with much surrounding property had been subsequently 
purchased by a sporting club, whose membership embraced some of 
the wealthiest citizens of Pennsylvania. These gentlemen were 
attracted by the picturesque scenery, and the hunting and fishing 
of the vicinity, and they spent thousands of dollars in improving 
and beautifying their holdings. The dam was raised to a height of 
over seventy feet and held an immense body of water covering many 
acres. 

This large mass of water was a constant source of fear to the in- 
habitants of the lower valleys, who were aware of the danger that 

(157) 



158 THK RED CROSS. 

threatened them ; and many protests were made against the continu- 
ance of the danger, but owing to the prominence of the owners of the 
dam, and the strong social and political influence they exerted, they 
remained unmolested in the possession of the monster that was to break 
its bounds and carry death and destruction in its pitiless pathway. 

A steady rainfall for several days in the latter part of May caused 
overflows in all the streams in western Pennsylvania, and much of the 
city of Johnstown was already under water to a depth of from two to 
ten feet, wlien suddenly the dam over the Little Conemaugh gave way, 
and its flood, resembling a moving mountain of water thirty feet high, 
was precipitated upon the doomed city. Numbers of the inhabitants, 
who had carried the fear of this disaster in their minds for years, 
had become so alarmed by the long continued rains, and the floods that 
were already upon them, took their families and fled to the high 
grounds on the hillsides. But the great majority of the people, 
who, though fully aware of the danger, had lived with it so long that 
they had become careless and indifierent, took no precautions whatever. 
These were overwhelmed by the tide almost without warning, and 
before they could seek safety were swept away. 

The number of lives lost will never be accurately known ; but in 
all probability it reached in the entire valley nearly five thousand. 
It is said that property to the amount of twelve millions of dollars was 
absolutely lost. 

It was at the moment of supreme affliction when we arrived at 
Johnstown. The waters had subsided, and those of the inhabitants 
who had escaped the fate of their fellows, were gazing over the scene 
of destruction and trying to arouse themselves from the lethargy that 
had taken hold of them when they were stunned by the realization of all 
the woe that had been visited upon them. How nobly they responded 
to the call of duty ! How much of the heroic there is in our people 
when it is needed ! No idle murmurings of fate, but true to the god- 
like instincts of manhood and fraternal love, they quickly banded 
together to do the best that the wisest among them could suggest. 

For five weary months it was our portion to live amid these scenes 
of destruction, desolation, poverty, want and woe; sometimes in tents, 
sometimes without; in rain and mud, and a lack of the commonest 
comforts, until we could build houses to shelter ourselves and those 
around us. Without a safe, and with a dry goods box for a desk, we 
conducted financial affairs in money and material to the extent of 
nearly half a million dollars. 

I shall never lose the memorj' of my first walk on the day of our 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 159 

arrival — the wading in mud, the climbing over broken engines, cars, 
heaps of iron rollers, broken timbers, wrecks of houses; bent rail- 
way tracks tangled with piles of iron wire; among bands of workmen, 
squads of military, and getting around the bodies of dead animals, 
and often people being borne away; — the smouldering fires and 
drizzling rain — all for the purpose of officially announcing to the com- 
manding general (for the place was under martial law) that the Red 
Cross had arrived on the field. I could not have puzzled General 
Hastings more if I had addressed him in Chinese; and if ours had 
been truly an Oriental mission, the gallant soldier could not have 
been more courteous and kind. He immediately set about devising 
means for making as comfortable as possible a "poor, lone woman," 
helpless, of course, upon such a field! It was with considerable difficulty 
that he could be convinced that the Red Cross had a way of taking care 
of itself at least, and was not likely to suffer from neglect. I don't 
believe he quite got over his mistrust until a week later, when 
carloads of lumber from Iowa and Illinois began to come in consigned 
to the president of the Red Cross. As this was the only lumber that 
had come, the military were constrained to "borrow" from us in 
order to erect quarters in which to entertain the Governor of the State 
on the occasion of his first visit. 

Our first duty was to study the situation and take up the line of 
relief as necessities developed and opportunities presented. Western 
Pennsylvania and Ohio had been " instant in season." Pittsburg had 
mainly provided for the survivors who were injured. Ohio had sent 
its troops under its eSicient Adjutant-General Axline ; and food, the 
first necessity, was literally pouring in from every available source. 

But the wherewithal to put and keep clothes upon this denuded 
city full of people, and something to sleep on at night was a problem ; 
and shelter for them, a present impossibility. The possible must be 
attempted. 

The first days brought in dispatches and letters to the amount of 
about a hundred a day, tendering sympathy, offering help, and giving 
notice of material and money sent. We were then living in tents and 
working literally night and day, some of us at work all the time. 

From one mammoth tent, which served as a warehouse, food and 
clothing were given out to the waiting people through the hands of 
such volunteer agents, both women and men, as I scarcely dare hope 
ever to see gathered together in one work again. The great cry which 
had gone out had aroused the entire country, and our old-time helpers, 
full of rich experience and still riclier love for the work, faithful to the 



i6o THK RKI) CROSvS. 

cross of humanity as the devotee to the cross of the Master, came up 
from every point — the floods, the cyclones, the battlefields — and kneel- 
ing before the shrine, pledged heart and service anew to the work. 
Fair hands laying aside their diamonds, and business men their cares, 
left homes of elegance and luxury to open rough boxes and barrels, 
handle second-hand clothing, eat coarse food at rough board tables, 
sleep on boxes under a dripping canvas tent, all for the love of humanity 
symbolized in the little flag that floated above them. 

Clergymen left their pulpits, and laymen their charge to tramp 
over the hillsides from house to house, find who needed and suffered, 
and to carry to them from our tents on their shoulders, like beasts of 
burden, the huge bundles of relief, where no beast of burden could 
reach. 

Let it not be supposed that all this was accomplished without per- 
plexity to someone. Goods came in from many sources of transport, 
five entries by freight and express requiring to be constantly watched ; 
for, strange to say, there is no work in which people grow more reck- 
less, selfish and jealous, than in the distribution of charities. Persons 
outside grew anxious that the receipt of goods was not acknowledged 
before they were received ; that checks were not drawn and returned 
before the bank safes were out of the mud ; and that houses were not 
built and the people living in them before it was possible to find a cleared 
spot for a little tent in which a workman could sleep at night. We 
finally found space, however, for the erection of a pine warehouse, fifty 
by one hundred and fifty feet in dimensions in the centre of the old 
town. The building was put up in four days, and, still in the rain, 
our accumulation of supplies was removed to it on the first of July. 

We had been early requested by official resolution of the Finance 
Committee of the city of Johnstown to aid them in the erection of 
houses. We accepted the invitation, and at the same time proposed 
to aid in furnishing the nucleus of a household for the homes which 
should in any way be made up. This aid seemed imperative, as 
nothing was left for them to commence living with, neither beds, 
chairs, tables, nor cooking utensils of any kind; and there were few if 
any stores open, and no furniture in town. 

It now became possible to more fully systematize the work; and a 
committee of Johnstown ladies of every denomination was formed, at 
our request, to receive the people and ascertain their greatest wants, 
which were carefully noted on printed blanks to be returned to us. 
These wants we undertook to fill without further trouble to the people 
themselves. 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 161 

The result of this committee's work was the written requests of 
three thousand families, aggregating eighteen thousand persons, to be 
served, in addition to two thousand others whom we had previously 
promised to help. 

The great manufacturers of the country, and the heavy contrib- 
uting agents, on learning our intentions, sent, without a hint from us, 
many of their articles, as for instance. New Bedford, Mass., sent 
mattresses and bedding; Sheboygan, Wis., sent furniture and enameled 
ironware; Titusville, Pa., with a population of ten thousand, sent 
ten thousand dollars' worth of its well-made bedsteads, springs, exten- 
sion tables, chairs, stands and rockers; and the well-known New York 
newspaper. The Mail aiid Express^ sent car loads of mattresses, 
feather pillows, bed-clothing, — sheets, and pillow slips by the thousand, 
and cooking utensils by the ten thousands. Six large teams were in 
constant service delivering these goods. 

When the contributions slackened or ceased, and more material 
was needed, we purchased of the same firms which had contributed, 
keeping our stock good until all applications were filled. The record 
on our books showed that over twenty-five thousand persons had been 
directly served by us. They had received our help independently and 
without begging. No child has learned to beg at the doors of the Red 
Cross. 

Meanwhile our building contracts were not neglected. It is to be 
borne in mind that the fury of the deluge had swept almost entirely 
the homes of the wealthy, the elegant, the cultured leaders of society, 
and the fathers of the town. This class who were spared, were 
more painfully homeless than the poor, who could still huddle in 
together. They could not go away, for the sujffering and demoralized 
town needed their care and oversight more than ever before. There 
was no home for them, nowhere to get a meal of food or to sleep. Still 
they must work on, and the stranger coming to town on business must 
go unfed, and return to Cressou at night, if he would .sleep, or, indeed, 
escape being picked up by the military guard. 

To meet these necessities, and being apprehensive that some good 
lives might go out under the existing lack of accommodations, it was 
decided to erect a building similar to our warehouse. The use of the 
former site of the Episcopal Church was generously tendered us by the 
bishop early in June, for any purpose we might desire. This house, 
which was soon erected, was known as the " Locust Street Red Cross 
Hotel ;" it stood some fifty yards from our warehouse, and was fifty by 
one hundred and sixteen feet in dimensions, two stories in height, 



102 THIv KKD CROSS. 

with lantern roof, built of hemlock, single siding, papered inside with 
heavy building paper, and heated by natural gas, as all our buildings 
were. It consisted of thirty-four rooms, besides kitchen, laundry, 
bath rooms with hot and cold water, and one main dining-hall and sit- 
ting room through the centre, sixteen feet in width by one hundred in 
length with second floor gallery. 

It was fully furnished with excellent beds, bedding, bureaus, 
tables, chairs and all needful housekeeping furniture. A competent 
landlady, who like the rest, had a few weeks before floated down over 
that same ground on the roof of her house in thirty feet of water five 
miles below the city, rescued in a tree top, was placed in charge, with 
instructions to keep a good house, make what she could, rent free, but 
charging no Johnstown person over twenty-five cents for a meal of 
food. 

This was the first attempt at social life after that terrible separation, 
and its success was something that I am very glad of. The house 
was full of townspeople from the first day, and strangers no longer 
looked in vain for accommodations. 

The conception of the need of this house, and the method of select- 
ing its inmates and the manner of inducting them into their new home, 
were somewhat unique and may be of interest to the reader. We had 
noticed among the brave and true men, who were working in the mud 
and rain, many refined looking gentlemen, who were, before this great 
misfortune carried away most of their worldly belongings, the wealthiest 
and most influential citizens. Never having had to struggle amid .such 
hardships and deprivations, their sufferings were more acute than those 
of the poorer and more hardy people; and it did not require any great 
foresight to know that they were physically incapable of such labor if 
prolonged, nor to predict their early sickness and death if they were 
not properly housed and fed. As the salvation of the town depended 
in a great measure upon the efforts of these men, it was vitally neces- 
sary that their lives should be preserved. Realizing all this, it occurred 
to us that the most important thing to do, next to feeding the hungry, 
was to provide proper shelter for these men and their families. The 
idea once conceived was soon put in the way of realization. 

It was decided that we should erect the house as quickly as pos- 
sible, furnish it completely, and when ready, invite the citizens to a 
reception within its hospitable walls. This arrangement was carried 
out, and a printed invitation was issued, of which the following is a 
facsimile: 



THK JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. ><')=; 



cJ^ c^^^ui^e- K^ t>'/>o^t 






-^cM- -O-s- r/z-xto* <vV^ ^X»*- 






o^#«**rf.-i 









J^. 



c-7i&i*^e--^«»'t c-?^*©--^** c-.SVrtf c-**-^ 



On the afteruoon of July 27, hundreds of citizens called on us and 
congratulations and good wishes were the order of the da)^ As the 
members of each family whom we had selected to occupy apartments 
in the house arrived, they were quietly taken aside and requested to 
remain and have dinner with us. After all the guests were departed 
except those who had been requested to remain, dinner was announced, 
and the party was seated by the members of the Red Cross. Beside 
the plate of each head of the family were laid the keys to an apartment, 
with a card inviting the family to take possession at once, and remain 
as long as they chose. 

I cannot describe the scene that followed ; there were tears and 
broken voices ; suffice to say, the members of that household were 



i66 THK RKD CROvSS. 

made happy and comfortable for many long months ; and I venture to 
assert that those now living recall those days with the fondest recol- 
lections. 

This revealed a want so great, that a second house of the same 
dimensions and qualities was erected just across the river, known as 
the " Kernville Red Cross Hotel." Another competent landlady was 
installed in charge, who had not only lost her home, but her beautiful 
daughter of twenty years. This house was also filled; and a fourth 
house of forty by one hundred feet was next built in the form of a 
block, the families living separately, for the accommodation of the 
working people of Woodvale, where no house was left. This was 
known as the " Red Cross Block," or " Woodvale House." 

There was no rent to pay for accommodations in this house, the 
only cost to the tenant being for fire, lights and living. 

Johnstown had neither a hospital nor an almshouse— never had, 
its poor being taken to Ebensville, twenty miles distant. Under 
ordinary circumstances this might do, but with the scant, poor homes 
of this winter we felt it to be unsafe, and saw that better provision 
should be made. Accordingly the use of some half-dozen unset portable 
houses, known as the " Oklahomas," was asked of the Flood Commis- 
sion, and erected adjoining our warehouse, as separate wards connected 
by a covered way, and provided with an adjoining house of eighteen 
by thirty feet, two stories high, for kitchen, dining, store, sleeping and 
living rooms for the use of the wards and attendants. These were all 
fully equipped and warmed for the accommodation of thirty patients, 
with the best of new outfit, and the hospital was known as the 
"Johnstown Infirmary." 

These things accomplished, there remained but one more danger 
to be guarded against. The citizens still had no organization of their 
own for the relief of their needy people through the coming winter, and 
no protection against any alarming report which might be sprung upon 
them. Any sensational writer could still, if he chose to, report two 
hundred cases of typhoid fever in Johnstown, alarming the whole 
country, with not a case of genuine typhoid there, and there were none 
to say him nay ; or that its people were freezing or starving, with 
nowhere the authority to correct the misstatement. This protection 
was needed, not alone for Johnstown, but the people at large as well. 

A few well-timed suggestions were sufiicient. The meetings were 
held in our house and some of the leading men and women of the city 
effected a permanent organization to be incorporated under the name 
of the " Benevolent Union of Conemaugh Valley." 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 167 

This completed, we had only to turn over to their hands, as the 
leaders of the town, our warehouse with its entire remaining stock, 
amounting to some thousands of dollars; the care of the infirmary; one 
of our trained clerks, with all papers and accounts of our relief work 
from the day of its inception; one of our experienced working men to 
handle transportation — to fit up for them large, warm rooms for winter 
use; give them our blessing; accept theirs in fullest measure; say good 
bye to them and to our faithful helpers, with heavy hearts and choking 
voices, and return to our home, bearing the record of a few months of 
faithful endeavor among a people as patient and brave as people are 
made, as noble and grateful as falls to the lot of human nature to be. 
Enterprising, industrious, and hopeful, the new Johnstown, phoenix- 
like, rose from its ruins more beautiful than the old, with a ceaseless 
throb of grateful memory for ev^ery kind act rendered, and every thought 
of sympathy given her in her great hour of desolation and woe. God 
bless her, and God bless all who helped save her ! 

We had employed during our sojourn in Johnstown a working force 
of fifty men and women, whom we had housed, fed and paid, with the 
exception of the volunteers who worked for the good they could do and 
would accept nothing. The means which we so largely handled came 
from everywhere; accounts were rendered for everything, and no word 
of business complication ever came to us. There never has in all our 
work. 

There was much to do in Johnstown after we left ; buildings to 
remove and property to care for when it had served its purpose and 
the ground became needed. But there is always a right time for any 
benevolent work to cease; a time when the community is ready to resume 
its own burdens, and when an offered charity is an insult to the honest 
and independent, and a degradation to the careless and improvident, 
tending to pauperize and make them an added burden on their better- 
minded fellow citizens. And then, the moment the tradesman is able 
to re-establish himself, he looks with jealous eyes on any agency that 
diverts possible business from his channels. Tiius it is not only wise hut 
just to all concerned to withdraw all gratuities from a people the instant 
they are able to gain even a meagre self-support. 

A rather curious circumstance, somewhat on the line of this reflec- 
tion, fell to our lot after leaving Johnstown. The houses that we had 
built and furnished were indispensable to the tenants during the winter, 
when there were no other houses to be had; but in the spring the city, 
rejuvenated, began to build up again, and we were notified that the 
land on which our large houses were standing was needed by the 



i68 THK RED CROSS. 

owners, who wished to use it for their own purposes, and they requested 
the Red Cross to remove its buildings. We promptly sent an agent to 
attend to the matter, and he began the work of vacating the premises. 
There was no hardship involved in this, as all the tenants were by this 
time in condition to pay rent, the relief fund of $r, 600,000 having been 
distributed among them in proportion to their losses, and there were 
houses that they could get; in a few days our houses were empty. 
Then a new factor entered into the situation. When it became gener- 
ally known that the Red Cross must remove these immense houses, 
and that a large quantity of lumber and house furnishings were to be 
disposed of, the self-interests of the dealers in those commodities were 
at once aroused, and they strongly protested against the gratuitous 
distribution of those articles among the people of Johnstown, asserting 
that the inhabitants were now prospering and had the means to buy 
everything they needed, and that a gift from us of any of these things 
would be an injustice to the honest traders who were trying to re-es- 
tablish themselves. 

We saw the justice of their objection and gave assurances that no 
injury should be done them, still to have fully conformed to their idea 
and transported the entire material to some other point, ^'ould have 
put the Red Cross to an amount of trouble and cost unjust to itself. 

I am not prepared to say that our quiet field agent in charge of 
the work did not find resting places for very much of this material in 
still needy homes, where it did no harm to any one and for which no 
one but the pitiful recipients were the wiser. 

Notwithstanding the fact that we took away from Johnstown as 
little material and furniture as was possible, after quietly disposing of 
the greater part of it, and this at an expense and inconvenience to our- 
selves which we could ill afford, there were those, who could not under- 
stand why we should take anythins; away ; and their unkind miscon- 
struction and criticisms have scarcely ceased echoing even to this late 
day. 

The paths of charity are over roadways of ashes; and he who 
would tread them must be prepared to meet opposition, misconstruc- 
tion, jealousy and calumny. Let his work be that of angels, still it 
will not satisfy all. 

There is always an aftermath of attempted relief where none is 
needed ; and more or less criticism of any work, for it is always so 
much easier to say how a thing ought to be done than it is to do it. 

These little unpleasantnesses, however, cannot deprive us of 
the thousand memories of gratitude, appreciation, and kindnesses 



THE JOHNSTOWN FI.OOD. 169 

exchanged, which were mutually needful and helpful; nor of the 
many lifelong friendships formed that will bless us all our days. 

I may perhaps be pardoned for (juoting a few lines from the official 
report of the Johnstown Flood Finance Committee, appointed by 
Governor Beaver, as showing how these gentlemen, the foremost men 
in the community, regarded our efforts to give them a helping hand: 



In this matter of sheltering the people, as in others of like importance, 
Miss Clara Barton, president of the Red Cross Association, was most helpful. At 
a time when there was a doubt if the Flood Commission could furnish houses 
of suitable character and with the requisite promptness, she offered to assume 
charge, and she erected with the funds of the association three large apartment 
houses which afforded comfortable lodgings for many houseless people. She 
was among the first to arrive on the scene of calamity, bringing with her Dr. 
Hubbell,the field oflicer of the Red Cross Association, and a staff of skilled assis- 
tants. She made her own organization for relief work in every form disposing 
of the large resources under her control with such wisdom and tenderness that 
the charity of the Red Cross had no sting, and its recipients are not Miss Bar- 
ton's dependents, but her friends. She was also the last of the ministering 
spirits to leave the scene of her labors, and she left her apartment houses for 
use during the winter, and turned over her warehouse, with its store of furni- 
ture, bedding and clothing and a well-equipped infirmary, to the Union Benevo- 
lent Association of the Conemaugh Valley, the organization of which she 
advised and helped to form ; and its lady visitors have so well performed their 
work that the dreaded winter has no terrors, mendicancy has been repressed, 
and not a single case of unrelieved suffering is known to have occurred in all 
the flooded district. 



The Johnstown Daily Tribune was one of the enterprising and 
reliable papers of the unfortunate city, which, though drowned 
out, would not stay dead, and insisted on "pulling itself together," 
and cheering the people along in their efforts to re-establi.sh their homes 
and their fortunes. On the eve of our departure the Tr/Y'/^;/!? published 
an editorial which we are fain to believe reflected the feelings of the 
people, and which was as follows: 

FARKWRLIv TO IMLSS BARTON. 



How shall we thank Miss Clara Barton and the Red Cross for the help they 
have given us? It cannot be done; and if it could, Miss Barton docs not want 
our thanks. She has simply done her duty as she saw it and received her pay 
— the consciousness of a duty performed to the best of her abilit}-. To see us 



,70 thp: rkd crOvSvS. 

upon our feet, struj4ji;liiig forward, helpiiij^ ourselves, caring for the sick and 
inflrni and ini])<)verished — that is enough for Miss Barton. Her idea has been 
fully worked out, all her plans accomplished. What more could such a woman 
wish? 

We cannot thank Miss Barton in words. Hunt the dictionaries of all lan- 
guages through and you will not find the signs to express our appreciation of 
her and her work. Try to describe the sunshine. Try to describe the starlight. 
Words fail, and in dumbness and silence we bow to the idea which brought her 
here. God and humanity ! Never were they more closely linked than in stricken 
Johnstown. 

Men are brothers! Yes, and sisters, too, if Miss Barton pleases. The first 
to come, the last to go, she has indeed been an elder sister to us — nursing, 
soothing, tending, caring for the stricken ones through a season of distress such 
as no other people ever knew — such as, God grant, no other people may ever 
know. The idea crystallized, put into practice. "Do unto others as you would 
have others do unto you." "Even as ye have done it unto the least of these, 
so also have ye done it unto Me!" Christianity applied. Nature appeased and 
satisfied. This has been Miss Barton's work, and nobly has she done it. 

Picture the sunlight or the starlight, and then try to say good-bye to Miss 
Barton. As well try to escape from yourself by runniNg to the mountains. "I 
go, but I return" is as true of her as of Him who said it. There is really no 
parting. She is with us, she will be with us always— the spirit of her work 
even after she has passed away. 

But we can say God bless you, and we do say it. Miss Barton, from the 
bottom of our hearts, one and all. 



Some bard, whose name I do not know, but whose sad, lovely 
words frequently recur to me, has commemorated the disaster of the 
Coneraaugh in the following beautiful poem, which, I think, is worthy 
of preservation: 

"THE DREAD CONEMAUGH. " 

I tarried in Conemaugh Valley 

One beautiful morning in spring. 
And loveliness mantled the mountains, 

The meadows and everything. 
The breezes were laden with odor 

Akin to the blossoming rose, 
And happiness brightened the faces 

Of people refreshed by repose. 

But death, the remorseless destroyer, 

Looked down on the valley, so green. 
Beheld the quaint homes on the hillsides, 

The towns nestled snugly between. 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. 171 

And, hungry for awful disaster, 

For grief, lamentation and tears. 
Death paused where a lake in the mountains 

Had shimmered untroubled for years. 

The water grew dark in his presence, 

Grew dark in the presence of death, 
And shrank from the terrible visage. 

Away from his poisonous breath. 
A tempest came forth in its fury 

And soon with an ominous flow 
The overcharged lake in the mountains 

riunged into the valley below. 

A rumble, a roar, and destruction 

Came down with the pitiless flood 
To stifle the cry of the wicked 

To silence the prayer of the good; 
Like straws in a bubbling cauldron 

These homes in the valley were tossed 
Away on the hurrying waters. 

Along with the dying and lost. 

There brother was taken from brother. 

The false were destroyed with the true. 
There lovers were torn from each other 

With never a parting adieu. 
Confusion wrought havoc so wanton 

That mercy grew deaf for a while. 
And beings, half demon, made merry 

On Conemaugh's funeral pile. 

But Heaven will surely remember 

The names of the noble who died 
To rescue their perishing brothers 

From death in that horrible tide. 
For some of the noblest heroes 

That ever calamity saw. 
Repose unintcrred in the valley 

Where wanders the dread Conemaugh. 



The incidents attending a field of relief — some pathetic and sor- 
ro'^ful, others laughable and ludicrous — so loom up in the memory 
v;hen the subject is opened, as almost to encumber the pen as one 
writes. Referring to our landlady at Locust Street Hotel, Mrs. Henrie, 
one recalls her wonderful experience during the night of the flood. 
By some means, entirely alone, she floated down the stream, not only 



I7J THH RKD CROSS. 

through Johnstown, but miles below in the darkness of the night, 
until some time next day perhaps she managed to stay herself in a 
tree-top, where she clung among the branches, her clothing torn from 
her in shreds during her struggle for life, until discovered and taken 
away. 

The family of Mr. John Tittle, one of the oldest, most respected 
and beloved in the town, floated clinging to the top of their house, 
without knowing that they were moving, but thought others were 
moving as they passed them ; until at length, fearing that Mrs. Tittle's 
strength and courage would fail, her husband joined hands with her 
firmly over the ridge-pole, and thus they hung on opposite sides of the 
roof through the long night. The courage and strength did often fail, 
and her pleading went out to her husband : " Oh, let us let go and 
end it, John ! We cannot escape ! I cannot endure it longer ! " to be 
answered by his words of hope and cheer and a tightened grasp on the 
aching wrists. At length, near morning, having reached the vicinity 
of Kernville, the house struck the bridge and remained stationary. 
One by one the inmates slid onto the bridge and gained the land on 
the Kernville side. 

They had left within the house, unable to be gotten out, the old, 
decrepit black mammy of a lifetime, the great silky-haired setter, 
" Rob," and the poll-parrot hanging in her cage. All had been trans- 
ferred, as the water rose, to the topmost peak of the attic, where they 
were left to their fate. The great bread-wagons of Pittsburg, with 
their sturdy policemen, were already there ; the dead and the living 
were being picked up together as they floated down. Some con- 
sciousness began to return to the dazed survivors, and at length it 
was thought safe to attempt an entrance to the Tittle mansion, still 
floating at the bridge. 

On gaining the attic, this picture as described at the time, presented 
itself: the water had never quite reached it; Poor, old mammy sat in 
the highest corner, with hands clasped, her chin resting on her knees, 
and her lips muttering her woes and her prayers ; long-eared, silky- 
haired " Rob," no longer a " setter " at least, bounding and roaring a 
welcome that required physical strength to resist; and "poll," her 
cage topsy-turvy, striding about the floor, with an air of offended 
dignity, hungry and cross, said " she had had a devil of a time." 

During one of the early days Mr. K., a citizen of the town, came 
into my tent, bringing with him another man — tall, firmly knit, dark 
visaged, with hair tangled and matted, and still the bearing of a man 
if not a gentleman. On introducing his companion, Mr. K. said that 



THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. i;^ 

he had been exceedingly unfortunate, and he had brought him to me 
to see if anything could be done for him. " I hoped so," and turned 
to inquire what was most needed. " Had he a family ; did they want 
food, or clothing? Had he little children?" His face grew darker 
still and his frown deeper, as at length, in a tone approaching contempt, 
he replied: "No; I don't want anything jj/^z^ can give; you have 
nothing for me." I had still the courage to persevere, and added, 
"What would you have me do, if I could do it ? " Again a silence 
and a mental struggle that shook his whole frame, as he half hissed 
between clenched teeth, " Let me look on the face of one dead child ;" 
and rushing from the tent, he disappeared from me forever. 

He had had five motherless children, for whom he toiled early and 
late in the great Cambria Iron Mills. The flood swept his little home 
before he could reach it, and every child was lost. He had wandered 
about the river banks, watched the receding waters, dug in the sands 
for the little bodies hidden beneath, until reason had given way — till 
even God seemed cruel and mankind weak idiots. 



1/4 



TIIK RICD CROSS. 

















^p. jtuu-u-^rv ^•yij/JvV;'^ ai^u^e^^-nr 















H^l» 




Executed and presented to Clara Barton by one of the Johnstown sufferers. . 
A PEN MEMORIAL TO CLARA BARTON BY ONE OF THE JOHNS- 
TOWN FLOOD SUFFERERS, MR. J. F. DRURY. 




THE RUSSIAN FAMINE, 

1891-1892. 

O properly understand the Russian Famine of 1891-92. 
WW and the rehef work of the Red Cross connected there- 
^^O with, one needs to keep in mind the ordinary moral and 



economic condition of the Russian peasantry. They 
were, many of them, not long ago serfs attached to the 
land in a condition but little better than American slaves. 
Though the liberation of the serfs made their legal con- 
dition better, it left them in condition scarcely less dis- 
couraging than before. They were subject to all the disabilities of 
hard bargains on every side, from the exactions of taxes levied in one 
way or another, and payable in services or goods, all of which called 
for an ever increasing sacrifice. They were subject to onerous military 
service, and penal exactions for violations of the law. These condi- 
tions surrounded them with an atmosphere of depressing poverty, fear 
and hopeless endurance, if not of despair. They have not felt the 
stimulating habitual influence of hope, of courage, of enterprise. They 
are not educated to surmount discouragements by overcoming them. 
Difiiculties do not down easily before them ; they go down before diffi- 
culties and disasters in something like apathetic despondency, or live 
in an amazing light-hearted, careless recklessness that easily turns to 
drink, to idleness, weakness, disease and early death. Fear is with 
them always, as if fate was over and against them. 

The climate of Russia is cold in winter, and the means of cooking 
and artificial warmth are scanty, and not easily procured at any time ; 
thus, when the famine really came upon them, observers were divided 
in opinion whether the famine, or fear of famine, or of something 
worse, destroyed or paralyzed these people the more. 

The harvest yields of 1889 and 1890 had been much less than an 
average, and at the beginning of 1891 but little of the old supplies cf 
grain was left over. The harvest of 1891 was nearly a total failure 
throughout a vast region in central Russia extending from Moscow, 
roughly speaking, say, three hundred miles in a northeasterly direction 
over a plain eight hundred to a thousand miles in width, beyond the 
Ural Mountains, and some distance into Siberia in Asiatic Russia — a 
district of nearly a million square miles. Ordinarily this is the most 

(175) 



i;6 Tin-: RHD CROSS. 

productive part of the Empire, upon which the remainder of the 
country had been accustomed to dravv for food supplies in the frequent 
cases of deficiency elsewhere. The appearance of the country is similar 
to our prairie States in the early days before the growth of the planted 
trees ; and the soil is a rich, black loam that usually produces good 
harvests. 

It was estimated by those best qualified to judge that from thirty 
to thirty-five millions of people were sufferers by the famine of 1891. 

Count Tolstoi on the Character of the Peasants. 

Count Tolstoi gave up his whole time to mitigating the suffering 
caused by this great disaster, and to understanding the situation 
broadly. He went into the homes of the people, and studied their 
needs sympathetically; he placed himself by their side, and with his 
dramatic instinct understood them, ascertained where the hurt was 
felt, and how it could be cured, if it could be cured at all. 

At that time the Count wrote of these poor, unfortunates: "I 
asked them what sort of a harvest they had had, and how they 
were getting along; and they replied in a blithe, off"-hand manner: 
'Oh, right enough, God be praised!" And yet these people 
who reside in the most distressed districts of the government of 
Toula, cannot possibly live through the winter, unless they bestir them- 
selves in tijue. They are bound to die of hunger, or some disease 
engendered by hunger, as surely as a hive of bees left to face the 
rigors of a northern winter, without honey or sweets, must perish 
miserably before the advent of spring. The all-important question, 
therefore, is this : Will they exert themselves while yet they possess 
the strength, if, indeed, it be not already wholly exhausted ? Every- 
thing that I saw or heard pointed with terrible distinctness to a negative 
reply. One of these farmers had sold out the meagre possessions 
which he could call his own, and had left for Moscow to work or beg. 
The others stayed on and waited with naive curiosity watching for what 
would happen next, like children, who, having fallen into a hole in the 
ice, or lost their way in a dense forest and not realizing at first the 
terrible danger of their situation, heartily laugh at its unwontedness." 

"Unless they bestir themselves in time" — what a text is this ! 
They are all the time overborne by the apathy of fear, of unused 
powers, of suppression and depression. Courage, hope, enterprise to 
bestir themselves, where will they come from ? Not, surely, from fear, 
and more discouragement. 



THE RUvSSIAN FAMINE. 177 

The Beginning ok the American Relief. 

The work of the American National Red Cross in the Russian 
famine of 1891-92 was comparatively less than in some others of the 
conspicuous fields in which it had done its work. The impulse to help 
in the work of that relief sprang up simultaneously in many American 
hearts and homes, in New York, in Philadelphia, in Minnesota and 
Iowa. In Iowa it took the form of a veritable crusade for a most holj-' 
cause; beginning in the fervid and indomitable spirit of Miss Alice 
French — the " Octave Thanet " of literature — it quickly enlisted Mr. 
B. F. Tillinghast, editor of the Dave7iport Democrat, who became its 
director-in-chief and organizing force, everywhere organizing it, and 
promoting it in every direction and in every form. The movement 
was taken up by the women of Iowa, and Governor Boies became 
a prime mover, till the whole State at last joined in a triumphal 
march bearing corn, God's best gift to man, to the Atlantic coast in a 
procession of two hundred and twenty-five carloads, exceeding five 
hundred bushels in each car. The corn was consigned to Clara 
Barton in New York and reached her agents there without accident or 
delay. 

The American National Red Cross had authentic intelligence of 
the famine in Russia before it had attracted general attention ; it had 
placed itself in communication with the Secretary of State, the Honor- 
able James G. Blaine, and the Russian Charge d' Affairs at Wash- 
ington, Mr. Alexander Gregor, and had ascertained that Russia would 
gladly receive any donations of relief that the people of America 
might send to her famine stricken people. Not only would they 
receive supplies, but would send their ships for them, and provide inland 
transportation from Russian ports to the destitute people for whom 
these benefactions were intended. America declined to allow her 
suffering sister nation to cross the seas to get this food, and quickly 
arranged to carry it to her. All the American agencies concerned in 
this movement met it in the noblest spirit ; railroad companies gave 
free transportation, telegraph companies the free use of wires, brokers 
and steamship agents declined their usual commissions, and some 
insurance companies even gave premiums for the safe delivery of the 
precious cargo into the hands of the starving people. 

Congress had been appealed to for ocean transportation, and the 
Senate had voted a liberal appropriation, but the bill was defeated in 
the House of Representatives. Then the citizens of Washington took 
up the matter and were joined by the Society of Elks, one of the 



178 THE RKD CROSS, 

noblest of our benevolent orders, ever ready to join in any good cause 
for humanity ; and funds to charter a steamship to carry the cargo 
to Russia were soon raised and placed in the hands of the Red Cross. 

The sentiment that roused and sustained this great movement on 
the part of the people of America was a mingled one of sympathy for 
starving Russian peasants, and gratitude for timely moral help of the 
Russian navy in years gone by. 

Was it accident or design that chose the British steamship " Tyne- 
head " to carry this material expression of American sympathy and 
gratitude and enabled the president of the American National Red 
Cross, on the deck of a British vessel, in presence of the American 
people, to say that, " these tributes of America to Russia in her hour 
of temporary distress were not to be counted as gifts, for they had 
been richly earned; not even accounted as loans, for they had been 
anticipated a hundred fold in an hour of our own peril — far greater, 
God grant, than Russia may ever know. They were not even the 
principal of a great national debt; but a tithe of the interest long due, 
and joyously acknowledged — acknowledged there under the triple 
shadow of the three great flags floating above, blending now in their 
mighty folds the finest, purest attributes of God's holy gifts to man, 
peace, love and charit}'." 

Mr. Tillinghast, in describing the scene of the departure of the 
" Tynehead " from New York, at which the above quoted words were 
spoken, said: " Captain Carr, a brave man and a Briton, who had been 
tossed b}'^ the waves from the Indian Ocean to the Bay of Fundy, was 
for a moment speechless. The hardy sailors about him bowed, and 
their eyes moistened. There was not a man on that ship who had ever 
before been charged with the delivery of such a cargo." 

A tug hauled the ship out into the river at high tide. She was 
greeted by saluting whistles of passing ferries, yachts and steamers, 
by waving flags and cheers from thousands. The "Tynehead" was 
headed for the long voyage to the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic on the 
shores of Russia. 

Dr. Hubbell, representative of the Red Cross to the international 
conference of the Red Cross to be held at Rome, and authorized to 
proceed to Riga and receive and distribute with the Russian Red Cross 
this gift of Iowa, was already on his ocean voyage and ready to do his 
part in this beautiful blending of international courtesies and services 
that it is the mission of the Red Cross to devise and to carry out where- 
ever it can make or find the fitting opportunity. Dr. Hubbell arrived 
on time at Riga and will further on state the facts about the distribution 
of the cargo. 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 179 

It must not be thought that the Russian government or people 
were indiflferent to the sufferings of their fellow countrymen during 
this great misfortune, or that they made no sufficient eff^ort to meet 
their needs or relieve their sufferings. The question has often been 
asked : " While America was so active in this charity, what was the 
government of Russia doing for its unfortunates ?" Perhaps this query 
is best answered by quoting from the official report of the American 
Ambassador at St. Petersburg, the Hon. Charles Emory Smith, to his 
government, which was written at that time, and says: 

In the presence of this national disaster the Russian government has not been 
passive. Without reviewing the administrative system, it must be said that it }ias 
sought to grapple in liberal measures with the tremendous problem. Before the 
first of March, 1892, it had appropriated one hundred and fifty million rubles or 
seventy-five million dollars for this purpose, and the direct outlay by June can 
hardl}^ be less than two hundred million rubles. Besides this, taxes have been 
remitted, and work has been furnished where practicable. Vast quantities of 
grain have been bought and brought from the rich fields of the Caucasus, though, 
with the limited means of communication and the loss of horses, it has been 
difficult to convey it to the regions remote from the railroads. Large public 
works, employing hundreds of thousands of men, have been undertaken. The 
forests of the imperial domain have been opened to the peasants for fuel. The 
proprietary class have, as a rule, in this emergency, proved worthy of their posi- 
tions and responsibilities. There are single families taking care of as many as 
twenty thousand people. The women, especiall}-, have come forward with a 
consecration and self-sacrifice which commands admiration. 

I*" it were not invidious or indelicate many cases might be cited of ladies of 
gentle birth who have left their homes, braved the dangers of disease, faced the 
hardships of an unaccustomed and trying life, and given up weeks and months to 
the feeding of the hungry and ministering to the sick. One thing ought in fair- 
ness to be said. The Emperor has been published abroad as indifferent. It is 
only just to remark that this peculiar kind of indifference has been manifested 
not merely in a vigorous direction of the later governmental operations of relief, 
even to the summary dismissal of inefficient agents; but in gifts from his private 
purse, which, if the belief of St. Petersburg can be accepted, amount to fifteen or 
twenty times all the contributions of all the world outside of Russia. 

Ambassador Smith estimates that the American donations sup- 
ported more than seven hundred thousand people for a month. This 
may be accepted as the result of their practical work for humanity. 

From the above report it will be seen that the distress was so exces- 
sive and widespread that even the available resources of so great an 
empire as Russia were sorely taxed in the endeavor to succor its famish- 
ing people; and that its people of all classes rose nobly to the work of 
the occasion. 



i8o THE RIU) CROSS. 

Al'PRKCIATIOX Ul' AmKKICAN SYMPATHY. 

That the substantial sympathy of the American people was fully 
appreciated by the Russian people may be gathered from what follows. 
The mayor of St. Petersburg, in an address on behalf of that city to 
American donors, declared: 

The Russian people know how to be fjrateful. If up to this day these two 
great counlries, Russia and the United States, have not onlj- never quarreled, but 
on the contrary, wished each other prosperity and strength always, these feelings of 
sympathy shall grow only stronger in the future — both countries being conscious 
that, in the season of trial for either it will find in the other cordial succor and 
support. And when can true friendship be tested if not in the hour of misfortune? 

A peasant of Samara sent to a Russian editor, together with three 
colored eggs, a letter which he a.sked to have forwarded to America. 
It appeared in the Cejihny Magazine. Here is an extract: 

Christ is risen! To the merciful benefactors, the protectors of the poor, the 
feeders of the starving, the guardians of the orphans — Christ is risen! North 
Americans! May the Lord grant you a peaceful and long life and prosperity in 
your land, and ma}' your fields give abundant harvests — Christ is risen. Your 
mercifulness gives us a helping hand. Through your charity you have satisfied the 
starving. And for your magnificent alms accept from me this humble gift which I 
send to the entire American people for your great beneficence, from all the hearts 
of the poor, filled with feelings of joy. 

Count Bobrinskoy, writing officially to' the secretary of the Iowa 
Russian Famine Relief Commission, used these words: 

It gives me very great pleasure indeed to express to you the sincere apprecia- 
tion that the Ru.ssian people entertain toward the splendid work organized in 
America for the relief of the sufferers in our famine-stricken districts. I can assure 
that the same deep gratitude is felt, not only b}' the poor who have received the 
generous American contributions, but also by us all, who, having worked for this 
relief, know how much it was needed. I know by Dr. Hubbell how great was the 
activity of your peoples as well as that of Miss Clara Barton in sending us the 
"Tynehead," and how much you have done in the interests of our people. The 
names of "Indiana," "Missouri," " Conemaugh," "Tynehead" and "Leo" 
will always remind us of the most beautiful example of international charity and 
fraternal love that history has perhaps ever mentioned. 

On the first anniversary of the arrival of the Iowa ship, " Tyne- 
head," at Riga, there was a significant event in Philadelphia. The 
Russian man-of-war, the " Dimitre Donskoi," the flagship of the North 
Atlantic vSquadron, anchored in the Delaware River. The vessel was 
decorated with flags and the officer of the day was the Grand Duke 




COUNT LYOF NIKOLAYIiVITCII TOLSTOY 



THE RUvSSIAN FAMINE. 183 

Alexander. By special invitation of this representative of the Czar, 
Dr. Hubbell and the nine other American commissioners, wlio went to 
Russia in behalf of the donors were present on board. They were 
received with the most impressive honors. The Czar had sent gifts by 
his officer, and the presentations were made in the name of his majesty, 
under the imperial flags. A large open trunk contained ten boxes of 
polished wood, and each of these was inscribed : " In remembrance of 
your visit to Russia." Accompanying each was a letter expressive of 
his majesty's gratitude. The tokens were all magnificent specimens 
of Russian art work in silver. 

The Department of State at Washington, under date of January 
II, 1894, issued the following information: 

On November 7, 1893, the United States Minister at St. Petersburg received from 
the nobility of that city, through their marshal, Count Alexis Bobrinskoy, an 
address to the people of the United States. This address, which is in the English 
language, embodies, in terms fitly chosen, the thanks of the Russian people to the 
American for the aid sent to their country from our own during the famine periods 
of the past two years ; it is beautifully engrossed and its illumination embraces 
water-color drawings, which render it a most attractive work of art. The docu- 
ment, which is superbly bound and enclosed in a fine case, was duly forwarded to 
this city by Minister White, and will be given a conspicuous place in the library of 
this department. 

The following is the Text of the Testimonial from the Nobility of 
;'; int rctc.sburg tu the People of the United States: 

In the annals of Russia for 1892, painful though the memory be, history will 
point out many a bright and joyous page scattered throughout the Empire, on 
which will be written in letters of gold the beautiful story of brotherly love as 
exemplified by the good people of the United States of America. 

Hardly had human voices been heard calling for bread in certain governments 
of Russia, that had suffered from drought, hail, and untimely frost, ere that 
friendly people across the Atlantic, moved by an earnest desire to help the afflicted 
and to feed the hungry, collected from every state in the Union, as if by one accord, 
shipload after shipload of corn, and dispatched them, one after the other, on their 
errand of mercy and relief. 

Deejjly grateful for such evident signs of evangelical feeling and interest, the 
Assembly of Noljles of the govcrnuient of vSt. Petersburg, as representatives of the 
intellectual class in Russia, has resolved to express their warm and heartfelt grati- 
tude to those friendly people who form the great nation of the United States of 
America. 

May the Lord bless and keep all those kind-hearted Americans, men, women 
and children, who took part in that great and good work of charity, and may the 
Hand that giveth unto us all, reward them bountifully, and ever keep them from a 
like misfortune. 

(Signed.) The Marshal of the Nobility of St. Petersburg, 

Count Alexis Bohrinskoy. 



i84 THE RKD CROSS. 

Previous to receiving this beautiful tribute, on the arrival of the 
S. S. " Indiana " from Philadelphia while not connected with the Red 
Cross work, a similar artistic tribute to American donors was presented 
by the workmen of Libeau to rej^resent the sentiment of the workmen 
of Russia, we introduce it as an additional illustration of the universal 
sentiment of tender sympathy and gratitude of the Russian people. 

Dr. Hubbell's Report. 

Arrived in St. Petersburg. It would be a week or ten days before 
we could expect the arrival of the " Tynehead," with its cargo for the 
famine sufferers; but we had a copy of her manifest and knew what 
she would bring. 

There was something of anxiety, amounting even to consternation, 
among those who would have to do with the reception of the ship, for 
reports from the United States had been circulated that persons were 
ou board the vessel who were objectionable, if not avowed enemies to 
the Russian government, and such could not be recognized nor received. 
This concern could not easily be dispelled until it was made clear that 
no one was aboard the "Tynehead" save its own officers and crew. 
Elaborate ceremonies had been held on the arrival of the other relief 
ships and were contemplated for the " Tynehead." This we did not 
want, and took occasion to express the feelings of the Red Cross and 
of American donors in a letter acknowledging courtesies extended 
from the president of the Russian Red Cross affording opportunities 
to visit its various institutions, and particularly the regular working 
departments, in its clinics, dispensaries, hospitals and training for 
active service in civil as well as military field work. 

St. Petersburg, May ^, 1892. 
To His Excellency, General, de Kauffmann, 

President of the Red Cross of Russia: 

Honored President : — I desire to express my thanks for the courtesies and 
the privilege of becoming acquainted with the every day practical work of the 
Red Cross of Russia as shown by the kindness of your secretaries. 

Nowhere have I seen more complete, comfortable and generous provision for 
the general care of the sick poor than here in the institutions of the Red Cross 
and under its work. 

And there can be no doubt that the practical experience that the workers are 
receiving daily will greatly increase their efficiency for service in time of war. 

It will be a source of pleasure to make a report to the American Red Cross of 
the practical work of the Russian Society in time of peace. 

Regarding the arrival of the cargo of the ship "Tynehead," I trust your 
'.xcellency has already understood by our Charge d'Affairs, Mr. Wurts, that no 



THK RUSvSIAN FAMINE. 1S5 

public demonstrations have been nor are desired. This cargo is largely from the 
people of an agrictdtural Stale, many of whom have sufTercd from failure of crop? 
in their own country, and thus keenly appreciate similar conditions that others 
may suffer when such a vast territory as the interior of the Russian Kmpire is 
denied rain season after season in succession ; and they have simply taken this 
method of expressing their sympathy, for it is their custom to give in like manner 
in their own country whenever occasions of calamity or suffering of any kind require 
the aid of outside help At this particular time they feel that perhaps the same rains 
that had been withheld from their brothers in Russia had given the increase to 
their own crops, which have been unusually abundant the past year ; and thus 
added dut^y to desire. Moreover, there is a deep brotherly feeling throughout the 
nation ; for our people never forget that Russia has always been the friend of 
America. 

And further, the arrangements of your various committees in the matter of 
distribution leave nothing to be desired, and that the final reports will afford great 
pleasure and satisfaction to those who have them to make, there is every reason to 
believe. With great respect, 

J. B. HUBBELL, 

General Field Agent American Red Cross 
in charge cargo " TyneheadJ'* 



The following is General Kauffmann's answer : 



St. Petkrsburg, May \\, 1892. 
J. B. HuBBETX, M. D., General Field Agent, American Red Cross: 

Much Honored Sir: — I am eager to express to you herewith my most sincere 
thankfulness for the sympathetic account of the activity of the Russian Red Cross So- 
ciety, which you have been so kind to give in your letter of the eighth May current. 
You have had the occasion topersuadeyourself of the common direction between the 
Russian and American Societies of the Red Cross, by which the help to our fellow 
creatures is not restricted to the relief of suffering in time of war, but is extended 
to all the calls of national calamities, from the gratuitous medical treatment of the 
poor to the large help afforded in time of epidemic disease, famine and other 
calamities. It is to me a great pleasure to see the sympathy of the American people 
to the Russian, the proof of which has been in the last years so evident. As you 
are instructed by the American Red Cross to express this feeling of sympathy to 
our society, I beg you to believe the heartfelt expressions of the like feeling from 
our side, which I pray to present in our name to ypur society and to the people of 
the United States. 

The gift brought by the " Tynehead " will be accepted with deep gratitude and 
distributed among the needy people, according to the wish of the givers, through 
the offices of the beneficent committee under the august presidency of His Imperial 
Majesty the Heir to the Crown. 

I avail myself of the present occasion to pray you to accept the assurance of 
my perfect consideration. 

The president of the Russian Red Cross Society, 

M. de Kaukfmann. 



i86 THE RKD CROSS. 

Through the help of Mr. Wurts of our legation; our Consul-Gen- 
eral, Dr. Crawford ; Count Bobrinskoy, representing the Russian Red 
Cross, and the Government, as well as the Czarowitch Committee; and 
through the active help of Mr. \V. H. Hilton, an Knglishman at the 
head of the large linseed oil works, deacon in the Anglo-American 
Church, whose thirty years' business acquaintance over Eastern Russia 
and his sympathy with a people in distress, particularly fitting him for 
the work; with these agencies the assignment of the cargo was arranged 
to be sent to eighty-two famine centres for distribution. It was to be 
consigned to persons of unquestioned integrity and fitness for the work. 
These people had been communicated with, and theiracceptanceof the 
charge assured, and the number of carloads that each should receive 
made known to each, that he might make the necessary provision for 
its reception and distribution. Count Bobrinsko)^ had ordered 320 
freight cars to be in readiness at Riga to receive and transport the cargo 
free of cost to whatever point might be desired. When these prelimin- 
ary arrangements had been completed and the " Tynehead " sighted 
from the signal station, we started in company with Count Bobrinskoy 
for Riga, the port that had been previously selected by the Russian 
Ambassador in Washington as being free from ice and most favorable 
for transporting the cargo to the interior. 

The "Tynehead" was a big ship, one of the largest ocean freighters, 
and came too heavily loaded to enter the harbor until her cargo had 
been partly discharged by lighters, and she anchored eight miles from 
the port. The governor's ship, having on board his excellency, 
M. Znovief ; Count Bobrinskoy, representative of the Czarovitch Com- 
mittee; N. von Cramer, representing the Red Cross of Russia; R. Ker- 
kovius, president of the Exchange of Riga; von Richer, chief of police; 
von Keldermann, chief of customs; von Nagel, captain of the port; 
N. P. Bornholdt, United States consul, and J. B. Hubbell steamed an 
hour down the river to welcome the " T^'nehead," which had all flags 
and streamers flying and by the activity of our consul, Mr. Bornholdt, 
the lighters already lying alongside to take in the grain. After an hour 
on board the captain was brought back in the governor's ship on which 
we lunched, and later dined at the governor's palace, where the captain 
was presented with a beautiful tea service of Russian enamel inlaid 
work as a present f:om the Czar. 

It was arranged that two lines of cars be kept on the dock, into 
which the grain should be carried direct from the ship, which lay along- 
side the wharf As soon as a car was filled it was shifted, weighed 
and sealed, and when enough were filled they were made into trains 



THK RUSSIAN FAMINE. 187 

and sent to their destinations with right of way over every other traffic 
on the road, not excepting express and passenger trains; and at their 
destination no person presumed to break the seal save the one to whom 
it was consigned. 

When we reached Riga, we learned that two hundred and forty 
peasants had been waiting on the dock two days, waiting and waiting 
for the ship from America. Not waiting for food, for Riga was not in a 
famine province, but waiting that they might not miss the opportunity 
and the honor of imloadiiig the American ship that had brought food to 
Iheir unfortunate brothers in the interior. As soon as they could get 
into the hold of the ship, one hundred and forty of them began the un- 
loading. They worked night and day, without rest, determined to unload 
the entire cargo themselves without help. But on the third night our con- 
sul, Mr. Bornholdt, insisted on their having a relief of twelve hours, and 
when the twelve hours were up they were all in their places again, and 
remained until the cargo was out, declining to take any pay for their 
labor. Twelve women worked along with them, in the same spirit, in 
the ship and on the dock, with needles, sewing up the rents in the bags 
to prevent waste in handling. 

Only a part of the " Tynehead's " cargo was in bags; hence for 
convenience and economy in handlnig and the final distribution, we 
purchased in St. Petersburg and Riga 43,000 additional bags to sack 
the rest of the cargo, which in all amounted to nearly 117,000 bushels 
of shelled corn, 11,033 bags of flour and meal, besides small amounts 
of wheat, rye, bacon, canned goods, drugs, etc., requiring 307 Russian 
freight cars for its transportation. Some of this was reshipped on 
steamboats sent up the headwaters of the Volga, reshipped again on 
cars nearly to the foot of the Ural Mountains, a distance of 3,000 miles 
from Riga. Notwithstanding our declaration while in St. Petersburg 
that neither the Red Cross nor the American people desired any public 
ceremonies in the way of acknowledgments: dinners, excursions and 
public demonstrations and illuminations were planned, which we felt 
ourselves obliged to decline on the ground we had first taken, that any 
effort and any money proposed to be used in this manner would be most 
acceptable to all Americans if turned into food for the hungry, whom 
we had come to help. 

At our hotel the Russian and American colors were crossed over 
the entrance; in the shop windows were the American colors, and in 
other places, where it seemed that these were not easily procured, 
title-pagesof American sheet-music were displayed — such as "America," 
"Hail Columbia," " Yankee Doodle, " "Star-Spangled Banner," etc., 



i88 Till-: RI-:!) CROSS. 

and little ooys in the streets carried American flags of their own make. 
One little fellow had made the Russian flag on one side and the 
American on the other side of his device. The telephone office was 
kept open all night, to be ready for any possible want, and the loco- 
motive with steam up for any possible service. The Custom House 
floated on its main staff only the American flag during the entire 
time of the unloading of the "Tynehead," from Saturday morning 
until Tuesday noon — three days and a-half. When all was finished at 
Riga, the last train on its way, all had been so well planned, so well 
done in every particular that we felt there was not the least necessity 
for any further attention on our part in looking after this charge. But 
to the donors at home Russia was a long way off"; they had no per- 
sonal knowledge of the people they were trying to help, and some 
critics had circulated misgivings about the gifts reaching their intended 
destination. Hence, that we might be prepared to give a report from 
personal observation for the satisfaction and the gratification of the 
people at home, who had contributed these stores, it was decided to see 
how some of the final distributions were made. 

Our first objective point in the famine district was the Province of 
Nijni Novgorod. But we must go by Moscow, where by the cour- 
tesy of Count Bobrinskoy a telegram was received, stating that his 
brother would pass through the city to the famine district, and his 
company could be made available, if desired. Such an opportunity was 
not to be lost, and our course is changed to the south, first by rail 
to Bogorodizk, thence by droschky to Michailovskoi, to the house 
of Shestoparoff", manager of the beet sugar mills of the Bobrinskoys. 
Here the home taste and appearance of everything inside make one feel 
as if he were in his own New England home, although not a word 
of English is heard. After breakfast the next morning we go to the 
distributing station, which is supported by the Bobrinskoy family in 
one of the sugar mill buildings. Here we find the doctor, the baker, 
the soupmaker, several of the first ladies of the place, great cauldrons 
of excellent soup, tea, milk. Nestle' s food, rye and corn bread — the 
tea and milk are for the sick and for the children — and the doctor, who 
is familiar with every family, directs who shall receive and what- The 
bread and the soup are served on regular account, the houses and 
families all having been visited and the condition of each carefully 
recorded. As soon as one is able in part to care for himself the bread is 
sold at a moderate price. 

A number of villages are supplied from this bakery and kitchen, 
and this is but one of nine carried on by this family entirely at their 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 189 

own expense. In the afternoon we visit different villages, some twenty- 
houses or more. We find two Red Cross nurses from Moscow, who 
are at work and have their home with the peasants. In four months 
one has lost but four cases ; the other but two ; and the average 
number of sick in the past four months by the doctor's report is three 
hundred. The peasants say they would rather do without the doctor 
than be without the nurses in the village. 

The peasants' home consists of one or two square rooms, built of 
logs, stone, or mud bricks, with floor of earth, and furniture of boards. 
One quarter of the room is given up to the brick oven, which is so con- 
structed that it ser^-es not only for a stove, oven, cupboard, and bed in 
cold weather, but the chickens and small animals find protection from 
the cold underneath during the severe cold weather. Usually a large 
horizontal pipe of terra cotta passes overhead and out through a 
thatched roof of straw, which is often two feet thick. The fuel may be 
wood, straw, or dry dung; fuel is scarce. A deep cellar, well covered, 
outside, may hold potatoes, roots, etc. The cattle and other animals 
find shelter in a room adjoining the family. At Bogorodizk another 
royal family, in addition to work similar to the above named, supplied 
the peasants with raw material for spinning, weaving and making of 
native goods and garments both for themselves and for the market, 
which the countess found either at home or by sending them to the 
larger cities. Through letters of introduction we had the good fortune 
to find Count Tolstoi on his estate at Yasnia Polonia. 

When the count was asked his opinion of the cause of the exist- 
ing conditions, he said the government might not like to have him 
say that the peasants should have more land and own it themselves — 
that now they have only enough in the best seasons to give barel}^ food 
for their support, and when a year of scarcity comes, they cannot help 
being destitute. When asked if there had been improvement in their 
conditions since the emancipation, he said if that meant in the way of 
property, financially, no, but mentally there had been progress and 
development. 

One of the first questions Count Tolstoi asked was, ' ' What do you 
think of most? I would excuse him for such a question; but he 
always liked to get into sympathy with the person he was talking with 
and to know how to understand him. What subjects occupied ray 
mind most when going to sleep? " etc. 

At night I slept in the library surrounded by English and Ameri- 
can books and magazines. 

When asked about the demoralizing effect of giving free help to 



IQO 



THE RIvD CROSS. 



the peasants, as said by many, he thought that an excuse of those who 
did not want to help. The peasant was never so unhappy as when out 
of work and had nothing to do. Even a day's idleness was tiresome to 
him, and he did not think that a people who had been worked to their 
full endurance for a generation were going to be demoralized by giving 
them soup when they were hungry. 

Peasants were coming at all hours of the day to see the count. 
At dinner time two had been waiting several hours. The Count let 
the dinner go on, and stopped to read a long paper they had brought; 
read it through carefully; had a long talk with them; unfolded the 
paper again to look over passages more carefully; after further talk he 
read again, and told me after they were gone, for I remained with hira, 
that they were having a law suit and had come to hira for advice, and 
so far as he could judge, the peasants were in the right. 

When I bade him good-bye he said, from what he had heard of 
Miss Barton, he felt that she must be a very near relation, and wished 
me to give her his love. 

Starting again for Nijni Novgorod we meet at Moscow Mr. Frank 
G. Carpenter, the writer and lecturer, who accompanied us through the 
Volga and southern districts. I^eaving Moscow in the evening by the 
fast express, we reached Nijni the next forenoon at ten. Here we were 
entertained by the governor. The city of Nijni Novgorod has a popu- 
lation of about sixty thousand ten months of the year; during the 
other two months its population is increased to six hundred thousand. 
This extra population from the twenty-seventh of July to about the 
fifteenth of August inhabit the "dead city" in which not a single 
family lives the rest of the year. Yet it contains one of the largest and 
finest buildings in Russia, and not a match nor a cigar can be lighted 
at any time under penalty of twenty- five rubles. The " dead city " 
is built at the junction of the Oka River with the Volga, so that it is 
yearly inundated to the ceiling of the first stories, when the spring rise 
of forty feet or more comes with the melting of the snow. Here, too, 
is located one of the largest churches of Nijni, and on the Volga side 
the Siberian wharves. 

In the living city is the residence of the governor on a clay bluff 
four hundred and seventy feet above the river, with the business part 
at the foot of the bluff adjoining the river. Nijni being in direct line 
of free river transportation as well as railway connection between St. 
Petersburg, Siberia, China, and the Caspian districts, the Caucasus, 
the oil region of southern Russia, with its wine, grain and fruit dis- 
tricts, make this city a great commercial centre. And the pulse of 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 191 

famine or plenty is probably felt here as soon as in any part of the 
empire. 

In the two months named, traders from nearly every European and 
Asiatic country gather here with every variety of goods and product 
that can be carried by rail, water, or caravan : grains, hides, leather, 
teas, metals, precious stones, fish, meats, cloths, silks, peasants' works 
and weavings; and the great sandbar in the river Oka of several hun- 
dred acres is covered with Siberian iron. Electricity furnishes light 
where needed, for it will be remembered that it is light enough 
in this latitude to read at midnight in summer time. Here are 
also royal quarters for the governor and State officials, whose social and 
executive residences are in the " dead city " during the entire time of 
the fair, in which time the governor is an absolute czar in power. To 
give briefly a Russian view of the famine and how it was felt in a 
single province and the Russian manner of dealing with it I give the 
following abridged account: 

Nijni claims to have been the first provincial government of Russia 
to take active measures to relieve the sufferers by famine. The first 
news came to the governor from reports of dry weather in his province 
in May, 1891, for the crops of the three preceding years had been 
short, and at this time the peasants had begun to ask for bread, having 
already sold a part of their horses and tools; and only two of the eleven 
districts had sufficient bread for their people. 

Without waiting to consult the general government, in order to 
save time, the governor took the responsibility upon himself of imme- 
diately purchasing one hundred and twenty-five thousand poods (a pud 
is about forty pounds), or twenty-two hundred tons of grain, and sent 
this in the early part of June to the districts most affected by the drouth. 
He used his influence to stop speculation in grain, Nijni being a great 
grain centre, and formed a commission from all the districts to carry 
out relief measures. It was after this that the Department of the 
Interior appropriated one million rubles ($550,000) to buy bread. 

It has been a custom in Russia that when a loan is made to the 
poor peasayits that the rich peasants of the community are held equally 
responsible for the payment ; hence they have fallen into the habit of 
claiming an equal apportionment whenever loans have been made for 
relief measures in times past. Thus the Zemstvo (the elective magis- 
trates of the village) have the power in themselves to say that they had 
not ordered nor asked for the grain, and refuse to receive it for those 
really needing it. Hence the governor of Nijni ordered that only 
those receiving should be charged with the loan. 



192 



THE RED CROwSS. 



The whole loan here received was 6,350,000 rubles, all of which 
except 150,000 rubles had been distributed when we visited the 
district. 

In the nine needy districts of Nijni Novgorod Province there 
were 5X7,000 persons needing assistance that were excluded from the 
government loan as being between the ages of fifteen and fifty-five — 
"therefore able-bodied and able to work." The Nijni governor 
followed his judgment rather than the instructions of the Minister of 
the Interior, and seeing that this amount was insufficient and that no 
provision had been made for cattle and horses, he tried to get permission 
to begin public works in order to furnish labor and pay to those need- 
ing it; but this was not secured until December, when 3,000,000 rubles 
were appropriated for roads, 420,000 rubles for town improvements, 
40,000 for schools and churches. From eight to ten thousand men 
were given work in the woods at fifty kopeks, 27 cents, per day, and 
one ruble and fifty kopeks, about 77 cents, per team. 

To secure a general interest of the people the governor made every 
public commission (boards of directors, trustees, etc.), take an active 
part in the relief work. He created commissions among the nobility 
to superintend relief work, combining the Red Cross, the churches and 
other individual organizations all into one committee, so that when 
the Crown Prince's committee was formed on the twenty -eighth of 
December 341,550 rubles had been received and distributed besides 
52,020 poods, 2,080,800 pounds, of bread which had been given 
to those who had no right to the governmental loan. 

By contributions three hundred and thirty-one kitchens were estab- 
lished in villages, giving meals for one-half to two kopeks per meal. 
Nijni, with a living population of sixty thousand, contributed one hun- 
dred and ninety thousand rubles. Places were established in Nijni 
where twenty kitchen meal tickets may be purchased for one ruble. 
The citizens buy these and give to such as they desire to help. 

From Nijni we take steamer down the Volga, and through the 
kindness of Mr. Zeveke, owner of the American Steamboat Line, so 
called because American names are given to all of his twelve large 
steamboats, we are allowed time to visit each town on the Volga, as 
we pass down the river. At each place the grain has been received and 
being used. At Samara we find Mr. Bezant, one of our consignees, just 
recovering from the typhus which was contracted in his relief work. 
And we get direct reports from Count Tolstoi, Junior, whose work is 
in this province farther to the east, and Prince Dolgoruhow, another 
consignee in the district of Burulich; these have ten carloads of the 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 193 

"Tynehead's" corn, and are saving the lives of many. At this time 
the Province of Samara alone had lost five hundred thousand cattle, as 
many horses and 1,500,000 sheep from the famine. 

At Volsk we saw many people around the church. The bells in 
a dozen different towers all ringing; from another church a large pro- 
cession of a thousand people were coming, bearing on high poles 
crosses and banners and icons. They are joined by the people from 
the first church, with their crosses and banners which are not raised 
till the fi.rst procession is joined, and all march in their variegated red 
and 3-ellow and bright colored dresses, with bare feet and uncovered 
heads in the broiling sun, miles away to the open fields to pray for rain, 
which has still been withheld from this .section of SaratofF Province. 

The town of Saratoflf has a population of 125,000, contains many 
Germans, from having been one of the German colonies founded by 
Queen Catherine during her reign, to encourage agricultural industries. 
Here as in Volsk we found the people in the fields praying for rain, 
and in the evening it came. Here we met Mr. Golden, an Englishman, 
who has been the active agent in the SaratofF district, and Mr. Muhler, 
a German, who has been the active worker on the east side of the 
Volga in Samara Province. Both these gentlemen, together with a 
Catholic Bishop, say that the American help, both in material and 
money, came so timely that it saved thousands of lives that other- 
wise must have been lost. It came when they could get nothing from 
other sources, and their thanks to America are unbounded. The relief 
was " as if the Lord had ordered it." Of the " Tynehead's " cargo, 
Saratoff received fifty-three carloads and the Province of Samara one 
hundred and four cars. 

There was a small quantity of the corn that got wet when put into 
the ship during a rain in New York, and had begun to heat when 
unloaded. This was sent to SaratofF with a suggestion that they use it 
for their cattle, but when we reached that place the peasants had 
washed the corn and dried it, and said it made very good bread. 

As a typical incident and as an expression of the universal feeling 
throughout Russia : — when we reached the platform of the station at 
SaratofF to start westward, a Russian gentleman who could speak a 
little English, and another one and his wife who could not, came to the 
train, with an attendant bearing champagne and glasses, and made a 
speech of thanks, expressing the gratitude of the people of Russia to 
America for the heartfelt sympathy she had so beautifully expressed. 
The help she had brought to their people in a time of distress made 
every Russian feel to want to personally express his thank?. Wishing 



194 THE RED CROSS. 

every success to its representatives, they drank to America and bon 
voyage. 

To see some of the smaller consignments, on our way eastward 
from SaratofF we stopped at an inland station and went into the 
country some miles near Tambof, where two carloads of corn had been 
consigned. Here it was being ground in the wind- mills and made 
into the old-fashioned New England rye and Indian loaves and baked 
in great, brick ovens, just as we had found in other places. 

Referring back to Riga. After the last car had been sealed and the 
way-bills sent, we were speaking of the harmony and unity that existed 
in all the different branches of this relief work, and it incidentally 
came out that the count and his family were carrying on an extensive 
system of relief among the peasants in the famine district, supplying 
some thirty villages with rye and corn bread, obtaining their corn from 
southern Russia, with soup, broth and tea for the sick and Nestle's 
food for the babies — the latter an experiment of his own. It was sug- 
gested that in such an extensive work as this he should have had some 
of the American corn, but he replied they could get on very well with- 
out it; that his family had taken that work upon themselves to do at 
the beginning, and would continue to do it until next August and did 
not need other help. I expressed a desire to see this work, which I 
later found was a fair sample of what is being so quietly done all over 
Russia that its extent is unknown until one comes upon it. And it was 
at Michailoviski that we had the pleasure of seeing some of this work. 

Everywhere we found people of all classes giving their time to the 
work of relief to supplement the governmental help; and this does not 
mean simply directing, superintending, or planning work for others to 
execute, but I found men giving up their own business, the attention of 
their estates, to see personally to the detail as well as the general work. 
I found cultivated, intelligent, refined women making their homes in 
the huts of the peasants, where they could be nearer their work. I 
found countesses working in the huts of the typhus hospitals, or taking 
the sick into their own homes, giving up social enjoyments and personal 
comforts, their own plans, in order to make their work of relief more 
effective. If the official side of Russia is subject to criticism, as some- 
times claimed, surely the quiet, personal work and self-sacrifice of its 
people in this calamity is an example for any Christian land. 

Sitting at the hotel table Count George told how his conscience 
would protest against a good' dinner after he had returned from his 
investigating tours in the famine district to learn the situation, as a 
member of the Grand Duke's Committee, for, "the ruble spent for 



THE RUSSIAN FAMINE. 195 

wine and coffte would keep a peasant child or mother a whole month." 
But he says when he got back to St. Petersburg a few days away from 
the distressing scenes, his mind occupied with other business, it did not 
trouble him at all to eat a good full meal just as he had done before. 

On another hand to show how suffering continues in any place 
from lack of competent oversight this incident will show. 

When going over the ground to see how the relief work had been 
done for his committee, he came to a village that was in a very bad 
condition. Many sick and dying for want of food, he asked the Zemstov 
if a kitchen could not be established. The reply was no; there was no 
one to manage it. "But," he said, "you have a school here; the 
teacher can take charge of the kitchen." " No; he is not capable; he 
is too slow and of no account, and we intend to get rid of him as soon 
as we can get someone to take his place. There is not a person in the 
village that could conduct a kitchen." The count in his rounds came 
to the school house and found, as he had been told, that the school- 
master did look miserable enough in an old, worn and even ragged 
coat, and learned that he had not received his wages for some months; 
there was no money to pay him. His roll showed a list of sixty 
pupils; there were but fifteen present. When asked where the others 
were, he replied that it was so near the holiday time — only ten days — 
that he had let them go home. The count turned to one of the boys 
and asked if he had had anything to eat to-day, expecting him to say 
no; but he said yes; " he had a warm soup this morning." The same 
question to the second boy, with the same reply; and so on with all 
the fifteen. When asked where they got their soup, they said the 
master had given it to them, and had been doing so for some weeks. 

The master stood in the corner with his face very red, looking very 
much ashamed. It was then learned that when the school-master found 
his pupils coming to school without food, he began to use the savings 
he had laid b}', to feed them, until his purse would not allow him to 
continue with so large a number; and he had let all but the fifteen go, 
and he was feeding and teaching them from the savings of other years. 
The count said he could not pay him his wages due, but he furnished 
the village with the means for a soup kitchen, and the master was put 
in charge and conducted it in such a manner that no one thought of his 
being an incompetent manager. 

The shipping of the cargo of corn in the " Tynehead " to the 
Baltic in a voyage of twenty-eight days and its distribution through 
Russia answers a number of questions that were raised when the propo- 
sition to send corn to Russia was contemolated. These questionings 



196 THE RICI) CROSS. 

came from business men, shippers, boards of trade, the produce 
exch?nge and philanthropists, and by some it was stoutly asserted 
that corn could not bear ocean transportation that distance without 
spoiling. 

And if it should pass without spoiling, it was affirmed they had 
no mills to grind it in Russia, that the peasant knew nothing about 
corn, that they could not change their habit of living, and therefore 
would be unable to make use of it, if received. One of the leading 
business men of the country went so far as to write that we might as 
well ship a cargo of pebbles as a cargo of unground corn. Hence there 
was a degree of satisfaction to see the entire cargo, with the excep- 
tion of a small quantity referred to loaded in the rain, come out of the 
ship in as good condition as when it was put in the hold, and to find 
in our journey in the interior that the peasants even needed no sugges- 
tion about grinding it in their windmills, which were amply sufficient. 

But when the little corn that had heated was sent to Samara with 
the suggestion that it be used to feed the cattle, with four additional 
days in the hot state in the cars, and this was still used by the peasants 
and called ^ood, it removed any doubt that might be forced into one's 
mind that a starving peasant would die rather than eat a food that he 
was not accustomed to. 

Referring back to St. Petersburg, after our list had been made up 
for the general distribution of the cargo, Mr. Hilton carefully went 
over it and said, from his personal knowledge of the people to whom 
the consignments were to be made, he would be willing to personally 
guarantee that 80 per cent of everything sent according to the list would 
be honestly and faithfully distributed, just as the donors wished, and 
he further believed that the remaining 20 per cent would be as faithfully 
handled. 

My trip to the various places of distribution, widely separated and 
at unexpected times, confirmed Mr. Hilton's belief that the entire cargo 
could not have gone through better hands in any land. 

To be able, after such observations and inquiries, to give this report 
is a satisfaction that repays for all the anxious care and responsibility 
naturally felt with such a charge. 

To add to this, the deep gratitude expressed by nobleman and 
peasant alike, in capital or in far-away, unfrequented interior village, 
always the same, even the humblest peasant refusing compensation for 
any service rendered an American, manifests a genuine gratitude and 
friendliness to America and Americans which has characterized Russia 
during many years. 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 




Coast of South Carolina. 

is probable that there are few instances on record where 
a movement toward relief of such magnitude, com- 
menced under circumstances so new, so unexpected, so 
unprepared and so adverse, was ever carried on for 
such a length of time and closed with results so entirely 
satisfactory to both those served and those serving, as this 
disaster, which, if remembered at all at the present day, is 
designated as the "Hurricane and Tidal Wave of the Sea 
' Islands off the Coast of South Carolina. " The descriptions 
of this fearful catastrophe I shall leave to the reports of those who 
saw, shared its dangers and lived within its tide of death. They 
will tell how from 3,000 to 5,000 human beings (for no one knew the 
number) went down in a night; how in the blackness of despair they 
clung to the swaying tree tops till the roots gave way, and together 
they were covered in the sands or washed out to the reckless billows 
of the great mad ocean that had sent for them ; of the want, woe 
and nothingness that the ensuing days revealed when the winds 
were hushed, the waters stilled and the frightened survivors began 
to look for the lost home and the loved ones, and hunger presaged 
the gaunt figure of famine that silently drew near and stared 
them in the face. How, with all vegetable growth destroyed, all 
animals, even to fowls, .swept away, all fresh water turned to salt 
— not even a sweet well remaining — not one little house in five hun- 
dred left upright, if left at all; the victims with the clothing torn 
and washed off them, till they were more nearly naked than clothed 
— how these 30,000 people patiently .stood and faced this silent second 
me.ssenger of death threatening them hour by hour. Largely igno- 
rant, knowing nothing of the world, with no real dependencies upon 
nny section of its people, they could only wait its charity, its pity, 
its rescue and its care — wait and pray— does anyone who knows the 
negro characteristics and attributes doubt this latter? Surely, if 

(197) 



(98 'THE RKD CROSS. 

angels do listen, they heard pleading enough in those hours of agony 
to save even the last man and woman and the helpless babe. Some- 
thing saved them, for there is no record of one who died of star^ 
vation or perished through lack of care. 

I have promised to leave these descriptions to tho.se who saw. 1 
will also leave the descriptions of the work of relief done at the field 
to those who so faithfully performed it, the members of my working 
staff and the volunteer workers of other fields who came to their assist- 
ance on this. 

I place here the more important of the reports made to me at the 
time, but which have until now remained under seal, no general report of 
that field having been made. The main interest of these reports will 
consist in showing the methods of work adopted, not only to preserve 
so many people in life with so small means as we had at hand, but to 
preserve them as well from habits of begging and conditions of 
pauperism; to teach them self-dependence, economy, thrift; how to 
provide for themselves and against future want, and help to fit them 
for the citizenship which, wisely or unwiselj', we had endowed them 
with. I will then, with the reader's kind permission, simply show 
the open doorway through which we were called to enter that field and 
introduce the nationally renowned advocates and escorts who personally 
conducted us and placed its work in our hands. 

About the twenty-eighth or twenty-ninth of August, 1893, the 
press commenced to give notice, such as it could get over wrecked 
roads and broken wires, of a fearful storm coming up from the West 
Indies that had struck our coast in the region of South Carolina, 
sweeping entirely over its adjacent range of islands, known as the Old 
Port Royal group, covering them from the sea to a depth of sixteen 
feet, with the wind at a rate of one hundred and twenty miles an houl 
—that its destructive power was so great that it had not only swept 
the islands, but had extended several miles onto the mainland of the 
State. 

I chanced to be familiar with the geography and topography of 
that group of islands, having lived on them in the capacity of war 
relief many months during the siege of Charleston in 1863-64. Know- 
ing that they scarcely averaged four feet rise above the sea level, with 
no mountains, not even hills that could be called such, that the soft, 
sandy soil could not be trusted to hold its tree roots firm, that the 
habitations were only huts, to be washed awa3'' like little piles of 
boards — I thought I saw no escape for the inhabitants and that all 



THE vSEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 2or 

must have perished; and so replied to all inquiries at first made as to 
whether this were not a disaster for the Red Cross to relieve, "No, 
there was nothing left to relieve." Later and more reliable news 
brought the astonishing fact that it was estimated that from thirty to 
forty thousand had survived and were in the direst need. Was not 
this a call for the Red Cross? Still more emphatically, "No; if that 
is the case, it is beyond the Red Cross. Only the State of South Caro- 
lina or the general government can cope with that;" and again we 
closed our ears and proceeded with our work. 

But the first week of September brought pitiful paragraphs from 
various Southern sources — one I recall from the governor of the State, 
in which he proclaimed his perplexity and great distress at the condi- 
tion of these poor people, needing everything, and who, at that season 
Oi the year, with crops all destroyed, would continue to need; and 
closed by wondering "if the Red Cross could perhaps do anything for 
them. ' ' 

It would not do to close our ears or eyes against this suggestion, 
and I at once sought our congressional neighbor. General M. C. 
Butler, of South Carolina, then in the Senate, now on the Cuban Com- 
mission, asking his views. The response was such as would not have 
been looked for in that busy, hard-worked Senator, surrounded by a 
network of political wires, some of them only too likely to be "live;" 
he dropped all business, telegraphed at once to Governor Tillman at 
Columbia to learn the conditions and urgently requested us to go, and 
he would even leave his seat and go with us as soon as w^e could be 
ready. Time is never a question with the Red Cross, and the next 
night, in a dark cheerless September mist, with only two assistants, I 
closed a door behind me for ten months, went to the station to 
meet General Butler, prompt and kind, and proceeded on our way. 
At Columbia we were joyfully surprised at meeting Governor Tillman, 
prepared to accompany us, with a member of his stafiF, and thu.s power- 
fully reinforced we made our entrance into Beaufort. 

The work of relief had been wisely placed at first in the hands 
of committees from both Beaufort and Charleston, comprising the best 
business men of each city — its lawyers, merchants, bankers, all men 
of prominence and known practical ability. They had done and were 
doing all possible for them to do, with hearts full of pity, hands full 
of work, themselves large losers by the storm, business nearly 
wrecked, and needing every remaining energy for the repairing of 
their own damages and those of the citizens about them. 



202 THE R^:D CROSS. 

The governor, at whose request they had formed, realizing the 
necessities of the case, sought to release them, calling them together 
in each city and successively relieving them, placing the Red Cross in 
full charge of the relief. With the little knowledge we had of the 
conditions and surroundings, it would have been madness to accept, at 
least until both more knowledge and more numerical force were 
gained, and the refusal was as prompt as the proffer had been. We 
however promised to remain in Beaufort, meet with the committee 
each (lay, advise with them, study the situation and report our con- 
clusions when we could safely arrive at them. 

Thus we remained until th^ first day of October, when, realizing 
that the relief coming in from outside would soon diminish, as the 
excitement should wear away, that the sum in hand was painfully 
small, that the number of destitute was steadily increasing, that the 
winter was approaching and they must be carried through in some 
manner till the next year's crops could grow; and that, in order to do 
this a fixed system of relief must be adopted, a rigid economy enforced 
and every person who could do so must be made to work for his food 
and receive food and raiment only in return for labor; that this could 
only come from persons who had no interests but these to subserve 
and with the light of all experience that could be called to the task. 
Even then a successful result was questionable; but there was no 
question of the fatal result of any other course, and after a thoughtful 
council of our official board (which had meanwhile become nearly filled) 
on the night of September thirtieth it was decided that the Red Cross 
would accept the appointment of the governor and enter upon its 
duties the following day. 

Accordingly, at the meeting of the next day, October i, 4 p. m., 
the Beaufort Relief Commission, as appointed by the governor, was 
formally released as a committee and immediately re-elected by the 
Red Cross as its "advisory board," to meet and advise with us as we 
had done with them. 

Through all these years the tenderness springs to my heart and 
gathers in my eyes as I recall the kindly and affectionate intercourse 
of months, without one break, that grew up between us. And 
although some have been called to higher service and greener fields, I 
am confident that none of us will ever seek on this side a better, more 
trusted, kindlier association than were found in these. 

I desire to supplement the foregoing allusions to the storm by the 
full and ably rendered account of commodore, now admiral, Beardslee, 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 203 

then in command of the naval forces of that section, with head- 
quarters at Paris Island. The admiral and his charming wife wert 
our neighbors, and most efficient helpers through all our work: 

Admiral Beardslee's Dksckiption of the Hurricane. 

Mrs. Beardslee and I were i)articipators in the events and shared 
the dangers brought to the inhabitants of the Sea Islands of South 
Carolina by the terrific West India hurricane, with accompanying 
tidal wave, which desolated those unfortunate islands in August, 1893. 

Since our recent return and while on the journey, and at New 
York, friends whom we have met, and new acquaintances, have almost 
universally exhibited much interest in the description of the situation 
of affairs on those islands, before, during and after the storm, and to 
many the simple details which were to us but household words, 
brought the first realizing sense of the magnitude of the calamity. 

Miss Clara Barton, the president of the American branch of the 
International Organization of the Red Cross, who has the manage- 
ment of contributions and of the dispensing of aid among the Sea 
Islands now, and had occupied a similar position at Johnstown, made 
us her agents to dispense on one of the islands, where weekly we 
feed over four hundred persons, and I know we are but doing as she 
would wish, in continuing so to act, during our brief respite from our 
work. 

Therefore I most cheerfully comply with the request, and trust 
that my efforts to interest and revive interest will not be in vain. 

Geography of the Coast. 

I will premise with a bit of geography: The coast of South Caro- 
lina is bordered for over a hundred and fifty miles by an archipelago 
consisting of hundreds of islands and islets from a hundred square 
miles to as many yards in area. These are nearly all well wooded 
with pine, oak, magnolia and gum trees. Many of them consist 
largely of arable land, which, before the war of the rebellion, was 
divided by hedges into great plantations, whereon the rich planters, 
aided by their hundreds of slaves, cultivated, besides vegetables of all 
kinds, the famous long staple "Sea Island cotton." The islands are 
separated from each other and from the main land by arms of the sea, 



204 THK RKD CROvSS. 

here called rivers, or creeks, according to their width and depth, some, 
as Beaufort, Hroad and Coosaw rivers, from one to three miles in 
widtli and thirty feet in depth, and others, which, at low tide, are but 
marshes, with a thread of water. 

After the War. 

After the war the large plantations were subdivided into five, ten 
and twenty-acre farms, which were by the government distributed 
among the "heads of families," generally of the slaves who were left on 
them, and these negroes, with their descendants, still occupy these 
farms, living in comfortable cabins, each plantation having its own 
hamlet or colony. After the first shock of change was over, these 
negroes developed into orderly, industrious, thriving Christian com- 
munities. Each farm was thoroughly cultivated, and there was 
produced every year good crops of potatoes, sweet and Irish, peas, 
corn, melons and one or two bales of cotton, which, mortgaged to the 
local storekeeper, generally a whiie man, furnished them with groce- 
ries. All raised and owned horses, mules, hogs, cattle, turkeys, 
domestic fowls and ducks. All were owners of one or more buggies, 
carts, plows and other agricultural implements, and those who lived 
near the sea owned one or more boats, with outfit of nets and fishing 
gear, and from spring until winter the sea yielded abundant harvest 
of good fish, turtles, crabs, shrimps, prawns, clams and oysters, and 
the marshes furnished terrapin, which sold at very remunerative figures. 
as I well know, for the storm took from me nearly three hundred of 
them. Every cabin was comfortable, from their point of view, fur- 
nished, and in many were sewing machines, house organs and 
melodeons, and for every member of the family, however slightly 
attired on week days, a fine, often gorgeous, suit of Sunday clothes — 
and they are all church-goers. 

The great barn-like structures chat they build for churches are 
presided over by preachers of their own race — "reverence doctor" is 
the title — and are crowded. They have also smaller places of w'orship, 
called "praise houses," where they assemble once or twice a week in 
the evening to indulge in "shouting" a mingled prayer, responding, 
singing, and when "spirit dun come pow'ful," a wild, waltzing sort 
of a dance, such as I have seen in Africa. They have schools which 
troops of well-dressed children attend daily. There are lots of children, 
and but a very small portion of those under twenty have not quite a fair 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 205 

common school education. Said an old aunty to a lady friend of mine: 
"Has yer children, honey?" "Yes, aunty, I have three boys and one 
girl." "Is dat all?" "Yes, isn't it enough?" "Dat's as the Lord 
wills, honey; to some He sends little litters and to some big ones. I'se 
got thirteen head and I'se dun loss four head. " 

The Disastrous Storm. 

The climate is perfect, very little labor produces good results, and 
I think that without going more into detail you will all admit that 
the Sea Islanders were a happy, contented, vory comfortably fixed set 
of people. So it was at the going down of the sun on the twenty- 
seventh day of August, 1893. When the sun rose the next morning, 
hundreds of those cabins had been swept from the earth, with all they 
contained. Over thirty thousand of those people were homeless, 
clotheless, foodless, with no resources. Over eight hundred were dead 
(the figures are from actual census). A hurricane on its way from the 
Gulf of Mexico to the north had swerved somewhat from the usual 
course of these storms, its centre, instead of following the Gulf Stream, 
had come in over the land, and the great uprising of the surface of the 
sea, which always occurs at the calm centre of these storms, caused by 
the low atmospheric pressure, as shown by low barometer, had, instead 
of dissipating itself on the surrounding ocean, inundated our islands 
to depths varying from one to ten feet according to the height of the 
land, the average height of the tidal wave, above high water, being 
about seven feet. Thus the surface of each island was a sea, and 
driven by the tremendous force of the wind over a hundred miles per 
hour, as recorded at Charleston, north of us, and at Savannah, south, 
into death-dealing waves. 

The houses, all built on TDosts two to four feet above groun(\ c'r^'^ 
down like card houses. Some collapsed and crushed their inmates ;ti 
the spot; others went drifting off with men, women and children 
clinging to them, until falling to pieces they dropped their living 
freight into eternity. Some escaped by seeking shelter amid the 
branches of the giant pines and oaks; some were so saved, but others 
had but found death traps, for yielding to the force of the wind, many 
were thrashed to death by the whipping branches, or knocked off into 
the raging sea below. And among the thousands of these trees which 
were uprooted, or twisted off, were many on who.se branches people 
were clinging. I knew nothing of what was occurring on other islands 



2o6 THR RKD CROSS. 

than the one we were dwelling on, Paris Island, where I am in com- 
mand of the naval station ; for, deprived of every means of communica- 
tion with the outer world by the destruction of all railroads and steam- 
ers that connected with us, telegraph and telephone lines down, and 
all of my boats either sunk or wrecked, our own affairs had my entire 
time and attention. 

A Work of Rescue. 

I have been a sailor for forty- five years, and as such have battled 
with many tempests, but on my own ship, with plenty of sea room, I 
have known what to do to increase safety and lessen danger. But in 
this case I was nearly helpless. Fortunately I alone knew this, for I 
was now surrounded by those who looked to me for help. I was forced 
to "keep a stiff upper lip," but the task was not a slight one. My 
house is a two-story frame, built on brick piers, about sixty rods from 
the beach. Between it and the water were six negro cabins and two 
quite large houses. Shortly after sunset the weaker of them suc- 
cumbed, but the tide was not yet so high but that my men succeeded 
in saving from the wrecks the women and children, all of whom were 
carried first to the largest of the two houses. About ii p. m. the tide 
was at its height, and there came driving onto my lawn and under my 
house great timbers, wrecks of houses, wharves, and boats, and fortu- 
nately a large flat boat, called a lighter. Some of the braver of my 
men captured this boat by plunging in up to their necks and pushed 
and pulled it to the house where the refugees had gathered, at which 
the screams told us there was trouble. They got there just in time to 
rescue about fifty and brought them to my house. 

During all this time the rain was falling in torrents and every 
person was soaked through, and as the wind was from the northeast, 
the rain was cold, and they were chilled through. An attempt to get 
up a fire in my kitchen stove disclosed the fact that my woodshed was 
gone and there was no wood. Some empty packing boxes in the 
garret were utilized ; then a big pot was put on to make coffee. We 
then found that excepting in a few pitchers there was no fresh water. 
My cistern had been overflowed by the sea. Fifty men were put to 
bailing and pumping, and weather boards from my shed and servants' 
quarters were quickly extemporized into gutters and pipes — then the 
rain proved a blessing, and we were saved from water famine. But 
there were chances of a food famine. My storerooms and those of my 



THE SEA ISIvANDS HURRICANE. 207 

only white neighbor, the civil engineer of the station, held all of the 
food on the island, and there were hundreds to feed. Fortunately it 
was Sunday. Saturday is our marketing da3% and we nad a week's 
supply under ordinary circumstances, but with such a lot of boarders 
we had to handle it very sparingly. 

Thk Next Day. 

By daylight the storm had modified and the sea subsided. Then 
came work. First of all my mules and carts were started with search 
parties for drowned people. Before night there were nine such laid 
out in my coal shed. To those we gave Christian burial, but to twelve 
others found during the next forty -eight hours, guided by the buzzards 
that had begun their feasts, we for sanitary reasons had to treat them 
as we did the many carcasses of animals, bury them at once where we 
found them. On the second day I captured a passing sailboat, one of 
the very few left, and obtained from Port Royal a big load of provi- 
sions, with which I started a store, paying the big gang of laborers 
that I had employed with checks on the store, where food was 
furnished at cost. 

Red Cross to the Rescue. 

On the fifth there came to us a great blessing. The Red Cross 
Association had been appealed to and had responded. Miss 
Barton, its president with her staff of physicians, nurses and other 
trained people, came, investigated and took charge of us, and under 
their systematic, business-like methods, taught them by much ex- 
perience in many great calamities, are now keeping, and will keep, 
as long as the good people of the country will furnish the means, 
starvation away from this miserable mass of humanity. 

It may be that in this favored part of the country, where cyclones 
and earthquakes do not occur, many of your readers know little of this 
organization. I will tell them a little and close. During our war, 
in 1863, a congress composed of representatives of the leading nations 
of Europe met at Geneva, Switzerland, its object being to make such 
international rules as would tend to lessen the horrors of war and alle- 
viate the sufTering. The United States was invited to participate, and 
Miss Clara Barton, a woman even then well known for her career of 
charitable deeds, and for her abilities, was afterward selected to bring 
in the United States to the treaty. Miss Barton secured for the United 



2o8 THE RED CROSS. 

States the privilege of adding to its war relief that of sufferings from 
storms, earthquakes, floods and other calamities due to natural causes. 
This addition is known as the American amendment. An American 
branch was formed, of which Miss Barton was elected president. She 
has a large and able corps of experienced assistants scattered through- 
out the Union, ready to respond at once to her call and hurry to place 
their services, free of cost, at her disposal. This corps of helpers take 
nothing for granted; they investigate for them.selves and learn accu- 
rately just who need help, and how much, and what kind. Books are 
kept, and every penny or penny's worth accounted for. The Red 
Cross does not, as a body, give charity — it dispenses intelligently that 
of others. The body is your and my agent to see that what we choose 
to give shall be honestly and intelligently put where it will do the 
most good. Its members, from principle, do not beg. It is their busi- 
ness to present facts to the public and let every man, woman and child 
act on his or her unbiased judgment. She has done me the honor to 
accept my service as an amateur. I am not quite so strictly bound by 
the rules as are the members, therefore if anyone detects a little ten- 
dency to beg in this article it is my fault, not that of the Red Cross, 

Presknt Headquarters. 

At this present time Miss Barton has her headquarters in Beau- 
fort, where she has chartered a large warehouse, over which she and 
her staff camp out, living, although I am told she is well off, in the 
plainest of styles. Her desk is a dry goods box, with a home-made 
drawer; her bed, a cot. Her agents are distributed on the various 
islands, living in negro cabins and tents. The Red Cross flag floats in 
their midst, and the food, clothing and other articles are served to the 
crowds of negroes, and trained nurses and physicians are caring for the 
sick and wounded. Hundreds of men are laboring digging drains to 
get clear of the brackish swamp water left by the mingling of sea water 
and rain, building houses and boats for the helpless, and the colored 
women, made beggars by the storm, have been organized into sewing 
societies, which repair all ragged garments sent, turn ticking into 
mattress covers, homespun into garments. 

Detaii. op the Work. 

There is now being served out, once a week, the following rations, 
which is all that her stock of stores allows: To a family of seven 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. ^oq 

persons for one week, one peck of hominy, one pound of pork. To those 
who work for the conimunit}-, double the above. To sick people, a 
small portion of tea or coffee, sugar and bread. She would gladly 
double or quadruple this allowance, but she has not the material. 

Thus it stands. There are 30,000 American citizens who must be 
almost entirely supported by charity luitil they get a spring crop in 
April or May. Unless they are furnished with food they will starve, 
without bedding they will die from exposure; without medicines, of 
fever. Everything not perishable is needed, especially money to buy 
lumber, nails, bricks and hardware to rebuild the houses, cast-off and 
warm clothing, cooking utensils, pans, pots, spoons, etc. Most of the 
express companies send free all articles directed to : 

Miss Clara Barton, 
Presidetit Red Cross Association, Beaufort, S. C. 
For storm sufferers. 

White SuffereRvS. 

In response to further inquiries Admiral Beardslee furnishes us 
the following: 

There is a very small population of whites living on the Sea 
Islands, and of them the greater number are storekeepers, supplying 
the negroes and taking mortgages on their growing crops, principally 
the cotton. As nearly all of the crops, including the cotton, which 
was nearly ready for picking, were ruined, these storekeepers, in 
addition to great direct loss by the flood, which swept away their 
storehouses, have lost largely by unrecoverable debts, thus they are 
not able to do much toward the relief of the sufferers. * * * Among 
the sufferers there are a few white families, generally descendants of 
the old-time planters, who, having recovered by purchase small por- 
tions of their family property, have made their living by hard work 
as farmers and truck growers. They are, in some cases, reduced to 
abject poverty. 

The merchants of the city of Beaufort lost heavil}-. Most of the 
principal stores were on Bay street, their storehouses stretching out on 
the wharf. All of these with the back buildings on them were swept 
away, and the merchants are not in position to give much help. 
Nearly all of the old Southern families were impoverished by the war 
and can do little, and that little is to a great extent very naturally 



2IO THE RED CROSS. 

bestowed upon the negroes and their descendants, who were at one 
time their slaves. 

What is Needed. 

The State of South Carolina is poor, one of its greatest sources of 
revenue, the phospliatc business, which paid in royalties nearly $600 
per day into its treasury, and expended thousands of dollars weekly, 
in payment of labor, was badly crippled and temporarily, at least, 
ruined. All of the dredges, lighters and most of the tugs and many of 
the "mines, " the great establishments where the phosphate rock is 
dried, crushed and prepared for export, were destroyed. * * * » 

While anything or everything eatable, wearable or usable in any 
shape will do good, I would suggest as most valuable, money with 
which to buy lumber and hardware to rebuild houses, and food, hard 
bread, hominy, pork and cheap groceries, warm cast-off clothing, thick 
underclothing, cooking utensils, such as frying pans, tea kettles, pots, 
pans, etc., second hand as good as any, and children's clothing, of 
which but a limited supply has been received. 

There will be no necessitj^ to mend up clothing, the sewing 
societies will do that and prepare for use bedticking, homespun and 
cloth of all kinds. 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



RELIEF WORK SOUTH OF BROAD RIVER. 

Next to the account of Admiral Beardslee, I desire to place that of 
Mr. John MacDonald, who, from having faced death in the rigging of 
the ill-fated "Savannah" for three days, enduring every privation and 
danger that could be endured, still lived to come to us, and to generously 
volunteer his services to the Red Cross as one knowing how to feel for 
those with whom he had sufTered in common. After a visit to the 
northern end of the islands, and a full verbal report to us of their con- 
ditions and needs, he went in a like capacity to the southern end, and 
finding less likelihood of other assistance there, decided to take this 
as his field and accordingly made headquarters at Hilton Head, where 
he did most efficient and praiseworthy work, drawing from the supplies 
at Beaufort such as could be spared from the needs of the other hun- 
dreds of distributing points. 

The work of Mr. MacDonald and his capable wife (for he married 
while there Miss Ida Battell, a charming trained nurse from Mil- 
waukee) was intelligent and comprehensive to an uncommon degree, 
not only relieving the colored population of the entire island, but 
raising them to a higher degree of industrial intelligence and self- 
help than they had ever dreamed of. I desire to tender in behalf of 
friendless humanity my grateful tribute of thanks to Mr. and Mrs. 
MacDonald for faithful and efficient service. 

Report by Mr. McDonai,d. 

On the night of August 27, 1893, while en route from .Boston to 
Savannah on the steamer "City of Savannah," the terrible devastating 
cyclone, which swept over the Sea Island Coast of South Carolina, was 
experienced by me in all its awfulness, terminating in the wreck and 
complete break up of that magnificent ship, and the terrible suffering 
and endurance of three days lashed to the rigging, without food or 
water and facing and hourly expecting death. Where could help come 
from? All the boats and ships in the.se waters had probably met the 
same fate as ours. All hope of help from nearby was abandoned, and 
our eyes were fastened on the North with anxious watchfulness. On 
the third night, when all hope had died out, in the darkness shot up 



212 THE RED CROSS. 

a bright signal light — the last we had on board — and in a few moments 
another light shot out into the sky about two miles away; our cry for 
help was answered ! Out of the North came help to us, and after the 
perilous work of rowing from one ship to the other, trip after trip, 
through breakers and high-running seas, we were saved and carried 
into port. 

On arriving in Savannah and seeing from the papers, as the re- 
ports slowly came in, the awful wreckage which had been wrought on 
the islands, my sympathies were naturally aroused, for who could 
better know what these people must have passed through? When, a 
few days later, the call was issued for the Red Cross to assume control of 
the relief work, I abandoned the plans which had brought me South 
and joined Miss Barton's forces. 

A first inspection of the devastated district was appalling, and 
even as the scenes of distress, sickness and destitution became more 
familiar, its sadness did not wear away. Here were prett)^ islands, 
where, a few days before, cotton had been in its full luxuriance, corn 
almost ready for harvesting waving in the breeze, a bounteous harvest 
smiling in the faces of a contented people, their little homes intact and 
comfortable and each one congratulating himself and each other on a 
prosperous season as the fruits of their labors. Yes, prosperous, for 
to these colored people, whose needs are small, whose ambition 
receives no stimulus, fifty or sixty bushels of corn is a bounteous har- 
vest. But the storm came! 

In a few hours neat cottages were a heap of ruins, scattered per- 
haps miles away ; giant trees lay across the roads, twisted and knotted 
into almost impossible shapes; corn and cotton gone, and human 
beings — missing. Roads flooded with water, almost impassable, but 
still alive with people — here a mother looking for her children, a 
husband for his wife, children for their parents. There in the marsh, 
a dark object is seen lying prostrate. Onward they push, waist deep 
in water and mud, till they grasp the inanimate object, and after a 
moment's silence a piercing wail announces another loved one found, 
dead. Go with them as they carry their dead home. Home! where 
is it? Gone! 

A few boards or branches of trees have been put together, tent 
fashion, covered with corn stalks and mud, and into this the family 
crowd, wet (for it rained incessantly nearly two weeks after the storm), 
hungry, sick, ragged and helpless, unable to think or act for them- 
selves, dazed by the calamity which had befallen them; they looked 



THE SKA ISLANDS HURRICANK 213 

around for some hand to lead them out of their pitiable condition, 
but everywhere the same wreckage and destitution faced them. But 
where should they look ? 

As we on the wreck amidst the breakers looked northward, so 
these people cast their eyes thither and sent out a plea for help. 
Hoping against hope, they lingered on, until, when everything seemed 
darkest, a gleam of light shot out of the Northern .sky and help came 
quickly; they were saved from starvation. They grasped at the 
finger of help extended to them, as a drowning man at a straw, 
and with a supreme effort dragged themselves out of a listless, 
apathetic condition and endeavored out of chaos to bring order. With 
such a vast territory, and so many thousands of destitute people to 
care for, the task of systematizing the work was a heavy one. It 
was, however, divided into districts, and each willing helper entered 
on his labor with very little to encourage him, but with obstacles 
innumerable. How to get from island to island — boats all wrecked; 
how to get supplies to them; how to pick out the most needy cases to 
serve first when all were needy and the .supplies scanty. The steam 
launch from the United States navy-yard was placed at my service and 
provisioned for a week. 

I started out to the district assigned me, comprising the following 
named islands: Hilton Head, Pinkney, Harry Young, Savage, Hunt- 
ing, Bull's, Spring, Barataria and Dawfuskie, with Bluffton on the 
mainland south of Broad River, a treacherous stream, four miles wide, 
which received the full fury of the Atlantic and renders navigation by 
small craft hazardous. To prevent as far as possible any imposition on 
the part of applicants for relief, who were not in absolute necessity, I 
made my inspection from house to house, going into their corn cribs and 
estimating from their supply on hand how long they could ^'jf/.y/ without 
assistance. The condition of their houses, clothing and sickness in 
their families was also carefully noted. The stagnant water lying 
on the land, with no outlet, the hot sun, beating down on decaying 
animal and vegetable matter, the drinking water all polluted, had 
caused malaria in its worst form to be general amongst the people. 
With my medicine case constantly with me, scantily provided with 
quinine and other simple remedies, I relieved the cases as I met them, 
.sending the wor.st cases to Beaufort, where they could be attended to by 
one of the doctors on the staff of the Red Cross located at headquarters. 

After examining some three hundred families on Hilton Head 
Island, after driving from one end of the island to the other — • 



214 THK RKD CROSS. 

♦Iftceii miles — and being met on every hand with appeals for aid of every 
description, from young and old, from strong, healthy, able-bodied 
men to weak, tottering old uncles and aunties, I concluded that issu- 
ance of relief, without requiring some work from those able to work, 
would be demoralizing, and act as an incentive to people outside to 
flock to the islands, claiming assistance. What work should be 
organized was the next question. There were no ditches on the 
islands. Those which had been dug in ante-bellum times had become 
filled up. Had there been any outlet or drainage of any description, 
so that the waters could have run off the land, the loss of crops conse- 
quent on the heavy rains which followed the storm would not have 
been so serious. I therefore put those who were able to work digging 
ditches, those refusing to work I refused assistance. The result of this 
was that a total length of about thirty-seven miles of ditches, varying 
from two to four feet wide and from two to six feet deep, were dug. The 
benefit of this work was apparent during the summer and fall follow- 
ing, which was an unusually wet season, and in the bottom lands, but 
for these ditches, the crops would have been inundated. As it was, 
exceptionally good crops were produced, the health of the island was 
improved and a large area of otherwise waste land was reclaimed and 
rendered tillable. 

After visiting mj^ district I concluded to make Hilton Head my 
headquarters. There was no building available so tents had to be 
brought over for our use as storage, hospital, sewing and living 
accommodations. What willing hands to help make our camp com- 
fortable ! Some making cupboards, desks, stools, benches, bedsteads, 
out of old packing boxes, some gathering moss to lay on the floor as a 
carpet, and finally unfurling the Red Cross flag to the breeze and we 
were established. To simplify the work of issuing supplies weekly, I 
gave each family a card. On this I marked everything to be issued 
and each issue was crossed off, preventing it being presented twice in 
one week. It also enabled the old and sick to send by children or any 
one else, and receive the supplies without coming themselves. 

How shall I describe our daily work? No regular hours, no rou- 
tine, no system apparently, and yet everything went along in the 
twenty-four hours of duty as smoothly as possible. No regular hours? 
No; unless from sunrise to sunrise may be counted regular. No 
routine — no system? No; unless attending to everything as soon as 
it presented itself may be called system. At daylight the applicants 
would be around the tents waiting to see ' ' Mr. Red Cross, ' ' and from 



THE SKA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 215 

then on a steady stream of people, some sick, wanting medicine; 
some hungry, wanting food; some ragged, wanting clothes; some 
loafers, wanting anything they could get. As soon as this stream 
could be stennned.and a little breakfast eaten hastily, came visits to the 
sick who were unable to come to us; and in all sorts and conditions of 
vehicles, from a shaky cart with an ox as motive power, to a roadcart 
behind a mule, we went wherever we were called. On returning to 
camp, deputations of applicants from other islands would be in waiting, 
and while eating dinner, these would be attended to. After this the 
men working on the ditches would be visited. When it became dark 
and everyone had gone home, we would visit our hospital tents, make 
patients comfortable for the night, and retire to our own tents, hoping 
to sleep, hoping against hope, for "the poor ye have always with you:" 
and this case was no exception, for at all hours of the night we were 
called out to go anywhere from one to six or seven miles, to attend 
someone who was sick or dying. In the midst of this work visits had 
to be paid periodically to the other islands in my district (where I had 
local committees to look after the distribution of supplies) often taking 
up two or three days. And what a scene of bustle our camp presented 
every Friday when the .supplies came ! Thirty or forty carts in line 
at the landing— the boat arrives — all hands help unload, and then load 
the carts, the number of sacks or boxes in each cart being marked 
down against the driver, and away they go to the camp, three miles 
away. As soon as they arrive, the crowd of waiting recipients hand 
in their cards, and as they are called in one by one, their bags ready 
opened, the "weekly ration " is quickly measured, dropped in, the 
card returned marked, and away they go. While all this is being 
done, a flotilla of small boats from the other islands in the district, is 
at the landing, and as each "captain" presents his order issued by 
me, my storekeeper gives him the supply for his island, and away he 
goes home, to enact the same scene with cards and empty bags and 
hungry people. Nor was this all. Houses must be built, lumber and 
nails measured and distributed (tents being provided for the houseless 
temporarily). Those whose houses were not damaged were required to 
help others rebuild. Their clothing had to be brought over, repaired and 
distributed. How this was done is shown in Mrs. Macdonald's report. 

This seems very simple to write about now after a year's lap.se of 
time, but it does not convey to the mind of the reader the constant 
anxiety resting on the mind of the Red Cross officer, with, as I had, 
2,554 P<2ople in absolute need of all the necessaries of life ; separated 



2i6 THE RED CROSS. 

from Beaufort, tlie source from which I had to draw all my supplies, by 
Broad River, with the majority of the boats in this district rendered 
helpless by the storm — it was a matter of constant anxiety how I should 
get my weekly supplies for this large number of people, scattered over 
so large a territory, with so many rivers to cross. If the supplies were 
not here on time, think of these people having to tramp home empty- 
handed to hungry children, who could not understand that " it was too 
rough to cross Broad River." With this difficulty constantly before 
me, it is a satisfaction now to put on record the self-sacrificing zeal of 
one colored man on Hilton Head Island — Ben Green — who placed his 
boat and the services of himself and men at my disposal and, without 
fee or reward of any kind, for several months, during good and bad 
weather, brought over the large amount of supplies required for this 
district. Another anxiety was, whether, when the boat went to 
Beaufort, sufficient supplies would be on hand to satisfy the demands 
of all the districts, or whether I should be put on "half rations." 
Amid all this anxiety, there were occasional gleams of sunshine to 
cheer us in our arduous work, as, when I received from Miss Sarah S. 
Monroe, of 13 W. Ninth street. New York, two boxes of delicacies for 
the sick, and, after Mrs. Macdonald had cooked beef tea, corn starch, 
etc., and sent it round by little girls to the old and sick, how they 
would " tank de good L,awd fer sendin' de buckra to look after us po' 
cuU'd folks; " how the name of "Miss Cla' Ba'ton " was on every- 
body's tongue, the infant girls named Clara Barton and the boys 
"Red Cross." The self-appointed "Red Cross Deacons," with an 
enormous Red Cross stitched on a piece of white cotton and worn on 
the left arm, were conspicuous in showing their gratitude for the 
bounty received. Then, when planting time came and seeds of every 
description and in large quantities were distributed to them, how 
eagerly they w^orked in their gardens, planting garden ''yarbs" 
(herbs) and then their corn, cotton, etc. Our thanks are due to the 
J. C. Vaughan Seed Store of New York and Chicago (through Mr. Burt 
Eddy, their Southern Agent), for a large supply of potatoes and other 
seeds sent direct to me. 

A brief summary of food supplies issued in my district shows : 

Meat 7,440 lbs. 

Grits 16,410 pecks. 

Beef 395 

^^L^ ^92 cans j,p„,ti,^3i^.k. 

CofiFee 143 lbs. 

Sugar ........... I20 lbs. 



ks. 

} 




X'KSTIMONIAL FROM RUSSIAN WORKMEN FOR AMERICAN HELP 
AND SYMPATHY IN THE FAMINE OF 1S92. 



THE SEA ISI.ANDS HURRICANE. riQ 

There were 454 cases of sickness treated at the camp and 75 visits 
made to the sick at home. In May, with the vegetables and wild 
fruits in good supply and marketable, their crops all growing well, I 
asked the people, " Can you manage to get along now without further 
help?" They answered "Yes ; we are thankful for what has been done 
for us, and will try to pull through till harvest, alone." On the 
twentieth of May I issued a month's supply to each family, took down 
the Red Cross flag and closed the relief work for this district. A year 
has passed since then. I am now a permanent resident on Hilton Head 
Island. I watched the crops grow, saw a good harvest gathered in, 
the people resumed their old-time cheerful tone, and the storm became 
a memory. With the exception of a very few old people who are 
hardly able to totter, and have no one to plant or work for them, the 
people of this island are again prosperous and happy. Occasionally 
some kind friend enables me still to make some old uncle or auntie 
happy with a litUe help, and so they totter down to "where the storme 
shall cease to roll." 



THK RED CROSS. 



CLOTHING BRANCH, HILTON HEAD DISTRICT. 

REPORT BY MRS. MACDONALD. 

Accustomed as I had been, in Chicago and other large cities, to 
see a miscellaneous assortment of rags worn under the name of cloth- 
ing, I was little prepared for the sight of the almost nude condition of 
the great mass of people, which came to my notice on first entering on 
the relief work of the Sea Island Sufferers. After a couple of days and 
nights spent in the clothing room in Beaufort, packing barrels and 
boxes for the Hilton Head District, we proceeded there and amid loud 
exclamations of " closen " had the freight hauled to our camp. Before 
an hour had passed we were besieged with applicants, but as our 
present supply was limited, we could only attend to a few of the worst 
cases, and these were told to come at ten o'clock the next morning. 
Having already procured the information regarding the families — ages, 
sex and number of children — we spent the time in putting into bundles 
suitable clothing for such as had been told to come. Fearful of being 
late, they began to assemble by daylight, and as each man or woman 
was seen emerging, " toting " the bundle, a hum of voices would assail 
the lucky one with " Bress de Lawd; what ye done get?" The 
experience with this first installment showed that some work must be 
expended on the clothing before distribution, to make it more servic- 
able. As the men were put to work in the ditches, so the women who 
were able to leave their families were called on for a week's work each 
in the .sewing tents; a sewing machine was borrowed from one, and 
Miss Mary Clark (who was put in charge) assorted the garments, 
giving to some patching to do, to others buttons to sew on, to others 
apparently useless garments to make into children's clothing. When 
all got steadily to work, one would commence a patter song, the rest 
would quickly join in, and, to the accompanying rattle of the sewing 
machine, work and music blended. To hear them sing, one would 
hardly think they had just pas.sed through a great calamity; but it was 
the calm which follows the storm — they knew their troubles were over, 
and they were going to get " kiverin " for the " chilluns." How they 
worked! Garment after garment w^as quickly mended, examined by 
Miss Clark for faults, and then placed in its proper barrel, ready for 
giving away. When all the clothing had been repaired, the list of 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 221 

needy ones was examined, and, as before, the most.needy told to come 
the next day. But the " most needy" generally included half the 
island, for telegrams never flew faster than did the news that clothes 
were going to be issued. Then, when the last garment had been 
issued, some happy, some dejected, they would go away to await the 
next issue. So week by week, a constant stream of barrels, boxes and 
bundles would be received, mended and given away to those who, many 
of them, hardly knew what a whole garment was. Occasionally one, 
more crafty than tlie rest, would try to excite extra sympathy by pro- 
ducing a goodly array of " motherless chilluns," borrowed for the 
occasion, in the hope of getting an extra supply, not knowing that we 
already knew the full number and ages of each family. The system 
adopted by the Red Cross of first quietly getting its information com- 
plete, and then going to work, k.iovving what to do and how to do it, 
showed its value in preventing imposition, which must always be met 
with to some extent, in all charitable work. In this way 3,400 gar- 
ments were repaired and given away in this district, besides shoes, 
hats, etc. 

While the sewing was in progress in one tent, I helped attend the 
cases in the hospital tents, and made daily calls when necessary on 
patients who were unable to come to me. My experience in Hahne- 
mann Hospital, Chicago, fitted me for this part of the work. In all this 
work the lack of suitable supplies had to be overcome. As soon as our 
busiest season had passed and the sickness had abated, I opened a free 
school in one room of our house, expecting to teach reading, writing 
and arithmetic to ten pupils. The attendance rose almost immediately 
to forty and we gave up another room to the use of the school, and I 
had one of the older pupils assist me with the younger ones. To 
Mr. Proudfit, of Morristown, N. J., are due our thanks for his generous 
contributions, enabling us to purchase slates, books and other school, 
supplies. 



222 THE RED CROSS. 



WAREHOUSE AND SHIPPING DEPARTMENT. 

In introducing the dual reports of Dr. E. W. Egan, I imagine that 
I realize sonietliing of the feeling of the Queen of Sheba wlien she 
proclaimed that the half had not been told. The practical, unswerving 
and unique method of procedure pursued by Dr. Egan with these 
thousands of ignorant, hungry wards and waifs would constitute an 
interesting study for the most advanced philanthropist. The problem, 
as he tersely states it, of how to make thirty thousand dollars feed and 
shelter thirty thousand people a year, was not easily solved; and yet, 
largely under his original calculation and undeviating faithfulness to 
his own plans, it was solved, and how successfully, all the years from 
that time to this have testified. The medical aid which he established 
among these poor, deluded sufferers was as if an advanced clinic from 
his Alma Mater ^ Jefferson College, or the University of Pennsylvania, 
had been suddenly opened in their midst. The old dislocated joints, 
broken bones, tumors, internal diseases, carried about and dragged en 
through 3-ears of pain, disappeared; they literally took up their beds 
and walked. Their faithful hearts, like their eyes, followed him in 
admiring confidence, as with hurried step and quick glance he passed 
among the distributers of the warehouse; and if he told them that a 
pound of meat and a peck of grits was enough for a week — all they 
could have and must be supplemented either by work, if obtainable, or 
fish or game, if it could be caught — there was no complaint, no demur: 
"The doctor said so, and it was all right." 

It is a comfort to me as I write to know that his skillful hand is 
now on the keys that have for such weary months locked in the untold 
agonies of the terrible dens in western Cuba, designated, for the lack 
of some more appropriate term, as " hospitals." 



Report by E. Winfield Egan, M. D. 

The first official word of the Port Royal Relief Field, ambiguously 
called the Sea Island Relief Field, came to Dr. J. B. Hubbell, the 
general field agent of the American National Red Cross, with whom 
it was my privilege to be at Indianapolis, attending the annual reunion 
of the Grand Army, where, for the first time in the history of that 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 223 

organization, the Red Cross of Geneva took its place upon the arms of 
the surgeons, tlie ambulances and the tents which were regularly dis- 
tributed along the line of march. Twenty-four hours found us en route 
to Beaufort, S. C, which was to be the headquarters of the American 
National Red Cross, through its year of effort to take care of 30,000 
human beings living upon the islands, known as the " Sea Island " or 
Old Port Royal group, as they were called during the war, lying off 
the coast of South Carolina, between Charleston and Savannah, and 
which had been devastated by that memorable cyclone of August 27, 
1893. 

I reported to the president, at headquarters, for duty the twenty- 
eighth day of September, 1893. Upon arrival I found the president 
and field secretary quartered in an unused club house, using parts of 
billiard tables for dining purposes, desks made of dry goods boxes, 
crude furniture made in a day and nicely upholstered with manila 
paper — in short, it was camping out indoors. 

The local relief committee was still in charge. Miss Barton and 
her staff meeting with them by invitation as an advisory board. 

The Red Cross headquarters was the scene of busy census takers; 
men from every part of the field were constantly coming and going, 
bringing reports of the number of people, their condition, the condition 
of their homes and their needs. 

Their reports were being carefully indexed and entered upon one 
great book for future reference, a record of the greatest relief field 
America has ever known. 

October 2, came my "marching orders" which were, "Take 
charge of the warehouse and stores, make an inventory of them, 
disperse these men and rid this city of the demoralizing influence of 
idle people." The doors were closed and preparations for an inventory 
begun. 

The manner of distribution previous to November 2, though 
performed by willing workers, was not, could not be, that systematic 
distribution which comes only after years of experience. 

The warehouse had to be cleaned, partitioned, shelved and made 
ready for the repacking, separating heavy from light goods, and 
getting ready for receiving and shipping. The inventory showed not 
enough food to keep ten families two weeks. 

On November 9, the doors of all the departments at headquarters 
were opened. The question of remuneration for workmen's services 
must be determined uj^on and a standard adopted There were at 



224 THE RED CROSS. 

headquarters twenty-five workmen in-doors — white and colored — beside 
the cartnacn and out-door laborers. 

A standard of fifty cents in value was adopted for a day's work 
and was given in flour, meal, grits, pork, or whatever there was in the 
storeroom at the end of each day, and the next day an entirely new 
set of men was employed, and this daily change lasted over a month, 
thus distributing to over a thousand people something beside the 
regular tveekly distribution. 

Women were engaged to sew sacks and other light work (just as 
necessary as heavier), and they were paid in the same manner and at 
the same rate as men. Will some of my readers think that these 
women, some with large families to support, and all having some one 
depending upon them, should receive less than the men, because they 
were women ? 

Shovels, spades and axes came in a few days in response to an 
order from our president, and men were put upon the public roads to 
clear and improve their condition and repair the damage which the 
storm had done. 

The tools were all marked before they left headquarters with a 
Greek cross — on the steel or iron part they were stamped with a steel 
die and the wood handles were burned with an iron die. 

This marking served many purposes. There was an indescribable 
respect for the Red Cross among the people it served and its insignia 
was its representative which meant a great deal for them. 

It removed a temptation; they were instructed that those imple- 
ments were only loaned and must not see idle days, and were to be 
passed on to the next workmen when their labors were finished. The 
marking made them undesirable propert}' and none were lost, though 
hundreds were at work all the time. Mau}'^ were broken, and the 
pieces were returned to headquarters, mended and put into circulation 
again. 

Other sets of workmen were those who opened old drains and 
made new ones through the low farming portions of the islands. These 
men generally worked one week in relays of twelve. (A more detailed 
account of these drains will be found in the general field agent's 
report. ) Six months later, when the high water came, a few who had 
refused to go into these relays of workmen and open the drains, lost 
much of their crop — could a rebuke have been more eloquent ? 

All the workmen were paid from headquarters through their over- 
seer, who received the clothing, grits and meat, and proportioned it to 



THE SEA ISI.ANDS HURRICANE. 225 

each man. In all cases where a man worked, he received the regular 
weekly allowance of one peck of grits and one pound of meat, in addi- 
tion to what he received for his work. 

The spirit shown by these people, after they had been instructed in 
the demoralizing effect of free and plenteous distribution, was remark- 
able: they did not beg for food, they asked for work, and the Red Cross 
made work for them. 

The relief supply was received at three points: the railroad station, 
about one and a quarter miles from headquarters, the steamer " Pilot 
Boy," bringing goods from Charleston, and the "Alpha," bringing a 
few goods from Savannah. Freight wa.*- brought to headquarters in 
small carts drawn by horses or cattk ol any kind, and it was always 
an interesting sight to the stranger: the animals were driven with a bit, 
with ropes for harness, and in most instances the bend of a tree had 
been sawed out and used as saddles, on which were ropes or wire 
holding up the shafts, with burlap or crudely made cushions to protect 
the animal's back — all indications of the primitive condition of a peo- 
ple who were to be the wards of the Red Cross for a year, but who 
were also to be given an object lesson in practical life which was more 
to them, more to the country-, than the little allowance of grits and 
meat to which they must add something more to support their families. 
" They must not eat the bread of idleness," said our president. " We 
must not leave a race of beggars, but teach them the manliness of self- 
support, and methods of self-dependence." 

The distributing was done through sub-committee men, represent- 
ing anywhere from five people into the hundreds. They were the 
appointees of the local relief committee and retained to the end of the 
field, with but few exceptions. They came weekly, tri-monthly and 
monthly; those who came thirty and forty miles in crude boats were 
given supplies enough to last a month, for it was a long and sometimes 
difficult journey. 

Each sub-committee man presented himself at headquarters and 
was referred, in his turn, to the main office, where an order was issued 
for whatever the notes of the investigating committee called for — grits, 
meat, nails, hatchets, saws, lumber and clothing the most frequent. 

These orders were brought to the shipping room, where they were 
filled, marked with name of sub-committee man, his address and a Red 
Greek Cross, the insignia which would entitle it to protection and 
many times free transport to its destination. A complete record of this 
was made in the shipping room. 



226 THE RED CROSS. 

A most importaut step was the uniform issue to each person on the 
Red Cross books. How was it to be done ? What could be done ? All 
important questions were as familiar to each officer as his own depart- 
ment questions. The president would call her staflF together (and 
many times it was in the small hours of the morning) and present the 
question for consideration. It was at one of these meetings the fact 
had been presented that the prime problem was *' How to feed 30,000 
people with $30,000 for one year ? " It was evident that they must be 
provided with a way to produce something themselves, and to this end 
all assistance was given. 

One peck of grits and one pound of pork to a family of seven for 
one week was the regular Red Cross supply, and this was given to all 
who needed assistance, and the laboring men received one peck and one 
pound for their work. 

The description given us of the negro on our arrival was not flat- 
tering. " He cannot be trusted! " " He'll steal anything he can get! " 
" You can't make him work! " and similar expressions came from all 
sides. But Miss Barton had seen the negro before and knew the best 
way to lift him up, and her wnsdom was manifest all through that 
field, as the splendid gardens (producing more than the people could 
eat or sell), the mended condition of the clothing, the division of cot- 
tages into rooms, the carefully selected, bottled and labeled seeds for 
next 3'ear's planting, and the general elevation of their habits proved 
beyond argument. 

They were treated like gentlemen and they felt the responsibility. 
They were trusted and told so, and they lived up to the trust. They 
were shown the necessity of w^ork, and they worked like men and 
women. No race of people could have borne their affliction better, 
more cheerfully (they are pre-eminently a cheerful, happy people) and 
with less record of crime than did these 30,000 people, the vast majority 
of whom were negroes. 

One important and erroneous impression among some of the less 
intelligent was that seeds were of little account which they raised in 
their own garden, and the proper procedure was to buy each year 
from the merchants "new and good seeds," and that practice was 
common. 

One day one of the sub-committee men brought in a very large, 
magnificent onion, and with some pride presented it as a result of his 
work, and said, " Miss Barton, if I could git some ob dat y'ar seed, I 
reckon I could raise onyun 'uough to pay fo a critter nex' year." 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 227 

"Well," said Miss Barton, "do you think you could not raise seeds 
enough from those onions? " 

" Oh, bress you, no marni. You see dem ain' good what we raise; 
we has to buy de seed." 

Then followed a long explanation and agricultural logic such as 
Jack Owen (for that is his name) had never heard before, and when 
he left he said: " To tink dat I could'n know befo' dat a good onyun 
mus' bring good seed, and dat good seed mus' bring good onyun. I 
sabe my seed now, sho. " 

When he returned to his plantation, he called his neighbors 
together and gave them as many of the instructive points as he could 
remember, and they now plant seeds of their own raising and have 
established, in a very crude way, an exchange of seeds from "up 
country ' ' and neighboring islands. 

An early crop was of great importance to the wards of the Red 
Cross, and our president began to look around for white potatoes, know- 
ing their early productiveness. The merchants said the soil would not 
raise them; the negro would not take care of them; they did not 
know what they were, and if they did raise them, they would not 
eat them. 

Inquiry showed them to cost $5.00 per barrel, and was it any 
wonder thej^ did not eat them ? 

In the face of all this opposition Miss Barton ordered over one 
thousand bushels of white potatoes for planting. These were brought 
to headquarters and cut into small pieces (each having an eye or sprout) 
— a novel sight, the forty women cutting potatoes for seed. These 
were distributed from headquarters and from the two Red Cross sub- 
stations — Wadmalaw Island and Hilton Head Island — representing 
respectively the northern and southern end of the district. It is almost- 
needless to add that tlie potatoes were planted, from which a fine crop 
was raised and eaten, and the people were grateful. 

Corn for planting was another important distribution; 2200 bushels 
of corn were distributed, and a second crop raised by many who had 
never asked mother earth for more than one crop. There were many 
doubts among the people as to the possibility of a second crop, so a 
second planting was urged to get the fodder for their cattle, and the full 
corn in the ear rewarded their second planting. 



228 THE RED CROSS. 

MEDICAL AND SANITARY REPORT. 

BY K. WINFIKLD EGAN, M. D. 

The storm had left the sanitary condition of the islands in a very 
unhealthy state, and it became necessary to establish a medical and 
surgical department at headquarters. 

Dr. Magruder of the United States Marine Hospital Service had 
done very efficient work in the vicinity of Beaufort, but many of the 
wells refilled with a brackish red-colored water and there were many 
cases of illness, two-thirds of which were fever, which, in the healthiest 
times, exists upon the islands. 

It required many emptyings of the wells to get good water and 
many wells had to be abandoned, as good water could not be brought 
into them. 

A clinic and dispensary was opened from 12 till 2 daily, at head- 
quarters, and patients were required to see a local physician before 
they applied to the Red Cross, and if they could not get medical aid from 
any other source they were admitted and treated. 

This precaution was taken to protect the local physicians, who 
were themselves heavy losers by the cyclone and could not afford to 
do as much as they wished to. There were some noble-hearted men 
among them who counted no sacrifice too great to relieve their fellow 
beings. 

It is always the policy of the Red Cross to protect the merchants 
and people who have goods to sell, and giving in the way it does, it not 
only protects, but improves their business after the first effects of the 
calamity have passed off — say two or three months (according to the 
field) and it is conceded at every field where the Red Cross has worked, 
that it has left the locality more prosperous than even before its 
calamity. 

The average number of patients treated daily between November 
ninth and April 2d at this clinic was seventy-three. Nights were devoted 
to seeing those patients who were unable to leave their beds, and this 
" out-patient " service was only made possible by the tireless, faithful 
and competent nurses who had volunteered their services to the cause 
of humanity and had been assigned to the medical department by Miss 
Barton. 



THE SEA IvSI^ANDS HURRICANE. 229 

Patients came from all parts of the field, and as there was no 
hospital, they were placed in families who were on the supply list, 
and something additional given for the care of the sick. 

Sunday was given wholly to surgical cases and the operating 
room was often opened at daylight and not closed till dark; operations 
var)-ing from a simple incised wound to a laperotomy were performed 
and the crude appliances often made the surgeon wish for a moderately 
well equipped operating room in one of our hospitals. 

It would be difficult to write a ver}' clear medical history of the 
majority of cases from a subjective examination, and I insert one as 
an example : 

" I got a lump in de stomach here, sir" (pointing just above the 
pubic bone), " and he jump up in de t'roat and den I gits swingness in 
de head. Dat lump he done gone all over sometime; I fine him here 
and den he go way down in de leg. 

April 2. A telegram from our president (who was in Washing- 
ton, D. C), ordered me to the northern end of the district, with head- 
quarters on James Island, and on April 4 the scarlet banner of 
humanity waved over a hastily arranged office where for two weeks 
from forty to fiftj' patients were seen every day, when it became 
evident the trouble was in their drinking water. A tour of the island 
showed wells only twelve inches deep and draining the surface for rods 
around. These were curbed, cleaned, dug deeper and in many instances 
filled up and new ones dug. Three barrels w^ere generally sunk for 
curbing. 

This labor was performed without a promise to pay, willingly and 
well, and it was not long before the dail}' number of applicants for 
medical aid on James Island was reduced to ten or twelve. 

Medicines and surgical dressings were provided for the work in 
this district by Mr. E. M. Wister, of Philadelphia, Mr. John Wright, 
of Greenfield, Mass., and others. These gentlemen not only con- 
tributed, but came personally to the field to lend their aid, the former 
spending a week at a time in the Cumbahee River district, in a small 
crude boat, among the unhealthiest parts of the islands. 

Many rough places were smoothed by Mr. W. G. Hinson, of 
James Island, who did much to lighten the work of the Red Cross 
representatives in his locality, and it is always a pleasure to look back 
upon his efforts to help the people in their affliction. 

One of the great evils existing upon the islands is the charlatanism 
practiced upon the ignorant. 



230 THK RIU) CROSS. 

" Traveling doctors," who never saw a materia medica, infest the 
country and sell every imaginable cure, as well as cures which are not 
imaginable. 

Removing lizards, toads and various other things from various 
parts of the body is one form and perhaps the highest type of medical 
fraud. The "doctor" will declare the petient "conjured," and at 
once contract to remove the ofifending spirit, the usual fee being five 
dollars; in 90 per cent of such cases, he takes a lien on a cow, horse, 
or pig, and finally, by foreclosure, gets the animal, for by the present 
unjust system of trial justices, almost any verdict may be rendered. 

I was asked to see a case one evening which was described to be a 
sore arm. It was four miles distant, but the husband of the patient 
had driven over for me because " de pain is powerful bad, sir." 

I found the woman sitting in a chair, her right arm resting on a 
barrel that had been rolled in for the occasion, an immense poultice of 
bread, meal, feathers and numerous other ingredients wrapped around 
the arm, the whole w^eighing about three pounds. As I lifted the 
cloth I found a mass of the ordinary ground worms dead upon the 
surface. With aery of pleasure, the couple said, " Dat 'em ! Dat 'em ! 
He tole us dat arm full of worm and slio' 'nuf he come out." 

Could anything appeal more piteously; could it be more pathetic? 
Think, at our very doors exists such barbarity, while each year 
thousands upon thousands of dollars go as many miles to help a people 
far beyond some of the people of our own country. 

I removed the poultice, washed the arm, and found a compound 
communicated fracture of both bones of the forearm. 

Who could stand by such a picture with an unmoved heart or an 
unmoistened eye! Tell her the error? No; only asked her not to let 
strangers treat her when she was ill and advised her to go to some 
doctor she knew in the future. 

Dried green peas coated with sugar was one of the staple drugs, 
and others as useless, but not as harmless. 

I found there a grateful people. They would bring eggs, chickens, 
berries and all kinds of gifts, including money, and when told that the 
Red Cross never recei\'ed pay for its work, its was hard for them to 
understand; but as weeks passed, they learned it and tried to help each 
other as they had been helped. On the first of June the medical 
distributing department of the American National Red Cross was closed 
and all the officers were ordered to headquarters, where the field was 
closed and the president and staff left for Charleston, to repack and 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 231 

ship to the northern district, June 7, 1894. Then came a few weeks at 
the Charleston Headquarters. Through the courtesy of Mr. Kaufman, 
his long warehouse (150 feet by 40 feet) was at the disposal of the 
Red Cross from the time it received the Charleston Committee to the 
close of its field, with privilege of occupying it as long as they wished. 

Tents were pitched in this room and Miss Barton and her staff 
lived there until June 30, when the field was officially closed. 

Miss Barton and her party went to Washington, leaving Dr. Hub- 
bell, the general field agent and myself. 

Crops of vegetables and corn, building and ditching were in prog- 
ress and instruction was necessary, and this instruction was given as 
follows : 

Each day we would meet from fifty to three or four hundred people 
and give them a good practical talk, with about these headings for 
notes : 

"Owe no man anything." 

How to keep out of debt. 

Don't sell cotton before it is picke;ti. 

Plant more vegetables, and why. 

Divide cottages into rooms. 

Don't mortgage, which was a continuation of the instruction given 
daily from the beginning of the field. 

These talks were of much help and the islanders would drive miles 
to get the advice which they knew was given unselfishly. 



THI-: Rlvl) CROSS. 



RELIEF METHODS IN THE FIELD. 

However brilliant may be the scintillations lighting up the 
descriptions of the worker who sees a field for the first or the first few 
times, it is always to the steady-burning flame of the veteran of all the 
fields from the earliest to the latest, that we look for the steady light, 
b\' which we shall see the calm facts, and so far as possible, the 
machinery that moves the whole. 

It will be remembered that Dr. Hubbell was the agent of the Red 
Cross in the Michigan fires of the North in 1881. We saw him in the 
snows of Russia, and now find him at the Islands. The doctor's 
reports are always an unknown quantity. They may be but a few 
sentences; they may be many pages, but never too much. I will ask 
of him that he give his report independentl3S and not to me. The 
various topics which he will touch, render this preferable: 



Dr. HubbeIvIv's Report. 

On this field there were many first things to be done. Among 
these were the feeding of the people, rebuilding the houses, cleaning 
out the wells, draining the land of salt water, clothing and placing the 
people in ways to help themselves; half a million feet of lumber to be 
rafted down to accessible points, from the mills on the rivers which 
emptied into the waters of these island inlets. While this was being 
floated down, the well men and women were instructed in different 
kinds of work: to take care of the helpless, rebuild their homes, and 
to provide shelter and food for themselves. 

While the people of these islands, in great measure, own their little 
tracts of land, they retain the old plantation name for their home. 
These plantations usually contain from twenty to forty families. The 
inhabitants of each plantation were directed to select a representative 
from their own number who should be the representative and commit- 
teeman for that plantation, whose duty it should be to communicate 
with the Red Cross, receive and distribute supplies for his people, and 
be the director of the various kinds of work that should be carried on 
among his people. These committeemen from all over the islands 



THE SEA ISr.ANDvS HURRICANE. 233 

would come to headquarters to receive their instruction — food, seeds, 
tools, clothing, and learn the methods of work. 

These committeemen were received at headquarters by Miss Barton 
personally as well as by her officers, and careful explanations given to 
them that the supplies and the help that we were to give were in no way 
from the government, as many supposed from their memory of the old 
" Freedmen Bureau " days, but that they were the contributions very 
largely of poor people from over the country, who themselves had little 
to give, for the times were hard, but these had heard of the pitialjle 
condition of the storm sufferers, and were willing and glad to divide 
the little they had to help them into their homes again. The funds we 
had in hand, they were made to understand, were very small, far less 
than we could wish, not likely to be much increased, and we should 
depend upon them to help us to use them to the very best advantage, 
and we would do our best in the same way to help them. 

Among the early contributions were a quantity of garden seeds. 
More were sent for, particularly of those vegetables that would grow 
there profitably during the late autumn and winter. It may not be 
generally known that it was not the custom of these people to plant 
anything but cotton, corn, sweet potatoes and rice. Hence they knew 
almost nothing about the raising of other field or garden products. 

These committeemen were carefully instructed and directed how 
to prepare the ground and plant the various kinds of new seeds which 
were put up in packages for families, which he would take home and in 
turn instruct his people what to do with them; in this way lettuce, 
onions, and garden peas were planted, and in a few weeks these 
plantings began to supply them with a vegetable food to go along with 
their grits and meat. 

From among those who could handle tools, building comnuttees 
were formed whose duty it was to repair and rebuild the houses, first, 
of widows and the infirm, and afterward, their own. These com- 
mittees were furnished with nails, lumber, and the necessary hardware; 
tools were purchased, marked with the insignia, and loaned until their 
work should be finished, when they would be returned and another 
committee would take these same tools and begin work on another 
plantation. 

At the same time a foreman for ditchii:g would be elected from a 
plantation, who would select his force of men, clean out the wells and 
ditch the lands of his plantation, working jointly with adjoining 
plantations, so that the ditching of one piece of land should not flood 



234 THK Rl<:i) CROSS. 

his neighbor. Spades, shovels, axes, hoes, mattocks, were furnished 
these men, who, when their work was finished, would return the tools 
to headquarters for others to take and work with in the same way. 

Men acquainted with the building of flood gates, or " trunks," as 
they are called, and dams, built and put these in to protect the open- 
ings of the ditches from the incoming tides. 

Through their committees each man was instructed to split out 
palings from the fallen timber and fence in a large garden, so that it 
should'be secure from his chickens and pigs. Nails and tools were 
likewise furnished for this work, frows, crosscut saws, axes, hatchets, 
hammers, etc. 

As the season advanced, in February, the planting time, seedmen 
of New York and Philadelphia, as well as other cities, hearing of the 
success of these amateur gardeners through the winter season, sent 
generously from their stores, and the Congressmen of several districts 
joined them in directing the seeds in the Agricultural Department 
apportioned for their distribution to be sent direct to the Red Cross for 
the Sea Islanders. Again these committeemen, as formerly, were 
called and instructed in the manner of preparing the ground and plant- 
ing each kind of seed, with instructions to communicate what he had 
learned to his neighbors, as before. As these peoples had never before 
made gardens, even the leading business men and merchants laughed 
at the idea of attempting to "make truck gardeners out of these peo- 
ple." Notwithstanding this. Miss Barton bought nine hundred 
bushels of Early Rose potatoes. Women were set at work carefully 
cutting these into one or two eyes each for planting. This provision 
also removed any possible temptation, with their scant provisions, to 
use them at once for food. 

The seed corn, like everything else in all this vicinity, had been 
destroyed by the storm. Again Miss Barton sent to the Ohio valley 
for two carloads of seed corn. This was distributed over the entire 
storm-swept section, and many of these people at harvest time said 
that if the storm had brought them nothing but this new varietj^ of 
seed corn, it would have been a blessing, for their crop was double 
what it had ever been before. 

In order to preserve the quality of the famed " sea island cotton," 
which is a special variety, with long, silky fibre, used for making 
thread, the furnishing of this seed was given to the care of the local 
cotton merchants, who were directly interested in preserving its high 
standard and market value. 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 237 

In the feeding and ' ' rationing ' ' of these people the}- were as 
carefully instructed in the principles of economy and care as in other 
lines of work. Where a fisherman could be found, he was furnished 
with a boat or net to supply his people with fish to help out with the 
living, and this was a great aid. The living ration for a family of 
seven was half a peck of grits a week and a pound of pork, simply 
as an insurance against starvation for those not having work. Those 
who were at organized work under a regular foreman received double 
that amount, i. e. , two pecks of grits or meal and two pounds of pork 
a week for each man. 

At all times these people were cautioned about going into debt for 
any purpose, and so faithfully did they follow these suggestions that 
when we questioned them in their churches when their corn was ready 
to use, no more than one in thirty had contracted debts for food or 
living supplies, — a matter of special interest in view of the fact that it 
has always been the custom of the country, to go into debt for food 
supplies until the crop should be ready for market. True, on some of 
these islands additional help was received from other sources, notably 
on St. Helena, Ladies and Port Royal, through the influence of some of 
the resident merchants and other friends — local merchants rebuilding 
their stores and warehouses gave employment to some, shipping to 
others, and later, a partial reopening of the phosphate industry brought 
labor to others. 

It will be remembered that these people were constantly receiving 
lessons in practical econom}^ and suggestions in improvising and turn- 
ing to best account what they might have at hand. The.se in.structions, 
coming from Miss Barton direct made a deep impression on the minds 
of these people, and they were faithfully followed up by her repre- 
sentatives, who had received their lessons beforehand in practical, 
common sense econom}'. I recall an incident. After showing a number 
of the committeemen through the office and living apartments at head- 
quarters, where they saw desks, working tables, book shelves, wash- 
stands, wardrobes, commodes, all neatly covered with manila paper or 
hung with tasty calico curtains or draperies, with neat and attractive 
effect — and then when shown the constructions they were amazed to 
find that nearly every piece of furniture before them was made from 
various sizes of dry goods boxes (that are usually broken up for 
kindlings) with shelves inside or on top, as occasion required. One 
of these committeemen made the practical remark that this half-hour 
observation and instruction was worth just seventy-five dollars to him, 
14 



23S THE RICI) CROSS. 

for it showed him how for the present he could save that amount of debt, 
which he considered necessary to make his house furnishing comfortable 
for his family. 

Careful reports of tools borrowed and returned, of work done each 
week, as the basis of additional food support, encouraged accuracy, 
system and responsibility. 

I hope it may not prove too tedious if a few average reports of 
committees are here given from different sections of the field and a 
sample " labor sheet " to more clearly show some of the kinds of work 
done, and the character and spirit of the people. The labor sheet is 
intended to be a record of the tools given out and returned, the number 
of men at work, the kind of work done — whether ditches, bridges, 
roads, dams, repairing wrecked houses, or building new ones, digging 
wells, building chimneys, fencing gardens, splitting boards or shingles, 
etc. , and also the record of the condition as observed by the visitor or 
inspector of the work. 

The following sample is the work of Committeeman Jackson Gilli- 
son, of Stuart Point, Port Royal Island, being one of the first who 
began work: 



Labor on Port Royai. Island. 

Committee, Jack Gillison. Stuart's Point, Place, 

BUILDING AND REPAIRING. 



1893 
Dec 



April 
87 



5o 








a 


DESCRIPTION. 






Sandj' Brown's House 


, 12 X 18, 


Rebuilt. 


12 


Abby Hamilton's " 


12 X 15, 






Shalcot Mack's 


10 X 15, 


" 




Thomas Devoe's " 


10 X 15, 






Robert Marshall's " 


15 X 15, 






August Dunkin's " 


12 X 18, 


" 




Storm Jackson's " 




Shingled. 




Sanford Howard's " 




All except shingles. 




Thomas Williams' " 








Tissey Small's 




Rebuilt. 




Sibby Robinson's " 


moved : 


!oo feet on hill and blocked up 




Alfred Davis' 


finished to the shingles. 


24 


Dick Bright" s 


finished after frame has been put up. 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 
Labor on Port Royal Island — Continued. 



239 



1894 

Feb 
16 



Depth. Length. 



April 
27 



1 Trunk (Tide Gate), repaired . 

2 Trunks ( " " ), made . . 



5(x. — iCjoo feci Dikea 
700 



600 

400 
700 
500 
400 
400 
600 
300 
200 
600 
800 
150— S650 Ditches. 



3 Trunks. 



On Ladies Island George Barnwell, foreman for Eustis Place and 
Hazel Farm, reports four houses built, ten repaired, 87,870 feet of 
ditching, fifty feet of dam, three miles of road across the island, thirty 
feet wide, cleared up and repaired; this latter required seventy-five 
men at work three weeks cutting out fallen trees, rebuilding bridges, 
and filling in washed places. Barnwell says, in closing his report : 



The improvement of the land that is redeemed and put in good order for the 
farmers on Kustice Place, including the houses, is worth about three thousand 
dollars. July 20th, 1894. 



At that time we endorsed on this report the following 



August 4th we inspected this work and found all well done, but we found 
several buildings that Barnwell had begun were not mentioned in his report 
because they were not finished when he made it Houses and ditches give 
evidence of good practical work. 



240 THIv RKI) CROSS. 

From two plantations on St. Helena's Island Rev. D. E. 
Washington's report shows 32,331 feet of ditching, two houses built, 
four repaired. The close of his report has this : 



To the Red Cross officers: We, the ixiulersigncd sufferers, return a vote of 
thanks to you for the goodness you have done for us by giving us ditches to save 
our crops. The value to us is |20oo. 

D. E. Washington, 
Agent of the Mary Ann Chaplin, 
Tom Fripp and Village Plantations. 



I find this observation on the back of this report, after a visit to 
look at his work and to speak to his people : 



August 13th, 1894, went over this vv^ork in part. The ditches are doing excel- 
lent service and have been of great value to the plantations during the wet season. 
It may be that the width of the ditches is hardly sufficient in all places, but the 
condition of the people is most gratifying, and the work of Reverend Washington 
has been markedh' unselfish. 

On reaching his place we learned for the first time that his own house, a large 
plantation building of former years, had been burned just before the storm, and he 
has since been living in his stable. This personal loss he has never mentioned to 
the Red Cross people, although his duties as committeeman brought him in con- 
tact with them every week for nearly a year. 



From the mainland Rev. "Wade Hampton, in returning his tools, 
after making nearly one mile of canal and ditches, and 330 feet of 
causeway, says : 



We, the committee on said places (Chaplin, Fripp, Toomer, and Tom 
Rhodes), return our sincere thanks to you for the rations and the tools to work 
with, for it was just the same as if you had given us a hundred dollars apiece. 
This is to the Red Cross, by your committee. Most respectfully, 

Wade Hampton, 
Agent Chaplin Plantation. 



From another section of the mainland, William Grant, of 
Pocotaligo, reports nearly two miles of canal eight feet wide, and about 
the same amount of ditches, and the building of four houses. 



l^HE vSEA ISLANDS MURRlCAN^. 241 

jack Snipe, a young man, almost a boy, after building 5 chimneys, 
getting out over 4000 shingles and clapboards, and repairing 1 1 houses, 
began and made 2000 feet of ditches, and we find this endorsement on 
his paper. "July 27, I went over part of Jack Snipe's work to-day. 
H- was a hard working, conscientious man, but not very strong physi- 
cally. After his work of building and repairing as the leader of his 
luj.i, he took charge of the ditching; got sick from working in the 
water, and died soon after. Mrs. Barker, one of our volunteer trained 
nurses, worked faithfully during all his illness to save him, but in 
vain." 

Ben Watkins, on Baker Place, shows 19,562 feet of ditches, i 
house built, 2 repaired, 3 large gardens fenced, 7 wells dug. July 
24, 1894, inspected this work, both buildings and ditches, and found 
the work well done, the ditches being new and important, carrying the 
water from three large ponds. One main ditch is from four to .seven feet 
deep, equally wide at the top. The crops are in excellent and promis- 
ing condition, and Watkins' work is more than he has claimed for it, 
besides being practical and well done. The Gregorys and Browns on 
Baker Place have attractive homes, neat and orderl}^ with appearances 
of thrift and industry." 

These quotations taken at random from a list of a hundred reports 
serve to give an idea of the kind and quality of the work done over 
the entire field, as well done in one district as another from Charleston 
to Savannah, a distance of 150 miles, including a large area of the 
mainland as well. 

While these people are in large measure cut off from the advantages 
that come from travel and contact with the outside world, they have a 
peculiar style of expression, and a musical sweetness of voice that is 
unusually attractive. They are of different origin and type from the 
Virginia or "upland people;" many are good scholars, due largely to 
the schools of Miss Batoum and Miss Murray on St. Helena, and others 
established soon after the war. Nearly all read and write. Still, there 
are some that retain the old-time style of expression, as in the follow- 
ing: " W^e's de bes garden I eber seen sence I was a man grown." 
" All de .squash,' de tomaty and de watermillion seed gone died, but de 
Lo'd's will must be done." 

" All de house (houses) is done ractified." " I couldn't tell a lie, 
for I 'z deacon in de chuch. I has to be respectable." Another says: 
" I'v ]yen dar from de fust upstartment, and dar ain't ben de fust rag 
gin to dose people." 



242 THK RlvD CROSS. 

Another: A man who had seen the Red Cross staff getting on the 
boat to go to Charleston said: "I tell you, doctor, when I see Miss 
Barton gettin' on the boat to go away I }ust /eli so, my eyes couldn't 
help leakin' water, for you all have saved us people." 

After the general relief had closed, and the body of the Red Cross 
staff had left, Dr. Egan remained with me to help finish the distribu- 
tion of a renuiant of supplies and tools that could be kept in use, and to 
encourage the continuance of the general improvements so well begun. 
Considerable attention was given to visiting the work, and the people 
on the different islands in their churches, where practical suggestions 
were made on the line of the instructions they had received from head- 
quarters at first. These talks were always preceded by an inspection 
of the fields, gardens, buildings and work which had been done on the 
place, for the purpose of better judging what kind of suggestions would 
be of most profit to the people; but the subjects usually taken up would 
be headlined thus: 

Prosperity. 

Keep out of debt. Debt is a burden and a hindrance to prosperity, 
the cause of much trouble and bad feeling. " Owe no man anything." 

How to keep out of debt. Keep the garden producing something 
to live on the entire year. The climate here will allow this to be done. 

Then a list of vegetables suitable for the soil and the climate that 
experience has shown can be raised with success. 

On the farm keep some kind of profitable crop growing the entire 
year, both for profit and for feed for the stock. Follow the regular corn 
crop with a second one for fodder, or with some of the root crops, as 
turnips, beets, rutabagas, cabbage or collards. 

Plant such things as the fowls will injure inside the garden fence. 

Fruits; figs and grapes grow from cuttings, and are easily raised, 
if only protected from the pigs, the goats, or the cattle. Pears, peaches, 
apples, oranges, pomegranates, pecans, walnuts, grow with a little care. 
(Fine samples of vegetables and fruits raised on the islands, often by 
their own people, were shown in evidence. ) 

L,et each one raise and preserve his own meat, or have a neighbor 
who has been successful, put it up for him until he learns how for 
himself. This point was particularly made, because the general custom 
of the country is to sell hogs for three or four cents a pound and pay 
twelve to sixteen cents a pound for pork. 



THE SKA LSLANDS HURRICANE. 243 

Homes: — Make them neat, light, attractive; have trees, flowers 
and the simple conveniences, any and all of which can be had by a little 
thought, labor and interest. 

In the line of health, use less pork, more vegetables, fruit, milk, 
eggs, and pure water. Good wells are necessary, ditches are necessary 
for health as well as for agricultural development. If all the planta- 
tions are well drained, it will in large measure banish fevers from the 
islands. 

Observe among your people which one succeeds best in any under- 
taking, whether it is in the raising of a particular kind of crop, or the 
saving of it, the successful curing of his meat, the raising of fruit, the 
breeding of good stock, or having attractive home — go to thai one for 
that particular kind of information or instruction that you want. 
Strive to improve the moral standing, which is necessary for physical 
as well as social advancement. 

No one who has been with these people, worked with them as we 
have, but must be pleased to observe their gratitude, their gentle man- 
ner of expressing it, their desire to improve and their attention to 
instruction or suggestion, their cheerful disposition and their faith in 
God and the Red Cross. 



244 THE RED CROSS. 



ON THH CHARLHSTON (iROHP. 

Among those who lived the storm and later brought their experience 
and quickened sympathy to us for such help as they could give to their 
still suffering companions in danger and woe, was our tireless and 
faithful assistant, Mr. H. L. Bailey, of Charleston. 

It has never been my good fortune to find one who — entirely new 
to the work and to its conception — has grasped more readily the field 
of labor presented to him. The success attending his work and the 
satisfaction attested by his beneficiaries are rich stores of memory for a 
lifetime. The Red Cross could not have asked for better service. 



Report of Mr. H. L. Bailey. 

In order to make the following narrative more complete I deem it 
not amiss to preface it with a short account of my own experience in 
the great Cyclone of 1893, and a few incidents relating thereto. 

In August, 1893, I was doing business on that part of Edisto 
Island, known as " Little Edisto," and spending the nights at a small 
place "just across the creek" called " Brick House," said place taking 
its name from an old and substantial brick house which had been built 
on that spot, at a time ante-dating the Revolutionary War, and much 
honored in that locality on account of its antiquity and the good mate- 
rial of which it was built, the bricks, etc., having been imported from 
Holland. 

On Saturday morning, August 30th, I went to m}^ business on 
"Eittle Edisto" as usual, and on arriving I remarked to Mr. Whaley 
(my employer) how promising the crops were looking, and the bright 
prospects of a fine harvest. His answer was " Yes; but I am afraid a 
storm is brewing, and one of unusual severity, too, because the signs 
of the last few days have been ominous of such, and I feel very uneasy." 
I, being young and skeptical, of course took no heed of his prophetic 
words, and alas, only a few hours more convinced me that something 
of unusual magnitude was upon us. I retired that night, and on 
awaking next morning (Sunday) took breakfast, and parted from Mr. 
W. to spend the day at " Brick House," promising him to return that 



THE SKA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 245 

evening and remain all night. But circumstances intervened (which 
prevented nie from doing so for several days later) so appalling that 
even as I write them now, a cold shudder conies over me, and all the 
horrors of that awful time come back. 

Sunday morning dawned dull and hazy with a stiff breeze blowing 
from the east and in crossing the creek, I remarked to my companion 
that we would have bad weather, and on reaching ' ' Brick House ' ' we all 
began speculating on the approaching storm (no one ever dreaming 
such a storm was coming), etc., etc., and so the day wore on, the wind 
rising higher and higher every moment, and towards afternoon the 
trees began to bend and sway in a terrible manner, branches and limbs 
flying in all directions. By sunset we were all thoroughly alarmed 
and moved over to the previously mentioned " Brick House," deeming 
that the safest place to pass the night, and in a few hours' time the 
whole population of the village was gathered under its protecting roof, 
all feeling thankful a safe shelter was provided for us. How we passed 
that night of terror, only God knows, for the winds blew, the rain fell, 
and the tide rose, until towards midnight it seemed as if everything was 
lost; but the old house stood and carried lis through until dawn of 
another day, and then what a sight met our anxious eyes. What had 
been a smiling pretty village, was nothing but a pile of wreckage and 
a mass of ruins, some houses having been washed away completely, 
and those that remained, so badly damaged as to be uninhabitable. To 
make matters worse even our food had been swept away, and there we 
were, cut off from the island on this point of land, wrecked, desolate 
and hungry, some of us with only the clothing on our backs, all the 
balance gone; and as far as the eye could reach there was nothing to 
see but water, and those spots from which the tide had receded, covered 
with portions of houses, trunks of clothing broken open and scattered, 
drowned poultry, and every crop ruined and prostrated. After a little 
while we found some grist that had been saved by a colored man, and 
cooking this with some saltwater and "drowned" chicken, we sub- 
sisted till evening, when help came in the shape of water and food. 

By Wednesday I returned to " Little Edisto " and Mr. Whaley, 
who I had been so anxious about during the storm. I found the 
brave old man "holding the fort," and tr>'ing to save, by drying out, 
etc., what the storm had left; but oh! how different everything looked. 
What had been of so much promise and beauty had been literally 
swept from the face of the earth, nothing remaining but ruin, desolation 
and death for those whose all had been taken from them if help did 



246 THK RIvD CROSS. 

not conic quickly. It is hard for those who were not there to realize 
such a condition of things; but just imagine a whole island completely 
covered with water (and a raging sea, at that) from three to six feet in 
depth. Can you wonder that so many poor creatures were drowned 
or that anything was saved at all ? 

Fortunately Mr. Whaley had saved some provisions which were 
stored in his house out of the reach of the tide, and gathering up all 
else we could find, we began issuing food to the poor hungry negroes 
around us, who had been entirely bereft of their all. And there I 
stayed on that little island for some time after the cyclone, giving out 
each day of our own little store, food, medicine and comfort to those 
who came, trusting that when that supply was exhausted, other means 
would be provided to carry on the good work, thus so nobly begun; 
for it must be understood that those who had, freely gave to those who 
had not, and the men of that section worked hand to hand and heart 
to heart to help those of their colored brethren, who otherwise must 
have died of hunger, sickness and exposure. 

Such then, was the condition of affairs when news was received 
that the Red Cross would take the field, and a sigh of relief, and a 
prayer to God went up from thousands of homeless, hungry, helpless 
and demoralized people, who had gone through so much, it seemed a 
miracle they were still alive. I then went to Charleston and immedi- 
ately wrote to Miss Barton offering her my services, telling her of my 
knowledge of the people and the islands, and how glad I would be to 
help her in any way to relieve the necessities of the thousands that were 
begging for help. My oifer was accepted; a telegram summoning me 
lo Beaufort, the Red Cross Headquarters, and there I made the 
acquaintance of the noble lady who had come to our stricken people 
with her valued corps of assistants, to perform a task that was gigantic 
in its contemplation. 

I was retained by Miss Barton in Beaufort three weeks, and by 
practical teaching was soon able to grasp intelligently the true intents 
and purposes of the Red Cross, and able then to undertake any duty 
assigned me. I was then sent to take charge of the district composed 
of Edisto, Wadmalaw, John's and Kiawah Islands, the first three 
named being very large islands, with a combined population of nearly 
10,000 souls. 

Kiawah being directly on the sea was almost entirely submerged 
by tidewater, and on the other islands, those portions which were 
directly exposed to the sea and the. tributary streams suffered in like 



THE SEA ISI.ANDS HURRICANE. 247 

manner. Cotton, the main dependence of the people, was ahnost 
totally destroyed, and only in some localities were any potatoes and 
corn saved, and these badly damaged, I found viany people hungry, 
destitute, without suitable habitation or sufficient clothing and badly 
demoralized. Such, then, was the condition of things when I took 
charge, and how to meet the various proljlems that arose, and to cover 
this territory in the most intelligent and speedy way of course became 
my first object. After planning a little I soon arrived at a happy solu- 
tion, and proceeded to organize the territory into working condition. 

Rockville, on Wadmalaw Island, had been selected as the most 
central point to work from, and making this my headquarters and basis 
of supplies, I secured a house and was soon comfortably fixed, with 
sufficient supplies on hand to meet the immediate wants of the people. 
To reach all these people quickly and often was the next point to be 
settled (scattered as they were over an area of vast dimensions, divided 
in many places by streams, at times dangerous to navigate). This 
difficulty was overcome by thoroughly canvassing each island, and 
establishing one or more sub-stations at the most central location, and 
from these stations I would each week make my distribution of rations, 
receive reports, arrange work for the coming week and transact other 
business. All this time petitions of various kinds had been coming in, 
and my time was fully occupied in seeking out those who were in imme- 
diate want, among the old people and children especially, and I soon 
got that settled sufficiently to give me a chance to start all able-bodied 
men, that needed help, in ditching, house-building, bridge-building 
and any other work I could find that would benefit the general com- 
munity; and soon I had large forces at work on each island. A school 
for children was established at Rockville, which was successfully con- 
ducted for some time, and a wharf built, which is as unique as it is 
substantial, having been built by native workmen with raw materials 
cut and hewn out of the woods, the piles being driven by a pile driver 
of our own construction. This wharf stands to-day, a monument of 
strength and an object lesson to those who were doubtful of its com- 
pletion. On the several islands much good work was done; new dams 
being thrown up; bridges rebuilt and abandoned lands reclaimed. I 
occupied this field for over eight months, and during that time visited 
every district one day of each week and personally distributed all 
rations given out, thus being certain that nothing was misappropriated. 
From Monday until Saturday I would travel by team and boat, on an 
average of twenty miles a day, never allowing rain, wind or anything 



24S THK RED CROvSS. 

else to keep nie from going, as some of these poor people had to walk 
miles to reach the point of distribution, and I could not disappoint 
them and cause them to go back empty handed. The distribution of 
seeds, as they came in season, was started from the beginning, and soon 
gardens of various dimensions began to spring up in all directions, thus 
making another valuable food supply which was practically inexhaus- 
tible, as long as no frosts interfered. Happily the season was propi- 
tious, and the people by these little gardens were well supplied with 
vegetables of all kinds. Corn, bean and Irish potato seed were also 
supplied. Knowing these people as well as I did (having been amongst 
them from childhood), I had a peculiar sympathy for them, and in 
ever)'^ possible way so conducted my affairs as to benefit and instruct 
them in the highest possible manner, the results obtained fully repay- 
ing me for all my exertions in their behalf. I never at any time found 
them anything but kind, respectful and extremely grateful for what 
was bestowed upon them, and the evidences shown to-day, amply testify 
to the good that was done by Red Cross methods and teachings. Of 
course troubles and trials would arise, but these were soon overcome, 
and things would go on smoothly again. 

The methods adopted by Miss Barton, and through me carried 
out, gave universal satisfaction, and all able-bodied men were willing 
and anxious to w^ork for their rations. The clothing (a large quantity), 
with the exception of that given by me in exchange for labor, was dis- 
tributed through the sewing societies formed by Miss Barton. 

This field was taken in December, 1893, and held till August, 
1894, when I left there, feeling satisfied that all danger from want and 
privation was over. Vegetables had been abundant, still coming in, 
the rivers furnishing their portion in abundance of fish, etc.; all crops 
promising a good harvest, the people in the meantime having been 
brought safely through the most trying period of their lives. Many 
incidents could be mentioned of the trials and sufferings endured by 
these people, and when the whole story is told, those who bestowed 
their charity in this, the most appalling disaster that has ever visited 
our coast, will not feel that it was injudiciou.sly expended, or their 
kindness misplaced. 

Too much cannot be said in praise of Miss Barton, that great and 
wise general, on this most peculiar and difficult field, for there never 
was a man or woman who labored more zealously or untiringly in a 
work so varied in its character or harder to perform. Enough has been 
.said to tell the arduous duties to be performed, and the cares and 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 249 

anxieties attendant upon a work of this kind, but after a hard day's 
work, the consciousness of having made so many poor souls happy would 
take away all feeling of fatigue, and long in the night would we be 
packing and unpacking goods and clothing, and sometimes all day 
Sunday, thus showing that no amount of time or effort was spared in 
behalf of those dependent upon us. 

In regard to the good accomplished by the Red Cross (a question 
so often asked), can more be said than this? That human life was 
saved from death by starvation; the homeless were housed, and the 
naked were clothed, and by our words of counsel and cheer we were 
enabled to give new hope and life to a people who were in a most piti- 
able condition. Some ivho 7vere not on that hard fought field have 
been so bold as to criticise us, but we who were there with these people 
in their hour of need, and worked with them heart to heart and shoul- 
der to shoulder, know what we did and the everlasting good accom- 
plished, 

I kept a complete record of all goods received and everything 
given out, from a pint of grits to a barrel of clothing. Committees 
composed of the most intelligent men and women were formed to inves- 
tigate and report for each plantation, and as each new applicant 
appeared, their home was immediately visited, and relief extended 
according to their needs. In justice to all who came, I can truly say 
that in very few instances was I imposed upon, as they very seldom 
stated other than the truth in regard to their condition. This narrative 
could be extended indefinitely, there is so much to write about, but fear 
I must come to a close, as my patient readers must be tired by this 
time. Sincerely trusting that these lines will convey their true mean- 
ing to those interested, I will subscribe myself as a sincere admirer of 
Miss Barton and that grand institution she so fittingly represents. 

Eight thousand one hundred and nine souls were in the wards of the 
Red Cross in this district, in the following proportions on each island : 

Edisto 1, 812 

Wadmalaw 2,123 

South John's 1,650 

North John's 2,469 

Kiawah 55 

8, 109 
Upwards of 200 packages of clothing (barrels, boxes and cases) 
were giv^n out, besides blankets, comforters, etc., special attention 



250 THE RED CROSS. 

being given to those who were sick, old or helpless. Food stuff was 
distributed in the following amount: 

Grits 1, 5 27 bushels. 

Meal 163 bushels. 

Rice - ,672 pounds. 

Wheat flour 23,980 pounds. 

Bacon 7,000 pounds. 

and other sundries, such as tea, vSugar, canned beef, etc. Seeds were 
supplied, such as peas, tomatoes, okra, melon, bean, corn, etc., of the 
following amounts: 

Corn 1 40 bushels. 

Bean 60 bushels. 

Irish potato 75 bushels. 

Assorted seed 30 bushels. 

Assorted seed 3 crates. 

Garden seed 3 boxes. 



Statement of Work Done on Each Island. 

WADMALAW ISLAND. 

Twenty miles of ditching. 

One-half mile of road work. 

One house repaired and others rebuilt. 

Three chimneys repaired and others rebuilt. 

Five hundred shingles cut and split. 

Six thousand feet of planking and timber hewn and cut. 

Wharf built at Rockville of the following dimensions: 

One hundred and ten feet long. 

Ten feet wide with a bulkhead twenty by thirty feet. 
A school started and carried on for several months. 

EDISTO ISLAND. 

Two hundred and eleven and one-half miles of ditching. 
One thousand four hundred and seventy feet of causeway, 

twelve by two feet, built. 
Two hundred feet of timber cut and hewn. 
One bridge eighty feet long and twelve feet wide rebuilt., 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 



251 



KIAWAH ISLAND. 

One bridge thirty-four feet long and ten feet wide rebuilt and 

put in order. 
One bridge fifty feet long and ten feet wide rebuilt and put in 

order. 
Eumber to do same cut and hewn out of the woods. 
Nine hundred feet of causeway repaired and put in good 
order. 
The above account does not include the hundreds of little thing.'' 
which would cotne up from day to day, and the many cares that werf 
upon lis at all times, requiring immediate attention. 




THR ISI.AXn DISTRICT FROM SAVANN.\H TO BK.\UFORT. 



•THIv RICD CROSS. 



THE CLOTHING DHPARTMENT. 

Whilst food for the nourishment of these thousands of human 
bodies was of the first and higliest importance, it was followed so 
closely by the necessity of something to cover them, that the two 
seemed well nigh inseparable; and while our men stood over the boxes 
of meats and the bags of grain, by the carload and the trainload, it was 
no less imperative, that some one stand by the boxes and barrels of 
clothing sent from, everywhere — sent by the great, warm, pitying hearts 
of our blessed, generous countrywomen, from the church, with its 
towering steeple and the soft-toned bell that calls to prayer, the blazing 
bazaar, wath its galaxies of beauty, animate and inanimate, the dimly 
lighted, one little room of the woman who has toiled out all day and 
returns weary and heavy laden to the waiting family of little ones, who, 
in the midst of their own hard life an J the need of much, still bless 
God for a fate better than those they hear of — from all of these alike 
come the gifts of Dorcas. In tons they come, and some one must, 
"stand and deliver," as hour by hour goes out the appeal: " Closen 
marm — please give me some closen. I's lost all I had! " How literally 
true this was may be judged by the fact that here as at Johnstown, there 
were those who came out of that terrific strife for life with no thread 
left on the body but the shirt band about the neck, which a strong, well- 
sewed button had served to hold. 

Again, as always, we turned to our " Mistress of the Robes," Mrs. 
Dr. Gardner, whose quick and clear judgment seems to double the 
value of all she handles. She goes to every field, helps to organize, 
and remains as long as the strength in her slender, wiry bod}' permits. 
She left her unpretending report as far as she was able to do, or to 
make it: 



Mrs. Gardner's Report. 

On the first day of October, 1893, the American National Red 
Cross took charge of the relief work of the Sea Islands of South 
Carolina. During the month before this and just after the storm, the 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 255 

clothing department had been in the hands of a very efficient local 
committee composed of some of the most prominent ladies and gentle- 
men of the section around Beaufort. 

In the first days after a disaster of this kind, the necessity of relief 
work is so great, that it is impossible to keep a correct record of supplies 
that pour in from every part of the country, and this was no exception, 
with both hearts, and hands full, distributing to the thousands of 
destitute who were imploring them on every hand for help, this 
committee had nothing to tell of what had been received. 

After we took charge, a faithful record was kept, and when there 
was a mark of any kind to show us where the goods came from, an 
acknowledgment was sent at once. Many, many things came without 
a sign of any directions to tell where they were from. In these cases 
close watch was kept for any writing inside to give some clew. I have 
even taken the newspaper the box, barrel or parcel was lined with, and 
tried in that way to reach the donors. 

The people of the United States are a most generous people, and 
yet so modest with it, that they very often miss the verification of the 
saying that " it is more blessed to give than to receive." Could they 
stand, as do the members of the National Red Cross, and look into the 
glad, grateful faces of the relieved ones, there would be no need of our 
president sending out circulars and letters all over the country, praying 
that articles for the relief be plainly marked. Would it be out of place 
for me to urge the good people wdio read this report to remember this 
when sending to the next field ? 

The distribution of the clothing had to be systematically planned. 
Here was a territory 150 miles long by 50 miles wide, not on the main 
land, but on islands, surrounded by water, with the most treacherous 
channels, and many impossible to even get into. The people to be 
helped, kind and industrious, but they had been dependent from their 
cradles, and were in such a dazed condition, they hardly knew what 
had overtaken them. 

The clothing, plenty of it, but all for adults. What was to 
become of the little waifs of the wind, rain and high tide? Evidently 
these goods had to be fashioned into little garments. 

Bedding, comparatively none, and every few minutes the plea, 
" Please miss, just a little bedding to keep the chilluns warm at 
night. ' ' 

I have stood at my table from 7 a. ni. until way into the night, 
opening boxes, barrels and parcels, and not one piece of bedding to 



256 THE RKD CROSS. 

come to my hands. The people on half rations, thinly clothed and 
nothing to keep them warm of a night. 

This, as well as all other puzzling questions, were referred to our 
most honored president, and I have asked her to tell how she came to 
the rescue, and by her wise forethought not only assisted her own 
workers, but placed a responsibility upon the people that made them 
help each other, and gave them a self-respect that they would have 
gained in no other way. 



THE SEA ISLANDvS HURRICANE. 257 



THE SEWING CIRCLES. 

There are many points in the administration of relief that will 
never present themselves nntil forced upon the mind by the absolute 
necessities of the case. It was not long until we were confronted with 
a condition of things that called for ingenious methods and diplo- 
matic action. All foods sent or purchased were always of good quality 
and in readiness for immediate distribution and use — these could be 
given to the committeeman, who in turn sent them out as veritable 
rations a specified quantity to each. There was no question, no 
judgment required, no opportunity for favoritism, no chance for reserve. 
But with the clothing all these conditions changed and securities 
vanished. The committeeman w^ho came for the rations of food, took 
also the boxes of clothing, and naturally claimed the privilege of 
distribution. The clothing sent was very largely, as is always the case, 
for women and children. This rough negro, however well versed 
in corn meal, hominy and bacon, was not likely to prove a skillful 
manipulator of women's wardrobes. Jealousies would arise and 
criminations follow. Again the chothing was almost entirely second- 
hand, sent hastily, and usually so out of repair as to be nearly useless 
for actual wear until overlooked, mended, strengthened and put into 
proper condition. How was this to be done ? Thirty thousand people 
to clothe, winter at hand, little shelter, and almost no bedding — surely 
li'e could not undertake this labor. That a poor, imtaught negro labor- 
ing women, would never of herself mend a hole, or sew on a button, 
even if she had a button, a needle, and thread, and a place to do it in. 
How to formulate some system by which this could be done, how to 
get them under intelligent direction, to get the women interested and 
into the work and the men out of it, for the committeemen were fast 
gaining in importance and influence among the other men by reason of 
patronage, a kind of " political pull," one might say. 

1 struggled with this problem som« days, until finally — it might 
have been the spirit of the Widow Bedott that come to my assistance — 
for suddenly there flits through my perplexed mind the idea of " sewing 
societies." No amendment was required, and the resolution was put 



25t THE RED CROSS. 

and motion carried in far less time than it had taken to evolve the idea. 
Word went out at once that the president of the Red Cross, accom- 
panied by her staff, of ladies especially, would be pleased to meet the 
women of one of the most important islands; that the meeting would 
be held in the interest of the women; that they might consider it their 
meeting — but men were not forbidden — would they .kindly appoint a 
day, and place of meeting, and the hour most convenient for themselves. 
The church which had been repaired was selected, and its clergyman 
notified us. 

It was a sunny autumn day when our party crossed over the ferry 
and landed on the sandy beach of Coosaw, and took our pathways 
through the clumps of shrubs and trees, basking in the sunshine, but 
ripening and reddening with the dying year. Soon groups of women 
commenced to appear from the by paths and the little trails on either 
side, dressed in the best we had given them, and traveled on with 
cheery faces, full of expectation. 

After a journey of perhaps two miles, the little ' ' ractified '"^ church 
came in sight, or rather would have come in sight but for the crowd of 
people gathered about it. The entrance was politely held clear for us. 
The little edifice, which would seat with its gallery perhaps two hundred 
persons, was packed with a waiting audience. The platform and desk 
had been reserved for the "extinguished visitors," and we took our 
places. The entire space filled and echoed with the sweet, plaintive 
melody that the negro voice alone can give. This was followed by 
earnest prayer by the pastor; then a little speech of welcome by the 
elder, and we were introduced to our audience. And, who could ask a 
more attentive or sympathetic audience than this! The president, who 
has addressed some bodies of people, never stood before one that she 
enjoyed or honored more. Here was the simplicity of nature, the 
earnestness of truth, the innate trust in the love and care of the living 
God of Heaven that even its winds and waves could not shake, and 
the glorious spirit of resignation that could suffer and be glad, if not 
strong. 

But to business. The situation was fulh' explained to them, and 
they were told that in spite of all we had for them, they alone could 
comfortably clothe themselves through the winter. Then the plan of 
a well arranged sewing society, with its constitution, laws, officers and 
regulations was explained, and their approval and co-operation asked. 
On a unanimous assent, they were required to select twenty-five 
women from among them, who should retire for twenty minutes and 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 259 

discuss the subject among themselves, selecting their chief officers, and 
so far as possible, give us the points of their organization. 

In the body of women that rose and retired for consultation one 
saw good ground for hope of success. A part were the strong, matronly 
women, whose childhood and youth had been passed in the service of 
the hospitable home of the master in the old days of elegant luxury 
" 'fo de wa'," and who needed no one to teach them courtesy or what 
belonged to a family household; others were sewing girls, some of 
whom had partially learned trades, and a few were teachers, for the 
great majority of the children of ten years and upwards on these 
islands had been taught to read. These women needed only the proper 
instruction, encouragement, the way opened for them, the suitable 
material distributed, and the liberty of action and conscience, with no 
patronage or politics invading their premises. 

The system formulated for one society became the system for all; 
each district which received rations of food had its regularly organized 
sewing society for the clothing sent to them on requisition. First 
soma room was found, with a fire, shelves arranged for garments and 
tables for work. Of the twenty-five official women, each should give 
one week of her time in every month, but changing regularly in order 
that at no time should there be more than one-fourth of the number 
new to the work in hand. Four women should visit and inspect 
applicants for assistance, and two should attend entirely to the wants 
of the feeble and old and the sick, to see that they were in no way 
neglected. 

Of those in the sewing room, a part cut overgarments for children, 
as there are never enough of these; others repaired and mended. As 
the barrels and boxes went in from the committeemen, they were 
received and opened on one side of the room; when repaired they were 
placed on the shelves on the opposite side and given out from there 
on the recommendation of the visiting inspectors. Along with the 
clothing went thread, needles, pins, thimbles, wax, shears, knives and 
pieces for mending. For the bedding, besides two thousand heavy 
wool blankets which were donated, as many more purchased; cotton 
batting and calico, or muslin, by the ton were bought, and the societies 
instructed in tying " comforts," which in many instances served as both 
cover and l>ed. 

There was never any complaint with these women about the time 
given to, or the labor performed, in this ser\'ice for the cotnmon weal, 
and seldom any difficulty arose bet»v«^f>n them. If so, a few words set 



26o THE RKD CROSS. 

it right, and the offending individual was discovered, pointed out, and 
put out of the society, with the usual explanatory remark: "She want 
too much rule; she done always do make trouble." But whatever 
trials the day might bring to them, the}- were solaced and forgotten in 
the nice afternoon lunch, and the steaming cups of tea and coffee pre- 
pared by one of the members from the rations so wisely planned and 
faithfully sent by Mrs. Gardner. 

Next to the absolute necessity for the distribution of food supplies, 
and the great essentials of life itself, I regard the sewing societies as 
perhaps the most important feature of the field. From these they 
learned not alone the lesson of self-help, but of mutual help, which they 
had never known before. It had never occurred to them to look about 
and see who was in need, and find away to help it; and it was a glad 
satisfaction to hear their voluntary pledges when we left them, never 
to give up the custom of these societies, and the habit of caring for 
their poor. 

Appended to Mrs. Gardner's report are long, tiresome lists of 
names of recipients, which, however necessar}' and business like in their 
time and place, we maj^ well spare the reader in these belated years; 
but one little list appeals to me with such loving interest, that I am 
constrained to ask the privilege of inserting it. It is a partial roll of 
the presidents of the sewing societies, of whose tireless, faithful work 
no adequate description could be given. And when we read among 
them the name of Mrs. Admiral Beardslee, and that missionary of 
scholarship and teaching on St. Helena, Miss Ellen Murray, the lovable 
and accomplished late wife of Robert Small, and Mrs. John MacDonald, 
who humbly and magnanimously placed themselves side by side with 
poor, unlettered, but honest and faithful Patty Frazier, and her kind, 
the reader will feel with me that it is indeed a roll of honor: 



Society. President. 

Coosaw Works Mrs. Mary Chaplain 

Beaufort Mrs. General Small 

Hilton Head Mrs. John MacDonald 

Wadmalaw Mrs. Frank Whale}'^ 

Ladies' Island Mrs. Sam Green 

St. Helena Miss Ellen Murray 

Coosaw Island Maria Rivers 

Bennet's Point C. C. Richardson 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 261 

Society. President. 

Musselboro Mrs. Phillips 

Hutchinson, Holders, ) ... „. 

^ c ^^.^ \ W. Rivers 

Beef, Warreti J 

Rockville H. L. Bailey 

Edisto Amanda Brown 

Tommy Johns Mary Jenkins 

Johns Island Mrs. Chas. Wilson 

Big State Plantation Jackson Field 

Jericho, Rhetts. F. C. Garrett 

Dixouville General Saunders 

Paris Island Mrs, Beardslee 

Tommy Rhodes Patty Frazier 

Christmas, which two months before had seemed but a veil of 
future blackness, opened bright and cheerful. Most of the churches 
had been in some way reopened, and Christmas Eve brought again its 
melody, its prayer and its praise. 

There was in all this a Christian spirit, so sweet, so much to be 
commended, that I could not refrain from passing in my little contribu- 
tion of a Christmas carol, for which they at once found a tune and sang 
■t with a will. lyight-hearted, happy race. 



A CHRISTMAS CAROL. 

For my 30,000 Sea Island Frieuds. 

A Loving Greeting and Merry Christmas. — Clara Barton. 

Lo! The Christmas morn is breaking, 

Bring the angels bright array, 
For the Christian world is waking, 
And the Lord is born to-day. 

Shout then, brothers; shout and pray. 
For the blessed Lord is born to-day. 

No more tears and pain and sorrow, 
Hark ! I hear the angels say 

Blessed be the bright to-morrow, 
For the Lord is born to-day. 

Shout then, sisters; shout and pray, 
For the blessed Lord is born to-day. 



262 THE RRD CROSS. 

Forget your night of sad disaster, 

Cast your burdens all away, 

Wait the coming of the Master, 

For the Lord Is born to-day. 

Shout then, children; shout and pray. 
For the blessed Lord is born to-day. 

In the sunlight, soft and golden, 

Round the babe the angels play; 
List, their notes so grand and olden, 
Lo! The Lord is born to-day. 

Shout, all people; shout and pray 
For the blessed Lord is born to-day. 



THK SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 263 



CLOTHING DEPARTMENT— Continued. 

As the work dropped from the weary hand of Mrs. Gardner, 
another, stronger, more fresh and new in the work, took it up. Mrs. 
Harriette h. Reed, of Boston, who, while never permanently with us, 
seldom allows a field to escape her. We regard it as a loss to any 
field where her genial presence, clear perception and sound judgment 
take no part. Mrs. Reed, like our beloved and brilliant countrywoman, 
Mrs. Logan, went to the civil war of 186 1, a bride. Her gallant young 
husband, Captain J. Sewall Reed, took the first detachment of volun- 
teer cavalry from California, known as the " California One Hundred." 
He fell in an ambuscade, in the Army of the Potomac, 1864. His 
brave young wife was always with him at the front, and received his 
dead body when brought in. Thus early bereft, she took up the 
march of life alone, and faithfully and tirelessly has she made it, with 
a cheering word and an outstretched hand to every weary comrade in 
the tedious march of more than three decades, and still she serves, and 
still they call her blessed. 

Her graceful report, which has lain in my portfolio since 1893, 
now comes to light with its waiting companions: 



Mrs. Reed's Report. 

The preceding account of the distribution of clothing, relates to 
the early part of the work covering a period of several months, and 
was under the charge of Mrs. Dr. Gardner, of Bedford, Ind., who was 
called home. 

Coming upon the scene about this time, I was more than glad to 
take up her work to a small extent, and for three months it was my 
privilege to labor in this field of the Red Cross vvork, bringing so 
often to my mind the words of the Master, "for I was naked and ye 
clothed me." 

And what a strange, unusual and extraordinary field of labor it 
was and how unlike anything I had ever seen before. Let me briefly 
picture a few of the regular types of "sufferers" besieging head- 
quarters, the old, decrepit uncle of the days " befo' the wah " with 



^64 THE RKD CROSS. 

white head and bent shoulders; the little one, toddling along behind 
the young mother, hiding in her tattered garments, with great black 
eyes peering through the rags; the strong young man, barefoot or with 
pieces of shoes tied on with strings, coat and pants that looked like 
relics of a bygone time and a conspicuous absence of under garments; 
the old-time "mammy" shivering with cold and begging for a little 
" closen " to keep her warm, all these and more were our daily, hourly 
visitors, imploring our aid and needing it oh, how sorely! And what 
heartrending tales of loss and sorrow and fearful destitution w^ere 
brought to us by these messengers from a stricken people! Many of 
them, before the cyclone, had comfortable little homes- and clothing 
sufficient for their simple needs; occasionally a sewing machine was 
owned, and sometimes, in more favored homes, an organ. Now, there 
was absolutely nothing of all this. Parents, children, friends were 
gone — not a vestige left of the home; horses, mules, cows, hens swept 
away, and scarcely clothing enough left to cover part of the family. It 
was not an infrequent tale that fell upon our ears, that the little band 
that had left the home were all that could find sufficient clothing to 
come in and the rest were left nearly naked in consequence. 

Verj' early in the morning a motley crowd gathered in the street, 
in the vicinitj^ of headquarters, and all day long they were coming and 
going and it was far into the evening before the last one had departed. 
And, what a good-natured, patient, orderly crowd it was! Seldom was 
there any loud talking, screaming, quarreling such as is ordinarily 
heard in a like gathering, in scenes wath which I had been more familiar. 
The shadow of the terrible calamity that had befallen them had in no 
wise departed from them, and not yet had the dawn of the new day 
restored the happy, careless, cheery manner that seems to be natural 
to them. 

When they were admitted to the office, singly or in small groups, 
as was necessary, for our quarters were limited, how quietly, respect- 
fully, they made their entrance! No crowding nor jostling to get the 
best places or be served first, but patiently waiting their turn, entering 
with a low bow or deep courtesy, they received the slip of paper that 
meant so much to them and, with words and tears of gratitude, with- 
drew as quietly as they came. 

It is simply impossible within the limits of this report, and indeed 
words are inadequate, to convey even a faint idea of the immensity of 
the labor required in this department. Kind hearts all over our land 
had been stirred by the appeals that had been made for those needy 



THE SEA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 265 

ones, and boxes, barrels, bundles, all sorts and descriptions of these 
came pouring in upon us. All of these must be unpacked and sorted 
and again repacked before they could reach those for whom they were 
intended. Think of this, careful housekeepers, as you sort over and 
pack away your family wardrobe and household goods. Think what 
it would mean to sort over and pack away clothing for the use of thirty 
thousand people. 



As I think it will not be without interest to our readers, to give a 
little closer view of the people among whom we worked; for this 
purpose I shall make a few extracts from various letters received at 
Red Cross headquarters. The first is a plea for help and is a fair 
sample of these papers, I copy words and spelling with no attempt at 
correction : 



Miss Clara Barton the queen ok the Red cross Society. 

we ar now, making a Plead before you niam. we are the suffers of the Storm, 
we beg you mam to helph we to som clothing, mam we ar all naked, mam, 
there is Som old People is there mam can not helph thorn Self Some motherlis 
children is there can not helph them Self Waiting for Som clothing If you Please 
mam. Thanks you mam for the Rashon (rations) we get it mam But no clothing 
we Get We is the committee of the clothing. 



This is signed by the three women of the committee. 

As pleas for help came by mail, so also did letters of thanks and 
a few of these will tell their own story much better than any description 
ot mine could possibly hope to do. Here is one: 



we the people of this Plantation have sen much thank to you Dear madam for 
the closing (clothing) what you have send for ous the very children sen there 
thanks to you for the shoes an closing that you have sent for them an we the' 
people pray Day and night that the god of heaven will keep you an gard you an 
when this short life is pass heaven will be your home nothing more to say at 
present. Signed by one member of the committee, a woman. 



266 THE RKD CROSvS. 

As an instance of the desire of many of the committees in charge 
of the distribution of clothing, to be honest and fair, I copy another 
letter : 

Miss Barton : 

Dear Madam : Mrs. Diana Williams president of Sewing Society No. i 
Say she coming over for Clothing on Monday I dont think eny clothing need not 
right away I wouhl like to see on my Section how many needy person are not serve 
in Clothing yet and plese dont send over no clothing before for it will take me some 
time, when clothing are need to go over I will let you now (know) for further 
information I can explain it something I like to say to you before eny more cloth- 
ing go over. 

I have thus far mentioned the more pleasant features of this work, 
but no one will be surprised if I toitch lightly upon some of its trials. 
Life was not always " one long, bright, sunny day " in the Sea Islands, 
any more than it is in the more favored sections of our land. This 
great work of relief had its reverse side ; the usual trials, disappoint- 
ments and discouragements attending most lines of philanthropic work 
were not lacking here. Not all were entirely content with the 
necessary restrictions and methods ; not all were wholly satisfied with 
such things as could be found for them just at that time ; not all 
committees worked in absolute peace and harmony, and the common 
faults of humanity in general were not wholly absent. 

I well remember one instance which will illustrate these conditions. 
Two rival committees presented themselves before our president, both 
anxious to establish their rights and claims, and with great earnestness 
and vehemence related their grievances. With her usual wisdom and 
patience, sitting in their midst like a judge in his court, she pronounced 
the sentence which was that no more clothing should be issued to either 
side for the present. This will explain the following letter : 

Hon. Miss Barton : 

Dear Madam : We the people of this Island give you grate thanks, for what 
you are Doing for us. as the cormittee We have put Before us, are Doing all in 
their power and knowdge (knowledge) We Believe, and Dear Madam the com- 
mittee of the cloth (clothes) Who Went before you with the corruption We Dont 
recunize (recognize) them in that for We the people of this island are very happy 
for all that you are Doing for us. Now Dear Madam We ask you, as vs^e lem that 
the close are stop on account of the fust (fuss) that the cormittee made among 
themselves this we nows nothing about this nether the cormittee We put before us 
these don't no anything about it 



THE SKA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 267 

This is signed by twenty-two men of the Island. 

Scenes of this sort were not of frequent occurrence and were the 
exception to the rule of general satisfaction which prevailed every- 
where. As the months went by, smiles returned to their faces and 
hope to their hearts, and by every method in their power, they evinced 
a most sincere desire to do something for their benefactors. Delegations 
of men and women came from long distances, sailing in their boats 
days and nights, oftentimes to express their gratitude and thanks. 

With the coming of spring, they brought us early vegetables from 
their gardens, seeds having been furnished them b}- the Red Cross ; 
they searched the woods and the fields for the beautiful wild flowers so 
abundant there, till our rooms were filled with beauty and fragrance 
and our hearts gladdened by their brightness, 

I have tried in this very imperfect report to give a little idea of 
our life at the Sea Islands and the manner of our work. Its great 
magnitude, its far-reaching results must be imagined, for they cannot 
be told. The histor)^ of philanthropy has few brighter pages to record 
and its pleasant memories will gladden our hearts long after its weary 
hours are forgotten. 



268 THI-: RED CROSS. 



LEAVING THE FIELD. 



If it be desirable to understand when to commence a work of 
relief, to know if the objects presented are actually such as to be bene- 
fited by the assistance which would be rendered, it is no less desirable 
and indispensable that one knows when to end such relief, in order to 
avoid, first, the weakening of effort and powers for self-sustenance; 
second, the encouragement of a tendency to beggary and pauperism, 
by dependence upon others which should be assumed by the persons 
themselves. It has always been the practice of the Red Cross to watch 
this matter closely and leave a field at the suitable moment when it 
could do so without injury or unnecessary suffering, thus leaving a 
wholesome stimulus on the part of the beneficiaries to help not only 
themselves individually, but each other. 

Seldom a field, or any considerable work of relief which may have 
attracted public notice, comes to a close that there does not some person 
or body of persons arise and propose to continue the work under some 
new form, but using the former well established sources of sup- 
plies; to put out new appeals to old patrons, detailing great need, 
newly discovered, and thus keep the sympathetic public forever on the 
anxious seats of never-ending pity and help. We have been compelled 
to guard against this at the close of every long-continued field, notably 
Johnstown, where it became necessary for the citizens to organize a 
"Home Relief" to keep sensational strangers off the ground, and 
their well arranged ' ' Benevolent Union ' ' of to-day is the result. 

The Sea Islands were no exception, and at the last moment of our 
stay a well-drawn petition was discovered (for it was to be kept con- 
cealed until we were gone) , and was checked only by the vigorous aid 
of the Charleston Neivs and Courier, of June 25, 1894, always our stay 
and friend in time of trouble. I append a letter to that journal which 
followed a visit from their able correspondent. The last weeks of our 
stay in that place were passed in Charleston, hence the letter dates 
from there: 

To the Editor of the " New% and Courier,** 

Charleston, S. C: 

If no other service called for my pen this morning it would be sufficient 
motive that it comes to thank you for the graceful, manly and cordial note of 



THE vSKA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 269 

yesterday, which will always hold its place among my treasures of elegant litera- 
ture, asking for a personal audience for your correspondent for some facts con- 
cerning the work which has recently been brought to a close. * « ♦ 

It is little to say that, without the strong, honest support given in notes of no 
uncertain sound, bearing in every line the courage of its convictions, of the 
Charleston News and Courier, no work of relief of this great disaster could have 
lived and been carried on to any success * * * 

The rations issued have been as follows: St. Helena, 5,724 persons; Ladies' 
Island, including Coosaw, Corn, Morgan and adjoining smaller islands, 3,500; 
Hilton Head, including the twelve islands in the group and adjoining mainland, 
including Bluffton, 2,875; Paris Island, 597; Port Royal Island, 2,666; Kean's Neck, 
situated on the mainland, including Coosaw and Pacific phosphate districts, 1,437; 
Hutchinson Island district, including Bennett's and Musselboro Points, Fenwick, 
Seabrook, Baird's, Sampson and other smaller islands, 3,238; Edisto, Wadmalaw, 
John's and adjacent islands, S,ooo. The above figures do not include the special 
issue on the mainland of 34,000 in number nor the regular labor rations of 6,500, 
which is a double ration. 

I say I was more than willing to leave all this needful detail to other hands, 
inasmuch as the subject which I desired to present is of a different nature, con- 
cerning the general points of welfare, and, may I say, reputation of vSouth Carolina, 
and addressed to the people of all this grand and goodly State of old renown. 
Proud and chivalrous, all the world knows that it must be hard and distasteful for 
her to accept help under any conditions, and it is only in the fury of an elemental 
rage, as when the earth crumbles under her, or the seas roll over her, that anyone 
essays to attempt it; and it was for this reason, if no other had been needed, that 
I came personally to stand among my workers, and see to it that the Red Cross, at 
least, bear in all it did a demeanor of delicacy and respect, wdiere it must extend 
its aid. I believe it has done this. 

It cannot be necessary to repeat at this late day that I was asked by your 
governor to accept the charge of the relief of the sufferers of the Sea Islands, of 
whom it was said there were thirty thousand who would need aid until they could 
raise something to subsist upon themselves. This was accepted with great hesi- 
tancy, and only in view of the fact that no other body of persons in all the land 
appeared to assume the responsibility, and with the cordial, unselfish and generous 
support of the advisory committee of Charleston and Beaufort, to whom our 
earnest thanks are due, the work has been carried on to a successful conclusion. 
It later developed that an equal number of persons, both white and colored, 
residing on the seagirt coast of the State, now known as the "mainland," were 
nearly as destitute as the islanders, and many of them equally storm swept. 
Finding these people appealing to us, and well knowing that, in the depressed 
financial condition of the entire United States, we could not .'lafely take on this 
double charge, we memorialized the South Carolina Legislature in November; the 
people, also under our advice, petitioned for a little aid to get them through the 
winter. The governor al.so recommended the .suggestion. 

For some reason, which we never knew, no response was given. We never 
questioned this, but redoubled our exertions to meet the wants as they came by 
single rations issued upon application, until our books show an issue up to June i 
of over 34,000 to the needy white and colored on the mainland of the State, from 



270 THE RED CROSS. 

Charleston to Savannah. No applicant, unless detected in absolute imposiiiou, 
and this after having been repeatedly served with all he needed for the time, has 
ever been declined. Our thirty thousand Sea Islanders have received their weekly 
rations of food, they have been taught to distribute their own clothing, making 
official report, and have done it well. They are a well clothed people, and over 
20,000 gannents have gone to the mainland. Thousands of little homes have been 
rebuilt or repaired, and are occupied. Over 245 miles of ditches have been made, 
reclaiming and improving many thousands of acres of land; nearly five tons of 
garden seeds, producing all varieties of vegetables in their well-fenced gardens of 
from a quarter of an acre to one acre and more for each family, with 800 bushels 
of peas and beans, have been provided. These seeds have been distributed on the 
islands and to every applicant from the mainland; 1,000 bushels of Irish potato 
seed, 400 bushels of which went to the mainland; 1,800 bushels of seed corn, 800 
bushels of this distributed on the mainland. Those provisions , together with a 
revival of the phosphate industries, the fish in the rivers and their boats in repair, 
have served to make the 30,000 vSea Islanders, whom we were asked to take charge 
of nine months ago, a prosperous and self-heli^ing people. They know this and 
realize that they can take care of themselves, and we cannot but regard any attempt 
at throwing them again upon the charities of the outside world as demoralizing, 
misleading and fatal to them, as a self-supporting and independent class of indus- 
trial people, and a matter which should concern the State whose wards they are. 
* ***** * 

Clara Barton. 
Charleston, S. C, June 24, 1894. 



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THE SKA ISLANDS HURRICANE. 273 

^^116 ^iiicrii|an Rational |{eil %rona, 
INCORPOOATCO UNOE« TM£ LAWS OF THE OlSTfllCT Of COUOMBi*, OCTOOt R I, tMI. 




runiDiitT or 1MB Unitbo Stats for the Relief of SuITi-rlim 

ClA>A Ba.toi.. l-.old...! AAd Trm.afn. 
CioAOA Kai»A», lir>i VIn P>«l<Uni 



Febntary 26, iSg^. 

Copy of Circular Letter Sent to Each Clergyman and Committeeman of Our Sea 
Island Relief IVork the Season After We Came Away front the Islands. 

A'X.lthougli the claims upon our time are more than we can meet by working 
all the (lay and much of the night, the memory and the interest of our faithful 
Sea Island friends with whom we worked last year, through the months that fol- 
lowed the great storm, still claim much of our thoughts. 

Another planting season is approaching, and we are hoping that your people 
have been doing the preparatory work of ditching for the raising of good crops. 
If any have not begun this work, will you see those who would take an active 
interest in the public good, like yourself, and get them to start the work again at 
once, so that there may be as great an advance over last year's improvements as 
last year was over previous years. 

Get the neighbors to join together and clean out the old ditches, make all the 
new main ditches and canals that they can, and then make the smaller ones to 
connect with them; this will help to give them better health, less fever, larger 
crops and better ones. 

We hope they will give particular attention to their gardens and have even 
better ones this year than they did last, improving each season by experience and by 
learning from one another, particularly from those who have been most successful. 

Dr. Hubbell has made a list of seeds profitable to plant, in two groups, as 
follows: 

For EARI.Y Pi,anting. 

Early purple-top strap-leaf turnip, early cabbage, lettuce, rutabaga turnips. 

In a hot-bed or in a protected place, where they can be covered at night when 
it is cold, the cabbage plants and tomato plants should be started at once, to be 
ready for transplanting when the ground is warm. 

For Planting When the Time for Frost is Past. 

Early Rose potatoes, onions (sets and seed), early turnip, blood beet, early 
corn, English peas, snap or wax beans, bush Lima or Sevier beans, early squash, 
okra, tomatoes, carrots, cucumbers, collards, late cabbage, taniers, and large sugar 
beet for stock. (Some of these may be planted in the field.) 
16 



274 THK RED CROSS. 

In the field (with corn or cotton) pumpkins and large squashes, cantaloupes 
and watermelons may be planted. 

The garden should be well fertilized and no weeds or grass allowed to grow. 
The weeds take the nourishment from the plants, use up and waste the fertilizers. 

There should be a good fence to keep the chickens out; then the garden, with 
the chickens and their eggs, will furnish most of a good living for a family until 
the regular crops can be harvested and save from debt. 

A good garden and a variety of crops are as necessary for the prosperity of a 
farmer as they are for his health. 

Every Sea Islander should plant now a few fig cuttings and a few grape cut- 
tings, and such fruit trees as he may be able to get; peaches, pears, pecans. In a 
few years these plantings (if protected from the goats, pigs and cattle) will give 
plentiful fruit through the " dry season " (particularly the fig), and the grapes and 
other fruit will be a luxury and profit in their sea.son, besides keeping the people 
in health. 

With good ditches everywhere, with plenty of vegetables from the gardens, 
figs and grapes, there should be almost no sickness on those prosperous islands, 
and every one should be happy. 

Regarding the other crops, as cotton, corn, rice, sweet potatoes, peanuts and 
cow peas, the people should be encouraged to get and save the best seed. Select 
from the earliest and best of their own or their neighbor's raising. Fertilize as 
much as possible with those fertilizers that they can get by their own labor, such 
as marsh-grass, sea mud, stable compost, fish, oyster shell lime, ashes, etc. (and 
some commercial fertilizer). 

They should strive to raise the best of everything. The best yields the most 
for the same labor, and brings the highest price, gives the greatest satisfaction to 
him who grows it and him who buys it. That means prosperity, which we wish 
for you all in largest measure. 

Enjoin the people to keep out of debt, to " owe no man anything;" this course 
.fill make the road of honesty and integrity easier and shorten the waj' to 
plenty and prosperity; speak no evil of thy neighbor, then all will work together 
happily in their public work of ditches, bridges, roads, wells, etc., and live happy 
in their homes. 

The people should not forget the fact that water from wells not thoroughly 
cleaned will breed fever and other sickness, and that good pure water will in a 
large degree keep the fever off. 

To encourage the general continuance of this w^ork of improvement your 
people so readily took up at our request and carried on of yourselves to our gratifi- 
cation and to the astonishment of your old-time neighbors, I will have copies of 
this letter sent to other leading Sea Island citizens, thus all may be at work at the 
same time and all will receive the benefits of your united labors by lessened sick- 
ness and increased crops. 

May the good Lord bless the efforts of a faithful people is the wish of 

Your friend, 

Ci,ARA Barton, 
President of the A^nerican Red Cross. 



ARMENIA. 




N November, 1895, the press commenced to warn us of 
a possible call for the relief of the terrible sufferings 
of Armenia, which were engaging the attention of 
the civilized world. These warnings were followed 
later by a letter from Rev. Judson Smith, D. D., of 
Boston, secretary of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, referring his sugges- 
tion back to Rev. Henry O. Dwight, D. D., of the 
American Board of Foreign Missions at Constanti- 
nople. The American Red Cross was requested by 
these representative gentlemen, to undertake the distribution of relief 
funds among the sufferers of Armenia. Owing to the disturbed condi- 
tion of the country and of its strict laws, combined as they were with 
existing racial and religious differences, it was found almost impossible 
at Lhe moment to distribute the relief needed. The faithful but dis- 
tressed resident missionaries were themselves helpless sufferers to a 
great extent and practically prisoners in their own houses. These had 
not always been spared to them in the wild excitement which reigned 
for several months previous, otherwise they would have been the nor- 
mal chainiels for distributing aid. This written request from Dr. Smith 
was nearly identical with a similar one from Mr. Spencer Trask, of New 
York, who, with others, was about to form a National Armenian Relief 
Committee, to be established in that city. Following their letters, 
both of these gentlemen. Dr. Smith and Mr. Trask, came to Washing- 
ton to personally urge our compliance with the request that we accept 
the charge of this distribution of relief funds. Accustomed to the 
trials, responsibilities and hardships of field relief labor, this proposition 
seemed something to be shrunk from rather than accepted and we natu- 
rally hesitated. The idea, however, became public, and a general 
importunity on the part of the people became prevalent. The necessity 
for immediate action was urged ; human beings were starving and could 
not be reached, hundreds of towns and villages had not been heard 

(275) 



276 THK RKI) CROSS. 

from since the fire and sword went over them, and no one else was so 
well prepared for the work of field relief, it was said, as ourselves. It 
was urged that we had a trained force of field workers, and as Turkey 
was one of the signatory powers to the Red Cross Treaty of Geneva, 
having given its adhesion as long ago as July, 1865, it must conse- 
quently be familiar with its methods and humanitarian ideas. Thus it 
was hoped that she would the more readily accept its presence than 
that of a more strange body of workers. These are only a shadowing 
of the reasons urged on behalf of our acceptance. Under this pressure, 
coupled with our strong sympathies, the subject was taken into serious 
consideration with the simple demand on our part of two positive 
assurances: First, we must be assured by the committees that we were 
the choice of the people of the entire country, that there was no oppo- 
sition to us, and that there was perfect unanimity between themselves; 
there must be nowhere any discord; the task would be difficult enough 
under the best conditions. Second, that they had the funds to dis- 
tribute. Assured on both these points, our promise was given that we 
would go and do our best to make the desired distribution in the inte- 
rior of Asia Minor. 

With this ray of hope that something might be done, the pent-up 
sympathies of the people burst forth. Public meetings were held, 
addresses made, Armenian conditions estimated, horrors reproduced, 
responsibilities placed, causes canvassed, and opinions expressed; 
honest, humane, and entirely natural, precisely the course to rouse 
public sentiment and indignation, if that were the only or the main 
object in view. In consideration, however, of the relief effort, it was 
of questionable wisdom perhaps, when it is borne in mind that we had 
yet to ask the opening of a door hitherto closed against the world, 
when we needed permission to enter, in order to reach the starving 
sufferers with the relief that was planning for them. In the enthusiasm 
of the hour, this fact seemed to be entirely lost sight of. It also 
seemed to be forgotten that if this difficult and delicate task were to be 
assigned to the Red Cross and its officers, that the making of their 
mission or of themselves personally, prominent or laudatory features of 
public gatherings where Ottoman officials or representatives were 
always listeners, could not fail to render the post more difficult, and 
prospects of success more doubtful. 

The international and neutral character of the Red Cross, as a 
medium of relief in mitigation of war or overwhelming calamity, 
appeared to be overlooked or wholly misunderstood. It was not recog- 
nized th^*" only by abstaining from discordant opinions could we be in 



ARMENIA. 277 

a position to perform our work. By the obligations of the Geneva 
Treaty, all national controversies, racial distinctions, and differences in 
creed must be held in abeyance and only the needs of humanity con- 
sidered. In this spirit alone can the Red Cross meet its obligations as 
the representative of the nations and governments of the world acting 
under it. But American enthusiasm is boundless, and its expression 
limitless; and the same breath that crushed the Ottoman Empire, 
scattered it to the winds or sunk it in the lowest depths, elevated 
the Red Cross and its proposed relief out of sight among the clouds. 
Precautionary remonstrance from us was in vain, but it was not 
until after we had publicly given our consent, made all arrangements 
and appointed our aids, that the fruits of these ardent demonstra- 
tions became visible in a pronunciamento through the Turkish Min- 
ister resident at Washington, prohibiting the Red Cross from entering 
Turkey. 

I found this decision on the part of the Bey and his government 
very natural and politically justifiable— our own government and peo- 
ple would probably have done the same or even more under similar con- 
ditions, provided similar conditions could have existed among them. I 
was ready to abide by the decision and remain at home. This, neither 
people nor committees, would consent to. Of course our selected force 
of more than a score of trained and experienced field workers, each a 
specialist, must be given up. If any relief were now attempted it could 
only be individual, with two or three officers from headquarters as 
indispensable aids. 

Previous to the announcement of the Turkish Minister prohibiting 
the Red Cross from entering Turkey, the promise had been gained from 
us to leave by the steamship " New York " on the twenty-second of 
January, and notwithstanding the reply to a cablegram from the De- 
partment of State to Constatitinople, asking if the prohibition against 
the entrance of the Red Cross was really official and from the govern- 
ment itself, or but semi-official, had not been received, our promise was 
kept and we sailed with this uncertainty resting over us. 

The picture of that scene is still vivid in my memory. Crowded 
piers, wild with hurrahs, white with parting salutes, hearts beating 
with exultation and expectation — a little shorn band of five, prohibited, 
unsustained either by govennnent or other authority, destined to a port 
five thousand miles away, from approach to which even the powers of 
the world had shrunk. What was it expected to do or how to do it? 
Visions of Don Quixote and his windmills loomed up, as I turned away 
and wondered. 



278 THE RED CROSS. 

A week at sea, to be met at midnight at Southampton, by messen- 
ger down from London, to say that the prohibition was sustained, the 
Red Cross was forbidden, but that sucli persons as our minister, Mr. 
Terrell, would appoint, would be received. Here was another delicate 
uncertainty which could not be committed to Ottoman telegraph, and 
Dr. Hubbell was dispatched alone to Constantinople (while we waited 
in London) to learn from Mr. Terrell his attitude toward ourselves and 
our mission. Under favorable responses we proceeded, and reached 
CotLStantinople on February 15; met a most cordial reception from all 
our own government officials, and located />r(7 tern, at Pera Palace Hotel; 
it being so recently after the Stamboul massacres that no less public 
place was deemed safe. 

The following day we received in a body the members of the Mis- 
sionary Board in Constantinople, including its treasurer, W. W. Peet, 
Esq. , and Dr. Washburn, president of Robert College, and here com- 
menced that friendly intercourse which continued without interruption, 
strengthening as the days wore on through the half year that followed, 
till moistened eyes and warm hand-grasp at parting told more plainly 
than words how fraught with confidence that intercourse had been. If 
one would look for peers of this accomplished Christian body of our 
countrymen, they would only be found in the noble band of women, 
who, as wives, mothers and teachers, aid their labors and share their 
hardships, privations and dangers. I shall always feel it a privilege 
and an honor to have been called, even in a small way, to assist the 
efforts of this chosen body of our countrymen and women, whose 
faithful and devoted lives are made sacred to the service of God and 
their fellow men. 

The first step was to procure an introduction to the government 
which had in one sense refused me ; and accompained by Minister Ter- 
lell and his premier interpreter, Gargiulo, perhaps the longest serving 
and one of the most experienced diplomatic officers in Constantinople, 
I called by appointment upon Tewfik Pasha, the Turkish Minister of 
Foreign Affairs or Minister of State. To those conversant with the 
personages connected with Turkish affairs, I need not say that Tewfik 
Pasha is probably the foremost man of the government; a manly man, 
with a kind, fine face, and genial, polished manners. Educated 
abroad, with advanced views on general subjects, he impresses one as a 
man who would sanction no wrong it was in his power to avert. 

We were received at the Department of State in an uninterrupted 
interview lasting over an hour. As this was the main interview and 
the base of all our work, it is perhaps proper that I give it somewhat 



ARMENIA. 279 

in detail. Mr. Terrell's introduction was most appropriate and well 
expressed, bearing with strong emphasis upon the suffering condition of 
the people of the interior in consequence of the massacres, and the 
great sympathy of the people of America, their intense desire to help 
them, the heartfelt interest in their missionaries whose burdens were 
greater than they ought to bear, and the desire to aid them, and that 
for all these reasons we had been asked to come; that our objects were 
purely humanitarian, having neither political, racial, nor religious bear- 
ing; that as the head of the organization thus represented I could 
have no other ideas, and it was the privilege of putting these ideas into 
practice and the protection required meanwhile that the people of 
America, through him and through me, were asking. 

The Pasha listened most attentively to the speech of Mr. Terrell, 
thanked him, and replied that this was well understood; that they knew 
the Red Cross and its president, and, turning to me, repeated: "We 
know you, Miss Barton; have long known you and j'our work. We 
would like to hear your plans for relief and what you desire." 

I proceeded to state them, bearing fully upon the fact that the con- 
dition to which the people of the interior of Asia Minor had been 
reduced by recent events had aroused the sympathy of the entire 
American people until they asked, almost to the extent of a demand, 
that assistance from them should be allowed to go directly to these 
sufferers, hundreds of whom had friends and relatives in America — a 
fact which naturally strengthened both the interest and the demand; 
that it was at the request of our people, en masse, that I and a few 
assistants had come; that our object would be to use the funds our- 
selves among the people needing them wherever they were found, in 
helping them to resume their former positions and avocations, thus 
relieving them from continued distress, the State from the burden of 
providing for them, and other nations and people from a torrent of 
sympathy which was both hard to endure and unwholesome in its 
effects; that I had brought skilled agents, practical and experienced 
farmers whose first efforts would be to get the people back to their 
deserted fields and provide them with farming implements and material 
wherewith to put in summer crops and thus enable them to feed them- 
selves. These would embrace plows, hoes, spades, seed-corn, wheat, 
and later, sickles, scythes, etc., for harvesting, with which to save the 
miles of autumn grain which we had heard of as growing on the great 
plains already in the ground before the trouble; also to provide for 
them such cattle and other animals as it would be possible to purchase 
or to get back; that if .some such thing were not done before another 



2So THE RED CROSS. 

winter, unless we had been greatly misinformed, the suffering there would 
shock the entire civilized world. None of us knew from personal observa- 
tions, as yet, the full need of assistance, but had reason to believe it 
very great. That if my agents were permitted to go, such need as 
they found they would be prompt to relieve. On the other hand, if 
they did not fihd the need existing there, none would leave the field so 
gladly as they. There would be no respecting of persons; humanity 
alone would be their guide. " We have," I added, " brought only our- 
selves, no correspondent has accompanied us, and we .shall have none, 
and shall not go home to write a book on Turkey. We are not here 
for that. Nothing shall be done in any concealed manner. All dis- 
patches which we send will go openly through your own telegraph, 
and I should be glad if all that we shall write could be seen by your 
government. I cannot, of course, say what its character will be, but 
can vouch for its truth, fairness and integrity, and for the conduct of 
every leading man who shall be sent. I shall never counsel nor per- 
mit a sly or underhand action with your government, and you will 
pardon me. Pasha, if I say that I shall expect the same treatment in 
return — such as I give I shall expect to receive." 

Almost without a breath he replied — " And you shall have it. We 
honor your position and your wishes will be respected. Such aid and 
protection as we are able to, we shall render." 

I then asked if it were necessary for me to see other officials. " No," 
he replied, " I speak for my government; " and with cordial good 
wishes, our interview closed. 

I never spoke personally with this gentleman again; all further 
business being officially transacted through the officers of our Lega- 
tion. Yet I can truly say, as I have said of my first meeting with our 
matchless band of missionary workers, that here commenced an 
acquaintance which proved invaluable, and here were given pledges of 
mutual faith of which not a word was ever broken or invalidated on 
either side, and to which I owe what we were able to do through all 
Asia Minor. It is to the strong escorts ordered from the Sublime 
Porte for our expeditions and men, that I owe the fact that they all 
came back to me, and that I bring them home to you, tired and worn, 
but saved and useiul still. 

Dr. Hubbell, and the leaders of the five expeditions tell us that 
they were never, even for a portion of a day, without an escort for pro- 
tection, and this at the expense of the Turkish Government, and 
that without this protection they must not and could not have pro- 
ceeded. 




RED CROSS HEADQUARTERS, CONSTANTINOPLE. 




VIEW FROM RED CROSS HEADQUARTERS, CONSTANTINOPI.E. 




TURKISH CEMETERY. 



ARMENIA. 283 

This interview with Tewfik Pasha was equal to a permit. Both 
Minister Terrell and myself cabled it to America as such. Dr. Hubbell, 
as general field agent, commenced at once to fit himself for a passage 
by the Black Sea, through Sivas to Harpoot. He had engaged a drago- 
man and assistants, and with Ernest Mason, who went with us as 
Oriental linguist, was prepared to ship next day, when at Selamlik I 
was officially waited upon by a court chamberlain who informed me 
that although greatly regretting it, they were compelled to ask me to 
delay my expedition, in order to giv^e the government time to translate 
and read some of the immense quantities of newspaper matter which 
was being thrown in upon them from America, and which from its con- 
text appeared to be ofiicial, representing all our State governors as 
engaged in a general move against Turkey, and that the chief seat of 
operations was the National Capitol. The Chamberlain tried by motions 
to show me that there were bushels of papers, and that it was impos- 
sible for them to translate them at once; that if they prove to be official 
as appeared by the great names connected with them, it was imperative 
that the government consider them; but if it proved to be mere newspaper 
talk it was of no consequence, and I was begged to delay until they 
could investigate. Having recer ed some specimens myself, I did not 
wonder at this request, I only w ondered at the kindly courtesy with 
which it was made. I will take the liberty of inserting one of the clip- 
pings which I had received as a sample of what Turkey had to con- 
sider. This is only one among scores, which had ied me to consider 
how, with these representations, we were ever to get any further: 

PRO-ARMENIAN ALLIANCE. 

ITS WORK To BK EXTENDED TO THE REMOTEST SECTIONS OF THE UNITED 
STATES— GOVERNORS OK ST.\TES WILL AID. 

[Special dispatch to the Sunday Herald.'\ 

Washington, D. C, February S, iSi)6. 

The pro-Armenian Alliance, with headquarters in this city, .says the Even- 
ing News, which is working hand in glove with Miss Clara Barton and the Red 
Cross Society for the relief of the Armenians, is rapidly completing arrangements 
for extending its work to the remotest sections of the United States. The per- 
manent organization of the alliance was perfected in this city a little over a 
week ago, when the following ofTicers were elected: President, R. S. Tharin; 
vice-presidents, P. Sunderland, I). D. , and I. E. Gilljcrt, D. D. ; secretary, H. 
L. Sargent; treasurer, F. A. Stier. 

Within a few days the broadest promulgation of a pamphlet prepared by the 
alliance will begin. 



284 THE RED CROSS. 

On the title page of the little book, will appear these unique mottoes: "God 
igainst Allah, Christ against Mohammed, Bible against Koran, Heaven against 
Hcli:" 

It is proposed to i)rocced at once with the organization of local alliances 
throughout the Union, any per.>,on connected with a Christian organization or 
society, regardless of denomination, being eligible to membership. 



The headquarters of the alliance at the National Hotel are open from ten to 
twelve o'clock. 

It is intended to send out about two million of the pamphlets explaining 
the purposes of the alliance, in lots of two hundred thousand or more. The 
delegates to the national convention will be selected by the different local clubs. 

Well knowing, however, that investigation would show no trace 
of government or other official authority, we decided to lose no time, 
but to prepare ourselves for work at the earliest moment; and taking 
up the role of merchants, went into Stamboul, and purchased from the 
great wholesale houses, immense quantities of such material as could 
not fail of being useful and needed, to be later taken by caravans into 
the interior. 

Just at this interval, a request was brought to me by Dr. Washburn, 
of Robert College, from Sir Philip Currie, English ambassador, asking 
if I could not be "persuaded" to turn my expedition through the 
Mediterranean, rather than the Black Sea, in order to reach Marasli 
and Zeitoun, where the foreign consuls were at the moment convened. 
They had gotten word to him that ten thousand people in those two 
cities were down with four distinct epidemics — typhoid and typhus 
fevers, dysentery and smallpox — that the victims were dying in over- 
whelming numbers and that there was not a physician among them, 
all being either sick or dead, with no medicines and little food. This 
was not a case for " perstiasion," but of heartfelt thanks from us all 
that Sir Philip had remembered to call us whom he had never met. But 
here was a hindrance. The only means of conveyance from Constan- 
tinople to Alexandretta were coasting boats, belonging to different 
nationalities, and which left only once in two weeks and irregularly at 
that. Transport for our goods was secured on the first boat to leave, 
the goods taken to the wharf at Galata, and at the latest moment in 
order to give time, a request was made to the government for ieskeres 
or traveling permits for Dr. Hubbell and assistants. To our surprise 
they were granted instantly, but by some delay on the part of the 
messenger sent for them, they reached a moment too late ; the boat left 
a little more than promptl}', taking with it our relief goods, and leaving 



ARMENIA. 285 

the men on the dock to receive their permits only when the boat was 
beyond recall. It was really the fault of no one. With the least 
possible delay the doctor secured passage by the first boat to Smyrna, 
and a fortunate chance boat from there, took him to Alexandretta, via 
Beyrout and Tripoli, Syria. The goods arrived in safety and two 
other of our assistants, whom we had called by cable from America, 
Messrs. Edward M. Wistar and Charles King Wood, were also passed 
over to the same point with more goods. There caravans were fitted 
out to leave over the, to them, unknown track to Aintab, as a first 
base. From this point the reports of each of these gentlemen made to 
me and compiled with this, will be living witnesses. I leave them to 
tell their own modest tales of exposure, severe travel, hard work and 
hardship, of which no word of complaint has ever passed their lips. 
There has been only gratitude and jo}^ that they could do something 
in a cause at once so great and so terrible. 

These little changes and accidents of travel, of not the slightest 
importance or concern to any one but ourselves, were naturally picked 
up and cabled to America as "news." The naming of the mere facts, 
with neither explanations nor reasons assigned, could not be under- 
stood and only created confusion in the minds of the readers. They 
must, nevertheless, be accepted by our reporters, circulated and dis- 
cussed by our anxious people and perplexed committees. 

The transcript of a paragraph from a letter received from America, 
March 25, will serve to recall, at this late date, something of the state 
of feeling at the moment prevailing in America: 

Great doubt and dissatisfaction is felt here at the changeable course you 
seem to pursue — why you should propose to go first to the Black Sea, then to 
the Mediterranean, then not at all. Why to Smyrna, then to Alexandretta, 
points where nothing is the matter and no help needed? They feel that you do 
not understand your own course, or are being deceived — will never get into the 
country — a fact which, it is said, is clearly seen here. 

To further elucidate the intense feeling in our sympathetic country 
we give a few sentences from other letters received at that time: 

What are those folks doing over there? First we hear they are going to 
Harpoot by the Black Sea, next they have gone to Smyrna; there is nothing 
thematter at Smyrna; next to Alexandretta ; what have they gone there for? that 
is no place to go; any one can go to Alexandretta. They don't seem to know 
what they are about. They will never get into the country; we .said so when 
they went; they ought to have known better themselves; we knew the Sultan 
would forbid them, as he has; they are only being duped. 



286 THK RED CROSS. 

Unpleasant and somewhat ludicrous as these criticisms were they 
served a purpose in coining back to us, as by them we were able to 
understand more full}' the cables which had preceded them. " Give us 
news in full of your doings, it is important that we know," Every 
cable was answered with all the news we could send by that costly 
method. 

I had asked permission and escort for two caravans from Alexan- 
dretta, but had learned later from them that they would unite and go 
together to Aintab, in company with the Rev. Dr. Fuller, of that city, 
who requires no introduction to the missionary or religious world. At 
this junction Mr. Gargiulo, of the legation, came to me in great haste 
(he having been sent for by the Sublime Porte) to know where ourexpe" 
ditions were. They had provided for two and could only get trace of 
one; where was the other? Please get definite information and let them 
know at once. I had served on too many battlefields not to understand 
what this meant. I knew our men were in danger somewhere and some 
one was trying to protect them, and sent back the fullest information 
that there was but one expedition out, and waited. Two days later came 
the news of the massacre at Killis by the Circassians. Killis lay 
directly in their track, unknown to them, and the Turkish troops had 
unexpectedly come up and taken them on. I can perhaps, at this dis- 
tant date, give no more correct note of this, and the condition of things 
as found, than by an extract from a letter written by me at the time to 
our world's friend and mine, Frances Willard. We were at this moment 
securing the medical expedition for Marash and Zeitoun: 



Dear Frances Willard : . . . . May I also send a message by you 
to our people, to j'our people and my people; in the name of your God and my 
God, ask them not to be discouraged in the good work they have undertaken. 
My heart would grow faint and words fail, were I to attempt to tell them the 
woes and the needs of these Christian martyrs. But what need to tell? They 
already know what words can say — alone, bereft, forsaken, sick and heartbroken, 
without food, raiment or shelter, on the snow-piled mountain sides and along 
the smoking valleys they wander and linger and perish. What more should I 
say to our people, but to show them the picture of what they themselves have 
already done. 

The scores of holy men and women sustained by them, with prayers in their 
hearts, tears in their voices, hovering like angels and toiling like slaves, along 
all these borders of misery and woe, counting peril as gain and death as naught, 
so it is in His Name. But here another picture rises; as if common woe were 
not enough, the angel of disease flaps his black wings like a pall, and in once 
bright Zeitoun and Marash contagion reigns. By scores, by hundreds, they die ; 
no help, no medicine, no skill, little food, and the last yard of cotton gone to 



ARMENIA. 287 

cover the sick and dying. To whom came the cry, "Help or we perish! Send 
us physicians!" The contributed gifts of America open the doors of classic 
Beyrout, and Ira Harris, with his band of doctors, speeds his way. In Eskand- 
aroon sleep the waiting caravans. The order conies, "Arise and go! henceforth 
your way is clear." Camels heavy laden, not with ivory and jewels, gold in 
the ingot and silk in the bales, but food and raiment for the starving, the sick, 
and the dying. Onward they sweep toward dread Killi.s — the wild tribe's 
knives before, the Moslem troops behind — "go on! we protect;" till at length 
the spires of Aintab rise in view. Weary the camels and weary the men — Ilub- 
bell, r'ullcr, Wistar, Wood, JMason — names that should live in story for the brave 
deeds of that march but just begun. The quick, glad cry of welcome of a city 
that had known but terror, sorrow and neglect for months — a little rest, help 
given, and over the mountains deep in snow, weary and worn their caravans go, 
toiling on toward fever and death. Let us leave them to their task. This is 
the work of America's people abroad. My message, through you, to her people 
at home — not to her small and poor, but to her rich and powerful people, is, 
remember this picture and be not weary in well doing. 

CiyARA Barton. 

While the first and second expeditions were fitting out from Alex- 
andretta, the terrible state of things at Zeitoun and Marash was con- 
firmed by the leading missionaries there, and we were asked to assume 
the expen.se of physicians, druggists, medicines and medical relief in 
general. This we were only too glad to do. Negotiations had already 
been opened by them with Dr. George E. Post, of Beyrotit, the glorfous 
outcome of which was the going out of Dr. Ira Harris, of Tripoli, 
Syria, with his corps of local physicians, and the marvelous results 
achieved. For some cause the doctor took the route via Adana, rather 
than by Alexandretta, and found himself in the midst of an unsafe 
country with insufficient escort. After a delay of two or three days, he 
got a dispatch to us at Constantinople. This di.spatch was immediately 
sent through our legation to the Porte, and directly returned to me 
with the written assurance that the proper steps had been instantly 
taken. On the same day Dr. Harris left Adana with a military escort 
that took his expedition through, leaving it only when safe in Marash, 

Dr. Hubbell had arrived some days previous, but following instruc- 
tions left immediately on the arrival of Dr. Harris, to pursue his inves- 
tigations in the villages, and supply the general need of the people 
wherever found. This formed really the fourth expedition in the field 
at that early date, as the separate charges later so efficiently assumed 
by Messrs. Wi.star and Wood, who were on the ground previous to the 
medical expedition, became known as the second and third expeditions. 

It will be inferred that the assignment, furnishing and direction of 
these several expeditions, nearly a thousand miles distant, four weeks 



288 THE RKD CROSS. 

by personal travel, six weeks to write a letter and get reply, from two 
days to almost any time by telegraph, according to the condition of the 
wires, and in any language from Turkish and Greek to Arabic, with all 
other duties immediately surrounding, could not leave large leisure for 
home correspondence. While conscious of a restlessness on this score, 
we began to be mystified by the nature and text of dispatches from 
committees at home: " Contributors object to Turkish distribution." 
What could it mean ? We could onl)' reply: ' ' Do not understand your 
dispatch. Please explain." These were followed by others of a similar 
character from other sources; finally letters expressing great regret at 
the means to which I had been compelled to resort in order to accom- 
plish my distribution, and the disastrous effect it could not fail to have 
upon the raising of funds. " Well, it was probably the only wa}' to do, 
they had expected it, in fact, foretold it all the time." — What had I done? 
The myster)^ deepened- Finally, through the waste of waters and the 
lapse of time it got to me. — A little four-line cablegram from Constant! 
nople as follows: 

The council of ministers has decided that Miss Clara Barton can work only 
in conjunction with the Turkish Commission in the distribution of relief, and 
can only use their lists of destitute Armenians. An Irade to that effect is ex- 
pected. 

No one had thought to inquire if this statement were trice, no one 
had referred it to me, and as well as I ought to be known by our people, 
the question if I would be likely to take such a step, seems not to have 
been raised. It had been taken for granted through all America, Eng- 
land, and even the Missionary Boards of Turkey, that I had pledged 
myself and signed papers, to distribute the funds entrusted to me, under 
Turkish inspection and from lists furnished by Turkish officials. 
Myself and my officers appeared to be the only persons who had never 
heard of it. Astonished and pained beyond measure it was plainly and 
emphatically denied. 

Our press books of that date are marvels of denial. Sir Philip 
Currie and the Turkish Government itself, came to the rescue, declar- 
ing that no such course was ever intended. Secretary Olney was cabled 
to try ' ' to make the people of America understand that the Turkish 
Government did not interfere with their distribution." In spite of all 
this, it went on until people and committees were discouraged ; the lat- 
ter cabling that in the present state of feeling little or nothing more could 
be expected, and gently suggesting the propriety of sending the balance 



ARMENIA. 289 

in hand to other parties for distribution. My own National Red Cross 
officers in America, hurt and disgusted at the unjust form affairs were 
taking, in sympathy, advised the leaving of the field and returning 
home. 

Here was a singular condition of affairs. A great international 
work of relief, every department of which was succeeding beyond all 
expectation, wherein no mistakes had been made, letters of gratitude 
and blessing pouring in from every field of labor, finances carefully 
handled and no pressure for funds. On the other hand a whole nation 
in a panic, strong committees going to pieces, and brave faithful officers 
driven through pity to despair and contempt, and the cause about to 
be abandoned and given up to the lasting harm of all humanity. So 
desperate a case called for quick and heroic measures. Realizing the 
position of the committees from their own sad reports, I at once cabled 
relieving them from further contributions : " IVe will finish the field 
7vithoiit further aid.'' To my Red Cross officers I dictated the following 
letter, wiiich I believe was used somewhat by the harassed committees 
in struggling on to their feet again : 



Ay Az- Pacha, Taxim, Constantinople, April 18, i8g6. 

P. V. DeGraw, Esq. , Corresponding Secretary, 

Atnerican Nationat Red Cross, IVashinglon, D. C, U. S. A.: 

Dear Mr. DeGraw: I received both your and Stephen E. Barton's 
heavy-hearted and friendly letters, and they fell on soil about as heavy. I 
could not understand how it could be, for I knew we had done our best, and I 
believed the best that could have been done under the circumstances and condi- 
tions. I knew we held a great, well organized relief that would be needed as 
nothing else could be. That, besides us, there was no one to handle the ter- 
rible scourge that was settling down — no one here, no one to come, who could 
touch it. I knew I was not interfered with; that no "restrictions" nor propo- 
sitions had been imposed or even offered ; that the government was considerate 
and accorded all I asked. 

But what had stirred America up and set it, apparently, against us? The 
relief societies going to pieces, and turning sad glances here? We could not 
understand it. I did not wonder that you thought we "had best come home," 
still I knew we would not; indeed, we could not. I have a body of relief on 
these fields, hundreds of miles away in the mountains, a thousand miles from 
me, that I could not draw off in six weeks, and if we were to, it would be to 
abandon thousands of poor, sick, suffering wretches to a fate that ought to 
shock the entire world. Sick, foodless, naked, and not one doctor and no 
medicine among them ; whole cities scourged and left to their fate, to die 
without a hand raised to help excepting the three or four resolute missionaries, 
tired, worn, God-serving, at their posts until they drop. The civilized world 



2QO Till*: ri-:d crOvSvS. 

running over with skilful physicians, nnd not one there; no one to arraifge to 
get them there; to pay expenses, take special charge and thus make it possible 
for them to go. And we, seeing that state of things, holding in our grasp the 
relief ■\ve had been weeks prejoaring and organizing in anticipation of this, to 
turn back, draw off our helpers, send back the doctors already' started, give all 
up because somebody had said something, the press had circulated it, the world 
had' believed it, our disappointed committees had lost heart and grown sore 
struggling with an occupation rather new to them, and the people had taken 
alarm and faileel to sustain them. 

Was this all there was of us? No purpose of our own? "On Change, " like 
the price of wheat on the market? In the name of God and humanity this field 
must be carried, these people must be rescued; skill, care, medicines and food 
for the sick must reach them. And it is a glad sight to my soul to think of 
Turkish troops taking these bands of doctors on to Marash. They have done it, 
and are at this very hour inarching on with them to their field of labor. What 
does one care for criticism, disapproval or approval, under circumstances like 
these. Don't be troubled — we can carry it. We are fair financiers, not dis- 
mayed, and God helping, can save our hospitals. 



It remains to be said that the remedy was effective. The panic 
settled away and it is to be hoped that there are few people in any 
country to-day who do not understand that America's fund was dis- 
tributed by its own agents, without molestation or advices from the 
Turkish or any other government. 

I have named this incident, not so much as a direct feature of the 
work of distribution, nor to elicit sympathy, as to point a characteristic 
of our people and the customs of the times in which we are living, in 
the hope that reflection may draw from it some lessons for the future. 
One cannot fail to see how nearly a misguided enthusiasm, desire for 
sensational news, vital action without thought or reflection, came to the 
overthrowing of their entire object, the destruction cf all that had 
been or has since been accomplished for humanitj^ and the burial of 
their grand work and hopes in a defeated and disgraceful grave, 
which, in their confusion, they would never have realized that they 
had dug for themselves. They are to-day justly proud of their work 
and the world is proud of them. 

Our very limited number of assistants made it necessary that each 
take a separate charge as soon as possible ; and the division at Aintal) 
and the hastening of the first division, under Dr. Hubbell, northeast- 
ward to Marash, left the northwestern route through Oorfa and Diar- 
bekir, to Messrs. Wistar and Wood ; the objective point for all being 
Harpoot, where they planned to meet at a certain date. Nothing gave 



?:-U( 





CHIEF OF THE DERSIN KOURDS. 



ARMENIA. 293 

me greater joy than to know they would meet our brave and world- 
honored countrywoman, Miss Shattuck, isolated, surrounded by want 
and misery, holding her fort alone, and that something from our hands 
could go to strengthen hers, emptied by the needs of thousands every 
day. If they might have still gone to Van, and reached our other 
heroic, capable and accomplished countrywoman, Dr. Grace Kimball, 
it would have been an added joy. But the way was long, almost to 
Ararat ; the mountains high and the snows deep ; and more than all it 
seemed that the superb management of her own grand work made help 
there less needed than at many other less fortunate points. It seemed 
remarkable that the two expeditions separating at Aintab, on the sixth 
day of April, with no trace of each other between, should have 
met at Harpoot on April 29, within three hours of each other ; and 
that when the city turned out eyi masse, with its missionaries in the 
lead, to meet and welcome Dr. Hubbell and the Red Cross, that far 
away in the rear, through masses of people from housetop to street, 
modestly waited the expedition from Oorfa. 

This expedition containing as it did two leading men, again 
divided, taking between them, as their separate reports show, charges 
of the relief of two hundred villages of the Harpoot vilayet, and later 
on Diarbekir, and that by their active provision and distribution of 
farming implements and cattle and the raising of the hopes and 
courage of the people, they succeeded in securing the harvest and 
saving the grain crops of those magificent valleys. 

While this was in progress, a dispatch came to me at Constanti- 
nople, from Dr. Shepard, of Aintab, whose tireless hands had done the 
work of a score of men, saying that fevers, both typhoid and typhus, 
of a most virulent nature, had broken out in Arabkir, two or three 
days north of Harpoot ; could I send doctors and help ? Passing the 
word on to Dr. Hubbell, at Harpoot, the prompt and courageous action 
was taken by him which his report will name, but never fully show. 
It is something to say that from a rising pestilence with a score of 
deaths daily, in five weeks, himself and his assistants left the city in a 
normally healthful condition, in which it remained at last accounts, the 
mortality ceasing at once under their care and treatment. 

During this time the medical relief for the cities of Zeitoun and 
Marash was in charge of Dr. Harris, who reached there March 18. 
The report of the consuls had placed the daily number of deaths from 
the four contagious diseases at one hundred. This would be quite 
probable when it is considered that ten thousand were smitten with the 
prevailing diseases, and that added to this were the crowded conditions 
17 



294 THE RICD CROSS. 

of the patients, by the thousands of homeless refugees who had flocked 
from their forsaken villages; the lack of all comforts, of air, cleanliness, 
and a state of prolonged starvation. Dr. Harris' first report to me w^as 
that he was obliged to set the soup kettles boiling, and feed his patients 
before medicine could be retained. My reply was a draft for two hun- 
dred liras, with the added dispatch: " Keep the pot boiling; let us know 
your wants." The further reports show from this time an astonish- 
ingly small number of deaths. The utmost care was taken by all our 
expeditions to prevent the spread of the contagion and there is no 
record of its ever having been carried out of the cities, where it was 
found, either at Zeitoun, Marash, or Arabkir. Lacking this precau- 
tion, it might well have spread throughout all Asia Minor, as was 
greatly feared by the anxious people. On the twenty- fourth of May 
Dr. Harris reported the disease as overcome. His stay being no longer 
needed, be returned to his great charge in Tripoli with the record of a 
medical work and success behind him never surpassed if ever equaled. 
The lives he had saved were enough to gain heaven's choicest diadem. 
Never has America cause to be so justly proud and grateful as when 
its sons and daughters in foreign lands perform deeds of worth like 
•:hat. 

The appalling conditions at Zeitoun and Marash on the arrival of 
Dr. Harris, naturally led him to call for more physicians, and the most 
strenuous efforts were made to procure them, but the conditions of the 
field were not tempting to medical men. Dr. Post had already sent the 
last recruit from Beyrout, still he manfully continued his efforts. 
Smyrna was canvassed through the efforts of our prompt and efficient 
Consul, Colonel Madden, on whom I felt free to make heavy drafts, 
remembering tenderly as we both did, when we stood together in the 
Red Cross rehef of theOhio floods of 1S84. Failing there, I turned my 
efforts upon Constantinople. Naturally, we must seek nationalities 
outside of Armenians. We succeeded in finding four Greek physicians, 
who were contracted with, and sailed May 11, through perplexing 
delays of shipping, taking with them large and useful medical supplies 
and delicacies for the sick, as well as several large disinfecting machines 
which were loaned to us by the Turkish Government, Dr. Zavitziano, 
a Greek physician, who kindly assisted us in many ways, conducting 
the negotiations. Through unavoidable delays they were able to reach 
Alexandretta only on May 25. By this time the fevers had been so far 
overcome that it was not deemed absolutely necessary for them to pro- 
ceed to Marash; and after conferring with Dr. Harris, they returned to 
Constantinople, still remaining under kindly contract without remunera- 



ARMENIA. 295 

tion to go at once if called upon by us even to the facing of cholera, if 
it gained a foothold in Asia Minor. We should not hesitate to call for 
the services of these gentlemen even at this distance if they became 
necessary. This was known as the fifth expedition, which, although 
performing less service, was by far the most difl&cult to obtain, and the 
most firmly and legally organized of any. 

The closing of the medical fields threw our entire force into the 
general relief of the vilayet of Harpoot, which the relieving missionaries 
had well named their "bottomless pit," and where we had already 
placed almost the entire funds of the Boston and Worcester committees. 

One will need to read largely between the lines of the modest 
skeleton reports of our agents in order to 'comprehend only approxi- 
mately the work performed by them and set in motion for others to per- 
form. The apathy to which the state of utter nothingness, together 
with their grief and fear, had reduced the inhabitants was by no means 
the smallest difficulty to be overcome; and here was realized the great 
danger felt by all — that of continued almsgiving, lest they settle down 
into a condition of pauperism, and thus, finally starve from the inabil- 
ity of the world at large to feed them. The presence of a strange body 
of friendly working people coming thousands of miles to help them, 
awakened a hope and stimulated the desire to help themselves. 

It was a new experience that these strangers dared to come to them. 
Although the aforetime home lay a heap of stone and sand, and noth- 
ing belonging to it remained, still the land was there and when seed to 
plant the ground and the farming utensils and cattle were brought to 
work it with, the faint spirit revived, the weak, hopeless hands un- 
clasped, and the farmer stood on his feet again ; and when the cities 
could no longer provide the spades, hoes, plows, picks, and shovels, 
and the crude iron and steel to make them was taken to them, the 
blacksmith found again his fire and forge and traveled weary miles 
with his bellows on his back. The carpenter again swung his hammer 
and drew his saw. The broken and scattered spinning wheels and 
looms from under the storms and debris of winter, again took form and 
motion, and the fresh bundles of wool, cotton, flax, and hemp, in the 
waiting widow's hand brought hopeful visions of the revival of indus- 
tries which should not only clothe but feed. 

At length, in early June, the great grain fields of Diarbekir, Far- 
kin and Harpoot valleys, planted the year before, grew golden and 
bowed their heavy spear-crowned heads in waiting for the sickle. But 
no sickles were there, no scythes, not even knives, and it was a new 
and sorry sight for our full-handed American farming men, to see those 



296 THE RED CROSS. 

poor, hard, Asiatic hands, trying by main strength to break the tough 
straw or pull it by the roots. This state of things could not continue, 
and their sorrow and pity gave place to joy when they were able to 
drain the cities of Harpoot and Diarbekir of harvest tools, and turned 
the work of all the village blacksmiths on to the manufacture of sickles 
and scythes, and of the flint workers upon the rude threshing ma- 
chines. 

They have told me since their return that the pleasantest memories 
left to them were of those great valleys of golden grain, bending and 
falling before the harvesters, men and women, each with the new sharp 
sickle or scythe — the crude threshing planks, the cattle trampling out 
the grain, and the gleaners in the rear as in the days of Abraham and 
Moab. God grant that somewhere among them was a kind-hearted 
king of the harvest who gave orders to let some sheaves fall. 

Even while this saving process was going on, another condition no 
less imperative arose. These fields must be replanted for the coming 
year, or starvation bad been simply delayed. Only the strength of 
their old time teams of oxen could break up the hard sod and prepare 
for the fall sowing. Not an animal — ox, cow, horse, goat or sheep — 
had been left. All had been driven to the Kourdish mountains. 
When Mr, Wood's telegram came, calling for a thousand oxen for the 
hundreds of villages, some of which were very large, I thought of our 
not rapidly swelling bank account, and all that was needed everywhere 
else, and replied accordingly. But when, in return, came the telegram 
from the Rev, Dr. Gates, president of Harpoot College, the live, active, 
practical man of affairs, whose judgment no one could question, saying 
that the need of oxen was imperative, that unless the ground could be 
ploughed before it dried and hardened, it could not be done at all, and 
the next harvest would be lost, and that " Mr. Wood's estimate was 
moderate," I loosened my grasp on the bank account and directed the 
financial secretary to send a draft for 5,000 liras ($22,000) to care of 
Rev. Dr. Gates, Harpoot, to be divided among the three expeditions for 
the purchase of cattle and the progress of the harvest of 1897. 

This draft left something less than $3,000 with us to finish up the 
field in all other directions. As the sum sent would be immediately 
applied, the active services of the men would be no longer required, and 
directions went with the remittance to report in person at Constanti- 
nople, Unheard of toil, care, hard riding day and night, with risk of 
life, were all involved in the carrying out of that order. Among the 
uncivilized and robber bands of Kourds, the cattle that had been stolen 
and driven off must be picked up, purchased and brought back to the 



ARMENIA. 297 

waiting farmer's field. There were routes so dangerous that a brigand 
chief was selected by those understanding the situation as the safest 
escort for our men. Perhaps the greatest danger encountered was in 
the region of Farkin, beyond Diarbekir, where the official escort had 
not been waited for, and the leveled musket of the faithless guide told 
the difference. 

At length the task was accomplished. One by one the expeditions 
closed and withdrew, returning by Sivas and Samsoun and coming out 
by the Black Sea. By that time it is probable that no one questioned 
the propriety of their route or longer wondered or cared why they 
went to Smyrna or Alexandretta, Sivas or Samsoun. The perplexed 
frowns of our anxious committees and sympathetic people had long 
given way to smiles of confidence and approval, and glad hands would 
have reached far over the waters to meet ours as warmly extended 
to them. 

With the return of the expeditions we closed the field, but con- 
tributors would be glad to know that subsequent to this, before leaving 
Constantinople, funds from both the New York and Boston committees 
came to us amounting to some $15,000. This was happily placed with 
Mr. Peet, treasurer of the Board of Foreign Missions at Stamboul, to 
be used subject to our order, and with our concurrence it is now being 
employed in the building of little houses in the interior as a winter 
shelter and protection where all had been destroyed. 

The appearance of our men on their arrival at Constantinople con- 
firmed the impression that they had not been recalled too soon. They 
had gone out through the snows and ice of winter and without change 
or rest had come back through the scorching suns of midsummer — five 
months of rough, uncivilized life, faring and sharing with their beasts 
of burden, well nigh out of communication with the civilized world, 
but never out of danger, it seemed but just to themselves and to others 
who might yet need them that change and rest be given them. 

Since our entrance upon Turkish soil no general disturbance had 
taken place. One heard only the low rumbling of the thunder after 
the storm, the clouds were drifting southward and settling over Crete 
and Macedonia, and we felt that we might take at least some steps 
towards home. It was only when this movement commenced that we 
began to truly realize how deep the roots of friendship, comradeship, 
confidence, and love had struck back among our newly found friends 
and countrymen ; how much a part of ourselves — educational, humani- 
tarian and official — their work and interest liad become, and surely firom 
them we learned anew the lesson of reciprocity. 



298 THIv RKD CROSS, 

Some days of physical rest were needful for the men of the exper i- 
tions after reaching Constantinople before commencing another jour- 
ney of thousands of miles, worn as they were by exposure, hardship 
and incessant labor, both physical and mental. This interval of time 
was, however, mainly employed by them in the preparation of the 
reports submitted with this, and in attention to the letters which fol- 
lowed them from their various fields, telling of further need, but more 
largely overflowing with gratitude and blessing for what had been 
done. 

For our financial secretary and myself there could be neither rest nor 
respite while we remained at a disbursing post so well known as ours. 
Indeed there never had been. From the time of our arrival in February 
to our embarkation in August there were but two days not strictly 
devoted to business, the fourth of July and the fifth of August — the 
last a farewell to our friends. For both of these occavSions we were 
indebted to the hospitality of treasurer and Mrs. W. W. Peet, and 
although held in the open air, on the crowning point of Proti, one of 
the Princes' Islands, with the Marmora, Bosporus and Golden Horn 
in full view, the spires and minarets of Constantinople and Scutari tell- 
ing us of a land we knew little of, with peoples and customs strange 
and incomprehensible to us, still there was no lack of the emblem that 
makes every American at home, and its wavy folds of red, white and 
blue shaded the tables and flecked the tasteful viands around which sat 
the renowned leaders of the American missionary element of Asia 
Minor. 

Henry O. Dwight, D. D., the accomplished gentleman and diplo- 
matic head, who was the first to suggest an appeal to the Red Cross, 
and I am glad to feel he has never repented him of his decision. One 
fact in regard to Dr. Dwight may be of interest to some hundreds of 
thousands of our people: On first meeting him I was not quite sure of 
the title by which to address him, if reverend or doctor, and took the 
courage to ask him. He turned a glance full of amused meaning upon 
me as he replied: " That is of little consequence; the title I prize most 
is Captain Dwight." "Of what?" I asked. "Company D, Twen- 
tieth Ohio Volunteers, in our late war." The recognition which fol- 
lowed can well be imagined by the comrades for whose interest I have 
named the incident. 

Rev. Joseph K. Greene, D. D., and his amiable wife, to whom so 
much is due towards the well being of the missionary work of Constan- 
tinople. I regret that I am not able to reproduce the eloquent and 
patriotic remarks of Dr. Greene on both these occasions, so true to our 



ARMENIA. 299 

country, our government and our laws. Rev. George P. Knapp, 
formerly of Bitlis, whose courage no one questions. Mrs. L,ee of 
Marash, and Mrs. Dr. George Washburn of Robert College, the worthy 
and efficient daughters of Rev. Dr. Cyrus Hamlin, the veteran mission- 
ary and founder of Robert College, living in Lexington, Mass. A half- 
score of teachers, whose grand lives will one day grace the pages of 
religious history. And last, though by no means least, our host, the 
man of few words and much work, who bears the burden of monetary 
relief for the woes and wants of Asia Minor, W. W. Peet, Esq. 

It was a great satisfaction that most of our field agents were able to 
be present at the last of these beautiful occasions and personally render 
an account of their stewardship to those who had watched their course 
with such interest. The pleasure of these two days of recreation will 
ever remain a golden light in our memories. 

As the first official act of the relief work after our arrival in Con- 
stantinople was ni}^ formal presentation to the Sublime Porte by the 
American Minister, Honorable A. W. Terrell, diplomatic courtesy 
demanded that I take proper occasion to notify the Turkish Govern- 
ment of our departure and return thanks for its assistance, which was 
done formally at "Selamlic," a religious ceremony held on the Turkish 
Sabbath, which corresponds to our Friday. The Court Chamberlain 
delivered my message to the palace. It was received and responded to 
through the same medium and I took my departure, havii^g finished 
my diplomatic work with that government which had from first to 
last treated me with respect, assisted my work and protected my 
workers. 

To correct certain impressions and expressions which have been 
circulating more or less extensively in this country, and for the correct 
information of the people who through their loyal interest deserve to 
know the facts, I make known my entire social relations while residing 
in Turkey. Personally I did not go beyond Constantinople. The 
proper conduct of our work demanded the continuous presence of both 
our financial secretary and myself at headquarters. I never saw, to 
pensonally communicate with, any member of the Turkish Government 
excepting its Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tewfik Pasha, as named 
previously. I ricver spoke with the Sultan and have never seen him- 
excepting in his carriage on the way to his mosque. 

On being informed through our Legation that the Turkish minister 
at Washington, Mavroyeni Bey, had been recalled and that hif, succes- 
sor was about to leave for his new position, I felt that national courtesy 
required that I call upon him and, attended by a member of our 



300 



THE RED CROSS. 



legation, my secretary and myself crossed the Bosporusto a magnifi- 
cent estate on the Asiatic shore, the palatial home of Moustapha Tahsin 
Bey, a gentleman of culture, who had resided in New York in some 
legal capacity and who, I feel certain, will be socially and oflScially 
acceptable to our Government. 

I have received a decoration, officially described as follows : 



Brevet of Chevalier of the Royal Order of Melusine, founded in 1186, by 
Sibylle, Queen and spouse of King Guy of Jerusaleui, and reinstituted several 
years since by Marie, Princess of Lusignan. The Order is conferred for 
humanitarian, scientific and other services of distinction, but especially when 
such services are rendered to the House of Lusignan, and particularly to the 
Armenian nation. The Order is worn by a number of reigning sovereigns, and 
is highly prized b}' the recipients because of its rare bestowal and its beauty. 
This decoration is bestowed by His Royal Highness, Guy of Lusignan, Prince 
of Jerusalem, Cyprus and Armenia. 




Some months after returning home I received through our State 
Department at Washington the Sttltan's decoration of Shefaketand its 
accompanying diploma in Turkish, a reproduction and translation of 
which is here given : 



TOWER OF CHRIST, CONSTANTINOPLE. 





W. W. PEET, ESQ. 



REV. HENRY O. DWIGHT, D. D. 




KKV. JOS. K. GREENE, D. D. 



REV. GEO. WASHBURN, D. D. 




Js, 



i^-f^c^ji^ 






% 
^^, 



'^'^^. 



^•fJfOi 



-^^^^..U/a .. ... 



^-'^■^^.yj 



TURKISH DTPT.OMA ACCOATPANYIXG DECORATION. 

As Miss Barton, American citizen, possesses many great and distinguished qualities ami 
recompense is due to her, I am pleased therefore to accord to her the second class of my decn 
tions of Shefaket— [Translation.] 

(303) 



304 Tlir RKD CROSS. 

The first notice of tliis honor came to me throuj:::h our own 
Smithsonian Institute, as indicating its scientific character. 

On the ninth of August we took passage on board the steamsliir 
" Meteor," a Roumanian steamer plying between Constantinople and 
the ports of the Black Sea. our objective point being Costanza, at the 
mouth of the Danube River. This was our first step toward home, and 
the leaving of a people on whom, in common with the civilized world, 
our whole heart interest had been centred for more than half a 3'ear; 
having no thought, however, until the hour of parting revealed it, of 
the degree of interest that had been centred on us. 

On the spacious deck of the steamer were assempled our entire 
American representation at Constantinople, prepared to accompany us 
through the Bosporus, their boats having been sent forward to take 
them off near the entrance of the Black Sea. 

The magnificent new quay in either direction was crowded with 
people without distinction of nationality, the strange costumes and 
colors commingling in such variety as only an Oriental city can pro- 
duce, patiently waiting the long hour of preparation. When at length 
the hoarse whistle sounded and the boat swayed from its moorings, the 
dense crowd swayed with it and the subdued tones pealed out in 
tongues many and strange; but all had one meaning — thanks, blessings 
and God speed. We received these manifestations reverently, for while 
they meant kindliness to us and our work, they meant far more of hom- 
age and honor for the nation and people we represented. And not only 
in Constantinople but the shores of the Bosporous as we proceeded 
presented similar tokens of recognition — the wavy Stars and Stripes 
from Robert College, Rebek, and Hissar, told more strongly than words 
how loyal to their own free land were the hearts and hands toiling so 
--.IthfuUy in others. 

Touching at Budapest for a glimpse at its Millenial Exposition; at 
Vienna to pay respects to our worthy Minister, Hon, Bartlett Tripp; 
we hastened to meet the royal greeting of the Grand Duke and Grand 
Duchess of Baden, attheir beautiful island of Minau in Lake Constance 
— the wedding gift of the Grand Duke to his young princess bride forty- 
three years ago. It was a great pleasure to be able to bring our hard- 
worked men into personal contact with these active royal personages, 
who know so well in their own philanthropic lives how to appreciate 
such labor in others. 

Lest some may not recall directly the lines of royal succession, our 
readers will pardon me if I say that the Grand Duchess of Baden is 
the only daughter of the old Emperor William and Empress Augusta, 



ARMENIA. 305 

the sister of Germany's "Fritz," the aunt of the present Emperor, 
the mother of the Crown Princess of Sweden, and the granddaughter 
of the beloved Queen Louise, whom she is said to very much 
resemble. 

Oni day was given to Strasburg — another labor field of the 
Franco- German war, of longer duration than Armenia — reaching Lon- 
don on the twenty-fourth day of August. 

Our passage was engaged on the "Servia," to sail September i, 
when the news of the terrible troubles in Constantinople reached us. 
We were shocked and distressed beyond words. The streets where we 
had passed, the people who had served us, the Ottoman Bank where 
we had transacted business almost daily for nearly a half a year, all in 
jeopardy if not destroyed. Our men of the interior feared a general 
uprising there, in which case we might be able to help. Our sense of 
duty did not permit us to proceed until the facts were better known. 
We cancelled or rather transferred our passage by the "Servia," tele- 
graphed to Constantinople and cabled to America, expressing our 
willingness to return to the field if our services were in any way 
needed. Kindly advices from both directions, together with a more 
quiet condition of things, decided us to continue our journey, and 
engaging passage by the " Umbria " for the fifth, we arrived in New 
York on the twelfth of vSeptember, eight months lacking ten days from 
the time of our departure on the twenty-second of January. 



Distances and Difficulties op Travel, Transportation and 
Communications. 



For the convenience of the closely occupied who have not time to 
study as they read, I have thought it well to condense the information 
above referred to in a paragraph, which can be taken in at a glance, 
in connection with the map. 

The one great port of Asia Minor is Constantinople. To reach 
the centre, known as Anatolia or Armenia, there are two routes from 
Constantinople. One by way of the Mediterranean Sea to Alexan- 
dretta, the southern port or gateway ; the other by the Black Sea, to 
reach the northern ports of Samsoun and Trebizond, lying along the 
southern coast of the Black Sea. There is no land route, but a " pony 
post," like the overland days of California, takes important dispatches 
for the government, or money. The way is infested by brigands. 



3o6 



Till": RIvl) CROSS. 



There are no regular passenger boats, but Russia, Austria, France 
and Greece have dispatch — in reality, coasting boats — one of which 
aims to leave Constantinople each week, although at first we found it 
at least two weeks between the times of sailing and irregular at that. 

The time from Constantinople to Alexadretta is eight to ten days. 
From Constantinople to Samsoun, two days. From either of these ports 
the interior must be reached by land. 

From Alexandretta to Harpoot is fifteen (15) days, 

" ** " Marash is five (5) days. 

" " " Zeitoun is seven (7) days. 

" " " Oorfa is six (6) days. 

** " " Diarbekir is twelve (12) days. 

On the north from Samsoun to Harpoot is fifteen (15) days. 

These journeys were made by horse, mule or donkey, over moun- 
tain paths, rocks and precipices. Only in comparatively a few places 
are there roads allowing the passing of a wheeled vehicle of any kind, 
even the passing of a horse along the steep declivities is sometimes 
dangerous. 

Communications. 

As will be seen, the sending of a letter from Constantinople to 
the interior, requires at the best vsix weeks, or forty-six days with no 
delays. 

Only the large and more important towns have telegraphic com- 
munication. This requires two, three, four days of a week, according 
to circumstances. These dispatches are all sent and must be answered 
in Turkish. 




Head of Turkish 1 klec.rm'ii Blank. 



ARMENIA. 307 



^.l 



Grf 






[Translation of above Telegram.] 



Arabker, May 17, /Sg6. 
Miss Barton: 

Since three days we are attending with our doctors and their attendants to one 
hundred sick per day. The contagious fever (typhus) is diminishing. Miss Bush 
and all the party are distributing clothing and bedding. Lemme is giving imple- 
ments and seed to the farmers. The needs here are extreme. Wistar's party are 
at Pyre. Wood with his party are working in the district of Palou. 

HUBBELL, 

The larger towns have mails usually leaving once a week, carried 
on horses with a military guard. No newspaper is published in Asia 
Minor. 

The missionary stations, with but two or three exceptions, are not 
near the seacoast, but from three to fifteen days' travel from either the 
Mediterranean or the Black Sea, or three to twenty-live days to the 
nearest Mediterranean port. As will be seen by reference to the map 
the following stations are on the seaboard: Trebizond on the Black Sea; 
Smyrna and a small station near Merisine on the Mediterranean, and 
Constantinople on the Bosporus. 

The following are inland and curing several months in the winter 
and spring must be nearly, if not quite, inaccessible to outside approach: 
Adabazar, Bardezag, Brousa, Cesarea, Marsovan, Hadjin, Tarsus, 
Adana, Mardin, Aintab, Marash, Sivas, Harpoot, Oorfa, Erzingan, 
Erzroom, Van, Bitlis, 

Funds. 

It should be distinctly understood by contributors that neither 
their letters, nor any individual contributions came to us; these were 
received by the committees or parties raising the funds in America. 



3o8 



THE RKI) CROSS. 



The letters were doubtless faithfully acknowledged, and the various 
sums of money placed in the general fund forwarded to us by them. 
All contributions received by us directly at Constantinople are acknowl- 
edged in our report. 

Although an account of the disposition of all funds is rendered in 
the report of the financial secretary, which, after verification, I signed 



A^/ 



'^^SMsS ■ 



< M I, 




INTERIOR OF GREGORIAN CHTTRCH AT OORFA, WHERE MANY HTJNDREDS 
OK WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE MASSACRED. 



jointly -with him, I will, however, at the risk of repetition, take the 
liberty of adding the following remarks on the subject; 

It is to be borne always in mi : 1 that the amount of money to be 
distributed was never made a concern of ours, provided they were 
actually ''funds to distributed To the question so frequently and 
kindly asked of us, "Did you have money enough, or were you embar- 
rassed in your operations by want of funds? " I beg to have this reply 
intelligently understood: that we had always money enough in hand 
for the work in hand. We were never embarrassed in our operations 
by lack of funds, holding, as I alwaj'S have, thnt charitable relief in 
order to be safe and efficient, should be conducted on the same reason- 




?? ":= 



^ .1 
SI 



o ^ 
H 

W 

13 
w 

p4 



(309) 



3IO THE RRD CROSS. 

able basis as business, and that a good businessman, unless by accident 
on the part of other persons, or of circumstances, will never find himself 
embarrassed, as he will never undertake more than he has the means to 
successfully accomplish. We were never embarrassed in our operations 
by lack of funds, and our committees will testify that no intimation of 
that kind ever came to them from us. This would have been both 
unwise and unjust. According to the universal system of charitable 
relief, all was being done that could be done; but if asked if we had 
enough for the needs of the people, enough to relieve the distress through 
desolated Asia Minor, enough to make those people comfortable again, 
then a very tender chord has been touched. No hearts in America are 
more sore than ours; its richest mine might drain in that attempt. 
Our men in the interior have seen and lived among what others vainly 
strive to picture; they are men of work, not words, and under heaven 
have labored to do what they could with what they had. It is their 
stewardship they are trying to render to a great-hearted, sympathetic 
and perplexed people, racked by various emotions, seeking light through 
every channel, and conclusively solving and settling in a score of ways, 
every day, problems and questions which have unsettled a considerable 
portion of the world for centuries. 



^ The Committees. 

On behalf of the wretchedness and suffering met through Asia 
Minor, we return heartfelt thanks to the committees who labored with 
such untiring zeal toward their relief. We were never unmindful of the 
ilifficulties which they were constantly called to encounter and to over- 
come. Not having in hand the funds desired or even guaranteed, they 
must raise them, and this largely from persons whose sympathies out- 
ran their generosity, if not their means. This naturally opened the 
door for excuses for withholding, until it could be seen that " some- 
lliing was actually being accomplished ; " then the doubt if anything 
" could be accomplished ; " next the certainty that it " could not be," 
and so on through whole chapters of dark prophecies and discourage- 
ments sufiicient to dishearten the most hopeful natures, and weaken at 
times the best efforts that could be put forth. Against volumes, nay, 
oceans of these discouragements, our committees must have struggled, 
with more or less of success, and again for their efforts on behalf of 
such suffering as even they never witnessed, we return with reverence 
our sincerest gratitude. Their efforts have been herculean, their ob- 
sfuctions scarcely less. 




AINIKKICAN COr,I<lCGK BUILDINGS, AIM". 



r 



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tli^-^S:S^ 



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'l^l^v 



"^*!i- 



AMERICAN ANP AKML.MAX Ol AKTl.K.S, llAKl 





RED CROSS CARAVAN, 



ARMENIA. 313 

The cause of these difficulties lay in the customary conception and 
methods of charitable relief which they were naturally compelled to 
adopt and follow. Until the world comes to recognize that charity is 
not beggary, and should not be made to depend upon it, that a legiti- 
mate and ready fund to draw from in order to facilitate and validate its 
transactions is as necessary as in other movements, the difficulties of 
our tireless and noble committees will be everywhere met. 

It is with these views that the Red Cross has never solicited means 
in aid of its work of relief Heretofore on all its fields, the people have 
been left free to contribute what they desired, and through whom they 
desired, and it is we believe, a well understood fact, that the use of the 
name of the Red Cross in the raising of funds for the late Armenian relief, 
was simply incidental, one of the methods naturally resorted to in order 
to secure the end, and by no concurrence of ours, as has been previously 
and fully explained. 



To THE Press of the United States. 

Among the dark hours that came to us in the hopeless waste of 
work and woe on every side, the strong sustaining power has been the 
Press of the United States. While naturally compelled to give circula- 
tion to unauthorized reports from other sources, it has evidently done 
it with regret, and hastened by strong editorials, in words of no un- 
certain vsound, to set right before its readers any errors that may have 
crept in. The American press has always been loyal to the Red Cross 
and to its work, and once more it is our privilege to tender to it our 
meed of grateful praise. 



To THE Contributors of the United States, 

Whose sympathy, God-like pity and mercy prompted them to the 
grand work of relief for the half million suffering and dying in a land 
they had never seen, whose purses were opened, whose own desires 
were repressed that they might give, not of their abundance, but of 
their scantiness ofttimes, whose confidence made us their almoners, 
whose whole-hearted trust has strengthened us, whose hearts have been 
with us, whose prayers have followed us, whose hopes have sustained 
us, and whose beckoning hands were held out in tenderness to welcome 
us back to them, what can be said, what can be done, but to bow our 



314 THK RKD CROSS. 

heads in grateful recognition of the words of unexpected commenda- 
tion which nearly overwhelm us, and pray the gracious God that He 
bless our work, to the measure of the praise bestowed. 



To OUR Government at Washington ; 

To its cordial sympathy so warmly expressed through its honored 
Secretaries of State and Navy, and through whose ready access we 
were at all times able to reach the public, our earnest and respectful 
thanks are rendered, begging our warm-hearted people to bear in mind 
that our rulers are a part of, and like themselves ; that the security of 
the government lies largely in the fact that responsibility tends to con- 
servatism — not necessarily less sympathetic, but less free, more respon- 
sible and more thoughtful. 

To our Legation in Constantinople. 

Our thanks are due to our genial minister, Hon. A. W. Terrell, his 
accomplished secretary, a.\\A charge d' affairs, J. W. Riddle, his inter- 
preter and dragoman, Gargiulo; our Consul General, Luther Short, 
Esq. ; the consular interpreter, Demetriades, from every one of whom 
we received unremitting care and attention during all the months of 
our residence at Constantinople, and without which aid we could not 
have succeeded in our work. There was not an hour that their free 
service was not placed at our command. Through them all govern- 
mental business was transacted. The day was never too long nor the 
night too short for any active help they could render ; I only hope that 
our diplomatic service at all courts is as faithfully and cheerfully ren- 
dered as at Constantinople. In this connection I desire to make special 
mention of the assistance of United States Consul, Dr. Milo A. 
Jewett, at Sivas, and Consular Agent, Daniel Walker, at Alexandretta. 

Both personally and oflEicially I believe the record of Minister Ter- 
rell will sustain him. While firm and direct of speech he is a man of 
uncommon courtesy, abounding in the old time hospitality of his native 
state, Virginia. If at the close of his official term, he shall be able to 
report that through all the months — nay, years — of unheard-of troubles, 
dangers and deaths in the country to which he was assigned, while 
some hundreds of his fellow citizens were constantly and peculiarly 
exposed to these dangers, that with no direct governmental aid or 
authority, without even a ship of his own country in port, that no life 



ARMENIA. 315 

in his charge has been lost, and that only such clangers, hardships and 
losses as were incident to the terrible transactions about them had been 
inflicted upon them, we will, I trust, look calmly at the results, and 
decide that if this were not diplomacy, it was a very good substitute. 



To THE Ambassadors of Other Nations at Constantinople. 

To these high and honorable gentlemen our thanks are due. To 
Sir Philip Currie of Kngland, there seemed to come no difference in 
sentiment between our people and his own ; a tower of strength where- 
ever he took hold. Germany and Russia were cordial and ready to 
aid, as also our English Consul, R. A. Fontana, at Harpoot, and C. M, 
Hallward, at Diarbekir; and following these, may I also name the 
ready help of Renter's Express and the United and Associated Presses 
of both Constantinople and London . 



Commendatory. 

Here is a phase of our work which should not be entirely passed 
by, and yet, if only partially taken up would overrun our entire report. 
Only one or two excerpts must suffice to show what the others might 
mean. 

From Rev. Dr. H. O. Dvvight, one word among the many so 
generously spoken : 



Miss Barton has done a splendid work, sensil)ly and economically managed. 
Wherever her agents have been, the missionaries have expressed the strongest 
approval of their methods and efficiency. The work done has been of great and 
permanent importance. 



From Rev. Joseph K. Greene, D. D., to the New York '' ludcpend 
enf : 



After some six months of service, Miss Clara Barton and her five ahle assist- 
ants have left Constantinople on their return to America. It was only on the 



.^i6 THE RKD CROSS. 

earnest solicitation of the missionaries, the officers of the American Board and 
many other friends of the sufferinjj Armenians that Miss Barton undertook the 
relief in this land. The difficulties of the work, arising from the suspicions of 
the Turkish authorities, the distance from the capital to the sufferers, the perils 
ami discomforts in communicating with them, and from unfamiliarity with tlie 
languages and customs of the people of the land, would surely have appalled a 
less courageous heart. Under such circumstances it is only just and fair that 
the American public should be apprised of the substantial success of this mis- 
sion of the Red Cross. 

In the first place. Miss Barton has shown a rare faculty in getting on well 
with everybody. To facilitate her work she, and the assistants whom she loves 
to call "my men," laid aside all the insignia of the Red Cross and appeared 
everywhere simply as private individuals. She clearly understood that she 
could accomplish her mission only by securing the confidence and good will of 
the authorities, and this she did by her patience and repeated explanations, 
and by the assistance of the American Legation. When the irade, or imperial 
decree sanctioning her mission, was delayed, she sent for^'ard her assi.stants 
with only a traveling permit for a part of the way, trusting, and not in vain, 
that the local authorities, instructed from headquarters, would facilitate their 
way. As a matter of fact, while Mr. Pullman, her secretary and treasurer, 
remained at Constantinople with Miss Barton, her distributing agents, namely. 
Dr. Ilubbell and Mr. Mason, Mr. Wistar and Mr. Wood, either together or in 
two parties, traveled inland from Alexaudretta to Killis, Aintab, Marash, 
Zeitoim, Birejik, Oorfa, Diarbekir, Farkin, Harpoot, Palou, Malatia, Arabkir, 
Egin, Sivas, Tokat, Samsoun and back to Constantinople without interruption 
or molestation. They were readily and constantly supplied with guards, and 
could not with safety have made their perilous four months' journey without 
them. Demands are said to have been made that the distribution of aid be 
made under the supervision of government officials, but in fact, Miss Barton's 
agents knew how to make their distributions in every place, after careful con- 
sultation and examination, without any interference on the part of the author- 
ities. 

Miss Barton received in all about |;i 16,000, and an unexpended balance of 
$15,400 was committed to Mr. Peet, the treasurer of the American Missions in 
Turkey, to be held as an emergency fund, subject to Miss Barton's orders. No 
expense has been incurred for Miss Barton or her agents save for traveling 
expenses and the wages of interpreters, and with this exception the entire sum 
expended has gone to the actual relief of the sufferers. While the fund com- 
mitted to the Anglo-American Committee, of which Mr. Peet is a member — a 
sum four to five times the amount committed to Miss Barton — has been 
expended through the missionaries, largely to save the hungry from starvation, 
the relief through the agents of the Red Cross has for the most part been wisely 
devoted to the putting of the poor sufferers on their feet again, and thus helping 
them to help themselves. Some 500 liras (a lira is %i^.i\.ooi good mone}') were 
given for the cure and care of the sick in Marash, Zeitoun and elsewhere, and 
some 2,000 liras' worth of cloths, thread, pins and needles were sent inland; but 
many times this amount was expended in providing material for poor widows, 
seeds, agricultural implements and oxen for farmers; tools for blacksmiths and 



ARMENIA. 



317 



carpenters, and looms for weavers. In some places Miss Barton's agents had the 
pleasure of seeing vegetable gardens coining forward from .seed furnished hy the 
Red Cross, and village farmers reaping the grain with sickles which the Red 
Cross had given. The great want now — a want which the funds of the Red 
Cross agents did not permit them to any large extent to meet — is aid to the 
poor villagers to help them rebuild their burned and ruined houses, and thus 
provide for themselves shelter against the rigors of the coming winter. The 
Red Cross agents have, however, gathered a great stock of information ; and 
passing l)ythe horrors of the massacres and the awful abuse of girls and women, 
as unimpeachable witnesses they can l)ear testimony to the frightful sufferings 
and needs of the people. We most sincerely hope and pray that Mi.ss Barton 
and the agents and friends of the Red Cross will not esteem their work in 
Turkey done, but knowing now so well just what remains to be done, and what 
can be done, will bend every effort to secure further relief for the widows and 
orphans of the more than sixty thousand murdered men — mostly between the 
ages of eighteen and fifty — whose lives no earthly arm was outstretched to save. 
While we gratefully bear witness to the wise and indefatigable efforts of 
Miss Barton's ag'euls, permit us to add that during her more than six months' 
stay in Constantinople Miss Barton gave /z^r.?^//" unremittingly to the work of 
her mission. She seems to have had no time for sight-seeing, and not a few 
of her friends are disposed to complain that she had no time to accept the 
invitations of those who would have been glad to entertain her. The only 
relaxation she seems to have given herself was on two occasions — the first, a 
Fourth of July picnic with a few American friends, on one of the Princes' 
Islands, and the second, another picnic on the same island, on Wednesday, 
August 5, when, with three of her "men," she met some twenty American lady 
teachers and missionaries, in order to bid them a courteous farewell. The first 
occasion she unqualifiedly declared to have been the happiest Fourth of July 
she had ever had; and inspired by the occasion, she penned some verses which 
she kindly read to her friends on the second gathering, and which we very 
much wish she would permit the editor of the Independent to publish. On the 
second occasion, at Miss Barton's request, the financial secretary read his report 
and Dr. Hubbell and Mr. Wood presented reports of the work of distribution. 
We gratefully acknowledged the honor done us in permitting us to hear these 
reports; and, remembering our concern for Miss Barton while preparing for the 
work of distribution six months ago, we gladly expressed our joy and congrat- 
ulations now on the happy return of her faithful and efficient agents, of whom 
it may be truly said that they went and saw and conquered. We rejoiced that 
these new friends had come to know so well the American missionaries in 
Turkey, and were truly thankful for a mutually happy acquaintance. We 
wished Miss Barton and her "men" a hearty welcome on their arrival, and, 
now, with all our hearts, we wish them god-speed on their return home. 

Constantijiople, Turkey. 



The little "verses " so kiiidly referred to by Dr. Greene, were not 
even written, but were a simple train of thought that took rhythmic 



3i8 



THK RED CROSS. 



form as we crossed ov^er the sea of Marmora, on our way to an island 
celebration of the Fourth of July. Later I found time to put them on 
paper and read them to the guests at our farewell meeting, presenting 
them to our host, Mr. W. W. Peet. They appear to have gained a 
favor far beyond their merit, and by request of many friends they are 
given place in the report as a "part of its histor>\" 







AN ANCIENT MOSQUE IN KILLIS. 



ARMENIA. 319 



MARMORA. 

It was twenty and a hundred years, oh bhie and rollincj sea, 
A thousand in the onwatd march of human liberty, 
Since on its sunlit bosom, wind-tossed and sails unfurled, 
Atlantic's mighty billows bore a message to the world. 

It thunders down its rocky coast, and stirs its frugal homes; 

The vSaxon hears it as he toils, the Indian as he roams ; 

The buffalo upon the plains, the panther in his lair, 

And the eagle hails the kindred note, and screams it through the aii 

"Make way for liberty," it roared, "here let the oppressed go free, 
Break loose your bands of tyrant hands, this land is not for thee. 
The old world in its crusted grasp grinds out the souls of men. 
Here plant their feet in freedom's soil, this land was made for them. " 

The mother slept in her island home, but the children heard the call, 
And ere the western sun went down, had answered, one and all; 
For Britain's thirteen colonies had vanished in a day, 
And six and half a hundred men had signed their lives away. 

And brows were dark, and words were few, the steps were quick and strong. 
And firm the lips as ever his who treasures up a wrong; 
And stern the tone that offered up the prayer beside the bed. 
And many a Molly Stark that night wept silent tears of dread. 

The bugles call, and swords are out, and armies march abreast. 

And the old world casts a wondering glance to the strange 1 ight in the west ; 

Lo, from its lurid lightnings play, free tossing in the wind, 

Bursts forth the star-gemmed flag that wraps the hopes of all mankind 

And weary eyes grew brighter then, and fainting hearts grew strong. 
And hope was mingled in the cry, "How long, oh Lord, how long?" 
The seething millions turn and stir and struggle toward the light; 
The free flag streams, and morning gleams where erst was hopeless night 

And grim Atlantic thunders still adown its rocky shores. 
And still the eagle screams his note, as aloft he sails and soars; 
And hope is born, that even thou, in some far day to come, 
O blue and rolling Marmora, shalt bear the message home 
Dedicated to W. W. Peet, Esq. Clara Barton. 

Co7istantinof>le, July ^, 1896. 



320 THK RED CROSS. 

Reports are always tedious. If some reader, having persevered 
thus far, if such there be, shall fiud himself or herself saying with a 
little thrill of disappointment, " But this does not give the information 
expected, it does not recommend any specific course to be pursued, 
whether emigration for the Armenians, and if so, where, and how; 
or autonomy, and if so, how to be secured, and assured; if more ships 
should be sent, and what they should do when there; if greater 
pressure of the Powers should be demanded by us, or what course, as a 
nation, we ought to pursue. We had expected some light on these 
questions." 

Appreciating and regretting this disappointment, we must remind 
our anxious readers and friends — for such they are — that we have never 
been required to do this; that all conclusions to that efifect are simply 
inferential, and all such expectations were born of anxious hope. But 
that which we feel does immediately concern us, and comes directly 
within our province, is, to state that notwithstanding all that has been 
done through all sources, infinitely more remains to be done by some 
one; and while speculation upon the moral duty of nations, the rights 
or wrongs of governments, the problem of whether one ruler or another 
shall sit upon a throne for the next six months; what expressions of 
individual principle in regard to certain actions should be given; the 
proper stand for a people to take and maintain on high moral and 
religious questions — all important subjects — none value them more than 
I — all marking the high tone and progressive spirit of the most 
advanced stage of human thought and culture the world has yet known, 
it would seem that each and all of these, imperative and important as 
they are, admit of at least a little moment of time for consideration, and 
will probably take it whether admitted or not. 

But the facts are, that between the Archipelago and the Caspian 
Seas, the Black and the Mediterranean, are to-day living a million and 
a half of people of the Armenian race, existing under the ordinances of, 
at least, semi-civilization, and professing the religion of Jesus Christ; 
that according to the stated estimate of intelligent and impartial 
observers of various countries and concurred in by our own agents, 
whose observations have been unrestricted, from 100,000 to 200,000 of 
these persons, men, women and children, are destitute of shelter, 
raiment, fire, food, medicines, the comforts that tend to make human 
life preservable, or any means of obtaining them, save through the 
charitable beneficence of the world. 

The same estimates concur in the statement, that without such 
outside support, at least 50,000 of these persons will have died of 




iUSlI. UAKl'tJOT 



REV. C F. GATES, D. D., HARPOOT. 




FIRST EXTKUITIUN ICMBAKKING ON FKRRY BOAT, 
EUPHRATES RIVER. 



in.A!M-.^:4!^!iU[JMm» 







1^;. 



-»■*'* i,f ^. ■»♦--«■!■ . *.;^-*.^f^ C 



:. Cl.na Ilartou 

A TURKISH TESKERE OR PASSPORT. 



ARMENIA. 



323 



starvation or perished through accumulated hardship, before the first 
of May, 1897, 

That even now it is cold in their mountain recesses, the frosts are 
whitening the rocky crests, trodden by their wandering feet, and long 
before Christmas the friendly snow will have commenced to cover their 
graves. 

These facts, bare and grim, are what I have to present to the 
American people; and if it should be proposed to make any use of them 
there is not much time for consideration. We have hastened, without 
loss of a day, to bring them plainly and truthfully before the public as 
a subject pertaining peculiarly to it. 

I would like to add that this great work of human relief should 
not fall wholly upon the people of our own country — by no means with- 
out its own suffering poor — neither would it. The people of most 
enlightened nations should unite in this relief, and I believe, properly 
conferred with, would do so. 

None of us have found any better medium for the dispensation of 
charitable relief than the faithful missionaries already on the ground, 
and our government oflScers, whose present course bespeaks their 
active interest. 

Clara Barton. 




A BIT OF PAI.OU. 



324 THR RED CROSL 



KHPORT OF THH FINANCIAL SHCRHTARY. 

The following financial report, of necessity, has to deal with the 
currencies of five different countries, viz.: American, English, French, 
Austrian and Turkish, but as nearly all except expenses of travel and 
maintenance are in Turkish money, and as American, English, French 
and other moneys received were naturally reduced to the coin of the 
Ottoman Empire, we were obliged to make our accounts to correspond. 
As the report is made on the gold basis of loo piasters to a lira, our 
friends may easily find the value in American money by multiplying 
the number of piasters by 4.4, as a gold lira (100 piasters) is approxi- 
mately worth four and four-tenths dollars. 

Owing to the difference in values between gold and silver coin, the 
wide range of values between the same coin in different cities, also the 
singulat variation of the purchasing power of the same coin in the same 
cities for various commodities, complicated and curious mathematical 
problems have constantly confronted us, and for the correctness and 
accuracy of our report we are under many obligations to W. W. Peet, 
Esq., treasurer of the American Board of Foreign Missions; the officers 
of the Imperial Ottoman and Credit Lyonnais Banks; as well as George 
Kiinzel, Esq., expert accountant of the Administration de la Dette 
Publique Ottomane. Our grateful acknowledgments are also due and 
heartily given to Rev. Dr. H. O. Dwight, the executive head of the 
Missionary Board at Constantinople, and Rev. Dr. George Washburn, 
president of Robert College, for many valuable suggestions. 

To give a single illustration of the acrobatic acquirements of the 
sprightly piaster, theignus fatuus characteristics of themejidieh (nom. 
20 piasters), and the illusive proclivities of the lira, we will outline a 
transaction connected with our first medical expedition, under Dr. Ira 
Harris, of Tripoli, Syria. We had sent four hundred liras to Dr. 
George E. Post, of Beyrout, who was fitting out the expedition for us, 
and presumed we would receive a receipt for that amount, or for 40, 000 
piasters, its equivalent. The acknowledgment came, and we were some- 
what nonplussed to note that we had been credited with a sum far 
exceeding that amount. A letter of inquiry was sent, as we supposed 
our good doctor had made an error. We quote a paragraph or two in 
his letter of reply: " I am not surprised that 3'ou do not quite under- 
stand the intricacies of Turkish finance. After thirty-three years of 



ARMENIA. 325 

residence, I am. still trying to get some idea of what a piaster is. * * * 
In Beyrout it is worth one piaster and five paras, with variations; a 
mejidieh is worth from nineteen piasters to almost anything. Kvery 
town has its rate. ^ * =i^ The nominal value changes daily. Thus 
if I credit you to-day with 123.20 piasters on the lira, next week I may 
be out of pocket, or vice versa. * * * Internally, it is well nigh 
impossible to keep accounts. * * * The only way our college books 
are kept is by giving the rate as it is when the account is entered and 
as it appears in all receipts and other vouchers." 

We were much gratified with this assurance, for if a college president, 
after thirty- three years' study, had not solved the piaster puzzle, there 
was some excuse for us. Hundreds of accounts and bills have been 
received, audited and paid, and scarcely any two correspond in piaster 
equivalents. Therefore, although the money unit is the gold piaster, 
and the monetary standard the gold lira, the frequent changes in valua- 
tion is very bewildering to foreigners, and necessitates frequent confer- 
ence with persons who, after long years of residence, have reached an 
equitable basis by which monetary equivalents can be ascertained. 

A glance at our column of receipts shows a considerable variation in 
rates of exchange, and also the selling price of British gold (most of 
our drafts and cabled credits were in English sovereigns). We sold 
the greater part of our gold at a rate exceeding no, which is the 
commercial rate in business transactions. In all credits received, the 
values are of course given according to the rate on the day of sale. 

Many of our accounts, receipts and vouchers are curiosities, as they 
are in various languages, Arabic, Kourdish, Turkish, Armenian, 
Greek, Italian, etc. They were interesting but at the same time 
exceedingly perplexing to us, though our expert accountant found no 
difficulty with any of them, and right here we desire to make special 
acknowledgment to Mr. Kiinzel for his excellent but unpaid services. 

In our column of expenses will be found an exceedingly rare Red 
Cross item, namely, "Wages Account." All the native or local 
doctors and apothecaries with one exception, had to be paid "conta- 
gious di.=ease rates," as they called it. The exception was Dr. Ira 
Harris, of Tripoli, Syria, that brave and self-sacrificing American, 
whose great medical ability and splendid surgical skill accomplished .so 
much in curing the sick in the terribly distressed cities of Marash and 
Zeitoun, with their many surrounding villages. We are glad to make 
this public acknowledgment in full appreciation of his heroic services. 
Besides the doctors, there were interpreters and dragomen for the 
various expeditions in the field to whom wages were paid. No adverse 



326 THE RKD CROSS. 

reflection is designed in the making of this statement, as the conditions 
surroiuuHng life and service in that region of operation made such 
remuneration an equitable necessity. 

It is, we think, a well understood fact that the Red Cross officers 
neither receive nor ask any remuneration for their services, but away 
fi( ::i our own country we did not find the splendid volunteer aids we 
have had on former fields. But few could be found, and these we have 
lind with us both in Constantinople and Asia Minor, and very efficient 
1. .^>ers they have been; to these our thanks are due and cordially 
given. 

After our expeditions had entered the field, and begun work, the 
first remittances to our chief officers were sent in a manner which for 
slowness and seeming insecurity would have appalled American busi- 
ness men. The modus operandi was as follows: A check for the 
amount desired was drawn and taken to the bank; after half an hour or 
more the gold would be weighed out and handed over — our bankers 
would have performed the same service in two minutes. The coin was 
tiien put into a piece of stout canvas cloth, done up in a round ball, 
securely tied and taken to the Imperial Turkish postoffice, where it was 
placed in a piece of sheepskin, all the ends brought together very 
evenly, cut off square and covered with sealing wax, the strong cords 
binding the package in a peculiar manner were woven in so that the 
ends could be passed through a small wooden box like a pill box; this 
box was filled with wax. After the imperial post and our seals were 
attached, bakshish given, and the package insured in an English com- 
l^aiiy, the only thing remaining after the three or four hours' work and 
delay was to go home and, with fear and trembling, wait some twenty- 
five or thirty days until the pony express arrived at its destination and 
acknowledgment by telegraph of the receipt of the money relieved the 
nervous strain as far as that package was concerned. This trying busi- 
ness was kept up until it became possible to use drafts in the interior. 
We are happy to report that, though the money had to be taken 
through a country infested with robbers, outlaws and brigands, we 
never lost a lira. 

Bakshish is another custom of the country, infinitely more exas- 
perating than our " tip " system, which is bad enough. This is trying 
to most people, but peculiarly irritating to a financial secretar}'. Bak- 
shish is a gift of money which an Oriental expects and demands for the 
most trifling service. Beggars, by instinct, seem to know a financial 
secretary and swarm around in the most appalling manner. To make 
any headway with this horde at least two Turkish words must be 



ARMENIA. 327 

mastered the first day, uaiiiely, " Yok,'' No, and " Hide-git,'' " Be off 
with you." These expressions are sometimes efficacious with beggars, 
but the bakshish fiend must be paid something. 

As long columns of figures have no interest to the great majority 
of people, and detailed accounts of receipts and expenses are never 
read, as it is of no possible importance what moneys were received at 
certain tines, or what goods were purchased on specific days for the 
field work, or gold or drafts sent into the interior, we give our state- 
ment in as condensed a form as possible. The committees have 
received their respective reports, with all vouchers and other detail. 

We believe the account of our stewardship will be approved by 
our countrymen ; we know that the people w^hom we came to assist, 
are grateful and thoroughly appreciative, as numberless letters of grat- 
itude, testimonials and personal statements abundantly prove. 

To the $1 16,326.01, at least a third if not a half more should be 
added, as in all kinds of industrial business we have made the money 
do double duty. For instance: We purchased iron and steel and 
gave to the blacksmiths to make tools. That started their work. 
They paid us for the iron and steel in tools ; these we gave to other 
artisans to start their various trades. In like manner spinning, weav- 
ing and garment-making avocations were commenced. Speaking of 
values, the consensus of opinion of our countrymen in the interior is, 
that putting a price on our work, the people of Anatolia have gained 
twice or thrice the actual money spent, and that the moral support 
given was far beyond any valuation. (At such a money valuation 
then, the aggregate value of the chief distribution will be nearly 
1350,000.) 

A few words of explanation in regard to the table of expenditures: 
" Cash sent to the Interior " includes all moneys sent by pony express 
or draft, and of this amount something over seven thousand liras are in 
the hands of W. W. Peet, Esq.; Rev. C. F. Gates, at Harpoot; C. M. 
Hallward, Esq., British Consul, at Diarbekir; Rev. E. H. Perry, at 
Sivas, and other equally responsible representatives, for an emergency 
fund, to be used, on order, as occasion requires. 

" Relief Expeditions, General and Medical," represents largely the 
goods purchased and shipped with the four expeditions from Constanti- 
nople and Beyrout for relief purposes. A portion of this supply is still 
held at different stations awaiting the proper time for its distribution to 
the best advantage. 

"General Expense Account" represents freights, postage, bak- 
shish, hammals, car fares, carriages, etc. " Donations for Relief of 



328 THE RliI) CROSS. 

Orphan Children " represents sums of money given to the Armenian 
and German hospitals for Armenian refugee children. The other items 
we think explain themselves. 

It will be observed that the special Red Cross fund, as noted in 
our tabulation of debits and credits, more than covers expenses of 
" Red Cross Headquarters, Field," " Travel and Maintenance," " Gen- 
eral Expense and Wages Accounts," and " General and Medical Relief 
Expeditions Accounts," all of which items were of direct benefit to the 
field as all were necessary to the successful conduct of our work. We 
only mention this to show that, besides the work we have been able to 
successfully perform, the Red Cross has also materially contributed mon- 
etarily to the field. And it will not be out of place to note that in the 
total of cash expended ($i 16,326.01) there is shown to be an administra- 
tive cost amounting to $7,526.37, as covered by such items as 
"Telegrams and Cables," "Wages Account," "General Expense," 
"Headquarters, Field," "Stationery and Printing," and " Travel and 
Maintenance. ' ' This cost was but a fraction over 6 per cent on the cash 
total. If the estimated money value in field results be taken at three 
times the cash received and paid, for relief material, food, etc. , as stated, 
it will be found that the cost of administration is only about 2 per cent. 
In either account or estimate theresult is gratifyingthough not surprising 
to the officers of the Red Cross, since the methods pursued are the fruits 
of a wide experience that evaded no responsibility and learned only to 
spend wisely for the trust imposed and accepted. It is also satisfactory 
to know that such expenditures came direct from the " Special Founds" 
of the Red Cross itself. An examination of the balance sheets accom- 
panying this report shows that of funds expended, the Red Cross is 
credited with $24,641.93, which leaves an excess for relief over the cost 
of administration of $17,115.56. 

Perhaps this brief financial review of the work achieved may be 
properly closed by a reference to the sincere enthusiasm and earnestness 
with which the efforts to raise funds in the United States were ani- 
mated. The incidents herein mentioned may also illustrate how the 
wisdom of experience accepts the earnestness and yet discounts without 
criticism the over confident calculations, to which a noble zeal may 
run. It would appear that the collection of funds for the purpose of 
relieving a Christian people in danger of starvation and violent death by 
knife or bullet — of aiding a historic race in the throes of dissolution 
from massacre, and dispersion in winter by storm and famine, would 
be a very easy thing to accomplish. A good many of our countrymen, 
unaccustomed to great relief work, found the collection of the means 



ARMENIA. 329 

needed, a task more than difficult. A single illustration will prove how 
misleading is the conception. It must be borne in mind always that 
the Red Cross never solicits funds. It sees its field of benefit work and 
having fully examined the needs, states theiu through the press and all 
other public avenues, to the American people, leaving the response 
direct to their judgment and generosity. When it is asked to accept 
the administration of relief funds and material, in fields like this that 
awaited it in Asia Minor, the trust is surely met, but tbe Red Cross 
does not ask for the means and money. Others do that, stating that 
the work will be under its charge. When it is once accepted there is no , 
retreat, no matter how far the exertions may fall short of reaching the 
hoped-for results. 

Last November (1895), after many petitions had been received and 
carefully considered, representatives of the great Armenian Relief Com- 
mittees came to Washington for the purpose of supplementing such 
earnest petitions by personal appeals. A conditional consent having 
been obtained, the subject of funds was brought up by the following 
question: 

" Miss Barton, how much do ^'•ou think it will cost to relieve the 
Armenians ? " 

The question was answered by another: " Gentlemen, you are con- 
nected with the various missionary boards, with banks and other great 
institutions and enterprises. What amount do you consider necessary ?' ' 

After deliberation, $5,000,000 was suggested as the proper sum and 
the question was asked if the Red Cross concurred. Miss Barton, with 
the faintest suggestion of a smile, replied that she thought $5,000,000 
would be sufficient. As the difficulties of raising money became 
more apparent to the committees, numerous meetings were held and 
various other amounts suggested, Miss Barton agreeing each time. 
From $5,000,000 to $500,000, with a guarantee for the balance; then 
$100,000 cash, with $400,000 guaranteed, and so on, until $50,000 was 
named to start the work with, such sum to be available on the arrival 
of the Red Cross in Constantinople. The president and a few officers 
of the Red Cross arrived there on February 15, iSy6, but it was late in 
the following April before the $50,000 was received. These facts as 
given are intended solely to show the difficulties the committees had to 
contend with in raising the amount they did. 

For general information it will, perhaps, not be inappropriate to 
state that all relief work is governed and conducted on military lines to 
preclude tlie possibility of confusion, as the Red Cross on fields of dis- 
aster is the only organized body in a disorganized community. Thus, 



330 THE RED CROSS. 

wherever the organization has control, Miss Barton has personal super- 
vision of all departments: the financial, receiving and disposing of all 
funds; the correspondence, opening all letters and directing replies; the 
field, assigning workers to attend to such duties as are best suited to 
their various abilities, who report daily, if possible, and receive instruc- 
tions for the prosecution of the work, the supplies, receiving accurate 
reports of all material and giving directions as to its disposition. 

Gkorge H. Pullman. 
Constayitinople, August i, i8g6 












■^^0%--^' 



! 



2 

5^ 






ARMENIA. 



333 



J^JNANCIAL PAIANCE SHJ^1£7 OF THE KEUEF FuNDS AND SERVICE 

IN Asia Minor. 
The AmeAcan Nati'^u.l Red Cross, in account with the Relief Field 
Mhio'\ 

Dr. 
^'o The liatlonal Relief Committee *Ltq. 

The New Knghind Relief Committee 

The Worcester Relief Committee 

. The Ladies' Relief Committee, of Chicago 

The Friends of Philadelphia, through Asa S. Wing .... 

Citizens of Newark, through C. H. Stout, Esq 

Citizens of Milton, North Dakota 

St. George's Church S. S. through C. H. Stout, Esq. . . . 

Ransom Post, G. A. R., Wales, Minn 

The Davenport, Iowa, Relief Committee 

American Ladies in Geneva, Switzerland 

Miss Phillips, Mission school, Ralisori, India 

Mrs. Dr. Galbraith, Tarentum, Pa 

"Sailors' Rest," Genoa, Italy 

A citizen of Chester, N. J. 

Miss Mayham Winter, Philadelphia, Pa 

The American National Red Cross (special) 



OF 1896 
of Asia 



Total 



Cr. 



B^ telegrams and cables Ltq. 

Cash sent to interior " 

Relief expeditions, general " 

Relief expeditions, medical " 

Wages account " 

General expense account " 

Red Cross headquarters, Field " 

Stationery ant printing " 

Expense acco.\i<t, travel and maintenance " 

Donations for relief of orphan children " 

Emergency Fund, deposited with W. W. Peet " 

Total " 



14,784 51 

5.667 25 

402 18 

922 50 

481 69 

674 65 

4 66 

40 06 

2 95 
54 78 

585 
13 20 

3 30 
2 33 

02 

I 14 

3.376 66 

26,437 73 



245 12 
18,965 70 

2,917 81 
543 68 
421 20 
138 02 
235 05 
1 28 79 
542 36 
100 00 

2,200 00 



" 26,437 73 

I have carefully examined the books, accounts and vouchers of the American 
National Red Cross, in its relief work in Asia Minor, and find everything correct 
and accurate. 

(Signed.) George Kunzel, 

Accountant, Aduiinistration Ottoman Public Debt. 
Constantinople. August /, iSg6. 

* Ltq. 2,223.78 of this .<;um was Special Red Cross Funds drawn from Browu Brothers & 
Company. Ltq.— Turkish Lira about %\.\a. Lt.|. 26.417. 71 $116,326.01. 



334 THE RED CROSS. 



GENERAL FIELD AGENT'S REPORT. 
Anatolia, Asia Minor. 

To Miss Clara Barton, President: 

In speaking of the relief work in Asia Minor, may I be allowed to 
begin at Constantinople, at which place, while waiting for the necessary 
official papers for our work, we were all busy selecting and purchasing 
relief supplies, camping outfit, cooking utensils, and making other 
preparations for interior travel; and also securing competent inter- 
preters and dragomans. Although the Irade of the Sultan granting 
permission to enter Asia Minor had not yet been receiv-ed, we were 
naturally anxious to follow the first shipment of supplies purchased and 
sent by steamer to the port of Alexandretta as the safest route, to be 
forwarded again by camels under guard to different places in the 
interior; and with our own men to accompany and attend the work of 
distribution. Accordingly, accompanied by interpreter Mason, I left 
Constantinople on the tenth of March, touching at Smyrna, Latakea, 
Mersina and Tripoli, reaching Alexandretta on the eighteenth, and by 
the kind help of our Consular Agent, Mr. Daniel Walker, and Mr. 
John Falanga, began making up the caravans for shipment to Aintab, 
as a central point for the southern field. 

By the time the caravans were ready and horses for travel selected, 
Mr. Wistar and Mr. Wood, with dragomans, arrived by steamer from 
Constantinople. Rev. Dr. Fuller, president of the Aintab (American) 
College, had also just come through with friends from Aintab to take 
steamer, himself to return again immediately, and together we all set 
out under soldier escort the next morning. Alexandretta was in a state 
of fear while we were there, notwithstanding the fact that the warships ' 
of England, France, Turkey, and the United States lay in her harbor. 
Kirk Khan, the first stopping place on our journey inland, was 
threatened with plunder and destruction on the night before our arrival 
there. At Killis we found the town in a state of fear from the recent 
massacres. Here, with Dr. Fuller, we visited the wounded who were 
under the good care of a young physician just from the college at 
Aintab, but without medicine, surgical dressings and appliances. 
These with other needed things we arranged to send back to him from 
the supplies that had gone ahead. 



ARMENIA. 335 

Aiutab, with its American school, college, seminary and hospital 
buildings standing out in relief and contrast from the native buildings, 
was a welcome reminder of home ; and the greeting of the hundreds of 
pupils as they came hurrying down the road to welcome back their own 
loved president, became a welcome for the Red Cross. We were most cor- 
dially offered the hospitality of Dr. Fuller's house and home, but as we 
were still strangers in a strange land, it seemed best to place ourselves 
in a khan, where we could have better opportunity to make an acquain- 
tance with the people to obtain the varied information necessary 
to accomplish best results in the disposition of our relief. Here we 
remained long enough to learn the needs of the place and surrounding 
country, to obtain carefully prepared lists of those artisans needing 
tools and implements for their various trades and callings. Supplies 
were left, clothing, new goods for working up, thread, needles, thim- 
bles, medicines, and surgical stores. 

Aintab is favored with its Mission Hospital; with its surgeon and 
physician, Dr. Shepard and Dr. Hamilton, and a strong American 
colony of missionary teachers, besides the Franciscan Brothers, who 
are doing excellent select work. The Father Superior was killed near 
Zeitoun. Supplies were selected and mads up for Oorfa, Aintab, 
Marash and other points, while a quantity of supplies, by the kindness 
of Dr. Fuller, was left in storage in the college building to be forwarded 
as our inquiries should discover the need. To Oorfa, where the 
industrial work had been so successfully established by Miss Shattuck, 
we sent material and implements for working, needles, thread, thimbles, 
cotton and woolen goods for making up. To Marash and Zeitoun, 
ready-made goods in addition to new, with surgical appliances and 
medicines. 

From Aintab, Mr. Wood and Mr. Wistar started by way of the 
most distressed points needing help eastward, and then north to Har- 
poot ; and because of your telegram of the report of typhus and 
dysentery at Marash and Zeitoun, we started in that direction, with 
Rev. L. O. Lee, who was returning home. After facing rain, snow 
and mud for three days we came to Marash. Here we remained until 
our caravan of goods came on. Typhus, dysentery and smallpox 
were spreading as a result of the crowded state of the city; Marash 
had been filled with refugees since the November massacres, notwith- 
standing a large part of its own dwelling houses had been burned and 
plundered. The surrounding country had also been pillaged, people 
killed and villages destroyed, and the frightened remnant of people 
had crowded in here for protection, and up to this time had feared to 



336 THE RKD CROSS. 

return. With insufficient drainage and warm weather coming on, 
typhus, dysentery and smallpox already in the prisons, an epidemic 
was becoming general. True, the preachers fcquesied mothers not to 
bn?ig childrc7i with smallpox to church, nevertheless the typhus and 
smallpox spread, and rendered medical supervision a necessity. By 
the efforts of Mrs. Lee and Mrs. Macallum, wives of the missionaries 
of the Marasli station, a hospital had been established with plenty of 
patients, but they had no funds for physicians or medicines. Medicines 
were left and funds furnished for a native doctor educated in America 
(who himself had just recovered from typhus) and was placed in charge 
of the hospital and out-of-door service, and was doing efficient work 
before we left Marash. Arrangements were made with Rev. Mr. 
Macallum to have tools and implements made and distributed to 
artisans and villagers; and we left with him to begin this work the sum 
which you had sent for our own, use 500 lire — $23,000 

By this time Dr. Ira Harris, whom you had called from Tripoli, 
Syria, with his assistants, arrived for the Zeitoun field. Dr. Harris 
had his well-filled medical chests and surgical supplies in a mule 
caravan, and being more needed at other places, we left immediately 
for Adioman via Besnia, passing through Bazarjik and Kumaklejercle, 
a three days' mountain journey. Our officer kindly told us, when we 
stopped at a Kourdish village for the night, to "order what we want 
and not pay if we do not want to." But we made it clear to him, that 
while we are not extravagant in our wants, ive always pay for what we 
take. It is customary in this country for villages to entertain soldiers 
free of charge. At Bazarjik when we inquired concerning the health 
of the place, an official said they had no sickness except a few cases of 
smallpox, and this was confined to children — that his little girl had it, 
and she was brought in as a proof. 

Besnia was saved from pillage and massacre by the efforts of Pasha 
Youcab, Osman Zade, Mahund Bey, and several other Turkish Beys, 
but the surrounding villages were attacked and suffered more or less 
severely. Some of the women escaped and found protection in Besnia, 
where they were still living. We did some medical work here and 
left, in good hands, a moderate sum for emergencies. Our reception by 
the officials at Besnia, as indeed at every place we have been, large or 
small, was most cordial and friendly. With only an exception or two, 
no more considerate treatment could have been expected or asked from 
any people. Before reaching the city we had heard that there was a 
feudal war in progress ahead of us, and when the military commander 
learned that we were intending to go to Adioman, he interposed, 



ARMENIA. 337 

saying he could take no responsibility in sending us there ; that he had 
just sent a hundred soldiers out on that road to quell a riot ; that it was 
dangerous, but he would give us a good officer and soldiers for another 
road to Malatia. This we accepted and four days more of mountain 
travel, via Paverly, Soorgoo, and Guzena, brought us to the fruit and 
garden city of Malatia, which formerly had a population of 45,000. It 
is reported that about 1500 houses were plundered and 375 were 
burned, and some thousands of persons killed. The people of all 
classes were still in fear. 

A simi of nionoy from friends in America had been sent l>y the 
missionaries, but its distribution had been delayed several weeks 
through some formality in the post-office, and was but just being made 
the day we arrived. We left here a sum for special cases and typhus 
patients, and with a promise to return, pressed on to our objective 
point, two days' journey more across the Euphrates at Isli to Harpoot, 
when the limit of our time would be out for meeting the second expe- 
dition which arrived only two hours ahead of us. Here the people 
turned out en masse to welcome the Red Cross ; the road was lined, the 
streets and windows filled, and house roofs covered, and all had words 
of welcome on their lips. We were told by the Rev. Dr. Wheeler, the 
founder of the Mission and American College of Central Turkey, that 
we were the second party of Americans, not missionaries, that they had 
seen in Harpoot in forty years. We were most cordially met by the 
mission people. Although they, too, had been plundered, and most of 
their buildings and their homes had gone in the flames, we were offered, 
most kindly, the shelter of the remaining roofs and seats at their table 
as long as we would stay. 

We felt at home again, though startled, too, when we stopped to 
think we were 8000 miles away and fifteen days by horseback to the 
hearest steamer that might start us on a homeward trip or that could 
carry a letter for us to the outside world. We had been told from the 
first that Harpoot was suffering more than any other part of the interior, 
and here we prepared to begin systematic work ; Mr. Wistar taking the 
Char-Sanjak with Peri as a centre, the Harpoot plain, and later the 
Aghan villages. Mr. Wood took the Palou district with two hundred 
villages, and Silouan in the Vilayet of Diarbekir wath one hundred 
and sixty villages, with the town of Palou and the city of Farkin as 
centers. While making the.se arrangements we received your telegram 
of May ist : " Typhus and dysentery raging at Arabkir. Can you send 
doctors with medicines from Harpoot? Please investigate." Upon 
inquiry we found reported one thousand sick and many dying. This 
naturally would be my field. 



338 THE RED CROSS. 

After telegraphing to the various centres for additional medical 
hclj) without success, we found a native physician, educated in America, 
Dr. Hintlian, at Harpoot, who was ready to go. Miss Caroline Bush 
and Miss Seymour of the Mission, with unassumed bravery, volunteered 
to accompany the expedition. As only one could leave, the choice fell 
upon Miss Bush. When one reflects that this was a slight little bod3% 
never coming up to the majesty of a hundred pounds, with sensitive 
nature, delicate organization, educated and refined conditions of early 
life, fears might well be felt for the weight of the lot assumed; but every 
day's contact convinced us that the springs were of the best of steel, 
tempered by the glowing fires of experience, thus teaching us how far 
mind may be superior to matter. 

On our first night out, as is frequently the custom in this country, 
we slept in the stable with our horses — and smaller aniviah. On the 
second day in crossing the Euphrates at Cabin Madin, the big wooden 
scoop-shovel ferryboat struck a rock in the swift current mid-stream, 
and came very near capsizing with its load of luggage, horses and 
human beings. The boatmen lost their chance of making the opposite 
shore, and we were in the swift current fast making for the gorge and 
rapids below. I looked as unconcerned as I could at Miss Bush, only 
to see that she was as calm as if this was an every-day occurrence or 
that she had been from childhood accustomed to such experiences. 
We knew she had not, only she had lived long enough in the interior 
not to be frightened at anything that might happen. However, another 
rock was reached near the blufi" and we unloaded. Each leading his 
horse and the pack animals following, we climbed up over the edge of 
a precipice, over loose stones, slippery earth and ragged rocks, back to 
the landing we should have made had we gone directly across. 

Our next day's travel was through a cold, pouring rain, into the 
ruined city of Arabkir, but notwithstanding the rain, hundreds of people 
stood in the streets as we passed to make their "salaams" and to say 
their word of welcome to those who had come to bring the gifts of 
another land to the suffering, the sick and needy of their own. Passing 
through the rain, we arrived at the native pastor's house, which had 
been saved by a Turkish military officer and cleared of refugees and 
typhus patients for our installation. 

Nearly the entire city of Arabkir was in ruins, only heaps of stones 
where houses had been. Out of eighteen hundred homes but few 
remained; the markets as well as the dwellings were destroyed, and the 
people, plundered and destitute, were crowded into the few remaining 
houses, down with the typhus. We were told that six hundred had 



ARMENIA. 339 

already died of the disease, and llie people's physician, the only one in 
that part of the country, was in prison. Later we were told that the 
arrival of help changed the character of the disease the moment it was 
known that we had come. Miss Bush went with us directly into the 
sick rooms, and the presence of a woman gave cheer and strength. A 
hundred patients were seen daily. After the first wants of the typhus 
patients had been met the long neglected surgical cases were looked 
after, and many lives and limbs were saved. The medical and surgical 
efforts gave gratifying results, of which Dr. Hintlian will make a special 
report from his daily record. 

Immediately upon our arrival the Gregorian church and school 
buildings, which escaped destruction, were offered for our use as a hos- 
pital. These rooms were admirably adapted fur this purpose, but hy 
selecting and employing persons already in need of help as assistants 
and nurses we found that we could better care for the sick in their own 
quarters than to attempt to remove thera to a hospital, where the con- 
gregation of sick would only be increased. To give employment was 
the o?ie thing needed for the well, therefore we made no hospitals, but 
employed competent, healthy women in need, instructed and put them 
to care for sick families also in need, but of another kind. The piaster 
a woman earned for a day's work gave food for herself and for her own 
family, and gave the sick family the services necessary to save their 
lives. The necessary beds for the patients were furnished. 

A sheep or a goat given where there was a helpless babe or mother 
would give food for both, and be a permanent property that would grow 
by the increase of its own young. A small sum for fowls would be a 
gift that would furnish more than its value in eggs for food for present 
use. It would prove a small investment that must multiply in kind and 
value as chicks were hatched. While medical work was going on other 
forms of relief were also in progress. A supply of tools had been 
ordered from Harpoot, directly upon our arrival, for blacksmiths, car- 
penters, tinkers, masons, stone workers, etc. The black.smiths were 
set to work making sickles for cutting grass and reaping grain; .shovels, 
plows and other implements for farmers. Others were put at making 
spinning-wheels for the destitute women, who with these could earn 
their own living; others made weaving looms. Out of the twelve hun- 
dred hand looms formerly in the city it was said only forty remained. 
Arabkir was the chief manufacturing centre for native cotton cloth, 
and if a man had a loom which would cost three medjidieh (about 
$2.50) he could earn his own family's living. FielO lud garden seeds 
were bought in quantity and distributed. 



340 



THE RKD CROSS. 



For the villages which had no cattle we gave oxen for plowing the 
fields. Sometimes with the oxen, cows were given, with instructionc 




SOME METHODS OF WORK. 



that in this stress of need the cows should be made to work with the 
oxen, even while they were giving milk for the family. Thus they 




SALEMLIK. 




J'KRA HRIDGK, CONSTANTINOPCIi. 




TURKISH COFFEE HOUSE. 




MANNhK (11- CAKKVING HEAVY BURDENS. 



ARMENIA. 343 

would secure a double service for one outlay. Melkon Miranshahian, 
the druggist, kindly offered his services, and we arranged with him tc 
take up special cases and to continue to care for them after we would 
no longer be able to remain on the field. Then, feeling that we might 
safely leave this work in the hands of Dr. Hintlian, we went to Egin 
to arrange for distribution in the Aghan villages. Miss Bush accom- 
panying. 

The inquiry will naturally be made as to how relief was received. 
The gratitude of the people was almost overwhelming at times. If 
you could only have heard the blessings that were poured out upon Clara 
Barton, the Red Cross, and the good people everywhere who have 
aided, you would realize that deep as the need, so fervent and sincere 
have been the thankful prayers and blessings that the unfortunate peo- 
ple who survive the massacre could alone render to all who help them. 
To you and your name especially were they responsive. Of all this, I 
would say we often had most gratifying evidence and expression on the 
lonely roads, in the stricken homes, and through personal letters from 
many sources. 

When we were some six miles out on the road to Egin, we met the 
leading men of the village of Shepik coming to town; they had heard 
that we were going away soon, and the villagers had sent this committee 
to Arabkir to express their gratitude for what they had received and for 
all that had been done for them. This was five or six weeks after we 
had made a distribution of seeds, and as we came in sight of their vil- 
lage we saw gardens green with onions, potatoes, beans, cucumbers, 
melons, squash, pumpkins, etc., from the seeds we had given. Here, 
too, the women were in the Eelds cutting the grass and grain with 
the sickles which, theblacksmith had made from the iron and steel we had 
furnished. The men were plowing with the plows and oxen we had 
supplied and, notwithstanding they had been plundered of every mov- 
able thing and their houses burned or destroyed, there was an air of 
prosperity in the fields that banished thoughts of want or suffering. 
We rode on past the little room where the school was kept and every 
child rose to his feet and made a most profound, though youthful bow 
to our passing company. 

Egin is an old, strangely beautiful city, inhabited by the descend- 
ants of the noble families of Mosul (XINEVEII) who fled to this moun- 
tain stronghold on the Euphrates during the Persian invasion, many 
years ago, and they arc still a royal and gentle people. At Egin the 
of^cials declared it unsafe for us to go to the villages as we had pro- 
posed. Accordingly we made purchases in this market and sent them 



344 



THE RED CROSS. 



to the needy points. Egin had bought the Kourds off with 1500 lire, 
and consequently it had remained up to the date of our arrival 
unharmed through all the destruction about it. We also left a sum of 
money with a responsible committee for eight vnifortunate villages, and 
did what medical work we could in our short sta)\ We then returned 
to Harpoot. 

On our road back, Miss Bush had with her a young girl whom we 
were taking to Harpoot for safety (we had frequent charges of this kind), 
and she wanted me to stop at her favorite beautiful village of Biervan, 
for a pleasant picture to carry back in memory to America. We had a 
long day's journey at best to reach our village, and had met with 
delays; four hours in the morning waiting for a zaptieh. Our muleteer 
left us at the ferry some twelve miles back, in order to stop over night 
at his own village; and the second zaptieh was two hours late, but 
having started we must keep on through the mountain pass, and it was 
ten o'clock at night when we reached the village. Our zaptieh took us 
to the house of the " Villageman " (each village is provided with such 
a personage whose duty it is to see that shelter is provided for travel- 
ers). We rode up together and the zaptieh pounded on the door. The 
dog on the roof barked viciously, then all the dogs in the village barked. 
A woman on another roof above this one raised herself and talked, then 
shouted down the chimney-hole (the roof is the sleeping place in warm 
weather), after a time she pointed wdth her hand and the zaptieh started 
off in the direction indicated; the moon had gone down and it was too 
dark to see anything distinctly. He came to a small pile, poked it with 
his foot, punched it with his gun, kicked it. 

After a time a part of the pile raised itself in a sort of surprised 
astonishment, ni3'Stified, uncertain, complicated attitude — evidently 
looking at the " poker." Then the pile expressed itself emphatically, 
the zaptieh did the same more emphaticall}-, each in turn louder and 
louder, all with necessary and unnecessary gesticulation. Then the 
pile got up and began on our servants for having the pack mules and 
animals on his roof After these had been led off the house, he wanted 
to know what we came there for anyway, at that time of night, to wake 
him up when there were six other villages we could have gone to; why 
didn't we go to one of them ? Then our zaptieh changed his tone and 
attitude and in the most polite, persuasive, pleading voice and manner, 
tried to explain that he himself was not to blame for all this trouble, 
he was under orders and had to come with these people; he couldn't 
help doing his duty. But this made no impression, and we were told 
there was no place for us. 



ARMENIA. 345 

None could be found at this time of night; besides there was no 
barley for the horses, and nothing was to be done unless it was to go on 
and try another village. Our zaptieh seemed to have exhausted his 
resources and said no more. Other villagers had come and were stand- 
ing around the " villageman," who still insisted that he could do 
nothing. Miss Bush quietly suggested '' Arge?iijcm.'" We got down 
from our horse, went around carelessly, and slipped a " cherek " (a five 
piaster piece) into his fingers. He took and felt of it, and then went 
away without a word. After about ten minutes he returned with a 
light, a door was opened close beside us, and we unloaded our animals, 
put them all in, took in the luggage, went in ourselves, got our supper, 
spread our blankets, drove away our audience of villagers, fastened the 
stable door and announced to ourselves that we were one hour into the 
"next day," and went to sleep. We were off again the next morning 
before the sun was up. This is a sample incideut of what happened in 
frequent variation during interior travel. 

At Harpoot we arranged for supplying tools and cattle to the 
remaining villages which we failed to reach from Egin. Here, too, we 
found Mr. Wistar busy supplying harvesting and threshing implements, 
and cattle for plowing in the Harpoot plain and villages. In this 
vilayet there are upwards of two hundred villages either plundered or 
wholly destroyed, and from these many persons of all classes came for 
medical or surgical help. 

Preparations were made to work in Malatia, where, some weeks 
before, we had ordered supplies and medicines sent to be ready for our 
arrival, but owing to the unsettled conditions there, no such work could 
be done to advantage. The time for our return to Constantinople was 
drawing near and on the twenty-seventh of June we were ready to start 
for the Black Sea. We called to pay our respects to the governor of 
Harpoot and found him as cordial as he had always been. Inquiries 
were made and explanations given, so that he might more thoroughly 
understand the character and purposes of the Red Cross, His Excel- 
lency remarked that it gave to those engaged in the work great oppor- 
tunities to become acquainted with different countries, and that we 
must have found Turkey the most difficult of them all to work in. He 
regretted that he himself had been of so little assistance to our efforts, 
etc., but we took pleasure in saying that he had done at all times all 
that we had asked and ofttimes more. Speaking for those associated 
with our work I could safely say that all the recollections of our 
personal relations with the vali of Harpoot will remain with us as 
pleasant and satisfactory. 



346 THE RED CROSS. 

The principal food and the main crop of the interior is wheat, and this 
year's growth wherever we have been is reported to be unusually good. 
If the wheat can be distributed where the destitution will be this 
coming winter, many lives may be saved; if not, many must inevitably 
be lost for want of food. When we left the Harpoot valley harvesting 
had well begun, and was even more briskly going on as we neared the 
Euphrates, which we crossed for the last time at Isli on the twenty- 
ninth of June. The usual Euphrates ferry-boat is twenty-four to thirty 
feet long, eight feet wide, and two feet high at one end and eight at the 
other where a rudder, or sweep, forty feet long is hung. An American 
frequently sees methods of work and management that lead him some- 
times, when first traveling, to make suggestions. After seeing the 
ferrymen upon many occasions putting loaded wagons on the boat, 
lifting them by main force some two or three feet with much awkward- 
ness over the edge of the craft, we ventured to suggest that two planks 
laid on the bank and end of the boat so as to roll the wagons in or 
out would save much trouble and time and extra help and labor. We 
were met with this unanswerable reply: " Who would pay for them ? " 

To Malatia we carried money to the people from their relatives in 
America which had been entrusted to Dr. Barnura at Harpoot. We also 
left in the hands of a responsible committee a fund for artisans' tools, 
and a smaller sum for food and supplies in special needy cases. The 
feeling of security among the people in Malatia was entirely absent. 
They had seen terrible slaughter. They were possessed with fear 
to such an extent that we could meet very few of them; and had we 
not known, that it was Doctor Gates' Plan to visit the place soon with 
assistants and means from Harpoot it would have pained us still more 
to leave them in their terrible condition, for we could not remain to 
carry on the work, and an unwise or untimely effort often fails of its 
end or only aggravates the conditions it seeks to relieve. 

The sun is extremely hot during the summer in the interior, hence 
when the moon was favorable we traveled by night, leaving the saddle 
long enough to sleep in the "Araba " (a sort of small, springless, cov- 
ered wagon used where there are roads) so as to have the day to work 
in while our horses rested. When we could do so in our journey we 
left funds for specified purposes, but frequently the sufferers felt safer 
without such assistance and declined to receive it. At Sivas we gave 
a fund for farmers' tools. Here the grain crop was later than in the 
valleys further south. We also left here with the Rev. Messrs. Perry 
and Hubbard, a horse, in order to facilitate their relief work. From 
Malatia se-\'eral families and individuals placed themselves under the 



ARMENIA. 347 

protection of the Red Cross and its guards in order to go in safely to 
the coast. A portion of this road is infested with brigands and a strong 
guard is necessary, in fact it is needed throughout the whole region. 
The government took particular care of us by giving us a brigand as a 
special guard through the dangerous part of the road, saying that we 
should be safer with him than with the regular military guard. A few 
weeks before a rich caravan was robbed on this road, and when we 
passed we had the interesting pleasure of taking tea and journeying 
for a while with the chief of these brigands who had two days before 
been enlisted in government service. With the ample government pro- 
tection we have at all times had, we seldom felt concern for our personal 
safety, notwithstanding that in places where we visited there was often 
a great deal of anxiety and fear on the part of the people for their own 
safety and that of their friends, or their property if they had any. 

Tokat and Amasia were on our homeward route — the latter plact 
being the site of the ancient castle of Mithridates, King of Pontus, 

At Samsoun we had two saddle horses to dispose of, and our con- 
sular agent, Mr. Stephapopale, having a stable, kindly offered to sell 
them to the best profit for us, and to see that the proceeds were used in 
aiding the refugees who crowd to the coast in the hope of getting 
farther on, but only find themselves stranded and iniable to return, 
becoming thereby veritable sufferers. 

On the sixteenth of July we reached the Bosphorus, four months 
and six days from the time w^e started out from Constantinople for the 
interior, glad of the privilege and power we haveenjo>ed as messen- 
gers to carry some of the gifts that have been entrusted to your care 
by the people of America for the innocent, unfortunate sufferers of 
Anatolia. 

Wherever we have met the missionaries, Protestant or Catholic, we 
have found them devoting most, if not all, of their time to the work of 
relieving the suffering about them, regardless of sect or nationalitj-; 
but in all cases their fields of work have been greater than their strength 
or their means. With them we have worked always harmoniously and 
without consciousness of difference of place or creed; and to them and 
to many others we are indebted for courtesies and for hospitalities that 
will always be remembered with gratitude. 

The real work of the relief expedition was greatly aided by the 
hearty co-operation of every European and American resident with 
whom we came in contact. Each did all in his power for our aid, and 
we regret that space forbids our telling how each gave his support and 
help. 



348 THE RED CROSS. 

At Egin we will ever remember the generous hospitality during 
our short stay with the families of Nicoghos Agha Jangochyau and 
Alexander Effendi Kasabyan, noblemen, who by their energy and 
liberality saved the city and people from destruction, while the country 
round about was being plundered and burned, and who gave us great 
assistance in furnishing tools and implements to this section of the 
country. 

Not long after leaving Egin we learned the sad news that these 
gentlemen with nearly a thousand others had been killed. These 
families were the centre of a large community of the most charming 
and cultivated people we had met. 

To the Turkish officials everywhere we are grateful for their care- 
ful supervision of our personal safety, and for the general personal 



RED CROSS EXPEDITIONS PASSING THROUGH THE VAI.I.EV OE CATCH BEARD. 

freedom allowed ourselves wherever we worked. To the officers and 
guards who always accompanied us in our journeys through cold and 
heat, on the road by night or day, over desolate plain or mountain 
trail, for bringing us safely through from sea to sea without a scratch 
or harm of any kind, for all this we are most assuredly grateful, and 
oft recall the cheerful vigilant service and special courtesies we enjoyed 
at their hands, which could only be prompted by the most friendly 
feelings and consideration. 

But we do not forget, dear Miss Barton, that the success of this 
expedition is due to your careful and constant oversight and direction 
of all our movements, from the seat of government at Constantinople, 




ARMENIA. 



349 



Irom first to last, and to the conviction which you had impressed upon 
the Sublime Porte of your own and your officers' honesty, integrity 
and singleness of purpose. Hence for your statesmanship and general- 
ship and constant oversight, we would express our warmest gratitude. 

We are grateful for the gratitude of the people we tried to relieve. 
It was universal and sincere. The kindness with which we were every- 
where welcomed, and the assistance so cordially rendered by all the 
noble men and women, with whom it has been my good fortune to 
become personally acquainted. Surrounded as they were with desola- 
tion, dangers and misery, they will be remembered for their worth and 
devotion to duty. 

Constantinople, August i, i8g6. J. B. Hubbell. 










A TUVKIiH -WEDDING PROCESSION IN ARABKIJU 




350 THl' RED CROSS, 



MEDICAL REPORT. 

Dr. Ira Harris, resident American physician at Tripoli, Syria, a 
gentleman of high attainments, Christian character, scholarship and 
service, who directs a large private hospital and practice of his own, 
honored the Red Cross and contributed largely to the beneficence of 
his and our own people's efforts to relieve and rebuild the people of 
Asia Minor, by accepting a commission to command an expedition for 
the relief of the fever-stricken thousands, residents and refugees, 
crowded into the cities of Marash and Zeitoun. The reports received 
from consuls and missionaries presented a terrible condition of affairs, 
threatening the lives of thousands by pestilence and hunger, more 
rapidly than the Circassian knife and the Kourdish spear and bullet had 
done Our own special agents were all in charge of difficult and dis- 
tant fields, and none could be spared to this section. After various 
disappointments, aided by the Rev. Dr. Post atBeyrout, Dr. Ira Harris 
was reached and asked to aid in organizing and forming a relic f expe- 
dition at once. Besides himself as director, six other physicians and 
two pharmacists were required. Dr. Harris, though burdened with 
hospital patients and promised operations, finally decided to proceed to 
Beyrout and meet Dr. Post, taking with him his own assistant and 
pharmacist. Dr. Hubbell had already been Dr. Harris' guest and this 
fact aided the latter' s acceptance. At Beyrout time was .'•^pent in exam- 
ining medical applicants, most of whom withdrew however on learning 
of the dangers before them. Two Protestant doctors were secured on 
the second day, and so with half the needed medical force at hand, the 
supplies and stores were quickly purchased and packed for travel. 
Arrangements at Tripoli for the care of Dr. Harris' own patients were 
then made, and upon the third of April our fourth expedition was 
under way. A route was chosen via Mersene and Adana. At the 
latter city some delay was occasioned by the rumors of incursions of 
bandit tribes to neighboring towns and villages and an insufficient 
military escort available. After trying in vain two or three days, to 
influence the local authorities Dr. Harris telegraphed to Red Cross 
headquarters for assistance. The matter was immediately brought to 
the attention of the Porte, through the United States Legation, and 
within an hour an imperial order was sent to the governor of Adana. 
As fine a mounted Turkish soldier guard as ever escorted an expedition 




JUDGE ALEXANDER W. TERRELL, 
United States Minister to Constantinople during the Armenian troubles. 



ARMENIA. 353 

was at once found, and Dr. Harris with his corps of assistants, hastened 
on to Marash, where he was welcomed by Dr. Hubbell of our first 
expedition, on the eighteenth of April, after five days of severe travel. 
Dr. Harris' report was embodied in a letter. After enumerating the 
trials at Adana, from which he was so quickly freed by the order from 
the Porte, the doctor in his communication says: 



We found that the medical work was being cared for by native physicians, 
and the missionaries and their wives were caring for the other relief work, one 
feature of which seemed to me very valuable indeed, i.e., the making of clothing 
by poor women from the material sent by you from Constantinople or purchased 
by Dr. Hubbell in Marash. I wish the dear people in America who gave of their 
means, could see with their own eyes the condition of thousands in these 
districts alone. The hundreds of women, almost destitute of covering, and that 
a mass of rags. It does not require much thought to realize the value of good 
clothing at such a time. 

A consultation was held and our party decided to proceed to Zeitoun, just 
as soon as our weary bodies were rested. Unfortunately the day after we 
arrived I had a severe chill and fever which prostrated me for several days. As 
the symptoms seemed to resemble typhus fever the doctors remained with me 
until a clear diagnosis was made by the fever leaving me on Thursday. The 
next day the party went to Zeitoun with Mr. Macallum, I following three days 
later. 

I have witnessed scenes of suffering, both in the United States and the 
Orient, but never, to my dying day, will I be able to dismiss from my mind 
the horror of the pinched, haggard faces and forms that gathered about me that 
first day. Before we left the tent one of the doctors said: "We will now see 
the place is full of walking skeletons. ' ' This expressed fully their condition. 
Just imagine a place having a normal population of 12,500 living all told in 
1403 houses, you can see there is not much cubic space to spare ; then imagine 
7000 or more refugees to be provided for in the town also. Some of the 
Zeitounes gave shelter to a small number, but the greater majority lived on the 
street, under the houses, in many instances too vile to be of use to its owner; 
in cow and donkey stables with the animals; in spaces in close proximity to 
water-closets; in fact not a place that even suggested shelter was unoccupied. 
The smell and presence of human excrement were everywhere, and this, added 
to divers other odors, made the air a fit place for the culture of disease germs. 
So much for the hygienic conditions of the place. 

Diseases. — I regret that I am unable to give the exact number of those 
afflicted with each individual disease; to ascertain this would have taken too 
much valuable time. We found it a difficult task even to make a true estimate 
of the number ill with acute diseases. Our first estimate sent you, viz., 1400 
dysentery and diarrhoea, 600 typhus fever, afterwards proved nearly correct, i.e., 
'f we take about three hundred from the typhus and add to the dysentery. 
These were acute cases. Of the refugees, ninety-eight per cent complained and 
20 



354 THE RICD CROSS. 

were treated for diseases such as chronic dysentery, diarrhoea, dropsy (usually 
those recovering from typhus), rheumatism, bronchitis, dyspepsia, malaria; all 
were suffering from anaemia and debility. 

Causes. — Overcrowding and bad air; but that condition bordering on star- 
vation was the principal cause of all the sickness. I should add, many of the 
cases of diarrhcea were caused from eating a soup made from grass, weeds, 
buds and leaves of shrubs and trees. In fact anything green that could be 
gathered in the fields was boiled in water to which a small quantity of flour 
was added. V This diet was especially dangerous to children. 

Treatment. — We were soon convinced that if we expected to gain the upper 
hand of all this sickness and save even a remnant of the refugees, we must first 
feed the sick, and then when they were well — to give the former every possible 
chance to get well, and to prevent the well from becoming ill. Second, we 
must try in every way in our power to get the refugees to return to their homes, 
or at all events to camp out in the fields. The first day we filled the hospital 
opened by Consul Barnum with cases off the street, and from that time on we 
increased hospital facilities as fast as possible. We engaged two men and one 
woman to care for the hospital ; four interpreters and one assistant for the 
pharmacist. We then divided the town into districts so as to systematically get 
at every sick person. Then we hired (for we could get nothing without a sys- 
tem of bargaining as to price) two large copper kettles used to make grape 
molasses, and purchased two hundred pounds of beef and made a strong, rich 
soup. We then strained every nerve to get a soup ticket into the possession of 
every sick person. We did not waste time by trying to cull out the impostors; 
in fact there were very few of this class, all the refugees were needy and 
hungry. The second day we added three kettles, and to supply the number we 
served at ten o'clock clear meat broth; at four o'clock thick soup of beef and 
rice. By the end of the third day every sick person was receiving food. Then 
all complaints of vomiting the medicine ceased. 

The problem then to be met was — how to get the people to go outside the 
town. We suggested that if they would, we would place a soup kettle out in 
the open fields to the south, north and east, and in addition to the soup we 
would give them flour. This had a very decided effect, for one thousand went 
the first day. The moving continued until every person living on the streets and 
in cow stables had built for himself shelters of twigs and leaves. Now the 
butchers saw a chance of applying the plan of putting up the price of meat 
from seven to fourteen piasters per oke (2^ pounds). But we had anticipated 
this and sent men to a friendly Moslem village to purchase cattle. So their 
scheme failed. By the end of the second week there were no hungry people in 
Zeitoun. 

Results. — The typhus cases began to recover, the new cases took on a mild 
form, the same could be said of dysentery. The new cases of both became less 
and less until they almost disappeared. The most marked improvement was the 
rapidity which the daily funerals in the three burying grounds decreased. I 
watched these places with deep interest, for they were a thermometer to gauge 
the success of our work, and it was with deep gratitude to God that we saw the 
daily burials reduced from fifteen to none. So much for the acute cases. The 
first week the chronic cases took the entire time of one doctor, each taking our 



ARMENIA. 355 

regular turn. Tonic treatment and food so reduced the number that sixty 
became the daily average at the end of the second week. At the end of the 
third week, fell to ten. Our pharmacist, Shickri Fakhuri, proved, as he always 
has, a jewel. His hands were full to prepare the prescriptions of three doctors. 
At first it was necessary for one of us to give him assistance of an hour or so 
daily. On the twentieth of May we felt we could leave the town free of acute 
typhus and dysentery. We gave to the committee selected by Mr. Macallum, 
funds enough to keep the soup kettles going for one week, and 200 liras ($880) 
worth of flour, which would suffice for at least si.K weeks, and by that time it 
was hoped that all the refugees would have departed for their homes. 

On our return to Marash we remained four days superintending the work of 
relief of the native doctors, and performing surgical operations. We then 
started for the coast. We chose a shorter and less expensive route than that by 
which we came. We were able in several places on the road to give needed 
relief, although to a limited amount. The lessons learned by our experience 
have been many : 

1. The value of keeping well, for obviously, success depends upon this. 
It is evident to us the way to reduce the danger of infection to a minimum for 
medical men, is to eat and sleep outside the infected town. This plan may 
present difficulties, but if possible, it is best. The dreadful mortality among 
doctors and nurses in the epidemics of typhus fever is well known. The query 
is, could not this inortality be reduced by the plan suggested? It proved so in 
our case at least. 

2. The food supply is of first importance, especially for epidemics caused by 
lack of food. 

3. The utter worthlessness of medication without it. 

4. Pure air. It is much better for people to risk possible exposure out in 
the open air, than risk contagion in vile, unwholesome shelter in an overcrowded 
town. 

Lastly, I am more than ever convinced that small doses of medicine oft 
repeated give better results in typhus and dysentery than those usually recom- 
mended in text-books. I, at least, had ample opportunity to test this to my 
satisfaction. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my hearty approval of the methods pursued 
by yourself and associates, especially as applied to the giving relief to the 
suffering people. The distribution of your forces was admirable, and the way 
they grasped the situation and the needs of the people of each particular place 
should excite the admiration of all who have the relief of this afflicted people 
at heart. Instead of scattering the money here and there in an aimless way, 
food, medical and surgical supplies, clothing, seed, cattle, farming utensils, 
simple cooking vessels, were systematically distributed, thus putting all in the 
way of providing for themselves in the future and becoming independent again. 
It is very easy to pauperize the people of the Orient, but your methods prevent 
this. 

Again, the non-sectarian aspect of your work has made a favorable impres- 
sion. It eliminates all religious prejudices from the minds of all, especially 
the religious heads. Therefore no ungenerous remarks as to the ulterior 
motives of your relief. On the contrary we heard nothing but words of com- 
mendation. 



356 THE RED CROSS. 

No one but yourself and your associates and those who have lived in Turkey 
for a number of years, can appreciate the difficulties and perplexities under 
which you have labored from the very first. 

I am sorry that this report ends my official relations with you, but believe 
me, dear Miss Barton, my wife and I shall hold yourself and your associates 
always in interested remembrance. 

Truly and sincerely yours, 

Ira Harris. 
Tula, Ml. Lebanon, August 75, i8g6. 



Equally interesting reports are in hand of the work of our special 
field agents, E. M. Wistar, of Philadelphia, and Charles King Wood, 
whose labors extended to different fields of Harpoot; Cliimiskczck Peri 
Diarbekir; Palou Silouan Parkin, feeding and clothing the people, 
furnishing tools, cattle, seeds, grain for harvesting the crops, and 
planting the fields for future provision. 

We regret that space will not allow their introduction here in full. 

So faithful and competent agents deserve their own recitation of a 
work so well done. 

Returning from the field when called. Dr. Hubbell and assistants 
arrived in Constantinople July 16, Mr. Wistar and Mr. Wood on the 
twentieth of the same month. 

I need not attempt to say with what gratitude I welcomed back 
these weary, brown-faced men and officers from a field at once so diffi- 
cult and so perilous, and none the less did the gratitude of my heart go 
out to my faithful and capable secretary, who had toiled early and late, 
never leaving for a day, till the face grew thin and the eyes hollow, 
striving with tender heart that all should go well, and " the children 
might be fed." 

And when the first greetings were over, and the first meal par- 
taken, the full chorus of manly voices : ' ' Home Again," " Sweet Land 
of Liberty," " Nearer My God to Thee," that rolled out through the 
open windows of the Red Cross headquarters in Constantinople, fell on 
the listening ears of Christian and Moslem alike, and though the 
tones were new and strange all felt that to some one, somewhere, they 
meant more than mere notes of music. 




CLARA BARTON. 
Taken in 1897. 



THE RED CROSS FLAG. 359 

THI-: RED CROSS FLAG. 
"When the smoke of the cannon cleared away we saw the Red Cross tbing 
over the hospital." 

The shot sped out from our serried ships, 

Like the sob of a strong man crying; 
The sun was veiled as with sudden eclipse, 

When the shot sped out from our serried ships, 
And England's flag was flying. 
Up from the shore the answer came, 

The cry of the wounded and dying; 
A burst of thunder, a flash of flame — 
Up from the shore an answer came, 
Where the Prophet's flag was flying. 
So we dealt destruction the livelong day, 
In war's wild pastime vying; 
Through the smoke and thunder and dashing spray, 
We dealt destruction the livelong day, 
And the hostile flags were flying. 
But far through the rolling battle smoke — 

Ah, God! 'mid the groans and the crying — 
A sudden gleam on our vision broke; 
Afar through the rolling battle smoke. 
And the Red Cross flag was flying. 
O'er the house of mercy with plain, white walls. 

Where they carried the w^ounded and dying. 
Unharmed by our cannon, unfearing our balls; 
O'er that house of mercy with plain, white walls. 
The Red Cross flag was flying. 
As the sign of the Son of Man in the heaven 

For a world of warring and sighing 
We hailed it; and cheered, for the promise given 
By the sign of the Son of Man in the heaven — 
The Red Cross banner flying. 
For we know that wherever the battle was waged. 

With its wounded and dead and dying — 
Where the wrath of pagan or Christian raged — 

Like the mercy of God, where the battle was waged. 
The Red Cross flag was flying. 



36o THE RED CROSS. 

Let the angry legions meet in the fight, 

With tlie noise of captains crying; 
Yet the arm of Christ outstretched in its might. 

Where the angry legions meet in the fight, 

Keeps the Red Cross banner flying. 
And it surely will come that war will cease, 

With its madness and pain in crying, 
Lo! the blood-red Cross is the prophet of peace — 

Of the blessed time when war will cease — 

And the Red Cross flag is flying. 

John T. Napier, in the Moravian. 



THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. 




the subsequent chapters is traced the history of the 
operations of the American National Red Cross 
during the past year, inckiding the distribution of 
rehef among the " Reconcentrados " in Cuba, 
and the auxiliary field and hospital service in the 
Spanish-American war. 

Being called away to Cuba in the midst of 
the preparations for w^ar relief, with much of the 
preliminary work unfinished, it seemed proper to 
leave at home, for a time, a personal representa- 
tive familiar with the obligations of the National Red Cross, to relieve 
the overburdened committee in New York of some of the details 
which fell more particularly within my own province, and to which 
I had planned to give personal attention. 

Accordingly, Mr. D. L. Cobb, of my staff, was detached for this 
service. Being familiar with the work which was done in mv absence, 
and in which he has faithfully and elificiently served with an interest 
second only to my own, I have asked him to tell the story of the rela- 
tions of the National Committee with the Government, the formation 
of the committees and the auxiliary societies, through whose guidance 
and administrations all the great work of relief in the Camps and else- 
where was carried on. This he has done in the following chapter, 
under the title, " Home Camps and American Waters." 




HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 

D. L. Corp. 

URING the summer of 1897 there began to appeat 
reports of great suffering among the unfortunate peo- 
ple of Cuba, since familiarly known as the " reconcen- 
trados." They were the non-combatants, men, women 
and children, ordered from their homes and plantations 
in the interior and concentrated in the seacoast towns 
under control of the Spanish arms. Thousands were dying, hundreds 
of thousands were in want; the terrible story of their misery and 
awful distress was re-echoed throughout the country, and everywhere 
the cries for relief and the appeals to humanity were heard. Congress, 
too, had taken the matter up and were discussing plans for Cuban relief. 
The time had arrived when something must be done. Finally the 
President opened the way by issuing the following appeal to the peo- 
ple on the twenty-fourth of December: 

Department of State, 
Washington, D. C. 

By direction of the President the public is informed that, in deference to the 
earnest desire of the Government of the United States to contribute, by effective 
action, toward the relief of the suffering people in the island of Cuba, arrange- 
ments have been perfected by which charitable contributions, in money or in kind, 
can be sent to the island by the benevolently disposed people of the United States. 

Money, provisions, clothing and like articles of prime necessity can be for- 
warded to General Fitzhugh Lee, the Consul-General of the United States at 
Havana, and all articles now dutiable by law, so consigned, will be admitted into 
Cuba free of duty. The Consul-General has been instructed to receive the same 
and to co-operate with the local authorities and the charitable boards, for the distri- 
bution of such relief among the destitute and needy people of Cuba. 

The President is confident that the people of the United States, who have on 
many occasions in the past resj^onded most generously to the cry for bread from 
peoples stricken by famine or sore calamity, and who have beheld no less generous 
action on the part of foreign communities when our own countrymen have suffered 
from fire or flood, will heed the appeal for aid that comes from the destitute at 
their own threshold, and especially at this season of good will and rejoicing give 
of *>ifir abundance to this humane end. 

John Sherman, Secretary. 
(361) 



362 THE RED CROSS. 

This appeal was sent out through the Associated Press and dis- 
tributed tlirough the mails, and met with a most generous response 
from the public. It soon became apparent, however, that to inaugu- 
rate a thorough system of relief, to concentrate and administer the 
varied contributions of the people, a central committee would be 
required who should be charged with the duties of organization, col- 
lection and shipment. A conference was held at Washington, between 
President McKinley, the Secretary of State and the American National 
Red Cross, the result of which appears in the following communica- 
tions: 

Department of State. 

January /, i8g8. 
Miss Clara Barton, President^ American National Red Cross: 

Dear Madam: After luy conference with you yesterday, I saw the President 
again, who expressed his great pleasure that the Red Cross will so cheerfully 
respond to the initiative which the President has taken toward the relief of the 
suffering people of Cuba. No less could have been expected by him in view of 
the good work which the Red Cross has done in the past when called upon to 
fulfill its humane mission of relieving suffering, either at home or in foreign 
countries, and acting as the medium for the effective application of the charitable 
gifts of our citizens. 

With the President's approval, I have the pleasure to suggest to you the way 
in which it is deemed that the co-operation of the Red Cross in this humane 
endeavor can be most practically accomplished. 

The first necessity is the organization, in New York City as the most con- 
venient centre of operations, of a committee whose functions it will be to appeal 
to the kindly sentiments of the American people in behalf of the sufferers in Cuba; 
to receive contributions in money or in kind, and to forward the same to Havana, 
consigned to the Consul-General of the United States, he having been placed by 
the President, in sole charge of the receipt and application of the relief in the 
island; the committee, as a whole, to act under the supervision and direction of 
the Secretary of State, with whom it may correspond on all matters of business 
arising and requiring direction in the name of the Government of the United 
States. 

In view of the generous and cordial offer of Mr. I^ouis Klopsch, of the Chris- 
tian Herald, the President desires that, if agreeable to you, he shall be a member 
of the committee and, in concert with a third member to be designated by the 
Chamber of Commerce of New York, co-operating with the representative of the 
Red Cross to make effective the effort which is now being put forth. 

The representation of the Red Cross on the proposed relief committee, is left 
to you. While the President would be most gratified were you in person to act as 
the second member, he recognizes that the duties and labors of the office might 
more conveniently fall upon a representative of the Red Cross in New York City, 
and will cheerfully accept your suggestion that Mr. Stephen E. Barton, second 
vice-president of the American National Red Cross, serve in that capacity. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 363 

Mr. Barton will be furnished with letters to Mr. Louis Klopsch and to Mr. 
Alexander E. Orr, president of the New York Chamber of Commerce, explaining 
the circumstances under which their co-operation toward the formation of the 
proposed connnittee is solicited. It is trusted that speedy action may be had, so 
that the organization of the Central Cuban Relief Committee may Ije announced 
to the people of the United States by the Secretary of State at the earliest possible 
day. 

I am, my dear madam, 

Very respectfully yours, 

Alvey a. Adee, 

Second Assistant Secretary. 



Letters of notification were then sent by the Secretary of State to 
Mr. Stephen K. Barton, Mr. Lonis Klop.sch and Mr. Alexander E. Orr. 
Mr. Barton being appointed, Mr. Klop.sch having accepted the invita- 
tion to serve, Mr. Charles A. Schieren was selected to represent the 
New York Chamber of Connnerce, and thus was formed what is still 
known as the Central Cuban Relief Committee. The committee met 
early in January of this year and organized, Mr. Barton being elected 
as chairman, Mr. Schieren treasurer. This committee began active 
work by sending a telegraphic appeal to the governors of all the States 
and Territories, announcing the object of the committee's existence, 
and asking their co-operation and active support, in order to carry otit 
the President's policy in the administration of relief to the starving 
people in Cuba. All responses received were favorable, many com- 
mittees were appointed, and the supplies and funds began to come in. 
It was at this point that the Secretary of State issued the second public 
appeal by the government, on January the eighth, again urging the 
people, the municipal authorities and the great corporations to assist 
in the work. 

The first shipment of supplies to Cuba by the Central Cuban 
Relief Committee was made on Jantiary 4, and the second on January 
12, the first consisting of 160 cases of condensed milk, and the 
second of about forty tons of food, clothing and medicines. These 
supplies were consigned to Consul-General Lee at Havana, and were 
transported by the Ward Line of steamships free of charge. 

In the meantime the committee issued its own circular appeal to all 
local authorities, business houses, boards of trade, religious institutions, 
charitable corporations, .social and business clubs, organizations and 
societies generally in every State of the Union. 

The question of transportation and its cost now became one of vital 



364 THE RHP CROSS. 

importance. If full freight charges were to be paid on all consignments 
to the committee to the Atlantic coast, the expense of shipment might 
in many cases equal the value of the supplies, and in any event would 
be a serious burden upon the treasury. Accordingly, negotiations 
were carried on with the principal railway and steamship transportation 
lines, and with the Joint Traffic Association of New York, one result 
of which was that the association shortly afterward issued its general 
circular of instructions, the substance of which was: 

That, responsive to the request of the Central Cuban Relief Com- 
mittee, appointed by the President of the United States and acting 
under the direction of the Department of State, it shall be permissible 
for the railway companies, parties to the Joint Traffic Association, to 
forward free of transportation charges, from points subject to its juris- 
diction to or from New York, New Orleans, Mobile, Montgomery and 
Tampa, shipments of food, clothing and medicines, and other necessary 
supplies intended for the use and relief of the inhabitants of the island 
of Cuba who are suffering from sickness and famine. 

Through this generous action on the part of the Joint Traffic Asso- 
ciation, comprising the principal railroads east of Chicago, with branch 
lines extending north and south, all contributions were carried to the 
Atlantic and Gulf ports free. The Ward Line from New York, and 
the Plant System of railways and steamships had already taken similar 
action, then the great trunk lines of the West, the New England 
companies, the Southern railwaj^s, and all the coastwise steamship 
companies and the Munson Line united in furnishing free transportation 
to the ports of Cuba. Of the steamship lines whose kind assistance 
did so much to further the work of relief, special mention is due to 
Messrs. James E. Ward & Co., of New York, owners of the Ward 
Line, whose steamers running to Havana, Santiago, Cienfuegos and 
ports along the southern shore of Cuba, not only carried the larger 
amount of provisions, but unloaded it and delivered it on shore without 
charge. 

No single agency did greater service than the press. By the daily 
and widespread dissemination of news concerning the actual conditions 
in Cuba, by the reports of their own representatives in the famine- 
stricken districts, and by the persistent reiteration of appeals the great 
heart of the American people w'as reached, and the response was 
prompt and abundant. 

Operating over such a large territory, communication by mail 
would have often been too slow to be effective, and it was constantly 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 365 

necessary to resort to the telegraph, and the cost of such service would 
have ordinarily been very great. But the Postal Telegraph Company 
and the Western Union Telegraph and Cable Company, in order to 
assist the work, extended unusual privileges, the first company trans- 
mitting all messages free, and the second accepting messages at the 
government rates. The Central Cuban Relief Committee in their 
report to the President, extend their thanks to many other companies, 
and individuals, for whose kindly assistance they are indebted, and 
special mention is made of the valuable service rendered by the United 
States dispatch agent, Mr. I. P. Roosa, in the receipt and storage, the 
purchase and shipment of relief supplies. 

In the latter part of March a conference was held at Washington, 
between the Secretary of State and the Central Cuban Relief Commit- 
tee, which resulted in bringing the committee into relationship with 
the American National Red Cross, and the designation of the Red 
Cross as the distributing agent in Cuba, acting for the State Depart- 
ment and the committee. As told elsewhere, the work of distribution 
in Cuba was scarcely begun when friendly relations between the United 
States and Spain were suspended, and upon the advice of the Consul- 
General at Havana, the Red Cross retired when the President called all 
Americans home. 

In the meantime the committee, upon the advice of the Department 
of State, had chartered the steamship "State of Texas " of the Mallory 
Line, and, loading her with a general cargo of food, clothing, medicines 
and hospital supplies, dispatched her, under the flag of the Red Cross, 
to Key West. 

The purpose for which this good ship was dispatched, and the 
conditions under which she was sent, are best explained by the corre- 
spondence exchanged at that time by the Departments of State and 
Navy, the American National Red Cross, the Central Cuban Relief 
Committee and the naval commanders: 



The Central Cuban Relief Committee, 

Appointed by the Pres dent of the United States and act^nji under 
the direction of the Departmert of State. 

New York. April 20, iSgS. 
Miss Clara Barton, 

President, American National Red Cross, Wnshins^lon, D. C: 
Dear Miss Barton : In confirmation of the verb.nl r^q-i-^'it bv the rhairtnan 
and treasurer of the Central Cuban Relief Committee, i;i ronjiinction with the 



366 THE RKD CROSS. 

Hon. Win. R. Day, Assistant Secretary of State, that you proceed to the island of 
Cuba, there to carry on tlie work of distriljution and relief to the suffering people 
in behalf of this committee and in co-operation with the United States Consuls, I 
beg to inform you that at a special meeting of this committee, held on thirteenth 
of April, 1S9S, tlie following action was taken : 

Whkrkas, The Deiiartment of State having extended the authority of this 
committee to the supervision of the distribution of relief supplies, and the carrying 
out of all necessary relief measures, in co-operation with the American Consuls in 
Cuba; and this committee, having verbally joined with the Deixirtment of State 
in asking tlie Americr'; National Red Cross, Miss Clara Barton, president, to 
proceed at once to Cuba as the representative of this committee, and to perform, 
in behalf of the committee, all necessary work of relief; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the chairman be authorized to write suitable letters to Miss 
Clara Barton, Consul-General Lee and the other American Consuls in Cuba, 
notifying them of this action. 

As you are aware, this committee at request of the Department of State, has 
determined to send the steamship " State of Texas," with relief supplies from 
New York City to Key West, Florida, there to await orders and instructions from 
the United States Government. B3' instructions from the Department of State, 
the committee have to send the steamship under the Red Cross flag and the pro- 
visions of the Geneva Convention, turning the vessel over to the American 
National Red Cross upon leaving New York. 

I, therefore, beg to say to )'OU that in all probability the vessel will be loaded 
and made ready to sail on Saturday the twenty-third inst., and you are expected to 
have such of your representatives— as you desire shall accompany and take charge 
of the ship from New York to Key West — in readiness to go aboard Saturday fore- 
noon. The arrival of the vessel at Key West should be reported to this committee 
by telegraph immediately, when instructions will be given by the Government at 
Washington for proceeding further. If hostilities shall have begun between the 
United vStates and Spain, it will be your duty to call upon the United States 
Government for the necessary naval consort — as provided by the Geneva 
Convention. 

This program has been proposed by the Assistant Secretary of State, who will 
immediately issue the necessary orders upon hearing from us. 

Before your departure from Key West for Cuba, this committee will give you 
further information as to its desires and recommendation concerning the distribu- 
tion of supplies from the different ports in Cuba. 

This committee stands ready to furnish you with the funds necessary to carry 
on this work of relief to the extent of its ability, and it is expected that you will 
render to the treasurer a detailed account of your expenditures in the work en- 
trusted to your organization. 

You are requested to make requisition by letter or telegraph from time to time, 
as you need further funds. 

We will thank you for your official acknowledgment of this communication in 
writing. 

Very truly yours, 

Stephen E. Barton, Chairman. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 367 



Navy Department, 

Washington, April 2^, /Sg8. 
Sir: Miss Clara Barton, the representative of the American National Red 
Cross Society, is about to proceed to Key West to take charge of the distribution 
of the supplies now aboard the steanisliip " State of Texas," and which supplies it 
is proposed to distribute among the starving reconcentrados of Cuba. There are 
enclosed herewith copies of letters from the Department of State to the Depart- 
ment of the Navy and from the Secretary of the Navy to the Commander-in-Chief 
of the North Atlantic Station which contain the terms upon which this trust is 
undertaken, and the Department's instructions in relation thereto. 

The Department desires that you will afford every assistance within your 
power to Miss Barton and her associates, while they are in Key West. 

The departure of the " State of Texas " from Key West and its destination are, 
of course, matters coming entirely under the jurisdiction of the Commander-in- 
Chief of the North Atlantic Station. 

Very respectfully. 
Commandant, John D. Long, 

Naval Station, Key West, Fla. Secretary, 



Navy Department, 

Washington, April 2^, iSgS. 
Sir : There is forwarded enclosed a cop)' of a letter received this day from the 
Department of State, which fully states the conditions under which Miss Clara 
Barton, as the representative of the American National Red Cross Society, proceeds 
to Key West. You will afford Miss Barton ever}' facility that shall become feasible 
for the distribution of the supplies now on board the steamship " State of Texas " 
to the starving reconcentrados, but it is, of course, necessary that none of these 
supplies shall come into the possession of the Spanish Army, as this would result 
in defeating the purposes foi which the blockade has been established. 

It is believed that 3'ou will fully appreciate the wishes of the Departments of 
State and the Navy in this matter, and all the details are necessarily left to youi 
discretion. 

Very respectfully, 
Connnander-in-Chief, U. S. Naval Force, John D. Long, 

North Atlantic Station. Secretary. 



Department of State, 

Washington, April 2^, i8g8. 
The Honorable the Secretary of the Navy: 

Sir: The Central Cuban Relief Conunitteeof New York, organized by direction 
and under the authority of the President, for the collection and transmission to 



3^^S THE RED CROSS. 

Cuba of supplies for the relief of the suffering and destitute in that island, has, 
after consultation with this Department and with full approval of its course, char- 
tered and dispatched from New York the steamer "State of Texas" laden with 
supplies and sailing under the ensign of the National Red Cross. The only pas- 
sengers she carries are officers and employes of the Red Cross for the purpose of 
assisting in the distribution of this charitable relief. 

As at present contemplated, the destination of the "State of Texas " is either 
Matanzas or Cardenas, or perhaps, if circumstances favor, both; but the point of 
landing will largely be determined by circumstances of which the Admiral com- 
manding the blockading force on the north coast of Cuba will necessarily be the 
best judge. 

Miss Clara Barton, president of the American National Red Cross, is about to 
proceed to Tampa and Key West at which latter point she will go aboard the "State 
of Texas " upon its arrival there. 

Upon reaching Key West Miss Barton, as the person in charge of the relief 
expedition, will report to such naval officer as you may designate and take from 
him directions as to the movements of the "State of Texas" from that point on. 

I have tlie honor to commend Miss Barton to the kind attentions of your De- 
partment in order that she may receive, before leaving Washington, such instruc- 
tions as you may deem it necessary and proper to give her. 

Respectfully yours, 

John Sherman, 

Secretary. 

With these credentials, the President and staff of the American 
National Red Cross immediately proceeded to Key West, and, after 
reporting to the commandant of the naval station and to the representa- 
tive of Admiral Sampson, the party boarded the "State of Texas " 
and awaited an opportunity to carry out the mission of the Red Cross. 

During the year prior to the otitbreak of hostilities between the 
United States and Spain, Cuban families were fleeing from the island, 
and this exodus continued until war began. The refugees, num- 
bering several thousand, took up their abode at Tampa, Key West 
and other Atlantic and gulf ports. They had been obliged to leave 
their native country hastily, leaving nearly all their personal property 
behind them, and in a short time after their arrival in America were 
actually without food and with no means wherewith to purchase it. 

Committees and agents of the Red Cross were established in both 
Tampa and Key West, and acting as the distributing agencies for the 
supplies forwarded by the Central Cuban Relief Committee, the 
refugees were cared for. In Key West the number supplied with food 
from the warehouse and kitchen of the Red Cross were over seventeen 
hundred people, and the distribution still continues. Key West has 
been one of the most important distributing stations, and from the 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. S'^y 

beginning has been under the efficient direction of Mr. George W. 
Hyatt, for whose continuous and faithful service the Red Cross is much 
indebted. 

The distributing station was kept constantly supplied by the Cen- 
tral Cuban Relief Committee, and when the stock began to run low 
in the latter part of July, the committee dispatched the schooner 
" Nokomis " from New York with 125 tons of assorted provi.sions to 
replenish the storehouse. 

Before the " State of Texas " arrived at Key West, war had been 
declared between the United States and Spain, and soon after the prize 
ships, schooners, steamers and fishing smacks, captured off the Cuban 
const began to come in, in tow, or in charge of prize crews. The navy 
worked rapidly and brought in their prizes so quickly that the govern- 
ment officials were not prepared to feed the prisoners of war. On the 
ninth of May the United States Marshal for the southern district of 
Florida made the following appeal: 



Miss Clara Barton, 

President, American National Red Cross: 
Dear Miss Barton: On board the captured vessels we find quite a number 
of aliens among the crews, mostly Cubans, and some American citizens, and their 
detention here and inability to get away for want of funds has exhausted their 
supply of food, and some of them will soon be entirely out. As there is no appro- 
priation available from which food could be purchased, would you kindly provide 
for them until I can get definite instructions from the Department at Washington ? 

Very respectfully, 

John F. Horr, 

U. S. Marshal. 



Attached to this letter was an official list of the Spanish prizes 
whose crews were in need of food. The boats of the ' ' State of Texas ' ' 
were quickly loaded with a supply of assorted provisions and, being 
taken in tow by the steam-launch of the transport "Panther," the 
work of distribution began. All the ships in need were supplied with 
food and medicines for ten days, and their supply renewed every ten 
days for some weeks until government rations were regularly issued 
and auxiliary assistance was no longer necessary. The supplies on 
the " State of Texas" being intended for the reconcentrados in Cuba, 
her cargo was drawn upon to the smallest possible extent. Many of 
the prizes had on board cargoes of bananas and plantains, and the 



370 THE RKD CROSS. 

wells of the " Viveros " were filled with live fish. After some 
negotiating, arrangements were made to secure these cargoes at a 
trifling cost, and they were distributed among the crews of the vessels 
that carried nothing eatable. Tasajo, or jerked meat, was also bought 
and given out in the same way, and from one of the prizes loaded with 
dried meat from the Argentine, which was afterward sold at auction in 
Key West, forty tons were purchased and stored in the warehouse to 
supply the refugees, and to replace that portion of the cargo of 
the "State of Texas" which had been distributed to the prisoners 
of war. 

While waiting for an opportunity to get into Cuba, the reports 
which reached us showed that the distress among the reconcentrados was 
daily increasing, and it was determined to make an attempt to land 
with the " State of Texas," or at least to show the willingness of the 
Red Cross to do so, if permitted. As the ship was under the direction 
of the Navy Department, the following letter was addressed to the 
admiral in command of the blockading fleet: 



S. S. "State of Texas," May 2, 1898. 
Admirai, Wilwam T. Sampson, U. S. N., 

Commatidifig fleet before Havana: 

Admiral: But for the introduction kindly proffered by our mutual acquaint- 
ance. Captain Harrington, I should scarcely presume to address you. He will have 
made known to you the subject which I desire to bring to your gracious considera- 
tion. 

Papers forwarded by direction of our government will have shown the charge 
entrusted to me, viz: To get food to the starving people of Cuba. I have with me 
a cargo of fourteen hundred tons, under the flag of the Red Cross, the one interna- 
tional emblem of neutrality and humanity known to civilization. Spain knows 
and regards it. 

Fourteen months ago, the entire Spanish Government at Madrid cabled me 
permission to take to, and distribute food to the suffering people iu Cuba. This 
official permission was broadly published; if read by our people, no response was 
made, no action taken until two months ago, when under the humane and gracious 
call of our honored President, I did go, and distributed food unmolested any- 
where on the island, until arrangements were made by our government for all 
American citizens to leave Cuba. Persons must now be dying there by the 
hundreds if not thousands daily, for the want of the food we are shutting out. 
Will not the world hold us accountable ? Will history write us blameless ? Will it 
not be said of us that we completed the scheme of extermination commenced by 
Weyler ? I fear the mutterings are already in the air. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 373 

Fortunately, I know the Spanish authorities in Cuba, Captain-General Blanco 
and his assistants. We parted with perfect friendliness. They do not rej^ard me as 
an American merely, but as the national representative of an international treaty 
to which themselves are signatory and under which they act. I believe they would 
receive and confer with me, if such a thing were made possible. 

I would like to ask Spanish permission and protection to land and distribute 
the food now on the "State of Texas." Could I be permitted to ask to see them 
under flag of truce? If we make the effort and are refused, the blame re.sts with 
them; if we fail to make it, it rests with us. I hold it good statesmanship to at 
least divide the responsibility. I am told that some days must elapse before our 
troops can be in position to reach and feed this starving people. Our food and ovur 
force are here, ready to commence at once. 

With assurances of highest regard, I am, Admiral, 

Very respectfully yours, 

Clara Barton. 



On the .same day, Admiral Sampson, in his reply, pointed out 
why, as commander of the blockading squadron, his instructions 
would not permit him to admit food into Cuba at that time. 



U. S. Flagship " New York," First Rate. 

Key West, Florida, May 2, 1S98. 
Miss Clara Barton, 

Ptesidetit, American Naticmal Red Cross, Key West, Fla.: 
Dear Madam : I have received, through the senior naval officer present, a 
copy of a letter from the State Department to the Secretary of the Navy, a copy of 
a letter of the Secretary of the Navj' to the commander-in-chief of the naval force 
on this station, and also a copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the 
commandant of the naval station at Key West. 

2. From these communications it appears that the destination of the steamship 
" State of Texas," loaded with supplies for the starving reconcentrados in Cuba, is 
left, in a measure, to my judgment. 

3. At present I am acting under instructions from the Navy Department to 
blockade the coast of Cuba for the purpose of preventing, among other things. 
an\' food supply from reaching the Spanish forces in Cuba. Under these circum- 
stances it seems to me unwise to let a ship-load of such supplies be sent to ihe 
reconcentrados, for, in my opinion, they would be distributed to the Spanish ir;iiy. 
Until some point be occupied in Cuba by our forces, from which such distrih.tidn 
may be made to those for whom the supplies are intended, I am unwilling liiat 
they should be landed on Cuban soil. 

Yours, very respectfully, 

W. T. Sampson, 
Rear Admiral. U. S. Navy, 
Commander-in-Chief U. S. Naval Force, 
21 North Atlantic Station. 



374 THE RED CROSS. 

The Red Cross had been requested to hasten south to take food 
into Cuba, but the admiral had been instructed to keep it out. Noth- 
ing remained to do but to inform the government at Washington, and 
the committee in New York, regarding the situation as developed by 
this correspondence, and await further instructions, which was done by- 
cablegram addressed to the chairman of the Central Cuban Relief 
Committee in New York: 

Key West, Fla., May j, 1898. 
Herewith I transmit copies of letters passed between Admiral Sampson and 
myself. I think it important that you should immediateh^ present this corres- 
pondence personally to the government, as it will place before them the exact 
situation here. The utmost cordiality exists between Admiral Sampson and 
myself. The admiral feels it his duty, as chief of the blockading squadron to 
keep food out of Cuba, and recognizes that from my standpoint my duty is to try 
to get food into Cuba and this correspondence is transmitted with his cordial con- 
sent. If I insist. Admiral Sampson will try to open comnmnication under a flag 
of truce, but his letter expresses his opinion regarding the best method. Advices 
from the government would enable us to reach a decision. Unless there is objec- 
tion at "Washington, you are at liberty to publish this correspondence if you wish. 

Ci,-\RA Barton. 



In a few days the following cablegram was received in reply: 

Washington, May 6, /Sp8. 
C1.ARA Barton, K'ey West: 

Submitted your message to President and cabinet , and it was read with moist- 
ened eyes. Considered serious and pathetic. Admiral Sampson's views regarded 
as wisest at present. Hope to land you soon. President, Long and Moore send 
highest regards. Barton. 

(S. E.) 

We too hoped to land soon, but the opportunity' never came, 
and the "State of Texas" whose finely assorted cargo was 
primarily intended for the starving reconcentrados, did not get 
to Cuba until she went with the transports conveying the invading 
army, and, after doing good service in the relief of the .sick and • 
wounded at El Caney and Siboney, she entered the harbor of Santiago, 
the first American ship to reach the city. 

While these things were transpiring, preparations were being 
made by the Red Cross, in accordance with the provisions of the 
Treaty of Geneva, to render auxiliary medical and hospital .service 
during the war. Upon the declaration of war, a special committee was 
appointed, composed of Dr. J. B. Hubbell, Mr. John Hitz and Mr, 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 375 

Stephen E. Barton, to wait upon the President of the United States, 

the Secretaries of State, War and Navy, and the Surgeon General, to 

-give oral notice of the intention of the Red Cross to be ready to furnish 

any supplemental aid that might be required by the armies in the field. 

Following the usual custom, the American National Red Cross 
was about to issue a statement to the American people for funds and 
materials to support its ministrations to the sick and wounded, when a 
resolution was passed by the board of directors of the New York Red 
Cross Hospital, of which institution Mr. William T. Wardwell is 
president, proposing the formation of a Relief Committee. The pur- 
pose of this committee was to raise funds and supplies, in the name of 
the Red Cross, and to act as a national auxiliary in the capacit}- of 
trustees and temporary custodians of the contributions of the people in 
support of the work to be done by the American National Red Cross. 

The tender of the proposed Relief Committee, thus voluntarily 
formed, was provisionally accepted b)- Mr. Stephen E. Barton, subject 
to the official acceptance by the American National Red Cross. Upon 
this provisional acceptance the Relief Committee proceeded to organize, 
and its membership was enlarged by the addition of men well known in 
social and financial circles of the City and State of New York. 

The name adopted by the committee : ' ' The American National 
Red Cross Relief Committee," was perhaps unfortunate, in some 
respects, inasmuch as it created a certain confusion in the minds of the 
people, who were often unable to distinguish between the parent organ- 
ization, the American National Red Cross, and the Relief Committee 
of New York. The committee having completed its organization, the 
tender of its services during the war was made and accepted in the 
following terms: 

New York, May j, 1S98. 
Gentlemen: We have before us the official communication in which your 
secretary, Mr. John P. Faure, transmits to us for action thereon, the following 
resolution from your executive committee: 

Resolved, That the secretary be and he hereby is instructed to officially notify 
the American National Red Cross of the fact of the organization of this committee, 
requesting official acknowledgment and acceptance by the American National Red ' 
Cross, of the tender of financial co-operation and support offered by this committee. 

In reply we would say that it gives us great pleasure to accept your generous 
offer of financial co-opcralion and support. In carrying out the object of vour 
offer, you are authorized to make such a public appeal, in the name of the American 
National Red Cross, as you may think best. 



376 THE RED CROSS. 

For the purpose of unifying all effort, and concentrating all financial and 
material supi)ort to the American National Red Cross, we also confidently entrust 
to you, in consultation with our own executive committee, the work of inviting, 
through your committee, the co-operation of all Red Cross Relief Committees 
throughout the United States. 

Very truly yours. 

The American National Red Cross, 
Clara Barton, President, 
Geo. Kennan, Vice-President, 
Stephen E. Barton, Second Vice-President. 



The acceptance of this offer made necessary the formation of an 
executive committee of the American National Red Cross, with head- 
quarters in the city of New York, whose function it would be to repre- 
sent the Red Cross in its oflScial dealings with the government at 
Washington, the American people and the Relief Committee, and to 
devise ways and means for the administration of the contributions of 
the people, through the appointment and direction of official representa- 
tives of the Red Cross in the camps. The executive committee was at 
once appointed and consisted of the following members: Stephen E. 
Barton, Charles A. Schieren, Hon. Joseph Sheldon, George W. Boldt 
and William B. Howland, and organized with Mr. Barton as chairman 
and Mr. Schieren as treasurer. 



On the fourteenth day of May the Relief Committee addressed the 
following letter to the President of the United States, reciting the 
formal ofiFer of the American National Red Cross to supplement the 
field and hospital service of the army and navy, and reiterating their 
tender of co-operation and financial support: 



New York, May 20, i8g8. 
To the President: 

Sir: In accordance with the request made by you to the special committee 
appointed by the American National Red Cross Relief Committee, during its 
recent visit to you, the undersigned members of said special committee beg leave 
to submit the following statements for your consideration: 

The American National Red Cross Relief Committee of New York, organized 
with an unlimited number of co-operating and auxiliary bodies throughoiit the 
country, for the purpose of providing financial and material sustenance to the work 
of the American National Red Cross, Miss Clara Barton, president, begs leave to 
represent to the Government of the United States as follows, viz: 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 377 

First. — That the American National Red Cross is the duly incorporated com- 
mittee representinjT the work of the Red Cross in its civil capacity, and is recognized 
as such by the Government of the United States, the governments of other countries 
and the International Committee at Geneva. 

Second. — That we are informed that the said American National Red Cross has 
given formal notice to the Departments of State, War and Navy and the Surgeons- 
General of the army and navy of its readiness to respond to any calls for civil aid 
to supplement the hospital work of the army and navy, in accordance with the 
provisions of the resolutions of the Geneva Conference of 1863 and the Geneva 
Convention of 1864, and their amendments. 

Third. — That, in order to guarantee the fullest effectiveness of the aid thus 
offered by the civil Red Cross, this committee hereby gives you official notice that 
it stands ready, together with other co-operating committees, to furnish all 
necessary money and material to support the work of the said American National 
Red Cross, as hereinbefore outlined. 

We beg to request, Mr. President, that you take the necessary action to have the 
several departments of the government duly notified of this financial guarantee of 
the assistance tendered by the American National Red Cross, to the end that the 
fullest reliance may be placed upon its offer, should the extent of the present war 
over tax the preparations of the medical departments of the army and navy. 

Please favor us with a prompt acknowledgment of this letter and information 
as to your action thereon. Respectfully, 

Levi p. Morton, 
_ Henry C. Potter, D. D., LL. D., 
William T. Wardwell, 
George F. Shradv, M. D., 
A. MoNAE Lesser, M. D. 



On May 24, the above communication was transmitted by the 
Secretary of State to the Department of War, in the following letter in 
which he explains the position of the American National Red Cross 
and its national and international status: 

Department of State. 
The Honorable the Secretary of War: 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit to you copy of a letter addressed to the 
President under date of the twentieth in.st., by Messrs. Levi P. Morton, Henry C. 
Potter, D. D , William T. Ward well, George F. Shrady, 'SI. D., and A. Monae 
Lesser, M. D., a special committee appointed by the American National Red Cross 
Relief Committee, in regard to the work proposed to be undertaken by that organ- 
ization for the purpose of providing financial and material support to the work of 
the American National Red Cross, of which latter Miss Clara Barton is president. 

The proposal has the President's cordial approbation in view of the distinctive 
position of the American National Red Cross as the sole central organization in the 
United States in affiliation with the International Committee of Berne, and through 



378 THK RED CROSS. 

it with the Central Red Cross Committees which have been formed in every 
country which has adhered to the Geneva Convention of 1864. 

It is to be remembered that the Geneva Convention itself is largely the out- 
growth of American initiative. The Auierican Sanitary Commission, organized 
during the first years of the War of the Rebellion, proved the efficacy of uniform 
and concentrated effort to bring into play the benevolent influences of the people 
to aid the military authorities in caring for the sick and wounded in war, and its 
conspicuous success attracted attention abroad to such a degree that, in obedience 
to a very general desire in European countries, the Swiss Government, in 1S63, 
invited an international conference to formulate and adopt a general plan for the 
amelioration of the suffering of the sick and wounded in war. As a result of that 
conference arrangements were perfected for the organization of central civil com- 
mittees in the several countries to supplement the work done by the military service 
of the armies in the field, thus creating in nearly all the Continental States organi- 
zations similar to the American Sanitary Commission. The following year another 
conference was held at Geneva, under the auspices of the International Committee, 
which resulted in the signing of the Geueva Convention of 1864, to which the 
United States is a party. Still another conference in 1868 resulted in the additional 
articles extending the principles of the Geneva Convention to naval operations, 
which have been adopted by this government and Spain as a modus vivendi during 
the present war. 

Besides these truly international conventions, conferences held at Geneva in 
1867 and in 1S69 still further perfected the organization and operation of the Inter- 
national Committee of Berne and its relations to the several civil central Red Cross 
Committees in the adhering States, to the end that the latter might not alone co- 
operate with the governments of their respective nations in time of war, but should 
perform analogous relief work in each State in time of pestilence, famine or other 
national calamity. 

The American National Red Cross, incorporated under the laws of the 
United States for the District of Columbia, constitutes the sole legitimate and rec- 
ognized local branch in this country of the great international association, of 
which the International Committee of Berne is the head. Of its conspicuous peace- 
ful services in time of national suffering at home and abroad, it is superfluous to 
speak. Its relation to the military and naval hospital service in time of war is 
now under consideration. Under the terms of the Geneva conventions, its aid 
may be powerfully given to the military and naval armies, with the added prestige 
■which belongs to it as the American branch of the International Red Cross. By 
the terms of the Geneva Convention of 1864, the participation of its agents in the 
active ambulance and hospital service of the armies and naval forces of the United 
States is effected through the express neutralization of its individual workers by 
the military and naval authorities aud the issuance to them of the stipulated arm- 
let bearing the sign of the Red Cross. Its assistance, however, is not limited to 
this individual employment of its agents in the field ; it stands ready to co-operate 
in the equipment and supplj' of ambulauces and medical stores, drawing for its 
resources on the benevolence of the community and systematizing effort and aid 
throughout the country by the various local committees it has organized. 

By Article II of the protocol of the Geneva Conference of 1863, which created 
the International Committee of Berne and its associated national committees, 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 379 

each National Central Committee is to enter into relations with the govern- 
ment of its country so that its services may be accepted if occasion should present 
itself, and by Article III, on being called upon, or with the assent of the military 
authorities, the respective Central Committee is to send volunteer nurses to the 
field of battle, there to be placed under the orders of the commanding officer. 
These articles sufficiently show the character of the aid to be rendered in time of 
war by the widespread organization of which the International Committee of 
Berne is the head. 

There is pending in Congress at the present time an act to legitimize the 
national status of the American National Red Cross and to protect its exclusive 
use of the insignia of the Red Cross for the work it was organized to perform, and 
its early passage is expected. Indeed, it would probably have become a law before 
now but for a need of a slight amendment which this Department has advised 
The purpose of that act has the President's cordial approval. 

In referring to me the annexed letter from the special committeeof the Ameri- 
can National Red Cross Relief Committee the President has requested me to take 
such steps as may be necessary and effective to recognize the American National 
Red Cross as the proper and sole representative in the United States of the 
International Committee, and, as such, corresponding to the central committees 
which have been constituted in the several States which have adhered to the 
Geneva Convention. So far as international correspondence with the Swiss 
Government in relation to the deliberations of the Geneva Conference is concerned, 
this government has uniformly recognized the American National Red Cross as 
the only civil body in the United States which is regularly affiliated with the 
International Committee of Berne for the purpose of carrying out the arrangements 
elaborated by the various conferences held at Geneva, and the representatives of 
the American National Red Cross at those conferences have uniformly attended 
with the sanction of the United States Government. No additional recognition or 
sanction is needed in that quarter. 

" I have therefore the honor to inform you, by direction of the President, 
that this government recognizes, for an)' appropriate co-operative purjjoses, the 
American National Red Cross as the Civil Central American Committee in 
correspondence with the International Committee for the relief of the wounded in 
war and to invite similar recognition of its status by your department with a view 
to taking advantage of its proffered aid during the present war so far as may be 
available. 

Respectfully yours, 

William R. Day, 

Secretary of State. 



The foregoing letter from the Secretary of State defines the position 
of the American National Red Cross, as uniformly recognized by the 
Government of the United States, and by the International Committee 
representing all the treaty nations. The treaty contemplates that there 
shall be in each country one national organization of the Red Cross, 



38o THE RED CROvSS. 

with power to organize an unlimited number of subordinate branches, 
or auxiliaries, all directly tributary to the national body. As the per- 
sonnel and equipment of the Red Cross are expressly neutralized and 
protected by the treaty, it was essential to the security of all, that the 
civil power and responsibility should be concentrated. It was for this 
reason that the president of the International Committee, in his letter 
of March 24, 1882, urged that: 

It is important that we be able to certify that your government is prepared to 
accept your services in case of war; that it will readily enter into co-operation with 
you and will encourage the centralization, under your direction, of all voluntary 
aid. 

We have no doubt that you will readily obtain, from the competent author- 
ities, an official declaration to that effect, and we believe this matter will be merely 
a formality; but we attach the greatest importance to the fact, in order to cover 
our responsibility, especially in view of the pretensions of rival societies which 
might claim to be acknowledged by us. It is your society and none other that we 
will recognize. 

It will be seen that, in the opinion of the International Committee, 
not recognition alone, but cordial co-operation on the part of the 
government is of vital importance. In each country, the National 
Red Cross, or national committee as it is sometimes called, is the only 
civil medium contemplated by the treaty, through which the people of 
the respective countries may lawfully communicate with the armies in 
the field, for the purpose of rendering such auxiliary medical and 
hospital service, and other relief, as may be required. It must be con- 
stantl)^ born in mind, in order to clearly understand the operations of 
the Red Cross, that our government and the people are bound, not 
only by the solemn provisions of the treaty, but also by the resolutions 
of the international conferences, composed of delegates authorized by 
their respective governments. Thus, the Secretary of State in his 
letter says: 

The American National Red Cross constitutes the sole legitimate and recog- 
nized local branch, in this country, of thegreat International Association, of which 
the International Committee at Berne is the head. This government has uniformly 
recognized the American National Red Cross as the only civil body in the United 
States which is regularlj' affiliated with the International Committee of Berne, for 
the purpose of carrying out the arrangements elaborated by the various conferences 
held at Geneva, and the representatives of the American National Red Cross at 
those conferences have uniform!}' attended with the sanction of the United States 
Government. No additional recognition or sanction is needed in that quarter. 




>^--4:^. 







jwi-..„>*ri' 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 383 

The American National Red Cross is, consequently, the recognized 
source from which is derived all civil authority to use the official 
insignia and to work under the Red Cross as auxiliary to the army and 
navy. The national Red Cross, in each country, is responsible to its 
own government and, through the International Committee, to all the 
nations of the treaty, for the integrity of its branches. Auxiliaries of 
the Red Cross must therefore receive their charters or certificates of 
authority from the parent organization, which, in turn, is held to a 
strict observance of all its treaty obligations. Hence the use of the 
name or of the insignia of the Red Cross by civil societies, in relief 
work, without the sanction of the national organization, is an imposition 
and a violation of the treaty. Without such official permission or 
charter, no auxiliary can have any rightful existence, as a branch of 
the American National Red Cross. 

After having secured for the people by treaty the right, through 
their own national organizations of the Red Cross, to contribute to the 
relief of the sick and wounded in war, the delegates to the inter- 
national conventions at Geneva continued their labors until there was 
added to the functions of the Red Cross, the power to administer relief, 
in times of peace, on fields of national disaster. Out of compliment to 
the president of the American National Red Cross, who advocated this 
extension, the addition to the treaty is known as "The American 
Amendment." Referring to it, the Secretary of State in his letter 
continues: 

Conferences held at Geneva in 1867 and 1869, still further perfected the 
organization and operation of the International Committee of Berne, and its rela- 
tions to the several civil Central Red Cross Committees in the adhering States, to 
the end that the latter might not alone co-operate with the governments of their 
respective nations in time of war, but should perform analogous relief work in 
each State in time of pestilence, famine or other national calamity. Of the .Ameri- 
can National Red Cross, and its conspicuous peaceful services in time of national 
suffering at home and abroad, it is superfluous to speak. 

Thus is clearly explained why, on such great fields of suffering 
and disaster as the Ohio Floods, the Russian Famine, the Sea Islands 
Hurricane, in Armenia and in Cuba, the American National Red Cro.ss 
is found endeavoring to carry out the benign intentions of the Treaty 
of Geneva. 

For the first time in the history of warfare, it was now proposed 
to fit out, and maintain at sea, hospital ships for the relief of sick and 



384 THE RED CROSS. 

wounded. The Treaty of Geneva, however, only provided for the 
recognition and protection of the hospital service of the army in its 
operations upon the land. An amendment to the treaty was proposed 
by the convention which met at Geneva on October 20, 1868, 
extending the treaty to include hospital service at sea. This amend- 
ment, concerning naval hospital service, was known as the " Ad- 
ditional Articles," and, although the Government of the United States 
in acceding to the Treaty of Geneva included the proposed amend- 
ment. President Arthur in his proclamation of August 9, 1882, 
reserved the promulgation of the Additional Articles until after the 
exchange of ratifications by the signatory Powers. The Additional 
Articles were never ratified by the other treaty nations, and, at the 
beginning of the Spanish- American war, they were not in force as a 
part of the treaty. Spain was therefore under no treaty obligation to 
respect the flag of the Red Cross upon the ocean. 

Although the Additional Articles had not yet been formally rati- 
fied, the Swiss Government, acting as an intermediary, and with a 
view to securing their observance by both belligerents during the war, 
opened a diplomatic correspondence between the governments of the 
United States and Spain, proposing the adoption of a temporary agree- 
ment, or viodus Vivendi, during the continuance of hostilities. The 
official correspondence on the subject between the Secretary of State 
and the Swiss Minister will be of interest, as showing the method by 
which the temporary agreement between the two countries was secured, 
the modifications made and the interpretation placed upon some of the 
doubtful clauses: 

Swiss Legation, 

Washington, April 23, 1898. 
Mr. Secretary of State: War having been now unhappily declared between 
the United States and Spain, my government, in its capacit}' as the intermediary 
organ between the signatory states of the convention of Geneva, has decided to pro, 
pose to the cabinets of Washington and Madrid to lecognize and carry into execution, 
as a modus vivendi, during the whole duration of hostilities, the additional articles, 
proposed by the International Conference which met at Geneva on October 20, 
1868, to the convention of Geneva of August 22, 1864, which (additional articles) 
extend the effects of that convention to naval wars. Although it has as yet been 
impossible to convert the said draft of additional articles into a treaty, still, in 
1870. Germany and France, at the suggestion of the Swiss Federal Council, con- 
sented to apply the additional articles as a modus vivendi, during the whole dura- 
tion of hostilities. The Federal Council proposes the additional articles as they 
have been amended at the request of France and construed by that power and 
Great Britain. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 385 

My government, while instructing me to make this proposition to Your Excel- 
lency, recalls the fact that, on March i, 1882, the President of the United States 
declared that he acceded, not only to the Geneva Convention of August 22, 1864, 
but also to the additional articles of October 20, 1S68. 

The Spanish Government, likewise, in 1872, declared itself ready to adhere to 
these articles. The Federal Council, therefore, hopes that the two governments 
will agree to adopt the measure, the object of which is to secure the application 
on the seas of the humane principles laid down in the Geneva Convention. 

With the confident expectation of a favorable reply from the United States 
Government to this proposal, I avail myself, etc., J. B. PiODA. 



Department of State, 

Washington, April 2^, i8g8. 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the twenty- 
third instant, whereby, in view of the condition of war existing between the United 
States and Spain, you communicate the purpose of your government to propose to 
the cabinets of Washington and JMadrid that they recognize and carry into execu- 
tion, as a modus vivendi, during the whole duration of hostilities, the additional 
articles proposed by the International Conference of Geneva, under date of October 
20, 1S68, for the purpose of extending to naval wars the effects of the convention 
ofOeneva of August 22, 1864, for the succor of the wounded in armies in the field. 

As you note in the communication to which I have the honor to replj', the 
United States, through the act of the President, did on the first day of March, 
1882, accede to the said additional articles of October 20, 1868, at the same time that 
it acceded to the original convention of Geneva of August 22, 1864; but, as is 
recited in the President's proclamation of July 26, 1882, a copy of which I enclose 
herewith, the exchange of the ratifications of the aforesaid additional articles of 
October 20, 1868, had not then (nor has since) taken place between the contracting 
parties, so that the promulgation of the accession of the United States to the said 
additional articles was (and still remains) reserved until the exchange of the ratifica- 
tions thereof between the several contracting states shall have been effected and 
the said additional articles shall have acquired full force and effect as an interna- 
tional treaty. 

I find, upon examination of the published correspondence which took place in 
1870 at the time of the war between France and North Germany (British and 
Foreign State Papers, vol. 60, pp. 945-946), that upon the initiative of the Prussian 
minister at Berne, followed Iw the proposal made by the government of the Swiss 
confederation to the French and North German governments, the then bellig- 
erents severally notified to the government of Switzerland their willingness to 
accept provisionally and at once to establish as a modus vivendi applicable to the 
war then in progress, both by sea and land, all the additional articles to the con- 
vention of Geneva of October 20, 1868, together with the subsequent interpretations 
of the ninth and tenth articles thereof agreed upon and proposed by England and 
France. I understand from your note that, although those articles have not as yet 
become a matter of international convention, it is desired that the United States 
and Spain accede to the same, together with the same amendments and construction 
as above stated. I entertain no doubt that the United States will readily lend 



3«^' THE RRD CROSS. 

its support and approval to the general purpose of those articles and be in favor of 
adopting them as a modu^ vivcndi; it has ever been in favor of proper regulations 
for the mitigation of the hardships of war. But before it can accede to them as a 
matter of fact, in the present instance, it must first fully understaud the nature and 
text of the amendments and construction placed upon the articles by France and 
England as stated bj* you. 

I would respectfully suggest, therefore, that there be furnished to this govern- 
ment either the text or a clear exposition of the articles, with the amendtnents 
and constructions referred to, in order that the understanding may be complete. 
A certain pamphlet, written by Lieutenant Colonel Poland in 1886, is said to 
contain these amendments and constructions, but there is not now accessible to the 
Department of State a copy of such pamphlet or other reliable means of informa- 
tion on the subject. I .shall await with pleasure fuller and exact information from 
you of the terms to which we are asked to accede. 

Accept, etc, John Sherman. 



Swiss Legation, 

WashinCxTon, D. C, May 4, 1S98. 

Mr. Secretary oE State: I have had the honor to receive the note which your 
honorable predecessor did me the favor of addressing to me under the date of the 
twenty-fifth of April, in reply to mine of the twentN'-tliird of the same month, upon 
the subject of the proposition of my government to the cabinets of Washington 
and Madrid to adopt as a modus vivendi, pending the entire duration of the war, 
the articles of the twentieth of October, 1868, additional to those of the convention 
of Geneva of the tweuty-second of August, 1S64. 

The documents which, in the aforesaid note of your predecessor, were desired 
and which, as I have had the opportunity of telling you verbally, my government 
had sent at the same time that it instructed me by cable to make the overtures on 
the .subject, have just arrived, and I enclose them herein in duplicate copies. 
The}' confirm the text of the additional articles, the modification of Article IX 
proposed by France and the notes exchanged between England and France 
concerning the import of Article X. The Spanish Government having, by note of 
its Legation of the seventh of September, 1872, also declared that it was ready to 
adhere to the articles in question, the Federal Council hopes that the governments 
of America and Spain, appreciating the sentiments which have guided it in its 
course, will be of accord in adopting as a modus vivendi a measure which has for 
its purpose the securing of the application upon the sea of the humanitarian 
principles consecrated by the Geneva Convention. 

Awaiting your comnmnication to me of the decision which the Government of 
the United States shall see fit to take in regard to this proposition, I offer you, Mr. 
Secretarj' of State, the expression of my very highest consideration. 

J. B. PlODA. 

Department of State, 

Washington, May g, iSgS. 
Sir: Upon receiving your note of the fourth instant, in reply to mine of tl e 
twenty-fifth of April, concerning the proposition of the Government of the Swiss 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 387 

Confederation that the United States and Spain adopt as a modus vivendi, pending 
the entire duration of the war, the articles of October 20, 1868, additional to those 
of the convention of Geneva on August 22, 1864, I communicated all the papers in 
the case to the Secretary of the Navy, calling his attention to the form of the 
modus Vivendi adopted during the Franco-German war, which your government 
was pleased to suggest as a precedent to be followed during the existing war. The 
printed paper you enclose, besides giving the text of the original additional articles 
of October 20, 1S68, contains the correspondence l;^d in 1868 and 1869 concerning 
the interpretation of Articles IX and X of the said additional convention and 
thus establishes the precise nature of the understanding to which France and the 
North German States respectively acceded. 

As so expressed, the Government of the United States finds no difficulty in 
acceding to the suggestion of the Government of Switzerland. It had, in fact, 
anticipated it, so far as concerns its own conduct of hostilities and its own purpose 
to observe the humane dictates of modern civilization in the prosecution of warfare 
upon the sea as well as upon land by fitting out and equipping a special ambulance 
ship, the "Solace," in confonnity with the terms of the additional convention 
aforesaid, thus confirming emphatically its adhesion to the principles of that 
beneficient arrangement without regard to the absence of its formal ratification by 
the various signatories. 

I am happy, therefore, to advise you, and through you the Government of the 
Swiss Confederation, that the Government of the United States will for its part, 
and so long as the present war between this country and Spain shall last, treat as 
an effective modus vivendi the fourteen additional articles of October 20, 1868, 
with the interpretations of the ninth and tenth articles thereof appearing in the 
publication you comnmnicate to me. While it is proper to adopt this course on its 
own account, and without reference to such action as Spain may take, this govern- 
ment would nevertheless be glad to hear that the representations made by your 
government to that of Spain had met with a favorable response in order that the 
two parties to the present contest may stand pledged to the same humane and 
enlightened conduct of naval operations as respects the sick and wounded as was 
recognized and adopted by the respective parties to the Franco- Prussian war. 

Should the Government of Spain likewise accede to the Swiss proposition, I 
should be much gratified to be apprised of the fact, and also that the Spanish 
accession contemplates acceptance of the interpretations of Articles IX and X 
which were adopted by France and the North German States and which are 
embraced in the proposition of your government. 

Accept, etc., 

WiLUAM R. Day. 



Swiss Lhgation, 

Washington, D. C, May 9, iSgS. 
Mr. Secretary of State : As I had the honor verbally to infonn the As- 
sistant Secretary of State this morning, my Government has charged me to bring 
to the knowledge of Your Excellency that the Spanish Govtrnment has accepted 
the proposition of the Federal Council concerning the additional articles of the 
Geneva Convention. 



388 THE RED CROSS. 

I doubt not that Your Excellency will be pleased very soon to enable me to 
announce to the Federal Council that the Government of the Union also adheres 
for its part to the proposed modus vivcfidi, and in this expectation I offer to Your 
Excellency the expression of my very high consideration. 

J. B. PlODA. 



Department of State, 

WA.SHINGTON, May lo, i8g8. 
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of May 9, 
formally notifying nie that the Spanish Government has accepted the proposition 
of the Federal Council concerning the additional articles of the Geneva Conven- 
tion, and expressing the hope that you would be soon enabled to inform your 
government that the United States Government adheres for its part to the pro- 
posed modus Vivendi. 

As you were advised in the verbal interview with the Second Assistant Secre- 
tary of State, to which you refer in your note of the ninth, I have already had the 
pleasure of informing you, by my official note of that date, that the United States 
Government would for its part treat as an effective modus vivendi the additional 
articles of 1868, with the amendments and interpretations of Articles IX and X 
thereof appearing in the publication communicated to me by you. I trust that 
that note, which apparently had not reached your hands at the time of your note 
to me of the same date, has now been received by you and its contents transmitted 
to the Federal Council. 

Be pleased to accept, etc., 

William R. Day. 



The additional articles concerning the Maritime Hospital Service 
in war, as modified by the viodiis vivendi, forming Articles VI to XV of 
the Treaty of Geneva when formally ratified, are: 



Art. VI. The boats which, at their own risk and peril, during and after an en- 
gagement pick up the shipwrecked or wounded, or which, having picked them 
up, convej' them on board a neutral or hospital ship, shall enjoy, until the accom- 
plishment of their mission, the character of neutrality, as far as the circumstances 
of the engagement and the position of the ships engaged will permit. 

The appreciation of these circumstances is entrusted to the humanity of all 
the combatants. The wrecked and wounded thus picked up and saved must not 
serve again during the continuance of the war. 

Art. VII. The religious, medical and hospital staff of any captured vessel are 
declared neutral, and, on leaving the ship, may remove the articles and surgical 
instruments which are tlieir private property. 

Art. VIII. The staff designated in the preceding article mu.st continue to ful- 
fill their functions in the captured ship, assisting in the removal of tlie noun. led 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 389 

made by the victorious party; they will then beat liberty to return to their country, 
in conformity with the second paragraph of the first aditional article.* 

The stipulations of the second additional articlef are applicable to the pay and 
allowance of the staff. 

Art. IX. The military hospital ships remain under martial law in all that con- 
cerns their stores; they become the property of the captor, but the latter must not 
divert them from their special appropriation during the contiimance of the war. 

[The vessels not equipped for fighting, which during peace, the government 
shall have officially declared to be intended to serve as floating hospital ships, shall 
however, enjoy during the war complete neutrality, both as regards stores, and 
also as regards their stalT, jirovided their equipment is exclusively appropriated to 
the special service on which they are employed.] 

Art. X. Any merchantman, to whatever nation she may belong, charged 
e.Kclusively with removal of sick and wounded, is protected by neutrality, but the 
mere fact, noted on the ship's books, of the vessel having been visited by an 
enemy's cruiser, renders the sick and wounded incapable of serving during the 
contiimance of the war. The cruiser shall even have the right of putting on board 
an officer in order to accompany the convoy, and thus verify the good faith of the 
operation. 

If the merchant ship also carries a cargo, her neutrality will still protect it, 
provided that such cargo is not of a nature to be confiscated by the belligerent. 

The belligerents retain the right to interdict neutralized vessels from all com- 
munication, and from any course which they might deem prejudicial to the secrecy 
of their operations. In urgent cases special conventions may be entered into 
between commanders in chief, in order to neutralize temporarily and in a specia . 
manner the vessels intended for the removal of the sick and wounded. 

Art. XI. Wounded or sick sailors and soldiers, when embarked, to whatevex 
nation they may belong, shall be protected and taken care of by their captors. 

Their return to their own country is subject to the provisions of Article Vi 
of the convention and of the additional Article V.J 

Art. XII. The distinctive flag to be used with the national flag, in order to 
indicate any vessel or boat which may claim the benefits of neutrality, in virtue 
of the principles of this convention, is a white flag with a red cross. The belliger- 
ents may exercise in this respect any mode of verification which they may deem 
necessary. 

Military hospital ships shall be distinguished by being painted white outside 
with green strake. 

* Articlb I. The persons designated in Article II of the convention shall, after the occupation 
by the enemy, continue to fulfill their duties, accoiding to their wants, to the sick and wounded 
in the ambulance or the hospital which they serve. Wlieii they request to withdraw, the 
comniauder of the occupying troops shall fix the time of departure, which he shall only be 
allowed to delay for a short time in case of military necessity, 

tARi. II. Arrangements will have to be made by the belligerent powers to insure to the 
neutralized person fallen into the hands of the army of the enemy, the entire enjoj'ment of his 
salary. 

t Art. V. In addition to Article \'I o( the convention, it is stipulated that, with the reservation 
of officers whose detention might be important to the fate of arms and within the limits fixed by 
the second paragraph of that article, the wounded fallen into the hands of the enemy shall be 
sent back to their country after th'-y are cured, or sooner if possible, on condition, nevertheless, 
of not again bearing arms during the continuance of the war. 



390 THK RED CROSS. 

Art. XIII. The hospital ships which are equipped at the expense of the aid 
societies, recognized by the governments signing this convention, and wliich are 
furnished with a comuiissiou emanating from the sovereign, who shall have given 
express authority for their being fitted out, and with a certificate from the proper 
naval authority that they have been placed under his control during their fitting 
out and on their final departure, and that they were then appropriated solely to 
the purpose of their mission, shall be considered neutral, as well as the whole of 
their staff. They shall be recognized and protected by the belligerents. 

They shall make themselves known by hoisting together with their national 
flag, the while flag with a red cross. The distinctive mark of their staff", while 
performing their duties, shall be an armlet of the .same colors. The outer painting 
of these ho.spital ships shall be white, with red strake. 

These ships shall bear aid and assistance to the wounded and wrecked bellig- 
erents, without distinction of nationality. 

They nmst take care not to interfere in any way with the movements of the 
combatants. During and after the battle they nmst do their duty at their own risk 
and peril. 

The belligerents shall have the right of controlling and visiting them ; they 
will be at liberty to refuse their assistance, to order them to depart, and to detain 
them if the exigencies of the case require such a step. 

The wounded and wrecked picked up by these ships cannot be reclaimed by 
either of the combatants, and they will be required not to serve during the con- 
tinuance of the war. 

Art. XIV, In naval wars any strong presumption that either belligerent 
takes advantage of the benefits of neutrality, with any other view than the interest 
of the sick and wounded, gives to the other belligerent, until proof to the con- 
trary, the right of suspending the convention as regards such belligerent. 

Should this presumption become a certainty, notice may be given to such 
belligerent that the convention is suspended with regard to him during the whole 
continuance of the war. 

Art. XV. The present act shall be drawn up in a single original copy, which 
shall be deposited in the archives of the Swiss Confederation. 

An authentic copy of this act shall be delivered, with an invitation to adhere 
to it, to each of the signatory powers of the convention of the twenty-second of 
August, 1864, as well as to those that have successively acceded to it. 

In faith whereof, the undersigned commissaries have drawn up the present 
project of additional articles and have apposed thereunto the seals of their arms. 

[Done at Geneva, the twentieth day of the month of October, of the year one 
thousand, eight hundred and sixty-eight.] 



The following note shows the special amendment and the inter- 
pretation of certain clauses of the articles, as agreed by the Govern- 
ments of the United States and Spain: 




SECRETARY OF THE NAVY LONG. 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 393 

NOTE. 

(a) The amendment proposed by France is contained in brackets after Article 
IX. 

{d} The interpretation placed upon Article X by England and France is to the 
following effect: 

The question being raised as to whether under Article X a vessel might not 
avail herself of the carrying of sick or wounded to engage with impunity in traffic 
otherwise hazardous under the rules of war, it was agreed that there was no pur- 
pose in the articles to modify in any particular the generally admitted principles 
concerning the rights of belligerents; that the performance of such services of 
humanity could not be used as a cover either for contraband of war or for enemy 
merchandise; and that every boat which or whose cargo would, under ordinary 
circumstances, be subject to confiscation, can not be relieved therefrom by the sole 
fact of carrying sick and wounded. 

Question being raised as to whether, under Article X an absolute right was 
afforded to a blockaded party to freely remove its sick and wounded from the block- 
aded town, it was agreed that such removal or evacuation of sick and wounded 
was entirely subject to the consent of the blockading jjarty. It should be permit- 
ted for humanity's sake where the superior exigencies of war may not intervene to 
prevent, but the besieging party might refuse permission entirely. 

The full text of the French interpretation of Article X is subjoined. 

The second paragraph of the additional Article X reads thus: " If the mer- 
chant ship also carries a cargo, her neutrality will still protect it, provided that 
such cargo is not of a nature to be confiscated by the belligerent." 

The words "of a nature to be confiscated by the belligerent" apply equally 
to the nationality of the merchandise and to its quality. 

Thus, according to the latest international conventions, merchandise of a 
nature to be confiscated by a cruiser are: 

First. Contraband of war, under whatever flag. 

Second. Enemy merchandise under enemy flag. 

The cruiser need not recognize the neutrality of the vessel carrying wounded 
if any part of its cargo shall, under international law, be comprised in either of 
these two categories of goods. 

The faculty given by the paragraph in question to leave on board of vessels 
carrying wounded a portion of the cargo is to be considered as a facility for the 
carriage of freight, as well as a valuable privilege in favor of the navigability oi 
merchant vessels if they be bad sailors when only in ballast; but this faculty can 
in no wise prejudice the right of confiscation of the cargo within the limits fixed 
by international law. 

Every ship the cargo of which would be subject to confiscation by the cruiser 
under ordinary circumstances is not susceptible of being covered by neutrality by 
the sole fact of carrying in addition sick or wounded men. The ship and the 
cargo would then come uiuler the common law of war, which has not been modi- 
fied by the convention except in favor of the vessel exclusively laden with wounded 
men, or the cargo of which would not be subject to confiscation in any case. 
Thus, for example, the merchant ship of a belligerent laden with neutral inerchau- 
dise and at the same time carrying sick and wounded is covered by neutrality. 



394 THK RICD CROSS. 

The merchant ship of a belligerent carrying, besides wounded and sick men, 
goods of the enemy of the cruiser's nation or contraband of war is not neutral, and 
the ship, as well as the cargo, comes under the common law of war. 

A jieutral ship carrying, in addition to wounded and sick men of the bel- 
ligerent, contraband of war also is suliject to the common law of war. 

A neutral ship carrying goods of any nationality, but not contraband of war, 
lends its own neutrality to the wounded and sick which it may carry. 

In so far as concerns the usage which expressly prohibits a cartel ship from 
engaging in any connnerce whatsoever at the point of arrival, it is deemed that 
there is no occasion to specially subject to that inhibition vessels carrying wounded 
men, because the second paragraph of Article X imposes upon the belligerents, 
equally as upon neutrals, the exclusion of the transportation of merchandise sub- 
ject to confiscation. 

Moreover, if one of the belligerents should abuse the privilege which is 
accorded to him, and under the pretext of transporting the wounded should 
neutralize imder its flag an important commercial intercourse which might in a 
notorious manner influence the chances or the duration of the war. Article XIV 
of the convention could justly be invoked by the other belligerent. 

As for the second point of the note of the British Government, relative to the 
privilege of effectively removing from a city, besieged and blockaded by sea, under 
the cover of neutrality, vessels bearing wounded and sick men, in such a way as 
to prolong the resistance of the besieged, the convention does not authorize this 
privilege. In according the benefits of a neutral status of a specifically limited 
neutrality to vessels carrying wounded, the convention could not give them rights 
superior to those of other neutrals who can not pass an effective blockade without 
special authorization. Humanity, however, in such a case, does not lose all its 
rights, and, if circumstances permit the besieging party to relax the rigorous 
rights of the blockade, the besieged party may make propositions to that end in 
virtue of the fourth paragraph of Article X. 



It was under this modus vivetidi that the steam launch " Moy- 
nier ' ' received from the Government of the United States her com- 
mission as a little ho.spital .ship of the Red Cross. For this little vessel, 
presented by Mr. William B. Rowland, the editor of the Outlook, 
as the gift of the readers of that popular periodical, the Red Cross is 
gratefully indebted. 

On June 6, 1898, the tender of the services of the American 
National Red Cross to act as an auxiliary to the Medical and Ho.spital 
Service of the Army and Navy, in accordance with the treaty, was 
formally accepted by the Departments of War and Navy: 



HOME CAMPS AND AMERICAN WATERS. 395 

War Department, 

Washington, y««(? <5, /Sg8. 
C1.ARA Barton, 

President 0/ the yhnencan National Red Cross, Washington, D. C.:. 
The tender of the services of the American National Red Cross, made to this 
department through the Department of State under date of Alay 25, 1S98, for 
medical and hospital work as auxiliary to the hospital service of the Army of the 
United States, is accepted; all representatives and employes of said organization to 
be subject to orders according to the rules and discipline of war, as provided by 
the 63d Article of War. 

Very respectfully, 

R. A. Alger, 

Secretary of War. 



Navy Department, 

Washington, June 6, iSg8. 
CtARA Barton, 

President of the Auierica7i National Red Cross, Washington, D. C: 
The tender of the services of the American National Red Cross, made to this 
department through the Department of State under date of IMay 25, 1S9S, for 
medical and hospital work as auxiliary to the hospital service of the navy of the 
United Slates, is accepted; all representatives and employes of said organization 
to be subject to orders according to the rules and discipline of war. 

Very respectfully, 

Chas. H. Allen, 
Acting Secretary. 



In the meantime, war was officially proclaimed, and the President 
had issued his call for volunteers. As the troops responded to the call, 
they were assembled in camps in various sections of the country, 
principally in Washington, Chickamauga Park, Georgia, Jacksonville, 
Tampa and Port Tampa in Florida. Soon after the formation of the 
camps it became evident that the auxiliary service of the Red Cross 
would be necessary in caring for the men, and a formal tender of such 
ser\'ice was made to the government by Mr. George Kennan, first vice- 
president of the American National Red Cross, to which the following 
reply was received: 

War Department, 
Junes, 1S98. 
Dear Sir: I have, by your reference, the letter of this date from Mr. George 
Kennan, of the American National Red Cross, aud see no objection whatsoever to 
their establishing a station in every military' camp for the purjKJse indicated in 



396 THIC RKD CROSS. 

their letter. Instructions have been issued by me to-day to the surgeon general, 
who will communicate this information to the chief surgeons of the camps. 

Very truly yours, 

R. A. Alger, 
Hon. John Addison Porter, Secretary of War. 

Secreiaiy to the President. 



Acting upon this acceptance, the executive committee, of which 
Mr. Stephen E. Barton was the chairman, appointed and sent to each 
camp an agent, to represent the Red Cross in the field. These repre- 
sentatives were instructed to report to the respective medical officers 
of the army in charge, to make, personally, a formal tender of assist- 
ance, and to ascertain if the Red Cross could be of service, by furnish- 
ing quickly any medical and hospital supplies of which the camps 
might be in need. 

It is perhaps proper to state here, as a matter of histor^s that 
while these field agents were always most courteously received, in 
many instances the auxiliary services of the Red Cross were not at first 
welcomed by the medical officers of the array. Indeed it often hap- 
pened that the assistance, of which the hospital service of the army 
was apparently in need, was not accepted until after its efficiency was 
seriously diminished by reason of delay. 

The reluctance to permit the people, through the Red Cross, to 
assist in ministering to the comforts of the men, did \vA generallj^ seem 
to arise from personal objection on the part of the medical officers at 
the camps, but from an apparent fear, whether well founded or not, 
that immediate acceptance of assistance would result in official censure 
ind disapproval. 



CAMP ALGER. 397 



CAMP ALGER. 

Among the first of the Red Cross field agents appointed was Mr. 
B. H. Warner, of Washington, to whose special charge was assigned 
the field known as " Camp Alger." Mr. Warner makes the following 
report of the work done by himself and the committee of which he was 
chairman : 

On Jnne lo, 1898, I was notified by letter of George Kennan, Esq., 
first vice-president of American National Red Cross, that I had been 
appointed as its representative, at Camp Alger, Virginia, and was re- 
quested to report to Chief Surgeon Girard, regarding the establishment 
of a station at that camp; to ascertain if anything in the form of hos- 
pital supplies were needed, and to advise the Executive Committee. 

It was suggested that, as the work to be established at Camp 
Alger was the first step of the Red Cross in the field in connection with 
the Spanish war, that prudence and tact should be used in maintaining 
friendly and harmonious relations with the military authorities, espe- 
cially with the surgeons. 

In accordance with my appointment, I visited the War Depart- 
ment, and obtained a special letter of introduction from Secretary Alger 
to Major-General Graham, commanding at Fort Alger, asking him to 
give me every facility possible in connection with the work to be under- 
taken. General Graham introduced me to Colonel Girard, with whom 
I had a long conference, the result of which was the establishment of 
headquarters of the Red Cross in the camp, and the settlement of some 
details as to work which was to be done in accordance with the advice 
and authority of the surgeon in charge. 

I found Colonel Girard exceedingly busy, and apparently very 
sanguine as to the ability of the government to meet all demands that 
might be made by every department of the army. He seemed, how- 
ever, willing that the Red Cross should furnish extra comforts for the 
men at the camp. I was impressed with the fact that he considered 
men who had received a regular army education thoroughly competent 
to meet the situation, and that all supplies could be had as soon as 
needed; that he did not want too many comforts for sick men, so as to 
unfit them for the hardships of war when they should go nearer to the 
scene of active operations. 



398 THE RED CROSS. 

On the twenty-first of June, in accordance with a call issued by 
me, quite a large number of citizens met at the Arlington Hotel, and I 
was fonnally elected chairman of an executive committee, Mrs, J. 
Ellen Foster, vice-chairman; C. J. Bell, treasurer, George C. Lewis, 
secretary. Power was given to add to this committee which, as finally 
constituted, consisted of the following named persons: E. H. Warner, 
Simon Wolf, William F. Mattingly, Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, Mrs. Thomas 
Calver, president of the Legion of Loyal Women; Mrs. James Tanner, 
national president of the Ladies' Union Veteran Legion; Mrs. Sarah 
A. Spencer, Mrs. J. A. T. Hull, wife of Representative Hull, Mrs. 
Ellen S. Mussey, one of the counsel to the Red Cro.ss, and Mrs. M. M. 
North. 

Quite a number of prominent citizens were present at the first 
meeting, including Rev. T. S. Hamlin, D. D., and Rev. Byron Sun- 
derland, D. D. 

Mrs. Spencer was compelled by other engagements to retire from 
the work of the Executive Committee early in its history, but still 
remains as a member of the General Committee. I want to say for 
the ladies, who served on the Executive Committee, that I never saw 
more devoted, energetic and efficient service on any committee or under 
any conditions with which I have been familiar, than that rendered by 
them. They were all constantly active, both at Camp Alger „ Fort 
Myer, and all along the line, at all hours, day and night, whenever 
and wherever their presence was required. They were exceptionally 
competent to direct, possessed of a high order of ability and intelligence, 
and deserve, not only the thanks of the national organization, but also 
of all who are friendly to the thousands of soldiers who were benefited 
by their administration. The Executive Committee met every Tuesday 
and more frequently when required. 

Mrs. J. Ellen Foster began service at the connnencement of war, 
and was very active in and around Washington in camp, hospital, and 
the railway relief work. She also visited Camp WikofF, Camp Black, 
Camp McPherson, Camp Thomas, Chickamauga, camp at Huntsville, 
Ala., and the hospitals in New York and Boston, where sick soldiers 
were quartered. Her experience gave her opportunities of suggesting 
improvement in many departments of work, and the administration 
of relief, not only by the Red Cross, but by other organizations as 
well. 

Captain George C. Lewis, on the twenty-first of June, was elected 
secretary of the committee. He had been an officer in the Civil War, 



CAMP ALGER. 399 

and had large experience among soldiers, both in camp and hospital. 
His first visit to Camp Alger was made on that date, and from that 
time, until the camp was discontinued, he was constantly on duty there, 
seeing that supplies were furnished, and all possible relief extended. 
His headquarters were in a large hospital tent, from which the flag of 
the Red Cross was flying. The principal office of the Executive Com- 
mittee being in Washington, at No. 1310 G street, which was tendered 
free of charge by Dr. and Mrs. J. Ford Thompson, and which the 
committee has retained much longer than originally anticipated. 

Experienced nurses seemed to be needed at Camp Alger. Patients 
were not receiving the necessary care and attention. The committee 
supplied mattresses, sheets, pillows and slips, mosquito bars, lemons, 
and a large quantity of medicine, pajamas, underclothing, night-shirts, 
handkerchiefs, groceries, delicacies, etc. 

The surgeons at the hospitals were timid about asking the govern- 
ment for supplies. As stated, the surgeon-in -chief at Camp Alger 
seemed to think that the soldiers who were taken sick should be treated 
in such a manner as would inure them to the hardships of camp, and 
the life of a soldier. When spoken to on this subject he said, " These 
men must understand that war is not play." One of the assistant 
surgeons said, "It is much easier to ask the Red Cross for supplies, 
and they can be obtained sooner than by asking the government, as 
there is so much red tape and it takes so long to get ev^y thing." 
When the kitchens at Camp Alger were inspected the food did not 
appear to be of the right kind, and was not properly cooked. Point 
Sheridan, Va., was visited by Mrs. Mussey on July 29, and sixteen 
men were found sick. They seemed to be suffering for supplies, 
especially medicine, which had been ordered on June 27, but had not 
been received. The Red Cross delivered them proper medicine within 
twenty-four hours. It was found that each camp hospital must have its 
regular visitors, and different members of the committee were 
appointed. Articles needed were supplied from headquarters in 
Washington, and large shipments were also sent direct from New York 
to various points. On several occasions underclothing and pajamas 
were supplied by the hundred within twenty-four hours. 

Early in August, the Washington Barracks were made a post 
hospital, and the Red Cross aid was gladly accepted by Major Adair, 
surgeon in charge. For a long time our committee supplied this point 
with 800 pounds of ice, 5 gallons of chicken soup, 30 gallons of milk, 
20 pounds of butter daily, as well as 2 crates of eggs weekly. We also 



400 THE RED CROSS. 

furnished 1200 suits of underwear, several hundred suits of pajamas, 
500 towels, several hundred pairs of slippers, socks and medicines, anti- 
sejitic dressing's, and numerous small articles. The work at this point 
was closed up October 8, with expressions of mutual satisfaction. 

The Secretary of War gave autliority for the establishment of di'^* 
kitchens in the camps near Washington, and Mrs. Mussey, who had 
taken a special interest in this work from the beginning, was given 
general charge of the establishment of the kitchens. 

A diet kitchen was established at Camp Bristow, and two competent 
male colored cooks placed in charge. Major Weaver, the chief sur- 
geon, and his staff of five surgeons, were both devoted and competent 
in their service, and the sick soldiers were loud in their praise. 

We found it was unnecessarj^ to establish one at the hospital at 
the Washington Barracks as arrangements there w^ere so good, and it 
only seemed necessary to furnish fresh .soups daily, and the committee 
made a contract for five gallons per day at cost for material only. 

The committee authorized Mrs. E. S. Mussey and Mrs. J. A. T. 
Hull to establish a diet kitchen at Fort Myer. Major Davis, surgeon 
in charge, yielded his owm wishes to the Secretary of War. As no 
building was furnished, the committee made a contract for one of a 
temporary character, which was put up at a cost, when completed with 
range, plumbing, etc., of about $350.00. Dr. Mary E. Green, presi- 
dent of the National Household Economical Association, was secured 
as superintendent, and in not more than ten days from the time of its 
commencement the building was completed, furnished and orders being 
filled. It has been a great assistance, not only in furnishing properly 
cooked food, but invaluable as an object lesson in neatness and skilled 
cooking. 

The government has voluntarily paid all the bills for meat, 
chickens and milk, leaving the committee to pay for groceries, and 
wages of employes. Dr. Green has rendered such efficient service 
that she has been employed by the government to establish diet 
kitchens at other points. 

At Fort Myer nearly four hundred patients were suffering with 
typhoid and no provision existed for preparing a special diet. Canned 
soup was heated up and served to those just leaving a strictly milk 
diet, and the so-called chicken broth, which was served wholly unsatis- 
factorily to both physicians and nurses. When the diet kitchen was 
completed, beef, mutton and chicken broth, made fresh daily in the 
manner best calculated to bring out the nutritive value of the meat, 



CAMP ALGER. 4ot 

were prepared. Mutton broth was made from hind r|ua'-ters only, and 
beef broth from soHd meat, with no waste. Albumen, so necessary to 
repair the waste of the system by fevers, was supplied in the palatable 
form of rich custards, as ice cream and blanc mange — gelatine madf 
into jellies with port and sherry wines — and albumen jelly, all nour- 
ishing to the irritated linings. 

During the month of September from the seventh instant, 55r. 
ordens, averaging fifteen portions each, or 8250 portions, were filled in 
the diet kitchen. Physicians, nurses and patients unite in saying the 
aid they secured from this work is of inestimable value, not only in 
saving lives, but in hastening the recover}' of all. Major Davis, as 
the surgeon in charge, has expressed his high appreciation of the good 
results obtained by establishing the kitchen, and the methods pursued 
in conducting it. 

In response to suggestions from the general committee in New 
York, a special committee was sent to Fortress Monroe to meet the first 
wounded, who came up from the battlefields of El Caney, San Juan 
and Guasimas. The surgeon in charge, Dr. DeWitt, stated their 
immediate needs, and supplies were sent one day after they were called 
for, consisting in part of 500 pairs of pajamas, twenty-five pairs of 
crutches, 200 pairs of slippers, 350 yards of rubber sheeting, large 
quantities of antiseptic dressings, five dozen gallons of whiskey and 
brandy, 200 cans of soup, granite-ware basins, pitchers, dishes, etc. 

Several other visits were made to this point, resulting in the 
employment of additional trained nurses, with proper provision for 
their maintenance. Arrangements were also made on behalf of the 
general committee for supplying ice for the use of troops on board the 
transports going south, and also for the sick on their journey north- 
ward. Mr. Bickford was afterward designated to take charge of the 
work of the Red Cross at this point, so further work on the part of our 
committee was unnecessar3^ 

The branch of the work, which has been really one of the most 
difficult to conduct, was the looking after soldiers, who passed through 
the city mostly from Southern to Northern camps, and those who were 
going home. There was such a general demand on the part of the men 
for coffee, bread and other supplies, and it was so hard to limit our 
service to the sick .soldiers alone, that we soon determined to feed not 
only the convalescent, but all who were hungry. vSoldiers from the 
following organizations were fed and supplied, the well men receiving 
bread and butter sandwiches: 



402 THE RED CROSS. 

Parts of the 5th and 6th Artillery, 25th Infantry, two troops of 
ist Cavalry, 12th, i6th and 17th Infantry, portions of the 8th, 9th and 
loth Cavalry, all United States troops, and the following volunteer 
forces: 22d Kansas, 3d and 4th Missouri, ist Maine, 2d Teiniessee, 
7th Illinois, ist, 8th, 9th, 12th, 13th, 15th and 17th Pennsylvania, 
ist Connecticut, 5th Maryland, 2d, 3d, 8th, 9th, 14th and 65th New 
York, ist and 2d New Jersey, two brigades of United States Signal 
Corps, and detachments from a number of other regiments, in all about 
40,000 men. 

Very frequently the committee furnished handkerchiefs and soap, 
as well as reading matter. The sick were given soup and milk packed 
in ice, fruit, medicines, etc. Forty-five were removed from the trains 
and taken to the hospitals in Washington. We used, in this connec- 
tion, not only the services of trained nurses in the employ of the Red 
Cross, but Dr. Bayne was detailed by the War Department, and 
rendered most efficient service, as he was always ready and willing to 
do everything in his power, day or night, for the relief of the sick. 

The War Department ordered for the use of the committee the 
erection of two tents in close proximity to our rooms, which were at 
915 Maryland Avenue. One of these tents was filled with fully 
equipped cots, on which the invalids were placed while waiting the 
arrival of ambulances, and the other was used as a general depot for 
supplies. The War Department paid for the bread we used in this 
work, and, also, for 4346 loaves furnished to the Pension Office Relief 
Committee, which was engaged in the same kind of work. Many 
donations of food and material were received, and as stated, nearly 
forty thousand men were fed, and how some of them did eat not only 
as if they were making up for the fasts of the past, but for any which 
might occur in the future. 

Mrs. James Tanner had charge of this work, which was very 
exacting, and she had been appointed a committee to secure reading 
matter for the different camps, before the Red Cross Committee was 
organized, and collected several wagon loads of books, magazines, and 
other periodicals, which were sent to Camp Alger, Fort Myer, Point 
Sheridan, Fort Washington, Chickamauga, Tampa and Santiago. 
Distribution of this reading matter was also made at the Red Cross 
quarters at 915 Maryland Avenue and handed to the soldiers who passed 
through the cit}' on trains. 

All bills for ice furnished to Point Sheridan, Va., Washington 
Barracks, and to the Diet Kitchen at Fort Myer have been paid l)y the 



CAMP ALGER. 403 

Red Cross Ice Plant Auxiliary of New York, which also furnished the 
large ice chests for the latter point. 

The Legion of Loyal Women, of which Mrs. Thomas W. Calver, 
a member of our committee, was president, acted as an auxiliary for 
the Red Cross Committee, and made a large number of mosquito nets, 
flannel bandages, wash cloths, and pajamas. Besides this, the}' col- 
lected many supplies, consisting of boxes of oranges, lemons, tea, 
coffee, jelly, condensed milk, crackers, yeast powder, cocoa, stamps, 
writing paper, tobacco, fruit, soap, socks, handkerchiefs, towels, night- 
sliirts, underclothes, pajamas, quinine and other medicine, which were 
sent to the various camps. 

Generous donations of clothing, jellies, cordials and mone}' were 
also received from various auxiliaries of the ladies' of the Union 
Veteran Legion. 

The Red Cross Committee assisted in the establishment of a tem- 
porary home in this city for the returning volunteers. The existence 
of this home was limited to two months. The time will expire Novem- 
ber 10, when it will be broken up. It has cared for a daily average 
of sixty soldiers. The Red Cross assisted by furnishing cots and 
furniture. Mrs. Calver, of our committee, is in charge, and it is con- 
ducted without expense to the Red Cross. 

The total amount expended in the Railway Relief work, in feeding 
men as they passed through the city, was $2637.13. 

Arrangements were also made after this work closed to look after 
all the sick soldiers, who came in at the several railroad stations. 

The treasurer, C. J. Bell, will transmit a full report, with vouch- 
ers for all expenditures which have been up to this date, $7560, and 
with outstanding bills amounting to about $1000 more. 

A large number of ladies rendered excellent service in making 
sheets, pillow-cases, mosquito nets, pajamas, bandages and articles too 
numerous to mention. Manj' volunteer nurses were anxious to go 
where they could render .servnce to the sick and wounded. 

It is gratifying to be able to state that whatever view the surgeons 
and other officers may have had as to the need of the Red Cross at the 
beginning of the war, at the close they joined with the private soldiers 
in testifying to its wonderful and efficient work. 

Among the principal donations were those from the Lutheran 
Church Society, Hagerstown, Md., consisting of 50 pajamas. 50 suits 
of underclothing, 50 nightshirts, 40 .sheets, 250 pairsof .socks, 100 
towels, 200 haudker^hicfs, 75 rolls of bandages, dclicacic:; and sundry 



404 THE RED CROSS. 

articles. There were also daily contributions of different supplies, 
demonstrating the general interest taken in our work. 

There were distributed by this committee, in part, 800 sheets, 500 
pillow-cases, 800 suits of pajamas, 1500 suits of underclothing, 1600 
abdominal bandages, 800 pairs of socks, 750 nightshirts, 350 mosquito 
bars, 100 rubber sheets, 400 pairs of slippers, 2000 palm leaf fans, 75 
large boxes of soap, 150 cots, 250 mattresses, 100 pairs of blankets, 
275 pillows, $1000 worth of groceries, $300 malted milk, $850 
soups and bouillons, $725 medicines and surgical supplies, $250 wines 
and liquors, and $1050 milk, a great variety and quantity of smaller 
articles and supplies. 

The following supplies were received from the general New York 
Committee: 50 boxes of ivory soap, 50 rubber sheets, 400 suits of under- 
wear, 250 sheets, 250 pillow-cases, 250 nightshirts, 200 pairs of slippers, 
50osuitsof pajamas, $200 worth of malted milk, beef extract and Mellin's 
food, ^700 worth of canned soups and bouillons and $6000 cash. 

In closing, permit me to thank Vice-President Barton and the 
Executive Committee for prompt and liberal responses to ever}' request 
made for aid of any character, and for immediately recognizing the fact 
that the committee at this point had a work placed upon it very exten- 
sive and unique in character, and requiring a large outlay of money and 
service. 

I desire to call to your special attention the great service ren- 
dered by Mrs. E. S. Mussey, who, during the absence of Mrs. Foster 
and myself from the city, acted as chairman of the committee, and for 
two months gave nearly all of her time to its service, visiting different 
camps and hospitals, and in the work devolving upon her she was 
untiring and unusually efficient. 

Much complaint has been made as to the location of Camp Alger, 
because of the prevalence of typhoid and malarial fever, and the absence 
of water supply both for drinking and bathing purposes. A personal 
knowledge of this section of Virginia, extending over many years, 
enables me to state that it has been regarded as unusually healthy, and 
a most desirable section for homes, the growth and development of 
which would have been very rapid had there been an additional bridge 
giving greater facilities for crossing the Potomac. The water there 
has been considered pure and healthy, and used by many families with- 
out bad results. 

Falls Church, near this camp, has been regarded as one of the 
healthiest and most desirable suburbs of the National Capital. The 



CAMP ALGRR. 405 

topography of the ground and the presence of a large amount of shade 
were very suitable for the purposes of camp life. It was, however, 
evident, even to the inexperienced eye of a layman, that good, practical 
daily scavenger service aided by the effective use of disinfectants was 
sadly needed both for the comfort and health of the men; that the 
presence of numerous booths, stands and peddlers engaged in selling 
soft drinks, fruits, cakes, candy, etc., tended to further demoralize the 
already interrupted digestion of the soldiers. No matter what the 
general orders were they could not be made effective without the 
earnest and intelligent co-operation of regimental officers and soldiers. 
Could this be secured within two or three months from men not 
experienced in war? A feeling of individual responsibility appeared 
to be lacking. One of the most useful officers who can be detailed for 
camp duty is an inspector, one who will not only inspect daily, but 
insist that the men take care of themselves, and co-operate to prevent 
disease, especiallj' in keeping the camp in proper sanitary condition by 
constant attention to sinks and the water supply. 

The Red Cross entered upon its great work at the beginning of the 
war under many difficulties. Instead of being aided and encouraged in 
an undertaking that comprehended the generous spirit of the nation, its 
mission was oftimes interrupted and hindered by officers of prominence 
and rank. It is proper to say, however, that the President and 
Secretary of War were at all times deeply interested in our work, and 
did all in their power to expedite our plans. There appeared to be a 
jealous apprehension in some quarters that the Red Cross would 
interfere with established institutions. What it has accomplished is a 
matter of history, dail}' recorded in the public press, it has not been 
aggressive, nor has it dominated any legitimate authority. It has 
sought to be the servant and not the master. As one general partic- 
ularly friendly to the organization remarked, "the Red Cross has not 
been the foe, but the friend of every one, even of red tape." 

If we had anj^ criticism to make it would be in favor of more 
practical common sense dealing with all matters especially those per- 
taining to the camp and hospital, and of the necessity of fixing 
individual responsibility so as to be certain of results as well as orders. 

Many high-minded and patriotic officers have been blamed where 
they ought to have been praised; one distinguished professional man 
dying from the effects of undeserved fault finding. 

If another war should ever come to us as a nation, we trust the 
lessons of that which has just closed will not be forgotten. Many of 



4o6 THIC RI'l) CROSS. 

the very best and most conscientious surgeons are not business men. 
Men who have not had business experience in time of peace cannot be 
expected to learn at once new methods in time of war so as to perfect 
or harmonize a great s^-steni. Should not the executive officer in every 
large hospital be selected somewhat with reference to his business 
capacity ? Good surgeons and physicians have enough to occupy 
them in attending to their professional duties. They had too much to 
attend to in most instances during the Spanish war, and the number of 
deaths in comparison to the number of sick and wounded has been 
surprisingly small. 

I want to place upon record the generous kindness of Dr. and 
Mrs. J. Ford Thompson in tendering to the committee the use of house 
No. 1310 G Street for headquarters; W. B. Moses & Sons for furni- 
ture loaned for our use; Springman & Sons for free transportation of 
goods; to the railroads for reduction of fare; to the Falls Church Elec- 
tric Railroad, and Washington and Norfolk Steamship Company for 
free transportation; to the Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Com- 
pany for telephone, and to all who generously worked and contributed 
for the success of the committee. 

The army and navy embodied the power of the government in the 
Spanish war, but the Red Cross in a large degree represented the 
affectionate regard of the American people, for those who went out to 
defend the flag of the Union, and their great desire to mitigate in 
every possible way the sufferings resulting from exposure, disease and 
conflict, as well as to relieve distress wherever it existed. 

Courage and charity go hand in hand, and when the smoke of 
battle has rolled away, and the tattoo and reveille are memories of the 
past; when the white tents of the camps are folded; the equipment 
of war is exchanged for the implements of peace the appreciation of the 
citizen soldier for the Red Cross will grow in volume as he sits by his 
fireside and tells how its ministries gave relief and aid to his comrades 
and himself in the camp, the hospital, at Siboney, Santiago, Porto 
Rico and elsewhere, and how it extended succor even to his enemies 
when the conflict ceased. 

The Red Cross of peace will outlive the Red Flag of war, even as 
charity shall survive the force of arms. Let us hope that the former 
ensign may soon float by the side of the flags of all the nations and 
peoples of the world, as an evidence of the advance of civilization, and 
the universal desire that there be no more war; that men everj^where 
are ready to extend a helping hand to all who suffer from disaster or 



CAMP ALGKR. 



407 



disease. When this glad day comes war will be no more. Arbitration 
will be the supreme power. 

And may I say, in closing, that no one during the past quarter of a 
centur}- has in a larger degree aided in the cultivation of peace and 
good will among men and the promotion of a spirit of fraternity among 
the peoples of the earth than the president of the American National 
Red Cross, who, during the Spanish war, has rendered such valuable 
and indefatigable service in the cause of humanity. 



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4o8 THE RED CROSS. 



CAMP THOMAS. 

The agent first appointed for Chickaniauga Park, was Dr. Charles 
R. Gill. Shortly afterwards, however. Dr. Gill expressed a desire to 
go to Cuba, and he was relieved, Mr. E. C. Smith being placed in 
charge of this field, which proved eventually to be one of the most 
important stations of the Red Cross. As the demands of the camp 
increased, Mr. A. M. Smith was sent to assist his brother in the work. 
Their services have been eminently satisfactory to all concerned, and 
many voluntary expressions of appreciation have been received. All 
requisitions for assistance were promptly filled by the Executive Com- 
mittee in New York, and in addition to the large amount of supplies 
sent, about $16,000 in cash were expended at the camp. Mr. Smith, 
in his report on the work done at this camp, says: 

The headquarters of the American National Red Cross, at Camp 
Thomas, Chickaniauga Park, Ga., was located alongside the historic 
Brotherton House, which was in the thickest of the fight in 1863. No 
array of mere numerals written to express dollars, or tables of figures 
standing for quantities, could in comprehensive sense tell the story of 
Red Cross work at Chickaniauga, in 1898. The record is written 
indelibly in the hearts of thousands of soldiers who were stricken with 
disease on this battlefield, and the story has been told at quiet home 
firesides in every State of the Union. 

All those who have labored in the work of mercy have been repaid 
a thousandfold in words of thankfulness and appreciation from fevered 
lips, and the praise of Christian men and women throughout the 
country. In answer to the petitions of anxious wives, mothers and 
fathers, and the tender prayers of prattling infants, God put strength 
in the arms of the noble women who wore the badge of the Red Cross, 
and made them heroic in an hour of great trial. 

It has been testified by the gallant survivors of Santiago, and other 
sanguinary engagements, that the chief terror was carried to the hearts 
of our gallant men through the awful silence of the enemy's bullets, 
and the rayster}- which enshrouded their position because of the use of 
smokeless powder, leaving no mark for retaliation. Here in Chicka- 
mauga, men fell from the ranks cjay after day, who seemed to have been 



CAMP THOMAS. 411 

singled out as the most robust and hardy of all, and were carried help- 
less to the regimental, division, corps, and general hospitals, stricken 
l)y an unseen foe. The danger lurked in the air that all breathed, and 
the apparently pure, limpid water, God's greatest gift to man, became 
his deadliest enemy. 

When the plague descended on the camp, and a full realization of 
present and impending horrors was forced upon all intelligent minds, 
frantic efforts were made to stay the progress of the destroyer, but the 
seeds had been sown, and the epidemic was fated to run its course. 
It .seemed incongruous that .sucii a spot should be so afflicted; in all the 
wide continent there is no fairer place. The valley stretching between 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge is one of the most beautiful 
of all the fertile valleys of the world; sunshine and shade here mingle 
to satisfy every sense. Our boys entered the park joyfully, and all 
who should have known of the requirements of a camp, pronounced it 
an ideal spot. There was no adequate preparation for the unexpected, 
which some say "always happens." The action of the Red Cross 
redeemed the situation. Stephen E. Barton, chairman of the Executive 
Connnittee, promptly authorized measures to alleviate suffering, to quote 
the language of the authorization, "without stint." Elias Charles 
Smith, the field agent of the Red Cro.ss, acting at once on the orders 
of his .superior, proceeded to find ways, the means being furnished. 
Milk and ice were the chief requisites. All the farming country 
surrounding the camp was called upon to supply the milk, some of it 
coming from as far as Biltmore, N. C, from the celebrated dairy of a 
millionaire. 

The ice came from Chattanooga, and both ice and milk were 
supplied without delay, with no red tape, no halting, " without .stint," 
to the sick. Requisitions for carloads of delicacies were sent by 
telegraph, and when the needs were urgent the goods came, not by 
freight but by express. Soups, wines, fruit, and in fact every 
conceivable article that could contribute to the comfort and recovery 
of the sick was .sent for, dispatched, received and distributed. There 
were no "middle men" to question or quibble about the advi.sability 
of things being done, no halting and haggling about how things 
sliould be done. The field agent of the Red Cross ascertained the 
urgent necessities of the sick, through the be.st official sources, and — 
presto! — the necessities were on the ground and in u.se. 

The problem of luirsing was coincident. Men in the division 
and other hospitals were willing, no doubt, but there was "lack of 
23 



412 THE RKD CROvSS. 

woman's nursing." There was no "dearth of woman's tears," — at 
home. 

The Red Cross Auxiliary No. 3 of New York, through the 
agency of Miss Maud Cromlein in the field, took up this work. At 
one time there were 140 young women graduate nurses in the service 
of the Red Cross in this camp, mainly at Sternberg Hospital, How to 
care for this large number of refined young women, unused to the 
hardships of camp life, was a serious problem. Dormitories were built 
to shelter them, and furnished for their comfort. A contract was made 
with a steam laundry at Chattanooga to wash their clothing and every- 
thing possible was done to make their stay at least endurable. Some 
fell sick, of course, and were tenderly cared for or furloughed and sent 
to their homes. Under the direction of Miss Maxwell a perfect system 
was established in all the work, w'hich commanded the respect and 
approbation of the medical officers. Diet kitchens were introduced, 
and the sick were furnished with every necessary delicacy. 

It is now a matter of history that this first organized experiment 
of using women in large numbers as nurses in a field hospital has been 
an unqualified success. It has the official approval of the medical 
officers of the government from Surgeon-General Sternberg to the 
smallest, humblest subaltern. 

The Red Cross did not confine its efforts to the help of nurses 
wearing the Red Cross. At the old Third Division First Corps 
Hospital, afterward called Sanger, Sisters of Charity and Sisters of Mercy 
ministered to the sick. The same attention was given to them ; all 
requisitions for milk and ice and delicacies were promptly filled. One 
of these noble women. Sister Stella Boyle, wrote, "We are over- 
whelmed with your kindness — what should we have done without the 
Red Cross ! " Leiter Hospital received the same help ; milk and ice 
and delicacies were furnished "promptly and v.'ithout stint." That 
was the watchword. And so with the regimental hospitals ; the 
surgeons in charge made requisition for necessary supplies and they 
were forthcoming, even to the day of the departure of the last troops 
from the camp, the hospital trains being supplied as well. Thus the 
Red Cross followed the sick to the doors of their own homes. 

The Christian women of Chattanooga belonging to the Epworth 
League and the churches of that city, did a greatly needed work in 
establishing hospitals for the care of sick soldiers enroute. They were 
amazed and delighted when they learned they coul'd make requisition 
on the Red Cross for necessary supplies. 



CAMP THOMAS. 



413 



Field Agent E. C. Smith, frail of body but stout of soul, was 
stricken at his post of duty with typhoid September 12, but is 
convalescent and rapidly gaining strength. When Miss Cromlein and 
Miss Maxwell retired about the same date, they were succeeded by 
Miss Gladwin and Miss lyounsbury, who have ably managed the affairs 
of the Red Cross at Sternberg. Under my direction Miss Gladwin 
recently visited Anniston, Ala., and found the .service of the Red 
Cross greatly needed at Camp Shipp. Miss Gladwin has establi.shed 
a Diet Kitchen at that camp and has done much to better the con- 
ditiou of the .soldiers in the camp ho.spitals. 

There are still 200 sick at Sternberg and 50 at Inciter, but these will 
soon I hope be furloughed and returned to their homes. 

All who have represented the Red Cross at Chickamauga have 
worked with the greatest self-denial and enthusiasm, with full apprecia- 
tion of the lofty aims of the society and with personal pride. Wlien 
the roll of honor is made up, I know of no name that shouM W 
omitted. 




U. S. S. ■•ORHGON. 



414 THE RICI) CROSS. 



JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 

At Jacksonville, Fla., the work at the camp was under the direc- 
tion of the Rev. Alexander Kent, of Washington, D. C, who has 
been a member of the Ameri>.an National Red Cross for many years. 
He l)egan his duties about the middle of June and, assisted by his son, 
continued until the order for the abandonment of the camp was issued. 
The territory covered by this agency included also the camps at Miami 
and Fernandina. The affairs of the Red Cross in this field were most 
efficientl}- conducted and with great credit to Dr. Kent and his assist- 
ant. In addition to the medical and hospital supplies and delicacies, 
which were furnished in great quantities, over thirteen thousand dol- 
lars were spent in adding to the comforts of the sick and convalescent. 
Dr. Kent makes the following interesting report: 

On June i6 I arrived in Jacksonville, in company with Miss 
Clara Barton, then on her way to Key West and Santiago. We visited 
Camp Cuba Libre in the afternoon, when I enjoyed the great advantage 
of being presented b}^ Miss Barton to several of the officials as the rep- 
resentative of the Red Cross at this point. On the following morning 
I visited the hospital — that of the Second Division, the First being at 
Miami and the Third not formed — where I found what appeared to me 
to be very distressing and unhealtliful conditions. The number of 
patients at that time was small, but, few as they were, no adequate 
provision had been made for their comfort. Most of them, indeed, 
were on cots, but few had either sheets or nightshirts to cover their 
nakedness. They were either lying in soiled iniderclothing, sweltering 
in the heat under army blankets, or destitute of any clothing whatever. 
T lost no time in ordering one hundred .sheets, with the same number of 
pillow-cases and ticks, having assurance from one of the surgeons that 
the latter could be readily filled with moss and pine needles, making a 
comfort-giving and healthful pillow. By the time this need was met 1 
learned that the sick were destitute of suitable food, so I made it my 
next business to provide a sufficienc}^ of this. No sooner had I begun 
this work than I had to face the fact that the hospital had no proper 
facilities for cooking this food and no place in which to care for it and 
keep it cool and sweet when prepared. So I purchased a large Blue 
Flame oil stove and a No. 6 Alaska ice chest. I soon discovered tha; 



JACKSONVIIJ.E, FLA. 415 

the patients were suffering from want of ice and made haste to secure 
an adequate supply of this. But in all these things adequate provision 
for one week was no adequate provision for the next. Patients came 
into the hospital in ever-increasing numbers; cots, sheets, pillows and 
pillow-cases had to be doubled and trebled and quadrupled as the 
weeks went by. The government provided many sheets, many cots 
and many pillows, but the demand ever outran the supply, and the Red 
Cross was called on continually to make up the lack. In the nlatter of 
ice, milk, eggs, lemons, malted milk, peptonoids, clam bouillon, beef 
extract, calfsfoot jelly, gelatine, cornstarch, tapioca, condensed milk, 
rice, barley, sugar, butter, and delicacies of all kinds, the government 
made no provision, neither did the hospital from its ration fund. All 
supplies of this kind were furnished by the Red Cross or by other 
charitable or beneficent agencies. So far as I have been able to learn, 
and I questioned those in charge of the division hospitals, no use was 
made of the ration fund in the Jacksonville hospitals in the way of pro- 
curing delicacies for patients. The sole reliance for these things was 
the Red Cross and similar agencies of individual and organized 
beneficence. 

Of individual beneficence the most marked examples were Mrs. 
Marshall, proprietor of the Carleton Hotel; Mrs. Moulton,wifeof Colonel 
Moulton, of the Second Illinois, and Mrs. Rich, a quiet, modest lady 
of this city. These gave their whole time to the work of devising ways 
and means for promoting the comfort and health of the sick. They 
made chicken broth, ice cream, wine jellies and a variety of delicacies 
grateful to the palates of the sick soldiers. Other Jacksonville ladies 
did much in this direction, but these ladies were constant and untiring 
in their efforts. Though Mrs. Marshall had many of the soldiers cared 
for free of charge at her own hotel, never for a day was she absent 
from the camp. She was a veritable ministering angel, and the Red 
Cross is greatly indebted to her for much of the information that helped 
us to give wisely and when most needed. Through Mrs. Moulton 
many of the good people of Chicago bestowed their benefactions. Five 
days out of every week found Mrs. Rich at one of the division hos- 
pitals, making her ice cream for the boys and giving them a taste of 
her delicious wine jellies. When the Red Cross learned of her excellent 
work it took pains to keep her supplied with all needed niateiial, beside 
furnishing a twenty-five quart ice cream freezer with v;hich to do her 
work. All of these women de.serve a more extend<^.d iiul a worthier 
tribute than we can pay them in this report. 



4i6 THE RKD CROvSS. 

With the growth of the hospital there came ever-increasing 
demands for ice and milk, for delicacies of every sort, and for all the 
comforts and conveniences that tend to make hospital work pleasant 
and effective. Early in the history of the Second Division hospital, 
the Red Cross paid the bills for a bath house and a kitchen. It 
furnished also the large circular wall tent for convalescents. It gave 
over a hundred cots and mattresses, and nearly a thousand pillows. 
Of sheets and pillow-cases, nightshirts and pajamas, it gave many 
thousands. We not only distributed a large number sent from New York; 
l)ox'es were sent us from St. Augustine, from Augusta, Ga., from 
Connecticut, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. Few people 
liave any conception of the quantity of such articles required to keep 
a hospital with five hundred to seven hundred patients in good running 
order. So often are these things soiled that there must be at least 
three or four sets to every cot. When there are three or four hospitals, 
with an aggregate sick list ranging from fifteen hundred to two thou- 
sand, the number of sheets and pillow-cases, nightshirts and pajamas 
necessary to keep the beds and the patients presentable is surprisingly 
large. Of course the government has supplied the greater number of 
sheets and pillow-cases, but the Red Cross has furnished probably the 
greater number of pillows, nightshirts and pajamas. In none of these 
things has the supply ever quite equaled the demand. Even at the 
present time the cry of need is almost as loud as ever. When the 
recuperating hospital was established at Pablo Beach, the Red Cross, at 
the request of the chief-surgeon, supplied two hundred and fifty sets 
of dishes with a complete outfit of pitchers, trays, buckets and many 
other things. Even the business of the chief-surgeon's office and that 
of the surgeon at Pablo Beach is transacted on desks furnished by the 
Red Cross at the request of these parties. It has contributed to furnish 
the diet kitchens with stoves, utensils and dishes, and has supplied the 
hospitals themselves with many articles of convenience and comfort. 
It provided four dozen large clothes hampers, printed many thousands 
of patient records and other papers. It had fifty large ice chests manu- 
factured and placed one in each ward of the principal hospitals. It 
gave over seven hundred buckets for the carrying of ofial, and fur- 
nished screens for the use of the nurses. It gave bed-pans and urinals 
in large numbers, over a thousand tumblers, medicine glasses, gradu- 
ated glasses, a sterilizing apparatus, hypodermic syringes and needles. 
Of the latter we learned that there was not a single whole one in the 
hospital at the time we were called on. Scores of men had been 



JACKSONVILLK, FI.A. 417 

obliged to receive their hypodermic injections from a broken point, 
suffering greatly from the operation and subsequent results. The 
Red Cross has furnished over one thousand dollars worth of medicines 
not on the government list, besides malted milk, peptonoids, pepto 
mangan, peptogenic milk powder, maltine and a large shipment of 
medicines sent from New York. It has given over a thousand bath and 
surgical sponges and towels in immense quantities. In short, with the 
exception of tents, cots, blankets, and, to a considerable extent, sheets, 
furnished by the government, the Red Cross, up to Septembei ist, 
furnished the greater part of the hospital equipment. As the several 
heads of divisions have said to me again and again. "The hospitals 
never could have equipped themselves from their ration fund. They 
would have broken down utterly without the aid of the Red Cross." 

We have spent here over thirteen thousand dollars in cash for hospital 
equipment and supplies of various kinds, including ice and milk, in 
addition to the large quantities of goods sent from New York the cost 
of which we do not know. And with all this, the need has not been 
met as fully or as promptly as it should have been. The number of 
the sick increased so greatly beyond the expectations of the oflScers in 
charge that the supply has never, for any considerable time, been equal 
to the demand. Even now, when the government has allowed sixty 
cents a daj'^ for each patient in the hospital, and has recently so 
extended the order as to include regimental as well as division hos- 
pitals, there is still continuous appeal to the Red Cross for a variety 
of things, which those in charge of the hospital fund do not feel war- 
ranted in buying, and as yet few of the regiments have gotten their 
hospitals into shape to ask for anything. As they move to Savannah 
in a few days, they will not be in condition to draw any money for weeks 
to come. It is very fortunate therefore, that your committee has seen 
fit to grant our last requisition, for the goods you have shipped will 
be of great benefit to the soldiers on their way to Cuba. 

I have omitted to state that a most important part of the work of 
the Red Cross has been the supplying of ice for the purpose of cooling 
the drinking water of the camps. Our ice bills for camp and hospitals, 
at an average of thirty-five cents per hundred pounds have been over 
six thousand dollars, the Second Division hospital alone often consum- 
ing from four to five tons a day. Our milk bills were also large, 
averaging for some time over five hundred dollars a week, at a cost of 
forty cents a gallon. 

Our relations with both army and medical officials have been, on the 



4i8 THE RED CROSS. 

whole, harmonious and pleasant. Perhaps the best evidence of this is 
the fact that the government teams and men have always been at our 
service whether to haul the goods from the wharf to the store or from 
(he store to the camp. Some little feeling arose over my attitude in 
regard to the necessity for female nurses, but as the outcome has 
abundantly shown the soundness of my contention, that has pretty 
much passed away. Our hospitals have been far from ideal but I 
believe they are generally regarded as the best in the country, and 
perhaps none have realized their shortcomings and defects more than 
the men charged with their administration. It is not an easy matter 
to select, even from an American army, a sufficient number of capable 
and reliable men for so large and complex an institution, and incapacity 
or infidelity at any point is liable not onlj^ to bring most serious results, 
but to throw discredit upon the entire management. Doubtless many 
things have been done that should never have been permitted, and 
many left undone that constitute a record of what ought to be criminal 
neglect, yet these things can be wholly avoided only by men of the 
highest ability and largest experience, working with trained subordi- 
nates, and with every facility for successful endeavor. It has not been 
possible to secure such conditions in any of the hospitals. The men in 
charge have been obliged to use such material as they could get, and 
often the commanding officers of regiments, when asked for a detail for 
hospital work, have given the very poorest material they had. I am 
disposed, therefore, to have pretty large charity always for the surgeon- 
in-charge. He has a most difficult task, and at the very best, can only 
hope for moderate success. Ideal results he can never .secure. 

I have said nothing of our work at Miami or Fernandina, for there 
is little to say. The troops were moved from Miami so soon after we 
were made acquainted with their needs, that we did little more than 
supply the hospital with ice, during the weeks in which the sick were 
convalescing. We were not permitted to do even this at Fernandina. 
Those in charge of the hospitals, division and regimental, disclaimed 
all need of aid. The government supplied them with all that they 
required. We have had many testimonies from officers and privates, 
showing the profound appreciation everywhere felt for the work of the 
Red Cross. Perhaps no other part of its work was so highly prized by 
the soldiers at large as that w4iich furnished them cool drinking water. 
Had the chief-surgeon. Colonel Maus, not been so deeply preju- 
diced against female nurses in general, and Red Cross nurses in 
particular, we might have done a much greater work in the hospitals 



JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 



419 



than was permitted to us. While the vSeconcl Division hospital was 
still young, the Red Cross offered its nurses freely and gratuitously. 
It offered to shelter and feed them at its own expense, but the offer was 
spurned indignantly and with scarcely disguised contempt. We were 
told that female nurses were not needed, that the hospital had already 
more skilled nurses than it could use, and that female nurses were a 
nuisance round a camp anyway. Most of them, the chief-surgeon 
affirmed, were drawn to the work by a morbid sentimentality or by 
motives of even a more questionable character. He would have none 
of them. But the time came when even this officer had to change his 
attitude if not his opinions, and women nurses were sought for and 
welcomed to the hospital by hundreds. That they have proven a great 
blessing to the boys, no one now questions ; many most pronounced in 
their opposition are now loudest in their praise, and the Red Cross 
rejoices that the good work is being done, though itself denied the 
privilege of doing. 




AI.MIRANTK OQUHNPC 



\ITKR TIIK KNOAGEMENT. 



420 THE RED CROSS. 



FORT MCPHERSON, GA. 

Early in August Mr. D, ly. Cobb, on a tour of inspection, arrived 
at Fort McPherson, Georgia, to see if any assistance was required at the 
post, and if an agency could be established. It was found that Mrs. 
Anna E. Nave, wife of Rev. Orville J. Nave, chaplain of the post, and 
their daughter. Miss Hermione Nave, had established a small dietary 
kitchen and were supporting a table for convalescents. The object of 
the kitchen was to provide light and nutritive diet for the soldiers in 
the barracks who were suffering from stomach troubles, dysentery and 
kindred digestive disorders, and to care for the convalescents from 
typhoid fever and other serious sickness, until they were sufficiently 
recovered to be again returned to the company mess. 

As this kitchen was performing an important part in the care of 
the men, and the demands upon it were daily increasing, it was pro- 
posed that it be continued, and its work extended as the demands 
increased, and that the Red Cross would pay all expenses and furnish 
all the supplies required. Rev. Orville J. Nave was accordingly 
appointed as the field agent at Fort McPherson, the kitchen remaining 
under the immediate care and supervision of Mrs. Nave and her 
daughter, assisted by a committee of representative women of the city 
of Atlanta, including Mrs. Governor Atkinson, Miss Mary L. Gordon- 
Huntley, Mrs. Ivoulie M. Gordon, Miss Junia McKinley, Mrs. E. H. 
Barnes, and others. 

Under the auspices of the Red Cross the capacity of the kitchen 
was soon doubled, and the table was maintained until the first of 
October, when assistance was no longer necessary. At the table about 
20,000 meals were served. By this means doubtless many lives were 
saved, for the percentage of relapses among the typhoid fever cases, 
ordinarily quite large, was very small at this post. In addition to the 
supplies of food, medicines and clothing sent to this field, in response 
to the requisitions, some $1400 in cash were expended in support of 
the table and ir furnishing those things which were at times needed 
quickly, and which could be purchased in the local markets at Atlanta. 

A stenographer was also furnished, so that Dr. Nave might be 
able to answer the many inquiries from parents and relatives of men 
in the hospitals, and attend to the ordinary correspondence connected 



FORT Mcpherson, ga. 



421 



with the work. Seven nurses were supplied to assist in the hospital 
work. Dr. Nave in his report says: 



The importance of this work, as a supplement to that done by the government 
for the relief of the sick, cannot be overstated. An institution, such as an army 
hospital, deals with the sick by masses. Much nmst be left to subordinates, many 
of whom have little or no experience in caring for the sick. The system is devised 
for the many. But, where many are sick, a percentage of the patients cannot 
regain health without special care. The work done by the Red Cross at Fort 
McPherson was that which could not be done effectually by institutional methods. 
Furthermore, those who assisted in the work were actuated solely by philanthropic 
motives. They therefore brought elements to their work that employes too often 
lack, elements of gentleness and love. Two thousand soldiers in as many homes, 
nursed back to health, live to love and honor the Red Cross in memory of 
the helping hand sent to them and administered through the hospital at Fort 
McPherson. The total cash expenditures, including the cost of maintaining the 
kitchen, was I2242, 



To Dr. Nave, his wife and daughter, and to the Atlanta Com- 
mittee of the Red Cross, great credit is due for the efficient manner in 
which the auxiliary work at this point was carried on. Acting with 
discretion, and with loyalty to the principles of the Red Cross, they 
have carried their work to a successful conclusion without a com- 
plaint from any source. 




U. S. WAR SHIPS BEFORE 
THE ENTRANCE TO SAN- 
TIAGO HARBOR. 



422 Tim RED CROSS 



CAMP HOBSON, GA. 

At Camp Hobson, Lithia Springs, Ga., a diet kitchen was alsa 
maintained, under the direction of Miss Junia McKinley, assisted by 
the Atlanta. Conmiiltee of the Red Cross, of which the following accounl 
is received: 

The diet kitchen was opened here on Monday, August 9, and 
remained in operation three weeks, at tlie expiration of which time the 
camp broke up. During the first week after the kitchen was estab- 
lished, when detachments from the vSixth, Seventh, Eighth, Twenty- 
first and Twenty-fifth regiments were in camp, 11 76 meals were served. 
The next week orders were received for the removal of the Eighth and 
part of the other regiments to Montauk Point, consequently the number 
of convalescents was reduced, but during the second and third week 
2066 meals were served, making a total of 3242 meals served at tlie 
table and in the hospital during the time the kitchen was in operation. 
The meals were furnished to convalescents in the hospital, men relieved 
from duty but not sick enough to be in the hospital, and to the hospital 
corps. The table meals consisted of the following: For breakfast, 
cereals, coffee, tea, fresh milk, eggs, toast, bread and butter. For 
dinner, soups, bouillons, rice and milk, eggs, crackers, bread and fresh 
milk, coffee, California fruits (canned), wine, jelly or simple dessert. 
Supper was the same as breakfast, with the addition of stewed fruit. 
To patients in hospital, beef tea (made from fresh beef as well as 
extracts), soft-boiled eggs, cream toast and fresh milk was served at 
regular hours. 

The only paid help were two men and one woman, the latter lived 
near the camp and reported for duty at first meal call and remained 
until dining tent and kitchen were in order. The other work in 
kitchen was gratuitously done by Atlanta members of Red Cross 
Society, assisted by Mrs. Edward H. Barnes, Miss Loulie Gordon 
Roper (niece of General J. B. Gordon) , Miss Emmie McDonnell, Miss 
Estelle Whelan, Mrs. George Boykin Saunders, all of Atlanta, and the 
ladies from Sweetwater Park Hotel, who came over daily from the 
hotel, about half a mile distant from camp, and assisted in serving 
table meals, also in carrying delicacies to hospitals and distributed flowers 
among the patients. 



CAMP HOBSON, GA. 423 

It affords us pleasure to acknowledge the uniform courtesy of the 
army officials, especially the commandant, Major Thomas Wilhehu, 
Chief Surgeon Major E. L. Swift, Assistant Surgeons Street, Bak and 
Johnson and Lieutenant Norman, quartermaster. Major Wilhelm had 
our kitchen built and fly tent for dining hall put up in a few hours 
after our arrival, detailed men to help whenever needed in kitchen, 
and with finest courtesy assured us of his appreciation of what was 
being done to add to the comfort of his sick and convalescent men. 

Besides the regular kitchen work at Camp Hobson, the Red Cross 
furnished for a short time to the hospitals one special nurse (Miss 
McKinley) and one trained nurse (Miss McLain), who remained until 
our last patients were sent to Fort McPherson General Hospital and 
went with them in the hospital train, ministering to their wants until 
they were transferred to their respective wards there. In this connec- 
tion we think proper to state that many of our Camp Hobson patients 
now in Fort McPherson Hospital, one of the best equipped and best 
managed hospitals in the country', assure us that they can never forget 
the unfailing kindness of Chief Surgeon Swift and assistants, the faith- 
ful care of their Red Cross nurses, nor the delicacies furnished by the 
diet kitchen at Camp Hobson. 

The Red Cross having authorized Miss McKinley to furnish any- 
thing necessary for the sick, medicines, fine whiskey and hospital 
supplies were ordered by telephone from Atlanta, as there was some 
delay in shipment of government supplies, the orders were promptly 
filled and proved important factors in improving hospital wards. Cloth- 
ing was furnished to some of the Camp PIcbson men who were left 
behind and could not draw needed articles of clothing as their " descrip- 
tive lists" had not been furnished. When the Twenty-first Regiment 
left for the North coffee was served on the train to the entire regiment 
in second section. Most of the ice used after the diet kitchen was 
established was furnished through Mr. Percy R. Pyne, of New York, 
who kindly supplied what was needed. Thanks are due G. F. Mat- 
thews & Co., of New York, who wrote that they would furnish all the 
tea needed in the kitchen, but as the camp was about to break up, their 
kind offer was not accepted. 

Special thanks are due to H. W. Blake, manager of Sweetwater 
Park Hotel at Lithia Springs, for many courtesies extended, when our 
milkman was late, or our groceries (ordered from Atlanta) were 
delayed, he furnished fresh milk and eggs for the patients until our 
supplies arrived. Mrs. Blake sent daily from the beautiful hote. 



424 



THK RFJ) CROSS. 



gardens, flowers for hospitals and dining table, also for distribution in 
hospital trains before leaving Camp Hobson. 

In conclusion, we can venture to assure you that while the time of 
our work at Camp Hobson was short, great good was accomplished, the 
improvement of convalescents who took meals at the kitchen was very 
rapid, owing to the well prepared and nourishing food furnished them. 
The surgeons, as well as hospital stewards, were much gratified at 
marked improvement in hospital wards after the arrival of Red Cross 
nurses. 

Upon the departure of every hospital train, we served iced milk to 
fever patients, milk toast to those not restricted to liquid diet, and 
supplied milk and stimulants for their journe}'. We thank the Red 
Cross for the privilege of assisting in their relief work for our soldiers 
at Camp Hobson, whose appreciation for all that was done for them was 
unbounded and their gratitude a delight to those who ministered t( 
their wants. 




MARIE TERESA" AFTER THE ENGAGEMENT. 



ST. PAUL, MINN. 425 



ST. PAUL, MINN. 

The story of the Red Cross of St. Paul, Minn., is briefly told in 
the report by Miss Caroline M. Beaumont, the recording secretary: 



The St. Paul Red Cross Aid Society was organized on the ninth of May, 1898, 
shortly after the beginning of the war, pursuant to a general call for aid, with Mr. 
A. S. Tallniadge as president, and a full board of officers. It was at first intended 
to form a regular auxiliary of the Red Cross, directly tributary to the National 
Organization, and distribute supplies through headquarters only. But the fact that 
the State volunteer regiments were actually in need of immediate aid to equip 
them to leave for points of mobilization, induced the society to turn their attention 
to local needs first. 

The Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Minnesota Volunteers were first 
furnished with hospital supplies, delicacies for the sick, and all those necessary 
articles which the government does not suppl}', or furnishes only in meagre 
quantities. Working headquarters were established, requests for donations were 
published which met with immediate response, which testified to the generosity of 
ihe citizens of St. Paul and surrounding towns. Successful entertainments were 
also given, sewing and packing committees were appointed, and women from all 
over the city gave freely of their means, their time and their efforts, as they 
thought of a husband, a son or a dear one in far away Cuba or Manila. The 
patriotism and loyality of the men of Minnesota was shared and often inspired by 
the women who gave so freely. The women of St. Paul with willing hands and 
loving hearts, have shared in the glories of the war, and the sorrows of personal 
loss has been mitigated by pride of race, and the love of a country that has borne 
such soldiers and sailors as our brave boys. 



Not in Minnesota alone, but in all the States, the willing hands 
and loving hearts of the women of America have been among the 
foremost in affording relief to the sick and wounded. At home in the 
auxiliaries, in the hospitals, on the transports and at the front, wher- 
ever sickness and suffering called. 

Early in the campaign they seemed to awaken to the true meaning 
and the great mission of the Red Cross, and, setting before them the 
standard, they have followed it from one field of suffering to another. 
True soldiers of humanity, they have labored earnestly and incessantly, 
and have proven themselves worthy to wear the emblem of their loving, 
faithful service — the Red Cross of Geneva. 



4j6 THK red cross. 



MONTAUK POINT, L. I. 

At the request of the New York ReHef Committee, the executive 
committee of the Red Cross appointed Mr. Howard Townsend as the 
field agent at Montauk Point, Long Island, under whose supervision 
the work of the Red Cross at this important station was admirably 
conducted. Mr. Townsend in his report says: 

The Red Cross appeared on the ground on Sunday, August 7, 
1898, and its representative remained there permanently after August 
10. The first, and in some respects the most important work, was the 
delivery of a daily supply of pure water to the government officials at 
the camp. For the first ten days the most serious problem was how 
to obtain good water, and until the great well was dug, the hospitals 
were supplied by the Red Cross. Ten thousand gallons of Hygeia 
water were delivered at the camp, and four tank cars brought dail}' 
from Jamaica sufficient spring water to prevent a water famine. 

There was important work to be done also in connection with the 
general hospital, furnishing to it such supplies as were rendered neces- 
sary by the hurry and confusion of the first two weeks of the camp's 
existence. Cots, clothing, bed-clothing, household appliances and 
cooking utensils, refrigerators and other articles, in short a large part 
of the things necessary for a hospital. All of these things were 
promptly supplied, through the quick communication established with 
the Red Cross supply depot in New York City, and the system of 
placing orders by telegraph, by which supplies most needed were often 
on hand within a few hours after the need was discovered. 

Delicacies, fruits and milk were furnished to the hospitals until the 
government itself was able vto meet the demand in this direction. 
Although the quarantine regulations prevented the Red Cross from 
being in constant attendance at the detention hospital, yet we kept it 
abundantly supplied with delicacies, and quite often with necessities. 
Many tons of supplies were furnished, including food, clothing and 
stimulants. 

The necessity arising for trained nurses at the general hospital, 
the services of twenty trained women nurses were offered about August 
16, their salaries and all expenses to be paid by the Red Cross. The 
Secretary of War promptly directed the acceptance of the offer, although 



MONTAUK POINT, L. I. 429 

insisting that the government should pay all expenses. Since that 
time there have been as many as one hundred and forty nurses in the 
hospital at one time, in addition to about one hundred and ten Sisters of 
Charity. These women nurses uniformly conducted themselves with 
decorum in the camp, and their services undoubtedly saved the lives 
of many patients. All the nurses, except the Sisters of Charity, were 
furnished through the instrumentality of the Red Cross. The division 
hospitals were established later in the history of the camp, and these 
were also supplied with suitable provisions, delicacies, medical stores 
and instruments, and Red Cross nurses. 

The Red Cross yacht arrived at Camp Wyckoff on the eleventh of 
August with the first load of supplies. The boat was furnished for the 
use of the Red Cross by the Relief Committee of the Red Cross in New 
York. This vessel is admirably fitted for carrying a small number of 
sick people, and was offered to the government by the relief committee, 
and has been in steady use as a hospital ship, conveying fifteen invalids 
at a time to the various hospitals along the Connecticut coast and in 
New York City. 

After the first confusion incident to the establishment of the camp, 
the Red Cross extended its field to include a visit to the regimental 
hospitals, which were discovered to be in great need of food and equip- 
ment suitable for sick, particularly in the hospitals of the infantry 
divisions. The assistant agent, Dr. Brewer, and Mr. Samuel Parrish, 
of Southampton, N. Y., devoted themselves particularly to daily visits 
to the regiments, and were able to materially help the regimental sur- 
geons in their discouraging work, hampered as they were by lack of 
medical stores and equipment. 

The auxiliary for the maintenance of trained nurses sent to the 
camp Mrs. Willard, a dietary expert, who, in conjunction with the 
Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Association, and with the assistance of 
Dr. Prescott, established diet kitchens in the various hospitals, and 
supplied the patients with such satisfactory diet that the government 
agreed to pay the expense of this part of the work. 

Another branch of work was carried on by the Red Cross and 
which appealed particularly to the sick, which was an attempt made to 
answer, each day, inquiries from all parts of the country concerning men 
from whom their relatives and friends had heard nothing perhaps since 
the army left Cuba. 

Another division of the work was that concerning the feeding of 
the sick and hungry men arriving on the transports. Dr. Magruder, 
24 



430 THE RED CROSS. 

the chief quarantine officer, gave much of his time to this part of the 
service, carrying continually in his boats stores of Red Cross provisions 
and delicacies with which he supplied those ships that were in quaran- 
tine and suffering most from lack of food. At the quarantine dock, 
where the sick men were landed. Captain Guilfoyle of the Ninth Cavalry 
rendered most efficient service in helping the sick, while at the same 
time enforcing the quarantine regulations. 

At the railroad dock an important part of this work was carried on. 
There Dr. and Mrs. Valentine Mott were stationed day after day as 
the transports unloaded their men. Captain Edwards, of the First 
United States Cavalry, had already volunteered to aid and, by order of 
Major-General Young, he was permitted to have his men assist. Every 
regiment that landed stacked arms, and in single file passed by a tent, 
erected by the military officials, where each man was given a glass of 
milk, or a cup of beef tea, and in some instances the men volunteered 
the statement that they were too weak to have marched to the hospital, 
and could have gone no further but for this friendly help at the dock. 

In the meantime, at the railway station, the men going on sick 
furlough frequently collapsed just before the departure of the train, or 
became faint through want of food. Here the Red Cross arranged 
that every sick man should be supplied with milk, and, where it was 
necessary, given a few ounces of whiskej^ so as to enable him to con- 
tinue his journey. The increasing number of furloughed men required 
the establishment of an emergency hospital near the railway station, 
and this was installed in two tents erected for the Red Cross by the 
army officers. 

These tents at times sheltered for the night as many as twenty 
sick men who were unable to catch the train, and who would otherwise 
have been obliged to .sit up in the station until morning. This work, and 
the emergency hospital, were under the charge of Miss Martha Draper. 

Owing to the cheerful recognition given to the Red Cross, when 
the camp was first opened, due to the courtesy of Major-General 
Young, the Red Cross was able to enter into a far broader sphere of 
usefulness than would otherwise have been possible. We are also 
particularly indebted to Captain Chase, of the Third Cavalry, Captain 
Guilfoyle, of the Ninth Cavalry, and Captain Fuller, of the First 
Cavalry, for their constant endeavors to aid the representatives of the 
Red Cross in carrying out their work of supplementing the efforts of 
the government, to relieve the suffering and in ministering to the 
comfort of the men and officers of the Fifth Army Corps. 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 



The States of the Pacific coast, Washington, Oregon, California 
Nevada and others, have taken a very prominent part in the rehef 
work during the war, under the Red Cross. It is yet too soon to write 
the story of the great service they have rendered, for the work still 
continues and only partial reports are at hand. In the latter part of 
June the following letter was received by the chairman of the executive 
committee of the Red Cross, from Mrs. ly. L. Dunbar, .secretary of the 
Red Cross of San Francisco : 



Dear Sir : — Referring to ni}' letter ot a few days since, I enclose herewith 
summary of the Red Cross work in California to date, which I trust will prove of 
interest to you. 

You will note that there has been a generous response by the citizens of 
California to the call for funds with which to establish the work of the Red Cross. 

This society seems to have sprung into life fully equipped for any emergency. 
Committees have been formed. Ten to twelve thousand dollars on hand availabl^ 
for further use ; .soldiers welcomed on arrival with friendly words and good cheer; 
none have left the port of entry for their long march to the camping ground 
without a good breakfast furnished by the Red Cross ; further comforts provided 
while in camp, atid physical welfare carefully looked after. 

Without working on constitutional lines, not having to this date received 
details of the plan of operation as carried out under the rules or regulations of the 
American National Red Cross, we have adopted common sense methods as seem 
proper in war times, or as would suggest themselves in case of any great public 
calamity, not standing on the order of doing, but doing as occasion seems to 
require. 

The primarj' movement toward organization was the result of a desire to 
equip our National Guard to a war footing, it having been pointed out to a few 
leaders in charitable and patriotic work after the first call for troops that the need 
existed for medical supplies and surgical appliances in the National Guard to 
properly outfit them to meet all contingencies. At that time they were not aware 
that the Spaniards were so poor at target practice as they proved to be at Manila. 
While it is the province of the State to supply above needs, the Legislature was 
not in .session, time was limited, ships for Manila were soon to sail, therefore it 
seemed proper not to wait on uncertain legislation, and it was resolved and inmie- 
diately made cficctive to supply above needs which was done, involving the expen- 
diture of three thousand dollars. 

Referring to the minutes of the Red Cross Society of San Francisco, we find a 
communication was forwarded to Washington, placing all resources at the service 
of the government. The supplies for the National Guard, mentioned above, were 



433 THK RED CROSS. 

purchased under the direction of Surgeon-General Hopkins, National Guard of 
California. As the movement enlarged and we learned the intention to concentrate 
large bodies of troops from all over the United States, our work expanded. The 
government was inadequately prepared to take care of so many troops on the 
coast and for some time after their arrival, to prevent positive suffering, the Red 
Cross Society by and with the consent of the United States commanding officers, 
supplied any and everything that seemed to be needed by I'le soldiers for their 
health and comfort. All of the ladies connected with the society vied with each 
other in giving their whole time and attention to the work, and the number of 
letters that have since been received by the society from the soldiers is the best 
evidence of the appreciation of the manner in which this work has been done. 
We erected a Red Cross hospital tent, supplied trained nurses, medical supplies, 
etc., and from that day to this the tent has been occupied by those in need of 
medical attention. 

The matter of sending an expedition to the Philippines was discussed, but as 
we got along in our work we found to do effective work in this connection it was 
necessary to have the authority of the government through the American National 
Red Cross, and my previous letter upon this subject explains in detail our views in 
regard to this expedition. This will remain in statu quo until we hear further from 
you. 

We furnished twenty thousand bandages to the troops, made after patterns 
given to us by the army officers. We arranged with several of the hospitals here 
to receive and care for very sick men, and they have been generous in this respect. 
The French hospital has been very kind. That you may see the scope of our work, 
we have the following committees at work harmoniously under the intelligent 
direction of a most efficient chairman, aided by the noble work on the part of their 
assistants: Hospital Committee, Finance Committee.Nursing Committee, Subscrip- 
tion Committee, Society Badge Committee, Identification Medal Committee, 
Printing, Entertainments, Hospitality, Press, Information. Auditing, Stores, Am- 
bulance, Schools, Clubs. From this you will see that the field has been very com- 
prehensively covered, and as a sample of the work of each committee, I enclose 
herewith the report of the Nursing Committee, from which you can judge the 
nature of the work and how it is conducted by each committee, and I trust that 
this will give you the information required to judge what has been done here, and 
we would be glad to receive such suggestions from you in reference to this matter 
as you, from your large experience, may find necessary to make. 

We hope that your representative will visit San Francisco to confer with the 
State Association. It seems to us necessary. 

In response to this appeal it was decided to send a representative 
of the American National Red Cross to confer with the proposed 
societies of the Pacific Coast, to acquaint them with the rules govern- 
ing the Red Cross in time of war. to explain the relationship that exists 
between such societies and the national body, and to accord to them 
official recognition, so that they might proceed as regular auxiliaries 
of the Red Cross. 



THE RED CROSS OF CALIFORNIA. 433 



THE RED CROSS OF CALIFORNIA. 

The Red Cross of California has, perhaps, been the most promi- 
nent in war relief on the coast, and in the islands of the Pacific. To 
add to the comforts of the men, and to assist in the care of the sick 
and wounded, the people of the State of California have contributed, 
and expended through their own auxiliaries of the Red Cross, over 
one hundred thousand dollars. I here insert, as an example of the 
work done by the people of the Pacific Coast, the report of one of the 
leading central State organizations, the California Red Cross: 

The beginning of Red Cross organization and work in California 
can best be told in the reports of the San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley 
and other societies, as they existed some little time before the State 
Association was formed. In less than one month after the organization 
of the San Francisco Red Cross, the necessity for a central organization 
through which the many societies forming throughout the State could 
work intelligently, became apparent. All were desirous of doing 
something to aid the " Boys in Blue," and realizing the truth of the 
old statement, " In union there is strength," it was decided to form a 
State organization, which all Red Cross Societies would be invited to 
join. An advisory council met on May 16, in the Occidental Hotel, 
and the question of a State organization was thoroughly discussed. 
On May 25 the council again met and final steps were taken toward 
organizing a State Association. It was resolved that the governing 
body of the association should be an executive board, consisting of 
fifteen members, six of whom should be from San Francisco, four from 
Alameda County and five from the State at large, and that the head- 
quarters should be in San Francisco. 

Pursuant to this resolution the following were elected an execu- 
tive board: Mrs. W. B. Harrington, Mrs. W. R. Smedberg, Mrs. J. 
F. Merrill, Mrs. E. R. Dimond, Mrs. L. L. Dunbar, of San Francisco; 
Mrs. J. M. Griffith, of Los Angeles; Mrs. Granville Abbott and Mr. 
F. B. Ginn, of Oakland; Mrs. G. \V. Haight, of Berkeley; Mrs. S. A. 
O'Neill, of Alameda; Mrs. A. Elkuss, of Sacramento, and Mrs. W. 
Baker, of Marin County; leaving two vacancies, which were later 
filled by Mrs. S. F. Lieb, of San Jose, and Mrs. D. H. Webster, of 
Fresno. Several changes have occurred in the board since its forma- 
tion. Mrs. Merrill, having been elected President of the San Francisco 



434 THE RED CROSS. 

Society, resigned from the State Board, and Mr. Adolph Mack was 
elected to fill the vacancy thus caused, Mrs. Granville Abbott and Mr. 
Ginn, of the Oakland Society, resigned, their successors being Mrs. O. 
F. Long and Mrs. J. G. Lemmon. Mrs. Haight, of the Berkeley 
Society, was succeeded by Mrs. Warring Wilkinson, and Mrs. Louis 
Weinman was elected to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of 
Mrs. E. R. Dimond. The officers of the board are Mrs. W. B. Har- 
rington, president; Mrs. J. M. Griffith, vice-president; Mrs. L. L. 
Dunbar, secretary; William E. Brown, treasurer, and Mrs. E. R. 
Dimond, assistant treasurer. 

Later the positions of second and third vice-presidents were created 
and Mrs. Long was elected second vice-president and Mrs. Elkus third 
vice-president. Mrs. Louis Weinman was elected corresponding sec- 
retary. Mrs. Dimond, who had been in the work since its inception, 
was compelled to resign on account of ill health, early in September, 
her positions both as a member of the board and as assistant treasurer, 
the vacancies being filled by the election of Mrs. Weinman, Miss 
Miriam K. Wallis being elected corresponding secretary in place of 
Mrs. Weinman. It was with sincere regret that Mrs. Dimond's resig- 
nation was received, her work, both as assistant treasurer and as a 
member of the board, having been most satisfactory. 

Shorth^ after the formation of the State Association, through the 
kindness of Mrs. P. A. Hearst, two rooms were given us rent free in 
the Examiner Building for headquarters. We owe a very large debt 
of gratitude to Mrs. Hearst, and take this occasion to thank her most 
sincerely for her kindness. Since its organization the executive 
board has held twenty-three meetings, besides these there have been 
two meetings of the association. 

One of the first steps taken by the board was to open a corre- 
spondence with the American National Red Cross, with a view to 
becoming an auxiliary to the parent organization, and also to gain 
official information in regard to the work of the Red Cross. 

While awaiting a reply to our communication a constitution was 
framed and adopted. A circular letter was prepared, giving informa- 
tion in regard to the formation of auxiliary societies, the conditions of 
membership in the State Association and other matters of detail. This 
circular letter, the constitutions of the State Association and the San 
Francisco Red Cross, and a form of constitution for local -societies were 
printed in pamphlet form and sent to all Red Cross .societies through- 
out the State, also to societies in Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, Dakota, 



THE RED CRCXSvS OK CALIFORNIA. 435 

Nebraska, Kansas and Iowa. Applications for membership were rap- 
idly received until we had enrolled loi auxiliary societies. Besides 
these there are a number of Red Cross societies not enrolled which 
have aided us with both money and supplies. A copy of the pamphlet, 
together with a detailed statement of the work of the Red Cross of 
California, was sent to Mr. Stephen E. Barton, vice-president of the 
American National Red Cross, and soon after a response was received, 
expressing pleasure at what had been done and promising that a dele- 
gate should be sent to inspect our work and advise in organizing. 

Judge Joseph Sheldon, the promised delegate, arrived about the 
middle of July; he informed himself fully as to what had been done; 
expressed his surprise that without definite knowledge of the work of 
the American National Red Cross, we had planned our work so closely on 
its lines. Being satisfied with the work, Judge Sheldon recognized 
California Red Cross State Association as an auxiliary to the American 
National Red Cross. Leaving each auxiliary to tell its own story of 
the work it has done, we shall give an account of our own stewardship. 

With the first expedition, two finely trained nurses, Messrs. Waage 
and Lewis, were sent by the San Francisco Red Cross to Manila. The 
:5plendid work of these men, who gave up lucrative positions, and 
volunteered their services, has been told over and over again in letters 
received from both officers and men. Following the formation of the 
State Association, it was decided that it should take charge of the 
nurses, and Mrs. Wendell Easton, chairman of the Committee on 
Nurses, transferred her work to the State Society. Through the 
efforts of Mrs. Easton, aided by Dr. Beverly Cole, a course of lectures 
and clinics was arranged. Fifty or sixty enthusiastic men and women 
were in daily attendance on these lectures. Drs. Cole, Kugeler, 
McCone, Rixford, Stafford, Somers and Weill gave much of their 
valuable time to this work, and aided Mrs. Easton greatly. The 
sincere thanks of the society are again extended to them. 

It was not until the fourth expedition was ordered to Manila that 
an opportunity was given us to send more nurses. Mrs. Easton reported 
four good men available, Dr. F. J. Hart, Leon Crowther, Eugene 
Rosenthal and O. H. J. Schlott, all of whom were engaged at once. 
It being deemed advisable, and strongly urged by army surgeons, it 
was decided to establish on the arrival of this expedition at Manila a 
Field Hospital. A financial agent, and a steward who would take 
charge of the bulk of the sup]>lies for such a hospital, and such funds 
as the society should see fit to place at his disposal, being a necessity, 



436 THE RED CROSS. 

Mr. Sclilott was selected to fill the position. There beinp^ four trans- 
port ships, Dr. Hart was assigned to duty on the " Puebla," Mr. 
Crowther on the " Peru," Mr. Rosenthal on the " Pennsylvania," and 
Mr. Schlott on the " Rio Janeiro." With each of the ships, supplies 
were sent in charg-e of our nurses for the use of the sick men en route. 

In Mr. Schlott's care was also sent the greater portion of an 
equipment for a Field Hospital of 125 beds, and supplies sufficient for 
five or six months' use. The balance of the equipment was sent on 
the " Scandia," as there was not sufficient room on the " Rio Janeiro." 
Five hundred dollars was placed in the Hong-Kong and Shanghai Bank 
to be drawn upon by Mr. Schlott. We have received letters telling of 
the excellent work done by our nurses on the ships. All have arrived 
in Manila and our Field Hospital has been established. A cablegram 
signed by Majors McCarthy and Woodruff, surgeons, was received 
recently apprising us of the success of the work. The State Associa- 
tion had now sent six nurses to the front. Not nearly enough consid- 
ering the reports of sickness among the troops ; it was therefore 
decided, if possible, to send more. The great desire of the board was 
to send women nurses as well as men. 

In the earlier stages of our work, it was decided to take initiatory 
steps toward securing a hospital ship for the Pacific Coast, but in 
response to telegrams sent to the President, and Secretaries of War and 
Navy, we were assured that such a ship would be furnished by the 
government, and the matter was dropped. In August, the ships 
"Scandia" and "Arizona" were purchased by the government, to 
be used for transportating troops and government hospital supplies to 
Manila and to return as hospital ships. We were notified that we could 
send nurses on these ships and steps were taken at once to secure them. 
Shortly after, the office was thrown into a commotion by the announce- 
ment from General Merriam that a limited number of women nurses 
would be sent. Mrs. Easton had a long list of names of nurses who 
had offered their services and were ready to go at a moment's notice. 
Eight of these were: Misses Garlick, Smythe, Ralph, Elsifer, Laswell, 
Shaefer, Mrs. Palm, and Mrs. Leman. The men selected were: Drs. 
Ross, Caldwell, Dwight, and Messrs lyconard. Durst, Kibbel, Heyl, and 
Tanner. Four were sent on the "Scandia," the remaining twelve on 
the "Arizona." We were rejoiced at being able to send the women 
nurses and feel sure they will do excellent work. As many of the 
nurses as are needed will remain on duty at the Field Hospital, the others 
will return with the ships, caring for the sick men being sent back. 



THE RED CROSS OF CALIFORNIA. 437 

We have not as yet had time to receive reports from our a^ent Mr. 
Schlott, but feel assured that the work is in good hands and that our 
Field Hospital at Manila will prove a blessing to many a sick boy. 

No provision having been made by the government, for the care 
of convalescent soldiers, who upon leaving the hospital went back to 
their tents and in their weakened condition in many instances con- 
tracted cold or suffered relapses that perhaps resulted in death, it was 
decided to secure a home where convalescent men could have better 
care. An effort was made to secure a suitable house in the neighbor- 
hood of the Presidio. This being impossible, upon consultation with 
the military authorities, it was decided to build a house at the Presidio. 
General Miller looked over the ground and selected the most eligible 
spot. The idea of erecting the home was taken up most enthusiast- 
ically by the auxiliaries, and the money required was soon in the 
treasury. Messrs Newsom and Meyers kindly donated plans and in 
three weeks from the day of starting, it was finished. It is a one story 
building, containing a large ward, four small rooms, dining and sitting 
room combined, kitchen, office, storerooms, two bath rooms, etc. The 
large ward accommodates twenty beds, the fourth room is used by the 
nurses. 

Requests came quickly from both private individuals and auxil- 
iaries to be allowed to completely furnish one or more beds, so that by 
the time the building was finished the furnishings were ready. Fourteen 
patients were admitted the day of opening and within a few days every 
bed was occupied. It is a most inviting and homelike place, exquisitely 
neat, with health-giving sunlight pouring in all day. Trained nurses 
are in attendance night and day and everything possible is done to bring 
back health and strength. The happiness of the boys is unbounded, 
and their expressions of joy are pathetic. "It's most like heaven" 
was one boy's sentiment. It is talked of in the Division Hospital and 
is the goal to w^hich the sick men look forward. Miss McKinstry who 
has been superintendent since the opening, has done splendid work. 
She received no compensation whatever, other than the gratitude of her 
charges and the high commendation of the surgeons. 

The sincere thanks of the executive board are extended to Miss 
McKinstry, and it is with deep regret that her resignation, which she 
was compelled to .send in because of illness in her family, was accepted. 
Sixty-three men have been cared for in the home, and thirty-seven 
discharged. They are under the care of Major Surgeon Matthews, of 
the Division Hospital, who regulates their coming and going. He 



438 THE RKI) CROSS. 

expresses himself in most uiuiualified terms of praise of Miss McKin- 
stry's work, and also of the Ijenefit the home has been to the boys. 

All of the troops leaving for Manila have been sr.pplied with 
identification medals by the State Society, irrespective of the States 
from which they came. In several instances the money expended for 
these has been refunded by either the governor of the State, or Red 
Cross societies. The executive board desires to express its sincere 
appreciation of the aid it has received from its auxiliaries. All have 
responded promptly and royally to our calls for aid, which have only been 
made when absolutely necessary. It has been our endeavor to expend 
all money sent to us as carefully and judiciously as possible, consider- 
ing the trust placed, in us as sacred. Our treasurer's report will show 
how the mone}' has been expended. Not a dollar has been paid for 
the services of our women since the organization of the association. 
We have been in the office from 9 a. m. until 5 and 6 p. m., gladly 
giving our time and strength for the cause. 

We have endeavored in all our work not to transgress army regu- 
lations. To that end our president has held manj^ conferences with 
Generals Merritt and Merriam, as well as the surgeons in charge. 
They have aided us courteously and kindly in our work, and have 
granted us all the privileges possible, for which we are most grateful. 
We have also kept in touch wntli the American National Red Cross, 
and have reported our work fully. ' 

The parent organization has shown its confidence in us by dele- 
gating the work in the Philippines to our association. Mr. Barton, the 
chairman of the executive board and vice-president of the American 
National Red Cross, has referred all societies in the West to us, advis- 
ing them to work through the California Red Cross. We have in our 
membership a society in Pocatello, Idaho; one in Almo, Idaho; one in 
Corvallis, Oregon; and one in Beatrice, Nebraska. 

The Elko (Nevada) Red Cross has withdrawn to become an auxil- 
iary' of their own State organization. Two societies have disbanded, 
their members were only summer residents, who have returned to their 
city homes. It is our earnest desire that our auxiliary societies will 
not disband, feeling that the war is over. We have assumed certain 
obligations in establishing the Field Hospital at Manila, as well as the 
Convalescent Home at the Presido, and our work cannot cease at this 
time. We sincerely hope the auxiliaries w^ill stand loyally by us as 
they have done in the past. 

A short time since, an appeal was made for a regular monthly 



THE RED CROvSvS OF CALlFdRNlA. 439 

contribution, no matter how small, from each auxiliary. Many of 
the societies have responded, and we hope soon to hear from others. 
We have certain and sure expenses to meet and a variable income is 
rather a source of uneasiness. 

The thanks of the executive board are extended to the Pacific 
Telephone and Telegraph Company for the free use of the telephones; 
to the Western Union Telegraph Company for the free use of their 
wires in the State; to Wells, Fargo & Co., and the Southern Pacific 
Railroad Company for free transportation of supplies. Our demands 
upon them have been heavy, and were generously granted. To the 
press of San Francisco we are most deeply indebted for the generous 
and courteous treatment we have received, and we extend our sincere 
thanks. To the 20,000 people of California, wearing the little badge 
of membership in the Red Cross, we extend cordial greetings and 
thanks for their kind interest in our work. 

We have been helped more than we can tell by the kind words 
and expression of confidence from our auxiliaries. How well we have 
done our work, we leave you to judge. 



Consolidated Financial vStatement of the Red Cross of 
California. 

While this statement is incomplete, inasmuch as reports from all 
the local auxiliaries have not yet been received, it illustrates how 
universal was the organization of the Red Cross in one of the States of 
the far West: 

PLACE. RECEIPTS. 

California Red Cross State Association, Cal. . 122,119.74 

Red Cross Society, San Francisco, Cal 55,408.83 

" " " San Jose, Cal 2,274.66 

" " " Lonipoc, Cal 234.70 

" Palo Alto, Cal 222.90 

" " " Ventura, Cal i93-4o 

" " " San Leandro, Cal 73-50 

" "• " Centerville, Cal 165.90 

" " " Suisun, Cal 405.80 

" " " Tulare, Cal 55-70 

" " " Sacramento, Cal 6,373.43 

" " " Mendocino, Cal 105.10 

" " " Grass Valley, Cal 787.10 

'* " " Berkeley, Cal 1,092.91 



EXPENSES. 


BALANCE. 


^10,472 63 


111,647.11 


33.434- '8 


21,974-65 


1.465.03 


809.63 


124.35 


110.35 


153-15 


69-75 


179-95 


1345 


69.65 


3-85 


133-55 


32.35 


154-65 


251.15 


53-45 


2.25 


2.749.75 


3.623.68 


102.29 


2.81 


57" 09 


216.01 


4«5-37 


607.54 



440 



THE RED CROvSS. 



PLACE. 

Red Cross Society, Sausalilo, Cal. . . 
" " Redwood City, Cal. 

Gait, Cal. . . . 
" " Auburn, Cal. . . 

Santa Cruz, Cal. . 
" " San Diego, Cal. . . 

" " Fresno, Cal. . . 

" " Los Angeles, Cal. 

Walnut Creek, Cal. 

" " Belvedere, Cal. . . 

" " Martinez, Cal. . . 

" " Monterey, Cal. . . 

" Stockton, Cal. . , 

San Rafael, Cal. . 

Colfax, Cal. . . . 

Nevada City, Cal. , 
" " Vacaville, Cal. . , 

" " Calistoga, Cal. . . , 

" " Downieville, Cal. . 

Willow Glen, Cal. , 
" " Hopeland, Cal. . , 

" " New Almaden, Cal. 

" " Marysville, Cal. . 

St. Helena, Cal. . 
" " Dixon, Cal. . . . 

" " Point Arena, Cal. , 

♦' " Pasadena, Cal. . . 



RKCF.If'TS. 


EXPENSES. 


BALANCE. 


$ 612.30 


$ 322.20 


$ 290.10 


335-55 


222 63 


112.92 


6775 


59-04 


8.71 


257-67 


200.77 


56.90 


493-45 


393-60 


99-85 


410.25 


257-39 


152.86 


326.00 


292.30 


33-70 


2,586.28 


1,397.92 


1. 188.36 


171-75 


142.28 


29-47 


310.00 


192.35 


117.65 


233-31 


199.80 


33-51 


3'2.38 


177-95 


134-43 


316.10 


176.00 


140.10 


1,416.55 


750- IQ 


666.45 


ii6.li 


50.00 


66.13 


365-05 


342-77 


22.28 


211.85 


141.26 


70.59 


168.80 


135-53 


33-27 


43.00 


25.16 


17.84 


97-35 


52-40 


44-95 


58.00 


50.05 


7-95 


45.00 


10.10 


34-90 


527.04 


400.56 


126.48 


229.05 


173-25 


55.80 


152.30 


124.17 


28.13 


48.00 


3500 


13.00 


382.14 


29S-58 


83-56 



199,806.72 156,772.25 143,034.47 




THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 441 



THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 

From the Red Cross of Oregon, comes the following report, 
forwarded by Mrs, Levi Young. In transmitting the report Mrs. 
Young says : " While it may be longer than desired, still we feel that 
the eyes of our country have been more particularly turned toward 
Cuba and the relief work done by the eastern branches, while the 
Pacific Coast has been doing :: work second to none. Conditions here 
make it difficult to raise the necessary funds, and every dollar expended 
represents untiring devotion to the cause :" 

The call " to arms " was still ringing through the land, when a 
band of patriotic women responding to an appeal for assistance 
assembled at the armory in Portland, Oregon, on the morning of April 
26, to offer their services to the militarj' board of the State in providing 
material, aid and comfort for the Second Regiment Oregon Volunteers. 

Colonel O. Summers w^as present and briefly explained the object 
of the appeal. He suggested that as speedily as possible a society be 
formed to take up that branch of work which belongs alone to women 
in time of war and consists in providing the requisites for a soldier's 
welfare not laid down in army regulations. 

Temporary offices were chosen, and twelve committees were 
appointed. Each committee consisted of six members, the chairman 
selecting those she desired as helpers. The duty of each committee 
was the personal supervision of one company alphabetically assigned 
to it. 

Final organization was perfected April 27, when the following 
permanent officers were elected : Mrs. Henry E. Jones, president ; 
Mrs. W. A. Buchanan, vice-president; Mrs. F. E. Lounsbur>', recording 
secretary ; Mrs. Martin Winch, treasurer. The executive committee, 
Mrs. O. Summers, Mrs. A. Meier, Mrs. Levi White, Mrs. W. T. 
Gardner, Mrs. B. E. Miller, Mrs. J. E. Wright, Mrs. E. C. Protzman, 
Mrs. R. S. Greenleaf, Mrs. G. T. Telfer and Mrs. J. M. Ordway. 

The name, "Oregon Emergenc}' Corps," was adopted and Mrs. 
W. A. Buchanan, Mrs. Levi Young appointed to draft a constitution. 
This was presented at the next regular meeting and after a slight 
revision, unanimously adopted. 



442 THE RED CROSS. 



Prkamble to Constitution. 

" The Oregon Emergency Corps realizing that its aims and objects 
are far-reaching, will remain a permanent organization to aid not only 
the brave Oregon Volunteers upon land or sea, but assist in the welfare 
of the wives and children, many of whom may need care and support 
while their loved ones are absent. ' ' 

In compliance with the provisions of the constitution, the following 
standing connnittees were appointed : 

Finance Committee. — Mrs. Charles F. Beebe, Mrs. Ben Selling, 
Mrs. H. W. Goddard. 

Auditing Committee. — Mrs. H. W. Wallace, Mrs. James Jackson, 
Mrs. J. PVank Watson. 

Purchasing Committee. — Mrs. H. H. Northrup, Mrs. Adolph 
Dekum, Mrs. B. Blumauer. 

Sczving Committee. — Mrs. Wm. Patterson, Mrs. W. C. Alvord, 
Mrs. A. E. Rockey, Mrs. E. Nollain, Miss T. Rose Goodman. 

Press Committee. — Mrs. Levi Young, Mrs. H. L. Pittock, Miss 
Ida Loewenberg. 

Naval Committee. — Mrs. John Cran, Miss Nina Adams, Miss 
Zerlina Loewenberg, Miss Carrie Flanders, Miss Eena Brickel. 

A suitable badge was adopted and a membership list opened, 
affording all patriotic women an opportunity to enroll their names and 
become active workers of the corps. Regular meetings were held at 
the armory once a week, the executive committee meeting at the call 
of the president as often as the business of the society required. Being 
now in readiness for work, the question arose as to what should be 
done and the most practical way of doing it. To this end the military 
board was consulted and valuable suggestions received from General 
Charles F. Beebe, Colonel James Jackson, Colonel B. B. Tuttle and 
Major Daniel J. Moore, brigade commissary, O. N. G., each advising 
that a regimental fund for the Second Regiment Oregon Volunteers be 
raised; also the making and purchasing of such articles for a soldier's 
knapsack as army quartermasters do not keep in stock. 

A room on First street was placed at the disposal of the society b}- 
Mr. Adolph Dekum, and here the Oregon Emergency Corps' head- 
quarters opened May 5, 1898. Captain R. S. Greenleaf, of Battery A, 
kindl>- detailed members of the company to decorate and make attrac- 
tive the room, loaning for this purpose the historic centennial flag 



TME RKD CROSS OF OREGON. 443 

which, for the first time in over twenty years, passed from the custody 
of the company. Members of the battery reported for duty each 
morning, thus assisting the committee of ladies in charge in many 
ways. 

A telephone was put in by the Oregon Telephone Company, elec- 
tric lights supplied by the General lilectric Company, chairs, tables 
and other furnishings provided by the business houses of the city. 
The Singer Machine Company sent sewing machines for the use of the 
supply committee and work began in earnest. Women from every 
part of the community representing church, club and society organiza- 
tions, enrolled their names and offered their services in the emergency 
call, showing more plainly than words can describe the broadening 
influence of these organizations upon the mother heart of the land. 
Laying aside prejudices, creeds and personal affiliations, they became 
a unit in this patriotic work. Day after day with aching hearts but 
smiling faces they toiled — the membership grew into the hundreds — 
subscriptions came pouring in, the sums ranging from $100 to the 
dimes, nickels and pennies of the children. 

Word was received that the volunteers of Oregon were to be mob- 
ilized at Portland and on April 27, Brigadier-General Charles F. Beebe, 
O. N. G., issued special orders for the preparation of a suitable camp 
within the city limits. The site .selected was the Irvington race track, 
and April 29 one hundred and sixty-one tents were pitched, the name, 
Camp McKinley, adopted and on the morning of April 30, 1898, the 
first company arrived and active camp life began. 

Members of the different committees of the Emergency Corps visited 
the camp daily, consulting with the commanding officers as to the 
health, comfort and needs of the soldiers in their charge. Open house 
was kept at headquarters for the volunteers when in the city and every- 
thing human ingenuity could suggest and loving hearts contribute to 
smooth the pathway from comfortable civil life to the hardship and 
discipline of camp life was done. This was not planned nor worked 
out by one person but by united effort on the part of all, whose kindly 
ministrations grew out of a desire to cheer and encourage these brave 
Oregon volunteers — the flower of the State — who had given up home 
and position, offering their lives to their country in the noble work of 
liberating an oppressed and outraged people. 

Meantime circular letters had been sent to the cities and towns 
throughout the State urging the patriotic women to form auxiliaries for 
the purpose of raising money to swell the regimental fund and also help in 



444 THK RF.D CROSS. 

the purchasing of a flag to be presented to the volunteers by the women 
of the State. 

Hood River was the fir.st to respond with Roseburg, Pendleton, 
Corvallis, Hillsboro, LaFayette, lyaGrande, Hubbard, Weston, Wood- 
burn, Astoria and The Dalles, quickly falling into line. Faithfully 
have these auxiliaries assisted in every line of work that it has been 
found necessary to take up — contributions of money and supplies have 
been given, while in their respective localities a fund has been raised 
to assist the families of the volunteers. Hospital supplies of caps, 
fever belts and cordials are constantly forwarded, "and daily, letters 
are received askirg for instructions. 

On Sunday, May 8, a patriotic and sacred concert was given at 
Camp McKinley to increase the regimental fund that the Emergency 
Corps were raising and the proceeds netted the creditable sum of 
$1399- 35- ^^^ attei:dance of over ten thousand people was an 
evidence of their zeal and desire to contribute their mite toward the 
object. The program was furnished by the First Regiment Band, Miss 
Rose Bloch and Madame Norelli. It was a scene never to be forgotten 
by that vast audience when, at the close of the evening drill, the stars 
and stripes were slowly lowered at the booming of the sunset gun, and 
the long lines of -^-olunteers, motionless as statues, listened as the 
inspiring strains of the Star Spangled Banner floated upon the summer 
air, while the setting sun, kissing the peak of the distant snow-crowned 
mountain, .shed its departing rays like a heavenly benediction upon 
these sons of valor. 

May II, 1898, the urst battalion consisting of Companies A, B, C, 
D, Second Regiment Oregon Volunteers, under command of Major C. 
H. Gantenbein, by order of the War Department, left for San Francisco 
and one week later, May 16, Companies E, F, G, H, I, K, I, and M, 
under command of Colonel O. Summers, broke camp and proceeded to 
join the others at the Presidio to await transportation to Manila. 

To the captains of these respective companies, the Oregon Emerg- 
ency Corps gave one hundred dollars in gold coin as an emergency 
fund. To Major M. H. Ellis, commanding regimental .surgeon in 
charge of the Hospital Corps, v/as given one hundred dollars, also eight 
hundred yards of flannel for bandages. In addition to this, contribu- 
tions from other sources made the available amount fully two thousand 
dollars. 

After the departure of the volunteers for San Francisco the head- 
quarters were transferred from First street to the Armory which the 
military board turned over to the Emergency Corps for their use. 



THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 447 

Here meetings were held, a bureau of information established with a 
committee in charge, and all other business transacted. 

On May 14 an offer was made by the firm of Lipman, Wolfe & 
Co., to turn over their department store to the Emergency Corps upon 
any date they might select. The entire charge of this establishment 
was to be assumed by the organization for one day — ten per cent of 
all sales to go to the regimental fund. To this generous offer was 
added the privilege of serving a mid-day lunch and introducing other 
suitable features that would help to swell the treasury. This offer was 
unanimously accepted and on May 17 the most novel scene ever 
witnessed in - Portland's business history, was presented. Women, 
prominent in charitable and philanthropic work, leaders of society, 
sedate and stately matrons, assumed control of the various depart- 
ments of this large business house, acting as superintendent, assistant 
superintendent, cashier and floor managers, while a hundred or more 
of Portland's fair daughters from early morning till late at night stood 
behind the counters serving customers. The store was gaily decorated 
with flags, bunting and roses; music was furnished by the Kinross 
Orchestra and Columbia Mandolin Quartette. Thousands of pur- 
chasers who had waited for this day surged back and forth through 
the aisles, crowded stairways and elevators in their haste to give their 
ten per cent to the soldiers' fund. The East Indian department which 
was transformed into a most enticing restaurant proved inadequate to 
the demand, as hundreds whom it was impossible to serve, were turned 
away. The result proved the success of the venture, one thousand 
dollars being added to the treasury of the society while the remark 
made by the senior member of the firm that it had " been the happiest 
day in a business career of over thirty -five years," left no other con- 
clusion than that a twofold blessing follows such generous deeds. 

After the departure of the Second Regiment for San Francisco the 
Emergency Corps continued the work of its supply department in 
meeting the wants of the soldiers — not only Oregon volunteers but all 
or any needing assistance. May 23 an appeal was received from a 
member of the Red Cross Society in San Francisco for fever belts and 
sleeping caps as it was impossible to meet the needs for these articles 
then existing. The following telegram was at once sent: 

Red Cross Sociktv, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Greeting:— Count on us; will send one thousand caps and one thousand 
fever belts. OREGON EMERGENCY CORPS. 

25 



44S THE RED CROSS. 

Work was at once begun and in a few days the supplies were 
shipped to i6 Post street. 

The Sewing Committee has continued its labors, hundreds of 
articles being made and furnished to the Second Regiment Engineer 
Corps Oregon recruits and Washington volunteers, etc. 

It has been the privilege of the Oregon Emergency Corps to 
entertain all troops passing through Portland en route to different 
stations on the coast. This was at first done at the Union depot, 
where the soldiers were met by committees and served a substantial 
lunch, consisting of coffee, sandwiches, cake, fruit, etc. In this branch 
of work the Flower Mission, composed of twenty or more young women, 
have rendered valuable assistance in serving refreshments and decorating 
the trains. Tons of flowers have been donated for this purpose and the 
departing soldier has been given a bouquet of Oregon roses in addition 
to his box of lunch. Frequently has a letter accompanied by a box of 
flowers been sent at the request of husbands, brothers and sons to their 
distant homes, and replies received from many have made sweeter the 
saying, " Small service is true service while it lasts." 

After the use of the armory was tendered the corps by the State 
Military Board, the soldiers were met on their arrival at the depot and 
escorted to military headquarters and lunch served in the spacious drill 
hall. The freedom of the building was extended, the gymnasium, 
bowling alley, reading room, etc., affording rest and recreation for all. 

In July the work was found to be increasing so rapidly that it was 
necessary to enlarge the executive staff. To this end the president 
made the following appointments: first assistant, Mrs. Levi Young; 
second assistant, Mrs. H. W. Wallace; assistant to treasurer, Mrs. 
Wm. Patterson; assistant for correspondence, Mrs. Edmund Nollain; 
assistant for recording, Mrs, lyischen Miller. 

Headquarters were again established at 137 First street, to meet 
the request of business men and others who wished to contribute to the 
society and found the armory at an inconvenient distance. 

An honorary membership list was opened with the fee fixed at one 
dollar. This list at present numbers over 300, and among the named 
recorded are those of Captain C. E. Clark, of the battleship " Oregon," 
Hon. Edward Everett Hale, General Longstreet, Hon. Jos. E. Sheldon 
and Mrs. James Shafter. 

The total membership of the society is 1557. Of this number 553 
are members of auxiliary corps, leaving 1004 members for the Portland 
organization. The membership of the various auxiliaries is as follows: 



THE RED CROSvS OF OREGON. 445 

Weston . . . , 27 La Grande 39 

Astoria 69 Hood River 21 

Hillsboro 69 Hubbard 10 

Pendleton 38 Roseburg loo 

Lafayette 33 Woodburn 23 

Corvallis 51 The Dalles 80 



Valuable Service has been rendered the State of Oregon by a mem- 
ber of the corps, Madame A. de Fonfride Smith, who has compiled an* 
" Official Roster " of the enlisted men for 1898. This has been entirely 
her own work and contains a careful histor}' sketch of each member of the 
State Military Board, officers of the Second Regiment and the name of 
every volunteer. This little book is tastefully bound and illustrated with 
views of Camp McKinley and photographs of the officers of each com- 
pany. The author has visited nearly every town in the State from which 
volunteers were recruited circulating the work, while a copy has been 
kept for ever}' man whose name is recorded on its pages. Several 
thousand copies have been sold and the net proceeds are to be a con- 
tribution to the treasury of the Emergency Corps. In work of this 
kind Oregon stands alone, being the only State that is the fortunate 
possessor of so concise and comprehensive history of its brave sons. 

Up to the time of the departure of the Oregon recruits for San 
Francisco, there had been an ample field for the labors of the Oregon 
Emergency Corps in its local work, but it became evident that in order 
to carry out the promises of continued care and attention to the volun» 
teers while in the service of their country; to assist in the relief work 
of furnishing supplies for the hospital ships or sending nurses to care 
for the sick at Manila it was now necessary to have governmental pro- 
tection. This could only be obtained through the agency of the Red 
Cross Society and the question of expediency in this direction was 
considered. On July 23, Judge Joseph vSheldon visited Portland in 
the interests of the American National Red Cross. In an address 
before the Emergency Corps he presented the advantages resulf 
ing to the relief societies of the different States through co-operation 
with this national body, advising affiliation as soon as possible. Action 
was deferred on the part of the society till the next regular meeting in 
order that members might be given an opportunity to investigate for 
themselves. Meanwhile, the executive board held several conferences 
with Judge Sheldon relative to their power to continue local work, and 
their obligations as an organization to the national committee. At a 



450 



THK ri-:d cross. 



regular meeting July 30th the suljject was resumed, and after a presen* 
lation of both sides of the question a unanimous vote in favor of affilia- 
tion resulted. The name of the organization was changed to the 
Oregon Emergency Corps and Red Cross Society and an application 
made to the national committee for proper recognition. The wisdom 
of the step was demonstrated a few weeks later when transportation was 
given by the government for two nurses, Dr. Frances Woods and Miss 
Lena Killiam for Manila. These nurses were outfitted and furnished 
ftinds by the Portland Society and sent forward on the "Arizona " as 
Oregon's representatives in the relief work of caring for her sick or 
suffering volunteers. 

Reports having been received of the sickness and general discom- 
fort of the Oregon recruits at Camp Merritt, the Society, at a meeting 
held August 6, voted to send the president, Mrs. H. E. Jones, and Mrs. 
Levi Young to visit the recruits and inquire into the matter. They 
proceeded at once to San Francisco, spending two weeks in investigat- 
ing conditions and doing whatever their judgment advised to make 
more comfortable their unpleasant surroundings. These recruits, 
whom it was expected would be sent at once to their officers and regi- 
ment, turned out veritable military orphans stranded at Camp Merritt 
and left for weeks to the care of young officers from other regiments. 
Happily this condition is changed, as on the twentieth of August they 
were turned over to the command of an able and experienced officer, 
Major Goodale, of the Twenty -third U. S. Infantry. They have since 
been moved to the Presidio, where surroundings are pleasanter, pend- 
ing orders for their transportation to their own regiment at Manila or 
return to their homes. 

During their stay in San Francisco the representatives of tiie 
Oregon Emergency Corps and Red Cross Society were enabled to look 
into the various lines of relief work of the California society. Many 
courtesies were extended by the officers of the State and local associa- 
tions, valuable suggestions were received, and it was also their privilege 
to attend the meeting of the State Association, held in Golden Gate 
hall, and listen to Judge Sheldon's able address upon the American 
National Red Cross. 

It gives us pleasure to publicly acknowledge the unbounded grati- 
tude of the Emergency Corps of Portland for the many kindnesses 
bestowed by the women of the California Red Cross upon the soldiers 
from Oregon. First, for their attention to the Second Regiment Vol- 
unteers, who, though with them but a few weeks, were the recipients 



THE RED CROSS OF OREGON. 



45» 



of many comforts; but more particularly to the sick or afflicted ones of 
the Oregon recruits for whom they have cared, supplying both medicines 
and delicacies and in other ways providing for their necessities. 

In the space of this article it is impossible to mention in detail the 
many contributions from patriotic citizens throughout the State of 
Oregon. Gifts from corporations, business houses, independent leagues 
and individuals bear testimony to the interest all feel in this great 
relief work, and their confidence in the Red Cross Societ)', through 
which their offerings are dispensed. The press has been our staunch 
and valued friend, freely giving editorials and space to further the 
cause. 

There are no salaried officers, men and women having generously 
given their time from the first day of organization to the present. It 
has been the aim of the officers to faithfully and conscientiously dis- 
charge their duties, realizing the great responsibility and confidence 
reposed in them. 

Each month a carefully prepared report of the proceedings, receipts 
and disbursements of the society has been given the public, and the 
treasurer's report here appended is in full from April 26 to November 5. 

The work of the organization will be carried on in future, as in 
the past, along every line which best serves the interest of those for 
whose benefit it was begun. The treasurer's report shows : receipts, 
$7,526.03 ; disbursements, $6,389.54 ; balance on hand, $1,136.49. 




PANORAMA OF MANILA. 



452 THE RED CROSS. 



THE RED CROSS OF WASHINGTON STATE. 



Extract From the Official Report. 

The tocsin of war started in each community, from which went 
out the brave defenders, a desire to benefit and make soldier life more 
comfortable. As emergency corps, relief corps, or without name, the 
women went to work to do something for the soldiers. The Red Cross 
was a name to most known only in an indefinite way, until reports 
began to come in of grand work done. Not knowing how to proceed, 
groping in the dark, feeling our own way instinctively, we organized 
in Taconia and Seattle. The Seattle Red Cross, desiring a State 
organization, called a convention for August i6, to meet at Seattle, and 
successfully launched the Red Cross of Washington. 

Of the work done much of it has not been reported to the State 
Association, and even the reports represent onlj^ a small part of the work 
done throughout the State. Had all reported to a common centre 
Washington would have made a magnificent showing. As it was, all 
contributions have been sent directly to the company each city was 
directly interested in. Thus much relief given the soldiers materially 
or financially by the State of Washington cannot be stated here, as 
many of the emergency corps and other relief societies have disbanded 
since the cessation of hostilities. However, the Red Cross of Wash- 
ington is effecting auxiliary Red Cross societies all over the State, and 
in the future all relief work in this State will be under the insignia of 
the Red Cross. 

The Red Cross of Washington was organized on August i6, at 
Seattle. The officers are: 



Mrs. John B. Allen, President, Seattle. 

Mrs. Chauncy Griggs, Vice-President Tacoma. 

Mrs. J. C. Haines, Vice-President, Seattle. 

Miss Birdie Beals, Vice-President, La Conner. 

Mrs. Lester S. Wilson, Vice-President, Walla Walla. 

Mrs. Virginia K. Haywood, Vice-President, Spokane. 

Mrs. John C. Evans, Vice-President, New Whatcom. 

Mrs. Francis Rotch, Corresponding Secretary, 1512 Thirteenth ave.. Seattle, 

Miss Helen J. Cowie, Assistant Corresponding Secretary, . . . Seattle. 










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(454) 



THK RKI) CROSvS OF WAvSHINGTON. 455 

Miss Sadie Maynard, Treasurer, 807 North J st. , Tacoma. 

Miss Jessie Seymour, Assistaut Treasurer, Tacoma. 

Miss Marie Hewitt, Recording Secretary 501 North Fourth st., Tacoma. 

Mrs. Everett Griggs, Assistant Recording Secretary Tacoma. 



Seattle Red Cross. 

In answer to a call issued by Mrs. J. C. Haines through the Daily 
Press to all loyal women of Seattle, there were gathered in Elks Hall, 
June 20, 1898, nearly one hundred women, anxious to organize on 
definite lines; the itnivensal sentiment pervailing, that organization 
under the Red Cross banner would result in the most effective work. 
The present officers are: 

Mrs. J. C. Haines, President. 

Mrs. H. E. Holmes, Vice-President. 

Mrs. M^ry M. Miller, Second Vice-President 

Mrs. C. D. Simson, Treasurer. 

Mrs. W. F. Giddings, Recording Secretary. 

Mrs. H. C. Colver, Corresponding Secretary. 

An executive committee was elected, composed of twelve members, 
with the officers ex-officio members of the same. The constitution and 
by-laws were drafted and copies mailed to all local Red Cross Societies 
of Washington. Through the various committees much work has 
been accomplished, the same spirit which prevaded the organization in 
its infancy having increased until the membership now shows two 
hundred and fifty active members. 

It affijrded the Seattle society great .satisfaction to be able to send 
to the national society a check for $500. To the captains of Companies 
B and D, Washington Volunteers, at San Francisco, was sent $350 to 
be used in cases of illness and other emergencies, and to the Indepen- 
dent Battalion, Washington Volunteers, at Vancouver Barracks, was 
sent $100 for similar purposes. In many instances the relief committee 
has drawn upon the emergency fund for the relief of soldiers* families. 
Upon a half day's notice fifty-one lunches were put up by the members 
for a company of voltmteers on their way to San F'ranci.so, and to a 
call from Major L. R. Dawson, for funds to purchase food and milk for 
hospital patients at the Presidio, the society responded with $100. To 



456 THK RKD CROSS. 

the sufferers from the New Westminster fire was disbursed over $400, 
collected by the Seattle Red Cross women, and $50 was donated by the 
society itself. Carloads of food, cots and needful clothing were sent 
and distributed by a committee chosen by the society. The chairman 
of the Sewing Committee has expended $401.43 for material for Red 
Cross work and much besides has been donated by Seattle merchants. 
From this material have been made 232 denim pillowcases, 843 flannel 
bandages, 408 eider-down caps and 248 housewives (the latter filled 
with necessaries and comforts), besides hospital night shirts, handker- 
chiefs and a variety of different bandages. To Dr. L. R. Dawson, 
surgeon of the First Washington Volunteers, was sent a dozen boxes 
of hospital supplies and delicacies to be shipped on the transport 
"Ohio" with that portion of our troops, and the society has also 
decided to take charge of a Christmas box to be sent to the Washington 
Volunteers at Manila. 



Tacoma Red Cross. 

The Tacoma Red Cross was the first Red Cross organization in the 
State of Washington, and has done most effective work. The officers 
are: 

Mrs. Chauncy Griggs, president; Mrs. A. B. Bull, first vice- 
president; Mrs. G. S. Holmes, second vice-president; Mrs. Lincoln 
Gault, third vice-president; Mr. Chester Thorne, treasurer; Mrs.W. C. 
Wheeler, assistant treasurer; Mrs. Frank Sharpe, recording secretary; 
Mrs. H. M. Thomas, corresponding secretary. 

The Tacoma Red Cross has 400 members. Receipts, $684.82. 
Disbursements, $592.08. 



Walla Walla Red Cross. . 

In June, 1898, a temporary organization was effected at Walla 
Walla, known as the Red Cross Aid, with Mrs. J. H. Stockwell as 
chairman. This Aid Society cared for and entertained 229 soldiers 
passing through, and forwarded to Company I, several boxes of 
bandages, towels, handkerchiefs, etc. On September 21, 1898, the 
Red Cross Aid became a permanent organization under the name of 
the Walla Walla Red Cross and the following officers were elected: 



THE RED CROSS OF WASHINGTON. 457 

Mrs. Lester S. Wilson, . President. 

Mrs. Thomas H. Brents, Vice-President. 

Mrs. D. T. Kyger Vice-President. 

Miss Grace O. Isaaca, . • " Recording Secretary. 

Mrs. Eugene Boyer, Corresponding Secretary. 

Mrs. George Whitehouse, Treasurer. 



Upon notice that Company I was to start for Manila, the Red Cross 
of Walla Walla forwarded money and delicacies to the value of $100. 
Since permanent organization, the membership has more than doubled, 
and now mnnbers about one hundred and fifty. Receipts, $1,408.00. 
Disbursements, $1,058.00. 



Spokane Red Cross. 

A meeting for the organization of a Red Cross Auxiliary' was 
called in Spokane, Washington, on July 11, 1898. Two days later the 
final organization was completed and officers elected to serve until the 
annual meeting in October: 

The work of the society has been largely along the lines of raising 
funds for supplies, and to aid the families of the two companies of 
volunteers, Company O and L, both of which have gone to Manila. 
Supplies of underclothing, socks, towels, soap, combs, sleeping caps, 
fever bands and other necessary articles have been sent. Five hundred 
pounds of jellies were sent to Manila. Chri.stmas packages have been 
sent to every man in the two companies. The sewing committee is 
steadily at work on hospital supplies. The membership is 173. 

The present officers are: 



Mrs. Virginia K. Hayward President. 

Mrs. George Turner Honorable Vice-President 

Mrs. F. F. Emery, First Vice-President. 

Mrs. H. Salmorason Second Vice-President. 

Mrs. A. J. Shaw, Corresponding Secretary. 

Mrs. L. J. Birdseye Recording Secretary. 

Mrs. N. W. Durham, Treasurer. 

Receipts |595i-78 

Disbursements . 355-07 

Cash on hand I596.71 



458 Till-: ri-:d cross. 

To Miss Birdie Beals belongs tlic credit of organizing the La 
Conner Auxiliary, and also the Bellinghani Bay Auxiliary at New 
Whatcom. Tlie La Conner Auxiliary was most active to respond to 
the call of the Red Cross. They sent large boxes of fruits and jellies 
to the Hospital of the First Regiment Washington Volunteers, made 
caps and bandages, etc., and contributed towards the outfit for the 
First Regiment Washington Volunteers. 

The Bellinghani Red Cross was organized by Miss Birdie Beals, 
President of the La Conner Auxiliary. They have adopted the consti- 
tution and by-laws, selected officers and are ready to do active work. 
The officers are: Mrs. John A. Evans, president; Mrs. E. S. McCord, 
vice-president; Mrs. S. J. Craft, recording secretary; Mrs. T. J. 
Kershaw, corresponding secretary; Mrs. E. W. Purdy, treasurer. 

The report from the Emergency Corps throughout the State is 
very incomplete, as many corps who have done good work have sent 
directly to the Company of soldiers raised in that particular town, and 
not reported to the Red Cross at all. 

The following is an extract from the report of the Emergency 
Corps: 



The Emergency Corps of the State of Washington, having accomplished, as 
far as lay within its power, the work for which it organized, has, through its 
officers and executive board and with the consent of its members as represented at 
the meeting of October ir, decided to disband. 

At the time of its organization the corps pledged its undivided effort to the 
service of the volunteers of the State of Washington during the war between the 
United States and Spain. That emergency having happily ended in victory and 
peace, the society feels that its special work is over. To those of its members who 
can still devote time and strength to patriotic and humane effort, the president and 
the executive board cordially suggest that they enroll themselves as members of 
the Tacoma Red Cross society organized for permanent effort in the broad field of 
the nation's and the world's need, and when the aid and support that they can 
give will result in practical benefit to any cause to which it is applied. 

In closing the work of this organization the officers and executive board wish 
to make a public report of what has been accomplished during the four months of 
its existence. In absolute harmony the society has worked together, members and 
officers alike. The following record, taken from the secretary's last report, speaks 
for itself in proof of the patriotic energy which has inspired its labors. Since 
June I the Eniergency Corps of the State of Washington has distributed for the use 
of state volunteers: Flannel abdominal bandages, towels, suits of pajamas, night 
shirts, suits balbriggan underwear, hospital pads and shirts, hospital pillow cases, 
and linen handkerchiefs. 



THE RKI) CROSvS OF WASHINGTON. 459 

In closing the work of the orgaiii/ation the officers and executive board desire 
to express their appreciation of tlie aid and sympathy extended theni by the public 
and especially by the niercliaiits of Tacoina, whose donations of money and mate- 
rial assisted so largely in what has l>een accomplished. To the Tacoma Chamber of 
Commerce they are greatly indebted for the use of a room for headquarters and 
for work and storage rooms. To the Northern Pacific Express Company, and to 
the Northern Pacific Steamship Company, they owe many thanks for aid and 
courtesy. It is impossible in this short summary to enumerate every instance of 
cordial sympathy and support which has cheered and aided the Emergency Corps 
in its labors; from all sides encouragement came and substantial help. 

In dissolving the bond between officers and members now remains in each 
heart a cordial memory of mutual interest and sympathy, respect and confidence. 

To the press of Tacoma the Emergency Corps acknowledges its many obliga- 
tions. To the press and citizens of the State at large it is also indebted for much 
of its power of usefulness and would express an earnest appreciation and gratitude. 
The following letter was received from Captain Sturges, of Company C, stationed 
at the Presidio, San Francir^co: 

To the Ladies of the IVashington Emergency Corps, Tacoina, IVashington: 

It is with a feeling of almost inexpressible gratitude that the officers and mem- 
bers of Company C, PMrst Washington Volunteer Infantry, try to express to you 
their warmest and most lasting thanks for your kind and very useful donations and 
your expressions of sympathy and interest. The many kindnesses of their Emer- 
gency Corps have done nmch to help the soldiers more easily to bear their many 
hardships and to more enjoy their few comforts, knowing that kind hearts are 
interested in their welfare. 

We unite iu wishing you all the reward that your noble work so justly merits. 
Very thankfully yours, E. C. Sturges, 

Cai>tatn Commanding. 



^6o THE RED CROSS. 



PORTO RICO. 

The labors of the Executive Committee of the Red Cross in New 
York were not confined to the work in the camps. Upon them devolved 
the larger share of the responsibility for the administration of relief 
everywhere, includirg the vast correspondence and the myriad details 
that arise in connection with the systematic management of a work so 
far-reaching and varied as the auxiliary relief by the Red Cross in time 
of war. 

Outside of the United States, the relief of the sick and wounded in 
war was not confined to Cuba and the Philippines, but was extended to 
Porto Rico. Horace F. Barnes, of Boston, Mass., was appointed by 
the committee as the field agent of the Red Cross in Porto Rico, and 
taking with him a large assortment of supplies, sailed on the transport 
" Concho " for Ponce on the thirteenth of August. Later, General W. 
T. Bennett, of Philadelphia, Pa., was appointed to assist Mr. Barnes. 
All requisitions from Porto Rico were promptly filled by the committee 
and the relief continued so long as any necessity for it remained. Of 
the field work in Porto Rico the following report is made: 



Report by Horace F. Barnes. 

Red Cross relief work for Porto Rico began with the arrival of a 
detachment of female nurses before the American and Spanish armies 
had ceased hostilities. These nurses, however, were ordered back to 
the States at once as attendants for returning sick and wounded 
soldiers. On the tenth of August the Executive Committee commis- 
sioned me as the Red Cross field agent for Porto Rico, and put me in 
charge of a cargo of relief supplies then on the steamship " Concho," 
which sailed from New York on August 13. 

With the aid of a good military map of the island, and of informa- 
tion obtained before sailing as to the location of the different divisions 
of the army, during the voyage the line of Red Cross work was deter- 
mined. The army was in three divisions. The eastern, under General 
Brooke, was above Guayama; the central, under General Wilson, was 
at Ponce and vicinity; the western, under General Schwan, was in 
Mayaguez and the neighboring region. 



PORTO RICO. 461 

It seemed to be the natural course to visit these divisions as soon 
as possible, ascertain their sanitary condition, give supplies as needed 
for the sick, wounded and convalescent, and then, after supplying the 
American forces, to visit the Spanish camps and hospitals and provide 
for them. Afterwards headquarters for stores and operations should 
be fixed at the most central convenient port for receiving goods from 
New York and distributing them with least cost and difficulty to all 
army stations. The plan outlined was closely followed, circumstances 
making it easily possible to do so. The " Concho " arrived at Ponce 
on August 20. 

Two days afterward the ship with the cargo of Red Cross stores 
still unbroken on board, started for Arroyo, the port of Guayama, 
about thirty miles east of Ponce, where General Brooke's command 
had its base of operations. There a large selection of relief supplies 
was left in charge of Chief Surgeon Huidekoper, of the division 
hospital at Guayama. Nothing could have been more auspicious as 
the beginning of Red Cross work in Porto Rico than this quick and 
free transportation of supplies to a distant command, with the minimum 
of labor and delay, at a period of most urgent need. 

Returning, the "Concho" reached Ponce again on the twenty- 
fifth. The same night, on ascertaining that the steamship "Alamo" 
was to proceed the next day to Mayaguez and Arecibo, I arranged for 
lighters to put a cargo on board, to be divided between these two ports, 
intending the first for General Schwan's command, and the second 
for the Sixth Massachusetts, at Utuado, the latter to be landed at 
Arecibo. The Surgeon of the Sixth Massachusetts was accordingly 
notified by wire to have wagons sent up to Arecibo to meet the 
"Alamo" on her arrival. Every thing worked admirably. The 
"Alamo" reached Mayaguez August 27, and ample .supplies for the 
hospital of General Schwan's command were landed at Mayaguez, and 
delivered to Dr. Bailey K. Ash ford, surgeon in charge, who expressed 
most cordial and grateful appreciation. 

Thence the "Alamo" proceeded, August 29, to Arecilx), which 
port was reached on the same day. There the wagons of the Sixth 
Massachusetts from Utuado were found in readiness to receive the 
consignment of goods brought for them, which were put in charge of 
Assistant Surgeon of the Sixth Massachusetts, Dr. F. A. Washburn. 
At Arecibo was a strong force of Spanish troops, having a military 
and a Red Cross hospital. The Spanish military commander, the 
captain of the port, and the chief surgeon of the Red Cross hospital, 



462 THK RED CROSS. 

wrsonally gave the kindest attentions, conducting me to all the 
military quarters and hospitals, yet while expressing thanks for the 
offer of goods from the American Red Cross, they declared they wen 
not in need, as was evidently the case. 

On the same day, August 29, my visit and departure having been 
\v'ired to the Spanish Governor General Macias at San Juan, I took 
train thither, reaching the capital in the evening. The next day with 
an interpreter I visited General Macias at his headquarters, and was most 
cordially received, given the freedom of the city, especially including 
all the forts, barracks and hospitals, and on inquiry allowed if I chose 
to make any photographs of the military works, concerning which he 
said it did not matter as thej^ would be so soon in the hands of the 
Americans. Five days were spent in San Juan. The forts, barracks 
and hospitals of the Spaniards were visited, but all need of American 
Red Cross supplies was courteously disavowed, evidently with truthful- 
ness, for signs of want were nowhere apparent. General Macias 
kindly gave me a pass through all the Spanish military guards and civil 
jurisdictions under his command throughout the island of Porto Rico. 

"^Vith this pass I started from San Juan September 2 by coach for 
Ponce. At Caguas I was politely invited by the German Consul General 
of Porto Rico, Herr Adolph Rauschenplat, who had been traveling 
alone in his coach behind me from San Juan, to join him in his carriage, 
and send mine back to San Juan. The invitation was heartily accepted. 
We dined together at Caye3^ On reaching Aibonito while our relay 
of horses was being harnessed, and we had been surrounded by the 
Spanish soldiers and townspeople, engaging in pleasant chat with them, 
suddenly the captain of the Spanish troops with a guard appeared and 
marched us unceremoniously to the guardhouse. There we were chal- 
lenged, and a parley ensued, until I showed my pass from General Macias. 
The change of front was spectacular, apologies were profuse, but I 
ended the affair by insisting successfully that the officer sign his name 
to my pass which was already rather heavily overloaded with the names 
of military and civil magnates, both Spanish and American. 

This trip was memorable not only for the enjoyment of a ride over 
one of the best long roads in the world, amid the displays of all tropical 
fruits and flora, views of many characteristic people, habitations, cus- 
toms, and cultivated sections of the island, but for the intelligent and 
charming exposition of everything, together with discussion of the 
social, political, military and commercial interests and problems of 
Porto Rico, at the present stage of affairs, by Herr Rauschenplat, 



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M^kj^^'^^ 1 




V^^ 1 



< ^ 

erf 2 

o b 



PORTO RICO. 465 

whose English speech scarcely betrays his German vernacular or his 
customary Spanish. 

Arriving at Ponce on the evening of September 2, on the following 
day storage for Red Cross goods was secured in the Custom House at 
the Play a, or Port of Ponce, which continued our only headquarters 
during work in Porto Rico. The distribution of goods commenced on 
Sunday, September 4. The goods at first distributed in Ponce were 
the remainder of the cargo brought on the " Concho," hnt left in charge 
of and lightered off of the "Concho," and carefully stored by kind 
agreement in the Custom House, when I was obliged to depart on the 
" Alamo " for Mayaguez and Arecibo or lose a most valuable oppor- 
tuniiy for distributing stores where urgently needed. 

Kvery applicant not seeking for himself alone was interrogated as 
to the number of sick or convalescents for whom the goods were desired, 
and informed that our provisions were specifically for these classes. 
The amount bestowed was in view of the number of sick thus reported. 
Then on a sheet of paper headed by the date of application all articles 
were recorded, checked off when taken, and the signature of the officer 
applying was afl&xed. Then my ofl&cial stamp as field agent was 
affixed, and the paper put on file as a voucher. All goods received by 
steamer came into the office under my personal supervision, and with 
very few necessary exceptions none went out without it. 

On September 4 the office work of the Red Cross in Porto Rico 
was inaugurated with five representative issues of stores, which became 
matter of record. As the later files show, the number rapidly multi- 
plied and the office work was increased by a constant procession of 
single applicants for small things. A dose of medicine, a pencil, an 
rbdominal band, a comfort bag, something to read, a pair of stockings, 
a handkerchief, a towel — a little stationery — such applications alone 
made work enough for one man, and one had to be secured, Corporal 
Patri..k Syron, who was detailed from the First Engineers, and whose 
help was invaluable. 

As the work was increasing very rapidly, and appeals pouring in 
from all the camps and hospitals, the executive committee sent as my 
assistant General W. T. Bennett, who arrived September 7 on the 
"Seneca," which also brought a fresh and valuable cargo of stores. 
Having like myself had army experience in the Civil War, General 
Bennett easily giasped the situation, and while I attended specially to 
the distribution of goods at the office, he gave efficient help in manag- 
ing the outside relations of the work, made doubly exacting by the 
26 



466 THK RKD CROSS. 

necessity of lightering off all goods from ships, and transferring them 
bj' native porters to the headquarters, amidst piles of army stores, and 
a horde of omnipresent and vigilant thieves. Any lull in the office 
work was improved in visiting hospitals and camps, and noting how 
goods were received and distributed. By frequent consultation of the 
official figures, at the chief surgeon's olfice, of the sick rate at all 
military stations on the island, it was possible to judge correctly con- 
cerning the neediest places for sending relief, and also to judge the 
merits of applications. 

The extraordinary amount of typhoid fever and intestinal diseases 
among the troops was the object of thoughtful attention. Several 
native physicians and army surgeons were solicited to write their 
diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, in the hope that their 
combined testimonj' may furnish valuable data for guidance of physi- 
cians and surgeons who may have charge of our troops here in the 
future. 

On October 6, Mr. Monroe Scott, arrived from New York on the 
steamship "Chester," to be second assistant in our work. He was 
desirous of giving personal service to the sick, as he had just came from 
such work in the Northern army hospitals. But the needs at the 
various hospitals in Porto Rico were being so full}' met that he gave 
his attention to the varied demands at the office, where his courteous 
manner and efficienc}^ in detail were highl}^ appreciated. Two ambu- 
lances were sent to Ponce in September. They proved of great value 
in emergency cases requiring quick transportation to and from the 
hospitals, and in conveying our goods for short distances. It must be 
admitted, however, that they proved also a delicate responsibilit}-, as 
everybody seemed to regard them as free pleasure coaches in which the 
Red Cross was eager to take the town to ride. 

A daily care was to note all incoming steamers, to board them to 
inquire for Red Cross supplies, also to note all departing steamers and 
provide that all sick and convalescents had Red Cross goods enough 
to insure their comfort for the homeward voyage. The chief surgeons 
were appealed to and asked not to allow any detachment of sick men 
to go home without previously notifying us, so that we might provide 
for their nutriment in supplement to that provided by the Government. 
It is proper to add that the surgeons going home in charge of the sick 
on ships were all attentive to their duty in securing Red Cross supplies 
for their patients. Twelve shipments were made for transports carrying 
home the sick. 



PORTO RICO. 467 

One of the duties of the office was to give first aid to the sick and 
Injured, Hardly a da)' passed without our giving many prescriptions 
of medicine to soldiers for intestinal troubles, or first dressing to men 
injured on the pier or on shipboard. We carefully gave antiseptic 
dressing and bound up gashed heads and limbs, and tenderly conveyed 
the unfortunates to the proper hospitals or to their homes or ships. 

In September on order from New York, we began to furnish ice 
to hospitals not already supplied. Wc purchased machine-made ice 
at the heavy cost of forty pesos a ton, and had arranged with the 
hospitals of Coamo and Guayama, the only ones not supplied, to send 
wagons weekly for a load. For this work we were about to establish 
an ice-storage plant, when a large cargo furnished by the Government 
arrived, and although about one hundred tons soon after came from 
New York, consigned to the Red Cross, it was not needed, nor an ice- 
house for storage, as the government supply was freely furnished to all 
in need, and was so large as to last till the Red Cross ice, though 
carefully stored in a covered lighter, had entirely melted. Had the 
Government not made this provision, a free grant of site, lumber and 
labor for an ice plant already secured, would have been utilized. The 
same cablegram authorizing an ice supply also authorized the supply 
of milk as needed. On inquir}' it was found that all of the hospitals 
were already well provided with this article. In case of the hospital 
for the First Engineers, however, the ingenious surgeon. Dr. Proben, 
had opened negotiations for a cow, and we promptly insisted on paying 
for it, but were allowed to pledge only one-half its cost, which we 
most cheei fully did. 

Twelve hospital tents, 14x14 feet each, were furnished by the 
Red Cross, of which one was loaned to the Engineers' hospital, 
one to the Sixth Massachusetts hospital, and ten were located, under 
medical supervision, beneath a row of cocoanut trees, for the accommo- 
dation of convalescents awaiting transportation. A suitable trench was 
dug. flooring put in all the tents by the engineers, and straw was fur- 
nished for bedding by the quartermaster. This camp was named 
" Camp Barton." 

Some of the incidental work of the Red Cross was to answer letters 
of inquiry concerning missing soldiers; to guide numerous strangers 
arriving at the port; to get stragglers of the army into their proper 
quarters: to help soldiers in various conditions of distress; always to be 
ready with a kind look and friendly hand, as proper representatives of 
a generous public, desiring to show full appreciation of these who 



468 THE RIvD CROSS. 

upheld the nation's honor with the offering of their lives. Every man 
on the staff of the Red Cross in Porto Rico, could he have embodied 
his real preferences, vyould have spent his whole time personally with 
the boys in their tents or hospitals. It was a real regret to us all that 
from early morning until dark we had to be hard at work, with few 
exceptions, in dealing out stores and attending to duties at head- 
quarters. 

But as we were serving, not a campaigning army, but garrisons 
after hostilities had ceased, and the supply of surgeons and nurses was 
ample, there was no need of personal field service on our part. A 
tribute of respect and praise is demanded in honor of the army officials 
of Porto Rico, especially those of the southern district, so wisely 
administered by General Guy V. Henry, now Governor of Porto Rico. 
The different departments were ably conducted. Their relations were 
entirely cordial. The diflBcult problems presenting themselves were 
handled in a manful waj\ 

The Red Cross carefully avoided the role of critic or censor, and 
sought to conform to the wishes of commanders and surgeons, while 
watchfully providing for the needs of the sick, as ascertained b}' 
independent investigation. It never had occasion to make a protest, 
nor acted as a meddler, but attended strictly to its own business, and 
kept in its own place as an army auxiliarj-, and servant of the sick. 
Hence from the first of its work the military, naval, surgical, medical, 
commissary and quartermaster's departments treated it as a part of 
their own common fraternity, freely granting all its requests, subjecting 
it to no restrictions, and cordially accepting and forwarding its benefi- 
cent operations. We received every advantage gratuitously. Not in 
a single instance were our requests denied. By this cordial under- 
standing many hundreds of dollars of expense were saved to the 
Red Cross, 

Indications of the heavy sick rate in the army of Porto Rico may 
be found in the following data, gathered at the time from official 
sources : In August the surgeon in charge at Mayaguez reported that 
fully 7,5 per cent of the troops stationed there were sick in hospitals, 
or in quarters, or unfit for duty, September 10 there were in the 
district of Ponce over 1400 sick, including 350 t^^phoid cases, 600 
malarial, 350 intestinal diseases. September 20 the official report 
shows 750 .sick in Ponce, 799 in Coamo, 336 in Mayaguez, 264 in 
Utuado, 22 in Guanica, and 328 in Guayama, September 28th the 
Sixteenth Pennsylvania Infantry, at Coamo. reoorted 625 sick. One 



PORTO RICO. 469 

company had no officers on duty, all being sick. October 3 there 
were 125 sick in Ponce, 60 in Guayama, 65 in Utuado, 40 in Mayaguez, 
and 491 at Coanio. Total in these places, 781. This great reduction 
in the number of reported sick was due to large shipments of patients 
to the States. October 20 there were 747 sick in the general hospital 
in Ponce, 120 in that at Mayaguez, and 125 in that at Guayama. 

On November 10, 603 men were reported sick in the district of 
Ponce. The data above given will best be understood if it is remem- 
bered that they comprise for the most part only hospital inmates. 
The sick in quarters were not generally reported, though they fully 
equaled in number those in hospitals. Again it should be remembered 
that those unfit for duty equaled in number both of the other two 
classes. In brief, during September, October and November, not more 
than one-half of the army was available for duty. In September a 
captain of engineers informed me that in the morning he had only 
four men report for duty. 

Several obvious causes operated to produce the great sick rate. 
The effects of exposures and hardships before reaching Porto Rico, the 
nature of the food, malarious influences, native fruits, the heavy rains, 
and the excessive heat, were potent factors in producing the general 
illness. There was no invigoration in the atmosphere, its heat and 
humidity being very depressing, and not allowing rapid recovery after 
prostration. Almost every man lost heavily in weight, the amounts 
varying from twenty-five to one hundred pounds. This was true even 
of those who were extremely careful of their diet and habits. During 
September and October a register of temperatures, kept by Dr. Charles 
I. Proben, surgeon of the First Engineers, showed an average daily 
temperature of 82.52° Fahrenheit, and in October 80.136° Fahren- 
heit. These figures give little suggestion of what the soldiers had to 
endure, as for instance, September 20 the mercury stood 96° in the 
shade at midday, and 113° in the .sun. October 3 the mercury .stood 
at 92° at midday. These health conditions made every American in 
Porto Rico a fitting subject for relief, but Red Cross supplies were 
limited as far as practicable to the sick and convalescent. 

The extent and direction of our Red Cross work are indicated 
below: 

Number of issues to twenty-four anuy hospitals . 150 

Number of issues to United States transports returning North with sick . . . 12 

Number of issues to Infantry, regiments and detachmeuts loi 

Number of issues to Artillery batteries ..,.,, 34 



470 TIIK RKI) CROSS. 

Number of issues to Cavalry troops 6 

Number of issues lo Officers' messes 8 

Number of issues to Miscellaneous parties 6i 

Total issues 362 

These issues were all recorded, and vouchers filed. The number 
of issues to single applicants for their own innnediate use, mostly 
privSte soldiers, were over 1200. Prescriptions of medicine to sick 
soldiers, applying at the office, about 300. Wounds dressed at office, 
in first aid to wounded men, about 30. Sick carried in ambulances of 
Red Cross, 50. 

The camps and hospitals served by the Red Cross were scattered 
all over the island, some accessible only through difficult mountain 
passes, bad roads, or by long sea voyages, necessitating weekly consul- 
tation of the chief surgeons, sick reports from all military stations, and 
careful sttid}'^ of the best routes and means of transportation. 

Three months' experience lead one to say that if a man knows how 
to keep a hotel, run a restaurant, and a refreshment stand; if he be a 
good grocer, dry goodsman, apothecary, financier, accountant, doctor, 
and linguist; if he have the strength of a Samson, the patience of a 
Job, and the cheerfulness of the morning lark; if he have the power to 
see much and say little, to sweat and not swear, to behold limitless 
suffering and be fair to all; if he is pachydermous to the shafts of 
criticism, diplomat enough to secure universal favor, and worthy to 
hold it by solid merit, let him try a Field Agency of the Red Cross with 
confidence, for in such service he will need all of these qualities in 
abundance. And yet, in the midst of it all, he will daily hear the 
sweetest words of gratitude, and feel that he is doing the most self- 
rewarding work of bis whole life. 



SHIPMENTS BY TRANSPORTS. 

By the coivrtesy of the War Department, the Executive Committee 
were enabled lo make several shipments, both to Cuba and to Porto 
Rico, on the United States transports. With the exception of the 
first cargo by the "Port Victor," the larger part of these supplies 
which should properly have been consigned to the Red. Cross at the 
front, were sent direct to the commanding officers, or to the officers 



SHIPMENTS liY TKANSl'OKTS. 471 

of the medical department of the arm}', upon request. The consign- 
ment of the " Port Victor," although received by the Red Cross and 
forwarded to Gibra for distribution, was afterward taken b}' an officer 
of the U. S. army without permission. Among the shipments were : 
"Port Victor," July 10, to Santiago, 800 tons general provisions and 

medical supplies. 
"New Hamp.shire," July 15, to Santiago, 25 tons groceries and hos- 
pital supplies. 
"Ohvette," July 18, to Santiago, clothing and delicacies. 
"Resolute," July 19, to Santiago, general supplies and clothing. 

Value, $2000. 
"Missouri," July 19, to Santiago, clothing, laundry plant, ice plant, 

cots and delicacies. 
"Seneca," July 21, to Santiago, clothing for 50 men, 
" Kanawa," July 22, to Santiago, 10 cases of supplies. 
"Concho," August i, to Santiago, supplies for 200 men. 
" Breakwater," August 6, to Santiago, 10 cases general supplies. 
" Harvard," August 5, to Santiago, 16 cases groceries and clothes. 
" Altai," August 5, to Santiago, 96 cases delicacies and clothing. 
" Seguranca," August 20, to Santiago, 113 cases provisions and soups. 
"Port Victor," October 7, to Santiago, 115 tons of ice, 50 equipped 

cots. 
"Concho," August [3, to Porto Rico, 900 cases general provisions and 

50 equipped cots. 
"Yucatan," September 7, to Porto Rico, 545 cases general provisions 

and medical supplies. 
"Obdam," September 14, to Porto Rico, 387 cases assorted provisions 

and 2 ambulances. 
" Chester," September 27, to Porto Rico, 406 cases assorted supplies. 
" Missouri," September 19, to Porto Rico, 60 cases general supplies, 
"Berlin," September 20, to Porto Rico, 20 barrels ginger ale. 
"Port Victor," October 7, to Porto Rico, 115 tons of ice and 50 

equipped cots, duplicate of shipment to Santiago. 
"Panama," October 12, to Porto Rico, 300 cases of groceries and 

clothing, 50 equipped cots and 10 1 cases medicine for General 

Wood at Santiago. 

Since their appointment by the President of the United States, the 
Central Cuban Relief Committee have been busily engaged in carrying 
on the great work entrusted to them by the government. In addition 
to the smaller consignments of materials sent for distribution to the 



472 THE RED CROvSS. 

relief stations in Cuba and on the Florida coast, they have expended 
in the purchase and forwarding of larger shipments of relief, over two 
hundred thousand dollars, and have collected in money and supplies 
nearly half a million. The latest important shipment was sent by 
the steamer " City of San Antonio," consisting of an assorted cargo of 
about 700 tons, which was landed at the port of Matanzas, and distrib- 
uted by the representatives of the Red Cross in charge of the vessel. 



REPORT OF THE RELIEF COMMITTEE. 473 



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS RELIEF COMMITTEE 
OF NEW YORK. 

The origin of this great volunteer emergency committee has 
already been explained in these pages. But the story of their wonder- 
ful work can never be fully told. With their co-operation much suffer- 
ing has been prevented or relieved, and many lives have been saved; 
through the ministrations made possible by their efforts, the humblest 
private in the ranks now realizes that "the great heart of the nation 
will not let the soldier die." No words can express the gratitude of 
the Red Cross for their powerful assistance. Faithful, earnest and 
efficient, they have labored incessantly through the campaign, and 
now at the close they make the following short but eloquent report: 



Report of the Relief Committee. 
Organized May J, i8g8. 

Officers. — Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D. D. , chairman; Alexander 
E. Orr, vice-chairman; William T. Wardwell, vice-chairman; John P. 
Faure, Secretary; Frederick D. Tappen, treasurer; Samuel Woolver- 
ton, assistant treasurer. 

Members. — Dr. Felix Adler, Bishop Edward G. Andrews, August 
Belmont, Joseph H. Choate, William P. Clyde, John D. Crinimins, 
Chauncey M. Depew, Cleveland H. Dodge, John P. Faure, Edwin 
Gould, Clement A. Griscom, Jr., John S. Huyler, Morris K. Jesup, 
Edwin Langdon, Dr. A. M. Lesser, William G. Low, Rev. Sylvester 
Malone, J. Pierpout Morgan, Levi P. Morton, Alexander E. Orr, 
Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D., LL.D., Percy R. Pyne, Douglas 
Robinson, John D. Rockefeller, Jacob H. Schiff, Gustav H. Schwab, 
Charles Stewart Smith, Dr. George F. Shrady, James Speyer, 
William R. Stewart, A. S. Solomons, Frederick D. Tappen, Howard 
Townsend, Dr. T. Gaillard Thomas, William T. Wardwell. 

Executive Committee. — William T. Wardwell, clinirman; John P. 
Faure, secretary; Levi P. Morton, Frederick D. Tappen, George F. 
Shrady, M. D., William G. Low, Gustav H. vSchwab. Cleveland H. 
Dodge, A. S. Solomons, Douglas Robinson, Howard Townsend, A. 
Monae Lesser, M.D.; Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D., LL-D., eX' 
officio; Alexander E. Orr, ex-officio. 



474 



THE RED CROSS. 



Finance Comviittec. — J. Pierpont Morgan, chairman; Frederick D. 
Tappen, vice-chairman; August Behnont, James Speyer, Gustav H. 
Schwab, Edwin Langdon, Levi P. Morton. 

Committee on Yacht ''Red Cross." — William T. Wardvvell, Gustav 
H. Schwab, Alexander E. Orr. 

Supply Committee. — Cleveland H. Dodge, chairman; Mrs. W. S. 
Cowles, Mrs. John Lyon Gardiner, John S. Huyler, Percy R. Pyne, 
George F. Shrady, M. D., A. S. Solomons, Howard Townsend, Miss 
Helen Fidelia Hoffman, secretary; F. C. Garmany, purchasing agent. 

Medical Advisory Board. — Wm. H. Draper, M.D. , chairman; 
Andrew J. McCosh, M.D., secretary; Francis P. Kinnicutt, M.D., 
Francis Delafield, M.D., John S. Billings, M.D., Edward G. Janeway, 
M.D., Charles McBurney, M.D., Richard H. Derby, M. D. 



Treasurer's Report 

And Analysis of Expenditures, 3/ay g to December i, i8g8. 

Total receipts $305,229 66 

Office supplies I5.ii7 89 

Food supplies, groceries, milk, fruit, etc 46,067 95 

Cots and equipnieuts 24,946 09 

Medical supplies, wines, liquors, etc ii,357 33 

Clothing and dry goods 1,413 6r 

Miscellaneous supplies . . 16,051 14 

Account nurses 17,718 24 

Ambulances and mules 7,782 56 

Ice 27,666 14 

Yacht " Red Cross" and maintenance 54,o57 16 

Cash to General Commiltee, account of camps 59. 9^3 02 

Laundry plant 1,230 ro 

Freight, express charges, towmg, transportation, etc. . 4,283 05 277,604 28 

Balance on hand $27,625 38 

IVomati's Committee on Auxiliaries. — Mrs. John Lyon Gardiner, chairman; 
Mrs. Paul Dana, secretary; Miss Martha L. Draper, treasurer; Mrs. Butler Duncan, 
Mrs. James W. Gerard, Mrs. Bettina Hofker Lesser, Mrs. J Pierpont Morgan, Dr. 
Lucy Hall Brown, Mrs W. S Cowles, Mrs. Winthrop Cowdin, Mrs. Levi P. Mor- 
ton, Mrs. Henry C. Potter, Mrs. G. F. Shrady. 

By a resolution of the Executive Committee the above ladies were 
appointed a Woman's Committee on Auxiliaries, charged with the duty 
of organizing auxiliary committees throughout the United States, tQ 



REPORT OF THK RELIEF COMMITTEE. 475 

assist in Red Cross work. This committee met for the first time on 
May 12, and it was decided to interest, by personal effort and corres- 
pondence, the people of the country in serving the sick and wounded 
soldiers and sailors during the war without regard to nationality, in 
accordance with the rules of the Conference of Geneva. 

From its inaugural meeting on May 12 until the present date the 
Woman's Committee has authorized the organization of ninety -two 
auxiliaries, many of these with numerous sub-auxiliaries, thus spread- 
ing the work throughout the country from Maine to the Rocky 
Mountains, the western limit of the work of the Relief Conmiittee. 



The Following Auxiliaries Were Organized: 

No. of 
No. Name. ♦ Place. President. Sub- 

Aux. 

1 First N.Y. Ambulance 

Equip. vSociety . . New York Mrs. W. vS. Cowles 3 

2 Women's Confer. Soc. 

of Ethical Culture . " " Mrs. Henry Ollesheimer. 

3 M a i n t e n a n c e of 

Trained Nurses . . " " Mrs. James Speyer 15 

4 Yonkers, N. Y. . . . Mrs. William Sharman. 

5 Melcalf- Bliss Hospital 

Cot Equipment New York Mrs. William Metcalf-Bliss ... 16 

6 Columbia University " " Mrs. Seth Low. 

7 N.Y. CityCh. D.A.R. " " Mrs. Donald McLean. 

8 Council of Jewish 

Women ... " " Mrs. Cyrus L. Sulzberger. 

9 Hartford Wom. Aux. Hartford, Conn. , . Mrs. F. W. Cheney 9 

10 Ice Plant Auxiliary . New York Miss Julia L. Delafield. 

II Norwalk, Conn. . . Mrs. Jennings. 

12 Soldiers' Field Hosp. New York Miss E. C. Hebert. 

13 Mohegan Ch. D.A.R. Sing Sing, N. Y. . . Mrs. Annie Van Rensselaer Wells 8 

14 ... Morristown, N. J. . . Miss Louisa E. Keasby 7 

1.5 Green Twigs Aux. . Flu.shiiig, L. I. . . . Miss Helen A. Colgate. 

16 Litchfield, Conn. . . Mrs. George M. Woodruff. 

17 First Penn. Red Cross 

Auxiliary Pittsburg, Pa. ... Mr. John B. Jackson 74 

18 Miscellaneous Aux. . New York Miss Helen Dominick. 

19 Laundry Plant Aux. . " " Miss Alice R. Rabcock. 

20 Westchester Co. .Aux. Mt. Kisco, N. Y. . . Mrs. Henry Marquand 14 

21 Hazleton.Pa Mrs. W. C. Gailey. 

22 Land and Sea Aux. . Pelham Manor . . Mrs. Frank K. Hunter 5 

23 Staten Island .\ux. . New Brighton . . . Mrs. George Beers. 

24 Princeton, N.J. . . Mr.s. James P. Morgan ... 3 

25 Hackensack, N. J. . Mrs. James Romeyn. 

26 Sewicklev, Pa. . . . Rev. B. A. Benton. 



476 



THE RED CROSS. 



No. 



Name. 



27 The Fanners' Aux. . 

28 Port Slanwix Aux. . 

29 

30 

31 Beaver County Aux. 

32 Grace Par.Laun.Aux. 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 Western Reserve Ch. 

D. A. R 

41 

42 

43 

44 North Shore ,L.I.,Au. 

45 

46 

47 First R. I. Auxiliary 

48 Nassau Co., L. I., Aux. 

49 .• • • 

50 Tobacco Auxiliary . 

51 Central Falls, R.I.,Au. 

52 Rhode Island Aux. . 

53 Westmoreland Co ., 

Pa., Auxiliary 

54 

55 

56 Scott Schley, of 

57 • ■ • 

58 

59 

60 

61 

62 

63 Suffolk Co.,N.Y.,Aux 
64 

65 Otsego Co.,N.Y.,Aux 

66 Plymouth Church Au. 

67 

68 

69 Loyal Friends Aux. . 
70 



Place. 

Jennerstown, Pa. . 
Rome, N. Y. . . 
Fairfielil, Conn. 
Norwich, Kan. . 
New Brighton, Pa. 
New York .... 

Athens, Pa 

Cauandaigua . . . 
Eau Claire, Wis. . 
Mount Vernon, N.Y. 
Elmhurst, N.Y. . 
Dublin, N. H. . . 
Larkinsville, Ala. . 

Cleveland, Ohio . 
New Canaan, Conn. 
Flatbush, Brooklyn 
Colorado Springs . 
Glen Cove, L. I. . 



No. of 
Sub- 
Aux. 



Far Rockaway . . 
Providence . . . . 
Roslyn, L. I . . . 
Kinderhook, N. Y. 
Newport, R. I. . . 



Providence . . 

Greensburg, Pa. . . 
Pottstown, Pa. . . . 
Emporia, Kan. . . . 
Frederick, Md. . . . 

Lenox, Mass 

Caldwell, N.J. . . . 
Upper Red Hook . . 
Saugerties-on-Hudson 
Hokendauqua, Pa. . . 
Bridgeport, Conn. . . 
Greenport, L. I- 
Staatsburgh, N. Y. . 
Springfield Centre . 
Worcester, Mass. . . 
Oyster Bay, L. I. . . 
Cranford, N.J. . . 

New York 

London, Ohio , . . 



President. 

Miss F. E. Coffin. 
Mrs. Louise M. Duffy. 
Mrs. Henry S. Glover. 
Mrs. Sarah A. King. 
Mrs. Mary C. Kennedy. 
Mrs. Butler Duncan. 
Mrs. L. M. Park. 
Mrs. C. C. Wilcox. 
Mrs. Francis P. Ide. 
Mrs. William Wilson 
Mrs. A C. Green. 
Mrs. Lewis B. Monroe. 
Miss Anna L. Morris. 



Mrs. Andrew Squire 163 

Mrs. Willard Parker. 

Mrs. Cornelius L. Wells. 

Mrs. E. S. Cohen. 

Mrs. John E. Leech. 

Mrs. W. Zabriskie. 

Mrs. Alexander Stevens. 

Mrs. Charles Mason. 

Mrs. Valentine Mott. 

Mrs. P. S. V. Pruyn. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 

Mrs. Arthur Rogers. 

Mrs. Mary Frost Evans. 



Miss Louise Brunot .... 

Mrs. E. S. Cook. 

Miss Sabia E. Whitley. 

Mrs. Henry Williams. 

Mrs. John E. Alexandre. 

Mrs. F. H. Wing. 

Mrs. Theodore Cookingham. 

Mrs. George F. Shrady. 

Miss Bessie H. Thomas. 

Mrs. Charles B. Read. 

Miss Bessie Clark. 

Miss Madeleine Dinsmore. 

Mrs. H. W. Ward well. 

Mr. Arthur Reed Taft. . . . 

Mrs. Thomas S. Young, Jr. 

Mrs. F. R. Bourne. 

Mrs. F. P. P. Miller. 

Mrs, George Lincoln, 



. 3 



REPORT OF THR RELIKF COMMITTEE. 



477 



No. Name. Place. 

71 vShortsville, N. Y. . . 

72 Kichiiiond Hill . . . 

73 South Orange, N. J. . 

74 Telegraph Signal 

Corps Auxiliary . . Brooklyn, N. Y. . . 
75 Platteville, Wis. . . 

76 Waldcn, N. Y. . . . 

77 Kir.st West Va. Aux. Wheeling. W.Va. . . 

78 Toledo, Ohio . . . . 

79 Lovingtor., 111. 

80 New Brunswick, N.J. 

81 Colored Women's All. Kansas City, Kan. 
•(2 Sons and Daughters 

Red Cross Aux. . . North Berwick, Me 

S3 Orange, N. J. . . . 

84 Hammond, Ind. . . 

85 Holdredge, Neb. . . 

86 Girls' Towel Aux. . Glen Cove, L. I. . . 

87 Brattleboro, Vt. . . 

88 Evanston, 111. . . 

89 Montclair, N. J. . . 

90 Lyons, N. Y 

91 Dobbs Ferry, N. Y. . 

92 Marshall, Mich. . . 



President. 

Mrs. O. S. Titus. 
Mrs. Walter P. IvOng. 
Mrs. V. Arnold. 

Miss Mary A. Tonilin.son. 
Mrs. E. G. Buck. 
Mr.s. Phoebe Saxe. 
Mrs. William F. Butler. 
Mrs. S. S. Knabenshue. 
Mr. S. S. Boggs. 
Mrs. Nicholas G. Rutgers. 
Mrs. Katie Minor. 

Chester A. Hayes. 

Miss Rosamond Howard. 

Dr. Mary E. Jackson. 

Mrs. Reeves. 

Miss Alice O Draper. 

Miss Mary E Cabot. 

Mrs. N. Gill Kirk. 

Mrs. Benjamin Strong. 

Miss Eudora A. Lewis. 

Mrs. Walston Hill Browne. 

Mrs. W. H. Porter. 



No. of 
Sub- 
Auz. 



Supplies Contributed by Auxiliaries through Supply 
Committee. 



Cots 3.601 

Sheets 13,623 

Draw sheets 994 

Rubber sheets 226 

Pillow cases 13,858 

Blankets 586 

Towels 36 821 

Wash cloths 10,473 

Night.shirts 12,388 

Pajamas 14,264 

Wrappers 53 

Handkerchiefs 40,268 

Socks 8,484 

Slippers 2,342 

Abdominal bands I'^'.SS? 

Negligee shirts 5,(^7 

Undershirts 6,937 

Estimated value 



Under drawers 6,937 

Comfort bags 1,188 

Palm-leaf fans 6 cs. 

Cot pads 1,006 



Mosquito netting . . . 

Nurses' caps 

Nurses' aprons . . . . 

Bra.s.sards 

Old linen 

Napkins 

Stationery 

Delicacies 

Tobacco ....•• 

I*i])es 

Literature 

Miscellaneous articles 
Red Cross flags . . , 
J8o,ooo. 



32 pes. 
271 
100 

90 

ID CS. 
466 

2 CS. 
900 CS. 
20 CS. 
5,000 

1 20 cs. 

13.394 
70 



478 THE RED CROSS. 



Special Work Donk by Auxiliaries. 

Auxiliary No. i provided eleven equipped ambulances with forty 
mules. For Hospital Ship "Missouri": two hundred electric fans, 
telephones, six rubber beds, disinfecting plant, carbonating plant, 
twenty-eight foot steam launch, thirty-seven foot steam launch, sent to 
Chief Surgeon Havard at Santiago. Supplies of clothing and delica- 
cies sent to Colonel Wood at Santiago, 

Auxiliary No, 2 opened a work shop on Madison Avenue and Fifty- 
ninth Street. There women, members of the families of enlisted men, 
were employed to make the garments supplied by this auxiliary. 
Employment was given to these women both at their homes and at the 
shop. Those who took work home were paid by the piece. In all, 
142 women were employed, many having steady work for over five 
months. Up to December i, 20,842 articles were made by this Auxil- 
iary. 

Auxiliary No. 3 has perhaps brought more comfort to the sick and 
wounded soldiers than any of the others. It was organized for the 
special work of providing funds for the maintenance of trained nurses, 
and as will be seen by the following list of nurses sent out by this 
auxiliary, no opportunity to relieve the suffering of the sick was ever 
passed by. 

Railway transportation was furnished for nearly four hundred 
nurses sent out from the New York office. 

The number of nurses employed may be divided approximately 
into four classes: (i) Those employed, maintained and paid by the 
auxiliary. (2) Those whose salaries and maintenance were borne 
partly by the government, and partly by the auxiliary. (3) Those 
who signed the government contract and were paid and supplied with 
army rations by the government, but received additional supplies from 
the auxiliary. (4) Those who were paid by the auxiliary and main- 
tained by local aid. 

Class I. 

At Fort Wadsworth 41 Nurses. 

'* Charleston 20 " 

" Leiter Hospital 10 " 

*' Governor's Island 6 " 

" Tampa 5 " 



REPORT OF THE RELIEF COMMITTEE. 479 

At Atlantic Highlands 5 Nurses, i vSurgeou. 

" Convalescent Home for Nurses i Nurse. 

" Hospital Cars 4 Nurses. 

Class II. 

At Camp Black 42 Nurses. 

" Fort Hamilton 23 

" Fortress Monroe 43 " 

On Hospital Ship " Missouri " 14 Nurses (Men). 

At Bedloe's Island i Nurse. 

" Portsmouth 6 Nurses (Men). 

Class III. 

General Hospital, Montauk 125 Nurses. 

Sternberg Hospital, Chickaraauga 64 " 

Class IV. 

L. I. City Relief Station 29 Nurses, 2 Surgeons. 

Relief Tents, Montauk Station i " 

Nassau Hospital, Hempstead 20 " 

Home for Convalescent Soldiers at Sag Harbor 6 " 
Convalescent Home of 8th Reg't, Hunter's Island 2 " 
U. S. Transport "Lampasas" 29 Nurses (of these many were Vol- 
teers). 



The salaries of some and maintenance of all were borne by the 
aiixiliar}'. Nurses were also supplied on emergency calls to the 
Eighth and Ninth Regiment Armories. 

Auxiliary No. 5 sent equipped cots to the different camps in the 
United States, Cuba and Porto Rico, supplying in all 3766. 

Auxiliary No. 10 undertook to send ice to Cuba and Porto Rico, 
the blockading fleet, and the different camps. This auxiliary also fur- 
nished the ice plant on the Hospital Ship " Missouri," and expended 
in all for ice $27,802.20. 

The work of this auxiliary appealed especially to every one 
during the hot weather, and donations poured in upon it, not the least 
of which was a steady income from the " Nathalie Schenck Ice Chain," 
which produced a revenue of $24,000 in three months. 

Auxiliary No. 17, enrolled seventy-four sub-auxiliaries, with a 
total membership of 6173. 

To the Supply Committee this auxiliar>- sent in the largest 
quantity of supplies. 



48o THK RKD CROSS. 

Auxiliary No. 19 raised futuls for a laundry plant, and put same 
on Hospital Ship " Missouri." 

Auxiliary No. 22 had five sub-auxiliaries, with a total member- 
ship of 1018. 14,144 garments, 850 cases and packages of food, and 
12,583 books and magazines were sent to the Supply Depot. In Sep- 
tember the auxiliary took as its particular work the supplying of 
clothing to destitute soldiers applying for same, with properly signed 
orders, at 554 Broadway. Nearly 800 men were given underwear, 
blue flannel shirts, socks, handkerchiefs, night shirts, etc., etc. 

Auxiliary No. 40. — The War Emergency Relief Board of Cleveland 
became an auxiliary to the Red Cross in June, with 163 sub-auxiliaries. 
Ten thousand dollars in money, and between thirty and forty thousand 
dollars worth of supples, were sent to the front. Two thousand dollars 
were spent in fitting up unfurnished wards in Cleveland hospitals, 
where 533 soldiers were cared for. The wives and families of soldiers 
and sailors were also cared for. Five thousand four hundred and 
fifty hot breakfasts and dinners were served at the Union Depot to 
soldiers passing through Cleveland. Four hundred cases of clothing 
and delicacies were shipped by this auxiliary. 



Requisitions Filled by Supply Committee. 

June 22 to December i. 

Total Number, 427. 

To Santiago Shipments, 26 

" Porto Rico " 10 

" Camp Wikoff " 53 

" " Thomas " 34 

" " Alger " 7 

Black . . " 5 

" " Townsend " I 

" *' Hobson " I 

" Jacksonville " 17 

" Tampa " 9 

" Miami ... " 2 

" Governor's Island " 14 

*' Bedloe's Island '" 3 

" Seavey's Island , . . . '' 3 

" Fort Wadsworth ...,.<,. '' ' ao 




A CI hAA •• i'.i,(j(^iv iluu^,h," CiARRISUNKD. 



REPORT OF THE RELIEF COMMITTEE. aS-k 

To Fortress Monroe Shipnieiits 5 

" Fort Riley • . . . " 1 

" Fort Hamilton " 18 

" Fort McPherson ' 4 

" Quarantine 5 

" Bellevue Hospital ' 6 

" Roosevelt Hospital " 2 

" Brooklyn Hospital " 3 

" St. Peter's Hospital " 6 

" St. Francis' IIo.spital " 2 

" vSt. Catherine's Hospital " '« 

" St. Joseph's Hospital " 4 

" Yonkers Hospital " 4 

" Mount Vernon Hospital " 4 

" New Rochelle Hospital " 4 

" Jamaica Hospital " i 

" Nassau Hospital . . " 4 

" Long Island College Hospital " 6 

" Long Island Red Cro.ss Emergency Hospital . . " 22 

" Stapleto)! Marine Hospital " 

" U.S. S. "St. Paul " . 

" " " New Hampshire " " 

" " "Nahant" " 

•' " '"Harvard" " 

" *' 'Kanawha" " 

"Elfrida" 

" " " Vigilancia" " 

" " " Supply " " 

*' Hospital Ship " Missouri " " 4 

" " " " Relief" " 2 

" "Red Cross" Vaclit " 2 

" 9th Regiment .Xrinory " 7 

'• 8th " " " 4 

" 71st " " " I 

" 13th " " " 2 

" Convalescent Homes " 43 

" Soldiers' Comfort Committees ... .... " 25 

" Distribution to Soldiers at Supply Depot ... " 13 

" Stephen K. Barton " 2 

" Dr. B. B. Lanier, U. S. A. . . 

" Major Henry Page, U. S. V " 

" Mr.s. L. Hutton, Athens, Ga " 

" Mrs. G. M. Moulton, Savannah " 

•' Mrs. F. M. Armstrong, Hampton, Va " 

Total 427 

27 



THE RED CROSS. 



tXTRACTS OF REPORTS FROM CAMPS. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 

Field Agent, Rev. Alexander Kent 

Headquarters opened June i6, 1898. The hospital was found in a 
very distressing and unhealthful condition. Most of the patients were 
indeed on cots, but few had cither sheets or night shirts to cover them! 
It was also found that the sick had no suitable food, and when the 
suitable food was provided it was found that there was no provision for 
preparing it! 

The government provided many sheets, many cots, many pillows, 
but the demand ever outran the supply, and the Red Cross was called 
on continually to supply the lack. 

The government made no provision for ice, milk, eggs, lemons, 
malted milk, peptonoids, clam bouillon, beef extracts and delicacies of 
all kinds until after the first of September, when each patient was 
allowed sixty cents a day. All supplies of this sort were furnished by 
the Red Cross, or by the beneficient agencies. 

At the Second Division Hospital the Red Cross paid for a bath 
house, kitchen and large circular tent for convalescents — 100 cots, 
mattresses and 1000 pillows. Sheets, pillow ca.ses, night shirts, pajamas 
and towels were sent by the thousand. 

The Red Cross furnished over $1000 worth of medicines not on the 
government list, over 1000 bath and surgical sponges, 50 ice chests, 
over 700 buckets, tumblers by the barrel, medicine glasses, ice bags, 
hypodermic syringes, etc. 

Over $1300 was spent for hospital equipment and supplies of 
various kinds; in addition to this, large shipments were received from 
New York. 

An important part of the work in this camp was the supplying of 
ice for the purpose of cooling the drinking water. The cost of this ice, 
5(;6ooo, was met by Auxiliary No. 10, 

The milk bills averaged $500 a week. 

When the Recuperating Hospital was opened at Pablo Beach, the 
Red Cross, at the request of the chief surgeon, supplied 250 sets of 
dishes, with a complete outfit of pitchers, trays, buckets, etc. 



EXTRACTS OF REPORTvS FROM CAMPS. 485 

The several heads of divisional hospitals have said to the agent 
again and again, ' ' The hospitals never could have equipped themselves. 
They would have broken down utterly without the aid of the Red 
Cross." 

Camp Thomas, Chickamauga, Ga. 

Field Agent, E. C. Smith. 

" No array of mere numerals written to express dollars, or tables 
of figures standing for quantities, could, in comprehensive sense, tell 
the story of the Red Cross work at Chickamauga in 1898. The record 
is written indelibly in the hearts of thousands of soldiers who were 
stricken with disease on this battlefield, and the story has been told at 
quiet firesides in every State of the Union." Here in Chickamauga 
men fell from the ranks day after day, and were carried helpless to the 
regimental, division, corps and general hospitals, stricken by an unseen 
foe. It was at these hospitals that the Red Cross sent supplies of all 
kinds, medical and surgical, clothing, bedding, delicacies, etc. The 
agent, Mr Smith, was told to supply everything needed, regardless of 
cost. Milk and ice were the chief requisites, and all the surround- 
ing farming country' was called upon to supply the milk, some of it 
coming as far as Biltmore, N. C. The agent ascertained the neces- 
sities of the sick through the best official sources, and without delay 
the necessities were supplied. 

Mr, Smith was stricken at his post with typhoid, but is now 
convalescent. 

Washington, D. C. 

Headquarters for Camp Alger, Point Sheridan. Va., Washington Barracks Post 
Hospital, Camp Bristow, Fort Meyer. Fortress Monroe. B. H. Warner, Agent 
and Chairman Executive Committee of Red Cross at Washington. 

By this branch of the Red Cross a large part of the work in camps 
was undertaken. A meeting was called on June 21, at which a large 
number of citizens met, and an Executive Committee was formed to 
carry on the relief work at these different po.sts. 

Captain George C. Lewis was the representative of the committee 
at Camp Alger. He was constantly on duty there, seeing that supplies 
were furnished and all possible relief extended — mattresses, pillows, 
sheets, pillowcases, mosquito bars, night shirts, pajamas, handkerchiefs, 



486 THE RED CROSwS. 

underclothing, medicines, groceries and delicacies were supplied in large 
quantities to this camp. 

Point Sheridan was visited by Mrs. Mussey, a member of the 
Committee. It was found that they were suffering for supplies of all 
kinds, but especially for medicines, which had been ordered a month 
before, but had not been receiv^ed. Proper medicines were delivered by 
the Red Cross within twenty-four hours, and other necessities were 
supplied, large shipments being also sent from New York. 

When the Washington Barracks was made a post hospital, the 
Red Cross supplied daily 800 pounds of ice, 5 gallons cliicken soup, 
30 gallons of milk, 20 pounds of butter and 2 crates of eggs weekly. 
Also furnished 1200 suits underwear, several hundred suits of pajamas, 
several hundred pairs socks, and slippers, 500 towels, medicines, anti- 
septic dressings, etc. The work at this point closed October 8. 

The Secretary of War gave authority for the establishment of diet 
kitchens, in the camps near Washington, and Mrs. Mussey was given 
general charge of this special work. A diet kitchen was established at 
Camp Bristow, one at the hospital at the Washington Barracks and at 
Fort Meyer. 

The government had voluntarily paid for meat, chicken and milk, 
leaving the committee only bills for groceries and wages of employees. 

Dr. Green rendered such efficient service that she has been em- 
ployed by the government to establish diet kitchens at other points. 

" Physicians, nurses and patients unite in saying the aid they 
secured from the work was of inestimable value. ' ' 

To Fortress Monroe supplies were sent one day after they were 
called for, consisting in part of 500 suits pajamas, 25 pairs crutches, 
200 pairs slippers, 350 yards rubber sheeting, large quantities antiseptic 
dressings, 60 gallons whiskey and brandy, 200 cans soups, basins, 
pitchers, dishes, etc. 

Arrangements were also made at this point for supplying ice for 
the use of the troops on board the transports going South, and also 
for the sick on their journey North. 

The branch of work undertaken by this committee, which was the 
most difficult to conduct, was in looking after the sick soldiers who 
passed through the city. Soldiers from almost forty different regiments 
were fed and cared for when ill. In all, about 40,000 men. The War 
Department paid for the bread used in this branch of the work. All 
bills for ice, and ice chests provided by this committee, were paid for by 
Auxiliary No. 10. 



EXTRACTS OF RKPORTvS FROM CAMP. 487 

' ' It is gratifying to be able to state that whatever view the sur- 
geons and other officers may have had as to the need of the Red Cross at 
the beginning of the war, at the close they joined with the private 
soldier in testifying to its wonderful and efficient work." 



Yacht "Red Cross. 

The yacht " Red Cross " was bought by the Relief Committee, to 
be used by Miss Barton as headquarters during her stay in Cuba. The 
yacht sailed from New York for Key West on June 30, laden with 
twenty-five tons of surgical and medical supplies, and with five doctors, 
arriving at Key West on July 10. From Key West the yacht sailed 
for Santiago on July 16. She ran into a storm, and was so badly 
damaged she had to put back to Key West for repairs. It was found 
impossible to repair her there, so the medical supplies were transferred 
to a transport sailing for Cuba, and the " Red Cross " returned to New 
York, arriving August 4. 

In three or four days she was in order again, and took on board a 
cargo of supplies for Camp WikofF. She was then offered to the 
government to transfer patients from the general hospitals at Camp 
Wikoff to the hospitals in New York, New Haven, and adjacent cities, 
where the soldiers could receive better shelter and care. The yacht 
was comfortably fitted out, and made twenty-eight trips, carrying in all 
449 sick men. During these trips she carried a doctor and three 
trained nurses to care for the sick, and often the relatives and friends 
of the soldiers were allowed to accompany those whom they had been 
to find at Camp Wikoff. 



Camp Wikoff, Montauk Point, ly. I, 

Field Agent, Mr. Howard Townsend. 

It is difficult indeed, in giving extracts of this report, to present 
any idea of the great work accomplished here. Mr. Townsend visited 
the camp on August 8, and, after returning to New York to report to 
the Relief Committee, went to Montauk on the loth to open "head- 
quarters." The first, and in some respects the most important work 
was the delivery of a daily supply of water for the troops. Ten 
thousand gallons of hygeia water were delivered to the government, 



488 THK RKD CROSS. 

and four tank cars were brought daily from Jamaica with fresh spring 
water. This work ceased when the great well was finished. To the 
general hospital .such supplies were furnished as were rendered neces- 
sary by the confusion and hurry of the first weeks, indeed a large part 
of the articles necessary for a hospital were placed in the wards a few 
hours after the need was discovered. 

We supplied but few delicacies to the hospital after it was ip 
running order. Oranges and lemons, were, however, supplied at the 
rate of looo a day, and 200 gallons of milk were furnished, until, by 
order of Secretary Alger, the government furnished 2000 gallons of 
milk a day to the hospitals and troops. The detention hospital we also 
kept abundantly supplied with delicacies, and often with necessities. 

The regimental hospitals were found to be in great need of 
equipment and food suitable for the sick, and to this part of the work 
Dr. Geo. E. Brewer and Mr. Samuel Parrish devoted themselves, mak- 
ing daily visits to the regiments, and assisting the regimental surgeons 
in their discouraging work. 

Auxiliarj^ No. 3 sent a dietary expert, Mrs. Willard, to the camp 
to establish diet kitchens, and with the aid of Mr. Prescott, of the 
Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Society they were established in con- 
nection with the various hospitals, and such satisfactory results were 
worked out that the government agreed to pay all the expenses. 

The feeding of all the sick and half-starved men who arrived from 
Cuba on the transports was undertaken by Dr. and Mrs. Valentine 
Mott, while Dr. Magruder, chief quarantine officer, exerted himself 
admirably in Red Cross work, carrying continually stores of Red Cross 
delicacies to those ships which were in quarantine and suffering for lack 
of food. 

At the railroad .station, the men leaving on sick furlough frequently 
collapsed, and here the government erected two tents for the Red Cross, 
and Miss Martha L. Draper was asked to take charge. The men were 
fed with milk, and when necessary given a few ounces of whiskey to 
enable them to continue their journey. Those who were unable to 
take the train were kept in the tents over night, which sheltered at 
times as many as twenty sick men! 

A great effort was made to answer all the inquiries from relatives 
of the missing soldiers. Few can realize the number of letters and 
telegrams received each day from all parts of the countr5^ 

"Owing to the recognition given/ to the Red Cro.ss agent by 
Major-General Young when the camp was first begun, the Red Cross 



EXTRACTS OF REPORTS FROM CAMPS. 



489 



was able to enter into a far broader sphere of usefulness than would 
otherwise have been jxjssible." 

The following list is given of articles furnished by the Red Cross, 
to show in what quantities the supplies were used: 



Equipped cots 1.523 

Suits underwear 4,948 

Pairs of socks 4i322 

Night shirts 4,322 

Pajamas 4,733 

Comfort bags 1,511 

Sheets 2,471 

Pillow cases 2,536 

Handkerchiefs 10,946 



Pairs of slippers 2,423 

Towels 6,554 

Pillows 800 

Blankets 929 

Cocoa J, 440 

Soups (cans) 10,344 

Lactated food (bottles) .... 3,456 

Beef extract ^,224 



In all, 178 different articles were furnished, and many of them in 
as large, some in even larger numbers than these given. 



Red Cross Relief Station, Long Island City. 



Mrs. Hammond in charge. 



The Red Cross Relief Station was opened on August 29th. The 
building which was directly opposite the railroad station, and in every 
way most admirably adapted to the work, was offered to the Society by 
Patrick J. Gleason, ex-Mayor of Long Island City. On the second 
and third floors of this building, cots were erected, diet kitchens were 
started, a corps of servants employed, and in a day or two everything 
was in readiness. All the trains arriving from Montauk were met and 
the men assisted to the Red Cross Relief Station, where they were all fed. 
Many men were too ill to continue on their journey and were kept at 
the "Emergency Hospital," or sent to hospitals in New York and 
Brooklyn. The work, in a day or two. assumed such large proportions 
that cots were erected on the first floor, and the Information and 
Business offices were in a tent in front of the building. Even this 
proved inadequate, and fifteen tents were erected, each holding six 
cots. 

Competent trained nurses were on duty, supplied by Auxiliary 
No. 3. 

Two ambulances were supplied by Auxiliary No i. 



490 



THE RED CROSS. 



Clothing and delicacies of all kinds were dispensed in large 
quantities. 

Over fourteen thousand men were fed, and about $7000 was spent 
in carrj'ing on this work. 

From the reports of the physicians in charge we can safely say 
that for the first two weeks 75 per cent of all that came in were sick, 
needing care and medical attention, the third week about 50 per cent, 
and the fourth week about 25 per cent. 

It was due to the untiring enthusiasm of the women interested in 
the relief work that the society was able to carry it on so successfully. 



WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THE RED CROSS. 491 



THE WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THE RED CROSS. 

By special authority from the American National Red Cross, these 
auxiliaries were organized under the auspices of the Relief Committee 
in New York, acting in conjunction with the Executive Commitiee of 
the Red Cross. Therefore, full reports of what they have accomplished 
have not been sent direct to the national headquarters. Among the 
woman's auxiliaries it was the custom for each to organize for some 
special work, and devote their entire attention to it. It is a pleasure 
to be able to insert here, as an example of the manner in which these 
loyal women did their part in the work of war relief, the following 
from the report of Auxiliary No. 3, organized for the maintenance of 
trained nurses : 



From the Report of Red Cross Auxiliary No. 3. 

At the request of the Women's Committee on Auxiliaries, this 
auxiliary was organized on May 18, 1898, to provide funds for the 
maintenance of trained nurses. It was the original intention that these 
nurses should be placed on a hospital ship to be furnished by the 
National Relief Committee. It was not long, however, before this 
plan of specialized work was abandoned by the Relief Committee, and 
the Executive Committee of the auxiliary adapted itself to the change, 
by using its funds and devoting its energies in supplying and main- 
taining trained nurses in army hospitals, where, owing to the sudden- 
ness and greatness of the emergency, the supply and maintenance of 
an adequate number of nurses were not in the government's power. 
This form of work was begun early in July, and on the 19th of that 
month was, with the concurrence of the Relief Committee, finally 
adopted as the chief purpose of the auxiliary'. It is hoped that some 
estimate of the success achieved may be gained from this report. 

Immediately on its organization, the important work of raising 
money was undertaken, systematic eflforts were made to reach sub- 
scribers, associate members were enlisted, circulars were sent out, and 
personal appeals were made. From Paris alone, by the generosity of 
French and American friends, more than $21,000 was received. 
Suburban branches were also established, which, under the direction 



492 



THE RED CROSS. 



of separate committees, labored earnestly and contributed largely, both 
in money and in supplies. The chief of these branches were at Sea- 
bright, Klberon, Navesink, Orange, New Hamburg, Tuxedo, Tarry- 
town, Northern Westchester County, Riverdale, Rye and Harrison, 
White Plains, Lake George, St. Hubert's Inn, Lenox, Wakefield and 
Narragansett and Bar Harbor. The Executive Committee met fre- 
quently to consider this question of ways and means, and the assistant 
treasurer, Mrs. Edmund L. Baylies, was soon able to report a generous 
response. As shown by her account, the sum of $107,785. 12 has in 
all been collected, of which $72,101.64 has already been expended. 
Without this hearty support from the friends of the cause, the good 
accomplished by the auxiliary would have been sadly restricted, 
Indeed, when the critical time of arranging cooperation with the 
government came, we might never have felt justified in undertaking 
such a responsibility, had our actual contributions not been so large, 
and the assurance of further financial support so definite. 

On June 30 the first call for nurses came in the shape of a tele- 
graphic dispatch from Santiago, sent by Dr. A. Monae Lesser, chief 
surgeon of the American National Red Cross Society. Two days 
later, in compliance with this dispatch, a party consisting of twelve 
trained nurses, one immune nurse, and one assistant, was sent from 
New York to Tampa in charge of Miss Laura D. Gill, with orders to 
proceed to Santiago at the first opportunity. This party was reinforced 
by a second, consisting of three physicians and elevLU nurses, w^ho left 
New York on July 4 in charge of Miss Isabel Rutty. A third party 
of two physicians, thirty-two nurses, and six orderlies was sent forward 
the same week, and reached Tampa on the evening of July 9. The 
first available steamer for Santiago was the U. S. transport " Lam- 
pasas," which was taking out Col. Black and his engineering corps, 
and through the kindness of General Coppinger and Col. Edmond 
Rice, five physicians, twenty-nine nurses, and two orderlies were given 
transportation upon that ship. 

The "Lampasas" reached Santiago just after its surrender, but 
owing to the recent outbreak of yellow fever in the city, a strict 
quarantine had been established, and none but immunes were permitted 
to go ashore. The steamer thereupon proceeded to Porto Rico, and 
on reaching the harbor of Guanica was converted into a hospital ship. 
The plan of landing the nurses was abandoned, and they immediately 
devoted themselves to the care of the 112 soldiers, most of them typhoid 
fever patients, for whom accommodation was provided on the vessel. 



WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THE RED CROSS. 493 

Two of these patients died at Guanica, two at Ponce, and four on 
the homeward voyage. The remaining 104 were safely landed at 
Fort Monroe early in August. Miss Mary E. Gladwin, who was with 
the party, spoke for all the nurses when she said that this " Lampasas " 
trip was the opportunity of a lifetime, and that the two weeks of 
absorbing work " were worth years of ordinary living." 

In the meantime the rest of our party at Tampa had embarked 
on another government tran.sport, the " Nueces," also bound for San- 
tiago. But within a few hours after the " Lampasas " left the dock at 
Tampa, and before the "Nueces" could get away, a telegram was 
received telling of the outbreak of yellow fever in Cuba. By direction 
of the government, all of our party, except one trained nurse and four 
assistants, were thereupon removed from the "Nueces," and left in 
Tampa to await further developments. The five excepted members of 
the party proceeded to Cuba, and some time afterwards returned to 
New York in attendance upon the patients who were brought home on 
the steamer " Concho." 

It was in Tampa, while these nurses were impatiently awaiting 
transportation to the front, that the sudden outbreak of typhoid fever 
in the camp there gave the first important occasion for their services. 
Four nurses, under the charge of Mrs. E. B. Freer, were assigned to 
the Division Ho.spital at Picnic Island, and continued their work until 
about July 27, when the sick men were removed and the island aban- 
doned as a camp. The services of Mrs. Freer' s party were then desired 
by Colonel O'Reilly, chief surgeon of the Fourth Army Corps, and 
she was asked on Saturday, July 30, to superintend the opening of a 
new military hospital in West Tampa. Authority and funds were, on 
application to the auxiliary in New York, telegraphed her accordingly, 
and the effectiveness of the compliance with the chief surgeon's request 
will appear when it is said that by evening of the next day (Sunday) 
a three-story brick building was selected for the hospital, thoroughly 
cleaned, equipped with cots and other necessary hospital appliances, 
and the cots themselves occupied by fifty soldiers suffering from typhoid 
and malarial fevers. The spirit of this auspicious beginning guided 
the conduct of the hospital until its last patient had been discharged on 
October 14. Five hundred soldiers, chiefly typhoid patients, were 
treated during those ten weeks, and only eleven deaths occurred. Even 
a modern city hospital might be proud of such a record. 

Meanwhile the con.stant efforts of the auxiliary to send nurses to 
Cuba were thwarted by the appearance of yellow fever in Santiago. 



494 THK RKD CROSS. 

Notwithstanding our repeated offers, the government adhered to iti- 
detennination to permit none but innnune nurses at the front, and the 
extension of the auxiHary's work seemed to be liopelessly checked. 
The situation with whicli we were confronted was most serious. We 
had sought and collected over $60,000 in money, and notwithstanding 
the great amount of suffering, and our conviction that if only permitted to 
do so we might relieve so much of it, we were nearly helpless. Happily, 
a speedy and most gratifying solution of the problem was found in the 
following manner: The Executive Board of the Relief Committee 
decided to send a committee representing itself and this auxiliary to 
Washington, to reach some positive understanding with the President 
and the surgeon-general of the army regarding the regular employ- 
ment of our nurses. 

On the evening of July 15, this committee, consisting of Mr. 
Howard Townsend, Mrs. Whitelaw Reid and Mrs. Winthrop Cowdin, 
was accorded a private interview at the White House by President 
McKinley, who listened with kindly attention to a brief explanation 
of the aims and purposes of the auxiliarj^, and expressed himself as 
entirely in sympathy with them. At his request, a conference at the 
White House between the committee, the Secretary of War and the 
surgeon -general was arranged for the following morning. That same 
evening the committee called also upon the adjutant-general, and 
was assured of his co-operation in their efforts. Owing doubtless to 
the limited time at the disposal of the surgeon-general, who was on 
his way to meet the hospital ship "Olivette" on its first journey 
North with a load of wounded from Santiago, no definite results were 
reached at the conference the next morning. The Secretary of War, 
however, said he would aid us to the extent of his power, and the 
surgeon-general promised another interview with the same committee 
at Mrs. Reid's house in New York, Sunday afternoon, July 17. The 
result of this interview is thus staled in a letter from General Sternberg 
to Mrs. Reid: 



I take pleasure in confirming by letter the arrangements made at our interview 
in New York on the 17th instant. 

I am quite willing to employ female nurses vouched for by 3'ourself as secre- 
tary of the Red Cross Society for Maintenance of Trained Nurses. I had previously 
made very satisfactory arrangements for the employment of trained female nurses 
through a committee of the Daughters of the American Revolution. As I said to 
you during our interview, I recognize the value of trained female nurses in general 



WOMAN'S AUXILIARIES OF THR RED CROSS. 495 

hospitals, and we expect to make use of their services to such an extent as seems 
to be desirable. But I do not approve of sending female nurses with troops in 
the field or to camps of instruction. It is the intention to transfer the seriously 
sick men from our field hospitals to the general hospitals as soon as practicable; 
and we wish our enlisted men of the Hospital Corps to lake care of the sick 
in the Division Field hospitals and in camps of instruction, so that they may 
be fully prepared to perform the same duties when the troops are in active 
operations. 

Among these privates of the Hospital Corps who constitute the Red Cross 
organization of the regular military service, and who are non-combatants in 
accordance with the terms of the Geneva Convention, we have many medical 
students and even graduates in medicine. 

I have made an exception with reference to sending female nurses to Cuba in 
view of the outbreak of yellow fever in Santiago, and am now sending innnune 
nurses, both male and female, for duty at the yellow fever hospitals. In accord- 
ance with our agreement, you are authorized to send ten female trained nurses, 
selected by yourself, to the Leiter Hospital at Camp Thomas, Ga.; ten to the U. S. 
General Hospital at Fort Monroe, Va.; and two to the hospital at Fort Wadsworth, 
N. Y., the understanding being that those at Fort Monroe and at Fort Wadsworth 
shall be boarded and lodged outside of the hospital. 

Thanking you very sincerely for your earnest efiforts in behalf of our sick and 
wounded soldiers, I am, etc. 



This letter was accompanied by an order for twenty nurses to be 
.sent at once to the hospitals in the city of Charleston. 

As a result of this permis.sion of the government, three men 
nurses were sent on July 21 to the Marine Hospital at Staten Island, 
and Miss Marjorie Hen.shall went with three women nurses to the Po.st 
Ho.spital at Fort Wadsworth, where a number of sick and woinuled 
officers had just been landed from the " Olivette." An example of the 
immediate benefit resulting from the increased powers of the auxiliary 
may be found in the case of one of the lieutenants in the regular 
army, who had l3een ill with fever for weeks in Santiago witliout 
proper care, and who had reached New York in an almo.st dying 
condition. The surgeons in charge attributed his recovery to the 
timely arrival of the nurses under Miss Henshall. 

In further accordance with the surgeon -general's permis.sion, the 
nurses who were on waiting orders at Tampa were sent to the Leiter 
Hospital near Chattanooga, where ten were immediately placed on duty 
by the chief surgeon, Major Carter ; and as they could not be provided 
for in the hospital building, Mi.ss Gill went to Chattanooga to arrange 
for their maintenance in quarters near by. The service at the Leiter 
Hospital was peculiarly hard, and one of the nurses, Miss Phinney, 



496 THE RED CROSS. 

died there as a result of the great mental and physicial strain to which 
she was subjected. 

Ten nurses were sent on July 22 to the General Hospital, Fort 
Monroe, in charge of Miss Lida G. Starr. As this hospital consisted 
largely of tents, it was necessary for the nurses to be maintained in 
hotels, in the neighborhood. Later, other nurses came, and soon the 
entire force, with two exceptions, had signed contracts with the govern- 
ment, but were maintained at the expense of the auxiliary. The total 
number of nurses maintained by the auxiliary in service at this place 
was at times as large as forty -five. Ten other nurses, maintained by 
the Woman's War Relief Association, shared in the w^ork there. In 
all seventeen hundred patients were treated at this hospital, of whom 
only thirty-four died. To Miss Starr is due much credit for the 
admirable management of the funds intrusted to her by the auxiliary, 
and for the sedulous care she bestowed upon the welfare of the nurses. 
Onl)' this, as they themselves realized, made it possible for them to 
perform so remarkable a work, — a work of which Major De Witt, the 
surgeon in charge, said: "I am satisfied that whatever success we 
may have had in the treatment of our sick and wounded has been 
in great measure due to the skill and devotion of the female nurses. ' ' 

Our labor at Charleston involved somewhat different necessities. 
The city hospitals were crowded with soldiers who had been taken ill 
on their way from the camps to the transports. Additional nurses 
were thus greatly needed, and on July 24 twenty, in charge of Miss 
Martha L. Draper, were sent to meet the emergency. That their 
serv'ices were valuable and appreciated is shown hy the testimonials 
granted them by the Board of Commissioners of the City Hospital of 
Charleston. 

When, in early August, the steamship "Missouri" was bought 
by the government for a hospital ship, Mrs. Reid offered women 
nurses to the officer in charge, Major Arthur. As the construction of 
the ship did not afford accommodations which permitted the presence 
of women on board, this offer was changed. The department had 
allowed Major Arthur ten male nurses, but the government salary did 
not command the quality of service which the special work of superinten- 
dence required. It was therefore proposed to choose, under the advice 
of Dr. Fisher, of the Presbyteri