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Full text of "reform"

REFORM OR REVOLUTION? 

H ZXEZH ANAMEZA 

ZTO nOAITIKO 

KAI TO KOINQNIKO 

ZTA IIAAIIIA THZ B' AIE0NOYZ 




EkSooelc; v 
Klvouhevol Tottol 



vouocSiko 



SsXiSoTioiTjaT), e^dxpuXKo, aiaOYj-uxr] zmy.£Xeia eyivav 
and to NojxaSixo Epyacro^pi. 

XpYjattxoTioiTiOYjxav ot ypay.y.a-:oazips.!;: GFS Didot, 
GFS Neohellenic, GFS Artemisia. 



H XP~h ar l T0U etvai eAeoOepyj yta xiVYjtxa-uxooi; 
axo7iou<;... 



npoAoyiKo 2ri(j£icAD(ja 

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xaL eyco! To TiapaxaTto xei^ievo ypdcpTrjxs TipLV octio tioAo xoupo, tyjv dvoL^rj too 2004, xaL 
y.z izoXv xotto. Tots upoop^oTav va zivai sva a-rco toc Tsaaspa ^isprj evoq acpLspco^aToc; 
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aopTdpL», ZKifii&vovxaq as 7izioy.a Soo ^eTaxo^uaecov xaL axo^irj TcspLoaoTspoov «Ta^LSLcov» 
avd^isaa as Stdcpopooq axArjpooc; Siaxooq. 

Ol AoyoL ttoo aicocpdaLaa va «£x§o6£L» StaStXToaxd ELvaL fiaoixa Soo. upcoToc; SLvaL 
TcsptaaoTepo TipoacoTUXoc;: Stdcpopot xovtlvol aovTpocpot, ttoo o*Ld(3aaav to xsl^ievo too 
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TTiaTeoco otl av §LaPaaT£L ^ie Ta \iaiia arpa^sva oto a^epa \nnopzi va ao^pdAAsi, ottjv 
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aoTT^ Trj aTLy^4 Xiyooq ^i^vec; ^i£Ta tyjv e^sysparj too Azxzy.fipr\ xai ^isaa gto ^ocpo tyjc; 
xauLTaALaTLX^q xpiarjq. 

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aicAd sva uaXLo aTL^axL: o x^P^^svoq ^ioo eaoTog ELvaL 7100 xwpLas tov xoa^io and Ad6oc;. 
Ako zxzi xai uspa to tl xaTavosL xavsLq \izoa and tyjv §LaSLxaaLa tyjc; avdyvooarjq SLvaL 
(avauocpsoxTa!) xaL ouoxsl^ievlxtj vnodzcrq. 0a upsueL axo^irj va §L£oxpLVLaco otl 60a 
ypdcpTYjxav auoTeAoov aoTa uoo xaTacpepa va xaTaAdpoo SLa^d^ovTac; ^ua aoyxexpL^svrj 
PL^XLoypacpLa xaL zxovxaq otyj 8iaQzor\ y.ov z'kayioizq e^ueLpLxsc; xaTaypacpsq yLa exslvyj 
ttjv £uox'*l, dpa SLvaL avoLXTa oto evSexo^ievo ETU^ispooc; Xa6cov r\ izapa^zi^zodv. KaL si^aL 
aLyoopoq otl oudpxoov «ojpXaoTixoi» aovTpocpoL uoo 6a Ppoov TSTOLa Xd6rj... 
KaTioo eSco upsueL va (3dAco ^La TeXsLa: r\ «zx8oor\» too xsl^isvoo acpLepcoveTaL as exelvooc; 
tooc; veoTspooq aovTpocpooq uoo Ta TpLa TeXsoTaLa xpovLa, ^ie tyjv Spdarj Tooq xaL ttjv 
axsijjrj tooc;, y.z zxovv fior\Qr\ozi va ^ava(3pco xoopdyLo xaL zXizida yLa tyjv «VTz6Qzor\ y.aq»... 
Kakr\ avdyvooarj. 

a. a. 

A6r]va 28 Ioovloo 2009 



EiiArnrH 

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avacpopd xat, oto auepixdvixo "cpatvouevo" tcov Wobblies. TzXoq 6a "TCpayuaTOTroiYJaooue 
\iia zoxiaoy] oto xpovo: 6a aaxoAyj6o6u£ TiepLaaoTepo ae tyjv "rcepioSo 1900 - 1914 xat, 
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aoaTYj^ia. 

TA2IKH IYN0EIH KAI nPOAETAPIAKOI ArfiNEI ITH TEPMANIA nPIN 
(KAI META) TON nOAEMO 

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Ta^ixcov aycovcov Ta ETro^sva xpovia. 'O^coq y.zoa ottjv TipcoTrj SexasTia too aycova aviri r\ 



~6~ 

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ovvQzor\c, aira xovq y.zxa'Kkodpvxovq otooc; epydxsc; aoTcov tuv vscov (3t,o^rjxavt,xcov xAdScov. 
'O^icoc; 11 zioooq epydxec; SooAeoav as ourcsc; tic; xaivoopisc; (3t,o^r]xavi£c;; 

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Ta acpevTixd tcov opoxeicov e^apTioTav a-no Tooq aoyxexp^svoog epyaTeg, y.z aXka Xoyta 
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aTioTeAooae TaoToxpova tyj Sova^irj xat tyjv aSova^ua too. Aova^irj yiaTi r\ epyaata too 
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~7~ 

aycovsc; o^6v6rjxav. 

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va £7u(3£(3at,coa£t, aoTo to yeyovog: to 1904 ovvzfi-qoav ottj Fepy.avia 1870 aTiepyieg, as 
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anzpyizq, ae 14000 spyoaTdaia, \iz Trj aou^SToxV} 400000 auepycov. Sav auoxopocpco^a 
aoToo too xoxAoo aycovcov 6£copY]6r]X£ tote yj yevixrj auepyia ttoo TtapsAoae yt,a Yjuipeg 
to Ai^idvt, xat, Ta epyooTaaia too Au^oopyoo tov Tsvaprj too 1906 - yj Rosa Luxemburg 
aTcoxdAeae yapaxiripiotixa ocott^ tyjv aTiepyia aav tyjv "yzvixy\ 7ro6(3a ir\q s^syeparjc;". 
Baaixoi TcpcoTaycovLOTsc; as aoTo tov ttocoto xoxXo aycovcov rrav ot, tuo "TiapaSoaiaxoi" 
xAdSot, ir\q epyaTixyjc; toc^yjc;, ottcoc; ot, UETaXAcopoxot, too Poop. 'Oucog, xa6coq PpiaxouaaTE 
ae ut,a etiox^ ttoo yj iafyxr\ ovvQzor\ otyj Tepuavia TpoTraTTOistrat, us tyjv avajrco^Y] tcov vecov 
Pio^rixavLxcov xAdScov, Ta STro^eva xpovia Ta xcpdy^iaTa 6a aXXd^oov. 'Etol otov stto^evo 
xoxXo Ta^xcov aycovcov, tyjv uepioSo 1910- 1913, ot, aycovsc; 6a £^a7iAco6o6v o-ciq y.zoaioo 
H£ys6oo<; ^lovdSeg ir\q ^YjxavoAoyLxViq (3t,o^Y]xaviac; xoct ot, siSixeouivot, PLo^iYjxavLxoi epyaTec; 
6a avaAdpoov tov 7TOcoTaycovt,aTt,x6 poXo: eivat, evSeiXTixo to yeyovoc; oti to 1912 o api6y.6q 
tcov aTispycov 6a cpTaaet, xat, TidAt, izzpiizov oto \iioo exaTou^opio o^icoq TaoToxpova o apiQy.6q 
tcov (3t,o^r]xavt,c6v kov eurjpsdaTYjxav and iiq aizepYizq 6a ao^Y]6si ae ojzor\ u-£ to 1905. 
0a u^aoAapVjaet, to acpayeio tcov xapaxco^aTcov TOU ttocotoo Tiayxoauioo izo\£y.ov, y.z tyj 
aovatveayj tcov YjyeTcov too Tep^iavLxoo Eoat,aAo*YpoxpaTt,xo6 Kou^aToc; (SPD), ttooxeiu^voo 
to ysp^iavLxo TcpoAsTapLaTo va upay^aTOTcoL^as!,, tyjv nepiodo 1918- 1921, tov TpiTo xat, 
teAlxo xoxXo aycovcov. Eivat, a' aoTV^ tyjv izzpiodo izov r\ xafyx-q ovvQzcrq oty\ rsp^avLa 6a 
Tpo7TO7TOt,Y]6£L xat, TidAi: sxtoc; and iovq zidixzvy.zvovq texvltec; ol aveiSixeoTot, epyaTeg ^la^L 
\iz iiq Ywaixzq epyaTpteq, ol oizoioi/zq eixav £iaax6ei y.aC,ixd y.zoa ota epyoaTdata, Ta 
opoxsta xat, Ta X^dvia xaTa tyjv 8(,dpx£!,a too ttoAs^ioo yt,a va xaAocJjoov iiq avdjxzq ir\q 
aoaacopeoarjq, 6a Pyoov oova^itxa oto Tcpoax^VLo. Eivat, ZTzicrqq as aoTY] tyjv uspioSo izov 
6a udpet. adpxa xat oaTa to xivrpa tcov epyaTLXcov ao^PooAtcov xai tj iafyxr\ aoyxpooarj 
6a cpTaaei aTa dxpa. 

Msaa ae aoTo to izXaioio, jcpoxs^svoo va xaTavoriaoo^e tyjv tote ojcdpxooaa axsarj 
avd^ieaa oto "ttoXltlxo" xai to "xolvcovlxo", eivat, auapaiTrjTo va p^oo^is [u,a aovoTrcixrj 
[laTLa ae opta^isva x^pocxTyipi.aTLxd aoTcov tcov aycovcov. Stov upcoTo xoxAo aycovcov 6a 
ava8o6oov aav xopiapxa Tpia aTotxeia: to TipcoTo sivat, yj evTOTrcoataxT] ^la^xoTYjTa tcov 
aTispyicov - eivai r\ upcoTrj cpopd tcoo s^icpav^ETa!, otlc; izoXmxzq 8iay.cq(zq o opoq "mas- 
siver streik" - xat, as opLa^isveq TrepiTrccoasic; o ao66p^rjTo<; x a P aXT ^P a ? tovq. E'aoTo to 
ayj^ieio ypeiaZjexai Tzpoooyf\: \iz tov opo "ao66p^Y]To" 6a •rcps-rcet, va yivovTat, xaTavorjTsc; 
xiVYjTOTio!,7]a£!,<; Tioo Tipay^aTOTTOioov oi epydTeg ^isaa ano tyjv 5oy.r\ too aovStxaToo, ot, 
onoizq 6y.(x>q dzv oyz8iaC,ovTav d^isaa aico to SPD r\ and tyjv rjyeaia tcov aov8t,xdTcov. 
To SeoTspo aTOLX^^o sivat, ot, y.r\ fiiaizq ^lopcpsq izdi\y]q izov olo6stoov ol auspyoi, y.z ttlo 
XapaxTY]pt,aTt,XY] tyj ^a^XYj uopeia SLa^iapToptac;. To TpiTo aTotxs^o eivat, to yeyovoq otl Ta 
aLTTj^iaTa tcov auepycov acpopooaav xopilcoc; iiq oyzoziq e^ooaiaq ^isaa oto (aoyxexpt^svo 
xd6e cpopd) spyoaTaaio. Miaq xat, aoTo to aToix^o 6a £Trav£^cpav!,aT£L xai otooc; euo^ievooc; 
xoxXooq aycovcov a^ei va aTa6oo^i£ Xiyo TcapaTidvco e8c6. Tia Tooq yep^iavooq spyaTsq 
zxzb)r\q tyj<; zizoyfiq r\ e^ooaia STipeTie va xaTaxTY]6£i upcoTa xat udvco an' 6Xa ^saa oto 
epyoaTaaLo, uiaa otyjv xapStd ir\q TcapaycoyLXYjc; St,aSt,xaaLac;. Aoto 8ev aTTOTeXooae 
xduoLa iSsoAoyixr] zy.y.ovr\ izov ziyz ziocofzi to SPD uiaa oto epyaTtxo xivrj^ia. 'HTav sva 
aTOLxeto uoo TcposxoTCTE aTio iiq idizq iiq v'kixzq ovvQ-qxzq izov Picovav ot, epyaTsq ^isaa 



~8~ 

oto epyoaTdaio: oizodq Tipoavacpspau^ STipoxstro yt,a spyaTSc; izov ziyav svav Sypioopyixo 
poAo ^aa otyjv TrapaycoyiXY] o*t,ao*t,xaaia, avTtAau^dvovTav tooc; saoTooc; tooc; aav du^aooc; 
Tiapaycoyooc;, xat svt,co6av to aoyxexpiuivo epyoaxdato oto otioio SooAeoav aav to "c/otixo 
tooc; xcopo". 

'ExovTac; aoxd aav SsSouiva, 8ev eivat, xa66Aoo Tiapd^evo to ttcoc; Trpoxoircoov aoToo 
too eiSooc; Ta atrVpaTa xa6coc; xat, r\ yevLXOTeprj avTLAYj([)Y] yt,a tyjv avrodiaxzipioy] ir\q 
TrapaycoyVjc; uoo e^cpaviaTrjxe Toao ae auxovq tooc; aycovec; oao xat, otyjv uepioSo Spdarjc; 
tcov epyaxLxcov ao^(3ooAicov. Kat, TidAt, eivat, ~kaQoq va avTtAau^avo^iaaTS to "spyorcixo 
ax£§t,o" tyjc; aoToo*t,ax£ipt,ar]c; u^ Ta ayju-epivd SsSouiva- 8rjAa87] aav eva epyaxLxo a^sSio 
uoo to upaxxLxo too aTtoTsAea^ia rfcav yj avavscoar] tyjc; xaTUTaAiaTLXYJc; aoaacopeoarjc;. 
IIps-Tret, avTi6eTa va avTt,AY]<p6o6u^ oxt, ^ovo to iztiq izpozxvme avid to oyz&o and tyjv 
aoyxexpiuivrj Ta^iXY] aov6earj aXXd xat, mo poAo eraxt^e uiaa otic; aoyxsxpiuivsc; laTopixsc; 
ovvQ-qxzq, uiaa otyj aoyxsxpiuivr] 8t,dp6pcoar] tyjc; Trapaycoyixyjc; diadixaoiaq. And avTqv ir\v 
duoijJYj, r\ avrikrn\)ri yt,a tyjv aoTo8t,ax£tpt,aY] ir\q Trapaycoyrjc; uiaa oto yep^iavixo epyaTixo 
xiVYj^ia eixs, rcavTa yt,a Ta SeSouiva ttjc; zizoxQq, svav aacpcoc; avaTpeTraxo xapaxTrjpa: 
loxopoTioicovTac; axo^ia uepiaaoTepo tyj Qzcrq tcov epyaTcov uiaa otyjv TiapaycoyV} xat, tyj 
Aetroopyia tooc; aav du^acov uapaycoycov Srju^oopyooae sva aTpaTrjytxo e^itcoSlo yt,a to 
yep^iavLxo xecpdAaio. Ar\kadr\ too aTepooae tyj SovaTOTrjTa va zXiyQzi aTisvavTt, otooc; 
Ta^xooq aycovec;, va TpoTTOTroirjaet, tyjv TrapaycoyixV] St,ao*t,xaaia xat, va u^TapdAet, ia 
8o^t,xd xapaxTrjpt,aT[,xd TOU PtO[XT]xavixo6 spyaTrj upoxeiuivoo va Scoaet, vsa c56rjarj air\ 
aoaacopeoarj. Kat, aoTo to e^tioSio §ev r^Tav y.6vo yep^avLX^ OTroOearj- Toao aTrjv iTaXia 
oao xat, oty] FaKkia, oz ^iLxpoTepo iocdq Pa6^io, to xecpdXaLo avTL^eTcoTiL^e Tiavo^otoTOTia 
TrpoPAVj^aTa tyjv uepioSo Aiyo upt,v xat, Aiyo ^i£Ta tov Tz6Xzy.o. 

Eto SsoTspo xoxXo aycovoov, tyjv TcspiloSo 1910-1913, 6a e^cpaviaTeL xat, sva 
xaivoopio x a P aXTr lP iaTlxo 7lov &X ei tStaixepT] arj^aatla. Exslvyj tyjv euox^ Ta ysp^iavLxd 
aoat,aX8Yj^ioxpaTt,xd aovSt,xaTa, uoo auoTeAooaav y.op(pzq opydvcoarjc; tcov epyaTcov y.z pday] 
to STrdyyeX^ia, d-qkadri rfcav trade unions aTa OTioia aouueTeixav xopicoq ot, elSlxeousvo!, 
spyaTsq, PpiaxovTav ae [jiia uepLoSo upcoTocpavooq axu^g. Eivat, TooXax^aTov £VTOucoat,ax6 
to yeyovoq otl otl<; uapauovsq too ttoXsuoo Ta aoat,aX8rjuoxpaTt,xd aov8t,xaTa (Free 
Trade Unions) SiaTYjpooaav izzpinov 3000 £uut,a6a aov§t,xaAt,aTt,xd oTzXiyy] xat, et^xocv 
2,5 £xaTouuopt,a y.zXr\ oxa onoia napziyav ut,a ueydAy] yxdua xoivcovixcov ouYjpeaLcov! 
BsPat,a aoT^ r\ yt,ydvTcoarj tcov epyaTt,xcov opyavcoascov ziyz xat, xduoisq ovvzizzizq: iz\r\py]q 
ypacpsLoxpaTLXOTcoirjarj (o SsauoTLauoq too yevt,xoo ypauuaTsa tcov aovSixaTcov Legien xat, 
ir\q x~kixaq too ou^p^s uapot,ut,c68rj<;!), apvYjarj too 7roXt,Tt,xo6/avTaycovt,aTt,xoo aTot,X£^o^> >coct 
sucpaay] oty] ypauurj too "xa6apoo olxovoulxoo aycova" xat, cpoaixd ut,a ctxetlxyj auoudxpovayj 
tcov aov8t,xaXt,aTt,xcov otsXsxcov auo ttjv zpyaiixr\ pdarj. Axpt,pcoc; usaa avro ao-xr\ ir\ pcoyu^ 
6a eucpaviGTEL to xat,voopt,o xocpaxTrjpiaTt,x6 tcov aycovcov: oXosva xat, uspLaaoTepec; anzpyizq 
^extvoov ao66puY]Ta. Aoto<; o ao66puyjToc; x a P aXT W a< ~, TWV xt,VYjTouot,Yia£cov 8sv sxcppd^ETat, 
oucoq usaa and ut,a uA^pyj aucpLaP^Tyjarj too poAoo tcov aov8t,xaTcov xat, ut,a uA^pYj p^rj ae 
to opyavcoTt,xo Tooq uovtsXo. Excppd^ETat, xopicoq usaa auo aoTo tioo 6a UTiopooaa^e va 
aTioxaXsaoous "epyaTt,x^ XP^ ar i TC0V o"ov8t,xaTcov". Ot, spyaTsq SiaTUGTcovovTac; ae ao^avousvo 
po6uo tyjv aSpdveia tcov aovStxaAiaTLXcov leaders xpiiat,uoTrot,o6aav tyjv (totuxyj) opyavcoTLxV] 
doy.r\ xat, Tooq izopovq too aovStxaToo yt,a va TrpayuaTOTTOiYJaoov tov aycova tooc; x w P^ 
va cp£Tt,xouot,o6v aicapaLTrjTa avir\ ir\ y.op(pr\ opydvcoarjq. Eav [Jit,a eAdxtaTrj £V§£t,^rj aoT^q 
Trjq epyaTLX^q XP~h ar l^ TC0V aovStxaTcov avacpspoous to z£f\q axoixzio: oto aov8t,xaTo tcov 
UETaXAepyaTcov to 1912 uapaTYjpeLTat, [J.t,a xt,VY]Tt,xoTr]Ta tcov epyaTcov tyj<; Td^rjq too 75% 
(SYjAaSYJ yia xd6s vso y.zXoq too aov8t,xaToo Tpia nakid y.zXr\ auoxcopooaav and aoTo) us 
aTTOTsXea^ia to aovStxaTo va opyavcovet, ^ovo to 30% tcov epyaTcov ae aoTo tov xAdSo. 
ITapoAa aoTa tyjv L8t,a xpovt,d 6a ayj^£t,co6£L otov xAdSo tcov u^TaAAspyaTcov, oizcdq xai ae 



~9~ 

aXkovq xXadovq, zvaq and iovq ui{)r]A6T£pouc; apt,6uouc; aTiepyicov. 'Oucoc; r\ epyaTixr} XP~h ar l 
tcov auvSixaTcov, oto TsAog auTou tou xuxAou aycovcov, 6a apxtoet, va cpTavet, gtoc 6pt,d ttjc;. 
Me acpopurj uia ua^iXY] a-rcepyia cm<; a7io(3d6p£<; tou AuPoupyou axa tsAtj tou 1913, tyjv 
ouoia xa ouvSixaTa 6a apvrj6ouv va xrjv avayvcopiaouv, r\ auo^svcoor] tcov auvSixaAiaTcov 
leaders and iovq avvdixaXia-zzq i-qq fiaar\q 6a apxiozi va yLVETat, ueptaaoTspo cpavepr}. 
Toug e-rcouevouc; y-^zq opiausveg totuxsc; ouvSixaAioTLxeg ev&oeiq axiq a7iopd6p£<; aXAd 
xai gtov xAdSo tou usTaAAou xat, i-qq ucpavToupyiag 6a aTroxcopVjaouv aico xa Free Trade 
Unions. 'Hrav xa upoeopTia i-qq xaTatyLoac; izov 6a axoXou6ouae usTa tov ttoAeuo... 

'Eypvraq (3t,coa£t, iiq auvzizzizq tou -rcpcoTou 7tayx6aut,ou ttoAsuou xoao otov ustcotto oao 
xat, crca y.ex6izioQev, zxovraq avTt,AY]cp6£i ttou oS^yyjae yj TiaTpicoTix^ ypauurj avvaivzar\q 
axov tioAeuo tcov rjysTcov tou SPD (tou<; ottoiouc; yt,a dzxazxizq £U7UOT£uovTav), zxovxaq 
axour] dzi Ta auvSixaTa va Spouv aav svac; urixaviauoc; xaTaTusarjc; xat, xaTaoToArjc; usoa 
aia epyoaTaata xa6 '6Arj ir\ §t,dpx£t,a tou ttoAsuou (\iiaq xat, Ta auvSixaAicmxd oteAsx^ 
auxvd xaTsStSav tou<; aycoviaTsg epyaTeq axiq axpcxTicdTixzq apxzqO, to 7ipoA£Tapt,dTo 
otyj repuavia zmcrcpz(pzi and to o^Tomo aTrocpao-LauEVo va avot^et, sva vso xat, o^uTepo 
yupo avTt,raxpd6£or]c;. Touq TsAeuTatlouc; y.r\vzq tou 1917, rjSr] icpiv ttjv ziziormy] AV^rj tou 
tcoAsuou, as Sidcpopec; izzpiaxzq tyjc; rspuavtac; 6a ^soTidost, sva xufjia dypicov auepyicov. 
I/uc; TiepLaaoTepeq izzpinxodoziq ot, epyaTEc; tcov totuxcov TrapapTYjuaTcov tcov auvo*t,xdTcov 
6a a-rcaAAoTpicoaouv iiq oixovouixsc; etacpopsq Toug, uapd ttjv avTi6eTY] evtoAyj i-qq rpfzoiaq 
tcov Free Trade Unions, upoxeiusvou va 7ipayuaT07iot,V}aouv iiq aTrspyisq. To xsvTpixo 
auv6rjua tcov xivrroTcoirjascov 6a eivat, xaTt, uapaudvco and oacpzq: "s^co avro Ta aovSixaTa"! 
TauToxpova, and iiq apxzq tyj<; idiaq xP OVLa ?. z^aniaq Tr\q auoTo^iYjc; tttcooyjc; tcov 
Tipay^iaTLXcov ^ua6cov xat ir\q zmfioXriq SeAtlou aTa Paatxd TipolovTa SLaTpocpyjc;, 6a apxtoouv 
va au^Paivouv \iz au^avo^ievrj aoxvoTYfca fiiaizq lapax^q oia ^isydXa acmxd xsvTpa, \xz 
TipcoTaycovLaTsc; touc; avsiSixeuTouc; spyaTeq. MdXLOTa rJTav yt,a auToug Toug epyaTeq, ttou 
TipcoTaycoviaTYjaav xat, otic; dypteg auepyiec;, uou to GTpaTicoTixo xa6eaTco<; X9 r l al \ lov:o ' ir l ot 
tov opo "aTiapTax!,aT7]c;" aav auvcovu^io tou Tapa^ta! Me tyj Ayj^yj tou n6Xzy.ov to 1918, 
xai y.zoa az sva xa6eaTcoc; TiA^pouc; auxyuarjq and tyjv uXeupd oXoxXyjprjc; tyjc; yep^iavixric; 
apiaTspdq, 6a 8rj^!,oupyrj6ouv Ta TipcoTa au^PouAta and epyaTsq xat, OTpaTicoTSc;. Kat, evco 
apx^xd yj yep^iavixrj xuPspvrjaYj 6a Trpoa:ia6Yia£!, va eAsy^et, to xivrj^ia tcov au^PouXicov, 
avayvcopi^ovTaq Ta xat, Trpoco6covTac; yta avTLTipoacououg Touq U7io([)Y]cp!,ouc; tou SPD, gtyj 
ovvzxziol 6a aTravT^ast, y.z ir\ fiia: r\ svouXyj e^sysparj tcov oo^(3ou>icov oto BepoAivo tov 
Tsvaprj tou 1919 6a Tiviyzi gto aiy.a and to aTpaTo xat, iiq TrapaaTpaTicoTixsc; oy.adzq 
(Freikorps). 'O^icoq Tiapd tyjv ava^icpLaP^TrjTa aYj^iavTixV] rpra az aTpaTLWTLXo ziziizzdo, rj 
yevixeu^EVYj avaTapax^ 6a auvex LaT s;L. Tyjv dvot^Y] tou 1919, ^isaa ae sva ^leydXo auepyLaxo 
xu^ia, 6a apx^ouv va e^aTcXcovovTai, apx^xd otlc; -rcepioxsc; tou Poup, ttjc; Ea^ovLaq xat, tcov 
At^avicov tou Boppd, ot, auoxaXou^evei; spyaTLxeq svcoastq (unions) - uia StaxptT^ uopcp^ 
epyaTLXcov opyavcoaecov ttou uto6£Touaav ttlo p^oaTxaaTLxec; y.zQ6dovq Spdayjq. Eivai ae 
auTo to ayjueio ouou yivovTat, tiXsov ^exd6apa Ta xatvoupta x a P aXTY lP lOTlxa olvtov tou 
TpiTou xuxXou aycovcov. Acp' zvoq sva uAsLoijjrjcpLxo i\ir\\i.a tou uaxouevou TcpoXsTapLaTou 
6a upayuaTouo^as!, uta iz\r\py] prfef] ue tyjv uapaSoaLaxV] uopcpy] epyaTLX^q opydvcoarjc; 
,Ta euayyeXuaTLxd auvSixaTa, SyjULoupycovTac; opyavcoaeLq ol (moizq dzv £X ouv CTav Pday] 
auyxpoTYjOYjc; to xolvo STidyysAua aAXd tyjv napay.ovr\ xat, epyaaia oto lSlo epyoaTaaio xai 
^euepvouv to StaxcopLauo tcov eiSixsousvcov and iovq avzidixzvxovq spyaTsq evTaaaovTaq 
xai iiq 8uo xaTrjyopiec; az [Jiia xolvV] opyavcoTLxV^ uopcpv^. Acp ETspou, 6a eyxaTaX£!,cp6ouv 
az ueydAo Pa6uo oi uyj fiimzq uopcpsq izoikriq: xa6 6Atj tyj Sidpxeia tyjc; TreptoSou 1918- 
1921, az Sidcpopeg izzpioxzq, 6a •rcpayuaT07iot,Y]6ouv izoXkzq zvoiz'Xzq avyxpovaziq avdueaa 
az oiz\iay.zvovq epyaTsq xat TcapaaTpaTLcoTLXouq ue avroxopucpcoua iiq yevLxeu^sveq 
auyxpouaetc; aTrjv xo!,Xd8a tou Poup to MdpTio tou 1920. 'Oucoc; TcapdXArjXa to xivrjua tcov 



~10~ 

spyoruxcov ao^(3ooAicov rrav avayxaauivo, a^sSov and iiq anapxzq too, va vizepaoiziozi xrjv 
vizap£,r\ too \iz Ta 6-rcAa, Tfcav avayxaauivo va auuv6£i xooo TroAmxa 600 xai OTpaTicoTixd, 
XwpLg va xaxacpspsL ae o-rcoiaSYJTTOTS xpovixo arpeio va Ttepdaei axrjv £7u6£ay]. 'Etoi 01 vzzq 
y.op(pzq spyaTLX^q opydvcoayjc; 8ev xax6p6coaav va u^Tooaicoaoov to tcoAitixo izepizx6y.zvo 
ir\q "zpYaTix-qq aoToSiaxsipiayjc;" ae uaa yevixV} £Tci6saY] evdvTia oto xscpdAaio xai to 
xpaToq. Kai aoTrj rj s^sAi^yj Ssv rjTav x w P^ aovsTceiec;. Atto ia tsAyj too 1921 Ta epyaTixd 
ao^(3o6Aia Tcapooaidi/)ov arj^idSia Trapaxu^g uixP L TY I V ts^lx^ tooc; VjTTa: to 1923 6a 
^exivrjaei sva ^eydAo oxsSio avao*idp6pcoar]c; ttjc; ysp^iavixrjc; (3io^Y]X av ^ a< ^ evco to Nos^Pprj 
too 1S100 xpovoo 6Xzq 01 izoXmxzq xai xafyxeq opyavcoasic; tyjc; ysp^iavix^c; apiaTepdc; 6a 
a-rcayopsoToov Sia v6[ioo... 

Av 6Xa Ta -rcapaudvco Sivoov y.ia aovoTruxYJ sixova tcov Ta^ixcov aycovcov otyj rep^iavia 
exeivrj ttjv £7iox4 OTidpxsi. sva axo^ia Seoouivo tcoo -rcpsTcei va 7cpoa6£aoo^£ coots awcr\ r\ 
zixova va yivei too iz\r\py]q. Hpzizzi Aoitcov va yivei oacpzq oil izapoXo izov 01 Ta^ixoi aycovec; 
uiaa aTa epyoaTaaia xaTeixav tote xopiapx^ 6saY], 8ev rrav to ^ovaSixo eiSoq aycovcov. 
'HSyj arco Tig apx^q too aicova 01 aycovec; xai s^co ajro tov uepiPoAo too epyoaTaaioo 
aTioTsAooaav ^ita Tcpay^iaTixoTYfca yia to upoAeTapidTo, av xai ae ttoAo uaxpoTspo (3a6^io 
xai \iz 710A6 SiacpopsTixo TpoTio avro oti \izxa. tyj SexasTia too '60 xat, Trjv s^cpdviar] tcov 
"vecov xoivcovixcov xivrpaTcov". 'Etoi, yia Tiapdoeiy^a, to 1909 ottj Bps^iY] 6a ^zxivqozi 
\iia xt,VY]T07TOLY]aY] auo Tooq SaaxdAoog \iz aiTYj^ia tyjv xaTdpyrjayj i-qq 6pY]ax£OTixr]c; 
s^o^oAoyrjarjc; aTa oypXzia evco to 1906 6a OTidp^st, \iia avziiiikixapio-zixri xa^udvia and 
Trjv opydvcoarj vzokaiaq too SPD gto BepoXtvo ttoo ypV^yopa 6a aTiayopeoTSL aico Trjv 
rjyeaia too xo^i^iaToc;. Ilspa auo tstoloo eiSooc; TiapaSeiy^iaTa ZKijizpooq aycovcov, aoTo 
tioo ornj.d8zi\)z oXoxArjprj tyjv izpoizo\zy.ixr\ TiepioSo ottj Tep^avta r\iav o aycovaq yt,a tyjv 
xa6t,£pcoarj xr\q xaQoXix-qq ijjrjcpocpopLac;. Ooatxd a^spa xaTt, tstolo cpaivsTai aTa 8ixd y.aq 
^aTia aav o iz~kzov x\aoixoq aoaiaXSrj^oxpaTLXoq pecpop^La^oq, o^icoq tote Ta updy^iaTa 
8ev yivovTav avT^ArjuTa stgi, \xiaq xat, to ^YjTYjua tyjc; xaTaxTrjarjc; tcov Paatxcov ttoAltlxcov/ 
SrpoxpaTixcov StxaLco^iaTcov auoTeXooas f^ia xzvxpixr\ "TCpoPArj^aTiXY] yt,a 6Xr\ ir\ yep^iavLxr] 
aoaiaASyj^oxpaTLa. 'Oncdq to SiaTOTicoas r\ Luxemburg ae sva arco Ta jcpcot.ua yparcTa 
Triq: 

"Av 7} 8r][j.oxpocTioc eytve zv [uepsi nepiTTYj xat ev [uepsi oxArjprj yia ir\ [moup^ouocfyoc, 
jia ir\v epyocTixYj toc^yj zivai jia to Xojo ocuto avajxaia xai anapatTrjTrj. llpdJTOV, ir\q 
eivai avajxaia jiaii br\y.iovpjzi rtg noAinxeg y.opcpzq (aurodtotxYjurj, 8ixatco[j.a (prjcpoo) 
nou da xpr\oiy.e6oouv aav a7iepy.aTa xat flaoeiq yta ir\v avarponrj ir\q xoivcdviaq and 
to TcpoAerapidro. Aeorepov, rrjg eivai anapaiT-qxr} yiari yiovo yizaa OT-qv izaAr\ jia 
it] brnxoxpaiia, ytovo y.z ir\v aoxr\ori icdv br\y.oxpaiixoiv bixaicdy.aicdv eivai duvaro va 
anoxTYjaei to npoAerapidro aovaiad-qarj tcov rafyxcov too ooyKpepovrcov xai rrjg ioTopixr\q 
too anoo-roArjg". 

Ha va Scoaoou^ ju,a tuo 'kzTZToy.zpri zixova avcr\q ir\q xaxaoxaoriq ^Tcopoo^ie va 
Trapa6£aoo^i£ xai to z%r\q uepLaTaTLXo: to 1910 xaTa tyjv Stapxeta [xiaq xay.izaviaq orcsp 
ir\q xaQo'Xixriq tjjyjcpocpopLac; upoypa^^aTLaTyjxs arc' to SPD [jiia \iaC,ixr\ Tcopsia SLa^apTopiaq 
oto BspoXivo. Evco o^coq r\ Tiopeia ziyz auayopsoTEL au' ttjv aoTOVo^iia, \iz upcoToPooXia 
tcov aTeAexwv pdarjc; xai tcov auXcov ^isXcov too SPD, yj SiaSpo^YJ tyjc; dAAa^e tyjv TeAeoTaia 
aTtyu^ \xz aTCOTsXea^a apxeTsq yikiab'zq xoa^ioo va StaSYjAcoaoov avsvoxArjTO!, oto xsvTpo 
too BepoXivoo tyjv iSia cmy^r] uoo r\ aoTWoy.ia iooq TcepL^isve avouoijJLaaTrj as dXXo or\\izio 
ir\q izo\y]q\ Kai ^ovo aoTo to ysyovog ziyz aav aovsueia Trjv oxstlx^ 7C£pi6cop!,o7coLrjarj xr\q 
Luxemburg, ttoo OTroaTYjpL^e aoTY] tyjv xlvyjotj, \lzool oto SPD, evco auoTsAeae tyjv acpop^Vj 
yia va ava6ep^av6£L r\ tcoAltlxyj diay.cq(ri \xzoa oto xou^a axsTLxd \xz iiq "ao66p^rjT£c; 
\iaq\xzq XLVYjTOTro^asLc;". Eovstccoc; 01 aycoveq s^co avr' Trjv OTevd swooo^evYj raxpaycoyixy^ 
SLaStxaaia, L§!,aLT£pa Tipiv tov ttoAs^o, 6yi y.6vo ovvzfiaivav aXXd sua^av xat arj^iavTLXo 



~11~ 

poAo ottj Sia^idxTj tcov 5t,acp6pcov TroAmxcov Taaecov ttj<; yep^iaviXTjc; aoaiaASrpoxporuac;. 

Aottj Yj TroAmxTj Sia^dxTj ziyz GTO £fux£VTp6 ttj<; to ^VJTTj^ia ttjc; oyzoy]q avay.eoa gto 
"tioAitixo" xat, to "xoivcovixo" - opot, tcoo tote dzv yivovTav xoctocvoyjtol \xz tov xpouo 
tcoo YLVovxoa aVj^epa tj ttj SsxasTia too '60. 'Exai npiizzi auo sow xai oto e^Vjc; va zivai 
^exdOapo, 6xi \izoa axa Tzkaioia ttjc; yep^iaviXTJc; oooia'kdrnj.oxpaTiaq (xai eoptrcepa ttjc; B' 
AteOvooq) avxL too opoo "xoivcovixo" xP^o^o-rcoioovTav ° opoc; "oixovo^uxoc; aycovag", svco 
avxL too opoo "ttoAitixo" xP^c^^ouoLoovTav o opog "izoXmxoq aycovag". Me tov TtpcoTo 
opo, and aizo^riq izzpizypiJ.zvou, yivovTav avTtATjTrcd Ta d^ieaa atTTj^aTa tcov spycraxcov 
aycovcov ^isaa ottjv icapaycoyiXTJ SiaSixaaia xat,, and aizo^-qq opyavcoTiXTjc; ^lopcpVjc;, yivovTav 
avTiATjTrcd Ta aovSixdTa. Me to SeoTepo opo, and aizo^-qq Tzzpizypy-zvov, yivovTav avTiATjTrcd 
Ta arcVpaTa tcov aycovcov "ec;co and to epyoGTaaio" yt,a TroAmxsc; ^£Tappo6^ua£t,<; (xat, oe 
y.ia TipooTraxTj to "atTTj^a" yt,a ttjv xaTaATjcJjTj ir\q iz6Xnixr\q z^ovoiaq xat, ttj Srpioopyila 
ttjc; aooiakiOTixriq xoivcdviaq) xat,, and ano^-qq opyavcoTt,XTj<; ^lopcpTJc;, yivoTav avTiATjTrco 
to aoaiaXSYj^ioxpaTLXo xo^a, ttoo ziyz OTTOTi6£Tat, opiaet, gto Tipoypa^d too tl OTj^iaivet, 
"ooot,aAt,oTt,XTJ xoivcovia". MTiopoo^ie Aoittov va OTiooTTjpi^oo^e otl tj 5*t,a^dxTj tcov TtoAruxcov 
Taaecov too SPD yopco au' to c^TjTTj^ia ttjc; oyzor\q avd^eaa oto "TioAtrixo" xat, to "xoivcovixo" 
rfcav ottjv ooaia ir\q [na Sia^idxTj yopco au' ttj oyzo-q avdysoa oxovq Ta^ixooq aycoveg xat, 
xiq izoXmxzq ^£Tappo6^ua£t,<; (xat, upooTraxd tyj oyzo-q avd^eaa arooc; Ta^xooq aycoveg 
xat, ttj aooiaALOTiXTj euavdoTaoTj) Vj St,acpop£Tixd yopco and tyj oyzor\ too xo^aToc; xat, tcov 
Ta^txcov opyavcoaecov. 'O^icoc; Tt, axpt,(3co<; V^Tav to ysp^iavixo aoaLaXSyj^oxpaTLXo xo^i^ia xai 
izoisq rjfiav avxzq ot, ttoAltlxsi; Taaeic; oto eacoTepLxo too; 

TO SPD KAI Ol TTOAITIKEI TAZEIZ ZTO ElfiTEPIKO TOY 

To ysp^avLxo aoaiaXSrj^oxpaTixo xo^^ia !,8p66rjX£ o-ziq apyiq ttjc; SexasTiac; too 
1870, apx^xd \iioa aTa Tzkaioia ttjc; A' At,£0vooc;. Ilap' 6Xo ttoo tj Sova^uxTJ too -qzav 
apx^xd 7tep!,op!,a^£VTj, to 1878, \ie auocpaaTj too Bismarck, tsOtjxe extoc; vo^ioo ^la^L y.z ia 
aoaLaXSTj^ioxpaTLxd aov8(,xdTa. H uepioSoc; too "vo^ioo xaTa tcov stclxlvSovcov evspyeLcov 
ttj<; aoaLaXSTj^ioxpaTiac;" xpaTTjas ScoSsxa xpovta, cpspvovTaq o^icoc; Ta svteAcoc; avTi6eTa, 
and Ta STriSLcoxo^eva, aTioTeAsa^aTa yta to yep^iavLxo xpaTog: to SPD oxt ^ovo xaTacpepe 
va avT£c;£t, oe ovvQr\xzq izapa.voy.iaq, y.ZTa(pzpovxaq 6Xo tov xo^i^aTLXo ^Tjxavta^io gto 
£5;coT£p!,x6 xai H£TaTp£TiovTa<; Ta aovSixaTa oz "zvcboziq aXkriko^or\Qziaq , \ aXXd xaTop6coa£ 
va TpiTcXaatdaE!, ttj Sova^Vj too/Etol to 1891, acpoo £LX£ ap6£i o avT!,aoa!,aX!,aT!,x6<; vo^ioc; xat, 
to SPD £ix£ ao^i^£Taax£L otlc; £xAoy£g, 6a xaTapT!,aT£L [jiLa V£a iS£oAoyt,XTJ uAaTcpop^ia yta 
to xo^i^ia, to Tipoypa^a ttj<; EpcpoopTTjq. To •rcpoypa^a aoTo TrEpiAd^PavE sva "y.a£ ) iy.ou[i." 
[ispoc;, a<; uoo^s to teAlxo "upoypa^a too aoaLaXLa^ioo", xai sva "^vi^oo^" ^^poc;, 
STjXaSV^ sva Trpoypa^^a d^ieacov StexSLX^aecov ttoo 6a [iTcopooaav va Tcpay^aT07roiTj6o6v 
^isaa aTa nXaioia too xamTaAia^ioo, ottcoc; tj xa6t,£pcoaTj too oxTacopoo xai ttj<; xa6oAiXTJc; 
(jJTjcpocpopiac;. 'HTav TSTOLa tj STiLppoT] too upoypdn^aToc; ttj<; EpcpoopTTjg uoo ox^ ^ovo 
aTioTsXeas to ooaiaaTLXo aTj^eio sxxlvtjotjc; yta ttj yep^avLX^ ooaiaASTj^oxpaTia, aXAd 
syLVS xat, sva OTroSsty^ia yt.a Ta aoa(,aX§Tj^oxpaT!,xd xo^i^iaTa oAoxAtjptjc; ttj<; EopcouTjc;. 
KaTa xduoto Tpouo r\iav to aveuiaTj^o tioAltlxo -rcpoypa^a ttjc; B' Al£6vooc;. 'Etol xa66Xoo 
av£c;TjyTjTa to SPD sytve to xsvTpo tcov £c;£AlI;£cov ^i£aa aTa izXaioia ir\q At£6vooc;. Stlc; 
apxzq too 20oo atcova Ta x a P aXTr \P iaTlxa TOU £^X av V,^ 7 ! [Xop<p07toi.Tj6£i. M(,Ad^£ £§co yt,a 
£va ^a^txo opyavLa^io, \iz zxaiovxab'zq x^tdSEc; ^isAtj xai ^ispixd exaTo^^opLa cJjTjcpocpopooc;, 
\xz ttjv xAaaaLXT] ypacpeLoxpaTLxVj doy.r\, y.z ao^i^ieToxTl otoo<; ETriaTj^ooc; tioAltlxooc; 6ea^o6<; 
6tcco<; to xoivoPooAio, xai xaTaXoTLXT] STTLppoTJ otooc; aycovec; ttj<; epyaTtx^c; Tdc;Tj<;, y.z 
6sa^o6£TTj^£va opyava TipcoToyvcopa yt,a ttjv etioxtj ottcoc; tj opydvcooTj yovaixcov, tj opydvcooTj 
veoAaiac; xat, tj oypKr\ xaQodrpf-qoriq. MtAd^ie euiaTjc; yia sva ^a^xo opyavLa^io tioo eraxt^e 



~12~ 

sva xoao xecpaAaicoSyj poAo axrjv ttoottoAsu^xV} ysp^iavixr] xoivcovia coots to 1912, xpovid 
7roo 6a xaTop6coast, va yivst, to ^syaAoTspo xou^a oto ysp^iavixo xoivoPooAio, axo^ia xai 
aaToi xoivcovioAoyot, ottcoc; o Max Weber 0a avayvcopiaoov tyj ^£Tappo6^icmxr) S7uppoVj 
too otooc; "xoivcovixooc; 6sa^iooc;". Mihay.e 6y.c^q xat, yt,a sva u.a£t,xo opyavia^io o ottoioc;, 
y.aC,i [xs 6Aa Ta rcapaTcdvco yapaxiripio-zixa ttoo aovTo^ia 6a aTroSsixvoovTav zy.iz6dia yt,a 
ttjv TTOoAsTapiaxVj aoTovouia, xaTacpsps va ovy.izzpi\afizi, yt,a ttocotyj xat, y.ovadixr\ cpopd 
otyjv tOTopia too 20oo aicova, u^a yxd^ia St,acpopsT[,xoov ttoXltlxcov Taascov xat, va SiaTYjpsi 
sva apxsTa ocjjrjXo stuttsSo St,aA6yoo/avTt,7iapd6sarjc; y.zxa.'Ep iovq. Kat, aoTo sivat, sva 
and Ta (3aat,xd oroi^eta ttoo sxavav to SPD, sxtoc; auo sva u.a£t,xo, xai sva "^covTavo" 
ttoXltlxo opyaviauA rj u-sAstyj too o-ttoioo aTraxaXoTrcst, noKka yt,a iiq nokiiixzq avzikrfyticf 
npaxxixzq zxzivqq ir\q znoyyiq. ilpocpavcog y.z ia arj^spivd SsSouiva rj aovoTtap^yj toocov 
SiacpopsTixcov Taaecov \izoa otov idio noXmxo opyavia^io sivat, aSiavorjTrj, 6y.(x>q tots oxt. 
y.6vo rrav SovaTYJ, aXAd iraprjyays xat, y.ia ast,pd avTt,AYj(j)scov/7ipaxT[,xoov ttoo arj^dSs^av 
yia noKkzq dzxazxizq ia noXnixa unoxziy.zva. 

H ttocotyj Paat,xVj ndXiTix-q Taarj uiaa oto SPD VjTav to Asyo^isvo "aoat,aAo*yj^oxpaTt,x6 
xsvTpo", ^!,a Taarj ttoo aoyxsvTpcovoTav yopco an' tov Karl Kautsky. Kautsky rjTav zvaq and 
xouq rpfZTzq too SPD, V^cav o aoyypacpsag too Ttpoypdu^aToc; ir\q EpcpoopTrjg, xat, sxsivrj ttjv 
ettox^ 6scopooTav o xaAoTspog yvooGTYjc; tcov spycov too Marx xat, too Engels, avTi^iSTcoTU^oTav 
Aoittov aav o 6s^aTocp6Aaxac; tyjc; "op665*o^rjc;" izoXnix-qq ypau^rjg. YjrspaaTU^oTav ysvixd 
fjua ^STpt,o7ra6rj nokiiixy] npaxiixr\ xat, Vfcav and iovq tuo cpavaTixooc; OTraaTrjpiXTsc; too 
xot,vo(3ooAsoTt,a^oo xat, i-qq "na~kiaq xat, Soxt^aauivrjc;" TaxTixrjc; too xou^aTog. ITap' oti 
Ssv 6a s^ETaaoo^s tyjv izzpimcdori too ae ^excopLaTY] evoTYjTa, ^ispLxd Paatxd aTOLxeia tyjc; 
izoiXmxr\q too ox£(\)r\q 6a yivoov aacpyj tooo otyjv izzpiizTOdcrq too Lenin (ttoo ^£XP l ^ voc oy][j.zio 
OTrVp^e tilotoc; y.aQr\Tr\q too), oao xat, arco ttjv e^sTaarj ir\q 8iay.cq(riq too \lz iiq \mokonzzq 
idoziq too SPD. H SeoTsprj Taarj ^Tav ol Xsyo^svot, "pePt^tovLaTsc;" (SyjAaSrj ava6£coprjT£c;) r\ 
"pecpop^iLaTsc;", \iia Taarj yopoo arco tov Edward Bernstein. H Taarj aoTrj, tioo ziyz ayj^iavTLXYj 
Sova^iYj \izoa oto SPD xat oty\ B' Al£6vt], 8tacpopoTio!,7]6YjX£ ttoAo vcopig arc' tov "op668o^o 
^ap^a^io" too Kautsky OTcepaaTCL^ouevrj ut,a ttoXltlx^ ypauuT] ttoo ueTSTiSLTa 6a aTTOTsAsost, 
tov xXaaaLxo pscpoputauo tcov avd tov xooy.o aoaiaXSrjuoxpaTLXcov xouuaTcov. H irapooaia 
ir\q usaa oto SPD zizm£z xaiakviixo poXo oty\v e£,£ki£,r\ Tr\q izoXmxriq diay.axr\q. H TpiTYj 
TaaY] 7]Tav y\ "apiaTepd" too SPD ttoo aTioTeAooTav airo 86o zmy.zpovq Taaeic;. H ttocotyj 
y^Tav r\ "cppd^ta" ttoo aoyxsvTpcovoTav yopco an' i-q Rosa Luxemburg, tyjv Clara Zetkin, xat, 
tov Karl Liebknecht - xat, ot, ipziq xaiziyav arjuavTixsq 6sa£!,<; usaa oto xouua ottj oypXr\ 
xaQodrpf-qoriq, aTrjv opydvcoaY] tcov yovatxcov xat, tyjv opydvcoarj ir\q vzokaiaq avxio-zoiya. 
H "cppd^La" aoTT] apx^xd, OTxoaTYjp^ovTac; ooataaTLxd tyjv "op668o^Yj" nokiiixr\ ypauurj, 
aTpdcprjxe us stiluovV^ evdvTta otooc; pecpopuiaTsc;. Etyj aovsx^^ daxyjae svtovyj xptTLxV^ 
aTYjv rjysaia tcov aovSixaTcov aXXd xat, otyjv Taarj too "aoaLaASrjuoxpaTixoo xsvTpoo", 
XoopLq oucoc; va £p6et,, U£XP L TO ^\oq too ttoAeuoo, ae ttAtjpyj prfeq ae aoTYJv. H SeoTeprj 
STituspooq Tdarj Y]Tav oi "apiaTepoL p^oaTrdaTeq", ut,a Taarj ttoo aoyxsvTpcovoTav yopco arra 
tov Anton Panekoek, tov Herman Gorter, xat, tov Johannes Knief. Me e^aLpsarj lacoq tov 
Panekoek, ttoo 8ida%z yia sva SidaTrjua otyj ojpX"q xaQo8rp[r\or\q too SPD, ot, "apiaTepoi 
pL^oaTrdaTEc;" 8sv xaiziyav LStaiTepa v^-qkzq Qzoziq usaa oto xouua, sixav o^icog aYj^avTLxVj 
ETuppoVj aTa P(,o^Yjxav!,xd xsvTpa tioo SpaaTYjpioTraioovTav. ApxsTOL aTio aoToog TipoVjA6av 
and to oAAavSixo aoaLaXSrj^ioxpaTLXo xo^^ia, to ottolo syxaTsXstijJav OTav xoptapx^jaav 
ae aoTo ot, "pecpop^taTsc;", xat, Ta xpovia Tip!,v tov n6Xzy.o, ^oLpdaTYjxav ua^i \iz ir\ Lux- 
emburg \iia Tiapo^ioLa xptTtXT] otyjv Yjyeata too SPD. H svap^rj too ttoAs^ioo aTioTsAeae 
yia too<; "apiaTspoog p^oaTrdaTsq" to ^exivrj^ia \xiaq nopziaq oAosva xai ^leyaAoTspyjc; 
a^cpLaP^Trjayjc; tyjc; TiapaSoaiaxYjc; aoaiaXSrj^ioxpaTLX^c; avxikqtyriq xat TroaxTixrjc;. 

Ilspa and avizq iiq izoazpiq nokixixzq iaoziq, ttoo suai^av xat, to arj^iavTixoTspo poXo, 



~13~ 

o Diethard Behrens avacpspei ipziq axo^rj y.ixp6izpzq xaoeiq uiaa xai yopco au' to SPD: a) 
H "cpp&^ioc tcov vsapcov". IIpo£Xoi|>av aav tua avTi-rcoAtreoTLXY] Tdcarj \izoa oto SPD.'HSyj and 
ia \izoa tyjc; dexaexiaq too 1890 daxYjaav xptriXY] otov xoivoPooAeoTLa^io 6ecopcovTac; tov aav 
y.ia "TipoaapuoyY} ae ut,a pecpopu^aTiXY] xaT£u6uvarj", xai oto ypacpsioxpaTixo xocpaxx^pa 
tou xou^aTog, aAAd xai otyj "oou^iPacmxY] ypauuYj" tyjc; rffzoiaq tcov aovSixaTcov. Msxd 
ty] SiaypacpV] tyj<; TtAeiocjJYjcpiac; tooc; au' to SPD e^sSiSav yt.a xduoia xpovia tyjv ecpyj^iepLSa 
Sozialist, yj ouoia oio6£tooo£ sva uiyu« avapx^o^oo xoa Tipcot^oo Y]6t,xoo aoaiaAia^oo. (3) 
Oi "totuxiotsc;". Mexd tyjv arcoaoparj too avT(,ooaiaA(,cruxo6 vo^ioo, to 1892 oto aovsSpio 
tcov oovSixaTcov oto XdA^iTcepcrcavT, (Jjyjcplotyjxs yj Srj^LoopyLa u^ydAcov oovSixaAioTixcov 
evcoaecov, \iz tyj yvcocrcY] "•rcopau^St.XY] Sou^" xai [i,e tov opo otl Ta aovSixaTa 0a aoyxsvTpcovav 
to evSiacpspov tooc; a7ioxA£t,oTt,xd otov "oixovou^xo aycova" aTroxYjpoooovTac; tyjv ttoAltlxy] 
(•7rap£7U^7rc6vTco<;, aoTo YjTav xat, to i^TYjua tcov ^ovt^cov 7ipoaTp(,(3cov avdu^aa otyjv Yjysma 
too SPD xat, tcov Free Trade Unions, rcpoxsiu^voo va xa6opt,aToov Ta "6pt,a SixaioSooLag", 
SrjAaSV] Ta 6pt,a Siau^aoAdpYjGYjc;, too xd6e opyavia^ioo...). YTtYJp^e o^icoc; xat, uia ^ixpVj 
^i£!,o([)Y]cpLa too aovsopioo Tcoo SiacpcovYjae xat, i\)r\(pioz ousp tyjc; ave^apTYjaiac; tcov totuxcov 
aovSixaAicmxcov opyavcoaecov xat, tyjc; ot,o6£TYjaY]<; "uoAtTiXYjc; opaoTYjpioTYjTac;" auo Ta 
aovStxaTa. Aotyj rj u^t,o(j)Y]cpia syivs apx^xd yvcoaTY} u^ to ovoua "totcixiotsc;". And to 
1896 xat, suetTa zfyzdidav tyj aovSLxaAiaTLXY] ecpYju^piSa Die Vereinigung xat, to 1901 
^eTovo^daTYjxav ae "EAeoOsprj Eou^ax^a tcov Tep^avixcov EovSixaTcov", zypvzaq ^rj 
arj^iavTLxri STuppoV} xopicoq otooc; oixooo^iooc; OTa u^ydAa aGTixd xsvTpa. H u^Tovo^iaatla 
tooc; syivs oxsSov TaoToxpova U-£ ir\ GTpocpY] tooc; otov avapxoaovo*t,xaAt,auo. 'Etol ^£XP l 
to 1914 rj TtoAtriXY] iovq dpaoTqpioTfjza TreptAdu^ave tyj ovvzxq Ttpo-rcaydvSa ousp tyjc; 
yevLXYjq aTiepyiac;, tyjv •rcpo-rcaydvSa evdvTta otyj 6pYjax£ia xat to ^lAtrapia^o xa6cog xat 
SVTOVYj XpiTLXYj OTYjV XOLVoPooAeOTLXYj TipaXTLXYj too SPD. y) Ol "pL^oaTrdaTeq SLavooo^svoi". 
OoaLaoTixd aTioTsAooaav svav eopo xoxAo SLavooo^isvcov yopco and tov Franz Pfempfert, 
ot, ouolol [izxd to 1910 e^sSiSav to TieptoSLXo Die Aktion, sva uepLoSLXo oto ooveiascpepav 
aoxvd TioAAd "Staxexp^sva ^isAyj" tyjc; apLOTepdc; too SPD. xoxAog yopco an' tov Pfemp- 
fert, av xai 8ev dvYjxe oto SPD, OTroaTYpi^s tyj Rosa Luxemburg otyj SLaudx^] tyjc; ue tyjv 
YjyeaLa too xouuaToq, xat, aav (3aaix6 too o-zoyp ziyz Qzozi tyjv opydvcoaYj tyjc; "apLOTspYjc; 
SiavoYjaYjg". Eizicrqq 0ecopo6aav otl otyj Osoyj too SPD upsTie!, va SY]ut,oopyY]6£L sva vso 
"aovSLxaALOTLXo epyaTLXo xouua". AvdAoyeq a:i6([)£!,<; 8iaTOTico0Yjxav xat arc' tov xoxAo 
yopco ajio tov Julian Borchardt, exSotyj too uepioSixoo Lichtstralen. 

01 AYO ANTIOETEI nAEYPEI TOY KAniTAAIITIKOY NOMIIMATOI: PfillA 
KAI H11A 

OAoxAYjpcovovTaq tyjv avacpopd gtyjv Ta^LXYj aov6saYj xat Tooq TrpoAsTapiaxooc; aycoveq, 
xai etielSyj 6a uac; anaojok-qoovv uapaxaTco tooo ot, UTroAaePixot, oao xat, ot, IWW, 6a 
pic^ooue ULa yp^jyopYj uaTtd oti<; aov6YjX£g tioo STitxpaTooaav otyj Pcoata xat, iiq HITA otl<; 
apx^c; too 20oo aicova. Tl Yfcav aoTo izov sxavs tyj Pcoaia U!,a tooo StacpopsTLXYj uepLTiTcoaYj 
an' ty] Tepuavia, xat ysvLXOTspa tyjv xsvTpiXYj EopcouYj; KaT' apxdq OTiVpxe uta ttoAo 
aYjuavTLXYj Stacpopd avacpopixd us tyjv Ta^XYj aov6eaYj. Evco au' tyj uta ot Pt,ouY]xavt,xoi 
epyaTSc; otyj Pcoaia suoLa^av ae Tooq spyaTEc; tcov TrapaSoataxcov (3t,ouY]xavt,xcov xAdScov 
aTYj TepuavLa, §YjAa§Yj ETcpoxstro yta slSlxsousvooc; epyaTsq izov YjTav opyavcousvot as 
STcayysAuaTLxd aovS^xaTa, arc' tyjv dAAYj ajcoTsAooaav ustocjJYjcpLa ae ayzor\ ue tooc; 
aypoTeq/epydTec; yYjc;. xa6opt,aT!,x6c; poAog tcov aypoTcov/epyaTcov yYjc; otyjv Ta^LXYj aov6eaYj 
auoTsAeae ut,a (.SLouopcpia tioo upayuaTLxd ^excopt^e tyj Pcoaia au' tic; xsvTposopcoTra'i'xsc; 
Xcopsq, saTco xai av opiausvot, usaa oto pcoatxo aoataASYjuoxpaTLXo xouua 6ecopooaav ucoc; 
Yj TaxTLxV^ too SPD uuopooas va scpap^oaTei] x w P^ (.StaiTepa TcpoPAYj^iaTa xat, otlc; pcoaixsc; 



~14~ 

ovvdr\xsq. Kaxd Setrcspov axrj Pcoaia Ssv vizr\pye sva aaTt,xoo*Y]^oxpaTt,x6/xot,vo(3ooA£OTt,x6 
xaOeaxcoc; oticoc; axrj Tep^avia, aAAd avziQzxa r\ ioapixr\ a.7zok\yzapyia. Auto arj^aive oti 
TcpaxTLxeq ttoo VjTav auTovoYjTeq axyj rep^iavia, O7icoc; ot, or\\j.6aitq avoLXTsq aoyx£VTpc6aet,c;, 
ol 7iopei£<; Sia^apTopiac;, axofia xai 01 aovY]6t,a^i£V£c; aTispyisc; ttoo xaAooaav xa aovSixaTa, 
axrj Pcoaia aov£(3at,vav as aov6V}X£c; Stapxooc; xaTaaToArjc;: eivat, evSeixtixo otl ol Sidcpopot, 
"aoaiaASypoxpaTixoi o^lXol" SiaAoovTav ttoAo ovyya auo tyjv TaapixV] aaTOVo^ua. MdAiaTa 
^lexd xrjv euavdaxaaY] too 1905 6Aa Ta TtapaTtdvco syivav aTrAcog aSiavorfca: tooo to 
aoaiaASypoxporuxo xo^a apx^xd oao xai Ta vsoTSOXTa aovSixaTa axrj aovsx^a, Y La xrjv 
axpi(3st,a ^lexd to 1907, izQr\xav TtAr^pcoc; exxoq voy.ov. Yizr\pxz 6y.cdq xai [iia dAArj TtAsopd 
too oAoxArjpcoTia^oo ottj Pcoaia ttoo £Tiat,^£ arpavTLXo poAo otyjv s^eAi^y] tcov Sidcpopcov 
TroAruxcov TroaxTixcov: TrpoxEtrat, yia tyjv OTrap^Y] tyj<; ^loaTixrjg izdknix-qc, aoxvvoy.iaq, ir\q 
aTraxaAoo^Evrjc; "Oxpdva". To oyzdio ir\q ^oaTixr^c; TroAruxrjg aaTOVo^isoarjc; 8sv rrav oote 
\iixpo oe [iiyedoq, r\ "Oxpdva" aTsAsxcovoTav and x^aosc; aaTOVo^uxooc/TrpdxTopsc; xai 
z'v/z 26 T^iVpaTa as oAoxArjpr] tyj Pcoaia, oote Trspiopt^oTav aTa xAaaat,xd xa6V]xovTa \xiaq 
^oaTLXYjc; aaTOVo^uag. To 1901 yj "Oxpdva", TrpoaTca6covTa<; va SYj^uoopyYJaEt, aoyxoarj 
avd^isaa otooc; aycovt^o^svooc; spyaTEc; xat, va aizoxo^zi xr\v ETUXoivcovia avd^ieaa otooc; 
(xcopixd aTTO^axpoa^svooc;) eiziy.zpovq aycoveq ir\q spyaTix^q Td^rjc;, ^sxivrjae va cpTidxvet, 
to Sixo TYjq aovSt,xaAt,aTt,x6 "xivypa". ArjAaSV] va crcqvei xat, va xP Y P aTOO *°' c£ ^ aovSixaTa 
r\ evcboziq aXkriko^or\Qziaq as Sidcpopoog Tiapaycoyixoog xAdSoog xat, Sidcpopsg nepiox^ql 
Ilap' otl r\ oTtap^Y] aoToo too "oxsSloo e^o^oLcoarjc;" sytve axsTixd ypy^yopa yvcoaTV^, 
aizoxe'Xei [iLa arj^avTixrj svSsL^rj too sxAsTiToa^svoo Pa6^ioo xaTaaToArjc; ^ie ttjv ouoia 
spXovTav avTi^isTomot, Toao oi aywvtaTsc; epyaTeg oao xat, Ta uoALTLxd otzkiyy] TY 1? p(£>oixr\q 
oooiakdrnioxpaiiaq. 

Av Twpa 6Aa Ta Trapaudvco ^lOLa^oov va otcoSslxvooov y.ia oyzTixr\ "ouavduTO^rj" 
too xaTUTaAia^ioo otyj Pcoaia exeivrj ttjv ettox'4 ae aoyxpLarj ^ie otl aov£(3at,vs n.x- aTrj 
Tep^iavLa, aoTT] yj "oTravaTTTO^rj" 8ev 7]Tav xa06Xoo aArjOivrj as otl acpopooae tooc; Ta^Lxooq 
aycoveg xat iiq npoXeiapiaxiq y.op(pzq opydvcoaYjq. Etyjv Tipay^aTLXOTYjTa, Tiptv tov 
ttoXs^io, ol Ta^xoi aywvsq aTrj Pcoaia V^Tav, auo xaTioLeq ano^eiq, mo ^TipoaTd and ~zouq 
aycovsq aTrjv xzvxpixr\ Eopcouyj. Ta TipwTa xpovia too 20oo at,cova 6a ao^(3oov otyj Pcoaia 
TzoKkiq [lafyxiq aTrepyieg, auepyieg uoo aov7]6co<; xaxzXrpfav oe fiiaieq ovyxpovoeiq xat 
eiXav iSiaLTepa aTroaTaOspoTTOLYjTLxd auoTeAsa^aTa yta to xa6saTco<; - x a P a ' KTr lP lOTlxo 
TcapaSety^ia anoxeXei r\ yevixv^ auepyia aTrjv OSrjaao tyjv dvoL^rj too 1904. Ako ttjv aTioijjrj 
ir\q ovy.y.ZToxy\q, ttjv a-rcovSoAixr] aT^Arj aoTcov tcov a-rcspyicov aicoTsAooaav ol ^iSTaXXspydTSc;, 
oi ocpavToopyoi, ol aLSyjpoSpo^LXOL xat, ol spyaTeq ueTpeAaLoo. To auoxopocpco^a aoToo too 
auspyiaxoo xo^iaToq 8ev 6a apyrjaet, va spOet: to TevapYj too 1905 tj [xaq'ixri aTiepyta tcov 
[iSTaAAspyaTcov aTrjv Ayia IIsTpooTroAyj 6a x^^^ei dyp!,a avr' to crcpaTo xat, to yeyovoq 
aoTo 6a oSrjyrjoet, aTrjv d^earj yevixeoarj too auspyiaxoo aycova axeSov ae oXoxXrjprj tyj 
Pcoata. Ma^i y.z tyjv yevixeoar] tyjc; epyaTLX^q e^syeparjq 6a y£WY]6£i xat yj upcoTr] ao^(3ooAt,axr) 
y.op(pr\ opydvcoayjg, Ta ooPlet. 

Av r\ Pcoaia avTircpoacoTcsos to sva dxpo, as oyzor\ y.e iiq aov6^x£q ^isaa otlc; ouolec; 
avaicapayoTav to xaTiLTaXLOTLXo aoaTYj^ia otyjv xsvTpixrj EopcoTcrj, tote ava^icpLaP^TYjTa 
oi HIIA avTLupoacoTreoav to dXAo. 1>iiq HIIA, apx^xd, r\ doy.r\ xr\q epyaTixrjg Td^Yjg xai, o 
xevTpLxog xvnoq spyaTYj 7]Tav o^iota lie ttj yepy-avixri TrepLUTcoarj: elSlxeo^isvo!, spyaTeg ttoo 
opyavcovovTav aoaTrjpd as eTrayyeX^aTLXsq svcoasic; arro tyjv AFL (American Federation 
of Labor), ao^icpcovisc; y.e iovq epyoSoTeg avd euayysX^aTLXo xXdSo ttoo susTpsTcav aTooq 
£(,Slx£o^£Voo<; epyaTEc; va xa6opt^oov ae ^isydAo Pa6^io iiq oovdr\xeq epyaoiaq xai va 
ETupdAAoov ^La aveAaaTixoTYjTa aTooq ^i!,a6o6<;, xat, ^ua xaXd SLa^opcpco^svrj aovSLxaALaTLxV] 
ypacpetoxpaTia uoo o aovTrjprjTia^oq ir\q 8sv sixs o^iolo ae Tiayxoa^iLa xA^axa. ITpoxeL^svoo 
va avTL^STcoTriaoov Ta zy.iz6dia izov zfia.Z,e oty\v avaTiTO^rj tyjc; uapaycoyyiq yj opydvcoarj 



~15~ 

tcov siSixsousvcov epyaTcov xa auepixdvixa acpevTixd Ssv u(,o6£Trjaav tov narepvakioiJ.6 
tcov yepuavcov ouoAoycov Toog. AvxiQzxa xaxavorjaav oti Ttpsuet, va xtvizriBti *] Pdar] tyjc; 
epyaTixyjg opydvcooYjc;, SYjAaSyj oti xp£!.d^£Tai va £tuvoy]6oov diadixaoieq ttou 6a UETapdAAoov 
opaaTixd tyjv Ta^ixr} auv6sarj. To icpcoTo $r\\j.a ovoua^oTav "eiaaycoyT] epyamac;": and 
xa tsAyj too 19ou aiova U£XP L Tt ? a PX^ TOU TtpcoToo uayxoauioo ttoAsuoo TispiTroo 15 
exaTouuopia usTavdaTEc;, auo tyj voTia xai tyjv avaToAixV] Eupcouyj, 6a xaxaxAuaouv 
tic; HIIA. MiAdue £Sco xopicog yia dvSpeq ae epydaiUY] YjAixia oi ottoioi, x w P^ va £X ouv 
iSiairspY] sraxcpY] [as tyj (3iouYjxaviXY] spyaaia, 6a auoTsXsaouv sva a7i66£ua avsiSixeoTYjc; 
epyaoiaq nov 6a "•rcspixoxAcoaei" tooc; eiSixeousvooc; epydxec; xai 6a "axpYjaTeoasi" tic; 
euayyeAuaTixsc; opyavcoaeic; tooc;. MiAdue etuo-yjc; yia sva uac^ixo xai 7ioAo£6vixo xouuaTi 
ir\q epyaxiXYJc; latflq otic; HIIA uoo xocpaxTY]pt,^oTav olizo ocjjyjAyj yecoypacpiXY] xiVYjTixoTYfca 
(and TioAiTSia as TioAiTSia xai aizo epyooTaaio ae epyocrcdoio usaa ae eAdxiaTo xpovixo 
oidaTYj^a!), Ssv UTropooae sx tcov TipayuaTcov va avaTrco^ei Ssauooc; ue sva aoyxexpiusvo 
epyooTaaio r\ \xe sva aoyxexpiusvo eudyyeAua, xai, e£,aniaq ir\q evaAAa^iuoTYfcdc; tou, 
rfcav axpaia ottotiuyjusvo. 'HTav oi epyaTeq ttoo apvY]6Y]X£ [is Tteiaua va opyavcoaei yj AFL, 
YjTav oi spyaTsg uoo 6a aTioTsAsaoov to "o^oyovo" tcov IWW (Industrial Workers of the 
World), lacoc; ir\q mo pi^oauaaTiXYjc; upoAeTapiaxYjc; opydvcoarjc; uoo eucpaviaTYjxe ttots otic; 
HIIA. 'Oucoc; aoTYj yj SpaaTiXY] UETaPoAY] tyjc; Ta^iXYjc; aov6£aYjc;, Trap' oti ziyz xecpaAaicoSY] 
aYjuaaia Tipoxeiusvoo va yevixeoToov oi (axourj "TieipauaTixsc;" sxsivq tyjv etioxy]) U£6oSoi 
Tcapaycoy^c; too Ford, Ssv YjTav to uovaSixo yap ay -ir\piOTix6 ttoo ^sxcop^s tov auspixdvixo 
xauLTaAta^o arc' tyjv xsvTposopcoTia'LX^ sxSox^. A^^sl tov xotco, a' aoTo to arjueLo, va 
Sooue izcdq TiepLypdcpe!, to auepLxdvLxo PLouYjxavixo aoaTYjua tcov apxcov too aicova o Sergio 
Bologna: 

"Ot HIIA (3psdr]xav ytTzpooTa ae yaa yiyavrtata eKjaycoyrj epyaaiaq (ttyjv ay.ear\ 
napaycoyixYj biabixaoia. Ot yeyaAurepeg npoanddeteq uuyxevrpcodrjxav axpificog cicavcd 
OT-qv opyavcdoy] i-qq epyaaiaq: 6Aoc ia rexvtxd epyaXeia yia tyjv d-qyuoopyia zvoq 
oc7zotsAsg[j.octixou [j.rjxocviG[j.o6 r\iav r\br\ biad£oiy.a. Togo to avdpomioTixa npoaxQlJ-OiTa 
duo xai f] sE,oooiaoTixri aAa^oveia r\xa.v xdrt to E,evo yia tyjv ay.epixdvixr\ xantraAtcrTix^ 
rd^rj... Mia xoivcdvia aav aurrj cpawoiav aneAeodepcdyievri and xdde xardAotno sere 
napaycdyix-qq sits dsoy.ixr\q omododpoyL-qoriq . Avridsra \xs ir\v supamoci'xr] s[U7isipia , avdy.soa 
OT-qv ayodVi^dyLsv-q spyanxrj rd^rj xai rouq idioxrqrsq rrjq xoivcdviaq 8sv izapsy-fiaAAoxav 
sva aovopo and noAinxouq opya.vioy.o6q. 'Eva s^aipsrtxd u<prjAo smnsdo xoivcovtxrjq 
oovspyaoiaq , yia izAavr\Tixr\ npoosyyiorj oto Z,r\Tqya tou xaraysptoyou spyaoiaq, yia 
avs^dvrArjTYj ixavdrrjra va ysrarpsTcsrai yj diayaxq os opdoAoyixonoi-qor} xai avdnru^rj, 
svaq sAsyxoq ndved OT-qv spyanxq dvvayq nou sE,aoxo6vzav xarsudsiav and tov 
napaycoyixo yr\xavioyo x^P^ T V V ysooAd(3rjorj too oovdixaAioyoo , yia tcoAitixtj XPWV 
Trjq yafyxqq spyaTixqq xivr\TixoTr\Taq: 6Aa auTa npoosdcdoav oto ayspixdvixo ouoTqya 
tooo sVToncdoiaxd x a P axTr }P lOTlxa &ots va 07io(3i(3dZ,STai r\ Eupconrj oto poAo yiaq 
svoxAr\Tixr\q "snapxiaq". To ysyovoq oti oAsq oi rcoAiTixsq xai aoTixsq sAsudspisq sixav 
nspiopioTsi otyj yia xai yovadixyj xaniTaAioTixr] sAsudspia - tyjv sAsudspia va SouAsusiq 
- odqyrjos os yia izAr\pr\ TauTiorj tou spyooTaoiou ys tyjv xoivcdvia. Korro ouvsnsia 
UTCYJpxs svaq ysydAoq nspiopioyoq tou tzoAitixou x^pou nou yivoVTav xaTavor\Toq ys tyjv 
napabooiaxi) svvoia Tr\q aVTinpooconsuo-qq xai Tr\q diaysooAdpYjOYiq". 

Msoa ae aoTO to ueptpdAAov ot, Ta^ixoi aycovsq 6a yvcopiaoov uia upcoToyvcoprj o^ovarj. 
Mt,a G£t,pd ua^xcov auepyicov, and to 1901 xai suetTa, 6a aovTapd^st, to au£pt,xdvt,xo 
Piourjxavixo aoaTrpa. Evco apx^xd ot aTiepyiec; 6a ^exivrjaoov avro Toog ueTaAAcopoxooc; aTa 
BpaxcoSy] 'Oprj, otyj ooviyzio. 6a £^a7iAco6o6v ae ueydAyj TaxoTYjTa otooc; ueTaAAepyaTEc;, 
tooc; spyaTsq otl<; usTacpopsq xai Toog olxo86uoo<;. Ta xoptapxa x^P^x^P^^^d aoTcov 
tcov auspyLcov eucpavLcrcrjxav yp^yopa: au' tyj uta r\ xaTauArjXTLX^ ovvzx^ol xai xoxAocpopia 



~16~ 

too aycova, ocu' tyjv dAXrj to s^aipsTixd (3iat,o etuusoo avuraxpaOearjg. To 1905, xp°vt,d 
uoo 6a yivet, to iSpoTixo aovsSpio tcov IWW, yj aTiepyia tcov epyaTcov gtic; ^iSTacpopsc;, 
oto Xixdyo, 6a xaTaAyj^et, oxiq ttAsov ai^iaTYjpsc; aoyxpooaeic; y.z tyjv aaTOVo^ia xat, tooc; 
opyavco^isvooc; y.izpafiooq tcov acpevTixcov. Av 6o^rj6o6^£ otl tyjv i5t,a xpovid aovspyjaav 
Toao ot, ^eyaXsq aTispyiec; xai rj svouXrj euavdaTaarj aTY] Pcoaia oao xat, yj y.aC,ixri ajcepyia 
tcov ^£TaAAcop6xcov too Poop ottj rep^iavia, yivexai ey.(pavzq otl yj izzpiodoq 1904- 1906 
aTTOTsAeae ^iia uepioSo zxprfeqq evoq St,£6voo<; xoxAoo Ta^ixcov aycovcov. 

OEfiPIA KAI nPAKTIKH: O MAP1IIMOI THI B' AIE0NOYI 

H e^sTaayj tyjc; iafyxr\q ovvQzor\q xat, yj Ttapooaiaarj tcov Ta^ixcov aycovcov ttjc; enoxQq 
zivai to upcoTo (3V}^a yt,a va ^Tropsaoo^s va xaTaAd(3oo^£ tyj Sia^dx'f] ttoo z'E J z~kiy$'(\xz \izoa 
oty] B' A.izdvr\ udvco oto ^rjTrj^a tyjc; axsarj too "ttoXltlxoo" xat, too "xoivcovixoo". Kat, aoTo 
yiaxi, TiapoAo 7100 ot, TtepiaaoTepec; izoXmxzq Taaetg ^isaa ottj At,e6vY] ao^vd aSovaTooaav 
va xaTaAdpoov xat, va ep^rjveoaoov tooc; Ta^ixooc; aycovec;, aoToi ot, aycovec; auoTsXeaav to 
tceSlo y.zoa oto ottoio avauT6x6rjxav ot Sidcpopsc; izoXnixzq oxpaxrpfixzq. E;uar]c; yt,a svav 
ysvLXOTspo Xoyo: r\ aoyxexpt^svr] as xd6e ioiopixr\ cpdarj Ta^t,xrj ovvQzor\ eTirjpsd^et, xat, tyj 
y.op(pr\ tcov avaSoo^ievcov uoALTixcov/opyavcoTLXcov ^ovteAcov. 0a 7rpoarax6YJaoo^£ Tcopa va 
xdvoo^ie to SeoTepo (3Vpa yt,a tyjv xaTavoYjarj avir\q tyjc; diay.axt]q'- va e^ETdaoo^ie izoizq 
eivai ot, 6£copY]Tt,X£c; 7rpoo7TO6£a£t,c; and iiq oizoizq ^£Xt,vd yj uAaovoTYjTa tcov TroAruxcov 
Taa£cov ^i£aa ottj B' At,£6vrj. 'Otccoc; 6a ytvei cpav£po TiapaxaTco av 5*£v £^£Taaoo^i£ aoT£g 
xiq 6£copYjTLX£<; upooTio6£a£!,<;, dvat, ooataaTLxd aSovaTo va xaTaAdpoo^i£ izoXkzq and iiq 
aiz6(\)eiq, xiq izpaxxixeq aXAd xat, xiq avTt,cpda£t,c; tcov •rcoAruxcov ouox£!,^£vcov £X£ivrj<; tyjc; 
£7iox>fe. Ex£t ^dXiaTa ^£ydXrj arj^iaaia va §t,£oxpt,VLOoo^£ e^' apx^q to e£,r\q ayj^do: oao 
Xd6o<; Eivai va xaTavooo^E tyjv xivrj^aTLX^ taTopia a7ioxA£t,aTt,xd aav tyjv auoxo^^£vrj aico 
xiq avTLX£L^£V!,X£<; owd-qxeq £^£Al^yj xai SiaTidAY] tcov Stdcpopcov uoAltlxcov avT(,A7]([)£cov/ 
iSecov, dAAo Toao Ad6o<; eivat, va 6£copVjaoo^£ otl [iLa aoyx£xp(,^£vrj xa^ixVj aov6£ar], ot, 
aoyx£xp^£V£c; oXlxec; aov6y^X£<; V7iap%r\q too TrpoAETapidToo, xa6opi^oov ^iov65po^a xat, 
iiq izoXmxzq avziXru^eiq. Evco eivai, aA^6£ia otl r\ xafyxri ovvQeo-q STcrjped^S!, as ^isydXo 
(3a6^6 iiq (.SLatTepec; ^lopcpsc; tcov Ta^ixcov opyavcoaecov xa6cog xat to d^ieao izepiex6y.zvo 
tcov Ta^Lxcov aycovcov, aoTo dev ao^Paive!,, xaTa tyjv yvco^rj y.aq, otov lSlo Pa6^i6 xat, yta 
iiq Stdcpopsq izoXmxzq avriXrn\)ziq izov SiaTrjpoov y.ia oyziixr\ aoTovo^ua. Tta va ytvoov 
xaTavorjTsq aoTsq ot, TeAsoTaisq upsueL xaveig va zEf.io.ozi xat, tyjv e^eXt^T] tyjc; oxzi\)r\q tcov 
ttoXltlxcov OTtoxe^svcov, GX£(|>Y] Tioo £UYjp£d^£Ta!, cpoaLxd auo too<; Ta^LXoog ayoivzq xat 
tooc; £7iY]p£d^£[, o^cog, izoKKzq (popzq xaTaXoTtxd, y.z tyj a£tpd Tv\q. 

IIoLa rjTav AoiTiov Ta x a 9 ay:ir l9 loi:iy - a TOU \xapEj.o\xou ir\q B' Al£6voo<;, noizq r\iav awrzq 
ot, Paat,X£c; 6£coprjTLX£<; 7ipoo7io6£a£L<;; 0a ^uopooaE xav£i<; va ypd(j)£t, izoKKa udvco a' aoTo 
to "Cfyzrma, ia TrpoPAVj^aTa too "op668o^oo" 8£OT£po8!,£6v!,aT!,xo6 y.apfyoy.06 dzv zivca xat, 
Aiya, xat eultiAeov zxovv Sex6£i Sle^oSlxyj xpmxr\ and izoKkzq iz~kzvpzq ia iz'XzvTaia 40 
Xpovia. Aoto ttoo \xaq aicaaxoAsi e8co 8ev eivai va xdvoo^ie ^ita oovoAixyj auoTL^rjarj, 6a 
aTa6o6^i£ o^coq a' sva aoyxsxpt^svo or\\izio ttoo suai^e xa6opt,aT!,x6 poAo aTrj Sta^dx^ ttoo 
£^£Ta^oo^i£: it] oyzoy] avd^ieaa otyj 6scopLa xat tyjv TipaxTLXT]. Ha va to xdvoo^ie aoTo 6a 
avayxaaToo^is va yoptaoo^ie axo^ia mo tuoco oto XP° V °. p^vovTaq ^ua oovto^iyj y.aria. oxiq 
"uspLTrsTSLsq" too Marx ^ie tyj cpiXooocpLa (tyjc; znoyfiq too)... 

H xpLTixrj too Marx ottj cptXoaocpLa, xat xaT' STrsxTaarj to ^euspaa^d Trjq, sixs 
860 6i\>ziq. Acp' zvoq tyjv xpltlxy] otov idzaXioy.6 too Hegel, xat, acp' ETspoo tyjv xpmxVj 
otov oAta^io too Feuerbach. H xa6opt,aTt,xrj ovy.fio7d\ too Hegel (3piax£Tat, oto ysyovoq 
otl upoaTid6rja£ va ^euspdaet, to So'ia^o otcoxsl^isvoo- avTixei^svoo ttoo xocpocxT^pt,^e ttj 
^ovTspva sopcoTra'Lxr] cpt,Xoaocpia. Na ^suepdaet, SrjAaSy] ^t,a otctlxV] tyjc; upay^aTLXOTrjTaq 



~17~ 

ttoo fiaoiCpiav otov TcArjprj 5iayppioy.6 tou axsTrco^ievou uttoxsiu^vou arc'Tov avTt,x£t,u^vt,xo 
xoa^io. rt,a tov Hegel yj auToauveiSyjaY] VjTav yj ouaia tou av6pco7iou, tou utioxeiu^vou, evco o 
avTLxe^evtxoc; xoa^ioc; 6ecopouTav Paaixd sva uapdycoyo tou "uveu^aToc;", tyjc; av6pco7UVY]c; 
ovvzidy]oy]q. Tta TcapdSsty^a, xaTa tyjv x z Y xe ^ lav 'h ocvuAyjiJjy], xd6e iaTopt,xr} izzpiodoq 
avrXzi tyjv evoTrrd i-qq and pua li 7iveuy.axixri <xpyfi\ ausvavTi gtyjv OTcoila r\ tcoAitixt] V} r\ 
0pyjax£ia eivm a-rcAd ot, cpat,vou^vt,X£c;/avTt,x£t,H£Vt,X£<; £xo*Y]Aooa£t,c; tyjc;. IIpoa7Td6Y]a£ Aoittov 
va £7rav£Vc5a£L iiq xarrpfopizq tou avTt,x£t,uivou xat, tou U7tox£t,uivou xaTaax£ud^ovTa<; 
\i.ia 8iakzxTixr\ oyzcrq u^Ta^u Touq, rj oTioia o^icoq (3pt,axoTav ei;' oAoxArjpou oto mdio tou 
"uveu^aToc;". 'Exoi r\ ano^zvcdo-q tou av6pcoTcoo, 7100 auoTeXouas [u,a xevTpix^ auAArjtjjr] yia 
tyjv cpt,Aoao<pia tou Hegel , fiaoiq'eTai otyjv av£7tdpx£t,a tou avTt,x£t,^i£Vt,xou xoa^iou ae oyzor\ 
\xz ttjv acpyjpYj^svrj ax£([)yj. Apa to yeyovog otl o xoa^ioq U7idpx£t. oz uia a7ro^£Voouivr] ^lopcpV] 
£ivai \i.ia avauocpeuxTrj auv6^xrj tyjc; iSiac; i-qq "avTixEiu^voTroirjaYjc;" tou. nap' 6A0 ttou 
xaTavosL tov xa6opt,aTt,xo poAo i-qq avQpchmvr\q opaaTYjpioTrjTac; yt,a tyjv aizeXzvQzpcdoy] 
ir\q ocvOpcouoTYjTac; au' ttjv auo^svcoaY], o Hegel 6£copei otl r\ auo^svcoar] u^opei va 
^£7i£paaT£L a7ioxAet,aTt,xd xat, [J-ovo oto TtsSio ir\q av6pco7UVY]<; ovvzidr\or\q. Feuerbach 
avTi0£Ta xpruxdpias tyjv acprjpYjuivY] ui6oSo tou yep^iavtxou iSeaAia^iou, 7rpoa7ra6covTac; 
va £7uaTp£(j)£i tt] cpt,Aoaocpia oto nzdio tou "-rcpay^iaTLXou xoa^ioo". To xsvTpixo or\\izio ir\q 
xpLTLXYjc; tou aTpecpoTav o"to ysyovoc; otl yj acprjprj^svrj ui6oSo<; 6£copouas Ta xapaxTYjpiaTixd 
tcov UTioxeiuivcov, xai apa Ta xapaxTYjpiaTixd tou av6pco7tou, aav UTioxeiu^va ^ie auTovo^iyj 
UTcap^yj. ATroppiuTovTaq avir\ ty] auAArj(j)Y], apa xat, tyj auXArjtjjrj otl o avTixeiu^vixoc; xoa^ioq 
eivai sva izpoiov tou "Tweu^aToc;", o Feuerbach ETuAsyet, aav oyjuelo zxxivrpr\q yt,a tyjv 
cpLXoaocpia tou tyjv dueayj euTreLpia usaco tcov av6pcoTnvGOV aioQ-qozcdv xat, avTLXaupdveTa!, 
tov TxpayuaTixo xoauo aav "xa6apo avTixsiusvo". Uttj Qzar\ tou x^yx^^^ocvou TivsuuaToc; 
6a TouoOsT^ae!, to "avOpcoTTivo ysvoq", OscopcovTaq otl ol dv6pcoTroL eivat us [iovoar^avTo 
TpoTio upo'LOVTa tgov uXlxcov auv6rjxcov. 'Etol o Feuerbach evco arc' ir\ uia 6a usTaTOTciasL 
to xsvTpo evStacpspovToc; tyj<; (piXoocxpiaq and to "Tiveuua" otov dv6ptOTio, arc' tyjv dAArj 0a 
eyxaTaX£L([)£!, tyj SLaAexTLxV] oyzoy] tiou 7ipoaud0Yja£ va SyjULoupyVjaet, o Hegel TiapausvovTaq 
Ssauioc; tou Smauou uuoxslusvou- avTLxeiusvou. 

Apx^xd o Marx 6a avayvcopLasi tyjv avdyxrj va auoxaTaaTaOei auTT] rj StaXexTLX^ oyzor\, 
xai 6a avayvcopLGEt, £ttlgyj<; tyjv xzvcpixr\ or\y.aoia ir\q aizo^zvcdo-qq, tyjv ouoia ueTovoud^et, 
G£ "aAAoTpiGOGYj" xai tyjv xaTavoei aav sva x a P aXTr \P lOTlx ° TY I? i8iaq ir\q avQptimvqq 
Tcapayooyixrjq SpaaTrjpLOTrjTac;, ouooq aTrj ovvzxzux 6a 8taxwp!,aT£L and tov Hegel. Tia tov 
Marx r\ uuap^rj tou uXlxou x6o\jlov ue ut.a aXAoTptcousvyj uopcp^ 8ev swat, uta avauocpeuxTrj 
ouv6t]xyj aAAd to auoTsAeaua laTopixd xa6op(,au£voov xolvgovlxcov ojzozcdv nov 01 lSlol ol 
dv6pco7TOt, £x ouv STj^toupy^ae!,. KaTa auvsueta eivat aTa x^p^oc tgov av6pcoucov va ^ETiepdaouv 
tyjv aXXoTpLGOuevrj uTiap^ Touq, r\ StacpopsTLxd r\ aXkoipicdoy] •rcpsTist, va ^sicspaaTSL aTrjv 
Tcpd^yj xai ox^, oucoc; Tziaxzvz o Hegel, usaa aTrjv av6pcoTi!,vrj auvsLSyjarj! 'Etol o Marx 
xpaTdet tyj SiaAexTiXY] StaSixaaLa avdueaa ae uttoxeluevo xai avTixsiusvo, aTioppLUTeL 
oucog tov acpYjpYjusvo x«pocxTr]pa uou divzi as auTYJ tyj StaStxaaia o Hegel, 6£topcovTac; otl 
SLvat, yj sxcppaarj tyjc; upayuaTLxrjq LaToptxric; xivrjarjc;. A7t' tyjv 6Xkr\ avTLTcapaTL6£Ta[, otov 
uAlo^o tou Feuerbach aTroppiTrcovTac; tov SLaxGopiauo tou axsuTouevou uttoxslusvou au' 
tov uAixo xoauo. 'Ottcoc; to £6eas xai idioq oxiq Qzoziq yt,a tov Feuerbach: 

"To xupio eAdTTco^ia xd6e uAta^iou ^£XP L ^wpa, ^a^L xat, tou Feuerbach, zivai 6xi 
to e^GOTepixo avTLxeiusvo, r\ upayuaTLXOTYjTa, to aioQyjio auAAauPdvovTat uovdxa ue tyj 
y.op(pr\ tou avTLXSL^isvou r\ xr\q zv6paor\q, xai ox^ aav at,a6r]T^ av6pcou!,VYj SpaaTYjptoTrjTa, 
aav TipaxTLXT], 6x& UTroxsL^evtxd. Na ytaTi r\ evepyyjTLXT] TiAeupd £X £L ocvauTUx6£i and tov 
t,oeaAt,auA ae avziQzo-q y.z tov uAia^io - aAAd ^ovdxa acpYjpyjuiva, ytaTi o LSeaAta^oc; 8ev 
yvcop^ei cpuaixd ttjv Trpay^aTLX^, ata6r]T^, SpaaTrjpLOTrjTa aav T£Tot,a. Feuerbach 6eA£t, 
avTLXSL^eva aia6r]Td uou va SiaxpivovTat, upay^aTLxd and ia avTLxe^eva tyjc; oxz^-qq, aAAd 



~18~ 

Ssv zEf.iaQt.i tyjv iSia tyjv av6pco7UVY] SpaaTYjpioTYjTa aav avTixsi^isviXY] SpaaTYjpioTYjTa". 

Apa yia tov Marx, an' tyj ^iia to ^ETispaa^a i-qq av6pco7UVY]<; aAAoTpicoaYjc; dzv zivai 
^Yfcypa "aAAayYjg tcov iSecov" (71. x- oti yj aAY]6iVY] aoveiSYjaY] TTOSuei va avTixaTaaTYjaei tyjv 
6pYjax£OTiXY] aoveiSYjaY]) aAAd aTioTsAsa^a fjuag 7roaxTiXY}c;-xpiTiXY]c; SpaaTYjpioTYjTac;, au' 
tyjv dXXrj 01 dv6pco7roi dzv oyzi'iCpvxai \xz iiq ukixzq ovvQ-qxzq y.e sva xpouo ^lovoaYj^iavTo 
aAAd SiaAexTixd: 

"H o/UarjxT? deojpia on 01 dvdpcmoi eivai npoiovra tcov nzpioTaozcdv xai ir\g 
naideiag, xai on znoyizvcdg 01 aAAayyizvoi dvdpconoi eivai npoiovra dAAcdv nzpioTaozcdv 
xai diacpopenxrjg naideiag, ^exvdei on 01 avdpomoi eivai axpi(3cog exeivoi now aAAd^ouv 
Tjg nepiaxdaeig xai on o naidaycdjog z%zi xai aurog avdyxrj va dianaidaycdyrjOei" . 

'Eypvzaq avayvcopiaei tov xa0opiaTixo poAo ttoo raxic^ei yj av0pco7UVY] uapaycoyiXY] 
SpaaTYjpioTYjTa, rj epyaaia, otyj §Y]^ioopyia too oAixoo xoa^ioo, zypvxaq xa6opiasi aav 
aAAoTpico^svY] epyaaia tyjv a-rccoAeia eAsyxoo octt' tov spyaTY] Tidvco oto ttooiov ir\q idiaq too 
ir\q zpyaoiaq, o Marx ^ETiepvdei tooo tov idzakioy.6 oao xai tov oAia^io ^isao tyjc; "apvYfciXYjc;" 
8iakzxTixr\q ir\q zpyaoiaq. H eiaaycoyY] avT-qq Tr\q SiaAexTiXYjg, r\ aTpocpYj otyjv TroaxTixV] 
av6pco7UVY] SpaaTYjpioTYjTa, £X £L aav aovsTisia xai tyjv avayvcopiaYj xr\q averaxpxeiac; ir\q 
cpiAoaocpiag: 

"H ooynzTGdor} ir\g aAAayqg tcov nepiGTaaecdv xai i-qg avdpoinivqg dpaGrrjpidrrjTag 
rj aoToaAAajrjg [unopei va e^eraarei xai va xaravorjdzi opdoAojixd [uovdxa aav 
ZTzavaoTanxr\ npaxnxrj ". 

Ti eivai 6y.(x>q aoTo ttoo co6si tov Marx otyjv "apvYjTiXYj" SiaAsxTiXYj tyjc; epyaaiac;; 
Eivai yj avaxdAo([)Yj too Ta^ixoo aycova, yj avaxdAotjJYj xai, 6yi yj ejuvoYjaYj 6ttco<; ttoAAoi 
voy-i^ovv, too TrooAsTapiaToo xai tcov aycovcov too, ^isaa otooc; oizoiovq evroTu^ei tyjv 
irpoaroxOeia tcov av6pco7tcov va aAXd^oov iiq ovvQ-qxzq vnap^qq iovq, svtotu^ei tyjv "dpvYjaYj 
TY]<; dpvYjOYjc;". Eivai yj TOTro6£TYjaYj tcov Ta^txcov aycovcov oto xsvTpo too evStacpspovToq 
too, 7ioo euLTpETiS!, otov Marx va a7rappi(|>£t, tyj ovXhrn^-q tcov Tiapaycoytxcov Sovd^iecov tyjc; 
xotvcoviaq aav y.ia aoTovo^iY] Sova^iYj udvco au' to -rcpoAeTapiaTo, va OecopYjae!, avxzq iiq 
Tcapaycoyixsc; dvvay.ziq aav sxcppaaYj tyjc; av6pcoTrLVYj<; SpaaTYjpioTYjTaq, xai va xaTavoYjast, 
tyjv avTaycoviaTLXYj cpoaYj tyjc; oyzor\q ava.y.zoa oto xecpaXaio xat, tyjv epyaaia. Na xaTavoYjast, 
SYjXaSYj otl eivai yj avTL6eaYj avd^isaa otyjv aXAoTpLco^isvYj xai, tyjv eAsoOepYj spyama (y^ 
\iz StacpopsTLXooc; opoog yj avTiOeaYj avd^ieaa otyj aoyxexpt^isvYj epyaaia, ttoo uapdye!, 
afyzq xp^crYjq, xai tyjv acpYjpYj^svY] epyaaia, uoo Tiapdyst, avTaXXaxTixsq a£,izq) nov ovvioxa 
tyjv "xiVYjTYjpia Sova^iYj" too xecpaXaioo. Aev ojcdpxst Xootov eSco X^P ? T La V- la 6ecopia 
tyjc; av6pcou!,VYjc; yzipa($zir\pr\q uoo va aTsxeTat, s^co an' tov Ta^txo aycova! AxpLPcoq as 
aoTo to aYj^ieio TipsTie!, va eaTidaoo^ie to evStacpspov y.aq: yt,a tov Marx yj Oecopia xai, yj 
TcpaxTLXYj 8sv avaTTToaaovTat, avs^dpTYjTa yj y.ia au' tyjv dAAYj, avTi6sTa upooTioOsaYj yia 
xd6e pi^ixo HETaaxYj^aTLa^o too oudpxovToq xoa^ioo eivai yj StaAexTLXYj evoTYjTa too<;! To 
xecpdAaio 8ev eivai [Jiia aoToaovTYjpoo^ievYj Sova^iYj tioo SLaTYjpei y.ia "s^coTspiXYj" oyzo-q 
y.z tyjv c^covTavYj spyaata, 8ev eivai, sva "Tipdy^a" ^ie tyj Slxy^ too AoyiXT] xai Tooq Sixoog 
too vo^iooc; ttoo s^STa^ovTai auo ^ia "auo^ovco^svYj" 6ecopLa, aAAd y.ia avTaycoviaTLX^ 
xoivcovLXYj oyzor\. Tia tov Marx, o xo^oovia^ioc; 8ev eivat, sva [uxxpivo idavixo, 8zv zivai 
xa.11 7100 to £X £L xaTaaxeodae!, ex tcov -rcpoTspcov ^ita 0£copia xai 0a avaAd(3£t, va to 
Trpay^iaTcoae!, yj epyaTixVj Ta^Yj, aAAd xaTi uoo "rcpoxoTrcet, aav SovaTOTYjTa ^isaa au' to 
Tipay^aTixo, ^covTavo, upoAeTapiaxo xiVYj^ia. 

Aotyj yj outixy^ tyjc; SiaAexTiXYjc; tyjc; spyaaiag, xai xaT' eusxTaaYj yj evoTYjTa Oscopiac; xai 
TcpaxTiXYjc;, ttoo xdvei tyjv s^icpdviaYj tyj<; aTa Tipcoi^ia ypauTa too Marx, £7rav£^cpavi^£Tai xai 
oto ^exiVYj^ia too KecpaAaioo - otyjv avdAoaY] too cpsruxiaTixoo xapaxTYjpa too e^Tiopeo^aToq 
xai TYjq SiaAsxTiXYjq uoo icapdysi to e^iTropso^a, to xp^oc. t o xecpdAaio. 'O^icoc; xa6coq 
Tcpoxcopdsi tyjv avdAoaYj too yiveTai e^cpav^c; yj 7ipoaTid6£ia too Marx va avaxaAoijjei xai va 



~19~ 

SiocTUTrwasi y.e "eTuaTrpovixo" ipoizo xooq "avxixziy.zvixo6q voy.ovq xivr\or\q too xecpaAouou", 
xiq SLaSixaaieg exeiveg ^isaa oty] aovoAixr] SiaSixaatla avaTiapaycoyYJg tou xaTUTaAicmxou 
auaT^axog uoo sivai 07TOTi6£Tat, ave^dpTYreg auo tyjv OTTOxet^eviXY] opaaTYjpioTYjTa tou 
TcpoAsTocpiaToo, \iz dAAa A6yt,a va SiaTOucoast, ^it,a 6ecopia avs^dpTYjTY] arc' tov xa^xo aycova. 
Yicdpxst, (3£(3oaa xat, yj aTrocjjr] otl aoTo Sev ocpsiAeTat, as ^ita avTicpaarj too i§t,oo too Marx, 
ocAAd otov aiz~kr\ xapaxTrjpa too KecpaAaioo, otyjv auooaia i-qq evoTYjTac; yt,a tyjv y.ioQ(x>Tr\ 
epyaaia xat, iiq Ta^eic; rcoo avayxaaTixd 7i£pt,6pt,ae to KecpdAaio oe y.ia y.ovoiz~kzvpy] ^ieAsty] 
i-qq "Aoyixrj too xecpaAaioo"... 'Onodq xai va' x^ ocoto izov zivai arpavTixo yt,a s^idq Ssv 
sivat, to otto[,oo*y}7tot£ dyxoc; va xaTaSixdaoo^ie rj va OTiepaaTuaToo^s tov Marx, aAXd oti to 
aoyxexpt^svo TtpopXypa eixs noXv oofiapzq oovzizzizq. HoXkzq dzxazxizq apyoTepa o Guy 
Debord, gttjv Koivcovia too 6ed^aTo<;, 6a iiq zvzoiziozi \jlz svav xaTYjyopypaTixo TpoTio: 

"H VTSTspfuvKJTixyj- zizioTqy.ovixr\ nAeopd gtyj oxzipr} too Marx, otctjp^z axpi(3cog -q 
p(jijy.r\ y.zoa and tyjv oizoia disiodooe r\ biabixaaia ibzoXojixo7ioir\oriq , evoaco %oooe 
axoyia, xai xaid y.zCC,ova Aoyo arrj Qzoipr\Tixr\ xXr\povoy.id rcoo dcp-qae oto zpyocnxd 
xivr\y.a... Aorog o axp(jdTr\piaoy.6q , rcoo syivs [tsrensiTOc anodexrdg aav opioTixoq, 
anoTsAeoe tov " y.ap£,ioy.6" ..." . 

ITpdy^aTt, r\8r\ and iiq apx^q too 19oo at,c5va Toao aTrj rsp^iavia, y.z 7ipcoTaycovt,aT£c; tov 
Engels xat, tov Kautsky, oao xat, otyj Pcoaia, y.z xopt,o zxcppaox-q tov Plekhanov xat, apyoTepa 
tov Lenin, 6a ETUxpaTYjaet, yj eTiLaTYj^ovLX^-avTLxe^evLaTLXY] epurjveia tyj<; ^lap^aTixyjc; 
6scopiac;. Etyj vsa zpy.r\vzia too xoa^ioo, ttoo 6a xaTaxTrjaet, xvpiapx<] Qza-q y.zoa otyj B' 
At,£6vV}, tov SiaAsxTixo oAia^io, {inopzi xavziq va (3pst, ia xapaxTripio-axd too oAia^ioo 
otov otiolov o Marx avTt,7iapaT£6Y]xe, xat, Paatxd tov So'ia^io avTixeiusvoo- OTroxet^svoo 
xat, tyjv eyxaTaXe^rj tyjc; "apvYjTtx^c;" SiaXexTLX^c; tyj<; epyaaiaq. H eTcave^icpdviOY] o^icoc; 
aoToo too So'L'a^ioo a^atve xaT' eusxTaarj xai tyjv aTiooaia tyjc; StaXsxTLX^c; svoTrjTac; 
avd^ieaa ae 6scopi]a xat, Tzpaxiixy]. 'Etol acp' zvoq to xscpdXato yivsTat, xaTavorjTo aav 
"avTLxei^svo", xai ox*, crav xolvcovlxyj crxzcrq, izov £x £L tovq Stxooq too "vo^iooq xlvyjgyjc;" 
ave^dpTYjToog aTi' tyjv av6pco:i!,VYj SpaaTYjpLOTYjTa, evco yj "tioAltlxtj" xat, r\ "oLxovo^iia" 
aovSsovTat, y.z svav ^Yjxavicmxo Tpoico ao^cpcova y.z tov ottolo r\ SeoTsprj xa6opic^£!, 
^lovoSpo^ia tyjv upwTrj. Acp' ETspoo, acpoo r\ 6ecopia SLaxwp^eTat an' ttjv upaxTLX^ xai to 
xecpdAaLo yiveTat, xaTavorro aav "avTixeLuevo", eyxa6i]aTaTa!, r\ 6scopia aav sva acoua ex 

TCOV 7ipOT£pWV 8oa^l£VC0V "STlLaTYj^OVLXCOV lSecOV" TIOO aTlOXaXoTCTOOV TOOg "aVTLX£!,^£V!,Xo6<; 

vo^ooq XLvrjarjq" too xecpaXaioo xat e^rjyoov tyjv laTopia aav y.ia ypa^i^LX^ SiaSixaata 
"cpoatx^c; s^sXt^rjc;". Me dAXa Aoyia r\ Qzodpia scpap^o^eTaL udvco oto, 6ecopoo^£vo cdq 
avTLxeiuevo, upoAeTaptdTo, uapd upoxouTE!, ^isaa and iovq aycoveg too! H euLxpaTrjaY] 
aoToo too "op66So^oo" ^lap^a^ioo otov ouolov aTrooaiac^e yj diaXzxTixr\ evoTYjTa 6£copia<; 
xai upaxTLxr^c; 6a £X £L xa6opiaT!,X£c; aovs7ret.ee;. 'Etol ^eaa ottj B' At,e6v^ to ^eTiepaa^a too 
xauLTaXta^oo yivcTai avT^ArjuTo aav r\ xaTaXrj(jjyj i-qq izo'Xnixriq z^ovoiaq xai r\ avaTrco^rj 
tcov Tiapaycoytxcov Sovd^iecov y.z "Aoyixd" axeStaa^ievo xai xoivcovtxd Sixato Tpo-rco, xat, 
ox!, aav to ^suepaaua tyj<; aXAoTpLco^isvYjc; epyaaiaq, ox^ aav yj xaTdpyyjay] Tr\q nioQodTqq 
zpyaoiaq xai too e^uopeo^aTixoo xoa^ioo. EtutiAsov avr' tyj o-ziy\xr\ ttoo £yxa6iaTaTat, 
aoTT^ r\ e^coTepix^ oyzor\ ava.y.zoa otyj 6scopia xai tyjv spyaTixrj Ta^rj, too lSloo zidovq 
oyzoy\ zy.zXkz (avauocpeoxTa!) va £yxaTaaTa6ei avd^eaa oto xo^i^ia xat, ttjv £pyaTt,xVj 
Ta^Y], avd^ieaa 5r\ka5r\ oto "uoAltlxo" xai to "xolvcovlxo". To xo^i^ia eivat, o aTioxXeLaTLXoc; 
xaioypq xat, 6£^aTocp6Xaxa<; ttjc; "£7iiaTrj^ov!,xyi<; eecopiaq", ir\q "ooaidkicaxriq aovsiSrjarjq", 
tioo avaXa^pdvei, va "SiacpcoTiast," tyjv zpyaxixri Ta^rj xat, va tyjv o8rp[r\ozi otyj aoat,aAt,aTt,xrj 
xotvwvia. AotV] yj e^ooaiaaTLxrj xat, epyaAeiaxr) oyzof] avd^ieaa aTa -rcoAtrixd xat. Ta Ta^ixd 
OTTOxet^eva 6a £p6et, ae 7ipoacopt,VY] xpiarj araS tooc; lSlooc; Tooq aycoveg tyjc; zpyaxixr\q 
Ta^rjq, oizcdq ziday.z upiv tov izo\zy.o xat, axo^rj usptaaoTepo ^iSTa. Kat, avir\ r\ xpior\ 
OTi^p^e axpt,pcoc; r\ pcoy^i^ \izaa and ir\v oizoia. ot, izo'Xnixzq Taasiq ir\q apt,aTspdc; too 



~20~ 

aoGLaASrj^oxporuxou xo^aToc; izpooizaQy]oav va axscpToov udvco axrj oyzor\ avd^tsaa crco 
"-rcoAtTtxo" xat to "xotvcovtxo" \ie svav StacpopsTtxo (Vj ^idAAov StaAsxTtxo!) xpoTio... 

TO PEOOPMIITIKO PHrMA ITON "OPOOAOIO" MAP1IIMO: EDWARD 
BERNSTEIN 

'Eva octto Ta uAsov 7rapdooi;a, aAAd oxt ave^rjyrjxa, xocpaxTrjptaTtxd togo x-qq B' Ats6vo6g 
oao xai too SPD stvat OTt rj y.apfyoTixr\ "op6o§oc;ta" osxxrjxs xprctxrj -rcpcoTa and tyjv 
SsJ;td TiTspoya too xo^octoc; xat uoAo apyoTspa auo iiq Stdcpopsg xaoeiq ir\q aptaTspdg. 
So^icpcova \xz xrjv op068o^Y] avdAooY] ot "avTtxst^isvtxot vo^iot e^sA^Yjg" too xoctutocAig^oo 
TiposPAs-rcav ttjv avaTiocpsoxTY] xaTappsoarj too, \iia xaxappeoayj ttoo sows adpxa xat oaxd 
otyjv "taToptxrj avayxatoTrra" too izzpao\L<xioq axrjv aoataAtaTtxrj xotvcovta. Msaa as aoTo 
to [jirjxavicmxo TiAatato, xat ^is SeSo^evrj xrjv ayiari ttoo jrsptypdtpa^s avd^isaa crco xo^a 
xat tyjv spyaTtxVj xd^yj, ot, YjysTtxsg cpoatoyvco^itsg too SPD, aav tov Kautsky, OTroaTYJpt^av 
fjua f J tSTptoTra6Y] TraAtTtXY] ypa^Y]. Eo^icpcova \iz aoTYjv to aoataASYpoxpaTtxo xo^a xat 
o iroAtTtxoc; aycovag ttoo aoTo Sts^dyst sxoov TrooTspatoTrra aTrsvavTt crca aovStxaTa xat 
Tooq otxovo^itxooc; aycovsg, svc6 rj spyaTtxV} Td^rj TrosTrst va raxpa^istvst Trst6apx'r|^svY] [isaa 
cmg ypa^sg too xo^aTog xat va stvat STOt^iY] coots tyj aTty^iY] ttjc; ysvtxVjg xaTappsoarjc; 
va stasA6st oto "Trooaxyjvto ttjc; taToptag"... 

'HSrj aTto Ta TsArj Trjq SsxasTtac; too 1890 o Bernstein 6a STUTs6st oxr\ (3darj avxriq tyjc; 
TroAtTtxrjc; Ypay.y.r\q. Ilto aoyxsxpt^tsva, 6a OTroaTrjpt^st OTt r\ s^sAt^r] too xaTUTaAtaTtxoo 
aoaT^aTog xa6taTa oAosva xat mo aizidavq ^ita xaTappsoayj too, xat aoTo s^atTtag 
ir\q av^ovoaq TTpoaap^oaTtxoTYjTac; too xaTUTaAta^ioo xat, tyjc; Stapxoog StacpopoTratYjarjc; 
i-qq Trapaycoyy^c;. Tyjv txavoTrra Ttpoaap^oy^c; too xaTUTaAta^ioo 6a tyjv svTOTrtast as 
xpeiq TiapdyovTSc;: TipwTov aTrjv e^o^dXovarj tcov xpiaecov s^aLTiaq ir\q z^zkiEftq too 
XP^aTOTUGTcoTixoo aoaT^aTog, ir\q Srj^Loopyiaq aoXAoytxcov opydvcov au' ttjv uXeopd 
tcov xaTUTa/Ucrccov, xat, tyj<; Steopovayjc; too Slxtooo tgov e^iTiopeo^aTLXGOV ^lETacpopoov. 
AeoTspov aTrjv avxoyfi ttoo stclSslxvooov Ta [isaaia aTpco^aTa, tyjv orcoia anodidzi oty\ 
8iapxr\ SLacpopouoirjarj tgov Tcapayooytxcov xAdScov. TptTov, xat, xoptoTepo, aTrjv ao^rjarj 
tcov [iioQoiv xat, tyj yevLXOTepyj PeXTicoayj tcov aov6rjxcov ^riq ir\q epyaTLXYjc; Ta^yjc; e^atTLag 
tcov ^laxpoxpovLcov SlexSlxyjtlxcov aycovcov tyjc;. Bernstein Aolttov ^exLvdet, ooaiaaTixd 
auo Soo acpeTrjpLaxd or\\xtia. Acp' zvoq and tyjv avayvcoptarj xduoicov xatvoopLcov (tots) 
SiaSixaaicov pvQ[).ior\q too xauLTaXtaTixoo aoaT^aToq, nov rj "op668o^rj" 6£copia Sev 
^Tiopooas va StaxpLvei. Acp' ETspoo and tyjv 6£ayj otl yj avTi6£ayj avd^ieaa oto xecpdAato 
xai tyjv epyaaia Tipsue!, va £^£TaaT£i ^isaa and ir\ oyzoy] ^it,a6cov xat, xepScov, xat and ttj 
aovax6Xoo6rj avayvcoptarj too svepyoo poAoo tcov epyaTtxcov aycovcov otyj Sta^iopcpcoarj tcov 
aov6rjxcov avaTcapaycoyV^c; too xaictTaAta^oo- svav evspyo poXo ttoo o "atSspevtoq vo^ioq 
tcov ^ita6cov" TipaxTtxd Stsypacpe. Atto aoTT] ttjv acpeTYjpta, nov 7]Tav atyoopa uto yovt^iyj 
and tyj tiotpoXaTpta tcov rjyeTcov too SPD, o Bernstein 6a oSY]yY]6et ae ^teptxa, xa66Xoo 
yovt^ia and £TravaaTaTtxV^ axoTitd, ao^uspda^aTa avacpoptxd y.z ir\ oyior\ avd^saa otov 
TioAtTtxo xat tov otxovo^ttxo aycova xat to uspaa^ia aTrj "aoataAtaTtxy^ xotvcovta". 'ETat 
ot 8t£x8tXY]Ttxot epyaTtxot aycoveq, ot ouotot yta tov Bernstein etvat xa6apd otxovo^itxot 
aycoveg, 6a upsust va OTiepxepdaoov tov -rcoAtTtxo aycova i-qq oooiak8r\y.oxpaTiaq. 
poXoq tcov aov8txaTC0v upsTiet va ava(3a6^tOT£t as oyzcrq y.z to poAo too xo^^iaToq, £Tat 
coots rj spyaTtxrj Ta^rj va usToxst ^ta aovsx"»l ao^rjarj tyjc; otxovo^itxrjc; dvvay.r\q ir\q. AvTq 
sxSyjAcovsTat sirs ^isaa oto TisSto ttjc; -rcapaycoyYJg ^isaco tyjc; aovsxooq ao^rjaYjc; tcov ^ita6cov 
xat ir\q PsATtcoayjc; tcov aov6rjxcov spyaataq, stTS ^saa oto TisSto i-qq xoxXocpoptaq ^isaco tyjc; 
Srptoopytac; ^ta^txcov xaTavaXcoTtxcov aovsTatpta^tcov. Ooatxd, yta va sutTSOx6st aoTo, ot 
spyaTtxot aycovsq 8sv 6a •rcpsTist va c^sicspvoov Ta opta ttjc; aaTtxrjg vo^t^ioTrjTaq xat tcov 



~21~ 

aoAAoyixcov SiaTcpayuaTSoaecov us ia acpevTixd... Arc' tyjv dAAr] o ttoAitixoc; aycovag 6a 
TrpETrei va •rcepiopiaTEL axrj Sypioopyia evog 6£aut,xo6/vout,xoo TtAoaaioo tcoo va e^OTrrjpeTei 
ttjv ocv&ttcu^y] TYjg oixovouixyjc; Sovaurjc; tyjc; epyoruxVjg Tafy\q. Me dAAa Aoyia o poAog too 
xouuaToc; auvot|)L^£Tai axrjv TipodaTuar] tcov oixovouixcov xaxaxT^ascov tcov epyaxcov usaco tyjc; 
Spdarjq axo xoivoPooAio xai upooTruxd Trjc; xaTaxTrjorjg tyjc; xoivoPooAsotixyjc; TrAeio^Yjcpiag. 
Kaxd tov Bernstein r\ TrpooSeoTixr] au^yjay] ir\q oixovouixyjc; dvvay.r\q ir\q epyaTixrjg xd^rjc; 
xat, yj upooSeuTLXY] xaTdxTYjayj tou xoivoPooAioo ano xovq oooiaX8rnj.oxpa.xeq 6a oSYjyrjaet,, 
\xz svav aoTouaTo xai siprjvixo xpouo, axo 7i£paaua axrj "aoaiaAicmxri xoivcovia" - uia 
aTcocpaoiOTixyj cpdarj ooyxpooarjc; us to xecpdAaio xat to xpaToq sivai evteAcoc; TtepiTTV}! Aoto 
to opaua too "e^eAixtixoo aoaiaAiauoo" auoTsAeae avro tots to oveipo tyjc; xd6e Aoyrjg 
aoaiaASYjuoxpaTiag. pecpopuiauoc; too eivai tcAsov Ttapaudvco aTio eucpavyjc;: o Bernstein 
Ssv rfiz'Xz va xaTapyrpei tyjv xaTUTaAiaTixrj oyior\ aAAd va tyjv U£Tappo6uiosi. 

Aoto uoo iyzi oucoc; usyaAoTeprj arjuaaia eivai va xaTavo^aooue yiaTi r\ 6scopia too 
Bernstein upoxdAeoe ueydAy] avaoTaTcoor] usaa aToog xoAttooc; too SPD xai tyjc; B' Aie6vo6<;. 
H araa ups-reei va ava^YjTrjOei apxixd otyjv au<pia(3Y]Tr]o-Y] (3aaixcov apxcov too "op66So^oo" 
uapc;iauoo, xai dpa gtyjv aucpiaprfcrjar] ir\q 6£copY]Tixrjc; "ao6svTiac;" ttoo STcscpoAaaae rj 
rpfzoia too xouuaToc; yia tov eaoTo tyjc;. Kopicog oucoc; oto ysyovoq oti o "oixovo^ia^ioc;" 
aypaToSoTYjoe \iia oipocpq otic; a\izozq SiexSixyjoek; xai otov evspyo poAo tcov epyaTixcov 
aycovcov, as oovSoaa^io \iz ttjv eyxaTaAe^Y] tyjc; euavaaTaTiXYjc; TtpooTrciXYjc;. Me Ta Aoyia 
too iSioo too Bernstein: 

"Tiaxi va izapajooy.z to oooiaAioy.6 and tov oixovoyuxo z^avajxaoy.6; He ti y.aq 
Xpsid^erai o unoflifiaoyidq ir\q SiopaTixoTYjTaq , TY\q ouvaiodrjorjg dixaioo, xai r-qq deArjorjq 
tcov idiwv tcov ocvdpconcdv ; " '. 

Aoty] r\ xaOopiaTLX^ aTpocpy^ upoasScoas otov "oLXovo^iLa^io" ^ita SovaTOTrjTa a\izor\q 
z^>ap\ioyr\q xat, svav TrpcoToyvcopo 8ova^!,a^6, evco auoTsAeae xat, to orp.zio xAsiSl yt,a va 
ayxaAidaoov tov "oixovo^ua^io" ot rpfzxzq tcov aovStxaTcov otyjv avTLTiapdOeaT] Toog ^jie 
ttjv Tjyeata too SPD. Eivai svSelxtlxo tcov Tcaparaxvco otl to mo •rceTOX'fj^svo a6v6Yj^a tcov 
^TiepvaTa'LVLXcov r^Tav "to xo^a sivat, TiuoTa, to xivrj^a sivat, Ta TidvTa"! AusvavTi as 
aoTov tov xivSovo, va aiza'XzMpQzi to uoAltlxo otolxs^o and iovq epyaTLXooq aycoveg xai 
dpa va x a ® ei ^ ^pwToxa0£8pia too aoaiaASYpoxpaTixoo xo^^iaToq otyj SLa^ieaoAdprjaY] 
aoTcov tcov aycovcov, to "xsvTpo" too SPD 7ipoo7td6r]a£ va auavT^aei, p.z ttjv Tzzio\iaiixf\ 
£Tcava8LaT6TccoarjTcovapxcovToo''£7i!,aTyj^ov!,xo6aoa!,aA!,a^o6''. EToPt,pALOTrjc;''M£Tapp66^!,arj 
r\ EuavdaTaayj", to 1899, yj Rosa Luxemburg, axourj tote us ttjv aT^pL^rj too Kautsky, 6a 
Scoaet, ULa aovoAixrj auavTYjarj otyj Oecopia too Bernstein. ITap' 6Ao uoo optausva auo Ta 
eTrLuspoog ZTHiyzi-P'fyJ-a.ia, ir\q zivai pdatua, o eyxAcoPiauoc; tyjc; ottj UYjxavLaTLXT] avrikrn\)r\ 
zivai TooAdxtcyTov evTOucoaiaxoc;: 

"0 Bernstein onooTrjpi^et on rj xantraAiorixYj z^sAl^yj 8zv odrjyzc izpoq zva oixovoy.ixo 
xpax-.. AAAa tote npoxunrzi to oofiapoTaTO ^r\Tr\y.a: jiazi xai ncoq da zmr6xou[j.z tov 
tzAixo oxoTzo rcdv TzpooTzadzicov [taq ; And tt\v dnoipr] too zizioTr\y.ovixo6 oooiaAioy.06 r\ 
LOTopixTj avayxatdTYjTa Tr\q oooiaAioTixr\q avaTpoizr\q zxdrjAdJvzTat npo tcocvtcov y.e ttjv 
ao^ouoa avap%ia tou xaiziraAioTixoo oooTr\y.aToq, avapxia nou to cddzi oto adtz^odo. 
AAAa av napadzxTzi xavziq oti o xaiziTaAioy.6q 8zv zE,zAioozTai npoq tyjv idia too tyjv 
xaTaoTpocp-q , totz o oooiaAioy.6q da znaoz va zivai avTixziy.zvixa avayxaioq...". 

Kat, evco r\ Taarj too xsvTpoo 6a aovextoet, aTcepLorcaaTY] ttjv Tcopsta tyjc; udvco as 
aoTT^ tyjv TroAraxrj ypauu4 ot, ttoAltlxsi; TaasLq ir\q apiaTspdt; too SPD 6a avayxaoToov 
aTaStaxd, tooo auo tyjv avdyxrj avTLuapd6£ayjc; otov "otxovouLauo" (SyjAaSV] tyjv avdyxyj 
va ULAVjaoov yt,a tooc; epyaTEc; oxt auAd aav epyaTiXY] SovauY] aAAd aav U!,a Ta^Tj \iz 
tcoAltlxooc; otoxooc;) oao xai, and tov xoxAo aycovcov tyjc; uepioSoo 1904-1906, va OTpsijJoov 
to pAsuua Tooq, ue avTtcpaTLXo TpoTco oucoq, aTrjv Ta^ix^ udAyj. 



-22- 



TO KOMMA TQN EnArTEAMATIQN EnANAITATQN: VLADIMIR ILICH LEN- 
IN 

Yicdpxouv ^iia oeipa and izapcofovTzq izov xaQiaiovv tov Lenin y.ia and iiq iz~kzov 
oy][j.avTixzq (piyovpzq tyjc; B' Aie6vouc;, izapoxi dzv edpaoe y.zoa oxa izkaioia tou SPD. 
IIpcoTa ai? oka \xz tyj oxz^-q tou xai tyj dpao-q tou upiv tov nokzyio xorcdcpepe va (pxaozi 
tov "op66So^o" [iap^ia^o tou Kautsky, tou ottolou vizr\p£z avancpt,a(3Y]TY]Ta oicaooc;, oiiq 
teAixsc; tou oovzTtzizc,. KaTacpeps §Y]Aao*Y] \izoa auo tov "e^Tpe^ua^io" tou va dzi^zi izov 6a 
STrpeue va odrpfzi r\ "op668o^Yj" ypa^Yj. AeuTepov, zypvtaq ausvavTi tou ovvQr\xzq ttoAu 
SiacpopeTixsc; auo auTsc; -rcou avTt,^i£TC07U^av ot, noXixixzq Taaeic; tou SPD otyj rep^iavia, 
stcsXs^s va avTauoxp!,6£L as auTsc; tic; ovvQr\xzq \iz ouvsjceia 6sTovTac; \iz tyj ^isyiaTY] 
stu^iovyj to spcoTrj^ia "ucoq ^Tropei va Tcapax6si r\ euavdaTaarj;". TpiTov \j.zt6. to tsAoc; tyjc; 
euavdoTaoYjc; tou 1917 otyj Pcoaia yj 6ecopia tou yt,a to £7tavaoTaTt,xo xo^a a-Koizkzoz 
to xaivoupio ooy^ia yia tyjv P Ai£6vyj, to xaivoupio opyavcoTixo ^iovtsAo ttou U7TOTi6£Tat, 
eyyuouTav as 5t,£6vY] xX^axa tov "Spo^io upoc; tyjv euavdaTaarj". Ms dXXa Aoyia o Asvivia^ioc; 
oy]y.adzi\)z yia ^laxpu xpovt,xo 5t,daTYpa, xat, xaTa tyj yvco^iY] y.aq oovzyiQzi va aypaSsuet,, 
Tig TipaxTLXsc; tcov ttoAitixcov UTroxei^isvcov xai tov Tpouo [is tov ottoio avTiAa^i(3dvovTai TOV 
eauTo touc; ae oyzor\ y.z to upoAeTapiaTo. 

To 1902, xai evco to epyaTixo xiVYj^a ottj Poena (3piox£Tai as ^iia cpdarj av68ou, o 
Lenin 6a stuAs^ei va ^£xa6apiasi ^iia xai xaAYj touc; ttoAitixouc; Aoyapiaa^iouc; tou \iz 
Tig VKokonzzq tcoAitixsc; Taoeic; ^isaa otyj pcooiXY] ooaiaASYpoxpaTia, xai xupicoc; [iz touc; 
"oixovohicjtsc;", ypdcpovTac; to "Ti va xdvou^ie;". Msaa and auTT] tyj ouvoAixyj avTiuapdOeaY] 
^is touc; "oixovo^iotsc;" 6a ^sSiTiAcoaei tyj oxstpY] tou yia to au66p^r]To aToi^o, to 
Trep!,£)(6^£Vo tcov £pyaTixcov aycovcov, to poAo tou xo^i^aToq xat, ttj ayzoy] tou y.z touc; 
£pyaT£q, tyjv zizidpao-q tcov t,§t,air£pcov auv0Yjxc5v uou 8rj^!,oupy£L yj auoAuTapxta, xat 6a 
SiaTUTicoaE!, op(,a^£V£<; opyavcoTt,X£c; TipoTdaELg ax^TLxd y.z tyjv doy.r\ tou xo^^aToq xat, tov 
TpoTio Spdarjc; tou. 'HTav TSToia rj eu6uTrjTa [).z tyjv ovroia SiaTuucoae tlc; dzoziq tou, V^Tav 
Toao svtovoc; o TpoTroq \iz tov ottolo avTLuapaTsOrjxe otouc; uoXltlxouc; tou avTLudXouc;, 
7]Tav Toao auyxexp^svEc; ot, opyavcoTLxec; tou TipoTaaetg, tiou to "Tl va xdvou^ie;" aTisxTYjae 
^sydAY] ETiLppoT] ^isaa ae \iixpo xpovixo StdaTYj^ia. Lenin 6a Qzxivqozi e^ETa^ovTac; tyj 
oyzoy] avd^ieaa gto au66p^irjTo xat, to auvetSrjTo aToixs^o- KdvovTaq ^ita aTzoii\irpr\ tcov 
aycovcov Ttou auvsPrjaav ottj Pcoaia crca tsAyj tou 19ou at,cova 6a SiaTUOTcoaet,: 

"Es (Toyxpiarj [j.e roug "^er7rjxcL>[j.o6g" tcov 7ipor\Yo6y.evoiV dexaencov, oi anepyieq 
rrjg dexocsriag 1890-1900 da [unopoucrocv y.a.Xioia va xocpaxryjpicTTOUV xai "auveidrjreg" 
- Toao or\y.avax6 eivai to ftr\y.a nou exave to zpyaTixo xivr\y.a. Auto y.ag deixvzi otl to 
aodopy.r\TO otoixzio dev anoTeAei OTr\v ooaia tiizotz dAAo napd zy.ftpvaxr\ y.op(prj too 
ooveid-qTOo" . 

Ilap' otl evTOTu^et, o^icoq ^t,a TSTota oyzoY\, tiou 8ev auveudyeTat, aTiapaiTYjTa [iLa 
6£^£Alco8yj tcolotlxV] SiacpopoTroirjar] tou auvstSrjTou aTOLXs^ou and to au66p^rjTo, 6a 
TauTiast, to au66p^irjTo otolxslo \iz tov xa6apo aovSixaAia^io xai to ouv£!,8yjt6 \iz touc; 
TioAtTixouc; otoxouc; Tr\q oooiakdriy.oxpaTiaq: 

"AuTeg xadauTeg oi anepjieg r\Tav ayoovag Tpz'iVTYiooviovioTixog , oxi axoy.a 
oooiaA8rnj.oxpaTixog. Srj[j.avav to £,6izvr\y.a tou avTaj(jdvioy.ou avay.zoa OTOog spyaTsg 
xai to acpzvTtxd, y.a oi epyaTzg 8ev st'xocv, xai 8zv pmopoooav va zxoov, oovzibr\ar\ 
Tr\g ajzcpopcdT-qg avTidzcrqg tcov ooyicpzpdvTGdV Toug y.z oAo to oojxpovo tcoAitixo xai 
xoivoivixo xadzoTcog, 8rjAa8rj oovzibr\ori oooiaAby}y.oxpaTixr\" . 

'Etol yt,a tov Lenin to au66p^irjTo aTotxs^o otou<; aycoveq aTioTeAsi tyjv x a l ir i^ OTe P r l 
xai X(,yoT£po xaTdXXrjXrj pdarj yta va ^zxivqozi r\ au^Trjarj yt,a tov Tpouo opydvcoarjq 



~23~ 

xai tyj ^£6oSo opdarjc; too aoaiaASyjuoxpaTixoo xouuaToc;. IY aoTo to Aoyo 6a SrjAcooet, 
xaTYjyopYj^aTLxd out, "xa6Vjxov tyjc; aoat,aAo*Y]uoxpaTia<; eivai va aycoviaTEi evdvTia gto 
ao66puY]To", xocTYjYopcovTag izapaXkrika iovq "oixovouiaTsc;" yia ottoxAigy] gto ao66puY]To 
xat, "o7io(3t,(3aa^6 tyjc; aoat,aAo'r]uoxpaTt,xV}c; 7roAtTixV}c; oto etutisoo tou Tps'ivTyioovioviauoo". 
Ako avir\ xrjv avTiXrjijjrj yia to ao66pur]To 6a Trpoxoijjet, xat, uia yevixoTepr] exTiurjaY] yia 
tyjv oovauixyj tcov xa^xcov aycovcov. Ha tov Lenin YJxav ^exd6apo izcdq to yeyovog oti ot, 
epydxec; ot,o6sTo6v ut,a avTaycoviaTixV] ottuxyj usaa otov epyoaxaaiaxo aycova nov ot, iSiot, 
opyavcovoov 8ev Vfcav apxexo yt,a va tooc; oSyjyYJaet, ae ut,a STravaaTaTixr] TrpooTmxrj, ae ut,a 
TipooTruxr} aovoAixrig avaxpoTn^q tyjc; aoTixr\q xoivcoviac;. Eivat, ae aoTo axpt,(3coc; to arjusio 
uoo Tips-rest, va saTidaoous tyjv Ttpoaoxr] y.aq... 

Kaxapaxdc; ut,a aTTapatrrfcr] Sisoxpivrjar]: ot, UTioAasPixot, dev VjTav xa66Aoo aTtouovcousvot, 
and tooc; aycovsc; too TtpoAsTapiaToo tyjc; ev:ojf\q, oots 6scopooaav tooc; spyaTSc; rikiQiooq r\ 
tooc; aycovsc; tooc; xevovq Ttspisxousvoo. Ilap' oti o Lenin 7rspt,6pt,^s ae izoXv aoyxsxpiusva 
6pt,a to 7ispt,sx6usvo tcov spyaTixcov aycovcov SrjAcovovTac; oti "r\ oixovouixV] TidAy] sivat, 
aoAAoyiXY] red/Vr] tcov spyaTcov svdvTia otooc; spyoooTSc; yt,a sovo'ixoTspooc; opoog recoAYjaYjc; 
tyjc; spyaTixrjc; oovaurjc;", o iS*t,oc; 6a ypdtjjst,: 

"Ti^- nepiaaoTepeg cpopeg r\ oixovoynxr) ndArj naipvei noAiTixd xocpaxTrjpa auddpy.r\Ta , 
8r}Aa8r) x M P^ Ty ]V avayufyi tou enavaoTaTixou fidxiAAou Tr\g 8iav6r\or\q, X(*>pig ir\v avdy.iE,r\ 
icdv ouvei8r\T0iV oooiaAbr\y.oxpaTOiV . To xadr)xov dy.cdg tcjv oooiaAdrnioxpaTcov . . . eivai 
va xpr\oiy.oizoio6v Tig avaAayineg noAiTixr)g auveid-qarjg nou yevvd orooq epyaTeg r\ 
oixovoy.ixr\ ndcArj jia va avsflaooov rouq epja-xeq cog to emnedo ir\q ooaiaAbr\y.oxpaTixr\q 
TcoAirixYjq o-uvsidrjo-rig". 

Tt6£Tat, o^icoq Tcopa to epcoTYj^ia: Tiota eivat, avir\ r\ oooiak8rnj.oxpaTixr\ ttoAltlxy] 
aovsiSrjarj, and ttoo TipospxsTaL xai Ticog 6a yivst, XT^a tcov TipoXsTapLcov; Lenin 6a 
SiaTOTTcoasi xaTrjyoprj^aTLxd xai xaT' STravdXrjtjjrj oto "Tl va xdvoo^ie;" tyjv xAaaaLX^ 
a6XAY]([)Yj too Kautsky: 

"Tyjv ra^txrj tcoAitixyj aoveidriar} y.izopo6y.z va ty\v cpepooyiz zy.zig oi oooiaAbrnioxpaTeg 
otov epydrrj y.6vo and ia e^o), drjAadrj e^co and tyjv oixovoy.ixr\ ndArj, e^co and tyjv 
acpaipa tcjv ox^oecdv avdy.eoa aroug epydreg xai roug spyodoTsg". 

IIpoxouTe!, Aoltiov to etfiq izpofi~ky]y.a: evco and tyj y.ia to ao66p^r]To avayvcopt^ETa!, 
aav s^PpoaxT] y.op(pr\ too aoveiSYjToo xai, tj oixovo^ixrj izoikri izaipvei izoXmxo xocpaxT7]pa 
iiq izzpioooizpeq cpopsq ao66p^rjTa, and ir\v dXArj r\ (ouoTL6£^£va avcoTsprj) 7i6XiTixr\ 
aovsiSrjarj eivat, avayxaaTLxd staayo^evrj ajro-Ta-s^co xat, 8ev y.izopzi va avauTOx6£i ^isaa 
otov upoAeTapLaxo aycova. Aoto to Paatxo TrpopXyj^ia otyj axsijjy] too, uoo o Lenin 6a to 
Aoaet, xaTYjyoprj^iaTLxd ousp tyj<; SeoTspyjc; exSox^, eivai xara izov 8ev y.izopzi ae xa^iia 
TcepiTTccoar] va auo8o6£i aTrjv LSLatTspoTrjTa tcov pcoatxcov aov6rjxcov. [j.6voq iponoq 
va to sp^rjveoaoo^e eivai va to svTd^oo^ie otov xa6op!,aT!,x6 Siaxcopia^o 6ecopLa<; xat, 
TipaxTLX^g, oty] (3a6id pi^co^svY] avTLAYj([)Y] otl o Goat,aAt,a^6c; eivai, sva xaAd xa6op!,a^£Vo 
aco^ia "euLaTYj^iovLxcov lSecov" ave^dpTYjTo and tov Ta^ixo aycova, sva ac6[j.a iSscov izov 
anox'XeiOTixoi xaioypi too sivai ot, "aovetSrjTOL aoaiaXSrj^oxpaTeq". Me na Aoyta too lSloo 
too Kautsky: 

"... o oooiaAioy.6g xai r\ rafyxr] ndArj yevviouvrai to eva BinAa oio dAAo xi oxi 
to eva and to dAAo... H oooiaAioTixr) ooveibr\ori y.nopei va yevvqdei [udvo ndvcd oty\ 
fldor] Tr\g fladidg enioTr\y.ovixr\g yvoior\g. <I>opeag aoTr\g Tr\g enioTr\y.r\g 8ev eivai to 
npoAeTapiaTO, aAAd r\ aoTixr\ biavdr\or\: oTa xecpdAia opiay.evcdv [teAcov tou OTpoiy.aTog 
aoTOV yevvr\dr\xe o aoyxpovog oooiaAioy.dg , xai auTOi eivai exeivoi nou tov [ueTedcoaav 
OTOug mo avanTuyyievoug nveuyiaTixd npoAeTapioug, oi onoio y.e ty\ aeipd Toug tov 
yind^ouv ott\v Tafyxrj ndArj tou npoAeTapiaTOU. 'Etoi r\ oooiaAioTixr) auvei8r}ar} eivai xaTi 
nou exei eioaxdei an' efyd ott\v Tafyxr) ndArj xai dxi xaTi nou yevvrjdrjxe auQdpy.r\Ta and 



~24~ 

aurrjv". 

Aotyj r\ avTLArjijJYj eivm to acp£TY]pt,axo aypeio ya tov Lenin, xat, £c;araac; xrjc; Sev 
^iTcopei uapd va aTTOarscoaet, TsAixd to Tiepiexo^evo xai tyjv Sova^uxrj tcov xa^xcov 
aycovcov, xaTavocovTag ^ovdxa xa "£J;coT£pt,xd" xapaxTrjpiGTixd tooc;. Awrq tyjv avTiXrjtjjrj 
6a avaAdpet,, ev y.zo(x> ir\q xaTaAoTixrjg zizib*paor\q tcov pcoaixcov aov0rjxcov, va tt]V xpafirfezi 
y.sX9 l TL ? "CeXix^^ tyjc; oovzizzizq oxav 0a St,aToraoa£t, Tig opyavcoTixsg too TrooTaaeic;. AlEfczi 
TcdvTcog tov xouo va zmy.zivoviJ.z udvco as aoxo to arj^eio, o^t ^ovo yia ttjv xaTavorjarj 
zxzivqq ir\q zizoyriq-, aXXd xat, yia znixaipt] XP~h or l : swat, yvcooTo otl okzq ot, opyavcoaeic; 
TYjg e^coxoivoPooAeoTiXYJc; apiaTepdg ttoo uposxoijjav Ta TeAeoTaia 35 xpovta axoAoo6oov 
^exd6apa tyjv AevivicmxYJ XoyLxV]. rhcrceooov SyjAaS^ oti auoTeAoov to goveiSyjto xo^aTt, 
too TcpoAsTapiaToo, r\ aXkichq tyjv £7ravaaTaTt,xr} TrocoTOTropia too, xat, Spoov \iz pdarj aoTo 
to "aoTaTToSstXTo a^ico^a". To Tcp6(3Arpa 6y.(x>q 8zv OTa^aTast, exei. Yudpxoov ar^spa 
xat, apxeTsq avTt,£^ooat,aoT[,XEc; noiXmxzq aoAAoyixoTYjTEc; ttoo raxpooat,dc/)ov tyjv z^qq 
avTicpaarj: au' tyj ^ia, zxovraq otto(|>y] Toog tyjv avTtypacpeioxpaTiXYJ xpiiixr\ ttoo £X £L 
SexQst to ^TroXasPixLxo ^iovtsXo too xo^aTog, aTcoxrjpoaaoov to Aevtvia^o xat, 6stoov to 
t^Trj^ia ir\q aoToopydvcoarjc;, tooo tcov TroAruxcov aoAAoyixoTYfccov oao xat, tcov xotvcovixcov 
ottox£!,^1£Vgov. Ate' ttjv dXAYj, TUGTSoovTac; oti xaTsxoov xiq "zizavaoxaTixzq i8£eq" ttoo 
TrpsTret, izao-q Qvoia va TrooTrayavSiaoov gtyjv xoivcovia r\ GTrjv epyaTiXY] xafy], TUOTeoovTag 
OTt, to (3aat,xo ^Yfcrj^a yt,a Ta TroAruxd OTraxst^eva eivat, y.z tyj Spdarj tooc; "va aXXd^oov iiq 
oovzid-qoziq tcov av6pcoTrcov", avauocpeoxTa avaicapdyoov to axArjpo Troprpa xr\q ~kzvivioxixr\q 
oxz^-qq. Avarcapdyoov SyjAaSrj ttjv nznoiQ-qori oti OTrdpxst, sva aco^ia iSecov ttoo y.izopzi va 
aTsxETat, s^co auo tyj c^covTavT] SpaaTYjpLOTrjTa tcov lSlcov tcov TipoAeTapLcov. KaTa ttjv yvco^iYj 
[iaq, and aoTo to ar\y.zio ^exlvoov noXka TipopX^aTa ir\q T^okiiixr\q Spdarjc; a^epa... 

npoxcopcovTaq ir\ aoAAoyicruxYi, too o Lenin 6a •rcpay^aTOTioi^aei sva axo^irj 
aTTocpaataTLXo (3YJ^ia yt,a to ucoq avTiAa^pdveTa!, tyjv svvoia too "xolvcovlxoo" xat, Ta 
xa6VjxovTa ttoo avaAoyoov aTa "rcoAmxd OTioxei^eva. Apx^xd 6a 8i,aTOTicoa£!,, evdvTia 
otooc; "olxovo^lotsc;", ir\ §zor\ oil o xa6opt,o~Tt,xoc; poXoq tcov oixovo^uxcov StexStxyiascov tyjc; 
spyaTix^q Ta^rjc; 8ev aovsTrdyeTat xai tov xa6op(,aTix6 poAo tcov SlexSlxyjtlxcov aycovcov. 
Kat, aoTo ytaTi Ta oixovo^ixd ao^icpspovTa tyj<; epyaTLX^q Ta^rjq ^Tiopoov va t,xavo7TOt,Y]6o6v 
ooaiaaTtxd, xaTa ttjv yvco^Tj too, "\x.6vo \iz piC,ixzq TzdKixixzq aXkayzq, [xovo [xz tyjv iz6\iTixr\ 
STcavdcrcaaY] nov 6a avTLxaTaaT^asL ttjv SiXTaTopia ttjc; aaTLxViq Td^rjq [j.z tyj StXTaTopia too 
TcpoXeTapLaToo". Etyj oovsx^a, zxovraq aicsvavTi too y.ia xoivcovia aTrjv ouoia r\ epyaTLXT] 
Ta^Yj VjTav y.zio<l)y](pia, ^iia xoLvcovia ttoo PpiaxoTav zizior\q otyj Paptd axid tyjc; Taaptx^c; 
aTroAoTapxtaq, xat, xooPaAcovTag otlc; aTioaxeosq too tyjv ttoAltlxyj TiapaSoarj tcov pcoacov 
AalXLOTcov too 19oo at,cova, 6a ^ETaTOTiias!, to svSiacpspov too and tyjv epyaTixrj Ta^rj oto 
Xao: "IIpsTrs!, va xdvoo^is ^o^coarj TiaipvovTac; a(popy.r\ and xd6e aoyxsxpi^svrj sxS^Acoarj 
ttjc; xaTaTuearjg. Kat ^i!,a ttoo tj xaTaTueay] avxr\ aoxzixai Tidvco otlc; mo Siacpop£Tt,X£c; 
Ta^eic; i-qq xoivcdviaq, y.ia ttoo sxSrjAcoveTa!, otlc; ttlo SiacpopeTixsg acpatpec; i-qq ~C,(x>r\q xaL 
ir\q dpao-qq... dzv zivai oXocpdvspo Ticoq Sev 6a UTropsaoo^ie va exTrXrjpcoaoo^ie to xa6^xov 
ir\q avdTiTO^rjq Trjc; ttoXltlxV^c; ovvzid-qoriq tcov spyaTcov av Sev avaAd(3oo^£ tyjv opydvcoarj 
zvoq oXoTiXeopoo ttoAltlxoo ^eaxeTida^aToc; ttjc; aTraAoTapxtag; Tta va Tipoacpspoov otooc; 
epyaTsg ttoAltlxsc; yvcoaetg, oi oooiaXdrnj.oxpa.Tzq TtpsTtet, va Tidve as 6Xzq iiq xaJ^ziq too 
TrArj6oa^o6, TipsTrsi va otslAoov ^ovd§£<; too aTpaToo Tooq Tipoq oAec; iiq xaizoftdvoziq" . 

AotV} r\ ^STaTOTiiarj too svStacpspovToq izpoq tov Xao 6a £X £L o"ov£7t£t,£<; xat oto tico<; 
avTLAa^pdv£Ta!, o Lenin to poAo too xo^aTog, to poXo too "uoXltlxoo" a7i£vavTt, oto 
"xolvcovlxo". 'H8yj a;i6 tyjv 7TOoarax6£t,d too va StaTOTicoaE!, izoioq zivai o yzvixoizpoq pokoq 
too xo^aTog, aoTo yivsTat cpavspo: 

"H oooiaAbr\y.oxpaTia 8ev avTnzpooomsosi tyjv epyanx^ rd^rj urtg uxeueig ir\q y.6vo 
izpoq opioyLsveq oyiadeq epyodorcov, aXXd xai axiq ax^-oziq i-qq npoq 6Asq iiq xd^ziq 



~25~ 

TYjg oojxpovqq xoivcoviaq , anq axzaeiq ir\q rcpoq to xpdroq oav opjavoiy.£vri izoAmxi] 
86vay.r\" . 

He auxoTo or^.ziojpzioX^ziai npoooxQ- Ssv Trpoxstrat, sow yia ^iia SiopaTixr] avayvcopiarj 
aircou tiou -rcoAo apyoTepa 6a ovo^aaTSi "xoivcovixo spyoaTaaio". Aioti o i8ioq o Lenin 6a 
Trpay^aTOTroiYJaet, aoTY] tyj aTpocpV] acpoo TrpoYjyoo^EVcoc; eyti TOTTO6£TYJa£t, ae xevTpiXY] 6saY] 
tyjv xaia.Tzizor\ tyjc; Taapixyjc; auoAoTapxiac; xai tyjv avayxaioTrra xaTaAY](|>Y]c; ir\q xpaxix-qq 
s^ooaiac;. Eivai Aoittov xoao yj iSiarcspoTrra tcov pcoaixcov aov6rjxc6v, oao xai rj TaoTiarj tyjc; 
sjcavaaTaTixrjc; SiaSixaaiac; y.z tyjv xaTdArjiJjY] too xpaxooq, ttoo ^uopoov va ep^rjvsoaoov 
tt] aTpocpyj Tipog tov Aao - y.ia aTpocpV] uoo ava(3icoae ae ttoAo ^eyaAoTspo Pa6^io axa [VA 
£6vixoa7i£A£o6£pcoTixd xiv^axa fji£Ta tov S£OT£po uayxoa^iio tioAe^io. Kai to x^potspo: 
\iia aTpocpyj tcoo £Tu(3/V^6r]X£ and tooc; avd tov xoa^io Asviviotsc; axo^rj xai ae ovvQr\xeq 
7100 aueixav opa^iaTixd auo tic; pcoaixsc; aov6r}X£c; tcov apxcov too aicova. IldvTcoc; t^Stj avro 
tots aoTY] yj 6saTj too Lenin 6a dsyQsi xpiTixV], xai ^idAiaTa ^is evTOTtcoaiaxo Tporco, auo 
tooc; "oixovo^iiaTsc;": 

"Enq ava^rjTrjaeiq rrjq yj laxpa ^ecpeoyei ooxvd and tyjv rafyxrj dcncxpY] xai npocodet 
<7ty]V npcoTY] jpay.y.ri tyjv xotVTj dooapsoxeia evdvrta (jtyjv xo(3epvr}arj , av xai oi airieq xai o 
(3ad(Ji6q r-qq doaapeaxziaq aoxr\q eivai noAo diacpopsTixoq avdy.eoa arooq "ooyLyidxooq"... 
6y.cdq 8sv Pjd^ei rai[j.ou8id yea tyjv TaE,ixr\ dixovoia avdy.zoa ae aord xa OTpti>y.aia too 
TiArjdoaiJiOo" ! 

Dtccoc; xai va' yz- 1 TO a-rcoTsAsa^ia ao-xr\q i-qq avTiArj^rjc; eivai oti o Lenin 6a OTroaTYjpi^si 
\ie tov mo e^icpaTixo Tpouo tyjv avayxaioTrra va Tipay^iaTOTroioovTai au' tyj ^epid tyjc; 
aoaiaASrpoxpaTiac; oAoTiAeopec; "tcoAitixsc; aizoxoikv^ziq" . Acpoo upcoTa evTOTuaet, to 
6£tlxo poXo izov suat^av oi olxovo^lxsc; anoxaXv^ziq - §rjXa§^ to ^eaxsraxa^a tcov 
d6Atcov aov6rjxcov SooXsLac; uoo sictxpaTooaav aTa epyoaTaaia ^isaco i-qq xoxXocpopiac; 
7tpoxrjp6^£cov auo Toog toulxooc; aoaiaXSYj^ioxpaTLXooc; o^iiAooc; - gtyjv e%zXi%r\ tcov aycovcov 
^isaa oto epyoaTaaio, otyj aovsx^^ 6a Toviaet, otl to avsPaa^ia tyjc; SpaaTY]pt,oTr]Tac; tcov 
{j.aC,(x>v oto "TroAraxo sniizsdo" ^uopeL va £TnT£ox6£i ^iovo ^isaco tcov oXouXsopcov uoXltlxcov 
aTcoxaX6(jJ£cov. ArjXaS^ ^isaco y.iaq izpoizayavo'iOTixriq Spdarjc; izov 6yi \iovo 6a aTioxaAoTrcet, 
okzq iiq iz~keopzq ir\q Toapixr\q xaTaizizo-qq, aAAd 6a ^d6£!, gtooc; epyaTSc; va TiapaTYjpoov ttj 
aTaayj tcov ouoAolttcov Ta^ecov udvco ora "cpAsyovTa uoXLTLxd yeyovoTa". Aott] yj ^lETaTOTciar] 
oto uspLexo^svo ir\q izo'Xnixriq SooXetdc;, y.aC,i y.z iiq avxikq^ziq ttoo TrspLypdcJja^s TcapaTidvco, 
eivai 7ioo 6a xa6o8rjy>]aoov tov Lenin otyj SLaToucoarj aoyxsxpL^svcov opyavcoTLXcov 
TipoTdaecov, otyj "^i£Ta^i6pcpcoaYj" too xAaaaixoo opyavcoTLXoo ^iovteAoo too SPD ^isaa axiq 
o&oixzq oo\>§r\xzq. 

IIpoToo StaTOTicoaeL xiq 7ipoTda£t,c; too, o Lenin 6a aaxrjaet, xpiTLxV^ aTrjv r\8r\ oudpxooaa 
Spdarj i-qq pcoaLxrjc; aoaLaXSyj^oxpaTiac;. IIpcoTa 6a svTOTuaet,, \iz [iLa Trapd^svrj lcjcoc; 
SLaTOTTcoarj yia xduotov uoo 6£copooae Ticog oi epyaTec; and y.6voi iooq 8ev ^Tiopoov va 
^euepdaoov tov Tpe'LVTyiooviovta^o, otl ol opyavco^isvot, aoaiaASyj^oxpaTec; £X ouv ^s^vst 
Tciaco ae oyzor\ [iz ttjv dvoSo too ao66p^r]Too spyaTtxoo xtv^aToq! TaTepa 6a xaTeo66v£t, 
Ta PsXrj too evdvTia as aoTo uoo 6a ovo^dast, "xstpoTexvia^io". ArjXaSy] tyjv auo^ovcoarj 
tcov totuxcov aoaLaXSyj^ioxpaTLXcov o^iiAcov, ttjv sAXe^t] aoaTTj^iaTLxrjc; xai aovTovLa^isvYjc; 
izo\mxr\q Spdarjc;, tyjv sAAeiijjrj evoc; oovextlxoo TioAraxoo axeStoo xai tyjv aSova^iia 
aTcavTYjarjc; aTrjv aaTOVo^itXT] xaTaaToX^. Eivai, ^idAiaTa aoTV^ r\ TeAsoTaia aSova^iia, dvat, 
aoyxexpL^sva rj oTiap^rj tyjc; ^loaTix^c; no'XiTixr\q aoxvvo[J.iaq, \liol uLsaTLX^ aov6^xrj ttoo 
6a ao^pdAAe!, ae sva Pa6^i6 coots o Lenin va SiaToraoast, tyj 6saYj otl yj "yspoSe^svrj" 
euavaaTaTLXT] opydvcoayj uoo eivai, xaTa tyjv yvco^yj too, a-rcapairYjTY] yia to ^euspaa^ia 
too "xeLpoTSXvia^oo" Tipsus!, va aTTOTsAsiTai, and euayysA^aTLSc; STravaaTaTSc;. IIpdy^aT!, 
sva arco Ta (3aaixd xa6^xovTa tcov STcayysA^iaTLcov euavaaTaTcov eivai va opyavcoaoov, 
evdvTta OTYjv OTTovo^eoTLXY] Spdarj tyjc; ttoAltlx^c; aaTOVo^uag, ttjv xoxAocpopia tcov Ta^xcov 



~26~ 

aycovcov - ^iia TcpaxTixV} ttoo, an' oaa yvcopi^oo^is, 6a 6£copYjTt,xo7roirj6£i yia icpcoTrj cpopd 
arro tov Lenin: 

".Tia tt? ^aa^a rcdv pcotjcjv zpyarcov aorr] r\ arczpyia [urcopzi va y.zivzi (xai rig 
rczpiaaoTzpzg cpopzg yLzvzi!) "^ucttixyj", yiari r\ xv\3zpvr\or\ da cppovriozi va xdfpzi xdde 
zrcacpr) y.z roug arczpyoug, da cppovriazi va xdvei aduvarrj tyj diddocrrj xdde rcAr\po(popiag 
yia tyjv arczpyia. Edco axpiflcog x9 ei ^ eTai y- ia ^Sixrj rcdArj evdvna OT-qv rcoAiiixr] 
aaTOVoyiia, yua rcdArj rcou 8ev [urcopzi va diz^axdzi and [ua tooo rcAand y.dZ,a oav xai 
aurrj rcou auy.y.zrzx^i ong arczpyizg. H rcdArj aurrj rcpzrczi va opyavcodzi auy.(pcdva y.z 
oAoug roug "xavovzg rrjg i£yyr\g" arco avdpcorcoug rcou aoxoAouvrai zrcayyzAy.anxd y.z 
tyjv zrcavaorarixr) dpdorj". 

B£(3oaa y.izopzi va TtapaTYjpyjaet, xaveiq on OTidpxst. £§*co sva axo^iYj 7ip6(3AYpa: o Lenin Sev 
avacpspsTai otyjv xoxAocpopia tcov aycovcov aav y.ia ^cotixy} Aetroopyia y.iaq Tzp6XzTa.pia.xriq 
opydvcoarjc;, aXXd (3aat,xd aav sva y.zoo a\my.ZT(i>mor\q rr\q dpao-qq rr\q Tzokixixr\q aoxvvoy.iaq. 
EtutcAsov apveirat, xai TtdAt, tyjv SovaTOTYjTa 01 idioi ot, epydxeq va opyavcoaoov awrr\ tyjv 
xoxAocpopia ae ovvQ-qxeq xaraoro'Xriq, avaOsTovxac; tyjv oe svav s^coTepixo TiapdyovTa, iouq 
ZTzavaorarzq ttoo eivat, sxuaiSeo^svot, yi' aoTo to oxoko. Auto 6a auoTsAsast, {laXiora 
sva and ra (3aat,xd TioAraxd £7UX£t.prpaTa tcov STuyovcov too, iSiairspa tcov svotcAcov: rj 
svTaaTj xr\q xaraoro'Xriq arco tyj ^lepid too xpaToog, OTioTi6£Tat, avaTiocpeoxTa, zm^aXkzi 
to 'VTCETovapia^a" tcov ttoAitixcov opyavcoaecov. Ev izkzi r\ Srj^uoopyia ETrayyeA^iaTicov 
STcavaaTaTcov, ttoo eivat, X£VTpt,xrj ottjv opyavcoTixr] TipoTaarj too Lenin, 8ev 6a "dixaiodQei" 
tooo and rr\v avayxaioTYjTa xr\q xvx~Xo(popiaq tcov aycovcov aXAd tcoAo uepiaaoTspo arco 
tyjv "aoTovoYjTYj avcoTEpoTYjTa" tyjc; aoaiaASrj^oxpaTiXYJc; aoveiSyjayjc; ttoo TrpsTtet, aoTOi va 
xaiiypov, au' to yeyovoq otl o ttoAltlxoc; aycovag tyj<; aoaLaXSYj^ioxpaTtac; 6£cop£LTai ox^ 
y.6vo SiacpopsTLXoq aXAd xai, avcoT£po<; and iovq spyaTixooq aycoveq. Ms dXXa Aoyia, ot, 
ETcayyeA^aTLEc; euavaaTaTEc; 6a xaTaAd(3oov ottj XeviVLaTtx^ 6scopia tyj 6sarj nov ziyav ol 
aaToi Siavooo^ievot, otyj 6ecopia too Kautsky. 

'Etgi o Lenin 6a cpTdaeL otyj SLaToucoayj tcov xocpaxTYjpLaTLXcov ir\q izo~kiiixr\q opydvcoayjq 
ttoo 7ipoT£iv£!,, acpoo TipcoTa ToviasL otl ^i!,Xd£!, \iovo yt,a iiq puoixzq ovvQ-qxzq - dvat, 
as aoTo to or\y.zio xapaxTYjpicmxri r\ xarrpfopia ttoo aTceo66v£!, o"too<; "oixovo^iiaTsc;" 
ttcoc; "oTioLoq ae xa6eaTcoc; anoXviapxioiq 6£Xe!, TxAaTtd opydvcoayj epyaTcov \xz exAoysq, 
aTToXoyLa^ooc;, xa$o~kixr\ (jJYjcpocpopia x.X.u. zivai anXovoTaia zvaq aSt,6p6coTo<; ooTOTTiaT^c;". 
Ta xocpaxTYjpLaTLxd aoTa eivai: upcoTo, uoo ^Srj to avacpspa^ie, to ysyovoq otl r\ opydvcoarj 
aoTT^ auoTsXsiTa!, arco STrayyeA^aTiec; £7iavaaTaT£c;. AsoTspo otl r\ Spdarj ir\q axoXoo6£i 
oXoog Tooq xavoveg tyjc; aovco^ioTLXOTYjTac; upoxe^svoo va nuopei va xivsirat, eosAtXTa ae 
ovvdrpizq xaxaoTo7rf\q, TpiTO o aoyxevTpcoTia^ioc; tcov Aetroopyicov too xo^naTog aTa yipia 
Xiycov STiayysX^aTLcov STcavaaTaTcov - zvaq aoyxsvTpcoTia^ioc; izov xaTa tov Lenin Sev 6a 
STctcpsps!, xavsva TcpopXrj^ia ottj oyior\ avd^ieaa ae £7iavaaTaT£c; xai spyaTsq. TsTapTO r\ 
b*o\J.r\ ir\q opydvcoayjq eivat, SLXToaxV], TrpoxeLTat SyjAaSY] yia sva Slxtoo avro oAtydpt,6^£c; 
o\J.ab*zq euayyeA^aTtcov suavaaTaTcov uoo SpaaTYjpioTroioovTat, avd tioAyj, avd epyoaTaaio 
x.A.Ti. xai aovSsovTat, axTtvcoTa \iz to "axsTrco^isvo xsvTpo" ir\q opydvcoarjc;. Lenin 6a 
Scoaei ^idAiaTa fjua XeuTo^spsLaxrj uepiypacp^ too TpoTioo \iz tov ottolo ol XeiToopyiec; 
tcov xAaaaLxcov aovStxaTcov (Ta ouoia SiaAoovTav eoxoXa avro tyj TaaptXY] aaTOVo^ia) 
^uopoov va euLTeXeaToov e^' oAoxAVjpoo auo sva Slxtoo aTroTsAoo^evo aTio Tiapdvo^iooq 
tottlxooc; Tnopr\vzq euavaaTaTcov! Tzkoq 6a TrpoTeivs!, aav upcoTo pv^a yia tyj Srj^Loopyia 
\x.iaq no~kiTixr\q opydvcoarjc; \xz aoTa Ta xapaxTrjpiaTixd tyjv Srj^LoopyLa \iiaq Travpcoatx^c; 
ecpyj^epiSac; uoo 6a TrpaynaTouo^aei, tyjv xoxAocpopia tooo tcov olxovo^ilxcov aTioxaX6([)£cov 
oao xai tcov oXouAeopcov ttoAltlxcov auoxaAocjjecov. Tia tov Lenin aoT7^ tj z(prp.zpib*a 
8zv £X £L y-ovo •rcpoTcayavS't.aTixr} a^a yt,a too<; epydT£<;, aXAd y.izopzi va nai^ci to poXo 
too "aoXXoyLxoo opyavcoTV^" yta to lSlo to aoaLaXSyj^ioxpaTixo xo^i^ia, aovSsovTac; tooc; 



~27~ 

xorcd xoizovq aTiouovcousvooc; oooiakdrnj.oxparixovq oy.iXovq yopco and uia aoyxexpiusvr] 
TipaxTiXYJ SpaaTYjpLOTYjxa: 

" ...eivai sva uxedio [tocxr]Tixr]q izposioiy.aoiaq jia tyjv avdnru^rj y.iaq zizavaoxaiixriq 
opjavoioriq nou stvou ZTOiy.r\ va unourrjpc^ei xdde biay.apTupia xai xdde t;s(moc(j[j.oc" . 

HouTcspaauaTixd, Soo updyuaTa yivovTai, xaxd ttjv yvcourj y.aq, cpavepd oyzxixa y.e 
ty] AevLVLaTLXY] opyavcoTLxyj izp6xaor\. Acp' zvoq oti s-rcpoxetro yia sva opyavcoTt,xo uovteAo 
tcoo, ae auyxptayj \xz dAAa 7100 ava7TTux0i r jxav usaa axa Tzkaioia ir\q B' AieOvoog, rjxav 
tclo aoyxexpiusvo, 7ipoaTca6o6a£ va Scoaet, aacpsic; "araxvTYJa£t,c;" xat, crca tuo emy.zpovq 
Tcpo(3ArjuaTa, xai £(3a^£ as upcoTO uAdvo oto usyiaTo (3a6uo tov (3oAovTapt,auo tou 
TioAtrixoo ottoxeiusvoo. ESco y.izopzi va ava^r]TY]6£i iocdq xat, to aoyxptrixo TtAeovsxTYjua 
tcov y-izoXoefiixodv gttjv TroAmxY] Siaudx'r] usaa oto pcoat,xo aoot,aAo*r]uoxpaTt,x6 xouua 
•rcoo tooc; s^aacpdAias tyj aTVpi^Y] ir\q TrAeiotprjcpiac; tcov spyaxcov: eilxav Tcpoaapuoasi to 
ttoAltlxo tooc; a)(£§i.o udvco aTrjv (.SLatrepoTrjTa tcov pcoaixcov aov6rjxcov xai 7tapooot,d^ovTav 
aTrocpaaLausvot, va Scoaoov "dueaec; ~kvoziq" aTa Sidcpopa opyavcoTixd ^YjTYJuaTa. ESco, xat, 
aoyxexpt,U£va gto PoAovTapiauo too ETxavaaTaTY], y.izopzi Z7zior\q va ava^r]TY]0£i xat, r\ 
8iapxr\q yorreia 7100 aaxoov axourj ot, Sidcpopec; uapaXXaysq too Aeviviauoo crca TioAtTixd 
oicoxsiusva. Acp' ETspoo rrav ut,a opyavcoTixrj upoTaarj tcoo 6yi uovo ziyz aav ut,a and iiq 
Qzy.z'Xioidziq izpovizoQzoziq ir\q to Siaxoopiauo tcov TtoAmxcov and Ta Ta^ixd ouoxeiueva 
(eivat, TioAAd Ta or\\izia oto "Tt, va xdvoous;" otcoo o Lenin Tovt^et, otl yj opydvcooY] tcov 
STcavaaTaTcov Trpsust, oucoaS^uoTe va sivat, ^excopiaTr] and iiq opyavcoaet,c; tcov spyaTcov) 
aAXd o8rpfr\az aoTo to Siaxoopiauo as sva axourj avcoTepo zizinzdo, SrpioopycovTac; [Jiia 
TrA^pcoq e^ooataaTLXT] oyzor\ avd^ieaa oto "ttoAltlxo" xai to "xolvcovlxo" 6ncx>q znior\q xai 
avd^ieaa oxiq §Lacpop£T!,X£<; PaO^iSeg too xo^^iaTog. IIpdy^aTt,, 8ev 6a TiepdaeL TioXoq xaipog 
^i£XP L ° Lenin va SiaTOjccoaei oto "Eva P^a ^TipoaTd, 860 (3r^aTa tcloco" ttj 6sarj otl 6Xzq 
ol AetToopyiec; too xo^aToc; TipsTTS!, va Tispvdve auo Ta x^pta \11aq okiydpi^\iriq xzvxpixr\q 
eTUTpoTtYJg, otl y\ xzvipixr\ zmTpo7ir\ too ooat,aASYpoxpaTt,xoo xo^^aToc; sivat to ^lovaSixo 
"axETTTo^evo xsvTpo" tioo xa0op^£L ttjv ttoAltlxt] ypa^^Y] xai 6Aa Ta 07t6Aot,7ia T^i^aTa too 
xo^i^aTog SLvai exTsXsaTLXoi Ppax^ovsq, ^ie Tooq spyaTSc; va TrpoopL^ovTaL yia tov 7ra6r]Tt,x6 
poXo too "tte^lxoo tyjc; euavdaTaarjc;". Eivat, as aoTo to or\\izio tcoo o Lenin 6a apvrj6si 
oXoxXyjpcoTLxd xd6e Sova^irj ao6£VTLX7]c; Sypioopyiag au' tyjv ^leptd too •rcpoAeTapidToo oTav 
aoTo dzv xaQodrpfzhai and to xo^a 7100 eivai "o Oe^iaTocpoAaxa ttjc; Ta^LX^g aoveiSYjarjc;"! 
Me aoTa Ta SeSo^isva, dzv zivm uapd^svo to yeyovog otl evco 01 [inoXozfiixoi ovy.y.zxzixoLV 
svepyd aTrjv euavdaTaarj too 1905, 8ev xaTacpepav va xaTavo^aoov tyjv avdSoarj tcov 
ao(3t,£T xat, tyjv dvvay.ixr\ izov evoTi^pxe a' aoTr^ ttjv •rcpoAeTapiaxr] y.op(pr\ opydvcoayjc;. 0a 
Tcepdasi •rcapaTidvco aTio ^i!,a SexasTia yia va avayxaaToov va to xdvoov, upoxei^svoo 
o^icog va xaTaXdpoov tyjv ttoAltlx^ s^ooaia yia Aoyapiaa^io i-qq spyaTixrjc; Td^rjq... 

TO AY0OPMHTO STOIXEIO KAI H MAZIKH AIIEPriA: ROSA LUXEMBURG 

H Rosa Luxemburg otcV]p^£, •rcpoTroAeuixd, tacoq rj ttlo evStacpspooaa cpoaioyvcouia 
xr\q "apioxzpr\q Taarjc;" too SPD, xat, o PaaLxoq Xoyoq yi' aoTo eivai otl ottj axsijjrj tyj<; 
aouuoxvco6rjxav 6Xzq oyzdov ot, avTLcpdaeLc; aoTrjc; tyj<; noXiTix-qq TaaYjq. 'Otico<; zypu\iz rpr\ 
ayjueLcoae!, yj xpltlxt] uoo aaxV]6Y]X£ otov "op66So^o" uap^iauo au' tov Bernstein ziyz 
TrpoxaXsasi aoPapsq avaTapd^ELq usaa oto SPD xai ou^p^e zvaq and iovq PaaLxooq 
Xoyooq coots r\ apLOTspd too xouuaToq va GTpstjJst, to pXsuua ir\q aTrjv Tai^xrj TcdArj. H 
"cppd^La" ty]<; Luxemburg VjTav yj upcoTYj tioo "rcpayuaTOTTOLrjae aoT7^ ttjv aTpocpV], ovTag oucoq 
axourj TrepLopLausvTj au' to Paaixo OecopYjTLXo uAaiaLo tyjc; "op668o^Y]c;" ypauurjc;. 

To 1904 oto dp6po i-qq "OpyavcoTixd upopX^uaTa tyj<; pcoaLxrjc; aoaiaASrjuoxpaTLac;" r\ 
Luxemburg, usaa and tyjv xpLTixr^ nov 6a aax^ast, otov OTiepaoyxevTpcoTLauo uoo upoTeive 



~28~ 

o Lenin, 6a zmyziorpzi va cpspst, axrjv £7ucpdvet,a tov xa6opicmx6 poXo nov ica^ouv ot, 
au06p^Y]Tot, aycoveg tyjc; epyaTLxVjg Ta^rjg. Acpoo eTuaypdvet, tyjv t,o*t,atT£poTY]Ta tcov pc6at,xcov 
aov6Y]xcov, 6a SiaTUGTcoaet, apx^xd oti yj dvoSoq tou epyaxLxou xivr\y.<XToq Pcoaia eivat, 
to aTTOTsAsa^ia tou TioXXauXaaiaa^oo tcov ao66p^Y]Tcov aycovcov, xat, otl as aoTV} tyjv 
z^zkiEj] to aoaLaXSyj^oxpaTLXo xoupa £X £L tcocl^el svav aarpavTo poXo. Ava^rjTcovTac; tyjv 
atria aoToo too yeyovoTog, 6a aTroppt^et, tyj Qzor\ too Lenin otl o aaVpavToc; poXoq tcov 
aoat,aXSrpoxpaTcov ocpeiXeTat, otic; opyavcoTixsg aoovauieg too xoupaToq xat, tyjv zKkzi^r\ 
aoyxevTpcoTia^oo, xat, 6a xdvet, u^a or\y.avrixri ETuarpavar] yt,a to iztiq Tips^st, va TipoxoTrcst, 
rj TaxTixrj too xoupaToc;: 

"Tzvtxd rj TaxTtxrj Trjq oootaAdrjytoxpaTtaq 8zv ztvat xdn rcoo [unopztva " zcpzoptoxzTat ". 
Eivai avridera to npo'tov yttaq oztpdq 8rj[j.toopytxcov rcpd^zcov too, ooxvd aodopytrjTOO , 
Tafyxoo aycova noo avafyjTa to dpoyto too npoq to. zy.izpoq" . 

Tia tyjv Luxemburg xa St,£o6ovTt,xd opyava too xouuaToq zypov Tr i v ^darj va raxt^oov 
sva aovTrjpyjTLXo poXo, ziai eivat, a-rcapatTYfco TtpcoTa to epyaTixo xivyjua va xzpdiozi "vsa 
eSdcpy]", coots OTTj owzyzio. to xouua va e^eXt^et, tyjv TaxTixV] too. 'ETtstra rj Luxemburg 6a 
z^ztolozi us XeuTouspeia tov ouepaoyxsvTpcoTLauo 7100 -rcpoTEivs o Lenin avayvcopt^ovTac; 
otl ooaiacmxd TaoTt^STat, ue tyj (3aat,xrj aoXXyjtjjrj too uuXavxtauoo ax£Tt,xd ue to poXo tcov 
suavaaTaTcov. 'Oucoq aoTo Sev 6a tyjv oSriyVjaet, ae ut,a yeviXY] a7i6ppt,(|>Y] too aoyx£VTpcoTt,auoo 
too xouuaToq, aXXd ottjv STuarjuavar] oti o aoyxevTpcoTLauoc; xr\q aoaiaXSYjuoxpaTiac; eivat, 
SiacpopsTixoo zi8ovq and aoTov too UTiXavx^auoo yiaTi aTrjpitJsTai ott\ ua^x^ Spdarj tcov 
spyaTcov. STrjv ETUXStp^aToXoyia T-qq 6a yivsi (pavzpr\ r\ arjuaaia ttoo aTcoSiosi oxovq 
ao66pur]Tooc; aycoveg yia tyjv aoTOEXTiaioeoGY] tyjc; spyaTixrjg Ta£,r\q, xa6coq xat uia upcoLUYj 
StaToucoaTj ty\c, svoTrjTaq ttoXltlxoo xat, olxovoulxoo aycova: 

'Tia tov Lenin rj diacpopa avay.eoa oty] oooia'hbriy.oxpa.Tia. xat tov y.izAavxioy.6 
07io(3i(3aZ,eTca ott\v 7iapaTr\pr\or\ otl ott\ deaf] yaaq xoocpTaq oovcdy.OTOiv zxooy.e zva 
Tafyxa oovzibr\TOizoiy}y.£vo npoAzTOcpidcTO. Ezxvazi d[j.cog oti ocoTrj rj diacpopa zmfidAAsi y.ia 
tcAyjpyi avadzcop-qari tcjv idzcov [iaq yea tyjv opydvcdar} , xat dpa ytia zvTzAcoq 8iacpopsTixr\ 
a6AArj(prj too ooYxzvTpoiTioy.06 xat Trjq ondpxooaaq oxzor\q avdy.eoa oto xoy.y.a xai 
tov Tafyxo aycova... Oi TaxTixeq xat to xadrjxovTa tov yuzAavxtoTcov enavaoTaTcov 
ztxav zAdxtcjTYj oovdzcrq y.z tov OTOtxztcbbr\ TaE,txo aycova - r\Tav aVTtxziy.zvo eAeodzpoo 
aoTOoxzdtaoytoo... 'Oytoq -q oootaAby}y.oxpaTtxr} dpaaTrjptOTrjTa npayytaTonotztTat xaiw 
and ptZ,txd dtacpopzTtxzq aovdrjxzq. AvadozTat toToptxd ytzaa and tov OTOtxztcodr] Tafyxo 
aycova. E^anAcovzTat xat z^zAioazTat aoytepcova yte tyjv eEfiq btaAzxTtxr\ dtadtxaata: to 
npoAzTaptaTO OTpaTzozTat xat anoxTazt aovztdrjcrr] tcov otoxcov too cttyjv nopzta too tdtoo 
too ayebva. H bpaoTr\pt6Tr\Ta Tr\q xoy.y.aTtxr\q opydvcdcrqq , rj avdnTO^rj Trjq oovzibrjorjq 
tcov otoxcov too ayebva an' to npoAzTaptaTO, xat rj avdnTO^rj too tdtoo too aycova 8zv 
ztvat StacpopzTtxd 7ipdyy.aTa dtaxcoptoytzva xpovtxd xat yte ytrjxavtoTtxo Tpdno. Etvat ot 
dtacpopzTtxzq 6(pztq too tdtoo aycova". 

'Etgi evco yj Luxemburg 6a avayvcopLaet, oto aoyxevTpcoTLauo too Lenin tyjv •rcpoa7id6£[,a 
tcov U7TOXa£(3LXcov va sXsy^oov to xouua xat, Tiq epyaTixsq opyavcoasic; xat, 6yi va avaTiTo^oov 
tyj SpaaTTjpLOTrjTd Tooq, 8sv 6a u^opsaet, axo^rj va xaTavo^aet otl o mo "sXacmxoc;" 
aoyx£VTpcoT!,a^6<; tioo STUxpaTooae ^isaa oto SPD t^Syj SYpt,oopyooa£ \iia TipopXYj^aTLXY] 
oyzo-r\ avd^ieaa oto xou^a xat, tyjv zpyarixr\ Ta^rj. Styj oovzyzia. 6a otqz^zi to evStacpspov 
Trjq OTrj 6sarj too Lenin otl yj OLo6£Trjarj too ouepaoyxsvTpcoTLa^ioo sivat, to ttlo aacpaXsq 
^isao yia va avTL^i£TC07r!,aT£L St,£6vcoc; o "ouopToov!,a^i6<;" tcov aaTcov Siavooou^vcov (aoT^ 
7]Tav yj "8oacprj[u,aT!,xrj" ovo^iaata yta to pecpop^ia^o tcov ^TiepvGTa'LVixcov !) ^isaa oto 
aoa(,aX8Yj^ioxpaT!,x6 xou^a. Acp' zvoq yj Luxemburg 6a evTOTuaet, otl etvai aoyxexpL^isveg 
xolvcovlxsc; 8(,a8!,xaaL£<; (rj olxovo^lx^ xaTappsoarj Tr\q ^txpoaaTLX^q Td^rjq, r\ ttoXltlxV^ 
aTcoa6v6sarj Tr\q "xXaaaLxy^q" aaTLX^q Syj^oxpaTiac; x.X.7i.) uoo OTipcoxvoov TroXXooq aaTooq 



~29~ 

Siavooo^ievooc; uiaa oiiq id^zic, ir\q aoaiaASypoxpaTiac;. Acp' exspou 6a zpy.r\vzvozi 
tov "oTropToovia^io" aav to izpo'iov tyjc; iSiag tyjc; avTLcpaTLxrjc; (pvoy]q too aoat,aAt,aTt,xoo 
xivrpaTog. IIlo aoyxexpiuiva: 

'Tia npcoTYj cpopd OT-qv lOTopia 01 dvdpcdnoi zxcppd^oov oovzibr\Ta tyj dzAr\or\ Tooq 
xai ae avTidzor\ npoq 6Azq Tiq xopiapxzq rd^eig. Aurrj r\ dzAr\or\ yinopzi va ixavonovqdzi 
[uovo nzpa and ra opia too xaniraAioTixoo oooTr\y.aToq. 'Oy.oiq 01 y.dZ,zq \mopo6v va 
anoxT-qooov xai va zvbovay.oiooov aorrj tyj dzAr\or\ yidvo gtyjv nopzia too xadr\y.zpivoo 
aycova zvdvTia ottjv ondpxooaa xoivcovixij rd^rj npayy.aTCdv - noo or\y.aivzi y.zoa ara 
opia rrjq xaniTaAioTixr\q xoivcoviaq... Aorot zivai 01 dpoi ir\q biaAzxTixr\q avTicpacrqq yizaa 
and tyjv oizoia npoxcopdzi to oooiaAioTixd xivr\y.a" . 

Eivat, Paatxdc aoTrj r\ TaoToxpovrj OTiap^Y] tcov pecpop^ucmxcov xai tcov x ei P a( P eTlX( *> v 
xdaecov/TcpaxTLXcov uiaa oxovq idiovq iovq lafyxovq aycovsc; ttoo 6a xrjv odrpf-qozi oto 
ov{j.nzpao[j.a oil o "oTiopToovia^ioc;" Ssv {J-izopzi va avTiu^TcoTuaTei 010 tieSlo tou xou^aToc; 
\iz opyavcoTixsg aAAaysg, oizcdq izioxzvz o Lenin, aAAd y.z tyjv zvioyvoy] ir\q znavaoTaTixr\q 
izoXnix-qq ypau^rjc; svtoc; tcov iSicov tcov Ta^ixcov aycovcov. TaoToxpova 6a aaxYJast, xptrix^ 
oty] Xevlvlotlx^ "aTpocpV} oto Aao", Tovi^ovTaq otl evco zivai akr\Qzia oil r\ aoaiaASrpoxpaTia 
avTLTrpoacoueoeL iiq "TrpooSeoTixsc; etuSico^sic;" oAoxArjprjc; ir\q xoivcoviac;, reap' 6Aa aoTa 
TipsTiei. va OTioTaaaei avxzq iiq izpooftoxizq otic; avdyxeg xai tyjv euavaGTaTixr) Spdayj ttjc; 
zpyo.iiY.riq Ta^Yjg, ttoo Tips-rcst, va auoTeAei tov Ta^ixo TwpYJva too xou^aTog. 0a auoToxst 
(3£(3at,a, xai TidAt,, va Set, otl rj avTiTrpoacoTceoarj tcov "•rcpooSeoTixcov stuSico^ecov" ir\q xoivcoviaq 
rjTav svaq axo^irj xa6opt,aTixoc; uapdyovTaq yt,a ttjv eiaoSo tcov aaTcov Siavooo^ievcov y-zoa 
oto aoa(,aX8rj^oxpaT!,x6 xo^i^ia! 

He yevtxsc; ypa^^sq, evco yj Luxemburg 6a "rcpayuaTOTroiYJaet, uta aYjuavTLXY] aTpocpVj 
otooc; Ta^xooq aycoveg xai aTYjv avaSet^rj too poAoo too ao66pur]Too otolxs^o^, t^v idia 
aTLyuV] dvat, axourj TcavToo 8(,dxoT£<; oi toxopsq zm(pv~ka£,ziq ir\q oyziixa ue tyjv OTroiaSy^oTE 
aucpiapViTYjaTj too xouuaToq xai tcov aovSixaTcov. Eivat, x a P aXTT iP laTlx 'h Tr i? zy.moxoo6vr\q 
ziyz oiiq uapaSoaLaxsc; uopcpsq opydvcoayjc; yj 6£Oyj ir\q yt,a to poAo too xouuaTog ausvavTt, 
oto pscpopuLauo: 

"To xoy.y.a 8pa aav zva izpoizopjio noo npoararzozi to iafyx.6 xivr\y.a and rtq 
anoxXioziq OT-qv xarzodovarj too aoiixoo xoivo(3ooAzotio-[j.o6" ! 

Tyjv idia GTLyuVj 6a xXziazi to dp6po ir\q ue \lmx SLaTOTicoaY] uoo eivat evTOTicoaLax^, yta 
Ta SeSo^isva ir\q znox^q: 

"... to y.6vo onoxziy.zvo noo bizxbixzi arjy.zpa to poAo too opyavcoTrj zivai to 
aoAAoyixo "zyco" Tr\q zpyaTixr\q TaEflq. H zpyaTixr\ Tafy\ anaiTzi to bixaicdy.a va xdvzi 
Ta Addrj Trjq xai va ytddzi tyj biaAzxTixi] Tr\q lOTopiaq. Aq y.iAr\oooy.z ^zxddapa: Ta Addr\ 
noo z%oov yivzi and zva npayy.aTixo znavaoTaTixo xivr\y.a zivai, and ioTopixr\ dnocprj, 
mo yovifj.a and to aAddrjTO Trjq xaAoTzpr\q xzvTpixrjq zniTponrjq". 

Aotsc; 01 ZTZi(pv'\a£ziq izov e^scppa^e apx^xd r\ Luxemburg 6a ap6oov as xduoio Pa6uo 
to 1906, xpovtd too 6a ypdijjet, to (3lPAlo "H y.aC,ixr\ auepyta, to ttoAltlxo xouua xai Ta 
aovStxaTa". H e^sX^yj 8sv r^Tav xa66Xoo Toxaia: zixz y-ZooXafi-qozi toco o xoxAoq tcov 
Ta^txcov aycovcov i-qq uepLoSoo 1904- 1906 ottj TspuavLa, oao xat, r\ euavdaTaarj xai to 
xoua tcov ua^xcov ajrepytcov otyj Pcoaia to 1905. Msaa ae aoTa Ta yeyovoTa yivoTav 
(pavzpr\ yia ttjv apiaTepd too SPD tooo uta x^tpoTTLaaTT] upooTiTLXT] vlxyj<; a-rcsvavTt, oto 
pecpopuLauo oao xai, uia Taarj aTroudxpovarjq tcov ao66pur]Tcov spyaTixcov aycovcov and to 
xouua xat Ta aovSixaTa. 'Etgi r\ avdAoarj ir\q STcavdaTaarjq too 1905 xai too ^YjTrpaToc; 
TYjq y.aC,ixr\q anzpyiaq 6a yivoov 01 xzvrpixzq 6£^aTiX£<; yta tyj Luxemburg oto "H y.aC,ixr\ 
auepyia, to ttoAltlxo xou^a xai Ta aovSixaTa". Apx^xd yj Luxemburg 6a a7ioppi(|>£t, tyjv 
xAaaaiXYj aoAArjcjjrj tcov avapx^xcov yia tyj ^a^ixrj auspyia aav sva tsxvixo \izoo aycova 
ttoo r\ XP^ ar i TOU y-Kopzi va auocpaaiaTEL tyjv xaTaAArjArj OTiy\ir\. TaoToxpova 6a £7UT£6si 



~30~ 

xoao ae exsiva xa OTekzyy] too SPD ttoo ^6eXav voc airocpoyoov to "jcpoPArj^a" tyjc; y.aC,ixriq 
auepyiac;, Trooypau^aTt^ovTac; xrjv yt,a y.ia ^axpiVYJ xpovixrj crayu.7}, oao xoa otyjv Yjyeaia tcov 
aovSixaTcov ttoo YJOeAe va avTiu^TcoTuaet, to "ttooPAyj^oc" aitayopeoovTac; tyjv ^e aTTOcpdaen; 
xopocpV^c; axa aovSixaAicmxd aovsSpia. 0a stuu-Sivsi oil rj ^a^t,xr] aTispyia sivai to LOTopixo 
ttoo'lov tcov toc^ixcov aycovcov: 

"... <5£V y.nopooy.e, xaxd aoveneia, va xaTavor\oooy.e tyj y.aZ,ixr\ anepyia y.eoa and 
acp-qp-qyieveg onodeaeig crxeTixd y.e to noao mdavq r\ anidavq eivai 27 npayiuaTonoirjoij 
Trjg, rj oxsTixa y.e to izooo XPW^V V PAafiepri eivai, aAAd y.6vo y.eaa and y.ia eE,z.Taor\ 
tcov napayovTcov xai tcov xoivcovixcov crovdrjxcov yieaa and Tig onoieg avadoeTai rj y.afyxr) 
anepyia oty\v napoooa (pacrq too Tafyxoo aycova - y.e aAAd Adyia 8ev eivai y.eoa and 
tyjv onoxeiy.evixr\ xpiTix-q T-qg [uafyxYjg anepyiag an' ty\ oxomd too ti eivai emdoyL-qTO, 
aAAd (jiovo yieaa and tyjv avTixeiy.evixr\ diepeovqarj tcov xoivcovixcov nrjycov Tr\q yia^ixrjg 
arcepyiag an' tyjv oxomd too ti eivai lOTopixd avanocpeoxTO, noo to np6ftAr\y.a y.nopei 
va avaAodei..." . 

Sty] oxovzjzia 6a evroniozi opiauiva xocpaxTY]pt,GTt,xd tcov ^a^xcov aTiepyicov, xopicog 
OTrj Pcoaia: r\ y.aC,ixri airepyia sivat, r\ aovicrcauivr] ttoAAcov xai SiacpopeTixcov ^opcpcov Spdarjc; 
tcov epyaTcov, sivat, "rj idia r\ ui6oSoc; xivrjarjc; too TrooAsTapiaxoo aycova". Ot, aTiepyiec; 
Sia^apTopiag ttoo opyavcovovTat, y.z TrpcoToPooAia too xou^aTog Trai^oov arpavTixo poXo 
^iovo otyjv apxixyj cpdarj too xivrj^aToc;, evco otyj owzyz^a ° poAog Toog OTro(3a0ui^£Tat, evteXcoc; 
aav aTTOTsXsa^a ir\q avaTrco^Yjc; too ao66p^Y]Too otoix^oo. ETuarjc; o xa6opt,aTt,xoc; poXoq 
too ao66p^rjToo otoix^oo crorj y.aC,ixri aTispyia, ttoo y.izopei ae \iepixzq izepmicboeiq, xaTa 
tyjv Luxemburg, va eivat, xat, svag Ttept,opt,GTt,xo<; TiapdyovTag yia to xivr\p.a., upoodidei ae 
aoTYjv svav tooo aTipopXsTiTo xocpaxTVjpa coots oTiotaSViTioTe TaxTixV] xivrjarj too xouuaTog 
7100 8ev aovSsETai us tyjv Tipay^aTLX^ Spdarj tcov epyaTcov va y.r\v y.izopei va scpap^oaTei. 
'O^icoc; sxslvo to xocpocxTrjpLOTLXo i-qq ^a^x^q aTiepyiag uoo eivai to arpavTixoTspo yt,a tyjv 
Luxemburg eivai yj StaAexTLXY] evoTYjTa too oixovou^xoo xai too ttoXltlxoo aycova. A^et, 
a' aoTo to or\\j.eio va Soo^ie 7icog axpiPcog svvoei aoTYJ tyjv evoTYjTa: 

"Kdde veo ^exivqyia xai xdde xaivoopia vixr\ too noAiTixoo aycova pieTaTpeneTai 
ae y.ia icrxoprj codrjcrrj yia tov oixovoyiixd aycova, enexTeivovTag tyjv idia OTiyy.r\ Tig 
dovaTOTYjTeg too xai o^ovoVTag to nddog tcov epyaTcov va xaAoTepeoaoov ty\ dear} Toog 
xai tyjv emdoyiia Toog va aycovioTOOV . Kai avTioTpocpa. axaTanaooTog oixovoyiixog 
aycovag tcov epyaTcov evdvTia OTOog xanizaAioTeg diaT-qpei ^covTavrj tyjv aycovicrTixrj Toog 
evepyeia xai ere xdde noAiTixrj diapidxr}, 8r\y.ioopyei to oovextog xaivoopio anodeyia Tr\g 
npoAeTapiaxr\g Tafyig an' to onoio o noAiTixog aycovag avavecovei tyjv 86vay.r\ too... Me 
y.ia Aefy]: o oixovoyiixog aycovag eivai o noy.nog and to eva noAiTixo xevTpo oto dAAo, 
o noAiTixog aycovag eivai rj nepiodixr) yoviy.onoir\ar\ too eddepoog yia tov oixovoy.ixo 
aycova... Kai 57 evoT-qTa Toog excppd^eTai axpificog cttyj y.aZ,ixr\ anepyia" . 

Acpoo Aoittov SiaTOTccoaet, to TiapaTidvco ao^Tispaana apxcTsq cpopsg, tioo ayj^aive!, 
otl aTooq ao06p^YjTooc; epyaTLXoog aycoveq avayvcop^e xaTL Tcapaudvco an' tov arcXo 
Tpe'LVTyLoovLovia^o ttoo xaTaXd^aLvs o Lenin, acpoo svTOTuast, xaT' £TravdXrj(jjyj tyj arj^iaaLa 
too ao66p^Y]Too otolxsloo, avayvcopi^ovTaq tyj Srjuroopyix^ Sova^rj tcov lSlcov tcov 
TipoAeTdpicov, r\ Rosa Luxemburg 6a Trapau^ivet, ooaiaaTLxd xa0YjAcon£vrj otyjv "op06So^Yj" 
avTiAY](|>Y] yt,a to poAo too aoaiaASYj^oxpaTixoo xo^i^aToc;, aSovaTcovTaq va odrpfr\oei aoTo 
ttoo xaTaXd^aLve au' ttjv Ta^ixv^ udXrj otlc; tsXlxsc; too ovvzizeieq: 

"Av rj dieodovo-Y] Tr\g y.aZ,ixr\g anepyiag, y.e tyjv evvoia T-qg an6(paor\g yia to £,exivr\y.d 
Tr\g xai too onoAoyioy.06 yia to xooTog T-qg, eivai eva Zfyzrma too idioo too enavaoTaTixoo 
npoAeTapiaTOO , rj dieodovtrq T-qg y.aZ,ixr\g anepyiag , y.e [uia eVTeAcog diacpopeTixr) evvoia, 
yiveTai to xadrjxov Trjg oooiaAbr\y.oxpaTiag xai tcov rjyeTixcov Trjg opydveov. AvTi va 
anaoxoAoov to y.oaA6 Toog y.e tyjv Texvixr) nAeopd, y.e tov y.r\xaviay.6 npayy.aTonoir\ar\g , 



~31~ 

ir\q yLafyx-qq anzpyiaq, 01 oooiaAbrnioxpaTzq xaAoovrai va avaAd(3oov tyjv izoAnixi] 
•qyzoia xaTay.zor\q yuaq znavaoTaTixrjq nzpiodoo". 

H fjiovrj (aAAd arj^iavTixVp Siacpopd avrqq ir\q avTiXrnl)r\q and tyjv "op668o^rj" ypau^rj 
PpiaxsTat, axrjv auAAr]({)r] ir\q noiXiiix-qc, Ta.xiixr\q too xou^aToc; aav \iia SiaSixaaia ttou 
TipoxuTrcet, uiaa and tov xa^xo aycova. 'Exat, yj Luxemburg, svco us tyjv SiaTOTicoaY] tyjc; 
"xaxTLxrjq aav diadixaoia" 6a Ttpay^aTo-rcoiViaet, sva (3Vpa Ttpog tyj pt^ixr] aAAayY] tyj<; 
tote uudpxouaaq oyzor\q avd^saa axa uoAruxd ouoxsi^sva xat, xrjv epyaTixV} xd^rj, ^ie 
tyjv stu^iovV} ir\q axrjv avayxaioTrra avdXyjtjjyjc; tyjc; "uoAraxVfe yjysaiac;" sx uipooc; xrjc; 
aoaLaASrpoxpaTiat; 6a avaipsast, otyjv ooaia aoTo to Prj^ia! 

H avdAuarj tcov mo aoyxexpiu^vcov axsaecov avd^eaa otic, opyavcoTixsg ^opcpsg tou 
"ttoXltlxoo" xai too "xoivcovixoo" zxzivqq Tqq zizoxhc,- SrjXaS^ r\ avaXoarj tcov aoyxsxpiuivcov 
oyzozcov avd^eaa oto xou^a, aTa aovSixaTa xat, aTrjv spyaTixrj Ta^rj, 6a eivat, o znoy-evoq 
oToypq yt,a tyj Luxemburg. TevLXOTepa yj Qzor\ tyj<; yt,a Ta aovSixaTa rrav aveTUcpoAaxTa 
6etlx4 ^t,a<; xat, 6ecopooa£ ticoc; ax6y.r\ xat, to tuo pecpopuiaTixo aovSixaTo dzv s-rcaoe va 
sivat, \iia \iop(pr\ opydvcoarjc; uoo TiposxoTrcs avr' tyjv ioia ir\v spyaTixV} Ta^rj xat, Vfcav 
aTrapaiTrjTrj as sva TipcoTo aTa5t,o, uapaxd^TrcovTac; stol ttjv xpruxrj oto 5t,au^aoAa(3r]Tt,x6 
poAo too aovStxaToo. Ms tyjv zxdoor\ too "H \iafyxr\ aTtepyia, to ttoAitixo xou^a xat, 
Ta aovStxaTa" xaTt, agyiQzi va aAAd^ei. 'Etol, acpoo et,pcov£OT£i (y.z aTiapdu^AAo TaxT!) 
tyjv aTraiTrjarj tcov aovSt,xaAt,aTcov rjysTcov va opyavco6ei oXoxXrjprj r\ spyaTixrj Ta^rj aTa 
aovSixaTa TipoToo xdvoov oTioiaSriTcoTS axscjjrj yt,a xoprj^rj y.aC,ixr\q auspyiac;, 6a eTznzQzi 
oty] ypacpeLoxpaTLXOTroirjaY] tcov aovStxaTcov, aTrjv "euayyeA^iaTLXYi e^eLSixeoaYj" tcov 
oxeXeypv iovq, xm oto [jLTj^aviaTixo Tpouo \xe tov otiolo yj Yjyeaia Toog avTiXa^pdveTai tyj 
XeLToopyia ttjc; xat, ir\ oyzor\ ir\q y.e iovq spyaTsq. E' aoTV^ tyjv ziziQzoy] 6a yivet mo oa(pr\q o 
tpottoc; ^i£ tov ouoLO avTtAau^dvsTai iiq Tafyxzq opyavcoasLq ir\q znox^q xai tyj oy£or\ uoo 
6a £7ip£7i£ va £x ouv ^ £ tovq Ta^ixooq aycoveq: 

"... xa oovdixara, oncdq 6Asg oi y.ax6y.evzq opjavcoaziq too npoAsTocpidcTOO, 8ev 
[iizopoov va dtarrjprjdoov y.6viy.a y.e xavzvav dAAo rporco izapa y.6vo y.zoa and tov 
rafyxo aycova... H [j.rjxavic7Tix^- ypacpsioxpaTixyj avrtArj<prj 8zv ytTzopei napa va ooAAaflzi 
tov aycova aav zva npoiov ir\q opjavcdor\q oz zva oojxzxpiy.zvo oiabio ir\q bovay.r\q 
ir\q. Avridzra r\ ^covTavq, dtaAzxnxrj, z^yrjcrrj (3Aznzi tyjv opydvcjcrrj va avadozrai aav 
zva npoiov too aycova". 

Awrq yj avTLXrjcjjyj otl ot, aycovsq eivat, to o^oyovo tcov Ta^ixcov opyavcoaecov 6a tyjv 
oSYjyrjaei oz dvo ao^Tiepda^aTa. ITpcoTov otyjv eTna^avarj ir\q or\y.aoiaq izov z%^ f\ Spdarj 
tcov spyaTcov izov dzv zivm opyavco^isvo!, aTa ovvdixaxa: "H ouspexTL^Yjarj r\ r\ ~kaQoq zxii\j.r\or\ 
too poAoo tcov opyavcoaecov otov Ta^txo aycova evSova^covsTa!, ysvixd an' ir\v OTroTL^irjarj 
i-qq avopydvcoTrjc; TipoXsTapLax^c; ^id^aq xat ir\q no'Xmxriq i-qq copL^oTrjTac;". AeoTepov otyj 
6£arj otl r\ aovepyaaia opyavco^isvcov xat, avopydvcoTcov epyaTcov eivat, q'tdxix-qq or\y.aoiaq 
yt,a tyjv zmTvyia. Tr\q y.aC,ixr\q auepytac; - vizo [iLa svvoia yj Luxemburg 6a upoPA£([)£!, 
a' aoTo to or\y.zio sva and ia Paatxd x a -P a -' KTr lP lOTlX( ^ TOU stcou^voo xoxAoo aycovcov: 
tyjv epyaTtXT] XP 7 ! ^ TC0V crovStxaTcov. H Luxemburg avTiAau^dvsTat, Ta aovStxaTa aav 
tov exupoacoTTO tcov d^ieacov aoAAoyLxcov ao^icpepovTcov Siacpopcov T^iYj^idTcov tyj<; epyaTLxrjq 
Ta^Yjq xat, to aoaiaA§YpoxpaTt,xo xo^^ia aav tov exTxpoacoTco too aovoAoo tyj<; epyaTixyjc; 
Ta^rjq xai too teXlxoo oxottoo i-qq anz'XzvQzpcdoriq xr\q. KaTaXaPailvs!, Xolttov [iLa oyzor\ 
avd^iead tooc; otyjv ouoia Ta aovStxaTa auoTeXoov uipoc; tyjc; aoaLaXSyj^oxpaTLaq. 'O^coq 
TiapoTi xpruxdpet, sva "xo^i^idT!," tyj<; aoaiaASYj^ioxpaTLac; yt,a ypacpeLoxpaTLXouoirjaY] dzv 
StaTOucove!, tyjv idia xpLTLxV] xat, yt,a to "aovoAo", 8ev avayvcop^st, (TooXdx^aTov otov idio 
Pa6^io) tyjv idia aov6^xrj xai oto xo^i^ia. AvTi6eTa 6ecop£i otl ot, epyaTsg ^saa and tov 
aycova tooc; ^iSTaaxyj^aT^oov ttj aov£L§rjarj ttoo Tooq... upoacpsps!, to aoat,aA§YpoxpaTt,x6 
xo^^ia and 6£copyjT!,X7] xat Aav6dvooaa oz npaxTixr\ xat, evepyV]! 



~32~ 

KAsivovTac; tyj aoAAoyicmxr] ir\q Ttdvco axrj [j.aZ,ixr\ auspyia yj Luxemburg 6a toviosi 
axourj uia cpopd to ^YjTrjua tyjc; SiaAsxTixVjg svoTrjTag tcoAitixoo xai oixovo^iixoo aycova, 
avaAoovTag U-s uspiGGOTspsg AsTrcou-spsisc; tyj Qzor\ ir\q. Siaxcopia^ioc; tou tioAitixoo 
xai tou olxovoulxoo aycova sivai sva aouTrxcoua xrjc; sipr]vixr}c; uspioSoo i-qq aoTixr\q 
SyjuoxpaTLaq xai xa6icrcaTai zvaq svtsAcoc; TSXvrjToc; Siaxcopio^ioc; uiaa axa uAaiaia tcov 
ua^xcov Ta^ixcov aycovcov: 

"Etyjv izpajy.aTixdiri'za o diax^pioyiog too tioAitixoo xai too oixovoy.ixoo aycova 
xai rj ayioiflaia ave^aprrjma roog 8zv eivai xmoxe dAAo and eva rexvrjrd npo'iov Tr\g 
xoivo(3ooAeoTixr)g nspi68oo...6[j.cog y.eaa ae y.ia znavaoTaTixr) y.aZ,ixr) 8pdor\ o noAuzixog 
xai oixovoy.ixog ajoivag jivovxai eva xai to rexvrjrd oovopo avay.soa axa oovdixaxa 
xai tyj oooiaAbrnxoxpaiia, oav boo ^excopiareg xai ave^dprrjreg y.opcp£g too epyanxoo 
xivr)y.aTog, noAo anAd o(3r)vei... 8ev ondpxoov 860 diacpoperixoi rafyxoi aycoveg too 
TcpoAerapidroo, aAAd y.6vo evag rafyxog aycovag, noo otoxzozi raoroxpova otov 
nepiopiayto irig xaniTaAioTixr)g zxyizTdAAeoar}g evrog rrjg aoTixf]g xoivcdviag xai ir\v 
xaidpYr\or\ rrjg xaiznaAio-zixr)g zxy.sTaAAzoor\g y.aZ,i y.z tyjv idia tyjv aoTixr) xoivcdvia" . 

H Luxemburg 6a svToraasi s-rcsiTa eva tioAo ayjuavxixo arjueio: oxav 01 spyaTsg 
opyavcovovTai axa aovSixaxa aia6dvovTai oil opyavcovovTai us "aooiaAorj^oxpaTixo 
xpouo", 5r\kadr\ oti us tyj ao\i\izioyy\ iooq oto oovSixaTo upoaua6oov va ixavoTroirjaoov 
sxxoq aTio xa d^isaa oixovo^iixd ao^icpspovTa Toog xai sopoTspoog uoAitixooc; otoxooc; 
svdvTia oto xaTUTaAiOTixo aoaxrj^a. Ms dAAa Aoyia, " yj izkr\pr\q svoxrjTa tcov aovSixaTcov 
xai ir\q aoaiaAoyj^ioxpaTiac;, r\ avTiAY](|>r] oti zxizpoocdizovv SiacpopsTixsc; ^lopcpsq too 
aoaiaASrpoxpaTixoo aycova yia tyj yzipa($ZT.r\oy\ too TtpoAsTapiaToo, sivai yjSyj OTiapxTYj" 
aTYj aovsiSYjarj xai tyjv TrpaxTixV] tcov spyaTcov. KaTa aovsusia o Siaxcopia^ioc; too xou^aTog 
an' to aovSixaTo TrpospxsTat, and iiq ypacpsioxpaTixsc; rjysaisc; tcov 860 opyavia^cov. Evc6 
Xolttov xdvsL 6Xzq avizq iiq STTLarj^dvasLc;, svco ooaiaaTixd avayvcopu^st, otl oudpxs!, y.ia 
6s^sA!,c68y]<; "aao^cpcovta" avd^isaa otyjv spyaTLXT] Ta^Y] xai iiq opyavcoastg ttj<;, r\ Luxem- 
burg 6a apvYj6si va "rcpayuaTOTroiYJast, to suousvo Aoyixo pVjua, va upoTStvst, SyjAaSv] tyjv 
xaTapyrjarj too Siaxcopiauoo avdusaa otic; ttoXltlxsi; xai iiq Ta^ixsq uopcpsq opydvcoarjq 
xai aTrjv upd^rj, oio6sTcovTa<; uia aucpiXsyousvrj SiaTOTrcoarj: 

"To ^VjTYjua 8sv sivai cpoaixd va aoyxcovsoaoous Ta aovSixaTa us to xo^^a aXAd 
va aTTOxaTaaTYJaoo^is tyjv svoTYjTa tyj<; aoaiaASypoxpaTiac; xai tcov aovSixaTcov nov 
avTaicoxpivsTai aTrjv Trpay^aTix^ axsarj avdusaa oto spyaTixo xivrj^ia aav aovoAo xai tyjv 
[ispix^ sxcppaaV] too". 

OoaiaoTixd 6a SiaTiiaTcoasi to p^y^ia avdusaa ottjv Tjysaia tcov aovSixaTcov, yj6sAs va 
avraAAaysi an' tyjv "aoaiaASYpoxpaTiXYJ uoAitixt]", xai too xo^^aTog, xai 6a 7rpoa7ia67]asi 
va to yscpopcoasi suixaAoo^svYj tyjv svoTrjTa ttoAitixoo xai oixovo^iixoo aycova aTrjv 
TcpoAsTapiaxV] pdarj. H Rosa Luxemburg 5sv 6a xaTacpspsi va xaTavo^asi uoo 6a u^opooas 
va tyjv odrpfqazi r\ 6s^sAico8yjc; ovXkrn\)r\ avir\q xr\q zvoryjiaq \izaa ottj \j.aC,ixr\ avrspyia... 

Tia tioio Aoyo s^icpavi^ovTai o^icoq 6Asq aoTsq 01 avTicpdasiq otyj oxscjjyj tyj<;; 0a 
^Tropooaa^s va upoTSivoo^s ^iia sp^yjvsia tcoo va (3aai^STai aicoxAsiaTixd oto ysvixoTspo 
TcpoPArj^ia uoo xapaxTV^pias ir\ B' Ais6vV^: to Siaxcopia^io avdusaa as 6scopia xai upaxTix^. 
Aott] r\ sp^Yjvsia sivai Tipdy^iaTi ocoott] xai aTrjv TispiTrccoaY] tyj<; Luxemburg: svco sSivs tooo 
^isydAYj s^icpaar] otyjv ao66pnY]TYj Spdarj tcov spyaTcov, r\ 181a 6a TipoaTra67]asi Aiya xpovia 
apyoTspa, oto (3i(3Aio ir\q "H aoaacopsoarj too xscpaAaioo", va auoSsi^si oti o xauiTaAia^ioq 
PaSi^si avauocpsoxTa aTrjv xaTappsoarj too! 'O^icoc; yia va sxoo^is tiia uArjpsaTspyj sp^irjvsia, 
uoo sivai aTiapaiTYjTY] yia va tyjv xaTavoyjaTj too opyavcoTixoo ^iovtsAoo tioo upoTSivs r\ 
Luxemburg, upsTisi va s^STaaoo^s xai tyjv ttoAitixt] aoyxopia tcov apxcov too aicova. H 
Luxemburg xaTaAd(3aivs oti T^Tav upoPArj^aTix^ tooo r\ auox^po^rj i-qq "ttoAitix^" xai r\ 
STciAoyv^ too "avs^dpTYjToo xai xa6apoo aovSixaAia^ioo" au' ir\ ^ispid tcov aovoixaAiaTcov 



~33~ 

yjysTcov, 600 xaL rj pscpop^LaTLxrj/xoLvoPooAsoTLxrj xax£u6uvarj 7100 sicaLpvs to SPD xaL 
to aTioudxpove arc' tyjv npoXexapiaxri too pdcarj. Ha va avTL^£TC07UOT£L aoTo to SluAo 
TcpopXypa sPAeTre otl rrav aTiapatTYjTO va OTpacpeL to evStacpspov oto avQ6py.r\To cttolxslo 
uiaa aTooq epyaTLXoog aycovsq. 'O^icoc; to va u^AdeL xaveiq, exeivq tyjv £uox4 yta to 
ao66p^Y]To otolxslo Vfcav ioodvvay.o y.e to va xp^ch^ottolsl svav opo 7100 auoTsAooae (3aaLxo 
tioAltlxo "otcAo" too avapxoaovSLxaAia^ioo! 'Etol yj Luxemburg apxtcrs va xaTavoei otl evco 
rj xptTLXT] TYjg oto SPD xaL tyjv Yjyeaia tcov aovSixdrccov rrav ajrapaLTYjTY], uuopooae arc' 
tyjv dXArj va TpocpoSoTrjaeL tyjv avapxoaovSixaAicmxri 6ecopia izov otoxsoe ottjv xaTapyrjarj 
too ttoAltlxoo xouuaToq - xoctl nov y] idia 6scopo6a£ "ttoXltlx^ aoToxTovia". Aotoo too 
sidovq r\ TipoPAyjuaTLXT] rrav ttoo tyjv oS^yyjae ottj olo6£tyjoy] "evStdueacov Aoaecov" - xat, 
aoTo anoxeXei uta aouuAYjpcouaTLXYJ epuYjvsLa tcov avTLcpdaecov tyj<;. Ev teAel, yj Luxemburg 
otoxsue oto va aAAd^SL tyj oy£or\ avdueaa gto "tioAltlxo" xat, to "xolvcovlxo" 6yi usaa 
and to ^£7i£paaua too xouuaToc; aav o*LaxcopLauivoo ttoAltlxoo opyaviauoo, aAAd usaa 
and ttjv avaTpourj tcov pecpopuiaTLXcov YjysaLcov tooo oto x6[X[xa 600 xat, aTa aovSLxaTa. 
liioxeve ncdq tj STUxpaTYjaY] [iiaq £7iavaaTaTLXY]<; 7ioAltlxyj<; ypauuVjc; 7100 6a otox^oe gtyj 
SLaT^prjarj \11aq otevyjc; oyior\q ue to ao66pur]To crcoLxeLO Vfcav aoTo ttoo 6a uuopooae va 
xAslosl to xdaua avdueaa otooc; spyaTeq xat, Ta TioALTLxd otzkiyy] ir\q aoaLaASyjuoxpaTLaq. 
ITapaTYjpcovTac; otl ol epyaTeg 7100 dvYjxav otyj pdarj too SPD sraxL^av aYpavTLXo poAo otyjv 
evSovducoayj too "ttoAltlxoo otolxsloo" \i-ioa otooc; SlexSlxyjtlxooc; epyaTLXooc; aycoveq, 
xaTsXrj^s oto aouuspaaua otl uovo aoTOL ol TioAruxoTioirjusvot, spyaTsq uuopooaav va 
avTLUSTcoTciaoov to pscpopuiauo oto ttsSlo too xouuaToq xat, too aov§!,xdToo. 'Etol yj "cppd^ia" 
uoo TipoaTid6rja£ va SyjuLoopy^ae!, yj Rosa Luxemburg Ta xpovia 7ipt,v tov tioAsuo VjTav sva 
Slxtoo tioAltlxottolyjuevcov spyaTcov oe aTevVj aovSearj ue too<; ao66purjToo<; aycoveq oto 
spyoaTaaio. 'Eva Slxtoo epyaTcov ttoo avayxaaTixd SiaTYjpooae uta aucpiXsyouevrj ayioy] ue 
Ta aovStxaTa. H opyavcoTixrj ir\q npoiaoy] UTiopsi izoXv xaAd va aovoc|j!,aT£L oto aov6rjua: 
"-rcpcoTa o epyaTLXog sAeyxoc; too xouuaToq, xat, oaTspa r\ eTravdaTaayj". Ta opia aoToo too 
opyavcoTLXoo uovtsAoo, oucog xat Ta TrpopXYJuaTa ttoo uposxoTTTav and tl koXitixzc, tt\c, 
avTLcpdaeiq, 6a £x8yjXco6o6v us mo aacpV} Tpouo xaTa tyjv Sidpxsia too ttoXs^oo aXAd xat, 
aTrjv euavaaTaTLXT] TiepioSo tcoo axoXo66rja£ tyj Atj^yj too. 

H ITAAIAKH EnilTPOOH THI AIAAEKTIKHI: ANTON PANEKOEK 

ITap' otl ELvai, aX^6£!,a otl rj tioXltlx^ Taarj tcov "apLOTspcov pL^ooraxoTcov", ttoo ^exLvrjae 
tyj SpaaTrjpLOTrjTa tyj<; otl<; apx£<; too 20oo aLcova aTa PLo^rjxavLxd xsvTpa too Au^oopyoo 
xaL Tr\q Bps^iYjc;, Trpay^aTouoLYjas uaa izo\6 ornj.avTixr\ aAAayV] oto ucog avTLAa^PavoTav tyjv 
aovSsarj "xolvcovlxoo" xaL "ttoXltlxoo" {lexa tov 7i6Xe[jlo, 6a Soo^is otl aTOLXSLa awcqc, ttjc; 
avTLXrjcjjrjq SLxav e^icpavLaTSL upcoTOTspa. 'Etol aTa ypauTa too Panekoek -rcpLV tov uoXs^io, 
evco SLvaL e^icpavrjc; rj o^oLOTrjTa p.e ~ziq 6sa£L<; x-qq Luxemburg, evco 8ev iyzi ovvxeXeoxei 
axo^irj [iLa Tz~kr\py]q eyxaTaAeLcjJYj too "op668o^oo" y.ap%ioy.ov, 6a e^cpavLGToov opLa^isveg 
6sa£L<; uoo aovTo^a 6a auoSsLxvoovTav svTsXcoq aao^PaTEc; y.e ir\v ttoAltlx^ ypan^ri too 
SPD. 

To 1909 o Panekoek 6a ypdc[)£L to (3l(3Alo "Ol SLacpopsq TaxTixr\q [isoa oto epyaTLXo 
XLVYj^ia". BaaLXo too ^sAYj^a, oucoc; xaL oXoxXrjprjc; tyj<; apLOTep^c; Taarjc; too SPD, ELvaL va 
ava§£L^£L tyj OYj^iaaLa tcov Ta^Lxcov aycovcov. TLa tov Panekoek, u^aa avro tooc; SlexSlxytlxooc; 
aycovsq ol epyaTeq ^a6aLVoov tyjv opyavcouivr] ovXhoyixri Spdarj xaL avaTrcoaaoov tyjv 
oAlxV] xaL uveo^iaTLXT] too<; Sova^yj. And izov 6y.cdq iz-qY&.q'zi aoTT] r\ Sova^iyj; Panekoek 6a 
EVTOTuasL TsaaepLq TiapdyovTEc;: yj Sova^rj too TipoAeTapLaToo TTYjyd^EL and ttjv evSoyevV] 
avd^iL^ too OTYjv TcapaycoyLxr] §La§LxaaLa, tyj aov£L§rjarj tcov xolvcov Ta^Lxcov ao^icpepovTcov, 
tyjv xaTavorjarj too ttcoc; XeLToopyeL r\ xoLvcovLa, xaL tyjv aoXAoyLxV^ u£L6apxLa too ottj Spdarj. 



~34~ 

Korea tyjv yvco^Y] tou, ot, ^£Tappu6uia£t,c; ttou usTUxaivouv ot, spyoVcec; 8ev sxouv or\yaoia 
xa6' eauTsg, Ttapd ^ovo oto Pa6^i6 ttou Poyj6ouv otyjv svSuvd^icoar] tyjc; evoxrfcaq xat, ir\q 
aAAyjAeyyuYjt; ^exa^u iovq. Etyj ooveye^o. 6a GTp£(|>£[, to evSiacpspov tou oto ^rJTYj^ia tcov 
auvSixaTcov xat, tou xou^aToc;. Ta ouvSLxdrca, Ttap' otl eivat, rj "cpooLxrj yop(pr\' opydvcoarjc; Tr\q 
epyaTixr\q Td^rjq, 8sv u^opouv va auoTsAsaouv tov ouaiaoTixo avTLTiaXo tcov xaTUTaAiarcov, 
yiaxi dev a^icpt,a(3Y]Touv to yeyovog otl yj epyaTixV] dvvayq yivexat, eu^opeu^ia, aXAd uivouv 
TipooxoAArpsva gto nebq 6a SLexSLXYJaouv tyjv u([)yjX6t£pyj xiyr\ yt,' auTo to e^Tropeu^a. 
Panekoek 6a xdvet, ^idAiaTa u^a ofy>8epxr\ uapaT^prjarj yt,a ty\ poQyiOTixr\ Aetroupyia tcov 
auvStxaTcov u^aa otov xaTUTaAio^io: 

"Movo ia aovdixdra zivai ixavd, yizood too oovzxrj aycova, va avnoTadyiiooov tyjv 
Toccrrj ir\q xaniTafaonxriq avdrcTU^rjq va ono(3i(3dozi tyjv zpyanx-q rd^rj OTr\v rcAqprj avzxzia, 
xai dpa va anorpefpouv y.z auro tov rporco tyjv xarappeuarj rrjq napaycoyyjq". 

TsvixoTepa, eivat, o evTOTua^ioc; Trjq avsTOxpxsiac; tou poAoo tcov auvSixaTcov ttou 6a tov 
odrpf-qoei gtyjv avayvcopiay] Tr\q avayxaioTYfcac; oizapjq-qq tou ooat,aAo*YpoxpaTt,xou xou^aTog 
uou (u-rcoTi6£Tat,) izpoodidsi yia enavaoxaTixr\ xaT£u6uvayj oto spyaTixo xivyj^ia. Pan- 
ekoek e^STd^ovTac; touc; spyaTixouc; aycoveq exeivqq xr\q izepiodoo 6a ^loipaoTSi tyjv Qeor\ 
7iou eiye r\dr\ avaTrcu^st, rj Rosa Luxemburg yia Trj StaXexTLX^ svoTrjTa tou olxovoulxou xat, 
tou TtoArnxou aycova usaa otyj yafyx-q aicepyia, evco 6a aaxVjaeL, cdq eva (3a6uo, xpiTixr\ gtyj 
ypacpeLoxpaTLXOTTOLYjarj tcov auvSixaTcov aAAd xat, tou SPD. 'Oaov acpopd xiq diacpopexixeq 
avTt,AV}(j)£t,c; ttou avaTTcuaaovTat, usaa oto xouua 6a ^exivrjaet, and tyjv STuarpavor] otl "o 
aoaLaAia^oc; avTiTrpoacoTisuet, yia ovvdeor\ avdueaa otyj u£Tappu6uiarj xat, tyjv STcavdcrcaar], 
oxiyyeq ttou ava^yjTouvTa!, Siaxcopiausvec; and tov pecpopuLauo xat, tov avapx^ouo", xat, 
6a iiq aTroScoaet, otyjv UTiap^Yj xat, dAAcov Ta^ecov extoc; arco touc; xaTrLTaAtaTsc; xai tou^ 
spyaTsq. Me dXAa Aoyia 6a laxupiaTSi otl ol SiacpopsTixsc; a.\m'\rn\)eiq eivai uia avTavaxAaarj 
tcov SiacpopsTixcov Ta^xcov auucpepovTcov ttou uvidpxouv usaa oto xouua - av xat, auToq 
o LoxupLa^ioc; elxs uepLaaoTepo to x a P a ' KT 'hP a l^aq Kokey.ix.riq uou xaTeu6uvoTav evdvTta 
otyj Se^td UTspuya Tiapd yiaq e^TrepLaTaTco^isvYjc; iafyxr\q avakvo-qq ir\q ovvQeor\q tou 
xou^aTog. 'O^icoq to Tito arj^iavTLXo or\yeio PpiaxsTat, otyj arj^iaoLa tcou anodidei o Pan- 
ekoek oto 07TOX£t,u^vt,x6 aTotx^^o- ®oc SyjAcoasL ye s^icpaarj otl evco o xaTctTaXLa^ioc; Tiapdyst, 
o lSloc; iiq ovvdr\xeq yt,a to ^ETrspaa^id tou, ^iTropsi va ^£7t£paaT£i ^iovo aTio Trj auv£t,§Y]TYJ 
SpdaY] tcov upoXeTapLcov, yiaq xat, "oAeq ol TiapaycoyLxsc; ojeoeiq eivai oyeoeiq avayeoa oe 
av6pco7iou<;". EiTicouivo StacpopsTLxd: 

"Movo orav diaToncodoov y.aZ,i oi duo dzaziq on "H dpaaTrjptdrrjTa tcov avdpconcov 
xadopCC,ziai and riq uAtxzq rouq ax^oziq" xai on "Ot dvdpconoi cpndxvouv oi idiot 
tyjv lOTopia rouq y.zoa and tyjv dpdar} rouq" ooviotovv oXoxXr\pcdy.zvr\ tyjv iiapfyonxr] 
OTznxr\ ". 

H fjieydAr] arj^iaaLa uou 6a aicoScoaouv ot, "apLOTepoi p^oaTcdaTsq" crcrjv avdyxrj to 
TrpoXeTapLaTO va axscpTSTat, xat va Spa auTovo^a, dev rfiav yovo aizoizkeoya tou 6sTt,xou 
poAou uou zfikeizav va izaiC,ei to au66p^rjTo otolxslo otouc; epyaTLXouq aycovsq, aAAd xai 
ir\q avaxdAu(jjrj<; tcov ypaviTcov tou Joseph Dietzgen - evoq yepyavod spyaTrj ttou ouu^stslxs 
aTYjv A' Al£6vt]. Me Ta koyia too idioo tou Dietzgen: 

"Ra zvav zpydrrj rcou avaqrjrd va Adfizi y.zpoq OT-qv aurd-xsipacpzrrjCFr] rrjq rdfyiq too 
■q Paaixrj avayxaidTrjTa zivai va OTay.aTt]ozi va zmrpznzi az dAAouq va tov diddaxoov 
xai, avndzra, va diddoxzi o idioq tov zauTO tou". 

Dtccoc; sivai eucpavsg, auTrj r\ oizTixr\ upoxcopouae sva fir\ya uapauspa tyjv avTiArji^rj 
xr\q Luxemburg yia ttj ayj^iaaia tou au66p^rjTou otolxelou xat, spxoTav oe pt,^t,xVj avT^earj 
ye tyjv ^irjxavLaTLX^ avTiAr](|>Y] uou ETiLxpaTouae ^isaa otyj B' A.ieQvr\, oycdq ot, aptaTepoi 
pL^oaTcdoTEc; 6a xaTavoV]aouv ttjv PapuTrjTa auTV^q T-qq avTiQeo-qq yovo yexd tyjv xaTappsuarj 
Tr\q B' Al£6vouc;... 



~35~ 

Tpila xpovLa apyoTepa, xaL evco ziyz ^sxLvrjaeL o SeoTspoc; xvxXoq aycovcov axrj rep^iavia 
xai xauToxpova r\ duxy-ayy] yia tyjv "ao66p^Y]TY] u^lxyj Spdcayj" eix £ sraxve^icpavLGTeL uiaa 
axo SPD u-£ u^yaAoTeprj evxaarj, o Panekoek, uiaa auo u^a aetpdc dp6pcov otyjv ttoAltlxy] 
£7u6£c5pr]aY] Die Neue Zeit 6a emxedei axrjv YjysaLa too SPD xai LSiaiTepa axrjv tioAltlxV} 
ypau^V} ttoo OTTOaTYJpL^e o Kautsky. Msoa and avir\ tyj SLa^dx' 1 ! tou [j.z tov Kautsky 6a 
yivci. cpavepo to tccoc; avTLAau^dv£TaL tyjv eTiavdaTaayj, tyjv svvota ir\q iafyxr\q opydvcoarjq 
xai to poAo too tioAltlxoo xou^aTog ae oyior\ \xz tooc; spyaTLXoog aycoveq. E^opyLauivog 
auo iic, ao66p^rjT£<; ajcspyLSc; xaL arc' tyj aou^STox^ svoc; u^ydAoo apL6^io6 avopydvcoTcov 
spyaTcov as aoTsq, o Kautsky 6a SrjAcooet, otl o aupopXsTrcoc; xocpaxT^pag xr\q "ao66purjTrjc; 
ua^LXYjc; Spdarjc;" tyjv xaQioxa jjuoc axaTaXAyjAY] (3day] yLa ttjv SLauopepcoaY] tyjc; TaxTLXYjc; tyjc; 
aoaLaXSyjuoxpaTLaq. EtutcAsov otl dzv UTropei va avayvcopLaeL ae aoTYJ tyjv Spdarj svav 
"evouoirjusvo Ta^ixo xapaxTr}pa". To TipwTo usXrjua too Panekoek zivai va avTLxpooasL 
avir\v tyjv 6sarj: STuarj^iaLVovTac; otl ol ao66purjT£c; aTrepyieq aovs(3aLvav xaTa xopLo Xoyo 
aTa ueydXa aaTLxd xsvTpa, ottoo xaL aoyx£VTpcov£TaL yj epyaTLxrj lafy], 6a OTroaTrjpL^EL 
otl yj "ao66puY]Trj \j.aC,ixf\ SpdaY]" iyzi aacpr] Ta^Lxo xapaxTrjpa. Etuoyjc; evTOTii^ovTac; otl 
Tiiaco avro tooc; Stdcpopooq aycbvzq (3pLaxovTaL xoLvd oALxd aoucpspovTa 6a oraxJTrjpL^SL 
otl o aizp6fi~kziiToq x a P aKT W a< ~> OLVT-qq tyjc; Spdarjc; 8sv aizoxz'Xzi ae xauia uspLTrccoar] 
apvYjTixo otolxslo yta tyjv z^zXi%r\ too spyaTLXoo XLV^uaToq. Sttj ovvzx^ol ® a zvroiziozi otl 
t] OTpaTYjyLXT] Stacpcovia too ae tov Kautsky acpopd to n&q o xaQzvaq avTLAau^dv£TaL tyjv 
STcavdaTaarj: 

"Eivai axpi(3coq ndved oTr\ cp6or\ rrjg znavdoTaor\q nou oi onTixzq y.aq anoxAivoov . 
'Ooov acpopd tov Kautsky r\ sizavdoxaori eivai zva ovy.ftdv T07iodzrrj[j.zvo aro yizXAov, ytta 
noAiTixYj " oc7zoxdAu(pr] " xocrd ir\v didpxzia ir\q onoiaq yj duvayrj tou zxdpou e^oudzrzpdJvzrai 
y.ovoy.idq, xai ev tw {j.erod;6 to y.6vo nou y.izopooy.z va xdvouy.z zivai va izpozTOiy.aoTo6y.z 
yia tyjv rzAtxrj OTijy.ri avanTuaaovTaq tyjv buvay.r\ y.aq... Via tyjv dixrj y.aq onrtxrj yj 
znavdaraar] zivai y.ia diadixaaia, ia repcora arddia ir\q onoiaq fiicovouyiz or\y.zpa, yiari 
novo y.zoa and tov ibio tov toE,ix6 ajoiva [unopouv oi y.dZ,zq va aujxzVTpcddouv xai va 
ox"i]y-OLTiooov zvav opjavioy.6 ixavo va xaTaAdfizt tyjv zE,oooia. AuTzq oi diacpopzTixzq 
onTixzq odrjyouv az zvTzAcoq diacpopzTixzq afyoAoyrioziq TCdv or\y.zpivoiv npoAzTaptaxcov 
npaxTixcov, xai zivai znior\q cpavzpo oti yj anoppicprj xddz znavaoTaTixr\q bpdor\q and 
Touq pzcpopynoTzq xai r\ avafioAi] aoT-qq Tr\q bpdor\q gto aopioTO yizAAov zx yizpooq too 
Kautsky avanocpzoxTa Tooq zvcovouv zvavTiov y.aq...". 

Panekoek aTroppLTrcet, Xolttov tyj aoXXrjtjjyj too Kautsky otl yj STcavdaTaarj ELvaL 
ULa cmyuLaLa upd^Y] TioLOTLxd SLacpopeTLxrj au' 6Ayj tyjv ottoAoluyj SpaaTYjpLOTYjTa too 
TrpoXeTapLaToo xaL xaTa aovsueLa auoppLTiTEL to SLaxcopLauo tyjc; euavdaTaarjq an' tov 
xa6rju£pLvo Ta^Lxo aywva. IIpoaTra6c5vTac; va "aTroSsL^EL" tyjv 6sarj too 6a xdveL sueLTa 
ULa Tcpoarax6£La va evTouLasL us ttolo Tpouo opLa^isva xocpocxTrjpLaTLxd i-qq zizavaoTcxTixriq 
SpdaYjq e^icpavL^ovTaL ae zy.fipvaxr\ y.op(pr\ oiovq eTTL^ispoog aycoveq. KaT' eusxTaayj o 
Panekoek 6a £tilt£6£l yLa [iLa ax6y.r\ cpopd otyj u^xavLGTLxVj avTLArj([)Yj tyj<; "op668o^Y]c;" 
Ypay.y.riq: 

"0 Kautsky aovzxcoq OTr\piZ,zTai OTr\v onodzar} oti oao o xaniTaAioyidq dzv 
[uzTaGxrjlJ.ocTiXzTai az oooiaAioy.6 ' , npznzi va yivzTai anodzxToq oav xaTi to xadopiayizvo , 
[j.ia ay.zTafiAr\Tri aovdrjxri anzvaVTi oTiq aovznzizq Tr\q onoiaq zivai avcocpzAo va 
aj(jdvioTo6y.z... avTiyzTconi^zi tov xaniTaAioy.6 xai tov oooiaAioy.6 oav xadopiay.zvzq, 
rjdrj xaTaaxzoaay.zvzq oAoTYjTzq, xai anoTuyxdvzi va ooAAdfizi tyj y.zTa(3aar} an' to zva 
gto dAAo oav yiia diaAzxTixrj diadixaaia" . 

IlapooaLd^ovTaq STXELTa tyjv avTikr\^r\ too yLa tyjv svvoLa tyj<; Ta^LxVjc; opydvcoaYjq 
xaL to poXo too aoaLaXSrj^ioxpaTLXoo xo^i^iaToq, o Panekoek 6a ^sxLvrjaeL §LauLaTwvovTa<; 
otl ol ao66p^Y]T£c; auepyLSc;, aTrjv pL^a tcov ouolcov PpLaxovTaL xaTa tyjv yvco^rj too r\ 



~36~ 

ejuSeivcoarj tcov aov6rjxcov £Jcorjc; tcov yep^iavcov epyaTcov xai o Siacpaivo^ievoc; xivSovoc; too 
lU^epiaAiaTixoo TroAe^ioo, e7u(3dAAoov Trjv ot,o6eTrjarj u^ac; veac; TraXraxrjc; aTpaTrjyixrjc; two 
va Paai^eTat, gtyjv y.aC,ixr\ Spdarj. Ilap' oti axo^rj Sev 6a 6ecoprjaei Trjv xoivoPooAeoTixrj 
SpaaTYjpLOTYjTa tou SPD aav xaxt to aao^(3aTo ^ie aoToo too eiSooc; tyj Spdarj, 6a evToraaet, 
otl rj xo(,vo(3ooAeoTt,xr) Spdarj Sev ^xropei ooaiaaxixd va avTiu^TcoTuaet, xiq owzneieq 7100 
cpepvet, o xaTUTa/Ua^og axrjv xa6rj^iept,vrj ^corj tcov epyaTcov - y.6vo 01 18101 01 epydxsg uiaa 
and tooc; aycovec; tooc; u^opoov va xdvoov xdxt, tstolo. Sxrj aovexeia ® a ava^rjTrjaei aoTo 
7100 auoxeXsL Trjv Pa66x£prj ooaia tcov xa^xcov opyavcoaecov. So^cpcova y.e tov Kautsky 
avTr\ rj ooaia PpiaxeTat, otooc; 6ea^iooc; ttoo Srju^oopyei rj opydvcoarj xai tooc; xa6opiauivooc; 
xavovec; ttoo emfiaXkei oto. uiArj i-qq. Av o^icoc; aoTo eivai aArj6eia tote xiQexai to epcoxrj^a: 
"ti Siaxcopi^ei eva aovSixaTo aira eva aoAAoyo yia xrj upoaTaaia tcov ^cocov rj eva aovSea^io 
epyoSoTcov;". Tta tov Panekoek rj (3a6oTeprj ooaia Trjc; opydvcoarjc; (3piaxeTai oto "Trveo^a 
too va avrjxeic; as ^iia Ta^rj", aoTo to "Trveo^a" eivai o aovSeTixoc; xpixoc; tcov ^leAcov \i.iac, 
Ta^ixrjc; opydvcoarjc; xai eTUTpeTiei otooc; epyaTec; va Spoov aoAAoyixd axo^ia xai OTav Sev 
exoov Srjuroopyrjaei ^iia eTuarj^irj opydvcoarj. Me dAAa Aoyia: 

"... ocuto nou £,zxcdpiZ,zi Tig opyavcoazig tcov zpyaTcov an' dAzg Tig dAAsg opyavcoazig 
zivai q avdnTU^q ir\g aAAqAzyyuqg yizTa^u roug aav q fldaq Tqg buvay.qg roug, q unoTayq 
tou aioy.ixo6 auyicpzpoVTog aTq auAAoyixoTqTa , q aiadqaq [uiag vzag avdpconoTqTag 
axoyjj arrj diadixaaia rrjg diayioptpcoaqg rrjg". 

'O^icoc; Trap' oti o Panekoek uapooaid^ei \liol tooo 6eTixrj aoAArjtjjrj yia tic; Ta^ixec; 
opyavcoaeic;, Trap' otl e^ei rjSrj SLautaTcoaei Trjv avdyxrj yta \11cc vea aTpaTrjyixr} ttoo 
va Paa^eTat, aTrj y.aC,ixr\ Spdarj, 0a aTroScoaet evav aao^PaTa arj^avTLXo poAo oto 
aoataASrj^ioxpaTLXo xo^i^ia. H AeiToopyia too xo^^aTog Sev aovtaTaTat, oto va aoyxpaTei 
Trjv evepyet,a tcov epyaTcov ^expt Trjv 'VeydArj aTty^irj" Trjq CTiavdaTaarjc;, oizcdq nioxzuz o 
Kautsky, aAAd oto va a^LouoieL ue tov tuo auoTeXeauaTixo Tpovro Trjv aycovLOTLxrj Sid6earj 
tcov epyaTcov, izov yevvteTat ueaa and iiq ao66purjTec; uopcpeq Spdarjg, y.zaa and ir\ SlxVj 
too Spdarj. IIio aoyxexpL^eva: 

"[To xoy.y.a] z%zi nztdapxTjozt Tig y.6Z,zg xai Tig nzpiopi^zi and to va onaTaAoov T-qv 
znavaoTaTixr) Toog zvzpyzta avaizoTzAzoy.aTixa. "0[J.cog auTrj zivai y.6vo rj "apvrjTixrj" 
TcAzupd T-qg AziToupytag tou xd[j.[j.aTog . TIpzuzi TauToxpova to xoy.y.a va 8zii;zi y.z dzTixoug 
opoug ncog auTrj rj zvzpyzia [urcopzi va 8ouAz(pzi y.z zva diacpopzTixo , zizoixoboy.rjTixo , 
Tpoizo, xai va obrjyr)ozi Tig y.aZ,zg oto va to xdvoov auTO... 'Etoi to xoy.y.a zxzi OT-qv 
TzpaynaTixoT-qTa xadrjxov va unoxivzt T-qv znavaoTaTixr) dpdaq, znztdrj zivai o cpopzag 
zvog trqy.avTixo6 y.zpoog tt^c; ixavoTrjTag tou izpoAzTapiaTOU yia dpdaq , 6[j.cog 8zv yinopzi 
va to xdvzc auTO oncog xai otzotz dzAqazi, zrczidq 8zv zvacoyiaTcovzi Tqv dzAqaq oAoxAqpou 
tou npoAzTapiaTou ..." '. 

Axourj xai \iz aoTrj Trj SiaToucoarj, nov aiyoopa Trjv yix>P l X> zl "h^ y- la auoaTaarj auo 
xiq 6eaet<; too Lenin, yiveTat cpavepog o uepLxoq eyxAcoPt,auoc; too Panekoek aTa itXaioia. 
Trjq raxpaSoaiaxrjc; 0ecopia<; yia to xouua. Evco aTioSiSeTa!, aTrocpaaLaTixoc; poXoc; oto 
ojcoxeiuevLxo aTOLxeio, eva Paatxo (3rjua yt,a Trjv ex veoo avaxdXotjjrj Trjq StaXexTLxrjc;, 
evco yiveTat, ut,a Tcpoaud6e!,a va xpLTLxapLOTei rj rjSrj OTidp^ooaa ypacpeioxpaTtxrj axearj 
avdueaa oto "ttoAltlxo" xat, to "xolvcovlxo", rj aoAArj([)rj otl TeAtxd to xouua a^ioTcoiei 
Trjv SpaaTrjpLOTrjTa Trjq epyaTixrjc; Ta^rjq xat, eivat, aoTo ttoo Trjv oSrjyei oto "Spouo Trjg 
eTcavdaTaarjq" Tiapauevet, ooataaTixd aTrj 6earj Trjq! Aotoo too eiSooc; 01 aSovauiec; 6a 
TrepLopilaoov, Ta xpovia Tiptv tov TioXeuo, tooc; apicrcepooc; pL^oajcdaTec;, ottcoc; cpoatxa xai, 
Trjv "cppd^a" Trjq Luxemburg, ae evav "avTiTroAtreoTixo" poXo \izoa aTa TrAataia too SPD. 
'Etol xai rj opyavcoTtxrj TipoTaarj tcov S60 Taaecov Trjg "aptaTepdc;" 6a Tiapa^eive!, u.t,a 
aTeArjc; TipoaTid6e!,a ^ieaa otic; TiapaSoataxec; ^opcpec; opydvcoarjc;. 



~37~ 

H ZYrXQNEYIH TOY TIOAITIKOY" KAI TOY "KOINQNIKOY": INDUSTRIAL 
WORKERS OF THE WORLD 

IIap' otl ot, Blo^iyjxocvlxol EpyaTec; Tou Koodoo (IWW) Sev dvrjxav axYj B' AteBvyj, raxp' 
otl axa ^laTia ir\q izXziovoryjzaq tcov 7ioAt,Tt,xc6v ottoxsiu^vcov nov opooaav otyjv EopcoTcrj 
cpdvTa^av aav sva (.Sio^iopcpo avapxoaovSixaTo, evteAcoc; ^svo arco tyjv TioAraxV} tooc; 
xouAxoupa, a^et, va xdvoo^ie ^iia avacpopd gto ticoc; Spooaav xai uwg avTiAa^(3dvovTav tyjv 
ax^ay] avdu^aa oto "•rcoAruxo" xai to "xoivcovixo". Me iovq opovq ir\q B' At,£0vo6<; ot IWW 
rjTav ^sxd6apa y.ia iafyxr\ ^lopcprj opydvcoarjc;, 6y.(x>q avid xaQoXov 8zv iovq saxpeijje crcov 
"xa6apo aovSixaAia^o" tcov ayyAixcov trade unions xat xa66Aoo 8sv iovq anajopzvoz va 
sxouv uia -rcoAruxYJ TrpoxaaY]. E^' dAAoo to yeyovog otl ot, IWW xaTacpepav va opyavcoaoov 
to 7ioAo£6vt,x6, xlvyjtlxo xat, aveiSixeoTo xouudTL TYjq epyaTixrjg Ta^yjc; oxiq HIIA tooc; 
xa6iaTa sva uapaSstyua to ottolo sivat, XP'Q 01 ^ va JJ-sAeTYj6e£ usaa ara Ttkaioia ir\q 
ao^Trjarjq yia tic; uopcpsq epyaTixV^c; opydvcoarjc; too a^uepa. 

'Oticoc; zypu\iz avacpspet,, ot, yevixsq xoivcovixsc; aovOrjxec; xai r\ xa£,ixr\ aovOsarj otic; 
HIIA tcov apxcov too aicova rjTav izoXv SiacpopeTixsc; a-rco aoTsg i-qq Aotixtjc; Eopamrjc; r\ 
ir\q P comae;. To eopo usTavaaTEOTixo peoua SrjULoopyyjae usaa ottjv auepixdvixr] ayopd 
spyamac; sva an6Qzy.a aveLolxsoTcov xat, ocjjyjAd xlvyjtlxcov spyaTcov, tooc; ottoiooc; r\ 
TrapaSoaLaxV] aovStxaXLaTLXY] ouoorcovSLa tcov slSlxeouevcov (AFL) apvr\dr\xs va opyavcooet,. 
Aotol axpt,pcoc; ot, epyaTeg, izov ovvzQzxav sva ucoaa'tixo SiacpopeTixcov eOvixoTrJTcov, 6a 
aTioTeXsaoov tyj \iayr\iixr\ pdarj tcov Wobblies. H xivrfuxoTYjTa aoTcov tcov spyaTcov, tooo 
ue opooc; yecoypacpixooc; oao xat, us opooc; nzpiodixr\q y.ZTa.^aor\q and ttjv epyaaia oxr\v 
avepyia, y.aC,i y.z to yeyovog otl rjTav aveiSixeoTot,, sxave aSovaTY] tyjv avduTO^Yj oea^icov 
\xz sva aoyxexpiuivo epyoaTaato r\ ttjv TaoTLaT] Tooq y.z sva aoyxexpiuivo eTidyyeA^a: r\ 
"epyoaTaaLaxT] Sova^rj" ttoo V^Tav to Paatxo otcAo tcov eopcoTraicov £(,§!,x£o^i£vcov £pyaTc6v 
au£vavTL oto X£cpdXa!,o ^Tav xaTi to £VT£Ac6c; dyvcoaTo yi' aoTo to ^la^ixo xo^^iaT!, tyjc; 
zpYaxix-qq Ta^rjg otlc; HIIA. Aoto a^a!,v£ izodq r\ napadooiaxr\ y.op(pr\ too £7iayy£A^aTt,xo6 
aovStxaToo r\Tav y.ia y.op(pr\ opydvcoayjc; 7iavT£Xcoc; dxpYjOTY] a' avTq tyjv •rcEpLTrccoaY]. npdy^iaT!,, 
ol Wobblies xaTacp£pav e^' apx^q va 8rj[u,oopyyiaoov £vav touo ^ax^jTLXoo "£pyaTrj- 
ayxLTaTopa" o oizoioq dzv fiaoiq'oTav otyj ^laxpoxpovta xat, otco^ovetlx^ aovSLxaXtaTLX^ 
8ooA£!,d \izoa oz £va aoyx£xp^£Vo EpyoaTaaio, aXAd otyjv LxavoTYjTa too va axoAoo6£i to 
"xo^ia" tcov Ta^ixcov aycovcov xat va XLveiTat, and ueptoxvi oz TiepLox'n, olizo tyjv jua eoTLa 
xr\q avaTapax^q aTrjv dXXrj. KaTa aovsTceta to opyavcoTLXo ^iovtsAo tcoo OLoOsTrjaav ot, 
Wobblies Paa^oTav ottj Srj^Loopyia "PpaxoPtcov" epyaTixcov opyavcoaecov avd uepiox^ r\ 
avd epyocrcdoio xat ox^ avd STidyyeAna. 'Oiz(x>q to zQzoz o Big Bill Haywood, zvaq and iouq 
yvcoGTOTepooc; ayxLTaTopeq tcov IWW: 

"H opjavcdor} oz zpjooTaoiaxri flaorj eivai r\ eupureprj duvaryj epy.r\veia ir\q noAiTtxyjg 
e^ouutag rrjg epyartx^g rd^rjg, diort opyavcovovrag roug epydreg ae zpjooTaoiaxri flaorj 
diveig ayieoa arcg jvvaixzg \xzoa ara epjooiaoia dixaicdyia (p-qcpoo aro auvdixdro , divzig 
ay.soa aroug [tocupoug, rcou eivai nepidcdpionoiriyizvoi noAinxd, (poovrj oxsTixd [ue ty\ 
Aeiroupyta tcov epyouramcov,... xai to ibio enexretverai ae xdde stdog zpydrrj." 

H uapooaia zvoq xlvyjtlxoo TipoXsTapLaToo, r\ aizovoia. "zvoq aovopoo ttoXltlxcov 6sa^cov 
avd^ieaa otyjv epyaTixyj Ta^rj xat, to xecpdAaLo" ae y.ia xotvcovia ouoo "6\zq 01 aoxixzq 
z'XzvQzpizq aovo([)i^ovTav oty\ uia xat, y.ovadixr\ xamTakiOTixr\ eAeoOspta- tyjv eAeoOepLa 
va SooAsoetq", xai ot, avapxoaov8(,xaX!,aT!,X£<; xaTaPoXsq opLa^isvcov zx tcov t,SpoTc6v Tooq, 
oSr^yrjaav Tooq Wobblies oto va auoppiiljoov ir\ Srju^oopyila \iiaq Kokiiixriq "TipcoTOTropLac;" 
^zycdpioTriq arc' ttjv spyaTixyj Ta^yj. EtiltiXsov, uiaa otyjv LSLaLTepoTrjTa tcov a^iepLxdvixcov 
aov6Y]xcov, xaTaXdpaLvav otl axo^rj xai yj Syjtuoopyta y.iaq aoyxevTpcoTLXYJq aovS(,xaX!,aTLX7]c; 
opydvcoarjc;, zvoq xevTptxoo opydvoo aTcocpdascov auoTeXoo^svoo and y.ax^^xovq 



~38~ 

ovvdixcxXiOTzq, 8sv sixs xavsva TcpaxTixo anoTzXeo[j.a. Ot, IWW rjfiav iocdq ot, TipcoTot, tioo 
xaTaAa(3av ucoc; to ^yjtoo^evo VjTav o aoAAoyixoc; epyaTYjc; va Spdast, aoTovo^a, yjtocv lacoc; yj 
^ovaSixr] "ttoAltlxt] T&arj" sxeivyjc; tyjc; etiox^'; tcoo SYj^iioupyTjae ^t,a ^lopcpV] opydvcoayjc; otioo 
to "xoivcovixo" xat, to "•rcoAruxo" V^cav TipaxTLxd a^sxcopiaTa! Eivat, evSeiXTixo ax>Tr\q i-qq 
avriXru^-qc, to ysyovoc; otl [jua auo Tig (3aat,X£c; o.pyiq tooc; rrav oti "o aycovac; eivat, o ^lovoc; 
aoAAoyixoc; opyavcoTrjc;". 'Oy.uq r\ aoyxcoveoar] too "xoivcovixoo" xat, too "tioAltlxoo", yt,a 
ttjv onoia ao^rjTd^e sSco, 8ev exSyjAcovotocv ^iovo otyjv opyavcoTLxV] ^lopcpV] tioo ot,o0£Tr]aav 
ot, Wobblies aAAd xat oto Tcepisxo^evo tyjc; Spdarjc; tooc;. 

Edv xavdc; nzxaxomozi to evSiacpspov too arc' to ttoAo ocjjyjXo stclttsSo Ploci-yjc; 
avTiuapdOeaYjc; uoo vizr\px£ oxiq ampY'ieq zxzivqq tyjc; eizoxQC,, to tuo evTOTtcoaiaxo otoix^o 
ott] Spdar] tcov IWW eivat, r\ dpvrjaY] tooc; va Sia-rcpay^aTeoovTat, [ie ia acpsvTixd xat. tj 
aiz6ppu\)y] xd6s Osa^oTcoLYjarjq tyjc; Ta^LX^q 8iay.cq(riq y.zo(x> ir\q ouoypacp^q ao^pdaecov. Avtl 
va OTcopdAXoov ^t,a XiaTa atrrpaTcov ttoo 6a yivovTav avTixsi^isvo Siaupay^dTSoarjc; \iz 
tov xd0e epyoaTaaLapxY] upoxet^svoo va o-rcoypacpei ^t,a ovy.^aor\, xa06pt,^av ^ovo^epcoc; 
xiq aTratTYjoeic; tooc;, xiq avapTooaav oxiq izvXsq too (aovrjOcoc; xaTEiAYj^svoo) epyocrcaaioo 
xai 8ev crca^aTooaav tyjv aTispyia y.zX9 l va Tt ? auo§£x6o6v xa acpsvTixd! Tia tooc; Wob- 
blies yj svvoia Trjq "ttoAltlx^c;" V^Tav TaoToarj^rj ^e svav aovexcoc; ^STaPaXXo^svo aoaxsTLa^io 
dvvay.r\q y.e t' acpevTixd, yt,' aoTo xat, eueSicoxav tyjv tteploSlxy] £7iavdXrji[)Yj tcov aTrepyicov, 
SyjAaSV] oti £X £L xepo*r]6£i ^aa auo tov aycova TipsTiet, etuo-yjc; va Tipoa arc lots l ^isaa auo 
tov aycova xat, oxt, [xeoa auo ^t,a "^ayco^svrj" Osa^ixr} cmy^r} too. Ilspa and tov aoTovorjTo 
SieOviano tooc;, \iiaq xat, otlc; id^£^ too opyavcovovTav sva 7ioAoe6v!,x6 upoAeTapiaTo, sva 
dXAo Paatxo aTOLX^^o tyj<; Spdayjg tooc; 7]Tav o e^acoTLa^ioq: arc' ttjv cmy^r] uoo 8ev o-rcVjpxe 
tj TaoTiarj \iz sva aoyxexp^svo eudyyeA^a, xai dpa [iLa ex tcov upoTspcov auoSox^ ttjc; 
spyaaiaxrjc; Lepapxtaq, ot, aizanr\oziq iovq yia tooc; y.ioQovq xai Tig copec; epyaatac; V^Tav 
xoivsg yia oAooc; tooc; epyaTsg 7100 ao^^£T£Lxav otov aycova. TzXoq rfzav (pavepr\ r\ apvyjarj 
tcov Wobblies va OecopVjaoov xd6e ^e^iovco^isvrj auepyia aav "oTroOearj too cpyoaTaaioo" 
xai r\ 7TpoG7id0£t,d too<; va StaacpaA^oov xd6e cpopd tooo tyjv xoxXocpopia too aycova 
xat as dXXa epyoaTaata oao xat, xopicoq tyjv eTrixoLVcovia too y.e tyjv tottlxt^ xoLvcovta. 
E£vai aTa 860 TsXeoTaia xocpocxTrjpLaTLxd ir\q Spdarjq too<; izov cpaiveTa!,, xaTa tyjv yvco^irj 
\iaq, to otl yj ey.izeipia tcov IWW rrav xaTa xduoto Tpouo "TrpocpyjTLXT]": yj svvoia too 
xolvcovlxoo ^ia0oo xat, too xolvcovlxoo epyoaTaatoo tioAo uptv yivoov avaTioauaaTa [).spr\ 
ir\q avTixeiy.zvixriq xamiakiOTixriq Tcpay^aTLXOTrjTac;, y.z tyjv sXeoarj ir\q y.aC,ixr\q TrapaycoyV^c;, 
y^Tav ^ua ouoxsL^evLXT] avTaycovLOTLX^ upay^aTLXOTrjTa yi' aoTooc; Tooq spyaTsq! 

0a upsue!, Ps(3at,a xAeivovTag va £7iiaY]^dvoo^£ xaTt ttoo [acog cpaiveTat axvd ae 6Aa 
Ta uapaTidvco. H Stacpopd tcov Wobblies [is 6Xyj tyjv TroAmxYJ ax£([)rj Trjq B' Al£0vo6<; Sev 
PpiaxsTai ^iovo aTrj SLacpopsTLxy] oyzor\ avd^eaa oto "ttoXltlxo" xat to "xolvcovlxo" uoo aoToi 
OTcoaT^pt,^av, aXXd xat, ottj 8t,acpop£Tt,xyi aoXXrjtjjrj tyjc; L§t,ac; ir\q swoiaq too "•rcoAtrixoo". 
'ExovTaq xaTavo^aet, to xlvyjtlxo 7ipoA£Tapt,aTo aav tov "t,6 tyj<; xoivcovixyjc; aTa^iag", £X OVTOC ? 
aoAAdpet, tyjv "TroAtriXYJ" aav to aoax£Tt,ano Sova^iyjc; y.s xa acpevTt,xd, to "ttoXltlxo ax^Sio" 
tcov IWW ao^TioxvcovoTav aTrj aovoAixV^ avTt,7iapd6£arj y.e to xot,vcovt,xo xecpdAaio X W P^ 
tyjv ouap^rj evot; YJSrj stol^ioo "aoat,aXt,aTt,xoo ^iovtsAoo". 'HTav sva ojidio dpvrjarjc; tyj<; 
xa:it,TaAt,aTt,XYic; ojio-qq oto ouolo ajrooaia^e yj xaTaAY](|>Y] tyjc; izoXmx-qq etpvoiaq. Sergio 
Bologna, apxsrcd xpovt,a apyoTepa, 6a evTOTuast, aoTT] tyj Qey.z\i(l>dy] Siacpopd: 

"He aVTidear} y.e 6Aa roc sopoma'ixa izapa.beiYy.aia r\ toTopia tcjv ayeptxavixcov 
rafyxdJv aycovcov rrjg eizoxr\c, eivai iooiq r\ y.6vr\ oTqv onoia to epyanxd xivr\y.a 8zv 
avafy}T& ours evav zxooYXpovioy.6 tcov napajcdjixcov doyicbv, ours y.ia opydvcdarj tcjv 
Tiapajcdjixcov dovdyizcdv mo oiziodobpoy.ixr\ and aoT-q nou nporzive to 1810 to xscpdAaio... 
Auto nou 8ev utcyjpxs OTOuq IWW -qzav axpificog rj auAArjiprj Tr\q eizavaoTaor\c, aav [iia 
npd^Y] 8iaxeipior\q Tr\q e^oumag: r\ avTixaTaoTaor\ y.iaq xpaTixyjg y.r\xavr\q and yua dAAr\. 



~39~ 

Me dcAAoc Aojia auro noo 8zv on-qpxz r\xav r\ dixraropca too TcpoAerocpidcTOO xai too 
npoAsTOcpiocxoo xoy.y.a.Toq ndvcd otyjv xoivcdvia" . 

H AIAAPOMH TQN nOAITIKfiN TAIEfiN THI B* AIEONOYI META THN 
ENAP1H TOY nOAEMOY 

Tov AoyoooTo too 1914, xai acpoo rj rjyeaia tcov Free Trade Unions 6a 07toypd(j)£t, 
ue Tooq yspuavooc; fiioy.yjxa.vovq aoucpcovia yt,a xrjv aoTouaTrj avavscoarj tcov aou(3do£cov 
spyaaiag xai tyjv aTrayopeoor] tcov aTiepyicov, yj TrAeio^rjcpia tcov PooAeotcov tou SPD 6a 
(\)y](pioei Tiq "v:o~kz\J.ixzq TUOTcoaeic;": o TtpcoTog uayxoauiog noXzyoq 6a ^exivrjaet, xat, ua^i 
too 6a xaTappsoast, r\ B' At,£6vrjc;. To aov6r]ua "oTrjv aTtyur} too xivoovoo Ssv 6a acprjaooue 
ty] yrj tcov TiaTspcov uac; aupoaTaTSOTrj" 6a yivet, to arjua xaTaTs6sv tcov aoot,aXTcaTpt,coTcov, 
xr\q dzfyaq Taarjc; too SPD ttoo usTa tyjv Evap^rj too ttoAsuoo 6a ETUxpaTrjaet, TrArjpcog usaa 
oto xouua. Ot, VTzoXomeq TraAtrixsg Taaetg tyj<; aoGiaASrjuoxpaTiag 6a avayxacrcoov ex tcov 
irpayuaTcov va irdpoov 6sarj. Kautsky, zmxe(pdKr\q too ooo[,aA5r]uoxpaT[,xo6 xsvTpoo, 6a 
Srjuioopyrjaet, ttjv opydvcoarj Arbeitsgemeinschaft (EpyaTixrj 'Evcoarj), uia opydvcoarj ttoo eiye 
avTLTroALTeoTLXo poAo usaa oto SPD aTioSsxoTav uovo tyjv svvota too ttoAeuoo "£6vixr)<; 
duovac;" xat, ^rjTooas tov TepuaTiauo Trjc; TtoAeuixrjg aoppa^rjg and ut,a £t,prjvt,aTt,xrj axorad. 
AoTrj rj s^sAt^rj, svco Pprjxe OTrjv ooaia aoucpcovrj ir\ "cppd^ia" ir\q Luxemburg, auoTsAeae 
tyjv ama coots o Lenin va SiaxoopiGTEL arc' tov Kautsky: yprpfopa ot, UTioAasPixot. 6a 
a7roppi([)oov tov £t,prjvt,auo xat 6a OTioaTrjpt^oov oti o t,U7i£pt,aAt,aTt,x6c; izokzy.oq UTiopei va 
UETaTpaTiei ae Ta^t,xo ttoAeuo. H STuaovrj too Lenin va ttooco6£i ut,a £7tavaaTaTt,xrj ypauurj 
usaa as ovvQr\xzq tcoXsuoo 6a tov cpspet, xovTa ue tooc; yspuavooc; apiaTspooc; pt^oaudaTec;. 
IlpdyuaTL tov sttouevo XP ovo > aTO aovsSpio tcoo 6a •rcpayuaTOTTOt,rj6£i yt,a ttjv STraviopoarj 
xr\q At,e6vo6c;, ot, U7TOAa£(3ixot, xat, ot, apioTepoi pt^ooTcdoTec; 6a aTtocpaaiaoov va exScoaoov 
and xoivoo tyjv ttoAitixyj £7u6£coprjarj Vorbote. Stic; oeXideq too Vorbote 6a eucpaviaTei, yt,a 
TipcoTrj cpopd, and tov Panekoek xai tov Gorter, r\ avayvcopiarj ir\q iz~kr\pooq xpzoxoiziaq too 
SPD xat, Tr\q 7iapa8ooiaxr\q aoataASrjuoxpaTLX^q OTpaTrjyLx^c;. ITdvTcoc; aoTV^ r\ (eopscoq 
dyvcoaTYj) aovepyaaia dev 6a xpaTYJaeL yta ttoAo: yj Stacpcovia Tidvco oto ^YJTYjua tyj<; eQvixr\q 
avz^apT-qoiaq rfcav tooo svtovyj coots usTa to SeoTepo teoxoc; va oTauaTYjoe!, r\ zxdoor\ Tr\q 
zmQz(bpy]oy]q. 

Msaa oto 1916, xat SsSousvoo otl r\ TidXiTixr] xaTaaToXT] y.zoa oto SPD au' tyjv 
ueptd tcov aooLaXTraTpLcoTcov o^ovoTav, ot, ttoAltlxsc; Taaetc; tyj<; apiOTepdc; 6a udpoov yua 
ttlo aacpVj opyavcoTLXT] uopcpV]. Ol apLOTepoi pi^oaTcdaTeq 6a aoyxpoT^aoov tyjv opydvcoayj 
ISD (At,£6viaT£c; HoaiaAiaTsc; Trjq repuavLaq) svco yj Rosa Luxemburg ua^i ue tov Karl Li- 
ebknecht ttjv opydvcoarj Spartakus Bund ("Evcoarj too ETidpTaxoo rj mo auXd EudpTaxoc;). 
Kat ol 86o opyavcoaeic; SiaTrjpooaav uia ttlo "xaAaprj" opyavcoTLxrj uopcprj, rjTav SrjAaSrj 
TiepLaaoTepo izo'XiTixzq T&oziq Tiapd xaAd xa6op!,au£VO!, xouuaTLXoi urjxavt,auoL, xat, 
uotpd^ovTav Trjv idia xoivcovixrj pdarj: xopicoq vzooq xat, avsiStxeoTooc; epyaTsq ttoo si^xav 
£!,aax6£L aTrjv uapaycoyrj xaTa Trjv Stapxeta too ttoAsuoo xai pL^oauaTLXOTioLoovTav usaa 
OTiq dypt£<; anzpyizq. Aoto slxs aav auoTsAeaua ot, OTpaTeousvot spyaTsg Trjq pdarjq tcov 
86o opyavcoaecov va etuSeixvooov uta Stapxr] "evoTrjTa aTrj Spdarj". Ilap' 6Aa aoTa r\ 
Luxemburg 8ev 6a xaTacpspsL va aueuuXaxsi au' to izkaioio too TrapaSoaiaxoo tottoo 
opydvcoarjc;: to 1917 ua^ ue Trjv Arbeitsgemeinschaft too Kautsky 6a Siopyavcoaoov 
xolvo aovsSpio oto otiolo 6a SrjULoopyrjaoov to -rcpcoTo, ^excopLOTo au' to SPD, xouua, 
to USPD. AvTi6eTa ot, aptoTepoi p^ooTidaTeg, pAsTiovTac; UTipooTa too<; to xoua tcov 
dypLcov arcepyicov ttoo aovsPrjas Trjv idia xpovid OTrj repuavia, 6a TcpayuaTouotrjaoov 
arjuavTixd Pr^uaTa z^zXitflq tcov avTtXrjijJscov tooc; Tidvco OTrj axsorj Trjq spyaTixrjc; Ta^rjc; 
ue Tiq TroALTLXsq opyavcoaeic;. KaT' apx^jv 6a auoppi^oov Trjv aTiocjjrj ttoo OTioaTrjpi^av 



~40~ 

Ttpiv tov TtoAeuo oil "to xouua ups^st, va ottoxivei tyj ua^ixrj Spdarj" xat, 6a evtotuooov 
oti rj ua^t,XYJ SpdaY] oxt, uovo TipoxoTrcet, ao66puY]Ta, dAAa izoKkzq cpopzq xat, avxiQexa 
and tyjv OsArjaYj tcov TroAraxcov opyavcoaecov ttou xaTaArjyoov va "aouTiapaaopovTat," arc' 
avir\v. Kaxd SeoTepov 6a evromoovv oti "ot, epydxec; 8ev sx ouv ^ uo ^X^ t jLta xouuaTixrj 
xat, ut,a auv8(,xaX!,aT!,x^" xat, 6a xaTaAV^oov oto aouTispaaua otl rj evoTrra TroAraxoo 
xat, oixovouixoo aycova Sev upsTiet, va uapaueivet, artAd [iia xdaY] ttoo excppd^ETat, usaa 
axouc; epyaxLxouq aycoveg, aAAd TrpeTret, va excppd^ETat, xat, oxiq uopcpsg opydvcoayjg too 
TcpoAsTapiaToo. Eizior\q ot, apiaTspoi pt^oaudaTec; tou Au(3oopyoo 6a aaxr^aoov xptrixV} 
axrjv STrayyeAuaTLxr] Sour] tcov aovSixaxcov xat,, us apxsx^ SiopaTixoTYra, 6a OTroaTrjpi^oov 
otl ot, epydxeg upsTtet. va opyavco6oov ae "evcoaeic;" avd epyooTaaio coots va ^e-rcepaaToov 
ot, £7iayy£AuaTt,xoi o*t,axcopt,auoi. H £7iav£Ucpdvt,aY] tcov goPist otyj Pcoaia to 1917 6a Scoaet, 
ut,a tcoAo ioyppr\ c66rjarj otic; xaivoopiec; avriXrn\)ziq tcov apiaTspcov pt^oaraxaTcov. 'Oucoc; 
aoTo to ysyovoc; 8sv eixs [xovo dzxixzq ovvznsisq: rjfiav toco 6£Tt,xrj yj auoTiurjar] tcov ooPlst 
aTi' tyjv uept,d Toog, 6ecopo6aav tooo aacpVj xat, au£TaxAY]TY] tyjv OTroaTYJpt^Y] tcov ooPist arco 
Toog UTtoAaePixoog xat, tov iSio tov Lenin, cogte Sev xaTacpepav va aaxVjaoov ooat,aGTt,xVj 
xptrixV} (as avTi6£arj us otl supa^s rj Rosa Luxemburg!) crcrjv oxTcoPpiavr} STravdaTaayj. Ot, 
yepuavoL apiaTspoi pt,^oa7rdaT£c; 6a apyrjaoov apxsTa U£XP L va xaTaAd(3oov to poAo too 
xouuaToq tcov uuoXaePtxcov... 

H Srjuioopyia tcov upcoTcov aouPooAicov and epyaTeq xat, aTpaTLcoTsq otyj TepuavLa 
to cp6t,v67icopo too 1918, TaoToxpova us tyj Xtj^tj too ttoAsuoo, xat, yj svap^rj tcov svotcAcov 
aoyxpooaecov, xa6t,aTo6ae aoovaTrj tyjv aovouap^rj too ETidpTaxoo xat, ir\q Arbeitsge- 
meinschaft ^isaa aTa TrAataLa too USPD. Arc' tyjv dAATj SiauLaTcovovTag tyj aovTovta^isvYj 
7rpoa7id6£!,a too SPD yt,a eTiLaTpocpV] otyjv xautTaALOTLXT] o^iaAoTrjTa, tyjv Yjye^iovia too USPD 
otooc; sxAeyu^vooc; avTiupoacojcooc; tcov ao^PooAicov, aAAd xat, tyjv "svoTrra aTrj Spdayj" 
uoo STTsSsixvoav ol EpyaTrjq tyjc; fiaor\q iovq, ot, auapTaxLaTsc; xat, ot, apiaTepoi pL^oaudaTsq 
6a aTiocpaaLaoov va SYju^oopyVjooov nt,a xolvt] tioAltlxt] opydvcoarj. 'Etol aTa tsAyj too 1918 
6a Sr]u^oopyY]6£i to KPD (Kou^oovicmxo Ko^i^ia Tep^aviac;). Sto t,8poTt,xo aovsSpio too 
KPD ot, 8t,acpcovi£c; avdu^aa aTooq auapTaxt,aT£c; xat, aTooq apiOTepooc; p^oaudaTsq 6a 
£Tct,x£VTpco6oov axpt,pcoq eudvco aTrj cr/zor] too "xot,vcovt,xoo" xat, too "uoAltlxoo" xat, iiq 
opyavcoTt,X£<; ovvzizzizq avir\q ir\q oxzcrqq. Tpia VjTav Ta Paatxd ^YjT^aTa tyj<; §t,a^dxir;: 
av to xo^i^ia TrpsTiet, va Paat,aT£i ae sva aoyxevTpcoTixo ^iovtsAo r\ as sva ^iovteAo TOTrt,xr]<;/ 
o^ioaTcov8t,axyic; 8t,aa6v8£arjc;, av upsuet, va ao^i^STsx^'' o"co xot,voPo6At,o r\ 6yi- xat, xaTa uoao 
ot, epyaTt,xoL aycovsq 6a upsicst, va Ste^dyovTat, \izoa and ia Tiapa8oat,axd aov8t,xaTa r\ 
y.zoa and vzzq ^opcpsq epyaTtxcov opyavcoaecov. H aupo6ouia tyj<; Luxemburg va ^ETrepdaet, 
to TiaAio aoat,aA8r]uoxpaTt,x6 ttoAltlxo TrAatat,o yiveTat, TiapaTrdvco avro zy.(pavr\q ottjv 
•rceptypacpri ttoo Sivst, o David Smart: 

"'E!;cl> and tov ay.eoo xuxAo rrjg Luxemburg unrjpxs y.ixpr\ aizoboxh <jtyjv idea va 
ejxaTaXzKpdzi rj Tomxr) amovoy.ia nou stye xaraxTYjdei otov aycova evdvna ar-qv 
TaE,ixr\ aovzpjaaia too SPD npoq ocpsAoq yaaq avafyoizioxriq xai ispapxixYjq y.opcpr\q 
xdy.iJ.aToq. H exx7a]or\ Tr\q va xpvo*-yi-07zoir]dei o xoivoflooAeoTixoq deay.6q y.6vo yta Adyooq 
nponaydvdaq 8ev troxe ibiaiTspr\q anodoxrjq... to oovedpio (prjcpiae Tpia npoq eva evdvTia 
OT-qv avdArjfpYj xoivo^>ooXeoTixr\q bpaoTr\pi6Tr\Taq. H Luxemburg da xaTacpepei [uovdxa va 
anocpoyzi dXKr\ yaa r\TTa oto Z,r\Tr\y.a tcov oovdixaTOdV , y.z tyjv br\y.ioopjia yuaq erciTponqq 
noo da e^sTa^e av rj AeiToupyta tcov oovdixaTcov da aaxooTav and Ta aoy.(3o6Xia tcov 
spyaTcov xat tcov oTpaTicoTcbv r\ and "svcocjetq" nou da zvacoyiaTcbvoov TaoToxpova tov 
noAiTixo xai tov oixovoynxo aycova, oncoq onooTripiCfxv oi apiGTzpoi piC,oondoTsq... ztol 
to xoy.y.oovioTixo xivr\y.a gtyj Tzpy.avia da napayeivei x M P 1 ^ y- ia o~acpyj ypay.y.r\ crxzTixd 
[j.s tyjv dpacrrj oTa epyooTaoia crxzddv ae oAoxArjpo to 1919". 

Msxpt' 'CO SsoTepo aovsSpio too KPD 6a usaoAaP^aoov Soo xou^Lxd ysyovoTa: an' 



~41~ 

tyj u^a r\ svottXyj s^sysparj oto BepoXLVo to Tsvaprj too 1919, r\ "scpoSoq gtov oopavo" tcov 
yep^iavcov TtpoAeTapicov, rj ai^aTYjpY] rpra ir\q onoiaq 6a ocppajioxei y.z tyjv SoAocpovia tyjc; 
Luxemburg xat, too Liebknecht. Att' tyjv aXkr\ to u^ydAo arcepyLaxo x6\ia otyjv xotAdSa 
too Poop xat, aTYjv TrepLox^ too A^(3oopyoo tyjv devour] too 1919, uiaa oro ottoio ot, 
"epyaTLXsq evcoaetq" 6a ^suyjSyjooov aav Ta ^lavrcdpia as SidcrcYpa u^pixcov epSo^idScov. 
To cp6t,v67icopo i-qq idiaq xpoviaq ot, aTcapTaxiGTsc; xai ot, apLcrcepoi pt^oo-rcdaTec; (7100 zypov 
aizoxirpzi ttAsov to Ttpoacovou^o "apLOTepoi xou^ooviaTsg") 6a SLacpcovYJaoov Ttdvco oTa 
i§t,a Qs[J.sXi(x)dr\ ^rrrj^iaTa yt,a Sstrcspr] cpopd. Eto SeoTepo aovsSpio too KPD ot, "auoyovot," 
i-qq Luxemburg 6a apvrj6oov to ysyovog otl yjpziaCpvxai vzzq uopcpsq opydvcoorjc; yt,a tyjv 
avaTiTO^rj too s-rcavaaTaTixoo aycova xat, 6a upoTeivoov xoivrj SpdaY] uiaa oto xot,vo(3o6At,o 
xat, Ta raxpaSoo"t,axd oovo*t,xaTa otto tyjv xa6oSYJyY]0"Y] evoq aoyxevTpcoTixoo xouuaToq. 
TeAixd 6a xaTacpspoov va St,aypd(j)oov tooc; apiOTspooc; xoauoovLOTsc; avr' to KPD y.z 
tyjv xaTrjyopia too avapxoaovSixaAiauoo, \i.ia upd^rj ttoo taoSovauooas ue tyj SiaypacpV} 
oyz86v too 80% tcov usAcov i-qq fiao-qql Aiyooq U-rjvec; apyoTepa, ue TrocoToPooAia tcov 
oudScov too AuPoopyoo xat, tyjc; Bpzy.r\q, ot, apt,GT£poi xouuoovLaTsq 6a xdvoov Trpd^yj tyj 
SLaxoprjyusvyj evoTrra too ttoXltlxoo xat, too olxovoulxoo aycova xat, oxiq opyavcoTixsc; 
uopcpsq, SrjuLoopycovTaq tyjv Tzvixr\ 'Evcoarj EpyaTcov Tspuaviac; (AAUD). H AAUD y^cav 
fjua [ropeprj TipoAeTapLaxYjc; opydvcoarjq ttoo aTYjpt^oTav oxiq "epyaTixsc; evcoaetq" ttoo eixav 
8y]U!,oopyYj6£L avd epyoaTaaLo avr' tooc; idiovq iovq epyaTeq. Etyjv ooaia ETrpoxetro yt,a 
fjua ouoouovSiax^ SiXTocoarj tcov "epyaTixcov evcoaecov" avd TrepioxV} usaco ir\q SrjuLoopyLaq 
totuxcov euLTpoTicov aTra avaxArfcoog avTiTtpoacoTiooc;. Msaa oto 1920 6a aouueTdaxoov 
otooc; xoXnovq xr\q Tidvco aizo 100000 epyaTeq - o Panekoek, o Gorter, xat, ot, ottoXoltto!, 
aptaTspoi xouuoovtaTsc; 6a 6£copY]aoov avTq tyjv opydvcoarj aav tyjv "euPpoaxT] uopcpVj" 
tcov STcavaaTaTLXcov spyaTtxcov aouPooXicov. ITap' 6Xa aoTa, r\ izo\nixr\ aoyxcovsoarj 
oacov s^xav auousivs!, oto KPD us to tzoKio "aoaLaXSrjuoxpaTLXo xsvTpo", oto VKPD, 
xai Y] avo^TT] aovepyaaia too SPD \iz iiq uapaoTpaTicoTixsc; oudSeq tcov Freikorps, 6a 
co6Vjooov too<; apiaTepooq xouuoovLaTsc; otyj SyjULoopyia xat, zvoq ttoAltlxoo xoauaToq, 
too KAPD (EpyaTLXo KoauoovtaTLXo Kouua rspuaviaq), Aiyooq y.r\vzq U£Ta. H aTpocprj 
tcov apiaTspcov xouuooviaTcov aTrj aT^pi^rj xat Srjutoopyia aoTovoucov uopcpcov opydvcoarjq 
6a TipoxaAsae!, yp^yopa xat tyjv avTiSpaarj too Lenin. Togo o Panekoek oao xai o Gorter 
OTioAoy^av U£XP L toxz otl aoTog izov to 1917 ziyz auepicppaaTa d-qkoiozi "6Ayj yj e^ooata 
aTa oofiizx", 6a Tooq OTroaTrjpi^e aTrjv izoXnixri xovq Staudx^ ue to VKPD, aXXd uaTata... 
H SrjuoaLeoarj too "ApiaTsp tauoq, rj naidixr\ appcoaTta too xouuoovLauoo" avr' tov Lenin 
6a aYjudvet tyjv 7i£pt,6cop[,o7TOLr]aY] tcov apLOTepcov xouuoovtaTcov usaa otyj T' Al£6vt], ttoo 
ziyz zv tco usTa^o Sy]U!,oopyYj6£L, U£XP L TY i v ^s^lxt] SLaypacpV] tooc; oxiq apxzq too 1921. Movo 
U£Ta tyjv iz6\zy.ixr\ too Lenin r\ yspuavixrj OTcspapLOTepd 6a apxtast, va xaTaAa(3aLV£i 11 
TipayuaTixd ziyz aouPei otyj Pcoaia, 6a apxtaei va xaTaAa(3aLV£i Ticoq avTi ir\q "StXTaTopiaq 
too TcpoXsTapLaToo" aoTo ttoo ziyz SY]ut,oopyy]6£L r\ia» tj StXTaTopia too xouuooviaTixoo 
xouuaTog udvco oto upoAeTapLaTo! 

To cp6iv67icopo too 1920 o Panekoek 6a •rcpoo"7ia6Yia£[, va aovocpLaet tyjv ttoXltlx^ 
avTiArjcpyj xat, tyjv opyavcoTixrj TipoTaarj tcov apLOTepcov xoauoovLOTcov oto xslusvo 
"ITayxoauLa euavdaTaayj xat xoauoovicmxY] TaxTtXT]": o StacpopeTLXoc; TpoTioq us tov ouolo 
avTLAa^pdveTa!, tzKzov tyj oyzor\ "xolvcovlxoo" xat "ttoAltlxoo" oz aoyxpLarj y.z xa ypaTiTa too 
Ttpiv tov noXzy-o zivai Tcapaudvco and zy.(pavr\q. Panekoek 6a £zxivr\ozi tyj aoXXoytaTLX^ 
too 6sTovTac; to spcoTrj^ia: yiaTi to xivrj^ia tcov spyaTtxcov oo^PooXlcov 8sv xaTacpsps va 
diakvozi tyjv e^ooaila tyj<; aaTLxVjc; laQqq tyjv uepioSo au' tov Nos^Pprj too 1918 ^£XP L TOV 
TevapTj too 1919; Ava^rjTcovTag iiq anizq ir\q rizxaq 6a £vtotclg£[, aav xopiapxo rcapdyovTa 
tyjv yjys^ovia ir\q aoTixr\q idzoXoyiaq uiaa oto upoXeTaptaTo - \iia rpfzy.ovia 7100 z£,aniaq 
ir\q dia(popzTixr\q ioiopixr\q nopziaq, tcov StacpopsTLXcov xolvcovlxcov Siepyaaicov izov sXa^av 



~42~ 

Xcopa to 18o xat 19o aicova, eivai tioAo icrxopoTsprj crag X"P £ ? Tt ? AotixV}c; Eopcourjc; arc' oti 
otic; avaToAixsg x"P £< 5- ® a ^poauaOViae!, ^idAioTa va u£piypd(|>£i aoTY] xrjv iSeoAoyia ttoo 
tXTcyjxe zy.iz6dio otyjv upoAeTapiaxY] eTravdaxaaY]: 

"To oovoAixo nepiexdyevo aoT-qq ir\q vooTponiaq eivai tooo noAonAeopo xai 
noAonAoxo OTqv avTi'deorj too ye ir\v npoAeTapiaxq, xoyyoovioTixrj , onTixq too xooyoo 
Tzoo doaxoAa ynopei va aovo(pioTei ae yepixeq npoTaaeiq. To fiaoixo xocpaxT-qpioTixo xr\q 
eivai o aioy.ixioy.6q, tzoo exei rig piC,eq too ae npoqyooyeveq yixpoaoTixeq xai aypoTixeq 
yopcpeq epyaoiaq xai yovo OTadiaxd divei rrj dear] too ae yia vea npoAeraptaxrj aiadqoq 
rrjg xoivdrrjrag... H npoonrixrj too yeyovcdyevoo aroyoo tzoo nepiopiZ,eTai aro x^P 
epyaoiaq too, avri va ayxaAid^ei oA6xAr\pr] rrjv xoivcovia. H apxq too xarayepiayoo rrjg 
epyaoiaq cpaivexai tooo anoAoTq, tzoo r\ idia r\ evvoia rrjg noAiTixrjq, 8qAa8rj r\ podyiaq 
oA6xAr\pr\g rrjg xoivcovixrjq farjq, 8ev avTiyeTomi^eTai aav yia onodeaq too xadevoq 
aAAa aav to yovoncoAio evoq e^oooiaaTixoo OTpcoyaToq , aav to e^eidixeoyevo npovoyio 
aoyxexpiyevcov eidixcov, tcjv noAiTixcov". 

Panekoek Sev 6a \izivzi \iovo oe aoTrj xrj SiaTuoTcooY] ir\c, aizoonaor\q too "ttoAitixoo" 
an' to "xoivcovixo", ttoo (3aoic^£Tai oty\v ETUxpaTYjar] too "octo^ixoo uvso^aToq" \izoa 
otyjv iSia ty\v spyaTixrj toc^yj, aAAd 6a upoxcoprjaei avayvcopi^ovTag tyjv ETuSpaarj too 
"aoTixoo uap£X66vToc;" Tidvco otic; opyavcoaeic; too TtpoXeTapiaToo oncdq xai tov poAo too 
Siaxcopia^isvoo "ttoAitixoo": 

"... oycog r\ aoTixq ideoAoyia xai napddooq 8ev eivai axoya oAoxAqpcdyeveq, r\ 
TzveoyaTixrj avTavdxAaarj tzoo exei anoyeivei and Toog ayeTpryzoog ToE,ixoog aycoveq tcov 
npoqyooyevcov aicovcov em(3icovei aav rot diacpopa noAiTixd xai OprjaxeoTixd oooT-qyaTa 
axecpqq noo 8iaxcopiZ,oov tov naAio aoTixo xoayo, xai dpa Toog npoAeTapioog noo 
exoov yevvqdei an' aoTOV, ae exxArjaieg, aexTeg xai xoyyaTa, aoycpcova ye Trjv xdde 
ibeoAojixr) npoonTixq. 'ETai to napeAdov Tr\g aoTixrjq Tafyiq em(3icovei eniar\g oto 
npoAeTapiaTO xai aav yia opyavcoTixrj napddooq noo xAeivei tov dpoyo OTqv Tafyxrj 
evoT-qza noo eivai anapah-qT-q yia Tr\v dqyioopyia yiag xaivoopiag xoivcoviag. E' aoTeg 
Tig apxaixeg yopcpeg opydvcdaqg oi epyaTeg yivovTai oi axoAoodrjTeg xai oi onadoi yiag 
aaTixrjg npodTonopiag. Eivai and Toog diavoooyevoog noo npoepxovTai oi rjyeTeg aoTcov 
to)V opyavcoaecjv. Oi diavoooyevoi - nanddeg, xadrjyrjTeg, AoyoTexveg, dqyoaioypdcpoi, 
noAiTixoi - axqyaTiXoov yia Tafy], r\ Aevzoopyia Tr\g onoiag eivai va avanToaaei Trjv aaTixr) 
xooATOopa xai va Tr\v nponayavbiC,ei aTOog epyaTeg, va dpa aav evag 8iayeaoAa(3r]Trjg 
avdyeaa aT-qv qyeyovia too xecpaAaioo xai ra aoycpepovTa twv ya^cov". 

Eivai Aoittov aoT7^ r\ avayvcoptarj ttjc; ispapx^x^g xai epyaAeLaxric; oyzo-qq avdyeaa oto 
xo^i^ia xai tyjv Ta^yj, eivai aviri r\ avayvcopiar] tcov ttoAltlxcov rjyeTcov aav [iia Qzy.zXi(i>dri 
§La^eaoAdprjaYj ^isaa otov xaTUTaAicmxo xoa^io, uoo 6a £7nTps(jJoov <jtov Panekoek va 
diaxvTzcdosi ^ita aovoAixr] xpmxr\ tooo aTrjv opyavooTLxy] ^opcpyj oao xai aTrjv no'XiTixr\ ypa^yj 
too SPD upLV tov uoAe^io xai va aTroppi([)£!,, \iz aoToxpruxVj 5iadzor\, tyjv "avTiTroXLTeoTLXYj" 
ttoAltlxt] TipaxTiXYJ ttjc; apioxzpr\c, TaaYjg too xo^aToc; xai tic, anzJ.moy.zvzg Tipoaud6£!,£c; 
avaPicoarjq Tr\g y.ZTa tov ttoXs^io. Aoty^ r\ aovoXix^ xpiTixv^ 6a oSyjyrjost, aTrjv avayvcopiarj 
T-qg avdyxyjq va Sr]^t,oopyr]6o6v vssq y.op(pzq opydvooarjc; xai va oio6£Trj6oov vzzq ^i£6o8oi 
aycova - y.op(pzq opydvooarjc; xai ^i£6oSoi aycova tioo r\dy] e^icpavi^ovTai gtyj SpaaTYjpioTYjTa 
Tr\q zpYoxixriq Ta^yjc;. AiaTO-rccovovTag aoTr\ tyjv avdyxY] o Panekoek , xaTd xduoio Tpouo, 6a 
STTiarj^idvei aoTo uoo 6a 6£GoprjTixouoirj6£i ^sxd6apa and Tovq iTaXooq spyaTiOTsc; ^ispixsc; 
SsxasTieq apyoTspa, SrjXaS^ tyjv aovSsarj avdyeaa otyj Ta%ixr\ ovvQzor\ xai Tiq ^lopcpsc; tcov 
epyaTixcov opyavcoaecov: 

"H ETcavaaTaTixr] SiaSixaaia aoviaTaTai aTrjv aTi£A£o6£pcoaTj too TipoAeTapiaToo ano 
avTr\ Trjv e^dpTrjarj, and Tiq napadooziq too TcapeA66vToc;, xai aoTo eivai SovaTo ^lovdxa 
^isaa and Trjv §ix^ too s^iusipia aycova. Exsi ottoo o xairiTaXia^oc; eivai zvaq 6£a^i6c; y.z 



~43~ 

^laxpd iGTopia xai 01 epyaTeg zypvv rjSr] aycovicrcei evavTiov too yia apxeTeg yevieg... to 
TipoAeTapiaTo, ae xd6e nepioSo, STrpeue va Srpioopyrjaei ^ie66Soog xai ^lopcpeg aycova noo 
va avTanoxpivovTai oto exdoxoxe aTaSio Trjg xaTUTaAiaTixrjg avaTrco^rjg. AoTeg 01 ^ie6oSoi 
xai 01 nopcpzc, ovvToy.a enaoav va yivovTai avTiArjTrcec; aav xa Tipoocopivd ^ieaa 7100 eivai 
axrjv Trpay^aTLXOTYjTa, xai avTi6eTa cpeTixo7roir]6r]xav aav Siapxeig, a.Tzo\vTzq xai TeAeieg 
opyavcoTixeg ^lopcpeg, xaxd aoveneia ^eTaTpaTrrjxav ae Sea^id Trjg e-rcavaaTaTixrjg e^eAi^rjg 
ia onoia eupeue va GTrdaoov... 01 ^lopcpeg Spdarjg yivovTai Soy^iaxa xai 01 opyavcoaeig 
avdyovTai axo eiziizzdo too aoToaxoTioo, xdvovTag 6X0 xai tuo SoaxoArj tyjv avaupoaap^oy^ 
axiq aAXay^eveg ovvQ-qxzq too aycova... xd6e crcdSio avduTO^rjq too Ta^ixoo aycova Tcpenei 
va ^enepvdei Tig raxpaSoaeig tcov Trporjyoo^evcov aTaSicov...". 

H avayxaLOTYjxa vecov ^opcpcov opydvcoarjg aovSeeTai o^icog aTxapaiTrfca \xz tyjv aoTovo^ia 
xai xrjv aoTevepyeia tcov npoAeTapicov, o xa6opicrcix6g poAog ir\q oizoiaq ziyz evTOTUcrcei 
an' Toog apiaTepoog pig'ooudoTeg -rcpiv and tov izo\ey.o. Movo ttoo r\ e^icpaarj ttoo SiveTai 
TtAeov ae aoTo to arpeio zivai ttoAo ^eyaAoTeprj: 

"... xdde y.opcpr\ opydvcoor\g rcou 8ev zmTpsnsi tov zAeyxo xai tyjv dieoduvcrrj and 
Tig idisg Tig y.dZ,eg eivai (3Aa(3eprj xai avTzizavaoTaTixr\. Koctoc aovzneia da npenei va 
avTixaTaoTadei and [iia dXkq y.opcpr\ opydvcoor\g nou eivai zizavaoTaTixr\ y.e tyjv evvoia 
otl xadioTa ixavovg Toog epyaTeg va xadopCC,oov 01 18101 to xadeTi evepyd. Autyj r\ via 
[uopcpyj 8ev [urcopei va 8rj[j.ioupyrjdei eVTog evog nadrjTixoo epyaTixou dovayuxov.. [unopei 
va 8-qy.toopyrjdei y.6vo ndvco otyj biabixaoia Tr\g enavdoTaa-qg , and tyjv zizavaoTaTixr\ 
Tzapzy.ftaor\ tcov idicov tcov zpyaTcov". 

Ety] aovexeia o Panekoek 6a avaAoaet, xiq d^ieaec; ovvzizzizq oAcov tcov uapaTidvco 
ax^TLxd ^i£ ttjv xot,vo(3ooA£OTt,XY] xai ty] aovStxaALaTLXY] Spdarj. A71' tyj ^ita 6a 6£copY]a£!, 
otl r\ ao^^ETox^ aTo xolvoPooXlo dvat, ttXsov aao^PiPaaTYj \iz tyj ^a^t,xrj Spdarj, acpoo r\ 
xoivoPooXsoTLxrj Spdarj zivai r\ xaTe^ox^v SpaaTrjpioTrjTa aTrjv ouoia ^iovo oi "s^elSlxso^svo!," 
TToAruxoL Aa^pdvoov ^ispog evco ol epyaTeg auXd TiapaxoAoo6oov zxovraq ava6eaet, Tig 
07io6eaeLc; Toog ae dXAoog: "0 xoivoPooAeoTia^iog avaTiocpeoxTa e^TroSi^e!, Trjv aoTovo^rj 
SpaaTrjptoTrjTa tcov epyaTcov ttoo eivat, aTrapaiTrjTrj yia Trjv euavdaTaarj". H auoppiijjrj Trjg 
xAaaaLxrjg 6earjg Trjg apLaTeprjg Taarjg too SPD otl to xolvoPooXlo ^luopeL va xpi f iO"^ouo!,rj6eL 
yt,a 7tpo7iayavS!,aT!,xo6<; Aoyoog yiveTat, eSco ^exd6aprj. An' Trjv dXArj r\ dioiaxrixri xptTixr^ 
aTrjv ypacpeLoxpaTLXOTioLrjarj tcov aovSixaTcov 6a ^eTaTpaTiei ae noXe^Lxrj. Panekoek 6a 
eTcavaXdpet, Trjv dnoijjrj too yta tov po6^t,aTt,xo poXo tcov aovStxaTcov otov xaTUTaAia^io, 
6a avayvcoptae!, aToog aovSLxaXiaTeg leaders Trjv iSia SLa^eaoXaPrjTLxrj AetToopyia ttoo 
avayvcopiae xai aToog Stavooo^ievooc; SrjAcovovTag otl " ol aovStxaXLaTec; arco onrjpeTec; 
Trjg aoAAoyLXOTrjTag exoov xaTaArj^et, va etvat, ol e^ooataaTeg Trjg", xai 6a evTOTCLaei to 
6eT!,x6 poXo ttoo inai^e r\ epyaTixrj avTapaia evdvTia aTa aovStxaTa avr' to 1917 xat, 
eiceiTa. TaoToxpova 6a avayvcopiaet, otl 01 advvay.izq avrqq i-qq avxapaiaq zivai r\ pcoy^irj 
noo eTiLTpeTie!, aTa aovSixaTa va eraPtcovoov axo^rj. 0a xaTaArj^et, eTat, oto ao^iTiepaa^a 
otl yia va ^eTiepaaTei rj aovSLxaALaTLxrj SLa^ieaoAdprjarj aoTo nov aTraLTeiTat, Sev eivai rj 
aAAayrj rjyeaiac; aXXd r\ oAoxXrjpcoTLxrj ^leTaPoArj Trjg opyavcoTLxr^g Toog So^irjg, r\ Srj^iLoopyia 
ao^PooAtaxcov ^lopcpcov opydvcoarjc; - 6a avayvcopiaei ^idXiaTa aoTeg iiq ^lopcpeg opydvcoarjg 
oxiq epyaTLxeg aoAAoyLXOTrjTeg tcov Wobblies aTig HIIA, oto xivrj^ia tcov Shop Stewards 
(eTUxecpaAeic; aovepyetoo) aTrjv AyyAila xat, otic; "epyaTtxeg evcoaetg" aTrj Tep^iavia. 
'O^icog aoTo noo exei ^leyaXoTeprj arj^iaaLa avro Trjv xpraxrj oto xoLvoPooXeoTta^io xai Trjv 
aovSixaAicmxrj ypacpe^oxpaTLa zivai rj aTpocpr^ ttoo xdvei o Panekoek ndvco gto ^Trj^ia 
too poAoo too xo^aTog. 'ExovTag nAeov xaTavorjaei to ttogo TrpoPArj^aTixrj rjTav r\ oyzo-q 
avd^eaa oto "ttoAltlxo" xai to "xoivcovixo" ^eaa aTrj B' Aie6v7], 6a npoTeivei eva veo poXo 
yia Ta icoXiTixd onoxei^eva: 

"... edco 01 epyaTeg xaTacpzpvoov va otzAicjtouv xai Xiyo zcog 710X6 va xaTaAoaoov 



~44~ 

tyjv noAiTixr) z^ooaia, mo rczpa napaAooov tyjv zE,oooia Tr\g aoTixr\g rd^rjg y.z anzpjiaxd 
xivqyiaTa, oz zva rptro y.zpog nzpixapaxcovoov Toog zauroug roug ara nAaiaia yaag 
" ayponxrjg 8rj[j.oxpaTtag", xai xdnoo aAAoo pmopzi xai va onooT-qpi^oov Tig Azoxzg 
cppoopzg... poAog too xoy.y.oovioTixoo x6y.y.axog 8zv zivai va ooy.izzpicpzpzTai oav 
tov Aoxziapx^l [unpoGTOc oz auryj tyjv avaxapaxr) xai va xdvzi yiaraizg npocmadzizg 
va ty\ oTpiyicD^zi oz napadooiaxzg [uopcpzg opjdvcdOY]g. Avridzra o poAog too zivai va 
OTZooTTjpi^zi Tig dovayizig too npoAzTapiaxoo xivr\y.aTog navTOO, va aovdzazi y.zTa^6 
Toog Tig zmyizpoog aodopy.r\Tzg dpdozig, va Toog dcoozi y.ia zopzia idza too Tponoo 
y.z tov onoio axsTiXovTai r\ y.ia yiz ty\v dAAr\ xai dpa va npozTOiyidazi tyjv zvonoiYjOYJ 
Toog...". 

S' ourco to ar\y.zio cpaivziai mo xa6apd, xaxd xrjv yvco^Y] y.aq, r\ izpooizaQeia tcov 
apiaTspcov xo^ooviotcov va ^STcepdaoov xrjv xa6t,£pco^i£VY] oyior\ avd^isaa axa -rcoAruxd xat, 
ia xa^xd OTcoxei^eva, va ^i£TaTp£(|>oov to xo^a arco \iia ypacpeioxpaTixV] opydvcoarj 7100 
"xa6oSr]y£i" tov Ta^txo avTaycovia^io xat, too npoodidzi an6-xa-z%cd ttjv "£7tavaaTaTt,XYj 
aovsLSrjarj" as \iia aoTo-opyavco^isvr] oova^iY] tcoo avaSeixvost,, SiaaovSsei xai zvoizoizi 
"aoTo ttoo r\or\ oraxpxst." ^saa otyjv avTaycoviaTixr] opaaTYjpioTYjTa tcov TipoAeTdpicov. Eivat, 
Aoittov upocpavsc; yiaTi r\ ^etco-tuxy] aoyxpooarj \ie iovq ~kzviviOTzq yrav avauocpeoxTYj, oao 
xai avayxaia! KAeivovTag tyjv TtpopXrj^aTixrj too o Panekoek 0a upoaua6Y]a£!, va xdvei tuo 
oacpzq to izti>q avTiAa^(3dv£Tai tyjv i§ia tyjv svvoia i-qq zizavaoTao-qq. Aev sivai ^iovo r\ avTiArjtjjr] 
i-qq eizavaoTao-qq oav diadixaoiaq xai, 6yi oav aTiy^c; uoo ETiavs^cpavi^STai STu^iova, sivai 
xai sva vso Tzzpizyp\i.zvo ttoo xdvei oeiAd tyjv z\i($avio-r\ too. Ilap' oti xp^^otioiei to 
TiapaSoaiaxo AeviviaTixo Ae^iAoyio Tiepi "SiXTaTopiag too TtpoAeTapiaToo", o Panekoek ^isaa 
and ttjv xpiTixr\ too aTrjv avapxoaov8(,xaX!,aT!,x^ avriXru^y], 7100 opa^aTt^oTav ty\ diaxzipiot] 
ir\q xoivcdviaq arc' Ta aovStxaTa, 6a avayvcoptae!, otl o xaTiLTaXLa^oc; 8ev TrspLopi^eTat, otyjv 
ay.zor\ TxapaycoyLxr] SiaSixaata, xat, dpa to ^eTrspaa^ia too 8sv y.nopei va aovo([)^£Tai oto 
%enzpaoy.a tcov xaTUTaAicmxcov axsaeoov ^iovo aTrjv TrapaycoyYJ: 

"... 57 avTiArj(prj aoTr\ [tcov pi^ocmaoTtov oovdixaAioTtov] avayvcopi^zi acooTd oti r\ 
zpjaoia oovioTa ty\ fldor] too xooy.00 xai dzAzi r\ ^covTavrj zpjaoia va xofizpvd tov 
xooy.o, ^zxvdzi oyicog oti 6Azg 01 acpr\priy.zvzg acpaipzg Tr\g rcoAiTixrjg xai 8iavor\Tixr\g 
~C,cdr\g xadopi^oVTai an' tov xaniTaAioTixo Tpono Tzapajcoyrig , xaTa aovznzia zivai 
avajxaay.zvr\ va Tig zyxaTaAzi(pzi OTa xepioc Tr\g aoTixr\g 8iav6rjar}g...". 

Mia TSToia SiaTouGoarj 8ev a.THOTZ~kzi ^lovdxa ^!,a arpavTiXY] avaOscoprjarj ir\q yevixoTeprjc; 
ano(\)r\q ir\q B' Ale6vo6c; yta to tl \mopzi va ayj^iaive!, yj "GooiaAiaTLXYJ xoLVoovia", aovtaTa 
axo^irj, xat, aoTo sx £L ^syaXoTepy] a^ia, xai Ta ausp^iaTa y.iaq oA6xAyjpy]<; avTi\rn\)y]q yt,a 
to ^STcspaa^ia too aovoXoo tcov xolvcovlxcov oyzoecdv otov xaTTLTaXta^io, nov 6a xdvei tyjv 
zy.(pavior\ Tr\q oia xoLvcovtxd XLV^aTa tcov SexasTicov too '60 xat, too '70... 

To 1922 to KAPD 6a St,aa7iaaT£L ae 860 Taaeig. H Taarj yopco au' tov Gorter xai tov 
Panekoek 6a ouoGTrjpL^et, tyjv avayxaioTYfca vizap^qq y.iaq ttoAltlx^ opydvcoayjq aTOLx^^wScoq 
^sXcopiaT^q au' iiq Ta^xsq opyavcoasLg, Tovi^ovTac; otl, ao^icpcova y.z ttjv otitixyi iovq, aoTrj 
yj opydvcoarj 8ev ST^SLcoxet, "va xaTaAd(3£t, ttjv s^ooaia yia Aoyapiaa^io too upoAsTapLaToo". 
AvTi6eTa r\ Tdarj yopco au' tov Otto Ruhle 6a OTioaTYjpi^e!, otl yj oTiap^Y] ^zx^>p^oTr\q 
izo'Xmxriq opydvcoayjc; avaTiocpeoxTa 6a odrpf-qozi ia uoALTLxd OTroxeL^sva ottjv TipoaTcd6£!,a 
va xa6o8rjy^aoov xat, va e^oooidaoov tyjv spyaTLXT] Ta^rj. Atto aoTV^ tyj 6sarj, xat auo ttj 
aovsxcoq ao^avo^ievrj avayxaLOTrjTa avT(,uapd6£arj<; y.z tov AevLVia^io xai apyoTepa y.z tov 
aTaXtvia^io, 6a Trpoxocjjst, xai, tj avTiXY]([)Y] tcov •rcepiaaoTepcov ao^iPooAiaxcov o^idScov ^i£Td to 
SeoTepo uayxoa^iLo nokz\io (\iz xapaxTrjpiaTLXo TcapaSety^ia ttjv ICO) otl ^iovo ot, -zafyxiq 
y.opcpzq opyavcoarjc; sivat avayxaisq xai otl o poAog tcov •rcoAraxcov ouoxsl^svcov TiepLop^STa!, 
aoaTrjpd otyj ao^Tyjarj udvco otooc; epyaTixoog aycovec; xai aTrj StdSoarj TcXrjpocpopLcov ae 
oyio-r\ \iz aoTooq - aoTo ttoo eoyAcoTTa xaTroiot yep^avoi aovTpocpot, auoxdAeaav TipoacpaTa 



~45~ 

"to project too Taxoopo^ioo'VETai izoXkoi and iovq apioxzpovq xo^U-oovicrcsc; and sva xpovixo 
aypeio xai suetTa, iypvxaq X®- oei G£ noXkiq izepimtioeiq xat, tyjv SovaTOTrra TtpaxTixrjc; 
izapzy.fiaoy]q uiaa otoo<; epyaTixoog aycoveg, 6a oioOeTYJaoov Soy^iaTixd u^a avTiSiau^TpixV] 
Qzar\ and auxr\ too xAaaatxoo Aevivicraxoo xou^aToc;. 'Etol 6a xaTaArj^oov va apvrj6oov tov 
idio xovq tov eaoTo aav uoAruxd vizoxeiy.zva avTi va ava^rrrjaoov tyjv sx vsoo avaxdXotjjrj 
\iiaq SiaAexTiXYJg oy£o7\q \xz ia Ta^ixd o-rcoxsi^ieva. 'O-rccog xat, va v/zi OTa TsArj too 1922 
tooo to KAPD oao xat, rj AAUD dpx^oav va e^icpavt^oov o"YpdSt,a aTioaovOeaYjc;. Ta oYpdSt,a 
xr\q TJTTag 6a s^cpavicrcoov ^sxd6apa xat, aTrjv izoXmxri SpaaTrjptoTrjTa tcov apiarspcov 
xo^^oovlotwv: xdrcoo exei 6a ^exivqaei r\ 7ipoarox6£t,a tcoAAwv 6£copyjT!,xcov too KAPD 
va SiaTOucoaoov ^ua 6ecopia yia tyjv napaxy.r\ too xaTUTaAia^ioo, PaaiouivY] otyj 6ecopia 
7100 eije SiaTOTtcoaet, yj Luxemburg yia tyjv xaTUTaAiOTLxV] aoaacopeoarj. idioq oPanekoek 
6a Tcpoa7ia6r}a£t, va xpaT^ast, y.ia oyz-xixr\ auoaTaarj au' tyjv 6sarj otl o xa7UTaA(,au.6c; 
Sev [nzopei va STaAoaet, iiq avxixzi\izvixiq avTicpdaeic; too xat, fiadiq'ei avaroxpsoxTa mpoq 
tyjv xaTappeoar]. To 1923, Atyo ^i£Td and tyjv a-rcayopeoay] ir\q SpaaTYjpLOTYjTaq oAcov tcov 
apiaTepcov opyavooaeoov otyj rep^iavia, 6a ypd(|>£t,: "H raxAid euavdaTaarj TeAeicoae, eivat, 
oto x^pt. \J-uq va TrposTot^daoo^e i-q vsa". 'Oizodq dvoxvyuq aizodeixzr\xz, tittote dAAo Ssv 
y^Tav 7Uo [laxpid au' tyjv upay^aTLXOTrjTa crca xpovia ttoo axoAo66rjoav... 



~46~ 
BIBAIOrPAOIA: 

Karl Marx, Qeoeiq yioc tov Ocoospuuax (exdooeiq Gutenberg, 1997) 

Vladimir Ilich Lenin, Tt, va xdvoous; (exdooeiq Euyxpovrj Ettox^, 2002) 

Vladimir Ilich Lenin, 'Eva (3V}ua UTrpoaxd, 8uo P^uaxa Tuaco (sxSoasic; Soyxpovrj Etco)^, 

2002) 

Rosa Luxemburg, MsTappuOutarj Vj suavdaxaarj; (sxSoasic; Kopovx^rj, 1984) 

Rosa Luxemburg, EoaiocAiauoc; 'H Arjuoxporua (exdooeiq Kopovx^rj, 1983) 

Rosa Luxemburg, H y.aC,ixr\ anepyia, to noXnixo xouua xai xa aovSLxdcxa (exdooeiq 

Epyoruxri ArjuoxpocTia, 1997) 

Edward Bernstein, Ot, 7ipo07ro6£O"£t,c; too aoaiaAia^ioo xoa xa xoc6V}xovtoc Trjq 

aoaLaXSrjuoxpaTLac; (exdooeiq IlaTra^arj, 1996) 

Anton Panekoek, Marxist theory and revolutionary tactics (exdooeiq Pluto Press, 1978 

- 7i£ptAau(3dv£Toa axo (3t,(3Aio Panekoek's And Gorter's Marxism) 

Anton Panekoek, World revolution and communist tactics (exdooeiq Pluto Press, 1978- 

TC£piAau(3dv£Tou axo (3t,(3Aio Panekoek's And Gorter's Marxism) 

Sergio Bologna, Class composition and the theory of the party at the origins of the 

worker's council movement (ueptoSLXO Telos, 1972) 

Guy Debord, To •rcpoAsTapid'co aav ottoxs lusvo xai aav avauapdaxaarj (exdooeiq 

EXevQepoq Tovroq, 1986) 

Diethard Behrens, Perspectives on left politics (exdooeiq Ashgate Publishing, 2002) 
Simon Clarke, Was Lenin a Marxist? The populist roots of Marxism-Leninism (exdooeiq 

Ashgate Publishing, 2002 - 7i£pt,Aocu(3dv£Toa axo fiifiXio What Is To Be Done? Leninism, 

Anti-Leninist Marxism And The Question Of Revolution Today) 

Mike Rooke, The dialectic of labour and human emancipation (exdooeiq Ashgate Pub- 
lishing, 2002- TrspiAaupdveToa axo ftifiXio What Is To Be Done? Leninism, Anti-Leninist 

Marxism And The Question Of Revolution Today) 

George Caffentzis, Lenin on the production of revolution (exdooeiq Ashgate Publishing, 

2002- TC£pt,Aocu(3dvEToa axo (3t,(3Aio What Is To Be Done? Leninism, Anti-Leninist Marxism 

And The Question Of Revolution Today) 

David Smart, Panekoek's and Gorter's Marxism (exdooeiq Pluto Press, 1978) 
Steve Right, The historiography of the mass worker (exdooeiq Pluto Press, 2002)